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Sample records for nandrolone decanoate treatment

  1. Histological assessment of ovaries and uterus of rats subjected to nandrolone decanoate treatment.

    PubMed

    Gerez, Juliana Rubira; Frei, Fernando; Camargo, Isabel Cristina Cherici

    2005-07-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effects of nandrolone decanoate on the ovaries and uterus of adult females rats. This drug was administered intraperitoneally, at one, two and three doses of 3 mg nandrolone decanoate/kg of body weight, respectively, in the first, second and third week of treatment. The females of the control group received a physiological solution. The rats treated with nandrolone decanoate showed estral acyclicity and there was destruction of follicular units and an absence of corpus luteum in the ovaries. In the uterus, the drug promoted morphological alterations, characterized by vacuolated epithelium and endometrial stroma fibrosis. Ovary, uterus and pituitary weights were not affected by the steroid treatment. Nandrolone decanoate affects the sexual cycle and promotes histological alterations in the ovaries and uterus of adult female rats.

  2. A controlled trial of nandrolone decanoate in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed Central

    Bird, H A; Burkinshaw, L; Pearson, D; Atkinson, P J; Leatham, P A; Hill, J; Raven, A; Wright, V

    1987-01-01

    To determine whether an anabolic steroid had any benefit in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis 47 patients entered a parallel group study. Twenty four received nandrolone decanoate 50 mg intramuscularly every third week for two years and 23 patients received no anabolic steroids. Other therapy was unaltered. Patients attended for clinical and biochemical assessments as well as the objective assessments of elementary body composition by in vivo neutron activation analysis and measurement of the mineral content of the distal femur by single photon absorptiometry on five occasions. A modest clinical deterioration (except for grip strength) was seen in both groups. No significant changes in calcium or alkaline phosphatase were seen. There was no significant change in total body calcium, total body phosphorus, body weight, or bone index/bone width measurements in either group. Significant increases occurred in total body nitrogen, total body potassium, haemoglobin, and packed cell volume (by six months) in the group treated with nandrolone decanoate. Comparison of 10 patients in the group treated with nandrolone decanoate also receiving oral steroid therapy with 14 patients in this group not receiving oral steroid therapy showed no significant differences. The main side effect of nandrolone decanoate was hoarseness. No radiological changes were seen. Nandrolone decanoate, in a dose that produces a significant anabolic effect, has no demonstrable action on bone metabolism in rheumatoid arthritis but may improve the chronic anaemia by six months. PMID:3555359

  3. Nandrolone decanoate treatment affects sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase function in skinned rat slow- and fast-twitch fibres.

    PubMed

    Bouhlel, Aicha; Joumaa, Wissam H; Léoty, Claude

    2003-09-01

    The effects of anabolic-androgenic steroid administration on the function of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) pump were investigated in chemically skinned fibres from the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus muscles of sedentary rats. Twenty male rats were divided into two groups, one group received an intramuscular injection of nandrolone decanoate (15 mg x kg(-1)) weekly for 8 weeks, the second received similar weekly doses of vehicle (sterile peanut oil). Compared with control muscles, nandrolone decanoate treatment reduced SR Ca(2+) loading in EDL and soleus fibres by 49% and 29%, respectively. In control and treated muscles, the rate of Ca(2+) leakage depended on the quantity of Ca(2+) loaded. Furthermore, for similar SR Ca(2+) contents, the Ca(2+) leakage rate was not significantly modified by nandrolone decanoate treatment. Nandrolone decanoate treatment thus affects Ca (2+) uptake by the SR in a fibre-type dependent manner.

  4. Cyclophosphamide and Nandrolone Decanoate in the Treatment of Advanced Carcinoma of the Breast—Results of a Comparative Controlled Trial of the Agents Used Singly and in Combination

    PubMed Central

    Cole, M. P.; Todd, I. D. H.; Wilkinson, P. M.

    1973-01-01

    A random trial in which cyclophosphamide, nandrolone decanoate and the two drugs in combination were used in the treatment of advanced breast carcinoma is described. The results suggest that it is preferable to use cyclophosphamide on its own. PMID:4576562

  5. Influence of nandrolone decanoate on the repopulation of the thymus after total body irradiation of mice

    SciTech Connect

    Plum, J.; Huys, J.; De Scheerder, Y.

    1982-10-01

    It has been reported that nandrolone decanoate is helpful in overcoming the neutropenic phase following irradiation. In the present study the influence of nandrolone decanoate on the thymus' cellularity after total body irradiation was investigated. In comparison with a placebo-treated group, mice receiving nandrolone decanoate showed a similar pattern of thymus repopulation, but a significantly lower number of thymocytes over the whole period of treatment was found. Nonirradiated mice also had a significantly lower number of thymocytes when treated with nandrolone decanoate. In addition, the number of circulating leukocytes was also evaluated over a period of 1 month after totalmore » body irradiation. On 11 of the 21 days investigated, a significantly higher number of leukocytes was found in the nandrolone decanoate-treated group. We conclude that the action of nandrolone decanoate was not clearly distinct from that of testosterone regarding either granulopoiesis or thymic involution.« less

  6. Treatment with nandrolone decanoate and megestrol acetate in HIV-infected men.

    PubMed

    Cuerda, Cristina; Zugasti, Ana; Bretón, Irene; Camblor, Miguel; Miralles, Pilar; García, Pilar

    2005-02-01

    Malnutrition, especially loss of lean body mass, is a frequent complication of people living with HIV that may increase their mortality and morbidity. Nine HIV-infected men with unexplained loss of >10% of their usual weight were selected. They received megestrol acetate (MA) (400 mg/day by mouth) and nandrolone decanoate (ND) (100 mg/15 days intermuscular injection) over 16 weeks. Anthropometric evaluations, bioelectrical impedance, grip strength dynamometry, hematologic, biochemical, immunological and hormonal analysis before, during, and after the treatment were performed. Quality of life was evaluated by the Karnofsky index. In the 7 men that finished the treatment, there were significant increases in weight (11.9 +/- 9.1 kg, p < .05), 4-site skinfold measurements (p < .05), midarm circumference (p < .005), and fat-free mass (FFM) (5.1 +/- 4.1 kg, p < .05). The increase in fat mass was not statistically significant (6.9 +/- 6.4 kg, NS). Muscle strength increased significantly (p < .005). The Karnofsky index values increased from 59% to 73% (p < .05). One patient developed mild hyperglycemia and another one had an increase in aspartate transaminase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase that reversed after the treatment. Four patients developed asymptomatic adrenal suppression. Testosterone serum levels decreased significantly during the study (p < .05), and 4 patients had serum values below the normal range at week 16. One patient developed gynecomastia. The combined treatment with MA and ND led to a significant increase in body weight and FFM. Muscle strength and quality of life improved during the study. The treatment was well tolerated with mild side effects.

  7. Cardiotoxicity in rabbits after long-term nandrolone decanoate administration.

    PubMed

    Vasilaki, Fotini; Tsitsimpikou, Christina; Tsarouhas, Konstantinos; Germanakis, Ioannis; Tzardi, Marias; Kavvalakis, Matthaios; Ozcagli, Eren; Kouretas, Dimitrios; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M

    2016-01-22

    Abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids is linked to a variety of cardiovascular complications. The aim of our study was to investigate the possible cardiovascular effects of nandrolone decanoate on young rabbits using echocardiography, histology and monitoring of telomerase activity, oxidative stress and biochemical markers. Fourteen rabbits were divided into three administration groups and the control group. Doses of 4mg/kg and 10mg/kg of nandrolone decanoate, given intramuscularly and subcutaneously, two days per week for six months were applied. A 4-months wash-out period followed. Focal fibrosis and inflammatory infiltrations of cardiac tissue were observed in the high dose groups. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive species (TBARS) levels were significantly increased in the high dose groups, while catalase activity decreased. Myocardial Performance Index (MPI) is the main echocardiographic index primarily affected by nandrolone administration in rabbits. Despite the preserved systolic performance, histological lesions observed associated with distorted MPI values, point to diastolic impairment of the thickened myocardium due to nandrolone treatment. Oxidative stress accumulates and telomerase activity in cardiac tissue rises. Subcutaneous administration seems to be more deleterious to the cardiovascular system, as oxidative stress, telomerase activity and biochemical markers do not appear to return into normal values in the wash-out period. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Nandrolone decanoate induces genetic damage in multiple organs of rats.

    PubMed

    Pozzi, Renan; Fernandes, Kelly Rosseti; de Moura, Carolina Foot Gomes; Ferrari, Raquel Agnelli Mesquita; Fernandes, Kristianne Porta Santos; Renno, Ana Claudia Muniz; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate the impact potential of nandrolone decanoate on DNA damage in multiple organs of Wistar rats by means of single-cell gel (comet) assay and micronucleus test. A total of 15 animals were distributed into three groups of five animals each as follows: control group = animal not exposed to nandrolone decanoate; experimental group = animals exposed to nandrolone decanoate for 24 h at 5 mg/kg subcutaneously; and experimental group = animals exposed to nandrolone decanoate for 24 h at 15 mg/kg subcutaneously. Significant statistical differences (p < 0.05) were noted in peripheral blood, liver, and heart cells exposed to nandrolone decanoate at the two doses evaluated. A clear dose-response relationship was observed between groups. Kidney cells showed genetic damage at only the highest dose (15 mg/kg) used. However, micronucleus data did not show remarkable differences among groups. In conclusion, the present study indicates that nandrolone decanoate induces genetic damage in rat blood, liver, heart, and kidney cells as shown by single-cell gel (comet) assay results.

  9. Effects of different doses of nandrolone decanoate on estrous cycle and ovarian tissue of rats after treatment and recovery periods.

    PubMed

    Simão, Vinícius Augusto; Berloffa Belardin, Larissa; Araújo Leite, Gabriel Adan; de Almeida Chuffa, Luiz Gustavo; Camargo, Isabel Cristina Cherici

    2015-10-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that different doses of nandrolone decanoate (ND) will cause changes in the estrous cycle and ovarian tissue of adult rats; and investigated the duration of the recovery period that is sufficient to restore the damage in the animals treated with different doses. Wistar rats were treated with ND at doses of 1.87, 3.75, 7.5 and 15 mg/kg body weight, or received mineral oil (control group) for 15 days, subcutaneously. All animals were divided into three groups according to the treatment periods: (i) ND treatment for 15 days; (ii) ND treatment followed by a 30-day recovery; and (iii) ND treatment followed by a 60-day recovery. Estrous cycle was monitored daily, and at the end of each period, the animals were euthanized for histopathological analysis. During ND treatment and after 30-day recovery, all animals exhibited persistent diestrus. After a 60-day recovery, persistent diestrus was only maintained in the group that had received the highest dose. Ovarian weight was decreased significantly after the 30-day recovery, regardless of ND doses, compared with the control group. There was a reduction (P < 0.05) in the number of corpora lutea and antral and growing follicles, in contrast to an increase (P < 0.05) in atretic follicles in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Remarkable histopathological changes occurred in the ovaries of all ND-treated groups. In conclusion, the different doses of ND caused changes in the estrous cycle and ovarian tissue of rats, and recovery periods (30 and 60 days) were insufficient to completely restore the damage in the animals treated with the highest dose. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2015 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.

  10. Use of Nandrolone Decanoate in Treatment of Pure Red Cell Aplasia Secondary to Diclofenac Administration: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    de Marchi, Paula Nassar; Sueur Vieira, André Nanny Le; Antunes Ribeiro, José Francisco; Geraldes, Silvano Salgueiro; Rodrigues Ramos, Paulo Roberto; Melchert, Alessandra; Guimarães-Okamoto, Priscylla Tatiana Chalfun

    2017-03-01

    Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) is a disorder that leads to a nonregenerative anemia that results from erythroid precursors failing to reach maturity in the bone marrow, whereas the numbers of mature myeloid and megakaryocytic cells remain normal. PRCA can be induced by autoimmune processes, infections, drugs, toxins, and radiation, and is diagnosed by a bone marrow cytology examination after excluding the most common causes of nonregenerative anemia. Immunosuppressive therapies are used to treat PRCA, and usually involve the use of glucocorticoids, cyclosporin, or azathioprine. Alternatively, although little studied in veterinary medicine, drugs which stimulate bone marrow (e.g., nandrolone decanoate) have been mentioned as possible therapeutic agents. A case of PRCA that presented at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science (UNESP)-Botucatu, Brazil showed a good therapeutic response to weekly administration of nandrolone decanoate. Therefore, it was concluded that bone marrow stimulants might improve the quality of life of PRCA patients, provided they are used with caution and under close clinical supervision. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Long-term treatment with Nandrolone Decanoate impairs mesenteric vascular relaxation in both sedentary and exercised female rats.

    PubMed

    Caliman, Izabela F; Bernabe, Cristian S; de Melo, Antônio F; Brasil, Girlândia A; do Nascimento, Andrews M; de Lima, Ewelyne M; Figueiredo, Suely G; de Andrade, Tadeu U; Bissoli, Nazaré S

    2017-04-01

    Nandrolone Decanoate (ND) is an Anabolic Androgenic Steroid (AAS) that under abusive regimen can lead to multiple physiological adverse effects. Studies of AAS-mediated cardiovascular (CV) alterations were mostly taken from male subjects, even though women are also susceptible to the effects of AAS and gender-specific differences in susceptibility to vascular diseases exist. Here we investigate ND-induced vascular reactivity alterations in both sedentary and exercised female rats and whether these alterations depend on endothelium-derived factors. We show that chronic exposure of female Wistar rats to ND (20mg/Kg/week for 4weeks) impaired the vascular mesenteric bed (MVB) reactivity to vasodilator (acetylcholine) agonist. The endothelium-dependent Nitric Oxide (NO) component was reduced in ND-treated rats, whereas neither the endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) component nor prostanoids were altered in the MVBs. Endothelial dysfunction observed in ND-treated rats was associated with decreased eNOS (Ser 1177 ) and Akt (Ser 473 ) phosphorylation sites and upregulation of iNOS and NADPH oxidase expression. Exercise training by weight lifting in water did not improve the vascular alterations induced by ND treatment. ND treatment also significantly reduced the serum levels of estradiol in females, overriding its CV protective effect. These results help uncover the role of ND modulating endothelial function in the setting of CV disease caused by the abuse of AAS in females. If this translates to humans, young women abusing AAS can potentially lose the cardio protective effect rendered by estrogen and be more susceptible to CV alterations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Effects of nandrolone decanoate on bone mineral content and intestinal absorption of calcium].

    PubMed

    Nuti, R; Righi, G A; Turchetti, V; Vattimo, A

    1984-01-28

    To evaluate the effects of a long-term treatment with nandrolone decanoate on metabolism of the skeleton, a double-blind randomized study was carried out in women with joint diseases without metabolic bone derangement. Ten patients were treated with 50 mg of nandrolone decanoate every three weeks for two years; in six subjects a treatment with placebo was performed. As it concerns plasma calcium and phosphate, serum alkaline phosphatase, urinary excretion of calcium, phosphate, hydroxyproline and cAMP, as parathyroid index, it was not observed significant differences in the two examined groups. While in placebo group at the end of the study the intestinal radiocalcium remained unchanged and bone mineral content showed a slight decrease, on the contrary nandrolone decanoate treatment promoted a significant improvement in intestinal calcium absorption and an increase in bone mineral content.

  13. The effects of nandrolone, testosterone and their decanoate esters on murine lupus.

    PubMed Central

    Verheul, H A; Stimson, W H; den Hollander, F C; Schuurs, A H

    1981-01-01

    Treatment of NZB/NZW F1 (B/W) female and castrated male mice with testosterone or 19-nortestosterone (nandrolone), either by implantation in silastic tubing or by subcutaneous injections of their decanoate esters, reduced in a dose-dependent manner symptoms associated with murine lupus (proteinuria, IgG antibodies to DNA) and prolonged survival. These phenomena were observed under both prophylactic (start at 3-4 weeks) and therapeutic treatments (start 27-29 weeks). Nandrolone and its decanoate ester were at least as potent as testosterone and testosterone decanoate. As the unwanted androgenic properties of nandrolone and its ester are significantly less pronounced than those of testosterone and its ester, also in these NZB/NZW mice, the beneficial effect on murine lupus does not seem to be associated with these properties. PMID:6973425

  14. Effect of nandrolone decanoate on skeletal muscle repair.

    PubMed

    Piovesan, R F; Fernandes, K P S; Alves, A N; Teixeira, V P; Silva Junior, J A; Martins, M D; Bussadori, S K; Albertini, R; Mesquita-Ferrari, R A

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed the effect of nandrolone decanoate (ND) on muscle repair and the expression of myogenic regulatory factors following cryoinjury in rat skeletal muscle. Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: control group, sham group, cryoinjured group treated with ND and non-injured group treated with ND. Treatment consisted of subcutaneous injections of ND (5 mg/kg) twice a week. After sacrifice, the tibialis anterior muscle was removed for the isolation of total RNA and analysis of myogenic regulatory factors using real-time PCR as well as morphological analysis using the hematoxylin-eosin assay. There was a significant increase in MyoD mRNA after 7 days and in myogenin mRNA after 21 days in the cryoinjured ND group in comparison to other groups in the same period. The morphological analysis revealed no edema or myonecrosis after 7 days as well as no edema or inflammatory infiltrate after 14 days in the cryoinjured ND group. In conclusion the anabolic steroid nandrolone decanoate can modulate the muscle repair process in rats following cryoinjury by influencing the expression of regulatory myogenic factors and phases of muscle repair. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Beneficial effects of nandrolone decanoate in wasting associated with HIV.

    PubMed

    Saha, Bibhuti; Rajadhyaksha, Girish C; Ray, Subrat K

    2009-05-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the role of nandrolone decanoate (ND) in reversal of wasting associated with HIV infection. However, such studies in Indian scenario are lacking. Hence, the present study was planned with an objective to assess the effect of ND in patients of HIV-associated wasting in Indian subjects. The study was a prospective, randomised, multicentric, open labelled and comparative one in male HIV-infected subjects, aged between 18 and 65 years with involuntary weight loss of 10% over 12 months or 7.5% over 6 months or 5% over 3 months. The subjects were on stable antiretroviral therapy including at least 2 agents with CD, count > or =50 cells/microl. In the treatment group, ND (150 mg) intramuscularly every 2 weeks for 12 weeks was administered according to randomisation. Fat-free mass (FFM), body weight, CD4 count, and patient perception of treatment were the main outcomes measures. Of the 73 enrolled subjects, 69 completed study duration of 12 weeks. Compared to baseline, ND treated group demonstrated significant increase in FFM (0.49 +/- 1.26 kg; p < 0.01) and body weight (1.31 +/- 1.87 kg; p < 0.01) and control group demonstrated significant increase in body weight (0.99 +/- 1.48 kg; p < 0.01) at the end of treatment period. Compared to control group, patient perception of benefit and subjective recovery of symptoms was significantly (p < .0001) greater in the ND group. None of the patients had any clinically significant deterioration of biochemical as well as laboratory safety parameters. Nandrolone was well tolerated with few reported adverse events of mild and non-serious in nature. Nandrolone improved patient perception of benefit and subjective recovery of symptoms in wasting associated HIV. Nandrolone therapy may prove to be effective and safe in reversing wasting associated with Indian HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and nutritional replacement.

  16. Bodybuilders' body composition: effect of nandrolone decanoate.

    PubMed

    van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D; Hartgens, Fred; Vollaard, Niels B J; Ebbing, Spike; Kuipers, Harm

    2004-03-01

    The use of androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS) among bodybuilders to increase muscle mass is widespread. Nandrolone decanoate (ND) is one of the most popular misused AAS, although the effects on body composition are equivocal. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of ND on body composition in male bodybuilders, with special reference to muscle mass alterations. Using a randomized "double-blind" "placebo-controlled" design, 16 experienced male bodybuilders (age: 19-44 yr) either received ND (200 mg.wk(-1), intramuscularly) or placebo for 8 wk. Body composition was assessed using the four-component model, combining results from underwater weighing, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and deuterium dilution. Total bone mineral content and density were measured using DXA. Water compartments (extracellular water [ECW] and intracellular water [ICW]) were determined using deuterium dilution and bromide dilution. ND administration resulted in significant increments of body mass (+2.2 kg), fat-free mass (FFM: +2.6 kg), and total body water (+1.4 kg). No significant changes in fat mass, percentage fat, ECW, ICW, ECW/ICW ratio, hydration of the FFM, and on bone mineral measurements were observed. The results show that the administration of 200 mg.wk(-1) of ND (intramuscularly) for 8 wk significantly increased body mass and FFM, whereas fat mass, bone mineral content, bone mineral density, and the hydration of the FFM remained unaffected. These data indicate that the changes can be attributed to an increase of muscle mass.

  17. Effects of nandrolone decanoate compared with placebo or testosterone on HIV-associated wasting.

    PubMed

    Gold, J; Batterham, M J; Rekers, H; Harms, M K; Geurts, T B P; Helmyr, P M E; Silva de Mendonça, J; Falleiros Carvalho, L H; Panos, G; Pinchera, A; Aiuti, F; Lee, C; Horban, A; Gatell, J; Phanuphak, P; Prasithsirikul, W; Gazzard, B; Bloch, M; Danner, S A

    2006-04-01

    Objectives Current research is unclear about the most effective pharmacological agents for managing the loss of weight and fat-free mass common in HIV/AIDS. The aim of this study was to compare nandrolone decanoate with placebo and testosterone. Methods The study was a multicentre randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Three hundred and three adult HIV-positive male patients with a weight loss of 5-15% in the last 12 months, or a body mass index of 17-19 kg/m(2), or a body cell mass/height ratio lower than 13.5 kg/m, were randomly assigned to receive nandrolone decanoate (150 mg), testosterone (250 mg) or placebo intramuscularly every 2 weeks for 12 weeks. Fat-free mass, weight, immune markers and perception of treatment were the main outcome measures. Results Treatment with nandrolone resulted in significantly greater increases in fat-free mass [mean increase 1.34 kg; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.60; 2.08 kg] and in weight (mean increase 1.48 kg; 95% CI 0.82; 2.14 kg) compared with placebo. The mean increase in weight with nandrolone of 1.00 kg (95% CI 0.27; 1.74 kg) when compared with testosterone was significant, although the difference in fat free mass did not reach significance (mean increase 0.69 kg; 95% CI-0.13; 1.51 kg). Patient perception of benefit was significantly greater in the nandrolone group when compared with both the placebo and the testosterone groups. Conclusions Treatment with nandrolone decanoate increased body weight when compared with placebo and testosterone. Nandrolone decanoate treatment resulted in greater increases in fat-free mass than placebo and demonstrated a trend for a significant increase when compared with testosterone.

  18. Nandrolone decanoate appears to increase bone callus formation in young adult rats after a complete femoral fracture.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Ana Paula Franttini Garcia Moreno; Butezloff, Mariana Maloste; Zamarioli, Ariane; Issa, João Paulo Mardegan; Volpon, José Batista

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the influence of nandrolone decanoate on fracture healing and bone quality in normal rats. Male rats were assigned to four groups (n=28/group): Control group consisting of animals without any intervention, Nandrolone decanoate (DN) group consisting of animals that received intramuscular injection of nandrolone decanoate, Fracture group consisting of animals with a fracture at the mid-diaphysis of the femur, and Fracture and nandrolone decanoate group consisting of animals with a femur fracture and treatment with nandrolone decanoate. Fractures were created at the mid-diaphysis of the right femur by a blunt trauma and internally fixed using an intramedullary steel wire. The DN was injected intramuscularly twice per week (10 mg/kg of body mass). The femurs were measured and evaluated by densitometry and mechanical resistance after animal euthanasia. The newly formed bone and collagen type I levels were quantified in the callus. The treated animals had longer femurs after 28 days. The quality of the intact bone was not significantly different between groups. The bone callus did show a larger mass in the treated rats. The administration of nandrolone decanoate did not affect the quality of the intact bone, but might have enhanced the bone callus formation.

  19. Nutritional effect of nandrolone decanoate in predialysis patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Eiam-Ong, Somchai; Buranaosot, Somphon; Eiam-Ong, Somchit; Wathanavaha, Arpar; Pansin, Pongsuk

    2007-05-01

    The study objective was to examine the nutritional effect of nandrolone decanoate, an androgen derivative, in predialysis patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). This was a prospective and experimental study. The study was performed at the institutional level of clinical care. Twenty-nine predialysis patients with CKD, with a glomerular filtration rate between 5 and 30 mL/min and moderate to severe malnutrition, were included and randomly divided into control (n = 13) and nandrolone decanoate (NAN, n = 16) groups. Patients in the control group received optimally conventional treatment of CKD. Patients in the NAN group, in addition to the conventional treatment, were intramuscularly injected with nandrolone decanoate at the dose of 100 mg per for 3 months. Nutritional markers, including lean body mass (LBM), normalized protein catabolic rate, serum albumin, and lipids, were determined at baseline and 3-month periods. Baseline parameters in both groups were not different. After 3 months, the patients in the NAN group had increased LBM (P < .01) and decreased serum albumin levels (P < .05), but no changes in the values of normalized protein catabolic rate, serum lipids, hematocrit, and glomerular filtration rate. No alterations in all parameters were identified in the control group. Changes in LBM in the NAN group were significantly higher than in the control group (P < .05). Minor adverse effects were observed in a few patients in the NAN group. Nandrolone decanoate expresses an anabolic effect on LBM without altering the renal function and thus would provide nutritional benefit in predialysis patients with CKD.

  20. The role of neuropeptide-Y in nandrolone decanoate-induced attenuation of antidepressant effect of exercise

    PubMed Central

    Joksimovic, Jovana; Selakovic, Dragica; Matovic, Milovan; Zaletel, Ivan; Puskas, Nela

    2017-01-01

    Since the increased prevalence of anabolic androgenic steroids abuse in last few decades is usually accompanied by various exercise protocols, the scope of our study was to evaluate the effects of chronic nandrolone decanoate administration in supraphysiological dose and a prolonged swimming protocol (alone and simultaneously with nandrolone decanoate) on depressive state in male rats. Simultaneously, we investigated the possible alterations in neuropeptide Y (NPY) content in blood and the hippocampus, in order to determine the role of NPY in the modulation of depressive-like behavior.Exercise induced antidepressant effects in tail suspension test (decrease of the total duration of immobility), as well as significant increase in the number of hippocampal NPY-interneurons in CA1 region. Chronic nandrolone decanoate treatment attenuated the beneficial antidepressant effects of exercise as measured by the tail suspension test parameters. Simultaneously, nandrolone decanoate treatment resulted in diminution of NPY content both in blood (decreased serum levels) and in hippocampus (the significant decrease in NPY expression in all three investigated hippocampal regions—CA1, CA2/3 and DG). Our findings indicate that alterations in serum and hippocampal NPY contents may underlie the changes in depressive state in rats. The exercise was beneficial as it exerted antidepressant effect, while chronic nandrolone decanoate treatment resulted in depressive-like behavior. Furthermore, the behavioral indicators of depression showed strong correlations with the serum levels and the hippocampal content of NPY. PMID:28582442

  1. The role of neuropeptide-Y in nandrolone decanoate-induced attenuation of antidepressant effect of exercise.

    PubMed

    Joksimovic, Jovana; Selakovic, Dragica; Matovic, Milovan; Zaletel, Ivan; Puskas, Nela; Rosic, Gvozden

    2017-01-01

    Since the increased prevalence of anabolic androgenic steroids abuse in last few decades is usually accompanied by various exercise protocols, the scope of our study was to evaluate the effects of chronic nandrolone decanoate administration in supraphysiological dose and a prolonged swimming protocol (alone and simultaneously with nandrolone decanoate) on depressive state in male rats. Simultaneously, we investigated the possible alterations in neuropeptide Y (NPY) content in blood and the hippocampus, in order to determine the role of NPY in the modulation of depressive-like behavior.Exercise induced antidepressant effects in tail suspension test (decrease of the total duration of immobility), as well as significant increase in the number of hippocampal NPY-interneurons in CA1 region. Chronic nandrolone decanoate treatment attenuated the beneficial antidepressant effects of exercise as measured by the tail suspension test parameters. Simultaneously, nandrolone decanoate treatment resulted in diminution of NPY content both in blood (decreased serum levels) and in hippocampus (the significant decrease in NPY expression in all three investigated hippocampal regions-CA1, CA2/3 and DG). Our findings indicate that alterations in serum and hippocampal NPY contents may underlie the changes in depressive state in rats. The exercise was beneficial as it exerted antidepressant effect, while chronic nandrolone decanoate treatment resulted in depressive-like behavior. Furthermore, the behavioral indicators of depression showed strong correlations with the serum levels and the hippocampal content of NPY.

  2. The effects of nandrolone decanoate on nutritional parameters in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Barton Pai, A; Chretien, C; Lau, A H

    2002-07-01

    Malnutrition with hypoalbuminemia is an independent predictor of mortality in end-stage renal disease patients. Anabolic steroids reduce protein catabolism and therefore may improve nutritional parameters. This study was undertaken to determine the effects of the anabolic steroid nandrolone decanoate on the nutritional status of hemodialysis patients. Secondary endpoints were to examine the effects of androgen therapy on hematocrit and erythropoietin (EPO) dose. Medical records of chronic hemodialysis patients who received nandrolone decanoate for greater than 30 days were reviewed. Data collected included: demographics, dose, frequency, duration of treatment and cumulative dose of nandrolone. Baseline albumin, transferrin, dry weight, phosphorus, creatinine, hematocrit and erythropoietin dose were obtained for comparison with values after treatment. Of the 9 patients evaluated (mean +/- SD: age 55+/-28 years, 4/9 male), 2 patients received nandrolone doses of 25 mg intramuscularly (i.m.) every week, while the remaining 7 patients received 100 mg i.m. every 2 weeks. The mean +/- SD duration of treatment was 96+/-43 days, with a mean +/- SD cumulative dose of 656+/-371 mg. The mean +/- SD baseline albumin was 2.9+/-0.6 mg/dl which increased to 3.3+/-0.4 mg/dl after treatment (p = 0.045). Dry weight increased from a mean +/- SD of 64.4+/-11.7 kg to 66.0+/-10.9 kg after nandrolone therapy (p = 0.028). Mean +/- SD hematocrit at baseline was 28.2+/-4.5% and increased to 33.2+/-5.1% (p = 0.033). The dose of EPO was reduced in 4 patients (44%) during nandrolone therapy. Nandrolone significantly improved markers of nutritional status in our hemodialysis patients. This therapy may also enhance the hematopoietic effects of EPO.

  3. Sex steroid receptors profiling is influenced by nandrolone decanoate in the ampulla of the fallopian tube: Post-treatment and post-recovery analyses.

    PubMed

    Andrade, G H B; Simão, V A; Souza, B R; Chuffa, L G A; Camargo, I C C

    2018-02-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are recommended for therapeutic clinic, but their use has increased in recent decades for aesthetic reasons. No study has evaluated the impact of AAS in the fallopian tube, after treatment and recovery periods. Herein, the aim of study was to investigate the effects of Nandrolone Decanoate (ND), administered in different doses (1.87; 3.75; 7.5 and 15 mg/kg) on the ampulla of the fallopian tube in rats, following post-treatment (PT; 15 consecutive days) and post-recovery (PR; 30 consecutive days) periods. The control group received mineral oil. Estrous cycle was monitored daily during both periods and in sequence the rats (n = 8/group/period) were killed. All ND-treated animals showed estral acyclicity during the PT and PR periods, but the histomorphometric changes in the fallopian tube varied according to the ND dose level. The expression of AR, ERα and ERβ varied in the nucleus and cytoplasm of epithelial cells. No AR expression was observed in the stroma. The muscle cells exhibited variation in immunostaining. In conclusion, ND promoted histomorphometric and immunohistochemical changes in the ampullary portion of the fallopian tube after treatment and recovery periods in a dose-independent manner. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The impact of nandrolone decanoate on the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Busardò, Francesco P; Frati, Paola; Sanzo, Mariantonia Di; Napoletano, Simona; Pinchi, Enrica; Zaami, Simona; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    Nandrolone is included in the class II of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) which is composed of 19-nor-testosterone-derivates. In general, AAS is a broad and rapidly increasing group of synthetic androgens used both clinically and illicitly. AAS in general and nandrolone decanoate (ND) in particular have been associated with several behavioral disorders. The purpose of this review is to summarize the literature concerning studies dealing with ND exposure on animal models, mostly rats that mimic human abuse systems (i.e. supraphysiological doses). We have focused in particular on researches that have investigated how ND alters the function and expression of neuronal signaling molecules that underlie behavior, anxiety, aggression, learning and memory, reproductive behaviors, locomotion and reward.

  5. The Impact of Nandrolone Decanoate on the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Busardò, Francesco P.; Frati, Paola; Sanzo, Mariantonia Di; Napoletano, Simona; Pinchi, Enrica; Zaami, Simona; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    Nandrolone is included in the class II of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) which is composed of 19-nor-testosterone-derivates. In general, AAS is a broad and rapidly increasing group of synthetic androgens used both clinically and illicitly. AAS in general and nandrolone decanoate (ND) in particular have been associated with several behavioral disorders. The purpose of this review is to summarize the literature concerning studies dealing with ND exposure on animal models, mostly rats that mimic human abuse systems (i.e. supraphysiological doses). We have focused in particular on researches that have investigated how ND alters the function and expression of neuronal signaling molecules that underlie behavior, anxiety, aggression, learning and memory, reproductive behaviors, locomotion and reward. PMID:26074747

  6. Enhanced hepatic and kidney cytochrome p-450 activities in nandrolone decanoate treated albino mice.

    PubMed

    Acharjee, B K; Mahanta, R

    2009-04-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids are the xenobiotic substrates that are metabolized in the body by the protective enzyme systems. Mixed function oxygenase enzymes include a group of enzymes which play an essential role in the metabolism of a broad range of xenobiotics including endogenous and exogenous substrates. Cytochrome P-450, a member of mixed function oxygenase enzymes, plays an important role in oxidative metabolism of drugs and xenobiotics entering human body. Various anabolic steroids are found either to increase or decrease the activity of cytochrome P-450. However, effect of nandrolone decanoate, most commonly abused anabolic steroid, on cytochrome P-450 activity is still fragmentary. In the present study, albino mice were administered intramuscular 2.5 mg of nandrolone decanoate injection at 15 days interval. Cytochrome P-450 activity is determined by following the method of Omura and Sato (1964) in liver and kidney tissues of both normal and experimental groups upto 90 days. Investigation shows a significant (p <0.01) increase of cytochrome P-450 (nmol/mg) activity in liver tissue as compared to that of kidney tissues. A tissue specific and dose specific increase of cytochrome P-450 activity is observed. Mean cytochrome P-450 is found highest in liver tissue on 45(th) day whereas the activity in kidney tissue is noticed on 90(th) day of treatment. From the above observation, nandrolone decanoate can be suggested as a potent inducer of cytochrome P-450 activity like other anabolic steroids.

  7. Nephrotoxicity in rabbits after long-term nandrolone decanoate administration.

    PubMed

    Tsitsimpikou, Christina; Vasilaki, Fotini; Tsarouhas, Konstantinos; Fragkiadaki, Persefoni; Tzardi, Maria; Goutzourelas, Nikolaos; Nepka, Charitini; Kalogeraki, Alexandra; Heretis, Ioannis; Epitropaki, Zoi; Kouretas, Dimitrios; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M

    2016-09-30

    Among the various side effects of supra-physiological dose of anabolic androgenic steroids that are described, renal toxicity remains the least evaluated. The present study provides evidence that long-term administration of nandrolone decanoate could lead to alterations of renal function and structure in the experimental rabbit model. A pronounced increase in serum urea, creatinine, SGOT and SGPT is observed in the treated animals, with intramuscular administration being more detrimental. Histopathological evaluation of kidneys indicated hyperaemia, fibrosis and focal inflammation. Furthermore, the significantly increased telomerase activity found in the kidneys of the intramuscularly treated animals could possibly represent a counteracting survival mechanism. Oxidative stress markers that were influenced the most were TBARS, indicating lipid peroxidation, and GSH. An interesting finding in our study though, was that while intramuscular administration showed the highest biochemical derangement, oxidative stress markers provided mixed results between intramuscularly and subcutaneously treated rabbits. In conclusion, nephrotoxicity of nandrolone decanoate remains a multi-factorial, partly irreversible effect that involves augmented tissue oxidative status. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  8. Exercise and supraphysiological dose of nandrolone decanoate increase apoptosis in spermatogenic cells.

    PubMed

    Shokri, Saeed; Aitken, Robert John; Abdolvahhabi, Mirabbas; Abolhasani, Farid; Ghasemi, Fahimeh Mohammad; Kashani, Iraj; Ejtemaeimehr, Shahram; Ahmadian, Shahin; Minaei, Bagher; Naraghi, Mohammad Ali; Barbarestani, Mohammad

    2010-04-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids are used at high doses by athletes for improving athletic ability, physical appearance and muscle mass. Unfortunately, the abuse of these agents has significantly increased. It has been established that exercise and high doses of anabolic-androgenic steroids may influence the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, which can in turn affect testicular apoptosis. However, the effect of the combination of exercise and high dose of anabolic-androgenic steroids on testicular apoptosis is not known. We investigated the combined effects of exercise and high doses of nandrolone decanoate on apoptosis in the spermatogenic cell lineage. Five groups of male Wistar strain albino rats were treated as follows for 8 weeks: solvent of nandrolone decanoate (peanut oil) as a vehicle (Sham); nandrolone decanoate (10 mg/kg/weekly) (nandrolone decanoate); exercise (1 hr/day, 5 days a week) (exercise); nandrolone decanoate (10 mg/kg/weekly) and exercise (1 hr/day, 5 days a week) (nandrolone decanoate exercise); and sedentary control without any injection or exercise (Control). Apoptosis in the male germ line was characterized by TUNEL, caspase-3 assay and transmission electron microscopy. The weights of the testis and accessory sex organs, as well as sperm parameters significantly decreased in the experimental groups relative to the sham and control groups (p < or = 0.05). Germ cell apoptosis and a significant decrease in the number of germ cell layers in nandrolone decanoate exercise-treated testes were observed (p < or = 0.05). Exercise training seems to increase the extent of apoptotic changes caused by supraphysiological dose of nandrolone decanoate in rats, which in turn affects fertility.

  9. Anabolic androgenic steroid nandrolone decanoate reduces hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin mRNA levels.

    PubMed

    Lindblom, Jonas; Kindlundh, Anna M S; Nyberg, Fred; Bergström, Lena; Wikberg, Jarl E S

    2003-10-03

    Supratherapeutical doses of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs) have dramatic effects on metabolism in humans, and also inhibit feeding and reduce the rate of body weight gain in rats. In order to test the hypothesis that the AAS metabolic syndrome is accompanied by alterations in the central melanocortin system, we evaluated body weight, food intake and hypothalamic agouti-related protein (AgRP) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA levels following administration of different doses of the anabolic androgenic steroid nandrolone decanoate. In order to distinguish changes induced by the steroid treatment per se from those resulting from the reduced food intake and growth rate, we also compared the effect of nandrolone decanoate on AgRP and POMC mRNA expression with both normally fed, and food restricted control groups. We here report that administration of nandrolone specifically reduces arcuate nucleus POMC mRNA levels while not affecting the expression level of AgRP. The effect on POMC expression was not observed in the food restricted controls, excluding the possibility that the observed effect was a mere response to the reduced food intake and body weight. These results raise the possibility that some of the metabolic and behavioural consequences of AAS abuse may be the result of alterations in the melanocortin system.

  10. Nandrolone decanoate and physical activity affect quadriceps in peripubertal rats.

    PubMed

    Sretenovic, Jasmina; Ajdzanovic, Vladimir; Zivkovic, Vladimir; Srejovic, Ivan; Corbic, Milena; Milosevic, Verica; Jakovljevic, Vladimir; Milosavljevic, Zoran

    2018-07-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs) are synthetic analogs of testosterone often used by athletes to increase the skeletal muscle mass. Our goal was to examine the effects of physical activity and physical activity combined with supraphysiological doses of nandrolone on functional morphology of the quadriceps muscle. The study included 32 peripubertal Wistar rats, divided into 4 groups: control (T-N-), nandrolone (T-N+), physical activity (T+N-) and physical activity plus nandrolone (T+N+) groups. The T+N- and T+N+ group swam for 4 weeks, 1 h/day, 5 days/week. The T-N+ and T+N+ groups received nandolone decanoate (20 mg/kg b.w.) once per week, subcutaneously. Subsequently, the rats were sacrificed and muscle specimens were prepared for the processing. Tissue sections were histochemically and immunohistochemically stained, while the image analysis was used for quantification. Longitudinal diameter of quadriceps muscle cells was increased for 21% in T-N+, for 57% in T+N- and for 64% in T+N+ group while cross section muscle cell area was increased in T-N+ for 19%, in T+N- for 47% and in T+N+ group for 59%, compared to the control. Collagen fibers covered area was increased in T-N+ group for 36%, in T+N- for 109% and in T+N+ group for 159%, compared to the control. Erythrocyte depots were decreased in T-N+ group and increased in T+N- and T+N+ group, in comparison with T-N-. VEGF depots were increased in all treated groups. Chronic administration of supraphysiological doses of AASs alone or in combination with physical activity induces hypertrophy and significant changes in the quadriceps muscle tissue structure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Nandrolone decanoate increases satellite cell numbers in the chicken pectoralis muscle.

    PubMed

    Allouh, Mohammed Z; Rosser, Benjamin W C

    2010-02-01

    The anabolic androgenic steroid nandrolone decanoate has minimal androgenic effects and, thus, is widely used to induce muscle hypertrophy in both patients and athletes. Although increases in satellite cell numbers and satellite cells giving rise to new myonuclei are associated with hypertrophy in many experimental models, the relationship between nandrolone and satellite cells is poorly understood. Here we test the hypothesis that nandrolone administration is associated with an increase in satellite cell numbers in muscle. Nandrolone was injected at weekly intervals for four weeks into the right pectoralis muscle of female white leghorn chickens aged 63 days post hatch. Age/size/sex matched control birds received saline injections. The contralateral pectoralis was excised for study from each control and nandrolone treated bird. An antibody against Pax7 and immunocytochemical techniques were used to identify satellite cells. Nandrolone significantly increased mean pectoralis mass by approximately 22%, and mean fiber diameter by about 24%. All satellite cell indices that were quantified increased significantly in chicken pectoralis with administration of nandrolone. Nandrolone injected birds had on average higher satellite cell frequencies (#SC nuclei/all nuclei within basal lamina), number of satellite cells per millimeter of fiber, and satellite cell concentrations (closer together). Myonuclei were further apart (less concentrated) in nandrolone injected muscle. However, an overall increase in myonuclear numbers was revealed by a significantly greater mean number of myonuclei per millimeter of fiber in nandrolone injected muscle. Our results suggest that satellite cells may be key cellular vectors for nandrolone induced muscle fiber hypertrophy.

  12. Nandrolone decanoate and load increase remodeling and strength in human supraspinatus bioartificial tendons.

    PubMed

    Triantafillopoulos, Ioannis K; Banes, Albert J; Bowman, Karl F; Maloney, Melissa; Garrett, William E; Karas, Spero G

    2004-06-01

    To date, no studies document the effect of anabolic steroids on rotator cuff tendons. Controlled laboratory study. Anabolic steroids enhance remodeling and improve the biomechanical properties of bioartificially engineered human supraspinatus tendons. Bioartificial tendons were treated with either nandrolone decanoate (nonload, steroid, n = 18), loading (load, nonsteroid, n = 18), or both (load, steroid, n = 18). A control group received no treatment (nonload, nonsteroid [NLNS], n = 18). Bioartificial tendons' remodeling was assessed by daily scanning, cytoskeletal organization by staining, matrix metalloproteinase-3 levels by ELISA assay, and biomechanical properties by load-to-failure testing. The load, steroid group showed the greatest remodeling and the best organized actin cytoskeleton. Matrix metallo-proteinase-3 levels in the load, steroid group were greater than those of the nonload, nonsteroid group (P <.05). Ultimate stress and ultimate strain in the load, steroid group were greater than those of the nonload, nonsteroid and nonload, steroid groups (P <.05). The strain energy density in the load, steroid group was greater when compared to other groups (P <.05). Nandrolone decanoate and load acted synergistically to increase matrix remodeling and biomechanical properties of bioartificial tendons. Data suggest anabolic steroids may enhance production of bioartificial tendons and rotator cuff tendon healing in vitro. More research is necessary before such clinical use is recommended.

  13. DNA damage, p53, Ki-67 and COX-2 expression in rat tongue cells exposed to nandrolone decanoate.

    PubMed

    Pozzi, Renan; Fernandes, Kelly Rosseti; Foot Gomes de Moura, Carolina; Ferrari, Raquel Agnelli Mesquita; Fernandes, Kristianne Porta Santos; Chaves, Marcelo Donizeti; Renno, Ana Claudia Muniz; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this article was to evaluate the impact potential of nandrolone decanoate on DNA damage, cellular regulatory proteins and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 in oral mucosa cells of Wistar rats. A total of 40 rats were distributed into four groups. Two experimental groups were treated with nandrolone decanoate, at 5 mg/kg doses, subcutaneously, three times a week in two periods: 15 and 30 days. The remaining groups received only 0.9% saline subcutaneously, three times a week. To evaluate genetic damage, nandrolone decanoate at 15 mg/kg dose was exposed to 24 h. In the histopathological analysis, no remarkable morphological changes were observed in tongue tissue in all groups. Significant increase in immunoexpression of Ki-67, p53, COX-2 proteins was detected in the groups treated with nandrolone decanoate during 15 and 30 days, when compared to their respective controls. A positive correlation between immunoexpression of p53 and COX-2 protein was detected following nandrolone decanoate exposure. DNA damage was induced by nandrolone decanoate in oral mucosa cells at 15 mg/kg dose. Our results suggest that nandrolone decanoate was able to alter the expression of cell cycle-related proteins, as well as to induce genetic damage and COX-2 immunoexpression in tongue cells of Wistar rats.

  14. High doses of nandrolone decanoate reduce volume of testis and length of seminiferous tubules in rats.

    PubMed

    Noorafshan, Ali; Karbalay-Doust, Saied; Ardekani, Fakhrodin Mesbah

    2005-02-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) compounds rank among the drugs most widely abused with the goal of improving athletic ability, appearance, or muscle mass. It has been shown that these compounds have adverse effects on human and animal physiology and sperm quality, but quantitative structural changes of the testis have received less attention. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of nandrolone decanoate, which is one of the AAS compounds, on testis weight and volume, diameter and length of seminiferous tubules in rats by unbiased stereological methods. Adult rats were divided into three groups. The first comprised control rats; the second and third groups received low and high doses of nandrolone decanoate for 14 weeks. The rats were then left untreated for 14 weeks. After removal of the testis, stereological study of these tissues showed that the mean volume of testis and length of the seminiferous tubules in the animals that received high doses of nandrolone decanoate were reduced approximately 32% (p<0.01) and approximately 31% (p<0.04), respectively, in comparison with the control group. It can be concluded that the high doses of nandrolone decanoate produce structural changes in the rat testis that remain 14 weeks after stopping injection of the drug.

  15. Enhancement of committed hematopoietic stem cell colony formation by nandrolone decanoate after sublethal whole body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gallicchio, V.S.; Chen, M.G.; Watts, T.D.

    1984-11-01

    The ability of an anabolic steroid, nandrolone decanoate, to increase committed topoietic stem cell (CFU-gm, CFU-e, and BFU-e) colony formation after sublethal irradiation was evaluated. Immediately after receiving whole body irradiation and on the next two days, each mouse was injected intraperitoneally with nandrolone decanoate (1.25 mg) in propylene glycol. Irradiated control mice received only propylene glycol. Compared to controls, drug-treated mice showed marked peripheral blood leukocytosis and more stable packed red cell volume. Drug-treated mice also demonstrated increased erythropoiesis, as CFU-e/BFU-e concentrations from both marrow (9% to 581%) and spleen (15% to 797%) were elevated. Granulopoiesis was increased similarly,more » as CFU-gm concentrations from marrow (38% to 685%) and spleen (9% to 373%) were elevated. These results demonstrate that nandrolone decanoate enhances hematopoietic stem cell recovery after sublethal whole body irradiation. This suggests that following hematopoietic suppression, nandrolone decanoate may stimulate the recovery of hematopoiesis at the stem cell level and in peripheral blood.« less

  16. Effect of nandrolone decanoate administration on recovery from bupivacaine-induced muscle injury

    PubMed Central

    White, James P.; Baltgalvis, Kristen A.; Sato, Shuichi; Wilson, L. Britt

    2009-01-01

    Although testosterone administration elicits well-documented anabolic effects on skeletal muscle mass, the enhancement of muscle regeneration after injury has not been widely examined. The purpose of this study was to determine whether anabolic steroid administration improves skeletal muscle regeneration from bupivacaine-induced injury. Male C57BL/6 mice were castrated 2 wk before muscle injury induced by an intramuscular bupivacaine injection into the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle. Control mice received an intramuscular PBS injection. Anabolic steroid [nandrolone decanoate (ND), 6 mg/kg] or sesame seed oil was administered at the time of initial injury and continued every 7 days for the study's duration. Mice were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups for 5, 14, or 42 days of recovery, as follows: 1) control (uninjured); 2) ND only (uninjured + ND); 3) bupivacaine only (injured); or 4) bupivacaine + ND (injured + ND). TA morphology, protein, and gene expression were analyzed at 14 and 42 days after injury; protein expression was analyzed at 5 days after injury. After 14 days of recovery, the injury and injury + ND treatments induced small-diameter myofiber incidence and also decreased mean myofiber area. The increase in small-myofiber incidence was 65% greater in injury + ND muscle compared with injury alone. At 14 days, injury + ND induced a fivefold increase in muscle IGF-I mRNA expression, which was greater than injury alone. Muscle Akt activity and glycogen synthetase kinase-3β activity were also induced by injury + ND at 14 days of recovery, but not by injury alone. ND had a main effect for increasing muscle MyoD and cyclin D1 mRNA expression at 14 days. After 42 days of recovery, injury + ND increased large-diameter myofiber incidence compared with injury only. Nandrolone decanoate (ND) administration can enhance castrated mouse muscle regeneration during the recovery from bupivacaine-induced injury. PMID:19745189

  17. The impact of nandrolone decanoate administration on ovarian and uterine tissues in rat: Luteinizing hormone profile, histopathological and morphometric assessment.

    PubMed

    Saddick, Salina Y

    2018-03-01

    The study had been conducted to evaluate the effects of nandrolone decanoate (abused repeated doses) on female rat's ovary and uterus during administration and withdrawal. The study included 18 rats that were divided into control group (n = 6) and treated group (n = 12). The treated group was injected intramuscular (IM) with nandrolone decanoate (7 mg/kg body weight) for three consecutive days, for two weeks. The study stated that nandrolone decanoate increases the weights of body, ovary, and uterus. Moreover, it has a tendency of bringing upon modifications in the biochemical, histopathological, and morphological makeup of the female reproductive aspects. In conclusion, nandrolone decanoate has been identified as deleterious element for the female rats, and it is suggested that keen observations must be made on the human abusers to control and manage the possible pathologies.

  18. A comparison of megestrol acetate, nandrolone decanoate and dietary counselling for HIV associated weight loss.

    PubMed

    Batterham, M J; Garsia, R

    2001-08-01

    This randomized, prospective study compared three treatments, nandrolone decanoate (ND), megestrol acetate (MA) or dietary counselling, for managing human immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV) associated weight loss. It was centred on a Tertiary referral hospital, Sydney, Australia. Fifteen patients were randomized to receive ND (100 mg/fortnight), or MA (400 mg/day) or dietary counselling for 12 weeks. Those patients randomized to dietary counselling were further randomized to receive nandrolone or megestrol after completing the dietary counselling arm. Weight, fat free mass (FFM), percentage body fat mass (FM), dietary intake and appetite were assessed before commencing and at the completion of each treatment arm. Weight increased significantly in all treatment arms (dietary counselling 1.13 kg +/- 0.36, nandrolone 4.01 kg +/- 1.68, megestrol 10.20 kg +/- 4.51, p < 0.05 paired t-test). FFM increased significantly in patients receiving ND (3.54 +/- 1.98 kg, p=0.001) and those receiving MA (2.76 +/- 0.55 kg, p=0.002), whereas the change in those receiving dietary counselling alone was not significant. Percentage body fat mass increased significantly only in those receiving MA (7.77 +/- 4.85%, p=0.049). The change in weight and percentage body fat mass was significantly greater in those receiving MA than the other two treatment arms. The increase in FFM was significantly greater in both the nandrolone and megestrol arms than the dietary counselling arm. It was concluded that ND and MA both resulted in an increase in FFM greater than dietary counselling alone. Megestrol produced a significantly greater increase in weight, percentage fat mass, intake and appetite than did the other two treatment arms, suggesting it may be the preferred agent, particularly in a palliative care setting in which weight, appetite and intake increase are desirable without regard to the composition of the body. The long-term use of these agents in people with HIV should be reviewed in the context

  19. Chronic nandrolone decanoate exposure during adolescence affects emotional behavior and monoaminergic neurotransmission in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Rainer, Quentin; Speziali, Simona; Rubino, Tiziana; Dominguez-Lopez, Sergio; Bambico, Francis Rodriguez; Gobbi, Gabriella; Parolaro, Daniela

    2014-08-01

    Nandrolone decanoate, an anabolic androgen steroid (AAS) illicitly used by adult and adolescent athletes to enhance physical performance and body image, induces psychiatric side effects, such as aggression, depression as well as a spectrum of adverse physiological impairments. Since adolescence represents a neurodevelopmental window that is extremely sensitive to the detrimental effects of drug abuse, we investigated the long-term behavioral and neurophysiological consequences of nandrolone abuse during adolescence. Adolescent rats received daily injections of nandrolone decanoate (15 mg/kg, i.m.) for 14 days (PND 40-53). At early adulthood (PND 68), forced swim, sucrose preference, open field and elevated plus maze tests were performed to assess behavioral changes. In vivo electrophysiological recordings were carried out to monitor changes in electrical activity of serotonergic neurons of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) and noradrenergic neurons of the locus coeruleus (LC). Our results show that after early exposure to nandrolone, rats display depression-related behavior, characterized by increased immobility in the forced swim test and reduced sucrose intake in the sucrose preference test. In addition, adult rats presented anxiety-like behavior characterized by decreased time and number of entries in the central zone of the open field and decreased time spent in the open arms of the elevated plus maze. Nandrolone decreased the firing rate of spontaneously active serotonergic neurons in the DRN while increasing the firing rate of noradrenergic neurons in the LC. These results provide evidence that nandrolone decanoate exposure during adolescence alters the emotional profile of animals in adulthood and significantly modifies both serotonergic and noradrenergic neurotransmission. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of nandrolone decanoate on the toxicity and anti-tumour action of CCNU and FU in murine tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Bibby, M. C.; Double, J. A.; Mughal, M. A.

    1981-01-01

    Pre-treatment with the anabolic steroid nandrolone decanoate (ND) increases the LD50 of 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea (CCNU) and 5-Fluorouracil (FU) in NMRI mice. Administration of ND did not affect the anti-tumour action of CCNU against a transplantable mouse adenocarcinoma of the colon (MAC 13) or the anti-tumour action of FU against MAC 26. In both tumour lines ND had no significant effect on tumour growth. These data suggest that an increase in the anti-tumour selectivity of these agents may be produced by pre-treatment with ND. PMID:7295514

  1. Effect of nandrolone decanoate on Sjögren's syndrome like disorders in NZB/NZW mice.

    PubMed Central

    Schot, L P; Verheul, H A; Schuurs, A H

    1984-01-01

    The effects of 2.5-40 mg/kg nandrolone decanoate (ND) on the development and growth of mononuclear cell infiltrations in the submandibular glands of NZB/W (B/W) mice have been studied using a quantitative histological method. Injections with ND for 9 months, once every 3 weeks, starting at 4 weeks of age, reduced the number and total area of infiltrations in submandibular glands of female and castrated male B/W mice. Since ND has relatively weak virilizing properties, this substance may be useful for the treatment of Sjögren's syndrome in humans. Images Fig. 1 PMID:6467680

  2. The effect of local use of nandrolone decanoate on rotator cuff repair in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Papaspiliopoulos, Athanasios; Papaparaskeva, Kleo; Papadopoulou, Eleni; Feroussis, John; Papalois, Apostolos; Zoubos, Aristedes

    2010-08-01

    There is still controversy about the effect of anabolic steroid on connective tissue. This study examines the hypothesis that the local use of nandrolone decanoate, an anabolic steroid on rotator cuff, facilitates the healing process when used in combination with surgical repair. Forty-eight male rabbits were divided in four groups with anabolic steroids (Nandrolone Decanoate 10 mg/kg) and immobilization as variables. The groups were the following: first group, nonsteroid use-immobilization (NSI); second group, nonsteroid use-nonimmobilization (NSNI); third group, steroid use-immobilization (SI); fourth group steroid use-nonimmobilization (SNI). Every rabbit underwent a rotator cuff incision and reconstruction. Fifteen days later the tendons were sent for biomechanical and histological evaluation. Groups that did not receive anabolic steroids showed better healing and more tendon strength in comparison to groups that received anabolic steroids. Microscopic examination of specimens from the groups without the use of anabolic steroid showed extensive fibroblastic activity whereas the specimens from those groups with anabolic steroid use showed focal fibroblastic reaction and inflammation. Immobilization provided better results in the groups with anabolic steroid use but it did not influence healing in groups without steroids. The effect of local nandrolone decanoate use on a rotator cuff tear is detrimental, acting as a healing inhibitor.

  3. Pharmacokinetic evaluation of three different intramuscular doses of nandrolone decanoate: analysis of serum and urine samples in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Bagchus, Wilma M; Smeets, Jean M W; Verheul, Herman A M; De Jager-Van Der Veen, Suzanne M; Port, Andreas; Geurts, T B Paul

    2005-05-01

    The pharmacokinetics of nandrolone in serum and urine were investigated in healthy young men after a single im injection of 50 mg (n = 20), 100 mg (n = 17), or 150 mg (n = 17) nandrolone decanoate. Blood samples were collected before treatment and for up to 32 d after dosing. In addition, in the 50- and 150-mg groups, 24-h urine samples were collected before treatment and on d 1, 7, and 33 after treatment; in the 150-mg group, additional samples were collected after 3 and 6 months. Serum concentrations and the area under the curve of nandrolone increased proportionally with the dose administered. The peak serum concentration ranged from 2.14 ng/ml in the 50-mg group to 4.26 ng/ml in the 100-mg group and 5.16 ng/ml in the 150-mg group. The peak serum concentration was reached after 30 h (50 and 100 mg) and 72 h (150 mg), whereas the terminal half-life was 7-12 d. In urine, pretreatment concentrations of 19-norandrosterone (19-NA) and/or 19-noretiocholanolone (19-NE) were detected in five of 37 subjects (14%). In the 50-mg group, 19-NA and/or 19-NE could be detected at least until 33 d after injection in 16 of 17 subjects (94%). In the 150-mg group, who were presumed to have not previously used nandrolone, nandrolone metabolites could be detected for up to 6 months in eight of 12 subjects (67%) for 19-NE and in 10 of 12 subjects (83%) for 19-NA.

  4. The impact of chronic nandrolone decanoate administration on the NK1 receptor density in rat brain as determined by autoradiography.

    PubMed

    Hallberg, Mathias; Kindlundh, Anna M S; Nyberg, Fred

    2005-07-01

    Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with the anabolic androgenic steroid nandrolone decanoate (15 mg/kg day) or oil vehicle (sterile arachidis oleum) during 14 days. The effect on the densities of the neurokinin NK1 receptor in brain was examined with autoradiography. An overall tendency of attenuation of NK1 receptor density was observed after completed treatment with nandrolone decanoate. The density of the NK1 receptor was found to be significantly lower compared to control animals in the nucleus accumbens core (37% density reduction), in dentate gyrus (26%), in basolateral amygdaloid nucleus (23%), in ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (36%), in dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (43%) and finally in the periaqueductal gray (PAG) (24%). In the cortex region, no structures exhibited any significant reduction of NK1 receptor density. This result provides additional support to the hypothesis that substance P and the NK1 receptor may be involved as important components that participate in mediating physiological responses including the adverse behaviors often associated with chronically administrated anabolic androgenic steroids in human.

  5. Ovarian histology and follicular score in female rats treated with nandrolone decanoate and submitted to physical effort.

    PubMed

    Cherici Camargo, Isabel Cristina; Barreiros de Souza, Roberta; de Fátima Paccola Mesquita, Suzana; Chuffa, L G A; Frei, F

    2009-09-01

    The study was conducted to analyze the histology of the ovaries of adults rats treated with steroids, and submitted or not to physical effort. The control group consisted of females submitted to physical effort and sedentary females, both of which received a physiological solution of 0.9% saline. Treated females, sedentary or not, received 6 mg/kg of body weight of nandrolone decanoate. The steroid and physiological solution were administered intraperitoneally, with a single injection per week for 4 consecutive weeks. The applied physical effort was swimming (20 minutes daily, 5 days/week, for the 4 weeks of treatment). Serial sections (5 mum) of ovaries were prepared for histological evaluation and follicular score. The weight of ovaries and hypophysis, the number of antral and atretic follicles, and the area of corpus luteum were all affected by the steroids. In the ovaries of the control groups, well-developed corpus luteum was observed. In the treated groups, the cortical stroma was occupied by ovarian interstitial tissue. The females treated with steroids presented estral acyclicity. The use of nandrolone decanoate, whether associated with physical effort or not, affected the morphological pattern of the ovaries.

  6. Nandrolone decanoate and physical effort: histological and morphometrical assessment in adult rat uterus.

    PubMed

    de Almeida Chuffa, Luiz Gustavo; de Souza, Roberta Barreiros; Frei, Fernando; de Fátima Paccola Mesquita, Suzana; Camargo, Isabel Cristina Cherici

    2011-02-01

    In the past decades, the therapeutic use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been overshadowed by illicit abuse of these drugs by athletes and non-athletes. Since that AAS can affect the reproductive tract, resulting in reproduction and fertilization damages, the purpose of this study was to investigate the nandrolone decanoate (ND) effects, associated or not with physical effort, on the uterine histomorphometric parameters. Female Wistar rats, sedentary or not, were exposed to treatment with ND by intraperitoneal injection (5 mg/kg/day, once a week) during four consecutive weeks. Control animals, sedentary or not, received vehicle alone (propylene glycol) in the same manner. The physical activity was forced swimming (20 min/day). During the experiment, all animals were monitored by daily vaginal smears. After 30 days of treatment, the females were sacrificed and their uteri collected and examined under light microscopy techniques. The ND-treated females showed estrus acyclicity and decreased thickness of both the epithelium and endometrial stroma. A reduction in the number and size of blood vessels was also found in ND-treated rats submitted to physical effort when compared to ND sedentary rats. ND-treated rats, regardless of exercise, exhibited stromal fibrosis and reduced gland ducts that displayed high mitotic activity. A remarkable widespread presence of leukocytes occurred in rats receiving ND and submitted to exercise. These results suggest that ND associated or not with physical effort causes histomorphometric changes to the rat uterus. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of nandrolone decanoate in human immunodeficiency virus-infected men with mild to moderate weight loss with recombinant human growth hormone as active reference treatment.

    PubMed

    Storer, Thomas W; Woodhouse, Linda J; Sattler, Fred; Singh, Atam B; Schroeder, E Todd; Beck, Keith; Padero, MaClara; Mac, Phong; Yarasheski, Kevin E; Geurts, Paul; Willemsen, Arnold; Harms, Marloes K; Bhasin, Shalender

    2005-08-01

    We compared the effectiveness of a biweekly regimen of 150 mg nandrolone with placebo in HIV-infected men with mild to moderate weight loss and contrasted its effects against a Food and Drug Administration-approved regimen of recombinant human (rh)GH. In this placebo-controlled, randomized, 12-wk trial, placebo and nandrolone (150 mg im biweekly) were administered double blind, and rhGH (6 mg sc daily) was administered in an open-label manner. Participants were HIV-infected men with 5-15% weight loss over 6 months and on stable antiretroviral therapy for more than 12 wk. Lean body mass (LBM), muscle performance, physical function, endurance, hormone levels, insulin sensitivity, sexual function, quality of life, and appetite were assessed at baseline and after 12 wk. Nandrolone administration was associated with a greater increase in LBM (+1.6 +/- 0.3 kg) by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan than placebo (+0.4 +/- 0.3 kg; P < 0.05); however, the change in LBMs with nandrolone was not significantly different from rhGH (+2.5 +/- 0.3 kg). Nandrolone administration was also associated with significantly greater gains in fat-free mass (+1.6 +/- 0.3 kg), body cell mass (+1.0 +/- 0.2 kg), and intracellular water (+0.9 +/- 0.2 kg) than placebo; these changes in the nandrolone group were not significantly different from the rhGH group. rhGH administration was associated with greater loss of whole body fat mass and higher frequency of drug-related adverse effects and treatment discontinuations than nandrolone and placebo and a greater increase in extracellular water than nandrolone. Nandrolone treatment was associated with greater improvements in perception of health than rhGH and sexual function than placebo. The cachexia/anorexia scores, health care resource use, and insulin sensitivity did not significantly change. We conclude that nandrolone is superior to placebo and not significantly different from a Food and Drug Administration-approved regimen of rhGH in improving

  8. Effect of Administration of Nandrolone Decanoate upon Aldosterone Concentration and Serum Na+/K+ Levels in Albino Mice.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Parmita; Mahanta, Rita

    2017-01-01

    This article is a study of adverse effects associated with the abuse of recreational drugs such as anabolic androgenic steroids. Nandrolone decanoate is one such drug often abused by athletes and bodybuilders seeking enhanced physical strength or appearance. The use of such steroids has increased dramatically over the years. The present study was conducted to investigate the impact of nandrolone decanoate when consumed at an abused dose, upon serum aldosterone concentration in albino mice. Sodium and potassium ion concentrations were also monitored with the same experimental dosage. 0.1ml of 25 mg Nandrolone decanoate was administered to the animals twice a week for a period of 90 days. Blood samples for obtaining the serum from both normal and treated group of animals were collected at an interval of 15 days upto the 90th day. The present investigation revealed a significant increase (p<0.01) in the serum aldosterone and sodium ion concentrations in the treated group of animals compared to that in the normal group. Potassium ion concentration in the treated group did not exhibit a significant alteration when compared with the untreated animals. From the above observation, nandrolone decanoate abuse could be suggested as one of the causes of aldosterone and electrolyte imbalance in the body that could possibly be a serious risk factor for cardiovascular related disorders. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Effects of pharmacological doses of nandrolone decanoate and progressive resistance training in immunodeficient patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Sattler, F R; Jaque, S V; Schroeder, E T; Olson, C; Dube, M P; Martinez, C; Briggs, W; Horton, R; Azen, S

    1999-04-01

    This nonplacebo-controlled, open label, randomized study was conducted to test the hypotheses that pharmacological doses of nandrolone decanoate would increase lean body tissue, muscle mass, and strength in immunodeficient human immunodeficiency virus-infected men, and that these effects would be enhanced with progressive resistance training (PRT). Thirty human immunodeficiency virus-positive men with fewer than 400 CD4 lymphocytes/mm3 were randomly assigned to receive weekly injections of nandrolone alone or in combination with supervised PRT at 80% of the one-repetition maximum three times weekly for 12 weeks. Total body weight increased significantly in both groups (3.2 +/- 2.7 and 4.0 +/- 2.0 kg, respectively; P < 0.001), with increases due primarily to augmentation of lean tissue. Lean body mass determined by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry increased significantly more in the PRT group (3.9 +/- 2.3 vs. 5.2 +/- 5.7 kg, respectively; P = 0.03). Body cell mass by bioelectrical impedance analysis increased significantly (P < 0.001) in both groups (2.6 +/- 1.0 vs. 2.9 +/- 0.8 kg), but to a similar magnitude (P = NS). Significant increases in cross-sectional area by magnetic resonance imaging of total thigh muscles (1538 +/- 767 and 1480 +/- 532 mm2), quadriceps (705 +/- 365 and 717 +/- 288 mm2), and hamstrings (842 +/- 409 and 771 +/- 295 mm2) occurred with both treatment strategies (P < 0.001 for the three muscle areas); these increases were similar in both groups (P = NS). By the one-repetition method, strength increased in both upper and lower body exercises, with gains ranging from 10.3-31% in the nandrolone group and from 14.4-53.0% in the PRT group (P < 0.006 with one exception). Gains in strength were of significantly greater magnitude in the PRT group (P < or = 0.005 for all comparisons), even after correction for lean body mass. Thus, pharmacological doses of nandrolone decanoate yielded significant gains in total weight, lean body mass, body cell mass

  10. The Effects of Nandrolone Decanoate Along with Prolonged Low-Intensity Exercise on Susceptibility to Ventricular Arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Binayi, Fateme; Joukar, Siyavash; Najafipour, Hamid; Karimi, Abdolah; Karimi, Ali; Abdollahi, Farzane; Masumi, Yaser

    2016-01-01

    We examined the influence of chronic administration of nandrolone decanoate with low-intensity endurance swimming exercise on susceptibility to lethal ventricular arrhythmias in rat. The animal groups included the control group, exercise group (EX), nandrolone group (Nan), vehicle group (Arach), trained vehicle group (Arach + Ex) and trained nandrolone group (Nan + Ex) that treated for 8 weeks. Then, arrhythmia induction was performed by intravenous infusion of aconitine and electrocardiogram recorded. Then, malondialdehyde (MDA), hydroxyproline (HYP) and glutathione peroxidase of heart tissue were measured. Chronic administration of nandrolone with low-intensity endurance swimming exercise had no significant effect on blood pressure, heart rate and basal ECG parameters except RR interval that showed increase (P < 0.05). Low-intensity exercise could prevent the incremental effect of nandrolone on MDA and HYP significantly. It also increased the heart hypertrophy index (P < 0.05) and reduced the abating effect of nandrolone on animal weighting. Nandrolone along with exercise significantly increased the duration of VF (P < 0.05) and reduced the VF latency (P < 0.05). The findings suggest that chronic co-administration of nandrolone with low-intensity endurance swimming exercise to some extent facilitates the occurrence of ventricular fibrillation in rat. Complementary studies are needed to elucidate the involved mechanisms of this abnormality.

  11. The impact of nandrolone decanoate and growth hormone on biosynthesis of steroids in rats.

    PubMed

    Grönbladh, Alfhild; Johansson, Jenny; Kushnir, Mark M; Bergquist, Jonas; Hallberg, Mathias

    2013-12-11

    Growth hormone (GH) and anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are commonly used in sports communities. Several studies have suggested an association between GH and AAS. We have investigated the impact of GH in rats treated with nandrolone decanoate (ND). Male Wistar rats received ND (15 mg/kg) every third day during three weeks and were subsequently treated with recombinant human GH (1.0I U/kg) for ten consecutive days. Plasma samples were collected and peripheral organs (i.e. heart, liver, testis and thymus) were dissected and weighed. Concentration of thirteen endogenous steroids was measured in the rat plasma samples using high specificity LC-MS/MS methods. Seven steroids were detected and quantified, and concentrations of estrone, testosterone, and androstenedione were significantly different among the groups, while concentrations of pregnenolone, DHEA, 17-hydroxyprogesterone and corticosterone were not altered. Administration of rhGH alone altered the plasma steroid distribution, and the results demonstrated significantly increased concentrations of plasma estrone as well as decreased concentrations of testosterone and androstenedione in the ND-treated rats. Administration of rhGH to ND-pretreated rats did not reverse the alteration of the steroid distribution induced by ND. Administration of ND decreased the weight of the thymus, and addition of rhGH did not reverse this reduction. However, rhGH administration induced an enlargement of thymus. Taken together, the plasma steroid profile differed in the four groups, i.e. control, AAS, rhGH and the combination of AAS and rhGH treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Nandrolone decanoate and resistance exercise training favor the occurrence of lesions and activate the inflammatory response in the ventral prostate.

    PubMed

    Gomes, F C; Chuffa, L G A; Scarano, W R; Pinheiro, P F F; Fávaro, W J; Domeniconi, R F

    2016-05-01

    Age is a key factor in the development of prostatic lesions. An increase in reactive oxygen species levels occurs during aging. Furthermore, the indiscriminate use of anabolic androgenic steroids and physical exercise alter the availability of hormones and may promote the appearance of lesions. This study examined whether the use of nandrolone decanoate (ND), associated or not with resistance exercise training, affects the pathways related to the inflammatory response in the ventral prostate of adult and aged rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were distributed into eight experimental groups: sedentary with ND, sedentary without ND, exercise with ND, and exercise without ND. The animals performed resistance exercise training and received ND two times/week (5 mg/kg, i.m.) for 8 weeks. Adult rats were killed immediately following treatment completion, and aged rats remained untreated until reaching 300 days of age. The adult animals that received ND and performed resistance exercise training showed a higher occurrence of lesions with TLR4 activation. Marked IL-6 expression occurred in the group that performed resistance exercise training. The group exposed to ND showed overexpression of TLR2, TLR4, NOX1, Nrf2, TNF-α, and P38MAPK. The animals that received ND and performed training showed increase levels of NFκB, IRF3, IL-6, TNF-α, and NOX1. TLR2 and TLR4 showed no upregulation in the aged animals. The groups exercise + ND showed lesions in the adult stage and after aging, followed by molecular alterations. We concluded that nandrolone decanoate and resistance exercise training can promote the onset of prostatic tumors in the adult stage, and during aging, activating pathways involved in the inflammatory response. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  13. Administration of the anabolic androgenic steroid nandrolone decanoate affects substance P endopeptidase-like activity in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, Kristina; Hallberg, Mathias; Högberg, Anna M S Kindlundh; Nyberg, Fred

    2006-01-01

    The effect of the anabolic androgenic steroid, nandrolone decanoate, on substance P endopeptidase-like activity was examined in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Nandrolone decanoate (15 mg/kg day) or oil vehicle (sterile arachidis oleum) were administered by intramuscular injections during 14 days. Substance P endopeptidase, a predominantly cytosolic enzyme, generates the bioactive N-terminal fragment substance P(1-7) from the enzyme substrate substance P. Nandrolone decanoate significantly reduced the substance P endopeptidase-like activity compared to control animals in hypothalamus (43% reduction), caudate putamen (44%), substantia nigra (32%) and the ventral tegmental area (27%). It was previously reported that both hypothalamus and caudate putamen contained significantly higher levels of substance P after nandrolone administration. The higher concentration of substance P in these regions could to an extent be attributed to the reduction in substance P endopeptidase-like activity. This result elucidates the important role of peptidase activity in the regulation of the substance P transmitter system. The present study provides additional support for the hypothesis that alterations in the substance P system in certain brain areas may contribute to some of the personality changes reported in connection with AAS abuse.

  14. Cardiopulmonary reflex, cardiac cytokines, and nandrolone decanoate: response to resistance training in rats.

    PubMed

    Lima, Ewelyne Miranda; Nascimento, Andrews Marques; Brasil, Girlandia Alexandre; Kalil, Ieda Carneiro; Lenz, Dominik; Endringer, Denise Coutinho; Andrade, Tadeu Uggere; Bissoli, Nazaré Souza

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated the effects of nandrolone associated with resistance training (RT) on cardiac cytokines, angiotensin-converting enzyme activity (ACEA), and the sensitivity of the Bezold-Jarisch reflex (BJR). Male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups: CONT (received vehicle, no training); EXERC (RT: after one week of water adaptation, rats were exercised by jumping into water twice a week for 4 weeks), and ND+EXERC (received nandrolone decanoate 10 mg/kg, twice/week, i.m, associated with RT). The BJR was analysed by measuring bradycardic and hypotensive responses elicited by serotonin administration. Myocyte hypertrophy and matrix collagen deposition were determined by morphometric analysis of H&E and picrosirius red-stained samples, respectively. TNF-α and ACEA were also studied. RT promoted physiological myocyte hyrpertrophy but did not cause changes in the other parameters. The association of ND with RT increased myocyte hypertrophy, deposition of matrix type I collagen, TNF-α and ACEA; decreased IL-10, and impairment in the BJR were observed in ND+EXERC compared with CONT and EXERC. ND is associated with alterations in cardiac structure and function as a result of the development of pathological cardiac hypertrophy (cardiac cytokine imbalance, elevation of ACEA) and cardiac injury, even when combined with resistance training.

  15. Metabolic effects of nandrolone decanoate and resistance training in men with HIV.

    PubMed

    Sattler, Fred R; Schroeder, E Todd; Dube, Michael P; Jaque, S Victoria; Martinez, Carmen; Blanche, Patricia J; Azen, Stanley; Krauss, Ronald M

    2002-12-01

    Thirty human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men were randomized to a high dose of nandrolone decanoate weekly (group 1) or nandrolone plus resistance training (group 2) for 12 wk. For the two groups, nandrolone had no significant effects on total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, LDL phenotype, or fasting triglycerides, although triglycerides decreased by 66 +/- 124 mg/dl for the entire population (P = 0.01). Group 2 subjects had a favorable increase of 5.2 +/- 7.7A in LDL particle size (P = 0.03), whereas there was no change in group 1. Lipoprotein(a) decreased by 7.3 +/- 6.8 mg/dl for group 1 (P = 0.002) and by 6.9 +/- 8.1 for group 2 (P = 0.013). However, HDL cholesterol decreased by 8.7 +/- 7.4 mg/dl for group 1 (P < 0.001) and by 10.6 +/- 5.9 for group 2 (P < 0.001). Percentages of HDL(2b) (9.7-12 nm) and HDL(2a) (8.8-9.7 nm) subfractions decreased similarly for the two groups, whereas HDL(3a) (8.2-8.8 nm) and HDL(3b) (7.8-8.2 nm) increased in the groups during study therapy (P < or = 0.02 for all comparisons). There was no evidence of a decreased insulin sensitivity in either group, whereas fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and homeostasis model assessment improved in group 2 (P < 0.05). These metabolic effects were favorable (other than for HDL), but changes were generally transient (except for HDL in group 2), with measurements returning to baseline 2 mo after the interventions were completed.

  16. Amelioration of nandrolone decanoate-induced testicular and sperm toxicity in rats by taurine: effects on steroidogenesis, redox and inflammatory cascades, and intrinsic apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Maha A E

    2015-02-01

    The wide abuse of the anabolic steroid nandrolone decanoate by athletes and adolescents for enhancement of sporting performance and physical appearance may be associated with testicular toxicity and infertility. On the other hand, taurine; a free β-amino acid with remarkable antioxidant activity, is used in taurine-enriched beverages to boost the muscular power of athletes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of the possible protective effects of taurine on nandrolone decanoate-induced testicular and sperm toxicity in rats. To achieve this aim, male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into four groups and administered either vehicle, nandrolone decanoate (10mg/kg/week, I.M.), taurine (100mg/kg/day, p.o.) or combination of taurine and nandrolone decanoate, for 8 successive weeks. Results of the present study showed that taurine reversed nandrolone decanoate-induced perturbations in sperm characteristics, normalized serum testosterone level, and restored the activities of the key steroidogenic enzymes; 3β-HSD, and 17β-HSD. Moreover, taurine prevented nandrolone decanoate-induced testicular toxicity and DNA damage by virtue of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effects. This was evidenced by taurine-induced modulation of testicular LDH-x activity, redox markers (MDA, NO, GSH contents, and SOD activity), inflammatory indices (TNF-α, ICAM-1 levels, and MMP-9 gene expression), intrinsic apoptotic pathway (cytochrome c gene expression and caspase-3 content), and oxidative DNA damage markers (8-OHdG level and comet assay). In conclusion, at the biochemical and histological levels, taurine attenuated nandrolone decanoate-induced poor sperm quality and testicular toxicity in rats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Anxiogenic effects of chronic exposure to nandrolone decanoate (ND) at supraphysiological dose in rats: a brief report.

    PubMed

    Rosic, Gvozden; Joksimovic, Jovana; Selakovic, Dragica; Milovanovic, Dragan; Jakovljevic, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Nandrolone decanoate (ND) is frequently used anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) among the athletes. Despite the health risks, there is significant increase in prevalence of AAS abuse. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic exposure to ND at supraphysiological dose (to mimic the doses for human AAS abusers) on anxiety levels in adult rats. We performed several behavioral tests (open field test, elevated plus maze test, beam-walking test, evoked beam-walking test and tail suspension test) for estimation of anxiety in rats. Adult rats received 20 mg/kg intraperitoneal injection of ND weekly for four weeks. Behavioral test were performed on the seventh day after the last dose of ND. Anxiogenic-like pattern of behavior was clearly observed in several behavioral tests, such as open field test (decrease of total distance moved and cumulative duration of moving, decrease of an average velocity of the animals, decrease of frequency and total time in centre zone); elevated plus maze (decreased total time spent in open arms and the number of entries in open arms of the elevated plus maze); evoked beam-walking test (decreased time to cross the beam) and tail suspension test (increased latency to first immobility and decreased total duration of immobility). Results of this study show that four-week treatment with the supraphysiological dose of ND produced anxiogenic effects in sedentary male rats. Our results show that rats after chronic treatment with a supraphysiological dose of ND exhibited anxiety-like behavior.

  18. The Anabolic Androgenic Steroid Nandrolone Decanoate Disrupts Redox Homeostasis in Liver, Heart and Kidney of Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Frankenfeld, Stephan P.; Oliveira, Leonardo P.; Ortenzi, Victor H.; Rego-Monteiro, Igor CC.; Chaves, Elen A.; Ferreira, Andrea C.; Leitão, Alvaro C.; Carvalho, Denise P.; Fortunato, Rodrigo S.

    2014-01-01

    The abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) may cause side effects in several tissues. Oxidative stress is linked to the pathophysiology of most of these alterations, being involved in fibrosis, cellular proliferation, tumorigenesis, amongst others. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the impact of supraphysiological doses of nandrolone decanoate (DECA) on the redox balance of liver, heart and kidney. Wistar male rats were treated with intramuscular injections of vehicle or DECA (1 mg.100 g−1 body weight) once a week for 8 weeks. The activity and mRNA levels of NADPH Oxidase (NOX), and the activity of catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and total superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as the reduced thiol and carbonyl residue proteins, were measured in liver, heart and kidney. DECA treatment increased NOX activity in heart and liver, but NOX2 mRNA levels were only increased in heart. Liver catalase and SOD activities were decreased in the DECA-treated group, but only catalase activity was decreased in the kidney. No differences were detected in GPx activity. Thiol residues were decreased in the liver and kidney of treated animals in comparison to the control group, while carbonyl residues were increased in the kidney after the treatment. Taken together, our results show that chronically administered DECA is able to disrupt the cellular redox balance, leading to an oxidative stress state. PMID:25225984

  19. The anabolic androgenic steroid nandrolone decanoate disrupts redox homeostasis in liver, heart and kidney of male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Frankenfeld, Stephan P; Oliveira, Leonardo P; Ortenzi, Victor H; Rego-Monteiro, Igor C C; Chaves, Elen A; Ferreira, Andrea C; Leitão, Alvaro C; Carvalho, Denise P; Fortunato, Rodrigo S

    2014-01-01

    The abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) may cause side effects in several tissues. Oxidative stress is linked to the pathophysiology of most of these alterations, being involved in fibrosis, cellular proliferation, tumorigenesis, amongst others. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the impact of supraphysiological doses of nandrolone decanoate (DECA) on the redox balance of liver, heart and kidney. Wistar male rats were treated with intramuscular injections of vehicle or DECA (1 mg.100 g(-1) body weight) once a week for 8 weeks. The activity and mRNA levels of NADPH Oxidase (NOX), and the activity of catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and total superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as the reduced thiol and carbonyl residue proteins, were measured in liver, heart and kidney. DECA treatment increased NOX activity in heart and liver, but NOX2 mRNA levels were only increased in heart. Liver catalase and SOD activities were decreased in the DECA-treated group, but only catalase activity was decreased in the kidney. No differences were detected in GPx activity. Thiol residues were decreased in the liver and kidney of treated animals in comparison to the control group, while carbonyl residues were increased in the kidney after the treatment. Taken together, our results show that chronically administered DECA is able to disrupt the cellular redox balance, leading to an oxidative stress state.

  20. The effects of chronic administration of nandrolone decanoate on redox status in exercised rats.

    PubMed

    Nikolic, Tamara; Zivkovic, Vladimir; Jevdjevic, Maja; Djuric, Marko; Srejovic, Ivan; Djuric, Dragan; Jeremic, Nevena; Djuric, Dusan; Bolevich, Sergey; Jakovljevic, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    For the past 40 years, anabolic-androgenic steroids have been used by a wide variety of athletes with the hope of improving their training, endurance, and performance. The aim of this study was to examine the chronic effects of nandrolone decanoate (20 mg/kg, s.c, Deca-Durabolin DECA(®)) on oxidative stress biomarkers in the hearts of sedentary and exercised rats. The male Wistar albino rats (n = 180, four groups with three subgroups, 15 per subgroup, age 10 weeks, body mass 200-220 g) were sacrificed, and in the collected samples of blood, the following markers of oxidative stress were measured spectrophotometrically: (1) index of lipid peroxidation (measured as TBARS-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances); (2) nitrites (NO2 (-)); (3) hydrogen peroxide (H2O2); (4) superoxide anion radical (O2 (-)), and superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione reductase. The results clearly show that the impact of ND alone, or in combination with physical training in general, is mildly pro-oxidative. The chronic physical training probably induces the protective antioxidant enzyme system , which may be of clinical interest when faced with overdosage of this drug.

  1. Nandrolone decanoate is able to modulate proliferation and adhesion of myoblasts.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, E N; Fernandes, K P; Silva, C A; Oliveira, T S; Junior, J A; Bussadori, S K; Renno, A C; Mesquita-Ferrari, R A

    2014-07-01

    The search for a more efficient repair process of muscle injuries has become evident in clinical practice. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of nandrolone decanoate (ND) on the proliferation, adhesion, and expression of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) in C2C12 cells.Methods. Cell proliferation and adhesion were assessed using an MTT assay. The expression of MRFs was assessed by real-time PCR.Results. ND applied at 10 or 25 µM concentration induced after 60 min an increase in adhesion, at 5 µM concentration induced after 5 days an increase in cell proliferation, and ND at 50 µM concentration led after 5 days to a decrease in cell proliferation in comparison with other groups. The steroid did not alter the expression of MRFs.Conclusions. The positive effects of ND regarding the proliferation and adhesion of C2C12 cells suggest that this steroid may have positive effects following a muscle injury.

  2. Therapeutic effects of nandrolone decanoate, tibolone, lynestrenol and ethylestrenol on Sjögren's syndrome-like disorder in NZB/W mice.

    PubMed Central

    Verheul, H A; Schot, L P; Schuurs, H W

    1986-01-01

    Growth of mononuclear cell infiltration in submandibular glands is significantly inhibited by Org OD14 (tibolone), lynestrenol and ethylestrenol given orally to New Zealand Black/White (NZB/W) mice from 26 weeks of age onwards. In addition, the extent of already established mononuclear cell infiltrations is significantly inhibited and reduced by nandrolone decanoate injected from 43 weeks of age onwards. Tibolone and nandrolone decanoate are the most potent of the four drugs. The therapeutic effect of these four steroids on the Sjögren's syndrome-like disorder in NZB/W mice is not related to their endocrine activities. Images Fig. 1 PMID:3742875

  3. PDE7B is involved in nandrolone decanoate hydrolysis in liver cytosol and its transcription is up-regulated by androgens in HepG2.

    PubMed

    Strahm, Emmanuel; Rane, Anders; Ekström, Lena

    2014-01-01

    Most androgenic drugs are available as esters for a prolonged depot action. However, the enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the esters have not been identified. There is one study indicating that PDE7B may be involved in the activation of testosterone enanthate. The aims are to identify the cellular compartments where the hydrolysis of testosterone enanthate and nandrolone decanoate occurs, and to investigate the involvement of PDE7B in the activation. We also determined if testosterone and nandrolone affect the expression of the PDE7B gene. The hydrolysis studies were performed in isolated human liver cytosolic and microsomal preparations with and without specific PDE7B inhibitor. The gene expression was studied in human hepatoma cells (HepG2) exposed to testosterone and nandrolone. We show that PDE7B serves as a catalyst of the hydrolysis of testosterone enanthate and nandrolone decanoate in liver cytosol. The gene expression of PDE7B was significantly induced 3- and 5- fold after 2 h exposure to 1 μM testosterone enanthate and nandrolone decanoate, respectively. These results show that PDE7B is involved in the activation of esterified nandrolone and testosterone and that the gene expression of PDE7B is induced by supra-physiological concentrations of androgenic drugs.

  4. Amelioration of nandrolone decanoate-induced testicular and sperm toxicity in rats by taurine: Effects on steroidogenesis, redox and inflammatory cascades, and intrinsic apoptotic pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, Maha A.E., E-mail: mahapharm@yahoo.com

    The wide abuse of the anabolic steroid nandrolone decanoate by athletes and adolescents for enhancement of sporting performance and physical appearance may be associated with testicular toxicity and infertility. On the other hand, taurine; a free β-amino acid with remarkable antioxidant activity, is used in taurine-enriched beverages to boost the muscular power of athletes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of the possible protective effects of taurine on nandrolone decanoate-induced testicular and sperm toxicity in rats. To achieve this aim, male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into four groups and administered either vehicle, nandrolone decanoatemore » (10 mg/kg/week, I.M.), taurine (100 mg/kg/day, p.o.) or combination of taurine and nandrolone decanoate, for 8 successive weeks. Results of the present study showed that taurine reversed nandrolone decanoate-induced perturbations in sperm characteristics, normalized serum testosterone level, and restored the activities of the key steroidogenic enzymes; 3β-HSD, and 17β-HSD. Moreover, taurine prevented nandrolone decanoate-induced testicular toxicity and DNA damage by virtue of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effects. This was evidenced by taurine-induced modulation of testicular LDH-x activity, redox markers (MDA, NO, GSH contents, and SOD activity), inflammatory indices (TNF-α, ICAM-1 levels, and MMP-9 gene expression), intrinsic apoptotic pathway (cytochrome c gene expression and caspase-3 content), and oxidative DNA damage markers (8-OHdG level and comet assay). In conclusion, at the biochemical and histological levels, taurine attenuated nandrolone decanoate-induced poor sperm quality and testicular toxicity in rats. - Highlights: • Nandrolone decanoate (ND) disrupts sperm profile and steroidogenesis in rats. • ND upregulates gene expression of inflammatory and apoptotic markers. • Taurine normalizes sperm profile and serum

  5. Nandrolone decanoate interferes with testosterone biosynthesis altering blood-testis barrier components.

    PubMed

    Barone, Rosario; Pitruzzella, Alessandro; Marino Gammazza, Antonella; Rappa, Francesca; Salerno, Monica; Barone, Fulvio; Sangiorgi, Claudia; D'Amico, Daniela; Locorotondo, Nicola; Di Gaudio, Francesca; Cipolloni, Luigi; Di Felice, Valentina; Schiavone, Stefania; Rapisarda, Venerando; Sani, Gabriele; Tambo, Amos; Cappello, Francesco; Turillazzi, Emanuela; Pomara, Cristoforo

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether nandrolone decanoate (ND) use affects testosterone production and testicular morphology in a model of trained and sedentary mice. A group of mice underwent endurance training while another set led a sedentary lifestyle and were freely mobile within cages. All experimental groups were treated with either ND or peanut oil at different doses for 6 weeks. Testosterone serum levels were measured via liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Western blot analysis and quantitative real-time PCR were utilized to determine gene and protein expression levels of the primary enzymes implicated in testosterone biosynthesis and gene expression levels of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) components. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence were conducted for testicular morphological evaluation. The study demonstrated that moderate to high doses of ND induced a diminished serum testosterone level and altered the expression level of the key steroidogenic enzymes involved in testosterone biosynthesis. At the morphological level, ND induced degradation of the BTB by targeting the tight junction protein-1 (TJP1). ND stimulation deregulated metalloproteinase-9, metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and the tissue inhibitor of MMP-2. Moreover, ND administration resulted in a mislocalization of mucin-1. In conclusion, ND abuse induces a decline in testosterone production that is unable to regulate the internalization and redistribution of TJP1 and may induce the deregulation of other BTB constituents via the inhibition of MMP-2. ND may well be considered as both a potential inducer of male infertility and a potential risk factor to a low endogenous bioavailable testosterone. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  6. Nandrolone decanoate inhibits gluconeogenesis and decreases fasting glucose in Wistar male rats.

    PubMed

    Frankenfeld, Stephan Pinheiro; de Oliveira, Leonardo Pires; Ignacio, Daniele Leão; Coelho, Raquel Guimarães; Mattos, Mariana Nigro; Ferreira, Andrea Claudia Freitas; Carvalho, Denise Pires; Fortunato, Rodrigo Soares

    2014-02-01

    The use of anabolic-androgenic steroids to improve physical performance or appearance has increased notably. The doses used are 10- to 100- fold higher than the therapeutic dose (TD), and this abuse can cause several side effects. Glucose metabolism is significantly affected by anabolic-androgenic steroid abuse, but studies about glycemic regulation during fasting are scarce. There are some evidences showing that testosterone can antagonize glucocorticoids action, which are crucial to glucose production during fasting. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the impact of supraphysiological doses (SDs) of nandrolone decanoate (DECA) on rat glucose metabolism during fasting. Male Wistar rats were treated with i.m. injections of vehicle, a low TD (0.016 mg/100 g b.w.-TD group) or a high SD (1 mg/100 g b.w.-SD group) of DECA, once a week for 8 weeks. After 12 h fasting, we evaluated glucose and pyruvate tolerance tests, liver glycogen content, serum levels of gluconeogenic substrates, insulin and corticosterone, glucose uptake and hexokinase (HK) activity in skeletal muscle, and the adrenal catecholamine content. SD group had increased serum insulin levels and a blunted response to insulin regarding glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. Fasting serum glucose decreased significantly in SD group, as well as the pyruvate tolerance test and liver glycogen content. Moreover, serum levels of glycerol were increased in SD group. Our data indicate that SDs of DECA exert effects on different regulatory points of glucose metabolism, resulting in defective gluconeogenesis and decreased skeletal muscle glucose uptake in response to insulin.

  7. Dose-dependent effects and reversibility of the injuries caused by nandrolone decanoate in uterine tissue and fertility of rats.

    PubMed

    Belardin, Larissa Berloffa; Simão, Vinícius Augusto; Leite, Gabriel Adan Araújo; Chuffa, Luiz Gustavo de Almeida; Camargo, Isabel Cristina Cherici

    2014-04-01

    This study is the first to investigate the effects of different doses of nandrolone decanoate (ND) upon uterine tissue and fertility, and if the reproductive alterations can be restored after cessation of the treatment. Wistar female rats were treated with ND at doses of 1.87, 3.75, 7.5, and 15 mg/kg body weight, diluted in vehicle (n = 30/group), or received only mineral oil (control group, n = 45). The animals were divided into three periods of study: ND-treated receiving a daily subcutaneous injection for 15 consecutive days (1), and treatment with ND followed by 30-day recovery (2), and 60-day recovery (3). At the end of each period, five females per group were induced to death to histopathological analysis and the others were allowed to fertility evaluation (at 19th gestational day). Animals that received ND followed by 30-day recovery exhibited persistent diestrous and marked suppression of reproductive capacity. Conversely, after 60-day recovery, only lowest doses females (1.87 and 3.75 mg/kg) exhibited restoration of normal estrous cyclicity. Uterine weights were increased after ND treatment similarly to that of the controls after 60-day recovery. The ND-treated groups showed histopathological changes in the endometrium, myometrium, and perimetrium, and an increase in the thickness of both muscular and serous layers. Notably, the recovery of uterine tissue after ND treatment was dose- and period-dependent. We reported that administration of ND promoted damage in uterine tissue and fertility of rats, and the recovery periods were insufficient to restore all of the side effects caused by ND under a dose-dependent response. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Nandrolone decanoate induces cardiac and renal remodeling in female rats, without modification in physiological parameters: The role of ANP system.

    PubMed

    Brasil, Girlandia Alexandre; Lima, Ewelyne Miranda de; Nascimento, Andrews Marques do; Caliman, Izabela Facco; Medeiros, Ana Raquel Santos de; Silva, Mauro Sérgio Batista; Abreu, Gláucia Rodrigues de; Reis, Adelina Martha dos; Andrade, Tadeu Uggere de; Bissoli, Nazaré Souza

    2015-09-15

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids are misused, including women, but little is known about the cardiovascular effects of these drugs on females. Evaluated the effects of nandrolone decanoate (ND), physical exercise and estrogen deficiency on female rats. Female Wistar rats were divided into 8 groups: S and OVX: (SHAM: sham surgery; OVX: ovariectomy, vehicle), SE and OVXE (resistance exercise 5 times a week, vehicle), SD and OVXD (treated with ND, 20 mg/kg/week for 4 weeks); SDE and OVXDE. Treatments were initiated 21 days after surgery. The Bezold–Jarisch reflex was assessed by Phenylbiguanide administration. The right atrium, kidney, and serum were collected for molecular analyses by RT-PCR of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), A-type natriuretic peptide receptor (NPR-A) and NPR-C. ELISA assay to estradiol and testosterone concentrations. The gastrocnemius muscle, heart and kidney weights/tibia length were measured.Morphometric analysis of heart was made (H/E) and collagen content of heart and kidney were evaluated using Pirossirius Red. ND treatment increased ANP expression on atrium and decreased NPR-A expression in kidney. Physical exercise and ovariectomy did not alter this parameter. NPR-C level was reduced in the SDE and OVXDE. Renal and cardiac hypertrophy was observed after ND treatment, with collagen deposition. Plasma estrogen concentrations were reduced and serum testosterone concentrations were increased after ND treatment. ANP has an important role in modulating the cardiovascular effects of ND in females. Thismodulating may have occurred by the increasing ANP expression, reducing NPR-A and NPR-C expression levels, and changing sex hormone levels.

  9. Immediate and residual effects of low-dose nandrolone decanoate and treadmill training on adipose and reproductive tissues of male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Josilene M; Oliveira, Vinicius P P; P Furlan, Julia; Munhoz, Ana Claudia; S Rempel, Marcelo R; Brito, Marcia N; Brito, Nilton A; Pedrosa, Maria M D; M Costa, Cecília E

    2017-05-01

    Residual effects after nandrolone decanoate (ND) treatment are not reported. Immediate and residual effects of low-dose ND and treadmill training were investigated. Male rats were trained and/or ND-treated for four weeks and the assessments were made after this period or four weeks later. The groups did not differ in final plasma glucose or AUC of the ivGTT, but hyperinsulinemia was noticed in some trained/treated groups. Training with ND increased muscle mass and ND decreased the reproductive structures. Decreased fat with training was reversed by detraining. The anabolic action of ND on skeletal muscle was enhanced by training. Fat and lipid changes were more linked to training/detraining, but the effects of ND on the reproductive structures persisted after treatment. The effects of training on fat and muscle were not maintained after detraining, but low-dose ND had persistent effects on the reproductive structures.

  10. Atypical excretion profile and GC/C/IRMS findings may last for nine months after a single dose of nandrolone decanoate.

    PubMed

    Palonek, Elzbieta; Ericsson, Magnus; Gårevik, Nina; Rane, Anders; Lehtihet, Mikael; Ekström, Lena

    2016-04-01

    The use of the anabolic androgenic steroid nandrolone and its prohormones is prohibited in sport. A common route of nandrolone administration is intramuscular injections of a nandrolone ester. Here we have investigated the detection time of nandrolone and 19-norandrosterone and 19-noretiocholanolone metabolites in eleven healthy men after the administration of a 150 mg dose of nandrolone decanoate. The urinary concentrations of nandrolone and the metabolites were monitored by GC-MS/MS for nine months and in some samples the presence of 19-norandrosterone was confirmed by GC/C/IRMS analysis. The participants were genotyped for polymorphisms in PDE7B1 and UGT2B15 genes previously shown to influence the activation and inactivation of nandrolone decanoate. There were large inter-individual variations in the excretion rate of nandrolone and the metabolites, although not related to genetic variations in the UGT2B15 (rs1902023) and PDE7B1 (rs7774640) genes. After the administration, 19-norandrosterone was found at 2-8-fold higher concentrations than 19-noretiocholanolone. We showed that nandrolone doping can be identified 4 and 9 months after the injection of only one single dose in six and three individuals, respectively. We also noted that GC/C/IRMS confirms the presence of exogenous 19-norandrosterone in the urine samples, showing δ13 values around -32 ‰. This was true even in a sample that was not identified as an atypical finding after the GC-MS/MS analysis further showing the power of using GC/C/IRMS in routine anti-doping settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cytoarchitecture of steroid dependent target tissues after testosterone administration compared to nandrolone decanoate in castrated rats in the aim of Hershberger bio test.

    PubMed

    Cristina, Romeo Teodor; Hanganu, Flavia; Brezovan, Diana; Dumitrescu, Eugenia; Muselin, Florin; Chiurciu, Viorica; Stancu, Adrian Constantin; Pentea, Marius Cristian; Motoc, Andrei Gheorghe Marius

    2014-01-01

    The objective was the cytoarchitecture evaluation of known steroid dependent target tissues after administering of testosterone, compared to action of its more active ester, nortestosterone (nandrolone decanoate) in castrated rat males in the aim of Hershberger bio test. Study was performed on 30 castrated male Wistar rats, aged between 35 and 39 days, in peripubertal period, divided into five groups. Androgen doses administration begun at the rats' age of 49 days. Animals were injected i.m., daily, for 10 consecutive days as follows: Aquatest (Balkan Pharmaceuticals Ltd., Moldova) testosterone aqueous solution: Testosterone I group (0.4 mg/animal); Testosterone II (0.8 mg/animal); (Deca-Durabolin, Balkan Pharmaceuticals); nandrolone decanoate oily solution: Nortestosterone I (1.5 mg/kg body weight); Nortestosterone II (7.5 mg/kg body weight) and Control (White sesame oil, Manicos, Romania, 0.1 mL/animal). Gonadectomy (GDX) induced modifications of target tissues wet weight accompanied by important modifications in cytoarchitecture. Changes following exogenous administration of testosterone and nortestosterone decanoate were found in: liver (granular dystrophy, mega-mitochondria, tubular intumescences), prostate (increasing of the structural elements), seminal vesicles (hyalinosis, thickening of cell walls and the hyaline presence), levator ani-bulbo-cavernosus muscle (muscle fibbers dilacerations), bulbourethral glands (muscular fibbers rarefaction by fluid accumulation) demonstrating the disruptor activity especially for overdosed nandrolone decanoate.

  12. Ameliorative Effects of Endurance Exercise with Two Different Intensities on Nandrolone Decanoate-Induced Neurodegeneration in Rats: Involving Redox and Apoptotic Systems.

    PubMed

    Joukar, Siyavash; Vahidi, Reza; Farsinejad, Alireza; Asadi-Shekaari, Majid; Shahouzehi, Beydolah

    2017-07-01

    Despite the importance of this issue, less has been paid to the influence of exercise on the neural side effects of anabolic androgenic steroids and mechanisms. We investigated the effects of two levels of endurance exercise on neurodegeneration side effects of nandrolone. The study period was 8 weeks. Wistar rats were divided into nine groups including the control (CTL) group, mild exercise (mEx) group, and vehicle (Arach) group which received arachis oil intramuscularly, nandrolone (Nan) group which received nandrolone decanoate 5 mg/kg two times weekly, mEx+Arach group which treated with arachis oil along with mild exercise, mEx+Nan group which treated with nandrolone along with mild exercise, severe exercise (sEx) group, sEx+Arach, and sEx+Nan groups. Finally, brain samples were taken for histopathological, biochemical, and western blot analysis. Nandrolone significantly decreased the intact cells of the hippocampus, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (P < 0.05 versus CTL and Arach groups), TAC to malondialdehyde ratio (TAC/MDA), and Bcl-2. Nandrolone increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio of the brain tissue (P < 0.01 versus CTL and Arach groups). Combination of mild exercise and nandrolone rescued the intact cells to some extent, and this effect was associated with the improvement of Bcl-2 level and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio of brain tissue. Combination of severe exercise and nandrolone rescued the intact cells and improved the TAC, TAC/MDA, and Bax/Bcl-2 ratios. The findings suggest that low- and high-intensity endurance exercise decreased the risk of neurodegeneration effect of nandrolone in the hippocampus of rats. This effect can be explained by the regulation of the redox system and cell homeostasis.

  13. The risk of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias in presence of high-intensity endurance exercise along with chronic administration of nandrolone decanoate.

    PubMed

    Abdollahi, Farzane; Joukar, Siyavash; Najafipour, Hamid; Karimi, Abdolah; Masumi, Yaser; Binayi, Fateme

    2016-01-01

    Anabolic steroids used to improve muscular strength and performance in athletics. Its long-term consumption may induce cardiovascular adverse effects. We assessed the risk of ventricular arrhythmias in rats which subjected to chronic nandrolone plus high-intensity endurance exercise. Animals were grouped as; control (CTL), exercise (Ex): 8 weeks under exercise, vehicle group (Arach): received arachis oil, and Nan group: received nandrolone decanoate 5 mg/kg twice a week for 8 weeks, Arach+Ex group, and Nan+Ex. Finally, under anesthesia, arrhythmia was induced by infusion of 1.5 μg/0.1 mL/min of aconitine IV and ventricular arrhythmias were recorded for 15 min. Then, animals' hearts were excised and tissue samples were taken. Nandrolone plus exercise had no significant effect on blood pressure but decreased the heart rate (P<0.01) and increased the RR (P<0.01) and JT intervals (P<0.05) of electrocardiogram. Nandrolone+exercise significantly increased the ventricular fibrillation (VF) frequency and also decreased the VF latency (P<0.05 versus CTL group). Combination of exercise and nandrolone could not recover the decreasing effects of nandrolone on animals weight gain but, it enhanced the heart hypertrophy index (P<0.05). In addition, nandrolone increased the level of hydroxyproline (HYP) and malondialdehyde (MDA) but had not significant effect on glutathione peroxidase of heart. Exercise only prevented the effect of nandrolone on HYP. Nandrolone plus severe exercise increases the risk of VF that cannot be explained only by the changes in redox system. The intensification of cardiac hypertrophy and prolongation of JT interval may be a part of involved mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Where does hydrolysis of nandrolone decanoate occur in the human body after release from an oil depot?

    PubMed

    Kalicharan, R W; Bout, M R; Oussoren, C; Vromans, H

    2016-12-30

    Long-term therapy of nandrolone (N) is recommended to increase mineral density and muscle strength. Using a parenteral sustained release drug formulation with nandrolone decanoate (ND), therapeutic N levels can be achieved and maintained. Until now, it is unknown if hydrolysis of ND into N occurs in tissue at the injection site or after systemic absorption. Therefore, hydrolysis studies were conducted to investigate the location and rate of ND hydrolysis after its release from the oil depot. ND hydrolysis was studied in porcine tissues, to mimic the human muscular and subcutaneous tissues. Additionally, the ND hydrolysis was studied in human whole blood, plasma and serum at a concentration range of 23.3-233.3μM. ND hydrolysis only occurred in human whole blood. The hydrolysis did not start immediately, but after a lag time. The mean lag time for all studied concentrations was 34.9±2.5min. Because of a slow penetration into tissue, hydrolysis of ND is found to be very low in surrounding tissue. Therefore the local generation of the active compound is clinically irrelevant. It is argued that after injection of the oil depot, ND molecules will be transported via the lymphatic system towards lymph nodes. From here, it will enter the central circulation and within half an hour it will hydrolyse to the active N compound. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Combination of running exercise and high dose of anabolic androgenic steroid, nandrolone decanoate, increases protamine deficiency and DNA damage in rat spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Shokri, S; Hemadi, M; Bayat, G; Bahmanzadeh, M; Jafari-Anarkooli, I; Mashkani, Beta

    2014-03-01

    High doses of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are used by some athletes to increase muscle mass, that is often associated with male infertility. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible cause/s of male infertility using a rat model by analysing sperm quality, including its protamine content and DNA integrity, as well as pregnancy rate. Five groups of male Wistar rats were treated for 10 weeks as follows: nandrolone decanoate (10 mg kg(-1) per week) (ND); running exercise (50 min per day, 5 days a week) (EX); Combination of ND and exercise (ND-EX); nandrolone decanoate solvent (Sham); and control without any injection or exercise (CO). Deterioration in sperm quantity was observed in all test groups (P ≤ 0.01). The frequency of fertile rats was decreased in the ND-EX and ND groups (P ≤ 0.05). Chromomycin-A3 staining showed a protamine deficiency in the epididymal spermatozoa in the ND-EX rats (P ≤ 0.05). Chromatin analysis indicated an abnormal maturation of the sperm nuclei in all test groups compared with the controls (P ≤ 0.05). TUNEL analyses showed a highly significant increase in apoptosis in the EX, ND, and ND-EX groups (P ≤ 0.01). Our data show that a combination of exercise and high doses of nandrolone decanoate negatively influences the DNA integrity and protamine content resulting in lower sperm quality and reduced pregnancy rate. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Low-intensity endurance exercise plus nandrolone decanoate modulates cardiac adiponectin and its receptors.

    PubMed

    Karimi, A; Joukar, S; Najafipour, H; Masoumi-Ardakani, Y; Shahouzehi, B

    2017-03-01

    Vast adverse effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) on athletes' cardiovascular systems have been reported. However, there is still a lack of adequate information regarding the pathways and mechanisms involved. We tested the hypothesis that adiponectin and its receptors in the heart may be affected by long-term use of AASs alongside exercising. Male Wistar rats were randomized into the control (CTL), exercise (EX), nandrolone (Nan), arachis (Arach) group which treated with arachis as vehicle, trained vehicle (EX+Arach) and trained nandrolone (EX+Nan) groups that were treated for 8 weeks. One day after the end of the protocol, animals were sacrificed and their hearts were frozen. TNF-α and adiponectin proteins of hearts were evaluated quantitatively by ELISA kits, and Western blot analysis was used for measuring adiponectin receptor protein expression. TNF-α protein increased significantly in the EX+Nan group (P<.05 vs CTL group). The AdipoR1 protein was significantly higher in the presence of nandrolone alongside exercise (P<.05 vs Nan and EX+Arach groups, P<.01 vs CTL and Arach groups). In addition, AdipoR2 protein enhanced in the EX+Nan group when compared with the other groups (P<.05 vs EX and EX+Arach groups, P<.01 vs CTL, Arach and Nan groups). Chronic nandrolone plus mild endurance exercise may be associated with imbalance in pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokines and may induce a positive modulatory effect on cardiac adiporeceptors in rat. Further studies are required before these findings can be generalized to humans. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Effects of resistance exercise training and nandrolone decanoate on body composition and muscle function among patients who receive hemodialysis: A randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Kirsten L; Painter, Patricia L; Sakkas, Giorgos K; Gordon, Patricia; Doyle, Julie; Shubert, Tiffany

    2006-08-01

    Patients who are on hemodialysis commonly experience muscle wasting and weakness, which have a negative effect on physical functioning and quality of life. The objective of this study was to determine whether anabolic steroid administration and resistance exercise training induce anabolic effects among patients who receive maintenance hemodialysis. A randomized 2 x 2 factorial trial of anabolic steroid administration and resistance exercise training was conducted in 79 patients who were receiving maintenance hemodialysis at University of California, San Francisco-affiliated dialysis units. Interventions included double-blinded weekly nandrolone decanoate (100 mg for women; 200 mg for men) or placebo injections and lower extremity resistance exercise training for 12 wk during hemodialysis sessions three times per week using ankle weights. Primary outcomes included change in lean body mass (LBM) measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area measured by magnetic resonance imaging, and knee extensor muscle strength. Secondary outcomes included changes in physical performance, self-reported physical functioning, and physical activity. Sixty-eight patients completed the study. Patients who received nandrolone decanoate increased their LBM by 3.1 +/- 2.2 kg (P < 0.0001). Exercise did not result in a significant increase in LBM. Quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area increased in patients who were assigned to exercise (P = 0.01) and to nandrolone (P < 0.0001) in an additive manner. Patients who exercised increased their strength in a training-specific fashion, and exercise was associated with an improvement in self-reported physical functioning (P = 0.04 compared with nonexercising groups). Nandrolone decanoate and resistance exercise produced anabolic effects among patients who were on hemodialysis. Further studies are needed to determine whether these interventions improve survival.

  18. Effect of nandrolone decanoate therapy on weight and lean body mass in HIV-infected women with weight loss: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Kathleen; Zackin, Robert; Clark, Rebecca A; Alston-Smith, Beverly; Liu, Tun; Sattler, Fred R; Delvers, Thomas B; Currier, Judith S

    2005-03-14

    Weight loss is associated with accelerated mortality and disease progression in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Although studies have examined a variety of anabolic therapies in HIV-infected men, the safety and efficacy of such treatments in women have not been adequately studied. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter, phase I/II study, 38 HIV-infected women with documented weight loss of 5% or greater in the preceding year or a body mass index of less than 20 kg/m(2) were randomized to receive nandrolone decanoate (100 mg) or an equivalent volume of placebo every other week by intramuscular injection. Subjects received blinded treatment for 12 weeks, followed by open-label therapy for 12 weeks. Lean body mass and fat (bioelectrical impedance analysis) and weight were measured at baseline and at weeks 6, 12, 18, and 24. Biochemical assessments of safety (hematologic analyses, liver function tests, and sex hormone measurements) were performed at these same time points. Clinical signs and symptoms were monitored biweekly. Subjects randomized to receive nandrolone had significant increases in weight and lean body mass during blinded treatment (4.6 kg [9.0%] and 3.5 kg [8.6%], respectively; P<.001 vs baseline and placebo in each case). Fat mass did not change statistically significantly in either group. Although there were no statistically significant differences between groups in biochemical measures, the number of grade 3 or greater toxicities, or reports of virilizing effects, a full assessment of safety cannot be made in a trial of this size. Nandrolone decanoate therapy may prove to be generally safe and beneficial in reversing weight loss and lean tissue loss in women with HIV infection and other chronic catabolic diseases.

  19. Impact of single-dose nandrolone decanoate on gonadotropins, blood lipids and HMG CoA reductase in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Gårevik, N; Börjesson, A; Choong, E; Ekström, L; Lehtihet, M

    2016-06-01

    The aim was to study the effect and time profile of a single dose of nandrolone decanoate (ND) on gonadotropins, blood lipids and HMG CoA reductase [3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR)] in healthy men. Eleven healthy male participants aged 29-46 years were given a single dose of 150 mg ND as an intramuscular dose of Deca Durabol®, Organon. Blood samples for sex hormones, lipids and HMGCR mRNA analysis were collected prior to ND administration day 0, 4 and 14. A significant suppression of luteinising hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) was seen after 4 days. Total testosterone and bioavailable testosterone level decreased significantly throughout the observed study period. A small but significant decrease in sexual hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) was seen after 4 days but not after 14 days. Total serum (S)-cholesterol and plasma (P)-apolipoprotein B (ApoB) increased significantly after 14 days. In 80% of the individuals, the HMGCR mRNA level was increased 4 days after the ND administration. Our results show that a single dose of 150 mg ND increases (1) HMGCR mRNA expression, (2) total S-cholesterol and (3) P-ApoB level. The long-term consequences on cardiovascular risk that may appear in users remain to be elucidated. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Effects of nandrolone decanoate on time to consolidation of bone defects resulting from osteotomy for tibial tuberosity advancement.

    PubMed

    Marques, Danilo R C; Marques, Danilo; Ibanez, Jose F; Freitas, Itallo B; Hespanha, Ana C; Monteiro, Juliana F; Eggert, Mayara; Becker, Amanda

    2017-09-12

    Experimental study. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of nandrolone decanoate (ND) on the time taken for bone consolidation in dogs undergoing tibial tuberosity advancement surgery (TTA). Seventeen dogs that underwent TTA surgery were randomly divided into two groups: group C (TTA; 9 stifles), and group TTA+ND (TTA and systemic administration of ND; 8 stifles). Three observers (two radiologists and an orthopaedic surgeon), assessed bone consolidation by visual inspection of serial radiographs at intervals of 21 days following surgery. There were no differences in median weight and age between groups, nor between the medians of the variables right and left stifle. Only weight and age values were normally distributed. The other variables, right and left stifle and time to consolidation, showed non-normal distribution. Meniscal injury was present in all animals in group C and all animals in group TTA+ND. There was a significant difference between time to consolidation in groups C and TTA+ND (p <0.05). One animal in the group TTA+ND showed increased libido. Kappa agreement among observers on radiographs was 0.87. Administration of ND reduces time to bone consolidation in dogs undergoing TTA.

  1. The effects of high doses of nandrolone decanoate and exercise on prostate microvasculature of adult and older rats.

    PubMed

    de Melo Neto, João Simão; de Campos Gomes, Fabiana; Pinheiro, Patrícia Fernanda Felipe; Pereira, Sérgio; Scarano, Wellerson Rodrigo; Fávaro, Wagner José; Domeniconi, Raquel Fantin

    2015-01-15

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of the interaction between the abusive use of nandrolone decanoate (ND) and physical activity on the prostate structure of adult and older rats. We evaluated whether the use of ND, associated or not with physical exercise during the post-pubertal stage, interferes with the morphophysiology of the prostate. Fifty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into eight groups. The animals were treated for eight weeks and divided into sedentary and trained groups, with or without ND use. Four groups were sacrificed 48 h after the end of the eight week experiment (adult groups), and four other groups were sacrificed at 300 days of age (older groups). The prostate was collected and processed for stereological and histopathological analysis and for the expression of AQP1 and VEGF by the Western blotting technique. Both ND and physical activity altered the ventral prostate structure of the rats; the AQP1 and VEGF expression increased in young animals subjected to physical exercise. Thus, it was concluded that the use of ND, associated or not with exercise during the post-pubertal stage, interferes with the morphophysiology of the prostate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Functional and quantitative changes of immune cells of ageing NZB mice treated with nandrolone decanoate. I. Effect on survival and autoantibody development.

    PubMed Central

    Bruley-Rosset, M; Dardenne, M; Schuurs, A

    1985-01-01

    We analysed the effect of nandrolone decanoate (ND) on functional and quantitative changes in immune cell populations, on survival, and on autoantibody production of female New Zealand Black (NZB) mice. Our results confirmed that, with increasing age, untreated NZB mice display a lower natural killer (NK) cell activity, an impaired T-cell function as evidenced by a reduced mitogen lymphoproliferative response, IL-2 production and generation of cytotoxic lymphocytes, a lower level of thymic serum factor (TSF), a reduced percentage of Thy-1+ cells; we also observed an increased incidence of mice with abnormally high levels of anti-DNA in the serum. In addition, we demonstrated an important defect in the IL-1 production by LPS-stimulated macrophages. ND administered to female NZB mice increased the survival time of the animals and reduced the anti-DNA titres. This favourable effect was associated with improved immune responses, especially those mediated by T cells; these included increased IL-2 production, complete recovery of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), a significant augmentation of the percentage of Lyt-2+ cells and enhanced TSF level. Moreover IL-1 production by macrophages returned to normal. These results suggest that ND acts on T-cell differentiation, either by a direct effect on thymic epithelial cells resulting in an increased TSF release, and/or via macrophage regulatory activity. The protective effect of ND may also be attributed in part to the higher number of Lyt-2+ (suppressor) T cells present in the spleen after treatment. PMID:3878753

  3. Effect of different doses of nandrolone decanoate on lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation, sperm abnormality and histopathology of testes of male Wister rats.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Hanaa Mahmoud; Mohamed, Manal Abdul-Hamid

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims of to investigate the effects of low and high doses of nandrolone decanoate (ND) on histopathology and apoptosis of the spermatogenic cells as well as lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities, sperm abnormality and DNA fragmentation. Eighteen animals were divided into three groups each group contain six animals. The rats were divided into three groups as following: Group 1 was administered saline (control). Group 2, received nandrolone decanoate (3 mg/kg/weekly) (low dose) with intramuscular injection. Group 3, received intramuscular injection dose of nandrolone decanoate (10 mg/kg/weekly) (high dose). After 8 weeks, caspase-3 assay was used to determine the apoptotic cells. The sperm parameters, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities and testosterone concentration were also investigated in the experimental groups of both low and high dose compared to the control groups. Treated group with high dose showed degenerated germinal epithelial cells sloughed in the lumina of seminiferous tubules, where almost seminiferous tubules were devoid of spermatids and spermatozoa compared to control and group treated with low dose. Also, a significant increase of lipid peroxidation levels and heat shock proteins was observed in two groups administrated with two different doses of ND while, antioxidant enzyme activities, and testosterone concentration was significantly decreased in two treated group when compared with control. Administration of ND at high and low doses leads to deteriorated sperm parameters, DNA fragmentation and testicular apoptosis. In conclusion, the administration ND at high doses more effective on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities, sperm abnormality, histopathology, apoptotic and DNA changes compared to low dose group and to control group. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  4. The effects of swimming exercise and supraphysiological doses of nandrolone decanoate on the testis in adult male rats: a transmission electron microscope study.

    PubMed

    Naraghi, M A; Abolhasani, F; Kashani, I; Anarkooli, I J; Hemadi, M; Azami, A; Barbarestani, M; Aitken, R J; Shokri, S

    2010-08-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are used in high doses by athletes to improve athletic ability, physical appearance, and muscle mass. Unfortunately, the abuse of these agents has significantly increased. It has been established that exercise and high doses of AAS may influence the hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal (H-P-G) axis, which can in turn affect the ultrastructure of the testes. However, the effect of the combination of exercise and high doses of AAS on the ultrastructure of the testes is not known. This study was undertaken in order to examine the combination effects of swimming exercise and supraphysiological doses of nandrolone decanoate on the ultrastructural changes in rat testes. Five groups of male Wistar strain albino rats were treated as follows for 8 weeks: solvent of nandrolone decanoate (peanut oil) as a vehicle (sham); nandrolone decanoate (ND) (10 mg/kg/week) - ND; exercise (1 h/day, 5 days a week) - exercise; ND (10 mg/kg/week) and exercise (1 h/day, 5 days a week) - ND-EX; and sedentary control without any injection or exercise - control. Ultrastructural changes in the rat testes were characterised by transmission electron microscopy. The number and size of Leydig cells were considerably decreased in the interstitial space in the experimental rats. The increased thickness and irregular wavy multilaminar appearance of basement membrane in the treated animals, especially in the ND-EX group, are associated with well developed myoid cells. Cytoplasm vacuolisation, vesicular-like crista of the mitochondria, numerous lipid droplets, and lysosome and phagolysosome in Sertoli cells were significantly observed in the experimental groups. Several apoptotic germ cells were considerably observed in the experimental rats (p ≤ 0.05). Exercise training seems to increase the extent of ultrastructural changes caused by supraphysiological doses of ND in rats, which in turn may affect fertility.

  5. Use of nandrolone decanoate as an adjuvant for erythropoietin dose reduction in treating anemia in patients on hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Sheashaa, Hussein; Abdel-Razek, Waleed; El-Husseini, Amr; Selim, Amal; Hassan, Nabil; Abbas, Tarek; El-Askalani, Hassan; Sobh, Mohamed

    2005-01-01

    Use of androgen as an adjuvant therapy to treat anemia in patients on hemodialysis is debated. Our target is to assess the safety and the efficacy of nandrolone decanoate (ND) as an effective adjunctive therapy to treat such anemia. This study included 32 anemic adult hemodialysis patients who had adequate iron stores. They were randomized into two equal groups: the first group received subcutaneously a low dose of erythropoietin (EPO) 1,000 U three times weekly combined with ND, 50 mg intramuscularly twice weekly, and the second group received only the same low dose of EPO for the 6-month study period. All patients were subjected to a serial follow-up of hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit % (Hct%), iron store indices, serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentration and liver function tests. A significant rise of both Hb and Hct in both groups was found at the end of the study (p < 0.001). Although the rise of both Hb and Hct was higher in the androgen group, it was not rated as being statistically significant. Both groups showed a significant rise of serum IGF-1 concentration at the end of the study in comparison to its initial value. Moreover, the androgen group attained a more statistically significant rise of IGF-1 serum concentration. Four female patients discontinued ND because of related adverse effects, principally distressing hirsutism and hepatic dysfunction. Addition of ND to a low-dose EPO regimen does not offer a significant benefit. Androgen-related side effects limit its use in female patients.

  6. Nandrolone decanoate as anabolic therapy in chronic kidney disease: a randomized phase II dose-finding study.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Jamie H; Marcora, Samuele M; Jibani, Mahdi M; Kumwenda, Mick J; Ahmed, Wasim; Lemmey, Andrew B

    2007-01-01

    In patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) receiving adequate erythropoietin therapy, the ideal dose of nandrolone decanoate (ND) to enhance muscle mass is not known. In this phase II dose-finding study, 54 patients with CKD stage 5 were randomized to either low, medium or high doses of ND (50, 100 or 200 mg/week for 24 weeks, respectively, in males; doses halved in females), while 7 patients acted as non-randomized controls. The primary outcome measure was appendicular lean mass (ALM) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Fluid overload (hydration of the fat-free mass) and indicators of physical functioning were secondary measures. Harms were also recorded. Data were analysed using Quade's (1967) non-parametric analysis of covariance. ND increased ALM in a dose-responsive manner (change scores = 0.3 +/- 0.3 vs. 0.8 +/- 0.3 vs. 1.5 +/- 0.5 vs. 2.1 +/- 0.4 kg, control vs. low vs. medium vs. high dose groups, respectively, p < 0.001) with no increases in fluid overload but no consistent effect on physical functioning. The highest dose of ND (100 mg/week) was intolerable in females because of virilizing effects. If goals of future studies are to improve body composition, dosing of ND up to 200 mg/week in males and 50 mg/week in females should be investigated. However, to realize improvements in physical functioning, future phase III trials of ND may require additional interventions such as exercise training. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Stereological estimation of ovarian oocyte volume, surface area and number: application on mice treated with nandrolone decanoate.

    PubMed

    Karbalay-Doust, Saied; Noorafshan, Ali

    2012-07-05

    Changes in the number and size of oocytes can lead to fertilization problems. The present study aimed to evaluate the number, volume, and surface area of oocytes in healthy as well as nandrolone decanoate-treated (ND) mice using stereological methods. Five control mice received vehicle, and five ND-treated mice received ND. Using the 'isotropic Cavalieri' design', the ovary was sectioned. The volume of the ovary (cortex and medulla) was estimated. The oocytes' volume and surface area were estimated using the invariator. The number of the oocytes was estimated using an optical disector. The volumes of the ovary, cortex, and medulla decreased ~50% in the ND-treated mice. The mean number (coefficient of variation) of preantral, antral, and atretic oocytes in the control ovary were 1,690 (0.29), 2,100 (0.52), and 3,900 (0.2), respectively, which decreased ~54%, ~87%, and ~91%, respectively in the ND-treated animals. The mean volume (coefficient of variation) of the preantral, antral, and atretic oocytes were 86,000 (0.27), 110,000 (0.48), and 27,000 (0.33) μm³, respectively. The mean surface area (coefficient of variation) of the three types of oocytes were 9,000 (0.24), 9,900 (0.28), and 4,700 (0.21) μm², respectively. These parameters remained unchanged in the ND-treated mice. ND induces reduction in the number of oocytes, but not in the volume or the surface area.

  8. Effect of supraphysiological dose of Nandrolone Decanoate on the testis and testosterone concentration in mature and immature male rats: A time course study.

    PubMed

    Jannatifar, Rahil; Shokri, Saeed; Farrokhi, Ahmad; Nejatbakhsh, Reza

    2015-12-01

    Most studies on anabolic-androgenic steroids abuse have been done in adult rats, but few data are available to immature. This study was conducted to assay the effect of Nandrolone Decanoate (ND) on the testis and testosterone concentration in male immature rats compare with mature ones in short and long time. 40 mature rats were divided into 4 groups: group A (short term) and group B (long-term) received 10 mg/kg/day ND interaperitoneally for 35 and 70 days, respectively. Group C (control) without any treatment, and group D (vehicle) received dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solution in two periods 35 and 70 days. 40 immature rats were divided into 4 groups same as mature ones. After surgery body weight, testis size, histomorphometry of testis, and serum testosterone level were evaluated. Our results showed that ND decreased the number of Leydig cells in group B (39.9 ±. 919), group A (43.4 ±. 120), and long term (40.6 ±. 299) immature rats, which could result in a reduction of testosterone concentration significantly in all experimental groups except short term mature group. Number of sertoli cells, testis size, and diameter of seminiferous tubules decreased in the long-term immature group. Eventually, the number of sperm was decreased in mature and immature groups, but a severe depletion of sperm was occurred in both mature and immature in long time in comparison to the control group (p< 0.05). This time course study showed that supraphysiological dose of ND may negatively affect the number of Leydig cells, sperm cell, and testosterone concentration of immature rats in the same matter of mature rats. However, the number of sertoli cell, testis size, and seminferous diameter were decreased only in the long immature rats.

  9. Non-classic androgen actions in Sertoli cell membrane in whole seminiferous tubules: effects of nandrolone decanoate and catechin.

    PubMed

    Cavalari, Fernanda Carvalho; de Castro, Alexandre Luz; Fracasso, Bianca de Moraes; Loss, Eloísa da Silveira

    2012-01-01

    Studies show a mechanism of action of testosterone, nandrolone and catechin as agonists of the membrane androgen receptor. The aim of this work is to investigate the non-classical effect of androgens and catechin in Sertoli cells from immature rats. The membrane potential of Sertoli cells in whole seminiferous tubules was recorded using a standard single microelectrode technique. It was performed a topical application of testosterone (1 μM), nandrolone (0.1, 0.5 and 1 μM) and the flavonoid catechin (0.1, 0.5 and 1 μM) alone and also after infusion with flutamide (1 μM), diazoxide (100 μM) or U73122 (1 μM). The immature testes were incubated for 5 min in KRb with (45)Ca(2+), with or without nandrolone (1 μM). The results were given as mean±SEM. The data were analyzed using ANOVA for repeated measures with Bonferroni post-test. Testosterone produces a depolarization in the membrane potential at 120 s after application. Catechin (1 μM) and nandrolone (1 μM) have shown a similar response to testosterone: depolarization at 120 s after the application. The same response of catechin and nandrolone was observed at different doses. The effects of testosterone, catechin and nandrolone were not affected after perfusion with flutamide. Perfusion with diazoxide and U73122 nullified the effect of nandrolone (1 μM) and catechin (1 μM). Nandrolone and testosterone increased (45)Ca(2+) uptake with or without flutamide within 5min. These results indicate that nandrolone and catechin act through a receptor on the plasmatic membrane, as well as testosterone, showing a non-classical pathway in Sertoli cells from immature rat testes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic study of subcutaneous injection of depot nandrolone decanoate using dried blood spots sampling coupled with ultrapressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry assays.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurmeet K S; Turner, Leo; Desai, Reena; Jimenez, Mark; Handelsman, David J

    2014-07-01

    Testosterone (T) and nandrolone (N) esters require deep im injections by medical personnel but these often deposit injectate into sc fat so that more convenient sc self-administration may be feasible. To investigate the feasibility and pharmacology of sc injection of N decanoate in healthy men using dried blood spot (DBS) for frequent blood sampling without clinic visits. Healthy male volunteers received 100 mg N decanoate by a single sc injection. Finger-prick capillary blood was spotted onto filter paper before injection daily at home for 21 d and stored at room temperature. Venous whole blood was also spotted onto filter paper before and weekly for 3 wk after injection. DBS were extracted for assay of N and T by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in a single batch with serum concentrations estimated with adjustment for capillary blood sample volume and hematocrit to define peak (N) or nadir (T) time and concentration from individual daily measurements. Daily serum N peaked 2.50 ± 0.25 (SEM) ng/mL at a median (range) of 6 (4-13) days causing a reduction in serum T from 3.50 ± 0.57 ng/mL at baseline to a nadir of 0.38 ± 0.13 (SEM) ng/mL (89 ± 3% suppression) at a median (range) of 8 (5-16) days. Simultaneously sampled capillary, venous whole blood, and serum gave almost identical results for serum T and N. Finger-pricks and sc injections were well tolerated. This study demonstrates that A) DBS sampling with liquid chromatography mass spectrometry steroid analysis achieves frequent time sampling in the community without requiring clinic visits, venesection, or frozen serum storage, and B) androgen esters in an oil vehicle can be delivered effectively by sc injection, thus avoiding the need for medically supervised deep-im injections.

  11. Nandrolone decanoate negatively reverses the beneficial effects of exercise on cardiac muscle via sarcolemmal, but not mitochondrial K(ATP) channel.

    PubMed

    Bayat, Gholamreza; Javan, Mohammad; Safari, Fatemeh; Khalili, Azadeh; Shokri, Saeed; Goudarzvand, Mahdi; Salimi, Mehdi; Hajizadeh, Sohrab

    2016-03-01

    ATP-sensitive potassium channels are supposed to have a substantial role in improvement of cardiac performance. This study was performed to evaluate whether nandrolone decanoate (ND) and (or) exercise training could affect the expression of cardiac K(ATP) channel subunits. Thirty-five male albino Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups, including sedentary control (SC), sedentary vehicle (SV), sedentary ND (SND), exercise control (EC), and exercise and ND (E+ND). Exercise training was performed on a treadmill 5 times per week. ND was injected (10 mg/kg/week, i.m.) to the rats in the SND and E+ND groups. Following cardiac isolation, the expression of both sarcolemmal and mitochondrial subunits of K(ATP) channel was measured using Western blot method. The expression of sarcolemmal, but not mitochondrial, subunits of K(ATP) channel (Kir6.2 and SUR2) of EC group was significantly higher compared with SC group while ND administration (SND group) did not show any change in their expression. In the E+ND group, ND administration led to decrease of the over-expression of sarcolemmal Kir6.2 and SUR2 which was previously induced by exercise. There was no significant association between the mitochondrial expression of either Kir6.2 or SUR2 proteins and administration of ND or exercise. Supra-physiological dosage of ND negatively reverses the effects of exercise on the cardiac muscle expression of sarcolemmal, but not mitochondrial, K(ATP) channel subunits.

  12. Nandrolone administration with or without strenuous exercise promotes overexpression of nephrin and podocin genes and induces structural and functional alterations in the kidneys of rats.

    PubMed

    Tofighi, Asghar; Ahmadi, Shima; Seyyedi, Seyyedeh Masoumeh; Shirpoor, Alireza; Kheradmand, Fatemeh; Gharalari, Farzaneh Hosseini

    2018-01-05

    Among the various adverse effects of nandrolone administration with or without strenuous exercise, kidney abnormalities, where there are associations between nandrolone decanoate consumption, have not been well defined yet. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of nandrolone decanoate intake with or without strenuous exercise on nephrin and podocin gene expressions, cystatin C, oxidative DNA damage, and histological changes in the kidneys of rats. Thirty-two male wistar rats were assigned into four groups, namely control, nandrolone, nandrolone with strenuous exercise, and strenuous exercise groups. After six weeks of treatment, the results revealed a significant increase in the nephrin and podocin gene expression, plasma cystatin C, and the amount of 8-OHdG in the kidney tissue; as well as a decrease in creatinine clearance in nandrolone and nandrolone with strenuous exercise groups compared to the control group. Moreover, compared to the control group, the nandrolone and the nandrolone with strenuous exercise groups, showed histological changes such as fibrosis and kidney tissue cells proliferation. These findings indicate that nandrolone induces kidney abnormalities, which may in part be associated with overexpression of nephrin and podocin genes mediated by oxidative stress, which was manifested in increased 8-OHdG in kidney tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The opposite effects of nandrolone decanoate and exercise on anxiety levels in rats may involve alterations in hippocampal parvalbumin–positive interneurons

    PubMed Central

    Selakovic, Dragica; Joksimovic, Jovana; Zaletel, Ivan; Puskas, Nela; Matovic, Milovan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavioral effects of chronic (six weeks) nandrolone decanoate (ND, 20 mg/kg, s.c., weekly in single dose) administration (in order to mimic heavy human abuse), and exercise (swimming protocol of 60 minutes a day, five days in a row/two days break), applied alone and simultaneously with ND, in male rats (n = 40). Also, we evaluated the effects of those protocols on hippocampal parvalbumin (PV) content and the possible connection between the alterations in certain parts of hippocampal GABAergic system and behavioral patterns. Both ND and exercise protocols induced increase in testosterone, dihydrotestosterone and estradiol blood levels. Our results confirmed anxiogenic effects of ND observed in open field (OF) test (decrease in the locomotor activity, as well as in frequency and cumulative duration in the centre zone) and in elevated plus maze (EPM) test (decrease in frequency and cumulative duration in open arms, and total exploratory activity), that were accompanied with a mild decrease in the number of PV interneurons in hippocampus. Chronic exercise protocol induced significant increase in hippocampal PV neurons (dentate gyrus and CA1 region), followed by anxiolytic-like behavioral changes, observed in both OF and EPM (increase in all estimated parameters), and in evoked beam-walking test (increase in time to cross the beam), compared to ND treated animals. The applied dose of ND was sufficient to attenuate beneficial effects of exercise in rats by means of decreased exercise-induced anxiolytic effect, as well as to reverse exercise-induced augmentation in number of PV immunoreactive neurons in hippocampus. Our results implicate the possibility that alterations in hippocampal PV interneurons (i.e. GABAergic system) may be involved in modulation of anxiety level induced by ND abuse and/or extended exercise protocols. PMID:29232412

  14. The opposite effects of nandrolone decanoate and exercise on anxiety levels in rats may involve alterations in hippocampal parvalbumin-positive interneurons.

    PubMed

    Selakovic, Dragica; Joksimovic, Jovana; Zaletel, Ivan; Puskas, Nela; Matovic, Milovan; Rosic, Gvozden

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavioral effects of chronic (six weeks) nandrolone decanoate (ND, 20 mg/kg, s.c., weekly in single dose) administration (in order to mimic heavy human abuse), and exercise (swimming protocol of 60 minutes a day, five days in a row/two days break), applied alone and simultaneously with ND, in male rats (n = 40). Also, we evaluated the effects of those protocols on hippocampal parvalbumin (PV) content and the possible connection between the alterations in certain parts of hippocampal GABAergic system and behavioral patterns. Both ND and exercise protocols induced increase in testosterone, dihydrotestosterone and estradiol blood levels. Our results confirmed anxiogenic effects of ND observed in open field (OF) test (decrease in the locomotor activity, as well as in frequency and cumulative duration in the centre zone) and in elevated plus maze (EPM) test (decrease in frequency and cumulative duration in open arms, and total exploratory activity), that were accompanied with a mild decrease in the number of PV interneurons in hippocampus. Chronic exercise protocol induced significant increase in hippocampal PV neurons (dentate gyrus and CA1 region), followed by anxiolytic-like behavioral changes, observed in both OF and EPM (increase in all estimated parameters), and in evoked beam-walking test (increase in time to cross the beam), compared to ND treated animals. The applied dose of ND was sufficient to attenuate beneficial effects of exercise in rats by means of decreased exercise-induced anxiolytic effect, as well as to reverse exercise-induced augmentation in number of PV immunoreactive neurons in hippocampus. Our results implicate the possibility that alterations in hippocampal PV interneurons (i.e. GABAergic system) may be involved in modulation of anxiety level induced by ND abuse and/or extended exercise protocols.

  15. Mitochondrial function in diaphragm of emphysematous hamsters after treatment with nandrolone.

    PubMed

    Wijnhoven, Hanneke J H; Ennen, Leo; Rodenburg, Richard J T; Dekhuijzen, P N Richard

    2006-01-01

    Respiratory failure in patients with COPD may be caused by insufficient force production or insufficient endurance capacity of the respiratory muscles. Anabolic steroids may improve respiratory muscle function in COPD. The effect of anabolic steroids on mitochondrial function in the diaphragm in emphysema is unknown. In an emphysematous male hamster model, we investigated whether administration of the anabolic steroid nandrolone decanoate (ND) altered the activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes in the diaphragm. The bodyweight of hamsters treated with ND was decreased after treatment compared with initial values, and serum testosterone levels were significantly lower in hamsters treated with ND than in control hamsters. No difference in the activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes in the diaphragm between normal and emphysematous hamsters was observed. Treatment with ND did not change the activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes in the diaphragm of both normal and emphysematous hamsters. In emphysematous hamsters, administration of ND decreased the activity of succinate:cytochrome c oxidoreductase compared with ND treatment in normal hamsters. We conclude that anabolic steroids have negative effects on the activity of succinate:cytochrome c oxidoreductase and anabolic status in this emphysematous hamster model.

  16. Mitochondrial function in diaphragm of emphysematous hamsters after treatment with nandrolone

    PubMed Central

    Wijnhoven, Hanneke JH; Ennen, Leo; Rodenburg, Richard JT; Dekhuijzen, PN Richard

    2006-01-01

    Respiratory failure in patients with COPD may be caused by insufficient force production or insufficient endurance capacity of the respiratory muscles. Anabolic steroids may improve respiratory muscle function in COPD. The effect of anabolic steroids on mitochondrial function in the diaphragm in emphysema is unknown. In an emphysematous male hamster model, we investigated whether administration of the anabolic steroid nandrolone decanoate (ND) altered the activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes in the diaphragm. The bodyweight of hamsters treated with ND was decreased after treatment compared with initial values, and serum testosterone levels were significantly lower in hamsters treated with ND than in control hamsters. No difference in the activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes in the diaphragm between normal and emphysematous hamsters was observed. Treatment with ND did not change the activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes in the diaphragm of both normal and emphysematous hamsters. In emphysematous hamsters, administration of ND decreased the activity of succinate:cytochrome c oxidoreductase compared with ND treatment in normal hamsters. We conclude that anabolic steroids have negative effects on the activity of succinate:cytochrome c oxidoreductase and anabolic status in this emphysematous hamster model. PMID:18046906

  17. The effect of nandrolone decanoate on bone mineral density, muscle mass, and hemoglobin levels in elderly women with osteoporosis: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Frisoli, Alberto; Chaves, Paulo H M; Pinheiro, Marcelo Medeiros; Szejnfeld, Vera Lucia

    2005-05-01

    In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, we evaluated the effect of a 2-year treatment with nandrolone decanoate (ND) on bone mineral density (BMD) of lumbar spine, femoral neck, and trochanter and on vertebral fracture rate, muscle mass, and hemoglobin levels. Sixty-five osteoporotic women older than 70 years were studied. Thirty-two patients received injections of 50 mg ND, and 33 received placebos every 3 weeks. All patients received 500 mg calcium tablets daily. Compared to baseline, ND increased the BMD of the lumbar spine (3.4% +/- 6.0 and 3.7% +/- 7.4; p < .05) and femoral neck (4.1% +/- 7.3 and 4.7% +/- 8.0; p < .05) after 1 and 2 years, respectively. The BMD of trochanter increased significantly only after the first year (4.8% +/- 9.3, p < .05). Compared to the placebo group, the ND group presented with significantly increased BMD of the trochanter and neck. ND significantly reduced incidence of new vertebral fractures (21% vs 43% in the placebo group; p < .05). ND showed a significant statistical increase in lean body mass after the first (6.2% +/- 5.8; p < .01) and second years (11.9% +/- 29.2; p < .01). In addition, a 2-year treatment with ND significantly increased hemoglobin levels compared to baseline (14.3%; p < .01) and placebo (p < .01). ND increased BMD, hemoglobin levels, and muscle mass, and reduced the vertebral fracture rate of elderly osteoporotic women.

  18. The non-preventive effects of human menopausal gonadotropins on ovarian tissues in Nandrolone decanoate-treated female rats: A histochemical and ultra-structural study.

    PubMed

    Mesbah, Fakhroddin; Bordbar, Hossein; Talaei Khozani, Tahereh; Dehghani, Farzaneh; Mirkhani, Hossein

    2018-03-01

    The follicular growth and development may be affected by abused drugs. Nandrolone decanoate (ND) as an anabolic androgenic steroid can damage the morphological and functional features of the ovary and may lead to reproductive failure. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of synchronized and non-synchronized administration of Human Menopausal Gonadotropins (hMG) with ND on ovarian tissue and level of sex hormones in the adult female rat. Forty adult female Sprague Dawley rats were divided into eight groups. The five experimental groups received 3 and/or 10 mg/kg of ND synchronized and non-synchronized with 10 IU of hMG and hMG alone. The two shams and control groups received solvents of ND and hMG. The animals' serum levels of Follicle-stimulating hormone, Luteinizing hormone, progesterone and estrogen and the weight, volume and dimensions of the ovaries were measured. The ovaries were prepared for apoptosis assessment and morphological study. The ovarian volume and sex hormones in the experimental groups were decreased, but ovarian weight and dimensions didn't change. The rate of apoptosis was increased in the experimental groups as follows; a low and high dose of ND synchronized with hMG 48.80±18.70 and 65.20±14.20 respectively vs. Sham 1, 33.20±17.80, a low and high dose of ND non-synchronized with hMD 55.80±17.20 and 75.20±14.30 respectively vs. Sham 2, 31.60±32.40 groups, p˂0.01. Follicular and stromal cells were damaged in the experimental groups except for the hMG group. Administration of ND decreased the serum level of Luteinizing hormone, Follicle-stimulating hormone, progesterone and estrogen and damaged ovarian tissue irreversibly and irreparably and hMG cannot prevent the destruction of the follicles in the adult female rats. This can be a serious warning to women who abuse ND.

  19. Lipoic acid and pentoxifylline mitigate nandrolone decanoate-induced neurobehavioral perturbations in rats via re-balance of brain neurotransmitters, up-regulation of Nrf2/HO-1 pathway, and down-regulation of TNFR1 expression.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Maha A E; El-Awdan, Sally A

    2015-07-01

    Behavioral perturbations associated with nandrolone decanoate abuse by athletes and adolescents may be attributed to oxidative stress and inflammation. However, the underlying mechanisms are not yet fully explored. On the other hand, the natural antioxidant lipoic acid can pass the blood brain barrier and enhance Nrf2/HO-1 (nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2/heme oxygenase-1) pathway. In addition, the phosphodiesterase-IV inhibitor xanthine derivative pentoxifylline has a remarkable inhibitory effect on tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Therefore, this study aimed at investigation of the possible protective effects of lipoic acid and/or pentoxifylline against nandrolone-induced neurobehavioral alterations in rats. Accordingly, male albino rats were randomly distributed into seven groups and treated with either vehicle, nandrolone (15mg/kg, every third day, s.c.), lipoic acid (100mg/kg/day, p.o.), pentoxifylline (200mg/kg/day, i.p.), or nandrolone with lipoic acid and/or pentoxifylline. Rats were challenged in the open field, rewarded T-maze, Morris water maze, and resident-intruder aggression behavioral tests. The present findings showed that nandrolone induced hyperlocomotion, anxiety, memory impairment, and aggression in rats. These behavioral abnormalities were accompanied by several biochemical changes, including altered levels of brain monoamines, GABA, and acetylcholine, enhanced levels of malondialdehyde and TNF-α, elevated activity of acetylcholinesterase, and up-regulated expression of TNF-α receptor-1 (TNFR1). In addition, inhibited catalase activity, down-regulated Nrf2/HO-1 pathway, and suppressed acetylcholine receptor expression were observed. Lipoic acid and pentoxifylline combination significantly mitigated all the previously mentioned deleterious effects mainly via up-regulation of Nrf2/HO-1 pathway, inhibition of TNF-α and down-regulation of TNFR1 expression. In conclusion, the biochemical and histopathological findings of this

  20. Nandrolone inhibits MMP-2 in the left ventricle of rats.

    PubMed

    Marqueti, R C; Micocci, K C; Leite, R D; Selistre-de-Araujo, H S

    2012-03-01

    The indiscriminate use of anabolic-androgenic steroids has been shown to induce left ventricular dysfunctions. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of nandrolone decanoate on matrix metalloprotease (MMP-2) activity and protein level in the left ventricle (LV) of rats after 7 weeks of mechanical load exercise. Wistar rats were grouped into: sedentary (S); nandrolone decanoate-treated sedentary (AAS); trained without AAS (T) and trained and treated with AAS (AAST). Exercised groups performed a 7-weeks water-jumping program. Training significantly increased the MMP-2 activity by zymography and the protein level by Western blotting analysis. However, the AAS treatment abolished both the increase in MMP activity and protein level induced by exercise. These results suggest that AAS may impair cardiac tissue remodeling which may lead to the heart malfunction. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Successful treatment of refractory anemia with a combination regimen containing recombinant human erythropoietin, low-dose methylprednisolone and nandrolone.

    PubMed

    Tsiara, S N; Chaidos, A; Gouva, M; Christou, L; Panteli, K; Kapsali, E; Bourantas, K L

    2004-03-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a heterogenous group of hematological clonal malignancies. Patients belonging to the refractory anemia (RA) subtype are usually treated with recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO). Not all patients respond to EPO administration and they are strictly dependent on supportive therapy with red cell blood (RBC) transfusions. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of an alternative combination regimen containing EPO, low-dose methylprednisolone and nandrolone decanoate, in patients with RA unresponsive to EPO administration alone. Ten patients, 4 women and 6 men, median age: 70 years (range: 55-78 years) with refractory anemia unresponsive to EPO administration and RBC transfusion-dependent were included in the study. Median hematological data at baseline were Hb: 8.7 g/dl, (range 6.2-9.8), WBC: 3.35x10(9)/l (range 2.1-4), PLT: 82.5x10(9)/l (range 59-110). EPO 150 U/Kg three times/week subcutaneously, low-dose methylprednisolone 8 mg/day orally and nandrolone decanoate (Decadurabolin) 50 mg two-times/week intramuscularly were administered. As complete response (CR) to treatment was considered the normalization of the peripheral blood and bone marrow smears and biopsy. As partial response (PR) was considered increase in Hb level > or = 2 g/dl, or up to 10 g/dl and discontinuation of RBC transfusions. The response to therapy was evaluated on the 4th week after the initiation of the combination treatment. Bone marrow smear evaluation was carried out at baseline and every six months afterwards. After a 4-week treatment all patients achieved PR and discontinued RBC transfusions. Median and range hematological values on the 4th week after treatment initiation were Hb: 11.2 g/dl, (range: 9.8-12.8), WBC: 4.4x10(9)/l (3.5-6.6), PLT: 130x10(9)/l (95-160). The increase observed in hematological values was significant (p = 0.0001, 0.0004 and < 0.0001, respectively, for Hb, WBC and PLT counts). Treatment was well tolerated

  2. Administration of growth hormone and nandrolone decanoate alters mRNA expression of the GABAB receptor subunits as well as of the GH receptor, IGF-1, and IGF-2 in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Grönbladh, Alfhild; Johansson, Jenny; Nyberg, Fred; Hallberg, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    The illicit use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), especially among young adults, is of major concern. Among AAS users it is common to combine the AAS nandrolone decanoate (ND), with intake of growth hormone (GH) and a connection between gonadal steroids and the GH system has been suggested. Both AAS and GH affect functions in the brain, for example those associated with the hypothalamus and pituitary, and several GH actions are mediated by growth factors such as insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2). The GABAergic system is implicated in actions induced by AAS and previous studies have provided evidence for a link between GH and GABAB receptors in the brain. Our aim was to examine the impact of AAS administration and a subsequent administration of GH, on the expression of GABAB receptors and important GH mediators in rat brain. The aim was to investigate the CNS effects of a high-dose ND, and to study if a low, but physiological relevant, dose of GH could reverse the ND-induced effects. In the present study, male rats were administered a high dose of ND every third day during three weeks, and subsequently the rats were given recombinant human GH (rhGH) during ten days. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used to analyze gene expression in hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, and amygdala. In the pituitary gland, the expression of GABAB receptor subunits was affected differently by the steroid treatment; the GABAB1 mRNA expression was decreased whereas a distinct elevation of the GABAB2 expression was found. Administration of ND also caused a decrease of GHR, IGF-1, and IGF-2 mRNA expression in the pituitary while the corresponding expression in the hypothalamus, caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, and amygdala was unaffected. The rhGH administration did not alter the GABAB2 expression but increased the GABAB1 gene expression in the hypothalamus as compared to the AAS treated group. These results

  3. On the association between nandrolone-mediated testosterone reduction during alcohol intoxication and attenuated voluntary alcohol intake in rats.

    PubMed

    Etelälahti, T J; Eriksson, C J P

    2013-11-01

    Human studies have indicated that the use of anabolic androgenic steroids may be associated with the abuse of alcohol and other drugs. Also, experimental animal research has indicated that chronic nandrolone administration subsequently increases voluntary alcohol drinking. The aim of our study was to test our hypothesis that alcohol-induced testosterone elevation, especially associated with stress conditions derived by nandrolone treatment, could be the underlying factor in causing increased alcohol drinking. Male alcohol-preferring AA and low drinking Wistar rats were randomly divided into control and nandrolone decanoate treated (15 mg/kg for 14 days) groups. Basal serum testosterone and corticosterone were determined before the first nandrolone treatment, after 7 days of treatment, and after an additional (7-day) washout period, during which also the acute effect of alcohol (1.5 g/kg) on steroid hormones was determined. Hereafter followed a (5-week) voluntary alcohol consumption period, during the last 2 weeks of which the rats were treated again with nandrolone. Both normal and reversed dark- vs. light-cycle experimental designs were used. Contrary to our hypothesis, nandrolone treatment decreased voluntary alcohol consumption in both AA and Wistar rats. Also, instead of stress causation, elevated basal testosterone and lowered basal corticosterone levels were observed after nandrolone treatment in both AA rats and Wistars. During acute alcohol intoxication the frequency of testosterone decreases was higher in the nandrolone-treated groups compared with control AA and Wistar rats. Present data support the hypothesis that nandrolone-treatment mediated attenuation of alcohol intake in both AA and Wistar rats may be the result of negative reinforcement caused by alcohol-mediated testosterone reduction. © 2013.

  4. The effect of nandrolone treatment with and without enforced swimming on histological and biochemical changes in the heart and coronary artery of male rats

    PubMed Central

    Tofighi, Asghar; Shirpoor, Minoo; Ansari, Mohammad Hasan Khadem; Shirpoor, Alireza; Zerehpoosh, Mitra

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Chronic anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) consumption increases incidence of cardiovascular abnormalities in athletes and mechanisms underlying those abnormalities continue to be investigated. This study examines whether nandrolone consumption induced cardiac and coronary artery wall abnormalities via oxidative stress. It was also designed to determine whether enforced swimming augmented possible cardiotoxic effects of nandrolone in rat heart. Methods: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups: control, nandrolone, and nandrolone with enforced swimming. Nandrolone group received 10 mg/kg body weight nandrolone 3 times a week for 6 weeks. Nandrolone group with enforced swimming received the same amount of nandrolone and was forced to swim with excess weight of 20% body weight. Results: After 6 weeks of treatment, results indicated proliferation of heart muscle and coronary smooth muscle cells and lipid peroxidation; significant rise in levels of 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, homocysteine (Hcy), apolipoprotein B, low-density lipoprotein, and cholesterol, as well as severe fibrosis in heart tissue and around coronary arteries of nandrolone and nandrolone with enforced swimming groups compared with control group. Conclusion: These findings strongly support idea that nandrolone intake by sedentary rats and exercised rats induced heart abnormality mediated by oxidative stress, which was manifest in increased lipid peroxidation, Hcy, and 8-OHdG in heart tissue. PMID:27752030

  5. Nandrolone decanoate for the treatment of erythropoietin refractory anemia: a case series.

    PubMed

    Chawla, Bobby; Iqbal, Fahad M; Chawla, Manjeet S

    2009-01-01

    Erythropoietin refractory anemias represent a continuing and increasing burden on the healthcare system. The current practice of providing these patients with rHuEPO does not seem to be working. Fewer than 50% of patients respond in some studies. We demonstrate that androgens have multiple benefits in this population. They control anemia and stop transfusion dependence and improve nutritional parameters. In some patients, they also have a salutary effect on both white blood cell and platelet counts.

  6. Chronic administration of the anabolic androgenic steroid nandrolone alters neurosteroid action at the sigma-1 receptor but not at the sigma-2 or NMDA receptors.

    PubMed

    Elfverson, Martin; Johansson, Tobias; Zhou, Qin; Le Grevès, Pierre; Nyberg, Fred

    2011-12-01

    Studies have shown that anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs) can induce profound changes to mental health. Commonly reported psychiatric side effects among AAS users include aggression, anxiety, depression, drug abuse and cognitive disabilities. In experimental animals, many of these effects have been associated with alterations in a number of neurotransmitter systems. We have observed that chronic administration of the AAS nandrolone (nandrolone decanoate) can affect excitatory amino acids as well as monoaminergic and peptidergic pathways in a way that is compatible with nandrolone-induced behavioural changes. The aim of the present work was to further explore the mechanisms underlying nandrolone-induced effects, with a particular focus on components known to be involved in aggression and cognitive function. Male rats were given daily injections of nandrolone decanoate for 14 days and the effects on neurosteroid interactions with sites on the N-methyl-D-aspartyl (NMDA) and sigma receptors were examined. These receptors were chosen because of their involvement in aggressive and cognitive behaviors and the hypothesis that nandrolone might affect the brain via interaction with neurosteroids. Radiolabelled [³H]ifenprodil was used in the binding studies because of its significant affinity for the NMDA and sigma receptors. The results indicated that [³H]ifenprodil binds to both sigma-1 and sigma-2 sites and can be displaced to a certain extent from both sites by the neurosteroids pregnenolone sulphate (PS), pregnanolone sulphate (3α5βS) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS). The remainder of the [³H]ifenprodil was displaced from the sigma-1 site by the sigma-1 receptor-selective ligand (+)-SKF 10,047. Chronic nandrolone treatment changed the sigma-1 receptor target for the neurosteroids but not for ifenprodil. The sigma-2 receptor site was unaltered by treatment with nandrolone decanoate. The results also indicated that the neurosteroid-induced allosteric

  7. Chronic nandrolone administration promotes oxidative stress, induction of pro-inflammatory cytokine and TNF-α mediated apoptosis in the kidneys of CD1 treated mice.

    PubMed

    Riezzo, Irene; Turillazzi, Emanuela; Bello, Stefania; Cantatore, Santina; Cerretani, Daniela; Di Paolo, Marco; Fiaschi, Anna Ida; Frati, Paola; Neri, Margherita; Pedretti, Monica; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2014-10-01

    Nandrolone decanoate administration and strenuous exercise increase the extent of renal damage in response to renal toxic injury. We studied the role played by oxidative stress in the apoptotic response caused by nandrolone decanoate in the kidneys of strength-trained male CD1 mice. To measure cytosolic enzyme activity, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined after nandrolone treatment. An immunohistochemical study and Western blot analysis were performed to evaluate cell apoptosis and to measure the effects of renal expression of inflammatory mediators (IL-1β, TNF-α) on the induction of apoptosis (HSP90, TUNEL). Dose-related oxidative damage in the kidneys of treated mice is shown by an increase in MDA levels and by a reduction of antioxidant enzyme GR and GPx activities, resulting in the kidney's reduced radical scavenging ability. Renal specimens of the treated group showed relevant glomeruli alterations and increased immunostaining and protein expressions, which manifested significant focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. The induction of proinflammatory cytokine expression levels was confirmed by Western blot analysis. Long-term administration of nandrolone promotes oxidative injury in the mouse kidneys. TNF-α mediated injury due to nandrolone in renal cells appears to play a role in the activation of both the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Detection of nandrolone, testosterone, and their esters in rat and human hair samples.

    PubMed

    Höld, K M; Borges, C R; Wilkins, D G; Rollins, D E; Joseph, R E

    1999-10-01

    Nandrolone and testosterone are anabolic androgenic steroids occasionally abused by athletes. A sensitive, specific, and reproducible gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the quantitative determination of nandrolone, testosterone, and their esters in hair has been developed. The limits of quantitation of this method, based on 20 mg of hair, were 50 pg/mg for nandrolone and testosterone, 100 pg/mg for testosterone acetate, and 200 pg/mg for nandrolone-decanoate. Nandrolone-d3 and testosterone-d3 were used as internal standards. This method has been applied to the analysis of these compounds incorporated into rat and human hair. Male Long-Evans rats were given nandrolone decanoate 60 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.) once daily for 10 days over a time period of 14 days. Two of the three rats contained nandrolone in the pigmented hair collected at day 21 at a concentration of 63 and 76 pg/mg, respectively. No drug was found in the corresponding nonpigmented hair. The rat hair samples that tested positive for nandrolone contained also nandrolone decanoate in concentrations of 0.9 and 1.2 ng/mg, respectively. In a separate experiment rats were given testosterone acetate 10 mg/kg i.p. once daily for five days. No testosterone or testosterone acetate was detected in the rat hair samples. Hair specimens were also obtained from four self-reported steroid users. The hair of two subjects were determined to be positive for testosterone in concentrations of 54 and 81 pg/mg. These data demonstrate that it is possible to detect the steroids nandrolone, testosterone, and nandrolone decanoate in hair after systemic administration.

  9. Nandrolone Plus Moderate Exercise Increases the Susceptibility to Lethal Arrhythmias

    PubMed Central

    Ghorbani Baravati, Hamideh; Joukar, Siyavash; Fathpour, Hossein; Kordestani, Zeinab

    2015-01-01

    Background: Until now, no experimental study has directly assessed the arrhythmogenesis of chronic consumption of anabolic androgenic steroids along with moderate-intensity endurance exercise. Objectives: We evaluated the influence of integration of anabolic androgenic steroids along with moderate-intensity endurance exercise on susceptibility to lethal ventricular arrhythmias in rat. Materials and Methods: The animal groups were as follows: control group (CTL); exercise group (EX) which were under 6 weeks of treadmill exercise; nandrolone group (Nan) which received 5 mg/kg of nandrolone decanoate twice a week; vehicle group (Arach) which received Arachis oil (solvent of nandrolone); trained vehicle group (Arach + Ex); and trained nandrolone group (Nan + Ex). One day after ending of the intervention period, arrhythmia was inducted by intravenous infusion of aconitine and ventricular arrhythmias were recorded. Then malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) of heart tissue were measured. Results: Nandrolone, exercise, and their combination were associated with heart hypertrophy. Exercise could prevent the incremental effect of nandrolone on MDA/GPX ratio. Chronic administration of nandrolone with moderate-intensity endurance exercise had no significant effect on blood pressure, heart rate, and basal electrocardiographic parameters. Combination of nandrolone and exercise significantly increased the incidence of ventricular fibrillation (VF) and reduced the VF latency (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The findings suggest that chronic coadministration of nandrolone with moderate-intensity endurance exercise facilitates the VF occurrence in rat. Complementary studies are needed to elucidate the involved mechanisms of this abnormality. PMID:26396972

  10. Chronic nandrolone administration induces dysfunction of the reward pathway in rats.

    PubMed

    Zotti, Margherita; Tucci, Paolo; Colaianna, Marilena; Morgese, Maria Grazia; Mhillaj, Emanuela; Schiavone, Stefania; Scaccianoce, Sergio; Cuomo, Vincenzo; Trabace, Luigia

    2014-01-01

    Data in animal models and surveys in humans have revealed psychiatric complications of long-term anabolic androgenic steroid abuse. However, the neurobiochemical mechanisms behind the observed behavioral changes are poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of nandrolone decanoate on emotional behavior and neurochemical brain alterations in gonadally intact male rats. The behavioral reactivity to the elevated plus maze and the social interaction test was used to assess anxiety-related symptoms, and the sucrose preference test was used to evaluate anhedonia. Dopaminergic, serotonergic and noradrenergic transmissions were also evaluated in selected brain areas. The chronic administration of nandrolone, at 5 mg kg(-1) injected daily for 4 weeks, induced the loss of sweet taste preference, a sign of anhedonia and dysfunction of the reward pathway. The behavioral outcomes were accompanied by reductions in the dopamine, serotonin and noradrenaline contents in the nucleus accumbens. Alterations in the time spent in the open arms and in the social interaction test were not found, suggesting that nandrolone did not induce an anxiogenic profile. No differences were revealed between the experimental groups in the amygdala in terms of the neurotransmitters measured. Our data suggest that nandrolone-treated rats have a depressive, but not anxiogenic-like, profile, accompanied by brain region-dependent changes in dopaminergic, serotonergic and noradrenergic neurotransmission. As anabolic androgenic steroid dependence is plausibly the major form of worldwide substance dependence that remains largely unexplored, it should be highlighted that our data could contribute to a better understanding of the altered rewards induced by nandrolone treatment and to the development of appropriate treatments.

  11. Chronic nandrolone administration induces dysfunction of the reward pathway in rats.

    PubMed

    Zotti, Margherita; Tucci, Paolo; Colaianna, Marilena; Morgese, Maria Grazia; Mhillaj, Emanuela; Schiavone, Stefania; Scaccianoce, Sergio; Cuomo, Vincenzo; Trabace, Luigia

    2013-10-24

    Data in animal models and surveys in humans have shown psychiatric complications of long-term anabolic androgenic steroids abuse. However, neurobiochemical mechanisms behind observed behavioral changes are poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of nandrolone decanoate on emotional behavior and neurochemical brain alterations in gonadally intact male rats. Behavioral reactivity to elevated plus maze and social interaction test was used to assess anxiety-related symptoms, while sucrose preference test was used to evaluate anhedonia. Dopaminergic, serotonergic and noradrenergic transmissions were also evaluated in selected brain areas. Chronic administration of nandrolone, at 5 mg kg -1 injected for 4 weeks, induced loss of sweet taste preference, as sign of anhedonia and dysfunction of reward pathway. Behavioral outcomes were accompanied by reduction of dopamine, serotonin and noradrenaline contents in nucleus accumbens. Neither alterations in time spent in open arms nor in social interaction test were found, suggesting that nandrolone did not induce an anxiogenic profile. No differences were revealed between experimental groups in the amygdala in terms of neurotransmitters measured. Our data suggest that nandrolone-treated rats have a depressive, but not anxiogenic-like, profile, accompanied by brain region-dependent changes in dopaminergic, serotonergic and noradrenergic neurotransmission. As anabolic androgenic steroid dependence is plausibly the major form of worldwide substance dependence that remains largely unexplored, it should be underlined that our data could contribute to a better understanding of altered reward induced by nandrolone treatment and to develop appropriate treatment. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. AT1 and aldosterone receptors blockade prevents the chronic effect of nandrolone on the exercise-induced cardioprotection in perfused rat heart subjected to ischemia and reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Marques-Neto, Silvio Rodrigues; Ferraz, Emanuelle Baptista; Rodrigues, Deivid Carvalho; Njaine, Brian; Rondinelli, Edson; Campos de Carvalho, Antônio Carlos; Nascimento, Jose Hamilton Matheus

    2014-04-01

    Myocardial tolerance to ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is improved by exercise training, but this cardioprotection is impaired by the chronic use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS). The present study evaluated whether blockade of angiotensin II receptor (AT1-R) with losartan and aldosterone receptor (mineralocorticoid receptor, MR) with spironolactone could prevent the deleterious effect of AAS on the exercise-induced cardioprotection. Male Wistar rats were exercised and treated with either vehicle, nandrolone decanoate (10 mg/kg/week i.m.) or the same dose of nandrolone plus losartan or spironolactone (20 mg/kg/day orally) for 8 weeks. Langendorff-perfused hearts were subjected to I/R and evaluated for the postischaemic recovery of left ventricle (LV) function and infarct size. mRNA and protein expression of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1-R), mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), and KATP channels were determined by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Postischaemic recovery of LV function was better and infarct size was smaller in the exercised rat hearts than in the sedentary rat hearts. Nandrolone impaired the exercise-induced cardioprotection, but this effect was prevented by losartan (AT1-R antagonist) and spironolactone (MR antagonist) treatments. Myocardial AT1-R and MR expression levels were increased, and the expression of the KATP channel subunits SUR2a and Kir6.1 was decreased and Kir6.2 increased in the nandrolone-treated rat hearts. The nandrolone-induced changes of AT1-R, MR, and KATP subunits expression was normalized by the losartan and spironolactone treatments. The chronic nandrolone treatment impairs the exercise-induced cardioprotection against ischaemia/reperfusion injury by activating the cardiac renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and downregulating KATP channel expression.

  13. Effects of protein-rich supplementation and nandrolone in lean elderly women with femoral neck fractures.

    PubMed

    Tidermark, Jan; Ponzer, Sari; Carlsson, Pronoti; Söderqvist, Anita; Brismar, Kerstin; Tengstrand, Birgitta; Cederholm, Tommy

    2004-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of a protein-rich liquid supplementation, alone or in combination with the anabolic steroid nandrolone decanoate, on body composition, activities of daily living (ADL) status and the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) after a femoral neck fracture. Sixty women, aged 83 +/- 5 years (mean +/- SD), BMI < 24 kg/m2 (20.4 +/- 2 kg/m2 ) and capable of co-operating, with a femoral neck fracture treated with internal fixation, were randomised to open treatment during 6 months with a protein-rich liquid formula alone (PR, Fortimel, 200 ml/day, 20 g protein/day) or in combination with nandrolone decanoate (PR/N, Deca-Durabol 25 mg i.m./3 weeks) or to a control group (C). The patients were re-examined after 6 and 12 months regarding body weight (BW), lean body mass (LBM, DXA), ADL status according to Katz, HRQoL according to EQ 5-D and fracture healing. LBM decreased in the C (-1.2 +/- 2 kg) and PR groups (-1.2 +/- 1 kg) but remained the same in the PR/N group (0.3 +/- 1 kg) (P < 0.05 between groups). ADL remained at a high level in the two intervention groups but declined significantly in the C group (P < 0.005 between groups). The decline in HRQoL was least pronounced in the PR/N group at 6 months (P < 0.05 between groups). Patients with fracture healing complications lost more BW (P < 0.05) and LBM (P < 0.01) than patients with uneventful fracture healing. Protein-rich liquid supplementation in combination with nandrolone given for 6 months to lean elderly women after a femoral neck fracture may positively affect LBM, ADL and HRQoL. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. The anabolic steroid nandrolone enhances motor and sensory functional recovery in rat median nerve repair with long interpositional nerve grafts.

    PubMed

    Ghizoni, Marcos Flávio; Bertelli, Jayme Augusto; Grala, Carolina Giesel; da Silva, Rosemeri Maurici

    2013-01-01

    Recovery from peripheral nerve repair is frequently incomplete. Hence drugs that enhance nerve regeneration are needed clinically. To study the effects of nandrolone decanoate in a model of deficient reinnervation in the rat. In 40 rats, a 40-mm segment of the left median nerve was removed and interposed between the stumps of a sectioned right median nerve. Starting 7 days after nerve grafting and continuing over a 6-month period, we administered nandrolone at a dose of 5 mg/kg/wk to half the rats (n = 20). All rats were assessed behaviorally for grasp function and nociceptive recovery for up to 6 months. At final assessment, reinnervated muscles were tested electrophysiologically and weighed. Results were compared between rats that had received versus not received nandrolone and versus 20 nongrafted controls. Rats in the nandrolone group recovered finger flexion faster. At 90 days postsurgery, they had recovered 42% of normal grasp strength versus just 11% in rats grafted but not treated with nandrolone. At 180 days, the average values for grasp strength recovery in the nandrolone and no-nandrolone groups were 40% and 33% of normal values for controls, respectively. At 180 days, finger flexor muscle twitch strength was 16% higher in treated versus nontreated rats. Thresholds for nociception were not detected in either group 90 days after nerve grafting. At 180 days, nociceptive thresholds were significantly lower in the nandrolone group. Nandrolone decanoate improved functional recovery in a model of deficient reinnervation.

  15. Therapeutic effects of nandrolone and testosterone in adult male HIV patients with AIDS wasting syndrome (AWS): a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sardar, Partha; Jha, Ayan; Roy, Deeptarka; Majumdar, Uddalak; Guha, Pradipta; Roy, Sabyasachi; Banerjee, Ramtanu; Banerjee, Amit Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Dipanjan

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to compare therapeutic effects of intramuscular (IM) nandrolone decanoate and IM testosterone enanthate in male HIV patients with AIDS wasting syndrome (AWS) with placebo control. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 12-week trial, 104 patients with AWS who satisfied our inclusion criteria were randomly allotted in a 2:2:1 ratio to the 3 intervention groups: nandrolone, testosterone, and placebo. We administered 150 mg nandrolone and 250 mg testosterone (both IM, biweekly). The primary outcome measure was a comparison of absolute change in weight at 12 weeks between the nandrolone decanoate, testosterone, and placebo groups. Intent-to-treat analysis was done. The nandrolone group recorded maximum mean increase in weight (3.20 kg; post hoc P < .01 compared to placebo). Body mass index (BMI) of subjects in the nandrolone group had a significantly greater increase (mean = 1.28) compared to both testosterone (post hoc P < .05) and placebo (post hoc P < .01). Waist circumference and triceps skinfold thickness of patients on nandrolone showed similar results. Nandrolone also ensured a better quality of life. Patients with low testosterone level (<3 ng/mL) benefited immensely from nandrolone therapy, which increased their weight and BMI significantly compared to placebo (P < .05). Our trial demonstrates the superior therapeutic effects of nandrolone in male AWS patients, including the androgen deficient.

  16. Nandrolone decanoate determines cardiac remodelling and injury by an imbalance in cardiac inflammatory cytokines and ACE activity, blunting of the Bezold-Jarisch reflex, resulting in the development of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Franquni, João Vicente Maggioni; do Nascimento, Andrews Marques; de Lima, Eweliny Miranda; Brasil, Girlândia Alexandre; Heringer, Otávio Arruda; Cassaro, Karla Oliveira Dos Santos; da Cunha, Thony Vinicius Pita; Musso, Carlos; Silva Santos, Maria Carmen L F; Kalil, Ieda Carneiro; Endringer, Denise Coutinho; Boëchat, Giovanna Assis Pereirra; Bissoli, Nazaré Souza; de Andrade, Tadeu Uggere

    2013-03-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of nandrolone (ND) on cardiac inflammatory cytokines, ACE activity, troponin I, and the sensitivity of the Bezold-Jarisch reflex (BJR). Male Wistar rats were administered either ND (20 mg/kg; DECA) or vehicle (control animals; CONT) for 4 weeks. BJR was analyzed by measuring the bradycardia and hypotension responses elicited by serotonin administration (2-32 μg/kg). Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was assessed and myocyte hypertrophy was determined by the heart weight/body weight ratio and by morphometric analysis. Matrix collagen deposition was assessed by histological analysis of the picrosirius red-stained samples. Mesenteric vascular reactivity was performed and central venous pressure (CVP) evaluated. Cardiac inflammatory cytokine levels and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity were studied as well the biomarker of cardiac lesion, troponin I. DECA group showed enhancement of matrix type I collagen deposition (p < 0.01) and cardiac ACE activity (p < 0.01) compared with the CONT. Interleukin (IL)-10 was reduced (p < 0.01) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6; p < 0.01) were increased in the DECA group compared with CONT. Cardiac injury was observed in the DECA group shown by the reduction in cardiac troponin I (p < 0.01) compared with the CONT group. Animals in the DECA group also developed myocyte hypertrophy and reduction of BJR sensitivity. The MAP of animals treated with ND reached hypertensive levels (p < 0.01; compared with CONT). No changes in CVP and vascular reactivity were observed in both experimental groups. We conclude that high doses of ND elicit cardiotoxic effects with cardiac remodelling and injury. Cardiac changes reduce the BJR sensitivity. Together, these abnormalities contributed to the development of hypertension in animals in the DECA group. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The pleiotropic effects of decanoic acid treatment on mitochondrial function in fibroblasts from patients with complex I deficient Leigh syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kanabus, Marta; Fassone, Elisa; Hughes, Sean David; Bilooei, Sara Farahi; Rutherford, Tricia; Donnell, Maura O'; Heales, Simon J R; Rahman, Shamima

    2016-05-01

    There is growing interest in the use of the ketogenic diet (KD) to treat inherited metabolic diseases including mitochondrial disorders. However, neither the mechanism whereby the diet may be working, nor if it could benefit all patients with mitochondrial disease, is known. This study focusses on decanoic acid (C10), a component of the medium chain triglyceride KD, and a ligand for the nuclear receptor PPAR-γ known to be involved in mitochondrial biogenesis. The effects of C10 were investigated in primary fibroblasts from a cohort of patients with Leigh syndrome (LS) caused by nuclear-encoded defects of respiratory chain complex I, using mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme assays, gene expression microarray, qPCR and flow cytometry. Treatment with C10 increased citrate synthase activity, a marker of cellular mitochondrial content, in 50 % of fibroblasts obtained from individuals diagnosed with LS in a PPAR-γ-mediated manner. Gene expression analysis and qPCR studies suggested that treating cells with C10 supports fatty acid metabolism, through increasing ACADVL and CPT1 expression, whilst downregulating genes involved in glucose metabolism (PDK3, PDK4). PCK2, involved in blocking glucose metabolism, was upregulated, as was CAT, encoding catalase. Moreover, treatment with C10 also decreased oxidative stress in complex I deficient (rotenone treated) cells. However, since not all cells from subjects with LS appeared to respond to C10, prior cellular testing in vitro could be employed as a means for selecting individuals for subsequent clinical studies involving C10 preparations.

  18. Illegal treatment of barrows with nandrolone ester: effect on growth, histology and residue levels in urine and hair.

    PubMed

    Groot, M J; Lasaroms, J J P; van Bennekom, E O; Meijer, T; Vinyeta, E; van der Klis, J D; Nielen, M W F

    2012-01-01

    The effect of 17β-19-nortestosterone (17βNT) treatment of barrows on residue levels and growth was evaluated. Five barrows were treated three times during the fattening period with 17βNT phenylpropionate (Nandrosol, nandrolone phenylpropionate 50 mg/ml,1 mg/kg body weight). Another five barrows were untreated and five boars (untreated) were kept as positive control. Boars and treated barrows showed a 13 and 9% improvement in growth compared to untreated barrows, with mean final body weights of 121.6, 117.8 and 109.0 kg, respectively. The bulbourethral glands of the treated barrows were three times heavier than untreated barrows. The histology of the prostate and bulbourethral gland of the treated barrows was comparable to the boars, whereas the control barrows showed atrophic glands. Levels of 17βNT ester in hair from treated barrows were high, whereas boars and untreated barrows did not show levels above LLQ. It is concluded that analysis of hair can detect illegal treatment with 17βNT ester in barrows. The size of the bulbourethral gland can also be used for screening in the slaughterhouse.

  19. Effects of testosterone and nandrolone on cardiac function: a randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Chung, T; Kelleher, S; Liu, P Y; Conway, A J; Kritharides, L; Handelsman, D J

    2007-02-01

    Androgens have striking effects on skeletal muscle, but the effects on human cardiac muscle function are not well defined, neither has the role of metabolic activation (aromatization, 5alpha reduction) of testosterone on cardiac muscle been directly studied. To assess the effects of testosterone and nandrolone, a non-amplifiable and non-aromatizable pure androgen, on cardiac muscle function in healthy young men. Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, three-arm parallel group clinical trial. Ambulatory care research centre. Healthy young men randomized into three groups of 10 men. Weekly intramuscular injections of testosterone (200 mg mixed esters), nandrolone (200 mg nandrolone decanoate) or matching (2 ml arachis oil vehicle) placebo for 4 weeks. Comprehensive measures of cardiac muscle function involving transthoracic cardiac echocardiography measuring myocardial tissue velocity, peak systolic strain and strain rates, and bioimpedance measurement of cardiac output and systematic vascular resistance. Left ventricular (LV) function (LV ejection fraction, LV modified TEI index), right ventricular (RV) function (ejection area, tricuspid annular systolic planar motion, RV modified TEI index) as well as cardiac afterload (mean arterial pressure, systemic vascular resistance) and overall cardiac contractility (stroke volume, cardiac output) were within age- and gender-specific reference ranges and were not significantly (P < 0.05) altered by either androgen or placebo over 4 weeks of treatment. Minor changes remaining within normal range were observed solely within the testosterone group for: increased LV end-systolic diameter (30 +/- 7 vs. 33 +/- 5 mm, P = 0.04) and RV end-systolic area (12.8 +/- 1.3 vs. 14.6 +/- 3.3 cm(2), P = 0.04), reduced LV diastolic septal velocity (Em, 9.5 +/- 2.6 vs. 8.7 +/- 2.0 cm/s, P = 0.006), increased LV filling pressure (E/Em ratio, 7.1 +/- 1.6 vs. 8.3 +/- 1.8, P = 0.02) and shortened PR interval on the electrocardiogram (167

  20. Effects of protein-rich supplementation and nandrolone on bone tissue after a hip fracture.

    PubMed

    Tengstrand, Birgitta; Cederholm, Tommy; Söderqvist, Anita; Tidermark, Jan

    2007-08-01

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem worldwide. Low weight is a major risk factor for low bone mass and fractures. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects on bone tissue of protein-rich supplementation alone or in combination with nandrolone decanoate in lean elderly women after a hip fracture. Sixty elderly women with BMI <24 kg/m(2) admitted to hospital due to a femoral neck fracture were randomised to a control group, to receive a protein-rich formula or to receive the same formula with an addition of nandrolone decanoate for 6 months. All patients received additional calcium and vitamin D. The effects after 6 and 12 months were measured by means of bone mineral density (BMD) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and with biochemical bone markers. Osteocalcin and C-terminal telopeptide of collagen-1 (CTX) were used to estimate bone formation and bone resorption, respectively. The analyses showed an increase in total body BMD at 6 and 12 months in patients who received protein-rich supplementation. Nandrolone decanoate did not appear to have any additional effect on BMD. Osteocalcin increased in all groups while no significant changes were found for CTX. The overall results of the study indicated that protein-rich supplementation given to lean elderly female hip fracture patients increased the total body BMD.

  1. Nandrolone decreases mu opioid receptor expression in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Guarino, Goffredo; Spampinato, Santi

    2008-07-16

    Nandrolone and other anabolic androgenic steroids alter the expression and function of neurotransmitter systems and contribute to drug dependence. Nandrolone treatment (10-10 M) caused a time-dependent and concentration-dependent downregulation of mu opioid receptor (MOPr) transcripts in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. This effect was prevented by the androgen receptor antagonist hydroxyflutamide. Receptor binding assays confirmed a decrease in MOPr of approximately 40% in nandrolone-treated cells. Treatment with actinomycin D (10 (-5)M), a transcription inhibitor, revealed that nandrolone might regulate MOPr mRNA stability. In SH-SY5Y cells transfected with a human MOPr luciferase promoter/reporter construct, nandrolone did not alter the rate of gene transcription. These results suggest that nandrolone may regulate MOPr expression through posttranscriptional mechanisms requiring the androgen receptor.

  2. Nandrolone slows hindlimb bone loss in a rat model of bone loss due to denervation.

    PubMed

    Cardozo, Christopher P; Qin, Weiping; Peng, Yuanzhen; Liu, Xuan; Wu, Yong; Pan, Jiangping; Bauman, William A; Zaidi, Mone; Sun, Li

    2010-03-01

    Nandrolone is an anabolic steroid that has been demonstrated to reduce the loss of bone and muscle from hindlimb unweighting and to slow muscle atrophy after nerve transection. To determine whether nandrolone has the ability to protect bone against loss due to disuse after denervation, male rats underwent sciatic nerve transaction, followed 28 days later by treatment with nandrolone or vehicle for 28 days. Bone mineral density (BMD) was determined 28 days later or 56 days after nerve transection. Denervation led to reductions in BMD of 7% and 12% for femur and tibia, respectively. Nandrolone preserved 80% and 60% of BMD in femur and tibia, respectively, demonstrating that nandrolone administration significantly reduced loss of BMD from denervation. This study offers a potential novel pharmacological strategy for use of nandrolone to reduce bone loss in severe disuse- and denervation-related bone loss, such as that which occurs after spinal cord injury.

  3. An acute oral intoxication with haloperidol decanoate.

    PubMed

    Dekkers, Bart G J; Eck, Ruben J; Ter Maaten, Jan C; Touw, Daniël J

    2017-09-01

    Haloperidol decanoate is a typical antipsychotic drug used as maintenance therapy for schizophrenia and mood disorders formulated as an ester for intramuscular injection. Cases of oral haloperidol decanoate intoxications have not been described in literature. In this report, we present for the first time a case of an oral ingestion of haloperidol decanoate of a young woman who presented to the emergency department following an intentional oral ingestion of 1 ampoule of haloperidol decanoate 100mg. At presentation, she had a bilateral rest tremor of both hands and mild hypothermia. No other obvious signs of an intoxication were observed. She was treated with a single dose of activated charcoal and laxative and was admitted to the intensive care for rhythm monitoring and observation. During the night the QTc interval increased to 453ms, but stayed within the normal range. Haloperidol plasma levels increased as well, but also stayed within therapeutic ranges. These findings indicate that treatment with oral activated charcoal was sufficient to prevent any serious events. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cost-Effectiveness of Long-Acting Injectable Paliperidone Palmitate Versus Haloperidol Decanoate in Maintenance Treatment of Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Rosenheck, Robert A; Leslie, Douglas L; Sint, Kyaw J; Lin, Haiqun; Li, Yue; McEvoy, Joseph P; Byerly, Matthew J; Hamer, Robert M; Swartz, Marvin S; Stroup, T Scott

    2016-10-01

    This study assessed the relative cost-effectiveness of haloperidol decanoate (HD), a first-generation long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotic, and paliperidone palmitate (PP), a second-generation LAI antipsychotic. A double-blind, randomized 18-month clinical trial conducted at 22 clinical research sites in the United States compared the cost-effectiveness of HD and PP among 311 adults with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who had been clinically assessed as likely to benefit from an LAI antipsychotic. Patients were randomly assigned to monthly intramuscular injections of HD (25-200 mg) or PP (39-234 mg) for up to 24 months. Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were measured by a schizophrenia-specific algorithm based on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and side-effect assessments; total health care costs were assessed from the perspective of the health system. Mixed-model analysis showed that PP was associated with .0297 greater QALYs over 18 months (p=.03) and with $2,100 more in average costs per quarter for inpatient and outpatient services and medication compared with HD (p<.001). Bootstrap analysis with 5,000 replications showed an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for PP of $508,241 per QALY (95% confidence interval=$122,390-$1,582,711). Net health benefits analysis showed a .98 probability of greater cost-effectiveness for HD compared with PP at an estimated value of $150,000 per QALY and a .50 probability of greater cost-effectiveness at $500,000 per QALY. HD was more cost-effective than PP, suggesting that PP's slightly greater benefits did not justify its markedly higher costs, which are likely to fall once the medication's patent expires.

  5. Nandrolone and resistance training induce heart remodeling: role of fetal genes and implications for cardiac pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Tanno, Ana Paula; das Neves, Vander José; Rosa, Kaleizu Teodoro; Cunha, Tatiana Sousa; Giordano, Fernanda Cristina Linarello; Calil, Caroline Morini; Guzzoni, Vinicius; Fernandes, Tiago; de Oliveira, Edilamar Menezes; Novaes, Pedro Duarte; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia; Moura, Maria José Costa Sampaio; Marcondes, Fernanda Klein

    2011-10-24

    This study was conducted to assess the isolated and combined effects of nandrolone and resistance training on cardiac morphology, function, and mRNA expression of pathological cardiac hypertrophy markers. Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups and submitted to 6 weeks of treatment with nandrolone and/or resistance training. Cardiac parameters were determined by echocardiography. Heart was analyzed for collagen infiltration. Real-time RT-PCR was used to assess the pathological cardiac hypertrophy markers. Both resistance training and nandrolone induced cardiac hypertrophy. Nandrolone increased the cardiac collagen content, and reduced the cardiac index in non-trained and trained groups, when compared with the respective vehicle-treated groups. Nandrolone reduced the ratio of maximum early to late transmitral flow velocity in non-trained and trained groups, when compared with the respective vehicle-treated groups. Nandrolone reduced the alpha-myosin heavy chain gene expression in both non-trained and trained groups, when compared with the respective vehicle-treated groups. Training reduced the beta-myosin heavy chain gene expression in the groups treated with vehicle and nandrolone. Only the association between training and nandrolone increased the expression of the skeletal alpha-actin gene and atrial natriuretic peptide in the left ventricle. This study indicated that nandrolone, whether associated with resistance training or not, induces cardiac hypertrophy, which is associated with enhanced collagen content, re-expression of fetal genes the in left ventricle, and impaired diastolic and systolic function. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Subchronic nandrolone administration reduces cocaine-induced dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine outflow in the rat nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Kurling-Kailanto, Sanna; Kankaanpää, Aino; Seppälä, Timo

    2010-04-01

    The abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs) is not only a problem in the world of sports but is associated with the polydrug use of nonathletes. Investigations of the neurochemical effects of AAS have focused in part on the monoaminergic systems, involving, among other things, the development of dependence. We have previously shown that pretreatment with nandrolone decanoate attenuates dose-dependently the increase in extracellular dopamine (DA) concentration evoked by amphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioyxymethamphetamine in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). The aim of this study was to investigate whether the nandrolone pre-exposure modulates the acute neurochemical and behavioral effects of cocaine in rats and whether the effects are long lasting. DA, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), and their metabolites were measured from samples collected from the NAc by microdialysis. The behavior of the animals was recorded. The present study demonstrates that five injections of nandrolone (5 and 20 mg/kg) inhibited cocaine-evoked DA and 5-HT outflow in the NAc, locomotor activity (LMA), and stereotyped behavior in experimental animals, and that these effects are seen even after elimination of nandrolone from bloodstream. Given that accumbal outflow of DA and 5-HT, as well as LMA and stereotyped behavior, is related to gratification of stimulant drugs, this study suggests that nandrolone, at the doses tested, has a significant effect on the pleasurable properties of cocaine. Furthermore, because neurochemical and behavioral responses were still attenuated after a fairly long recovery period, it seems that nandrolone may induce long-lasting changes in the brains of rat.

  7. Subchronic nandrolone administration reduces cardiac oxidative markers during restraint stress by modulating protein expression patterns.

    PubMed

    Pergolizzi, Barbara; Carriero, Vitina; Abbadessa, Giuliana; Penna, Claudia; Berchialla, Paola; De Francia, Silvia; Bracco, Enrico; Racca, Silvia

    2017-10-01

    Nandrolone decanoate (ND), an anabolic-androgenic steroid prohibited in collegiate and professional sports, is associated with detrimental cardiovascular effects through redox-dependent mechanisms. We previously observed that high-dose short-term ND administration (15 mg/kg for 2 weeks) did not induce left heart ventricular hypertrophy and, paradoxically, improved postischemic response, whereas chronic ND treatment (5 mg/kg twice a week for 10 weeks) significantly reduced the cardioprotective effect of postconditioning, with an increase in infarct size and a decrease in cardiac performance. We wanted to determine whether short-term ND administration could affect the oxidative redox status in animals exposed to acute restraint stress. Our hypothesis was that, depending on treatment schedule, ND may have a double-edged sword effect. Measurement of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal, two oxidative stress markers, in rat plasma and left heart ventricular tissue, revealed that the levels of both markers were increased in animals exposed to restraint stress, whereas no increase in marker levels was noted in animals pretreated with ND, indicating a possible protective action of ND against stress-induced oxidative damage. Furthermore, isolation and identification of proteins extracted from the left heart ventricular tissue samples of rats pretreated or not with ND and exposed to acute stress showed a prevalent expression of enzymes involved in amino acid synthesis and energy metabolism. Among other proteins, peroxiredoxin 6 and alpha B-crystallin, both involved in the oxidative stress response, were predominantly expressed in the left heart ventricular tissues of the ND-pretreated rats. In conclusion, ND seems to reduce oxidative stress by inducing the expression of antioxidant proteins in the hearts of restraint-stressed animals, thus contributing to amelioration of postischemic heart performance.

  8. Nandrolone: a multi-faceted doping agent.

    PubMed

    Hemmersbach, Peter; Grosse, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Nandrolone or nortestosterone, an anabolic-androgenic steroid, has been prohibited by doping control regulations for more than 30 years. Although its main metabolism in the human body was already known at that time, and detection of its misuse by gas or liquid chromatographic separation with mass spectrometric detection is straightforward, many interesting aspects regarding this doping agent have appeared since.Over the years, nandrolone preparations have kept their position among the prohibited substances that are most frequently detected in WADA-accredited laboratories. Their forms of application range from injectable fatty acid esters to orally administered nandrolone prohormones. The long detection window for nandrolone ester preparations and the appearance of orally available nandrolone precursors have changed the pattern of misuse.At the same time, more refined analytical methods with lowered detection limits led to new insights into the pharmacology of nandrolone and revelation of its natural production in the body.Possible contamination of nutritional supplements with nandrolone precursors, interference of nandrolone metabolism by other drugs and rarely occurring critical changes during storage of urine samples have to be taken into consideration when interpreting an analytical finding.A set of strict identification criteria, including a threshold limit, is applied to judge correctly an analytical finding of nandrolone metabolites. The possible influence of interfering drugs, urine storage or natural production is taken into account by applying appropriate rules and regulations.

  9. Concentrations of nandrolone metabolites in urine after the therapeutic administration of an ophthalmic solution.

    PubMed

    Avois, Lidia; Mangin, Patrice; Saugy, Martial

    2007-05-09

    Nandrolone, an anabolic steroid, is used for the treatment of several diseases and is available in various pharmaceutical formulations. The most widely used pharmaceutical formulation is Deca-Durabolin, but other products, such as Keratyl eye drops solution, are also currently administered. Nandrolone is one of the most abused anabolic steroid in sports. Analyses for this anabolic steroid according to the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) protocol are based on the identification of the nandrolone two main urinary metabolites which, in humans, are glucuronides of 19-norandrosterone and 19-noretiocholanolone. A positive cut off limit of 2 ng/mL has been set by the anti-doping code for the first metabolite, 19-norandrosterone. In this preliminary study, an eye drops solution (Keratyl) containing a therapeutic dose of a nandrolone sodium sulphate was administered to several male volunteers during 3 days and urines were collected during 3 weeks. Surprisingly, contrary to all expectations, the urinary concentrations measured in urines reached 450 ng/mL and 70 ng/mL for norandrosterone and noretiocholanolone, respectively. Moreover, concentration levels near to 2 ng/mL were found, more than 2 weeks after the last administration, depending on individual metabolism. Inter-variability as well as intra-variability of nandrolone excretion kinetic, regarding this particular administration mode, were also evaluated. Quantification of nandrolone metabolites was performed by GC-MS. The method was previously validated in terms of specificity, precision, linearity, LOD, LOQ, robustness, accuracy and the expanded uncertainty was also evaluated.

  10. The anabolic steroid nandrolone alters cannabinoid self-administration and brain CB1 receptor density and function.

    PubMed

    Struik, Dicky; Fadda, Paola; Zara, Tamara; Zamberletti, Erica; Rubino, Tiziana; Parolaro, Daniela; Fratta, Walter; Fattore, Liana

    2017-01-01

    Clinical and pre-clinical observations indicate that anabolic-androgenic steroids can induce neurobiological changes that alter the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. In this study, we investigated the effect of the anabolic steroid nandrolone on the rewarding properties of the cannabinoid CB 1 receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (WIN) in rats. Lister Hooded male rats were treated intramuscularly with nandrolone (15mg/kg) or vehicle for 14 consecutive days, and then allowed to self-administer WIN (12.5μg/kg/infusion) intravenously. After reaching stable drug intake, self-administration behavior was extinguished to examine drug- and cue-induced reinstatement of cannabinoid-seeking behavior. Other behavioral parameters presumed to influence drug-taking and drug-seeking behaviors were examined to gain more insight into the behavioral specificity of nandrolone treatment. Finally, animals were sacrificed for analysis of CB 1 receptor density and function in selected brain areas. We found that nandrolone-treated rats self-administered up to 2 times more cannabinoid than vehicle-treated rats, but behaved similarly to control rats when tested for drug- and cue-induced reinstatement of cannabinoid-seeking behavior. Enhanced cannabinoid intake by nandrolone-treated rats was not accompanied by changes in locomotor activity, sensorimotor gating, or memory function. However, our molecular data show that after chronic WIN self-administration nandrolone-treated rats display altered CB 1 receptor density and function in selected brain areas. We hypothesize that increased cannabinoid self-administration in nandrolone-treated rats results from a nandrolone-induced decrease in reward function, which rats seem to compensate by voluntarily increasing their cannabinoid intake. Altogether, our findings corroborate the hypothesis that chronic exposure to anabolic-androgenic steroids induces dysfunction of the reward pathway in rats and might represent a potential risk factor for abuse of

  11. Beyond testosterone cypionate: evidence behind the use of nandrolone in male health and wellness

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    Characterized by low serum testosterone levels and diverse symptoms, male hypogonadism is a common condition. Current medical treatment focuses on testosterone supplementation using multiple modalities such as injections, gels and pellets. Interestingly, while testosterone is considered an anabolic androgenic steroid, it has not been saddled with the social stigma that other, similar medications have. The goal of this review is to highlight an anabolic steroid, 19-nortestosterone (i.e., nandrolone, deca-durabolin) and illustrate prospective therapeutic applications for male health. Containing a chemical structure similar to testosterone, nandrolone has a higher myotrophic: androgenic ratio resulting in improved effects on muscle mass. Animal models have suggested application in the improvement of joint healing following rotator cuff repair. Minimal literature exists regarding the use of nandrolone and, as such, further human studies are required. PMID:27141449

  12. Beyond testosterone cypionate: evidence behind the use of nandrolone in male health and wellness.

    PubMed

    Pan, Michael M; Kovac, Jason R

    2016-04-01

    Characterized by low serum testosterone levels and diverse symptoms, male hypogonadism is a common condition. Current medical treatment focuses on testosterone supplementation using multiple modalities such as injections, gels and pellets. Interestingly, while testosterone is considered an anabolic androgenic steroid, it has not been saddled with the social stigma that other, similar medications have. The goal of this review is to highlight an anabolic steroid, 19-nortestosterone (i.e., nandrolone, deca-durabolin) and illustrate prospective therapeutic applications for male health. Containing a chemical structure similar to testosterone, nandrolone has a higher myotrophic: androgenic ratio resulting in improved effects on muscle mass. Animal models have suggested application in the improvement of joint healing following rotator cuff repair. Minimal literature exists regarding the use of nandrolone and, as such, further human studies are required.

  13. 75 FR 48351 - Determination That DECA-DURABOLIN (Nandrolone Decanoate) Injection, 200 Milligrams/Milliliter, 1...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-10

    ... Not Withdrawn From Sale for Reasons of Safety or Effectiveness AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration... withdrawn from sale for reasons of safety or effectiveness. This determination will allow FDA to approve... or effectiveness, or if FDA determines that the listed drug was withdrawn from sale for reasons of...

  14. Effects of nandrolone on recovery after neurotization of chronically denervated muscle in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Isaacs, Jonathan; Feher, Joseph; Shall, Mary; Vota, Scott; Fox, Michael A; Mallu, Satya; Razavi, Ashkon; Friebe, Ilvy; Shah, Sagar; Spita, Nathalie

    2013-10-01

    Suboptimal recovery following repair of major peripheral nerves has been partially attributed to denervation atrophy. Administration of anabolic steroids in conjunction with neurotization may improve functional recovery of chronically denervated muscle. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the administration of nandrolone on muscle recovery following prolonged denervation in a rat model. Eight groups of female Sprague-Dawley rats (15 rats per group, 120 in all) were divided into 3- or 6-month denervated hind limb and sham surgery groups and, then, nandrolone treatment groups and sham treatment groups. Evaluation of treatment effects included nerve conduction, force of contraction, comparative morphology, histology (of muscle fibers), protein electrophoresis (for muscle fiber grouping), and immunohistochemical evaluation. Although a positive trend was noted, neither reinnervated nor normal muscle showed a statistically significant increase in peak muscle force following nandrolone treatment. Indirect measures, including muscle mass (weight and diameter), muscle cell size, muscle fiber type, and satellite cell counts, all failed to support significant anabolic effect. There does not seem to be a functional benefit from nandrolone treatment following reinnervation of either mild or moderately atrophic muscle (related to prolonged denervation) in a rodent model.

  15. Effects of nandrolone and resistance training on the blood pressure, cardiac electrophysiology, and expression of atrial β-adrenergic receptors.

    PubMed

    das Neves, Vander José; Tanno, Ana Paula; Cunha, Tatiana Sousa; Fernandes, Tiago; Guzzoni, Vinicius; da Silva, Carlos Alberto; de Oliveira, Edilamar Menezes; Moura, Maria José Costa Sampaio; Marcondes, Fernanda Klein

    2013-05-30

    This study was performed to assess isolated and combined effects of nandrolone and resistance training on the blood pressure, cardiac electrophysiology, and expression of the β1- and β2-adrenergic receptors in the heart of rats. Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups and submitted to a 6-week treatment with nandrolone and/or resistance training. Cardiac hypertrophy was accessed by the ratio of heart weight to the final body weight. Blood pressure was determined by a computerized tail-cuff system. Electrocardiography analyses were performed. Western blotting was used to access the protein levels of the β1- and β2-adrenergic receptors in the right atrium and left ventricle. Both resistance training and nandrolone induced cardiac hypertrophy. Nandrolone increased systolic blood pressure depending on the treatment time. Resistance training decreased systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure, as well as induced resting bradycardia. Nandrolone prolonged the QTc interval for both trained and non-trained groups when they were compared to their respective vehicle-treated one. Nandrolone increased the expression of β1- and β2-adrenergic receptors in the right atrium for both trained and non-trained groups when they were compared to their respective vehicle-treated one. This study indicated that nandrolone, associated or not with resistance training increases blood pressure depending on the treatment time, induces prolongation of the QTc interval, and increases the expression of β1- and β2-adrenergic receptors in the cardiac right atrium, but not in the left ventricle. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Melatonin improve the sperm quality in forced swimming test induced oxidative stress in nandrolone treated Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Minaii, Bagher; Moayeri, Ardeshir; Shokri, Saeed; Habibi Roudkenar, Mehryar; Golmohammadi, Taghi; Malek, Fatemeh; Barbarestani, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of melatonin on the sperm quality and testis weight after the combination of swimming exercise and nandrolone decanoate (DECA). Two groups of male Wistar rats were treated for eight weeks as follows; group A consist of CO (control), Sham, N (DECA), S (swimming) and NS (DECA plus swimming); and group B: Sham M (sham melatonin), M (melatonin), MN (melatonin plus DECA), MS (melatonin plus swimming), MNS (melatonin, DECA plus swimming). The motility of sperm was significantly improved in melatonin groups in comparison to N, S and NS groups (P≤0.05).  The left testes weight was decreased in N, NS and MNS groups, and the right testes weight was decreased in N,S,NS, MS and MNS groups in compare with the control group. This study concluded that melatonin probably could improve the sperm motility and sex organs weight after the combination of DECA and exercise.

  17. Bovine teeth as a novel matrix for the control of the food chain: liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detection of treatments with prednisolone, dexamethasone, estradiol, nandrolone and seven β2-agonists.

    PubMed

    Chiesa, Luca Maria; Nobile, Maria; Panseri, Sara; Biolatti, Bartolomeo; Cannizzo, Francesca Tiziana; Pavlovic, Radmila; Arioli, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Veterinary drugs usually have rapid clearance rates in the liver and kidney, hampering their detection in conventional matrices such as the liver or urine. Pharmacological principles such as esterification may be applied to facilitate the administration of veterinary drugs and increase drug half-life. Prednisolone, whose therapeutic administration is regulated for food producing animals in the EU, is available in its acetate form as well as nandrolone, a banned anabolic steroid, which may be obtained as nandrolone phenylpropionate and estradiol as a benzoyl ester. While the distribution and accumulation of lipophilic and hydrophilic substances in human teeth have been well documented, studies on residues in bovine teeth are lacking. We hypothesised that analysis of bovine teeth could be used to detect both regulated and banned veterinary drugs. Steroids may be illegally used as growth promoters in food producing animals, alone or combined with β2-agonists; therefore, we developed, and validated, in accordance with the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC, two analytical confirmatory LC-MS/MS methods to detect these classes of compounds following a unique liquid extraction procedure. Finally, we analysed teeth from three male Friesian veal calves treated with intramuscular estradiol benzoate, oral prednisolone acetate or intramuscular nandrolone phenylpropionate in combination with oral ractopamine, respectively, and from seven bovines from the food chain. Teeth from treated animals were positive for their respective drugs, with the exception of nandrolone phenylpropionate. One sample from a food chain bovine was positive for isoxsuprine, one of the seven β2-agonists studied. Non-esterified forms of the steroids were not found. These results demonstrate that bovine teeth are a suitable matrix for the determination of pseudoendogenous substances or illicit administration of veterinary drugs.

  18. Pharmacokinetics of long-acting nalbuphine decanoate after intramuscular administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; KuKanich, Butch; Heath, Timothy D; Krugner-Higby, Lisa A; Barker, Steven A; Brown, Carolyn S; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of nalbuphine decanoate after IM administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 9 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots of unknown sex. Nalbuphine decanoate (37.5 mg/kg) was administered IM to all birds. Plasma samples were obtained from blood collected before (time 0) and 0.25, 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 96 hours after drug administration. Plasma samples were used for measurement of nalbuphine concentrations via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated with computer software. Plasma concentrations of nalbuphine increased rapidly after IM administration, with a mean concentration of 46.1 ng/mL at 0.25 hours after administration. Plasma concentrations of nalbuphine remained > 20 ng/mL for at least 24 hours in all birds. The maximum plasma concentration was 109.4 ng/mL at 2.15 hours. The mean terminal half-life was 20.4 hours. In Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, plasma concentrations of nalbuphine were prolonged after IM administration of nalbuphine decanoate, compared with previously reported results after administration of nalbuphine hydrochloride. Plasma concentrations that could be associated with antinociception were maintained for 24 hours after IM administration of 37.5 mg of nalbuphine decanoate/kg. Safety and analgesic efficacy of nalbuphine treatments in this species require further investigation to determine the potential for clinical use in pain management in psittacine species.

  19. Nandrolone Normalizes Determinants of Muscle Mass and Fiber Type after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yong; Zhao, Jingbo; Zhao, Weidong; Pan, Jiangping; Bauman, William A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in atrophy of skeletal muscle and changes from slow oxidative to fast glycolytic fibers, which may reflect reduced levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), increased myostatin signaling, or both. In animals, testosterone reduces loss of muscle fiber cross-sectional area and activity of enzymes of energy metabolism. To identify the molecular mechanisms behind the benefits of androgens on paralyzed muscle, male rats were spinal cord transected and treated for 8 weeks with vehicle, testosterone at a physiological replacement dose, or testosterone plus nandrolone, an anabolic steroid. Treatments were initiated immediately after SCI and continued until the day animals were euthanized. In the SCI animals, gastrocnemius muscle mass was significantly increased by testosterone plus nandrolone, but not by testosterone alone. Both treatments significantly reduced nuclear content of Smad2/3 and mRNA levels of activin receptor IIB and follistatin-like 3. Testosterone alone or with nandrolone reversed SCI-induced declines in cellular and nuclear levels of PGC-1α protein and PGC-1α mRNA levels. For PGC-1α target genes, testosterone plus nandrolone partially reversed SCI-induced decreases in levels of proteins without corresponding increases in their mRNA levels. Thus, the findings demonstrate that following SCI, signaling through activin receptors and Smad2/3 is increased, and that androgens suppress activation of this signaling pathway. The findings also indicate that androgens upregulate PGC-1α in paralyzed muscle and promote its nuclear localization, but that these effects are insufficient to fully activate transcription of PGC-1α target genes. Furthermore, the transcription of these genes is not tightly coupled with their translation. PMID:22208735

  20. Nandrolone normalizes determinants of muscle mass and fiber type after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yong; Zhao, Jingbo; Zhao, Weidong; Pan, Jiangping; Bauman, William A; Cardozo, Christopher P

    2012-05-20

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in atrophy of skeletal muscle and changes from slow oxidative to fast glycolytic fibers, which may reflect reduced levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), increased myostatin signaling, or both. In animals, testosterone reduces loss of muscle fiber cross-sectional area and activity of enzymes of energy metabolism. To identify the molecular mechanisms behind the benefits of androgens on paralyzed muscle, male rats were spinal cord transected and treated for 8 weeks with vehicle, testosterone at a physiological replacement dose, or testosterone plus nandrolone, an anabolic steroid. Treatments were initiated immediately after SCI and continued until the day animals were euthanized. In the SCI animals, gastrocnemius muscle mass was significantly increased by testosterone plus nandrolone, but not by testosterone alone. Both treatments significantly reduced nuclear content of Smad2/3 and mRNA levels of activin receptor IIB and follistatin-like 3. Testosterone alone or with nandrolone reversed SCI-induced declines in cellular and nuclear levels of PGC-1α protein and PGC-1α mRNA levels. For PGC-1α target genes, testosterone plus nandrolone partially reversed SCI-induced decreases in levels of proteins without corresponding increases in their mRNA levels. Thus, the findings demonstrate that following SCI, signaling through activin receptors and Smad2/3 is increased, and that androgens suppress activation of this signaling pathway. The findings also indicate that androgens upregulate PGC-1α in paralyzed muscle and promote its nuclear localization, but that these effects are insufficient to fully activate transcription of PGC-1α target genes. Furthermore, the transcription of these genes is not tightly coupled with their translation.

  1. Synthesis and biological evaluation of nandrolone-bodipy conjugates.

    PubMed

    Jurášek, Michal; Rimpelová, Silvie; Pavlíčková, Vladimíra; Ruml, Tomáš; Lapčík, Oldřich; Drašar, Pavel B

    2015-05-01

    Here, we report synthesis and biological evaluation of fluorescent nandrolone-3-carboxymethyloxime derivatives conjugated with green-emitting bodipy dye via PEG linkers. All the newly-synthesized compounds were evaluated for their effect on cell proliferation in vitro in MCF-7, LNCaP, PC-3 and HEK 293T model cell lines using WST-1 assay. By means of live-cell fluorescence microscopy, the intracellular localization of nandrolone-bodipy conjugates was revealed in endoplasmic reticulum. Moreover, we performed competitive localization study with nonfluorescent nandrolone, metandrolone, boldenone, trenbolone, and testosterone. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. An Experimental and Kinetic Modeling Study of Methyl Decanoate Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Sarathy, S M; Thomson, M J; Pitz, W J

    2009-12-04

    Biodiesel is a mixture of long chain fatty acid methyl esters derived from fats and oils. This research study presents opposed-flow diffusion flame data for one large fatty acid methyl ester, methyl decanoate, and uses the experiments to validate an improved skeletal mechanism consisting of 648 species and 2998 reactions. The results indicate that methyl decanoate is consumed via abstraction of hydrogen atoms to produce fuel radicals, which lead to the production of alkenes. The ester moiety in methyl decanoate leads to the formation of low molecular weight oxygenated compounds such as carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, and ketene.

  3. A multicentre study investigating subcutaneous etonogestrel implants with injectable testosterone decanoate as a potential long-acting male contraceptive.

    PubMed

    Brady, B M; Amory, J K; Perheentupa, A; Zitzmann, M; Hay, C J; Apter, D; Anderson, R A; Bremner, W J; Pollanen, P; Nieschlag, E; Wu, F C W; Kersemaekers, W M

    2006-01-01

    The combination of etonogestrel implants with injectable testosterone decanoate was investigated as a potential male contraceptive. One hundred and thirty subjects were randomly assigned to three treatment groups, all receiving two etonogestrel rods (204 mg etonogestrel) and 400 mg testosterone decanoate either every 4 weeks (group I, n = 42), or every 6 weeks (group II, n = 51) or 600 mg testosterone decanoate every 6 weeks (group III, n = 37) for a treatment period of 48 weeks. One hundred and ten men completed 48 weeks of treatment. Sperm concentrations of <1 x 10(6)/ml were achieved in 90% (group I), 82% (group II) and 89% (group III) of subjects by week 24. Suppression was slower in group II, which also demonstrated more frequent escape from gonadotrophin suppression than groups I and III. Peak testosterone concentrations remained in the normal range throughout in all groups. Mean trough testosterone concentrations were initially subphysiological but increased into the normal range during treatment. Mean haemoglobin levels increased in group I, and a non-significant increase in weight and decline in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was observed in all groups. Fourteen subjects discontinued treatment due to adverse events. Subcutaneous etonogestrel implants in combination with injectable testosterone decanoate resulted in profound suppression of spermatogenesis that could be maintained for up to 1 year. Efficacy of suppression was less in group II, probably due to inadequate testosterone dosage. This combination has potential as a long-acting male hormonal contraceptive.

  4. Effect of nandrolone decanonate on paraoxonase activity in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Ghorbanihaghjo, Amir; Argani, Hassan; Rahbaninoubar, Mohammad; Rashtchizadeh, Nadereh

    2005-12-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of nandrolone decanonate (ND) on HDL-C, apolipoproteins and paraoxonase (PON) activity in stable hemodialysis patients. 64 hemodialysis patients were treated with ND at a dose of 100 mg/I.M./week for 4 months. HDL-C, Apo-AI, Apo B, concentrations and PON activity were measured before and after 2 and 4 months of treatment as well as 2 months after withdrawing the treatment. After 4 months of treatment, an elevation in the serum levels of Apo B (P<0.0001) and a marked decrease in the concentration of HDL-C (P<0.0001), Apo-AI (P<0.0001) and PON activity (P<0.0001) were found. A significant correlation between PON and both Apo-AI (r=0.270, P<0.04) and HDL-C (r=0.455, P<0.0001) and also between HDL-C and Apo-AI (r=0.305, P<0.02) were found. Results revealed the adverse effects of ND on apolipoprotein levels in our study population. It is possible that ND reduces PON activity mostly by reducing both the HDL-C and Apo-AI levels.

  5. Effects of Nandrolone Stimulation on Testosterone Biosynthesis in Leydig Cells.

    PubMed

    Pomara, Cristoforo; Barone, Rosario; Marino Gammazza, Antonella; Sangiorgi, Claudia; Barone, Fulvio; Pitruzzella, Alessandro; Locorotondo, Nicola; Di Gaudio, Francesca; Salerno, Monica; Maglietta, Francesca; Sarni, Antonio Luciano; Di Felice, Valentina; Cappello, Francesco; Turillazzi, Emanuela

    2016-06-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are among the drugs most used by athletes for improving physical performance, as well as for aesthetic purposes. A number of papers have showed the side effects of AAS in different organs and tissues. For example, AAS are known to suppress gonadotropin-releasing hormone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone. This study investigates the effects of nandrolone on testosterone biosynthesis in Leydig cells using various methods, including mass spectrometry, western blotting, confocal microscopy and quantitative real-time PCR. The results obtained show that testosterone levels increase at a 3.9 μM concentration of nandrolone and return to the basal level a 15.6 μM dose of nandrolone. Nandrolone-induced testosterone increment was associated with upregulation of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and downregulation of 17a-hydroxylase/17, 20 lyase (CYP17A1). Instead, a 15.6 µM dose of nandrolone induced a down-regulation of CYP17A1. Further in vivo studies based on these data are needed to better understand the relationship between disturbed testosterone homeostasis and reproductive system impairment in male subjects. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Physiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Nandrolone-induced aggressive behavior is associated with alterations in extracellular glutamate homeostasis in mice.

    PubMed

    Kalinine, Eduardo; Zimmer, Eduardo Rigon; Zenki, Kamila Cagliari; Kalinine, Iouri; Kazlauckas, Vanessa; Haas, Clarissa Branco; Hansel, Gisele; Zimmer, Aline Rigon; Souza, Diogo Onofre; Müller, Alexandre Pastoris; Portela, Luis Valmor

    2014-07-01

    Nandrolone decanoate (ND), an anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS), induces an aggressive phenotype by mechanisms involving glutamate-induced N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) hyperexcitability. The astrocytic glutamate transporters remove excessive glutamate surrounding the synapse. However, the impact of supraphysiological doses of ND on glutamate transporters activity remains elusive. We investigated whether ND-induced aggressive behavior is interconnected with GLT-1 activity, glutamate levels and abnormal NMDAr responses. Two-month-old untreated male mice (CF1, n=20) were tested for baseline aggressive behavior in the resident-intruder test. Another group of mice (n=188) was injected with ND (15mg/kg) or vehicle for 4, 11 and 19days (short-, mid- and long-term endpoints, respectively) and was evaluated in the resident-intruder test. Each endpoint was assessed for GLT-1 expression and glutamate uptake activity in the frontoparietal cortex and hippocampal tissues. Only the long-term ND endpoint significantly decreased the latency to first attack and increased the number of attacks, which was associated with decreased GLT-1 expression and glutamate uptake activity in both brain areas. These alterations may affect extracellular glutamate levels and receptor excitability. Resident males were assessed for hippocampal glutamate levels via microdialysis both prior to, and following, the introduction of intruders. Long-term ND mice displayed significant increases in the microdialysate glutamate levels only after exposure to intruders. A single intraperitoneal dose of the NMDAr antagonists, memantine or MK-801, shortly before the intruder test decreased aggressive behavior. In summary, long-term ND-induced aggressive behavior is associated with decreased extracellular glutamate clearance and NMDAr hyperexcitability, emphasizing the role of this receptor in mediating aggression mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Highly sensitive avidin-biotin ELISA for detection of nandrolone and testosterone in dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Jurášek, Michal; Göselová, Sandra; Mikšátková, Petra; Holubová, Barbora; Vyšatová, Eva; Kuchař, Martin; Fukal, Ladislav; Lapčík, Oldřich; Drašar, Pavel

    2017-04-01

    Avidin-biotin technology was used for the implementation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (AB-ELISA) as a sensitive method for the detection of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) present in dietary supplements. Using click chemistry, novel haptens (linker-optimized biotinylated nandrolone (NT) and testosterone (T) at positions C-3 and C-17, respectively) were designed and synthesized to be then applied as four different immobilized competitors in a proposed set of four indirect competitive AB-ELISAs. Four rabbit polyclonal antibodies of various specificities were prepared using four different immunogens synthesized from C-3 and C-17 carboxymethyloxime and hemisuccinate derivatives of NT and T, respectively. Assembled AB-ELISAs were characterized to establish method parameters such as a half-maximum inhibition concentration (0.18-12.99 ng/mL), limit of detection (0.004-0.032 ng/mL) and linear working range (the best with 0.02-1.38 ng/mL). The stability of the set simulating storage in different conditions was demonstrated. Cross reactivity (CR) was tested for 59 steroids including both endogenous and synthetic analogues in four assembled AB-systems. The focus was placed on the practical use of the method in detection of various AAS in 49 samples of counterfeit dietary supplements. The concordance between ultra high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS) and the CR corrected data from AB-ELISA indicated the potential of this method even to quantification of T propionate, NT phenyl propionate, and NT decanoate in such a complex matter. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Evaluation of nandrolone and ractopamine in the urine of veal calves: liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry approach.

    PubMed

    Chiesa, L; Panseri, S; Cannizzo, F T; Biolatti, B; Divari, S; Benevelli, R; Arioli, F; Pavlovic, R

    2017-04-01

    Under European legislation, the use of growth promoters is forbidden in food-producing livestock. The application of unofficial protocols with diverse combinations of veterinary drugs, administered in very low concentrations, hinders reliable detection and subsequent operative prevention. It was observed that nandrolone (anabolic steroid) and ractopamine (β-adrenergic agonist) are occasionally administered to animals, but little is known about their synergic action when they are administered together. Two specific analytical methods based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry have been developed, both of which include hydrolysis of the corresponding conjugates. For the nandrolone method, solid-phase extraction was necessary for the complete elimination of the interferences, while employment of the Quantitation Enhanced Data-Dependent scan mode during MS acquisition of ractopamine enabled the utilization of simple liquid-liquid extraction. The nandrolone method was linear in the range of 0.5-25 ng/mL, while the ractopamine calibration curve was constructed from 0.5 to 1000 ng/mL. The corresponding coefficients of correlations were >0.9907. The lower limit of quantification for both methods was 0.5 ng/mL, followed by overall recoveries >81%. Precisions expressed as relative standard deviations were <17%, while matrix effects were minimal. Urine samples taken at the slaughterhouse from veal calves enrolled in an experimental treatment consisting of intramuscular administration of β-nandrolone-phenylpropionate accompanied with a ractopamine-enriched diet were analysed. Those methods might be useful for studying the elimination patterns of the administered compounds along with characterization of the main metabolic pathways. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Effects of Nandrolone Stimulation on Testosterone Biosynthesis in Leydig Cells

    PubMed Central

    Barone, Rosario; Marino Gammazza, Antonella; Sangiorgi, Claudia; Barone, Fulvio; Pitruzzella, Alessandro; Locorotondo, Nicola; Di Gaudio, Francesca; Salerno, Monica; Maglietta, Francesca; Sarni, Antonio Luciano; Di Felice, Valentina; Cappello, Francesco; Turillazzi, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are among the drugs most used by athletes for improving physical performance, as well as for aesthetic purposes. A number of papers have showed the side effects of AAS in different organs and tissues. For example, AAS are known to suppress gonadotropin‐releasing hormone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle‐stimulating hormone. This study investigates the effects of nandrolone on testosterone biosynthesis in Leydig cells using various methods, including mass spectrometry, western blotting, confocal microscopy and quantitative real‐time PCR. The results obtained show that testosterone levels increase at a 3.9 μM concentration of nandrolone and return to the basal level a 15.6 μM dose of nandrolone. Nandrolone‐induced testosterone increment was associated with upregulation of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and downregulation of 17a‐hydroxylase/17, 20 lyase (CYP17A1). Instead, a 15.6 µM dose of nandrolone induced a down‐regulation of CYP17A1. Further in vivo studies based on these data are needed to better understand the relationship between disturbed testosterone homeostasis and reproductive system impairment in male subjects. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1385–1391, 2016. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Physiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26626779

  10. Nandrolone reduces activation of Notch signaling in denervated muscle associated with increased Numb expression

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xin-Hua; Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029; Yao, Shen

    2011-10-14

    Highlights: {yields} Nerve transection increased Notch signaling in paralyzed muscle. {yields} Nandrolone prevented denervation-induced Notch signaling. {yields} Nandrolone induced the expression of an inhibitor of the Notch signaling, Numb. {yields} Reduction of denervation-induced Notch signaling by nandrolone is likely through upregulation of Numb. -- Abstract: Nandrolone, an anabolic steroid, slows denervation-atrophy in rat muscle. The molecular mechanisms responsible for this effect are not well understood. Androgens and anabolic steroids activate Notch signaling in animal models of aging and thereby mitigate sarcopenia. To explore the molecular mechanisms by which nandrolone prevents denervation-atrophy, we investigated the effects of nandrolone on Notch signalingmore » in denervated rat gastrocnemius muscle. Denervation significantly increased Notch activity reflected by elevated levels of nuclear Notch intracellular domain (NICD) and expression of Hey1 (a Notch target gene). Activation was greatest at 7 and 35 days after denervation but remained present at 56 days after denervation. Activation of Notch in denervated muscle was prevented by nandrolone associated with upregulated expression of Numb mRNA and protein. These data demonstrate that denervation activates Notch signaling, and that nandrolone abrogates this response associated with increased expression of Numb, suggesting a potential mechanism by which nandrolone reduces denervation-atrophy.« less

  11. Novel Uses for the Anabolic Androgenic Steroids Nandrolone and Oxandrolone in the Management of Male Health.

    PubMed

    Wu, Christopher; Kovac, Jason R

    2016-10-01

    There has recently been renewed interest in novel clinical applications of the anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) testosterone and its synthetic derivatives, particularly given with the rising popularity of testosterone supplementation therapy (TST) for the treatment of male hypogonadism. In this manuscript, we provide a brief review of the history of AAS and discuss clinical applications of two of the more well-known AAS: nandrolone and oxandrolone. Both agents exhibit favorable myotrophic/androgenic ratios and have been investigated for effectiveness in numerous disease states. We also provide a brief synopsis of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) and postulate how these orally active, non-aromatizing, tissue-selective agents might be used in contemporary andrology. Currently, the applications of testosterone alternatives in hypogonadism are limited. However, it is tempting to speculate that these agents may one day become accepted as alternatives, or adjuncts, to the treatment of male hypogonadism.

  12. Use of high-dose nandrolone aggravates septic shock in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Lin, Che; Chen, Shou-Tung; Chien, Su-Yu; Kuo, Shou-Jen; Chen, Dar-Ren

    2011-06-01

    Nandrolone, an anabolic-androgenic steroid, is widely misused by athletes who wish to rapidly increase muscle mass and performance. An increasing number of reports have indicated that nandrolone may affect and modulate the immune system. This study aimed to investigate the effects of nandrolone on septic shock-caused immune responses and the cellular mechanism of action using a sepsis murine model. Before septic shock induction, BALB/c mice were given a high dose of nandrolone or peanut oil only. After septic shock induction, mice were sacrificed at different time points. Their blood and tissue specimens were analyzed. It was found that the high-dose nandrolone group had significantly increased mortality compared with the control group (p<0.001). The serum malondialdehyde level was significantly increased in the high-dose group compared with the control group. Animals administered a high dose of nandrolone had significantly increased hepatic tumor necrosis factor-α or splenic interferon-γ at 0 and 6 hours. In lung tissue, insulin-like growth factor-1, insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor, and IGFBP1 and IGFBP2 mRNA expression were increased in the high-dose nandrolone group at 6 hours. Nandrolone abuse may hasten the death of patients with septic shock and may aggravate septic shock in mice. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Nandrolone attenuates aortic adaptation to exercise in rats.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mengwei; Shen, Weili; Zhong, Meifang; Wu, Pingping; Chen, Hong; Lu, Aiyun

    2013-03-15

    In this study, we investigated the interaction between exercise-induced mitochondrial adaptation of large vessels and the effects of chronic anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs). Four groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were studied: (i) sedentary, (ii) sedentary + nandrolone-treated, (iii) aerobic exercise trained, and (iv) trained + nandrolone-treated. Aerobic training increased the levels of aortic endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in accordance with improved acetylcholine-induced vascular relaxation. These beneficial effects were associated with induction of mitochondrial complexes I and V, increased mitochondrial DNA copy number, and greater expression of transcription factors involved in mitochondrial biogenesis/fusion. We also observed enhanced mitochondrial autophagy pathway activity, including increased conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II and greater expression of beclin1 and autophagy-related protein-7 (ATG7). The levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and protein carbonyls remained unchanged, whereas significant increases in catalase and mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) levels were observed in the aortas of trained animals, when compared with sedentary controls. Nandrolone increased oxidative stress biomarkers and inhibited exercise-induced increases of eNOS, HO-1, catalase, and MnSOD expression. In addition, it also attenuated elevated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) and mitofusin-2 expression, and further up-regulated LC3II conversion, beclin1, ATG7, and dynamin-related protein-1 expression. These results demonstrate that nandrolone attenuates aortic adaptations to exercise by regulating mitochondrial dynamic remodelling, including down-regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and intensive autophagy.

  14. Nandrolone excretion in sedentary vs physically trained young women.

    PubMed

    Enea, C; Boisseau, N; Bayle, M L; Flament, M M; Grenier-Loustalot, M F; Denjean, A; Diaz, V; Dugué, B

    2010-02-01

    We investigated the effects of the menstrual cycle, oral contraception and physical training on exhaustive exercise-induced changes in the excretion of nandrolone metabolites [19-norandrosterone (19-NA), and 19-noretiocholanolone (19-NE)] in young women. Twenty-eight women were allocated to an untrained group (n=16) or a trained group (n=12), depending on their physical training background. The untrained group was composed of nine oral contraceptive users (OC+) and seven eumenorrheic women (OC-), while the trained group was entirely composed of OC+ subjects. Three laboratory sessions were conducted in a randomized order: a prolonged exercise test, a short-term exercise test and a control session. Urine specimens were collected before and 30, 60 and 90 min after the exercise test and at the same times of the day during the control session. Urinary concentrations of nandrolone metabolites were determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Urinary concentrations of 19-NA and 19-NE ranged from undetectable levels to 1.14 and 0.47 ng/mL, respectively. Nandrolone excretion was not affected by the menstrual cycle phase (early follicular vs mid-luteal), prior physical training, oral contraception or acute physical exercise. Therefore, a urinary concentration of 2 ng/mL of 19-NA appears to be fair as the upper acceptable limit in doping control tests for female athletes.

  15. [13C]Nandrolone excretion in trained athletes: interindividual variability in metabolism.

    PubMed

    Baume, Norbert; Avois, Lidia; Schweizer, Carine; Cardis, Christine; Dvorak, Jiri; Cauderay, Michel; Mangin, Patrice; Saugy, Martial

    2004-02-01

    Nandrolone is one of the most abused anabolic steroids, and its use in doping is increasing, as revealed by numerous positive cases during recent years in various sports. Different authors have reported the possible natural production of nandrolone metabolites in humans, and some of these authors argued that exhaustive exercise could increase nandrolone production in the body or induce dehydration and consequently lead to an increase of nandrolone metabolites in urine. Volunteers (n = 22) ingested two 25-mg doses of [(13)C]nandrolone at 24-h intervals and collected urine specimens for 5 days. The labeled nandrolone metabolites 19-norandrosterone and 19-noretiocholanolone were identified and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Interindividual variability was observed in nandrolone excretion patterns and kinetics, as well as for the noretiocholanolone:norandrosterone ratio. The amounts of nandrolone metabolites measured at the excretion peak varied between 1180 and 38 661 microg/L for norandrosterone and 576 and 12 328 microg/L for noretiocholanolone. At the end of the excretion period, the noretiocholanolone:norandrosterone ratio was sometimes >1. The analysis of numerous spot-urine samples allowed the determination of an acceptable correlation between urinary creatinine and specific gravity for placebo- and steroid-treated individuals: y = 0.0052ln(x) + 1.0178 (r(2) = 0.8142) and y = 0.0068ln(x) + 1.0172 (r(2) = 0.7730), respectively. The excretion kinetics and patterns of labeled nandrolone show interindividual variability. More investigations are currently underway to estimate the influence of exhaustive exercises on excretion of labeled nandrolone metabolites in urine.

  16. Effects of high-intensity exercises on 13C-nandrolone excretion in trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Baume, Norbert; Avois, Lidia; Sottas, Pierre-Edouard; Dvorak, Jiri; Cauderay, Michel; Mangin, Patrice; Saugy, Martial

    2005-05-01

    Nandrolone is an anabolic steroid widely used in several sports. The numerous nandrolone positive cases in the recent years (International Olympic Committee statistics) led to several studies in the antidoping field. Nevertheless, essential questions pertaining to nandrolone endogenous production, the effects of physical exercise on the excretion of nandrolone metabolites, and contamination from nutritional supplements must still be addressed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of exhaustive exercises on 19-norandrosterone (19-NA) and 19-noretiocholanolone (19-NE) urinary excretion rates after administration of labeled nandrolone. A total of 34 healthy male Caucasian volunteers from the Institute of Sports Sciences and Physical Education (University of Lausanne) applied to participate in the study. All subjects were free from any physical drug addiction and were instructed strictly to avoid any nutritional supplement or steroid before and during the study. The participants were randomly dispatched in 2 groups in a double-blind way: a placebo group and a group treated with C-labeled nandrolone. The urinary concentrations of the 2 main nandrolone metabolites, 19-NA and 19-NE, were measured using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. In addition, clinical parameters such as creatinine, total protein, and beta2-microglobuline levels were determined using immunologic assays. After an oral ingestion of a 25 mg 3,4-C2-nandrolone dose, followed by a second identical dose 24 hours later, 19-NA and 19-NE could be detected in the urine for a period of 6 days after the initial intake. Despite several interesting observations, the measurements were very scattered and did not appear to be significantly influenced by exercise sessions in the athlete population. The results of this study suggest that physical exercise cannot be considered as a reliable parameter that systematically affects nandrolone metabolite concentrations in the urine.

  17. Vascular adaptive responses to physical exercise and to stress are affected differently by nandrolone administration.

    PubMed

    Bruder-Nascimento, T; Cordellini, S

    2011-04-01

    Androgenic anabolic steroid, physical exercise and stress induce cardiovascular adaptations including increased endothelial function. The present study investigated the effects of these conditions alone and in combination on the vascular responses of male Wistar rats. Exercise was started at 8 weeks of life (60-min swimming sessions 5 days per week for 8 weeks, while carrying a 5% body-weight load). One group received nandrolone (5 mg/kg, twice per week for 8 weeks, im). Acute immobilization stress (2 h) was induced immediately before the experimental protocol. Curves for noradrenaline were obtained for thoracic aorta, with and without endothelium from sedentary and trained rats, submitted or not to stress, treated or not with nandrolone. None of the procedures altered the vascular reactivity to noradrenaline in denuded aorta. In intact aorta, stress and exercise produced vascular adaptive responses characterized by endothelium-dependent hyporeactivity to noradrenaline. These conditions in combination did not potentiate the vascular adaptive response. Exercise-induced vascular adaptive response was abolished by nandrolone. In contrast, the aortal reactivity to noradrenaline of sedentary rats and the vascular adaptive response to stress of sedentary and trained rats were not affected by nandrolone. Maximum response for 7-10 rats/group (g): sedentary 3.8 ± 0.2 vs trained 3.0 ± 0.2*; sedentary/stress 2.7 ± 0.2 vs trained/stress 3.1 ± 0.1*; sedentary/nandrolone 3.6 ± 0.1 vs trained/nandrolone 3.8 ± 0.1; sedentary/stress/nandrolone 3.2 ± 0.1 vs trained/stress/nandrolone 2.5 ± 0.1*; *P < 0.05 compared to its respective control. Stress and physical exercise determine similar vascular adaptive response involving distinct mechanisms as indicated by the observation that only the physical exercise-induced adaptive response was abolished by nandrolone.

  18. The effect of nandrolone, an anabolic steroid on putrescine metabolism in the mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Henningsson, S; Rosengren, E

    1976-01-01

    1 The catabolism of injected 14 C-putrescine was studied in mice treated with nandrolone phenpropionate, an anabolic steroid. 2 The putrescine was rapidly metabolized; almost 50% of the injected radioactivity was recovered within 2 h as 14 CO2 in the expired air. 3 Considerable amounts of radioactive gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and an unidentified compound were found in the kidney and in the urine in addition to radioactive putrescine, spermidine and spermine both in controls and nandrolone-treated mice. 4 Nandrolone elevated the concentration of endogenous putrescine in the kidney and urine, eightfold and twentyfold, respectively, and the concentrations of spermidine and spermine were also increased 5 after the injection of 14C-putrescine the incorporation of 14C into spermidine was significantly increased in the kidney of mice receiving nandrolone. PMID:990594

  19. An intra-hippocampal injection of nandrolone induces learning and memory impairments in rat.

    PubMed

    Karamian, A; Pakdel, F G; Ilkhanipoor, M; Farokhi, F; Ahmadi, A

    2015-01-01

    This study was investigated to evaluate the effect of intra-hippocampal injection of the nandrolone on spatial learning task in rats. The drug or vehicle was manually injected into the hippocampus with a 10-µl Hamilton syringe attached via polyethylene tubing to 27-gauge stainless-steel injection cannula. After 6 days of recovery, learning behaviors were evaluated using an 8-arm radial maze. The results showed that intra-hippocampal injection of nandrolone can impair trained spatial learning at a dose of 5 µl. We also observed a dense cytoplasm and nucleus in CA1 neurons as well as signs of necrosis. Nandrolone can impair the time required to reach the baited arm as well as the frequency of successful arm entries. At the 10 µl dose of nandrolone, neural hypertrophy and increased dentate gyrus volume were also observed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Comparison of PFDA (Perfluoro-n-Decanoic Acid) and TCDD on Heart Membranes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-18

    AD-A171 960 COMPARISON OF PFDA ( PERFLUORO -N-DECANOIC ACID) AND TCDD 1/1 ON HEART NEMBRANES(U) WRIGHT STATE UNIY DAYTON OH SCHOOL OF MEDICINE A E...1986) Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. Perfluoro -n-decanoic acid ( PFDA ) is a synthetic chemical resembling a 10 carbon fatty acid. Several studies have...3 INTRODUCTION Perfluoro -n-decanoic acid ( PFDA ; nonadecafluorodecanoic acid, C10 F19 0 2H) is a straight-chain 10 carbon carboxylic acid with fluorine

  1. Determination of nandrolone and metabolites in urine samples from sedentary persons and sportsmen.

    PubMed

    Galán Martín, A M; Mariño, J I; García de Tiedra, M P; Marabé, J J; Caballero Loscos, M J; Mariño, M M

    2001-09-25

    Metabolites of nandrolone were determined in the urine of several sportsmen, sedentary and post-menopausal women by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry quadrupole (GC-MS) and capillary gas chromatography mass-mass spectrometry ion trap (GC-MS-MS) methods. The method employed was GC-EI-MS with 17alpha-methyltestosterone as internal standard with ethyl ether extraction prior to selected ion monitoring of the bis(trimethylsilyl) ethers at ion masses m/z 405 and 420 for the nandrolone metabolites, and 418 and 403 for nandrolone derivative. Recovery for nandrolone, 19-norandrosterone (19-NA) and 19-noretiocholanolone (19-NE) was 97.20, 94.17 and 95.54%, respectively. Detection limits for nandrolone, 19-NA and 19-NE were 0.03, 0.01 and 0.06 ng/ml. Metabolites of nandrolone (19-NA and 19-NE) were found in 12.5% (n = 40) of sportsmen and 40% (n = 10) of post-menopausal women.

  2. Nandrolone reduces activation of Notch signaling in denervated muscle associated with increased Numb expression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin-Hua; Yao, Shen; Qiao, Rui-Fang; Levine, Alice C; Kirschenbaum, Alexander; Pan, Jiangping; Wu, Yong; Qin, Weiping; Bauman, William A; Cardozo, Christopher P

    2011-10-14

    Nandrolone, an anabolic steroid, slows denervation-atrophy in rat muscle. The molecular mechanisms responsible for this effect are not well understood. Androgens and anabolic steroids activate Notch signaling in animal models of aging and thereby mitigate sarcopenia. To explore the molecular mechanisms by which nandrolone prevents denervation-atrophy, we investigated the effects of nandrolone on Notch signaling in denervated rat gastrocnemius muscle. Denervation significantly increased Notch activity reflected by elevated levels of nuclear Notch intracellular domain (NICD) and expression of Hey1 (a Notch target gene). Activation was greatest at 7 and 35 days after denervation but remained present at 56 days after denervation. Activation of Notch in denervated muscle was prevented by nandrolone associated with upregulated expression of Numb mRNA and protein. These data demonstrate that denervation activates Notch signaling, and that nandrolone abrogates this response associated with increased expression of Numb, suggesting a potential mechanism by which nandrolone reduces denervation-atrophy. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Ex vivo spontaneous generation of 19-norandrostenedione and nandrolone detected in equine plasma and urine.

    PubMed

    Guan, Fuyu; Uboh, Cornelius E; Soma, Lawrence R; You, Youwen; Li, Xiaoqing; McDonnell, Sue

    2012-01-01

    19-Norandrostenedione (NAED) and nandrolone are anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs). Nandrolone was regarded solely as a synthetic AAS until the 1980s when trace concentrations of apparently endogenous nandrolone were detected in urine samples obtained from intact male horses (stallions). Since then, its endogenous origin has been reported in boars and bulls; endogenous NAED and nandrolone have been identified in plasma and urine samples collected from stallions. More recently, however, it was suggested that NAED and nandrolone detected in urine samples from stallions are primarily artifacts due to the analytical procedure. The present study was undertaken to determine whether NAED and nandrolone detected in plasma and urine samples collected from stallions are truly endogenous or artifacts from sample processing. To answer this question, fresh plasma and urine samples from ≥8 stallions were analyzed for the two AASs, soon after collection, by liquid chromatography hyphenated to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). NAED and nandrolone were not detected in fresh plasma samples but detected in the same samples post storage. Concentrations of both AASs increased with storage time, and the increases were greater at a higher storage temperature (37°C versus 4°C, and ambient temperature versus 4°C). Although NAED was detected in some fresh stallion urine samples, its concentration (<407 pg/mL) was far lower (<0.4%) than that in the same samples post storage (at ambient temperature for 15 days). Nandrolone was not detected in most of fresh urine samples but detected in the same samples post storage. Based on these results, it is concluded that all NAED and nandrolone detected in stored plasma samples of stallions and most of them in the stored urine samples are not from endogenous origins but spontaneously generated during sample storage, most likely from spontaneous decarboxylation of androstenedione-19-oic acid and testosterone-19-oic acid. To our knowledge, it is

  4. Selective production of decanoic acid from iterative reversal of β-oxidation pathway.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seohyoung; Gonzalez, Ramon

    2018-05-01

    Decanoic acid is a valuable compound used as precursor for industrial chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and biofuels. Despite efforts to produce it from renewables, only limited achievements have been reported. Here, we report an engineered cell factory able to produce decanoic acid as a major product from glycerol, and abundant and renewable feedstock. We exploit the overlapping chain-length specificity of β-oxidation reversal (r-BOX) and thioesterase enzymes to selectively generate decanoic acid. This was achieved by selecting r-BOX enzymes that support the synthesis of acyl-CoA of up to 10 carbons (thiolase BktB and enoyl-CoA reductase EgTER) and a thioesterase that exhibited high activity toward decanoyl-CoA and longer-chain acyl-CoAs (FadM). Combined chromosomal and episomal expression of r-BOX core enzymes such as enoyl-CoA reductase and thiolase (in the presence of E. coli thioesterase FadM) increased titer and yield of decanoic acid, respectively. The carbon flux toward decanoic acid was substantially increased by the use of an organic overlay, which decreased its intracellular accumulation and presumably increased its concentration gradient across cell membrane, suggesting that decanoic acid transport to the extracellular medium might be a major bottleneck. When cultivated in the presence of a n-dodecane overlay, the final engineered strain produced 2.1 g/L of decanoic acid with a yield of 0.1 g/g glycerol. Collectively, our data suggests that r-BOX can be used as a platform to selectively produce decanoic acid and its derivatives at high yield, titer and productivity. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Muscle protein turnover in rats treated with corticosterone (CC) or/and nandrolone decanoate (ND) and fed an adequate or a low-protein diet

    SciTech Connect

    Santidrian, S.; Cuevillas, F.; Goena, M.

    1986-03-01

    In order to investigate the possible antagonistic effect between glucocorticoids and androgens on muscle protein turnover, the authors have measured the fractional rates of gastrocnemius muscle protein synthesis (k/sub s/) and degradation (k/sub d/) by the constant-intravenous-infusion method using L-//sup 14/C/-tyrosine in rats receiving via s.c. per 100 g b.wt. 10 mg of CC, or 2 mg of ND or CC+ND at the indicated doses, and fed either an 18% or 5% protein diets over a period of 5 days. As an additional index of protein synthesis, RNA activity (g of synthesized protein/day/g RNA) was determined as well. Results showedmore » that as compared to vehicle-injected animals fed the adequate diet, CC-treated rats exhibited a reduction of muscle k/sub d/, while ND-treated rats had an outstanding increase of muscle k/sub s/. However, rats receiving CC+ND showed k/sub s/ and k/sub d/ values similar to those displayed by control animals. Nevertheless, when the steroids were injected to rats fed the low-protein diet, CC has a catabolic effect on muscle protein but by reducing k/sub s/, while the anabolic action of ND is still displayed but by a significant reduction of muscle k/sub d/. CC+ND given to these protein-deficient rats caused an increase in muscle k/sub s/ and a reduction in k/sub d/. These results might indicate that, at least in part, ND antagonizes the catabolic action of high doses of CC on muscle protein metabolism.« less

  6. Afebrile Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome associated with Fluphenazine decanoate: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Assareh, Marzieh

    2010-01-01

    Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS) is unusual but could be a lethal reaction associated with neuroleptic drugs. It occurs in almost 0.07-2.2% of patients under treatment with neuroleptics. There are some medical treatments that may also be helpful for its treatment, including dopamine agonists, muscle relaxants, and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). We present this case to alert the clinicians to the potential for inducing afebrile NMS. Our case is a 41-year-old man with a history of schizophrenia showing signs and symptoms in accordance with NMS, 2 weeks after receiving one dose of 12.5 mg fluphenazine decanoate, abruptly following the 3rdsession of ECT. The patient presented with decreased level of consciousness, muscular rigidity, waxy flexibility, mutism, generalized tremor, sever diaphoresis and tachycardia which progressed during the previous 24 h. Laboratory data indicated primarily leukocytosis, an increasing level of creatinine phosphokinase and hypokalemia during the next 72h. In patients receiving antipsychotics, any feature of NMS should carefully be evaluated whether it is usual or unusual particularly in patients receiving long acting neuroleptics. PMID:22952496

  7. Monitoring the endogenous steroid profile disruption in urine and blood upon nandrolone administration: An efficient and innovative strategy to screen for nandrolone abuse in entire male horses.

    PubMed

    Kaabia, Z; Dervilly-Pinel, G; Popot, M A; Bailly-Chouriberry, L; Plou, P; Bonnaire, Y; Le Bizec, B

    2014-04-01

    Nandrolone (17β-hydroxy-4-estren-3-one) is amongst the most misused endogenous steroid hormones in entire male horses. The detection of such a substance is challenging with regard to its endogenous presence. The current international threshold level for nandrolone misuse is based on the urinary concentration ratio of 5α-estrane-3β,17α-diol (EAD) to 5(10)-estrene-3β,17α-diol (EED). This ratio, however, can be influenced by a number of factors due to existing intra- and inter-variability standing, respectively, for the variation occurring in endogenous steroids concentration levels in a single subject and the variation in those same concentration levels observed between different subjects. Targeting an efficient detection of nandrolone misuse in entire male horses, an analytical strategy was set up in order to profile a group of endogenous steroids in nandrolone-treated and non-treated equines. Experiment plasma and urine samples were steadily collected over more than three months from a stallion administered with nandrolone laurate (1 mg/kg). Control plasma and urine samples were collected monthly from seven non-treated stallions over a one-year period. A large panel of steroids of interest (n = 23) were extracted from equine urine and plasma samples using a C18 cartridge. Following a methanolysis step, liquid-liquid and solid-phase extractions purifications were performed before derivatization and analysis on gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) for quantification. Statistical processing of the collected data permitted to establish statistical models capable of discriminating control samples from those collected during the three months following administration. Furthermore, these statistical models succeeded in predicting the compliance status of additional samples collected from racing horses. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Lipid peroxidation and apoptotic response in rat brain areas induced by long-term administration of nandrolone: the mutual crosstalk between ROS and NF-kB.

    PubMed

    Turillazzi, Emanuela; Neri, Margherita; Cerretani, Daniela; Cantatore, Santina; Frati, Paola; Moltoni, Laura; Busardò, Francesco Paolo; Pomara, Cristoforo; Riezzo, Irene; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the played by oxidative stress in the apoptotic response in different brain areas of rats chronically treated with supra-physiological doses of nandrolone decanoate (ND). Immunohistochemical study and Western blot analysis were performed to evaluate cells' apoptosis and to measure the effects of expression of specific mediators, such as NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells), Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2), SMAC/DIABLO (second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases/direct IAP-binding protein with low PI) and VMAT2 (vesicular monoamine transporter 2) on apoptosis. The results of the present study indicate that a long-term administration of ND promotes oxidative injury in rat brain specific areas. A link between oxidative stress and NF-κB signalling pathways is supported by our results. In addition to high levels of oxidative stress, we consistently observed a strong immunopositivity to NF-κB. It has been argued that one of the pathways leading to the activation of NF-κB could be under reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated control. In fact, growing evidence suggests that although in limited doses, endogenous ROS may play an activating role in NF-κB signalling, while above a certain threshold, they may negatively impact upon this signalling. However, a mutual crosstalk between ROS and NF-κB exists and recent studies have shown that ROS activity is subject to negative feedback regulation by NF-κB, and that this negative regulation of ROS is the means through which NF-κB counters programmed cells. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  9. Genomic and lipidomic actions of nandrolone on detached rotator cuff muscle in sheep.

    PubMed

    Flück, Martin; Ruoss, Severin; Möhl, Christoph B; Valdivieso, Paola; Benn, Mario C; von Rechenberg, Brigitte; Laczko, Endre; Hu, Junmin; Wieser, Karl; Meyer, Dominik C; Gerber, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Reversal of fatty infiltration of pennate rotator cuff muscle after tendon release is hitherto impossible. The administration of nandrolone starting at the time of tendon release prevents the increase in fat content, but does not revert established fatty infiltration. We hypothesised that tendon release and myotendinous retraction cause alterations in lipid related gene expression leading to fatty muscle infiltration, which can be suppressed by nandrolone through its genomic actions if applied immediately after tendon release. The effects of infraspinatus tendon release and subsequent tendon repair at 16 weeks were studied in six Swiss Alpine sheep. In the interventional groups, 150mg nandrolone was administered weekly after tendon release until sacrifice (N22W, n=6) or starting at the time of repair (N6W, n=6). Infraspinatus volume, composition, expressed transcripts, lipids, and selected proteins were analyzed at baseline, 16 and 22 weeks. Tendon release reduced infraspinatus volume by 22% and increased fat content from 11% to 38%. These changes were not affected by repair. Fatty infiltration was associated with up-regulation of 227 lipid species, and increased levels of the adipocyte differentiation marker PPARG2 (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2). Nandrolone abrogated lipid accumulation, halved the loss in fiber area percentage, and up-regulated androgen receptor levels and transcript expression in the N22W but not the N6W group. The results document that nandrolone mitigates muscle-to-fat transformation after tendon release via a general down-regulation of lipid accumulation concomitantly with up-regulated expression of its nuclear receptor and downstream transcripts in skeletal muscle. Reduced responsiveness of retracted muscle to nandrolone as observed in the N6W group is reflected by a down-regulated transcript response. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Neurotoxic properties of the anabolic androgenic steroids nandrolone and methandrostenolone in primary neuronal cultures.

    PubMed

    Caraci, Filippo; Pistarà, V; Corsaro, A; Tomasello, Flora; Giuffrida, Maria Laura; Sortino, Maria Angela; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Copani, Agata

    2011-04-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) abuse is associated with multiple neurobehavioral disturbances. The sites of action and the neurobiological sequels of AAS abuse are unclear at present. We investigated whether two different AASs, nandrolone and methandrostenolone, could affect neuronal survival in culture. The endogenous androgenic steroid testosterone was used for comparison. Both testosterone and nandrolone were neurotoxic at micromolar concentrations, and their effects were prevented by blockade of androgen receptors (ARs) with flutamide. Neuronal toxicity developed only over a 48-hr exposure to the steroids. The cell-impermeable analogues testosterone-BSA and nandrolone-BSA, which preferentially target membrane-associated ARs, were also neurotoxic in a time-dependent and flutamide-sensitive manner. Testosterone-BSA and nandrolone-BSA were more potent than their parent compounds, suggesting that membrane-associated ARs were the relevant sites for the neurotoxic actions of the steroids. Unlike testosterone and nandrolone, toxicity by methandrostenolone and methandrostenolone-BSA was insensitive to flutamide, but it was prevented by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist RU-486. Methandrostenolone-BSA was more potent than the parent compound, suggesting that its toxicity relied on the preferential activation of putative membrane-associated GRs. Consistently with the evidence that membrane-associated GRs can mediate rapid effects, a brief challenge with methandrostenolone-BSA was able to promote neuronal toxicity. Activation of putative membrane steroid receptors by nontoxic (nanomolar) concentrations of either nandrolone-BSA or methandrostenolone-BSA became sufficient to increase neuronal susceptibility to the apoptotic stimulus provided by β-amyloid (the main culprit of AD). We speculate that AAS abuse might facilitate the onset or progression of neurodegenerative diseases not usually linked to drug abuse. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Nandrolone, an anabolic steroid, stabilizes Numb protein through inhibition of mdm2 in C2C12 myoblasts.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin-Hua; Yao, Shen; Levine, Alice C; Kirschenbaum, Alexander; Pan, Jiangping; Wu, Yong; Qin, Weiping; Collier, Lauren; Bauman, William A; Cardozo, Christopher P

    2012-01-01

    Nandrolone, an anabolic steroid, slows denervation atrophy of rat muscle, prevents denervation-induced nuclear accumulation of intracellular domain of the Notch receptor, and elevates expression of Numb. Numb acts as an inhibitor of Notch signaling and promotes myogenic differentiation of satellite cells. Turnover of Numb is regulated by mdm2, an E3 ubiquitin ligase. With these considerations in mind, we investigated the effects of nandrolone on the expression of Numb and mdm2 proteins and determined the effect of mdm2 on nandrolone-induced alterations in Numb protein in C2C12 myoblasts. When C2C12 cells were cultured in a medium favoring differentiation (Dulbecco modified Eagle medium containing 2% horse serum), nandrolone up-regulated Numb protein levels in a time-dependent manner and prolonged Numb protein half-life from 10 to 18 hours. In contrast, nandrolone reduced the expression of mdm2 protein. To determine whether the decreased mdm2 expression induced by nandrolone was responsible for the increased levels and prolonged half-life of Numb protein in this cell line, mdm2-small interfering RNA (siRNA) was employed to inhibit mdm2 expression. Compared to cells transfected with scrambled siRNA (negative control), transfection with mdm2-siRNA increased basal Numb protein expression but abolished the further increase in Numb protein levels by nandrolone. In addition, transfection of mdm2-siRNA mimicked the effect of nandrolone to prolong the half-life of Numb protein. Moreover, when C2C12 cells were forced to overexpress mdm2, there was a significant decline in the expression of both basal and inducible Numb protein. Our data suggest that nandrolone, by a novel mechanism for this agent in a muscle cell type, increases Numb protein levels in C2C12 myoblasts by stabilizing Numb protein against degradation, at least in part, via suppression of mdm2 expression.

  12. Differential alterations in gene expression profiles contribute to time-dependent effects of nandrolone to prevent denervation atrophy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Anabolic steroids, such as nandrolone, slow muscle atrophy, but the mechanisms responsible for this effect are largely unknown. Their effects on muscle size and gene expression depend upon time, and the cause of muscle atrophy. Administration of nandrolone for 7 days beginning either concomitantly with sciatic nerve transection (7 days) or 29 days later (35 days) attenuated denervation atrophy at 35 but not 7 days. We reasoned that this model could be used to identify genes that are regulated by nandrolone and slow denervation atrophy, as well as genes that might explain the time-dependence of nandrolone effects on such atrophy. Affymetrix microarrays were used to profile gene expression changes due to nandrolone at 7 and 35 days and to identify major gene expression changes in denervated muscle between 7 and 35 days. Results Nandrolone selectively altered expression of 124 genes at 7 days and 122 genes at 35 days, with only 20 genes being regulated at both time points. Marked differences in biological function of genes regulated by nandrolone at 7 and 35 days were observed. At 35, but not 7 days, nandrolone reduced mRNA and protein levels for FOXO1, the mTOR inhibitor REDD2, and the calcineurin inhibitor RCAN2 and increased those for ApoD. At 35 days, correlations between mRNA levels and the size of denervated muscle were negative for RCAN2, and positive for ApoD. Nandrolone also regulated genes for Wnt signaling molecules. Comparison of gene expression at 7 and 35 days after denervation revealed marked alterations in the expression of 9 transcriptional coregulators, including Ankrd1 and 2, and many transcription factors and kinases. Conclusions Genes regulated in denervated muscle after 7 days administration of nandrolone are almost entirely different at 7 versus 35 days. Alterations in levels of FOXO1, and of genes involved in signaling through calcineurin, mTOR and Wnt may be linked to the favorable action of nandrolone on denervated muscle. Marked

  13. Differential alterations in gene expression profiles contribute to time-dependent effects of nandrolone to prevent denervation atrophy.

    PubMed

    Qin, Weiping; Pan, Jiangping; Bauman, William A; Cardozo, Christopher P

    2010-10-22

    Anabolic steroids, such as nandrolone, slow muscle atrophy, but the mechanisms responsible for this effect are largely unknown. Their effects on muscle size and gene expression depend upon time, and the cause of muscle atrophy. Administration of nandrolone for 7 days beginning either concomitantly with sciatic nerve transection (7 days) or 29 days later (35 days) attenuated denervation atrophy at 35 but not 7 days. We reasoned that this model could be used to identify genes that are regulated by nandrolone and slow denervation atrophy, as well as genes that might explain the time-dependence of nandrolone effects on such atrophy. Affymetrix microarrays were used to profile gene expression changes due to nandrolone at 7 and 35 days and to identify major gene expression changes in denervated muscle between 7 and 35 days. Nandrolone selectively altered expression of 124 genes at 7 days and 122 genes at 35 days, with only 20 genes being regulated at both time points. Marked differences in biological function of genes regulated by nandrolone at 7 and 35 days were observed. At 35, but not 7 days, nandrolone reduced mRNA and protein levels for FOXO1, the mTOR inhibitor REDD2, and the calcineurin inhibitor RCAN2 and increased those for ApoD. At 35 days, correlations between mRNA levels and the size of denervated muscle were negative for RCAN2, and positive for ApoD. Nandrolone also regulated genes for Wnt signaling molecules. Comparison of gene expression at 7 and 35 days after denervation revealed marked alterations in the expression of 9 transcriptional coregulators, including Ankrd1 and 2, and many transcription factors and kinases. Genes regulated in denervated muscle after 7 days administration of nandrolone are almost entirely different at 7 versus 35 days. Alterations in levels of FOXO1, and of genes involved in signaling through calcineurin, mTOR and Wnt may be linked to the favorable action of nandrolone on denervated muscle. Marked changes in the expression of

  14. Nandrolone excretion is not increased by exhaustive exercise in trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Nelly; Flament, Marie-Madeleine; Goubault, Claude; Legros, Patrick; Grenier-Loustalot, Marie France; Denjean, André

    2002-09-01

    The anabolic steroid nandrolone is widely used as a performance enhancer. Traces of its naturally occurring metabolite 19-norandrosterone (19-NA) have been found in human urine (below 0.6 ng.mL(-1)), and it has been suggested that strenuous exercise may increase urinary 19-NA. The aim of our study was to assess the effect of exhaustive exercise on the nandrolone excretion under controlled conditions in two groups of trained male athletes, one composed of judoka and the other of long-distance runners. A Wingate test and a treadmill limited-time test (running at 85% (.)VO(2max)) were carried out on 14 judoka and 15 athletes. Hydration was controlled during each session. Urine samples were obtained before each test and 30 min, 60 min, and 24 h after each test. Urinary 19-NA concentrations were determined using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Baseline urinary 19-NA concentrations varied widely across individuals, from undetectable levels to 0.250 ng.mL (-1)(mean, 0.048 +/- 0.050 ng.mL(-1)). The both exercise tests did not significantly modified urinary 19-NA levels in the two groups of subjects. Our study provides compelling evidence that endogenous nandrolone production in male athletes, during two very different types of exercise, produces urine levels far below the IOC threshold of 2 ng.mL(-1) urine. Thus, exercise does not induce endogenous nandrolone secretion.

  15. Endogenous nandrolone metabolites in human urine: preliminary results to discriminate between endogenous and exogenous origin.

    PubMed

    Le Bizec, Bruno; Bryand, Fabrice; Gaudin, Isabelle; Monteau, Fabrice; Poulain, Frédéric; Andre, François

    2002-02-01

    When administered to human subjects, nandrolone is metabolized into two main products, 19-norandrosterone (19-NA) and 19-noretiocholanolone (19-NE). Recent studies demonstrated the endogenous production of these compounds in man at concentrations very close to the threshold of the International Olympic Committee (IOC), i.e. 2 ng/ml. Because the possibility of reaching or exceeding this fateful limit is difficult to exclude, a complementary biochemical parameter is necessary for the differentiation of endogenous 19-NA and 19-NE production from residues resulting from nandrolone consumption. We measured the endogenous concentrations of 19-NA and 19-NE in 385 urine samples from professional football players, and we studied the phase II metabolite composition in individuals excreting the highest concentrations. The results showed that around 30% of endogenous 19-norandrosterone was sulfo-conjugated, whereas 100% of 19-norandrosterone was excreted conjugated to a glucuronic acid when nandrolone was administered. This significant qualitative difference appears to be a promising complementary criterion to more definitively conclude about an athlete's culpability, especially when nandrolone metabolites are found in the low ng/ml range.

  16. 40 CFR 180.1225 - Decanoic acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD... exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of decanoic acid in or on all raw... acid (up to 170 ppm per application) on food contact surfaces such as equipment, pipelines, tanks, vats...

  17. The effect of the anabolic steroid, nandrolone, in conditioned place preference and D1 dopamine receptor expression in adolescent and adult mice.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Rivera, Freddyson J; Natal-Albelo, Eduardo J; Martínez, Namyr A; Orozco-Vega, Roberto A; Muñiz-Seda, Oscar A; Barreto-Estrada, Jennifer L

    2015-04-01

    Adolescents and adults engage in anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) misuse seeking their anabolic effects, even though later on, many could develop neuropsychological dependence. Previously, we have shown that nandrolone induces conditioned place preference (CPP) in adult male mice. However, whether nandrolone induces CPP during adolescence remains unknown. In this study, the CPP test was used to determine the rewarding properties of nandrolone (7.5 mg/kg) in adolescent mice. In addition, since D1 dopamine receptors (D1DR) are critical for reward-related processes, the effect of nandrolone on the expression of D1DR in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) was investigated by Western blot analysis. Similar to our previous results, nandrolone induced CPP in adults. However, in adolescents, nandrolone failed to produce place preference. At the molecular level, nandrolone decreased D1DR expression in the NAc only in adult mice. Our data suggest that nandrolone may not be rewarding in adolescents at least during short-term use. The lack of nandrolone rewarding effects in adolescents may be due, in part to differences in D1DR expression during development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The effect of the anabolic steroid, nandrolone, in conditioned place preference and D1 dopamine receptor expression in adolescent and adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Rivera, Freddyson J.; Natal-Albelo, Eduardo J.; Martínez, Namyr A.; Orozco-Vega, Roberto A.; Muñiz-Seda, Oscar A.; Barreto-Estrada, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents and adults engage in anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) misuse seeking their anabolic effects, even though later on, many could develop neuropsychological dependence. Previously, we have shown that nandrolone induces conditioned place preference (CPP) in adult male mice. However, whether nandrolone induces CPP during adolescence remains unknown. In this study, the CPP test was used to determine the rewarding properties of nandrolone (7.5 mg/kg) in adolescent mice. In addition, since D1 dopamine receptors (D1DR) are critical for reward-related processes, the effect of nandrolone on the expression of D1DR in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) was investigated by Western blot analysis. Similar to our previous results, nandrolone induced CPP in adults. However, in adolescents, nandrolone failed to produce place preference. At the molecular level, nandrolone decreased D1DR expression in the NAc only in adult mice. Our data suggest that nandrolone may not be rewarding in adolescents at least during short-term use. The lack of nandrolone rewarding effects in adolescents may be due, in part to differences in D1DR expression during development. PMID:25612844

  19. SciTech Connect

    Riezzo, Irene; Turillazzi, Emanuela; Bello, Stefania

    Nandrolone decanoate administration and strenuous exercise increase the extent of renal damage in response to renal toxic injury. We studied the role played by oxidative stress in the apoptotic response caused by nandrolone decanoate in the kidneys of strength-trained male CD1 mice. To measure cytosolic enzyme activity, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined after nandrolone treatment. An immunohistochemical study and Western blot analysis were performed to evaluate cell apoptosis and to measure the effects of renal expression of inflammatory mediators (IL-1β, TNF-α) on the induction of apoptosis (HSP90, TUNEL). Dose-related oxidative damage in the kidneysmore » of treated mice is shown by an increase in MDA levels and by a reduction of antioxidant enzyme GR and GPx activities, resulting in the kidney's reduced radical scavenging ability. Renal specimens of the treated group showed relevant glomeruli alterations and increased immunostaining and protein expressions, which manifested significant focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. The induction of proinflammatory cytokine expression levels was confirmed by Western blot analysis. Long-term administration of nandrolone promotes oxidative injury in the mouse kidneys. TNF-α mediated injury due to nandrolone in renal cells appears to play a role in the activation of both the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways. - Highlights: • We analyze abuse of nandrolone decanoate in strength-trained male CD1 mice. • Nandrolone decanoate administration increases oxidative stress. • Increased cytokine expressions were observed. • Renal apoptosis was described. • Long-term administration of nandrolone promotes oxidative injury in mice kidney.« less

  20. Simultaneous determination of nandrolone, testosterone, and methyltestosterone by multi-immunoaffinity column and capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xiao-Hua; Zhang, Li-Wei; Zhang, Xin-Xiang

    2008-08-01

    A multitarget antibody immunoaffinity column was proposed for the purification and enrichment of nandrolone, testosterone, and methyltestosterone from urine. Nandrolone-3-site substituted antigen was designed and synthesized and the polyclonal antibody was prepared with immunizing rabbits. The stationary phase of the immunoaffinity column was synthesized by covalently bonding the antibodies specific to nandrolone, testosterone, and methyltestosterone onto CNBr-actived Sepharose 4B. The analytes of interest were extracted with a methanol/water mixture in one step. The immunoaffinity column showed high affinity and high selectivity to a class of structurally related compounds. The elution was then transferred to a micellar electrokinetic CE system with a running buffer of sodium borate and sodium cholate for separation and determination. Recoveries of the three steroids from complex matrix were 88-94% with RSD values less than 5.2%. Optimization of the immunoaffinity column purification was achieved and the feasibility of the technique for the analysis of steroid hormone was discussed. The results indicated that the combination of multi-immunoaffinity column and CE was an effective technique, which was rapid, simple, and sensitive for the assay of steroids.

  1. Nandrolone androgenic hormone presents genotoxic effects in different cells of mice.

    PubMed

    do Carmo, Carolina Almeida; Gonçalves, Álvaro Luiz Martini; Salvadori, Daisy Maria Fávero; Maistro, Edson Luis

    2012-10-01

    Nandrolone is an androgenic-anabolic steroid (AAS) with diverse medical applications but taken indiscriminately by some to rapidly increase muscle mass. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic and clastogenic potential of nandrolone (deca-durabolin®) in vivo in different cells of mice, using the comet assay and micronucleus test, respectively. The animals received subcutaneous injection of the three doses of the steroid (1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 mg kg⁻¹ body weight). Cytotoxicity was assessed by scoring 200 consecutive total polychromatic (PCE) and normochromatic (NCE) erythrocytes (PCE-NCE ratio). The results showed a significant dose-related increase in the frequency of DNA damage in leukocytes, liver, bone marrow, brain and testicle cells at the three tested doses and a significant increase of the micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes at all tested doses. Under our experimental conditions, the nandrolone steroid hormone showed genotoxic and clastogenic effects when administered subcutaneously to mice. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Testing for nandrolone metabolites in urine samples of professional athletes and sedentary subjects by GC/MS/MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Gambelunghe, Cristiana; Sommavilla, Marco; Rossi, Ruggero

    2002-12-01

    The concentrations of nandrolone metabolites, 19-norandrosterone (19-NA) and 19-noretiocholanolone (19-NE) were analysed in urine samples of professional athletes doing intense physical activity and sedentary subjects to verify if there was endogenous production of nandrolone and if there was any link between physical effort and the urinary metabolites of the steroid. We collected 18 urine samples from professional footballers age range 20-30 years, all from the same team, and 18 urine samples from males not doing any physical activity, age range 20-30 years. Neither group used nandrolone. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of urinary nandrolone metabolites were carried out by GC/MS followed by GC/MS/MS to confirm positive samples. This technique has been demonstrated to be an excellent analytical approach for the determination of anabolic steroids at very low detection limits in complex matrices such as urine. In five urine samples from professional footballers traces of 19-NA were detected. No trace of 19-NA was found in the group of sedentary subjects and no trace of 19-NE was found in any urine sample. The absence of nandrolone metabolites in sedentary subjects supports the hypothesis that the presence of 19-NA and 19-NE could be linked to physical effort even though the origin is not yet clear. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Hexyl decanoate, the first trail pheromone compound identified in a stingless bee, Trigona recursa.

    PubMed

    Jarau, Stefan; Schulz, Claudia M; Hrncir, Michael; Francke, Wittko; Zucchi, Ronaldo; Barth, Friedrich G; Ayasse, Manfred

    2006-07-01

    Foragers of many species of stingless bees guide their nestmates to food sources by means of scent trails deposited on solid substrates between the food and the nest. The corresponding trail pheromones are generally believed to be produced in the mandibular glands, although definitive experimental proof has never been provided. We tested the trail following behavior of recruits of Trigona recursa in field experiments with artificial scent trails branching off from natural scent trails of this stingless bee. First-time recruits (newcomers) did not follow these trails when they were laid with pure solvent or mandibular gland extract. However, they did follow trails made with labial gland extract. Chemical analyses of labial gland secretions revealed that hexyl decanoate was the dominant component (72.4 +/- 1.9% of all volatiles). Newcomers were significantly attracted to artificial trails made with synthetic hexyl decanoate, demonstrating its key function in eliciting scent-following behavior. According to our experiments with T. recursa, the trail pheromone is produced in the labial glands and not in the mandibular glands. Hexyl decanoate is the first component of a trail pheromone identified and proved to be behaviorally active in stingless bees.

  4. Detection of nandrolone metabolites in urine after a football game in professional and amateur players: a Bayesian comparison.

    PubMed

    Robinson, N; Taroni, F; Saugy, M; Ayotte, C; Mangin, P; Dvorak, J

    2001-11-01

    Nandrolone (19-nortestosterone) is a widely used anabolic steroid in sports where strength plays an essential role. Once nandrolone has been metabolised, two major metabolites are excreted in urine, 19-norandrosterone (NA) and 19-noretiocholanolone (NE). In 1997, in France, quite a few sportsmen had concentrations of 19-norandrosterone very close to the IOC cut off limit (2ng/ml). At that time, a debate took place about the capability of the human male body to produce by itself these metabolites without any intake of nandrolone or related compounds. The International Football Federation (FIFA) was very concerned with this problematic, especially because the World Cup was about to start in France. In this respect, a statistical study was held with all football players from the first and second divisions of the Swiss Football National League. All players gave a urine sample after effort and around 6% of them showed traces of 19-norandrosterone. These results were compared with amateur football players (control group) and around 6% of them had very small amounts of 19-norandrosterone and/or 19-noretiocholanolone in urine after effort, whereas none of them had detectable traces of one or the other metabolite before effort. The origin of these compounds in urine after a strenuous physical activity is still unknown, but three hypotheses can be put forward. First, an endogenous production of nandrolone metabolites takes place. Second, nandrolone metabolites are released from the fatty tissues after an intake of nandrolone, some related compounds or some contaminated nutritive supplements. Finally, the sportsmen may have taken something during or just before the football game.

  5. Chronic administration of nandrolone increases susceptibility to morphine dependence without correlation with LVV-hemorphin 7 in rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, Eagle Yi-Kung; Chen, Yuan-Hao; Huang, Tzu-Ying; Chen, Ying-Jie; Chow, Lok-Hi

    2016-10-01

    LVV-hemorphin 7 (LVVYPWTQRF; LVV-H7), an N-terminal fragment of the β-chain of hemoglobin cleaved by cathepsin D/pepsin, is an atypical endogenous opioid peptide that is found in high concentration in blood. LVV-H7 acts as a μ-opioid agonist and an inhibitor of insulin-regulated aminopeptidase. Subchronic administration of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been clinically proven to induce the synthesis of erythrocytes and increase hemoglobin concentrations. Patients with a history of AAS abuse are more susceptible to opioid abuse. We hypothesized that this association could be at least partially attributed to the sensitization of the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic pathway by LVV-H7. Using the conditioned place preference test and neurochemical analysis, we investigated the possible mechanism underlying the effect of chronic nandrolone administration on morphine-induced reward and its correlation with LVV-H7 in rats. Either LVV-H7 may not sensitize the rewarding neural circuits or its inhibition on locomotor activity could mask reward-related behaviors. Chronic nandrolone pretreatment indeed caused a significant reward by low dose morphine, which did not cause any reward in control rats. However, coadministration of anti-LVV-H7 antiserum with nandrolone did not block this effect. This may rule out the possibility of the involvement of LVV-H7 in the action of nandrolone to intensify morphine-induced reward. Moreover, the serum level of LVV-H7 was mildly increased in response to chronic nandrolone administration in our animal model. According to the current clinical observations, we may conclude that the chronic administration of nandrolone can increase susceptibility to morphine dependence, but that this effect is not related to elevated LVV-H7. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Antinociceptive effects of long-acting nalbuphine decanoate after intramuscular administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; Braun, Jana M; Steagall, Paulo V M; Keuler, Nicholas S; Heath, Timothy D; Krugner-Higby, Lisa A; Brown, Carolyn S; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the thermal antinociceptive effects and duration of action of nalbuphine decanoate after IM administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 10 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots of unknown sex. Nalbuphine decanoate (33.7 mg/kg) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution was administered IM in a randomized complete crossover experimental design (periods 1 and 2). Foot withdrawal threshold to a noxious thermal stimulus was used to evaluate responses. Baseline thermal withdrawal threshold was recorded 1 hour before drug or saline solution administration, and thermal foot withdrawal threshold measurements were repeated 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours after drug administration. Nalbuphine decanoate administered IM at a dose of 33.7 mg/kg significantly increased thermal foot withdrawal threshold, compared with results after administration of saline solution during period 2, and also caused a significant change in withdrawal threshold for up to 12 hours, compared with baseline values. Nalbuphine decanoate increased the foot withdrawal threshold to a noxious thermal stimulus in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots for up to 12 hours and provided a longer duration of action than has been reported for other nalbuphine formulations. Further studies with other types of nociceptive stimulation, dosages, and dosing intervals as well as clinical trials are needed to fully evaluate the analgesic effects of nalbuphine decanoate in psittacine birds.

  7. An insight into the molecular mechanism of the temporary enhancement effect of isopulegol decanoate on the skin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaochang; Liu, Meiying; Liu, Chao; Quan, Peng; Zhao, Yongshan; Fang, Liang

    2017-08-30

    Chemical enhancers are widely used to facilitate drug permeation in transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS) and the effect of chemical enhancers is desired to be temporary. Though temporary enhancement effect of chemical enhancers has been widely discussed, there is still a lack of knowledge about the molecular mechanism of temporary enhancement effect. Using the skin permeation of flurbiprofen as a probe, the temporary enhancement effect of isopulegol decanoate (ISO-10) was evaluated with in vitro permeation experiment and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). In addition, molecular mechanism of skin recovery was explored with skin retention of ISO-10, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), molecular dynamic (MD) simulation and transepidermal water loss (TEWL). Temporary enhancement effect of ISO-10 was observed by the permeation of flurbiprofen after the treatment of 180min. Furthermore, temporary enhancement effect of ISO-10 on the diffusion of intercellular lipid in the stratum cornuem (SC) was observed by ATR-FTIR, molecular dynamic (MD) simulation. The SC barrier function recovered with the existence of ISO-10 in the lipid bilayer as indicated by the retention study and TEWL. In conclusion, the lipid bilayer accepted the enhancer as a new component to form a new stable arrangement, resulted the recovery of the skin barrier function. This work processed a novel mechanism of the recovery of skin barrier function after the addition of chemical enhancers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of recombinant human growth hormone and nandrolone phenylpropionate on the healing of ischemic colon anastomosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Yarimkaya, Ali; Apaydin, Berat; Unal, Ethem; Karabicak, Ilhan; Aydogan, Fatih; Uslu, Ezel; Erginoz, Ethem; Artis, Tarik; Eyuboglu, Erhun

    2003-12-01

    Recombinant human growth hormone and nandrolone phenylpropionate are two different anabolic agents. This study was designed to investigate the effects of these anabolic agents on the healing of ischemic colon anastomosis in rats. Seventy adult male Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n = 14). Group I was the sham laparotomy group. In the other groups, surgical procedures consisting of transsection and anastomosis were made at a distance 3 cm from the peritoneal reflection. Group II was the nonischemic control group. Ischemic colon model was produced in the remaining groups. Group III was the untreated control group. Groups IV and V received recombinant human growth hormone and nandrolone phenylpropionate, respectively. Bursting pressure and hydroxyproline levels were measured on the third and seventh postoperative days to evaluate anastomotic healing. Recombinant human growth hormone increased both collagen deposition and bursting pressure significantly at postoperative Days 3 and 7 compared with the sham and untreated control groups (P < 0.005). When compared with the untreated control, nandrolone phenylpropionate significantly increased collagen deposition at postoperative Days 3 and 7 (P < 0.005) and bursting pressure only at postoperative Day 3 (P < 0.005). Recombinant human growth hormone has more favorable therapeutic effects on the healing of ischemic colonic anastomoses than nandrolone phenylpropionate. Recombinant human growth hormone also improves healing of nonischemic colonic anastomosis.

  9. Urinary nandrolone metabolites of endogenous origin in man: a confirmation by output regulation under human chorionic gonadotropin stimulation.

    PubMed

    Reznik, Y; Dehennin, L; Coffin, C; Mahoudeau, J; Leymarie, P

    2001-01-01

    19-Nortestosterone (nandrolone) is an anabolic steroid compound widely used as a doping agent by athletes. The analysis of its urinary metabolites, 19-norandrosterone (NA) and 19-noretiocholanolone (NE) glucuronides, allows the detection of surreptitious administration of nandrolone in sport. A threshold concentration at 2 microgram/L urinary nandrolone metabolites is advocated by the International Olympic Committee for the detection of doping, but some controversy concerning the validity of this threshold arose from the demonstration of endogenous production of nandrolone in mammals, including humans. The regulation of human nandrolone production and its contribution in vivo to the process of aromatization remain unknown. In the present study 10 healthy men were successively submitted to insulinic stress and gonadal stimulation by hCG administration. Urinary NA and NE concentrations were quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. NA was detected in basal urine samples from all subjects, with a mean urinary excretion rate (UER) of 3.17 +/- 0.35 ng/h, whereas NE was detected in 4 of 10 (UER range, 0.8-4.7 ng/h). Insulinic hypoglycemia did not significantly modify mean NA UER despite random intraindividual variations between timed urine collections. After hCG administration, NA UER increased by 250% (P < 0.01) and estradiol (E(2)) UER by 260% (P < 0.001). The maximum NA concentration obtained after stimulation was 0.43 microgram/L. NA UER, plasma E(2), and E(2)/T ratio peaked on day 1 after hCG administration, whereas plasma T peaked later on day 3. NA UER correlated with plasma E(2) (r = 0.61; P < 0.001) and E(2)/T (r = 0.51; P < 0.001), but not with plasma T. In conclusion, insulinic stress did not significantly alter nandrolone metabolism, whereas the effect of hCG was a stimulation of NA excretion in all subjects, which constitutes strong support for the endogenous origin of low basal NA excretion. The comparative kinetics of NA UER, plasma E(2), and E(2

  10. Development and validation of RP HPLC method to determine nandrolone phenylpropionate in different pharmaceutical formulations.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Jayanti; Das, Ayan; Chakrabarty, Uday Sankar; Sahoo, Bijay Kumar; Dey, Goutam; Choudhury, Hira; Pal, Tapan Kumar

    2011-01-01

    This study describes development and subsequent validation of a reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method for the estimation of nandrolone phenylpropionate, an anabolic steroid, in bulk drug, in conventional parenteral dosage formulation and in prepared nanoparticle dosage form. The chromatographic system consisted of a Luna Phenomenex, CN (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) column, an isocratic mobile phase comprising 10 mM phosphate buffer and acetonitrile (50:50, v/v) and UV detection at 240 nm. Nandrolone phenylpropionate was eluted about 6.3 min with no interfering peaks of excipients used for the preparation of dosage forms. The method was linear over the range from 0.050 to 25 microg/mL in raw drug (r2 = 0.9994). The intra-day and inter-day precision values were in the range of 0.219-0.609% and 0.441-0.875%, respectively. Limits of detection and quantitation were 0.010 microg/mL and 0.050 microg/mL, respectively. The results were validated according to International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines in parenteral and prepared nanoparticle formulation. The validated HPLC method is simple, sensitive, precise, accurate and reproducible.

  11. Anorexia in end-stage renal disease: pathophysiology and treatment.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, A; Selgas, R; Diéz, J J; Bajo, M A; Codoceo, R; Alvarez, V

    2001-11-01

    Anorexia is a frequent complication of uraemic syndrome, which contributes to malnutrition in dialysis patients. Uraemic anorexia has been associated with many factors. This paper reviews the current knowledge about mechanisms responsible for uraemic anorexia, the treatments and new drugs used to control the loss of appetite. Traditionally, anorexia in dialysis patients has been considered as a sign of uraemic toxicity, therefore, two hypotheses have been proposed, the 'middle molecule' and 'peak-concentration' hypotheses, both of which are still unproved. Recently, our group proposed the tryptophan-serotonin hypothesis, which is based on a disorder in the amino acid profile acquired in the uraemic status. This is characterised by low concentrations of large neutral and branched chain amino acids (LNAA/BCAA) in the cerebrospinal fluid. This situation permits a high level of tryptophan transport across the blood-brain barrier, causing an increase in the synthesis of serotonin (responsible for appetite inhibition). There are two main treatment targets for anorexia in dialysis patients. The first is to decrease the free plasma tryptophan concentration and transport across the blood brain barrier to the cerebrospinal fluid, thus decreasing the intracerebral serotonin levels. Nutritional formulae enriched with LNAA and BCAA have this effect. Secondly, plasma levels of cytokines with cachectin effect (TNF-alpha), should be decreased. This also induces a decrease in LNAA and BCAA levels. In this group are megestrol acetate, anti-TNF-alpha antibodies, thalidomide, pentoxifyilline, n-3 fatty acids and possibly nandrolone decanoate. Additionally, other targets should be explored including antagonists of cholecystokinin (a potent anorexigen retained by renal failure), analogues of neuropeptide Y (the most potent orexigen), cannabinoids, cyproheptadine, hydrazine sulfate. In conclusion, uraemic anorexia is a complex complication associated with malnutrition, high morbidity and

  12. Update on nandrolone and norsteroids: how endogenous or xenobiotic are these substances?

    PubMed

    Bricout, V; Wright, F

    2004-06-01

    Norsteroids are xenobiotics with androgenic and anabolic properties known since as far back as the 1930s. In doping controls, the use of the banned xenobiotic norsteroids is detected in the competitor's urines by the measurement of norandrosterone (19-NA) and noretiocholanolone (19-NE), which are the main metabolites for nandrolone (NT) and most norsteroids with anabolic properties. In 1996, the IOC subcommission "Doping and Biochemistry of Sport" informed the Heads of the "IOC Accredited Laboratories" that the recommended cut-off limit for reporting an offence was to be 1-2 ng ml(-1) urine for either 19-NA or 19-NE. We will discuss how technical progress in gas chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry permitted a dramatic increase in sensitivity with a detection limit of 1 pg ml(-1) urine, or less, and an assay limit of 20-50 pg ml(-1) urine, for either 19-NA or 19-NE. As a paradox, norsteroids have been known for decades as not only xenobiotics but also obligatory endogenous intermediates in the biosynthesis of estrogens from androgens in all species, man included. It is this biochemical observation which fed the active scientific and medical controversy initiated in 1998 over the possibly endogenous production of nandrolone and metabolites well over the new IOC's recommended cut-off limit of 2 ng ml(-1) urine. Notwithstanding the particular technical difficulties attached, we will provide data and discuss the minute endogenous levels detected and measured in man either at rest, after performance or training and compare them to the relatively high levels reported in male athlete's doping controls today. We will also discuss data on the pharmacological effects of some contraceptive therapies containing norsteroids in women. In view of the well-documented noxious effects repeatedly observed after anabolic steroid misuse, the confirmation and implementation of technically proven procedures for reporting norsteroid abuse in sports seems an

  13. Investigation of methyl decanoate combustion in an optical direct-injection diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, A. S.; Dumitrescu, Cosmin E.; Mueller, Charles J.

    In this study, an optically accessible heavy-duty diesel engine was used to investigate the impact of methyl decanoate (MD) on combustion and emissions. A specific goal of the study was to determine if MD could enable soot-free leaner-lifted flame combustion (LLFC) – a mode of mixing-controlled combustion associated with fuel-air equivalence ratios below approximately two. An ultra-low sulfur diesel certification fuel (CF) was used as the baseline fuel, and experiments were conducted at two fuel-injection pressures with three levels of charge-gas dilution. In addition to conventional pressure-based and engine-out emissions measurements, exhaust laser-induced incandescence, in-cylinder natural luminosity (NL), and in-cylindermore » chemiluminescence (CL) diagnostics were used to provide detailed insight into combustion processes.« less

  14. Investigation of methyl decanoate combustion in an optical direct-injection diesel engine

    DOE PAGES

    Cheng, A. S.; Dumitrescu, Cosmin E.; Mueller, Charles J.

    2014-11-24

    In this study, an optically accessible heavy-duty diesel engine was used to investigate the impact of methyl decanoate (MD) on combustion and emissions. A specific goal of the study was to determine if MD could enable soot-free leaner-lifted flame combustion (LLFC) – a mode of mixing-controlled combustion associated with fuel-air equivalence ratios below approximately two. An ultra-low sulfur diesel certification fuel (CF) was used as the baseline fuel, and experiments were conducted at two fuel-injection pressures with three levels of charge-gas dilution. In addition to conventional pressure-based and engine-out emissions measurements, exhaust laser-induced incandescence, in-cylinder natural luminosity (NL), and in-cylindermore » chemiluminescence (CL) diagnostics were used to provide detailed insight into combustion processes.« less

  15. Experimental and modeling study of the thermal decomposition of methyl decanoate

    PubMed Central

    Herbinet, Olivier; Glaude, Pierre-Alexandre; Warth, Valérie; Battin-Leclerc, Frédérique

    2013-01-01

    The experimental study of the thermal decomposition of methyl decanoate was performed in a jet-stirred reactor at temperatures ranging from 773 to 1123 K, at residence times between 1 and 4 s, at a pressure of 800 Torr (106.6 kPa) and at high dilution in helium (fuel inlet mole fraction of 0.0218). Species leaving the reactor were analyzed by gas chromatography. Main reaction products were hydrogen, carbon oxides, small hydrocarbons from C1 to C3, large 1-olefins from 1-butene to 1-nonene, and unsaturated esters with one double bond at the end of the alkyl chain from methyl-2-propenoate to methyl-8-nonenoate. At the highest temperatures, the formation of polyunsaturated species was observed: 1,3-butadiene, 1,3-cyclopentadiene, benzene, toluene, indene, and naphthalene. These results were compared with previous ones about the pyrolysis of n-dodecane, an n-alkane of similar size. The reactivity of both molecules was found to be very close. The alkane produces more olefins while the ester yields unsaturated oxygenated compounds. A detailed kinetic model for the thermal decomposition of methyl decanoate has been generated using the version of software EXGAS which was updated to take into account the specific chemistry involved in the oxidation of methyl esters. This model contains 324 species and 3231 reactions. It provided a very good prediction of the experimental data obtained in jet-stirred reactor. The formation of the major products was analyzed. The kinetic analysis showed that the retro-ene reactions of intermediate unsaturated methyl esters are of importance in low reactivity systems. PMID:23710078

  16. THE ANABOLIC STEROIDS TESTOSTERONE PROPIONATE AND NANDROLONE, BUT NOT 17α-METHYLTESTOSTERONE, INDUCE CONDITIONED PLACE PREFERENCE IN ADULT MICE

    PubMed Central

    Parrilla-Carrero, Jeffrey; Figueroa, Orialis; Lugo, Alejandro; García-Sosa, Rebecca; Brito-Vargas, Paul; Cruz, Beatriz; Rivera, Melanis; Barreto-Estrada, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are often misused by adolescents and athletes. Their effects vary according to chemical structure and metabolism, route of administration, and AAS regimen. In this study, adult C57Bl/6 male mice were systemically exposed to testosterone propionate (TP), nandrolone or 17α-methyltestosterone (17α-meT), type I, type II and type III AAS, respectively, in order to determine the hedonic or aversive properties of each drug. For this purpose, the conditioned place preference (CPP) test was employed at three different AAS doses (0.075, 0.75 and 7.5 mg/kg). Other behavioral domains monitored were light-dark transitions (side changes) and general activity. TP shifted place preference at all doses tested, and nandrolone shifted place preference at 0.75 and 7.5mg/kg, but not at 0.075 mg/kg, the lower dose tested. Conversely, mice receiving 17α-meT did not show alteration in the preference score. The lower dose of nandrolone did modify exploratory based-anxiety showing a decrease in light-dark transitions if compared to vehicle-treated animals, while mice treated with TP or 17α-meT were not affected. Our data suggest that when studying hedonic and rewarding properties of synthetic androgens, distinction has to be made based on type of AAS and metabolism. PMID:19028026

  17. The anabolic steroids testosterone propionate and nandrolone, but not 17alpha-methyltestosterone, induce conditioned place preference in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Parrilla-Carrero, Jeffrey; Figueroa, Orialis; Lugo, Alejandro; García-Sosa, Rebecca; Brito-Vargas, Paul; Cruz, Beatriz; Rivera, Mélanis; Barreto-Estrada, Jennifer L

    2009-02-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are often misused by adolescents and athletes. Their effects vary according to chemical structure and metabolism, route of administration, and AAS regimen. In this study, adult C57Bl/6 male mice were systemically exposed to testosterone propionate (TP), nandrolone or 17alpha-methyltestosterone (17alpha-meT), type I, type II and type III AAS, respectively, in order to determine the hedonic or aversive properties of each drug. For this purpose, the conditioned place preference (CPP) test was employed at three different AAS doses (0.075, 0.75 and 7.5 mg/kg). Other behavioral domains monitored were light-dark transitions (side changes) and general activity. TP shifted place preference at all doses tested, and nandrolone shifted place preference at 0.75 and 7.5 mg/kg, but not at 0.075 mg/kg, the lower dose tested. Conversely, mice receiving 17alpha-meT did not show alteration in the preference score. The lower dose of nandrolone did modify exploratory-based anxiety showing a decrease in light-dark transitions if compared to vehicle-treated animals, while mice treated with TP or 17alpha-meT were not affected. Our data suggest that when studying hedonic and rewarding properties of synthetic androgens, distinction has to be made based on type of AAS and metabolism.

  18. Microbial transformation of nandrolone with Cunninghamella echinulata and Cunninghamella blakesleeana and evaluation of leishmaniacidal activity of transformed products.

    PubMed

    Baydoun, Elias; Karam, Martin; Atia-tul-Wahab; Khan, Mahwish Shafi Ahmed; Ahmad, Malik Shoaib; Samreen; Smith, Colin; Abdel-Massih, Roula; Choudhary, M Iqbal

    2014-10-01

    Therapeutic potential of nandrolone and its derivatives against leishmaniasis has been studied. A number of derivatives of nandrolone (1) were synthesized through biotransformation. Microbial transformation of nandrolone (1) with Cunninghamella echinulata and Cunninghamella blakesleeana yielded three new metabolites, 10β,12β,17β-trihydroxy-19-nor-4-androsten-3-one (2), 10β,16α,17β-trihydroxy-19-nor-4-androsten-3-one (3), and 6β,10β,17β-trihydroxy-19-nor-4-androsten-3-one (4), along with four known metabolites, 10β,17β-dihydroxy-19-nor-4-androsten-3-one (5), 6β,17β-dihydroxy-19-nor-4-androsten-3-one (6) 10β-hydroxy-19-nor-4-androsten-3,17-dione (7) and 16β,17β-dihydroxy-19-nor-4-androsten-3-one (8). Compounds 1-8 were evaluated for their anti-leishmanial activity. Compounds 1 and 8 showed a significant activity in vitro against Leishmania major. The leishmanicidal potential of compounds 1-8 (IC50=32.0±0.5, >100, 77.39±5.52, 70.90±1.16, 54.94±1.01, 80.23±3.39, 61.12±1.39 and 29.55±1.14 μM, respectively) can form the basis for the development of effective therapies against the protozoal tropical disease leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Activation of Two Different Resistance Mechanisms in Saccharomyces cerevisiae upon Exposure to Octanoic and Decanoic Acids▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Legras, J. L.; Erny, C.; Le Jeune, C.; Lollier, M.; Adolphe, Y.; Demuyter, C.; Delobel, P.; Blondin, B.; Karst, F.

    2010-01-01

    Medium-chain fatty acids (octanoic and decanoic acids) are well known as fermentation inhibitors. During must fermentation, the toxicity of these fatty acids is enhanced by ethanol and low pH, which favors their entrance in the cell, resulting in a decrease of internal pH. We present here the characterization of the mechanisms involved in the establishment of the resistance to these fatty acids. The analysis of the transcriptome response to the exposure to octanoic and decanoic acids revealed that two partially overlapping mechanisms are activated; both responses share many genes with an oxidative stress response, but some key genes were activated differentially. The transcriptome response to octanoic acid stress can be described mainly as a weak acid response, and it involves Pdr12p as the main transporter. The phenotypic analysis of knocked-out strains confirmed the role of the Pdr12p transporter under the control of WAR1 but also revealed the involvement of the Tpo1p major facilitator superfamily proteins (MFS) transporter in octanoic acid expulsion. In contrast, the resistance to decanoic acid is composite. It also involves the transporter Tpo1p and includes the activation of several genes of the beta-oxidation pathway and ethyl ester synthesis. Indeed, the induction of FAA1 and EEB1, coding for a long-chain fatty acyl coenzyme A synthetase and an alcohol acyltransferase, respectively, suggests a detoxification pathway through the production of decanoate ethyl ester. These results are confirmed by the sensitivity of strains bearing deletions for the transcription factors encoded by PDR1, STB5, OAF1, and PIP2 genes. PMID:20851956

  20. A multicenter phase IIb study of a novel combination of intramuscular androgen (testosterone decanoate) and oral progestogen (etonogestrel) for male hormonal contraception.

    PubMed

    Hay, Cathy J; Brady, Brian M; Zitzmann, Michael; Osmanagaoglu, Kaan; Pollanen, Pasi; Apter, Dan; Wu, Frederick C W; Anderson, Richard A; Nieschlag, Eberhard; Devroey, Paul; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo; Kersemaekers, Wendy M

    2005-04-01

    The effect of a novel combination of oral etonogestrel (ENG) and im testosterone decanoate (TD) on suppression of gonadotropins and spermatogenesis as a potential lead for male contraception was investigated. Healthy male volunteers were randomized into two groups receiving 300 microg ENG daily and 400 mg TD every 4 (n = 55) or 6 (n = 57) wk for 48 wk. At wk 48, all men except one in the 6-wk group suppressed sperm concentration to less than 1 million/ml. Faster suppression occurred in the 4-wk group. Gonadotropins were suppressed in both groups and most consistently in the 4-wk group. During treatment, trough testosterone levels increased into the normal range in the 4-wk group but remained just below normal in the 6-wk group. All peak levels were within the normal range. After treatment cessation, recovery of sperm counts and gonadotropins to normal levels occurred in both groups. Minor effects on weight and cholesterol were noted. Fourteen subjects withdrew because of an adverse event with those possibly related to the study medication reported more frequently in the 6-wk group (nine vs. one). In conclusion, the combination of 300 microg ENG with 400 mg TD every 4 wk was superior in terms of efficacy, hormone profiles, and safety. This represents a promising approach to male hormonal contraception.

  1. The Impact of Exogenic Testosterone and Nortestosterone-Decanoate Toxicological Evaluation Using a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Cristina, Romeo Teodor; Hanganu, Flavia; Dumitrescu, Eugenia; Muselin, Florin; Butnariu, Monica; Constantin, Adriana; Chiurciu, Viorica

    2014-01-01

    The impact of exogenic testosterone (T): 1.5 and 3.0 mg/kg.bw) and 19-nortestosterone 17-decanoate (ND): 1.5 and 7.5 mg/kg.bw) in castrated male rats was evaluated based on: (a) weight increase of the androgen target tissues, respecting the Hershberger methodology; (b) the 17α and β-testosterone, 17 α and β-estradiol and 17 α and β-nortestosterone levels using the GC-MS/MS technique; and (c) observation of the serum free thyroxine levels (T4). Results revealed that T and ND significantly increased the weight of androgen target tissues as follows: ND was more influential on seminal vesicles, levator ani-bulbocavernosus muscle (LABC) and Cowper's glands and T (at a dose of 3.0 mg/kg.bw) influenced the weight of the ventral prostate and glans penis. Serum samples analyzed for steroid hormone levels showed the presence of 17β-testosterone, 17β-estradiol and 17β-nor-testosterone, in castrated male rats injected with testosterone and nortestosterone, but no significant differences were found between thyroid responses and thyroid hormone levels. The results of this research proved the disrupting activity of T and ND when administered in high doses and the useful application of the Hershberger bioassay in the case of ND. PMID:25302584

  2. Subchronic steroid administration induces long lasting changes in neurochemical and behavioral response to cocaine in rats.

    PubMed

    Kailanto, Sanna; Kankaanpää, Aino; Seppälä, Timo

    2011-11-01

    The abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs), such as nandrolone, is not only a problem in the world of sports but is associated with the polydrug use of non-athletes. Among other adverse effects, AAS abuse has been associated with long term or even persistent psychiatric problems. We have previously found that nandrolone decanoate treatment could produce prolonged changes in rats' brain reward circuits associated to drug dependence. The aim in this study was to evaluate whether AAS-induced neurochemical and behavioral changes are reversible. The increases in extracellular dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) concentration, as well as stereotyped behavior and locomotor activity (LMA) evoked by cocaine were attenuated by pretreatment with nandrolone. The recovery period, which was needed for the DA system to return back to the basic level, was fairly long compared to the dosing period of the steroid. In the 5-HT system, the time that system needed to return back to the basal level, was even longer than in the DA system. The attenuation was still seen though there were no detectable traces of nandrolone in the blood samples. Given that accumbal outflow of DA and 5-HT, as well as LMA and stereotyped behavior are all related to reward of stimulant drugs, this study suggests that nandrolone decanoate has significant, long-lasting but reversible effects on the rewarding properties of cocaine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fullerene-C60-modified electrode as a sensitive voltammetric sensor for detection of nandrolone--an anabolic steroid used in doping.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Rajendra N; Gupta, Vinod K; Bachheti, Neeta

    2007-07-30

    The electrochemical behaviour of nandrolone is investigated by cyclic, differential pulse and square-wave voltammetry in phosphate buffer system at fullerene-C60-modified electrode. The modified electrode shows an excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of nandrolone resulting in a marked lowering in the peak potential and considerable improvement of the peak current as compared to the electrochemical activity at the bare glassy carbon electrode. The oxidation process is shown to be irreversible and diffusion-controlled. A linear range of 50 microM to 0.1 nM is obtained along with a detection limit and sensitivity of 0.42 nM and 0.358 nA nM(-1), respectively, in square-wave voltammetric technique. A diffusion coefficient of 4.13x10(-8) cm2 s(-1) was found for nandrolone using chronoamperometry. The effect of interferents, stability and reproducibility of the proposed method were also studied. The described method was successfully employed for the determination of nandrolone in human serum and urine samples. A cross-validation of observed results by GC-MS indicates that the results are in good agreement with each other.

  4. Endogenous nandrolone metabolites in human urine. Two-year monitoring of male professional soccer players.

    PubMed

    Le, Bizec Bruno; Bryand, Fabrice; Gaudin, Isabelle; Monteau, Fabrice; Poulain, Frédéric; Andre, François

    2002-01-01

    19-Norandrosterone (19-NA) and 19-noretiocholanolone (19-NE) are the two main indicators used to prove the illegal use of nandrolone by humans. Recent studies showed that 19-NA and 19-NE can be endogenously produced in some individuals. The mediated cases observed over the last three years generated some questions about the appropriateness of the official International Olympic Committee cutoff level, which is 2 ng/mL of 19-NA in male urine samples. In the present study, professional soccer players belonging to the French First League were studied over a period of 19 months. In total, 385 urine samples were taken immediately before and after soccer competitions and were coupled with 200 blood samples for testosterone and LH determination. Results of the study showed that the mean values for 19-NA and 19-NE were 0.097 ng/mL and 0.033 ng/mL, respectively. For 19-NA, 70% of the samples proved to be below 0.1 ng/mL, whereas less than 20% were found to be between 0.1 and 0.2 ng/mL, and 7% were between 0.2 and 0.3 ng/mL. Only four urine samples were above 1.0 ng/mL; the maximal value was 1.79 ng/mL. For 19-NE, only one sample was above 1.0 ng/mL; the value was 1.42 ng/mL. Concentrations of these compounds after games were generally significantly higher than those before games.

  5. Body mass reduction markedly improves muscle performance and body composition in obese females aged 61-75 years: comparison between the effects exerted by energy-restricted diet plus moderate aerobic-strength training alone or associated with rGH or nandrolone undecanoate.

    PubMed

    Sartorio, Alessandro; Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Agosti, Fiorenza; Marinone, Pier Giulio; Ottolini, Saverio; Lafortuna, Claudio L

    2004-04-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of a body mass reduction programme entailing diet caloric restriction and moderate physical activity with or without supplementary treatment with recombinant (r) GH or steroids to improve body composition and muscle performance in severely obese women aged 61-75 years. Twenty women were randomly assigned to one of three groups: body mass reduction alone; body mass reduction plus rGH; body mass reduction plus nandrolone undecanoate. Body composition, isotonic muscle strength and anaerobic power output during jumping were determined before and after the 3-week period. Whatever the experimental group considered, body mass (P<0.01), body mass index (P<0.05) and fat mass (P<0.05) decreased significantly, whereas muscle strength and power increased significantly (P<0.05) after the intervention. Small body mass reductions after 3 weeks of energy-restricted diet combined with moderate aerobic and strength exercise are associated with significant improvements in upper and lower limb muscle strength and power and reduction of fat mass in severely obese women aged 61-75 years. Although the association of rGH or nandrolone undecanoate does not appear to exert additional effects on body composition and muscle performance attained by body mass reduction alone, further additional studies with larger study groups, different dosages and more prolonged periods are required for definitive conclusions to be drawn.

  6. Evidence of boldenone, nandrolone, 5(10)-estrene-3β-17α-diol and 4-estrene-3,17-dione as minor metabolites of testosterone in equine.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jenny K Y; Leung, David K K; Curl, Peter; Schiff, Peter J; Lam, Kenneth K H; Wan, Terence S M

    2017-09-01

    The detection of boldenone, nandrolone, 5(10)-estrene-3β,17α-diol, and 4-estrene-3,17-dione in a urine sample collected from a gelding having been treated with testosterone (500 mg 'Testosterone Suspension 100', single dose, injected intramuscularly) in 2009 led the authors' laboratory to suspect that these 'testicular' steroids could be minor metabolites of testosterone in geldings. Administration trials on six castrated horses with Testosterone Suspension 100 confirmed that low levels of boldenone, nandrolone, 5(10)-estrene-3β,17α-diol, and 4-estrene-3,17-dione could indeed be detected and confirmed in the early post-administration urine samples from all six geldings. Although boldenone has been reported to be present in urine after testosterone administration, there has been no direct evidence reported that boldenone, nandrolone, 5(10)-estrene-3β,17α-diol, and 4-estrene-3,17-dione are metabolites of testosterone in geldings. Subsequent in vitro experiments involving the incubation of testosterone with horse liver microsomes, liver, adipose and muscle tissues, and adrenal cortex homogenates failed to provide evidence that these four substances are minor metabolites of testosterone. An administration trial using 'Testosterone Suspension 100' supplemented with 13 C-labelled testosterone (500 mg, 1:1 ratio, injected intramuscularly) was performed. The similarities of the excretion curves of 12 C-testosterone and 13 C-testosterone in urine suggest that there was minimal kinetic isotope effect. 13 C-Labelled boldenone, nandrolone and 4-estrene-3,17-dione were detected but not 5(10)-estrene-3β,17α-diol and its 13 C-counterpart. This is the first unequivocal evidence of boldenone, nandrolone and 4-estrene-3,17-dione being metabolites of testosterone in geldings. In view of these results, caution should be exercised when interpreting findings of boldenone, nandrolone and/or 4-estrene-3,17-dione together with a relatively high level of testosterone in gelding

  7. Neuronal decanoic acid oxidation is markedly lower than that of octanoic acid: A mechanistic insight into the medium-chain triglyceride ketogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Khabbush, Aziza; Orford, Michael; Tsai, Yi-Chen; Rutherford, Tricia; O'Donnell, Maura; Eaton, Simon; Heales, Simon J R

    2017-08-01

    The medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) ketogenic diet contains both octanoic (C8) and decanoic (C10) acids. The diet is an effective treatment for pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Although the exact mechanism for its efficacy is not known, it is emerging that C10, but not C8, interacts with targets that can explain antiseizure effects, for example, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (eliciting mitochondrial biogenesis and increased antioxidant status) and the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor. For such effects to occur, significant concentrations of C10 are likely to be required in the brain. To investigate how this might occur, we measured the β-oxidation rate of 13 C-labeled C8 and C10 in neuronal SH-SY5Y cells using isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. The effects of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT1) inhibition, with the CPT1 inhibitor etomoxir, on C8 and C10 β-oxidation were also investigated. Both fatty acids were catabolized, as judged by 13 CO 2 release. However, C10 was β-oxidized at a significantly lower rate, 20% that of C8. This difference was explained by a clear dependence of C10 on CPT1 activity, which is low in neurons, whereas 66% of C8 β-oxidation was independent of CPT1. In addition, C10 β-oxidation was decreased further in the presence of C8. It is concluded that, because CPT1 is poorly expressed in the brain, C10 is relatively spared from β-oxidation and can accumulate. This is further facilitated by the presence of C8 in the MCT ketogenic diet, which has a sparing effect upon C10 β-oxidation. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  8. Influence of delivery mode on the urinary excretion of nandrolone metabolites.

    PubMed

    Watson, Phillip; Houghton, Ed; Grace, Philip B; Judkins, Catherine; Dunster, Paula M; Maughan, Ronald J

    2010-04-01

    This study examined the influence of a supplement matrix on the excretion pattern of nandrolone metabolites in response to ingestion of a trace amount of 19-norandrostenedione. Ten male and nine female volunteers (mean ± SD: age = 26 ± 3 yr, height = 1.71 ± 0.09 m, body mass = 70.9 ± 13.2 kg) were recruited. On two occasions, subjects entered the laboratory in the morning after an overnight fast. After an initial urine collection, subjects ingested either 500 mL of plain water or a commercially available energy bar; 10 µg of 19-norandrostenedione was added to each. The volume of each urine sample passed during the next 24 h was measured, and an aliquot was retained for analysis. All samples were analyzed for the metabolites 19-norandrosterone (19-NA) and 19-noretiocholanolone (19-NE) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The total volume of urine passed was higher in the water trial (2.10 ± 0.52 L) than in the bar trial (1.85 ± 0.55 L; P = 0.040). Baseline urinary 19-NA concentrations were all below the limit of quantification for the assay. Peak urinary 19-NA was lower (P = 0.002) in the water trial (4.80 ± 2.84 ng·mL(-1)) than in the bar trial (8.46 ± 4.44 ng·mL(-1)). The time elapsed between ingestion of the supplement and the peak urinary 19-NA concentration was longer (P = 0.023) on the bar trial (4.6 ± 2.4 h) than on the water trial (2.8 ± 1.9 h). There was no difference in the total recovery of 19-NA + 19-NE between the liquid and solid supplements (water 30 ± 10%; bar 28 ± 12%; P < 0.140). Peak 19-NA concentrations were higher, and occurred later, when the 19-norandrostenedione was added to a solid supplement. This may be due to a slower rate of absorption and/or a reduced diuresis, resulting in a longer period for the metabolites to accumulate in the urine.

  9. Anabolic Steroid Reversal of Denervation Atrophy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    rabbit model treated with nandrolone decanoate12 and Zhao et al. found that nandrolone significantly reduced chronic denervation atrophy (but not acute...surprising results, the most important question is whether the concept of augmenting reinnervated muscle is flawed or whether nandrolone (at the dosage...administration of supraphysiological doses of anabolic or natural steroids to normal rats22, 23. Egginton administered nandrolone to sedentary female

  10. Nandrolone and stanozolol induce Leydig cell tumor proliferation through an estrogen-dependent mechanism involving IGF-I system.

    PubMed

    Chimento, Adele; Sirianni, Rosa; Zolea, Fabiana; De Luca, Arianna; Lanzino, Marilena; Catalano, Stefania; Andò, Sebastiano; Pezzi, Vincenzo

    2012-05-01

    Several substances such as anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), peptide hormones like insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), aromatase inhibitors and estrogen antagonists are offered via the Internet, and are assumed without considering the potential deleterious effects that can be caused by their administration. In this study we aimed to determine if nandrolone and stanozolol, two commonly used AAS, could have an effect on Leydig cell tumor proliferation and if their effects could be potentiated by the concomitant use of IGF-I. Using a rat Leydig tumor cell line, R2C cells, as experimental model we found that nandrolone and stanozolol caused a dose-dependent induction of aromatase expression and estradiol (E2) production. When used in combination with IGF-I they were more effective than single molecules in inducing aromatase expression. AAS exhibited estrogenic activity and induced rapid estrogen receptor (ER)-dependent pathways involving IGF1R, AKT, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Inhibitors for these kinases decreased AAS-dependent aromatase expression. Up-regulated aromatase levels and related E2 production increased cell proliferation as a consequence of increased cyclin E expression. The observation that ER antagonist ICI182,780 was also able to significantly reduce ASS- and AAS + IGF-induced cell proliferation, confirmed a role for estrogens in AAS-dependent proliferative effects. Taken together these data clearly indicate that the use of high doses of AAS, as it occurs in doping practice, enhances Leydig cell proliferation, increasing the risk of tumor development. This risk is higher when AAS are used in association with IGF-I. To our knowledge this is the first report directly associating AAS and testicular cancer. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Carbon isotope ratios of nandrolone, boldenone, and testosterone preparations seized in Norway compared to those of endogenously produced steroids in a Nordic reference population.

    PubMed

    Hullstein, Ingunn; Sagredo, Carlos; Hemmersbach, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Determining the origin of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) that also are produced endogenously in the human body is a major issue in doping control. In some cases, the presence of nandrolone and boldenone metabolites might result from endogenous production. The GC-C-IRMS technique (gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry) enables the carbon isotopic ratio (CIR) to be measured to determine the origin of these metabolites. The aim of this study was to use GC-C-IRMS to determine the δ(13) CVPDB values of seized boldenone and nandrolone preparations to decide if the steroids themselves were depleted in (13) C, compared to what is normally seen in endogenously produced steroids. In addition, several testosterone preparations were analyzed. A total of 69 seized preparations were analyzed. The nandrolone preparations showed δ(13) CVPDB values in the range of -31.5 ‰ to -26.7 ‰. The boldenone preparations showed δ(13) CVPDB values in the range of -32.0 ‰ to -27.8 ‰, and for comparison the testosterone preparations showed δ(13) CVPDB values of -31.0 ‰ to -24.2 ‰. The results showed that the values measured in the nandrolone and boldenone preparations were in the same range as those measured in the testosterone preparations. The study also included measurements of CIR of endogenously produced steroids in a Norwegian/Danish reference population. The δ(13) CVPDB values measured for the endogenous steroids in this population were in the range of -21.7 to -26.8. In general, most of the preparations investigated in this study show (13) C-depleted delta values compared to endogenously produced steroids reflecting a northern European diet. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Effects of Nandrolone in the Counteraction of Skeletal Muscle Atrophy in a Mouse Model of Muscle Disuse: Molecular Biology and Functional Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Camerino, Giulia Maria; Desaphy, Jean-François; De Bellis, Michela; Capogrosso, Roberta Francesca; Cozzoli, Anna; Dinardo, Maria Maddalena; Caloiero, Roberta; Musaraj, Kejla; Fonzino, Adriano; Conte, Elena; Jagerschmidt, Catherine; Namour, Florence; Liantonio, Antonella; De Luca, Annamaria; Conte Camerino, Diana; Pierno, Sabata

    2015-01-01

    Muscle disuse produces severe atrophy and a slow-to-fast phenotype transition in the postural Soleus (Sol) muscle of rodents. Antioxidants, amino-acids and growth factors were ineffective to ameliorate muscle atrophy. Here we evaluate the effects of nandrolone (ND), an anabolic steroid, on mouse skeletal muscle atrophy induced by hindlimb unloading (HU). Mice were pre-treated for 2-weeks before HU and during the 2-weeks of HU. Muscle weight and total protein content were reduced in HU mice and a restoration of these parameters was found in ND-treated HU mice. The analysis of gene expression by real-time PCR demonstrates an increase of MuRF-1 during HU but minor involvement of other catabolic pathways. However, ND did not affect MuRF-1 expression. The evaluation of anabolic pathways showed no change in mTOR and eIF2-kinase mRNA expression, but the protein expression of the eukaryotic initiation factor eIF2 was reduced during HU and restored by ND. Moreover we found an involvement of regenerative pathways, since the increase of MyoD observed after HU suggests the promotion of myogenic stem cell differentiation in response to atrophy. At the same time, Notch-1 expression was down-regulated. Interestingly, the ND treatment prevented changes in MyoD and Notch-1 expression. On the contrary, there was no evidence for an effect of ND on the change of muscle phenotype induced by HU, since no effect of treatment was observed on the resting gCl, restCa and contractile properties in Sol muscle. Accordingly, PGC1α and myosin heavy chain expression, indexes of the phenotype transition, were not restored in ND-treated HU mice. We hypothesize that ND is unable to directly affect the phenotype transition when the specialized motor unit firing pattern of stimulation is lacking. Nevertheless, through stimulation of protein synthesis, ND preserves protein content and muscle weight, which may result advantageous to the affected skeletal muscle for functional recovery. PMID:26066046

  13. Effects of Nandrolone in the Counteraction of Skeletal Muscle Atrophy in a Mouse Model of Muscle Disuse: Molecular Biology and Functional Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Camerino, Giulia Maria; Desaphy, Jean-François; De Bellis, Michela; Capogrosso, Roberta Francesca; Cozzoli, Anna; Dinardo, Maria Maddalena; Caloiero, Roberta; Musaraj, Kejla; Fonzino, Adriano; Conte, Elena; Jagerschmidt, Catherine; Namour, Florence; Liantonio, Antonella; De Luca, Annamaria; Conte Camerino, Diana; Pierno, Sabata

    2015-01-01

    Muscle disuse produces severe atrophy and a slow-to-fast phenotype transition in the postural Soleus (Sol) muscle of rodents. Antioxidants, amino-acids and growth factors were ineffective to ameliorate muscle atrophy. Here we evaluate the effects of nandrolone (ND), an anabolic steroid, on mouse skeletal muscle atrophy induced by hindlimb unloading (HU). Mice were pre-treated for 2-weeks before HU and during the 2-weeks of HU. Muscle weight and total protein content were reduced in HU mice and a restoration of these parameters was found in ND-treated HU mice. The analysis of gene expression by real-time PCR demonstrates an increase of MuRF-1 during HU but minor involvement of other catabolic pathways. However, ND did not affect MuRF-1 expression. The evaluation of anabolic pathways showed no change in mTOR and eIF2-kinase mRNA expression, but the protein expression of the eukaryotic initiation factor eIF2 was reduced during HU and restored by ND. Moreover we found an involvement of regenerative pathways, since the increase of MyoD observed after HU suggests the promotion of myogenic stem cell differentiation in response to atrophy. At the same time, Notch-1 expression was down-regulated. Interestingly, the ND treatment prevented changes in MyoD and Notch-1 expression. On the contrary, there was no evidence for an effect of ND on the change of muscle phenotype induced by HU, since no effect of treatment was observed on the resting gCl, restCa and contractile properties in Sol muscle. Accordingly, PGC1α and myosin heavy chain expression, indexes of the phenotype transition, were not restored in ND-treated HU mice. We hypothesize that ND is unable to directly affect the phenotype transition when the specialized motor unit firing pattern of stimulation is lacking. Nevertheless, through stimulation of protein synthesis, ND preserves protein content and muscle weight, which may result advantageous to the affected skeletal muscle for functional recovery.

  14. Nandrolone and stanozolol upregulate aromatase expression and further increase IGF-I-dependent effects on MCF-7 breast cancer cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Sirianni, Rosa; Capparelli, Claudia; Chimento, Adele; Panza, Salvatore; Catalano, Stefania; Lanzino, Marilena; Pezzi, Vincenzo; Andò, Sebastiano

    2012-11-05

    Several doping agents, such as anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) and peptide hormones like insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), are employed without considering the potential deleterious effects that they can cause. In addition, androgens are used in postmenopausal women as replacement therapy. However, there are no clear guidelines regarding the optimal therapeutic doses of androgens or long-term safety data. In this study we aimed to determine if two commonly used AAS, nandrolone and stanozolol, alone or in combination with IGF-I, could activate signaling involved in breast cancer cell proliferation. Using a human breast cancer cell line, MCF-7, as an experimental model we found that both nandrolone and stanozolol caused a dose-dependent induction of aromatase expression and, consequently, estradiol production. Moreover, when nandrolone and stanozolol were combined with IGF-I, higher induction in aromatase expression was observed. This increase involved phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT and phospholipase C (PLC)/protein kinase C (PKC), which are part of IGF-I transductional pathways. Specifically, both AAS were able to activate membrane rapid signaling involving IGF-I receptor, extracellular regulated protein kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) and AKT, after binding to estrogen receptor (ER), as confirmed by the ability of the ER antagonist ICI182, 780 to block such activation. The estrogenic activity of nandrolone and stanozolol was further confirmed by their capacity to induce the expression of the ER-regulated gene, CCND1 encoding for the cell cycle regulator cyclin D1, which represents a key protein for the control of breast cancer cell proliferation. In fact, when nandrolone and stanozolol were combined with IGF-I, they increased cell proliferation to levels higher than those elicited by the single factors. Taken together these data clearly indicate that the use of high doses of AAS, as occurs in doping practice, may increase the risk of breast cancer. This

  15. The Toxicity of Perfluoro-N-Decanoic Acid and 2,3,7,8- Tetrachlorodibenzo-P-Dioxin in L5178Y Mouse Lymphoma Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse side If necessary and identify by block number) Perfluoro -n-decanoic acid ( PFDA ) causes toxic sequelae in vivo very similar to...acid analogs. All polyfluorinated acids tested (either perfluorinated or w-hydro-analogs) with chain length 9 or greater caused impairment of clone...of 5 to 7. The acute and subchronic toxicity of ammonium perfluoro -n-octanoate ( PFOA ) has been described in detail in both rats and rhesus monkeys

  16. Inhibition of Growth of Candida albicans by a Lysozyme-chitosan Conjugate, LYZOX and its Combination with Decanoic Acid.

    PubMed

    Kageshima, Hiroki; Hayama, Kazumi; Takahashi, Miki; Abe, Miho; Yamada, Tsuyoshi; Saito, Akira; Hirano, Shoichiro; Murakami, Yoichi; Abe, Shigeru

    2017-01-01

    A lysozyme-chitosan conjugate preparation (LYZOX), produced from egg white lysozyme and chitosan by Maillard reaction, is a commercial product developed as a cosmetic ingredient or food additive. Effects of LYZOX on in vitro growth of Candida albicans were examined. C. albicans cells were treated with LYZOX for 3 hrs, and then washed and cultured for an additional 16 hrs in modified RPMI1640 medium. Mycelial growth of C. albicans was clearly inhibited by more than 100 μg/ml of LYZOX in a concentration-dependent manner. On the other hand, corresponding concentration of chitosan or lysozyme or their mixture only scarcely showed clear inhibitory effect. Similarly, anti-Candida activity of the combination of LYZOX and decanoic acid, a middle-chain fatty acid, was also examined. Inhibitory activity of this combination against mycelial growth of C. albicans was very potent and appeared synergistic, since fractionated inhibitory concentration (FIC) index for 70% growth inhibition was calculated to be 0.20. Oral application of this combination improved the symptoms of Candida-infected-tongue in an experimental murine candidiasis model. On the basis of these results, the possible application of LYZOX as a new functional product with anti-candida activity was discussed.

  17. Enzymatic Synthesis of Glyserol-Coconut Oil Fatty Acid and Glycerol-Decanoic Acis Ester as Emulsifier and Antimicrobial Agents Using Candida rugosa Lipase EC 3.1.1.3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handayani, Sri; Putri, Ayu Tanissa Tamara; Setiasih, Siswati; Hudiyono, Sumi

    2018-01-01

    In this research, enzymatic esterification was carried out between glycerol and fatty acid from coconut oil and decanoic acid using n-hexane as solvent. In this reaction Candida rugosa lipase was used as biocatalyst. Optimization esterification reaction was carried out for parameter of the substrate ratio. The mmol ratio between fatty acid and glycerol were used are 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, and 1: 4. The highest conversion percentage obtained at the mole ratio of 1: 4 with the value of 78.5% for the glycerol-decanoic acid ester and 55.4% for the glycerol coconut oil fatty acid ester. Esterification products were characterized by FT-IR. The FT-IR spectrum showed that the ester bond was formed as indicated by the wave number 1750-1739 cm-1. The esterification products were then examined by simple emulsion test and was proved to be an emulsifier. The glycerol-coconut oil fatty acid ester produced higher stability emulsion compare with glycerol decanoic ester. The antimicrobial activity assay using disc diffusion method showed that both glycerol-coconut oil fatty acid ester and glycerol-decanoic ester had the ability inhibiting the growth of Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Glycerol-decanoic ester shows higher antimicrobial activity than glycerol-coconut oil fatty acid ester.

  18. Determination of nandrolone metabolites in human urine: comparison between liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Buiarelli, Francesca; Giannetti, Luigi; Jasionowska, Renata; Cruciani, Claudia; Neri, Bruno

    2010-07-15

    Nandrolone (19-nortestosterone) is an androgenic anabolic steroid illegally used as a growth-promoting agent in animal breeding and as a performance enhancer in athletics. Therefore, its use was officially banned in 1974 by the Medical Commission of the International Olympic Committee (IOC). Following nandrolone administration, the main metabolites in humans are 19-norandrosterone, 19-norethiocolanolone and 19-norepiandrosterone, and their presence in urine is the basis of detecting its abuse. The present work was undertaken to determine, in human urine, nandrolone metabolites (phase I and phase II) by developing and comparing multiresidue liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) methods. A double extraction by solid-phase extraction (SPE) was necessary for the complete elimination of the interfering compounds. The proposed methods were also tested on a real positive sample, and they allow us to determine the conjugated/free fractions ratio reducing the risk of false positive or misleading results and they should allow laboratories involved in doping control analysis to monitor the illegal use of steroids. The advantages of LC/MS/MS over GC/MS (which is the technique mainly used) include the elimination of the hydrolysis and derivatization steps: it is known that during enzymatic hydrolysis several steroids can be converted into related compounds and deconjugation is not always 100% effective. The validation parameters for the two methods were similar (limit of quantification (LOQ) <1 ng/mL and percentage coefficient of variance (CV%) <16.4), and both were able to confirm unambiguously all the analytes, thus confirming the validity of both techniques. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Confirmation of the progesterone receptor as an efficient marker of treatment with 17β-estradiol in veal calves.

    PubMed

    Pezzolato, Marzia; Botta, Mario; Baioni, Elisa; Richelmi, Guia Benedetta; Pitardi, Danilo; Varello, Katia; Caramelli, Maria; Bozzetta, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Under current European Union legislation the use of anabolic steroids in food-producing livestock is banned because of their long-term adverse effects on human health. We examined the expression profile of the immunohistochemical marker progesterone receptor in veal calves' sex accessory glands following experimental administration of anabolic compounds. The aim was to confirm the accuracy of the immunohistochemical approach in the detection of the over-expression of the progesterone receptor induced by the administration of sexual steroids at low levels (17β-estradiol and nandrolone alone or in combination). A total of 217 male veal calves were randomly divided into four groups: group A (104 calves) treated with 17β-estradiol (5 mg/head; 4 weekly injections); group B (20 calves) treated with nandrolone (50 mg/head; 4 weekly injections); group C (20 calves) treated with the association of the two steroids (5 mg estradiol + 50 mg nandrolone; 4 weekly injections); and group K (73 calves) kept as a control. All the sexual accessory glands were collected at the slaughterhouse (15 days after the last administration) and subjected to immunohistochemical staining with anti-progesterone receptor antibody. All the calves treated with 17β-estradiol alone or in association with nandrolone (groups A and C) showed strong positivity, while nandrolone-treated calves and controls (groups B and K) gave negative results to the immunohistochemical investigation. The statistical analysis showed that the progesterone receptor is a significant predictor of 17β-estradiol treatment alone or in association with nandrolone (p < 0.001): the immunohistochemical study resulted in 100% sensitivity (CI = 95%: 97.1-100%) and specificity (CI = 95%: 95.1-100%) for prostate and 99% sensitivity (CI = 95%: 95.6-100%) and 100% specificity (CI = 95%: 95.1-100%) for bulbo-urethral glands. The data confirm that this innovative biological approach offers a reliable tool to enhance the efficacy of

  20. Drug-induced parkinsonism following chronic methamphetamine use by a patient on haloperidol decanoate.

    PubMed

    Matthew, Binoj J; Gedzior, Joanna S

    2015-01-01

    This report attempts to highlight that use of an antipsychotic and concurrent chronic use of methamphetamine can cause drug-induced parkinsonism. Methamphetamine is usually not encountered in the list of agents that induce drug-induced parkinsonism and so its consideration particularly during chronic use by a patient who is also on an antipsychotic is worthwhile because of its popularity as an illegal narcotic. This case report describes just such a case of drug-induced parkinsonism which is a subacute syndrome that mimics Parkinson's disease. Although less alarming than dystonia, it is more common, more difficult to treat and can be the cause of significant disability during maintenance treatment especially in the elderly. In most cases, symptoms are reversible in days or weeks, but occasionally, especially in the elderly, or if long-acting injectable antipsychotics are used-as in this case-symptoms may last for weeks or months. The report also illustrates the neuronal workings due to chronic methamphetamine-use and the additive effects of dopamine blockade by antipsychotics such as haloperidol. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. A Dietary Medium-Chain Fatty Acid, Decanoic Acid, Inhibits Recruitment of Nur77 to the HSD3B2 Promoter In Vitro and Reverses Endocrine and Metabolic Abnormalities in a Rat Model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bao Hui; Indran, Inthrani Raja; Tan, Huey Min; Li, Yu; Zhang, Zhiwei; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong

    2016-01-01

    Hyperandrogenism is the central feature of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Due to the intricate relationship between hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance in PCOS, 50%-70% of these patients also present with hyperinsulinemia. Metformin, an insulin sensitizer, has been used to reduce insulin resistance and improve fertility in women with PCOS. In previous work, we have noted that a dietary medium-chain fatty acid, decanoic acid (DA), improves glucose tolerance and lipid profile in a mouse model of diabetes. Here, we report for the first time that DA, like metformin, inhibits androgen biosynthesis in NCI-H295R steroidogenic cells by regulating the enzyme 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ5-Δ4-isomerase type 2 (HSD3B2). The inhibitory effect on HSD3B2 and androgen production required cAMP stimulation, suggesting a mechanistic action via the cAMP-stimulated pathway. Specifically, both DA and metformin reduced cAMP-enhanced recruitment of the orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 to the HSD3B2 promoter, coupled with decreased transcription and protein expression of HSD3B2. In a letrozole-induced PCOS rat model, treatment with DA or metformin reduced serum-free testosterone, lowered fasting insulin, and restored estrous cyclicity. In addition, DA treatment lowered serum total testosterone and decreased HSD3B2 protein expression in the adrenals and ovaries. We conclude that DA inhibits androgen biosynthesis via mechanisms resulting in the suppression of HSD3B2 expression, an effect consistently observed both in vitro and in vivo. The efficacy of DA in reversing the endocrine and metabolic abnormalities of the letrozole-induced PCOS rat model are promising, raising the possibility that diets including DA could be beneficial for the management of both hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance in PCOS.

  2. The anabolic/androgenic steroid nandrolone exacerbates gene expression modifications induced by mutant SOD1 in muscles of mice models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Galbiati, Mariarita; Onesto, Elisa; Zito, Arianna; Crippa, Valeria; Rusmini, Paola; Mariotti, Raffaella; Bentivoglio, Marina; Bendotti, Caterina; Poletti, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    Anabolic/androgenic steroids (AAS) are drugs that enhance muscle mass, and are often illegally utilized in athletes to improve their performances. Recent data suggest that the increased risk for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in male soccer and football players could be linked to AAS abuse. ALS is a motor neuron disease mainly occurring in sporadic (sALS) forms, but some familial forms (fALS) exist and have been linked to mutations in different genes. Some of these, in their wild type (wt) form, have been proposed as risk factors for sALS, i.e. superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene, whose mutations are causative of about 20% of fALS. Notably, SOD1 toxicity might occur both in motor neurons and in muscle cells. Using gastrocnemius muscles of mice overexpressing human mutant SOD1 (mutSOD1) at different disease stages, we found that the expression of a selected set of genes associated to muscle atrophy, MyoD, myogenin, atrogin-1, and transforming growth factor (TGF)β1, is up-regulated already at the presymptomatic stage. Atrogin-1 gene expression was increased also in mice overexpressing human wtSOD1. Similar alterations were found in axotomized mouse muscles and in cultured ALS myoblast models. In these ALS models, we then evaluated the pharmacological effects of the synthetic AAS nandrolone on the expression of the genes modified in ALS muscle. Nandrolone administration had no effects on MyoD, myogenin, and atrogin-1 expression, but it significantly increased TGFβ1 expression at disease onset. Altogether, these data suggest that, in fALS, muscle gene expression is altered at early stages, and AAS may exacerbate some of the alterations induced by SOD1 possibly acting as a contributing factor also in sALS. PMID:22178654

  3. The anabolic/androgenic steroid nandrolone exacerbates gene expression modifications induced by mutant SOD1 in muscles of mice models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Galbiati, Mariarita; Onesto, Elisa; Zito, Arianna; Crippa, Valeria; Rusmini, Paola; Mariotti, Raffaella; Bentivoglio, Marina; Bendotti, Caterina; Poletti, Angelo

    2012-02-01

    Anabolic/androgenic steroids (AAS) are drugs that enhance muscle mass, and are often illegally utilized in athletes to improve their performances. Recent data suggest that the increased risk for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in male soccer and football players could be linked to AAS abuse. ALS is a motor neuron disease mainly occurring in sporadic (sALS) forms, but some familial forms (fALS) exist and have been linked to mutations in different genes. Some of these, in their wild type (wt) form, have been proposed as risk factors for sALS, i.e. superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene, whose mutations are causative of about 20% of fALS. Notably, SOD1 toxicity might occur both in motor neurons and in muscle cells. Using gastrocnemius muscles of mice overexpressing human mutant SOD1 (mutSOD1) at different disease stages, we found that the expression of a selected set of genes associated to muscle atrophy, MyoD, myogenin, atrogin-1, and transforming growth factor (TGF)β1, is up-regulated already at the presymptomatic stage. Atrogin-1 gene expression was increased also in mice overexpressing human wtSOD1. Similar alterations were found in axotomized mouse muscles and in cultured ALS myoblast models. In these ALS models, we then evaluated the pharmacological effects of the synthetic AAS nandrolone on the expression of the genes modified in ALS muscle. Nandrolone administration had no effects on MyoD, myogenin, and atrogin-1 expression, but it significantly increased TGFβ1 expression at disease onset. Altogether, these data suggest that, in fALS, muscle gene expression is altered at early stages, and AAS may exacerbate some of the alterations induced by SOD1 possibly acting as a contributing factor also in sALS. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Androgens for the anaemia of chronic kidney disease in adults.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qianchun; Abudou, Minawaer; Xie, Xi Sheng; Wu, Taixiang

    2014-10-09

    Anaemia occurs when blood contains fewer red blood cells and lower haemoglobin levels than normal, and is a common complication among adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although a number of approaches are applied to correct anaemia in adults with CKD, the use of androgen therapy is controversial. The aim of this review was to determine the benefits and harms of androgens for the treatment of anaemia in adult patients with CKD. We searched CENTRAL, the Cochrane Renal Group's Specialised Register, the Chinese Biomedicine Database (CBM), CNKI, VIP and reference lists of articles without language restriction. The most recent search was conducted in August 2014. All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that assessed the use of androgens for treating anaemia of CKD in adults were eligible for inclusion. Two authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias in the included studies. Meta-analyses were performed using relative risk (RR) for dichotomous outcomes and mean differences (MD) for continuous outcomes, with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We included eight studies that reported data from 181 participants. Study quality was assessed as moderate in six studies, one was low quality, and one was high quality. The small number of included studies, and low participant numbers adversely influenced evidence quality overall.We found limited evidence (1 study, 24 participants) to indicate that oxymetholone can increase haemoglobin (Hb) (MD 1.90 g/dL, 95% CI 1.66 to 2.14), haematocrit (HCT) (MD 27.10%, 95% CI 26.49 to 27.71), change in albumin (MD 4.91 g/L, 95% CI 3.69 to 6.13), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (MD 54.50 U/L, 95% CI 43.94 to 65.06), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (MD 47.33 U/L, 95% CI 37.69 to 56.97); and decrease high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (MD -15.66 mg/dL, 95% CI -24.84 to -6.48). We also found that compared with erythropoietin alone, nandrolone decanoate plus erythropoietin may increase HCT (3 studies, 73 participants: MD 2

  5. Effectiveness of long-acting antipsychotics in clinical practice : 1. A retrospective, 18-month follow up and comparison between paliperidone palmitate, risperidone long-acting injection and zuclopenthixol decanoate

    PubMed Central

    Cordiner, Matthew; Shajahan, Polash; McAvoy, Sarah; Bashir, Muhammad; Taylor, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: In the UK, nine different compounds are available as long-acting antipsychotic injections (LAIs). There are few clinical guidelines for determining which LAIs are most effective in specific patient groups. To measure the clinical effectiveness of LAIs we aimed to determine the now-established concept of antipsychotic discontinuation rates and measure Clinical Global Impression (CGI) outcomes. Method: The population (n was approximately 560,000) was a secondary care NHS adult mental health service in Lanarkshire, Scotland, UK. This was a retrospective, electronic case note search of LAI-naïve patients commenced on paliperidone palmitate (n = 31), risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI) (n = 102) or zuclopenthixol decanoate (n = 105), with an 18-month follow up. Kaplan–Meier survival statistics for discontinuation rates and hospital admission were calculated. CGI severity and improvement scores were retrospectively assigned by the investigating team. Results: Paliperidone palmitate performed less favourably than risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI) or zuclopenthixol decanoate. Paliperidone palmitate had higher discontinuation rates due to any cause, inefficacy and increased hospitalization risk. Paliperidone palmitate had the smallest proportion of patients assigned a clinically desirable CGI-I score of 1 (very much improved) or 2 (much improved). Conclusions: Paliperidone palmitate had less favourable discontinuation and CGI outcomes compared with RLAI and zuclopenthixol decanoate. This could not be adequately explained by patients in the paliperidone group being more chronically or severely unwell, nor by the presence of comorbidities such as alcohol or substance misuse, or by the use of lower mean dosages compared with RLAI or zuclopenthixol decanoate. We considered that prescribers are familiarizing themselves with paliperidone and outcomes may improve over time. PMID:26913175

  6. Modeling of the oxidation of methyl esters—Validation for methyl hexanoate, methyl heptanoate, and methyl decanoate in a jet-stirred reactor

    PubMed Central

    Glaude, Pierre Alexandre; Herbinet, Olivier; Bax, Sarah; Biet, Joffrey; Warth, Valérie; Battin-Leclerc, Frédérique

    2013-01-01

    The modeling of the oxidation of methyl esters was investigated and the specific chemistry, which is due to the presence of the ester group in this class of molecules, is described. New reactions and rate parameters were defined and included in the software EXGAS for the automatic generation of kinetic mechanisms. Models generated with EXGAS were successfully validated against data from the literature (oxidation of methyl hexanoate and methyl heptanoate in a jet-stirred reactor) and a new set of experimental results for methyl decanoate. The oxidation of this last species was investigated in a jet-stirred reactor at temperatures from 500 to 1100 K, including the negative temperature coefficient region, under stoichiometric conditions, at a pressure of 1.06 bar and for a residence time of 1.5 s: more than 30 reaction products, including olefins, unsaturated esters, and cyclic ethers, were quantified and successfully simulated. Flow rate analysis showed that reactions pathways for the oxidation of methyl esters in the low-temperature range are similar to that of alkanes. PMID:23710076

  7. Enhancement of skin permeation of flurbiprofen via its transdermal patches using isopulegol decanoate (ISO-C10) as an absorption enhancer: pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yang; Quan, Peng; Liu, Xiaochang; Guo, Wenjia; Song, Wenting; Cun, Dongmei; Wang, Zhongyan; Fang, Liang

    2015-09-01

    The study aimed to prepare a transdermal patch for flurbiprofen using isopulegol decanoate (ISO-C10) as a permeation enhancer, and to evaluate the in-vitro and in-vivo percutaneous permeation of the drug, as well as the pharmacodynamic efficacy of the formulation. The permeation experiments were conducted on rabbit skin, and the pharmacokinetic profiles and synovial fluid drug concentration were measured after in-vivo transdermal administration. A deconvolution approach was employed to analyse the correlation between the in-vitro and in-vivo drug permeation. The anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects were, respectively, assessed using the adjuvant arthritis model and the acetic acid induced pain model. ISO-C10 could increase the in-vitro permeation of flurbiprofen from 46.22 ± 5.65 μg/cm(2) to 101.07 ± 10.85 μg/cm(2) . The in-vivo absorption of the drug was also improved by the enhancer, and a good linear correlation was observed between the in-vitro and in-vivo drug permeation. Meanwhile, the ISO-C10 contained patches increased the drug disposition in synovial fluid and enhanced the pharmacodynamic efficacy of the formulation. ISO-C10 would be a promising permeation enhancer for improving the in-vitro and in-vivo delivery of flurbiprofen from its transdermal patches. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  8. Benzyl alcohol increases voluntary ethanol drinking in rats.

    PubMed

    Etelälahti, T J; Eriksson, C J P

    2014-09-01

    The anabolic steroid nandrolone decanoate has been reported to increase voluntary ethanol intake in Wistar rats. In recent experiments we received opposite results, with decreased voluntary ethanol intake in both high drinking AA and low drinking Wistar rats after nandrolone treatment. The difference between the two studies was that we used pure nandrolone decanoate in oil, whereas in the previous study the nandrolone product Deca-Durabolin containing benzyl alcohol (BA) was used. The aims of the present study were to clarify whether the BA treatment could promote ethanol drinking and to assess the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-gonadal axes (HPAGA) in the potential BA effect. Male AA and Wistar rats received subcutaneously BA or vehicle oil for 14 days. Hereafter followed a 1-week washout and consecutively a 3-week voluntary alcohol consumption period. The median (± median absolute deviation) voluntary ethanol consumption during the drinking period was higher in BA-treated than in control rats (4.94 ± 1.31 g/kg/day vs. 4.17 ± 0.31 g/kg/day, p = 0.07 and 1.01 ± 0.26 g/kg/day vs. 0.38 ± 0.27 g/kg/day, p = 0.05, for AA and Wistar rats, respectively; combined effect p < 0.01). The present results can explain the previous discrepancy between the two nandrolone studies. No significant BA effects on basal and ethanol-mediated serum testosterone and corticosterone levels were observed in blood samples taken at days 1, 8 and 22. However, 2h after ethanol administration significantly (p = 0.02) higher frequency of testosterone elevations was detected in high drinking AA rats compared to low drinking Wistars, which supports our previous hypotheses of a role of testosterone elevation in promoting ethanol drinking. Skin irritation and dermatitis were shown exclusively in the BA-treated animals. Altogether, the present results indicate that earlier findings obtained with Deca-Durabolin containing BA need to be re-evaluated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All

  9. Treatment continuation of four long-acting antipsychotic medications in the Netherlands and Belgium: A retrospective database study

    PubMed Central

    Sermon, Jan; Geerts, Paul; Denee, Tom R.; De Vos, Cedric; Malfait, Bart; Lamotte, Mark; Mulder, Cornelis L.

    2017-01-01

    Achieving greater continuation of treatment is a key element to improve treatment outcomes in schizophrenia patients. However, reported treatment continuation can differ markedly depending on the study design. In a retrospective setting, treatment continuation remains overall poor among patients using antipsychotics. This study aimed to document the difference in treatment continuation between four long-acting injectable antipsychotics based on the QuintilesIMS LRx databases, national, longitudinal, panel based prescription databases of retail pharmacies, in the Netherlands and Belgium. Paliperidone palmitate once monthly, risperidone microspheres, haloperidol decanoate, and olanzapine pamoate were studied. This study demonstrated significantly higher treatment continuation of paliperidone palmitate once monthly compared to risperidone microspheres (p-value<0,01) and haloperidol decanoate (p-value<0,01) in both countries, a significantly higher treatment continuation of paliperidone palmitate once monthly compared to olanzapine pamoate in the Netherlands (p-value<0,01), and a general trend towards better treatment continuation versus olanzapine pamoate in Belgium. Analysing the subgroup of patients without previous exposure to long-acting antipsychotic treatment revealed the positive impact of previous exposure on treatment continuation with a subsequent long acting treatment. Additionally, the probability of restarting the index therapy was higher among patients treated with paliperidone palmitate once monthly compared to patients treated with risperidone microspheres and haloperidol decanoate. The data source used and the methodology defined ensured for the first time a comparison of treatment continuation in a non-interventional study design for the four long-acting injectable antipsychotics studied. PMID:28614404

  10. GH improves spatial memory and reverses certain anabolic androgenic steroid-induced effects in intact rats.

    PubMed

    Grönbladh, Alfhild; Johansson, Jenny; Nöstl, Anatole; Nyberg, Fred; Hallberg, Mathias

    2013-01-01

    GH has previously been shown to promote cognitive functions in GH-deficient rodents. In this study we report the effects of GH on learning and memory in intact rats pretreated with the anabolic androgenic steroid nandrolone. Male Wistar rats received nandrolone decanoate (15 mg/kg) or peanut oil every third day for 3 weeks and were subsequently treated with recombinant human GH (1.0 IU/kg) or saline for 10 consecutive days. During the GH/saline treatment spatial learning and memory were tested in the Morris water maze (MWM). Also, plasma levels of IGF1 were assessed and the gene expression of the GH receptors (Ghr), Igf1 and Igf2, in hippocampus and frontal cortex was analyzed. The results demonstrated a significant positive effect of GH on memory functions and increased gene expression of Igf1 in the hippocampus was found in the animals treated with GH. In addition, GH was demonstrated to increase the body weight gain and was able to attenuate the reduced body weight seen in nandrolone-treated animals. In general, the rats treated with nandrolone alone did not exhibit any pronounced alteration in memory compared with controls in the MWM, and in many cases GH did not induce any alteration. Regarding target zone crossings, considered to be associated with spatial memory, the difference between GH- and steroid-treated animals was significant and administration of GH improved this parameter in the latter group. In conclusion, GH improves spatial memory in intact rats and can reverse certain effects induced by anabolic androgenic steroid.

  11. Effect of anabolic steroids on skeletal muscle mass during hindlimb suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsika, R. W.; Herrick, R. E.; Baldwin, K. M.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of treatment with an anabolic steroid (nandrolone decanoate) on the muscle mass of plantaris and soleus of a rats in hindlimb suspension, and on the isomyosin expression in these muscles, was investigated in young female rats divided into four groups: normal control (NC), normal steroid (NS), normal suspension (N-sus), and suspension steroid (sus-S). Steroid treatment of suspended animals (sus-S vs N-sus) was found to partially spare body weight and muscle weight, as well as myofibril content of plantaris (but not soleus), but did not modify the isomyosin pattern induced by suspension. In normal rats (NS vs NC), steroid treatment did enhance body weight and plantaris muscle weight; the treatment did not alter isomyosin expression in either muscle type.

  12. Urinary nandrolone metabolite detection after ingestion of a nandrolone precursor.

    PubMed

    Watson, Phillip; Judkins, Catherine; Houghton, Ed; Russell, Caroline; Maughan, Ronald J

    2009-04-01

    Quantities of various anabolic/androgenic steroids have been found in dietary supplements without their presence being disclosed on the label. The aim of this study was to quantify the excretion patterns of the diagnostic metabolites, 19-norandrosterone (19-NA), and 19-noretiocholanolone (19-NE) after ingestion of small doses of 19-nor-4-androstene-3,17-dione (19-norandrostenedione). Eleven males and nine females entered the laboratory in the morning after an overnight fast. An initial urine sample was collected, and volunteers then ingested 500 mL of water containing 5 g of creatine monohydrate and 1.0, 2.5, or 5.0 microg of 19-norandrostenedione. The volume of each urine void was measured, and an aliquot was taken. Samples were analyzed for the metabolites 19-NA and 19-NE by GCMS. Baseline urinary 19-NA concentrations were 0.19 +/- 0.14 ng x mL. Ingestion of the supplement resulted in peak mean urinary 19-NA concentrations of 0.68 +/- 0.36, 1.56 +/- 0.86, and 3.89 +/- 3.11 ng.mL in the 1.0-, 2.5-, or 5.0-microg trials, respectively. Under current WADA regulations, ingestion of the 1.0-microg dose produced 0 positive doping tests, 5 subjects (20%) tested positive in the 2.5-microg trial, and 15 subjects (75%) had urinary 19-NA concentrations exceeding 2 ng x mL after ingesting creatine containing 5.0 microg of the steroid. The recovery of the ingested dose was highly variable between individuals, with values ranging from 11% to 84% (mean +/- SD = 47% +/- 18%). Ingestion of trace amounts of 19-norandrostenedione can result in transient elevations of urinary 19-NA and 19-NE concentrations. The addition of as little as 2.5 microg of 19-norandrostenedione to a supplement (0.00005% contamination) appears sufficient to result in a doping violation in some individuals.

  13. Effects of Adjuvant Androgen on Anemia and Nutritional Parameters in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients Using Low-dose Recombinant Human Erythropoietin

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Myeung Su; Ahn, Seon Ho; Song, Ju Hung

    2002-01-01

    Background: Recombinant human erythropoietin (epoetin) has greatly contributed to improvement of the anemia of chronic renal failure patients on hemodialysis. However, the reduced erythropoietic effect to epoetin and its high cost have induced lots of supplementary treatments. Therefore, we performed a prospective study to evaluate the effects of adjuvant low-dose androgen therapy in patients using a lower-dose of epoetin than the commonly recommended dose on anemia and the nutritional parameters. Methods : 17 patients of hemoglobin (Hgb) less than 9 g/dL even after being treated with 1,000 U epoetin subcutaneously (s.c.) 3 times per week on a stable status for more than 6 months, who were on hemodialysis at our institution were examined. They were injected with the same dose of epoetin s.c. and nandrolone decanoate 100 mg intramuscularly (i.m) weekly for another 6 months. Blood test was performed every month before therapy for 6 months and after therapy for 6 months and the mean values were reviewed for comparison. Results: Hgb (7.75±0.9 vs 8.99±1.39 g/dL, p <0.01) and hematocrit (Hct) (23.68±2.85 vs 26.66±3.91%, p <0.01) were apparently changed before and after adjuvant therapy. Hgb and Hct, weekly dose of epoetin were not statistically different in 9 male patients before and after adjuvant therapy. The weekly dose of epoetin was not statistically different in 8 female patients, but Hgb and Hct (8.02±0.6 vs 9.72±1.31 g/dL, 24.54±1.7 vs 28.74±3.06%, p <0.01) were statistically different before and after adjuvant therapy. In comparison between male and female groups, weekly doses of epoetin and nandrolone decanoate were significantly greater in the female group than the male group (epoetin: 50.66±6.23 vs 61.18±8.76 U/kg/week, nandrolone decanoate: 1.69±0.2 vs 2.04±0.29 mg/kg/week, p <0.05). Conclusion : Our data show that the adjuvant androgen therapy is effective for the anemia of hemodialysis patients who did not recover from anemia even after being

  14. cis-4-Decenoic and decanoic acids impair mitochondrial energy, redox and Ca(2+) homeostasis and induce mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening in rat brain and liver: Possible implications for the pathogenesis of MCAD deficiency.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Alexandre Umpierrez; Cecatto, Cristiane; da Silva, Janaína Camacho; Wajner, Alessandro; Godoy, Kálita Dos Santos; Ribeiro, Rafael Teixeira; Wajner, Moacir

    2016-09-01

    Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency is biochemically characterized by tissue accumulation of octanoic (OA), decanoic (DA) and cis-4-decenoic (cDA) acids, as well as by their carnitine by-products. Untreated patients present episodic encephalopathic crises and biochemical liver alterations, whose pathophysiology is poorly known. We investigated the effects of OA, DA, cDA, octanoylcarnitine (OC) and decanoylcarnitine (DC) on critical mitochondrial functions in rat brain and liver. DA and cDA increased resting respiration and diminished ADP- and CCCP-stimulated respiration and complexes II-III and IV activities in both tissues. The data indicate that these compounds behave as uncouplers and metabolic inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation. Noteworthy, metabolic inhibition was more evident in brain as compared to liver. DA and cDA also markedly decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, NAD(P)H content and Ca(2+) retention capacity in Ca(2+)-loaded brain and liver mitochondria. The reduction of Ca(2+) retention capacity was more pronounced in liver and totally prevented by cyclosporine A and ADP, as well as by ruthenium red, demonstrating the involvement of mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) and Ca(2+). Furthermore, cDA induced lipid peroxidation in brain and liver mitochondria and increased hydrogen peroxide formation in brain, suggesting the participation of oxidative damage in cDA-induced alterations. Interestingly, OA, OC and DC did not alter the evaluated parameters, implying lower toxicity for these compounds. Our results suggest that DA and cDA, in contrast to OA and medium-chain acylcarnitines, disturb important mitochondrial functions in brain and liver by multiple mechanisms that are possibly involved in the neuropathology and liver alterations observed in MCAD deficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Fundamental understanding of drug absorption from a parenteral oil depot.

    PubMed

    Kalicharan, Raween W; Schot, Peter; Vromans, Herman

    2016-02-15

    Oil depots are parenteral drug formulations meant for sustained release of lipophilic compounds. Until now, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanism of drug absorption from oil depots is lacking. The aim of this paper was to fill this gap. A clinical study with healthy volunteers was conducted. An oil depot with nandrolone decanoate and benzyl alcohol was subcutaneously administered in the upper arm of female volunteers. Pharmacokinetic profiles of both substances were related to each other and to literature data. Benzyl alcohol absorbs much more rapidly than nandrolone. In detail, it appears that benzyl alcohol enters the central compartment directly, while nandrolone decanoate is recovered in serum after a lag time. This lag time is also seen in literature data, although not reported explicitly. The absorption of nandrolone is enhanced by the presence of benzyl alcohol. This is most likely an effect of altered oil viscosity and partition coefficient between the oil and aqueous phase. The absorption rate constant of compounds is found to be related to the logP of the solubilized prodrug. The absorption rate is however not only determined by the physico-chemical properties of the formulation but also by the tissue properties. Here, it is argued that lymphatic flow must be considered as a relevant parameter. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Brain volume changes over the first year of treatment in schizophrenia: relationships to antipsychotic treatment.

    PubMed

    Emsley, R; Asmal, L; du Plessis, S; Chiliza, B; Phahladira, L; Kilian, S

    2017-09-01

    Progressive brain volume reductions have been described in schizophrenia, and an association with antipsychotic exposure has been reported. We compared percentage changes in grey and white matter volume from baseline to month 12 in 23 previously antipsychotic-naïve patients with a first episode of schizophrenia or schizophreniform disorder who were treated with the lowest effective dose of flupenthixol decanoate depot formulation, with 53 matched healthy individuals. Total antipsychotic dose was precisely calculated and its relationship with brain volume changes investigated. Relationships between volumetric changes and treatment were further investigated in terms of treatment response (changes in psychopathology and functionality) and treatment-related adverse-events (extrapyramidal symptoms and weight gain). Excessive cortical volume reductions were observed in patients [-4.6 (6.6)%] v. controls [-1.12 (4.0)%] (p = 0.009), with no significant group differences for changes in subcortical grey matter and white matter volumes. In a multiple regression model, the only significant predictor of cortical volume change was total antipsychotic dose received (p = 0.04). Cortical volume change was not significantly associated with the changes in psychopathology, functionality, extrapyramidal symptoms and body mass index or age, gender and duration of untreated psychosis. Brain volume reductions associated with antipsychotic treatment are not restricted to poor outcome patients and occur even with the lowest effective dose of antipsychotic. The lack of an association with poor treatment response or treatment-related adverse effects counts against cortical volume reductions reflecting neurotoxicity, at least in the short term. On the other hand, the volume reductions were not linked to the therapeutic benefits of antipsychotics.

  17. Effect of anabolic steroids on overloaded and overloaded suspended skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsika, R. W.; Herrick, R. E.; Baldwin, K. M.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of treatment with an anabolic steroid (nandrolone decanoate) on the muscle mass, the subcellular protein content, and the myosin patterns of normal overloaded and suspended overloaded plantaris muscle in female rat was investigated, dividing rats into six groups: normal control (NC), overload (OV), OV steroid (OV-S), normal suspended (N-sus), OV suspended (OV-sus), and OV suspended steroid (OV-sus-S). Relative to control values, overload produced a sparing effect on the muscle weight of the OV-sus group as well as increases of muscle weight of the OV group; increased protein content; and an increased expression of slow myosin in both OV and OV-sus groups. Steroid treatment of OV animals did not after the response of any parameter analyzed for the OV group, but in the OV-sus group steroid treatment induced increases in muscle weight and in protein content of the OV-sus-S group. The treatment did not alter the pattern of isomyosin expression observed in the OV or the OV-sus groups. These result suggest that the steroid acts synergistically with functional overload only under conditions in which the effect of overload is minimized by suspension.

  18. Androgens affect muscle, motor neuron, and survival in a mouse model of SOD1-related amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Tanya; Polanco, Maria J; Scaramuzzino, Chiara; Rocchi, Anna; Milioto, Carmelo; Emionite, Laura; Ognio, Emanuela; Sambataro, Fabio; Galbiati, Mariarita; Poletti, Angelo; Pennuto, Maria

    2014-08-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by selective loss of upper and lower motor neurons and skeletal muscle atrophy. Epidemiologic and experimental evidence suggest the involvement of androgens in ALS pathogenesis, but the mechanism through which androgens modify the ALS phenotype is unknown. Here, we show that androgen ablation by surgical castration extends survival and disease duration of a transgenic mouse model of ALS expressing mutant human SOD1 (hSOD1-G93A). Furthermore, long-term treatment of orchiectomized hSOD1-G93A mice with nandrolone decanoate (ND), an anabolic androgenic steroid, worsened disease manifestations. ND treatment induced muscle fiber hypertrophy but caused motor neuron death. ND negatively affected survival, thereby dissociating skeletal muscle pathology from life span in this ALS mouse model. Interestingly, orchiectomy decreased androgen receptor levels in the spinal cord and muscle, whereas ND treatment had the opposite effect. Notably, stimulation with ND promoted the recruitment of endogenous androgen receptor into biochemical complexes that were insoluble in sodium dodecyl sulfate, a finding consistent with protein aggregation. Overall, our results shed light on the role of androgens as modifiers of ALS pathogenesis via dysregulation of androgen receptor homeostasis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Serca2a and Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger are involved in left ventricular function following cardiac remodelling of female rats treated with anabolic androgenic steroid.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Andrews Marques do; Lima, Ewelyne Miranda de; Brasil, Girlandia Alexandre; Caliman, Izabela Facco; Silva, Josiane Fernandes da; Lemos, Virgínia Soares; Andrade, Tadeu Uggere de; Bissoli, Nazaré Souza

    2016-06-15

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids are misused, including by women, but little is known about the cardiovascular effects of these drugs on women. To evaluated the effects of nandrolone decanoate (ND) and resistive physical exercise on cardiac contractility in young female rats. Female Wistar rats were separated into 4 groups: C (untrained animals); E (animals were submitted to resistance exercise by jumping in water 5 times per week); ND (animals were treated with ND, 20mg/kg/week for 4weeks); and NDE (trained and treated). The haemodynamic parameters (+dP/dtmax, -dP/dtmin and Tau) were assessed in the left ventricle. The heart was collected for histological analyses and collagen deposition. The gastrocnemius muscle was weighed, and hypertrophy was assessed by the ratio of their weights to gastrocnemius/tibia length. The expression of calcium handling proteins was measured by western blot analysis. ND treatment and physical exercise increased cardiac contractility and relaxation. In addition, ND promoted increases in phospholamban phosphorylated (p-PLB) and isoforms of sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2 (SERCA2a) expression, while resistance exercise increased the phosphorylation of PLB and expression of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchangers (NCX). Cardiac hypertrophy and collagen deposition were observed after ND treatment. Regulatory components of cytosolic calcium, such as SERCA2a and p-PLB, play important roles in modulating the contractility and relaxation effects of ND in females. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Anabolic steroids reduce spinal cord injury-related bone loss in rats associated with increased Wnt signaling

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Li; Pan, Jiangping; Peng, Yuanzhen; Wu, Yong; Li, Jianghua; Liu, Xuan; Qin, Yiwen; Bauman, William A.; Cardozo, Christopher; Zaidi, Mone; Qin, Weiping

    2013-01-01

    Background Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes severe bone loss. At present, there is no practical treatment to delay or prevent bone loss in individuals with motor-complete SCI. Hypogonadism is common in men after SCI and may exacerbate bone loss. The anabolic steroid nandrolone reduces bone loss due to microgravity or nerve transection. Objective To determine whether nandrolone reduced bone loss after SCI and, if so, to explore the mechanisms of nandrolone action. Methods Male rats with complete transection of the spinal cord were administered nandrolone combined with a physiological replacement dose of testosterone, or vehicle, beginning on day 29 after SCI and continued for 28 days. Results SCI reduced distal femoral and proximal tibial bone mineral density (BMD) by 25 and 16%, respectively, at 56 days. This bone loss was attenuated by nandrolone. In ex vivo osteoclasts cultures, SCI increased mRNA levels for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and calcitonin receptor; nandrolone-normalized expression levels of these transcripts. In ex vivo osteoblast cultures, SCI increased receptor activator of NF-kB ligand (RANKL) mRNA levels but did not alter osteoprotegerin (OPG) mRNA expression; nandrolone-increased expression of OPG and OPG/RANKL ratio. SCI reduced mRNA levels of Wnt signaling-related genes Wnt3a, low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5), Fzd5, Tcf7, and ectodermal-neural cortex 1 (ENC1) in osteoblasts, whereas nandrolone increased expression of each of these genes. Conclusions The results demonstrate that nandrolone reduces bone loss after SCI. A potential mechanism is suggested by our findings wherein nandrolone modulates genes for differentiation and activity of osteoclasts and osteoblasts, at least in part, through the activation of Wnt signaling. PMID:24090150

  1. Modification of the association between antipsychotic treatment response and childhood adversity by MMP9 gene variants in a first-episode schizophrenia cohort.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Nathaniel; Thompson, Nicole; O'Connell, Kevin Sean; Emsley, Robin; van der Merwe, Lize; Warnich, Louise

    2018-04-01

    Antipsychotics remain the most effective, and wide used option for ameliorating the symptoms of schizophrenia. However, inter-individual differences in treatment outcome are vast and suggest a role for genetic and environmental factors in affording favourable outcomes. A notable epigenetic relationship which has gained considerable traction in recent literature is the way in which the severity of childhood trauma can modify associations seen between genetic variation and antipsychotic treatment response. A potential mechanism of action which may facilitate this relationship is synaptic plasticity. This study investigated the role of variants in matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9), a gene involved in synaptic plasticity, with treatment outcome considering the severity of childhood trauma as an interacting variable. The cohort comprised South African first episode schizophrenia patients treated with a single injectable antipsychotic, flupenthixol decanoate, monitored over 12 months. Relationships between novel and previously described variants, and haplotypes, with antipsychotic treatment response were found to be modified when considering childhood trauma as an interacting variable. This study provides the first evidence for the involvement of polymorphisms within MMP9 and the severity of childhood trauma in antipsychotic treatment response, and warrants further investigation into the role gene-environment interactions may play in the betterment of antipsychotic treatment strategies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of pulsed electric field treatments on the volatile compounds of milk in comparison with pasteurized processing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sha; Yang, Ruijin; Zhao, Wei; Hua, Xiao; Zhang, Wenbin; Zhang, Zhong

    2011-01-01

    Effects of pulsed electric field (PEF) treatments on the volatile profiles of milk were studied and compared with pasteurized treatment of high temperature short time (HTST) (75 °C, 15 s). Volatile compounds were extracted by solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) and identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). A total of 37 volatile compounds were determined by GC-MS, and 19 volatile compounds were considered to be major contributors to the characteristic flavor of milk samples. PEF treatment resulted in an increase in aldehydes. Milk treated with PEF at 30 kV/cm showed the highest content of pentanal, hexanal, and nonanal, while heptanal and decanal contents were lower than in pasteurized milk, but higher than in raw milk. All the methyl ketones detected in PEF milk were lower than in pasteurized milk. No significant differences in acids (acetic acid, butanoic acid, hexanoic acid, octanoic acid, and decanoic acid), lactones, and alcohols were observed between pasteurized and PEF-treated samples; however, 2(5H)-furanone was only detected in PEF-treated milk. Although GC-MS results showed that there were some volatile differences between pasteurized and PEF-treated milk, GC-O data showed no significant difference between the 2 samples.

  3. Evaluation of chemical immersion treatments to reduce microbial populations in fresh beef.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Ahmed; Meade, Joseph; Gibbons, James; McGill, Kevina; Walsh, Ciara; Lyng, James; Whyte, Paul

    2017-11-16

    The aim of the current study was to assess the ability of a number of chemicals (acetic Acid (AA), citric acid (CA) lactic acid (LA), sodium decanoate (SD) and trisodium phosphate (TSP)) to reduce microbial populations (total viable count, Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes) on raw beef using an immersion system. The following concentrations of each chemical were used: 3 & 5% for AA, CA, LA, SD and 10 &12% for TSP. Possible synergistic effects of using combinations of two chemicals sequentially (LA+CA and LA+AA) were also investigated. L*, a* and b* values were measured before and after treatments and ΔE* values were calculated in order to determine any changes in the color of meat due to the use of these chemicals. In general, all chemical treatments resulted in significantly (p<0.05) reduced bacterial counts when compared to untreated controls. The greatest reductions were obtained by using LA3%, SD5%, AA5%, LA5% and SD3% for TVC, C. jejuni, E. coli, S. typhimurium and L. monocytogenes, respectively. However, no significant difference in microbial load was observed between the different concentrations of each chemical used (p>0.05). The application of combinations of chemical immersion treatments (LA3%+AA3% and LA3%+CA3%) did not result in further significant reductions in microbial populations when compared to single chemical treatments (P<0.05). Assessment of color changes in meat following the application of chemical immersion treatments indicated that using AA or CA at either concentration and LA at 5% led to an increase in the ΔE* value of >3 immediately after treatment and after 24h storage. The remaining treatments did not result in significant changes to the color of raw beef. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Treatment of Experimentally Induced Caval Thrombosis With Oral Low Molecular Weight Heparin and Delivery Agent in a Porcine Model of Deep Venous Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Salartash, Khashayar; Lepore, Michael; Gonze, Mark D.; Leone-Bay, Andrea; Baughman, Robert; Charles Sternbergh, W.; Bowen, John C.; Money, Samuel R.

    2000-01-01

    Objective This experiment evaluated enterally administered low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) combined with sodium N-[10-(2-hydroxybenzoyl)amino] decanoate (SNAD) for the treatment of induced venous thrombosis. Summary Background Data SNAD is a delivery agent that potentiates the gastrointestinal absorption of LMWH. Methods Forty female pigs were equally assigned to four groups: control (saline); enteral LMWH, 2,000 IU/kg; enteral SNAD, 50 mg/kg; and enteral LMWH, 2,000 IU/kg and SNAD, 50 mg/kg. Under fluoroscopic guidance, the infrarenal vena cava was occluded with a balloon catheter. Two milliliters of ethanol was injected into the distal vena cava. The inflated balloon catheter remained in situ for 5 days, at which time animals angiographically exhibiting thrombus were randomly assigned to the four groups. Study medications were dosed at 12-hour intervals by means of a gastrostomy tube placed previously. After 7 days of treatment, thrombus was extracted. A separate group of 10 animals was used to measure plasma antifactor Xa levels for 6 hours after enteral dosing of LMWH/SNAD. Results The amount of residual thrombus after treatment with enteral LMWH/SNAD was significantly decreased. Antifactor Xa levels were significantly elevated in the LMWH/SNAD group versus baseline. Conclusion The combination of enterally administered LMWH and SNAD given for 7 days appeared to decrease caval thrombosis in this model of deep vein thrombosis. Enteral LMWH/SNAD effected an increase in plasma levels of antifactor Xa. PMID:10816621

  5. Incontinence Treatment: Surgical Treatments

    MedlinePlus

    ... Incontinence Managing Incontinence: A Survey The Patient's Perspective Barriers on Diagnosis and Treatment Personal Stories Contact Us ... Incontinence Managing Incontinence: A Survey The Patient's Perspective Barriers on Diagnosis and Treatment Personal Stories Contact Us ...

  6. Chronic Anabolic Androgenic Steroid Exposure Alters Corticotropin Releasing Factor Expression and Anxiety-Like Behaviors in the Female Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Costine, Beth A; Oberlander, Joseph G; Davis, Matthew C; Penatti, Carlos A A; Porter, Donna M; Leaton, Robert N; Henderson, Leslie P

    2010-01-01

    Summary In the past several decades, the therapeutic use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been overshadowed by illicit use of these drugs by elite athletes and a growing number of adolescents to enhance performance and body image. As with adults, AAS use by adolescents is associated with a range of behavioral effects, including increased anxiety and altered responses to stress. It has been suggested that adolescents, especially adolescent females, may be particularly susceptible to the effects of these steroids, but few experiments in animal models have been performed to test this assertion. Here we show that chronic exposure of adolescent female mice to a mixture of three commonly abused AAS (testosterone cypionate, nandrolone decanoate and methandrostenolone; 7.5 mg/kg/day for 5 days) significantly enhanced anxiety-like behavior as assessed by the acoustic startle response (ASR), but did not augment the fear-potentiated startle response (FPS) or alter sensorimotor gating as assessed by prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response (PPI). AAS treatment also significantly increased the levels of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) mRNA and somal-associated CRF immunoreactivity in the central amygdala (CeA), as well as neuropil-associated immunoreactivity in the dorsal aspect of the anterolateral division of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dBnST). AAS treatment did not alter CRF receptor 1 or 2 mRNA in either the CeA or the dBnST; CRF immunoreactivity in the ventral BNST, the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) or the median eminence (ME); or peripheral levels of corticosterone. These results suggest that chronic AAS treatment of adolescent female mice may enhance generalized anxiety, but not sensorimotor gating or learned fear, via a mechanism that involves increased CRF-mediated signaling from CeA neurons projecting to the dBnST. PMID:20537804

  7. ANABOLIC STEROIDS HAVE LONG-LASTING EFFECTS ON MALE SOCIAL BEHAVIORS

    PubMed Central

    Salas-Ramirez, Kaliris Y.; Montalto, Pamela R.; Sisk, Cheryl L.

    2010-01-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) use by adolescents is steadily increasing. Adolescence involves remodeling of steroid-sensitive neural circuits that mediate social behaviors, and previous studies using animal models document effects of AAS on male social behaviors. The present experiments tested whether AAS have persistent and more pronounced behavioral consequences when drug exposure occurs during adolescence as compared to exposure in adulthood. Male Syrian hamsters were injected daily for 14 days with either vehicle or an AAS cocktail containing testosterone cypionate (2 mg/kg), nandrolone decanoate (2 mg/kg), and boldenone undecylenate (1 mg/kg), either during adolescence (27-41 days of age) or adulthood (63-77 days of age). As adults, subjects were tested two or four weeks after the last injection for either sexual behavior with a receptive female or male-male agonistic behavior in a resident-intruder test. Compared with vehicle-treated males, AAS-treated males, regardless of age of treatment, displayed fewer long intromissions and a significant increase in latency to the first long intromission, indicative of reduced potential to reach sexual satiety. Increased aggression was observed in males exposed to AAS compared with males treated with vehicle, independently of age of AAS treatment. However, unlike hamsters exposed to AAS in adulthood, hamsters exposed to AAS during adolescence did not display any submissive or risk-assessment behaviors up to 4 weeks after discontinuation of AAS treatment. Thus, AAS have long-lasting effects on male sexual and agonistic behaviors, with AAS exposure during adolescence resulting in a more pronounced reduction in submissive behavior compared to AAS exposure in adulthood. PMID:20036695

  8. Anabolic steroid and gender-dependent modulation of cytosolic HSP70s in fast- and slow-twitch skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    González, B; Hernando, R; Manso, R

    2000-09-01

    Besides their clinical uses, anabolic steroids (AASs) are self-administered by athletes to improve muscle mass and sports performance. The biological basis for their presumed effectiveness at suprapharmacological doses, however, remains uncertain. Since the expression of high levels of some stress proteins (HSPs) has been associated with an increased tolerance to stress and chronic exercise up-regulates HSP72 in skeletal muscle, this investigation was aimed at testing whether the administration of suprapharmacological doses of AASs, either alone or in conjunction with chronic exercise, induced changes in HSP72. Nandrolone decanoate (ND), an estrene derivative, but not stanozolol (ST), a derivative of the androstane series, up-regulated the levels of HSP72 and changed the proportions of various charge variants of the cytosolic HSP70s in sedentary and exercise-trained rats, exclusively in fast-twitch fibres. Since the expression of HSP73-levels in skeletal muscle was dependent on gender but not on muscle type, and that of HSP72-levels was muscle type specific but gender-independent, ND effects on cytosolic HSP70s could not be explained solely by a functional relationship with sex steroids. The reported results indicate that, by up-regulating the expression levels of HSP72 in fast-twitch fibres, nandrolone decanoate could contribute to improving the tolerance of skeletal muscle to high-intensity training.

  9. Evaluation of anabolic steroid induced renal damage with sonography in bodybuilders.

    PubMed

    Kantarci, Umut H; Punduk, Zekine; Senarslan, Omer; Dirik, Alper

    2017-11-17

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of anabolic steroids on kidneys in bodybuilders. Twenty two bodybuilders were included in the study. Participants were divided into three groups according to the scheme of steroid usage: Group 1 (n=8, intramuscular 500 mg testosterone enanthate, intramuscular 400 mg nandrolone decanoate and oral 40 mg methandrostenolone for 12 weeks), Group 2 (n=7, intramuscular 500 mg testosterone enanthate, intramuscular 300 mg nandrolone decanoate and intramuscular 300 mg boldenone undecylenate for 16 weeks) and Group 3 (n=7, no steroid intake). Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr), urine microalbumin and electrolyte levels were measured. Renal volume, cortical thickness and echogenicity were obtained in ultrasonographic scans. Renal volume, cortical thickness, echogenicity and protein intake value were significantly higher in group 2 than group 1 and 3. Plasma levels of BUN and Cr in group 2 were significantly higher than other groups (p ˂ 0.001). Urine microalbumin and electrolyte levels were normal in all groups. The results of this study indicate that high protein intake, steroid usage, particularly the schemes, including boldenone undecylenate increases cortical echogenicity, thickness of renal parenchyma and renal volume in bodybuilders.

  10. Histopathologycal findings in the ovaries and uterus of albino female rats promoted by co-administration of synthetic steroids and nicotine.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Isabel Cristina Cherici; Leite, Gabriel Adan Araújo; Pinto, Tiago; Ribeiro-Paes, João Tadeu

    2014-07-01

    The use of anabolic androgenic steroids is often associated with the use of other substances, licit or not, such as nicotine present in the tobacco. The present study investigated for the first time the effects of co-administration of synthetic steroids and nicotine on the ovarian and uterine tissue and fertility of adult female rats. Animals were submitted to treatment groups (n=16/group): nandrolone decanoate (ND; 7.5mg/kg BW/week); testosterone mixture (T; 7.5mg/kg BW/week); nicotine (N; 2.0mg/kg BW/day), and co-administration of ND/N, T/N and ND/T/N. The control group received saline solution daily. The injections were administered subcutaneously for 30 consecutive days. Results demonstrated that all androgenized rats exhibited estral acyclicity and there was suppression of reproductive capacity due to notable ovarian and uterine histological changes. Treatments promoted decrease (p<0.05) in the ovarian weight. Uterine weight increased (p<0.05) in the T and T/N groups, in comparison to control group. ND or T co-administered or not to nicotine promoted intense follicular degeneration, with formation of cysts in the ovaries. High levels of circulating androgens in the ND/T/N group induced the presence of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors of Sertoli cell pattern. Androgenized females presented endometrial changes characterized by papilliferous or pleated luminal epithelium, oedematous and hemorrhagic stroma and presence of gland cysts. In conclusion, the co-administration of three drugs promoted atypical morphological pattern on the ovaries and uterus of female rats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Serca2a and Na{sup +}/Ca{sup 2+} exchanger are involved in left ventricular function following cardiac remodelling of female rats treated with anabolic androgenic steroid

    SciTech Connect

    Nascimento, Andrews Marques do; Lima, Ewelyne Mira

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids are misused, including by women, but little is known about the cardiovascular effects of these drugs on women. Aim: To evaluated the effects of nandrolone decanoate (ND) and resistive physical exercise on cardiac contractility in young female rats. Main methods: Female Wistar rats were separated into 4 groups: C (untrained animals); E (animals were submitted to resistance exercise by jumping in water 5 times per week); ND (animals were treated with ND, 20 mg/kg/week for 4 weeks); and NDE (trained and treated). The haemodynamic parameters (+ dP/dt{sub max}, − dP/dt{sub min} and Tau) were assessed in the leftmore » ventricle. The heart was collected for histological analyses and collagen deposition. The gastrocnemius muscle was weighed, and hypertrophy was assessed by the ratio of their weights to gastrocnemius/tibia length. The expression of calcium handling proteins was measured by western blot analysis. Results: ND treatment and physical exercise increased cardiac contractility and relaxation. In addition, ND promoted increases in phospholamban phosphorylated (p-PLB) and isoforms of sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2 (SERCA2a) expression, while resistance exercise increased the phosphorylation of PLB and expression of Na{sup +}/Ca{sup 2+} exchangers (NCX). Cardiac hypertrophy and collagen deposition were observed after ND treatment. Conclusion: Regulatory components of cytosolic calcium, such as SERCA2a and p-PLB, play important roles in modulating the contractility and relaxation effects of ND in females. - Highlights: • ND and resistive exercise enhanced the cardiac function and increased expression of cytosolic calcium regulatory components.« less

  12. Detection and quantification of 12 anabolic steroids and analogs in human whole blood and 20 in hair using LC-HRMS/MS: application to real cases.

    PubMed

    Fabresse, Nicolas; Grassin-Delyle, Stanislas; Etting, Isabelle; Alvarez, Jean-Claude

    2017-07-01

    We developed and validated a method to detect and quantify 12 anabolic steroids in blood (androstenedione, dihydrotestosterone, boldenone, epitestosterone, mesterolone, methandienone, nandrolone, stanozolol, norandrostenedione, tamoxifene, testosterone, trenbolone) and eight more in hair samples (nandrolone phenylpropionate, nandrolone decanoate, testosterone propionate, testosterone benzoate, testosterone cypionate, testosterone decanoate, testosterone phenylpropionate, testosterone undecanoate) using liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry. This method used a benchtop Orbitrap mass spectrometer operating with an APCI probe under positive ionization mode. Analysis was realized in full scan experiment with a nominal resolving power of 140,000. After addition of the internal standard (testosterone-D3) and incubation in phosphate buffer pH = 5 for hair, 200 μL of blood and 30 mg of hair samples were extracted with heptane. LOQ and LOD were determined at 5 and 1 ng mL -1 in whole blood and 10 to 100 pg mg -1 and 2 to 20 pg mg -1 in hair according to the compounds, respectively. The method was linear in the 5-1000 ng mL -1 range in whole blood and between 10 or 100 pg mg -1 and 1000 pg mg -1 in hair with correlation coefficients >0.99, and intra- and inter-day accuracy and precision were <14.8% for all compounds except for some esters in hairs (<19.9%) probably due to an important matrix effect for these compounds. This sensitive and specific method to detect anabolic steroids has been successfully applied to two real cases, for which various anabolic steroids in whole blood, urine, and hair were identified and quantified.

  13. Mitigative Effects of a Combination of Multiple Pharmaceutical Drugs on the Survival of Mice Exposed to Lethal Ionizing Radiation.

    PubMed

    Hirouchi, Tokuhisa; Ito, Koichi; Nakano, Manabu; Monzen, Satoru; Yoshino, Hironori; Chiba, Mitsuru; Hazawa, Masaharu; Nakano, Akira; Ishikawa, Junya; Yamaguchi, Masaru; Tanaka, Kimio; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

    2015-01-01

    It is important to establish an easy-to-use therapeutic protocol for the emergency medical care of patients involved in radiation accidents to reduce the radiation-related casualties. The present study aimed to establish an optimum therapeutic protocol using currently approved pharmaceutical drugs to increase the survival of victims exposed to lethal radiation. Different combinations of four drugs-recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO), granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), c-mpl receptor agonist romiplostim (RP) and nandrolone decanoate (ND)-were administered to mice within 2 h after exposure to a lethal 7 Gy dose of γ-irradiation. On day 30 after irradiation, the condition of the mice was analyzed using various hematological parameters, such as the number of peripheral blood cells, bone marrow cells, hematopoietic progenitor cells and the expression of cell surface antigens. Approximately 10% of the untreated irradiated control mice survived for 21 days, but all of the control mice died by day 30. The combined administration of G-CSF, EPO and RP for five days immediately after irradiation led to a complete survival of the irradiated mice until day 30. However, the treatment with G-CSF, EPO and RP with ND led to only 75% survival at day 30. The hematological analyses showed that the numbers of almost all of hematopoietic cells in the surviving mice treated with effective medications recovered to the levels of non-irradiated mice. The present findings show that the combination of G-CSF, EPO and RP may be a useful countermeasure for victims exposed to accidental lethal irradiation.

  14. Stroke Treatments

    MedlinePlus

    ... to the brain. It's the most common type, accounting for 87% of all strokes. The treatment goal ... that the surgeon gains access via the vascular system, making it less invasive than conventional surgical treatment. ...

  15. Psychological Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Print Jump to Topic Psychological Treatments Understanding Stress Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Relaxation Techniques for IBS The cause of irritable ... used to treat IBS include psychotherapy (dynamic and cognitive-behavioral therapy ), relaxation ... and biofeedback therapy . Psychological treatments ...

  16. Enantioselective determination of representative profens in wastewater by a single-step sample treatment and chiral liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Caballo, C; Sicilia, M D; Rubio, S

    2015-03-01

    This manuscript describes, for the first time, the simultaneous enantioselective determination of ibuprofen, naproxen and ketoprofen in wastewater based on liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The method uses a single-step sample treatment based on microextraction with a supramolecular solvent made up of hexagonal inverted aggregates of decanoic acid, formed in situ in the wastewater sample through a spontaneous self-assembly process. Microextraction of profens was optimized and the analytical method validated. Isotopically labeled internal standards were used to compensate for both matrix interferences and recoveries. Apparent recoveries for the six enantiomers in influent and effluent wastewater samples were in the interval 97-103%. Low method detection limits (MDLs) were obtained (0.5-1.2 ng L(-1)) as a result of the high concentration factors achieved in the microextraction process (i.e. actual concentration factors 469-736). No analyte derivatization or evaporation of extracts, as it is required with GC-MS, was necessary. Relative standard deviations for enantiomers in wastewater were always below 8%. The method was applied to the determination of the concentrations and enantiomeric fractions of the targeted analytes in influents and effluents from three wastewater treatment plants. All the values found for profen enantiomers were consistent with those previously reported and confirmed again the suitability of using the enantiomeric fraction of ibuprofen as an indicator of the discharge of untreated or poorly treated wastewaters. Both the analytical and operational features of this method make it applicable to the assessment of the enantiomeric fate of profens in the environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Window treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Nielson, K.J.

    1990-01-01

    This book includes basic material as well as information the professional needs for designing appropriate window treatments for residential and nonresidential buildings: site, orientation, climate, energy efficiency, sound-proofing, privacy, protection, view, ventilation and interior and exterior aesthetics. Also includes a guide to the window treatment industry, a list of manufacturers, distributors, and retailers, information on window treatment fibers and fabrics, three glossaries, an extensive bibliography, and over 800 illustrations.

  18. Scabies: Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information Scabies FAQs Workplace FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Medications Institutional Settings Prevention ...

  19. Specialty treatments

    Treesearch

    Rebecca E. Ibach

    2010-01-01

    Many specialty treatments can be applied to wood to either improve its performance or change its properties. Treatments addressed in this chapter are those that make permanent changes in the shape of a wood product, improvements in dimensional stability, or improvements in performance through combinations with nonwood resources

  20. Specialty treatments

    Treesearch

    Roger M. Rowell

    1999-01-01

    Many specialty treatments can be applied to wood to either improve its performance or change its properties. Treatments addressed in this chapter are those that make permanent changes in the shape of a wood product, improvements in dimensional stability, or improvements in performance through combinations with nonwood resources.

  1. [Headache Treatment].

    PubMed

    Diener, Hans Christoph; Holle-Lee, Dagny; Nägel, Steffen; Gaul, Charly

    2017-03-01

    A precondition for the successful treatment of headaches is the correct headache diagnosis. Triptans are effective for attack treatment of migraine and cluster headache. However, there are not effective for the treatment of tension-type headache. For the prevention of frequent episodic migraine betablockers, flunarizine, topiramate and amitriptyline are recommended. For the prevention of chronic migraine evidence is only available for onabotulinumtoxinA and topiramate. For prophylactic treatment of tension-type headaches tricyclic antidepressants are used. In cluster headache verapamil (in combination with steroids) is the most frequently used prophylactic agent. This article focusses on the current acute and prophylactic treatment of common headache syndromes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Effects of androgenic-anabolic steroids on apolipoproteins and lipoprotein (a)

    PubMed Central

    Hartgens, F; Rietjens, G; Keizer, H; Kuipers, H; Wolffenbuttel, B

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effects of two different regimens of androgenic-anabolic steroid (AAS) administration on serum lipid and lipoproteins, and recovery of these variables after drug cessation, as indicators of the risk for cardiovascular disease in healthy male strength athletes. Methods: In a non-blinded study (study 1) serum lipoproteins and lipids were assessed in 19 subjects who self administered AASs for eight or 14 weeks, and in 16 non-using volunteers. In a randomised double blind, placebo controlled design, the effects of intramuscular administration of nandrolone decanoate (200 mg/week) for eight weeks on the same variables in 16 bodybuilders were studied (study 2). Fasting serum concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), HDL2-cholesterol (HDL2-C), HDL3-cholesterol (HDL3-C), apolipoprotein A1 (Apo-A1), apolipoprotein B (Apo-B), and lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) were determined. Results: In study 1 AAS administration led to decreases in serum concentrations of HDL-C (from 1.08 (0.30) to 0.43 (0.22) mmol/l), HDL2-C (from 0.21 (0.18) to 0.05 (0.03) mmol/l), HDL3-C (from 0.87 (0.24) to 0.40 (0.20) mmol/l, and Apo-A1 (from 1.41 (0.27) to 0.71 (0.34) g/l), whereas Apo-B increased from 0.96 (0.13) to 1.32 (0.28) g/l. Serum Lp(a) declined from 189 (315) to 32 (63) U/l. Total cholesterol and triglycerides did not change significantly. Alterations after eight and 14 weeks of AAS administration were comparable. No changes occurred in the controls. Six weeks after AAS cessation, serum HDL-C, HDL2-C, Apo-A1, Apo-B, and Lp(a) had still not returned to baseline concentrations. Administration of AAS for 14 weeks was associated with slower recovery to pretreatment concentrations than administration for eight weeks. In study 2, nandrolone decanoate did not influence serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-C, HDL2-C, HDL3-C, Apo-A1, and Apo-B concentrations after four and eight weeks of intervention, nor six weeks after withdrawal

  3. Iatrogenic dependence of anabolic-androgenic steroid in an Indian non-athletic woman

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Adarsh; Tekkalaki, Bheemsain; Saxena, Shashwat; Dandu, Himanshu

    2014-01-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are increasingly being used by athletes and youngsters to become masculine and to loose body fat. Long-term consumption of AAS causes multiple physical and psychological morbidities. Research has also concluded that AAS have addictive potential and AAS abuse is commonly found with other substance abuse. Abuse of AAS is rare in eastern countries. Abuse among women is even rarer. Here is a case report of an Indian woman, who was prescribed nandrolone decanoate injections by an unqualified medical practitioner to treat multiple non-specific somatic pains and reported weakness, leading to dependence for nandrolonedecanoate. This case report supports the research finding of abuse potential of AAS, raises concern about the need for spreading the awareness about AAS abuse among medical professionals, regulating medical practice by unqualified practitioners, and strict legal check against AAS availability in developing countries. PMID:24503662

  4. Sewage Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A million gallon-a-day sewage treatment plant in Huntington Beach, CA converts solid sewage to activated carbon which then treats incoming waste water. The plant is scaled up 100 times from a mobile unit NASA installed a year ago; another 100-fold scale-up will be required if technique is employed for widespread urban sewage treatment. This unique sewage-plant employed a serendipitous outgrowth of a need to manufacture activated carbon for rocket engine insulation. The process already exceeds new Environmental Protection Agency Standards Capital costs by 25% compared with conventional secondary treatment plants.

  5. Wastewater Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoltek, J., Jr.; Melear, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers: (1) process application; (2) coagulation and solids separation; (3) adsorption; (4) ion exchange; (5) membrane processes; and (6) oxidation processes. A list of 123 references is also presented. (HM)

  6. Rotavirus Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Rotavirus Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Rotavirus Home About Rotavirus Symptoms Transmission Treatment Photos Vaccination ...

  7. Intermediate treatments

    Treesearch

    John R. Jones; Wayne D. Shepperd

    1985-01-01

    Intermediate treatments are those applied after a new stand is successfully established and before the final harvest. These include not only intermediate cuttings - primarily thinning - but also fertilization, irrigation, and protection of the stand from damaging agents.

  8. Depression Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... 3286 After hours (404) 639-2888 Contact Media Depression Treatment Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... How Do I Know if I Am Experiencing Depression? The following questions may help you determine if ...

  9. Cancer treatments

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2017. Doroshow JH. Approach to the patient with cancer. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 179. National Cancer Institute website. Types of cancer treatment. www.cancer. ...

  10. Cholera Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Travelers Publications, Data, & Statistics Outbreak Response Resources Health Promotion Materials Fact Sheets Posters Videos Training & Education CDC ... improve cholera symptoms in children. Related Pages Health Promotion Materials Cholera Treatment Centers Vaccines Cholera Training and ...

  11. Sewage Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Stennis Space Center's aquaculture research program has led to an attractive wastewater treatment for private homes. The system consists of a septic tank or tanks for initial sewage processing and a natural secondary treatment facility for further processing of septic tanks' effluent, consisting of a narrow trench, which contains marsh plants and rocks, providing a place for microorganisms. Plants and microorganisms absorb and digest, thus cleansing partially processed wastewater. No odors are evident and cleaned effluent may be discharged into streams or drainage canals. The system is useful in rural areas, costs about $1,900, and requires less maintenance than mechanical systems.

  12. Surface Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Cheol (Inventor); Lowther, Sharon E. (Inventor); St.Clair, Terry L. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A simple surface treatment process is provided which offers a high performance surface for a variety of applications at low cost. This novel surface treatment, which is particularly useful for Ti-6Al-4V alloys, is achieved by forming oxides on the surface with a two-step chemical process and without mechanical abrasion. First, after solvent degreasing, sulfuric acid is used to generate a fresh titanium surface. Next, an alkaline perborate solution is used to form an oxide on the surface. This acid-followed-by-base treatment is cost effective and relatively safe to use in commercial applications. In addition, it is chromium-free, and has been successfully used with a sol-gel coating to afford a strong adhesive bond that exhibits excellent durability after the bonded specimens have been subjected to a harsh 72 hour water boil immersion. Phenylethynyl containing adhesives were used to evaluate this surface treatment with a novel coupling agent containing both trialkoxysilane and phenylethynyl groups. 8 Claims, 16 Drawing Sheets

  13. Silvicultural treatments

    Treesearch

    Carl E. Fiedler

    2000-01-01

    Sustainable, ecologically-based management of pine/ fir forests requires silviculturists to integrate several treatments that emulate historic disturbance processes. Restoration prescriptions typically include cleaning or heavy understory thinning, improvement cutting to reduce the proportion of firs, and modified selection cutting to reduce overall stand density,...

  14. WATER TREATMENT

    DOEpatents

    Pitman, R.W.; Conley, W.R. Jr.

    1962-12-01

    An automated system for adding clarifying chemicals to water in a water treatment plant is described. To a sample of the floc suspension polyacrylamide or similar filter aid chemicals are added, and the sample is then put through a fast filter. The resulting filtrate has the requisite properties for monitoring in an optical turbidimeter to control the automated system. (AEC)

  15. PARACOCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS TREATMENT

    PubMed Central

    SHIKANAI-YASUDA, Maria Aparecida

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Considered to be an emerging endemic mycosis in Latin America, paracoccidioidomycosis is characterized by a chronic course and involvement of multiple organs in immunocompromised hosts. Infection sequelae are mainly related to pulmonary and adrenal insufficiency. The host-parasite interaction results in different expressions of the immune response depending on parasite pathogenicity, fungal load and genetic characteristics of the host. A few controlled and case series reports have shown that azoles and fast-acting sulfa derivatives are useful treatment alternatives in milder forms of the disease. For moderate/severe cases, more prolonged treatments or even parenteral routes are required especially when there is involvement of the digestive tract mucosa, resulting in poor drug absorption. Although comparative studies have reported that shorter treatment regimens with itraconazole are able to induce cure in chronically-infected patients, there are still treatment challenges such as the need for more controlled studies involving acute cases, the search for new drugs and combinations, and the search for compounds capable of modulating the immune response in severe cases as well as the paradoxical reactions. PMID:26465367

  16. Antimicrobials Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drosinos, Eleftherios H.; Skandamis, Panagiotis N.; Mataragas, Marios

    The use of antimicrobials is a common practice for preservation of foods. Incorporation, in a food recipe, of chemical antimicrobials towards inhibition of spoilage and pathogenic micro-organisms results in the compositional modification of food. This treatment is nowadays undesirable for the consumer, who likes natural products. Scientific community reflecting consumers demand for natural antimicrobials has made efforts to investigate the possibility to use natural antimicrobials such us bacteriocins and essential oils of plant origin to inhibit microbial growth.

  17. [Treatment perspectives].

    PubMed

    Garnier-Lengliné, H; Malamut, G; Cerf-Bensussan, N; Ruemmele, F M

    2013-06-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory enteropathy caused by the ingestion of gluten. A safe and efficient but unpleasant treatment exists for CD in form of a strict gluten-free diet. Thus, there is a need for new treatment strategies, which are based on the improved and advanced understanding of the pathophysiology of CD. The first strategy consists in reducing or even eliminating major antigenic motifs in gluten, responsible for the inflammatory reaction. The use of less immunogenic wheat was suggested but this seems rather difficult to realize. However, a complete digestion of the immunogenic parts of gluten looks very promising. This can be obtained by the use of polymers, capable to sequester gluten proteins or even better via the exogenous administration of propyl-endopeptidases, with two different enzymes under development. Another approach could be the use of inhibitors of tissue transglutaminase, a strategy which is under clinical investigation. Alternatively, inhibition of the site of liaison of immunostimulatory peptides with HLA molecules was suggested and is also under investigation in vivo. For patients suffering from refractory sprue, the inhibition of IL15 might be of therapeutic interest with the hope to improve the fatal outcome of many of these patients. However, the ultimate treatment approach is in form of prevention and the role of infectious agents, such as Rotavirus, in disease onset has to be considered. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  18. Thyroid and Biochemical/Metabolic Effects of PFDA (Perfluoro-n-decanoic Acid).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-04

    could be explained by a chemically induced hypothyroidism. Experiments employing T4- supplementation suggests that the toxicity is more complex. Rats... supplementation was continued through the day prior to sacrifice. The liver enzymes c-glycerolphosphate dehydro- genase (GPD) and malic enzyme (ME) were...T4 supplementation had differential effects on anorexia, body wasting and hypothermia. Thyroxine supplementation completely prevented the PFDA-induced

  19. The triglyceride composition of 17 seed fats rich in octanoic, decanoic, or lauric acid.

    PubMed

    Litchfield, C; Miller, E; Harlow, R D; Reiser, R

    1967-07-01

    Seed fats of eight species ofLauraceae (laurel family), six species ofCuphea (Lythraceae family), and three species ofUlmaceae (elm family) were extracted, and the triglycerides were isolated by preparative thin-layer chromatography. GLC of the triglycerides on a silicone column resolved 10 to 18 peaks with a 22 to 58 carbon number range for each fat. These carbon number distributions yielded considerable information about triglyceride compositions of the fats.The most interesting finding was withLaurus nobilis seed fat, which contained 58.4% lauric acid and 29.2-29.8% trilaurin. A maximum of 19.9% trilaurin would be predicted by a 1, 2, 3-random, a 1, 3-random-2-random, or a 1-random-2-random-3-random distribution of the lauric acid(3). This indicates a specificity for the biosynthesis of a simple triglyceride byLaurus nobilis seed enzymes.Cuphea lanceolata seed fat also contained more simple triglyceride (tridecanoin) than would be predicted by the fatty acid distribution theories.

  20. 40 CFR 180.1225 - Decanoic acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., breweries, wineries, beverage and food processing plants. [68 FR 7939, Feb. 19, 2003; 68 FR 17308, Apr. 9... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD... acid (up to 170 ppm per application) on food contact surfaces such as equipment, pipelines, tanks, vats...

  1. Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Myelodysplastic/ ...

  2. Chickenpox: treatment.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jonathan; Breuer, Judith

    2015-06-15

    Chickenpox is extremely contagious. More than 90% of unvaccinated people will become infected during their lifetime, but infection occurs at different ages in different parts of the world. In the US, the UK, and Japan, more than 80% of people have been infected by the age of 10 years, and by the age of 20 to 30 years in India, South East Asia, and the West Indies. It is usually a mild and self-limiting disease, but it can be severely complicated by pneumonitis or disseminated disease in some individuals, particularly neonates and those who are immunocompromised. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatment for chickenpox in healthy adults and children (including neonates) within 24 hours after onset of rash? What are the effects of treatment for chickenpox in healthy adults and children (including neonates) later than 24 hours after onset of rash? What are the effects of treatment for chickenpox in immunocompromised adults and children (including neonates)? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to January 2014 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We found six studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic overview we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of aciclovir, within 24 hours of onset of rash or later than 24 hours of onset of rash, in otherwise-healthy adults and children (including neonates); and aciclovir in immunocompromised adults and children (including neonates).

  3. Sewage Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    In the early 1970's, National Space Technology Laboratories discovered that water hyacinths literally thrive on sewage; they absorb and digest nutrients and minerals from wastewater, converting sewage effluents to clean water. They offer a means of purifying water at a fraction of the cost of a conventional sewage treatment plant, and provide a bonus value in byproducts. Hyacinths must be harvested at intervals; the harvested plants are used as fertilizers, high-protein animal feed and a source of energy. Already serving a number of small towns, the "aquaculture" technique has significantly advanced with its adoption by a major U.S. city.

  4. [Pharmacological treatment].

    PubMed

    Arriola Manchola, Enrique; Álaba Trueba, Javier

    2016-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic degenerative and inflammatory process leading to synapticdysfunction and neuronal death. A review about the pharmacological treatment alternatives is made: acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEI), a nutritional supplement (Souvenaid) and Ginkgo biloba. A special emphasis on Ginkgo biloba due to the controversy about its use and the approval by the European Medicines Agency is made. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Geriatría y Gerontología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Lactate dehydrogenase regulation in aged skeletal muscle: Regulation by anabolic steroids and functional overload.

    PubMed

    Washington, Tyrone A; Healey, Julie M; Thompson, Raymond W; Lowe, Larry L; Carson, James A

    2014-09-01

    Aging alters the skeletal muscle response to overload-induced growth. The onset of functional overload is characterized by increased myoblast proliferation and an altered muscle metabolic profile. The onset of functional overload is associated with increased energy demands that are met through the interconversion of lactate and pyruvate via the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Testosterone targets many of the processes activated at the onset of functional overload. However, the effect of aging on this metabolic plasticity at the onset of functional overload and how anabolic steroid administration modulates this response is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to determine if aging would alter overload-induced LDH activity and expression at the onset of functional overload and whether anabolic steroid administration would modulate this response. Five-month and 25-month male Fischer 344xF1 BRN were given nandrolone decanoate (ND) or sham injections for 14days and then the plantaris was functionally overloaded (OV) for 3days by synergist ablation. Aging reduced muscle LDH-A & LDH-B activity 70% (p<0.05). Aging also reduced LDH-A mRNA abundance, however there was no age effect on LDH-B mRNA abundance. In 5-month muscle, both ND and OV decreased LDH-A and LDH-B activity. However, there was no synergistic or additive effect. In 5-month muscle, ND and OV decreased LDH-A mRNA expression with no change in LDH-B expression. In 25-month muscle, ND and OV increased LDH-A and LDH-B activity. LDH-A mRNA expression was not altered by ND or OV in aged muscle. However, there was a main effect of OV to decrease LDH-B mRNA expression. There was also an age-induced LDH isoform shift. ND and OV treatment increased the "fast" LDH isoforms in aged muscle, whereas ND and OV increased the "slow" isoforms in young muscle. Our study provides evidence that aging alters aspects of skeletal muscle metabolic plasticity normally induced by overload and anabolic steroid

  6. [Comparison of medical and economic benefits of antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia in France].

    PubMed

    Druais, S; Doutriaux, A; Cognet, M; Godet, A; Lançon, C; Levy, P; Samalin, L; Guillon, P

    2017-08-01

    The course of schizophrenia can vary widely, and patients experience remission phases alternating with relapse episodes, which generally lead to hospitalisation and have a significant impact on the burden of disease. The prevalence of schizophrenia in France is estimated to be approximately 600,000 people, with an incidence of 10,000 new patients per year. Patients with schizophrenia represent the largest group of hospitalised patients in French public institutions and specialised centres, and the French authorities recognise that the management of schizophrenia is a major public health concern. The Haute Autorité de Santé (HAS) and most of the evidence-based guidelines for the maintenance treatment of schizophrenia recommend long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics to be used predominantly in the prevention of relapse for non-compliant patients; however, in clinical practice, the use of LAIs remains low. This analysis aimed to estimate and to compare the cost-effectiveness of the most common antipsychotic strategies in France in the management of schizophrenia. A Markov model was developed to simulate the progression of a cohort of patients with schizophrenia through four health states (stable treated, stable non-treated, relapse and death) and considered up to three lines of treatment to account for changes in treatment management. Antipsychotics including aripiprazole LAI (ALAI), olanzapine LAI (OLAI), paliperidone LAI (PLAI), risperidone LAI (RLAI), haloperidol decanoate (HD) and oral olanzapine (OO) were compared in terms of costs and clinical outcomes. Thus, costs, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and number of relapses were assessed over five years based on three-month cycles from a French health insurance perspective with a discount rate of 4 %. Patients were considered to be stabilised after clinical decompensation and would enter the model at an initiation phase, followed by a prevention of relapse phase if successful. Data (e.g. relapse or

  7. Cost Effectiveness of Paliperidone Long-Acting Injectable Versus Other Antipsychotics for the Maintenance Treatment of Schizophrenia in France.

    PubMed

    Druais, Sylvain; Doutriaux, Agathe; Cognet, Magali; Godet, Annabelle; Lançon, Christophe; Levy, Pierre; Samalin, Ludovic; Guillon, Pascal

    2016-04-01

    French clinical recommendations suggest prescribing long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics to patients with a maintenance treatment indication in schizophrenia. Despite this, and due to their relatively high acquisition and administration costs, LAIs are still underused in clinical practice in France, thus highlighting the need for pharmacoeconomic evaluations. Our objective was to estimate the cost effectiveness of paliperidone LAI (or paliperidone palmitate), a once-monthly second-generation LAI antipsychotic, compared with the most common antipsychotic medications for the maintenance treatment of schizophrenia in France. A Markov model was developed to simulate the progression of a cohort of schizophrenic patients through four health states (stable treated, stable non-treated, relapse and death) and to consider up to three lines of treatment to account for changes in treatment management. Paliperidone LAI was compared with risperidone LAI, aripiprazole LAI, olanzapine LAI, haloperidol LAI (or haloperidol decanoate) and oral olanzapine. Costs, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and number of relapses were assessed over 5 years based on 3-month cycles with a discount rate of 4% and from a French health insurance perspective. Patients were considered to be stabilised after a schizophrenic episode and would enter the model at an initiation phase, followed by a prevention of relapse phase if successful. Data (e.g. relapse or discontinuation rates) for the initiation phase came from randomised clinical trials, whereas relapse rates in the prevention phase were derived from hospitalisation risks based on real-life French data to capture adherence effects. Safety and utility data were derived from international publications. Additionally, costs were retrieved from French health insurance databases and publications. Finally, expert opinion was used for validation purposes or in case of gaps in data. The robustness of results was assessed through deterministic and

  8. Pubic "Crab" Lice Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  9. Head Lice: Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  10. Body Lice Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  11. Tuberculosis (TB): Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education & Training Home Conditions Tuberculosis (TB) Tuberculosis: Treatment Tuberculosis: Treatment Make an Appointment Refer a Patient Ask ... or bones is treated longer. NEXT: Preventive Treatment Tuberculosis: Diagnosis Tuberculosis: History Clinical Trials For more than ...

  12. Treatments for Sleep Changes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Paradise Tau Kappa Epsilon (TKE) Sigma Alpha Mu Shop Local Resources Search close go back close Find ... that may outweigh the benefits of treatment. Non-drug treatments for sleep changes Non-drug treatments aim ...

  13. Hepatitis C: Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Public Home » Hepatitis C » Hepatitis C Treatment Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Hepatitis C Treatment for Veterans and the Public Treatment ...

  14. Cancer treatment - preventing infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... preventing infection; Bone marrow transplant - preventing infection; Cancer treatment - immunosuppression ... types of cancer, such as leukemia, and some treatments including bone marrow transplant and chemotherapy affect your ...

  15. Teaching Treatment Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seligman, Linda

    1993-01-01

    Describes approach to teaching treatment planning that author has used successfully in both seminars and graduate courses. Clarifies nature and importance of systematic treatment planning, then describes context in which treatment planning seems more effectively taught, and concludes with step-by-step plan for teaching treatment planning.…

  16. Land Treatment Digital Library

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilliod, David S.; Welty, Justin L.

    2013-01-01

    The Land Treatment Digital Library (LTDL) was created by the U.S. Geological Survey to catalog legacy land treatment information on Bureau of Land Management lands in the western United States. The LTDL can be used by federal managers and scientists for compiling information for data-calls, producing maps, generating reports, and conducting analyses at varying spatial and temporal scales. The LTDL currently houses thousands of treatments from BLM lands across 10 states. Users can browse a map to find information on individual treatments, perform more complex queries to identify a set of treatments, and view graphs of treatment summary statistics.

  17. Incontinence Treatment: Dietary Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... Incontinence Managing Incontinence: A Survey The Patient's Perspective Barriers on Diagnosis and Treatment Personal Stories Contact Us ... Incontinence Managing Incontinence: A Survey The Patient's Perspective Barriers on Diagnosis and Treatment Personal Stories Contact Us ...

  18. Incontinence Treatment: Medication

    MedlinePlus

    ... Incontinence Managing Incontinence: A Survey The Patient's Perspective Barriers on Diagnosis and Treatment Personal Stories Contact Us ... Incontinence Managing Incontinence: A Survey The Patient's Perspective Barriers on Diagnosis and Treatment Personal Stories Contact Us ...

  19. Research Areas: Treatment

    Cancer.gov

    The development of more effective and less toxic treatments is fundamental to improving outcomes for patients with cancer. NCI is leading efforts on several fronts to develop and evaluate new cancer treatments.

  20. TENORM: Wastewater Treatment Residuals

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Water and wastes which have been discharged into municipal sewers are treated at wastewater treatment plants. These may contain trace amounts of both man-made and naturally occurring radionuclides which can accumulate in the treatment plant and residuals.

  1. [Treatment of Crohn's disease].

    PubMed

    Vavricka, St R; Rogler, G

    2009-01-21

    The therapy of Crohn's disease depends on its disease activity. For those different disease activities (such as flare, chronic active disease, remission) varying treatment concepts are followed. This overview presents important concepts in the treatment of Crohn's disease.

  2. Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Library Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment Becoming a DO Video Library What is Osteopathic Medicine? Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment Page Content Nearly every day, medical science unveils new discoveries from brain scans to anti- ...

  3. HIV Treatment: The Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV Treatment Home Understanding HIV/AIDS Fact Sheets HIV ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV Treatment: The Basics Last Reviewed: March 22, 2018 ...

  4. Antimicrobial Treatments and Efficacy

    EPA Science Inventory

    To limit exposure to indoor biological contamination a risk-management approach which employs various antimicrobial treatments can effectively control contaminants and reduce exposure. Antimicrobial treatment of biological contaminants, especially mold in buildings, it is often n...

  5. Treatment of Pediculosis Capitis

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Prashant; Namdeo, Chaitanya

    2015-01-01

    An endeavour to delineate the salient details of the treatment of head lice infestation has been made in the present article. Treatment modalities including over the counter permethrin and pyrethrin, and prescription medicines, including malathion, lindane, benzyl alcohol, spinosad are discussed. Salient features of alternative medicine and physical treatment modalities are outlined. The problem of resistance to treatment has also been taken cognizance of. PMID:26120148

  6. Guideline 3: Psychosocial Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal on Mental Retardation, 2000

    2000-01-01

    The third in seven sets of guidelines based on the consensus of experts in the treatment of psychiatric and behavioral problems in mental retardation (MR) focuses on psychosocial treatment. Guidelines cover general principles, choosing among psychosocial treatments, severity of MR and psychiatric/behavior symptoms, diagnosable disorders, target…

  7. Seed Treatment. Manual 92.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the seed treatment category. The text discusses pests commonly associated with seeds; seed treatment pesticides; labels; chemicals and seed treatment equipment; requirements of federal and state seed laws;…

  8. [Strongyloidosis. Part IX. Treatment].

    PubMed

    Soroczan, Wiesław

    2002-01-01

    The treatment of chronic and massive (uncomplicated) and severe (complicated) disseminated strongyloidosis, was presented from the historical point of view. The sequence of achievements in regard of treatment of the gentian violet, dithiazine iodide, benzimidazoles (thiabendazole, mebendazole, albendazole, cambendazole), ivermectin and cyclosporin A, was described. The recommendations for treatment of strongyloidosis are also given.

  9. Breast Cancer: Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... A clinical trial is a research study that tests a new approach to treatment. Doctors want to learn whether the new treatment is safe, effective, and possibly better than the standard treatment. Clinical trials can test a new drug and how often it should ...

  10. Distributed Treatment Systems.

    PubMed

    Zgonc, David; Plante, Luke

    2017-10-01

    This section presents a review of the literature published in 2016 on topics relating to distributed treatment systems. This review is divided into the following sections with multiple subsections under each: constituent removal; treatment technologies; and planning and treatment system management.

  11. Anabolic Steroids as a Novel Therapeutic Strategy for the Prevention of Bone Loss after Spinal Cord Injury: Animal Model and Molecular Mechanism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    bone loss. At present, there is no practical treatment to delay or prevent bone loss in individuals with motor-complete SCI. Hypogonadism is common...TERMS- Spinal cord injuries, Nandrolone, Androgens, Hypogonadism , Bone loss, Wnt signaling 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...At present, there is no practical treatment to delay or prevent bone loss in individuals with motor-complete SCI. Hypogonadism is common in men

  12. Endoscopic root canal treatment.

    PubMed

    Moshonov, Joshua; Michaeli, Eli; Nahlieli, Oded

    2009-10-01

    To describe an innovative endoscopic technique for root canal treatment. Root canal treatment was performed on 12 patients (15 teeth), using a newly developed endoscope (Sialotechnology), which combines an endoscope, irrigation, and a surgical microinstrument channel. Endoscopic root canal treatment of all 15 teeth was successful with complete resolution of all symptoms (6-month follow-up). The novel endoscope used in this study accurately identified all microstructures and simplified root canal treatment. The endoscope may be considered for use not only for preoperative observation and diagnosis but also for active endodontic treatment.

  13. Treatment Selection in Depression.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Zachary D; DeRubeis, Robert J

    2018-05-07

    Mental health researchers and clinicians have long sought answers to the question "What works for whom?" The goal of precision medicine is to provide evidence-based answers to this question. Treatment selection in depression aims to help each individual receive the treatment, among the available options, that is most likely to lead to a positive outcome for them. Although patient variables that are predictive of response to treatment have been identified, this knowledge has not yet translated into real-world treatment recommendations. The Personalized Advantage Index (PAI) and related approaches combine information obtained prior to the initiation of treatment into multivariable prediction models that can generate individualized predictions to help clinicians and patients select the right treatment. With increasing availability of advanced statistical modeling approaches, as well as novel predictive variables and big data, treatment selection models promise to contribute to improved outcomes in depression.

  14. 7 CFR 305.10 - Treatment schedules for combination treatments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Treatment schedules for combination treatments. 305.10... HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PHYTOSANITARY TREATMENTS Chemical Treatments § 305.10 Treatment schedules for combination treatments. (a) Fumigation followed by cold treatment. (1...

  15. Cuphea Oil as Source of Biodiesel with Improved Fuel Properties Caused by High Content of Methyl Decanoate

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biodiesel, defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils and animal fats, is an alternative to conventional petroleum-based diesel fuel. Biodiesel has been prepared from numerous common vegetable oils or fats as well as new or less common feedstocks. Major issues facing biodiesel include seve...

  16. Reasons Underlying Treatment Preference

    PubMed Central

    Cochran, Bryan N.; Pruitt, Larry; Fukuda, Seiya; Zoellner, Lori A.; Feeny, Norah C

    2008-01-01

    Very little is known about what factors influence women’s treatment preferences after a sexual assault. To learn more about these factors, data were collected from 273 women who read a standard “if this happened to you, what would you do” scenario describing a sexual assault and subsequent trauma-related psychiatric symptoms. After reading standardized treatment options for a pharmacotherapy (sertraline) and a psychotherapy (cognitive behavioral treatment), participants made a hypothetical treatment choice and reported the main reasons for their choice. Women often cited reasons surrounding the effectiveness of a treatment as the primary reason for their treatment preference, suggesting potential masking of symptoms with the medication and more logical, long-lasting effects with the psychotherapy. Other common reasons underlying treatment preference were wariness of the medication and positive feelings about talking in psychotherapy. Better understanding factors that influence treatment preference may aid in refining psychoeducation materials regarding the psychological consequences of sexual assault and their treatment for the lay public and in helping clinicians further tailor their discussion of treatment alternatives for these women. PMID:18162641

  17. Investigations into the feasibility of routine ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of equine hair samples for detecting the misuse of anabolic steroids, anabolic steroid esters and related compounds.

    PubMed

    Gray, Bobby P; Viljanto, Marjaana; Bright, Jane; Pearce, Clive; Maynard, Steve

    2013-07-17

    The detection of the abuse of anabolic steroids in equine sport is complicated by the endogenous nature of some of the abused steroids, such as testosterone and nandrolone. These steroids are commonly administered as intramuscular injections of esterified forms of the steroid, which prolongs their effects and improves bioavailability over oral dosing. The successful detection of an intact anabolic steroid ester therefore provides unequivocal proof of an illegal administration, as esterified forms are not found endogenously. Detection of intact anabolic steroid esters is possible in plasma samples but not, to date, in the traditional doping control matrix of urine. The analysis of equine mane hair for the detection of anabolic steroid esters has the potential to greatly extend the time period over which detection of abuse can be monitored. Equine mane hair samples were incubated in 0.1M phosphate buffer (pH 9.5) before anabolic steroids (testosterone, nandrolone, boldenone, trenbolone and stanozolol), anabolic steroid esters (esters of testosterone, nandrolone, boldenone and trenbolone) and associated compounds (fluticasone propionate and esters of hydroxyprogesterone) were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction with a mix of hexane and ethyl acetate (7:3, v:v). Further sample clean up by solid phase extraction was followed by derivatisation with methoxylamine HCL and analysis by UHPLC-MS/MS. Initial method development was performed on a representative suite of four testosterone esters (propionate, phenylpropionate, isocaproate and decanoate) and the method was later extended to include a further 18 compounds. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by the analysis of mane hair samples collected following the intramuscular administration of 500 mg of Durateston(®) (mixed testosterone esters) to a Thoroughbred mare (560 kg). The method was subsequently used to successfully detect boldenone undecylenate and stanozolol in hair samples collected following

  18. Ebola vaccine and treatment.

    PubMed

    Takada, Ayato

    2015-01-01

    Filoviruses (Ebola and Marburg viruses) cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates. No effective prophylaxis or treatment for filovirus diseases is yet commercially available. The recent outbreak of Ebola virus disease in West Africa has accelerated efforts to develop anti-Ebola virus prophylaxis and treatment, and unapproved drugs were indeed used for the treatment of patients during the outbreak. This article reviews previous researches and the latest topics on vaccine and therapy for Ebola virus disease.

  19. Vulvodynia: Assessment and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Andrew T; Pukall, Caroline F; Brown, Candace; Bergeron, Sophie; Stein, Amy; Kellogg-Spadt, Susan

    2016-04-01

    Vulvodynia constitutes a highly prevalent form of sexual pain in women, and current information regarding its assessment and treatment is needed. To update the scientific evidence published in 2010, from the Third International Consultation on Sexual Medicine, pertaining to the assessment and treatment of women's sexual pain. An expert committee, as part of the Fourth International Consultation on Sexual Medicine, was comprised of researchers and clinicians from biological and social science disciplines for the review of the scientific evidence on the assessment and treatment of women's genital pain. A review of assessment and treatment strategies involved in vulvodynia. We recommend the following treatments for the management of vulvodynia: psychological interventions, pelvic floor physical therapy, and vestibulectomy (for provoked vestibulodynia). We also support the use of multidisciplinary treatment approaches for the management of vulvodynia; however, more studies are needed to determine which components are most important. We recommend waiting for more empirical evidence before recommending alternative treatment options, anti-inflammatory agents, hormonal agents, and anticonvulsant medications. Although we do not recommend lidocaine, topical corticosteroids, or antidepressant medication for the management of vulvodynia, we suggest that capsaicin, botulinum toxin, and interferon be considered second-line avenues and that their recommendation be revisited once further research is conducted. A comprehensive assessment is needed to understand the pain experience of women presenting with vulvodynia. In addition, treatment typically progresses from less invasive to more invasive, and several treatment options are worth pursuing. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection): Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... About CDC.gov . Pinworm Infection General Information Pinworm Infection FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Publications Get Email Updates ...

  1. Giardia Infection Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Illness & Symptoms Diagnosis & Detection Treatment Sources of Infection & Risk ... Giardia trophozoites under scanning electron microscope. Credit: Waterborne Disease Prevention Branch, CDC Several drugs can ...

  2. Treatment of hyperpigmentation.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Anthony M; Perez, Maritza I

    2011-05-01

    Disorders of hyperpigmentation encompass a plethora of pigmentary problems that can range from inherited to acquired. This article focuses on two prevalent disorders of hyperpigmentation and their treatment: melasma and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. Each represents an acquired disorder of dyspigmentation with multifactorial etiology, which preferentially affects darker phototypes. Treatment can require a combination of medical, surgical, and laser modalities, as well as patience by both physician and patient. Treatment is limited mainly by the skin phototype of the patient, as darker skin types are more susceptible to adverse effects of treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Physical treatment of fever

    PubMed Central

    Purssell, E.

    2000-01-01

    Fever is a common symptom of childhood illness, and much time and effort is spent in the pursuit of reducing high temperature. Although antipyretic drugs are the main form of treatment, this report considers the part that physical treatments might play in reducing the temperature of febrile children. Such treatments include tepid sponging, removing clothing, and cooling the environment. Of these treatments, tepid sponging has been studied most extensively, as an addition to paracetamol, but seems to offer little advantage over paracetamol alone. It is likely that other methods might be equally ineffective because they all rely on similar methods of heat loss.

 PMID:10685930

  4. Prosecution to Enhance Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Stephen

    1990-01-01

    Advocates the use of criminal prosecution of pregnant women who abuse illegal substances. Discusses the views that use of drugs is a form of illness and that pregnant women should be exempt from laws. Concludes that court supervision and sanctions can improve treatment. Argues that punishment and treatment need not be mutually exclusive and…

  5. Working during cancer treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer treatment. www.cancer.gov/publications/patient-education/life-after-treatment.pdf . Updated May 2014. Accessed October 12, 2016. Review Date 8/15/2016 Updated by: Todd Gersten, MD, Hematology/Oncology, Florida Cancer Specialists & Research Institute, Wellington, FL. Review ...

  6. Treatment. Technical Assistance Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Join Together, Boston, MA.

    Treatment is one component of a strategy to reduce substance abuse. It can include detoxification; inpatient counseling; outpatient counseling; therapeutic communities; and self help groups. Referrals can take place in settings such as emergency rooms; employee assistance programs; churches; and physicians' offices. Unmet treatment needs can cause…

  7. Treatment of Evolution Inconsistent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2005-01-01

    State standards for academic content vary enormously in how well they cover the topic of evolution, with many of those documents either ignoring or giving scant treatment to the core principles of that established scientific theory. This article presents the analysis of Education Week on state's standards treatment of evolution. Nearly all the…

  8. Cradle Cap: Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    Cradle cap Treatment Cradle cap usually doesn't require medical treatment. It clears up on its own within a few months. In the meantime, wash ... tips can help you control and manage cradle cap. Gently rub your baby's scalp with your fingers ...

  9. Psychological Treatments to Avoid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomason, Timothy C.

    2010-01-01

    Certain psychological treatments should be avoided, and a list of such treatments would provide valuable guidance for counselors, as well as potential clients. It is well established that some therapies are potentially dangerous, and some fringe therapies are highly unlikely to help clients beyond a placebo effect. This article provides an…

  10. Assessment, Diagnosis, and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullis, Thomas

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of assessment, diagnosis, and treatment planning for individuals with substance abuse problems. The intent is to provide information to professional counselors in school, rehabilitation, school psychology, social work, public mental health, and private treatment settings. Information to be…

  11. Generic phytosanitary irradiation treatments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The history of the development of generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zeala...

  12. Treatment preference in hypochondriasis.

    PubMed

    Walker, J; Vincent, N; Furer, P; Cox, B; Kjernisted, K

    1999-12-01

    Promising cognitive-behavioral and medication treatments for hypochondriasis are in the early stages of evaluation. Little is known about the treatment preferences and opinions of individuals seeking help for this problem. In this exploratory study, 23 volunteers from the community with a DSM-IV diagnosis of hypochondriasis were recruited through a newspaper advertisement. Participants were presented with a survey which included balanced descriptions of both a medication and a cognitive-behavioral treatment for intense illness concerns (hypochondriasis). The brief descriptions of the treatments discussed the time commitment required as well as the major advantages and disadvantages of each. Results showed that, relative to medication treatment, cognitive-behavioral treatment was predicted to be more effective in both the short and long terms and was rated as more acceptable. Psychological treatment was indicated as the first choice by 74% of respondents, medication by 4%, and 22% indicated an equal preference. Forty-eight percent of respondents would only accept the psychological treatment.

  13. Treatment for Syncope

    MedlinePlus

    ... When it comes to treatment, there is no "one size fits all" approach, making an accurate diagnosis very important. Treatment should address the underlying cause of syncope . Depending on the diagnosis, ... or controlled with one or more of the following therapies: Simple reassurance, ...

  14. Seed Treatment. Bulletin 760.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowery, Harvey C.

    This manual gives a definition of seed treatment, the types of seeds normally treated, diseases and insects commonly associated with seeds, fungicides and insecticides used, types of equipment used for seed treatment, and information on labeling and coloring of treated seed, pesticide carriers, binders, stickers, and safety precautions. (BB)

  15. Diphtheria Diagnosis and Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Alaskan Iditarod Diagnosis and Treatment Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Getting treatment quickly for diphtheria is important. Doctors usually decide if a person has diphtheria by looking for common signs and symptoms . They can use a swab from the back of the throat ...

  16. "Psychotherapy" Versus "Treatment"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkowitz, Hal

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents comments on "Psychological treatments" by D. H. Barlow. Barlow proposed that we distinguish between the terms "treatment" and "psychotherapy." The author believes that not only is the distinction unnecessary, but that its implications could have negative consequences for the field of clinical psychology. It is the proposed…

  17. Nursing and Psychological Treatments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwekkeboom, Kristine L.; Ameringer, Suzanne; Harrison, Tondi; Phillips, Christopher M.; Serlin, Ronald C.; Ward, Sandra E.

    2005-01-01

    This brief article presents a comment on "Psychological Treatments" by D. H. Barlow. In his article, Barlow pointed to the need "to solidify the identification of psychology as a health care profession" by changing the terminology of practice in the health care context from psychotherapy to psychological treatments and suggested that the only…

  18. Floating treatment wetlands for domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Faulwetter, J L; Burr, M D; Cunningham, A B; Stewart, F M; Camper, A K; Stein, O R

    2011-01-01

    Floating islands are a form of treatment wetland characterized by a mat of synthetic matrix at the water surface into which macrophytes can be planted and through which water passes. We evaluated two matrix materials for treating domestic wastewater, recycled plastic and recycled carpet fibers, for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nitrogen removal. These materials were compared to pea gravel or open water (control). Experiments were conducted in laboratory scale columns fed with synthetic wastewater containing COD, organic and inorganic nitrogen, and mineral salts. Columns were unplanted, naturally inoculated, and operated in batch mode with continuous recirculation and aeration. COD was efficiently removed in all systems examined (>90% removal). Ammonia was efficiently removed by nitrification. Removal of total dissolved N was ∼50% by day 28, by which time most remaining nitrogen was present as NO(3)-N. Complete removal of NO(3)-N by denitrification was accomplished by dosing columns with molasses. Microbial communities of interest were visualized with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) by targeting specific functional genes. Shifts in the denitrifying community were observed post-molasses addition, when nitrate levels decreased. The conditioning time for reliable nitrification was determined to be approximately three months. These results suggest that floating treatment wetlands are a viable alternative for domestic wastewater treatment.

  19. [Treatment of tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Ben Amar, J; Dhahri, B; Aouina, H; Azzabi, S; Baccar, M A; El Gharbi, L; Bouacha, H

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to give practicing physicians a practical approach to the treatment of latent and active tuberculosis. Most patients follow TB standard treatment recommended by WHO that depend on category of patient. It is a combination of four essential tuberculosis drugs of the first group: isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamid and ethambutol; in some cases streptomycin can replace ethambutol. This initial phase of intensive treatment is followed by a consolidation phase. Drugs should be administered in the morning on an empty stomach one hour before meals. Treatment of latent tuberculosis (TB) infection is an important component of TB control programs. Preventive treatment can reduce the risk of developing active TB. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Treatments options for alopecia.

    PubMed

    Iorizzo, Matilde; Tosti, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Hair disorders have a very high social and psychological impact. Treatment is often frustrating and time-consuming both for the patients and the clinicians and requires special skills and expertise. This paper aims to provide an overview of available treatments for the most common forms of alopecia in adults (androgenetic alopecia [AGA], alopecia areata and cicatricial alopecias) after reviewing the literature in PubMed, Google Scholar and ClinicalTrial.gov. Before starting treatment, it is very important to confirm diagnosis and discuss patient's expectations. Treatment of hair disorders requires time and first results are usually visible a few months after beginning of therapy. Treatment of most hair disorders is mostly not evidenced-based as randomized controlled trials are available only for AGA.

  1. Emerging treatments in alopecia.

    PubMed

    Falto-Aizpurua, Leyre; Choudhary, Sonal; Tosti, Antonella

    2014-12-01

    Alopecia is a common concern encountered in the medical practice. Treatment approach varies according to the type and severity of alopecia. However, available treatment options have limited efficacy and several adverse effects. Presently, there are different treatment options being studied to overcome these limitations. Additionally, cellular pathways involved in the pathophysiology of alopecia are further being clarified to potentially target pathogenic molecules. We searched the literature for recently published articles discussing new treatment options as well as mechanisms involved in alopecia. We discuss the use of stem cells, growth factors, cellular pathways and robotic hair transplant, among other emerging therapies used for alopecia. Future looks very promising and new effective treatments such as janus kinase inhibitors could possibly be available for alopecia areata. The stem-cell technology is advancing and companies involved in hair follicle neogenesis are starting clinical trials on patients with androgenetic alopecia.

  2. [Biofeedback treatment for epilepsy].

    PubMed

    Nagai, Yoko

    2014-05-01

    Pharmacological treatment is the mainstay for the treatment of epilepsy. However concerns regarding long-term side effects of drugs are increasingly voiced. Behavioral treatments including biofeedback, represents an alternative management option for the control of epilepsy. Biofeedback is a non-invasive bio-behavioral procedure through which patients can learn to gain psychophysiological control over seizures. This article will first overview seizure precipitation from a psychological perspective, and then introduce three major biofeedback treatments. Sensory motor rhythm (SMR) and slow cortical potential(SCP) biofeedback uses electroencephalographic parameters and are categorized as neurofeedback. Electrodermal activity (EDA) biofeedback focuses on modulation of peripheral sympathetic tone. The neural mechanisms underlying biofeedback treatment will be discussed in relation to thalamo-cortical regulation(of neural excitability across brain networks).

  3. Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tube, & Primary Peritoneal Cancer Screening Research Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version Treatment Option Overview ... types of treatment for patients with ovarian germ cell tumors. Different types of treatment are available for ...

  4. Haemophilia treatment in 2030.

    PubMed

    Berntorp, E

    2016-07-01

    Looking into the future is difficult and sometimes hazardous. A reliable look into haemophilia treatment in 2030 should be based on history and contemporary progress as well as dilemmas. Today, the issue of inhibitors overshadows the entire haemophilia community together with lack of treatment for large parts of the world's persons with haemophilia. The aim of this paper was to provide a perspective on haemophilia treatment in 2030 and its provenance. Literature review on history, treatment of haemophilia today as well as of emerging therapies give a base for the author's opinion on haemophilia treatment in 2030. Development of haemophilia treatment has virtually exploded during the last decade and a number of new clotting factor concentrates and alternative approaches are in the pipeline. The collection of treatment resources that we can see on the horizon gives hope that each person with haemophilia will get the care needed in 2030. The products used will be directed by individual needs and tailored to regional and local situations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Nonpharmacological treatment of epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, V. S.; Nadkarni, V. V.

    2011-01-01

    Nonpharmacological treatment of epilepsy includes surgery, vagal nerve stimulation, ketogenic diet, and other alternative/complementary therapies, e.g., yoga, Ayurveda, electroencephalography (EEG) biofeedback technique, aerobic exercise, music therapy, transcranial magnetic stimulation, acupuncture, and herbal remedies (traditional Chinese medicine). Alternative therapies, despite the term, should not be considered as an alternative to antiepileptic medication; they complement accepted drug treatment. Alternative therapies like yoga, through techniques that relax the body and mind, reduce stress, improve seizure control, and also improve quality of life. Ketogenic diet is a safe and effective treatment for intractable epilepsies; it has been recommended since 1921. The diet induces ketosis, which may control seizures. The most successful treatment of epilepsy is with modern antiepileptic drugs, which can achieve control of seizures in 70–80% cases. Patients opt for alternative therapies because they may be dissatisfied with antiepileptic drugs due to their unpleasant side effects, the long duration of treatment, failure to achieve control of seizures, cultural beliefs and, in the case of women, because they wish to get pregnant Surgical treatment may lead to physical and psychological sequelae and is an option only for a minority of patients. This article presents supportive evidence from randomized controlled trials done to assess the benefit of non-pharmacological treatment. PMID:22028523

  6. Treatment of Thoracolumbar Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byung-Guk; Shin, Dong-Eun

    2015-01-01

    The most common fractures of the spine are associated with the thoracolumbar junction. The goals of treatment of thoracolumbar fracture are leading to early mobilization and rehabilitation by restoring mechanical stability of fracture and inducing neurologic recovery, thereby enabling patients to return to the workplace. However, it is still debatable about the treatment methods. Neurologic injury should be identified by thorough physical examination for motor and sensory nerve system in order to determine the appropriate treatment. The mechanical stability of fracture also should be evaluated by plain radiographs and computed tomography. In some cases, magnetic resonance imaging is required to evaluate soft tissue injury involving neurologic structure or posterior ligament complex. Based on these physical examinations and imaging studies, fracture stability is evaluated and it is determined whether to use the conservative or operative treatment. The development of instruments have led to more interests on the operative treatment which saves mobile segments without fusion and on instrumentation through minimal invasive approach in recent years. It is still controversial for the use of these treatments because there have not been verified evidences yet. However, the morbidity of patients can be decreased and good clinical and radiologic outcomes can be achieved if the recent operative treatments are used carefully considering the fracture pattern and the injury severity. PMID:25705347

  7. Land Treatment Digital Library

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilliod, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Across the country, public land managers make hundreds of decisions each year that influence landscapes and ecosystems within the lands they manage. Many of these decisions involve vegetation manipulations known as land treatments. Land treatments include activities such as removal or alteration of plant biomass, seeding burned areas, and herbicide applications. Data on these land treatments are usually stored at local offices, and gathering information across large spatial areas can be difficult. There is a need to centralize and store treatment data for Federal agencies involved in land treatments because these data are useful to land managers for policy and management and to scientists for developing sampling designs and studies. The Land Treatment Digital Library (LTDL) was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to catalog information about land treatments on Federal lands in the western United States for all interested parties. The flexible framework of the library allows for the storage of a wide variety of data in different formats. The LTDL currently stores previously established land treatments or what often are called legacy data. The project was developed and has been refined based on feedback from partner agencies and stakeholders, with opportunity for the library holdings to expand as new information becomes available. The library contains data in text, tabular, spatial, and image formats. Specific examples include project plans and implementation reports, monitoring data, spatial data files from geographic information systems, digitized paper maps, and digital images of land treatments. The data are entered by USGS employees and are accessible through a searchable web site. The LTDL can be used to respond to information requests, conduct analyses and other forms of information syntheses, produce maps, and generate reports for DOI managers and scientists and other authorized users.

  8. [Treatment of selective mutism].

    PubMed

    Melfsen, Siebke; Warnke, Andreas

    2007-11-01

    Selective mutism is a communication disorder of childhood in which the child does not speak in specific social situations despite the ability to speak in other situations. A literature review was completed in order to provide practical guidelines for the assessment and treatment of children with selective mutism. There are many different behavioral approaches in the treatment of this disorder, e.g. contingency management, shaping, stimulus fading, escape-avoidance, self-modeling, learning theory approaches. A clearer diagnostic understanding of the disorder as part of anxiety or oppositional disorders needs to be realized prior to generalize an effective treatment for this disorder.

  9. Heat treatment study 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.

    1990-01-01

    The microstructural variations in nickel based superalloys that result from modifications in processing were examined. These superalloys include MAR-M246(HF) and PWA1480. Alternate heat treatments for equiaxed as-cast specimens were studied and a sample matrix of 42 variations in the heat treatments were processed, as well as different directional solidification parameters. Variation in temperature and times for both solution and aging were performed. Photomicrographs were made of the microstructure and volume fraction analysis of primary gamma-prime and aged gamma-prime precipitates were performed. The results of the heat treatment, cooling rate, and directional solidification experiments are discussed.

  10. Childhood Astrocytomas Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms and almost all need treatment. The central nervous system controls many important body functions. Astrocytomas are most common in these parts of the central nervous system (CNS): Cerebrum : The largest part of the brain, ...

  11. Prostate cancer - treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... usually painless. Treatment is done in a radiation oncology center that is usually connected to a hospital. ... Cancer Network website. NCCN clinical practice guidelines in oncology (NCCN guidelines): prostate cancer. Version 2.2017. www. ...

  12. Sleep Eduction: Treatment & Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview & Facts Symptoms & Causes Diagnosis & Self Tests Treatment Sleep Apnea Overview & Facts Symptoms & Risk Factors Self-Tests Diagnosis ... for a Sleep Study Testing Process & Results Home Sleep Apnea Testing Overview Testing Process & Results CPAP Overview Benefits ...

  13. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Z List of Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Coping ... years of age. A very high level of beta human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG), a hormone made ...

  14. Hyperprolactinemia Diagnosis and Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... excess prolactin. One cause is an underactive thyroid ( hypothyroidism ), so you may have a blood test to ... with estrogen (for women) or testosterone (for men). Hypothyroidism. An underactive thyroid most often needs treatment with ...

  15. Migraine Headaches: Treatment & Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Migraine Headaches Treatment & Research Past Issues / Fall 2015 Table of Contents Nondrug ... since some drugs may cause side effects. What Research Is Being Done? Several studies either conducted or ...

  16. Intracranial Vascular Treatments

    MedlinePlus

    ... all times from outside the treatment room. The robotic arm will move around you to aim at ... Embolization is much less invasive than conventional open surgery. As a result, there are fewer complications and ...

  17. Treatment BMP technology report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2006-04-01

    The Treatment BMP Technology Report consolidates and standardizes information on storm : water quality technologies that are part of the California Department of Transportations : (Departments) BMP identification, and evaluation process describ...

  18. Making Decisions about Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... advocacy HIV policy HIV prevention CONTRIBUTORS Project Inform Twitter Feed Project Inform ProjectInform ProjectInform #HIV cure : (Let ... February 17, 2011 Making decisions about treatment Facebook Twitter Google + Email Print January 2011Â Â Â View ...

  19. Treatment of Lymphedema

    MedlinePlus

    ... cuts or breaks in the skin with an antibacterial ointment . Avoid needle sticks of any type into ... these treatments is to help patients continue with activities of daily living , to decrease pain, and to ...

  20. Poison Ivy Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin reactions. These skin reactions are forms of contact dermatitis. Treatment Treating reactions to poison ivy—the most frequent of these forms of contact dermatitis—is a straightforward matter. Prevention is the best ...

  1. Treatment of Gas

    MedlinePlus

    ... Colonoscopy Diet & Treatments Antacids Calcium in Non-Dairy Foods Chlorophyllin for Odor Control Dietary Fiber High Colonics NSAIDs Could Probiotics Help Your Symptoms? Use of Probiotics in Managing ...

  2. Treatment of personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Bateman, Anthony W; Gunderson, John; Mulder, Roger

    2015-02-21

    The evidence base for the effective treatment of personality disorders is insufficient. Most of the existing evidence on personality disorder is for the treatment of borderline personality disorder, but even this is limited by the small sample sizes and short follow-up in clinical trials, the wide range of core outcome measures used by studies, and poor control of coexisting psychopathology. Psychological or psychosocial intervention is recommended as the primary treatment for borderline personality disorder and pharmacotherapy is only advised as an adjunctive treatment. The amount of research about the underlying, abnormal, psychological or biological processes leading to the manifestation of a disordered personality is increasing, which could lead to more effective interventions. The synergistic or antagonistic interaction of psychotherapies and drugs for treating personality disorder should be studied in conjunction with their mechanisms of change throughout the development of each. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of surface treatments.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1990-01-01

    This report describes the installation, evaluation, and performance of surface treatment test sections placed during 1983, 1984, and 1985. The study was initiated because of adhesion problems between asphalt and river gravel in the Fredericksburg Dis...

  4. Lasers in Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Treatment On This Page What is laser light? What is laser therapy, and how is it ... future hold for laser therapy? What is laser light? The term “ laser ” stands for light amplification by ...

  5. Thalassemia: Complications and Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir If I have thalassemia, how does it affect my body? Since your ... like flu shots and other vaccines. How is thalassemia treated? The type of treatment a person receives ...

  6. [Surgical treatment of ulcer].

    PubMed

    Ungeheuer, E; Schröder, D; Lüders, K

    1978-04-27

    The standard of today in surgical treatment of the duodenal and gastric ulcer in Germany is shown. Positive and negative aspects of the different methods are discussed. Special technics are recommended for the different types of gastroduodenal ulcera.

  7. Medical Actinium Therapeutic Treatment

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2018-02-13

    Learn how INL researchers are increasing world supplies of Bismuth 213 to help with cancer treatments. For more information about INL research projects, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  8. IBS Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... also consider... The use and benefits offered by cognitive-behavioral therapy Consulting with your doctor about the use of ... Medications Probiotics and Antibiotics Psychological Treatments Understanding Stress Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Relaxation Techniques for IBS Take Part in Online ...

  9. Chickenpox Prevention and Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... or lung disease people receiving steroid therapy pregnant women Acyclovir, an antiviral medication, is licensed for treatment of chickenpox. The medication works best if it is given within the first 24 hours after the rash starts. For more information, see ...

  10. Ankle Sprain Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... strengthening exercise"). Resume low-impact aerobic training; maintain general fitness. III Phase III treatment focuses on restoring ankle proprioception (balance and position awareness) as well as agility and ...

  11. Alternative Menopause Treatments

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms—non-estrogen prescription drugs, and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). What is CAM? CAM refers to practices ... my menopause symptoms without medicine? Are there any alternative medicine treatments you would recommend I try for relief ...

  12. Plague Diagnosis and Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Plague Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Plague Home Ecology & Transmission Symptoms Diagnosis & Treatment Maps & Statistics ...

  13. Stator hub treatment study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wisler, D. C.; Hilvers, D. E.

    1974-01-01

    The results of an experimental research program to investigate the potential of improving compressor stall margin by the application of hub treatment are presented. Extensive tuft probing showed that the two-stage, 0.5 radius ratio compressor selected for the test was indeed hub critical. Circumferential groove and baffled wide blade angle slot hub treatments under the stators were tested. Performance measurements were made with total and static pressure probes, wall static pressure taps, flow angle measuring instrumentation and hot film anemometers. Stator hub treatment was not found to be effective in improving compressor stall margin by delaying the point of onset of rotating stall or in modifying compressor performance for any of the configurations tested. Extensive regions of separated flow were observed on the suction surface of the stators near the hub. However, the treatment did not delay the point where flow separation in the stator hub region becomes apparent.

  14. Treatment for HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Combination Therapy About Joining a Clinical Trial Web Resources Clinical Trials Financing Treatment Hotlines return to ... to email VA HOME Notices Privacy FOIA Regulations Web Policies No FEAR Act Whistleblower Rights & Protections Site ...

  15. Complications and Treatments

    MedlinePlus

    ... you go. [PDF – 261 KB] Pain “Episode” or “Crisis” Pain is the most common complication of SCD, ... can cause serious illness, disability and, in some cases, death. Prevention and Treatment Medication is used to ...

  16. IV treatment at home

    MedlinePlus

    ... venous catheter - home; Port - home; PICC line - home; Infusion therapy - home; Home health care - IV treatment ... is given quickly, all at once. A slow infusion, which means the medicine is given slowly over ...

  17. Perchlorate Treatment Technology Update

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This issue paper has been prepared by EPA's Federal Facilities Forum to provide information about technologies available for treatment of perchlorate contamination in environmental media, including technologies that have been used to date and others that..

  18. Breast Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... using a thin needle. If cancer is found, tests are done to study the cancer cells. Decisions about the best treatment are based on the results of these tests. The tests give information about: how quickly the ...

  19. Torture and its treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Roth, E F; Lunde, I; Boysen, G; Genefke, I K

    1987-01-01

    Physical and psychological torture of political detainees and prisoners is currently practiced in more than 90 countries. Types of torture and the diagnosis and treatment of torture victims are described based on the experience of Copenhagen's Rigshospitalet. PMID:3661792

  20. Packaged Waste Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    This Jacksonville, Florida, apartment complex has a wastewater treatment system which clears the water, removes harmful microorganisms and reduces solid residue to ash. It is a spinoff from spacecraft waste management and environmental control technology.

  1. TREATMENT OF TOXOPLASMOSIS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Screening tests of various kinds of compounds were carried out with the purpose of obtaining new drugs for toxoplasmosis . Compounds tested were 66...Nitro-4’-formylamino-difenylsulfone might be effective in treatments of human toxoplasmosis . (Author)

  2. Bisphosphonate Treatment and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... paternal- exposures- pregnancy/ pdf/ . Selected References: Cox TM et al. 2008. Management of non-neuronopathic Gaucher disease ... Inherit Metab Dis. 31: 319-336. Djokanovic N et al. 2008. Does treatment with Bisphosphonates endanger the ...

  3. Childhood Craniopharyngioma Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... to boost, direct, or restore the body’s natural defenses against cancer. This type of cancer treatment is ... Security Reuse & Copyright Syndication Services Website Linking U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of ...

  4. Thermal treatment wall

    DOEpatents

    Aines, Roger D.; Newmark, Robin L.; Knauss, Kevin G.

    2000-01-01

    A thermal treatment wall emplaced to perform in-situ destruction of contaminants in groundwater. Thermal destruction of specific contaminants occurs by hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation at temperatures achievable by existing thermal remediation techniques (electrical heating or steam injection) in the presence of oxygen or soil mineral oxidants, such as MnO.sub.2. The thermal treatment wall can be installed in a variety of configurations depending on the specific objectives, and can be used for groundwater cleanup, wherein in-situ destruction of contaminants is carried out rather than extracting contaminated fluids to the surface, where they are to be cleaned. In addition, the thermal treatment wall can be used for both plume interdiction and near-wellhead in-situ groundwater treatment. Thus, this technique can be utilized for a variety of groundwater contamination problems.

  5. Treatment of Schizoaffective Disorder

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the range of treatments prescribed for schizoaffective disorder. The data show that the majority of those treated, 87 percent, receive two or more pharmaceutical classes. From a therapeutic class perspective, 93 percent of schizoaffective disorder patients receive an antipsychotic, 48 percent receive a mood disorder treatment, and 42 percent receive an antidepressant. An expert commentary is also included. PMID:19724749

  6. Treatment of latent syphilis.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, H W

    1976-12-01

    The studies in the English language of the treatment of latent syphillis suffer from a variety of problems. Investigators have failed to define cases adequately and, in some instances, have combined results of several treatment regimens, and have not followed patients for an adequate period of time. It may be wisest to recommend that regimens considered effective for asymptomatic neurosyphilis also be used for latent syphilis.

  7. [Scar prophylaxis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Hammer-Hansen, Niels; Damsgaard, Tine Engberg; Rødgaard, Jes Christian

    2015-10-12

    Scarring is an expected result of trauma to the skin. Scars are a heterogenic group varying from small white non elevated scars to hypertrophic scars and keloids. Many different algorithms for scar prophylaxis and treatment have been presented in the literature. We discuss different types of scar formation and recently published evidence-based guidelines in regards to prophylaxis and treatment of scars written by 24 experts on scar management.

  8. Somnambulism: Diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Bharadwaj, Rahul; Kumar, Suresh

    2007-04-01

    Somnambulism is an arousal disorder that is usually benign, self-limited and only infrequently requires treatment. Chronic sleepwalking in children has been shown to be associated with behavioral problems and poor emotional regulation. Most cases can be diagnosed with careful noting of case history and epilepsy is an important differential diagnosis. Management with pharmacological and behavioural measures is usually safe and effective. We present two cases of somnambulism that highlight the importance of the diagnosis and treatment of this condition.

  9. Somnambulism: Diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bharadwaj, Rahul; Kumar, Suresh

    2007-01-01

    Somnambulism is an arousal disorder that is usually benign, self-limited and only infrequently requires treatment. Chronic sleepwalking in children has been shown to be associated with behavioral problems and poor emotional regulation. Most cases can be diagnosed with careful noting of case history and epilepsy is an important differential diagnosis. Management with pharmacological and behavioural measures is usually safe and effective. We present two cases of somnambulism that highlight the importance of the diagnosis and treatment of this condition. PMID:20711396

  10. Laser treatment in gynecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Riese, Cornelia

    2004-07-01

    This presentation is designed as a brief overview of laser use in gynecology, for non-medical researchers involved in development of new laser techniques. The literature of the past decade is reviewed. Differences in penetration, absorption, and suitable delivery media for the beams dictate clinical application. The use of CO2 laser in the treatment of uterine cervical intraepithelial lesions is well established and indications as well as techniques have not changed over 30 years. The Cochrane Systematic Review from 2000 suggests no obviously superior technique. CO2 laser ablation of the vagina is also established as a safe treatment modality for VAIN. CO2 laser permits treatment of lesions with excellent cosmetic and functional results. The treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding by destruction of the endometrial lining using various techniques has been the subject of a 2002 Cochran Database Review. Among the compared treatment modalities are newer and modified laser techniques. Conclusion by reviewers is that outcomes and complication profiles of newer techniques compare favorably with the gold standard of endometrial resection. The ELITT diode laser system is one of the new successful additions. CO2 laser is also the dominant laser type used with laparoscopy for ablation of endometriotic implants. Myoma coagulation or myolysis with Nd:Yag laser through the laparoscope or hysteroscope is a conservative treatment option. Even MRI guided percutaneous approaches have been described. No long-term data are available.

  11. 40 CFR 133.105 - Treatment equivalent to secondary treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Treatment equivalent to secondary treatment. 133.105 Section 133.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS SECONDARY TREATMENT REGULATION § 133.105 Treatment equivalent to secondary treatment...

  12. Treatment for amphetamine withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Srisurapanont, M; Jarusuraisin, N; Kittirattanapaiboon, P

    2001-01-01

    Amphetamine withdrawal has been less studied although it is a common problem with a prevalent rate of 87% among amphetamine users. Its symptoms, in particular intense craving, may be a critical factor leading to relapse of amphetamine use. In clinical practice, treatment for cocaine withdrawal has been recommended for the management of amphetamine withdrawal although the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties of these two substances are not the same. To search and determine risks, benefits, and costs of a variety of treatments for the management of amphetamine withdrawal. Electronic searches of MEDLINE (1966 - December 2000), EMBASE (1980 - February 2001), CINAHL (1982 - January 2001) and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (Cochrane Library 2000 issue 4) were undertaken. References to the articles obtained by any means were searched. All relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) were included. Participants were people with amphetamine withdrawal, diagnosed by any set of criteria. Any kinds of biological and psychological treatments both alone and combined were examined. A variety of outcomes, for example, number of treatment responders, score changes, were considered. Two reviewers evaluated and extracted the data independently. The dichotomous data were extracted on an intention-to-treat basis in which the dropouts were assigned as participants with the worst outcomes. The Relative Risk (RR) with the 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was used to assess the dichotomous data. The Weighted Mean Difference (WMD) with 95% CI was used to assessed the continuous data. The results of two studies have shown some benefits of amineptine in the treatment of amphetamine withdrawal. Those benefits can be seen in the respects of discontinuation rate and global state, as measured by Clinical Global Impression Scale. However, no direct benefit of amineptine on amphetamine withdrawal symptoms or craving was shown. The evidence about

  13. Medical treatment for botulism.

    PubMed

    Chalk, Colin; Benstead, Tim J; Keezer, Mark

    2011-03-16

    Botulism is an acute paralytic illness caused by a neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum. Supportive care, including intensive care, is key but the role of other medical treatments is unclear. To assess the effects of medical treatments on mortality, duration of hospitalization, mechanical ventilation, tube or parenteral feeding and risk of adverse events in botulism. We searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register (10 January 2011), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (10 January 2010 in The Cochrane Library, Issue 4 2010), MEDLINE (January 1966 to January 2011) and EMBASE (January 1980 to January 2011). We reviewed bibliographies, and contacted authors and experts. We included randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials examining the medical treatment of any of the four major types of botulism (infant intestinal botulism, food-borne botulism, wound botulism and adult intestinal toxemia). Medical treatments included equine serum trivalent botulism antitoxin, human-derived botulinum immune globulin, plasma exchange, 3,4-diaminopyridine and guanidine. Two authors selected studies, assessed risk of bias and extracted data independently onto data extraction forms.Our primary outcome was in-hospital death from any cause occurring within four weeks. Secondary outcomes were death occurring within 12 weeks, duration of hospitalization, mechanical ventilation, tube or parenteral feeding and risk of adverse events. A single randomized controlled trial met the inclusion criteria. This trial evaluated human-derived botulinum immune globulin for the treatment of infant botulism. This study included 59 treatment patients and 63 control patients. There were no deaths in either group making any treatment effect on mortality inestimable. There was a significant benefit in the treatment group on duration of hospitalization (mean difference (MD) 3.10 weeks, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.68 to 4.52), mechanical

  14. 40 CFR 133.105 - Treatment equivalent to secondary treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... through proper operation and maintenance of the treatment works, based on an analysis of the past... treatment works, considering the design capability of the treatment process and geographical and climatic...

  15. Hyperthyroidism: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Reid, Jeri R; Wheeler, Stephen F

    2005-08-15

    The proper treatment of hyperthyroidism depends on recognition of the signs and symptoms of the disease and determination of the etiology. The most common cause of hyperthyroidism is Graves' disease. Other common causes include thyroiditis, toxic multinodular goiter, toxic adenomas, and side effects of certain medications. The diagnostic workup begins with a thyroid-stimulating hormone level test. When test results are uncertain, measuring radionuclide uptake helps distinguish among possible causes. When thyroiditis is the cause, symptomatic treatment usually is sufficient because the associated hyperthyroidism is transient. Graves' disease, toxic multinodular goiter, and toxic adenoma can be treated with radioactive iodine, antithyroid drugs, or surgery, but in the United States, radioactive iodine is the treatment of choice in patients without contraindications. Thyroidectomy is an option when other treatments fail or are contraindicated, or when a goiter is causing compressive symptoms. Some new therapies are under investigation. Special treatment consideration must be given to patients who are pregnant or breastfeeding, as well as those with Graves' ophthalmopathy or amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism. Patients' desires must be considered when deciding on appropriate therapy, and dose monitoring is essential.

  16. Preventive Migraine Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Silberstein, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of Review: This article reviews the evidence base for the preventive treatment of migraine. Recent Findings: Evidence-based guidelines for the preventive treatment of migraine have recently been published by the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) and the Canadian Headache Society (CHS), providing valuable guidance for clinicians. Strong evidence exists to support the use of metoprolol, timolol, propranolol, divalproex sodium, sodium valproate, and topiramate for migraine prevention, according to the AAN. Based on best available evidence, adverse event profile, and expert consensus, topiramate, propranolol, nadolol, metoprolol, amitriptyline, gabapentin, candesartan, Petasites (butterbur), riboflavin, coenzyme Q10, and magnesium citrate received a strong recommendation for use from the CHS. Summary: Migraine preventive drug treatments are underutilized in clinical practice. Principles of preventive treatment are important to improve compliance, minimize side effects, and improve patient outcomes. Choice of preventive treatment of migraine should be based on the presence of comorbid and coexistent illness, patient preference, reproductive potential and planning, and best available evidence. PMID:26252585

  17. Adjuvant Treatment of Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Moreno Nogueira, J. A.; Valero Arbizu, M.; Pérez Temprano, R.

    2013-01-01

    Melanomas represent 4% of all malignant tumors of the skin, yet account for 80% of deaths from skin cancer.While in the early stages patients can be successfully treated with surgical resection, metastatic melanoma prognosis is dismal. Several oncogenes have been identified in melanoma as BRAF, NRAS, c-Kit, and GNA11 GNAQ, each capable of activating MAPK pathway that increases cell proliferation and promotes angiogenesis, although NRAS and c-Kit also activate PI3 kinase pathway, including being more commonly BRAF activated oncogene. The treatment of choice for localised primary cutaneous melanoma is surgery plus lymphadenectomy if regional lymph nodes are involved. The justification for treatment in addition to surgery is based on the poor prognosis for high risk melanomas with a relapse index of 50–80%. Patients included in the high risk group should be assessed for adjuvant treatment with high doses of Interferon-α2b, as it is the only treatment shown to significantly improve disease free and possibly global survival. In the future we will have to analyze all these therapeutic possibilities on specific targets, probably associated with chemotherapy and/or interferon in the adjuvant treatment, if we want to change the natural history of melanomas. PMID:23476798

  18. Generic phytosanitary irradiation treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallman, Guy J.

    2012-07-01

    The history of the development of generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zealand, 300 Gy for all arthropods on mango shipped from Australia to Malaysia, 350 Gy for all arthropods on lychee shipped from Australia to New Zealand and 400 Gy for all hosts of insects other than pupae and adult Lepidoptera shipped to the United States. Efforts to develop additional generic PI treatments and reduce the dose for the 400 Gy treatment are ongoing with a broad based 5-year, 12-nation cooperative research project coordinated by the joint Food and Agricultural Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency Program on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. Key groups identified for further development of generic PI treatments are Lepidoptera (eggs and larvae), mealybugs and scale insects. A dose of 250 Gy may suffice for these three groups plus others, such as thrips, weevils and whiteflies.

  19. Tridecanoin is anticonvulsant, antioxidant, and improves mitochondrial function

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Kah Ni; Carrasco-Pozo, Catalina; McDonald, Tanya S; Puchowicz, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    The hypothesis that chronic feeding of the triglycerides of octanoate (trioctanoin) and decanoate (tridecanoin) in “a regular non-ketogenic diet” is anticonvulsant was tested and possible mechanisms of actions were subsequently investigated. Chronic feeding of 35E% of calories from tridecanoin, but not trioctanoin, was reproducibly anticonvulsant in two acute CD1 mouse seizure models. The levels of beta-hydroxybutyrate in plasma and brain were not significantly increased by either treatment relative to control diet. The respective decanoate and octanoate levels are 76 µM and 33 µM in plasma and 1.17 and 2.88 nmol/g in brain. Tridecanoin treatment did not alter the maximal activities of several glycolytic enzymes, suggesting that there is no reduction in glycolysis contributing to anticonvulsant effects. In cultured astrocytes, 200 µM of octanoic and decanoic acids increased basal respiration and ATP turnover, suggesting that both medium chain fatty acids are used as fuel. Only decanoic acid increased mitochondrial proton leak which may reduce oxidative stress. In mitochondria isolated from hippocampal formations, tridecanoin increased respiration linked to ATP synthesis, indicating that mitochondrial metabolic functions are improved. In addition, tridecanoin increased the plasma antioxidant capacity and hippocampal mRNA levels of heme oxygenase 1, and FoxO1. PMID:27418037

  20. Anabolic androgenic steroids reverse the beneficial effect of exercise on tendon biomechanics: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Tsitsilonis, Serafim; Chatzistergos, Panayiotis E; Panayiotis, Chatzistergos E; Mitousoudis, Athanasios S; Athanasios, Mitousoudis S; Kourkoulis, Stavros K; Stavros, Kourkoulis K; Vlachos, Ioannis S; Ioannis, Vlachos S; Agrogiannis, George; George, Agrogiannis; Fasseas, Konstantinos; Konstantinos, Fasseas; Perrea, Despina N; Despina, Perrea N; Zoubos, Aristides B; Aristides, Zoubos B

    2014-06-01

    The effect of anabolic androgenic steroids on tendons has not yet been fully elucidated. Aim of the present study was the evaluation of the impact of anabolic androgenic steroids on the biomechanical and histological characteristics of Achilles tendons. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomized into four groups with exercise and anabolic steroids (nandrolone decanoate) serving as variables. Protocol duration was 12 weeks. Following euthanasia, tendons' biomechanical properties were tested with the use of a modified clamping configuration. Histological examination with light and electron microscopy were also performed. In the group of anabolic steroids and exercise the lowest fracture stress values were observed, while in the exercise group the highest ones. Histological examination by light and electron microscopy revealed areas of collagen dysplasia and an increased epitendon in the groups receiving anabolic steroids and exercise. These findings suggest that anabolic androgenic steroids reverse the beneficial effect of exercise, thus resulting in inferior maximal stress values. Copyright © 2013 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Treatments for Tinnitus

    PubMed Central

    Noble, William

    2008-01-01

    The various forms of treatment for tinnitus that have been tested in properly controlled trials can be classified as pharmacological, acoustic-physical, and psychological. In clinical trials, no pharmacological agent has been shown to have lasting effect on the presence or severity of tinnitus, although there are promising signs in an animal model. Acoustic devices do not seem to influence tinnitus, although appropriately fitted hearing aids may slightly reduce its prominence. Of physical treatments, cortical implantation may hold some promise of being effective for tinnitus suppression in selected cases. A psychological treatment that has emerged as consistently beneficial is cognitive-behavior therapy in terms of affecting overall well-being and reducing level of tinnitus annoyance. PMID:18635586

  2. New treatments for gout.

    PubMed

    Mapa, Janet B; Pillinger, Michael H

    2010-05-01

    Gout is a commonly occurring medical condition that can lead to significant morbidity. Therapies available for the treatment of both acute and chronic gouty arthritis have not changed significantly since the 1960s. Although these treatments are well established, they are often contraindicated in the presence of various different comorbidities, including diabetes, renal insufficiency, hypertension and gastrointestinal disease, all of which can occur frequently in patients with gout. Therefore, new treatments are needed. This review describes recent advances in therapeutics for gout, including drugs designed to reduce levels of urate and to inhibit acute or chronic inflammation. While some of these strategies are currently available, others are undergoing regulatory evaluation or are at earlier stages of development.

  3. Hyperthyroidism: Diagnosis and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Kravets, Igor

    2016-03-01

    Hyperthyroidism is an excessive concentration of thyroid hormones in tissues caused by increased synthesis of thyroid hormones, excessive release of preformed thyroid hormones, or an endogenous or exogenous extrathyroidal source. The most common causes of an excessive production of thyroid hormones are Graves disease, toxic multinodular goiter, and toxic adenoma. The most common cause of an excessive passive release of thyroid hormones is painless (silent) thyroiditis, although its clinical presentation is the same as with other causes. Hyperthyroidism caused by overproduction of thyroid hormones can be treated with antithyroid medications (methimazole and propylthiouracil), radioactive iodine ablation of the thyroid gland, or surgical thyroidectomy. Radioactive iodine ablation is the most widely used treatment in the United States. The choice of treatment depends on the underlying diagnosis, the presence of contraindications to a particular treatment modality, the severity of hyperthyroidism, and the patient's preference.

  4. Treatment of Psychosomatic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wittkower, E. D.

    1964-01-01

    Goals, potentialities and limitations of treatment of psychosomatic disorders are reviewed. Removal of a disturbing psychosomatic symptom may be all that can be accomplished. The bulk of patients suffering from psychosomatic disorders should be treated by physicians other than psychiatrists. Difficulties arise, owing to differences in approach, when treatment is carried out by a general physician as well as a psychiatrist. In appraising the prospects of treatment, the age on examination, intelligence, duration of illness, degree of insight, nature of illness, environmental stress and personality structure of the patients should be considered. Psychiatric measures which have been employed include: electroconvulsive therapy, psychotropic drugs, hypnosis, drug abreaction, group therapy, supportive psychotherapy and psychoanalysis. Psychoanalysis provides the best understanding of the psychodynamics of psychosomatic illness but is, for a variety of reasons, applicable only to a small number of patients. Alternations and removal of disturbing symptoms can be accomplished by the other therapeutic means. PMID:14146853

  5. Xerostomia: causes and treatment.

    PubMed

    Wick, Jeanette Y

    2007-12-01

    When reduced salivary flow causes perpetual dry and sticky mucosa or sticky, stringy saliva, it becomes xerostomia-not a disease, but a symptom. Up to 30% of various populations self-report dry mouth (xerostomia) or have proven low salivary flow rates. Saliva is necessary for digestion and dental health, and it may have yet-unidentified immunological roles in humans. Xerostomia can lead to digestive problems, weight loss, and accelerated dental decay. Medications-several hundred of them-can cause or exacerbate xerostomia. Cancer, autoimmune diseases, and bone marrow transplants are associated with xerostomia. Including a dentist on the treatment team is essential for residents with dry mouth. As xerostomia progresses, they should shift focus primarily to prevention, maintenance, oral comfort, and emergency treatment. In all stages, they should keep treatment noninvasive if possible.

  6. TREATMENT OF THROMBOPHLEBITIS

    PubMed Central

    Kirtland, Howard B.; Brown, Roland G.; McDonald, Richard T.

    1960-01-01

    Venous stasis, injury or alteration of the intima and alterations in the coagulability of the blood are the three most common etiologic factors in thrombophlebitis. Usually at least two of these factors must be present before the clinical manifestations of the disease develop. A plan of treatment based on correcting these three factors has been used in over 250 cases of thrombophlebitis, and it is believed that a significant decrease was brought about in the acute and long term disability and in the occurrence of complications. The program consists of absolute bed rest in a hospital for about a week, elevation of the foot of the bed, administration of anticoagulants and adenosine-5-monophosphate for at least six weeks, progressive ambulation after the fourth day of treatment, with avoidance of prolonged standing and sitting, and adequate elastic support. Treatment must be continued until the patient has returned to full, normal activity and all signs of phlebitis have disappeared. PMID:14409404

  7. Diagnosis & Treatment of Dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Jinnah, H. A.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis The dystonias are a group of disorders characterized by excessive involuntary muscle contractions leading to abnormal postures and/or repetitive movements. There are many different clinical manifestations and many different causes. A careful assessment of the clinical manifestations is helpful for identifying syndromic patterns that focus diagnostic testing on potential causes. If a cause can be identified, specific etiology-based treatments may be available. However, in the majority of cases, a specific cause cannot be identified, and treatments are based on symptoms. Treatment options include counseling and education, oral medications, botulinum toxin injections, and several surgical procedures. A substantial reduction in symptoms and improved quality of life can be achieved in the majority of patients by combining these various options. PMID:25432724

  8. [Treatment of metacarpal fractures].

    PubMed

    Prokop, A; Jubel, A; Helling, H J; Kulus, S; Rehm, K E

    2002-09-01

    Conservative treatment of metacarpal fractures is recommended if there is no joint displacement, malrotation, displacement of over 30 degrees ad axim and shortening of over 5 mm. Surgery should be performed in open fractures and serial fractures of metacarpal bone. Early functional treatment should be carried out in stable, not displaced fractures. A cast can be used for a short period in full extended position of fingers and flexion in metacarpo-phalangeal joint in 60 - 90 degrees. Twin-tape fixation allows functional treatment after soft-tissue swelling has disappeared. Closed reduction of displaced fractures of the fifth metacarpal bone (boxer's fracture) is not successful. Cases with displacement of over 30 degrees may be treated surgically by intramedullary stabilisation.

  9. Psychosocial treatments for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Mueser, Kim T; Deavers, Frances; Penn, David L; Cassisi, Jeffrey E

    2013-01-01

    The current state of the literature regarding psychosocial treatments for schizophrenia is reviewed within the frameworks of the recovery model of mental health and the expanded stress-vulnerability model. Interventions targeting specific domains of functioning, age groups, stages of illness, and human service system gaps are classified as evidence-based practices or promising practices according to the extent to which their efficacy is currently supported by meta-analyses and individual randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Evidence-based practices include assertive community treatment (ACT), cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for psychosis, cognitive remediation, family psychoeducation, illness self-management training, social skills training, and supported employment. Promising practices include cognitive adaptive therapy, CBT for posttraumatic stress disorder, first-episode psychosis intervention, healthy lifestyle interventions, integrated treatment for co-occurring disorders, interventions targeting older individuals, peer support services, physical disease management, prodromal stage intervention, social cognition training, supported education, and supported housing. Implications and future directions are discussed.

  10. Treatment of Lyme borreliosis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis in humans. This inflammatory disease can affect the skin, the peripheral and central nervous system, the musculoskeletal and cardiovascular system and rarely the eyes. Early stages are directly associated with viable bacteria at the site of inflammation. The pathogen-host interaction is complex and has been elucidated only in part. B. burgdorferi is highly susceptible to antibiotic treatment and the majority of patients profit from this treatment. Some patients develop chronic persistent disease despite repeated antibiotics. Whether this is a sequel of pathogen persistence or a status of chronic auto-inflammation, auto-immunity or a form of fibromyalgia is highly debated. Since vaccination is not available, prevention of a tick bite or chemoprophylaxis is important. If the infection is manifest, then treatment strategies should target not only the pathogen by using antibiotics but also the chronic inflammation by using anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:20067594

  11. Epilepsy treatment and creativity.

    PubMed

    Zubkov, Sarah; Friedman, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Creativity can be defined as the ability to understand, develop, and express, in a systematic fashion, novel orderly relationships. It is sometimes difficult to separate cognitive skills requisite for the creative process from the drive that generates unique new ideas and associations. Epilepsy itself may affect the creative process. The treatment of epilepsy and its comorbidities, by altering or disrupting the same neural networks through antiseizure drugs (ASDs), treatment of epilepsy comorbidities, ablative surgery, or neurostimulation may also affect creativity. In this review, we discuss the potential mechanisms by which treatment can influence the creative process and review the literature on the consequences of therapy on different aspects of creativity in people with epilepsy. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Epilepsy, Art, and Creativity". Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Treatment decisions under ambiguity.

    PubMed

    Berger, Loïc; Bleichrodt, Han; Eeckhoudt, Louis

    2013-05-01

    Many health risks are ambiguous in the sense that reliable and credible information about these risks is unavailable. In health economics, ambiguity is usually handled through sensitivity analysis, which implicitly assumes that people are neutral towards ambiguity. However, empirical evidence suggests that people are averse to ambiguity and react strongly to it. This paper studies the effects of ambiguity aversion on two classical medical decision problems. If there is ambiguity regarding the diagnosis of a patient, ambiguity aversion increases the decision maker's propensity to opt for treatment. On the other hand, in the case of ambiguity regarding the effects of treatment, ambiguity aversion leads to a reduction in the propensity to choose treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Amblyopia update: new treatments.

    PubMed

    Vagge, Aldo; Nelson, Leonard B

    2016-09-01

    This review article is an update on the current treatments for amblyopia. In particular, the authors focus on the concepts of brain plasticity and their implications for novel treatment strategies for both children and adults affected by amblyopia. A variety of strategies has been developed to treat amblyopia in children and adults. New evidence on the pathogenesis of amblyopia has been obtained both in animal models and in clinical trials. Mainly, these studies have challenged the classical concept that amblyopia becomes untreatable after the 'end' of the sensitive or critical period of visual development, because of a lack of sufficient plasticity in the adult brain. New treatments for amblyopia in children and adults are desirable and should be encouraged. However, further studies should be completed before such therapies are widely accepted into clinical practice.

  14. Psychostimulant addiction treatment

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Karran A.; Epstein, David H.; Preston, Kenzie L.

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of psychostimulant addiction has been a major, and not fully met, challenge. For opioid addiction, there is strong evidence for the effectiveness of several medications. For psychostimulants, there is no corresponding form of agonist maintenance that has met criteria for regulatory approval or generally accepted use. Stimulant-use disorders remain prevalent and can result in both short-term and long-term adverse consequences. The mainstay of treatment remains behavioral interventions. In this paper, we discuss those interventions and some promising candidates in the search for pharmacological interventions. PMID:24727297

  15. Treatment of hay fever.

    PubMed Central

    Wood, S F

    1989-01-01

    The range of treatments for hay fever available to the general practitioner has changed considerably in recent years. New antihistamines have addressed the problem of sedation and moved towards one daily dose; nasally applied corticosteroids avoid the need for systemic steroid therapy and its potential adverse effect; and regulatory decisions have set a trend away from immunotherapy in general practice. However, knowledge about the mechanism of action of immunotherapy is increasing and new developments with improved safety profiles include allergen polymers, allergoids, oral immunotherapy and nasal immunotherapy. Choice of treatment depends, as always, on the individual circumstances of the patient and his or her disease. PMID:2556545

  16. Experimental pavement delineation treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryden, J. E.; Lorini, R. A.

    1981-06-01

    Visibility and durability of materials used to delineate shoulders and medians adjacent to asphalt pavements were evaluated. Materials evaluated were polysulfide and coal tar epoxies, one and two component polyesters, portland cement, acrylic paints, modified-alkyd traffic paint, preformed plastic tape, and thermoplastic markings. Neat applications, sand mortars, and surface treatments were installed in several geometric patterns including cross hatches, solid median treatments, and various widths of edge lines. Thermoplastic pavement markings generally performed very well, providing good visibility under adverse viewing conditions for at least 4 years. Thermoplastic 4 in. wide edge lines appear to provide adequate visibility for most conditions.

  17. Ultrasonic Treatment of Water

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1960-09-01

    Best Available Copy OTS: 60-41, 3 04 JPRS: 5486 ( 1 September 1960 AD-A280 702 00 ’T lh~lh tU ULTRASONIC TREATMENT OF WATER . •By L. B. Sigalov... WATER [lollowing is the translation of an article by Engineer L. B. Sigalov entitled "Ulltrazyukovaya obrabotka vody" (English version above), in...preliminary treatment of the water in which -es or -1 - A1/4i this fee& water is presoftened in cationit filters. Per low-capacity boiler

  18. Treatment Option Overview (Prostate Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... from making testosterone. However, estrogens are seldom used today in the treatment of prostate cancer because of ... or better than the standard treatment . Many of today's standard treatments for cancer are based on earlier ...

  19. Substance Abuse Treatment Facility Locator

    MedlinePlus

    ... None / Reverse   Treatment for non-substance abuse addiction disorder   Treatment for gambling disorder   Treatment for internet use disorder Detoxification All / None / Reverse   Alcohol ...

  20. Medical treatment for botulism.

    PubMed

    Chalk, Colin H; Benstead, Tim J; Keezer, Mark

    2014-02-20

    Botulism is an acute paralytic illness caused by a neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum. Supportive care, including intensive care, is key but the role of other medical treatments is unclear. This is an update of a review first published in 2011. To assess the effects of medical treatments on mortality, duration of hospitalization, mechanical ventilation, tube or parenteral feeding and risk of adverse events in botulism. On 30 March 2013, we searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register (30 March 2013), CENTRAL (2013, Issue 3) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (January 1966 to March 2013) and EMBASE (January 1980 to March 2013). We reviewed bibliographies and contacted authors and experts. Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials examining the medical treatment of any of the four major types of botulism (infant intestinal botulism, food-borne botulism, wound botulism and adult intestinal toxemia). Potential medical treatments included equine serum trivalent botulism antitoxin, human-derived botulinum immune globulin, plasma exchange, 3,4-diaminopyridine and guanidine. Two authors independently selected studies, assessed risk of bias and extracted data onto data extraction forms.Our primary outcome was in-hospital death from any cause occurring within four weeks. Secondary outcomes were death occurring within 12 weeks, duration of hospitalization, mechanical ventilation, tube or parenteral feeding and risk of adverse events. A single randomized controlled trial met the inclusion criteria. We found no additional trials when we updated the searches in 2013. This trial evaluated human-derived botulinum immune globulin (BIG) for the treatment of infant botulism and included 59 treatment participants as well as 63 control participants. The control group received a control immune globulin which did not have an effect on botulinum toxin. In this trial there was some violation of intention-to-treat principles, and possibly some

  1. Water Treatment Technology - Hydraulics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on hydraulics provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: head loss in pipes in series, function loss in…

  2. Humane Treatment of Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Joan Smithey

    This booklet is designed to give teachers resource information about the humane treatment of and care for animals. The topics are presented as springboards for discussion and class activity. Topics include the care of dogs, cats, birds, horses, and fish; wildlife and ecological relationships; and careers with animals. Illustrations on some pages…

  3. Tetanus: Diagnosis and Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a medical emergency requiring: Care in the hospital Immediate treatment with medicine called human tetanus immune globulin (TIG) Aggressive wound care Drugs to control muscle spasms Antibiotics Tetanus vaccination Depending on how serious the infection is, a machine to help you breathe may ...

  4. [Toxoplasmosis: Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Treatment].

    PubMed

    Khryanin, A A; Reshetnikov, O V; Kuvshinova, I N

    2015-01-01

    The up-to-date literature and original data on the epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of toxoplasmosis are presented. Particular attention is paid to the parasite infection during pregnancy. Spiramycin is the drug of choice for acute toxoplasmosis in pregnant women.

  5. Treatment of Essential Tremor

    MedlinePlus

    ... successfully treats limb tremor is weakened by the research methods involved. DBS and thalamotomy each pose some risk. They are used only when tremor is very disabling and drugs do not ... is best? Research on treatments for essential tremor is limited. No ...

  6. Treatment of anxiety disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bandelow, Borwin; Michaelis, Sophie; Wedekind, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    Anxiety disorders (generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder/agoraphobia, social anxiety disorder, and others) are the most prevalent psychiatric disorders, and are associated with a high burden of illness. Anxiety disorders are often underrecognized and undertreated in primary care. Treatment is indicated when a patient shows marked distress or suffers from complications resulting from the disorder. The treatment recommendations given in this article are based on guidelines, meta-analyses, and systematic reviews of randomized controlled studies. Anxiety disorders should be treated with psychological therapy, pharmacotherapy, or a combination of both. Cognitive behavioral therapy can be regarded as the psychotherapy with the highest level of evidence. First-line drugs are the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors. Benzodiazepines are not recommended for routine use. Other treatment options include pregabalin, tricyclic antidepressants, buspirone, moclobemide, and others. After remission, medications should be continued for 6 to 12 months. When developing a treatment plan, efficacy, adverse effects, interactions, costs, and the preference of the patient should be considered. PMID:28867934

  7. Treatment strategies for dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Cloud, Leslie J; Jinnah, HA

    2012-01-01

    Importance of the field Dystonia is a neurological syndrome characterized by involuntary twisting movements and unnatural postures. It has many different manifestations and causes, and many different treatment options are available. These options include physical and occupational therapy, oral medications, intramuscular injection of botulinum toxins, and neurosurgical interventions. Areas covered in this review In this review, we first summarize the treatment options available, then we provide suggestions from our own experience for how these can be applied in different types of dystonia. In preparing this review article, an extensive literature search was undertaken using PubMed. Only selected references from 1970 to 2008 are cited. What the reader will gain This review is intended to provide the clinician with a practical guide to the treatment of dystonia. Take home message Treatment of dystonia begins with proper diagnosis and classification, followed by an appropriate search for underlying etiology, and an assessment of the functional impairment associated with the dystonia. The therapeutic approach, which is usually limited to symptomatic therapy, must then be tailored to the individual needs of the patient. PMID:20001425

  8. Water Treatment Technology - Filtration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on filtration provides instructional materials for six competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: purposes of sedimentation basins and flocculation…

  9. DRINKING WATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of water treatment is threefold: 1. To improve the aethetic quality ofwater, 2. to remove toxic or health-hazardous chemicals, 3. to remove and/or inactivate any disease causing microorganisms. These objectives should be accomplished using a reasonable safety factor...

  10. Irrigation in endodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Basrani, Bettina

    2011-01-01

    The primary endodontic treatment goal is to optimize root canal disinfection and to prevent reinfection. Successful root canal therapy relies on the combination of proper instrumentation, irrigation, and obturation of the root canal system. In this review of the literature, various irrigants and the interactions between irrigants are discussed and new delivery systems are introduced.

  11. Water Treatment Technology - Springs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on springs provides instructional materials for two competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on spring basin construction and spring protection. For each competency, student…

  12. Water Treatment Technology - Flouridation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on flouridation provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: purpose and process of flouridation, correct…

  13. Effective Obesity Treatments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Lynda H.; Calvin, James E., III; Calvin, James E., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    To curb the epidemic of obesity in the United States, revised Medicare policy allows support for efficacious obesity treatments. This review summarizes the evidence from rigorous randomized trials (9 lifestyle trials, 5 drug trials, and 2 surgical trials) on the efficacy and risk-benefit profile of lifestyle, drug, and surgical interventions aimed…

  14. Water Treatment Technology - Pumps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on pumps provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: types of pumps in plant and distribution systems, pump…

  15. [Treatment of adult hydrocele].

    PubMed

    Tariel, E; Mongiat-Artus, P

    2004-08-01

    Surgery is the gold standard of hydrocele treatment; it is indicated in case of functional disorders. The two principal techniques are Lord's plication procedure, and excision. Main complications consist in potential haematoma and injury to epididymis, vas deferens or cord structures. Two other techniques exist, but with limited indications: fenestration which puts in contact the sac with lymph-rich subcutaneous tissues, and sclerotherapy.

  16. [Sclerosing treatment of hydrocele].

    PubMed

    Saladié Roig, J M; Blasco Casares, F J; Areal Calama, J

    1991-11-01

    We present the results of treatment with aspiration and tetracycline sclerotherapy of 24 cases of hydrocele with a follow-up of 9 months. Only minor complications were observed and the cure rate was less than 50%. The indications of this therapeutic modality versus surgery are discussed.

  17. Treatment of peripheral neuropathies.

    PubMed Central

    Hallett, M; Tandon, D; Berardelli, A

    1985-01-01

    There are three general approaches to treatment of peripheral neuropathy. First, an attempt should be made to reverse the pathophysiological process if its nature can be elucidated. Second, nerve metabolism can be stimulated and regeneration encouraged. Third, even if the neuropathy itself cannot be improved, symptomatic therapy can be employed. This review outlines the options available for each approach. PMID:3003254

  18. Trichotillomania: Identification and Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, K. Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Trichotillomania is a disorder distinguished by recurrent hair pulling resulting in hair loss (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). This review of the literature provides a broad overview of the disorder so that counselors can better understand, describe, identify, and implement effective treatment for clients with trichotillomania.…

  19. Principled Missing Data Treatments.

    PubMed

    Lang, Kyle M; Little, Todd D

    2018-04-01

    We review a number of issues regarding missing data treatments for intervention and prevention researchers. Many of the common missing data practices in prevention research are still, unfortunately, ill-advised (e.g., use of listwise and pairwise deletion, insufficient use of auxiliary variables). Our goal is to promote better practice in the handling of missing data. We review the current state of missing data methodology and recent missing data reporting in prevention research. We describe antiquated, ad hoc missing data treatments and discuss their limitations. We discuss two modern, principled missing data treatments: multiple imputation and full information maximum likelihood, and we offer practical tips on how to best employ these methods in prevention research. The principled missing data treatments that we discuss are couched in terms of how they improve causal and statistical inference in the prevention sciences. Our recommendations are firmly grounded in missing data theory and well-validated statistical principles for handling the missing data issues that are ubiquitous in biosocial and prevention research. We augment our broad survey of missing data analysis with references to more exhaustive resources.

  20. Treatment Controversies in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreibman, Laura

    2008-01-01

    With the increasing numbers of children who are being diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder there are a wide variety of treatment approaches being marketed to vulnerable parents who are desperate to help their child. However, many of these approaches have not been rigorously evaluated and can lead to false hopes, unreasonable fears, or…

  1. ARSENIC TREATMENT OPTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The PPT presentation will provide information on the drinking water treatment options for small utilities to remove arsenic from ground water. The discussion will include information on the EPA BAT listed processes and on some of the newer technologies, such as the iron based ad...

  2. Microalgae and wastewater treatment

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Raouf, N.; Al-Homaidan, A.A.; Ibraheem, I.B.M.

    2012-01-01

    Organic and inorganic substances which were released into the environment as a result of domestic, agricultural and industrial water activities lead to organic and inorganic pollution. The normal primary and secondary treatment processes of these wastewaters have been introduced in a growing number of places, in order to eliminate the easily settled materials and to oxidize the organic material present in wastewater. The final result is a clear, apparently clean effluent which is discharged into natural water bodies. This secondary effluent is, however, loaded with inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus and causes eutrophication and more long-term problems because of refractory organics and heavy metals that are discharged. Microalgae culture offers an interesting step for wastewater treatments, because they provide a tertiary biotreatment coupled with the production of potentially valuable biomass, which can be used for several purposes. Microalgae cultures offer an elegant solution to tertiary and quandary treatments due to the ability of microalgae to use inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus for their growth. And also, for their capacity to remove heavy metals, as well as some toxic organic compounds, therefore, it does not lead to secondary pollution. In the current review we will highlight on the role of micro-algae in the treatment of wastewater. PMID:24936135

  3. Water Treatment Technology - Chlorination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on chlorination provides instructional materials for nine competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: purpose and process of chlorination, chlorine…

  4. Water Treatment Technology - Wells.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on wells provides instructional materials for five competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: dug, driven, and chilled wells, aquifer types, deep well…

  5. Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story: Leukemia/Lymphoma Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2008 Table of Contents For an enhanced version of this page please turn Javascript on. Leukemia Symptoms Frequent infections Fever and chills Anemia Easy ...

  6. Treatment of Difficult Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Bowie, Dennis M.

    1991-01-01

    The difficult asthmatic patient should first be managed by confirming the diagnosis and eliminating any aggravating environmental or occupational factors, including medication use. Proper treatment requires rational addition of drugs in a logical sequence. It is most important to ensure proper inhaler technique, patient compliance, effective doctor-patient communication, and proper patient monitoring. ImagesFigure 2 PMID:21229079

  7. Topical treatment of melasma.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Debabrata

    2009-01-01

    Melasma is a common hypermelanotic disorder affecting the face that is associated with considerable psychological impacts. The management of melasma is challenging and requires a long-term treatment plan. In addition to avoidance of aggravating factors like oral pills and ultraviolet exposure, topical therapy has remained the mainstay of treatment. Multiple options for topical treatment are available, of which hydroquinone (HQ) is the most commonly prescribed agent. Besides HQ, other topical agents for which varying degrees of evidence for clinical efficacy exist include azelaic acid, kojic acid, retinoids, topical steroids, glycolic acid, mequinol, and arbutin. Topical medications modify various stages of melanogenesis, the most common mode of action being inhibition of the enzyme, tyrosinase. Combination therapy is the preferred mode of treatment for the synergism and reduction of untoward effects. The most popular combination consists of HQ, a topical steroid, and retinoic acid. Prolonged HQ usage may lead to untoward effects like depigmentation and exogenous ochronosis. The search for safer alternatives has given rise to the development of many newer agents, several of them from natural sources. Well-designed controlled clinical trials are needed to clarify their role in the routine management of melasma.

  8. The Treatment of Vaginismus

    PubMed Central

    Szasz, George; Stuart, Freida; Maurice, William L.; Garry, Matthew

    1977-01-01

    The treatment of vaginismus was the subject of grand rounds in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Vancouver General Hospital. Staff members of the UBC Sex Therapy Unit participated in the presentation of a case of unconsummated marriage. PMID:21304871

  9. Microbiology of Waste Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unz, Richard F.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the microbiology of waste treatment, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes topics such as: (1) sanitary microbiology; (2) wastewater disinfectant; (3) viruses in wastewater; and (4) wastewater microbial populations. A list of 142 references is also presented. (HM)

  10. Pediatric Neurodevelopmental Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camacho, Ricardo; McCauley, Brandon; Szczech Moser, Christy

    2016-01-01

    Over 70 years ago Dr. Karel Bobath and his wife Bertha Bobath began to craft the therapeutic intervention now known as neurodevelopmental treatment (NDT). This edition of Reviews, Tools, and Resources will highlight a historical review of research studies that have been completed, current websites, books, and blogs focusing on NDT.

  11. TREATMENT AND SOLIDS MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A variety of high-rate treatment methods show a potential to handle WWF including: physical separation with and without chemical addition (e.g., enhanced settling, fine-mesh screening, vortex separation, dual-media high-rate filtration, dissolved air flotation, activated carbon, ...

  12. TOPICAL TREATMENT OF MELASMA

    PubMed Central

    Bandyopadhyay, Debabrata

    2009-01-01

    Melasma is a common hypermelanotic disorder affecting the face that is associated with considerable psychological impacts. The management of melasma is challenging and requires a long-term treatment plan. In addition to avoidance of aggravating factors like oral pills and ultraviolet exposure, topical therapy has remained the mainstay of treatment. Multiple options for topical treatment are available, of which hydroquinone (HQ) is the most commonly prescribed agent. Besides HQ, other topical agents for which varying degrees of evidence for clinical efficacy exist include azelaic acid, kojic acid, retinoids, topical steroids, glycolic acid, mequinol, and arbutin. Topical medications modify various stages of melanogenesis, the most common mode of action being inhibition of the enzyme, tyrosinase. Combination therapy is the preferred mode of treatment for the synergism and reduction of untoward effects. The most popular combination consists of HQ, a topical steroid, and retinoic acid. Prolonged HQ usage may lead to untoward effects like depigmentation and exogenous ochronosis. The search for safer alternatives has given rise to the development of many newer agents, several of them from natural sources. Well-designed controlled clinical trials are needed to clarify their role in the routine management of melasma. PMID:20101327

  13. Treatment Options for Narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    Barateau, Lucie; Lopez, Régis; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2016-05-01

    Narcolepsy type 1 and narcolepsy type 2 are central disorders of hypersomnolence. Narcolepsy type 1 is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy and is associated with hypocretin-1 deficiency. On the other hand, in narcolepsy type 2, cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 levels are normal and cataplexy absent. Despite major advances in our understanding of narcolepsy mechanisms, its current management is only symptomatic. Treatment options may vary from a single drug that targets several symptoms, or multiple medications that each treats a specific symptom. In recent years, narcolepsy treatment has changed with the widespread use of modafinil/armodafinil for daytime sleepiness, antidepressants (selective serotonin and dual serotonin and noradrenalin reuptake inhibitors) for cataplexy, and sodium oxybate for both symptoms. Other psychostimulants can also be used, such as methylphenidate, pitolisant and rarely amphetamines, as third-line therapy. Importantly, clinically relevant subjective and objective measures of daytime sleepiness are required to monitor the treatment efficacy and to provide guidance on whether the treatment goals are met. Associated symptoms and comorbid conditions, such as hypnagogic/hypnopompic hallucinations, sleep paralysis, disturbed nighttime sleep, unpleasant dreams, REM- and non REM-related parasomnias, depressive symptoms, overweight/obesity, and obstructive sleep apnea, should also be taken into account and managed, if required. In the near future, the efficacy of new wake-promoting drugs, anticataplectic agents, hypocretin replacement therapy and immunotherapy at the early stages of the disease should also be evaluated.

  14. [Balneotherapy and osteoarthritis treatment].

    PubMed

    Latrille, Christian Roques

    2012-09-01

    Balneotherapy is a complementary form of medicine which uses natural thermal mineral resources in situ. It provides patients with osteoarthritis with a full treatment to ease pain and improve functions in the long-term without causing any significant therapeutic risks.

  15. Soil Classification and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    This instructional unit was designed to enable students, primarily at the secondary level, to (1) classify soils according to current capability classifications of the Soil Conservation Service, (2) select treatments needed for a given soil class according to current recommendations provided by the Soil Conservation Service, and (3) interpret a…

  16. Plasma treatment of onychomycosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Zilan; Roe, Jeff; Grammer, Tim; Him, Yeon-Ho; Graves, David B.

    2015-09-01

    Onychomycosis or fungal infection of the toenail or fingernail is a common affliction. Approximately 10% of the world's adult population is estimated to suffer from onychomycosis. Current treatment options such as topical creams, oral drugs, or laser treatments are generally limited by a variety of problems. We present results for an alternative onychomycosis treatment scheme using atmospheric pressure cold air plasmas. Using thinned cow hoof as a model nail material, we tested the ability of various plasma sources to act through the model nail to eradicate either bacteria or fungus deposited on the opposite side. Following 20 minute exposure to a surface microdischarge (SMD) device operating in room air, we observed a ~ 2 log reduction of E. coli. A similar result was obtained against T. rubrum after 45 min plasma treatment. NOx species concentration penetrating through the model nail as well as uptake into the nail were measured as a function of nail thickness. We propose that these plasma-generated species, or perhaps their reaction products, are responsible for at least part of the observed anti-microbial effect. We also explore the use of ultraviolet light acting in synergy with plasma-generated chemical species.

  17. Basic Water Treatment Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto.

    This manual was developed for use at workshops designed to introduce the fundamentals of water treatment plant operations. The course consists of lecture-discussions and hands-on activities. Each of the fourteen lessons in this document has clearly stated behavioral objectives to tell the trainee what he should know or do after completing that…

  18. Mentalization-Based Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bateman, Anthony; Fonagy, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The concept of mentalizing has captured the interest and imagination of an astonishing range of people—from psychoanalysts to neuroscientists, from child development researchers to geneticists, from existential philosophers to phenomenologists—all of whom seem to have found it useful. According to the Thompson Reuter maintained Web of Science, the use of the term in titles and abstracts of scientific papers increased from 10 to 2,750 between 1991 and 2011. Clinicians in particular have enthusiastically embraced the idea, and have put it to innovative use in their practices. Mentalization-based treatment (MBT)—making mentalizing a core focus of therapy—was initially developed for the treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in routine clinical services delivered in group and individual modalities. Therapy with mentalizing as a central component is currently being developed for treatment of numerous groups, including people with antisocial personality disorder, substance abuse, eating disorders, and at-risk mothers with infants and children (A. Bateman & Fonagy, 2011). It is also being used with families and adolescents, in schools, and in managing social groups (Asen & Fonagy, 2011; Fonagy et al., 2009; Twemlow, Fonagy, & Sacco, 2005a, 2005b). In this article, we focus on MBT in the treatment of BPD. PMID:26157198

  19. Marijuana Neurobiology and Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkashef, Ahmed; Vocci, Frank; Huestis, Marilyn; Haney, Margaret; Budney, Alan; Gruber, Amanda; el-Guebaly, Nady

    2008-01-01

    Marijuana is the number one illicit drug of abuse worldwide and a major public health problem, especially in the younger population. The objective of this article is to update and review the state of the science and treatments available for marijuana dependence based on a pre-meeting workshop that was presented at ISAM 2006. At the workshop,…

  20. Personality does not predict treatment preference, treatment experience does: a study of four complementary pain treatments.

    PubMed

    Blasche, Gerhard; Melchart, Herbert; Leitner, Daniela; Marktl, Wolfgang

    2007-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the extent to which personality and treatment experience affect patients' appraisals of 4 complementary treatments for chronic pain. A total of 232 chronic pain patients (164 females, 68 males, average age 56.6 years) visiting a spa clinic in Austria returned a questionnaire on patient characteristics and personality (autonomy, depressiveness, assertiveness, self-control) as well as attitudes towards (i.e. appealing, effective, pleasant) and experience of the treatments. Results were analysed by use of linear regression analysis and confidence intervals. Although all treatments were appraised positively, the passive treatments (thermal water tub baths, classical massage) were favoured more than the active treatments (relaxation training or exercise therapy). Treatment appraisal was not predicted by any of the personality traits but to a large extent by treatment experience. Relaxing, not unpleasant treatments were the most highly esteemed treatments. How strenuous or tiring a treatment was only had a minor effect on its appraisal. Neither do dependent, passive patients prefer passive treatments, nor do conscientious patients prefer active treatments. Instead, the appraisal of treatments that induce specific somatosensory sensations is largely determined by treatment experiences, i.e. what the treatment feels like. Despite the popularity of CAM which encompasses many experientially intensive treatments, treatment experience has to date been a neglected topic of treatment research.

  1. Treatment-refractory anxiety; definition, risk factors, and treatment challenges

    PubMed Central

    Roy-Byrne, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A sizable proportion of psychiatric patients will seek clinical evaluation and treatment for anxiety symptoms reportedly refractory to treatment. This apparent lack of response is either due to “pseudo-resistance” (a failure to have received and adhered to a recognized and effective treatment or treatments for their condition) or to true “treatment resistance.” Pseudo-resistance can be due to clinician errors in selecting and delivering an appropriate treatment effectively, or to patient nonadherence to a course of treatment. True treatment resistance can be due to unrecognized exogenous anxiogenic factors (eg, caffeine overuse, sleep deprivation, use of alcohol or marijuana) or an incorrect diagnosis (eg, atypical bipolar illness, occult substance abuse, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder). Once the above factors are eliminated, treatment should focus on combining effective medications and cognitive behavioral therapy, combining several medications (augmentation), or employing novel medications or psychotherapies not typically indicated as first-line evidence-based anxiety treatments. PMID:26246793

  2. Treatment-refractory anxiety; definition, risk factors, and treatment challenges.

    PubMed

    Roy-Byrne, Peter

    2015-06-01

    A sizable proportion of psychiatric patients will seek clinical evaluation and treatment for anxiety symptoms reportedly refractory to treatment. This apparent lack of response is either due to "pseudo-resistance" (a failure to have received and adhered to a recognized and effective treatment or treatments for their condition) or to true "treatment resistance." Pseudo-resistance can be due to clinician errors in selecting and delivering an appropriate treatment effectively, or to patient nonadherence to a course of treatment. True treatment resistance can be due to unrecognized exogenous anxiogenic factors (eg, caffeine overuse, sleep deprivation, use of alcohol or marijuana) or an incorrect diagnosis (eg, atypical bipolar illness, occult substance abuse, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder). Once the above factors are eliminated, treatment should focus on combining effective medications and cognitive behavioral therapy, combining several medications (augmentation), or employing novel medications or psychotherapies not typically indicated as first-line evidence-based anxiety treatments.

  3. [Treatment options for nystagmus].

    PubMed

    Tegetmeyer, H

    2015-02-01

    The goal of treatment for nystagmus is to reduce or to abolish the typical symptoms associated with nystagmus. These are (i) reduction of visual acuity (and amblyopia in infantile nystagmus), (ii) abnormal head posture (with possible secondary changes of cervical spine) and (iii) oscillopsia (often connected with vertigo and disorders of gait and orientation). Treatment strategies include pharmacological treatment, surgical therapy and optical devices. Choice of treatment depends on the type of nystagmus and its characteristics. The following surgical procedures were successfully used as treatment of selected symptoms: (i) unilateral recess-resect surgery of the dominant eye in infantile esotropia with latent nystagmus for the relief of abnormal head posture, (ii) Kestenbaum operation of both eyes in infantile nystagmus syndrome with excentric null zone and abnormal head posture, (iii) recess-resect surgery to produce artificial exophoria in infantile nystagmus syndrome. PHARMACOLOGICAL TREATMENT: Depending on the pathophysiology of different types of nystagmus, several drugs were effective in clinical application (off-label use): (i) gabapentin (non-selective GABAergic and anti-glutamatergic effect): up to 2400 mg/d in infantile nystagmus, acquired pendular nystagmus and oculopalatal tremor, (ii) nemantine (anti-glutamatergic effect): dosage up to 40 mg/d in infantile nystagmus, also in acquired pendular nystagmus and oculopalatal tremor, (iii) baclofen (GABA-B-receptor agonist): 3 × 5-10 mg/d in periodic alternating nystagmus and in upbeat nystagmus, (iv) 4-aminopyridine (non-selective blocker of voltage-gated potassium channels): 3 × 5 mg/d or 1-2 × 10 mg Fampridin in downbeat nystagmus and upbeat nystagmus, (v) acetazolamide (carbonic anhydrase inhibitor): in hereditary episodic ataxia type 2. OPTICAL DEVICES: (i) Contact lenses are used in infantile nystagmus in order to overcome negative effects of eye glasses in abnormal head posture

  4. [Surgical treatment of hemorrhoids].

    PubMed

    Polovinkin, V V; Savchenko, Iu P; Khmelik, V I

    2002-01-01

    Since 1994 in addition to standard operations for chronic and acute hemorrhoids in Krasnodar military hospital the device for suturing in removal of internal hemorrhoids has been applied. From 1994 to 2000 examination and treatment of 240 patients with hemorrhoids were carried out. In the study group (128 patients) hemorrhoidectomy was performed by the developed method, in control (112 patients)--by standard techniques. In early postoperative period significantly smaller quantity of complications were seen in the study group (8.4%) compared with control group (29.8%). Decrease of hospital stay and out-patient treatment was also seen. Relapses of the disease were not revealed in terms from one to six years after surgery. The device may be employed in simultaneous operations when concomitant anorectal diseases are present. The above results justify one-stage operations in combination of chronic hemorrhoids with anorectal diseases. The proposed device makes this surgery easier.

  5. Acute Treatment of Migraine

    PubMed Central

    ÖZTÜRK, Vesile

    2013-01-01

    Migraine is one of the most frequent disabling neurological conditions with a major impact on the patient’s quality of life. Migraine has been described as a chronic disorder that characterized with attacks. Attacks are characterized by moderate–severe, often unilateral, pulsating headache attacks, typically lasting 4 to 72 hours. Migraine remains underdiagnosed and undertreated despite advances in the understanding of its pathophysiology. This article reviews management of migraine acute pharmacological treatment. Currently, for the acute treatment of migraine attacks, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and triptans (serotonin 5HT1B/1D receptor agonists) are recommended. Before intake of NSAID and triptans, metoclopramide or domperidone is useful. In very severe attacks, subcutaneous sumatriptan is first choice. The patient should be treated early in the attack, use an adequate dose and formulation of a medication. Ideally, acute therapy should be restricted to no more than 2 to 3 days per week to avoid medication overuse. PMID:28360580

  6. Treatment of Actinic Purpura

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Mature skin is prone to bruising, resulting in a condition known as actinic purpura, characterized by unsightly ecchymosis and purple patches. Similar to other skin conditions, the incidence of actinic purpura increases with advancing age and occurs with equal frequency among men and women. The unsightly appearance of actinic purpura may be a source of emotional distress among the elderly. A new product has been formulated specifically for the treatment of actinic purpura. This product contains retinol, α-hydroxy acids, arnica oil, ceramides, niacinamide, and phytonadione, which effectively treat actinic purpura by improving local circulation, thickening the skin, and repairing the skin barrier. The objective of this paper is to review the beneficial properties of these ingredients and their respective roles in the treatment of actinic purpura. PMID:28979656

  7. Preventive treatment of migraine.

    PubMed

    Silberstein, Steven D

    2005-01-01

    Migraine preventive therapy, even in the absence of a headache, is given in an attempt to reduce the frequency, duration, or severity of attacks. Circumstances that might warrant preventive treatment include disabling migraine attacks, the overuse of acute medications or failure of or contraindication to acute medications, troublesome side effects from medication, hemiplegic migraine, or very frequent headaches (more than 2 a week). The major medication groups for preventive treatment include anticonvulsants, antidepressants, b-adrenergic blockers, calcium channel antagonists, serotonin antagonists, neurotoxins, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and others. If preventive medication is indicated, the agent preferentially should be chosen from one of the first-line categories, based on the drug's side-effect profile and the patient's coexistent and comorbid conditions.

  8. Topical treatment of psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Laws, Philip M; Young, Helen S

    2010-08-01

    The majority of patients with psoriasis can be safely and effectively treated with topical therapy alone, either under the supervision of a family physician or dermatologist. For those requiring systemic agents, topical therapies can provide additional benefit. Optimal use of topical therapy requires an awareness of the range and efficacy of all products. The review covers the efficacy and role of topical therapies including emollients, corticosteroids, vitamin D analogs, calcineurin inhibitors, dithranol, coal tar, retinoids, keratolyics and combination therapy. The report was prepared following a PubMed and Embase literature search up to April 2010. The paper provides a broad review of the relevant topical therapeutic options available in routine clinical practice for the management of psoriasis and a recommendation for selection of treatment. Topical therapies used appropriately provide a safe and effective option for the management of psoriasis. An awareness of the available products and their efficacy is key to treatment selection and patient satisfaction.

  9. Surgical Treatment of Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Miller, John W.; Hakimian, Shahin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of Review: This article outlines indications for neurosurgical treatment of epilepsy, describes the presurgical workup, summarizes surgical approaches, and details expected risks and benefits. Recent Findings: There is class I evidence for the efficacy of temporal lobectomy in treating intractable seizures, and accumulating documentation that successful surgical treatment reverses much of the disability, morbidity, and excess mortality of chronic epilepsy. Summary: Chronic, uncontrolled focal epilepsy causes progressive disability and increased mortality, but these can be reversed with seizure control. Vigorous efforts to stop seizures are warranted. If two well-chosen and tolerated medication trials do not achieve seizure control, an early workup for epilepsy surgery should be arranged. If this workup definitively identifies the brain region from which the seizures arise, and this region can be removed with a low risk of disabling neurologic deficits, neurosurgery will have a much better chance of stopping seizures than further medication trials. PMID:23739107

  10. Mindfulness in PTSD treatment.

    PubMed

    Lang, Ariel J

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, the field has witnessed considerable enthusiasm for the ancient practice of mindfulness. The skills derived from this experience, including focused attention, nonjudgmental acceptance of internal experiences and reduced autonomic reactivity, may be helpful in counteracting pathological responses to trauma. Several types of interventions that incorporate principles of mindfulness have been examined for treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This nascent literature is inconsistent and methodologically limited but does suggest that mindfulness is a potentially important tool for creating psychological change. The interventions described herein generally would not yet be considered first-line treatments for PTSD. Nonetheless, evidence is building, and mindfulness may provide an impetus for better understanding how to personalize psychological interventions and to evaluate their outcomes. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Electrocoagulation in Water Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huijuan; Zhao, Xu; Qu, Jiuhui

    Electrocoagulation (EC) is an electrochemical method of treating polluted water where sacrificial anodes corrode to release active coagulant precursors (usually aluminum or iron cations) into solution. At the cathode, gas evolves (usually as hydrogen bubbles) accompanying electrolytic reactions. EC needs simple equipments and is designable for virtually any size. It is cost effective and easily operable. Specially, the recent technical improvements combined with a growing need for small-scale water treatment facilities have led to a revaluation of EC. In this chapter, the basic principle of EC was introduced first. Following that, reactions at the electrodes and electrode assignment were reviewed; electrode passivation process and activation method were presented; comparison between electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation was performed; typical design of the EC reactors was also described; and factors affecting electrocoagulation including current density, effect of conductivity, temperature, and pH were introduced in details. Finally, application of EC in water treatment was given in details.

  12. [Prediabetes, definition and treatment].

    PubMed

    Dolz, Manuel; Dhane, Yasmin

    2017-10-01

    Prediabetes corresponds to high levels of glycaemia on an empty stomach and/or lower tolerance to glucose. It is necessary to detect and treat it in order to prevent type 2 diabetes and its long-term morbidity-mortality. Several clinical trials, based notably on modifying the patient's lifestyle, have shown that prevention is possible. Bariatric surgery could constitute a favoured treatment option in prediabetic obese patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Surgical treatment of obesity.

    PubMed

    Bult, Mariëlle J F; van Dalen, Thijs; Muller, Alex F

    2008-02-01

    More than half of the European population are overweight (body mass index (BMI) > 25 and < 30 kg/m2) and up to 30% are obese (BMI > or = 30 kg/m2). Being overweight and obesity are becoming endemic, particularly because of increasing nourishment and a decrease in physical exercise. Insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, cholelithiasis, certain forms of cancer, steatosis hepatis, gastroesophageal reflux, obstructive sleep apnea, degenerative joint disease, gout, lower back pain, and polycystic ovary syndrome are all associated with overweight and obesity. The endemic extent of overweight and obesity with its associated comorbidities has led to the development of therapies aimed at weight loss. The long-term effects of diet, exercise, and medical therapy on weight are relatively poor. With respect to durable weight reduction, bariatric surgery is the most effective long-term treatment for obesity with the greatest chances for amelioration and even resolution of obesity-associated complications. Recent evidence shows that bariatric surgery for severe obesity is associated with decreased overall mortality. However, serious complications can occur and therefore a careful selection of patients is of utmost importance. Bariatric surgery should at least be considered for all patients with a BMI of more than 40 kg/m2 and for those with a BMI of more than 35 kg/m2 with concomitant obesity-related conditions after failure of conventional treatment. The importance of weight loss and results of conventional treatment will be discussed first. Currently used operative treatments for obesity and their effectiveness and complications are described. Proposed criteria for bariatric surgery are given. Also, some attention is devoted to more basic insights that bariatric surgery has provided. Finally we deal with unsolved questions and future directions for research.

  14. Cardiotoxicity Following Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, AR; Harbinson, MT; Hanna, GG

    2017-01-01

    More than half of those born after 1960 will develop cancer during their lifetime. Fortunately, owing to improved diagnosis and treatment, cure rates have risen steadily over the last three decades. With an increased survivorship, more will experience adverse effects of cancer therapeutics on the heart. As the oncologist’s focus begins to encompass the issues of cancer survivorship, awareness of the management of cardiac toxicity would be prudent for all physicians looking after patients with cancer. PMID:28298705

  15. Dietary treatments of obesity.

    PubMed

    Moloney, M

    2000-11-01

    Numerous dietary treatments that purport to promote something unique for stimulating weight loss have been published. These treatments include fad diets, diets formulated by various commercial slimming clubs, very-low-energy diets (VLCD) and conventional diets. Fad diets may possibly reduce some weight short-term; however, there is no scientific basis to their long-term use. Commercial slimming clubs may be suitable for some individuals but they need to be properly assessed professionally. There are specific guidelines for the use of VLCD, which are only appropriate for short-term use. There is scientific evidence to suggest that conventional diets can produce both short- and long-term weight loss. A successful weight-loss programme depends on a multidisciplinary team approach. Management strategies should be devised for addressing issues such as goals, monitoring, follow-up, relapse and evaluation. Initial assessments should include medical, laboratory and anthropometric data, fitness level and dietary and behavioural attitudes. These results will form the basis of the treatment plan. Frequent visits to the clinic are fundamental in promoting continuing weight loss during the long-term maintenance stage of treatment. The visits should be made worthwhile for the patient. Realistic and attainable goals for diet, exercise and behaviour modification should be made. The diet should have a novel approach and be tailored to the needs of the patient. It should be adequate nutritionally, low in energy and fat. The overall aim should be to promote lifelong changes in lifestyle, improvement in quality of life and health risks.

  16. Treatment of shock.

    PubMed

    Hardaway, R M

    1979-03-01

    In order to effectively treat shock the physician must understand the physiology of shock. Shock patients may have a low, normal, or high arterial blood pressure, and the blood volume may be below normal, normal, or above normal. Shock is not necessarily accompanied by low arterial pH or low peripheral resistance. Most cases of acute traumatic and hemorrhagic shock show a high arterial pH, partly due to the blowing off of CO2, despite an elevated blood lactic acid level. Most patients also show a very high resistance. A factor that all shock patients have in common is a deficient capillary perfusion, or an insufficient amount of blood flowing through the capillaries. The cornerstone of the treatment of hypovolemic shock is the administration of adequate amounts of the right kinds of intravenous fluids. Focus is on classification of shock (reversible shock, irreversible or fatal shock, hypovolemia), the heart in shock, respiration, drugs (steroids, vasoactive drugs), and disseminated intravascular coagulation. If edema is a problem, diuretics may be helpful. Antibiotics for infection are very important in sepsis and septic shock. Supportive drugs are also important. Steroids and vasoactive drugs have a secondary place in the treatment of shock, and they should be used when these treatments have failed to produce an adequate blood pressure and urinary output.

  17. Treatment of Giardiasis

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Timothy B.; Hill, David R.

    2001-01-01

    Giardia lamblia is both the most common intestinal parasite in the United States and a frequent cause of diarrheal illness throughout the world. In spite of its recognition as an important human pathogen, there have been relatively few agents used in therapy. This paper discusses each class of drugs used in treatment, along with their mechanism of action, in vitro and clinical efficacy, and side effects and contraindications. Recommendations are made for the preferred treatment in different clinical situations. The greatest clinical experience is with the nitroimidazole drugs, i.e., metronidazole, tinidazole, and ornidazole, which are highly effective. A 5- to 7-day course of metronidazole can be expected to cure over 90% of individuals, and a single dose of tinidazole or ornidazole will cure a similar number. Quinacrine, which is no longer produced in the United States, has excellent efficacy but may be poorly tolerated, especially in children. Furazolidone is an effective alternative but must be administered four times a day for 7 to 10 days. Paromomycin may be used during early pregnancy, because it is not systematically absorbed, but it is not always effective. Patients who have resistant infection can usually be cured by a prolonged course of treatment with a combination of a nitroimidazole with quinacrine. PMID:11148005

  18. Ayahuasca and cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Schenberg, Eduardo E

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensively review the evidence regarding the use of ayahuasca, an Amerindian medicine traditionally used to treat many different illnesses and diseases, to treat some types of cancer. An in-depth review of the literature was conducted using PubMed, books, institutional magazines, conferences and online texts in nonprofessional sources regarding the biomedical knowledge about ayahuasca in general with a specific focus in its possible relations to the treatment of cancer. At least nine case reports regarding the use of ayahuasca in the treatment of prostate, brain, ovarian, uterine, stomach, breast, and colon cancers were found. Several of these were considered improvements, one case was considered worse, and one case was rated as difficult to evaluate. A theoretical model is presented which explains these effects at the cellular, molecular, and psychosocial levels. Particular attention is given to ayahuasca's pharmacological effects through the activity of N,N-dimethyltryptamine at intracellular sigma-1 receptors. The effects of other components of ayahuasca, such as harmine, tetrahydroharmine, and harmaline, are also considered. The proposed model, based on the molecular and cellular biology of ayahuasca's known active components and the available clinical reports, suggests that these accounts may have consistent biological underpinnings. Further study of ayahuasca's possible antitumor effects is important because cancer patients continue to seek out this traditional medicine. Consequently, based on the social and anthropological observations of the use of this brew, suggestions are provided for further research into the safety and efficacy of ayahuasca as a possible medicinal aid in the treatment of cancer.

  19. Treatment of haemothorax.

    PubMed

    Boersma, Wim G; Stigt, Jos A; Smit, Hans J M

    2010-11-01

    Haemothorax is a problem commonly encountered in medical practice and is most frequently related to open or closed chest trauma or to invasive procedures of the chest. Spontaneous haemothorax is less common and can have various causes, such as the use of anticoagulants, neoplasia, and rupture of pleural adhesions. Identification by radiography and thoracentesis is indicated and treatment of the underlying trauma should start immediately. After insertion of a large chest tube, antibiotic prophylaxis in trauma patients should be administered for 24 h. Further treatment depends on the haemodynamic stability of the patient, the volume of evacuated blood and the occurrence of persistent blood loss. Surgical exploration by VATS or thoracotomy is necessary if >1.500 ml of blood has accumulated and/or an ongoing production of >200 ml of blood per hour is observed. If the haemorrhage is less severe, careful investigation into the underlying cause must be performed and blood should be evacuated by tube thoracostomy. If clotted blood retained in spite of tube thoracostomy, intrapleural fibrinolytic therapy can be applied to breakdown clots and adhesions. If conservative treatment is insufficient, a surgical approach with VATS or thoracotomy is indicated to prevent subsequent complications. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Pharmacologic treatment of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Anton, Raymond F; Schacht, Joseph P; Book, Sarah W

    2014-01-01

    Progress in understanding the neuroscience of addiction has significantly advanced the development of more efficacious medications for the treatment of alcohol use disorders (AUD). While several medications have been approved by regulatory bodies around the world for the treatment of AUD, they are not universally efficacious. Recent research has yielded improved understanding of the genetics and brain circuits that underlie alcohol reward and its habitual use. This research has contributed to pharmacogenetic studies of medication response, and will ultimately lead to a more "personalized medicine" approach to AUD pharmacotherapy. This chapter summarizes work on clinically available medications (both approved by regulatory bodies and investigational) for the treatment of alcohol dependence, as well as the psychiatric disorders that are commonly comorbid with AUD. Studies that have evaluated genetic influences on medication response and those that have employed neuroimaging to probe mechanisms of medication action or response are highlighted. Finally, new targets discovered in animal models for possible pharmacologic intervention in humans are overviewed and future directions in medications development provided. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Treatment of complicated grief.

    PubMed

    Rosner, Rita; Pfoh, Gabriele; Kotoučová, Michaela

    2011-01-01

    Following the death of a loved one, a small group of grievers develop an abnormal grieving style, termed complicated or prolonged grief. In the effort to establish complicated grief as a disorder in DSM and ICD, several attempts have been made over the past two decades to establish symptom criteria for this form of grieving. Complicated grief is different from depression and PTSD yet often comorbid with other psychological disorders. Meta-analyses of grief interventions show small to medium effect sizes, with only few studies yielding large effect sizes. In this article, an integrative cognitive behavioral treatment manual for complicated grief disorder (CG-CBT) of 25 individual sessions is described. Three treatment phases, each entailing several treatment strategies, allow patients to stabilize, explore, and confront the most painful aspects of the loss, and finally to integrate and transform their grief. Core aspects are cognitive restructuring and confrontation. Special attention is given to practical exercises. This article includes the case report of a woman whose daughter committed suicide.

  2. Liposuction in Lymphedema Treatment.

    PubMed

    Brorson, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    Lymphedema leads to early deposition of adipose tissue. This may explain why conservative therapies such as complex decongestive therapy (CDT) and controlled compression therapy (CCT), as well as various forms of microsurgical reconstructions, cannot completely remove the excess volume in patients with a large chronic nonpitting lymphedema. Liposuction is therefore a logical and tempting treatment to reduce the adipose tissue volume excess. This article outlines the benefits of using liposuction and presents evidence to support its use. The mechanism between adipose tissue depositions is described as well as the surgical technique, postoperative care, volume measurements, effects on the lymph transport, and follow-up. Fifteen years' follow-up shows complete reduction of the excess volume without recurrence following liposuction in patients with postmastectomy arm lymphedema. The same promising results can also be seen in patients with leg lymphedema. Various types of treatment of lymphedema are under discussion and there has been some controversy regarding liposuction for lymphedema. Improvements in techniques, patient preparation, and patient follow-up have led to a greater and wider acceptance of liposuction as a treatment for lymphedema in patients with large chronic nonpitting extremity lymphedemas. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  3. Treatment options for chorea.

    PubMed

    Bashir, H; Jankovic, J

    2018-01-01

    Chorea is defined as jerk-like movements that move randomly from one body part to another. It is due to a variety of disorders and although current symptomatic therapy is quite effective there are few etiology- or pathogenesis-targeted therapies. The aim of this review is to summarize our own experience and published evidence in the treatment of chorea. Areas covered: After evaluating current guidelines and clinical practices for chorea of all etiologies, PubMed was searched for the most recent clinical trials and reviews using the term 'chorea' cross referenced with specific drug names. Expert commentary: Inhibitors of presynaptic vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 (VMAT2) that cause striatal dopamine depletion, such as tetrabenazine, deutetrabenazine, and valbenazine, are considered the treatment of choice in patients with chorea. Some clinicians also use dopamine receptor blockers (e.g. antipsychotics) and other drugs, including anti-epileptics and anti-glutamatargics. 'Dopamine stabilizers' such as pridopidine and other experimental drugs are currently being investigated in the treatment of chorea. Deep brain stimulation is usually reserved for patients with disabling chorea despite optimal medical therapy.

  4. The Treatment of Scabies.

    PubMed

    Dressler, Corinna; Rosumeck, Stefanie; Sunderkötter, Cord; Werner, Ricardo Niklas; Nast, Alexander

    2016-11-14

    Scabies is a contagious infestation transmitted by skin-to-skin contact and sometimes by contact with contaminated material. The scabies mite burrows into the skin, producing a papular rash and severe itch at typical sites of predilection. We systematically reviewed the literature to compare the efficacy of various anti-scabies agents, including a calculation of relative risks and confidence intervals. A literature search yielded 596 initial hits; after screening in accor-dance with the defined inclusion and exclusion criteria, 16 studies were selected for this review. Among topical treatments for scabies, permethrin was equally effective or more effective than crotamiton or benzyl benzoate. In a comparison of topical versus systemic treatment, topical permethrin and systemic ivermectin did not differ substantially in efficacy (7 comparative studies revealed no difference; one revealed a difference in favor of permethrin). Comparative trials of topical benzyl benzoate versus systemic ivermectin yielded inconsistent findings. Single and double administrations of ivermectin were similarly effective. In trials involving entire populations with a high prevalence of scabies, systemic ivermectin was found to be superior to topical permethrin. There are hardly any differences in efficacy between the available treatments for scabies. Single administrations of permethrin 5%, crotamiton 10%, and systemic ivermectin are all comparably effective. There are differences in the frequeny and ease of application as well as when eradicating scabies in populations with a high prevalence.

  5. [Treatment of amblyopia].

    PubMed

    von Noorden, G K

    1990-01-01

    Animal experiments have explored the structural and functional alterations of the afferent visual pathways in amblyopia and have emphasized the extraordinary sensitivity of the immature visual system to abnormal visual stimulation. The practical consequences of these experiments are obvious: early diagnosis of amblyopia and energetic occlusion therapy as early in life as possible. At the same time, measures must be taken to prevent visual deprivation amblyopia in the occluded eye. After successful treatment, alternating penalization with two pairs of spectacles is recommended. Pleoptics involves an enormous commitment in terms of time, personnel and costs. In view of the fact that the superiority of this treatment over occlusion therapy has yet to be proven, the current value of pleoptics appears dubious. Moreover, overtreated patients may end up with intractable diplopia. Diverging opinions exist with regard to the use of penalization as a primary treatment of amblyopia. We employ it only in special cases as an alternative to occlusion therapy. Visual deprivation in infancy caused by opacities of the ocular media, especially when they occur unilaterally, must be eliminated, and deprivation amblyopia must be treated without delay to regain useful vision. Brief periods of bilateral occlusion are recommended to avoid the highly amblyopiogenic imbalance between binocular afferent visual input. Future developments will hopefully include new objective methods to diagnose amblyopia in preverbal children and infants. The application of positron emission tomography is perhaps the first step in the direction of searching for new approaches to this problem.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. 5-AMINOURACIL TREATMENT

    PubMed Central

    Socher, S. H.; Davidson, D.

    1971-01-01

    Treatment of Vicia faba lateral roots with a range of concentrations of 5-aminouracil (5-AU) indicate that cells are stopped at a particular point in interphase. The timing of the fall in mitotic index suggests that cells are held at the S - G2 transition. When cells are held at this point, treatments with 5-AU can be used to estimate the duration of G2 + mitosis/2 of proliferating cells. Treatment with 5-AU can also be used to demonstrate the presence of subpopulations of dividing cells that differ in their G2 duration. Using this method, 5-AU-induced inhibition, we have confirmed that in V. faba lateral roots there are two populations of dividing cells: (a) a fast-dividing population, which makes up ∼85% of the proliferating cell population and has a G2 + mitosis/2 duration of 3.3 hr, and (b) a slow-dividing population, which makes up ∼15% of dividing cells and has a G2 duration in excess of 12 hr. These estimates are similar to those obtained from percentage labeled mitosis (PLM) curves after incorporation of thymidine-3H. PMID:5551658

  7. Marijuana Neurobiology and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Elkashef, Ahmed; Vocci, Frank; Huestis, Marilyn; Haney, Margaret; Budney, Alan; Gruber, Amanda; el-Guebaly, Nady

    2008-01-01

    Marijuana is the number one illicit drug of abuse worldwide and a major public health problem, especially in the younger population. The objective of this article is to update and review the state of the science and treatments available for marijuana dependence based on a pre-meeting workshop that was presented at ISAM 2006. At the workshop, several papers were presented addressing the neurobiology and pharmacology of marijuana and treatment approaches, both psychotherapy and medications, for marijuana withdrawal. Medicolegal and ethical issues concerning marijuana medical use were also discussed. Concise summaries of these presentations are incorporated in this article, which is meant to be an updated review of the state of the science. Major advances have been made in understanding the underpinning of marijuana dependence and the role of the CNS cannabinoid system, which is a major area for targeting medications to treat marijuana withdrawal and dependence, as well as other addictions. Behavioral therapies are efficacious for facilitating abstinence from marijuana. Nefazadone, Marinol, and buspirone are showing early positive signals for efficacy in ameliorating marijuana withdrawal symptoms. Effective psychotherapeutic approaches are available and promising medications studies need to be confirmed in outpatient trials. The next few years looking promising for translational research efforts to make treatment widely accessible to patients with marijuana dependence. PMID:19042204

  8. [Identification of candidate genes and expression profiles, as doping biomarkers].

    PubMed

    Paparini, A; Impagnatiello, F; Pistilli, A; Rinaldi, M; Gianfranceschi, G; Signori, E; Stabile, A M; Fazio, V; Rende, M; Romano Spica, V

    2007-01-01

    Administration of prohibited substances to enhance athletic performance represents an emerging medical, social, ethical and legal issue. Traditional controls are based on direct detection of substances or their catabolites. However out-of-competition doping may not be easily revealed by standard analytical methods. Alternative indirect control strategies are based on the evaluation of mid- and long-term effects of doping in tissues. Drug-induced long-lasting changes of gene expression may be taken as effective indicators of doping exposure. To validate this approach, we used real-time PCR to monitor the expression pattern of selected genes in human haematopoietic cells exposed to nandrolone, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) or growth hormone (GH). Some candidate genes were found significantly and consistently modulated by treatments. Nandrolone up-regulated AR, ESR2 and PGR in K562 cells, and SRD5A1, PPARA and JAK2 in Jurkat cells; IGF-I up-regulated EPOR and PGR in HL60 cells, and SRD5A1 in Jurkat; GH up-regulated SRD5A1 and GHR in K562. GATA1 expression was down-regulated in IGF-1-treated HL60, ESR2 was down-regulated in nandrolone-treated Jurkat, and AR and PGR were down-regulated in GH-treated Jurkat. This pilot study shows the potential of molecular biology-based strategies in anti-doping controls.

  9. In vivo MRI evaluation of anabolic steroid precursor growth effects in a guinea pig model

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Haiying; Vasselli, Joseph R.; Tong, Christopher; Heymsfield, Steven B.; Wu, Ed X.

    2015-01-01

    Anabolic steroids are widely used to increase skeletal muscle (SM) mass and improve physical performance. Some dietary supplements also include potent steroid precursors or active steroid analogs such as nandrolone. Our previous study reported the anabolic steroid effects on SM in a castrated guinea pig model with SM measured using a highly quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol. The aim of the current study was to apply this animal model and in vivo MRI protocol to evaluate the growth effects of four widely used over-the-counter testosterone and nandrolone precursors: 4-androstene-3 17-dione (androstenedione), 4-androstene-3β 17β-diol (4-androsdiol), 19-nor-4-androstene-3β-17β-diol (bolandiol) and 19-nor-4-androstene-3 17-dione (19-norandrostenedione). The results showed that providing precursor to castrated male guinea pigs led to plasma steroid levels sufficient to maintain normal SM growth. The anabolic growth effects of these specific precursors on individual and total muscle volumes, sexual organs, and total adipose tissue over a 10-week treatment period, in comparison with those in the respective positive control testosterone and nandrolone groups, were documented quantitatively by MRI. PMID:19463691

  10. Treatment for amphetamine withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Shoptaw, Steven J; Kao, Uyen; Heinzerling, Keith; Ling, Walter

    2009-04-15

    Few studies examined treatments for amphetamine withdrawal, although it is a common problem among amphetamine users. Its symptoms, in particular intense craving, may be a critical factor leading to relapse to amphetamine use. In clinical practice, medications for cocaine withdrawal are commonly used to manage amphetamine withdrawal although the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties of these two illicit substances are different. To assess the effectiveness of pharmacological alone or in combination with psychosocial treatment for amphetamine withdrawals on discontinuation rates, global state, withdrawal symptoms, craving, and other outcomes. MEDLINE (1966 - 2008), CINAHL (1982 - 2008), PsycINFO (1806 - 2008), CENTRAL (Cochrane Library 2008 issue 2), references of obtained articles. All randomised controlled and clinical trials evaluating pharmacological and or psychosocial treatments (alone or combined) for people with amphetamine withdrawal symptoms. Two authors evaluated and extracted data independently. The data were extracted from intention-to-treat analyses. The Relative Risk (RR) with the 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was used to assess dichotomous outcomes. The Weighted Mean Difference (WMD) with 95% CI was used to assess continuous outcomes. Four randomised controlled trials (involving 125 participants) met the inclusion criteria for the review. Two studies found that amineptine significantly reduced discontinuation rates and improved overall clinical presentation, but did not reduce withdrawal symptoms or craving compared to placebo. The benefits of mirtazapine over placebo for reducing amphetamine withdrawal symptoms were not as clear. One study suggested that mirtazapine may reduce hyperarousal and anxiety symptoms associated with amphetamine withdrawal. A more recent study failed to find any benefit of mirtazapine over placebo on retention or on amphetamine withdrawal symptoms. No medication is effective for treatment of amphetamine

  11. Treatment Options for Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Myelodysplastic/ ...

  12. Treatment Option Overview (Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Myelodysplastic/ ...

  13. Current Treatments of Bruxism.

    PubMed

    Guaita, Marc; Högl, Birgit

    2016-02-01

    Despite numerous case reports, the evidence for treatment of bruxism is still low. Different treatment modalities (behavioral techniques, intraoral devices, medications, and contingent electrical stimulation) have been applied. A clinical evaluation is needed to differentiate between awake bruxism and sleep bruxism and rule out any medical disorder or medication that could be behind its appearance (secondary bruxism). A polysomnography is required only in a few cases of sleep bruxism, mostly when sleep comorbidities are present. Counselling with regard to sleep hygiene, sleep habit modification, and relaxation techniques has been suggested as the first step in the therapeutic intervention, and is generally considered not harmful, despite low evidence of any efficacy. Occlusal splints are successful in the prevention of dental damage and grinding sounds associated with sleep bruxism, but their effects on reducing bruxism electromyographic (EMG) events are transient. In patients with psychiatric and sleep comorbidities, the acute use of clonazepam at night has been reported to improve sleep bruxism, but in the absence of double-blind randomized trials, its use in general clinical practice cannot be recommended. Severe secondary bruxism interfering with speaking, chewing, or swallowing has been reported in patients with neurological disorders such as in cranial dystonia; in these patients, injections of botulinum toxin in the masticatory muscles may decrease bruxism for up to 1-5 months and improve pain and mandibular functions. Long-term studies in larger and better specified samples of patients with bruxism, comparing the effects of different therapeutic modalities on bruxism EMG activity, progression of dental wear, and orofacial pain are current gaps of knowledge and preclude the development of severity-based treatment guidelines.

  14. Treatment of Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Winslow, Bradford T; Onysko, Mary K; Stob, Christian M; Hazlewood, Kathleen A

    2011-06-15

    Alzheimer disease is the most common form of dementia, affecting nearly one-half [corrected] of Americans older than 85 years. It is characterized by progressive memory loss and cognitive decline. Amyloid plaque accumulation, neurofibrillary tau tangles, and depletion of acetylcholine are among the pathologic manifestations of Alzheimer disease. Although there are no proven modalities for preventing Alzheimer disease, hypertension treatment, omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, physical activity, and cognitive engagement demonstrate modest potential. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are first-line medications for the treatment of Alzheimer disease, and are associated with mild improvements in cognitive function, behavior, and activities of daily living; however, the clinical relevance of these effects is unclear. The most common adverse effects of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness, confusion, and cardiac arrhythmias. Short-term use of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist memantine can modestly improve measures of cognition, behavior, and activities of daily living in patients with moderate to severe Alzheimer disease. Memantine can also be used in combination with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Memantine is generally well tolerated, but whether its benefits produce clinically meaningful improvement is controversial. Although N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors can slow the progression of Alzheimer disease, no pharmacologic agents can reverse the progression. Atypical antipsychotics can improve some behavioral symptoms, but have been associated with increased mortality rates in older patients with dementia. There is conflicting evidence about the benefit of selegiline, testosterone, and ginkgo for the treatment of Alzheimer disease. There is no evidence supporting the beneficial effects of vitamin E, estrogen, or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapy.

  15. Ayahuasca and cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Comprehensively review the evidence regarding the use of ayahuasca, an Amerindian medicine traditionally used to treat many different illnesses and diseases, to treat some types of cancer. Methods: An in-depth review of the literature was conducted using PubMed, books, institutional magazines, conferences and online texts in nonprofessional sources regarding the biomedical knowledge about ayahuasca in general with a specific focus in its possible relations to the treatment of cancer. Results: At least nine case reports regarding the use of ayahuasca in the treatment of prostate, brain, ovarian, uterine, stomach, breast, and colon cancers were found. Several of these were considered improvements, one case was considered worse, and one case was rated as difficult to evaluate. A theoretical model is presented which explains these effects at the cellular, molecular, and psychosocial levels. Particular attention is given to ayahuasca’s pharmacological effects through the activity of N,N-dimethyltryptamine at intracellular sigma-1 receptors. The effects of other components of ayahuasca, such as harmine, tetrahydroharmine, and harmaline, are also considered. Conclusion: The proposed model, based on the molecular and cellular biology of ayahuasca’s known active components and the available clinical reports, suggests that these accounts may have consistent biological underpinnings. Further study of ayahuasca’s possible antitumor effects is important because cancer patients continue to seek out this traditional medicine. Consequently, based on the social and anthropological observations of the use of this brew, suggestions are provided for further research into the safety and efficacy of ayahuasca as a possible medicinal aid in the treatment of cancer. PMID:26770688

  16. Treatment and recovery.

    PubMed

    Raia, Susan

    2005-01-01

    Addiction is a chronic, progressive, fatal disease. It is a primary disease, not caused by any other disease process. It has recognizable symptoms that if left untreated, can lead to premature death, deterioration of physical conditions, social withdrawal and disintegration of all support systems. The family and co-workers are affected as well. There is no cure, but we know that treatment works! Don't stand by while someone you care about needs help. Nurses helping nurses, let's take care of our own.

  17. Surgical treatment of obesity.

    PubMed

    Puzziferri, Nancy; Blankenship, Jeanne; Wolfe, Bruce M

    2006-02-01

    The surgical treatment of obesity has existed for over 50 yr. Surgical options have evolved from high-risk procedures infrequently performed, to safe, effective procedures increasingly performed. The operations used today provide significant durable weight loss, resolution or marked improvement of obesity-related comorbidities, and enhanced quality of life for the majority of patients. The effect of bariatric surgery on the neurohormonal regulation of energy homeostasis is not fully understood. Despite its effectiveness, less than 1% of obese patients are treated surgically. The perception that obesity surgery is unsafe remains a deterrent to care.

  18. Thermomechanical treatment of alloys

    DOEpatents

    Bates, John F.; Brager, Howard R.; Paxton, Michael M.

    1983-01-01

    An article of an alloy of AISI 316 stainless steel is reduced in size to predetermined dimensions by cold working in repeated steps. Before the last reduction step the article is annealed by heating within a temperature range, specifically between 1010.degree. C. and 1038.degree. C. for a time interval between 90 and 60 seconds depending on the actual temperature. By this treatment the swelling under neutron bombardment by epithermal neutrons is reduced while substantial recrystallization does not occur in actual use for a time interval of at least of the order of 5000 hours.

  19. [Medicamental treatment of schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Lotstra, F; Lestienne, S; De Nayer, A

    2010-09-01

    Antipsychotics play a key role in biologic therapy of schizophrenia. Following the first-generation neuroleptics, associated with many extrapyramidal side effects (severe dystonias, parkinsonian syndrome, akatisia and late dyskinesia) altering patients' compliance to the treatment, one can now find a new generation of molecules considered as atypical antipsychotics because they rarely cause neurological complications. This propriety provides a better compliance, along with a clear decrease of late dyskinesia risk but the effectiveness compared to ordinary molecules is still questioned. However, some of them can cause an increased risk of metabolic syndrome. Some molecules such as benzodiazepines and some antidepressants can also be prescribed to cure schizophrenic patients.

  20. Carbon wastewater treatment process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, M. F.; Simmons, G. M.; Dowler, W. L.

    1974-01-01

    A new powdered-carbon treatment process is being developed for the elimination of the present problems, associated with the disposal of biologically active sewage waste solids, and with water reuse. This counter-current flow process produces an activated carbon, which is obtained from the pyrolysis of the sewage solids, and utilizes this material to remove the adulterating materials from the water. Additional advantages of the process are the elimination of odors, the removal of heavy metals, and the potential for energy conservation.