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Sample records for nandrolone decanoate treatment

  1. Histological assessment of ovaries and uterus of rats subjected to nandrolone decanoate treatment.

    PubMed

    Gerez, Juliana Rubira; Frei, Fernando; Camargo, Isabel Cristina Cherici

    2005-07-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effects of nandrolone decanoate on the ovaries and uterus of adult females rats. This drug was administered intraperitoneally, at one, two and three doses of 3 mg nandrolone decanoate/kg of body weight, respectively, in the first, second and third week of treatment. The females of the control group received a physiological solution. The rats treated with nandrolone decanoate showed estral acyclicity and there was destruction of follicular units and an absence of corpus luteum in the ovaries. In the uterus, the drug promoted morphological alterations, characterized by vacuolated epithelium and endometrial stroma fibrosis. Ovary, uterus and pituitary weights were not affected by the steroid treatment. Nandrolone decanoate affects the sexual cycle and promotes histological alterations in the ovaries and uterus of adult female rats.

  2. Post-effects of nandrolone decanoate treatment on contractile responses of rat skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Joumaa, Wissam H; Bouhlel, Aicha; Léoty, Claude

    2002-10-01

    The post-effects of nandrolone decanoate treatment (15 mg.kg(-1).week(-1)) were studied on contractile responses of isolated small bundles of intact slow-(soleus) and fast-(extensor digitorum longus, edl) twitch fibers in rat. Five weeks of treatment induced, in edl, an increase in the amplitude of twitch (55%) and K(+) contracture (32%) without significant change in the time constant of relaxation and caffeine contracture. In soleus, an increase in the amplitude of twitch (35%) and caffeine contracture (0.2 mM: 218%, 0.5 mM: 88%, 5 mM: 28%, and 10 mM: 25%) was observed without change in K(+) contracture characteristics. In addition to these effects, 10 weeks of drug treatment increased the amplitude of soleus K(+) contracture (29%) and edl caffeine contracture (0.2 mM: 247%, 0.5 mM: 170%, 5 mM: 29%, and 10 mM: 45%), and reduced the 50% recovery time for K(+) contracture (EC(50)) (soleus: 37%, edl: 12%). After 5-week treatment followed by 5-week arrest, as compared to the control group, no change in the amplitude of twitch, K(+) or caffeine contractures was found in edl. In soleus, although no significant difference was observed in the amplitude of twitch, the amplitude of K(+) (35%) and caffeine contractures (0.2 mM: 227%, 0.5 mM: 128%) remained greater than the control group. Moreover, the EC(50) values were prolonged (46%) in soleus, whereas no significant difference was observed in edl. The present work suggests that nandrolone decanoate treatment induced differential post-effects on contractile responses developed in slow- and fast-twitch skeletal muscles by acting differently on the different steps of the excitation-contraction coupling mechanism.

  3. Influence of nandrolone decanoate on the repopulation of the thymus after total body irradiation of mice

    SciTech Connect

    Plum, J.; Huys, J.; De Scheerder, Y.; Dhont, E.; De Smedt, M.

    1982-10-01

    It has been reported that nandrolone decanoate is helpful in overcoming the neutropenic phase following irradiation. In the present study the influence of nandrolone decanoate on the thymus' cellularity after total body irradiation was investigated. In comparison with a placebo-treated group, mice receiving nandrolone decanoate showed a similar pattern of thymus repopulation, but a significantly lower number of thymocytes over the whole period of treatment was found. Nonirradiated mice also had a significantly lower number of thymocytes when treated with nandrolone decanoate. In addition, the number of circulating leukocytes was also evaluated over a period of 1 month after total body irradiation. On 11 of the 21 days investigated, a significantly higher number of leukocytes was found in the nandrolone decanoate-treated group. We conclude that the action of nandrolone decanoate was not clearly distinct from that of testosterone regarding either granulopoiesis or thymic involution.

  4. Cardiotoxicity in rabbits after long-term nandrolone decanoate administration.

    PubMed

    Vasilaki, Fotini; Tsitsimpikou, Christina; Tsarouhas, Konstantinos; Germanakis, Ioannis; Tzardi, Marias; Kavvalakis, Matthaios; Ozcagli, Eren; Kouretas, Dimitrios; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M

    2016-01-22

    Abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids is linked to a variety of cardiovascular complications. The aim of our study was to investigate the possible cardiovascular effects of nandrolone decanoate on young rabbits using echocardiography, histology and monitoring of telomerase activity, oxidative stress and biochemical markers. Fourteen rabbits were divided into three administration groups and the control group. Doses of 4mg/kg and 10mg/kg of nandrolone decanoate, given intramuscularly and subcutaneously, two days per week for six months were applied. A 4-months wash-out period followed. Focal fibrosis and inflammatory infiltrations of cardiac tissue were observed in the high dose groups. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive species (TBARS) levels were significantly increased in the high dose groups, while catalase activity decreased. Myocardial Performance Index (MPI) is the main echocardiographic index primarily affected by nandrolone administration in rabbits. Despite the preserved systolic performance, histological lesions observed associated with distorted MPI values, point to diastolic impairment of the thickened myocardium due to nandrolone treatment. Oxidative stress accumulates and telomerase activity in cardiac tissue rises. Subcutaneous administration seems to be more deleterious to the cardiovascular system, as oxidative stress, telomerase activity and biochemical markers do not appear to return into normal values in the wash-out period.

  5. Pharmacokinetic parameters of nandrolone (19-nortestosterone) after intramuscular administration of nandrolone decanoate (Deca-Durabolin) to healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Wijnand, H P; Bosch, A M; Donker, C W

    1985-01-01

    Nandrolone decanoate (Deca-Durabolin) was injected intramuscularly into healthy volunteers. One group of females received one injection of 100 mg and three groups of males received one injection of 200 mg, two repeat injections of 100 mg or four repeat injections of 50 mg respectively. The serum levels of nandrolone (19-nortestosterone) were determined by radioimmunoassay and used to estimate pharmacokinetic parameters. The following pharmacokinetic parameters were found: a mean half-life of 6 days for the release of the ester from the muscular injection depot into the general circulation; a mean half-life of 4.3 h for the combined processes of hydrolysis of nandrolone decanoate and of distribution and elimination of nandrolone; a mean nandrolone serum clearance of 1.55 1 X h-1 X kg-1. The half-life of hydrolysis of nandrolone decanoate in serum was of the order of one hour or less. The data are consistent with linear kinetics.

  6. Anabolic androgenic steroid nandrolone decanoate reduces hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin mRNA levels.

    PubMed

    Lindblom, Jonas; Kindlundh, Anna M S; Nyberg, Fred; Bergström, Lena; Wikberg, Jarl E S

    2003-10-03

    Supratherapeutical doses of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs) have dramatic effects on metabolism in humans, and also inhibit feeding and reduce the rate of body weight gain in rats. In order to test the hypothesis that the AAS metabolic syndrome is accompanied by alterations in the central melanocortin system, we evaluated body weight, food intake and hypothalamic agouti-related protein (AgRP) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA levels following administration of different doses of the anabolic androgenic steroid nandrolone decanoate. In order to distinguish changes induced by the steroid treatment per se from those resulting from the reduced food intake and growth rate, we also compared the effect of nandrolone decanoate on AgRP and POMC mRNA expression with both normally fed, and food restricted control groups. We here report that administration of nandrolone specifically reduces arcuate nucleus POMC mRNA levels while not affecting the expression level of AgRP. The effect on POMC expression was not observed in the food restricted controls, excluding the possibility that the observed effect was a mere response to the reduced food intake and body weight. These results raise the possibility that some of the metabolic and behavioural consequences of AAS abuse may be the result of alterations in the melanocortin system.

  7. Nandrolone decanoate increases satellite cell numbers in the chicken pectoralis muscle.

    PubMed

    Allouh, Mohammed Z; Rosser, Benjamin W C

    2010-02-01

    The anabolic androgenic steroid nandrolone decanoate has minimal androgenic effects and, thus, is widely used to induce muscle hypertrophy in both patients and athletes. Although increases in satellite cell numbers and satellite cells giving rise to new myonuclei are associated with hypertrophy in many experimental models, the relationship between nandrolone and satellite cells is poorly understood. Here we test the hypothesis that nandrolone administration is associated with an increase in satellite cell numbers in muscle. Nandrolone was injected at weekly intervals for four weeks into the right pectoralis muscle of female white leghorn chickens aged 63 days post hatch. Age/size/sex matched control birds received saline injections. The contralateral pectoralis was excised for study from each control and nandrolone treated bird. An antibody against Pax7 and immunocytochemical techniques were used to identify satellite cells. Nandrolone significantly increased mean pectoralis mass by approximately 22%, and mean fiber diameter by about 24%. All satellite cell indices that were quantified increased significantly in chicken pectoralis with administration of nandrolone. Nandrolone injected birds had on average higher satellite cell frequencies (#SC nuclei/all nuclei within basal lamina), number of satellite cells per millimeter of fiber, and satellite cell concentrations (closer together). Myonuclei were further apart (less concentrated) in nandrolone injected muscle. However, an overall increase in myonuclear numbers was revealed by a significantly greater mean number of myonuclei per millimeter of fiber in nandrolone injected muscle. Our results suggest that satellite cells may be key cellular vectors for nandrolone induced muscle fiber hypertrophy.

  8. The effects of 17 alpha-methyltestosterone, methandrostenolone, and nandrolone decanoate on the rat estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Blasberg, M E; Langan, C J; Clark, A S

    1997-02-01

    In a series of four separate experiments, the effects of anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) compounds on the estrous cycle of adult Long-Evans rats were examined. Sexual receptivity, vaginal cytology, and body weight were monitored throughout a 2-week baseline, AAS treatment, and recovery periods. In Experiments 1-3, subjects were administered 17 alpha-methyltestosterone, methandrostenolone, or nandrolone decanoate at doses selected to mimic the human abuse levels of each compound. In these studies, the highest doses of 17 alpha-methyltestosterone (7.5 mg/kg) and nandrolone decanoate (5.6 mg/kg) disrupted behavioral and vaginal cyclicity, whereas the highest dose of methandrostenolone (3.75 mg/kg) appeared to have slightly less robust effects. To compare effects on estrous cyclicity across AAS compounds, subjects in Experiment 4 received a single high dose (7.5 mg/kg) of each compound for 2 weeks. At this dose, all AAS compounds interfered with vaginal cyclicity, although effects on behavioral cyclicity and uterine weight were not uniform. Across all 4 experiments, AAS effects on body weight were minimal. The short-term administration of AAS compounds at levels commonly used by humans disrupts female neuroendocrine function in a dose-dependent manner.

  9. Enhancement of committed hematopoietic stem cell colony formation by nandrolone decanoate after sublethal whole body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gallicchio, V.S.; Chen, M.G.; Watts, T.D.

    1984-11-01

    The ability of an anabolic steroid, nandrolone decanoate, to increase committed topoietic stem cell (CFU-gm, CFU-e, and BFU-e) colony formation after sublethal irradiation was evaluated. Immediately after receiving whole body irradiation and on the next two days, each mouse was injected intraperitoneally with nandrolone decanoate (1.25 mg) in propylene glycol. Irradiated control mice received only propylene glycol. Compared to controls, drug-treated mice showed marked peripheral blood leukocytosis and more stable packed red cell volume. Drug-treated mice also demonstrated increased erythropoiesis, as CFU-e/BFU-e concentrations from both marrow (9% to 581%) and spleen (15% to 797%) were elevated. Granulopoiesis was increased similarly, as CFU-gm concentrations from marrow (38% to 685%) and spleen (9% to 373%) were elevated. These results demonstrate that nandrolone decanoate enhances hematopoietic stem cell recovery after sublethal whole body irradiation. This suggests that following hematopoietic suppression, nandrolone decanoate may stimulate the recovery of hematopoiesis at the stem cell level and in peripheral blood.

  10. Effect of nandrolone decanoate administration on recovery from bupivacaine-induced muscle injury

    PubMed Central

    White, James P.; Baltgalvis, Kristen A.; Sato, Shuichi; Wilson, L. Britt

    2009-01-01

    Although testosterone administration elicits well-documented anabolic effects on skeletal muscle mass, the enhancement of muscle regeneration after injury has not been widely examined. The purpose of this study was to determine whether anabolic steroid administration improves skeletal muscle regeneration from bupivacaine-induced injury. Male C57BL/6 mice were castrated 2 wk before muscle injury induced by an intramuscular bupivacaine injection into the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle. Control mice received an intramuscular PBS injection. Anabolic steroid [nandrolone decanoate (ND), 6 mg/kg] or sesame seed oil was administered at the time of initial injury and continued every 7 days for the study's duration. Mice were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups for 5, 14, or 42 days of recovery, as follows: 1) control (uninjured); 2) ND only (uninjured + ND); 3) bupivacaine only (injured); or 4) bupivacaine + ND (injured + ND). TA morphology, protein, and gene expression were analyzed at 14 and 42 days after injury; protein expression was analyzed at 5 days after injury. After 14 days of recovery, the injury and injury + ND treatments induced small-diameter myofiber incidence and also decreased mean myofiber area. The increase in small-myofiber incidence was 65% greater in injury + ND muscle compared with injury alone. At 14 days, injury + ND induced a fivefold increase in muscle IGF-I mRNA expression, which was greater than injury alone. Muscle Akt activity and glycogen synthetase kinase-3β activity were also induced by injury + ND at 14 days of recovery, but not by injury alone. ND had a main effect for increasing muscle MyoD and cyclin D1 mRNA expression at 14 days. After 42 days of recovery, injury + ND increased large-diameter myofiber incidence compared with injury only. Nandrolone decanoate (ND) administration can enhance castrated mouse muscle regeneration during the recovery from bupivacaine-induced injury. PMID:19745189

  11. Chronic nandrolone decanoate exposure during adolescence affects emotional behavior and monoaminergic neurotransmission in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Rainer, Quentin; Speziali, Simona; Rubino, Tiziana; Dominguez-Lopez, Sergio; Bambico, Francis Rodriguez; Gobbi, Gabriella; Parolaro, Daniela

    2014-08-01

    Nandrolone decanoate, an anabolic androgen steroid (AAS) illicitly used by adult and adolescent athletes to enhance physical performance and body image, induces psychiatric side effects, such as aggression, depression as well as a spectrum of adverse physiological impairments. Since adolescence represents a neurodevelopmental window that is extremely sensitive to the detrimental effects of drug abuse, we investigated the long-term behavioral and neurophysiological consequences of nandrolone abuse during adolescence. Adolescent rats received daily injections of nandrolone decanoate (15 mg/kg, i.m.) for 14 days (PND 40-53). At early adulthood (PND 68), forced swim, sucrose preference, open field and elevated plus maze tests were performed to assess behavioral changes. In vivo electrophysiological recordings were carried out to monitor changes in electrical activity of serotonergic neurons of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) and noradrenergic neurons of the locus coeruleus (LC). Our results show that after early exposure to nandrolone, rats display depression-related behavior, characterized by increased immobility in the forced swim test and reduced sucrose intake in the sucrose preference test. In addition, adult rats presented anxiety-like behavior characterized by decreased time and number of entries in the central zone of the open field and decreased time spent in the open arms of the elevated plus maze. Nandrolone decreased the firing rate of spontaneously active serotonergic neurons in the DRN while increasing the firing rate of noradrenergic neurons in the LC. These results provide evidence that nandrolone decanoate exposure during adolescence alters the emotional profile of animals in adulthood and significantly modifies both serotonergic and noradrenergic neurotransmission.

  12. Effects of nandrolone decanoate on the toxicity and anti-tumour action of CCNU and FU in murine tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Bibby, M. C.; Double, J. A.; Mughal, M. A.

    1981-01-01

    Pre-treatment with the anabolic steroid nandrolone decanoate (ND) increases the LD50 of 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea (CCNU) and 5-Fluorouracil (FU) in NMRI mice. Administration of ND did not affect the anti-tumour action of CCNU against a transplantable mouse adenocarcinoma of the colon (MAC 13) or the anti-tumour action of FU against MAC 26. In both tumour lines ND had no significant effect on tumour growth. These data suggest that an increase in the anti-tumour selectivity of these agents may be produced by pre-treatment with ND. PMID:7295514

  13. Nandrolone decanoate has long-term effects on dominance in a competitive situation in male rats.

    PubMed

    Lindqvist, Ann-Sophie; Fahlke, Claudia

    2005-01-31

    The aim of the present study was to examine possible long-term effects of the anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS), nandrolone decanoate (ND), on dominance in a provoking and competitive situation in sexually matured male rats. The experimental group (n=10) received daily injections of ND [15 mg/kg in a volume of 1 ml/kg subcutaneous (s.c.) injection for 14 days]. During the corresponding period, the controls (n=10) were given daily injections of an oil vehicle (1 ml/kg s.c.). All animals were tested in a competitive situation at four occasions after the end of the treatment period (week 5, 8, 11 and 14). Water-deprived pairs of rats, consisting of one ND-treated rat and one control, had to compete for access to water. The results showed that the ND-treated rats approached the water spout significantly more often compared to the controls. During the competition tests, the ND-treated rats spent more time drinking, an effect that was prominent for 11 weeks after the end of the treatment period. The ND-treated rats also displayed more frequently piloerection than the controls. The results indicate that ND has long-term effect on dominance in a provoking and competitive situation.

  14. The impact of nandrolone decanoate and growth hormone on biosynthesis of steroids in rats.

    PubMed

    Grönbladh, Alfhild; Johansson, Jenny; Kushnir, Mark M; Bergquist, Jonas; Hallberg, Mathias

    2013-12-11

    Growth hormone (GH) and anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are commonly used in sports communities. Several studies have suggested an association between GH and AAS. We have investigated the impact of GH in rats treated with nandrolone decanoate (ND). Male Wistar rats received ND (15 mg/kg) every third day during three weeks and were subsequently treated with recombinant human GH (1.0I U/kg) for ten consecutive days. Plasma samples were collected and peripheral organs (i.e. heart, liver, testis and thymus) were dissected and weighed. Concentration of thirteen endogenous steroids was measured in the rat plasma samples using high specificity LC-MS/MS methods. Seven steroids were detected and quantified, and concentrations of estrone, testosterone, and androstenedione were significantly different among the groups, while concentrations of pregnenolone, DHEA, 17-hydroxyprogesterone and corticosterone were not altered. Administration of rhGH alone altered the plasma steroid distribution, and the results demonstrated significantly increased concentrations of plasma estrone as well as decreased concentrations of testosterone and androstenedione in the ND-treated rats. Administration of rhGH to ND-pretreated rats did not reverse the alteration of the steroid distribution induced by ND. Administration of ND decreased the weight of the thymus, and addition of rhGH did not reverse this reduction. However, rhGH administration induced an enlargement of thymus. Taken together, the plasma steroid profile differed in the four groups, i.e. control, AAS, rhGH and the combination of AAS and rhGH treatment.

  15. Nandrolone decanoate and resistance exercise training favor the occurrence of lesions and activate the inflammatory response in the ventral prostate.

    PubMed

    Gomes, F C; Chuffa, L G A; Scarano, W R; Pinheiro, P F F; Fávaro, W J; Domeniconi, R F

    2016-05-01

    Age is a key factor in the development of prostatic lesions. An increase in reactive oxygen species levels occurs during aging. Furthermore, the indiscriminate use of anabolic androgenic steroids and physical exercise alter the availability of hormones and may promote the appearance of lesions. This study examined whether the use of nandrolone decanoate (ND), associated or not with resistance exercise training, affects the pathways related to the inflammatory response in the ventral prostate of adult and aged rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were distributed into eight experimental groups: sedentary with ND, sedentary without ND, exercise with ND, and exercise without ND. The animals performed resistance exercise training and received ND two times/week (5 mg/kg, i.m.) for 8 weeks. Adult rats were killed immediately following treatment completion, and aged rats remained untreated until reaching 300 days of age. The adult animals that received ND and performed resistance exercise training showed a higher occurrence of lesions with TLR4 activation. Marked IL-6 expression occurred in the group that performed resistance exercise training. The group exposed to ND showed overexpression of TLR2, TLR4, NOX1, Nrf2, TNF-α, and P38MAPK. The animals that received ND and performed training showed increase levels of NFκB, IRF3, IL-6, TNF-α, and NOX1. TLR2 and TLR4 showed no upregulation in the aged animals. The groups exercise + ND showed lesions in the adult stage and after aging, followed by molecular alterations. We concluded that nandrolone decanoate and resistance exercise training can promote the onset of prostatic tumors in the adult stage, and during aging, activating pathways involved in the inflammatory response.

  16. Cardiopulmonary reflex, cardiac cytokines, and nandrolone decanoate: response to resistance training in rats.

    PubMed

    Lima, Ewelyne Miranda; Nascimento, Andrews Marques; Brasil, Girlandia Alexandre; Kalil, Ieda Carneiro; Lenz, Dominik; Endringer, Denise Coutinho; Andrade, Tadeu Uggere; Bissoli, Nazaré Souza

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated the effects of nandrolone associated with resistance training (RT) on cardiac cytokines, angiotensin-converting enzyme activity (ACEA), and the sensitivity of the Bezold-Jarisch reflex (BJR). Male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups: CONT (received vehicle, no training); EXERC (RT: after one week of water adaptation, rats were exercised by jumping into water twice a week for 4 weeks), and ND+EXERC (received nandrolone decanoate 10 mg/kg, twice/week, i.m, associated with RT). The BJR was analysed by measuring bradycardic and hypotensive responses elicited by serotonin administration. Myocyte hypertrophy and matrix collagen deposition were determined by morphometric analysis of H&E and picrosirius red-stained samples, respectively. TNF-α and ACEA were also studied. RT promoted physiological myocyte hyrpertrophy but did not cause changes in the other parameters. The association of ND with RT increased myocyte hypertrophy, deposition of matrix type I collagen, TNF-α and ACEA; decreased IL-10, and impairment in the BJR were observed in ND+EXERC compared with CONT and EXERC. ND is associated with alterations in cardiac structure and function as a result of the development of pathological cardiac hypertrophy (cardiac cytokine imbalance, elevation of ACEA) and cardiac injury, even when combined with resistance training.

  17. RhoA induction by functional overload and nandrolone decanoate administration in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    McClung, Joseph M; Lee, Won J; Thompson, Raymond W; Lowe, Larry L; Carson, James A

    2003-12-01

    The regulation of skeletal muscle regeneration and growth in response to functional overload is a coordinated interaction of mechanical and endocrine signaling pathways. This study's purpose was to determine if RhoA expression and activity in rat plantaris muscle was induced by functional overload with or without anabolic steroid administration. Male Sprague Dawley (125 g) rats were subjected to bilateral ablation of the gastrocnemius muscle for 3 and 21 days and treated with nandrolone decanoate (ND, 6 mg/kg b.w.) or sesame seed oil injections. Western blot analysis revealed that RhoA protein expression was induced 2.1-fold by overload and 1.9-fold by ND at 3 days. RhoA protein remained elevated by overload after 21 days (3.8-fold). In addition, RhoA protein expression in C2C12 myotubes was induced after 18 h of 1% (1.8-fold) or 2% (2.2-fold) chronic radial stretch. Competitive RT PCR revealed that RhoA mRNA concentration increased 1.9-fold with ND, 2.9-fold with overload, and 11.8-fold with overload and ND administration when compared to sham at 3 days, indicating pre-translational control of RhoA by ND and a synergism between ND and overload to up-regulate RhoA mRNA. The ratio of RhoA protein associated with the muscle membrane fraction, an indicator of RhoA activity, increased 3.7-fold after 3 days of overload compared to controls. Although ND with overload (3.8-fold) produced a larger induction of RhoA protein than overload alone, the ratio of RhoA protein associated with the membrane fraction was not altered by ND treatment at 3 days. In conclusion, RhoA is an integrator of both mechanical and growth factor signaling whose expression and activity are increased by the combination of anabolic steroid and functional overload treatments in rat plantaris muscle.

  18. Amelioration of nandrolone decanoate-induced testicular and sperm toxicity in rats by taurine: effects on steroidogenesis, redox and inflammatory cascades, and intrinsic apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Maha A E

    2015-02-01

    The wide abuse of the anabolic steroid nandrolone decanoate by athletes and adolescents for enhancement of sporting performance and physical appearance may be associated with testicular toxicity and infertility. On the other hand, taurine; a free β-amino acid with remarkable antioxidant activity, is used in taurine-enriched beverages to boost the muscular power of athletes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of the possible protective effects of taurine on nandrolone decanoate-induced testicular and sperm toxicity in rats. To achieve this aim, male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into four groups and administered either vehicle, nandrolone decanoate (10mg/kg/week, I.M.), taurine (100mg/kg/day, p.o.) or combination of taurine and nandrolone decanoate, for 8 successive weeks. Results of the present study showed that taurine reversed nandrolone decanoate-induced perturbations in sperm characteristics, normalized serum testosterone level, and restored the activities of the key steroidogenic enzymes; 3β-HSD, and 17β-HSD. Moreover, taurine prevented nandrolone decanoate-induced testicular toxicity and DNA damage by virtue of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effects. This was evidenced by taurine-induced modulation of testicular LDH-x activity, redox markers (MDA, NO, GSH contents, and SOD activity), inflammatory indices (TNF-α, ICAM-1 levels, and MMP-9 gene expression), intrinsic apoptotic pathway (cytochrome c gene expression and caspase-3 content), and oxidative DNA damage markers (8-OHdG level and comet assay). In conclusion, at the biochemical and histological levels, taurine attenuated nandrolone decanoate-induced poor sperm quality and testicular toxicity in rats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Modulatory Effect of Gonadotropins on Rats’ Ovaries after Nandrolone Decanoate Administration: A Stereological Study

    PubMed Central

    Bordbar, Hossein; Mesbah, Fakhroddin; Talaei, Tahereh; Dehghani, Farzaneh; Mirkhani, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nandrolone decanoate (ND) is an anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) which influences the ovarian structure and function. We assessed the effects of ND on the ovarian volume, number of primordial follicles, and level of hormones and also evaluated the modulatory effects of gonadotropins on the histopathological changes imposed by the administration of ND. Methods: Six groups of Sprague-Dawley adult female rats (n=30) were used. The experimental rats were injected intraperitoneally with 3 and 10 mg/kg ND with or without human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG), 10 IU weekly for one month. The vehicle and control rats were administered olive oil and saline, respectively, for the same period of time. The ovarian volume and number of primordial follicles were estimated by stereological methods. Results: The results showed a decrease in the ovarian volume, number of primordial follicles, and level of gonadotropins in the ND-treated animals compared with the vehicle groups. In the rats treated with 3 mg/kg of ND with hMG, an increase in the ovarian volume and number of primordial follicles was shown as compared to the rats treated with the same dose of ND without hMG. Conclusion: ND exerted detrimental effects on the dimensions of the ovary, number of follicles, and level of sex hormones. However, hMG, prevented the harmful effects of ND (at least in a low dose) on the ovarian follicles. PMID:24453393

  20. The effects of chronic administration of nandrolone decanoate on redox status in exercised rats.

    PubMed

    Nikolic, Tamara; Zivkovic, Vladimir; Jevdjevic, Maja; Djuric, Marko; Srejovic, Ivan; Djuric, Dragan; Jeremic, Nevena; Djuric, Dusan; Bolevich, Sergey; Jakovljevic, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    For the past 40 years, anabolic-androgenic steroids have been used by a wide variety of athletes with the hope of improving their training, endurance, and performance. The aim of this study was to examine the chronic effects of nandrolone decanoate (20 mg/kg, s.c, Deca-Durabolin DECA(®)) on oxidative stress biomarkers in the hearts of sedentary and exercised rats. The male Wistar albino rats (n = 180, four groups with three subgroups, 15 per subgroup, age 10 weeks, body mass 200-220 g) were sacrificed, and in the collected samples of blood, the following markers of oxidative stress were measured spectrophotometrically: (1) index of lipid peroxidation (measured as TBARS-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances); (2) nitrites (NO2 (-)); (3) hydrogen peroxide (H2O2); (4) superoxide anion radical (O2 (-)), and superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione reductase. The results clearly show that the impact of ND alone, or in combination with physical training in general, is mildly pro-oxidative. The chronic physical training probably induces the protective antioxidant enzyme system , which may be of clinical interest when faced with overdosage of this drug.

  1. The Anabolic Androgenic Steroid Nandrolone Decanoate Disrupts Redox Homeostasis in Liver, Heart and Kidney of Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Frankenfeld, Stephan P.; Oliveira, Leonardo P.; Ortenzi, Victor H.; Rego-Monteiro, Igor CC.; Chaves, Elen A.; Ferreira, Andrea C.; Leitão, Alvaro C.; Carvalho, Denise P.; Fortunato, Rodrigo S.

    2014-01-01

    The abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) may cause side effects in several tissues. Oxidative stress is linked to the pathophysiology of most of these alterations, being involved in fibrosis, cellular proliferation, tumorigenesis, amongst others. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the impact of supraphysiological doses of nandrolone decanoate (DECA) on the redox balance of liver, heart and kidney. Wistar male rats were treated with intramuscular injections of vehicle or DECA (1 mg.100 g−1 body weight) once a week for 8 weeks. The activity and mRNA levels of NADPH Oxidase (NOX), and the activity of catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and total superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as the reduced thiol and carbonyl residue proteins, were measured in liver, heart and kidney. DECA treatment increased NOX activity in heart and liver, but NOX2 mRNA levels were only increased in heart. Liver catalase and SOD activities were decreased in the DECA-treated group, but only catalase activity was decreased in the kidney. No differences were detected in GPx activity. Thiol residues were decreased in the liver and kidney of treated animals in comparison to the control group, while carbonyl residues were increased in the kidney after the treatment. Taken together, our results show that chronically administered DECA is able to disrupt the cellular redox balance, leading to an oxidative stress state. PMID:25225984

  2. The anabolic androgenic steroid nandrolone decanoate disrupts redox homeostasis in liver, heart and kidney of male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Frankenfeld, Stephan P; Oliveira, Leonardo P; Ortenzi, Victor H; Rego-Monteiro, Igor C C; Chaves, Elen A; Ferreira, Andrea C; Leitão, Alvaro C; Carvalho, Denise P; Fortunato, Rodrigo S

    2014-01-01

    The abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) may cause side effects in several tissues. Oxidative stress is linked to the pathophysiology of most of these alterations, being involved in fibrosis, cellular proliferation, tumorigenesis, amongst others. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the impact of supraphysiological doses of nandrolone decanoate (DECA) on the redox balance of liver, heart and kidney. Wistar male rats were treated with intramuscular injections of vehicle or DECA (1 mg.100 g(-1) body weight) once a week for 8 weeks. The activity and mRNA levels of NADPH Oxidase (NOX), and the activity of catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and total superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as the reduced thiol and carbonyl residue proteins, were measured in liver, heart and kidney. DECA treatment increased NOX activity in heart and liver, but NOX2 mRNA levels were only increased in heart. Liver catalase and SOD activities were decreased in the DECA-treated group, but only catalase activity was decreased in the kidney. No differences were detected in GPx activity. Thiol residues were decreased in the liver and kidney of treated animals in comparison to the control group, while carbonyl residues were increased in the kidney after the treatment. Taken together, our results show that chronically administered DECA is able to disrupt the cellular redox balance, leading to an oxidative stress state.

  3. Role of the renin-angiotensin system in the nandrolone-decanoate-induced attenuation of the Bezold-Jarisch reflex.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Tadeu Uggere; Uggere de Andrade, Tadeu; Loiola, Leonardo Zanoteli; Alcure, Samira Merces Nascimento; Medeiros, Ana Raquel Santos; Santos, Maria Carmen Lopes Ferreira Silva; Moysés, Margareth Ribeiro; Abreu, Gláucia Rodrigues de; Lenz, Dominik; Bissoli, Nazaré Souza

    2011-12-01

    The androgen nandrolone decanoate (ND) is known to cause cardiovascular abnormalities, such as attenuation of the Bezold-Jarisch Reflex (BJR), cardiac hypertrophy, and elevation of mean arterial pressure (MAP). Futhermore, a relationship between androgens and the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been reported. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of RAS on the BJR, cardiac and prostatic hypertrophy, and MAP evoked by ND. For this, male Wistar rats were treated with ND (10 mg·(kg body mass)(-1) for 8 weeks; DECA), or vehicle (control animals; CON), or enalapril (10 mg·(kg body mass)(-1), daily; CONE), or ND and enalapril (10 mg ND + 10 mg enalapril per kilogram of body mass; DECAE). After 8 weeks of treatment, the BJR was evaluated by bradycardia and hypotensive responses that were elicited by serotonin administration (2-32 µg·(kg body mass)(-1)). MAP was assessed; cardiac and prostate hypertrophy were determined by the ratio of the tissue mass:body mass, and by histological analysis of the heart. Animals from the DECA group showed prostatic and cardiac hypertrophy, elevation in mean arterial pressure, and an impairment of BJR. Co-treatment with enalapril inhibited these changes. The data from the present study suggest that RAS has an impact on BJR attenuation, cardiac and prostatic hypertrophy, and the elevation in MAP evoked by ND.

  4. Amelioration of nandrolone decanoate-induced testicular and sperm toxicity in rats by taurine: Effects on steroidogenesis, redox and inflammatory cascades, and intrinsic apoptotic pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, Maha A.E.

    2015-02-01

    The wide abuse of the anabolic steroid nandrolone decanoate by athletes and adolescents for enhancement of sporting performance and physical appearance may be associated with testicular toxicity and infertility. On the other hand, taurine; a free β-amino acid with remarkable antioxidant activity, is used in taurine-enriched beverages to boost the muscular power of athletes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of the possible protective effects of taurine on nandrolone decanoate-induced testicular and sperm toxicity in rats. To achieve this aim, male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into four groups and administered either vehicle, nandrolone decanoate (10 mg/kg/week, I.M.), taurine (100 mg/kg/day, p.o.) or combination of taurine and nandrolone decanoate, for 8 successive weeks. Results of the present study showed that taurine reversed nandrolone decanoate-induced perturbations in sperm characteristics, normalized serum testosterone level, and restored the activities of the key steroidogenic enzymes; 3β-HSD, and 17β-HSD. Moreover, taurine prevented nandrolone decanoate-induced testicular toxicity and DNA damage by virtue of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effects. This was evidenced by taurine-induced modulation of testicular LDH-x activity, redox markers (MDA, NO, GSH contents, and SOD activity), inflammatory indices (TNF-α, ICAM-1 levels, and MMP-9 gene expression), intrinsic apoptotic pathway (cytochrome c gene expression and caspase-3 content), and oxidative DNA damage markers (8-OHdG level and comet assay). In conclusion, at the biochemical and histological levels, taurine attenuated nandrolone decanoate-induced poor sperm quality and testicular toxicity in rats. - Highlights: • Nandrolone decanoate (ND) disrupts sperm profile and steroidogenesis in rats. • ND upregulates gene expression of inflammatory and apoptotic markers. • Taurine normalizes sperm profile and serum testosterone level

  5. Nandrolone decanoate interferes with testosterone biosynthesis altering blood-testis barrier components.

    PubMed

    Barone, Rosario; Pitruzzella, Alessandro; Marino Gammazza, Antonella; Rappa, Francesca; Salerno, Monica; Barone, Fulvio; Sangiorgi, Claudia; D'Amico, Daniela; Locorotondo, Nicola; Di Gaudio, Francesca; Cipolloni, Luigi; Di Felice, Valentina; Schiavone, Stefania; Rapisarda, Venerando; Sani, Gabriele; Tambo, Amos; Cappello, Francesco; Turillazzi, Emanuela; Pomara, Cristoforo

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether nandrolone decanoate (ND) use affects testosterone production and testicular morphology in a model of trained and sedentary mice. A group of mice underwent endurance training while another set led a sedentary lifestyle and were freely mobile within cages. All experimental groups were treated with either ND or peanut oil at different doses for 6 weeks. Testosterone serum levels were measured via liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Western blot analysis and quantitative real-time PCR were utilized to determine gene and protein expression levels of the primary enzymes implicated in testosterone biosynthesis and gene expression levels of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) components. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence were conducted for testicular morphological evaluation. The study demonstrated that moderate to high doses of ND induced a diminished serum testosterone level and altered the expression level of the key steroidogenic enzymes involved in testosterone biosynthesis. At the morphological level, ND induced degradation of the BTB by targeting the tight junction protein-1 (TJP1). ND stimulation deregulated metalloproteinase-9, metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and the tissue inhibitor of MMP-2. Moreover, ND administration resulted in a mislocalization of mucin-1. In conclusion, ND abuse induces a decline in testosterone production that is unable to regulate the internalization and redistribution of TJP1 and may induce the deregulation of other BTB constituents via the inhibition of MMP-2. ND may well be considered as both a potential inducer of male infertility and a potential risk factor to a low endogenous bioavailable testosterone. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  6. The use of an anabolic steroid (nandrolone decanoate) to improve nutritional status after esophageal resection for carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Darnton, S J; Zgainski, B; Grenier, I; Allister, K; Hiller, L; McManus, K G; Steyn, R S

    1999-01-01

    Anabolic steroids increase appetite and muscle mass. This randomized, double-blind trial investigates any nutritional benefits of anabolic steroid in patients after surgery for esophageal cancer. Forty patients were recruited: 19 patients had five injections of 50 mg nandrolone decanoate and 21 patients received placebo over 3 months, starting 1 month after surgery. Measurements of body weight, mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC) and appetite were taken over a 6-month period. Nutrition was optimized by dietary advice and by esophageal dilatation if required. Percent ideal weight, percent ideal MAMC and appetite score did not show significant differences between steroid and placebo groups, but there was a trend to an increase over 6 months for percent ideal MAMC in the test group. With this protocol, we have experienced minimal side-effects. However, we have not demonstrated any therapeutic benefit with low-dose steroid. An increased dose schedule over a longer period might produce a significant response.

  7. Cytoarchitecture of steroid dependent target tissues after testosterone administration compared to nandrolone decanoate in castrated rats in the aim of Hershberger bio test.

    PubMed

    Cristina, Romeo Teodor; Hanganu, Flavia; Brezovan, Diana; Dumitrescu, Eugenia; Muselin, Florin; Chiurciu, Viorica; Stancu, Adrian Constantin; Pentea, Marius Cristian; Motoc, Andrei Gheorghe Marius

    2014-01-01

    The objective was the cytoarchitecture evaluation of known steroid dependent target tissues after administering of testosterone, compared to action of its more active ester, nortestosterone (nandrolone decanoate) in castrated rat males in the aim of Hershberger bio test. Study was performed on 30 castrated male Wistar rats, aged between 35 and 39 days, in peripubertal period, divided into five groups. Androgen doses administration begun at the rats' age of 49 days. Animals were injected i.m., daily, for 10 consecutive days as follows: Aquatest (Balkan Pharmaceuticals Ltd., Moldova) testosterone aqueous solution: Testosterone I group (0.4 mg/animal); Testosterone II (0.8 mg/animal); (Deca-Durabolin, Balkan Pharmaceuticals); nandrolone decanoate oily solution: Nortestosterone I (1.5 mg/kg body weight); Nortestosterone II (7.5 mg/kg body weight) and Control (White sesame oil, Manicos, Romania, 0.1 mL/animal). Gonadectomy (GDX) induced modifications of target tissues wet weight accompanied by important modifications in cytoarchitecture. Changes following exogenous administration of testosterone and nortestosterone decanoate were found in: liver (granular dystrophy, mega-mitochondria, tubular intumescences), prostate (increasing of the structural elements), seminal vesicles (hyalinosis, thickening of cell walls and the hyaline presence), levator ani-bulbo-cavernosus muscle (muscle fibbers dilacerations), bulbourethral glands (muscular fibbers rarefaction by fluid accumulation) demonstrating the disruptor activity especially for overdosed nandrolone decanoate.

  8. Where does hydrolysis of nandrolone decanoate occur in the human body after release from an oil depot?

    PubMed

    Kalicharan, R W; Bout, M R; Oussoren, C; Vromans, H

    2016-12-30

    Long-term therapy of nandrolone (N) is recommended to increase mineral density and muscle strength. Using a parenteral sustained release drug formulation with nandrolone decanoate (ND), therapeutic N levels can be achieved and maintained. Until now, it is unknown if hydrolysis of ND into N occurs in tissue at the injection site or after systemic absorption. Therefore, hydrolysis studies were conducted to investigate the location and rate of ND hydrolysis after its release from the oil depot. ND hydrolysis was studied in porcine tissues, to mimic the human muscular and subcutaneous tissues. Additionally, the ND hydrolysis was studied in human whole blood, plasma and serum at a concentration range of 23.3-233.3μM. ND hydrolysis only occurred in human whole blood. The hydrolysis did not start immediately, but after a lag time. The mean lag time for all studied concentrations was 34.9±2.5min. Because of a slow penetration into tissue, hydrolysis of ND is found to be very low in surrounding tissue. Therefore the local generation of the active compound is clinically irrelevant. It is argued that after injection of the oil depot, ND molecules will be transported via the lymphatic system towards lymph nodes. From here, it will enter the central circulation and within half an hour it will hydrolyse to the active N compound.

  9. The risk of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias in presence of high-intensity endurance exercise along with chronic administration of nandrolone decanoate.

    PubMed

    Abdollahi, Farzane; Joukar, Siyavash; Najafipour, Hamid; Karimi, Abdolah; Masumi, Yaser; Binayi, Fateme

    2016-01-01

    Anabolic steroids used to improve muscular strength and performance in athletics. Its long-term consumption may induce cardiovascular adverse effects. We assessed the risk of ventricular arrhythmias in rats which subjected to chronic nandrolone plus high-intensity endurance exercise. Animals were grouped as; control (CTL), exercise (Ex): 8 weeks under exercise, vehicle group (Arach): received arachis oil, and Nan group: received nandrolone decanoate 5 mg/kg twice a week for 8 weeks, Arach+Ex group, and Nan+Ex. Finally, under anesthesia, arrhythmia was induced by infusion of 1.5 μg/0.1 mL/min of aconitine IV and ventricular arrhythmias were recorded for 15 min. Then, animals' hearts were excised and tissue samples were taken. Nandrolone plus exercise had no significant effect on blood pressure but decreased the heart rate (P<0.01) and increased the RR (P<0.01) and JT intervals (P<0.05) of electrocardiogram. Nandrolone+exercise significantly increased the ventricular fibrillation (VF) frequency and also decreased the VF latency (P<0.05 versus CTL group). Combination of exercise and nandrolone could not recover the decreasing effects of nandrolone on animals weight gain but, it enhanced the heart hypertrophy index (P<0.05). In addition, nandrolone increased the level of hydroxyproline (HYP) and malondialdehyde (MDA) but had not significant effect on glutathione peroxidase of heart. Exercise only prevented the effect of nandrolone on HYP. Nandrolone plus severe exercise increases the risk of VF that cannot be explained only by the changes in redox system. The intensification of cardiac hypertrophy and prolongation of JT interval may be a part of involved mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of the effects of 17 alpha-methyltestosterone, methandrostenolone, and nandrolone decanoate on the sexual behavior of castrated male rats.

    PubMed

    Clark, A S; Fast, A S

    1996-12-01

    In a series of 3 experiments, adult male Long-Evans rats were castrated and treated with 1 of 3 different anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) compounds (17 alpha-methyltestosterone, methandrostenolone, or nandrolone decanoate) for 6 weeks. In each experiment, subjects received daily injections of a high, medium, or low dose of AAS or the oil vehicle. The AAS effects on body weight in gonadectomized male rats were modest, and no effects on locomotor activity were observed. The AAS compounds administered at doses comparable with human abuse levels were not equipotent in maintaining male sexual behavior patterns (nandrolone decanoate > methandrostenolone > 17 alpha-methyltestosterone). In addition, the behavioral actions of AAS compounds did not parallel stimulation of sexual accessory glands. The authors reported that this study is the first to quantify the dose-response characteristics of individual AAS compounds with regard to these behavioral and endocrine measures.

  11. Effect of nandrolone decanoate on the development of three species of Chrysomya (Diptera:Calliphoridae), flies of forensic importance in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Souza, C M; Thyssen, P J; Linhares, A X

    2011-01-01

    Necrophagous insects are valuable tools for postmortem interval (PMI) estimation or for determining the cause of death. Due to the increase in deaths related to drug abuse, it is crucial to know how these substances affect the development of flies that feed on corpses, to avoid errors in the PMI estimates. This study evaluated the effect of nandrolone decanoate, an anabolic androgenic steroid, on the development ofimmatures of Chrysomya megacephala (F.), Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann), and Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) (Diptera:Calliphoridae) when added to an artificial rearing diet. Four experimental groups were delineated: three of them were given diets containing 4.5, 22.5, or 45 mg/kg nandrolone decanoate; and a drug-free control group. Weights were recorded at 12-h intervals from larval eclosion to pupation. No statistically significant differences were observed in mean larval weights, emergence interval, or emergence rates for all groups. However, differences in the three species were observed during the larval development. Initially, C. putoria reared in the highest concentration of decanoate showed greater weight gain. However, at older ages, immatures reached lower mean weights than the control group. For C. albiceps, the highest concentration of decanoate contributed to an effective lack of weight gain during almost the entire course of larval development. Therefore, the influence of any drug on development should always be considered.

  12. Impact of single-dose nandrolone decanoate on gonadotropins, blood lipids and HMG CoA reductase in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Gårevik, N; Börjesson, A; Choong, E; Ekström, L; Lehtihet, M

    2016-06-01

    The aim was to study the effect and time profile of a single dose of nandrolone decanoate (ND) on gonadotropins, blood lipids and HMG CoA reductase [3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR)] in healthy men. Eleven healthy male participants aged 29-46 years were given a single dose of 150 mg ND as an intramuscular dose of Deca Durabol®, Organon. Blood samples for sex hormones, lipids and HMGCR mRNA analysis were collected prior to ND administration day 0, 4 and 14. A significant suppression of luteinising hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) was seen after 4 days. Total testosterone and bioavailable testosterone level decreased significantly throughout the observed study period. A small but significant decrease in sexual hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) was seen after 4 days but not after 14 days. Total serum (S)-cholesterol and plasma (P)-apolipoprotein B (ApoB) increased significantly after 14 days. In 80% of the individuals, the HMGCR mRNA level was increased 4 days after the ND administration. Our results show that a single dose of 150 mg ND increases (1) HMGCR mRNA expression, (2) total S-cholesterol and (3) P-ApoB level. The long-term consequences on cardiovascular risk that may appear in users remain to be elucidated.

  13. Panic attacks after treatment with zuclopenthixol decanoate.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Anil; Soni, Jorge

    2007-01-01

    The association between neuroleptics and anxiety is unclear: neuroleptics have been used to treat anxiety though may also themselves be anxiogenic. We present the case of a man who developed new onset panic attacks after treatment with zuclopenthixol decanoate, a commonly administered depot antipsychotic. We review the literature on the association between antipsychotics and anxiety and present possible pathophysiological mechanisms.

  14. Effect of different doses of nandrolone decanoate on lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation, sperm abnormality and histopathology of testes of male Wister rats.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Hanaa Mahmoud; Mohamed, Manal Abdul-Hamid

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims of to investigate the effects of low and high doses of nandrolone decanoate (ND) on histopathology and apoptosis of the spermatogenic cells as well as lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities, sperm abnormality and DNA fragmentation. Eighteen animals were divided into three groups each group contain six animals. The rats were divided into three groups as following: Group 1 was administered saline (control). Group 2, received nandrolone decanoate (3 mg/kg/weekly) (low dose) with intramuscular injection. Group 3, received intramuscular injection dose of nandrolone decanoate (10 mg/kg/weekly) (high dose). After 8 weeks, caspase-3 assay was used to determine the apoptotic cells. The sperm parameters, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities and testosterone concentration were also investigated in the experimental groups of both low and high dose compared to the control groups. Treated group with high dose showed degenerated germinal epithelial cells sloughed in the lumina of seminiferous tubules, where almost seminiferous tubules were devoid of spermatids and spermatozoa compared to control and group treated with low dose. Also, a significant increase of lipid peroxidation levels and heat shock proteins was observed in two groups administrated with two different doses of ND while, antioxidant enzyme activities, and testosterone concentration was significantly decreased in two treated group when compared with control. Administration of ND at high and low doses leads to deteriorated sperm parameters, DNA fragmentation and testicular apoptosis. In conclusion, the administration ND at high doses more effective on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities, sperm abnormality, histopathology, apoptotic and DNA changes compared to low dose group and to control group. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  15. Voluntary exercise does not ameliorate spatial learning and memory deficits induced by chronic administration of nandrolone decanoate in rats.

    PubMed

    Tanehkar, Fatemeh; Rashidy-Pour, Ali; Vafaei, Abbas Ali; Sameni, Hamid Reza; Haghighi, Saeed; Miladi-Gorji, Hossien; Motamedi, Fereshteh; Akhavan, Maziar Mohammad; Bavarsad, Kowsar

    2013-01-01

    Chronic exposure to the anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) nandrolone decanoate (ND) in supra-physiological doses is associated with learning and memory impairments. Given the well-known beneficial effects of voluntary exercise on cognitive functions, we examined whether voluntary exercise would improve the cognitive deficits induced by chronic administration of ND. We also investigated the effects of ND and voluntary exercise on hippocampal BDNF levels. The rats were randomly distributed into 4 experimental groups: the vehicle-sedentary group, the ND-sedentary group, the vehicle-exercise group, and the ND-exercise group. The vehicle-exercise and the ND-exercise groups were allowed to freely exercise in a running wheel for 15 days. The vehicle-sedentary and the ND-sedentary groups were kept sedentary for the same period. Vehicle or ND injections were started 14 days prior to the voluntary exercise and continued throughout the 15 days of voluntary exercise. After the 15-day period, the rats were trained and tested on a water maze spatial task using four trials per day for 5 consecutive days followed by a probe trial two days later. Exercise significantly improved performance during both the training and retention of the water maze task, and enhanced hippocampal BDNF. ND impaired spatial learning and memory, and this effect was not rescued by exercise. ND also potentiated the exercise-induced increase in hippocampal BDNF levels. These results seem to indicate that voluntary exercise is unable to improve the disruption of cognitive functions by chronic ND. Moreover, increased levels of BDNF may play a role in ND-induced impairments in learning and memory. The harmful effects of ND and other AAS on learning and memory should be taken into account when athletes decide to use AAS for performance or body image improvement.

  16. Exuberant local tissue reaction to intramuscular injection of nandrolone decanoate (Deca-Durabolin)--a steroid compound in a sesame seed oil base--mimicking soft tissue malignant tumors: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Khankhanian, N K; Hammers, Y A; Kowalski, P

    1992-12-01

    We present an unusual pseudotumor that formed in reaction to self-administered intramuscular injections of an anabolic steroid, nandrolone decanoate (Deca-Durabolin) in a young soldier. The histopathologic features which closely mimicked several malignant neoplasms could have led to an incorrect diagnosis of malignancy and unnecessary extensive surgery. To our knowledge, this phenomenon has not been previously reported.

  17. Effect of supraphysiological dose of Nandrolone Decanoate on the testis and testosterone concentration in mature and immature male rats: A time course study.

    PubMed

    Jannatifar, Rahil; Shokri, Saeed; Farrokhi, Ahmad; Nejatbakhsh, Reza

    2015-12-01

    Most studies on anabolic-androgenic steroids abuse have been done in adult rats, but few data are available to immature. This study was conducted to assay the effect of Nandrolone Decanoate (ND) on the testis and testosterone concentration in male immature rats compare with mature ones in short and long time. 40 mature rats were divided into 4 groups: group A (short term) and group B (long-term) received 10 mg/kg/day ND interaperitoneally for 35 and 70 days, respectively. Group C (control) without any treatment, and group D (vehicle) received dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solution in two periods 35 and 70 days. 40 immature rats were divided into 4 groups same as mature ones. After surgery body weight, testis size, histomorphometry of testis, and serum testosterone level were evaluated. Our results showed that ND decreased the number of Leydig cells in group B (39.9 ±. 919), group A (43.4 ±. 120), and long term (40.6 ±. 299) immature rats, which could result in a reduction of testosterone concentration significantly in all experimental groups except short term mature group. Number of sertoli cells, testis size, and diameter of seminiferous tubules decreased in the long-term immature group. Eventually, the number of sperm was decreased in mature and immature groups, but a severe depletion of sperm was occurred in both mature and immature in long time in comparison to the control group (p< 0.05). This time course study showed that supraphysiological dose of ND may negatively affect the number of Leydig cells, sperm cell, and testosterone concentration of immature rats in the same matter of mature rats. However, the number of sertoli cell, testis size, and seminferous diameter were decreased only in the long immature rats.

  18. Effect of supraphysiological dose of Nandrolone Decanoate on the testis and testosterone concentration in mature and immature male rats: A time course study

    PubMed Central

    Jannatifar, Rahil; Shokri, Saeed; Farrokhi, Ahmad; Nejatbakhsh, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Most studies on anabolic-androgenic steroids abuse have been done in adult rats, but few data are available to immature. Objective: This study was conducted to assay the effect of Nandrolone Decanoate (ND) on the testis and testosterone concentration in male immature rats compare with mature ones in short and long time. Materials and Methods: 40 mature rats were divided into 4 groups: group A (short term) and group B (long-term) received 10 mg/kg/day ND interaperitoneally for 35 and 70 days, respectively. Group C (control) without any treatment, and group D (vehicle) received dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solution in two periods 35 and 70 days. 40 immature rats were divided into 4 groups same as mature ones. After surgery body weight, testis size, histomorphometry of testis, and serum testosterone level were evaluated. Results: Our results showed that ND decreased the number of Leydig cells in group B (39.9 ±. 919), group A (43.4 ±. 120), and long term (40.6 ±. 299) immature rats, which could result in a reduction of testosterone concentration significantly in all experimental groups except short term mature group. Number of sertoli cells, testis size, and diameter of seminiferous tubules decreased in the long-term immature group. Eventually, the number of sperm was decreased in mature and immature groups, but a severe depletion of sperm was occurred in both mature and immature in long time in comparison to the control group (p< 0.05). Conclusion: This time course study showed that supraphysiological dose of ND may negatively affect the number of Leydig cells, sperm cell, and testosterone concentration of immature rats in the same matter of mature rats. However, the number of sertoli cell, testis size, and seminferous diameter were decreased only in the long immature rats. PMID:27141538

  19. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic study of subcutaneous injection of depot nandrolone decanoate using dried blood spots sampling coupled with ultrapressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry assays.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurmeet K S; Turner, Leo; Desai, Reena; Jimenez, Mark; Handelsman, David J

    2014-07-01

    Testosterone (T) and nandrolone (N) esters require deep im injections by medical personnel but these often deposit injectate into sc fat so that more convenient sc self-administration may be feasible. To investigate the feasibility and pharmacology of sc injection of N decanoate in healthy men using dried blood spot (DBS) for frequent blood sampling without clinic visits. Healthy male volunteers received 100 mg N decanoate by a single sc injection. Finger-prick capillary blood was spotted onto filter paper before injection daily at home for 21 d and stored at room temperature. Venous whole blood was also spotted onto filter paper before and weekly for 3 wk after injection. DBS were extracted for assay of N and T by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in a single batch with serum concentrations estimated with adjustment for capillary blood sample volume and hematocrit to define peak (N) or nadir (T) time and concentration from individual daily measurements. Daily serum N peaked 2.50 ± 0.25 (SEM) ng/mL at a median (range) of 6 (4-13) days causing a reduction in serum T from 3.50 ± 0.57 ng/mL at baseline to a nadir of 0.38 ± 0.13 (SEM) ng/mL (89 ± 3% suppression) at a median (range) of 8 (5-16) days. Simultaneously sampled capillary, venous whole blood, and serum gave almost identical results for serum T and N. Finger-pricks and sc injections were well tolerated. This study demonstrates that A) DBS sampling with liquid chromatography mass spectrometry steroid analysis achieves frequent time sampling in the community without requiring clinic visits, venesection, or frozen serum storage, and B) androgen esters in an oil vehicle can be delivered effectively by sc injection, thus avoiding the need for medically supervised deep-im injections.

  20. Nandrolone decanoate negatively reverses the beneficial effects of exercise on cardiac muscle via sarcolemmal, but not mitochondrial K(ATP) channel.

    PubMed

    Bayat, Gholamreza; Javan, Mohammad; Safari, Fatemeh; Khalili, Azadeh; Shokri, Saeed; Goudarzvand, Mahdi; Salimi, Mehdi; Hajizadeh, Sohrab

    2016-03-01

    ATP-sensitive potassium channels are supposed to have a substantial role in improvement of cardiac performance. This study was performed to evaluate whether nandrolone decanoate (ND) and (or) exercise training could affect the expression of cardiac K(ATP) channel subunits. Thirty-five male albino Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups, including sedentary control (SC), sedentary vehicle (SV), sedentary ND (SND), exercise control (EC), and exercise and ND (E+ND). Exercise training was performed on a treadmill 5 times per week. ND was injected (10 mg/kg/week, i.m.) to the rats in the SND and E+ND groups. Following cardiac isolation, the expression of both sarcolemmal and mitochondrial subunits of K(ATP) channel was measured using Western blot method. The expression of sarcolemmal, but not mitochondrial, subunits of K(ATP) channel (Kir6.2 and SUR2) of EC group was significantly higher compared with SC group while ND administration (SND group) did not show any change in their expression. In the E+ND group, ND administration led to decrease of the over-expression of sarcolemmal Kir6.2 and SUR2 which was previously induced by exercise. There was no significant association between the mitochondrial expression of either Kir6.2 or SUR2 proteins and administration of ND or exercise. Supra-physiological dosage of ND negatively reverses the effects of exercise on the cardiac muscle expression of sarcolemmal, but not mitochondrial, K(ATP) channel subunits.

  1. Clopentixol decanoate in the treatment of chronic alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Hochenegg, L

    1981-01-01

    The treatment of alcoholism still presents great problems because a number of factors have to be taken into consideration. Tranquilizers and chlormethiazol are only justified in the detoxication phase. For the subsequent after-care, depot neuroleptics are recommended because of the uniformly high plasma level. We gave clopentixol decanoate - 100 mg i.m. - in two-weekly intervals. The symptoms caused by ethylism were adequately overcome without side effects. Clopentixol decanoate creates the basis for successful psychotherapy: only when the mood situation is compensated and the internal unrest overcome can verbal therapy be successful.

  2. Mitochondrial function in diaphragm of emphysematous hamsters after treatment with nandrolone

    PubMed Central

    Wijnhoven, Hanneke JH; Ennen, Leo; Rodenburg, Richard JT; Dekhuijzen, PN Richard

    2006-01-01

    Respiratory failure in patients with COPD may be caused by insufficient force production or insufficient endurance capacity of the respiratory muscles. Anabolic steroids may improve respiratory muscle function in COPD. The effect of anabolic steroids on mitochondrial function in the diaphragm in emphysema is unknown. In an emphysematous male hamster model, we investigated whether administration of the anabolic steroid nandrolone decanoate (ND) altered the activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes in the diaphragm. The bodyweight of hamsters treated with ND was decreased after treatment compared with initial values, and serum testosterone levels were significantly lower in hamsters treated with ND than in control hamsters. No difference in the activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes in the diaphragm between normal and emphysematous hamsters was observed. Treatment with ND did not change the activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes in the diaphragm of both normal and emphysematous hamsters. In emphysematous hamsters, administration of ND decreased the activity of succinate:cytochrome c oxidoreductase compared with ND treatment in normal hamsters. We conclude that anabolic steroids have negative effects on the activity of succinate:cytochrome c oxidoreductase and anabolic status in this emphysematous hamster model. PMID:18046906

  3. Administration of growth hormone and nandrolone decanoate alters mRNA expression of the GABAB receptor subunits as well as of the GH receptor, IGF-1, and IGF-2 in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Grönbladh, Alfhild; Johansson, Jenny; Nyberg, Fred; Hallberg, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    The illicit use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), especially among young adults, is of major concern. Among AAS users it is common to combine the AAS nandrolone decanoate (ND), with intake of growth hormone (GH) and a connection between gonadal steroids and the GH system has been suggested. Both AAS and GH affect functions in the brain, for example those associated with the hypothalamus and pituitary, and several GH actions are mediated by growth factors such as insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2). The GABAergic system is implicated in actions induced by AAS and previous studies have provided evidence for a link between GH and GABAB receptors in the brain. Our aim was to examine the impact of AAS administration and a subsequent administration of GH, on the expression of GABAB receptors and important GH mediators in rat brain. The aim was to investigate the CNS effects of a high-dose ND, and to study if a low, but physiological relevant, dose of GH could reverse the ND-induced effects. In the present study, male rats were administered a high dose of ND every third day during three weeks, and subsequently the rats were given recombinant human GH (rhGH) during ten days. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used to analyze gene expression in hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, and amygdala. In the pituitary gland, the expression of GABAB receptor subunits was affected differently by the steroid treatment; the GABAB1 mRNA expression was decreased whereas a distinct elevation of the GABAB2 expression was found. Administration of ND also caused a decrease of GHR, IGF-1, and IGF-2 mRNA expression in the pituitary while the corresponding expression in the hypothalamus, caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, and amygdala was unaffected. The rhGH administration did not alter the GABAB2 expression but increased the GABAB1 gene expression in the hypothalamus as compared to the AAS treated group. These results

  4. Chronic nandrolone administration promotes oxidative stress, induction of pro-inflammatory cytokine and TNF-α mediated apoptosis in the kidneys of CD1 treated mice

    SciTech Connect

    Riezzo, Irene; Turillazzi, Emanuela; Bello, Stefania; Cantatore, Santina; Cerretani, Daniela; Di Paolo, Marco; Fiaschi, Anna Ida; Frati, Paola; Neri, Margherita; Pedretti, Monica; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2014-10-01

    Nandrolone decanoate administration and strenuous exercise increase the extent of renal damage in response to renal toxic injury. We studied the role played by oxidative stress in the apoptotic response caused by nandrolone decanoate in the kidneys of strength-trained male CD1 mice. To measure cytosolic enzyme activity, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined after nandrolone treatment. An immunohistochemical study and Western blot analysis were performed to evaluate cell apoptosis and to measure the effects of renal expression of inflammatory mediators (IL-1β, TNF-α) on the induction of apoptosis (HSP90, TUNEL). Dose-related oxidative damage in the kidneys of treated mice is shown by an increase in MDA levels and by a reduction of antioxidant enzyme GR and GPx activities, resulting in the kidney's reduced radical scavenging ability. Renal specimens of the treated group showed relevant glomeruli alterations and increased immunostaining and protein expressions, which manifested significant focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. The induction of proinflammatory cytokine expression levels was confirmed by Western blot analysis. Long-term administration of nandrolone promotes oxidative injury in the mouse kidneys. TNF-α mediated injury due to nandrolone in renal cells appears to play a role in the activation of both the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways. - Highlights: • We analyze abuse of nandrolone decanoate in strength-trained male CD1 mice. • Nandrolone decanoate administration increases oxidative stress. • Increased cytokine expressions were observed. • Renal apoptosis was described. • Long-term administration of nandrolone promotes oxidative injury in mice kidney.

  5. Zuclopenthixol decanoate in maintenance treatment of schizophrenic outpatients. Minimum effective dose and corresponding serum levels.

    PubMed

    Solgaard, T; Kistrup, K; Aaes-Jørgensen, T; Gerlach, J

    1994-05-01

    23 schizophrenic outpatients in maintenance treatment with zuclopenthixol decanoate were included in a study aimed at finding the minimum effective dose and corresponding serum concentration of zuclopenthixol. Every three months the dose was gradually reduced until prodromal symptoms appeared, indicative of an incipient relapse. A slightly higher dose was then promptly reinstituted (the minimum effective dose). At each dose level, two blood samples were drawn to determine the serum concentration. This dose reduction principles proved feasible. Only one patient had a clear-cut relapse. The condition of the remaining patients was acceptably maintained by a dose increase. The minimum effective dose of zuclopenthixol was 200 mg/2 weeks (range 60-400), with a serum concentration of 22 nmol/l (7.1-69.7). There was a significant correlation between the administered dose and the corresponding serum level of the drug (r = 0.66, P < 0.01). A trend towards a positive correlation was found between the serum level at the minimum effective dose and the BPRS score (r = 0.42, P < 0.1). No correlation was found between the serum level and the side-effects or length of neuroleptic treatment. It is concluded that routine serum drug monitoring is hardly indicated in the long-term depot-neuroleptic treatment of schizophrenic patients. A strategy aiming at continually seeking the lowest effective dose on the basis of clinical parameters appears more appropriate, especially in case of depot-neuroleptic treatment.

  6. Effectiveness of Paliperidone Palmitate vs. Haloperidol Decanoate for Maintenance Treatment of Schizophrenia: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    McEvoy, Joseph P.; Byerly, Matthew; Hamer, Robert M.; Dominik, Rosalie; Swartz, Marvin S.; Rosenheck, Robert A.; Ray, Neepa; Lamberti, J. Steven; Buckley, Peter F.; Wilkins, Tania M.; Stroup, T. Scott

    2014-01-01

    Importance Long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics are used to reduce medication non-adherence and subsequent relapse in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. The relative effectiveness of LAI versions of second-generation (atypical) and older antipsychotics has not been assessed. Objective To compare the effectiveness of the second-generation LAI antipsychotic paliperidone palmitate (PP) to the older LAI antipsychotic haloperidol decanoate (HD). Design, Setting, and Participants Multisite, double-blind, randomized clinical trial conducted at 22 clinical research sites in the U.S. The 311 randomized patients (PP=157, HD=154) were adults diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who were clinically assessed to be at risk of relapse and likely to benefit from a LAI antipsychotic. Interventions Intramuscular injections of HD 25–200 mg or PP 39–234 mg every month for up to 24 months. Main Outcome Measures Efficacy failure, which reflected inadequate control of psychopathology by the study medication, as determined by a blinded adjudication committee. Key secondary outcomes were common adverse effects of antipsychotic medications. Results There was no statistically significant difference in the rate of efficacy failure for PP compared to HD (adjusted hazard ratio 0.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.65–1.47). On average, patients on PP gained and those on HD lost weight; after six months the least squares mean weight change on PP was +2.17 kg (1.25 to 3.09) and on HD was −0.96 kg (−1.88 to −0.04). Patients taking PP had significantly greater increases in serum prolactin (men 34.56 µg/L (29.75 to 39.37) vs. 15.41 (10.73 to 20.08), p<0.001; women 75.19 (63.03 to 87.36) vs. 26.84 (13.29 to 40.40), p<0.001). Patients taking HD had significantly larger increases in global ratings of akathisia (0.73 [0.59 to 0.87] vs. 0.45 [0.31 to 0.59], p=0.006). Conclusions and Relevance Among adults with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, treatment with

  7. The anabolic steroid nandrolone enhances motor and sensory functional recovery in rat median nerve repair with long interpositional nerve grafts.

    PubMed

    Ghizoni, Marcos Flávio; Bertelli, Jayme Augusto; Grala, Carolina Giesel; da Silva, Rosemeri Maurici

    2013-01-01

    Recovery from peripheral nerve repair is frequently incomplete. Hence drugs that enhance nerve regeneration are needed clinically. To study the effects of nandrolone decanoate in a model of deficient reinnervation in the rat. In 40 rats, a 40-mm segment of the left median nerve was removed and interposed between the stumps of a sectioned right median nerve. Starting 7 days after nerve grafting and continuing over a 6-month period, we administered nandrolone at a dose of 5 mg/kg/wk to half the rats (n = 20). All rats were assessed behaviorally for grasp function and nociceptive recovery for up to 6 months. At final assessment, reinnervated muscles were tested electrophysiologically and weighed. Results were compared between rats that had received versus not received nandrolone and versus 20 nongrafted controls. Rats in the nandrolone group recovered finger flexion faster. At 90 days postsurgery, they had recovered 42% of normal grasp strength versus just 11% in rats grafted but not treated with nandrolone. At 180 days, the average values for grasp strength recovery in the nandrolone and no-nandrolone groups were 40% and 33% of normal values for controls, respectively. At 180 days, finger flexor muscle twitch strength was 16% higher in treated versus nontreated rats. Thresholds for nociception were not detected in either group 90 days after nerve grafting. At 180 days, nociceptive thresholds were significantly lower in the nandrolone group. Nandrolone decanoate improved functional recovery in a model of deficient reinnervation.

  8. The pleiotropic effects of decanoic acid treatment on mitochondrial function in fibroblasts from patients with complex I deficient Leigh syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kanabus, Marta; Fassone, Elisa; Hughes, Sean David; Bilooei, Sara Farahi; Rutherford, Tricia; Donnell, Maura O'; Heales, Simon J R; Rahman, Shamima

    2016-05-01

    There is growing interest in the use of the ketogenic diet (KD) to treat inherited metabolic diseases including mitochondrial disorders. However, neither the mechanism whereby the diet may be working, nor if it could benefit all patients with mitochondrial disease, is known. This study focusses on decanoic acid (C10), a component of the medium chain triglyceride KD, and a ligand for the nuclear receptor PPAR-γ known to be involved in mitochondrial biogenesis. The effects of C10 were investigated in primary fibroblasts from a cohort of patients with Leigh syndrome (LS) caused by nuclear-encoded defects of respiratory chain complex I, using mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme assays, gene expression microarray, qPCR and flow cytometry. Treatment with C10 increased citrate synthase activity, a marker of cellular mitochondrial content, in 50 % of fibroblasts obtained from individuals diagnosed with LS in a PPAR-γ-mediated manner. Gene expression analysis and qPCR studies suggested that treating cells with C10 supports fatty acid metabolism, through increasing ACADVL and CPT1 expression, whilst downregulating genes involved in glucose metabolism (PDK3, PDK4). PCK2, involved in blocking glucose metabolism, was upregulated, as was CAT, encoding catalase. Moreover, treatment with C10 also decreased oxidative stress in complex I deficient (rotenone treated) cells. However, since not all cells from subjects with LS appeared to respond to C10, prior cellular testing in vitro could be employed as a means for selecting individuals for subsequent clinical studies involving C10 preparations.

  9. [Nandrolone administration does not promote hypertrophy of soleus muscle in rats].

    PubMed

    Cunha, Tatiana S; Tanno, Ana Paula; Marcondes, Fernanda K; Perez, Sérgio E A; Selistre-Araújo, Heloisa S

    2006-06-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are compounds formed from testosterone or one of its derivatives, which are largely used by amateur e professional athletes to improve the athletic performance. However, the scientific information about the relation between the use of AAS and muscle hypertrophy is controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of testosterone and physical training on muscle hypertrophy. Male Wistar rats received i.m. injections of Deca-Durabolin or vehicle during 6 weeks. Trained rats were submitted to a resistance physical training, by jumping up and down in water carrying an overload. Sedentary and trained animals were anesthetized and sacrificed. Soleus muscle was removed for the quantification of total protein and DNA concentration. In the end of the treatment, body weight of trained animals treated with vehicle or AAS was lower than the body weight of respective sedentary. Total protein concentration and the ratio muscle weight/body weight of all experimental groups were not altered. Trained group treated with AAS presented lower DNA concentration than trained group treated with vehicle. The administration of nandrolone decanoate did not promote hypertrophy on soleus muscle, not even when the use of AAS was associated to resistance physical training.

  10. Concentrations of nandrolone metabolites in urine after the therapeutic administration of an ophthalmic solution.

    PubMed

    Avois, Lidia; Mangin, Patrice; Saugy, Martial

    2007-05-09

    Nandrolone, an anabolic steroid, is used for the treatment of several diseases and is available in various pharmaceutical formulations. The most widely used pharmaceutical formulation is Deca-Durabolin, but other products, such as Keratyl eye drops solution, are also currently administered. Nandrolone is one of the most abused anabolic steroid in sports. Analyses for this anabolic steroid according to the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) protocol are based on the identification of the nandrolone two main urinary metabolites which, in humans, are glucuronides of 19-norandrosterone and 19-noretiocholanolone. A positive cut off limit of 2 ng/mL has been set by the anti-doping code for the first metabolite, 19-norandrosterone. In this preliminary study, an eye drops solution (Keratyl) containing a therapeutic dose of a nandrolone sodium sulphate was administered to several male volunteers during 3 days and urines were collected during 3 weeks. Surprisingly, contrary to all expectations, the urinary concentrations measured in urines reached 450 ng/mL and 70 ng/mL for norandrosterone and noretiocholanolone, respectively. Moreover, concentration levels near to 2 ng/mL were found, more than 2 weeks after the last administration, depending on individual metabolism. Inter-variability as well as intra-variability of nandrolone excretion kinetic, regarding this particular administration mode, were also evaluated. Quantification of nandrolone metabolites was performed by GC-MS. The method was previously validated in terms of specificity, precision, linearity, LOD, LOQ, robustness, accuracy and the expanded uncertainty was also evaluated.

  11. Endogenous Levels of Abscisic Acid and Decanoic Acid in Dutch Iris Bulbs and the Influence of Abscisic Acid and Decanoic Acid on Iris Meristems Cultured In Vitro1

    PubMed Central

    Doss, Robert P.; Kimura, Yosh; Christian, James K.

    1983-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) and decanoic acid inhibited shoot elongation and floral development of Dutch iris (Iris hollandica Hoog. cv Ideal) meristems cultured in vitro. No synergism with respect to inhibition of leaf growth between ABA and decanoic acid was observed. With monthly harvest dates, from July 10, 1981 to October 10, 1981, there was a progressive decrease in endogenous level of free ABA in `Ideal' iris bulbs. Bulbs subjected to a full set of the usual preplanting storage conditions flowered, on average, 46 days after planting versus 194 days after planting for bulbs planted directly after harvest. ABA levels at harvest were 4- to 5-fold those after the preplanting storage treatment. In general, ABA levels did not correlate well with the length of time from planting until flowering of iris bulbs. Endogenous decanoic acid levels did not follow any pattern with respect to harvest date or postharvest treatment. After the postharvest high temperature treatment, there was about a 3-fold increase in nonscale decanoic acid concentration. Decanoic acid levels, in nonscale tissue, remained high after each of the other postharvest treatments. It is concluded that there is no good evidence to support the contention that either ABA or decanoic acid is directly involved in iris bulb dormancy. PMID:16663072

  12. Effects of nandrolone phenylpropionate in the horse: (2) general effects in animals undergoing training.

    PubMed

    Snow, D H; Munro, C D; Nimmo, M A

    1982-07-01

    The effect of 11 weekly injections of nandrolone phenylpropionate (400 mg) was investigated by a crossover trial (2 training periods) in 6 Thoroughbred geldings undergoing training. A decrease in body weight and flank measurement occurred only during the first training period and was not modified by the anabolic steroid. Urinary nitrogen excretion was lower in the anabolic treated animals only in the first training period. Neither training nor training plus nandrolone phenylpropionate administration caused any marked alteration in blood biochemistry or haematology. A significant decrease in plasma chloride and increase in haematocrit occurred independent of treatment in the latter, more extensive anaerobic training of both parts of the crossover. No change in urinary pH or specific gravity was found throughout the study. No evidence of improved racing performance due to nandrolone phenylpropionate administration was observed. Behavioural changes attributed to the drug could be detected for at least 6 weeks after the cessation of treatment.

  13. Beyond testosterone cypionate: evidence behind the use of nandrolone in male health and wellness

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    Characterized by low serum testosterone levels and diverse symptoms, male hypogonadism is a common condition. Current medical treatment focuses on testosterone supplementation using multiple modalities such as injections, gels and pellets. Interestingly, while testosterone is considered an anabolic androgenic steroid, it has not been saddled with the social stigma that other, similar medications have. The goal of this review is to highlight an anabolic steroid, 19-nortestosterone (i.e., nandrolone, deca-durabolin) and illustrate prospective therapeutic applications for male health. Containing a chemical structure similar to testosterone, nandrolone has a higher myotrophic: androgenic ratio resulting in improved effects on muscle mass. Animal models have suggested application in the improvement of joint healing following rotator cuff repair. Minimal literature exists regarding the use of nandrolone and, as such, further human studies are required. PMID:27141449

  14. Beyond testosterone cypionate: evidence behind the use of nandrolone in male health and wellness.

    PubMed

    Pan, Michael M; Kovac, Jason R

    2016-04-01

    Characterized by low serum testosterone levels and diverse symptoms, male hypogonadism is a common condition. Current medical treatment focuses on testosterone supplementation using multiple modalities such as injections, gels and pellets. Interestingly, while testosterone is considered an anabolic androgenic steroid, it has not been saddled with the social stigma that other, similar medications have. The goal of this review is to highlight an anabolic steroid, 19-nortestosterone (i.e., nandrolone, deca-durabolin) and illustrate prospective therapeutic applications for male health. Containing a chemical structure similar to testosterone, nandrolone has a higher myotrophic: androgenic ratio resulting in improved effects on muscle mass. Animal models have suggested application in the improvement of joint healing following rotator cuff repair. Minimal literature exists regarding the use of nandrolone and, as such, further human studies are required.

  15. The anabolic steroid nandrolone alters cannabinoid self-administration and brain CB1 receptor density and function.

    PubMed

    Struik, Dicky; Fadda, Paola; Zara, Tamara; Zamberletti, Erica; Rubino, Tiziana; Parolaro, Daniela; Fratta, Walter; Fattore, Liana

    2017-01-01

    Clinical and pre-clinical observations indicate that anabolic-androgenic steroids can induce neurobiological changes that alter the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. In this study, we investigated the effect of the anabolic steroid nandrolone on the rewarding properties of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (WIN) in rats. Lister Hooded male rats were treated intramuscularly with nandrolone (15mg/kg) or vehicle for 14 consecutive days, and then allowed to self-administer WIN (12.5μg/kg/infusion) intravenously. After reaching stable drug intake, self-administration behavior was extinguished to examine drug- and cue-induced reinstatement of cannabinoid-seeking behavior. Other behavioral parameters presumed to influence drug-taking and drug-seeking behaviors were examined to gain more insight into the behavioral specificity of nandrolone treatment. Finally, animals were sacrificed for analysis of CB1 receptor density and function in selected brain areas. We found that nandrolone-treated rats self-administered up to 2 times more cannabinoid than vehicle-treated rats, but behaved similarly to control rats when tested for drug- and cue-induced reinstatement of cannabinoid-seeking behavior. Enhanced cannabinoid intake by nandrolone-treated rats was not accompanied by changes in locomotor activity, sensorimotor gating, or memory function. However, our molecular data show that after chronic WIN self-administration nandrolone-treated rats display altered CB1 receptor density and function in selected brain areas. We hypothesize that increased cannabinoid self-administration in nandrolone-treated rats results from a nandrolone-induced decrease in reward function, which rats seem to compensate by voluntarily increasing their cannabinoid intake. Altogether, our findings corroborate the hypothesis that chronic exposure to anabolic-androgenic steroids induces dysfunction of the reward pathway in rats and might represent a potential risk factor for abuse of

  16. 75 FR 48351 - Determination That DECA-DURABOLIN (Nandrolone Decanoate) Injection, 200 Milligrams/Milliliter, 1...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-10

    ... milligrams/milliliter (mg/mL), 1 mL, was not withdrawn from sale for reasons of safety or effectiveness. This... mg/mL, 1 mL, if all other legal and regulatory requirements are met. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT...) Injection, 200 mg/mL, 1 mL, and the drug product was moved to the ``Discontinued Drug Product List''...

  17. Recurrent priapism as a side effect of zuclopenthixol decanoate.

    PubMed

    van Hemert, A M; Meinhardt, W; Moehadjir, D; Kropman, R F

    1995-09-01

    Priapism has been described as a rare side effect of certain phenothiazine antipsychotics with high alpha1-adrenergic blocking potential. We describe a patient who in the course of clinical treatment with the thioxanthene antipsychotic zuclopenthixol (Clopixol) decanoate had several episodes of priapism. Although the alpha-blocking potential of zuclopenthixol is only moderate, it seems that in sufficient dose, or in combination with other antipsychotics, this drug is capable of inducing priapism.

  18. Liquid Crystals in Binary Systems of Lead Decanoate with Zinc or Cadmium Decanoate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    T. A., Mirnaya; Sudovtsova, L. S.; Yaremchuk, G. G.

    2000-12-01

    The phase transition temperatures were determined by differential thermal analysis and hot stage polarization microscopy between room temperature and the isotropic liquid region for the binary systems of lead (II) decanoate with zinc (II) or cadmium (II) decanoate. The boundaries of the liquid crystal formation in these systems were found.

  19. Nandrolone-pretreatment enhances cardiac beta(2)-adrenoceptor expression and reverses heart contractile down-regulation in the post-stress period of acute-stressed rats.

    PubMed

    Penna, Claudia; Abbadessa, Giuliana; Mancardi, Daniele; Spaccamiglio, Angela; Racca, Silvia; Pagliaro, Pasquale

    2007-10-01

    To investigate whether nandrolone decanoate (ND)-pretreatment can modulate (1) beta-adrenoceptor expression and (2) myocardial contractility in response to beta-adrenoceptors stimulation with isoproterenol (ISO), in hearts of both normal and stressed rats. Rats were treated with 15 mg/(kgday) of Deca-Durabolin (ND, 1 ml i.m.) or with vehicle (oil) for 14 days. The day after the last injection, the dose-response to ISO (1 x 10(-8), 5 x 10(-8) and 10(-7)M), was studied in isolated rat hearts harvested from unstressed animals (unstressed+vehicle (control) or unstressed+ND) or from stressed animals (stressed+vehicle or stressed+ND): acute stress protocol consisted in restrain for 1h immediately before sacrifice. ND-pretreatment increased beta(2)-adrenoceptor expression. In baseline conditions all hearts had a similar left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and maximum rate of increase of LVDP (dP/dt(max)). In hearts of unstressed+vehicle or unstressed+ND, ISO caused a similar increase in LVDP (+90-100%) and dP/dt(max) (+120-150%). However, hearts of stressed+vehicle animals showed a marked depression of inotropic response to ISO (i.e. for ISO 1 x 10(-8),-55% in LVDP response versus unstressed). Yet, in hearts of stressed+ND-animals the effect of stress was reversed, showing the highest response to ISO (i.e. for ISO 1 x 10(-7), +30% LVDP response versus unstressed). The ND-induced beta(2)-adrenoceptor overexpression does not affect ISO-response in unstressed animals. However, acute stress induces a down-regulation of ISO-response, which is reversed by ND-pretreatment. Since the physiological post-stress down-regulation of adrenergic-response is absent after nandrolone treatment, the heart may be exposed to a sympathetic over-stimulation. This might represent a risk for cardiovascular incidents in anabolic steroid addicts under stressing conditions.

  20. Melatonin improve the sperm quality in forced swimming test induced oxidative stress in nandrolone treated Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Minaii, Bagher; Moayeri, Ardeshir; Shokri, Saeed; Habibi Roudkenar, Mehryar; Golmohammadi, Taghi; Malek, Fatemeh; Barbarestani, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of melatonin on the sperm quality and testis weight after the combination of swimming exercise and nandrolone decanoate (DECA). Two groups of male Wistar rats were treated for eight weeks as follows; group A consist of CO (control), Sham, N (DECA), S (swimming) and NS (DECA plus swimming); and group B: Sham M (sham melatonin), M (melatonin), MN (melatonin plus DECA), MS (melatonin plus swimming), MNS (melatonin, DECA plus swimming). The motility of sperm was significantly improved in melatonin groups in comparison to N, S and NS groups (P≤0.05).  The left testes weight was decreased in N, NS and MNS groups, and the right testes weight was decreased in N,S,NS, MS and MNS groups in compare with the control group. This study concluded that melatonin probably could improve the sperm motility and sex organs weight after the combination of DECA and exercise.

  1. Bovine teeth as a novel matrix for the control of the food chain: liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detection of treatments with prednisolone, dexamethasone, estradiol, nandrolone and seven β2-agonists.

    PubMed

    Chiesa, Luca Maria; Nobile, Maria; Panseri, Sara; Biolatti, Bartolomeo; Cannizzo, Francesca Tiziana; Pavlovic, Radmila; Arioli, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Veterinary drugs usually have rapid clearance rates in the liver and kidney, hampering their detection in conventional matrices such as the liver or urine. Pharmacological principles such as esterification may be applied to facilitate the administration of veterinary drugs and increase drug half-life. Prednisolone, whose therapeutic administration is regulated for food producing animals in the EU, is available in its acetate form as well as nandrolone, a banned anabolic steroid, which may be obtained as nandrolone phenylpropionate and estradiol as a benzoyl ester. While the distribution and accumulation of lipophilic and hydrophilic substances in human teeth have been well documented, studies on residues in bovine teeth are lacking. We hypothesised that analysis of bovine teeth could be used to detect both regulated and banned veterinary drugs. Steroids may be illegally used as growth promoters in food producing animals, alone or combined with β2-agonists; therefore, we developed, and validated, in accordance with the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC, two analytical confirmatory LC-MS/MS methods to detect these classes of compounds following a unique liquid extraction procedure. Finally, we analysed teeth from three male Friesian veal calves treated with intramuscular estradiol benzoate, oral prednisolone acetate or intramuscular nandrolone phenylpropionate in combination with oral ractopamine, respectively, and from seven bovines from the food chain. Teeth from treated animals were positive for their respective drugs, with the exception of nandrolone phenylpropionate. One sample from a food chain bovine was positive for isoxsuprine, one of the seven β2-agonists studied. Non-esterified forms of the steroids were not found. These results demonstrate that bovine teeth are a suitable matrix for the determination of pseudoendogenous substances or illicit administration of veterinary drugs.

  2. Anabolic-androgenic steroid treatment induces behavioral disinhibition and downregulation of serotonin receptor messenger RNA in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala of male mice.

    PubMed

    Ambar, G; Chiavegatto, S

    2009-03-01

    Nandrolone is an anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) that is highly abused by individuals seeking enhanced physical strength or body appearance. Supraphysiological doses of this synthetic testosterone derivative have been associated with many physical and psychiatric adverse effects, particularly episodes of impulsiveness and overt aggressive behavior. As the neural mechanisms underlying AAS-induced behavioral disinhibition are unknown, we investigated the status of serotonergic system-related transcripts in several brain areas of mice receiving prolonged nandrolone administration. Male C57BL/6J mice received 15 mg/kg of nandrolone decanoate subcutaneously once daily for 28 days, and different sets of animals were used to investigate motor-related and emotion-related behaviors or 5-HT-related messenger RNA (mRNA) levels by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. AAS-injected mice had increased body weight, were more active and displayed anxious-like behaviors in novel environments. They exhibited reduced immobility in the forced swim test, a higher probability of being aggressive and more readily attacked opponents. AAS treatment substantially reduced mRNA levels of most investigated postsynaptic 5-HT receptors in the amygdala and prefrontal cortex. Interestingly,the 5-HT(1B) mRNA level was further reduced in the hippocampus and hypothalamus. There was no alteration of 5-HT system transcript levels in the midbrain. In conclusion,high doses of AAS nandrolone in male mice recapitulate the behavioral disinhibition observed in abusers. Furthermore, these high doses downregulate 5-HT receptor mRNA levels in the amygdala and prefrontal cortex. Our combined findings suggest these areas as critical sites for AAS-induced effects and a possible role for the 5-HT(1B) receptor in the observed behavioral disinhibition.

  3. Histological changes in testes of rats treated with testosterone, nandrolone, and stanozolol

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Mutalip, Siti Syairah; Surindar Singh, Gurmeet Kaur; Mohd Shah, Aishah; Mohamad, Mashani; Mani, Vasudevan; Hussin, Siti Nooraishah

    2013-01-01

    Background: Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is being used in medical treatments, but AAS also was identified to have the risks of adverse effects towards patients and consumers health. Objective: Present study was conducted to observe the effects of testosterone, nandrolone, and stanozolol (forms of AAS) intake during onset of puberty on the rat testicular histology. Materials and Methods: Juvenile male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (n=42) were divided into seven groups and were injected subcutaneously with medium dose of polyethylene glycol-200 (PEG-200) (control), testosterone, nandrolone, and stanozolol for six weeks (PND 41-87). The animals were weighed daily and sacrificed on PND 88. Testes were removed, weighed, and prepared for histological assessment and finally specimens were observed under microscope. Results: The results showed an insignificant increase in mean daily body weight with highest and lowest body weight gained was of 177.6±1.69 gr and 140.0±12.26 gr respectively. There was significant decrease in the testes absolute weight (p≤0.01) in all experimental groups except in the nandrolone 2.5 mg/kg/week treated group. Testicular histology of rats treated with AAS also showed slight changes in the uniformity of arrangements of seminiferous tubules. Conclusion: Data from present study suggests that AAS have been initiating the adverse effects on testicular normal functions in rats during onset of puberty. PMID:24639803

  4. Anabolic treatment with GH, IGF-I, or anabolic steroids in patients with HIV-associated wasting.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Kathleen; Schambelan, Morris

    2002-09-01

    Wasting, and particularly loss of metabolically active lean tissue, contributes to increased mortality, accelerated disease progression, and impairment of strength and functional status in patients with HIV infection. A variety of protein anabolic agents, including growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-I, testosterone, nandrolone decanoate, oxandrolone, and oxymetholone, have been studied in patients with HIV-associated wasting. Overall, these studies have demonstrated that treatment with protein anabolic agents can increase lean body mass (LBM) and in some cases provide functional benefits and improvements in quality of life. Further research is needed to determine whether such treatment prolongs survival or reduces the overall health care burden of HIV infection. The advances in identification of successful treatments for HIV-associated wasting can provide a model for using these therapies in other catabolic states, including end-stage renal disease, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cardiac cachexia.

  5. Exercise-induced cardioprotection is impaired by anabolic steroid treatment through a redox-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Elen A; Fortunato, Rodrigo S; Carvalho, Denise P; Nascimento, José Hamilton M; Oliveira, Marcus F

    2013-11-01

    High doses of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) impair the cardioprotective effects of exercise against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) insult, possibly through cellular redox imbalance. Here, the effect of nandrolone decanoate (DECA) treatment on heart redox metabolism was investigated during I/R in sedentary and exercised rats. DECA treatment significantly reduced superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase activities in exercised rats after heart reperfusion. Catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were not affected by DECA in both sedentary and trained rats, regardless the I/R period. DECA also induced myocardial oxidative stress, as evidenced by the reduced levels of total reduced thiols after heart reperfusion in exercised rats treated with the anabolic steroid. These results indicate that cardiotoxic effects of supraphysiological doses of AAS involve reduced heart antioxidant capacity.

  6. Pharmacokinetics of long-acting nalbuphine decanoate after intramuscular administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; KuKanich, Butch; Heath, Timothy D; Krugner-Higby, Lisa A; Barker, Steven A; Brown, Carolyn S; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of nalbuphine decanoate after IM administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 9 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots of unknown sex. Nalbuphine decanoate (37.5 mg/kg) was administered IM to all birds. Plasma samples were obtained from blood collected before (time 0) and 0.25, 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 96 hours after drug administration. Plasma samples were used for measurement of nalbuphine concentrations via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated with computer software. Plasma concentrations of nalbuphine increased rapidly after IM administration, with a mean concentration of 46.1 ng/mL at 0.25 hours after administration. Plasma concentrations of nalbuphine remained > 20 ng/mL for at least 24 hours in all birds. The maximum plasma concentration was 109.4 ng/mL at 2.15 hours. The mean terminal half-life was 20.4 hours. In Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, plasma concentrations of nalbuphine were prolonged after IM administration of nalbuphine decanoate, compared with previously reported results after administration of nalbuphine hydrochloride. Plasma concentrations that could be associated with antinociception were maintained for 24 hours after IM administration of 37.5 mg of nalbuphine decanoate/kg. Safety and analgesic efficacy of nalbuphine treatments in this species require further investigation to determine the potential for clinical use in pain management in psittacine species.

  7. An Experimental and Kinetic Modeling Study of Methyl Decanoate Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Sarathy, S M; Thomson, M J; Pitz, W J; Lu, T

    2010-02-19

    Biodiesel is typically a mixture of long chain fatty acid methyl esters for use in compression ignition engines. Improving biofuel engine performance requires understanding its fundamental combustion properties and the pathways of combustion. This research study presents new combustion data for methyl decanoate in an opposed-flow diffusion flame. An improved detailed chemical kinetic model for methyl decanoate combustion is developed, which serves as the basis for deriving a skeletal mechanism via the direct relation graph method. The novel skeletal mechanism consists of 648 species and 2998 reactions. This mechanism well predicts the methyl decanoate opposed-flow diffusion flame data. The results from the flame simulations indicate that methyl decanoate is consumed via abstraction of hydrogen atoms to produce fuel radicals, which lead to the production of alkenes. The ester moiety in methyl decanoate leads to the formation of low molecular weight oxygenated compounds such as carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, and ketene.

  8. Nandrolone decanoate (deca-durabolin) in primary Sjögren's syndrome: a double blind pilot study.

    PubMed

    Drosos, A A; van Vliet-Dascalopoulou, E; Andonopoulos, A P; Galanopoulou, V; Skopouli, F N; Moutsopoulos, H M

    1988-01-01

    The efficacy and side-effects of Deca-Durabolin (DD) were tested, in a double blind fashion, in twenty female primary Sjögren's syndrome (1 degree SS) patients. Ten randomly assigned patients received DD (100 mg IM bi-weekly) for six months, and ten others placebo, for the same period. Analysis of the results revealed that the DD-treated patients showed a moderate improvement of subjective xerostomia, a significant decrease of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and an overall improvement of their feeling of well-being, -judged by themselves and the investigator subjectively-, when compared with the placebo group. All the sicca objective parameters (results of Schirmer's I test, slit lamp eye examination after rose bengal staining, stimulated parotid flow rate measurements and labial minor salivary gland histopathology) were not significantly altered in either group. The clinical side-effects were the expected ones, i.e. hirsutism, hoarseness and an increase in libido, more pronounced in the DD-treated group. At the end of the study, one DD-treated patient, developed a diffuse well-differentiated B-lymphocytic lymphoma, which regressed spontaneously three months later.

  9. An Experimental and Kinetic Modeling Study of Methyl Decanoate Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Sarathy, S M; Thomson, M J; Pitz, W J; Lu, T

    2009-12-04

    Biodiesel is a mixture of long chain fatty acid methyl esters derived from fats and oils. This research study presents opposed-flow diffusion flame data for one large fatty acid methyl ester, methyl decanoate, and uses the experiments to validate an improved skeletal mechanism consisting of 648 species and 2998 reactions. The results indicate that methyl decanoate is consumed via abstraction of hydrogen atoms to produce fuel radicals, which lead to the production of alkenes. The ester moiety in methyl decanoate leads to the formation of low molecular weight oxygenated compounds such as carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, and ketene.

  10. Effects of sub-chronic nandrolone administration on hormonal adaptive response to acute stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Racca, Silvia; Piccione, Francesca; Spaccamiglio, Angela; Carriero, Vitina M A; De Francia, Silvia; Cangemi, Luigi; Esculapio, Paola; Papotti, Mauro; Migliaretti, Giuseppe; Portaleone, Paolo; Di Carlo, Francesco; Abbadessa, Giuliana

    2012-08-01

    Androgenic-anabolic steroid (AAS) misuse has been associated with depression. It has been proposed that stress has a role in depression and that serotonin is involved in both endocrine responses to stress and depressive physiopathology. Although reports demonstrate that AAS chronic administration modifies components of stress-responsive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA), no study has evaluated AAS effect on the response to stressful stimuli. We studied the effects of the subchronic administration (once a day for 14 days in rats) of a supratherapeutical dose of nandrolone decanoate (ND) on HPAA and cortical serotoninergic system response to acute restraint stress (RS). Acute RS produced the following effects: increase in CORT (in blood) and ACTH (both in blood and in pituitary corticotropes), GR depletion in hippocampus and hypothalamus cytosol and GR translocation in hippocampus nuclear fraction, cortical serotonin re-uptake stimulation and hippocampus cytosolic ERK2 activation. ND by itself, i.e. in non-stressed rats, did not modify these parameters, except for a decrease of plasma CORT and ACTH levels and an increase in hippocampus cytosolic phospho-ERK1/2. On the contrary, in stressed rats ND affected stress-induced plasma ACTH increase and prevented all other above reported stress effects, except the increase in pituitary ACTH positive cell density. Our results show that the prolonged administration of a supratherapeutical dose of ND in rats, albeit did not affect in a notable way HPAA and serotonin transporter activity in the absence of stress, may deregulate the stress-induced hormonal cascade which plays a crucial role in depressive psychopathology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of Nandrolone Stimulation on Testosterone Biosynthesis in Leydig Cells

    PubMed Central

    Barone, Rosario; Marino Gammazza, Antonella; Sangiorgi, Claudia; Barone, Fulvio; Pitruzzella, Alessandro; Locorotondo, Nicola; Di Gaudio, Francesca; Salerno, Monica; Maglietta, Francesca; Sarni, Antonio Luciano; Di Felice, Valentina; Cappello, Francesco; Turillazzi, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are among the drugs most used by athletes for improving physical performance, as well as for aesthetic purposes. A number of papers have showed the side effects of AAS in different organs and tissues. For example, AAS are known to suppress gonadotropin‐releasing hormone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle‐stimulating hormone. This study investigates the effects of nandrolone on testosterone biosynthesis in Leydig cells using various methods, including mass spectrometry, western blotting, confocal microscopy and quantitative real‐time PCR. The results obtained show that testosterone levels increase at a 3.9 μM concentration of nandrolone and return to the basal level a 15.6 μM dose of nandrolone. Nandrolone‐induced testosterone increment was associated with upregulation of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and downregulation of 17a‐hydroxylase/17, 20 lyase (CYP17A1). Instead, a 15.6 µM dose of nandrolone induced a down‐regulation of CYP17A1. Further in vivo studies based on these data are needed to better understand the relationship between disturbed testosterone homeostasis and reproductive system impairment in male subjects. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1385–1391, 2016. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Physiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26626779

  12. Evaluation of nandrolone and ractopamine in the urine of veal calves: liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry approach.

    PubMed

    Chiesa, L; Panseri, S; Cannizzo, F T; Biolatti, B; Divari, S; Benevelli, R; Arioli, F; Pavlovic, R

    2017-04-01

    Under European legislation, the use of growth promoters is forbidden in food-producing livestock. The application of unofficial protocols with diverse combinations of veterinary drugs, administered in very low concentrations, hinders reliable detection and subsequent operative prevention. It was observed that nandrolone (anabolic steroid) and ractopamine (β-adrenergic agonist) are occasionally administered to animals, but little is known about their synergic action when they are administered together. Two specific analytical methods based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry have been developed, both of which include hydrolysis of the corresponding conjugates. For the nandrolone method, solid-phase extraction was necessary for the complete elimination of the interferences, while employment of the Quantitation Enhanced Data-Dependent scan mode during MS acquisition of ractopamine enabled the utilization of simple liquid-liquid extraction. The nandrolone method was linear in the range of 0.5-25 ng/mL, while the ractopamine calibration curve was constructed from 0.5 to 1000 ng/mL. The corresponding coefficients of correlations were >0.9907. The lower limit of quantification for both methods was 0.5 ng/mL, followed by overall recoveries >81%. Precisions expressed as relative standard deviations were <17%, while matrix effects were minimal. Urine samples taken at the slaughterhouse from veal calves enrolled in an experimental treatment consisting of intramuscular administration of β-nandrolone-phenylpropionate accompanied with a ractopamine-enriched diet were analysed. Those methods might be useful for studying the elimination patterns of the administered compounds along with characterization of the main metabolic pathways. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Nandrolone reduces activation of Notch signaling in denervated muscle associated with increased Numb expression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin-Hua; Yao, Shen; Qiao, Rui-Fang; Levine, Alice C; Kirschenbaum, Alexander; Pan, Jiangping; Wu, Yong; Qin, Weiping; Bauman, William A; Cardozo, Christopher P

    2011-10-14

    Nandrolone, an anabolic steroid, slows denervation-atrophy in rat muscle. The molecular mechanisms responsible for this effect are not well understood. Androgens and anabolic steroids activate Notch signaling in animal models of aging and thereby mitigate sarcopenia. To explore the molecular mechanisms by which nandrolone prevents denervation-atrophy, we investigated the effects of nandrolone on Notch signaling in denervated rat gastrocnemius muscle. Denervation significantly increased Notch activity reflected by elevated levels of nuclear Notch intracellular domain (NICD) and expression of Hey1 (a Notch target gene). Activation was greatest at 7 and 35 days after denervation but remained present at 56 days after denervation. Activation of Notch in denervated muscle was prevented by nandrolone associated with upregulated expression of Numb mRNA and protein. These data demonstrate that denervation activates Notch signaling, and that nandrolone abrogates this response associated with increased expression of Numb, suggesting a potential mechanism by which nandrolone reduces denervation-atrophy.

  14. 19F-magnetic resonance spectroscopy and chemical shift imaging for schizophrenic patients using haloperidol decanoate.

    PubMed

    Sassa, Takeshi; Suhara, Tetsuya; Ikehira, Hiroo; Obata, Takayuki; Girard, Franck; Tanada, Shuji; Okubo, Yoshiro

    2002-12-01

    Haloperidol decanoate is widely used in the maintenance treatment of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, but knowledge concerning its pharmacokinetics at the injected region is very limited. Because the chemical structure of haloperidol contains fluorine, in vivo 19F-magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy (repetition time (TR) = 1 s) and chemical shift imaging (CSI; TR = 1 s, pixel size = 15 x 15 mm) were performed in schizophrenic patients who were treated with haloperidol decanoate (three men and one woman) to measure its diachronic change at the injection point and visualize its local distribution after intramuscular injection. 19F signals (T1 time = 365 ms) were obtained at the haloperidol decanoate-injected region. The decrease rate of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by 19F-MR spectroscopy seemed large in comparison with that of the plasma haloperidol concentration. The distribution was clearly visualized by 19F-CSI for a few days after the injection, but after 1 week could no longer be seen. Although the slow-release characteristics of depot neuroleptics have been explained by the slow diffusion of esterified neuroleptics from the oil vehicle, this result may suggest that there are other mechanisms involved in maintaining the plasma haloperidol concentration. In vivo 19F-MR spectroscopy and CSI are potentially applicable for the pharmacokinetic analysis of haloperidol and other drugs containing fluorine in their structure.

  15. Nandrolone reduces activation of Notch signaling in denervated muscle associated with increased Numb expression

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xin-Hua; Yao, Shen; Qiao, Rui-Fang; Levine, Alice C.; Kirschenbaum, Alexander; Pan, Jiangping; Wu, Yong; Qin, Weiping; Bauman, William A.; Cardozo, Christopher P.

    2011-10-14

    Highlights: {yields} Nerve transection increased Notch signaling in paralyzed muscle. {yields} Nandrolone prevented denervation-induced Notch signaling. {yields} Nandrolone induced the expression of an inhibitor of the Notch signaling, Numb. {yields} Reduction of denervation-induced Notch signaling by nandrolone is likely through upregulation of Numb. -- Abstract: Nandrolone, an anabolic steroid, slows denervation-atrophy in rat muscle. The molecular mechanisms responsible for this effect are not well understood. Androgens and anabolic steroids activate Notch signaling in animal models of aging and thereby mitigate sarcopenia. To explore the molecular mechanisms by which nandrolone prevents denervation-atrophy, we investigated the effects of nandrolone on Notch signaling in denervated rat gastrocnemius muscle. Denervation significantly increased Notch activity reflected by elevated levels of nuclear Notch intracellular domain (NICD) and expression of Hey1 (a Notch target gene). Activation was greatest at 7 and 35 days after denervation but remained present at 56 days after denervation. Activation of Notch in denervated muscle was prevented by nandrolone associated with upregulated expression of Numb mRNA and protein. These data demonstrate that denervation activates Notch signaling, and that nandrolone abrogates this response associated with increased expression of Numb, suggesting a potential mechanism by which nandrolone reduces denervation-atrophy.

  16. Novel Uses for the Anabolic Androgenic Steroids Nandrolone and Oxandrolone in the Management of Male Health.

    PubMed

    Wu, Christopher; Kovac, Jason R

    2016-10-01

    There has recently been renewed interest in novel clinical applications of the anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) testosterone and its synthetic derivatives, particularly given with the rising popularity of testosterone supplementation therapy (TST) for the treatment of male hypogonadism. In this manuscript, we provide a brief review of the history of AAS and discuss clinical applications of two of the more well-known AAS: nandrolone and oxandrolone. Both agents exhibit favorable myotrophic/androgenic ratios and have been investigated for effectiveness in numerous disease states. We also provide a brief synopsis of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) and postulate how these orally active, non-aromatizing, tissue-selective agents might be used in contemporary andrology. Currently, the applications of testosterone alternatives in hypogonadism are limited. However, it is tempting to speculate that these agents may one day become accepted as alternatives, or adjuncts, to the treatment of male hypogonadism.

  17. [13C]Nandrolone excretion in trained athletes: interindividual variability in metabolism.

    PubMed

    Baume, Norbert; Avois, Lidia; Schweizer, Carine; Cardis, Christine; Dvorak, Jiri; Cauderay, Michel; Mangin, Patrice; Saugy, Martial

    2004-02-01

    Nandrolone is one of the most abused anabolic steroids, and its use in doping is increasing, as revealed by numerous positive cases during recent years in various sports. Different authors have reported the possible natural production of nandrolone metabolites in humans, and some of these authors argued that exhaustive exercise could increase nandrolone production in the body or induce dehydration and consequently lead to an increase of nandrolone metabolites in urine. Volunteers (n = 22) ingested two 25-mg doses of [(13)C]nandrolone at 24-h intervals and collected urine specimens for 5 days. The labeled nandrolone metabolites 19-norandrosterone and 19-noretiocholanolone were identified and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Interindividual variability was observed in nandrolone excretion patterns and kinetics, as well as for the noretiocholanolone:norandrosterone ratio. The amounts of nandrolone metabolites measured at the excretion peak varied between 1180 and 38 661 microg/L for norandrosterone and 576 and 12 328 microg/L for noretiocholanolone. At the end of the excretion period, the noretiocholanolone:norandrosterone ratio was sometimes >1. The analysis of numerous spot-urine samples allowed the determination of an acceptable correlation between urinary creatinine and specific gravity for placebo- and steroid-treated individuals: y = 0.0052ln(x) + 1.0178 (r(2) = 0.8142) and y = 0.0068ln(x) + 1.0172 (r(2) = 0.7730), respectively. The excretion kinetics and patterns of labeled nandrolone show interindividual variability. More investigations are currently underway to estimate the influence of exhaustive exercises on excretion of labeled nandrolone metabolites in urine.

  18. ["Heat stroke" and/or "Malin's syndrome" in a patient treated with fluphenazine decanoate].

    PubMed

    Ginestet, D; Plumecoq, C; Farine, K; Brion, S

    1977-01-01

    The role of the "heat stroke" is discussed on account of an observation of hyperthermia (42 degrees C or 107.6 Farenheit) that occured with a patient under fluphenazine decanoate, during the summer 1976 heat wave. Contrary to the American descriptions of heat strokes, the patient kept his perspiring ability. Moreover, there was no hypertonic extrapyramidal syndrome, but hypotonia instead. It is to be noted that the preliminary treatment by the corresponding standard neuroleptic (fluphenazine chlorhydrate) did not prevent that hyperthermia whose evolution was rapidly favorable.

  19. [Acute Paranoid Symptoms Following Intramuscular Injection of Nandrolone

    PubMed

    Teuber, Isabel; Freiwald, Daniel; Volz, Hans-Peter

    2003-05-01

    Affective disorders and impulsivity are quite common when using anabolic substances, in this case-study one of the rather rare cases of a psychotic disorder following the abuse of androgenic steroids is described. A 30-year old formerly healthy white male was admitted as inpatient to psychiatric hospital showing symptoms of anxiety and paranoid ideation. In the last 1,5 years he had consumed androgenic steroids, directly before the onset of the first psychotic symptoms 8 weeks before admission he had received an i. m.-injection of nandrolone. Under therapy with neuroleptics the patient recovered completely within 2 months.

  20. Effects of high-intensity exercises on 13C-nandrolone excretion in trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Baume, Norbert; Avois, Lidia; Sottas, Pierre-Edouard; Dvorak, Jiri; Cauderay, Michel; Mangin, Patrice; Saugy, Martial

    2005-05-01

    Nandrolone is an anabolic steroid widely used in several sports. The numerous nandrolone positive cases in the recent years (International Olympic Committee statistics) led to several studies in the antidoping field. Nevertheless, essential questions pertaining to nandrolone endogenous production, the effects of physical exercise on the excretion of nandrolone metabolites, and contamination from nutritional supplements must still be addressed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of exhaustive exercises on 19-norandrosterone (19-NA) and 19-noretiocholanolone (19-NE) urinary excretion rates after administration of labeled nandrolone. A total of 34 healthy male Caucasian volunteers from the Institute of Sports Sciences and Physical Education (University of Lausanne) applied to participate in the study. All subjects were free from any physical drug addiction and were instructed strictly to avoid any nutritional supplement or steroid before and during the study. The participants were randomly dispatched in 2 groups in a double-blind way: a placebo group and a group treated with C-labeled nandrolone. The urinary concentrations of the 2 main nandrolone metabolites, 19-NA and 19-NE, were measured using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. In addition, clinical parameters such as creatinine, total protein, and beta2-microglobuline levels were determined using immunologic assays. After an oral ingestion of a 25 mg 3,4-C2-nandrolone dose, followed by a second identical dose 24 hours later, 19-NA and 19-NE could be detected in the urine for a period of 6 days after the initial intake. Despite several interesting observations, the measurements were very scattered and did not appear to be significantly influenced by exercise sessions in the athlete population. The results of this study suggest that physical exercise cannot be considered as a reliable parameter that systematically affects nandrolone metabolite concentrations in the urine.

  1. Effect of thyroxine supplementation on the response to perfluoro-n-decanoic acid (PFDA) in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Gutshall, D.M.; Pilcher, G.D.; Langley, A.E.

    1988-01-01

    Perfluoro-n-decanoic acid (PFDA) is a member of a family of perfluorinated carboxylic acids that have found widespread commercial applications as lubricants, surfactants, wetting agents and corrosion inhibitors. The effects of thyroxine (T{sub 4}) supplementation on perfluoro-n-decanoic acid- (PFDA) induced decreases in food consumption, body weight, and body temperature were examined. A dose-response study was carried out with 50-, 100-, 200-, or 250-{mu}g/kg ip doses of T{sub 4} for 7 d prior to PFDA administration, and daily dosing with T{sub 4} was continued for an additional 30 d. From this study a T{sub 4} dose of 200 {mu}g/kg was chosen, and subsequent experiments were conducted with this dose. Supplementation with T{sub 4} at 200 {mu}g/kg daily alleviated the hypophagia but not the severe weight loss and hypothermia produced by PFDA treatment. Their results suggest that some component of the thyroid axis plays a role in feeding behavior. In addition, the PFDA-induced wasting syndrome and hypothermia appear to be unrelated to changes in serum thyroid hormones. The unexpected observation that severe weight loss occurred in the presence of essentially normal food intake suggests that PFDA alters basic cellular metabolic processes.

  2. Ex vivo spontaneous generation of 19-norandrostenedione and nandrolone detected in equine plasma and urine.

    PubMed

    Guan, Fuyu; Uboh, Cornelius E; Soma, Lawrence R; You, Youwen; Li, Xiaoqing; McDonnell, Sue

    2012-01-01

    19-Norandrostenedione (NAED) and nandrolone are anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs). Nandrolone was regarded solely as a synthetic AAS until the 1980s when trace concentrations of apparently endogenous nandrolone were detected in urine samples obtained from intact male horses (stallions). Since then, its endogenous origin has been reported in boars and bulls; endogenous NAED and nandrolone have been identified in plasma and urine samples collected from stallions. More recently, however, it was suggested that NAED and nandrolone detected in urine samples from stallions are primarily artifacts due to the analytical procedure. The present study was undertaken to determine whether NAED and nandrolone detected in plasma and urine samples collected from stallions are truly endogenous or artifacts from sample processing. To answer this question, fresh plasma and urine samples from ≥8 stallions were analyzed for the two AASs, soon after collection, by liquid chromatography hyphenated to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). NAED and nandrolone were not detected in fresh plasma samples but detected in the same samples post storage. Concentrations of both AASs increased with storage time, and the increases were greater at a higher storage temperature (37°C versus 4°C, and ambient temperature versus 4°C). Although NAED was detected in some fresh stallion urine samples, its concentration (<407 pg/mL) was far lower (<0.4%) than that in the same samples post storage (at ambient temperature for 15 days). Nandrolone was not detected in most of fresh urine samples but detected in the same samples post storage. Based on these results, it is concluded that all NAED and nandrolone detected in stored plasma samples of stallions and most of them in the stored urine samples are not from endogenous origins but spontaneously generated during sample storage, most likely from spontaneous decarboxylation of androstenedione-19-oic acid and testosterone-19-oic acid. To our knowledge, it is

  3. Plasma concentrations and urinary excretion of nandrolone and/or its metabolites after intramuscular injection of nandrolone phenylpropionate to horses.

    PubMed

    Chapman, D I; Close, P M; Moss, M S; Snow, D H

    1982-07-01

    A radioimmunological method was used as a screening procedure to determine the period of detection or "clearance time", for the horse, of therapeutic doses of the synthetic anabolic steroid nandrolone phenylpropionate. Seven horses, either at rest or being exercised, were given a course of weekly intramuscular injections of the steroid. On the separate occasion, some of the horses were given a single intramuscular injection of the same compound. The weekly injections maintained a high plasma concentration of nandrolone and/or metabolites. The mean (+/- sd) period of detection in plasma of these compounds was 23 (+/- 2) days (range 21 to 25) in resting horses and 20 (+/- 6) days (range 14 to 27) in exercised animals. The mean period of detection in urine was 25 (+/- 7) days (range 16 to 32) and 25 (+/- 12) days (range 9 to 38) for resting and exercised horses, respectively. After a single intramuscular injection to resting horses, the mean periods of detection were 12(+/- 2) days (range 9 to 15) and 13 (+/- 2) days (range 11 to 16) in plasma and urine, respectively. In all experiments there was considerable individual variation in the time taken for the plasma and urine concentrations to return to pre-dose values. This variation was particularly marked in the urine of exercised horses given a course of injections. With horses in training, this period may be over 5 weeks, a period approaching the minimum of 42 days advocated by the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons that the therapeutic use of anabolic steroids should be discontinued before racing.

  4. Effectiveness of long-acting antipsychotics in clinical practice: 2. Effects of antipsychotic polypharmacy on risperidone long-acting injection and zuclopenthixol decanoate

    PubMed Central

    Cordiner, Matthew; Shajahan, Polash; McAvoy, Sarah; Bashir, Muhammad; Taylor, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Antipsychotic polypharmacy (APP) is common clinical practice. Theoretically, APP runs the risk of additional side effects, drug interactions, adherence and cost. A limited evidence base is emerging to support the effectiveness of APP in clinical practice. Our companion paper highlighted the extent of APP alongside commonly prescribed long-acting antipsychotic injections (LAIs). We aimed to examine the effects of APP on discontinuation rates and Clinical Global Impression (CGI) outcomes in patients commenced on risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI) and zuclopenthixol decanoate. Method: LAI-naïve patients commenced on RLAI (n = 102) and zuclopenthixol decanoate(n = 105) were identified using our electronic patient record (running from 2002) within NHS Lanarkshire, Scotland, UK. This was a retrospective, electronic case note review with an 18-month follow up. Patient groups were divided into those receiving the LAI as the sole antipsychotic and those who were receiving additional oral antipsychotic polypharmacy (APP) for at least 50% of the duration of the treatment with their LAI. Kaplan–Meier statistics were calculated for discontinuation rates. CGI severity and improvement scores were retrospectively assigned by the investigating team. Results: Antipsychotic polypharmacy occurred with RLAI (37%) and zuclopenthixol decanoate (46%) and was associated with lower discontinuation rates (statistical significant with zuclopenthixol for any cause and adverse effects discontinuation). APP had no adverse outcomes on hospital admissions or CGI ratings. Patients on APP did not have more severe, chronic or treatment resistant illnesses. Conclusions: For RLAI and zuclopenthixol decanoate, APP had some favourable outcomes when examining discontinuation rates for any cause, and adverse effects. This was unexpected as we had considered APP would signal illness chronicity and severity and be associated with increased adverse effects resulting in early

  5. Monitoring the endogenous steroid profile disruption in urine and blood upon nandrolone administration: An efficient and innovative strategy to screen for nandrolone abuse in entire male horses.

    PubMed

    Kaabia, Z; Dervilly-Pinel, G; Popot, M A; Bailly-Chouriberry, L; Plou, P; Bonnaire, Y; Le Bizec, B

    2014-04-01

    Nandrolone (17β-hydroxy-4-estren-3-one) is amongst the most misused endogenous steroid hormones in entire male horses. The detection of such a substance is challenging with regard to its endogenous presence. The current international threshold level for nandrolone misuse is based on the urinary concentration ratio of 5α-estrane-3β,17α-diol (EAD) to 5(10)-estrene-3β,17α-diol (EED). This ratio, however, can be influenced by a number of factors due to existing intra- and inter-variability standing, respectively, for the variation occurring in endogenous steroids concentration levels in a single subject and the variation in those same concentration levels observed between different subjects. Targeting an efficient detection of nandrolone misuse in entire male horses, an analytical strategy was set up in order to profile a group of endogenous steroids in nandrolone-treated and non-treated equines. Experiment plasma and urine samples were steadily collected over more than three months from a stallion administered with nandrolone laurate (1 mg/kg). Control plasma and urine samples were collected monthly from seven non-treated stallions over a one-year period. A large panel of steroids of interest (n = 23) were extracted from equine urine and plasma samples using a C18 cartridge. Following a methanolysis step, liquid-liquid and solid-phase extractions purifications were performed before derivatization and analysis on gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) for quantification. Statistical processing of the collected data permitted to establish statistical models capable of discriminating control samples from those collected during the three months following administration. Furthermore, these statistical models succeeded in predicting the compliance status of additional samples collected from racing horses. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Muscle protein turnover in rats treated with corticosterone (CC) or/and nandrolone decanoate (ND) and fed an adequate or a low-protein diet

    SciTech Connect

    Santidrian, S.; Cuevillas, F.; Goena, M.; Larralde, J.

    1986-03-01

    In order to investigate the possible antagonistic effect between glucocorticoids and androgens on muscle protein turnover, the authors have measured the fractional rates of gastrocnemius muscle protein synthesis (k/sub s/) and degradation (k/sub d/) by the constant-intravenous-infusion method using L-//sup 14/C/-tyrosine in rats receiving via s.c. per 100 g b.wt. 10 mg of CC, or 2 mg of ND or CC+ND at the indicated doses, and fed either an 18% or 5% protein diets over a period of 5 days. As an additional index of protein synthesis, RNA activity (g of synthesized protein/day/g RNA) was determined as well. Results showed that as compared to vehicle-injected animals fed the adequate diet, CC-treated rats exhibited a reduction of muscle k/sub d/, while ND-treated rats had an outstanding increase of muscle k/sub s/. However, rats receiving CC+ND showed k/sub s/ and k/sub d/ values similar to those displayed by control animals. Nevertheless, when the steroids were injected to rats fed the low-protein diet, CC has a catabolic effect on muscle protein but by reducing k/sub s/, while the anabolic action of ND is still displayed but by a significant reduction of muscle k/sub d/. CC+ND given to these protein-deficient rats caused an increase in muscle k/sub s/ and a reduction in k/sub d/. These results might indicate that, at least in part, ND antagonizes the catabolic action of high doses of CC on muscle protein metabolism.

  7. Genomic and lipidomic actions of nandrolone on detached rotator cuff muscle in sheep.

    PubMed

    Flück, Martin; Ruoss, Severin; Möhl, Christoph B; Valdivieso, Paola; Benn, Mario C; von Rechenberg, Brigitte; Laczko, Endre; Hu, Junmin; Wieser, Karl; Meyer, Dominik C; Gerber, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Reversal of fatty infiltration of pennate rotator cuff muscle after tendon release is hitherto impossible. The administration of nandrolone starting at the time of tendon release prevents the increase in fat content, but does not revert established fatty infiltration. We hypothesised that tendon release and myotendinous retraction cause alterations in lipid related gene expression leading to fatty muscle infiltration, which can be suppressed by nandrolone through its genomic actions if applied immediately after tendon release. The effects of infraspinatus tendon release and subsequent tendon repair at 16 weeks were studied in six Swiss Alpine sheep. In the interventional groups, 150mg nandrolone was administered weekly after tendon release until sacrifice (N22W, n=6) or starting at the time of repair (N6W, n=6). Infraspinatus volume, composition, expressed transcripts, lipids, and selected proteins were analyzed at baseline, 16 and 22 weeks. Tendon release reduced infraspinatus volume by 22% and increased fat content from 11% to 38%. These changes were not affected by repair. Fatty infiltration was associated with up-regulation of 227 lipid species, and increased levels of the adipocyte differentiation marker PPARG2 (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2). Nandrolone abrogated lipid accumulation, halved the loss in fiber area percentage, and up-regulated androgen receptor levels and transcript expression in the N22W but not the N6W group. The results document that nandrolone mitigates muscle-to-fat transformation after tendon release via a general down-regulation of lipid accumulation concomitantly with up-regulated expression of its nuclear receptor and downstream transcripts in skeletal muscle. Reduced responsiveness of retracted muscle to nandrolone as observed in the N6W group is reflected by a down-regulated transcript response. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Neurotoxic properties of the anabolic androgenic steroids nandrolone and methandrostenolone in primary neuronal cultures.

    PubMed

    Caraci, Filippo; Pistarà, V; Corsaro, A; Tomasello, Flora; Giuffrida, Maria Laura; Sortino, Maria Angela; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Copani, Agata

    2011-04-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) abuse is associated with multiple neurobehavioral disturbances. The sites of action and the neurobiological sequels of AAS abuse are unclear at present. We investigated whether two different AASs, nandrolone and methandrostenolone, could affect neuronal survival in culture. The endogenous androgenic steroid testosterone was used for comparison. Both testosterone and nandrolone were neurotoxic at micromolar concentrations, and their effects were prevented by blockade of androgen receptors (ARs) with flutamide. Neuronal toxicity developed only over a 48-hr exposure to the steroids. The cell-impermeable analogues testosterone-BSA and nandrolone-BSA, which preferentially target membrane-associated ARs, were also neurotoxic in a time-dependent and flutamide-sensitive manner. Testosterone-BSA and nandrolone-BSA were more potent than their parent compounds, suggesting that membrane-associated ARs were the relevant sites for the neurotoxic actions of the steroids. Unlike testosterone and nandrolone, toxicity by methandrostenolone and methandrostenolone-BSA was insensitive to flutamide, but it was prevented by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist RU-486. Methandrostenolone-BSA was more potent than the parent compound, suggesting that its toxicity relied on the preferential activation of putative membrane-associated GRs. Consistently with the evidence that membrane-associated GRs can mediate rapid effects, a brief challenge with methandrostenolone-BSA was able to promote neuronal toxicity. Activation of putative membrane steroid receptors by nontoxic (nanomolar) concentrations of either nandrolone-BSA or methandrostenolone-BSA became sufficient to increase neuronal susceptibility to the apoptotic stimulus provided by β-amyloid (the main culprit of AD). We speculate that AAS abuse might facilitate the onset or progression of neurodegenerative diseases not usually linked to drug abuse.

  9. Decanoic acid reverse micelle-based coacervates for the microextraction of bisphenol A from canned vegetables and fruits.

    PubMed

    García-Prieto, Amalia; Lunar, Loreto; Rubio, Soledad; Pérez-Bendito, Dolores

    2008-06-09

    Decanoic acid reverse micelle-based coacervates were proposed for the extraction of bisphenol A (BPA) from canned vegetables and fruits prior to its determination by liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection at lambda(exc) = 276 nm and lambda(em) = 306 nm. The procedure involved the extraction of minute quantities (300-700 mg) of homogenized food sample with an aqueous solution containing 10% of THF and 0.5% of decanoic acid, conditions under which the coacervate (around 340 microL) formed in situ and instantaneously. The overall sample treatment, which included extraction and centrifugation, took about 25-30 min, and several samples could be simultaneously treated using conventional lab equipment. No clean-up or solvent evaporation were required. Extraction efficiencies mainly depended on the decanoic acid and THF concentration in the aqueous solution and were not affected by the pH or the temperature in the ranges studied (1-4 and 20-60 degrees C, respectively). Recoveries in samples ranged between about 81 and 96%. The precision of the method, expressed as relative standard deviation, was about 3% and the quantitation limit was around 9 ng g(-1), which was far below the current specific migration limit (SML) set for BPA by the EU Commission (600 ng g(-1)). The method was successfully applied to the determination of BPA in the solid content of canned fruit salad, peaches in syrup, mango slices, red peppers, sweetcorn, green beans and peas. BPA was present at concentrations in the range from 7.8 to 24.4 ng g(-1) in canned fruits and from 55 to 103 ng g(-1) in canned vegetables.

  10. Nandrolone, an anabolic steroid, stabilizes Numb protein through inhibition of mdm2 in C2C12 myoblasts.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin-Hua; Yao, Shen; Levine, Alice C; Kirschenbaum, Alexander; Pan, Jiangping; Wu, Yong; Qin, Weiping; Collier, Lauren; Bauman, William A; Cardozo, Christopher P

    2012-01-01

    Nandrolone, an anabolic steroid, slows denervation atrophy of rat muscle, prevents denervation-induced nuclear accumulation of intracellular domain of the Notch receptor, and elevates expression of Numb. Numb acts as an inhibitor of Notch signaling and promotes myogenic differentiation of satellite cells. Turnover of Numb is regulated by mdm2, an E3 ubiquitin ligase. With these considerations in mind, we investigated the effects of nandrolone on the expression of Numb and mdm2 proteins and determined the effect of mdm2 on nandrolone-induced alterations in Numb protein in C2C12 myoblasts. When C2C12 cells were cultured in a medium favoring differentiation (Dulbecco modified Eagle medium containing 2% horse serum), nandrolone up-regulated Numb protein levels in a time-dependent manner and prolonged Numb protein half-life from 10 to 18 hours. In contrast, nandrolone reduced the expression of mdm2 protein. To determine whether the decreased mdm2 expression induced by nandrolone was responsible for the increased levels and prolonged half-life of Numb protein in this cell line, mdm2-small interfering RNA (siRNA) was employed to inhibit mdm2 expression. Compared to cells transfected with scrambled siRNA (negative control), transfection with mdm2-siRNA increased basal Numb protein expression but abolished the further increase in Numb protein levels by nandrolone. In addition, transfection of mdm2-siRNA mimicked the effect of nandrolone to prolong the half-life of Numb protein. Moreover, when C2C12 cells were forced to overexpress mdm2, there was a significant decline in the expression of both basal and inducible Numb protein. Our data suggest that nandrolone, by a novel mechanism for this agent in a muscle cell type, increases Numb protein levels in C2C12 myoblasts by stabilizing Numb protein against degradation, at least in part, via suppression of mdm2 expression.

  11. Differential alterations in gene expression profiles contribute to time-dependent effects of nandrolone to prevent denervation atrophy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Anabolic steroids, such as nandrolone, slow muscle atrophy, but the mechanisms responsible for this effect are largely unknown. Their effects on muscle size and gene expression depend upon time, and the cause of muscle atrophy. Administration of nandrolone for 7 days beginning either concomitantly with sciatic nerve transection (7 days) or 29 days later (35 days) attenuated denervation atrophy at 35 but not 7 days. We reasoned that this model could be used to identify genes that are regulated by nandrolone and slow denervation atrophy, as well as genes that might explain the time-dependence of nandrolone effects on such atrophy. Affymetrix microarrays were used to profile gene expression changes due to nandrolone at 7 and 35 days and to identify major gene expression changes in denervated muscle between 7 and 35 days. Results Nandrolone selectively altered expression of 124 genes at 7 days and 122 genes at 35 days, with only 20 genes being regulated at both time points. Marked differences in biological function of genes regulated by nandrolone at 7 and 35 days were observed. At 35, but not 7 days, nandrolone reduced mRNA and protein levels for FOXO1, the mTOR inhibitor REDD2, and the calcineurin inhibitor RCAN2 and increased those for ApoD. At 35 days, correlations between mRNA levels and the size of denervated muscle were negative for RCAN2, and positive for ApoD. Nandrolone also regulated genes for Wnt signaling molecules. Comparison of gene expression at 7 and 35 days after denervation revealed marked alterations in the expression of 9 transcriptional coregulators, including Ankrd1 and 2, and many transcription factors and kinases. Conclusions Genes regulated in denervated muscle after 7 days administration of nandrolone are almost entirely different at 7 versus 35 days. Alterations in levels of FOXO1, and of genes involved in signaling through calcineurin, mTOR and Wnt may be linked to the favorable action of nandrolone on denervated muscle. Marked

  12. The effect of the anabolic steroid, nandrolone, in conditioned place preference and D1 dopamine receptor expression in adolescent and adult mice.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Rivera, Freddyson J; Natal-Albelo, Eduardo J; Martínez, Namyr A; Orozco-Vega, Roberto A; Muñiz-Seda, Oscar A; Barreto-Estrada, Jennifer L

    2015-04-01

    Adolescents and adults engage in anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) misuse seeking their anabolic effects, even though later on, many could develop neuropsychological dependence. Previously, we have shown that nandrolone induces conditioned place preference (CPP) in adult male mice. However, whether nandrolone induces CPP during adolescence remains unknown. In this study, the CPP test was used to determine the rewarding properties of nandrolone (7.5 mg/kg) in adolescent mice. In addition, since D1 dopamine receptors (D1DR) are critical for reward-related processes, the effect of nandrolone on the expression of D1DR in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) was investigated by Western blot analysis. Similar to our previous results, nandrolone induced CPP in adults. However, in adolescents, nandrolone failed to produce place preference. At the molecular level, nandrolone decreased D1DR expression in the NAc only in adult mice. Our data suggest that nandrolone may not be rewarding in adolescents at least during short-term use. The lack of nandrolone rewarding effects in adolescents may be due, in part to differences in D1DR expression during development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Experimental and Kinetic Modeling Study of Extinction and Ignition of Methyl Decanoate in Laminar Nonpremixed Flows

    SciTech Connect

    Seshadri, K; Lu, T; Herbinet, O; Humer, S; Niemann, U; Pitz, W J; Law, C K

    2008-01-09

    Methyl decanoate is a large methyl ester that can be used as a surrogate for biodiesel. In this experimental and computational study, the combustion of methyl decanoate is investigated in nonpremixed, nonuniform flows. Experiments are performed employing the counterflow configuration with a fuel stream made up of vaporized methyl decanoate and nitrogen, and an oxidizer stream of air. The mass fraction of fuel in the fuel stream is measured as a function of the strain rate at extinction, and critical conditions of ignition are measured in terms of the temperature of the oxidizer stream as a function of the strain rate. It is not possible to use a fully detailed mechanism for methyl decanoate to simulate the counterflow flames because the number of species and reactions is too large to employ with current flame codes and computer resources. Therefore a skeletal mechanism was deduced from a detailed mechanism of 8555 elementary reactions and 3036 species using 'directed relation graph' method. This skeletal mechanism has only 713 elementary reactions and 125 species. Critical conditions of ignition were calculated using this skeletal mechanism and are found to agree well with experimental data. The predicted strain rate at extinction is found to be lower than the measurements. In general, the methyl decanoate mechanism provides a realistic kinetic tool for simulation of biodiesel fuels.

  14. Inhibition of Yeast Growth by Octanoic and Decanoic Acids Produced during Ethanolic Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Viegas, Cristina A.; Rosa, M. Fernanda; Sá-Correia, Isabel; Novais, Júlio M.

    1989-01-01

    The inhibition of growth by octanoic or decanoic acids, two subproducts of ethanolic fermentation, was evaluated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kluyveromyces marxianus in association with ethanol, the main product of fermentation. In both strains, octanoic and decanoic acids, at concentrations up to 16 and 8 mg/liter, respectively, decreased the maximum specific growth rate and the biomass yield at 30°C as an exponential function of the fatty acid concentration and increased the duration of growth latency. These toxic effects increased with a decrease in pH in the range of 5.4 to 3.0, indicating that the undissociated form is the toxic molecule. Decanoic acid was more toxic than octanoic acid. The concentrations of octanoic and decanoic acids were determined during the ethanolic fermentation (30°C) of two laboratory media (mineral and complex) by S. cerevisiae and of Jerusalem artichoke juice by K. marxianus. Based on the concentrations detected (0.7 to 23 mg/liter) and the kinetics of growth inhibition, the presence of octanoic and decanoic acids cannot be ignored in the evaluation of the overall inhibition of ethanolic fermentation. PMID:16347826

  15. Nandrolone (Deca Durabolin) disappears in U.S., generic may return in July.

    PubMed

    James, John S

    2002-06-28

    The last regularly available version of nandrolone, a drug widely used to treat AIDS wasting, was suddenly withdrawn in the U.S. in May, and has largely disappeared from pharmacies. A new generic may be introduced this month; meanwhile, a compounded version may be available. We suggest some Web sites to check for background information if your doctor or pharmacy has trouble getting this drug.

  16. Nandrolone androgenic hormone presents genotoxic effects in different cells of mice.

    PubMed

    do Carmo, Carolina Almeida; Gonçalves, Álvaro Luiz Martini; Salvadori, Daisy Maria Fávero; Maistro, Edson Luis

    2012-10-01

    Nandrolone is an androgenic-anabolic steroid (AAS) with diverse medical applications but taken indiscriminately by some to rapidly increase muscle mass. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic and clastogenic potential of nandrolone (deca-durabolin®) in vivo in different cells of mice, using the comet assay and micronucleus test, respectively. The animals received subcutaneous injection of the three doses of the steroid (1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 mg kg⁻¹ body weight). Cytotoxicity was assessed by scoring 200 consecutive total polychromatic (PCE) and normochromatic (NCE) erythrocytes (PCE-NCE ratio). The results showed a significant dose-related increase in the frequency of DNA damage in leukocytes, liver, bone marrow, brain and testicle cells at the three tested doses and a significant increase of the micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes at all tested doses. Under our experimental conditions, the nandrolone steroid hormone showed genotoxic and clastogenic effects when administered subcutaneously to mice.

  17. Simultaneous determination of nandrolone, testosterone, and methyltestosterone by multi-immunoaffinity column and capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xiao-Hua; Zhang, Li-Wei; Zhang, Xin-Xiang

    2008-08-01

    A multitarget antibody immunoaffinity column was proposed for the purification and enrichment of nandrolone, testosterone, and methyltestosterone from urine. Nandrolone-3-site substituted antigen was designed and synthesized and the polyclonal antibody was prepared with immunizing rabbits. The stationary phase of the immunoaffinity column was synthesized by covalently bonding the antibodies specific to nandrolone, testosterone, and methyltestosterone onto CNBr-actived Sepharose 4B. The analytes of interest were extracted with a methanol/water mixture in one step. The immunoaffinity column showed high affinity and high selectivity to a class of structurally related compounds. The elution was then transferred to a micellar electrokinetic CE system with a running buffer of sodium borate and sodium cholate for separation and determination. Recoveries of the three steroids from complex matrix were 88-94% with RSD values less than 5.2%. Optimization of the immunoaffinity column purification was achieved and the feasibility of the technique for the analysis of steroid hormone was discussed. The results indicated that the combination of multi-immunoaffinity column and CE was an effective technique, which was rapid, simple, and sensitive for the assay of steroids.

  18. Effects of Nandrolone and TGF-beta1 in growing rabbits with osteopenia induced by over-supplementation of calcium and vitamin D3.

    PubMed

    Aithal, H P; Kinjavdekar, P; Amarpal; Pawde, A M; Singh, G R; Pattanaik, A K; Varshney, V P; Goswami, T K; Setia, H C

    2009-04-01

    The study was undertaken to find out the effects of over supplementation of dietary calcium and vitamin D3 on the mineralization of growing skeleton, taking rabbit as an animal model; further to study the effects of Nandrolone deconoate and TGF-beta1 on the mineralization of osteopenic bones. Twenty four New Zealand White rabbits of either sex, 60 day old, were randomly divided in 4 equal groups, A, B, C and D. The animals of groups B, C and D were administered with oral supplementation of calcium (2000 mg/kg of standard rabbit feed) and vit-D3 (1000 IU/kg of standard feed) for 60 days. The animals of group A were given standard ration without any supplementation. After 60 days, the Ca-vit.D3 supplementation was discontinued; and the animals of group C were administered with TGF-beta1 (10 ng, i.m.) once in every three days and animals of group D were given Nandrolone deconoate (10 mg, i.m.) once every week for 30 days, whereas in animals of group B, no treatment was given. All the animals were evaluated based on different observations like body weight, radiographic observations, circulating biochemical and hormone profile (plasma Ca, IP, AP, OC and iPTH) every 15 days up to 60 days after initiation of treatment. The results indicated that the body weight of rabbits in different groups increased gradually and steadily at different intervals till the end of observation period, however, the increase was non-significantly more in group D. The CI in group A increased gradually at different intervals; whereas in groups B, C and D, there was no appreciable increase in the CI during the period of Ca-vit.D3 supplementation, suggesting development of osteopenia. Treatment with TGF-beta1 did not increase the CI significantly, whereas Nandrolone treatment resulted in significant increase in the CI on days 45 and 60. The plasma Ca levels showed slight but gradual increase from day 0 to 60 in almost all groups. Subsequently also, there was no marked change at different intervals

  19. 40 CFR 180.1225 - Decanoic acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD... exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of decanoic acid in or on all raw... acid (up to 170 ppm per application) on food contact surfaces such as equipment, pipelines, tanks,...

  20. 40 CFR 180.1225 - Decanoic acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD... exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of decanoic acid in or on all raw... acid (up to 170 ppm per application) on food contact surfaces such as equipment, pipelines, tanks,...

  1. 40 CFR 180.1225 - Decanoic acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD... exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of decanoic acid in or on all raw... acid (up to 170 ppm per application) on food contact surfaces such as equipment, pipelines, tanks,...

  2. 40 CFR 180.1225 - Decanoic acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Decanoic acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1225 Section 180.1225 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN...

  3. The ketogenic diet component decanoic acid increases mitochondrial citrate synthase and complex I activity in neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Sean David; Kanabus, Marta; Anderson, Glenn; Hargreaves, Iain P; Rutherford, Tricia; O'Donnell, Maura; Cross, J Helen; Rahman, Shamima; Eaton, Simon; Heales, Simon J R

    2014-05-01

    The Ketogenic diet (KD) is an effective treatment with regards to treating pharmaco-resistant epilepsy. However, there are difficulties around compliance and tolerability. Consequently, there is a need for refined/simpler formulations that could replicate the efficacy of the KD. One of the proposed hypotheses is that the KD increases cellular mitochondrial content which results in elevation of the seizure threshold. Here, we have focussed on the medium-chain triglyceride form of the diet and the observation that plasma octanoic acid (C8) and decanoic acid (C10) levels are elevated in patients on the medium-chain triglyceride KD. Using a neuronal cell line (SH-SY5Y), we demonstrated that 250-μM C10, but not C8, caused, over a 6-day period, a marked increase in the mitochondrial enzyme, citrate synthase along with complex I activity and catalase activity. Increased mitochondrial number was also indicated by electron microscopy. C10 is a reported peroxisome proliferator activator receptor γ agonist, and the use of a peroxisome proliferator activator receptor γ antagonist was shown to prevent the C10-mediated increase in mitochondrial content and catalase. C10 may mimic the mitochondrial proliferation associated with the KD and raises the possibility that formulations based on this fatty acid could replace a more complex diet. We propose that decanoic acid (C10) results in increased mitochondrial number. Our data suggest that this may occur via the activation of the PPARγ receptor and its target genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis. This finding could be of significant benefit to epilepsy patients who are currently on a strict ketogenic diet. Evidence that C10 on its own can modulate mitochondrial number raises the possibility that a simplified and less stringent C10-based diet could be developed.

  4. Chronic administration of nandrolone increases susceptibility to morphine dependence without correlation with LVV-hemorphin 7 in rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, Eagle Yi-Kung; Chen, Yuan-Hao; Huang, Tzu-Ying; Chen, Ying-Jie; Chow, Lok-Hi

    2016-10-01

    LVV-hemorphin 7 (LVVYPWTQRF; LVV-H7), an N-terminal fragment of the β-chain of hemoglobin cleaved by cathepsin D/pepsin, is an atypical endogenous opioid peptide that is found in high concentration in blood. LVV-H7 acts as a μ-opioid agonist and an inhibitor of insulin-regulated aminopeptidase. Subchronic administration of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been clinically proven to induce the synthesis of erythrocytes and increase hemoglobin concentrations. Patients with a history of AAS abuse are more susceptible to opioid abuse. We hypothesized that this association could be at least partially attributed to the sensitization of the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic pathway by LVV-H7. Using the conditioned place preference test and neurochemical analysis, we investigated the possible mechanism underlying the effect of chronic nandrolone administration on morphine-induced reward and its correlation with LVV-H7 in rats. Either LVV-H7 may not sensitize the rewarding neural circuits or its inhibition on locomotor activity could mask reward-related behaviors. Chronic nandrolone pretreatment indeed caused a significant reward by low dose morphine, which did not cause any reward in control rats. However, coadministration of anti-LVV-H7 antiserum with nandrolone did not block this effect. This may rule out the possibility of the involvement of LVV-H7 in the action of nandrolone to intensify morphine-induced reward. Moreover, the serum level of LVV-H7 was mildly increased in response to chronic nandrolone administration in our animal model. According to the current clinical observations, we may conclude that the chronic administration of nandrolone can increase susceptibility to morphine dependence, but that this effect is not related to elevated LVV-H7. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Detection of nandrolone metabolites in urine after a football game in professional and amateur players: a Bayesian comparison.

    PubMed

    Robinson, N; Taroni, F; Saugy, M; Ayotte, C; Mangin, P; Dvorak, J

    2001-11-01

    Nandrolone (19-nortestosterone) is a widely used anabolic steroid in sports where strength plays an essential role. Once nandrolone has been metabolised, two major metabolites are excreted in urine, 19-norandrosterone (NA) and 19-noretiocholanolone (NE). In 1997, in France, quite a few sportsmen had concentrations of 19-norandrosterone very close to the IOC cut off limit (2ng/ml). At that time, a debate took place about the capability of the human male body to produce by itself these metabolites without any intake of nandrolone or related compounds. The International Football Federation (FIFA) was very concerned with this problematic, especially because the World Cup was about to start in France. In this respect, a statistical study was held with all football players from the first and second divisions of the Swiss Football National League. All players gave a urine sample after effort and around 6% of them showed traces of 19-norandrosterone. These results were compared with amateur football players (control group) and around 6% of them had very small amounts of 19-norandrosterone and/or 19-noretiocholanolone in urine after effort, whereas none of them had detectable traces of one or the other metabolite before effort. The origin of these compounds in urine after a strenuous physical activity is still unknown, but three hypotheses can be put forward. First, an endogenous production of nandrolone metabolites takes place. Second, nandrolone metabolites are released from the fatty tissues after an intake of nandrolone, some related compounds or some contaminated nutritive supplements. Finally, the sportsmen may have taken something during or just before the football game.

  6. [Acute paranoid psychotic symptoms after i.m. injection of nandrolone].

    PubMed

    Teuber, Isabel; Freiwald, Daniel; Volz, Hans-Peter

    2003-05-01

    Affective disorders and impulsivity are quite common when using anabolic substances, in this case-study one of the rather rare cases of a psychotic disorder following the abuse of androgenic steroids is described. A 30-year old formerly healthy white male was admitted as inpatient to psychiatric hospital showing symptoms of anxiety and paranoid ideation. In the last 1.5 years he had consumed androgenic steroids, directly before the onset of the first psychotic symptoms 8 weeks before admission he had received an i.m.-injection of nandrolone. Under therapy with neuroleptics the patient recovered completely within 2 months.

  7. Update on nandrolone and norsteroids: how endogenous or xenobiotic are these substances?

    PubMed

    Bricout, V; Wright, F

    2004-06-01

    Norsteroids are xenobiotics with androgenic and anabolic properties known since as far back as the 1930s. In doping controls, the use of the banned xenobiotic norsteroids is detected in the competitor's urines by the measurement of norandrosterone (19-NA) and noretiocholanolone (19-NE), which are the main metabolites for nandrolone (NT) and most norsteroids with anabolic properties. In 1996, the IOC subcommission "Doping and Biochemistry of Sport" informed the Heads of the "IOC Accredited Laboratories" that the recommended cut-off limit for reporting an offence was to be 1-2 ng ml(-1) urine for either 19-NA or 19-NE. We will discuss how technical progress in gas chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry permitted a dramatic increase in sensitivity with a detection limit of 1 pg ml(-1) urine, or less, and an assay limit of 20-50 pg ml(-1) urine, for either 19-NA or 19-NE. As a paradox, norsteroids have been known for decades as not only xenobiotics but also obligatory endogenous intermediates in the biosynthesis of estrogens from androgens in all species, man included. It is this biochemical observation which fed the active scientific and medical controversy initiated in 1998 over the possibly endogenous production of nandrolone and metabolites well over the new IOC's recommended cut-off limit of 2 ng ml(-1) urine. Notwithstanding the particular technical difficulties attached, we will provide data and discuss the minute endogenous levels detected and measured in man either at rest, after performance or training and compare them to the relatively high levels reported in male athlete's doping controls today. We will also discuss data on the pharmacological effects of some contraceptive therapies containing norsteroids in women. In view of the well-documented noxious effects repeatedly observed after anabolic steroid misuse, the confirmation and implementation of technically proven procedures for reporting norsteroid abuse in sports seems an

  8. Antinociceptive effects of long-acting nalbuphine decanoate after intramuscular administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; Braun, Jana M; Steagall, Paulo V M; Keuler, Nicholas S; Heath, Timothy D; Krugner-Higby, Lisa A; Brown, Carolyn S; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the thermal antinociceptive effects and duration of action of nalbuphine decanoate after IM administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 10 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots of unknown sex. Nalbuphine decanoate (33.7 mg/kg) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution was administered IM in a randomized complete crossover experimental design (periods 1 and 2). Foot withdrawal threshold to a noxious thermal stimulus was used to evaluate responses. Baseline thermal withdrawal threshold was recorded 1 hour before drug or saline solution administration, and thermal foot withdrawal threshold measurements were repeated 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours after drug administration. Nalbuphine decanoate administered IM at a dose of 33.7 mg/kg significantly increased thermal foot withdrawal threshold, compared with results after administration of saline solution during period 2, and also caused a significant change in withdrawal threshold for up to 12 hours, compared with baseline values. Nalbuphine decanoate increased the foot withdrawal threshold to a noxious thermal stimulus in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots for up to 12 hours and provided a longer duration of action than has been reported for other nalbuphine formulations. Further studies with other types of nociceptive stimulation, dosages, and dosing intervals as well as clinical trials are needed to fully evaluate the analgesic effects of nalbuphine decanoate in psittacine birds.

  9. THE ANABOLIC STEROIDS TESTOSTERONE PROPIONATE AND NANDROLONE, BUT NOT 17α-METHYLTESTOSTERONE, INDUCE CONDITIONED PLACE PREFERENCE IN ADULT MICE

    PubMed Central

    Parrilla-Carrero, Jeffrey; Figueroa, Orialis; Lugo, Alejandro; García-Sosa, Rebecca; Brito-Vargas, Paul; Cruz, Beatriz; Rivera, Melanis; Barreto-Estrada, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are often misused by adolescents and athletes. Their effects vary according to chemical structure and metabolism, route of administration, and AAS regimen. In this study, adult C57Bl/6 male mice were systemically exposed to testosterone propionate (TP), nandrolone or 17α-methyltestosterone (17α-meT), type I, type II and type III AAS, respectively, in order to determine the hedonic or aversive properties of each drug. For this purpose, the conditioned place preference (CPP) test was employed at three different AAS doses (0.075, 0.75 and 7.5 mg/kg). Other behavioral domains monitored were light-dark transitions (side changes) and general activity. TP shifted place preference at all doses tested, and nandrolone shifted place preference at 0.75 and 7.5mg/kg, but not at 0.075 mg/kg, the lower dose tested. Conversely, mice receiving 17α-meT did not show alteration in the preference score. The lower dose of nandrolone did modify exploratory based-anxiety showing a decrease in light-dark transitions if compared to vehicle-treated animals, while mice treated with TP or 17α-meT were not affected. Our data suggest that when studying hedonic and rewarding properties of synthetic androgens, distinction has to be made based on type of AAS and metabolism. PMID:19028026

  10. The anabolic steroids testosterone propionate and nandrolone, but not 17alpha-methyltestosterone, induce conditioned place preference in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Parrilla-Carrero, Jeffrey; Figueroa, Orialis; Lugo, Alejandro; García-Sosa, Rebecca; Brito-Vargas, Paul; Cruz, Beatriz; Rivera, Mélanis; Barreto-Estrada, Jennifer L

    2009-02-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are often misused by adolescents and athletes. Their effects vary according to chemical structure and metabolism, route of administration, and AAS regimen. In this study, adult C57Bl/6 male mice were systemically exposed to testosterone propionate (TP), nandrolone or 17alpha-methyltestosterone (17alpha-meT), type I, type II and type III AAS, respectively, in order to determine the hedonic or aversive properties of each drug. For this purpose, the conditioned place preference (CPP) test was employed at three different AAS doses (0.075, 0.75 and 7.5 mg/kg). Other behavioral domains monitored were light-dark transitions (side changes) and general activity. TP shifted place preference at all doses tested, and nandrolone shifted place preference at 0.75 and 7.5 mg/kg, but not at 0.075 mg/kg, the lower dose tested. Conversely, mice receiving 17alpha-meT did not show alteration in the preference score. The lower dose of nandrolone did modify exploratory-based anxiety showing a decrease in light-dark transitions if compared to vehicle-treated animals, while mice treated with TP or 17alpha-meT were not affected. Our data suggest that when studying hedonic and rewarding properties of synthetic androgens, distinction has to be made based on type of AAS and metabolism.

  11. The unusual importance of activity coefficients for micelle solutions illustrated by an osmometry study of aqueous sodium decanoate and aqueous sodium decanoate + sodium chloride solutions.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Poonam; MacNeil, Jennifer A; Bowles, Justine; Leaist, Derek G

    2011-12-28

    Freezing-point and vapor-pressure osmometry data are reported for aqueous sodium decanoate (NaD) solutions and aqueous NaD + NaCl solutions. The derived osmotic coefficients are analyzed with a mass-action model based on the micelle formation reaction qNa(+) + nD(-) = (Na(q)D(n))(q-n) and Guggenheim equations for the micelle and ionic activity coefficients. Stoichiometric activity coefficients of the NaD and NaCl components and the equilibrium constant for micelle formation are evaluated. Illustrating the remarkable but not widely appreciated nonideal behavior of ionic surfactant solutions, the micelle activity coefficient drops to astonishingly low values, below 10(-7) (relative to unity for ideal solutions). The activity coefficients of the Na(+) and D(-) ions, raised to large powers of q and n, reduce calculated extents of micelle formation by up to 15 orders of magnitude. Activity coefficients, frequently omitted from the Gibbs equation, are found to increase the calculated surface excess concentration of NaD by up to an order of magnitude. Inflection points in the extent of micelle formation, used to calculate critical micelle concentration (cmc) lowering caused by added salt, provide unexpected thermodynamic evidence for the elusive second cmc.

  12. The Toxicity of Perfluoro-N-Decanoic Acid and 2,3,7,8- Tetrachlorodibenzo-P-Dioxin in L5178Y Mouse Lymphoma Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    C AFAM RL-TR-82-50 SJP /Ij 7 2f’i THE TOXICITY OF PERFLUORO-N-DECANOIC ACID AND 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN IN L5178Y MOUSE LYMPHOMA CELLS...Report The Toxicity of Perfluoro-n-decanoic Acid and January 80 - nPtmhber 91 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in L5178Y 6. PERFORMING OeG. REPORT...decanoic Acid 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin Toxicology Polyfluorinated acids L5178Y Mouse Lymphoma Cells Cell Culture Erythrocyte Fragility 20

  13. Investigation of methyl decanoate combustion in an optical direct-injection diesel engine

    DOE PAGES

    Cheng, A. S.; Dumitrescu, Cosmin E.; Mueller, Charles J.

    2014-11-24

    In this study, an optically accessible heavy-duty diesel engine was used to investigate the impact of methyl decanoate (MD) on combustion and emissions. A specific goal of the study was to determine if MD could enable soot-free leaner-lifted flame combustion (LLFC) – a mode of mixing-controlled combustion associated with fuel-air equivalence ratios below approximately two. An ultra-low sulfur diesel certification fuel (CF) was used as the baseline fuel, and experiments were conducted at two fuel-injection pressures with three levels of charge-gas dilution. In addition to conventional pressure-based and engine-out emissions measurements, exhaust laser-induced incandescence, in-cylinder natural luminosity (NL), and in-cylindermore » chemiluminescence (CL) diagnostics were used to provide detailed insight into combustion processes.« less

  14. Investigation of methyl decanoate combustion in an optical direct-injection diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, A. S.; Dumitrescu, Cosmin E.; Mueller, Charles J.

    2014-11-24

    In this study, an optically accessible heavy-duty diesel engine was used to investigate the impact of methyl decanoate (MD) on combustion and emissions. A specific goal of the study was to determine if MD could enable soot-free leaner-lifted flame combustion (LLFC) – a mode of mixing-controlled combustion associated with fuel-air equivalence ratios below approximately two. An ultra-low sulfur diesel certification fuel (CF) was used as the baseline fuel, and experiments were conducted at two fuel-injection pressures with three levels of charge-gas dilution. In addition to conventional pressure-based and engine-out emissions measurements, exhaust laser-induced incandescence, in-cylinder natural luminosity (NL), and in-cylinder chemiluminescence (CL) diagnostics were used to provide detailed insight into combustion processes.

  15. Experimental and modeling study of the thermal decomposition of methyl decanoate

    PubMed Central

    Herbinet, Olivier; Glaude, Pierre-Alexandre; Warth, Valérie; Battin-Leclerc, Frédérique

    2013-01-01

    The experimental study of the thermal decomposition of methyl decanoate was performed in a jet-stirred reactor at temperatures ranging from 773 to 1123 K, at residence times between 1 and 4 s, at a pressure of 800 Torr (106.6 kPa) and at high dilution in helium (fuel inlet mole fraction of 0.0218). Species leaving the reactor were analyzed by gas chromatography. Main reaction products were hydrogen, carbon oxides, small hydrocarbons from C1 to C3, large 1-olefins from 1-butene to 1-nonene, and unsaturated esters with one double bond at the end of the alkyl chain from methyl-2-propenoate to methyl-8-nonenoate. At the highest temperatures, the formation of polyunsaturated species was observed: 1,3-butadiene, 1,3-cyclopentadiene, benzene, toluene, indene, and naphthalene. These results were compared with previous ones about the pyrolysis of n-dodecane, an n-alkane of similar size. The reactivity of both molecules was found to be very close. The alkane produces more olefins while the ester yields unsaturated oxygenated compounds. A detailed kinetic model for the thermal decomposition of methyl decanoate has been generated using the version of software EXGAS which was updated to take into account the specific chemistry involved in the oxidation of methyl esters. This model contains 324 species and 3231 reactions. It provided a very good prediction of the experimental data obtained in jet-stirred reactor. The formation of the major products was analyzed. The kinetic analysis showed that the retro-ene reactions of intermediate unsaturated methyl esters are of importance in low reactivity systems. PMID:23710078

  16. Anorexia in end-stage renal disease: pathophysiology and treatment.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, A; Selgas, R; Diéz, J J; Bajo, M A; Codoceo, R; Alvarez, V

    2001-11-01

    Anorexia is a frequent complication of uraemic syndrome, which contributes to malnutrition in dialysis patients. Uraemic anorexia has been associated with many factors. This paper reviews the current knowledge about mechanisms responsible for uraemic anorexia, the treatments and new drugs used to control the loss of appetite. Traditionally, anorexia in dialysis patients has been considered as a sign of uraemic toxicity, therefore, two hypotheses have been proposed, the 'middle molecule' and 'peak-concentration' hypotheses, both of which are still unproved. Recently, our group proposed the tryptophan-serotonin hypothesis, which is based on a disorder in the amino acid profile acquired in the uraemic status. This is characterised by low concentrations of large neutral and branched chain amino acids (LNAA/BCAA) in the cerebrospinal fluid. This situation permits a high level of tryptophan transport across the blood-brain barrier, causing an increase in the synthesis of serotonin (responsible for appetite inhibition). There are two main treatment targets for anorexia in dialysis patients. The first is to decrease the free plasma tryptophan concentration and transport across the blood brain barrier to the cerebrospinal fluid, thus decreasing the intracerebral serotonin levels. Nutritional formulae enriched with LNAA and BCAA have this effect. Secondly, plasma levels of cytokines with cachectin effect (TNF-alpha), should be decreased. This also induces a decrease in LNAA and BCAA levels. In this group are megestrol acetate, anti-TNF-alpha antibodies, thalidomide, pentoxifyilline, n-3 fatty acids and possibly nandrolone decanoate. Additionally, other targets should be explored including antagonists of cholecystokinin (a potent anorexigen retained by renal failure), analogues of neuropeptide Y (the most potent orexigen), cannabinoids, cyproheptadine, hydrazine sulfate. In conclusion, uraemic anorexia is a complex complication associated with malnutrition, high morbidity and

  17. Plasma concentrations of testosterone and nandrolone in racing and nonracing intact male horses.

    PubMed

    Soma, L R; Uboh, C E; You, Y; Guan, F; McDonnell, S

    2012-04-01

    Pennsylvania (PA) State Racing Commissions regulate the endogenous androgenic steroid, testosterone (TES), in racing intact males (RIM) by quantification of TES in post-race samples. Post-race plasma samples (2209) collected between March 2008 and November 2010 were analyzed for TES, nandrolone (NAN), and other anabolic steroids (ABS). Of the 2209 plasma samples, 2098 had quantifiable TES ≥ 25 pg/mL. Plasma (mean ± SD) concentrations of TES and NAN in RIM were 329.2 ± 266.4 and 96.0 ± 67.8 pg/mL, respectively. Only 64.6% of RIM had quantifiable concentration of NAN, and there was no relationship between TES and NAN. Plasma TES concentrations were significantly (P < 0.0001) higher during the months of April, May, June, July, and August. A significantly higher (P < 0.006) plasma TES was observed in Thoroughbred (TB) (347.6 ± 288.5 pg/mL) vs. that in Standardbred (STB) (315.4 ± 247.7 pg/mL). Plasma concentrations of TES from breeding stallions (BS) were 601.6 ± 356.5 pg/mL. Statistically significant (P < 0.0001) lower plasma concentrations of the two steroids were observed in RIM horses. Based on quantile distribution of TES in the RIM and BS populations, 99.5% were at or below 1546.1 and 1778.0 pg/mL, respectively. Based on this population of RIM, the suggested upper threshold plasma concentration of endogenous TES in horses competing in PA should remain at 2000 pg/mL. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Fluctuation of serum zuclopenthixol concentrations in patients treated with zuclopenthixol decanoate in viscoleo.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, J H; Olesen, O V; Larsen, N E

    1994-04-01

    Zuclopenthixol serum concentrations were measured in 58 psychiatric patients referred for routine therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). Patients were treated for prolonged time with zuclopenthixol decanoate in viscoleo in doses of 50-500 mg, administered intramuscularly at 14-day intervals. The serum concentration was determined at days 7 (C7) and 14 (C14) following injection. The mean ratio C7/C14 was 2.0 and was independent of the dosage given. In 14 patients, additional blood samples were drawn at day 3 (C3) following injection. The mean ratio C3/C14 of this group was 3.2. An almost log-linear decline of the serum concentration from day 3 to 14 appeared, which corresponds to an apparent half-life of zuclopenthixol in this dosage form of 7.4 days. The marked fluctuations of serum concentrations of zuclopenthixol from peak to trough levels in patients given fortnightly injections of the depot preparation indicate that shorter intervals between injections should be considered in many cases in order to diminish side effects.

  19. The cis-bis(decanoate)tin phthalocyanine/DPPC film at the air/water interface.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Salvador; Garza, Cristina; Beltran, Hiram I; Campos-Terán, José; Arenas-Alatorre, Jesús; Castillo, Rolando

    2012-03-01

    Films made of cis-bis-decanoate-tin(IV) phthalocyanine (PcSn10) and racemic dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) are studied with compression isotherms and Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) at the air/water interface. Films enriched in PcSn10 present phase separation elliptical-shaped domains. These domains present optical anisotropy and molecular order. They are enriched in PcSn10, and the film outside these domains is enriched in DPPC, as shown in by high-angle annular dark-field transmission electron microscopy on Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) transferred films. Film collapse area and atomic force microscopy images of LB transferred films on mica indicate that the films are actually multilayers. A computational survey was performed to determine how the PcSn10 molecules prefer to self-assemble, in films basically made of PcSn10. The relative energetic stability for several dimeric assemblies was obtained, and a crystal model of the film was developed through packing and repeating the PcSn10 molecules, along the crystallographic directions of the unit cell. Our results contribute to understanding the strong interaction between PcSn10 and DPPC at the air/water interface, where even small quantities of DPPC (~1-2%) can modify the film in an important way.

  20. The Impact of Exogenic Testosterone and Nortestosterone-Decanoate Toxicological Evaluation Using a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Cristina, Romeo Teodor; Hanganu, Flavia; Dumitrescu, Eugenia; Muselin, Florin; Butnariu, Monica; Constantin, Adriana; Chiurciu, Viorica

    2014-01-01

    The impact of exogenic testosterone (T): 1.5 and 3.0 mg/kg.bw) and 19-nortestosterone 17-decanoate (ND): 1.5 and 7.5 mg/kg.bw) in castrated male rats was evaluated based on: (a) weight increase of the androgen target tissues, respecting the Hershberger methodology; (b) the 17α and β-testosterone, 17 α and β-estradiol and 17 α and β-nortestosterone levels using the GC-MS/MS technique; and (c) observation of the serum free thyroxine levels (T4). Results revealed that T and ND significantly increased the weight of androgen target tissues as follows: ND was more influential on seminal vesicles, levator ani-bulbocavernosus muscle (LABC) and Cowper's glands and T (at a dose of 3.0 mg/kg.bw) influenced the weight of the ventral prostate and glans penis. Serum samples analyzed for steroid hormone levels showed the presence of 17β-testosterone, 17β-estradiol and 17β-nor-testosterone, in castrated male rats injected with testosterone and nortestosterone, but no significant differences were found between thyroid responses and thyroid hormone levels. The results of this research proved the disrupting activity of T and ND when administered in high doses and the useful application of the Hershberger bioassay in the case of ND. PMID:25302584

  1. Evidence of boldenone, nandrolone, 5(10)-estrene-3β-17α-diol and 4-estrene-3,17-dione as minor metabolites of testosterone in equine.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jenny K Y; Leung, David K K; Curl, Peter; Schiff, Peter J; Lam, Kenneth K H; Wan, Terence S M

    2017-03-20

    The detection of boldenone, nandrolone, 5(10)-estrene-3β,17α-diol, and 4-estrene-3,17-dione in a urine sample collected from a gelding having been treated with testosterone (500 mg 'Testosterone Suspension 100', single dose, injected intramuscularly) in 2009 led the authors' laboratory to suspect that these 'testicular' steroids could be minor metabolites of testosterone in geldings. Administration trials on six castrated horses with Testosterone Suspension 100 confirmed that low levels of boldenone, nandrolone, 5(10)-estrene-3β,17α-diol, and 4-estrene-3,17-dione could indeed be detected and confirmed in the early post-administration urine samples from all six geldings. Although boldenone has been reported to be present in urine after testosterone administration, there has been no direct evidence reported that boldenone, nandrolone, 5(10)-estrene-3β,17α-diol, and 4-estrene-3,17-dione are metabolites of testosterone in geldings. Subsequent in vitro experiments involving the incubation of testosterone with horse liver microsomes, liver, adipose and muscle tissues, and adrenal cortex homogenates failed to provide evidence that these four substances are minor metabolites of testosterone. An administration trial using 'Testosterone Suspension 100' supplemented with (13) C-labelled testosterone (500 mg, 1:1 ratio, injected intramuscularly) was performed. The similarities of the excretion curves of (12) C-testosterone and (13) C-testosterone in urine suggest that there was minimal kinetic isotope effect. (13) C-Labelled boldenone, nandrolone and 4-estrene-3,17-dione were detected but not 5(10)-estrene-3β,17α-diol and its (13) C-counterpart. This is the first unequivocal evidence of boldenone, nandrolone and 4-estrene-3,17-dione being metabolites of testosterone in geldings. In view of these results, caution should be exercised when interpreting findings of boldenone, nandrolone and/or 4-estrene-3,17-dione together with a relatively high level of testosterone in

  2. New insights into the toxicity mechanism of octanoic and decanoic acids on Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Borrull, Anna; López-Martínez, Gema; Poblet, Montse; Cordero-Otero, Ricardo; Rozès, Nicolas

    2015-05-01

    Octanoic (C8) and decanoic (C10) acids are produced in hypoxic conditions by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as by-products of its metabolism and are considered fermentation inhibitors in the presence of ethanol at acidic pH. This study aims to broaden our understanding of the physiological limits between toxicity and ester production in yeast cells. To this end, the non-inhibitory concentration (NIC) and maximum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were first established for C8 and C10 at physiological pH (5.8) without ethanol. The results showed that when these acids were added to culture medium at these values, they tended to accumulate in different cellular fractions of the yeast. While C8 was almost entirely located in the cell wall fraction, C10 was found in the endocellular fraction. Cell fatty acid detoxification was also different; while the esterification of fatty acids was more efficient in the case of C10, the peroxisome was activated regardless of which fatty acid was added. Furthermore, the study of the Pdr12 and Tpo1 transporters that evolved during the detoxification process revealed that C8 was mostly expelled by the Pdr12 carrier, which was related to higher β-oxidative damage in the presence of endocellular C10. C10 is more toxic at lower concentrations than C8. Although they are produced by yeast, the resulting intracellular medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) caused a level of toxicity which promoted cell death. However, MCFAs are involved in the production of beverage flavours. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Improvement of daptomycin production via increased resistance to decanoic acid in Streptomyces roseosporus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Kwon; Kim, Hong Rip; Jin, Ying-Yu; Yang, Seung Hwan; Suh, Joo-Won

    2016-10-01

    Daptomycin, a cyclic anionic lipopeptide compound produced by Streptomyces roseosporus, is used to treat skin infections caused by multi-drug resistant gram-positive pathogens. The biosynthesis of daptomycin is initiated by the condensation of decanoic acid (DA, a 10-carbon unit fatty acid) and the N-terminal l-tryptophan. So, the addition of DA to the fermentation medium is essential for increasing daptomycin production. However, increasing of DA concentration in the fermentation medium was not possible due to the high toxicity of DA. The previous studies reported that the cell growth of S. roseosporus was halted from 1 mM DA. In order to improve daptomycin production with increasing DA concentration in the medium, the DA-resistant S. roseosporus was developed via a sequential-adaptation method. The DA-resistant strain (DAR) showed complete resistance to 1 mM DA, and the daptomycin production was increased 1.4-fold (40.5 ± 0.7 mg/L) compared with the wild-type (28.5 ± 0.8 mg/L) at 1 mM DA. Additionally, the initial step of the daptomycin biosynthesis was enhanced by the overexpression of dptE and dptF in DAR. The dptEF overexpression DAR showed 3.9-fold (156.3 ± 8.2 mg/L) increase in the daptomycin production compared with DAR (40.1 ± 2.6 mg/L) at 1 mM DA.

  4. Nandrolone and stanozolol induce Leydig cell tumor proliferation through an estrogen-dependent mechanism involving IGF-I system.

    PubMed

    Chimento, Adele; Sirianni, Rosa; Zolea, Fabiana; De Luca, Arianna; Lanzino, Marilena; Catalano, Stefania; Andò, Sebastiano; Pezzi, Vincenzo

    2012-05-01

    Several substances such as anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), peptide hormones like insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), aromatase inhibitors and estrogen antagonists are offered via the Internet, and are assumed without considering the potential deleterious effects that can be caused by their administration. In this study we aimed to determine if nandrolone and stanozolol, two commonly used AAS, could have an effect on Leydig cell tumor proliferation and if their effects could be potentiated by the concomitant use of IGF-I. Using a rat Leydig tumor cell line, R2C cells, as experimental model we found that nandrolone and stanozolol caused a dose-dependent induction of aromatase expression and estradiol (E2) production. When used in combination with IGF-I they were more effective than single molecules in inducing aromatase expression. AAS exhibited estrogenic activity and induced rapid estrogen receptor (ER)-dependent pathways involving IGF1R, AKT, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Inhibitors for these kinases decreased AAS-dependent aromatase expression. Up-regulated aromatase levels and related E2 production increased cell proliferation as a consequence of increased cyclin E expression. The observation that ER antagonist ICI182,780 was also able to significantly reduce ASS- and AAS + IGF-induced cell proliferation, confirmed a role for estrogens in AAS-dependent proliferative effects. Taken together these data clearly indicate that the use of high doses of AAS, as it occurs in doping practice, enhances Leydig cell proliferation, increasing the risk of tumor development. This risk is higher when AAS are used in association with IGF-I. To our knowledge this is the first report directly associating AAS and testicular cancer.

  5. Carbon isotope ratios of nandrolone, boldenone, and testosterone preparations seized in Norway compared to those of endogenously produced steroids in a Nordic reference population.

    PubMed

    Hullstein, Ingunn; Sagredo, Carlos; Hemmersbach, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Determining the origin of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) that also are produced endogenously in the human body is a major issue in doping control. In some cases, the presence of nandrolone and boldenone metabolites might result from endogenous production. The GC-C-IRMS technique (gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry) enables the carbon isotopic ratio (CIR) to be measured to determine the origin of these metabolites. The aim of this study was to use GC-C-IRMS to determine the δ(13) CVPDB values of seized boldenone and nandrolone preparations to decide if the steroids themselves were depleted in (13) C, compared to what is normally seen in endogenously produced steroids. In addition, several testosterone preparations were analyzed. A total of 69 seized preparations were analyzed. The nandrolone preparations showed δ(13) CVPDB values in the range of -31.5 ‰ to -26.7 ‰. The boldenone preparations showed δ(13) CVPDB values in the range of -32.0 ‰ to -27.8 ‰, and for comparison the testosterone preparations showed δ(13) CVPDB values of -31.0 ‰ to -24.2 ‰. The results showed that the values measured in the nandrolone and boldenone preparations were in the same range as those measured in the testosterone preparations. The study also included measurements of CIR of endogenously produced steroids in a Norwegian/Danish reference population. The δ(13) CVPDB values measured for the endogenous steroids in this population were in the range of -21.7 to -26.8. In general, most of the preparations investigated in this study show (13) C-depleted delta values compared to endogenously produced steroids reflecting a northern European diet.

  6. Effects of Nandrolone in the Counteraction of Skeletal Muscle Atrophy in a Mouse Model of Muscle Disuse: Molecular Biology and Functional Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Camerino, Giulia Maria; Desaphy, Jean-François; De Bellis, Michela; Capogrosso, Roberta Francesca; Cozzoli, Anna; Dinardo, Maria Maddalena; Caloiero, Roberta; Musaraj, Kejla; Fonzino, Adriano; Conte, Elena; Jagerschmidt, Catherine; Namour, Florence; Liantonio, Antonella; De Luca, Annamaria; Conte Camerino, Diana; Pierno, Sabata

    2015-01-01

    Muscle disuse produces severe atrophy and a slow-to-fast phenotype transition in the postural Soleus (Sol) muscle of rodents. Antioxidants, amino-acids and growth factors were ineffective to ameliorate muscle atrophy. Here we evaluate the effects of nandrolone (ND), an anabolic steroid, on mouse skeletal muscle atrophy induced by hindlimb unloading (HU). Mice were pre-treated for 2-weeks before HU and during the 2-weeks of HU. Muscle weight and total protein content were reduced in HU mice and a restoration of these parameters was found in ND-treated HU mice. The analysis of gene expression by real-time PCR demonstrates an increase of MuRF-1 during HU but minor involvement of other catabolic pathways. However, ND did not affect MuRF-1 expression. The evaluation of anabolic pathways showed no change in mTOR and eIF2-kinase mRNA expression, but the protein expression of the eukaryotic initiation factor eIF2 was reduced during HU and restored by ND. Moreover we found an involvement of regenerative pathways, since the increase of MyoD observed after HU suggests the promotion of myogenic stem cell differentiation in response to atrophy. At the same time, Notch-1 expression was down-regulated. Interestingly, the ND treatment prevented changes in MyoD and Notch-1 expression. On the contrary, there was no evidence for an effect of ND on the change of muscle phenotype induced by HU, since no effect of treatment was observed on the resting gCl, restCa and contractile properties in Sol muscle. Accordingly, PGC1α and myosin heavy chain expression, indexes of the phenotype transition, were not restored in ND-treated HU mice. We hypothesize that ND is unable to directly affect the phenotype transition when the specialized motor unit firing pattern of stimulation is lacking. Nevertheless, through stimulation of protein synthesis, ND preserves protein content and muscle weight, which may result advantageous to the affected skeletal muscle for functional recovery. PMID:26066046

  7. Nandrolone and stanozolol upregulate aromatase expression and further increase IGF-I-dependent effects on MCF-7 breast cancer cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Sirianni, Rosa; Capparelli, Claudia; Chimento, Adele; Panza, Salvatore; Catalano, Stefania; Lanzino, Marilena; Pezzi, Vincenzo; Andò, Sebastiano

    2012-11-05

    Several doping agents, such as anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) and peptide hormones like insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), are employed without considering the potential deleterious effects that they can cause. In addition, androgens are used in postmenopausal women as replacement therapy. However, there are no clear guidelines regarding the optimal therapeutic doses of androgens or long-term safety data. In this study we aimed to determine if two commonly used AAS, nandrolone and stanozolol, alone or in combination with IGF-I, could activate signaling involved in breast cancer cell proliferation. Using a human breast cancer cell line, MCF-7, as an experimental model we found that both nandrolone and stanozolol caused a dose-dependent induction of aromatase expression and, consequently, estradiol production. Moreover, when nandrolone and stanozolol were combined with IGF-I, higher induction in aromatase expression was observed. This increase involved phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT and phospholipase C (PLC)/protein kinase C (PKC), which are part of IGF-I transductional pathways. Specifically, both AAS were able to activate membrane rapid signaling involving IGF-I receptor, extracellular regulated protein kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) and AKT, after binding to estrogen receptor (ER), as confirmed by the ability of the ER antagonist ICI182, 780 to block such activation. The estrogenic activity of nandrolone and stanozolol was further confirmed by their capacity to induce the expression of the ER-regulated gene, CCND1 encoding for the cell cycle regulator cyclin D1, which represents a key protein for the control of breast cancer cell proliferation. In fact, when nandrolone and stanozolol were combined with IGF-I, they increased cell proliferation to levels higher than those elicited by the single factors. Taken together these data clearly indicate that the use of high doses of AAS, as occurs in doping practice, may increase the risk of breast cancer. This

  8. Neuronal decanoic acid oxidation is markedly lower than that of octanoic acid: A mechanistic insight into the medium-chain triglyceride ketogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Khabbush, Aziza; Orford, Michael; Tsai, Yi-Chen; Rutherford, Tricia; O'Donnell, Maura; Eaton, Simon; Heales, Simon J R

    2017-08-01

    The medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) ketogenic diet contains both octanoic (C8) and decanoic (C10) acids. The diet is an effective treatment for pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Although the exact mechanism for its efficacy is not known, it is emerging that C10, but not C8, interacts with targets that can explain antiseizure effects, for example, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (eliciting mitochondrial biogenesis and increased antioxidant status) and the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor. For such effects to occur, significant concentrations of C10 are likely to be required in the brain. To investigate how this might occur, we measured the β-oxidation rate of (13) C-labeled C8 and C10 in neuronal SH-SY5Y cells using isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. The effects of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT1) inhibition, with the CPT1 inhibitor etomoxir, on C8 and C10 β-oxidation were also investigated. Both fatty acids were catabolized, as judged by (13) CO2 release. However, C10 was β-oxidized at a significantly lower rate, 20% that of C8. This difference was explained by a clear dependence of C10 on CPT1 activity, which is low in neurons, whereas 66% of C8 β-oxidation was independent of CPT1. In addition, C10 β-oxidation was decreased further in the presence of C8. It is concluded that, because CPT1 is poorly expressed in the brain, C10 is relatively spared from β-oxidation and can accumulate. This is further facilitated by the presence of C8 in the MCT ketogenic diet, which has a sparing effect upon C10 β-oxidation. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  9. Easy stereoselective synthesis of 5α-estrane-3β,17α-diol, the major metabolite of nandrolone in the horse.

    PubMed

    Balssa, Frédéric; Fischer, Michael; Bonnaire, Yves

    2011-06-01

    5α-Estrane-3β,17α-diol is the major metabolite of nandrolone in horse urine. The presence of 5α-estrane-3β,17α-diol in female and gelding urines is prohibited by Racing Rules and its natural presence in male urine led regulation authorities to establish a concentration threshold of 45 ng/mL. This paper describes a rapid, simple and stereoselective synthesis of 5α-estrane-3β,17α-diol, providing horseracing laboratories with an essential reference material for their antidoping performance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Analysis of exogenous nandrolone metabolite in horse urine by gas chromatography/combustion/carbon isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Masayuki; Kinoshita, Kenji; Kurosawa, Masahiko; Saito, Koichi; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki

    2007-11-30

    Nandrolone (17beta-hydroxy-4-estren-3-one, NAD) is an endogenous steroid hormone; thus, the detection of its metabolites is not conclusive of NAD doping in racehorses. NAD doping control in male horses is based on the threshold, namely, the concentration ratio of 5alpha-estran-3beta,17alpha-diol (ETA) to 5(10)-estren-3beta,17alpha-diol (ETE). The ETA/ETE ratio of 1/1 was determined based on statistical data of authentic horses in International Federation of Horseracing Authorities. To individuals with complex metabolic disorders, however, such a threshold might not be applicable. The aim of this study was to establish an analytical method that discriminates endogenous steroids from exogenous ones in horse urine after NAD administration using gas chromatography/combustion/carbon isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS). Urine was sampled from NAD-administered and authentic horses. Ten millilitres of urine was hydrolyzed and subjected to liquid-liquid extraction and solid phase extraction. The residue of the extracts purified by HPLC was derivatized by acetylation. As a result of measurement of the (13)C/(12)C ratio (delta(13)C) by GC/C/IRMS, the delta(13)C values of ETA for NAD-administered and authentic horses were -32.20+/-0.35 per thousand and -27.85+/-0.75 per thousand (n=60), respectively. The detection limit of ETA in this GC/C/IRMS analysis was approximately 25 ng/ml. This study indicates that the measurement of delta(13)C by GC/C/IRMS enables us to discriminate exogenous ETA derived from NAD administration from endogenous ETA, proving that GC/C/IRMS is a useful technique to complement the ETA/ETE ratio.

  11. Effect of physical exercise and anabolic steroid treatment on spinal motoneurons and surrounding glia of wild-type and ALS mice.

    PubMed

    Kassa, Roman M; Bonafede, Roberta; Boschi, Federico; Bentivoglio, Marina; Mariotti, Raffaella

    2017-02-15

    Motoneuron degeneration is the hallmark of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The cause and predisposing factors for sporadic ALS are still unknown. Exposure to a specific environmental risk factors in subjects with a susceptibility genotype may increase the risk of the disease. The role of physical activity and the use of anabolic steroids are still debated in epidemiological studies on patients and murine models of ALS. To assess at the cellular level the role (beneficial or detrimental) of physical exercise and the use of anabolic steroid, we here investigated, in SOD1(G93A) (mSOD1) mice and wild-type littermates, changes in the ventral horn after regular exercise, treatment with the anabolic androgenic steroid 19-nortestosterone (nandrolone), and their combination, compared with matched control sedentary mice. The experiments were pursued for several weeks until symptom onset in mSOD1 mice. Lumbar motoneurons, astrocytes and microglia were analyzed. In wild-type mice, cytological alterations of motoneurons were observed especially after nandrolone treatment. The following main findings were observed in treated mSOD1 mice versus untreated ones: i) nandrolone treatment markedly enhanced motoneuron loss; this detrimental effect was reverted by the combination with exercise, resulting in increased motoneuron survival; ii) astrocytic activation was most marked after nandrolone treatment when motoneuron damage was most severe; iii) microglia activation was most marked after physical exercise when motoneuron damage was less severe. The results indicate a vulnerability of mSOD1 motoneurons to nandrolone treatment, a potential neuroprotective effect of physical exercise, and a modulation by glial cells in the ALS murine model in the examined paradigms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry analysis of 19-norsteroids: application to the detection of a nandrolone metabolite in urine.

    PubMed

    Mathurin, J C; Herrou, V; Bourgogne, E; Pascaud, L; de Ceaurriz, J

    2001-08-15

    Determination of whether the major metabolite of nandrolone in urine, 19-norandrosterone (19-NA), is exogenous or endogenous in origin is one of the most exciting challenges for antidoping laboratories. Gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS) can be used to differentiate these two origins by carbon isotopic ratio analysis. A complete method for purification of 19-NA in urine has been established. Acetylated ketosteroids, and in particular 19-NA, are isolated from the urine matrix before analysis after hydrolysis and purification of urine by reversed-phase and normal solid-phase extraction. The limit of detection for 19-NA was about 60 ng with recoveries of 54-60%. Evidence of exogenous administration of 19-NA may be established from isotope ratio determination from the 13C/12C ratios of several synthetic 19-norsteroids compared to those obtained for endogenous steroids.

  13. The anabolic/androgenic steroid nandrolone exacerbates gene expression modifications induced by mutant SOD1 in muscles of mice models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Galbiati, Mariarita; Onesto, Elisa; Zito, Arianna; Crippa, Valeria; Rusmini, Paola; Mariotti, Raffaella; Bentivoglio, Marina; Bendotti, Caterina; Poletti, Angelo

    2012-02-01

    Anabolic/androgenic steroids (AAS) are drugs that enhance muscle mass, and are often illegally utilized in athletes to improve their performances. Recent data suggest that the increased risk for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in male soccer and football players could be linked to AAS abuse. ALS is a motor neuron disease mainly occurring in sporadic (sALS) forms, but some familial forms (fALS) exist and have been linked to mutations in different genes. Some of these, in their wild type (wt) form, have been proposed as risk factors for sALS, i.e. superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene, whose mutations are causative of about 20% of fALS. Notably, SOD1 toxicity might occur both in motor neurons and in muscle cells. Using gastrocnemius muscles of mice overexpressing human mutant SOD1 (mutSOD1) at different disease stages, we found that the expression of a selected set of genes associated to muscle atrophy, MyoD, myogenin, atrogin-1, and transforming growth factor (TGF)β1, is up-regulated already at the presymptomatic stage. Atrogin-1 gene expression was increased also in mice overexpressing human wtSOD1. Similar alterations were found in axotomized mouse muscles and in cultured ALS myoblast models. In these ALS models, we then evaluated the pharmacological effects of the synthetic AAS nandrolone on the expression of the genes modified in ALS muscle. Nandrolone administration had no effects on MyoD, myogenin, and atrogin-1 expression, but it significantly increased TGFβ1 expression at disease onset. Altogether, these data suggest that, in fALS, muscle gene expression is altered at early stages, and AAS may exacerbate some of the alterations induced by SOD1 possibly acting as a contributing factor also in sALS.

  14. Bioconversion of methyl ricinoleate to 4-hydroxy-decanoic acid and to gamma-decalactone by yeasts of the genus Candida.

    PubMed

    Endrizzi, A; Belin, J M

    1995-01-01

    The capacity of several strains of yeasts to do the bioconversion of methyl ricinoleate into gamma-decalactone, was studied in a medium containing this methylic ester of fatty acid as sole carbon source. Amongst the strains which are able to do this bioconversion, two types of behaviour are observed: some of the strains produce gamma-decalactone during all the incubation in bioconversion medium while others produce this aroma compound very quickly and then consume it fast too. The tested strains produce at the same time gamma-decalactone and the corresponding acid form (4-hydroxy-decanoic acid), and this, in variable proportions.

  15. Lymphatic transport of fat in rats with normal- and malabsorption following intake of fats made from fish oil and decanoic acid. Effects of triacylglycerol structure.

    PubMed

    Straarup, E M.; Høy, C -E.

    2001-07-01

    Fish oils contain essential polyunsaturated fatty acids of the n-3 family. In fat malabsorption the n-3 fatty acids are poorly absorbed. Absorption may be improved by modifying the fatty acid profile of fish oil through interesterification with medium chain fatty acids. We examined the absorption of fish oil interesterified with decanoic acid in rats with normal- and malabsorption compared to a physical mixture and the fish oil itself. The interesterified fats were: 1) a regiospecific fat with decanoic acid located mainly in the sn1/3-positions and a long chain fatty acid from fish oil in the sn2-position, 2) a fat with a random distribution of fatty acids in all positions of the triacylglycerol. The main mesenteric lymph duct was cannulated for collection of lymph. In the malabsorbing rats the common bile duct was cannulated as well to divert both pancreatic juice and bile. The fatty acid composition in lymph samples collected for 24 hours was determined. Accumulated transport of n-3 fatty acids from fish oil was improved in malabsorbing rats and recoveries of fatty acids after 24 hours were improved in both rats with normal- and malabsorption administered the randomized fat compared to fish oil.

  16. A Dietary Medium-Chain Fatty Acid, Decanoic Acid, Inhibits Recruitment of Nur77 to the HSD3B2 Promoter In Vitro and Reverses Endocrine and Metabolic Abnormalities in a Rat Model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bao Hui; Indran, Inthrani Raja; Tan, Huey Min; Li, Yu; Zhang, Zhiwei; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong

    2016-01-01

    Hyperandrogenism is the central feature of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Due to the intricate relationship between hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance in PCOS, 50%-70% of these patients also present with hyperinsulinemia. Metformin, an insulin sensitizer, has been used to reduce insulin resistance and improve fertility in women with PCOS. In previous work, we have noted that a dietary medium-chain fatty acid, decanoic acid (DA), improves glucose tolerance and lipid profile in a mouse model of diabetes. Here, we report for the first time that DA, like metformin, inhibits androgen biosynthesis in NCI-H295R steroidogenic cells by regulating the enzyme 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ5-Δ4-isomerase type 2 (HSD3B2). The inhibitory effect on HSD3B2 and androgen production required cAMP stimulation, suggesting a mechanistic action via the cAMP-stimulated pathway. Specifically, both DA and metformin reduced cAMP-enhanced recruitment of the orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 to the HSD3B2 promoter, coupled with decreased transcription and protein expression of HSD3B2. In a letrozole-induced PCOS rat model, treatment with DA or metformin reduced serum-free testosterone, lowered fasting insulin, and restored estrous cyclicity. In addition, DA treatment lowered serum total testosterone and decreased HSD3B2 protein expression in the adrenals and ovaries. We conclude that DA inhibits androgen biosynthesis via mechanisms resulting in the suppression of HSD3B2 expression, an effect consistently observed both in vitro and in vivo. The efficacy of DA in reversing the endocrine and metabolic abnormalities of the letrozole-induced PCOS rat model are promising, raising the possibility that diets including DA could be beneficial for the management of both hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance in PCOS.

  17. Kinetics of intra- and intermolecular excited-state proton transfer of ω -(2-hydroxynaphthyl-1)-decanoic acid in homogeneous and micellar solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solntsev, Kyril M.; Popov, Alexander V.; Solovyeva, Vera A.; Abou Al-Ainain, Sami; Il'ichev, Yuri V.; Hernandez, Rigoberto; Kuzmin, Michael G.

    2016-03-01

    The bifunctional photoacid ω-(2-hydroxynaphthyl-1)-decanoic acid (1S2N) takes part both in intramolecular excited-state proton transfer (ESPT) to the anion of a fatty acid and in intermolecular ESPT in the presence of a water solvent. Excited-state intra- and intermolecular proton transfer of 1S2N was investigated in homogeneous ethanol/water solution and in micellar solutions of various surfactants. The interfacial potential of micelles was changed by using cationic (CTAB), non-ionic (Brij-35) and anionic (SDS) surfactants. With the decrease of the interfacial potential, the protolytic photodissociation of naphthol and the diffusion-controlled intramolecular ESPT to carboxylic anion were suppressed.

  18. Effectiveness of long-acting antipsychotics in clinical practice : 1. A retrospective, 18-month follow up and comparison between paliperidone palmitate, risperidone long-acting injection and zuclopenthixol decanoate

    PubMed Central

    Cordiner, Matthew; Shajahan, Polash; McAvoy, Sarah; Bashir, Muhammad; Taylor, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: In the UK, nine different compounds are available as long-acting antipsychotic injections (LAIs). There are few clinical guidelines for determining which LAIs are most effective in specific patient groups. To measure the clinical effectiveness of LAIs we aimed to determine the now-established concept of antipsychotic discontinuation rates and measure Clinical Global Impression (CGI) outcomes. Method: The population (n was approximately 560,000) was a secondary care NHS adult mental health service in Lanarkshire, Scotland, UK. This was a retrospective, electronic case note search of LAI-naïve patients commenced on paliperidone palmitate (n = 31), risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI) (n = 102) or zuclopenthixol decanoate (n = 105), with an 18-month follow up. Kaplan–Meier survival statistics for discontinuation rates and hospital admission were calculated. CGI severity and improvement scores were retrospectively assigned by the investigating team. Results: Paliperidone palmitate performed less favourably than risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI) or zuclopenthixol decanoate. Paliperidone palmitate had higher discontinuation rates due to any cause, inefficacy and increased hospitalization risk. Paliperidone palmitate had the smallest proportion of patients assigned a clinically desirable CGI-I score of 1 (very much improved) or 2 (much improved). Conclusions: Paliperidone palmitate had less favourable discontinuation and CGI outcomes compared with RLAI and zuclopenthixol decanoate. This could not be adequately explained by patients in the paliperidone group being more chronically or severely unwell, nor by the presence of comorbidities such as alcohol or substance misuse, or by the use of lower mean dosages compared with RLAI or zuclopenthixol decanoate. We considered that prescribers are familiarizing themselves with paliperidone and outcomes may improve over time. PMID:26913175

  19. Modeling of the oxidation of methyl esters - Validation for methyl hexanoate, methyl heptanoate, and methyl decanoate in a jet-stirred reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Glaude, Pierre Alexandre; Herbinet, Olivier; Bax, Sarah; Biet, Joffrey; Warth, Valerie; Battin-Leclerc, Frederique

    2010-11-15

    The modeling of the oxidation of methyl esters was investigated and the specific chemistry, which is due to the presence of the ester group in this class of molecules, is described. New reactions and rate parameters were defined and included in the software EXGAS for the automatic generation of kinetic mechanisms. Models generated with EXGAS were successfully validated against data from the literature (oxidation of methyl hexanoate and methyl heptanoate in a jet-stirred reactor) and a new set of experimental results for methyl decanoate. The oxidation of this last species was investigated in a jet-stirred reactor at temperatures from 500 to 1100 K, including the negative temperature coefficient region, under stoichiometric conditions, at a pressure of 1.06 bar and for a residence time of 1.5 s: more than 30 reaction products, including olefins, unsaturated esters, and cyclic ethers, were quantified and successfully simulated. Flow rate analysis showed that reactions pathways for the oxidation of methyl esters in the low-temperature range are similar to that of alkanes. (author)

  20. Determination of hormonal growth promoters in bovine hair: comparison of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods for estradiol benzoate and nortestosterone decanoate.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Eleanor; Rambaud, Lauriane; Le Bizec, Bruno; O'Keeffe, Michael

    2009-04-01

    The detection of steroid residues in hair is a powerful strategy to demonstrate long-term administration of these growth promoters in meat production animals. Analysis of the ester form of administered steroids is an unambiguous approach to prove the illegal use of natural hormones. For detection, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) was generally used. However, recent advances in liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) technology have improved the robustness and potential sensitivity of this method. This paper describes development and validation, according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC, of LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS methods, in two separate laboratories, for determination of steroid esters in bovine hair. Bovine hair samples taken from animals treated with estradiol-3-benzoate and nortestosterone decanoate, as well as from an untreated animal, were used to evaluate the comparability of the results of the two validated methods. The results of the inter-comparison demonstrate that both the LC-MS/MS and the GC-MS/MS methods are fit for purpose and capable of determining steroid esters in hair samples from treated bovine animals.

  1. Effects of anabolic steroid (19-nortestosterone) on the secretion of testicular hormones in the stallion.

    PubMed

    Nagata, S; Kurosawa, M; Mima, K; Nambo, Y; Fujii, Y; Watanabe, G; Taya, K

    1999-03-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of anabolic steroids on the testicular endocrine function of mature stallions. Mature thoroughbred stallions were treated with 800 mg nandrolone decanoate every 3 weeks for 3 months. After the first treatment, plasma concentrations of LH, immunoreactive inhibin and testosterone decreased rapidly to the nadir. These hormones were maintained at significantly lower concentrations compared with concentrations in intact stallions. Histology of the testicular tissue indicated the arrest of advanced spermatogenesis in the seminiferous tubules and a severe depletion of the number of Leydig cells in the interstitial compartment as a result of treatment. Most of the immunopositive cells for the inhibin alpha-subunit and steroidogenesis enzymes in the interstitial compartment decreased below detectable amounts, whereas immunopositive reactions of inhibin alpha-subunit in the seminiferous tubules were clearly observed. In conclusion, the treatment of mature stallions with nandrolone decanoate caused a decrease in the secretion of ir-inhibin and testosterone from the testis, the depletion of the number of Leydig cells and a decrease below detectable amounts of inhibin alpha-subunit and steroidogenesis enzymes. The concentration of ir-inhibin in the peripheral blood may be a useful marker for the examination of testicular activity in stallions being treated with anabolic steroids.

  2. 5α-Estrane-3β,17β-diol and 5β-estrane-3α,17β-diol: definitive screening biomarkers to sign nandrolone abuse in cattle?

    PubMed

    Dervilly-Pinel, Gaud; Rambaud, Lauriane; Sitthisack, Parina; Monteau, Fabrice; Hewitt, S Armstrong; Kennedy, D Glenn; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2011-09-01

    17β-Nandrolone (17β-NT) is one of the most frequently misused anabolic steroids in meat producing animals. As a result of its extensive metabolism combined with the possibility of interferences with other endogenous compounds, detection of its illegal use often turns out to be a difficult issue. In recent years, proving the illegal administration of 17β-NT became even more challenging since the presence of endogenous presence of 17β-NT or some of its metabolite in different species was demonstrated. In bovines, 17α-NT can occur naturally in the urine of pregnant cows and recent findings reported that both forms can be detected in injured animals. Because efficient control must both take into account metabolic patterns and associated kinetics of elimination, the purpose of the present study was to investigate further some estranediols (5α-estrane-3β,17β-diol (abb), 5β-estrane-3α,17β-diol (bab), 5α-estrane-3β,17α-diol (aba), 5α-estrane-3α,17β-diol (aab) and 5β-estrane-3α,17α-diol (baa)) as particular metabolites of 17β-NT on a large number of injured (n=65) or pregnant (n=40) bovines. Whereas the metabolites abb, bab, aba and baa have previously been detected in urine up to several days after 17β-NT administration, the present study showed that some of the isomers abb (5α-estrane-3β,17β-diol) and bab (5β-estrane-3α,17β-diol) could not be detected in injured or pregnant animals, even at very low levels. This result may open a new way for the screening of anabolic steroid administration considering these 2 estranediols as biomarkers to indicate nandrolone abuse in cattle.

  3. Benzyl alcohol increases voluntary ethanol drinking in rats.

    PubMed

    Etelälahti, T J; Eriksson, C J P

    2014-09-01

    The anabolic steroid nandrolone decanoate has been reported to increase voluntary ethanol intake in Wistar rats. In recent experiments we received opposite results, with decreased voluntary ethanol intake in both high drinking AA and low drinking Wistar rats after nandrolone treatment. The difference between the two studies was that we used pure nandrolone decanoate in oil, whereas in the previous study the nandrolone product Deca-Durabolin containing benzyl alcohol (BA) was used. The aims of the present study were to clarify whether the BA treatment could promote ethanol drinking and to assess the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-gonadal axes (HPAGA) in the potential BA effect. Male AA and Wistar rats received subcutaneously BA or vehicle oil for 14 days. Hereafter followed a 1-week washout and consecutively a 3-week voluntary alcohol consumption period. The median (± median absolute deviation) voluntary ethanol consumption during the drinking period was higher in BA-treated than in control rats (4.94 ± 1.31 g/kg/day vs. 4.17 ± 0.31 g/kg/day, p = 0.07 and 1.01 ± 0.26 g/kg/day vs. 0.38 ± 0.27 g/kg/day, p = 0.05, for AA and Wistar rats, respectively; combined effect p < 0.01). The present results can explain the previous discrepancy between the two nandrolone studies. No significant BA effects on basal and ethanol-mediated serum testosterone and corticosterone levels were observed in blood samples taken at days 1, 8 and 22. However, 2h after ethanol administration significantly (p = 0.02) higher frequency of testosterone elevations was detected in high drinking AA rats compared to low drinking Wistars, which supports our previous hypotheses of a role of testosterone elevation in promoting ethanol drinking. Skin irritation and dermatitis were shown exclusively in the BA-treated animals. Altogether, the present results indicate that earlier findings obtained with Deca-Durabolin containing BA need to be re-evaluated.

  4. Beneficial effects of an anabolic steroid during cytotoxic chemotherapy for metastatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Spiers, A S; DeVita, S F; Allar, M J; Richards, S; Sedransk, N

    1981-01-01

    To investigate the effects of concurrent administration of an anabolic steroid upon hematopoiesis and metabolism in patients with cancer who were receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy, a randomized trial was conducted. Thirty-three evaluable patients received intensive multiple-agent chemotherapy: 17 received in addition nandrolone decanoate ("Deca-Durabolin"), 200 mg intramuscularly each week. The nandrolone-treated patients showed significantly better maintenance of hemoglobin concentrations and body weight, and a highly significant reduction in number of blood transfusions. Improved survival in the androgen-treated patients did not achieve significance. There were no differences in neutrophil or platelet counts or in tolerance of cytotoxic drugs. Toxicity from nandrolone therapy was minimal.

  5. Anabolic steroid boosts weight.

    PubMed

    1996-09-01

    A randomized study of nandrolone decanoate (Deca-Durabolin) showed that the anabolic steroid can increase weight in people with HIV infections. The group receiving nandrolone experienced a greater increase both in fat-free mass and body cell mass (although the latter measure did not reach statistical significance) than those on placebo. Deca-Durabolin had little to do with two occurrences of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) in the study group, but until further studies are completed, caution is advised when using this steroid in patients with KS. A new study comparing nandrolone to growth hormone in patients with wasting is slated to begin in the next 3 or 4 months.

  6. Long-term antipsychotic treatment in schizophrenia: systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Liang; Teng, Monica; Khoo, Ai Leng; Soh, Lay Beng; Furukawa, Toshiaki A.; Baldessarini, Ross J.; Lim, Boon Peng; Sim, Kang

    2016-01-01

    Background For treatment of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, comparative long-term effectiveness of antipsychotic drugs to reduce relapses when minimising adverse effects is of clinical interest, hence prompting this review. Aims To evaluate the comparative long-term effectiveness of antipsychotic drugs. Method We systematically searched electronic databases for reports of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of antipsychotic monotherapy aimed at reducing relapse risks in schizophrenia. We conducted network meta-analysis of 18 antipsychotics and placebo. Results Studies of 10 177 patients in 56 reports were included; treatment duration averaged 48 weeks (range 4–156). Olanzapine was significantly more effective than chlorpromazine (odds ratio (OR) 0.35, 95% CI 0.14–0.88) or haloperidol (OR=0.50, 95% CI 0.30–0.82); and fluphenazine decanoate was more effective than chlorpromazine (OR=0.31, 95% CI 0.11–0.88) in relapse reduction. Fluphenazine decanoate, haloperidol, haloperidol decanoate and trifluoperazine produced more extrapyramidal adverse effects than olanzapine or quetiapine; and olanzapine was associated with more weight gain than other agents. Conclusions Except for apparent superiority of olanzapine and fluphenazine decanoate over chlorpromazine, most agents showed intermediate efficacy for relapse prevention and differences among them were minor. Typical antipsychotics yielded adverse neurological effects, and olanzapine was associated with weight gain. The findings may contribute to evidence-based treatment selection for patients with chronic psychotic disorders. Declaration of interest R.J.B. received grants from the Bruce J. Anderson Foundation and the McLean Private Donors Psychopharmacology Research Fund. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence. PMID:27703755

  7. Effect of anabolic steroids on skeletal muscle mass during hindlimb suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsika, R. W.; Herrick, R. E.; Baldwin, K. M.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of treatment with an anabolic steroid (nandrolone decanoate) on the muscle mass of plantaris and soleus of a rats in hindlimb suspension, and on the isomyosin expression in these muscles, was investigated in young female rats divided into four groups: normal control (NC), normal steroid (NS), normal suspension (N-sus), and suspension steroid (sus-S). Steroid treatment of suspended animals (sus-S vs N-sus) was found to partially spare body weight and muscle weight, as well as myofibril content of plantaris (but not soleus), but did not modify the isomyosin pattern induced by suspension. In normal rats (NS vs NC), steroid treatment did enhance body weight and plantaris muscle weight; the treatment did not alter isomyosin expression in either muscle type.

  8. Effect of anabolic steroids on skeletal muscle mass during hindlimb suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsika, R. W.; Herrick, R. E.; Baldwin, K. M.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of treatment with an anabolic steroid (nandrolone decanoate) on the muscle mass of plantaris and soleus of a rats in hindlimb suspension, and on the isomyosin expression in these muscles, was investigated in young female rats divided into four groups: normal control (NC), normal steroid (NS), normal suspension (N-sus), and suspension steroid (sus-S). Steroid treatment of suspended animals (sus-S vs N-sus) was found to partially spare body weight and muscle weight, as well as myofibril content of plantaris (but not soleus), but did not modify the isomyosin pattern induced by suspension. In normal rats (NS vs NC), steroid treatment did enhance body weight and plantaris muscle weight; the treatment did not alter isomyosin expression in either muscle type.

  9. cis-4-Decenoic and decanoic acids impair mitochondrial energy, redox and Ca(2+) homeostasis and induce mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening in rat brain and liver: Possible implications for the pathogenesis of MCAD deficiency.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Alexandre Umpierrez; Cecatto, Cristiane; da Silva, Janaína Camacho; Wajner, Alessandro; Godoy, Kálita Dos Santos; Ribeiro, Rafael Teixeira; Wajner, Moacir

    2016-09-01

    Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency is biochemically characterized by tissue accumulation of octanoic (OA), decanoic (DA) and cis-4-decenoic (cDA) acids, as well as by their carnitine by-products. Untreated patients present episodic encephalopathic crises and biochemical liver alterations, whose pathophysiology is poorly known. We investigated the effects of OA, DA, cDA, octanoylcarnitine (OC) and decanoylcarnitine (DC) on critical mitochondrial functions in rat brain and liver. DA and cDA increased resting respiration and diminished ADP- and CCCP-stimulated respiration and complexes II-III and IV activities in both tissues. The data indicate that these compounds behave as uncouplers and metabolic inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation. Noteworthy, metabolic inhibition was more evident in brain as compared to liver. DA and cDA also markedly decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, NAD(P)H content and Ca(2+) retention capacity in Ca(2+)-loaded brain and liver mitochondria. The reduction of Ca(2+) retention capacity was more pronounced in liver and totally prevented by cyclosporine A and ADP, as well as by ruthenium red, demonstrating the involvement of mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) and Ca(2+). Furthermore, cDA induced lipid peroxidation in brain and liver mitochondria and increased hydrogen peroxide formation in brain, suggesting the participation of oxidative damage in cDA-induced alterations. Interestingly, OA, OC and DC did not alter the evaluated parameters, implying lower toxicity for these compounds. Our results suggest that DA and cDA, in contrast to OA and medium-chain acylcarnitines, disturb important mitochondrial functions in brain and liver by multiple mechanisms that are possibly involved in the neuropathology and liver alterations observed in MCAD deficiency.

  10. Tendon response to pharmaco-mechanical stimulation of the chronically retracted rotator cuff in sheep.

    PubMed

    Wieser, Karl; Farshad, Mazda; Meyer, Dominik C; Conze, Philipp; von Rechenberg, Brigitte; Gerber, Christian

    2015-02-01

    Chronic tearing of tendons is associated with molecular and structural alterations causing biomechanical changes, which compromise musculotendinous function and become limiting factors for tendon repair. This study investigated the histological response of chronically retracted sheep rotator cuff tendons to mechanical and pharmacological stimulation in view of tendon repair. Sixteen weeks after experimental release of the infraspinatus tendon in 20 sheep, the retracted musculotendinous unit was subjected to continuous traction either with [anabolic steroids (nandrolone) group/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) group] or without (control group) additional pharmacological treatment during 6 weeks. A new degeneration score for tendinous tissues (DSTT), based on established knowledge on histological changes associated with tendon degeneration, was used for histological analysis at the time of tendon release, at the beginning of continuous re-lengthening and at repair in all animals. The DSTT score (inter-observer correlation: r = 0.83), quantifiably representing tendon degeneration, improved from 15.5 (SD 1.3) points before to 9.8 (SD 3.8) points after re-lengthening. It improved in a qualitatively and quantitatively similar fashion if pharmacological stimulation was added. The nandrolone group improved from 13.7 (SD 1.6) to 9.8 (SD 1.9) and the IGF group from 13.3 (SD 3.6) to 8.8 (SD 1.8) points. Mechanical stimulation significantly reduced tissue degeneration. However, the addition of a pharmacological stimulation with anabolic steroids or IGF had neither a measurable positive nor negative effect on the degenerative process. Therefore, this investigation does neither support the additional pharmacological use of the anabolic steroid nandrolone or of IGF decanoate for restoration of tendon degeneration, nor otherwise provide evidence for additional tendon damage, if those substances are used to alter the muscular metabolism.

  11. Real-world data on paliperidone palmitate for the treatment of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders: a systematic review of randomized and nonrandomized studies.

    PubMed

    Emsley, Robin; Parellada, Eduard; Bioque, Miquel; Herrera, Berta; Hernando, Teresa; García-Dorado, Marta

    2017-08-16

    The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of the effects of 1-month paliperidone palmitate (PP1M) for the treatment of schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders in terms of outcomes reported in real-world evidence studies. A systematic review of real-world randomized and nonrandomized studies with PP1M was performed and is reported according to PRISMA guidelines. Comparative effectiveness data with oral antipsychotics indicate that PP1M has a lower likelihood of relapse-related events, including rehospitalization, and these differences are clinically relevant. A randomized, double-blind study showed that PP1M has no advantage over haloperidol decanoate in the time to treatment failure. Although there was a marked variability across studies, PP1M was not superior to other antipsychotics in terms of study completion rates. Pharmacoeconomic data show that, during a follow-up period of 12 months, the mean total healthcare cost was not significantly different in patients treated with PP1M compared with those receiving oral antipsychotics. The mean maximum prolactin levels were significantly higher with PP1M than with haloperidol decanoate; however, neither drug differs in the frequency of prolactin-related adverse events. Results on prolactin-related adverse events were inconsistent in two randomized comparisons with oral antipsychotics and were not reported in a randomized comparison with aripiprazole. There were no significant differences between haloperidol decanoate and PP1M in the severity of abnormal involuntary movements and parkinsonism, or in the incidence of tardive dyskinesia; however, patients treated with haloperidol decanoate showed greater worsening of akathisia and required treatment for parkinsonism and akathisia significantly more frequently than patients who received PP1M. In conclusion, real-world data that originate from both pragmatic randomized clinical trials and observational studies indicate that PP1M is superior to oral

  12. Fundamental understanding of drug absorption from a parenteral oil depot.

    PubMed

    Kalicharan, Raween W; Schot, Peter; Vromans, Herman

    2016-02-15

    Oil depots are parenteral drug formulations meant for sustained release of lipophilic compounds. Until now, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanism of drug absorption from oil depots is lacking. The aim of this paper was to fill this gap. A clinical study with healthy volunteers was conducted. An oil depot with nandrolone decanoate and benzyl alcohol was subcutaneously administered in the upper arm of female volunteers. Pharmacokinetic profiles of both substances were related to each other and to literature data. Benzyl alcohol absorbs much more rapidly than nandrolone. In detail, it appears that benzyl alcohol enters the central compartment directly, while nandrolone decanoate is recovered in serum after a lag time. This lag time is also seen in literature data, although not reported explicitly. The absorption of nandrolone is enhanced by the presence of benzyl alcohol. This is most likely an effect of altered oil viscosity and partition coefficient between the oil and aqueous phase. The absorption rate constant of compounds is found to be related to the logP of the solubilized prodrug. The absorption rate is however not only determined by the physico-chemical properties of the formulation but also by the tissue properties. Here, it is argued that lymphatic flow must be considered as a relevant parameter.

  13. Use of dried blood spots in doping control analysis of anabolic steroid esters.

    PubMed

    Tretzel, Laura; Thomas, Andreas; Geyer, Hans; Gmeiner, Günter; Forsdahl, Guro; Pop, Valentin; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2014-08-05

    Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling, a technique for whole blood sampling on a piece of filter paper, has more than 50-years tradition, particularly in the diagnostic analysis of metabolic disorders in neonatal screening. Due to the minimal invasiveness, straightforwardness, robustness against manipulation and fastness DBS sampling recommends itself as an advantageous technique in doping control analysis. The present approach highlights the development of a screening assay for the analysis of eight anabolic steroid esters (nandrolone phenylpropionate, trenbolone enanthate, testosterone acetate, testosterone cypionate, testosterone isocaproate, testosterone phenylpropionate, testosterone decanoate and testosterone undecanoate) and nandrolone in DBS. The detection of the intact esters allows an unequivocal proof of the administration of conjugates of exogenous testosterone and its derivatives. Precise, specific and linear conditions were obtained by means of liquid chromatography high resolution/high accuracy mass spectrometry. Sensitivity in the low ppb range was accomplished by the preparation of the methyloxime derivatives of the target compounds. Labeled internal standards (d3-nandrolone, d3-nandrolone caproate and d3-nandrolone undecanoate) were applied to compensate for the broad range in chain length of the esters. The assay presented here outlines the application of DBS for the analysis of anabolic steroid esters in doping controls for the first time providing great potential to simplify the proof of exogenous administration of testosterone.

  14. Anabolic Steroids Reduce Muscle Degeneration Associated With Rotator Cuff Tendon Release in Sheep.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Christian; Meyer, Dominik C; Flück, Martin; Benn, Mario C; von Rechenberg, Brigitte; Wieser, Karl

    2015-10-01

    Chronic rotator cuff tendon tearing is associated with irreversible atrophy, fatty infiltration, and interstitial fibrosis of the corresponding muscle. Anabolic steroids can prevent musculotendinous degeneration during retraction and/or can reverse these changes after operative repair of the retracted musculotendinous unit in sheep. Controlled laboratory study. The infraspinatus tendon was released in 18 alpine sheep. All sheep underwent repair of the retracted musculotendinous unit after 16 weeks and were sacrificed after 22 weeks; 6 sheep served as controls, 6 sheep were treated with weekly intramuscular injection of 150 mg of nandrolone decanoate after infraspinatus (ISP) repair (group N6W), and 6 sheep were treated with 150 mg of nandrolone decanoate immediately after tendon release (group N22W). Muscle biopsy specimens were taken before tendon release and after 16 and 22 weeks. Muscle volume and fatty infiltration (on MRI), myotendinous retraction, and muscle density (on computed tomography) were measured immediately after ISP release, after 6 weeks, and before ISP repair and sacrifice. Muscle volume on MRI decreased to a mean (±SD) of 80% ± 8% of the original volume after 6 weeks, remained stable at 78% ± 11% after 16 weeks, and decreased further to 69% ± 9% after 22 weeks in the control group. These findings were no different from those in group N22W (72% ± 9% at 6 weeks, 73% ± 6% at 16 weeks, and 67% ± 5% at 22 weeks). Conversely, the N6W group did not show a decrease in ISP volume after repair; this finding differed significantly from the response in the control and N22W groups. Fatty infiltration (on MRI) continuously increased in the control group (12% ± 4% at tendon release, 17% ± 4% after 6 weeks, 50% ± 9% after 16 weeks, and 60% ± 8% after 22 weeks) and the N6W group. However, application of anabolic steroids at the time of tendon release (N22W group) significantly reduced fatty infiltration after 16 (16% ± 5%; P < .001) and 22 weeks (22

  15. Effect of anabolic steroids on overloaded and overloaded suspended skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsika, R. W.; Herrick, R. E.; Baldwin, K. M.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of treatment with an anabolic steroid (nandrolone decanoate) on the muscle mass, the subcellular protein content, and the myosin patterns of normal overloaded and suspended overloaded plantaris muscle in female rat was investigated, dividing rats into six groups: normal control (NC), overload (OV), OV steroid (OV-S), normal suspended (N-sus), OV suspended (OV-sus), and OV suspended steroid (OV-sus-S). Relative to control values, overload produced a sparing effect on the muscle weight of the OV-sus group as well as increases of muscle weight of the OV group; increased protein content; and an increased expression of slow myosin in both OV and OV-sus groups. Steroid treatment of OV animals did not after the response of any parameter analyzed for the OV group, but in the OV-sus group steroid treatment induced increases in muscle weight and in protein content of the OV-sus-S group. The treatment did not alter the pattern of isomyosin expression observed in the OV or the OV-sus groups. These result suggest that the steroid acts synergistically with functional overload only under conditions in which the effect of overload is minimized by suspension.

  16. Effect of anabolic steroids on overloaded and overloaded suspended skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsika, R. W.; Herrick, R. E.; Baldwin, K. M.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of treatment with an anabolic steroid (nandrolone decanoate) on the muscle mass, the subcellular protein content, and the myosin patterns of normal overloaded and suspended overloaded plantaris muscle in female rat was investigated, dividing rats into six groups: normal control (NC), overload (OV), OV steroid (OV-S), normal suspended (N-sus), OV suspended (OV-sus), and OV suspended steroid (OV-sus-S). Relative to control values, overload produced a sparing effect on the muscle weight of the OV-sus group as well as increases of muscle weight of the OV group; increased protein content; and an increased expression of slow myosin in both OV and OV-sus groups. Steroid treatment of OV animals did not after the response of any parameter analyzed for the OV group, but in the OV-sus group steroid treatment induced increases in muscle weight and in protein content of the OV-sus-S group. The treatment did not alter the pattern of isomyosin expression observed in the OV or the OV-sus groups. These result suggest that the steroid acts synergistically with functional overload only under conditions in which the effect of overload is minimized by suspension.

  17. Androgens affect muscle, motor neuron, and survival in a mouse model of SOD1-related amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Tanya; Polanco, Maria J; Scaramuzzino, Chiara; Rocchi, Anna; Milioto, Carmelo; Emionite, Laura; Ognio, Emanuela; Sambataro, Fabio; Galbiati, Mariarita; Poletti, Angelo; Pennuto, Maria

    2014-08-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by selective loss of upper and lower motor neurons and skeletal muscle atrophy. Epidemiologic and experimental evidence suggest the involvement of androgens in ALS pathogenesis, but the mechanism through which androgens modify the ALS phenotype is unknown. Here, we show that androgen ablation by surgical castration extends survival and disease duration of a transgenic mouse model of ALS expressing mutant human SOD1 (hSOD1-G93A). Furthermore, long-term treatment of orchiectomized hSOD1-G93A mice with nandrolone decanoate (ND), an anabolic androgenic steroid, worsened disease manifestations. ND treatment induced muscle fiber hypertrophy but caused motor neuron death. ND negatively affected survival, thereby dissociating skeletal muscle pathology from life span in this ALS mouse model. Interestingly, orchiectomy decreased androgen receptor levels in the spinal cord and muscle, whereas ND treatment had the opposite effect. Notably, stimulation with ND promoted the recruitment of endogenous androgen receptor into biochemical complexes that were insoluble in sodium dodecyl sulfate, a finding consistent with protein aggregation. Overall, our results shed light on the role of androgens as modifiers of ALS pathogenesis via dysregulation of androgen receptor homeostasis.

  18. Cost effectiveness of paliperidone palmitate for the treatment of schizophrenia in Germany.

    PubMed

    Zeidler, Jan; Mahlich, Jörg; Greiner, Wolfgang; Heres, Stephan

    2013-10-01

    Treatment with antipsychotic medication is an important element of relapse prevention in the management of schizophrenia, and can reduce inpatient stays. Recently, the long-acting atypical antipsychotic paliperidone long-acting injectable (PLAI), a once-monthly LAI antipsychotic, was approved for treatment of schizophrenia in Germany. To estimate, based on a previously published model, the cost effectiveness of PLAI compared with other common antipsychotic treatment strategies in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia in Germany. A Markov decision analytic model was adapted to the German healthcare system. The model considers the cost effectiveness for PLAI as a maintenance treatment for patients with schizophrenia from the payer perspective. The patients transition between eight health states on a monthly basis over a 5-year time horizon. As therapeutic strategies, PLAI, quetiapine, risperidone long-acting injections (RLAI), oral olanzapine, oral risperidone, zuclopenthixol decanoate, olanzapine long-acting injections (OLAI), oral typical and oral atypical were compared. Probability of relapse, level of adherence, side effects and treatment discontinuation were derived from the Swedish original model. Input factors regarding resource use and costs were estimated and adjusted for the German healthcare system. A probabilistic sensitivity analyses (PSA) using cost-effectiveness scatter plots was performed to visualize the robustness of the results. In base-case scenario, PLAI is superior to RLAI in gained quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and avoided relapses. Relative to all other treatment strategies, PLAI is more effective with regard to gained QALYs and avoided relapses but results in higher treatment costs over a 5-year horizon in base-case scenario. The results were tested in PSA. If a cost-effectiveness threshold of 30,000 is assumed, for example, PLAI can be considered to be cost effective compared with RLAI in about 92.5 % of cases regarding gained

  19. Anabolic-androgenic steroid does not enhance compensatory muscle hypertrophy but significantly diminish muscle damages in the rat surgical ablation model.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Tetsuro; Uchiyama, Yoshiyasu; Okada, Yoshinori; Tono, Kayoko; Nitta, Masahiro; Hoshi, Akio; Akatsuka, Akira

    2009-07-01

    Cellular responses in the compensatory hypertrophied (plantaris) muscle induced by surgical ablation of synergistic muscles (soleus and gastrocnemius) were determined during 10-week anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) treatment. Adult Wistar male rats were divided randomly into the Control and Steroid groups, and contralateral surgery was performed. Nandrolone decanoate was administered to the Steroid group. [3H]thymidine and [14C]leucine labeling were used to determine the serial changes in cellular mitotic activity and amino acid uptake. Myogenic cells and cellular responses in blood vessels and nerve fibers were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Significantly lower cellular mitotic activity associated with lower volume of muscle fiber necrosis was observed in the Steroid group during the first week. However, amino acid uptake and final muscle wet weight gain did not differ between the groups. Marked activation/proliferation of muscular, vascular, and peripheral nerve-related cells was seen with the inflammatory responses in both groups. However, this activation was dependent on the volume of muscle fiber damage and was not preferentially accelerated by AAS loading. These results indicated that AAS loading significantly diminished muscle fiber damages, but they did not accelerate final muscle wet weight gain and activation of myogenic, vascular, and peripheral nerve related cells in the compensatory enlarged muscles.

  20. Dihydrotestosterone and estrogen regulation of rat brain androgen-receptor immunoreactivity.

    PubMed

    Lynch, C S; Story, A J

    Androgen-receptor upregulation that occurs with androgenic-anabolic steroid (AAS) administration may be mediated by AAS metabolites, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and estrogen. Castrated and intact male rats received 14 s.c. daily injections of AAS (2 mg/kg testosterone cypionate, 2 mg/kg nandrolone decanoate, and 1 mg/kg boldenone undecylenate in sesame oil vehicle), DHT (5 mg/kg dihydrotestosterone), EB (5 mg/kg estradiol benzoate), or sesame oil vehicle. Approximately 18-24 h after the fourteenth injection, brain tissues were removed and processed immunocytochemically using the PG-21 androgen-receptor antibody. As reported before, castration eliminated AR-ir (androgen-receptor immunoreactivity) and AAS upregulated AR-ir in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMHVL), medial amygdala (MePV), and medial preoptic area (MPOM). When compared to AAS, DHT fully upregulated AR-ir in the VM VL and MPOM and partially upregulated AR-ir in the MePV. EB treatment partially upregulated AR-ir in the VMHVL and MePV, but not in the MPOM of castrated rats. Because AR-ir in the MPOM was consistently upregulated by DHT or AAS, and not EB, androgen-receptor availability in this region may be mediated specifically via androgen receptors.

  1. Muscle Wasting in Hemodialysis Patients: New Therapeutic Strategies for Resolving an Old Problem

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chun-Ting; Lin, Shih-Hua; Chen, Jin-Shuen

    2013-01-01

    Muscle wasting has long been recognized as a major clinical problem in hemodialysis (HD) patients. In addition to its impact on quality of life, muscle wasting has been proven to be associated with increased mortality rates. Identification of the molecular mechanisms underlying muscle wasting in HD patients provides opportunities to resolve this clinical problem. Several signaling pathways and humeral factors have been reported to be involved in the pathogenic mechanisms of muscle wasting in HD patients, including ubiquitin-proteasome system, caspase-3, insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling, endogenous glucocorticoids, metabolic acidosis, inflammation, and sex hormones. Targeting the aforementioned crucial signaling and molecules to suppress protein degradation and augment muscle strength has been extensively investigated in HD patients. In addition to exercise training, administration of megestrol acetate has been proven to be effective in improving anorexia and muscle wasting in HD patients. Correction of metabolic acidosis through sodium bicarbonate supplements can decrease muscle protein degradation and hormone therapy with nandrolone decanoate has been reported to increase muscle mass. Although thiazolidinedione has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity, its role in the treatment of muscle wasting remains unclear. This review paper focuses on the molecular pathways and potential new therapeutic approaches to muscle wasting in HD patients. PMID:24382946

  2. Anabolic steroids reduce spinal cord injury-related bone loss in rats associated with increased Wnt signaling

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Li; Pan, Jiangping; Peng, Yuanzhen; Wu, Yong; Li, Jianghua; Liu, Xuan; Qin, Yiwen; Bauman, William A.; Cardozo, Christopher; Zaidi, Mone; Qin, Weiping

    2013-01-01

    Background Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes severe bone loss. At present, there is no practical treatment to delay or prevent bone loss in individuals with motor-complete SCI. Hypogonadism is common in men after SCI and may exacerbate bone loss. The anabolic steroid nandrolone reduces bone loss due to microgravity or nerve transection. Objective To determine whether nandrolone reduced bone loss after SCI and, if so, to explore the mechanisms of nandrolone action. Methods Male rats with complete transection of the spinal cord were administered nandrolone combined with a physiological replacement dose of testosterone, or vehicle, beginning on day 29 after SCI and continued for 28 days. Results SCI reduced distal femoral and proximal tibial bone mineral density (BMD) by 25 and 16%, respectively, at 56 days. This bone loss was attenuated by nandrolone. In ex vivo osteoclasts cultures, SCI increased mRNA levels for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and calcitonin receptor; nandrolone-normalized expression levels of these transcripts. In ex vivo osteoblast cultures, SCI increased receptor activator of NF-kB ligand (RANKL) mRNA levels but did not alter osteoprotegerin (OPG) mRNA expression; nandrolone-increased expression of OPG and OPG/RANKL ratio. SCI reduced mRNA levels of Wnt signaling-related genes Wnt3a, low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5), Fzd5, Tcf7, and ectodermal-neural cortex 1 (ENC1) in osteoblasts, whereas nandrolone increased expression of each of these genes. Conclusions The results demonstrate that nandrolone reduces bone loss after SCI. A potential mechanism is suggested by our findings wherein nandrolone modulates genes for differentiation and activity of osteoclasts and osteoblasts, at least in part, through the activation of Wnt signaling. PMID:24090150

  3. [Effect of anabolic steroid on immune response].

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, H; Kobayashi, M; Konosu, H; Kurioka, H; Naito, K; Sonoyama, T; Nishimoto, T; Hashimoto, I

    1984-03-01

    Using lymphocyte, monocyte and eosinophil counts of the peripheral blood, PHA-blastoid transformation, immunoglobulin and beta 2-microglobulin, the influence of anabolic steroid on the immune reactivity of the host was dissected by administration of Deca-Durabolin ( nandrolone decanoate) to both tumor-bearing host and tumor-free host after operation for alimentary tract. The number of peripheral lymphocytes and monocytes, the PHA-blastoid transformation of peripheral lymphocytes and the IgG level were increased, and the beta 2-microglobulin level showed the tendency of decrease after the administration of Deca-Durabolin.

  4. Increased dopaminergic and 5-hydroxytryptaminergic activities in male rat brain following long-term treatment with anabolic androgenic steroids

    PubMed Central

    Thiblin, Ingemar; Finn, Anja; Ross, Svante B; Stenfors, Carina

    1999-01-01

    The effects of treating groups of rats with four different anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) (testosterone, nandrolone, methandrostenolone, and oxymetholone) on 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) neurones in different brain regions were examined. The AAS was injected six times with 1 week's interval and the rats were sacrificed 2 days after the final injection. 5-HT and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), DA and its metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) were measured. The effect on DA and 5-HT synthesis rate was analysed as the accumulation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-alanine (DOPA) and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), respectively, after inhibition of the amino acid decarboxylase with NSD-1015 (3-hydroxy-benzylhydrazine dihydrochloride). Additionally, the monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity was analysed in the hypothalamus. The DOPAC+HVA/DA ratio was increased in the striatum in all treatment groups. However, the synthesis rate of DA was significantly increased only in the methandrostenolone treated group. The 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio was increased in all treatment groups in the hippocampus, in the frontal cortex in the methandrostenolone-treated animals and in the hypothalamus in the testosterone- and oxymetholone-treated rats, while the 5-HT synthesis rate was not affected by the AAS-treatments. The MAO-A activity was increased in the oxymetholone-treated rats while the other treatment groups were unaffected. The MAO-B activity was not changed. The results indicate that relatively high doses of AAS increase dopaminergic and 5-hydroxytryptaminergic metabolism in male rat brain, probably due to enhanced turnover in these monaminergic systems. PMID:10217522

  5. Rate and predictors of non-response to first-line antipsychotic treatment in first-episode schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Chiliza, Bonginkosi; Asmal, Laila; Kilian, Sanja; Phahladira, Lebogang; Emsley, Robin

    2015-05-01

    The goals of this study were to (i) estimate the rate of non-response to first-line treatment in first-episode schizophrenia, (ii) evaluate other outcomes associated with symptom non-response and (iii) identify demographic, baseline clinical and early treatment response predictors of non-response. This was a single-site, longitudinal cohort study assessing the effects of treatment with flupenthixol decanoate according to a standardised protocol over 12 months in patients with schizophrenia, schizophreniform and schizo-affective disorders. Of 126 patients who received at least one dose of study medication, 84 (67%) completed the study. Fifteen (12%) met our predefined criteria for non-response. Non-responders were younger and at baseline had more prominent disorganised symptoms, poorer social and occupational functioning, poorer quality of life for psychological, social and environmental domains, more prominent neurological soft signs (NSS) and lower body mass index. At endpoint, the non-responders were characterised by higher levels of symptomatology in all domains, poorer functional outcome, poorer quality of life and greater cognitive impairments. They also had more prominent NSS and lower body mass index. The strongest predictors of non-response were more prominent baseline NSS and poor early (7 weeks) treatment response. Results are consistent with a lower rate of refractoriness to treatment in first-episode schizophrenia compared with multi-episode samples. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Incontinence Treatment: Surgical Treatments

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Lifestyle Changes Dietary Tips Medication Bowel Management Biofeedback Surgical Treatments Newer Treatment Options Tips on Finding ... Treatment Lifestyle Changes Dietary Tips Medication Bowel Management Biofeedback Surgical Treatments Newer Treatment Options Tips on Finding ...

  7. Anabolic-androgenic steroid and adrenal steroid effects on hippocampal plasticity.

    PubMed

    Clark, A S; Mitre, M C; Brinck-Johnsen, T

    1995-05-08

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are synthetic androgen-like compounds which are taken in high doses by athletes with the intention of enhancing muscular appearance, strength and/or athletic performance. Recent research indicates that high doses of AAS may influence the functions of the hippocampus. This evidence led us to explore the extent to which chronic AAS treatments influence spatial memory and the integrity of the hippocampus in the rat. Gonadally intact adult male Long-Evans rats were treated with either the AAS methandrostenolone, a steroid 'cocktail' (TNB; testosterone cypionate, boldenone undecylenate and nandrolone decanoate), or the oil vehicle daily for 12 weeks. A group of male rats treated with corticosterone (CORT; 10 mg/day) was also examined. Spatial memory was assessed in the Morris water maze after 10 weeks of hormone treatment. At 12 weeks, the animals were sacrificed, blood collected and the brain sectioned to assess hippocampal cell number. There were no impairments in the acquisition or retention of the Morris water maze in any hormone treatment group. Although serum testosterone levels were elevated in rats treated with TNB relative to the oil controls, neither the TNB or methandrostenolone treatments produced changes in hippocampal cell number. Serum CORT levels were significantly elevated in the rats treated with CORT and cell loss (15%) was detectable in the CA3b subfield in this group of animals. These results indicate that the AAS administered in the present study were not detrimental to hippocampal spatial memory or cell survival and that, while chronic CORT may produce mild hippocampal cell loss, this loss is not accompanied by deficits on a spatial memory task.

  8. Effect of anabolic steroids on skeletal muscle mass during hindlimb suspension.

    PubMed

    Tsika, R W; Herrick, R E; Baldwin, K M

    1987-11-01

    The efficacy of anabolic steroid treatment [0.3 or 0.9 mg nandrolone decanoate (Deca-Durabolin) per day] was examined in the context of sparing rodent fast-twitch plantaris and slow-twitch soleus muscle weight, sparing subcellular protein, and altering isomyosin expression in response to hindlimb suspension. Female rats were assigned to four groups (7 rats/group for 6 wk): 1) normal control (NC), 2) normal steroid (NS), 3) normal suspension (N-SUS), and 4) suspension steroid (SUS-S). Compared with control values for the plantaris and soleus muscles, suspension induced 1) smaller body and muscle weight (P less than 0.05), 2) losses in myofibril content (mg/muscle, P less than 0.05), and 3) shifts in the relative expression (expressed as %of total isomyosin) of isomyosins which favored lesser slow myosin and greater fast myosin isotypes (P less than 0.05). Steroid treatment of suspended animals (SUS-S vs. N-SUS) partially spared body and muscle weight (P less than 0.05) and spared plantaris but not soleus myofibril content (mg/muscle, P less than 0.05). However, steroid treatment did not modify the isomyosin pattern induced by suspension. In normal rats (NS vs. NC), steroid treatment enhanced body and plantaris muscle weight but not soleus weight (P less than 0.05) and did not alter isomyosin expression in either muscle type. Collectively these data suggest that in young female rats anabolic steroids 1) enhance the body weight and the weight of a fast-twitch ankle extensor in normal rats, 2) ameliorate the loss in body weight, fast-twitch muscle weight and protein content and slow-twitch muscle weight associated with hindlimb suspension.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Evaluation of chemical immersion treatments to reduce microbial populations in fresh beef.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Ahmed; Meade, Joseph; Gibbons, James; McGill, Kevina; Walsh, Ciara; Lyng, James; Whyte, Paul

    2017-09-05

    The aim of the current study was to assess the ability of a number of chemicals (acetic Acid (AA), citric acid (CA) lactic acid (LA), sodium decanoate (SD) and trisodium phosphate (TSP)) to reduce microbial populations (total viable count, Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes) on raw beef using an immersion system. The following concentrations of each chemical were used: 3 & 5% for AA, CA, LA, SD and 10 &12% for TSP. Possible synergistic effects of using combinations of two chemicals sequentially (LA+CA and LA+AA) were also investigated. L*, a* and b* values were measured before and after treatments and ΔE* values were calculated in order to determine any changes in the color of meat due to the use of these chemicals. In general, all chemical treatments resulted in significantly (p<0.05) reduced bacterial counts when compared to untreated controls. The greatest reductions were obtained by using LA3%, SD5%, AA5%, LA5% and SD3% for TVC, C. jejuni, E. coli, S. typhimurium and L. monocytogenes, respectively. However, no significant difference in microbial load was observed between the different concentrations of each chemical used (p>0.05). The application of combinations of chemical immersion treatments (LA3%+AA3% and LA3%+CA3%) did not result in further significant reductions in microbial populations when compared to single chemical treatments (P<0.05). Assessment of color changes in meat following the application of chemical immersion treatments indicated that using AA or CA at either concentration and LA at 5% led to an increase in the ΔE* value of >3 immediately after treatment and after 24h storage. The remaining treatments did not result in significant changes to the color of raw beef. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Anabolic steroids have long-lasting effects on male social behaviors.

    PubMed

    Salas-Ramirez, Kaliris Y; Montalto, Pamela R; Sisk, Cheryl L

    2010-04-02

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) use by adolescents is steadily increasing. Adolescence involves remodeling of steroid-sensitive neural circuits that mediate social behaviors, and previous studies using animal models document effects of AAS on male social behaviors. The present experiments tested whether AAS have persistent and more pronounced behavioral consequences when drug exposure occurs during adolescence as compared to exposure in adulthood. Male Syrian hamsters were injected daily for 14 days with either vehicle or an AAS cocktail containing testosterone cypionate (2 mg/kg), nandrolone decanoate (2 mg/kg), and boldenone undecylenate (1 mg/kg), either during adolescence (27-41 days of age) or adulthood (63-77 days of age). As adults, subjects were tested two or four weeks after the last injection for either sexual behavior with a receptive female or male-male agonistic behavior in a resident-intruder test. Compared with vehicle-treated males, AAS-treated males, regardless of age of treatment, displayed fewer long intromissions and a significant increase in latency to the first long intromission, indicative of reduced potential to reach sexual satiety. Increased aggression was observed in males exposed to AAS compared with males treated with vehicle, independently of age of AAS treatment. However, unlike hamsters exposed to AAS in adulthood, hamsters exposed to AAS during adolescence did not display any submissive or risk-assessment behaviors up to 4 weeks after discontinuation of AAS treatment. Thus, AAS have long-lasting effects on male sexual and agonistic behaviors, with AAS exposure during adolescence resulting in a more pronounced reduction in submissive behavior compared to AAS exposure in adulthood.

  11. Chronic Anabolic Androgenic Steroid Exposure Alters Corticotropin Releasing Factor Expression and Anxiety-Like Behaviors in the Female Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Costine, Beth A; Oberlander, Joseph G; Davis, Matthew C; Penatti, Carlos A A; Porter, Donna M; Leaton, Robert N; Henderson, Leslie P

    2010-01-01

    Summary In the past several decades, the therapeutic use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been overshadowed by illicit use of these drugs by elite athletes and a growing number of adolescents to enhance performance and body image. As with adults, AAS use by adolescents is associated with a range of behavioral effects, including increased anxiety and altered responses to stress. It has been suggested that adolescents, especially adolescent females, may be particularly susceptible to the effects of these steroids, but few experiments in animal models have been performed to test this assertion. Here we show that chronic exposure of adolescent female mice to a mixture of three commonly abused AAS (testosterone cypionate, nandrolone decanoate and methandrostenolone; 7.5 mg/kg/day for 5 days) significantly enhanced anxiety-like behavior as assessed by the acoustic startle response (ASR), but did not augment the fear-potentiated startle response (FPS) or alter sensorimotor gating as assessed by prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response (PPI). AAS treatment also significantly increased the levels of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) mRNA and somal-associated CRF immunoreactivity in the central amygdala (CeA), as well as neuropil-associated immunoreactivity in the dorsal aspect of the anterolateral division of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dBnST). AAS treatment did not alter CRF receptor 1 or 2 mRNA in either the CeA or the dBnST; CRF immunoreactivity in the ventral BNST, the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) or the median eminence (ME); or peripheral levels of corticosterone. These results suggest that chronic AAS treatment of adolescent female mice may enhance generalized anxiety, but not sensorimotor gating or learned fear, via a mechanism that involves increased CRF-mediated signaling from CeA neurons projecting to the dBnST. PMID:20537804

  12. Chronic anabolic androgenic steroid exposure alters corticotropin releasing factor expression and anxiety-like behaviors in the female mouse.

    PubMed

    Costine, Beth A; Oberlander, Joseph G; Davis, Matthew C; Penatti, Carlos A A; Porter, Donna M; Leaton, Robert N; Henderson, Leslie P

    2010-11-01

    In the past several decades, the therapeutic use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been overshadowed by illicit use of these drugs by elite athletes and a growing number of adolescents to enhance performance and body image. As with adults, AAS use by adolescents is associated with a range of behavioral effects, including increased anxiety and altered responses to stress. It has been suggested that adolescents, especially adolescent females, may be particularly susceptible to the effects of these steroids, but few experiments in animal models have been performed to test this assertion. Here we show that chronic exposure of adolescent female mice to a mixture of three commonly abused AAS (testosterone cypionate, nandrolone decanoate and methandrostenolone; 7.5 mg/kg/day for 5 days) significantly enhanced anxiety-like behavior as assessed by the acoustic startle response (ASR), but did not augment the fear-potentiated startle response (FPS) or alter sensorimotor gating as assessed by prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response (PPI). AAS treatment also significantly increased the levels of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) mRNA and somal-associated CRF immunoreactivity in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), as well as neuropil-associated immunoreactivity in the dorsal aspect of the anterolateral division of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dBnST). AAS treatment did not alter CRF receptor 1 or 2 mRNA in either the CeA or the dBnST; CRF immunoreactivity in the ventral BnST, the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) or the median eminence (ME); or peripheral levels of corticosterone. These results suggest that chronic AAS treatment of adolescent female mice may enhance generalized anxiety, but not sensorimotor gating or learned fear, via a mechanism that involves increased CRF-mediated signaling from CeA neurons projecting to the dBnST.

  13. ANABOLIC STEROIDS HAVE LONG-LASTING EFFECTS ON MALE SOCIAL BEHAVIORS

    PubMed Central

    Salas-Ramirez, Kaliris Y.; Montalto, Pamela R.; Sisk, Cheryl L.

    2010-01-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) use by adolescents is steadily increasing. Adolescence involves remodeling of steroid-sensitive neural circuits that mediate social behaviors, and previous studies using animal models document effects of AAS on male social behaviors. The present experiments tested whether AAS have persistent and more pronounced behavioral consequences when drug exposure occurs during adolescence as compared to exposure in adulthood. Male Syrian hamsters were injected daily for 14 days with either vehicle or an AAS cocktail containing testosterone cypionate (2 mg/kg), nandrolone decanoate (2 mg/kg), and boldenone undecylenate (1 mg/kg), either during adolescence (27-41 days of age) or adulthood (63-77 days of age). As adults, subjects were tested two or four weeks after the last injection for either sexual behavior with a receptive female or male-male agonistic behavior in a resident-intruder test. Compared with vehicle-treated males, AAS-treated males, regardless of age of treatment, displayed fewer long intromissions and a significant increase in latency to the first long intromission, indicative of reduced potential to reach sexual satiety. Increased aggression was observed in males exposed to AAS compared with males treated with vehicle, independently of age of AAS treatment. However, unlike hamsters exposed to AAS in adulthood, hamsters exposed to AAS during adolescence did not display any submissive or risk-assessment behaviors up to 4 weeks after discontinuation of AAS treatment. Thus, AAS have long-lasting effects on male sexual and agonistic behaviors, with AAS exposure during adolescence resulting in a more pronounced reduction in submissive behavior compared to AAS exposure in adulthood. PMID:20036695

  14. Hair analysis of anabolic steroids in connection with doping control-results from horse samples.

    PubMed

    Anielski, P

    2008-07-01

    Doping control of anabolic substances is normally carried out with urine samples taken from athletes and horses. Investigation of alternative specimens, e.g. hair samples, is restricted to special cases, but can also be worthwhile, in addition to urine analysis. Moreover, hair material is preferred in cases of limited availability or complicated collection of urine samples, e.g. from horses. In this work, possible ways of interpretation of analytical results in hair samples are discussed and illustrated by practical experiences. The results demonstrate the applicability of hair analysis to detect anabolic steroids and also to obtain further information about previous abuse. Moreover, the process of incorporation of steroids into hairs is described and the consequences on interpretation are discussed, e.g. on the retrospective estimation of the application date. The chosen examples deal with the detection of the anabolic agent testosterone propionate. Hair samples of an application study, as well as a control sample taken from a racing horse, were referred to. Hair material was investigated by a screening procedure including testosterone, nandrolone and several esters (testosterone propionate, phenylpropionate, decanoate, undecanoate, cypionate; nandrolone decanoate, dodecanoate and phenylpropionate; limits of detection (LODs) between 0.1 and 5.0 pg/mg). Confirmation of testosterone propionate (LOD 0.1 pg/mg) was carried out by an optimised sample preparation. Trimethylsilyl (TMS) and tert-butyl dimethylsilyl derivatives were detected by gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS).

  15. Incontinence Treatment: Surgical Treatments

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bowel Incontinence Signs & Symptoms Symptoms of Incontinence Diarrhea Treatment Lifestyle Changes Dietary Tips Medication Bowel Management Biofeedback Surgical Treatments Newer Treatment Options Tips on Finding a Doctor ...

  16. Effect of anabolic steroids on overloaded and overloaded suspended skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Tsika, R W; Herrick, R E; Baldwin, K M

    1987-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether anabolic steroids act synergistically with functional overload in terms of increasing muscle weight and subcellular protein content of normal overloaded and suspended overloaded rodent plantaris muscle. Female rats were randomly assigned to six groups (7 rats/group) for 6 wk: 1) normal control (NC), 2) overload (OV), 3) overload steroid (OV-S), 4) normal suspended (N-SUS), 5) overload suspended (OV-SUS), and 6) overload suspended steroid (OV-SUS-S). Rats receiving anabolic steroid were administered 0.3 mg nandrolone decanoate (Deca-Durabolin) per day. Relative to control values, overload induced 1) sparing of muscle weight of the OV-SUS group as well as larger absolute and normalized (mg muscle/g body wt) muscle weight of the OV group (P less than 0.05), 2) greater protein content (mg/muscle, P less than 0.05), and 3) an increased relative expression of slow myosin in both the OV and OV-SUS groups (P less than 0.05). Although anabolic steroid treatment of overload animals (OV-S) did not alter further the pattern of response of any parameter analyzed for the OV group, it did induce larger absolute and normalized muscle weight (P less than 0.05) as well as a greater protein content (mg/muscle, P less than 0.05) of the OV-SUS-S group compared with control values. However, anabolic steroid treatment did not alter the pattern of isomyosin expression observed in the overload (OV-S vs. OV) or overload suspended (OV-SUS-S vs. OV-SUS) groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Histopathologycal findings in the ovaries and uterus of albino female rats promoted by co-administration of synthetic steroids and nicotine.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Isabel Cristina Cherici; Leite, Gabriel Adan Araújo; Pinto, Tiago; Ribeiro-Paes, João Tadeu

    2014-07-01

    The use of anabolic androgenic steroids is often associated with the use of other substances, licit or not, such as nicotine present in the tobacco. The present study investigated for the first time the effects of co-administration of synthetic steroids and nicotine on the ovarian and uterine tissue and fertility of adult female rats. Animals were submitted to treatment groups (n=16/group): nandrolone decanoate (ND; 7.5mg/kg BW/week); testosterone mixture (T; 7.5mg/kg BW/week); nicotine (N; 2.0mg/kg BW/day), and co-administration of ND/N, T/N and ND/T/N. The control group received saline solution daily. The injections were administered subcutaneously for 30 consecutive days. Results demonstrated that all androgenized rats exhibited estral acyclicity and there was suppression of reproductive capacity due to notable ovarian and uterine histological changes. Treatments promoted decrease (p<0.05) in the ovarian weight. Uterine weight increased (p<0.05) in the T and T/N groups, in comparison to control group. ND or T co-administered or not to nicotine promoted intense follicular degeneration, with formation of cysts in the ovaries. High levels of circulating androgens in the ND/T/N group induced the presence of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors of Sertoli cell pattern. Androgenized females presented endometrial changes characterized by papilliferous or pleated luminal epithelium, oedematous and hemorrhagic stroma and presence of gland cysts. In conclusion, the co-administration of three drugs promoted atypical morphological pattern on the ovaries and uterus of female rats.

  18. Detection and quantification of 12 anabolic steroids and analogs in human whole blood and 20 in hair using LC-HRMS/MS: application to real cases.

    PubMed

    Fabresse, Nicolas; Grassin-Delyle, Stanislas; Etting, Isabelle; Alvarez, Jean-Claude

    2017-07-01

    We developed and validated a method to detect and quantify 12 anabolic steroids in blood (androstenedione, dihydrotestosterone, boldenone, epitestosterone, mesterolone, methandienone, nandrolone, stanozolol, norandrostenedione, tamoxifene, testosterone, trenbolone) and eight more in hair samples (nandrolone phenylpropionate, nandrolone decanoate, testosterone propionate, testosterone benzoate, testosterone cypionate, testosterone decanoate, testosterone phenylpropionate, testosterone undecanoate) using liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry. This method used a benchtop Orbitrap mass spectrometer operating with an APCI probe under positive ionization mode. Analysis was realized in full scan experiment with a nominal resolving power of 140,000. After addition of the internal standard (testosterone-D3) and incubation in phosphate buffer pH = 5 for hair, 200 μL of blood and 30 mg of hair samples were extracted with heptane. LOQ and LOD were determined at 5 and 1 ng mL(-1) in whole blood and 10 to 100 pg mg(-1) and 2 to 20 pg mg(-1) in hair according to the compounds, respectively. The method was linear in the 5-1000 ng mL(-1) range in whole blood and between 10 or 100 pg mg(-1) and 1000 pg mg(-1) in hair with correlation coefficients >0.99, and intra- and inter-day accuracy and precision were <14.8% for all compounds except for some esters in hairs (<19.9%) probably due to an important matrix effect for these compounds. This sensitive and specific method to detect anabolic steroids has been successfully applied to two real cases, for which various anabolic steroids in whole blood, urine, and hair were identified and quantified.

  19. [A history of antipsychotic long-acting injections in the treatment of schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Crocq, M-A

    2015-02-01

    From a historical perspective, this article describes the use of antipsychotic long-acting injections (LAI) in the treatment of schizophrenia, a disorder that was defined in the final years of the 19th century. An efficient treatment for schizophrenia was discovered only in 1952 with the introduction of chlorpromazine, a phenothiazine derivative. Fairly soon, antipsychotics became available as LAI. The first compounds were fluphenazine enanthate (1966) and decanoate (1968) whose development is attributed to G.R. Daniel, a medical director at Squibb & Sons. Other first-generation antipsychotics long-acting injections (FGA-LAIs) were introduced in a rapid succession in the 1960s and 1970s. FGA-LAIs made a key contribution to the development of community psychiatry. As neuroleptics emptied psychiatric hospitals, it was important to ensure that patients could be taken care of in outpatient facilities. FGA-LAIs prevented covert non-compliance. Compliance was further reinforced by the social and psychological support of patients. The introduction of second-generation antipsychotics (SGA) led to a loss of interest in FGA-LAIs. This is evidenced by a drop in the number of papers published on this topic. The interest in LAI was revived with the introduction of the first SGA-LAI in 2003. Four different preparations have been approved in the decade between 2003 and 2013. SGA-LAIs differ from FGA-LAIs in the technology that is used to produce the depot effect, and also in the treatment objectives. The rationale for using SGA-LAIs is not only to prevent relapses due to treatment interruption, but also to achieve more constant plasma levels in order to reduce side effects due to excessive plasma levels and loss of efficacy due to insufficient plasma levels. Also, treatment objectives are no longer limited to controlling acute symptoms. Treatment objectives now include the alleviation of negative symptoms and cognitive deficits that are key prognostic factors. Copyright © 2014

  20. Hyperbaric treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amoroso, Michael T.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on hyperbaric treatment are presented. Topics covered include: hyperbaric treatment - purpose; decompression sickness; sources of decompression sickness; physical description; forms of decompression sickness; hyperbaric treatment of decompression sickness; and duration of treatment.

  1. Effects of androgenic-anabolic steroids on apolipoproteins and lipoprotein (a)

    PubMed Central

    Hartgens, F; Rietjens, G; Keizer, H; Kuipers, H; Wolffenbuttel, B

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effects of two different regimens of androgenic-anabolic steroid (AAS) administration on serum lipid and lipoproteins, and recovery of these variables after drug cessation, as indicators of the risk for cardiovascular disease in healthy male strength athletes. Methods: In a non-blinded study (study 1) serum lipoproteins and lipids were assessed in 19 subjects who self administered AASs for eight or 14 weeks, and in 16 non-using volunteers. In a randomised double blind, placebo controlled design, the effects of intramuscular administration of nandrolone decanoate (200 mg/week) for eight weeks on the same variables in 16 bodybuilders were studied (study 2). Fasting serum concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), HDL2-cholesterol (HDL2-C), HDL3-cholesterol (HDL3-C), apolipoprotein A1 (Apo-A1), apolipoprotein B (Apo-B), and lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) were determined. Results: In study 1 AAS administration led to decreases in serum concentrations of HDL-C (from 1.08 (0.30) to 0.43 (0.22) mmol/l), HDL2-C (from 0.21 (0.18) to 0.05 (0.03) mmol/l), HDL3-C (from 0.87 (0.24) to 0.40 (0.20) mmol/l, and Apo-A1 (from 1.41 (0.27) to 0.71 (0.34) g/l), whereas Apo-B increased from 0.96 (0.13) to 1.32 (0.28) g/l. Serum Lp(a) declined from 189 (315) to 32 (63) U/l. Total cholesterol and triglycerides did not change significantly. Alterations after eight and 14 weeks of AAS administration were comparable. No changes occurred in the controls. Six weeks after AAS cessation, serum HDL-C, HDL2-C, Apo-A1, Apo-B, and Lp(a) had still not returned to baseline concentrations. Administration of AAS for 14 weeks was associated with slower recovery to pretreatment concentrations than administration for eight weeks. In study 2, nandrolone decanoate did not influence serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-C, HDL2-C, HDL3-C, Apo-A1, and Apo-B concentrations after four and eight weeks of intervention, nor six weeks after withdrawal

  2. Alzheimer's Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Alzheimer's Disease Alzheimer's Treatment Past Issues / Winter 2015 Table of Contents Currently, ... to develop and test a variety of possible treatments for Alzheimer's. Current treatments: These focus on ways to slow ...

  3. Scabies Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Head Neck & Nervous System Heart Infections Learning Disabilities Obesity Orthopedic Prevention Sexually Transmitted Skin Tobacco Treatments Injuries & ... the pediatrician. She may want to prescribe an antibiotic or another form of treatment. Following treatment, the ...

  4. Inhibition by memantine of the development of persistent oral dyskinesias induced by long-term haloperidol treatment of rats.

    PubMed Central

    Andreassen, O. A.; Aamo, T. O.; Jøorgensen, H. A.

    1996-01-01

    1. Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a serious side-effect of long-term treatment with neuroleptics. To investigate if neuroleptic-induced excessive stimulation of striatal glutamate receptors may underlie TD development, the effect of the NMDA antagonist, memantine (1-amino-3,5-dimethyladamantane), was studied in a rat model of TD. 2. In an acute experiment, six groups of rats were treated daily for 1 week with either vehicle or memantine 20 or 40 mg kg-1 day-1, and on the seventh day they received one injection of either haloperidol 1.0 mg kg-1 i.p. or saline i.p. In a subsequent long-term experiment lasting 20 weeks, the same treatment was continued, except that haloperidol was injected i.m. as decanoate (38 mg kg-1 every 4 weeks) and control rats received sesame oil. The behaviour was videotaped and scored at intervals during both experiments, and for 16 weeks after cessation of the long-term treatment. 3. In the acute experiment, haloperidol decreased motor activity and memantine increased moving and tended to attenuate the immobility induced by haloperidol. Memantine also enhanced the haloperidol-induced increase in the putative TD-analogue vacuous chewing movements (VCM). 4. In the long-term experiment, the most marked effect of haloperidol was a gradual increase in VCM and the increase persisted significantly for 12 weeks after cessation of treatment. Memantine dose-dependently increased VCM and moving during long-term treatment. However, only one week after stopping treatment, both these effects of memantine disappeared. In contrast to rats previously treated with haloperidol alone, rats co-treated with memantine (both doses) and haloperidol had VCM at the level of controls two weeks after stopping treatment. The blood levels of drugs were within the therapeutic range achieved in human subjects. 5. These results suggest that long-lasting changes induced by haloperidol are prevented by memantine, which supports the theory that excessive NMDA receptor stimulation

  5. Thyroid and Biochemical/Metabolic Effects of PFDA (Perfluoro-n-decanoic Acid).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-04

    Nuclear. Boston. In isolated heart experiments involving the direct infu- Mass.) and counted in a Packard PL Tn- Carb liquid scm- sion of NE hearts were...the ARVP response curve very shal- [3H]DHA. The observed shift in B... in the low compared to controls. The ARVP at 8 Hz PFDA-treated group was...adrenergic receptor in- VASSALLE, M. (1982). Cardiac automaticity and its con- teractions: Resolutions of high and low affinity states trol. In Excitation

  6. Comparison of PFDA (Perfluoro-n-Decanoic Acid) and TCDD on Heart Membranes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-18

    hydrolyzable GTP analogue guanylyl imidodiphosphate (GppNHp) was included in the incubation mixture, 10 uM GppNHp was substituted for GTP. .4. Varying...hydrolyzable guanine nucleotide analog, guanylyl ..................... ]& %. 2.. ൓ -" imidodiphosphate (GppNHp), were not significantly affected by

  7. 40 CFR 180.1225 - Decanoic acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD... acid (up to 170 ppm per application) on food contact surfaces such as equipment, pipelines, tanks,...

  8. Detectability of testosterone esters and estradiol benzoate in bovine hair and plasma following pour-on treatment.

    PubMed

    Stolker, A A M; Groot, M J; Lasaroms, J J P; Nijrolder, A W J M; Blokland, M H; Riedmaier, I; Becker, C; Meyer, H H D; Nielen, M W F

    2009-10-01

    The abuse of synthetic esters of natural steroids such as testosterone and estradiol in cattle fattening and sports is hard to detect via routine urine testing. The esters are rapidly hydrolysed in vivo into substances which are also endogenously present in urine. An interesting alternative can be provided by the analysis of the administered synthetic steroids themselves, i.e., the analysis of intact steroid esters in hair by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). However, retrospective estimation of the application date following a non-compliant finding is hindered by the complexity of the kinetics of the incorporation of steroid esters in hair. In this study, the incorporation of intact steroid esters in hair following pour-on treatment has been studied and critically compared with results from intramuscular treatment. To this end animals were pour-on treated with a hormone cocktail containing testosterone cypionate, testosterone decanoate and estradiol benzoate in different carriers. The animals were either treated using injection and pour-on application once or three times having 1 week between treatments using injection and pour-on application. Animals were slaughtered from 10-12 weeks after the last treatment. Both hair and blood plasma samples were collected and analysed by LC/MS/MS. From the results, it is concluded that after single treatment the levels of steroid esters in hair drop to CCbeta levels (5-20 microg/kg) after 5-7 weeks. When treatment is repeated two times, the CCbeta levels are reached after 9-11 weeks. Furthermore, in plasma, no steroid esters were detected; not even at the low microgramme per litre level but--in contrast with the pour-on application--after i.m. injection, significant increase of 17beta-testosterone and 17beta-estradiol were observed. These observations suggest that transport of steroid esters after pour-on application is not only performed by blood but also by alternative fluids in the animal so

  9. Complementary Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... in mind, learn more about some complementary medicines: Antioxidants Vitamin C and E, the Mediterranean Diet Calcium ... Motor Symptoms Surgical Treatment Options Exercise Complementary Treatment Antioxidants: Vitamin C and E, Mediterranean Diet Calcium and ...

  10. Psychological Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Print Jump to Topic Psychological Treatments Understanding Stress Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Relaxation Techniques for IBS The cause of irritable ... used to treat IBS include psychotherapy (dynamic and cognitive-behavioral therapy ), ... hypnotherapy , and biofeedback therapy . Psychological treatments ...

  11. Measurement of androgen and estrogen receptors in breast tissue from subjects with anabolic steroid-dependent gynecomastia.

    PubMed

    Calzada, L; Torres-Calleja, J; Martinez, J M; Pedrón, N

    2001-08-17

    In order to assess the relationship between anabolic steroid administration and gynecomastia, we studied the effects produced by administering nandrolone decanoate and a mixture of propionate, phenilpropionate, isocaproate and testosterone decanoate to bodybuilders during a six month period. The following significant changes occurred: a 53% reduction in serum testosterone; LH and FSH levels were suppressed to 77% and 87%, respectively, in comparison to control values; and although 45% of the subjects showed an increase in serum estradiol levels, no statistically significant differences were found compared with control estradiol levels. With regard to estradiol and androgen receptors, 85% of gynecomastia tissue contained estradiol or androgen receptors, while 40% contained both. The mean values of estradiol and androgen receptors in the cytosol were 65 +/- 10 and 52 +/- 5 fmol/mg protein, respectively. Nuclear androgen and estradiol receptor levels were 33 +/- 7 and 67.5 +/- 9 fmol/mg protein, respectively. The presence of hormone receptors in gynecomastia receptive cells provides support for the hypothesis that gynecomastia is steroid-dependent.

  12. [Headache Treatment].

    PubMed

    Diener, Hans Christoph; Holle-Lee, Dagny; Nägel, Steffen; Gaul, Charly

    2017-03-01

    A precondition for the successful treatment of headaches is the correct headache diagnosis. Triptans are effective for attack treatment of migraine and cluster headache. However, there are not effective for the treatment of tension-type headache. For the prevention of frequent episodic migraine betablockers, flunarizine, topiramate and amitriptyline are recommended. For the prevention of chronic migraine evidence is only available for onabotulinumtoxinA and topiramate. For prophylactic treatment of tension-type headaches tricyclic antidepressants are used. In cluster headache verapamil (in combination with steroids) is the most frequently used prophylactic agent. This article focusses on the current acute and prophylactic treatment of common headache syndromes.

  13. A novel pharmacological approach of musculoskeletal losses associated with simulated microgravity.

    PubMed

    Wimalawansa, S M; Wimalawansa, S J

    2000-09-01

    Exposure to microgravity (weightlessness) is known to cause rapid bone and muscle losses. We have used the hind limb-suspended (HLS) rat model to simulate microgravity-induced musculoskeletal losses in order to assess resulting hormonal changes and to develop a novel pharmacological countermeasure. Previously, we demonstrated significant decreases in circulatory hormonal levels [serum thyroxin, 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D (p<0.05), and serum testosterone (p<0.001)] in HLS rats. Both thyroxin and 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D levels returned to normal soon after removal from HLS, while testosterone levels matched normal levels only after a further 3-4 weeks. However, even by day 42, bone mineral density (BMD) remained significantly lower, although serum hormones were back to normal. Because serum testosterone levels become undetectable in HLS rats, we hypothesized that the replacement of testosterone during HLS could prevent musculoskeletal losses. Based on these data, an intervention study was carried out to assess the efficacy of testosterone and synthetic anabolic steroid, nandrolone decanoate (ND), in prevention of weightlessness-induced musculoskeletal losses. HLS rats (control) had a significant reduction of muscle volume (42.9 -/+ 3.0, versus 56 -/+ 1.8 in ground control rats; p<0.01). Both testosterone and ND treatments prevented this muscle loss (51.5 -/+ 2 cm(3) and 51.6 -/+ 1.2, respectively; a 63% improvement, p<0.05). Similarly, BMD of the placebo-treated HLS rats was significantly lower than that of ground control rats (0.416 -/+ 0.011 versus 0.354 -/+0.014, p<0.05), and testosterone and ND prevented this bone loss (0.404 -/+ 0.013 versus. 0.409 -/+ 0.011, respectively). These data suggest that both testosterone and ND therapy can minimize the musculoskeletal losses associated with exposure to simulated weightlessness. Experiments using the combination of bisphosphonate and testosterone demonstrated complete protection of both muscle and bone in these HLS rats

  14. Lactate dehydrogenase regulation in aged skeletal muscle: Regulation by anabolic steroids and functional overload.

    PubMed

    Washington, Tyrone A; Healey, Julie M; Thompson, Raymond W; Lowe, Larry L; Carson, James A

    2014-09-01

    Aging alters the skeletal muscle response to overload-induced growth. The onset of functional overload is characterized by increased myoblast proliferation and an altered muscle metabolic profile. The onset of functional overload is associated with increased energy demands that are met through the interconversion of lactate and pyruvate via the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Testosterone targets many of the processes activated at the onset of functional overload. However, the effect of aging on this metabolic plasticity at the onset of functional overload and how anabolic steroid administration modulates this response is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to determine if aging would alter overload-induced LDH activity and expression at the onset of functional overload and whether anabolic steroid administration would modulate this response. Five-month and 25-month male Fischer 344xF1 BRN were given nandrolone decanoate (ND) or sham injections for 14days and then the plantaris was functionally overloaded (OV) for 3days by synergist ablation. Aging reduced muscle LDH-A & LDH-B activity 70% (p<0.05). Aging also reduced LDH-A mRNA abundance, however there was no age effect on LDH-B mRNA abundance. In 5-month muscle, both ND and OV decreased LDH-A and LDH-B activity. However, there was no synergistic or additive effect. In 5-month muscle, ND and OV decreased LDH-A mRNA expression with no change in LDH-B expression. In 25-month muscle, ND and OV increased LDH-A and LDH-B activity. LDH-A mRNA expression was not altered by ND or OV in aged muscle. However, there was a main effect of OV to decrease LDH-B mRNA expression. There was also an age-induced LDH isoform shift. ND and OV treatment increased the "fast" LDH isoforms in aged muscle, whereas ND and OV increased the "slow" isoforms in young muscle. Our study provides evidence that aging alters aspects of skeletal muscle metabolic plasticity normally induced by overload and anabolic steroid

  15. Treatment Horizon

    MedlinePlus

    ... to top Alzheimer's prevention trials The Anti-Amyloid Treatment in Asymptomatic Alzheimer's Disease (A4) Trial The A4 trial is studying ... up-to-date on the latest advances in Alzheimer's treatments, care and research. Subscribe now Next: Earlier Diagnosis » ...

  16. Specialty treatments

    Treesearch

    Rebecca E. Ibach

    2010-01-01

    Many specialty treatments can be applied to wood to either improve its performance or change its properties. Treatments addressed in this chapter are those that make permanent changes in the shape of a wood product, improvements in dimensional stability, or improvements in performance through combinations with nonwood resources

  17. Specialty treatments

    Treesearch

    Roger M. Rowell

    1999-01-01

    Many specialty treatments can be applied to wood to either improve its performance or change its properties. Treatments addressed in this chapter are those that make permanent changes in the shape of a wood product, improvements in dimensional stability, or improvements in performance through combinations with nonwood resources.

  18. Sewage Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A million gallon-a-day sewage treatment plant in Huntington Beach, CA converts solid sewage to activated carbon which then treats incoming waste water. The plant is scaled up 100 times from a mobile unit NASA installed a year ago; another 100-fold scale-up will be required if technique is employed for widespread urban sewage treatment. This unique sewage-plant employed a serendipitous outgrowth of a need to manufacture activated carbon for rocket engine insulation. The process already exceeds new Environmental Protection Agency Standards Capital costs by 25% compared with conventional secondary treatment plants.

  19. Wastewater Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoltek, J., Jr.; Melear, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers: (1) process application; (2) coagulation and solids separation; (3) adsorption; (4) ion exchange; (5) membrane processes; and (6) oxidation processes. A list of 123 references is also presented. (HM)

  20. Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... foot problems such as swelling, pain, and Raynaud's phenomenon. article Access to care: What is being done, ... lupus. article How lupus treatments can affect your child's vision Antimalarials can affect the retina, so an ...

  1. Intermediate treatments

    Treesearch

    John R. Jones; Wayne D. Shepperd

    1985-01-01

    Intermediate treatments are those applied after a new stand is successfully established and before the final harvest. These include not only intermediate cuttings - primarily thinning - but also fertilization, irrigation, and protection of the stand from damaging agents.

  2. Wastewater Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoltek, J., Jr.; Melear, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers: (1) process application; (2) coagulation and solids separation; (3) adsorption; (4) ion exchange; (5) membrane processes; and (6) oxidation processes. A list of 123 references is also presented. (HM)

  3. Rotavirus Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Rotavirus Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Rotavirus Home About Rotavirus Symptoms Transmission Prevention Treatment Photos ...

  4. Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... two general categories: Immune modulator Drugs – These are interferon-type drugs that boost the immune system to ... of approved and promising new treatments. In 1991, “interferon alpha” was the first drug approved for hepatitis ...

  5. Testicular Cancer Treatments: After Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... to alphafetoprotein (AFP), beta-hCG (b-hCG), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). AFP and b-hCG are proteins ... Our recommendations are divided by type of testicular cancer, stage, and treatment given. Clinical Stage I Nonseminoma - ...

  6. Sewage Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Stennis Space Center's aquaculture research program has led to an attractive wastewater treatment for private homes. The system consists of a septic tank or tanks for initial sewage processing and a natural secondary treatment facility for further processing of septic tanks' effluent, consisting of a narrow trench, which contains marsh plants and rocks, providing a place for microorganisms. Plants and microorganisms absorb and digest, thus cleansing partially processed wastewater. No odors are evident and cleaned effluent may be discharged into streams or drainage canals. The system is useful in rural areas, costs about $1,900, and requires less maintenance than mechanical systems.

  7. Surface Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Cheol (Inventor); Lowther, Sharon E. (Inventor); St.Clair, Terry L. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A simple surface treatment process is provided which offers a high performance surface for a variety of applications at low cost. This novel surface treatment, which is particularly useful for Ti-6Al-4V alloys, is achieved by forming oxides on the surface with a two-step chemical process and without mechanical abrasion. First, after solvent degreasing, sulfuric acid is used to generate a fresh titanium surface. Next, an alkaline perborate solution is used to form an oxide on the surface. This acid-followed-by-base treatment is cost effective and relatively safe to use in commercial applications. In addition, it is chromium-free, and has been successfully used with a sol-gel coating to afford a strong adhesive bond that exhibits excellent durability after the bonded specimens have been subjected to a harsh 72 hour water boil immersion. Phenylethynyl containing adhesives were used to evaluate this surface treatment with a novel coupling agent containing both trialkoxysilane and phenylethynyl groups. 8 Claims, 16 Drawing Sheets

  8. Silvicultural treatments

    Treesearch

    Carl E. Fiedler

    2000-01-01

    Sustainable, ecologically-based management of pine/ fir forests requires silviculturists to integrate several treatments that emulate historic disturbance processes. Restoration prescriptions typically include cleaning or heavy understory thinning, improvement cutting to reduce the proportion of firs, and modified selection cutting to reduce overall stand density,...

  9. Norovirus Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Norovirus Infection, National Institutes of Health NoroCORE Food Virology Treatment Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... Norovirus Infection, National Institutes of Health NoroCORE Food Virology Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How ...

  10. WATER TREATMENT

    DOEpatents

    Pitman, R.W.; Conley, W.R. Jr.

    1962-12-01

    An automated system for adding clarifying chemicals to water in a water treatment plant is described. To a sample of the floc suspension polyacrylamide or similar filter aid chemicals are added, and the sample is then put through a fast filter. The resulting filtrate has the requisite properties for monitoring in an optical turbidimeter to control the automated system. (AEC)

  11. PARACOCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS TREATMENT

    PubMed Central

    SHIKANAI-YASUDA, Maria Aparecida

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Considered to be an emerging endemic mycosis in Latin America, paracoccidioidomycosis is characterized by a chronic course and involvement of multiple organs in immunocompromised hosts. Infection sequelae are mainly related to pulmonary and adrenal insufficiency. The host-parasite interaction results in different expressions of the immune response depending on parasite pathogenicity, fungal load and genetic characteristics of the host. A few controlled and case series reports have shown that azoles and fast-acting sulfa derivatives are useful treatment alternatives in milder forms of the disease. For moderate/severe cases, more prolonged treatments or even parenteral routes are required especially when there is involvement of the digestive tract mucosa, resulting in poor drug absorption. Although comparative studies have reported that shorter treatment regimens with itraconazole are able to induce cure in chronically-infected patients, there are still treatment challenges such as the need for more controlled studies involving acute cases, the search for new drugs and combinations, and the search for compounds capable of modulating the immune response in severe cases as well as the paradoxical reactions. PMID:26465367

  12. Antimicrobials Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drosinos, Eleftherios H.; Skandamis, Panagiotis N.; Mataragas, Marios

    The use of antimicrobials is a common practice for preservation of foods. Incorporation, in a food recipe, of chemical antimicrobials towards inhibition of spoilage and pathogenic micro-organisms results in the compositional modification of food. This treatment is nowadays undesirable for the consumer, who likes natural products. Scientific community reflecting consumers demand for natural antimicrobials has made efforts to investigate the possibility to use natural antimicrobials such us bacteriocins and essential oils of plant origin to inhibit microbial growth.

  13. Incontinence Treatment: Medication

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Lifestyle Changes Dietary Tips Medication Bowel Management Biofeedback Surgical Treatments Newer Treatment Options Tips on Finding ... Treatment Lifestyle Changes Dietary Tips Medication Bowel Management Biofeedback Surgical Treatments Newer Treatment Options Tips on Finding ...

  14. Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Chronic ...

  15. Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Myelodysplastic/ ...

  16. Sewage Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    In the early 1970's, National Space Technology Laboratories discovered that water hyacinths literally thrive on sewage; they absorb and digest nutrients and minerals from wastewater, converting sewage effluents to clean water. They offer a means of purifying water at a fraction of the cost of a conventional sewage treatment plant, and provide a bonus value in byproducts. Hyacinths must be harvested at intervals; the harvested plants are used as fertilizers, high-protein animal feed and a source of energy. Already serving a number of small towns, the "aquaculture" technique has significantly advanced with its adoption by a major U.S. city.

  17. [Pharmacological treatment].

    PubMed

    Arriola Manchola, Enrique; Álaba Trueba, Javier

    2016-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic degenerative and inflammatory process leading to synapticdysfunction and neuronal death. A review about the pharmacological treatment alternatives is made: acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEI), a nutritional supplement (Souvenaid) and Ginkgo biloba. A special emphasis on Ginkgo biloba due to the controversy about its use and the approval by the European Medicines Agency is made. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Geriatría y Gerontología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. [Osteoporosis treatment].

    PubMed

    Uebelhart, B; Rizzoli, R

    2006-01-04

    As for any chronic disease, adherence to osteoporosis treatment is low. Folates and vitamin B12 decrease hip fracture risk in elderly Japanese with stroke. Raloxifene (Evista) decreases the incidence of positive estrogen receptor breast cancer and could prevent cardiovascular events in patients at high risk. Strontium ranelate (Protélos) prevents hip fracture in elderly women. The action of alendronate (Fosamax) on bone mineral density and markers of bone remodelling is of higher amplitude than that of risedronate (Actonel). Once monthly ibandronate (Bonviva) increases bone mineral density in post menopausal women with osteoporosis. Excessive suppression of bone remodelling and osteonecrosis of the yaws could be related to bisphosphonate intake.

  19. [Comparison of medical and economic benefits of antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia in France].

    PubMed

    Druais, S; Doutriaux, A; Cognet, M; Godet, A; Lançon, C; Levy, P; Samalin, L; Guillon, P

    2017-08-01

    The course of schizophrenia can vary widely, and patients experience remission phases alternating with relapse episodes, which generally lead to hospitalisation and have a significant impact on the burden of disease. The prevalence of schizophrenia in France is estimated to be approximately 600,000 people, with an incidence of 10,000 new patients per year. Patients with schizophrenia represent the largest group of hospitalised patients in French public institutions and specialised centres, and the French authorities recognise that the management of schizophrenia is a major public health concern. The Haute Autorité de Santé (HAS) and most of the evidence-based guidelines for the maintenance treatment of schizophrenia recommend long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics to be used predominantly in the prevention of relapse for non-compliant patients; however, in clinical practice, the use of LAIs remains low. This analysis aimed to estimate and to compare the cost-effectiveness of the most common antipsychotic strategies in France in the management of schizophrenia. A Markov model was developed to simulate the progression of a cohort of patients with schizophrenia through four health states (stable treated, stable non-treated, relapse and death) and considered up to three lines of treatment to account for changes in treatment management. Antipsychotics including aripiprazole LAI (ALAI), olanzapine LAI (OLAI), paliperidone LAI (PLAI), risperidone LAI (RLAI), haloperidol decanoate (HD) and oral olanzapine (OO) were compared in terms of costs and clinical outcomes. Thus, costs, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and number of relapses were assessed over five years based on three-month cycles from a French health insurance perspective with a discount rate of 4 %. Patients were considered to be stabilised after clinical decompensation and would enter the model at an initiation phase, followed by a prevention of relapse phase if successful. Data (e.g. relapse or

  20. Cuphea Oil as Source of Biodiesel with Improved Fuel Properties Caused by High Content of Methyl Decanoate

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biodiesel, defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils and animal fats, is an alternative to conventional petroleum-based diesel fuel. Biodiesel has been prepared from numerous common vegetable oils or fats as well as new or less common feedstocks. Major issues facing biodiesel include seve...

  1. Treatment for HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Public Home » Treatment » Treatment Decisions and HIV HIV/AIDS Menu Menu HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Home ... here Enter ZIP code here Treatment Decisions and HIV for Veterans and the Public Treatment for HIV: ...

  2. Long-acting injectable formulations of antipsychotic drugs for the treatment of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun Ji; Amatya, Sarmila; Kim, Myung Sun; Park, Jong Hoon; Seol, Eunyoung; Lee, Heeyong; Shin, Young-Hee; Na, Dong Hee

    2013-06-01

    Antipsychotic drugs have been used to treat patients with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Long-acting injectable antipsychotic drugs are useful for improving medication compliance with a better therapeutic option to treat patients who lack insight or adhere poorly to oral medication. Several long-acting injectable antipsychotic drugs are clinically available. Haloperidol decanoate and fluphenazine decanoate are first-generation depot drugs, but the use of these medicines has declined since the advent of second-generation depot agents, such as long-acting risperidone, paliperidone palmitate, and olanzapine pamoate. The second-generation depot drugs are better tolerated and have fewer adverse neurological side effects. Long-acting injectable risperidone, the first depot formulation of an atypical antipsychotic drug, was prepared by encapsulating risperidone into biodegradable microspheres. Paliperidone palmitate is an aqueous suspension of nanocrystal molecules, and olanzapine pamoate is a microcrystalline salt of olanzapine and pamoic acid suspended in aqueous solution. This review summarizes the characteristics and recent research of formulations of each long-acting injectable antipsychotic drug.

  3. Investigations into the feasibility of routine ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of equine hair samples for detecting the misuse of anabolic steroids, anabolic steroid esters and related compounds.

    PubMed

    Gray, Bobby P; Viljanto, Marjaana; Bright, Jane; Pearce, Clive; Maynard, Steve

    2013-07-17

    The detection of the abuse of anabolic steroids in equine sport is complicated by the endogenous nature of some of the abused steroids, such as testosterone and nandrolone. These steroids are commonly administered as intramuscular injections of esterified forms of the steroid, which prolongs their effects and improves bioavailability over oral dosing. The successful detection of an intact anabolic steroid ester therefore provides unequivocal proof of an illegal administration, as esterified forms are not found endogenously. Detection of intact anabolic steroid esters is possible in plasma samples but not, to date, in the traditional doping control matrix of urine. The analysis of equine mane hair for the detection of anabolic steroid esters has the potential to greatly extend the time period over which detection of abuse can be monitored. Equine mane hair samples were incubated in 0.1M phosphate buffer (pH 9.5) before anabolic steroids (testosterone, nandrolone, boldenone, trenbolone and stanozolol), anabolic steroid esters (esters of testosterone, nandrolone, boldenone and trenbolone) and associated compounds (fluticasone propionate and esters of hydroxyprogesterone) were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction with a mix of hexane and ethyl acetate (7:3, v:v). Further sample clean up by solid phase extraction was followed by derivatisation with methoxylamine HCL and analysis by UHPLC-MS/MS. Initial method development was performed on a representative suite of four testosterone esters (propionate, phenylpropionate, isocaproate and decanoate) and the method was later extended to include a further 18 compounds. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by the analysis of mane hair samples collected following the intramuscular administration of 500 mg of Durateston(®) (mixed testosterone esters) to a Thoroughbred mare (560 kg). The method was subsequently used to successfully detect boldenone undecylenate and stanozolol in hair samples collected following

  4. Tuberculosis (TB): Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education & Training Home Conditions Tuberculosis (TB) Tuberculosis: Treatment Tuberculosis: Treatment Make an Appointment Refer a Patient Ask ... or bones is treated longer. NEXT: Preventive Treatment Tuberculosis: Diagnosis Tuberculosis: History Clinical Trials For more than ...

  5. Acupuncture and addiction treatment.

    PubMed

    Moner, S E

    1996-01-01

    Acupuncture has been advocated as a safe effective treatment for addictive diseases. This review highlights clinical trials using acupuncture in drug treatment. Clinical trials selected were those conducted for efficacy of acupuncture treatment with opiate, alcohol, cocaine and nicotine dependence.

  6. Body Lice Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  7. Dengue Fever Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... linkedin Dengue Fever Treatment Dengue Fever Dengue Fever Biology and Transmission Prevention Diagnosis Treatment Featured Research NIAID- ... last reviewed on February 8, 2011 Dengue Fever Biology and Transmission Prevention Diagnosis Treatment Featured Research ^ Return ...

  8. Sleep Eduction: Treatment & Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Jet Lag Overview Symptoms & Self Test Treatment Narcolepsy Overview & Facts Symptoms Self-Tests & Diagnosis Treatment Restless ... Category Insomnias Insomnia Child Insomnia Short Sleeper Hypersomnias Narcolepsy Insufficient Sleep Syndrome Long Sleeper Sleep Breathing Disorders ...

  9. Anal Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer that remains after treatment with external-beam radiation therapy. Patients who have had treatment that saves the sphincter ... cancer remains or comes back after treatment with radiation therapy and chemotherapy. ... options. Patients who have had treatment that saves the sphincter ...

  10. Treatment of Pediculosis Capitis.

    PubMed

    Verma, Prashant; Namdeo, Chaitanya

    2015-01-01

    An endeavour to delineate the salient details of the treatment of head lice infestation has been made in the present article. Treatment modalities including over the counter permethrin and pyrethrin, and prescription medicines, including malathion, lindane, benzyl alcohol, spinosad are discussed. Salient features of alternative medicine and physical treatment modalities are outlined. The problem of resistance to treatment has also been taken cognizance of.

  11. Industrial Water Treatment Primer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    29 C. TREATMENT PROGRAMS ........................ 30 1. Nitrite- Borax Treatment Program ..... 30 2. Molybdate-Caustic Soda Treatment...CHILLED WATER .... SYSTEMS ................................. 36 1. Nitrite- Borax ....................... 36 2. Molybdate-Caustic Soda...as CaCO3 . Three treatment programs developed for closed systems are: 1. Sulfite-caustic soda program 2. Nitrite- borax program 3. Molybdate-caustic

  12. Teaching Treatment Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seligman, Linda

    1993-01-01

    Describes approach to teaching treatment planning that author has used successfully in both seminars and graduate courses. Clarifies nature and importance of systematic treatment planning, then describes context in which treatment planning seems more effectively taught, and concludes with step-by-step plan for teaching treatment planning.…

  13. Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Guerra, Edith; Jiang, Yi; Lee, Gordon; Kokabian, Bahareh; Fast, Sara; Truax, Dennis D; Martin, James L; Magbanua, Benjamin S; Gude, Veera Gnaneswar

    2015-10-01

    This paper provides a review of the treatment technologies, which utilize natural processes or passive components in wastewater treatment. In particular, this paper primarily focuses on wetland systems and their applications in wastewater treatment (as an advanced treatment unit or decentralized system), nutrient and pollutant removal (single and multiple pollutants, and metals), and emerging pollutant removal (pharmaceuticals). A summary of studies involving the plant (vegetation) effects, wetland design and modeling, hybrid and innovative systems, storm water treatment and pathogen removal is also included.

  14. Long-acting injectable risperidone: safety and efficacy in stable patients switched from conventional depot antipsychotics.

    PubMed

    Turner, Martin; Eerdekens, Els; Jacko, Mary; Eerdekens, Mariëlle

    2004-07-01

    Long-acting injectable risperidone was assessed in schizophrenia patients who were symptomatically stable on conventional depot antipsychotics and who were then switched to long-acting risperidone. Participants in this open-label, multicentre, 12-week trial had received flupenthixol decanoate, fluphenazine decanoate, haloperidol decanoate, or zuclopenthixol decanoate for 4 months or longer. Each was considered symptomatically stable by investigators. After receiving two cycles of their conventional depot antipsychotic during the run-in period, patients were switched to receive long-acting risperidone every 2 weeks for 12 weeks at an initial dose of 25 mg. This dose could be increased in 12.5-mg increments at 4-week intervals. Ninety-two percent of the patients received all six injections; 62% received the 25-mg dose throughout the treatment period. Adverse events related to movement disorders were reported in 3%. Severity of movement disorders decreased during long-acting risperidone treatment. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total and factor scores and scores on the Clinical Global Impressions severity scale were significantly reduced during treatment; 48% of these stable patients showed further symptom improvement (> or =20% decrease in PANSS score at endpoint). The results indicate that patients with schizophrenia who are symptomatically stable during treatment with a conventional depot antipsychotic can be safely and effectively switched to long-acting injectable risperidone without a prior transition to oral risperidone.

  15. A possible variant of the neuroleptic malignant syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, C F

    1987-11-01

    A 20-year-old man developed generalised rigidity and signs of autonomic instability following the introduction of therapy with zuclopenthixol decanoate. A diagnosis of NMS was made, despite the absence of hyperthermia. He recovered on treatment with thiamine, dantrolene, and bromocriptine.

  16. Treatment Options for Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient Myelo-proliferative Neoplasms Patient Myelodysplastic Syndromes Treatment Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Health Professional Myelodysplastic ...

  17. Treatment Option Overview (Myelodysplastic Syndromes)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient Myelo-proliferative Neoplasms Patient Myelodysplastic Syndromes Treatment Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Health Professional Myelodysplastic ...

  18. Anabolic androgenic steroids reverse the beneficial effect of exercise on tendon biomechanics: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Tsitsilonis, Serafim; Chatzistergos, Panayiotis E; Panayiotis, Chatzistergos E; Mitousoudis, Athanasios S; Athanasios, Mitousoudis S; Kourkoulis, Stavros K; Stavros, Kourkoulis K; Vlachos, Ioannis S; Ioannis, Vlachos S; Agrogiannis, George; George, Agrogiannis; Fasseas, Konstantinos; Konstantinos, Fasseas; Perrea, Despina N; Despina, Perrea N; Zoubos, Aristides B; Aristides, Zoubos B

    2014-06-01

    The effect of anabolic androgenic steroids on tendons has not yet been fully elucidated. Aim of the present study was the evaluation of the impact of anabolic androgenic steroids on the biomechanical and histological characteristics of Achilles tendons. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomized into four groups with exercise and anabolic steroids (nandrolone decanoate) serving as variables. Protocol duration was 12 weeks. Following euthanasia, tendons' biomechanical properties were tested with the use of a modified clamping configuration. Histological examination with light and electron microscopy were also performed. In the group of anabolic steroids and exercise the lowest fracture stress values were observed, while in the exercise group the highest ones. Histological examination by light and electron microscopy revealed areas of collagen dysplasia and an increased epitendon in the groups receiving anabolic steroids and exercise. These findings suggest that anabolic androgenic steroids reverse the beneficial effect of exercise, thus resulting in inferior maximal stress values. Copyright © 2013 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Use of anabolic-androgenic steroids masking the diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Tuberculous pleural effusions are not always easy to diagnose but the presence of a lymphocyte-rich exudate associated with an increased adenosine deaminase level and a positive skin test result are highly sensitive diagnostic signs. Case presentation We report a case of pleural tuberculosis in a 31-year-old white male patient from Caracas, Venezuela who was negative for human immunodeficiency virus and presented 2 weeks after injecting the anabolic-androgenic steroid nandrolone decanoate, in whom all the tests for tuberculosis were initially negative; an eosinophilic pleural effusion with a low adenosine deaminase level, a negative tuberculin skin test and negative for acid-fast bacilli staining and culture of the pleural fluid. After excluding other causes of eosinophilic pleural effusion malignant pleural effusion was suspected. The patient did not return until 4 months later. The second thoracentesis obtained a pleural fluid suggestive for tuberculosis, with a predominance of lymphocytes, an elevated adenosine deaminase level (51 U/l) and a positive tuberculin skin test. Culture of pleural fragments confirmed pleural tuberculosis. Conclusion This case suggests that the use of an anabolic-androgenic steroid masks the definitive diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis by changing the key diagnostic parameters of the pleural fluid, a finding not previously reported. Available evidence of the effects of anabolic steroids on the immune system also suggests that patients using anabolic-androgenic steroids might be susceptible to developing tuberculosis in either reactivating a latent infection or facilitating development of the disease after a recent infection. PMID:19175931

  20. In vivo MRI evaluation of anabolic steroid precursor growth effects in a guinea pig model.

    PubMed

    Tang, Haiying; Vasselli, Joseph R; Tong, Christopher; Heymsfield, Steven B; Wu, Ed X

    2009-08-01

    Anabolic steroids are widely used to increase skeletal muscle (SM) mass and improve physical performance. Some dietary supplements also include potent steroid precursors or active steroid analogs such as nandrolone. Our previous study reported the anabolic steroid effects on SM in a castrated guinea pig model with SM measured using a highly quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol. The aim of the current study was to apply this animal model and in vivo MRI protocol to evaluate the growth effects of four widely used over-the-counter testosterone and nandrolone precursors: 4-androstene-3 17-dione (androstenedione), 4-androstene-3beta 17beta-diol (4-androsdiol), 19-nor-4-androstene-3beta-17beta-diol (bolandiol) and 19-nor-4-androstene-3 17-dione (19-norandrostenedione). The results showed that providing precursor to castrated male guinea pigs led to plasma steroid levels sufficient to maintain normal SM growth. The anabolic growth effects of these specific precursors on individual and total muscle volumes, sexual organs, and total adipose tissue over a 10-week treatment period, in comparison with those in the respective positive control testosterone and nandrolone groups, were documented quantitatively by MRI.

  1. In vivo MRI evaluation of anabolic steroid precursor growth effects in a guinea pig model

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Haiying; Vasselli, Joseph R.; Tong, Christopher; Heymsfield, Steven B.; Wu, Ed X.

    2015-01-01

    Anabolic steroids are widely used to increase skeletal muscle (SM) mass and improve physical performance. Some dietary supplements also include potent steroid precursors or active steroid analogs such as nandrolone. Our previous study reported the anabolic steroid effects on SM in a castrated guinea pig model with SM measured using a highly quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol. The aim of the current study was to apply this animal model and in vivo MRI protocol to evaluate the growth effects of four widely used over-the-counter testosterone and nandrolone precursors: 4-androstene-3 17-dione (androstenedione), 4-androstene-3β 17β-diol (4-androsdiol), 19-nor-4-androstene-3β-17β-diol (bolandiol) and 19-nor-4-androstene-3 17-dione (19-norandrostenedione). The results showed that providing precursor to castrated male guinea pigs led to plasma steroid levels sufficient to maintain normal SM growth. The anabolic growth effects of these specific precursors on individual and total muscle volumes, sexual organs, and total adipose tissue over a 10-week treatment period, in comparison with those in the respective positive control testosterone and nandrolone groups, were documented quantitatively by MRI. PMID:19463691

  2. Land Treatment Digital Library

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilliod, David S.; Welty, Justin L.

    2013-01-01

    The Land Treatment Digital Library (LTDL) was created by the U.S. Geological Survey to catalog legacy land treatment information on Bureau of Land Management lands in the western United States. The LTDL can be used by federal managers and scientists for compiling information for data-calls, producing maps, generating reports, and conducting analyses at varying spatial and temporal scales. The LTDL currently houses thousands of treatments from BLM lands across 10 states. Users can browse a map to find information on individual treatments, perform more complex queries to identify a set of treatments, and view graphs of treatment summary statistics.

  3. HIV Treatment: The Basics

    MedlinePlus

    HIV Treatment HIV Treatment: The Basics (Last updated 2/24/2017; last reviewed 2/24/2017) Key Points Antiretroviral therapy (ART) ... reduces the risk of HIV transmission . How do HIV medicines work? HIV attacks and destroys the infection- ...

  4. Breast Cancer: Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast Cancer > Breast Cancer: Treatment Options Request Permissions Breast Cancer: Treatment Options Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... recommendations for ovarian ablation . Hormonal therapy for metastatic breast cancer Hormonal therapies are also commonly used to treat ...

  5. Treatments for Alzheimer's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... 3900 Find your chapter: search by state Home > Alzheimer's Disease > Treatments Overview What Is Dementia? What Is Alzheimer's? ... and move closer to a cure. Treatments for Alzheimer's disease Currently, there is no cure for Alzheimer's. But ...

  6. TENORM: Wastewater Treatment Residuals

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Water and wastes which have been discharged into a municipal sewers are treated at wastewater treatment plants. These may contain both man-made and naturally occurring radionuclides which can accumulate in the treatment plant.

  7. Antimicrobial Treatments and Efficacy

    EPA Science Inventory

    To limit exposure to indoor biological contamination a risk-management approach which employs various antimicrobial treatments can effectively control contaminants and reduce exposure. Antimicrobial treatment of biological contaminants, especially mold in buildings, it is often n...

  8. Hyperthermia in Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Off-Label Drug Use in Cancer Treatment Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) CAM for ... What is hyperthermia? Hyperthermia (also called thermal therapy or thermotherapy) is a type of cancer treatment ...

  9. Small Intestine Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Professional Small Intestine Cancer Treatment Research Small Intestine Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Small Intestine Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points ...

  10. Advances in Alcoholism Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Huebner, Robert B.; Kantor, Lori Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Researchers are working on numerous and varied approaches to improving the accessibility, quality, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of treatment for alcohol use disorders (AUDs). This overview article summarizes the approaches reviewed in this issue, including potential future developments for alcoholism treatment, such as medications development, behavioral therapy, advances in technology that are being used to improve treatment, integrated care of patients with AUDs and co-occurring disorders, the role of 12-step programs in the broader realm of treatment, treating patients with recurring and chronic alcohol dependence, strategies to close the gap between treatment need and treatment utilization, and how changes in the health care system may affect the delivery of treatment. This research will not only reveal new medications and behavioral therapies but also will contribute to new ways of approaching current treatment problems. PMID:23580014

  11. Medical Treatments for Fibroids

    MedlinePlus

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Medical Treatments for Fibroids Skip sharing on social media ... Page Content Your health care provider may suggest medical treatments to reduce the symptoms of fibroids or ...

  12. HIV Treatment: The Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... How to Find HIV Treatment Services HIV and Mental Health HIV and Nutrition and Food Safety Print This ... from the following sources: From the Department of Health and Human Services: ... of Veterans Affairs: Treatment Decisions for HIV From the National ...

  13. Malaria Treatment (United States)

    MedlinePlus

    ... a CDC Malaria Branch clinician. malaria@cdc.gov Malaria Treatment (United States) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Treatment of Malaria: Guidelines For Clinicians (United States) Download PDF version ...

  14. Treatments for Sleep Changes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contributing medical factors Non-drug strategies Medications Common sleep changes Many people with Alzheimer’s experience changes in ... at night. Subscribe now Non-drug treatments for sleep changes Non-drug treatments aim to improve sleep ...

  15. The Treatment of Addiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapple, P. A. L.

    1970-01-01

    Describes sociological and medical treatment appropriate to young drug experimenters and addicts. Discusses role of teachers, probation officers, school medical services, and general practitioners. Indicates necessity for long treatment period. Considers whether dependence is a disease of delinquent behavior. (AL)

  16. Pubic "Crab" Lice Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Lice Head Lice General Information Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control ...

  17. Research Areas: Treatment

    Cancer.gov

    The development of more effective and less toxic treatments is fundamental to improving outcomes for patients with cancer. NCI is leading efforts on several fronts to develop and evaluate new cancer treatments.

  18. Radiation Oncology Treatment Team

    MedlinePlus

    ... patients to be advocates. View more information Treatment Team Quick Links Meet the Treatment Team Radiation Oncologist ... as medical oncologists and surgeons to maximize radiation’s effectiveness. Radiation oncologists are the only physicians with the ...

  19. Antimicrobial Treatments and Efficacy

    EPA Science Inventory

    To limit exposure to indoor biological contamination a risk-management approach which employs various antimicrobial treatments can effectively control contaminants and reduce exposure. Antimicrobial treatment of biological contaminants, especially mold in buildings, it is often n...

  20. Working during cancer treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... October 12, 2016. National Cancer Institute. Facing Forward: Life After Cancer Treatment. Updated May 2014. www.cancer.gov/publications/patient-education/life-after-treatment.pdf . Accessed October 12, 2016. Review Date ...

  1. Bleeding Disorders Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pictures Young Voices Compendium of Assessment Tools Educational Games Video Library Find a Treatment Centre Haemophilia Journal About ... Pictures Young Voices Compendium of Assessment Tools Educational Games Video Library Find a Treatment Centre Haemophilia Journal WORLD ...

  2. Atrial Fibrillation: Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Atrial Fibrillation Atrial Fibrillation: Treatment Past Issues / Winter 2015 Table of Contents Treatment for atrial fibrillation depends on how often you have symptoms, how ...

  3. Treatment of Pediculosis Capitis

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Prashant; Namdeo, Chaitanya

    2015-01-01

    An endeavour to delineate the salient details of the treatment of head lice infestation has been made in the present article. Treatment modalities including over the counter permethrin and pyrethrin, and prescription medicines, including malathion, lindane, benzyl alcohol, spinosad are discussed. Salient features of alternative medicine and physical treatment modalities are outlined. The problem of resistance to treatment has also been taken cognizance of. PMID:26120148

  4. Multimodal treatment of pain.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Manu

    2014-10-01

    Chronic pain is a complex disorder with extensive overlap in sensory and limbic pathways. It needs systemic therapy in addition to focused local treatment. This article discusses treatment modalities other than surgical and interventional approaches and also discusses the literature regarding these treatment modalities, including pharmacotherapy, physical and occupational therapy, psychological approaches including cognitive behavior therapy, and other adjunctive treatments like yoga and tai chi. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Implant treatment planning considerations.

    PubMed

    Kao, Richard T

    2008-04-01

    As dental implants become a more accepted treatment modality, there is a need for all parties involved with implant dentistry to be familiar with various treatment planning issues. Though the success can be highly rewarding, failure to forecast treatment planning issues can result in an increase of surgical needs, surgical cost, and even case failure. In this issue, the focus is on implant treatment planning considerations.

  6. Treatment of internet addiction.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xui-qin; Li, Meng-chen; Tao, Ran

    2010-10-01

    Internet addiction (IA) is a prevalent, highly comorbid, and significantly impairing disorder. Although many psychotherapeutic approaches and psychotropic medications have been recommended and some of the psychotherapeutic approaches and a few pharmacotherapy strategies have been studied, treatment of IA is generally in its early stages. This article reviews theoretical descriptions of psychotherapy and the effects of psychosocial treatment and pharmacologic treatment. We also outline our own treatment model of IA.

  7. Seed Treatment. Manual 92.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the seed treatment category. The text discusses pests commonly associated with seeds; seed treatment pesticides; labels; chemicals and seed treatment equipment; requirements of federal and state seed laws;…

  8. Guideline 3: Psychosocial Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal on Mental Retardation, 2000

    2000-01-01

    The third in seven sets of guidelines based on the consensus of experts in the treatment of psychiatric and behavioral problems in mental retardation (MR) focuses on psychosocial treatment. Guidelines cover general principles, choosing among psychosocial treatments, severity of MR and psychiatric/behavior symptoms, diagnosable disorders, target…

  9. Treatment problems of gonorrhoea*

    PubMed Central

    Willcox, R. R.

    1961-01-01

    W. Garson has said that ”our evaluation today of the treatment of gonorrhoea cries aloud our inadequacies and our ignorance”. Variants and permutations in treatment and treatment schedules using antibiotics and chemotherapeutic substances, as suggested by different workers, are reviewed here. PMID:13785346

  10. Guideline 3: Psychosocial Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal on Mental Retardation, 2000

    2000-01-01

    The third in seven sets of guidelines based on the consensus of experts in the treatment of psychiatric and behavioral problems in mental retardation (MR) focuses on psychosocial treatment. Guidelines cover general principles, choosing among psychosocial treatments, severity of MR and psychiatric/behavior symptoms, diagnosable disorders, target…

  11. Distributed Treatment Systems.

    PubMed

    Zgonc, David; Baideme, Matthew

    2015-10-01

    This section presents a review of the literature published in 2014 on topics relating to distributed treatment systems. This review is divided into the following sections with multiple subsections under each: constituent removal; treatment technologies; and planning and treatment system management.

  12. Seed Treatment. Manual 92.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the seed treatment category. The text discusses pests commonly associated with seeds; seed treatment pesticides; labels; chemicals and seed treatment equipment; requirements of federal and state seed laws;…

  13. Pharmacological treatment of aggressive behavior and emesis in the Cornelia de Lange Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Andrasik, F; Ollendick, T H; Turner, S M; Hughes, J R

    1979-12-01

    Chlorpromazine and fluphenazine decanoate were employed to treat aggressive behavior and emesis in a 22-year-old patient with Cornelia de Lange syndrome. Institution of the above neuroleptics, following an unsuccessful trial of diazepam, produced reductions of 95.1 per cent and 37.9 per cent for aggressive behavior and emesis, respectively. Four follow-up observations, occurring at 3-week intervals, revealed maintenance of low rates of aggressive behavior and continued reductions in emesis (mean reduction of 81.5 per cent). These findings are important for their a) inclusion of direct behavioral observation as the data base, and b) initial promising effects of neuroleptics for a rare mental retardation syndrome.

  14. [Osteoporosis: Optimizing treatment strategy].

    PubMed

    Thomas, Thierry

    2006-10-01

    Selection of patients for treatment is based on the assessment of their absolute fracture risk over 10 years. Assessment of fracture risk includes not only DXA measurement and age, the two principal risk factors, but also other clinical risk factors. The main goal of postmenopausal osteoporosis treatment is to reduce the risk of fragility fractures. Choice of treatment is based on drug properties, demonstrated in clinical trials, and patients' specific fracture risks. The minimum duration of treatment is 4-5 years, after which individual fracture risk must be reevaluated. Combinations of available drugs are not recommended for treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  15. Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yi; Martinez-Guerra, Edith; Gnaneswar Gude, Veera; Magbanua, Benjamin; Truax, Dennis D; Martin, James L

    2016-10-01

    An update on the current research and development of the treatment technologies, which utilize natural processes or passive components in wastewater treatment, is provided in this paper. The main focus is on wetland systems and their applications in wastewater treatment (as an advanced treatment unit or decentralized system), nutrient and pollutant removal (metals, industrial and emerging pollutants including pharmaceutical compounds). A summary of studies involving the effects of vegetation, wetland design and modeling, hybrid and innovative systems, storm water treatment and pathogen removal is also included.

  16. Tridecanoin is anticonvulsant, antioxidant, and improves mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Tan, Kah Ni; Carrasco-Pozo, Catalina; McDonald, Tanya S; Puchowicz, Michelle; Borges, Karin

    2017-06-01

    The hypothesis that chronic feeding of the triglycerides of octanoate (trioctanoin) and decanoate (tridecanoin) in "a regular non-ketogenic diet" is anticonvulsant was tested and possible mechanisms of actions were subsequently investigated. Chronic feeding of 35E% of calories from tridecanoin, but not trioctanoin, was reproducibly anticonvulsant in two acute CD1 mouse seizure models. The levels of beta-hydroxybutyrate in plasma and brain were not significantly increased by either treatment relative to control diet. The respective decanoate and octanoate levels are 76 µM and 33 µM in plasma and 1.17 and 2.88 nmol/g in brain. Tridecanoin treatment did not alter the maximal activities of several glycolytic enzymes, suggesting that there is no reduction in glycolysis contributing to anticonvulsant effects. In cultured astrocytes, 200 µM of octanoic and decanoic acids increased basal respiration and ATP turnover, suggesting that both medium chain fatty acids are used as fuel. Only decanoic acid increased mitochondrial proton leak which may reduce oxidative stress. In mitochondria isolated from hippocampal formations, tridecanoin increased respiration linked to ATP synthesis, indicating that mitochondrial metabolic functions are improved. In addition, tridecanoin increased the plasma antioxidant capacity and hippocampal mRNA levels of heme oxygenase 1, and FoxO1.

  17. Arsenic treatment considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.W.; Frey, M.M.; Clifford, D.; McNeill, L.S.; Edwards, M.

    1999-03-01

    The best arsenic treatment technique for a given utility will depend on arsenic concentration and species in source water, other constituents in the water, existing treatment processes, treatment costs, and handling of residuals. To evaluate these issues, a national survey investigated arsenic occurrence and speciation in US drinking water sources. In general, total arsenic concentration was higher in groundwater than in surface water supplies. Particulate arsenic was more abundant than previously suspected, and more arsenate than arsenite was present. The cost of arsenic treatment increased in the following order: modified conventional treatment {much_lt} activated alumina or anion exchange < reverse osmosis. Nevertheless, the most cost-effective treatment still might not be best, because secondary treatment benefits and residuals handling should also be taken into account.

  18. Treatment of bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We review recent developments in the acute and long-term treatment of bipolar disorder and identify promising future routes to therapeutic innovation. Overall, advances in drug treatment remain quite modest. Antipsychotic drugs are effective in the acute treatment of mania; their efficacy in the treatment of depression is variable with the clearest evidence for quetiapine. Despite their widespread use, considerable uncertainty and controversy remains about the use of antidepressant drugs in the management of depressive episodes. Lithium has the strongest evidence for long-term relapse prevention; the evidence for anticonvulsants such as divalproex and lamotrigine is less robust and there is much uncertainty about the longer term benefits of antipsychotics. Substantial progress has been made in the development and assessment of adjunctive psychosocial interventions. Long-term maintenance and possibly acute stabilisation of depression can be enhanced by the combination of psychosocial treatments with drugs. The development of future treatments should consider both the neurobiological and psychosocial mechanisms underlying the disorder. We should continue to repurpose treatments and to recognise the role of serendipity. We should also investigate optimum combinations of pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatments at different stages of the illness. Clarification of the mechanisms by which different treatments affect sleep and circadian rhythms and their relation with daily mood fluctuations is likely to help with the treatment selection for individual patients. To be economically viable, existing psychotherapy protocols need to be made briefer and more efficient for improved scalability and sustainability in widespread implementation. PMID:23663953

  19. Alzheimer disease pharmacologic treatment and treatment research.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Lon S

    2013-04-01

    This article reviews marketed pharmacologic treatments for Alzheimer disease as well as their efficacy, effectiveness, adverse effects, and issues involved in their use, including duration of treatment, adverse events, and controversies. Current experimental drug development, including challenges to developing successful drugs for Alzheimer disease, are also reviewed and assessed. Cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine are the available pharmacologic treatment options. They show limited clinical effects over the shorter term for some patients, mild to moderate cholinergic adverse effects in a minority of patients, and potentially underappreciated toxicity over the longer term. No subsequent experimental drug in development has been successful thus far; there has not been a new drug marketed for Alzheimer disease since 2003. Cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine are marketed for the treatment of Alzheimer disease. Drug development programs aimed at new targets, including the amyloid-β cascade, have been unsuccessful thus far despite their designs to detect very small or minimal clinical effects from the experimental drugs. Marked advances in preclinical science nevertheless support a basis for considerable optimism that effective interventions will be found soon.

  20. Electrotechnologies for water treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, J.

    1993-03-01

    Water and wastewater utilities face major changes in their treatment systems as a result of recent environmental regulations. Not only do these new rules specify reduction requirements for contaminants not previously regulated, they also target the by-products of chlorination, which has been the basic disinfection technique in this country since the early days of municipal water treatment. As a result, EPRI has been working with the American Water Works Association Research Foundation and the Water Environment Research Foundation to support the development of advanced treatment alternatives and improve energy efficiency at treatment facilities. The work has identified a number of innovative, electrically based treatment technologies that provide the additional capabilities required, promote higher efficiency in treatment processes, and serve electric utilities' demand-side management objectives. 5 refs.

  1. Treatment for morbid obesity

    PubMed Central

    Carmichael, A

    1999-01-01

    There is no single unifying theory to explain the aetiology of obesity but several environmental factors, such as decreased physical activity and increased fat intake may contribute to its development in genetically predisposed individuals. Dietary and pharmacological treatments of morbid obesity have been proven to be unsuccessful. Modern surgical treatments have been shown to be effective in achieving significant weight loss with consequent reduction in morbidity. Despite the fact that surgical treatment of morbid obesity is the only therapeutic form that has stood the test of time, it still remains a crisis-driven form of therapy in the UK. It is probable that a better understanding of the aetiology and physiology of obesity may lead to the development of an effective pharmacological treatment of obesity in the future. However, until then, surgical treatment of morbid obesity should be considered as an effective and efficient way of treatment in selected cases.


Keywords: obesity PMID:10396579

  2. Ebola vaccine and treatment.

    PubMed

    Takada, Ayato

    2015-01-01

    Filoviruses (Ebola and Marburg viruses) cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates. No effective prophylaxis or treatment for filovirus diseases is yet commercially available. The recent outbreak of Ebola virus disease in West Africa has accelerated efforts to develop anti-Ebola virus prophylaxis and treatment, and unapproved drugs were indeed used for the treatment of patients during the outbreak. This article reviews previous researches and the latest topics on vaccine and therapy for Ebola virus disease.

  3. Visceral Leishmaniasis Treatment, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Gramiccia, Marina; Scalone, Aldo

    2003-01-01

    First-line drug treatment was recorded in 573 immunocompetent patients with visceral leishmaniasis in Italy. In the past 12 years, the proportion of antimonial treatments decreased from 100% to 2.8%, while the proportion of amphotericin B treatments increased from 0% to 97.2%. The countrywide change in therapy is a response to both disease reemergence and increasing antimonial failure. PMID:14720406

  4. Keratoconus Treatment Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Andreanos, Konstantinos D; Hashemi, Kate; Petrelli, Myrsini; Droutsas, Konstantinos; Georgalas, Ilias; Kymionis, George D

    2017-07-28

    Keratoconus management has significantly changed over the last two decades. The advent of new interventions such as cornea cross-linking, intrastromal corneal ring segments, and combined treatments provide corneal clinicians a variety of treatment options for the visual rehabilitation of keratoconus patients. This review summarizes current evidence for these treatments and highlights their place in keratoconus management while new promising emerging therapies are being investigated.

  5. [Pollinosis: drug treatments].

    PubMed

    Harf, R

    2013-06-01

    The medical treatment of allergic rhino-conjunctivitis involves different classes of drugs administered locally or by general route. They belong to three main classes, antihistamines, steroids and mast cell stabilizers. Since it is a relatively benign and also highly common disease, treatment options are limited by possible, even mild, side effects and by cost efficacy restriction. In the more severe forms of the condition, treatment efficacy remains unsatisfactory.

  6. [Treatments of hysteria].

    PubMed

    Lemonnier, E; Allilaire, J F

    1995-12-15

    Treatment of hysteria requires establishing a management strategy. The first steps consist of symptomatic treatment (catharsis, counter-suggestion, hypnosis, narco-analysis, relaxation, focused psychoanalytical psychotherapy, drug therapy). Thereafter, an approach aiming to modify the psychic structure of the patient can be considered (supportive psychotherapy, psychoanalysis). Occasionally, a systemic approach is necessary. Although each facet of the treatment must be conducted by a specialist, one physician must supervise the overall strategy; this role falls naturally to the family doctor.

  7. Treatment of head lice.

    PubMed

    Diamantis, Stephanie A; Morrell, Dean S; Burkhart, Craig N

    2009-01-01

    Pediculosis capitis, or head lice, is a common infestation among children worldwide. Multiple therapies exist for the treatment of this condition, including topical pediculicides and oral medications. When used in combination with environmental decontamination, these drugs can be very effective in eradicating head lice infestation without significant adverse events. The present study discusses the use of available over-the-counter and prescription treatments, including pyrethroids and permethrin, lindane, malathion, ivermectin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, in the treatment of head lice.

  8. Demystifying water treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Hairston, D.

    1994-09-01

    Increasingly accountable for the environmental quality and cost of managing their waste and process water streams, customers require more precise data about the constituents in their water. This has forced suppliers to unlock some of the secrets of water treatment. In the open exchange of information, users are trading in esoteric formulations for products that are more chemical efficient and environmentally benign. Factoring more prominently in the water treatment equation are service and supply. This paper reviews some of these simpler treatments.

  9. Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD): Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professionals Treatment & Programs Health Information Doctors & Departments Research & Science Education & Training Home Conditions Food Allergies Treatment Treatment Make an Appointment Refer a ...

  10. [Treatment of vasculitis].

    PubMed

    Novak, Srdan

    2013-01-01

    Treatment of vasculitis depends on etiology and type of vasculitis. Gluccocorticoids are drug of choice in treatment of systemic vasculitis. While in vasculitis of large vessels treatment with gluccocorticoids is often sufficient, in ANCA associated vasculitis almost always intial combination of gluccocorticoids and immunosupresive drugs (cyclofosfamide in severe forms; azatioprin and metotrrexate in moderate disease) is needed. Maintance therapy of ANCA associated vasculitis is methotrexate or azatioprin. From biologic therapy, in gigantocellular vasculitis treatment with tocilizumb has a great expectation, while in ANCA associated vasculitis recently rituximab was approved by regulatory agencies, and it is nontinferior to cyclofosfamide in induction of remission and prefarable in relapsing disease.

  11. [Orthodontic treatment for adults].

    PubMed

    Kuitert, R B

    2000-04-01

    The number of adults undergoing orthodontic treatment has increased strongly and the average age that adult patients undergo orthodontic treatment increased steadily although 3/4 is still younger than 27 years. In adults the facial skeletal pattern can only be changed in a very confined way, consequently in case of an abnormal skeletal pattern one has to choose between a combined orthodontic-surgical approach (which is the case in 18% of the patients) and a compromised orthodontic treatment, if necessary combined with other disciplines. It is still controversial whether tooth movement in adults is slower and more difficult than in adolescents. The same holds true for the risk for loss of periodontal support, for root resorption, for gnathologic problems and for relapse. As related to these variables there appears to be a large individual variation. Many adults show one or more problems in their dentition that may influence their orthodontic treatment. About 60% of the adult patients need a multidisciplinary approach. The development of implantology and of bone regeneration and bone grafting has lead to more combined treatments. The risks of such complex treatment plans are generally larger than those for more simple kinds of treatment. A very careful treatment planning and good communication between the different specialists is essential. Moreover the treatment plan with all its (dis)advantages has to be extensively discussed with the patient.

  12. [Treatment of acne].

    PubMed

    Delanoë, P; de Prost, Y

    1997-11-01

    The treatment of acne is based upon simple pathogenic arguments, but needs to be adapted to the type of acne. Patients must always be informed that it is long and difficult and that no significant response will be expected before 2 to 3 months of regular treatment. The authors present the different therapeutic agents and strategies. Isotretinoin should be used only in severe acne after failure of at least 3 months of a well conducted classical treatment and in nodulo-cystic acne; because of its major side effect of teratogenicity its use in adolescent girl's requires pregnancy testings before and during treatment and an effective contraception.

  13. Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection): Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... About CDC.gov . Pinworm Infection General Information Pinworm Infection FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Publications Get Email Updates ...

  14. Treatment for Anxiety Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Past Conferences 2017 Conference 2017 Continuing Education Credits Mobile App Program Professional Education Continuing Education Credits Webinars for Mental Health Treatment Providers Continuing Education ...

  15. OCD Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Past Conferences 2017 Conference 2017 Continuing Education Credits Mobile App Program Professional Education Continuing Education Credits Webinars for Mental Health Treatment Providers Continuing Education ...

  16. Physical treatment of fever

    PubMed Central

    Purssell, E.

    2000-01-01

    Fever is a common symptom of childhood illness, and much time and effort is spent in the pursuit of reducing high temperature. Although antipyretic drugs are the main form of treatment, this report considers the part that physical treatments might play in reducing the temperature of febrile children. Such treatments include tepid sponging, removing clothing, and cooling the environment. Of these treatments, tepid sponging has been studied most extensively, as an addition to paracetamol, but seems to offer little advantage over paracetamol alone. It is likely that other methods might be equally ineffective because they all rely on similar methods of heat loss.

 PMID:10685930

  17. Modern treatment of acromegaly

    PubMed Central

    Merza, Z

    2003-01-01

    Acromegaly is an endocrine disorder characterised by increased morbidity and mortality. It is usually caused by a growth hormone secreting pituitary adenoma and is manifested by a variety of clinical features. Surgery is usually the treatment of choice, however over the last few years, several new methods of treatment have been developed. A recent consensus on the targets for treatment has led to multiple studies being conducted to assess the efficacy of the currently available options. This review examines the evidence for and against these treatments. PMID:12743333

  18. Treatment of ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Sari, İsmail; Öztürk, Mehmet Akif; Akkoç, Nurullah

    2015-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis is a chronic, inflammatory, rheumatic disease that can reduce the quality of life and increase the risk of disability and mortality. It also causes direct and indirect economic losses due to health expenses and as a result of workforce loss. Management of this disease consists of pharmacological and nonpharmacological modalities. Until recently, pharmacological treatment options have been very limited. However, development of novel biological drugs revolutionized the management of this disease. The aim of this review article is to present an updated overview of the pharmacologic treatment of ankylosing spondylitis. Nonpharmacological treatment modalities including physiotherapy and exercise are only briefly mentioned and surgical treatment is not discussed.

  19. Noninvasive treatments for headache.

    PubMed

    Biondi, David M

    2005-05-01

    Primary headache disorders are often accompanied by neck pain or other symptoms referable to neck muscles. Therefore, physical therapy and other physical treatments are commonly prescribed for headache management. A medical literature review was completed in order to gather information regarding the efficacy of selected physical modalities in the treatment of primary and cervicogenic headache disorders. After analyzing the collected data, expert opinions were developed regarding the utility and efficacy of selected physical modalities in the management of primary and cervicogenic headaches. Based on this review, the following four expert opinions are presented: physical therapy is more effective than massage therapy or acupuncture for the treatment of tension-type headache and appears to be most beneficial for patients with a high frequency of headache attacks. Physical therapy is most effective for the treatment of migraine when combined with other treatments such as thermal biofeedback, relaxation training and exercise. Chiropractic manipulation demonstrated a trend towards benefit in the treatment of tension-type headache, but evidence is weak. Chiropractic manipulation is probably more effective in the treatment of tension-type headache than it is in the treatment of migraine. In general, strong evidence is lacking regarding the efficacy of these treatments in reducing headache frequency, intensity, duration and disability in many commonly encountered clinical situations. Many of the published case series and controlled studies are of low quality. Physical treatments are unlikely to pose a significant risk, with the exception of high velocity chiropractic manipulation of the neck. Consideration must be given to financial costs and lost treatment opportunity by prescribing potentially ineffective treatment. In the absence of clear evidence regarding their role in treatment, physicians and patients are advised to make cautious and individualized judgments about

  20. 21 CFR 312.320 - Treatment IND or treatment protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Treatment IND or treatment protocol. 312.320... for Treatment Use § 312.320 Treatment IND or treatment protocol. Under this section, FDA may permit an investigational drug to be used for widespread treatment use. (a) Criteria. The criteria in § 312.305(a) must...

  1. 21 CFR 312.320 - Treatment IND or treatment protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Treatment IND or treatment protocol. 312.320... for Treatment Use § 312.320 Treatment IND or treatment protocol. Under this section, FDA may permit an investigational drug to be used for widespread treatment use. (a) Criteria. The criteria in § 312.305(a) must be...

  2. 21 CFR 312.320 - Treatment IND or treatment protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Treatment IND or treatment protocol. 312.320... for Treatment Use § 312.320 Treatment IND or treatment protocol. Under this section, FDA may permit an investigational drug to be used for widespread treatment use. (a) Criteria. The criteria in § 312.305(a) must be...

  3. 21 CFR 312.320 - Treatment IND or treatment protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Treatment IND or treatment protocol. 312.320... for Treatment Use § 312.320 Treatment IND or treatment protocol. Under this section, FDA may permit an investigational drug to be used for widespread treatment use. (a) Criteria. The criteria in § 312.305(a) must be...

  4. [Orthoptic treatment efficiency in convergence insufficiency treatment].

    PubMed

    Dragomir, M; Truş, L; Chirilă, D; Stîngu, C

    2001-01-01

    We studied a group of 162 patients(89 females, 73 males), with ages between 15-30 years, who complained of blurred vision at near work. 98 patients(60.4%) were diagnosed with convergence insufficiency (C.I.), the rest of 64 patients(39.6%) had: low refractive errors, heterophoria and intermittent heterotropia. Patients with convergence insufficiency were divided in 3 groups: group 1(34 patients--34.6%) were treated with orthoptic exercises and near point exercises at home, group 2 (34 patients--34.6%) were treated with only near point exercises at home and control group 3 (30 patients--30.8%) without treatment. The result of the treatment of C.I. was good at 25 patients(73.5%) of group 1, at 8 patients(23.5%) of group 2 while in group 3 at only one patient the symptoms disappeared.

  5. Generic phytosanitary irradiation treatments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The history of the development of generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zeala...

  6. Assessment, Diagnosis, and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullis, Thomas

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of assessment, diagnosis, and treatment planning for individuals with substance abuse problems. The intent is to provide information to professional counselors in school, rehabilitation, school psychology, social work, public mental health, and private treatment settings. Information to be…

  7. Coping – After Treatment

    Cancer.gov

    Many cancer survivors say that once treatment ended, it was hard to make a transition to a new way of life. Learn about this phase of your care and how to adjust to the new feelings and issues that come after cancer treatment.

  8. Psychological Treatments to Avoid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomason, Timothy C.

    2010-01-01

    Certain psychological treatments should be avoided, and a list of such treatments would provide valuable guidance for counselors, as well as potential clients. It is well established that some therapies are potentially dangerous, and some fringe therapies are highly unlikely to help clients beyond a placebo effect. This article provides an…

  9. "Psychotherapy" Versus "Treatment"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkowitz, Hal

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents comments on "Psychological treatments" by D. H. Barlow. Barlow proposed that we distinguish between the terms "treatment" and "psychotherapy." The author believes that not only is the distinction unnecessary, but that its implications could have negative consequences for the field of clinical psychology. It is the proposed…

  10. Nursing and Psychological Treatments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwekkeboom, Kristine L.; Ameringer, Suzanne; Harrison, Tondi; Phillips, Christopher M.; Serlin, Ronald C.; Ward, Sandra E.

    2005-01-01

    This brief article presents a comment on "Psychological Treatments" by D. H. Barlow. In his article, Barlow pointed to the need "to solidify the identification of psychology as a health care profession" by changing the terminology of practice in the health care context from psychotherapy to psychological treatments and suggested that the only…

  11. Treatment of Malignant Pheochromocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Ajallé, R.; Plouin, P. F.; Pacak, K.; Lehnert, H.

    2013-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma (PCC) is a rare disease, mainly sporadic, but also associated with some familial disorders, with a malignancy frequency of approximately 10%. Only the presence of distant metastases, derived from large pleomorphic chromaffin cells, is widely accepted as a criterion of malignancy. Variable symptoms may be caused by production and release of catecholamines. Since there is no curative treatment for malignant PCC and due to its unfavorable prognosis, assuring quality of life is one of the main therapeutic objectives. Besides a long-term medical treatment of symptoms using selective α-1 blockers and nonselective, noncompetitive α- and / or β-blockers, debulking surgery is the first treatment step. In case of a sufficient uptake of 123I-MIBG treatment with targeted radiation therapy, use of 131I-MIBG is an option as an adjuvant therapy, following debulking surgery. Chemotherapy should be applied to patients without positive MIBG-scan, with no response to 131I-MIBG or progression after radionuclide treatment, and especially in cases with high proliferation index. The most effective chemotherapy regimen appears to be the CVD-scheme, including cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and dacarbazine. The so-called targeted molecular therapies with treatment combinations of temozolomide and thalidomide, or sunitinib monotherapy, and novel therapeutic somatostatin analogues have shown promising results and should thus encourage clinical trials to improve the prognosis of metastatic PCC. Within this review the current treatment modalities and novel molecular strategies in the management of this disease are discussed and a treatment algorithm is suggested. PMID:19672813

  12. Treatment of Evolution Inconsistent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2005-01-01

    State standards for academic content vary enormously in how well they cover the topic of evolution, with many of those documents either ignoring or giving scant treatment to the core principles of that established scientific theory. This article presents the analysis of Education Week on state's standards treatment of evolution. Nearly all the…

  13. The Treatment Philosophy Snowballs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hern, Matt

    1998-01-01

    Students who respond to the ludicrous environments of schooling with behaviors and demeanor that do not fit school criteria frequently are given a medical label and drug treatment. The fact that Ritalin is given to 2.8% of all American children reflects a "treatment philosophy" in which professionals define problems and prescribe…

  14. Treatment of Evolution Inconsistent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2005-01-01

    State standards for academic content vary enormously in how well they cover the topic of evolution, with many of those documents either ignoring or giving scant treatment to the core principles of that established scientific theory. This article presents the analysis of Education Week on state's standards treatment of evolution. Nearly all the…

  15. Treatment of malignant pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Adjallé, R; Plouin, P F; Pacak, K; Lehnert, H

    2009-09-01

    Pheochromocytoma (PCC) is a rare disease, mainly sporadic, but also associated with some familial disorders, with a malignancy frequency of approximately 10%. Only the presence of distant metastases, derived from large pleomorphic chromaffin cells, is widely accepted as a criterion of malignancy. Variable symptoms may be caused by production and release of catecholamines. Since there is no curative treatment for malignant PCC and due to its unfavorable prognosis, assuring quality of life is one of the main therapeutic objectives. Besides a long-term medical treatment of symptoms using selective alpha-1 blockers and nonselective, noncompetitive alpha- and/or beta-blockers, debulking surgery is the first treatment step. In case of a sufficient uptake of (123)I-MIBG treatment with targeted radiation therapy, use of (131)I-MIBG is an option as an adjuvant therapy, following debulking surgery. Chemotherapy should be applied to patients without positive MIBG-scan, with no response to (131)I-MIBG or progression after radionuclide treatment, and especially in cases with high proliferation index. The most effective chemotherapy regimen appears to be the CVD-scheme, including cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and dacarbazine. The so-called targeted molecular therapies with treatment combinations of temozolomide and thalidomide, or sunitinib monotherapy, and novel therapeutic somatostatin analogues have shown promising results and should thus encourage clinical trials to improve the prognosis of metastatic PCC. Within this review the current treatment modalities and novel molecular strategies in the management of this disease are discussed and a treatment algorithm is suggested.

  16. Seed Treatment. Bulletin 760.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowery, Harvey C.

    This manual gives a definition of seed treatment, the types of seeds normally treated, diseases and insects commonly associated with seeds, fungicides and insecticides used, types of equipment used for seed treatment, and information on labeling and coloring of treated seed, pesticide carriers, binders, stickers, and safety precautions. (BB)

  17. Water treatment on wheels

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.T.

    2005-09-01

    Design options and combinations of fixed and mobile demineralization equipment give power plant operators the flexibility to continually optimize their water treatment system to meet rapidly changing needs. The article classifies water treatment service contracts for demineralized water into four categories and presents associated design, economic and operational advantages to power plant designers, constructors, owners and operators. 1 tab.

  18. Seed Treatment. Bulletin 760.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowery, Harvey C.

    This manual gives a definition of seed treatment, the types of seeds normally treated, diseases and insects commonly associated with seeds, fungicides and insecticides used, types of equipment used for seed treatment, and information on labeling and coloring of treated seed, pesticide carriers, binders, stickers, and safety precautions. (BB)

  19. Offenders: Characteristics and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Judith V.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews what is known about child sex offenders and their treatment. The author discusses the role of paraphilia in child molestation and reviews what is known about juvenile and incest offenders and recidivism rates. What is known about recidivism of untreated offenders and treatment practices is also summarized. Recommendations conclude the…

  20. The Treatment Philosophy Snowballs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hern, Matt

    1998-01-01

    Students who respond to the ludicrous environments of schooling with behaviors and demeanor that do not fit school criteria frequently are given a medical label and drug treatment. The fact that Ritalin is given to 2.8% of all American children reflects a "treatment philosophy" in which professionals define problems and prescribe…

  1. Cradle Cap: Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    Cradle cap Treatment Cradle cap usually doesn't require medical treatment. It clears up on its own within a few months. In the meantime, wash ... tips can help you control and manage cradle cap. Gently rub your baby's scalp with your fingers ...

  2. Outcomes in Alcoholism Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stambul, Harriet B.; Armor, David J.

    Alcoholism researchers in the past 35 years have emphasized abstinence as the major criterion of treatment success. In recent years, however, this emphasis has been questioned and from the current debate over treatment goals and outcome measures at least two areas of controversy have emerged. The first, called the "abstention-moderation"…

  3. Acoustic Casing Treatment Test

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-02-14

    Acoustic Casing Treatment Testing Completed in the W-8 Single Stage Axial Compressor Facility at NASA Glenn. Four different over-the-rotor acoustic casing treatment concepts were tested along with two baseline configurations. Testing included steady-aerodynamic measurements of fan performance, hotfilm turbulence measurements, and inlet acoustic measurements with an in-duct array.

  4. "Psychotherapy" Versus "Treatment"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkowitz, Hal

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents comments on "Psychological treatments" by D. H. Barlow. Barlow proposed that we distinguish between the terms "treatment" and "psychotherapy." The author believes that not only is the distinction unnecessary, but that its implications could have negative consequences for the field of clinical psychology. It is the proposed…

  5. Invisalign in TMD treatment.

    PubMed

    Miller, David B

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of functional orthodontic treatment include creating a broad smile, pleasing facial profile, and healthy, functional occlusions and temporomandibular joints. Removable orthodontic appliances have long been used in the treatment of some temporomandibular disorders. Invisalign aligners are removable orthodontic appliances. Certain TMJ case types can be treated successfully with Invisalign.

  6. Floating treatment wetlands for domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Faulwetter, J L; Burr, M D; Cunningham, A B; Stewart, F M; Camper, A K; Stein, O R

    2011-01-01

    Floating islands are a form of treatment wetland characterized by a mat of synthetic matrix at the water surface into which macrophytes can be planted and through which water passes. We evaluated two matrix materials for treating domestic wastewater, recycled plastic and recycled carpet fibers, for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nitrogen removal. These materials were compared to pea gravel or open water (control). Experiments were conducted in laboratory scale columns fed with synthetic wastewater containing COD, organic and inorganic nitrogen, and mineral salts. Columns were unplanted, naturally inoculated, and operated in batch mode with continuous recirculation and aeration. COD was efficiently removed in all systems examined (>90% removal). Ammonia was efficiently removed by nitrification. Removal of total dissolved N was ∼50% by day 28, by which time most remaining nitrogen was present as NO(3)-N. Complete removal of NO(3)-N by denitrification was accomplished by dosing columns with molasses. Microbial communities of interest were visualized with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) by targeting specific functional genes. Shifts in the denitrifying community were observed post-molasses addition, when nitrate levels decreased. The conditioning time for reliable nitrification was determined to be approximately three months. These results suggest that floating treatment wetlands are a viable alternative for domestic wastewater treatment.

  7. [Treatment of tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Ben Amar, J; Dhahri, B; Aouina, H; Azzabi, S; Baccar, M A; El Gharbi, L; Bouacha, H

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to give practicing physicians a practical approach to the treatment of latent and active tuberculosis. Most patients follow TB standard treatment recommended by WHO that depend on category of patient. It is a combination of four essential tuberculosis drugs of the first group: isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamid and ethambutol; in some cases streptomycin can replace ethambutol. This initial phase of intensive treatment is followed by a consolidation phase. Drugs should be administered in the morning on an empty stomach one hour before meals. Treatment of latent tuberculosis (TB) infection is an important component of TB control programs. Preventive treatment can reduce the risk of developing active TB. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Treatment of multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Rajkumar, S. Vincent

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of multiple myeloma has changed dramatically in the past decade. The increase in the number of active agents has generated numerous possible drug combinations that can be used in the first-line and relapsed settings. As a result, there is considerable confusion about the choice of regimens for initial therapy, role of transplantation in the era of new drugs, end points for therapy, and the role of maintenance therapy. A hotly debated area is whether treatment approaches should achieve cure or disease control, which impacts greatly on the treatment strategy employed. This article provides an update on the treatment of multiple myeloma, with a focus on recent advances, newly diagnosed disease, role of transplantation and maintenance therapy. A synthesized approach to the treatment of myeloma is presented, along with a discussion of key paradigms that need to be challenged. PMID:21522124

  9. Contemporary Treatment of APL

    PubMed Central

    Cull, Elizabeth H.; Altman, Jessica K.

    2014-01-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is characterized by coagulopathy, leukopenic presentation and sensitivity to anthracyclines, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (ATO). For the last 25 years, APL has been treated with a combination of ATRA and chemotherapy for induction followed by consolidation and maintenance therapy. This general treatment approach has resulted in cure rates of 80–90%. ATO, originally approved in relapsed APL, has been incorporated into contemporary upfront treatment regimens with excellent response rates. Recent studies show that most patients with APL can be cured with ATRA and ATO alone, eliminating cytotoxic chemotherapy and resulting in superior outcomes compared to standard treatment. We will herein review historical treatment of APL, treatment considerations in specific patient populations, and therapeutic updates. PMID:24643310

  10. Contemporary treatment of APL.

    PubMed

    Cull, Elizabeth H; Altman, Jessica K

    2014-06-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is characterized by coagulopathy, leukopenic presentation and sensitivity to anthracyclines, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (ATO). For the last 25 years, APL has been treated with a combination of ATRA and chemotherapy for induction followed by consolidation and maintenance therapy. This general treatment approach has resulted in cure rates of 80-90 %. ATO, originally approved in relapsed APL, has been incorporated into contemporary upfront treatment regimens with excellent response rates. Recent studies show that most patients with APL can be cured with ATRA and ATO alone, eliminating cytotoxic chemotherapy and resulting in superior outcomes compared to standard treatment. We will herein review historical treatment of APL, treatment considerations in specific patient populations, and therapeutic updates.

  11. Treatments options for alopecia.

    PubMed

    Iorizzo, Matilde; Tosti, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Hair disorders have a very high social and psychological impact. Treatment is often frustrating and time-consuming both for the patients and the clinicians and requires special skills and expertise. This paper aims to provide an overview of available treatments for the most common forms of alopecia in adults (androgenetic alopecia [AGA], alopecia areata and cicatricial alopecias) after reviewing the literature in PubMed, Google Scholar and ClinicalTrial.gov. Before starting treatment, it is very important to confirm diagnosis and discuss patient's expectations. Treatment of hair disorders requires time and first results are usually visible a few months after beginning of therapy. Treatment of most hair disorders is mostly not evidenced-based as randomized controlled trials are available only for AGA.

  12. Emerging treatments in alopecia.

    PubMed

    Falto-Aizpurua, Leyre; Choudhary, Sonal; Tosti, Antonella

    2014-12-01

    Alopecia is a common concern encountered in the medical practice. Treatment approach varies according to the type and severity of alopecia. However, available treatment options have limited efficacy and several adverse effects. Presently, there are different treatment options being studied to overcome these limitations. Additionally, cellular pathways involved in the pathophysiology of alopecia are further being clarified to potentially target pathogenic molecules. We searched the literature for recently published articles discussing new treatment options as well as mechanisms involved in alopecia. We discuss the use of stem cells, growth factors, cellular pathways and robotic hair transplant, among other emerging therapies used for alopecia. Future looks very promising and new effective treatments such as janus kinase inhibitors could possibly be available for alopecia areata. The stem-cell technology is advancing and companies involved in hair follicle neogenesis are starting clinical trials on patients with androgenetic alopecia.

  13. [Treatment of cluster headache].

    PubMed

    Fabre, N

    2005-07-01

    Remarkable therapeutic improvements have come forward recently for trigemino-autonomic cephalalgias. Attack treatment in cluster headache is based on sumatriptan and oxygen. Non-vasoconstrictive treatments are opening a new post-triptan era but are not yet applicable. Prophylactic treatment of cluster headache is based on verapamil and lithium. The efficacy of anti-epileptic drugs in cluster headache remains to be demonstrated. Surgical treatment aimed at the parasympathetic pathways and at the trigeminal nerve demonstrates a high rate of recurrence and adverse events and questions about the relevance of a "peripheral" target in cluster headache. The efficacy of continuous hypothalamic stimulation in patients with intractable headache constitutes a breakthrough, but must be demonstrated at a larger scale and the benefice/risk ratio must be carefully evaluated. Indomethacin still remains the gold standard in paroxysmal hemicrania treatment. Until recently SUNCT was considered an intractable condition. However there are some reports of complete relief with lamotrigine, topiramate and gabapentin.

  14. Eosinophilic esophagitis: current treatment.

    PubMed

    Redd, Matthew; Schey, Ron

    2013-03-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a relatively new entity with a significant amount of increased recognition over the last decade. The mainstay treatments of EoE are designed to eliminate the causative allergens or to reduce their effects on the esophageal mucosa. Common treatments include dietary modification, proton pump inhibitors, systemic and topical corticosteroids, and endoscopic treatments. As the pathogenesis of EoE is explored, new and novel treatments are being studied that target specific pathways and chemokines identified in as precipitating agents of EoE. This is a rapidly evolving field with significant ongoing research and clinical studies. Our review will therefore focus on current and novel treatment approaches to the disease.

  15. [Biofeedback treatment for epilepsy].

    PubMed

    Nagai, Yoko

    2014-05-01

    Pharmacological treatment is the mainstay for the treatment of epilepsy. However concerns regarding long-term side effects of drugs are increasingly voiced. Behavioral treatments including biofeedback, represents an alternative management option for the control of epilepsy. Biofeedback is a non-invasive bio-behavioral procedure through which patients can learn to gain psychophysiological control over seizures. This article will first overview seizure precipitation from a psychological perspective, and then introduce three major biofeedback treatments. Sensory motor rhythm (SMR) and slow cortical potential(SCP) biofeedback uses electroencephalographic parameters and are categorized as neurofeedback. Electrodermal activity (EDA) biofeedback focuses on modulation of peripheral sympathetic tone. The neural mechanisms underlying biofeedback treatment will be discussed in relation to thalamo-cortical regulation(of neural excitability across brain networks).

  16. Pediatric hepatitis B treatment

    PubMed Central

    Inui, Ayano; Fujisawa, Tomoo

    2017-01-01

    Although the introduction of hepatitis B vaccine has been contributing to the reduction in the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers worldwide, the treatment of children with chronic HBV infection is a challenge to be addressed. HBeAg seroconversion, which induces low replication of HBV, is widely accepted as the first goal of antiviral treatment in children with chronic hepatitis B. However, spontaneous HBeAg seroconversion is highly expected in children with chronic HBV infection. Therefore, the identification of children who need antiviral treatment to induce HBeAg seroconversion is essential in the management of chronic HBV infection. Guidelines and experts’ opinion show how to identify children who should be treated and how to treat them. If decompensated cirrhosis is absent, interferon-alpha is the first-line antiviral treatment. Nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs), such as lamivudine, adefovir, entecavir and tenofovir, are also available for the treatment of children, although the approval age differs among them. If decompensated cirrhosis is present, NAs are the first-line antivirals. When the emergence of drug-resistant HBV variants is taken into consideration, entecavir (approved for age 2 years or older) and tenofovir (age 12 years or older), which have high genetic barriers, will play a central role in the treatment of HBV infection. However, the optimal duration of NA treatment and adverse events of long-term NA treatment remain unclear in children. In resource-constrained countries and regions, the financial burden of visiting hospitals, receiving routine blood examination and purchasing antiviral drugs is heavy. Moreover, there is no clear evidence that the induction of HBeAg seroconversion by antiviral treatment prevents the progression of liver disease to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in children with chronic HBV infection. It is thus imperative to clarify the clinical impact of antiviral treatment in children with HBV infection. PMID

  17. Nonpharmacological treatment of epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, V. S.; Nadkarni, V. V.

    2011-01-01

    Nonpharmacological treatment of epilepsy includes surgery, vagal nerve stimulation, ketogenic diet, and other alternative/complementary therapies, e.g., yoga, Ayurveda, electroencephalography (EEG) biofeedback technique, aerobic exercise, music therapy, transcranial magnetic stimulation, acupuncture, and herbal remedies (traditional Chinese medicine). Alternative therapies, despite the term, should not be considered as an alternative to antiepileptic medication; they complement accepted drug treatment. Alternative therapies like yoga, through techniques that relax the body and mind, reduce stress, improve seizure control, and also improve quality of life. Ketogenic diet is a safe and effective treatment for intractable epilepsies; it has been recommended since 1921. The diet induces ketosis, which may control seizures. The most successful treatment of epilepsy is with modern antiepileptic drugs, which can achieve control of seizures in 70–80% cases. Patients opt for alternative therapies because they may be dissatisfied with antiepileptic drugs due to their unpleasant side effects, the long duration of treatment, failure to achieve control of seizures, cultural beliefs and, in the case of women, because they wish to get pregnant Surgical treatment may lead to physical and psychological sequelae and is an option only for a minority of patients. This article presents supportive evidence from randomized controlled trials done to assess the benefit of non-pharmacological treatment. PMID:22028523

  18. Treatment of Thoracolumbar Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byung-Guk; Shin, Dong-Eun

    2015-01-01

    The most common fractures of the spine are associated with the thoracolumbar junction. The goals of treatment of thoracolumbar fracture are leading to early mobilization and rehabilitation by restoring mechanical stability of fracture and inducing neurologic recovery, thereby enabling patients to return to the workplace. However, it is still debatable about the treatment methods. Neurologic injury should be identified by thorough physical examination for motor and sensory nerve system in order to determine the appropriate treatment. The mechanical stability of fracture also should be evaluated by plain radiographs and computed tomography. In some cases, magnetic resonance imaging is required to evaluate soft tissue injury involving neurologic structure or posterior ligament complex. Based on these physical examinations and imaging studies, fracture stability is evaluated and it is determined whether to use the conservative or operative treatment. The development of instruments have led to more interests on the operative treatment which saves mobile segments without fusion and on instrumentation through minimal invasive approach in recent years. It is still controversial for the use of these treatments because there have not been verified evidences yet. However, the morbidity of patients can be decreased and good clinical and radiologic outcomes can be achieved if the recent operative treatments are used carefully considering the fracture pattern and the injury severity. PMID:25705347

  19. Nonpharmacological treatment of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Saxena, V S; Nadkarni, V V

    2011-07-01

    Nonpharmacological treatment of epilepsy includes surgery, vagal nerve stimulation, ketogenic diet, and other alternative/complementary therapies, e.g., yoga, Ayurveda, electroencephalography (EEG) biofeedback technique, aerobic exercise, music therapy, transcranial magnetic stimulation, acupuncture, and herbal remedies (traditional Chinese medicine). Alternative therapies, despite the term, should not be considered as an alternative to antiepileptic medication; they complement accepted drug treatment. Alternative therapies like yoga, through techniques that relax the body and mind, reduce stress, improve seizure control, and also improve quality of life. Ketogenic diet is a safe and effective treatment for intractable epilepsies; it has been recommended since 1921. The diet induces ketosis, which may control seizures. The most successful treatment of epilepsy is with modern antiepileptic drugs, which can achieve control of seizures in 70-80% cases. Patients opt for alternative therapies because they may be dissatisfied with antiepileptic drugs due to their unpleasant side effects, the long duration of treatment, failure to achieve control of seizures, cultural beliefs and, in the case of women, because they wish to get pregnant Surgical treatment may lead to physical and psychological sequelae and is an option only for a minority of patients. This article presents supportive evidence from randomized controlled trials done to assess the benefit of non-pharmacological treatment.

  20. Haemophilia treatment in 2030.

    PubMed

    Berntorp, E

    2016-07-01

    Looking into the future is difficult and sometimes hazardous. A reliable look into haemophilia treatment in 2030 should be based on history and contemporary progress as well as dilemmas. Today, the issue of inhibitors overshadows the entire haemophilia community together with lack of treatment for large parts of the world's persons with haemophilia. The aim of this paper was to provide a perspective on haemophilia treatment in 2030 and its provenance. Literature review on history, treatment of haemophilia today as well as of emerging therapies give a base for the author's opinion on haemophilia treatment in 2030. Development of haemophilia treatment has virtually exploded during the last decade and a number of new clotting factor concentrates and alternative approaches are in the pipeline. The collection of treatment resources that we can see on the horizon gives hope that each person with haemophilia will get the care needed in 2030. The products used will be directed by individual needs and tailored to regional and local situations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. [Chronic migraine: treatment].

    PubMed

    Pascual, Julio

    2012-04-10

    We define chronic migraine as that clinical situation in which migraine attacks appear 15 or more days per month. Until recently, and in spite of its negative impact, patients with chronic migraine were excluded of the clinical trials. This manuscript revises the current treatment of chronic migraine. The first step should include the avoidance of potential precipitating/aggravating factors for chronic migraine, mainly analgesic overuse and the treatment of comorbid disorders, such as anxiety and depression. The symptomatic treatment should be based on the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents and triptans (in this case < 10 days per month). It is necessary to avoid the use of combined analgesics, opioids and ergotamine-containing medications. Preventive treatment includes a 'transitional' treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents or steroids, while preventive treatment exerts its actions. Even though those medications efficacious in episodic migraine prevention are used, the only drugs with demonstrated efficacy in the preventive treatment of chronic migraine are topiramate and pericranial infiltrations of Onabotulinumtoxin A.

  2. Land Treatment Digital Library

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilliod, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Across the country, public land managers make hundreds of decisions each year that influence landscapes and ecosystems within the lands they manage. Many of these decisions involve vegetation manipulations known as land treatments. Land treatments include activities such as removal or alteration of plant biomass, seeding burned areas, and herbicide applications. Data on these land treatments are usually stored at local offices, and gathering information across large spatial areas can be difficult. There is a need to centralize and store treatment data for Federal agencies involved in land treatments because these data are useful to land managers for policy and management and to scientists for developing sampling designs and studies. The Land Treatment Digital Library (LTDL) was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to catalog information about land treatments on Federal lands in the western United States for all interested parties. The flexible framework of the library allows for the storage of a wide variety of data in different formats. The LTDL currently stores previously established land treatments or what often are called legacy data. The project was developed and has been refined based on feedback from partner agencies and stakeholders, with opportunity for the library holdings to expand as new information becomes available. The library contains data in text, tabular, spatial, and image formats. Specific examples include project plans and implementation reports, monitoring data, spatial data files from geographic information systems, digitized paper maps, and digital images of land treatments. The data are entered by USGS employees and are accessible through a searchable web site. The LTDL can be used to respond to information requests, conduct analyses and other forms of information syntheses, produce maps, and generate reports for DOI managers and scientists and other authorized users.

  3. Treatment of neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Nash, T.E.; Singh, G.; White, A.C.; Rajshekhar, V.; Loeb, J.A.; Proaño, J.V.; Takayanagui, O.M.; Gonzalez, A.E.; Butman, J.A.; DeGiorgio, C.; Del Brutto, O.H.; Delgado-Escueta, A.; Evans, C.A.W.; Gilman, R.H.; Martinez, S.M.; Medina, M.T.; Pretell, E.J.; Teale, J.; Garcia, H.H.

    2010-01-01

    Here we put forward a roadmap that summarizes important questions that need to be answered to determine more effective and safer treatments. A key concept in management of neurocysticercosis is the understanding that infection and disease due to neurocysticercosis are variable and thus different clinical approaches and treatments are required. Despite recent advances, treatments remain either suboptimal or based on poorly controlled or anecdotal experience. A better understanding of basic pathophysiologic mechanisms including parasite survival and evolution, nature of the inflammatory response, and the genesis of seizures, epilepsy, and mechanisms of anthelmintic action should lead to improved therapies. PMID:17030744

  4. Current treatments for scabies.

    PubMed

    Buffet, M; Dupin, N

    2003-04-01

    Scabies is a frequent interhuman ectoparasitic infection. Several treatments are available worldwide. There are local treatments: synthetic pyrethrins, benzyl benzoate, lindane, crotamiton. Recently a few studies were published concerning ivermectin, systemic antiparasitic agent use in onchocercosis treatment. We reviewed the literature with an evidence-based medicine method. We attempt to answer two questions in particular: what is the treatment of choice for common scabies in a patient otherwise in good health? What is the role of systemic ivermectin? We also report specific situations. Among local treatments, studies are heterogeneous according to products, countries, group of treated patients, with or without contact subjects, and the method of treatment application. There are very few high proof-level controlled studies. In France, a combination of benzyl benzoate 10% and sulfiram 2% is used most, according to professional consensus. The most studied product is the cream permethrin 5%, available in the USA and UK. Its efficacy seems slightly superior to lindane and less toxic. It is more efficient than crotamiton. There is no study comparing benzyl benzoate and permethrin. Concerning systemic ivermectin, five controlled studies showed its efficiency in common scabies. But its relative efficiency over local treatment has not been established. A few open studies showed its efficacy in institutional epidemic, profuse scabies and in HIV-positive patients. Local treatment of choice in common scabies remains to be determined among the four principal molecules. There is no study comparing permethrin or esdepallethrin to benzyl benzoate. In what cases should we prescribe crotamiton or lindane? Indication of ivermectin seems proved in common scabies and probably for HIV-positive patients. It remains to be determined if it should be prescribed in the first instance, be double or triple, be associated or not with local treatment. In case of keratotic scabies, ivermectin

  5. Childhood Vitiligo: Treatment Paradigms

    PubMed Central

    Kanwar, Amrinder Jit; Kumaran, M Sendhil

    2012-01-01

    Childhood vitiligo differs from the adults by showing a higher incidence in females, segmental vitiligo being more common and less frequent association with other systemic autoimmune and endocrine disorders. Childhood vitiligo is often associated with a marked psychosocial and long lasting effect on the self-esteem of the affected children and their parents, hence an adequate treatment is very essential. Treatment of vitiligo is indeed a tough challenge for the dermatologists’ more so in the background of childhood vitiligo. Although multiple therapeutic modalities are available in the therapeutic armamentarium, not all can be used in children. This brief report updates regarding various therapies available in the treatment of childhood vitiligo. PMID:23248365

  6. [Treatment of acne].

    PubMed

    Fyrand, O

    1997-08-30

    Acne is a disfiguring disease, occurring mainly in adolescence. It is a common disorder, affecting above 80% of adolescents in some degree. 50% wish to have treatment for the condition. Acne appears in many forms; from the more common comedonal and papulopustular types to the often devastating cystic and fulminant acne. Some patients develop disfiguring scarring and keloidal reactions, which persist for the rest of their lives. With the treatment facilities available in modern medicine, acne problems can be eliminated through topical and/or systemic treatment options.

  7. Optical treatments for acne.

    PubMed

    Ross, E Victor

    2005-01-01

    Light-based treatments for acne are becoming increasingly commonplace in dermatology. This article reviews various light approaches in acne therapy. Methods are discussed from an anatomical and a functional perspective. The emphasis is on the practicality of treatment as well as the pros and cons of various devices. Also, a review of the recent literature is presented. The article is intended to give the reader a panoramic view of this still-young and developing area. Most likely, light-based acne treatment will receive more popularity as dermatologists learn how to integrate this type of therapy within the context of more established drug agents.

  8. Treatment decisions under ambiguity.

    PubMed

    Berger, Loïc; Bleichrodt, Han; Eeckhoudt, Louis

    2013-05-01

    Many health risks are ambiguous in the sense that reliable and credible information about these risks is unavailable. In health economics, ambiguity is usually handled through sensitivity analysis, which implicitly assumes that people are neutral towards ambiguity. However, empirical evidence suggests that people are averse to ambiguity and react strongly to it. This paper studies the effects of ambiguity aversion on two classical medical decision problems. If there is ambiguity regarding the diagnosis of a patient, ambiguity aversion increases the decision maker's propensity to opt for treatment. On the other hand, in the case of ambiguity regarding the effects of treatment, ambiguity aversion leads to a reduction in the propensity to choose treatment.

  9. Infant Reflux: Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... barium) from a bottle before the test. Upper endoscopy. A special tube equipped with a camera lens ... be taken for analysis. For infants and children, endoscopy is usually done under general anesthesia. Treatment Infant ...

  10. Teens and Acne Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... those zits under control. Types of treatments Benzoyl peroxide Benzoyl peroxide wash, lotion, or gel—the most effective acne ... wash or lotion first. How to use benzoyl peroxide Start slowly—only once a day with a ...

  11. HIV Treatment Adherence

    MedlinePlus

    ... Understanding Risk Activities When One Partner Is HIV+ Substance Abuse/Use Pregnancy & Childbirth Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Post-Exposure ... Doctor, Clinical & Dental Visits Treatment Adherence Mental Health Substance Abuse Issues Sexual Health Nutrition & Food Safety Exercise Immunizations ...

  12. Childhood Astrocytomas Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer will come back, is called adjuvant therapy . Observation Observation is closely monitoring a patient’s condition without giving ... treatment until signs or symptoms appear or change. Observation may be used: If the patient has no ...

  13. Childhood Ependymoma Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... depends on the type of cancer being treated. Observation Observation is closely monitoring a patient’s condition without giving ... treatment until signs or symptoms appear or change. Observation may be used to treat a child with ...

  14. Giardia Infection Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... used to treat Giardia infection. Effective treatments include metronidazole, tinidazole, and nitazoxanide 1 . Alternatives to these medications ... lamblia WB C6 clone resistant to nitazoxanide and metronidazole. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2008;62(1):72-82. ...

  15. Medical Actinium Therapeutic Treatment

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Learn how INL researchers are increasing world supplies of Bismuth 213 to help with cancer treatments. For more information about INL research projects, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  16. Thermal treatment wall

    DOEpatents

    Aines, Roger D.; Newmark, Robin L.; Knauss, Kevin G.

    2000-01-01

    A thermal treatment wall emplaced to perform in-situ destruction of contaminants in groundwater. Thermal destruction of specific contaminants occurs by hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation at temperatures achievable by existing thermal remediation techniques (electrical heating or steam injection) in the presence of oxygen or soil mineral oxidants, such as MnO.sub.2. The thermal treatment wall can be installed in a variety of configurations depending on the specific objectives, and can be used for groundwater cleanup, wherein in-situ destruction of contaminants is carried out rather than extracting contaminated fluids to the surface, where they are to be cleaned. In addition, the thermal treatment wall can be used for both plume interdiction and near-wellhead in-situ groundwater treatment. Thus, this technique can be utilized for a variety of groundwater contamination problems.

  17. IBS Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... IBS treatment should begin with education about the nature of the disorder... IBS is a long-term ... with your physician about the use of drug therapy. This often depends on your dominant bowel symptom ...

  18. Muscle strain treatment

    MedlinePlus

    Treatment - muscle strain ... Question: How do you treat a muscle strain ? Answer: Rest the strained muscle and apply ice for the first few days after the injury. Anti-inflammatory medicines or acetaminophen ( ...

  19. TREATMENT OF TOXOPLASMOSIS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Screening tests of various kinds of compounds were carried out with the purpose of obtaining new drugs for toxoplasmosis . Compounds tested were 66...Nitro-4’-formylamino-difenylsulfone might be effective in treatments of human toxoplasmosis . (Author)

  20. Packaged Waste Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    This Jacksonville, Florida, apartment complex has a wastewater treatment system which clears the water, removes harmful microorganisms and reduces solid residue to ash. It is a spinoff from spacecraft waste management and environmental control technology.

  1. Stator hub treatment study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wisler, D. C.; Hilvers, D. E.

    1974-01-01

    The results of an experimental research program to investigate the potential of improving compressor stall margin by the application of hub treatment are presented. Extensive tuft probing showed that the two-stage, 0.5 radius ratio compressor selected for the test was indeed hub critical. Circumferential groove and baffled wide blade angle slot hub treatments under the stators were tested. Performance measurements were made with total and static pressure probes, wall static pressure taps, flow angle measuring instrumentation and hot film anemometers. Stator hub treatment was not found to be effective in improving compressor stall margin by delaying the point of onset of rotating stall or in modifying compressor performance for any of the configurations tested. Extensive regions of separated flow were observed on the suction surface of the stators near the hub. However, the treatment did not delay the point where flow separation in the stator hub region becomes apparent.

  2. Plague Diagnosis and Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Plague Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Plague Home Ecology & Transmission Symptoms Diagnosis & Treatment Maps & Statistics ...

  3. Cancer treatment - early menopause

    MedlinePlus

    ... them if you have had certain types of cancer. Vaginal estrogen. Even if you cannot take hormone therapy, ... Y Jelly or Astroglide. Or, try using a vaginal moisturizer like ... Ask your provider what treatments might work best for you.

  4. Torture and its treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Roth, E F; Lunde, I; Boysen, G; Genefke, I K

    1987-01-01

    Physical and psychological torture of political detainees and prisoners is currently practiced in more than 90 countries. Types of torture and the diagnosis and treatment of torture victims are described based on the experience of Copenhagen's Rigshospitalet. PMID:3661792

  5. Alternative disinfectant water treatments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alternative disinfestant water treatments are disinfestants not as commonly used by the horticultural industry. Chlorine products that produce hypochlorous acid are the main disinfestants used for treating irrigation water. Chlorine dioxide will be the primary disinfestant discussed as an alternativ...

  6. IBS Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... or bring on symptoms Stress management, gut-directed hypnosis, biofeedback, relaxation, or pain management techniques Consulting with ... Complimentary or Alternative Treatments Selecting a CAM Practitioner Hypnosis for IBS Yoga Medications Laxatives Anticholinergic/Antispasmodic Agents ...

  7. Treatment Option Overview (Melanoma)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment for more information.) Unusual moles, exposure to sunlight, and health history can affect the risk of ... Red or blond hair. Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) ...

  8. Treatment of Cutaneous Lupus

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Aileen Y.; Werth, Victoria P.

    2011-01-01

    Cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) is an autoimmune, inflammatory skin disease seen in patients with or without systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The management of CLE includes treatment and prevention of lesions, as well as routine assessment for systemic disease. Treatment options include both topical and systemic therapies. Topical therapies include corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors. Systemic therapies generally fall under one of three categories: antimalarials, immunomodulators, such as dapsone and thalidomide, and immunosuppressives, such as methotrexate and mycophenolate. Evidence for the treatment of CLE is limited by few prospective studies, as well as lack of a validated outcome measure up until recently. There is good evidence to support the use of topical steroids and calcineurin inhibitors, though most of these trials have not used placebo or vehicle controls. There have been no randomized placebo-controlled trials evaluating systemic therapies for the treatment of CLE. PMID:21503694

  9. Drug Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillipson, Richard

    1972-01-01

    A variety of commonly used treatment modalities presently being utilized in the U.S. are described by Richard Phillipson, M.D. at the American Medical Association's National Conference on Physicians and Schools, Chicago, 1971. (BY)

  10. Intracranial Vascular Treatments

    MedlinePlus

    ... an imaging area where a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan will be performed to show the exact location ... performed instead of, or in addition to, an MRI scan. If you are having treatment for an arteriovenous ...

  11. Poison Ivy Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Page Content Article Body Poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac commonly cause skin rashes in ... swampy areas of the Mississippi River region. Poison oak grows as a shrub, and it is seen ...

  12. IC Treatment: Antidepressants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pain Complementary Therapies Complementary vs. Alternative Herbs, Dietary Supplements, & Biologicals Mind-body Medicine Massage, Manipulation, & Body-based Practices Energy Medicine Bringing Treatments to Market IC Healthcare Provider ...

  13. IC Treatment: Surgical Procedures

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pain Complementary Therapies Complementary vs. Alternative Herbs, Dietary Supplements, & Biologicals Mind-body Medicine Massage, Manipulation, & Body-based Practices Energy Medicine Bringing Treatments to Market IC Healthcare Provider ...

  14. IC Treatment: Antihistamines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pain Complementary Therapies Complementary vs. Alternative Herbs, Dietary Supplements, & Biologicals Mind-body Medicine Massage, Manipulation, & Body-based Practices Energy Medicine Bringing Treatments to Market IC Healthcare Provider ...

  15. Treatment of Facial Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... of specialists in oral and maxillofacial surgery, otorhinolaryngology, plastic surgery, and ophthalmology, is beneficial for the treatment ... of the helmets manufactured for younger players have plastic face guards that can be bent back into ...

  16. Treatment of Borderline Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Maurice R.

    1983-01-01

    Describes characteristics of borderline adolescents and reviews diagnostic issues. Uses two case studies to illustrate general treatment strategies that could be useful to clinicians in mental health programs and family courts. (JAC)

  17. Finding Treatment Centers

    MedlinePlus

    ... After Treatment Caregivers and Family Children and Cancer End of Life Care Find Support Programs and Services in Your Area Back To Top Imagine a world free from cancer. Help make it a reality. ...

  18. Tuberculosis (TB): Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Training Home Conditions Tuberculosis (TB) Treating Tuberculosis Treating Tuberculosis Make an Appointment Refer a Patient Ask a ... bones is treated longer. NEXT: Preventive Treatment Diagnosing Tuberculosis History of TB Clinical Trials Tuberculosis (TB) Causes ...

  19. Drydock Waste Treatment Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-07-01

    are primary contaminants. Theoretical and experimental analysis of heavy metal treatment methods are presented. This analysis indicates that sulfide...precipitation would be a prime candidate for heavy metal removal but would require further research and development. (Author)

  20. Systemic treatment of hyperhidrosis.

    PubMed

    del Boz, J

    2015-05-01

    Until quite recently, clinical guidelines and reviews on the treatment of hyperhidrosis advised against the use of systemic therapies based on their unacceptable adverse effects and a lack of evidence of usefulness. Numerous studies published over the past few years, however, have shown that, when used appropriately, these treatments are effective and in general have a favorable tolerability profile, making them an additional option for the treatment of hyperhidrosis, particularly for disease that is widespread, multifocal, or resistant to other treatments. In this review, the first of its kind, we examine the systemic therapies available for hyperhidrosis, including antihypertensives, psychoactive agents, and in particular oral anticholinergics, although none of these drugs are currently approved for this indication.

  1. IV treatment at home

    MedlinePlus

    ... venous catheter - home; Port - home; PICC line - home; Infusion therapy - home; Home health care - IV treatment ... is given quickly, all at once. A slow infusion, which means the medicine is given slowly over ...

  2. Perchlorate Treatment Technology Update

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This issue paper has been prepared by EPA's Federal Facilities Forum to provide information about technologies available for treatment of perchlorate contamination in environmental media, including technologies that have been used to date and others that..

  3. PTSD: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature PTSD Symptoms, Diagnosis , Treatment Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Symptoms As with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), PTSD ...

  4. Treatment of ganglion cysts.

    PubMed

    Suen, Matthew; Fung, B; Lung, C P

    2013-01-01

    Ganglion cysts are soft tissue swellings occurring most commonly in the hand or wrist. Apart from swelling, most cysts are asymptomatic. Other symptoms include pain, weakness, or paraesthesia. The two main concerns patients have are the cosmetic appearance of the cysts and the fear of future malignant growth. It has been shown that 58% of cysts will resolve spontaneously over time. Treatment can be either conservative or through surgical excision. This review concluded that nonsurgical treatment is largely ineffective in treating ganglion cysts. However, it advised to patients who do not surgical treatment but would like symptomatic relief. Compared to surgery, which has a lower recurrence rate but have a higher complication rate with longer recovery period. It has been shown that surgical interventions do not provide better symptomatic relief compared to conservative treatment. If symptomatic relief is the patient's primary concern, a conservative approach is preferred, whilst surgical intervention will decrease the likelihood of recurrence.

  5. Treatment of Borderline Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Maurice R.

    1983-01-01

    Describes characteristics of borderline adolescents and reviews diagnostic issues. Uses two case studies to illustrate general treatment strategies that could be useful to clinicians in mental health programs and family courts. (JAC)

  6. Medical Actinium Therapeutic Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    Learn how INL researchers are increasing world supplies of Bismuth 213 to help with cancer treatments. For more information about INL research projects, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  7. Lasers in Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... in a narrow beam and creates a very high-intensity light. This powerful beam of light may be ... it used in cancer treatment? Laser therapy uses high-intensity light to treat cancer and other illnesses. Lasers ...

  8. Pertussis Diagnosis & Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Prevention Adults Parents-to-be Babies & Children Preteens & Teens Travelers Healthcare Personnel Frequently Asked Questions Photos ... Pregnant Women For Parents of Young Children For Preteens & Teens For Adults For Spanish Speakers Publications Related ...

  9. Keratoconus Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... Living with Keratoconus Frequently Asked Questions Treatments Contact Lenses for Keratoconus Intacs Corneal Cross-linking Transplants Resources ... bulging of the cornea. Eyeglasses or Soft Contact Lenses Eyeglasses or soft contact lenses may be used ...

  10. Treatment for Anxiety Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Day Workshop With Reid Wilson Conference Continuing Education Credits Sponsors & Exhibitors 2018 Conference Sponsors 2018 Conference Exhibitors ... Webinars for Mental Health Treatment Providers Continuing Education Credits Webinar Sponsorship Opportunities ADAA Publications/Special Offerings Podcasts ...

  11. OCD Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... Day Workshop With Reid Wilson Conference Continuing Education Credits Sponsors & Exhibitors 2018 Conference Sponsors 2018 Conference Exhibitors ... Webinars for Mental Health Treatment Providers Continuing Education Credits Webinar Sponsorship Opportunities ADAA Publications/Special Offerings Podcasts ...

  12. Treatment of venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Wells, Philip S; Forgie, Melissa A; Rodger, Marc A

    2014-02-19

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE), comprising deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), is a common, potentially lethal condition with acute morbidity. To review the etiology of VTE and the 3 phases of VTE treatment: acute (first 5-10 days), long-term (from end of acute treatment to 3-6 months), and extended (beyond 3-6 months). Cochrane reviews, meta-analyses, and randomized controlled trials, as well as other clinical trials for topics not covered by the former, were reviewed. Literature searches using broad terms were used to find meta-analyses published in the last 15 years. The ninth edition of the American College of Chest Physicians Antithrombotic Therapy Guidelines was used to supplement the literature search. Guidelines from specialty organizations were consulted when relevant. The Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health was searched for relevant cost-effectiveness studies. We also searched our own literature database of 8386 articles for relevant research. Low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) along with with vitamin K antagonists and the benefits and proven safety of ambulation have allowed for outpatient management of most cases of DVT in the acute phase. Development of new oral anticoagulants further simplifies acute-phase treatment and 2 oral agents can be used as monotherapy, avoiding the need for LMWH. Patients with PE can also be treated in the acute phase as outpatients, a decision dependent on prognosis and severity of PE. Thrombolysis is best reserved for severe VTE; inferior vena cava filters, ideally the retrievable variety, should be used when anticoagulation is contraindicated. In general, DVT and PE patients require 3 months of treatment with anticoagulants, with options including LMWH, vitamin K antagonists, or direct factor Xa or direct factor IIa inhibitors. After this time, decisions for further treatment are based on balancing the risk of VTE recurrence, determined by etiology of the VTE (transient risk factors

  13. Portable treatment systems study

    SciTech Connect

    Sherick, M.J.; Schwinkendorf, W.E.; Bechtold, T.E.; Cole, L.T.

    1997-03-01

    In developing their Site Treatment Plans (STPs), many of the Department of Energy installations identified some form of portable treatment, to facilitate compliant disposition of select mixed low-level wastestreams. The Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology requested that a systems study be performed to better define the potential role of portable treatment with respect to mixed low-level waste, highlight obstacles to implementation, and identify opportunities for future research and development emphasis. The study was performed by first establishing a representative set of mixed waste, then formulating portable treatment system concepts to meet the required processing needs for these wastes. The portable systems that were conceptualized were evaluated and compared to a fixed centralized treatment alternative. The system evaluations include a life-cycle cost analysis and an assessment of regulatory, institutional, and technical issues associated with the potential use of portable systems. The results of this study show that when all costs are included, there are no significant cost differences between portable systems and fixed systems. However, it is also emphasized that many uncertainties exist that could impact the cost of implementing portable treatment systems. Portable treatment could be made more attractive through private sector implementation, although there is little economic incentive for a commercial vendor to develop small, specialized treatment capabilities with limited applicability. Alternatively, there may also be valid reasons why fixed units cannot be used for some problematic wastestreams. In any event, there are some site-specific problems that still need to be addressed, and there may be some opportunity for research and development to make a positive impact in these areas.

  14. Somnambulism: Diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Bharadwaj, Rahul; Kumar, Suresh

    2007-04-01

    Somnambulism is an arousal disorder that is usually benign, self-limited and only infrequently requires treatment. Chronic sleepwalking in children has been shown to be associated with behavioral problems and poor emotional regulation. Most cases can be diagnosed with careful noting of case history and epilepsy is an important differential diagnosis. Management with pharmacological and behavioural measures is usually safe and effective. We present two cases of somnambulism that highlight the importance of the diagnosis and treatment of this condition.

  15. Endodontic treatment of molars

    PubMed Central

    Habl, Claudia; Bodenwinkler, Andrea; Stürzlinger, Heidi

    2006-01-01

    Objective Commissioned by the German Institute of Medical Documentation and Information (DIMDI) the Austrian Health Institute (ÖBIG) prepared a HTA report on the long-term effectiveness of endodontic treatment (root canal treatment, RCT) of molars. The focus is to examine factors influencing the outcome of endodontic treatment and showing their impact on long-term results. Additionally, economic aspects of root canal treatment in Germany are discussed. Methodology By performing a systematic literature search in 29 databases (e.g. MEDLINE), the Cochrane Library and by hand searching two peer-reviewed endodontic journals the authors could identify 750 relevant articles, of which finally 18 qualified for assessment. Results The findings show that the most relevant factor influencing the long-term outcome of endodontic treatment is the preoperative status of a tooth. The lowest success rates are reported for molars with a preoperative devital or necrotic pulp and persisting periapical lesions (so called periapical disease). Discussion Even if there is no positive selection of patients and the RCT is performed by a normal dentist rather than an endodontist - a fact which is very common - long-term success rates of more then 90% are possible. The overall success rates for endodontic treatment of molars therefore seem to be similar to those of other tooth-types. Conclusions Especially primary, conventional (i.e. non-surgical) root canal treatment is an effective and efficient therapy for endodontically ill molars, especially if no large periapical lesion persists. Nonetheless, a long term successful endodontic therapy requires a thorough assessment of the pre-operative status of the molar and treatment according to established guidelines. PMID:21289954

  16. Prophylactic Treatment of Migraine

    PubMed Central

    GÜRSOY, Azize Esra; ERTAŞ, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    Migraine is a common chronic neurological disease characterized by episodic attacks of headache and associated symptoms. The pharmacological treatment of migraine may be acute or prophylactic, and patients with frequent, severe headaches often require both approaches. Prophylactic treatment is used to reduce the frequency, duration, or severity of attacks, to enhance the benefits of acute treatments, and to improve patient’s ability to function normally. Prophylactic treatment may also prevent progression from episodic migraine to chronic migraine and may result in reductions in health-care cost. The currently available pharmacological options for migraine prophylaxis include a wide array of medications. The major medication groups for prophylactic treatment include β-blockers, anticonvulsant, drugs such as topiramate and valproate, antidepressant drugs, such as amitriptyline and selective serotonin and selective serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), calcium channel antagonists and neurotoxins. The agent for prophylactic treatment should be chosen based on the efficacy and side-effect profile of the drug, and the patient’s coexistent and comorbid conditions.

  17. Biocompatible implant surface treatments.

    PubMed

    Pattanaik, Bikash; Pawar, Sudhir; Pattanaik, Seema

    2012-01-01

    Surface plays a crucial role in biological interactions. Surface treatments have been applied to metallic biomaterials in order to improve their wear properties, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility. A systematic review was performed on studies investigating the effects of implant surface treatments on biocompatibility. We searched the literature using PubMed, electronic databases from 1990 to 2009. Key words such as implant surface topography, surface roughness, surface treatment, surface characteristics, and surface coatings were used. The search was restricted to English language articles published from 1990 to December 2009. Additionally, a manual search in the major dental implant journals was performed. When considering studies, clinical studies were preferred followed by histological human studies, animal studies, and in vitro studies. A total of 115 articles were selected after elimination: clinical studies, 24; human histomorphometric studies, 11; animal histomorphometric studies, 46; in vitro studies, 34. The following observations were made in this review: · The focus has shifted from surface roughness to surface chemistry and a combination of chemical manipulations on the porous structure. More investigations are done regarding surface coatings. · Bone response to almost all the surface treatments was favorable. · Future trend is focused on the development of osteogenic implant surfaces. Limitation of this study is that we tried to give a broader overview related to implant surface treatments. It does not give any conclusion regarding the best biocompatible implant surface treatment investigated till date. Unfortunately, the eventually selected studies were too heterogeneous for inference of data.

  18. Laser treatment in gynecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Riese, Cornelia

    2004-07-01

    This presentation is designed as a brief overview of laser use in gynecology, for non-medical researchers involved in development of new laser techniques. The literature of the past decade is reviewed. Differences in penetration, absorption, and suitable delivery media for the beams dictate clinical application. The use of CO2 laser in the treatment of uterine cervical intraepithelial lesions is well established and indications as well as techniques have not changed over 30 years. The Cochrane Systematic Review from 2000 suggests no obviously superior technique. CO2 laser ablation of the vagina is also established as a safe treatment modality for VAIN. CO2 laser permits treatment of lesions with excellent cosmetic and functional results. The treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding by destruction of the endometrial lining using various techniques has been the subject of a 2002 Cochran Database Review. Among the compared treatment modalities are newer and modified laser techniques. Conclusion by reviewers is that outcomes and complication profiles of newer techniques compare favorably with the gold standard of endometrial resection. The ELITT diode laser system is one of the new successful additions. CO2 laser is also the dominant laser type used with laparoscopy for ablation of endometriotic implants. Myoma coagulation or myolysis with Nd:Yag laser through the laparoscope or hysteroscope is a conservative treatment option. Even MRI guided percutaneous approaches have been described. No long-term data are available.

  19. 40 CFR 133.105 - Treatment equivalent to secondary treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Treatment equivalent to secondary treatment. 133.105 Section 133.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS SECONDARY TREATMENT REGULATION § 133.105 Treatment equivalent to secondary treatment...

  20. 40 CFR 133.105 - Treatment equivalent to secondary treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Treatment equivalent to secondary treatment. 133.105 Section 133.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS SECONDARY TREATMENT REGULATION § 133.105 Treatment equivalent to secondary treatment...

  1. 40 CFR 133.105 - Treatment equivalent to secondary treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Treatment equivalent to secondary treatment. 133.105 Section 133.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS SECONDARY TREATMENT REGULATION § 133.105 Treatment equivalent to secondary treatment...

  2. Pharmacoeconomics of antibacterial treatment.

    PubMed

    Davey, P G; Malek, M M; Parker, S E

    1992-06-01

    Antibacterial drugs account for between 3 and 25% of all prescriptions, between 6 and 21% of the total market value of drugs in a single country, and up to 50% of the drug budget in hospitals. Bacterial infection is widely perceived as disease caused by harmful outside agents which can be isolated and tested to select the best drug for treatment. In fact, the need for any treatment and the pros and cons of different drugs are just as debatable as in any other therapeutic area. Moreover, the bacteria which make up the normal flora of the body fulfil important roles, so that the ecological implications of treatment for the individual and for society should be considered in assessing the costs and consequences of antibacterial treatment. In this review we outline the most important issues relating to the treatment of bacterial infection in the community and in the hospital, contrasting information from developed and developing countries where appropriate. We review the existing literature on economic evaluation, but in general most of the literature deals with containing the costs of antibacterial drugs in hospitals, and there are many gaps in the literature on cost-effectiveness of treatment. Consequently there are still extreme variations in medical practice which present a challenge for future evaluation. As the outcomes of antibacterial treatment are apparent in a few weeks or months, this is an ideal field for testing pharmacoeconomic methodology. The desire to overcome medical practice variation through consensus statements should be avoided. Instead we recommend wider application of decision analysis to acknowledge that choices exist for the diagnosis and treatment of bacterial infection and to gather information about the implications of these choices. Much of the existing literature would be improved by a more explicit definition of costs. Direct costs to the health services should be distinguished from non medical costs. Moreover, the analysis should

  3. Treatment of epileptic encephalopathies.

    PubMed

    McTague, Amy; Cross, J Helen

    2013-03-01

    Epileptic encephalopathy is defined as a condition where the epileptic activity itself may contribute to the severe neurological and cognitive impairment seen, over and above that which would be expected from the underlying pathology alone. The epilepsy syndromes at high risk of this are a disparate group of conditions characterized by epileptic seizures that are difficult to treat and developmental delay. In this review, we discuss the ongoing debate regarding the significance of inter-ictal discharges and the impact of the seizures themselves on the cognitive delay or regression that is a common feature of these syndromes. The syndromes also differ in many ways and we provide a summary of the key features of the early-onset epileptic encephalopathies including Ohtahara and West syndromes in addition to later childhood-onset syndromes such as Lennox Gastaut and Doose syndromes. An understanding of the various severe epilepsy syndromes is vital to understanding the rationale for treatment. For example, the resolution of hypsarrhythmia in West syndrome is associated with an improvement in cognitive outcome and drives treatment choice, but the same cannot be applied to frequent inter-ictal discharges in Lennox Gastaut syndrome. We discuss the evidence base for treatment where it is available and describe current practice where it is not. For example, in West syndrome there is some evidence for preference of hormonal treatments over vigabatrin, although the choice and duration of hormonal treatment remains unclear. We describe the use of conventional and newer anti-epileptic medications in the various syndromes and discuss which medications should be avoided. Older possibly forgotten treatments such as sulthiame and potassium bromide also have a role in the severe epilepsies of childhood. We discuss hormonal treatment with particular focus on the treatment of West syndrome, continuous spike wave in slow wave sleep (CSWS)/electrical status epilepticus in slow wave

  4. Drug treatment of hyperprolactinemia.

    PubMed

    Chanson, P; Borson-Chazot, F; Chabre, O; Estour, B

    2007-06-01

    Medical treatment of hyperprolactinemia is based upon use of dopamine agonists (DA): bromocriptine, lisuride, quinagolide and cabergoline. In over 80% of cases, these drugs induce normal prolactinemia and ovulatory cycles. In resistant cases, the DA should be changed. Tolerance may occasionally be poor, particularly with bromocriptine, which appears less well-tolerated than quinagolide and than cabergoline above all. In the event of intolerance to a given DA, another should be tried. In patients with macroprolactinoma treated with DA, MRI monitoring should be carried out after 3 months of treatment to verify tumor size reduction, then after 1 year, yearly for the next 5 years and once every 5 years if adenoma size is stable. In cases of microprolactinoma, control under treatment is pointless. MRI may be performed after 1 year and then after 5 years. Once normal prolactin levels have been achieved, attempts may be made to stop the treatment. When a prolonged treatment is interrupted, especially with cabergoline, progressive increase in serum prolactin and return of hyperprolactinemia symptoms are seen in only around 20-30% of cases, particularly when residual adenoma exists after prolonged treatment. Nevertheless, prolactin levels should continue to be monitored after discontinuation of DA, possibly with MRI monitoring, since prolactin levels may rise again after a number of months or years. When normal prolactin levels have been achieved with DA, another solution consists in reducing the dose or dosing frequency of DA in steps to the lowest effective dose consistent with maintenance of normal prolactin levels and stable adenoma size. For drug-induced hyperprolactinemia, where the causative medication cannot be withdrawn, it is often pointless and possibly even dangerous to administer a DA. It is therefore necessary to check for absence of pituitary adenoma and where necessary, begin treatment with sex steroids so as to ensure satisfactory impregnation with sex

  5. Personalized treatment planning.

    PubMed

    Pitts, N B; Richards, D

    2009-01-01

    This chapter aims to outline a flexible framework which the dental team can use to bring together key elements of information about their patients and their patients' teeth in order to plan appropriate, patient-centred, caries management based on the application of best current evidence and practice. This framework can be enabled by the use of the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) clinical visual scoring systems for caries detection and activity, but also needs additional information about lesions and the patient to plan and then monitor the effectiveness of personalized caries care. The treatment planning process has evolved from restorative treatment decisions being largely made during clinical assessment as an examination of wet teeth proceeds, with limited charting and a minor role for patient factors. Best practice now involves a comprehensive examination being made systematically of clean dry teeth using sharp eyes and blunt probes. The ICDAS-enabled framework provides for information to be collected at the tooth/surface level (clinical visual lesion detection, lesion detection aids and lesion activity assessment) and at the patient level (patient caries risk assessment, dentition and lesion history and patient behavioural assessment). This information is then synthesized to inform integrated, personalized treatment planning which involves the choice of appropriate treatment options (background level care, preventive treatment options, operative treatment options) and then recall, reassessment and monitoring. Examples of international moves towards using integrated, personalized treatment planning for caries control are given, drawing on experiences in the UK, the USA and from the ICDAS Committee. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel

  6. Treatment preparatory to psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, S B

    1983-01-01

    Many potentially analyzable adult patients with unimpaired egos require a period of preparatory treatment before entering psychoanalysis. There has been some concern that such face-to-face treatment, if done with the same analyst, would influence the subsequent analysis by stimulating inaccessible unconscious fantasies, gratifying infantile wishes, or making the analyst too "real." This would necessitate a change to another analyst after the preparatory treatment, in order that the analysis be unmodified and have the most profound and definitive effects. Increasingly, however, many analysts practicing in the classical tradition have found preparatory treatment compatible with progression to psychoanalysis with the same analyst. But neither this process nor the concerns about it have been described to any extent in the literature. This may be, in part, because of historical conceptions that the effects of psychotherapy rest mainly on suggestion, lack of a full theoretical framework for psychotherapy compared with psychoanalysis, and disagreement as to whether these procedures are dichotomous or on a continuum. In order to discuss most clearly the basic issues involved in preparatory treatment that progresses to analysis with the same analyst, a case is presented in which complex variables were at a minimum; the transition could be anticipated, so that interventions, which might complicate the analysis, could be avoided; and the preparatory treatment was necessary to attenuate specific resistances to the meaning of analysis. The patient described here resisted analysis as it represented the facilitator of a feared regression and the reactivator of warded-off libidinal and aggressive impulses and wishes which the patient experienced as more controllable in psychotherapy. The meanings and effects of the prior treatment and the transition on the analytic transference neurosis, resistances, countertransferences, as well as possible effects on analytic technique, are

  7. [Treatment of limbs lymphedema].

    PubMed

    Vaillant, Loïc; Müller, Christine; Goussé, Pascal

    2010-12-01

    The treatment of lymphedema aims to reduce the volume and prevent infectious and joints mobility complications. This treatment rarely cure and is usually symptomatic; thus it should be continued throughout the life. The erysipelas and lymphangitis are common complications of lymphedema. Erysipela is always of streptococcal origin and requires systemic antibiotics. The risk of recurrent erysipelas on lymphedema is high. In case of large swelling associated with significant dermal sclerosis, it may lead to decrease joint mobility and functional impairment. The skin cares, manual lymph drainage, compression therapy with bandages and exercises are the four pillars of the complex decongestive therapy of limb lymphedema. Compression is the most important treatment. Lymphedema can be improved by only bandages, but a sustained improvement of lymphedema cannot be seen without bandages. The effectiveness of treatment must be evaluated by objective methods, measuring the perimeters of members or volumes. The management of lymphedema includes three phases: attack or initial treatment that aims to reduce volume of the lymphedema and maintenance phase to maintain the result and finally withdrawal phase. In the attack phase, we use complex decongestive therapy, mainly multilayer inelastic bandaging and manual lymphatic drainage (MLD). In the maintenance phase, we use elastic compression (stockings or sleeves) possibly associated with MLD. At all stages skin care and exercises are used. Adjuvant treatments may be useful (intermittent pneumatic compression, drug treatment). Surgery is rarely used except for genital lymphedema. The therapeutic management of lymphedema is difficult but has a variety of techniques. The complex decongestive therapy is very effective to restore a better quality of life even though it does not provide a cure for lymphedema.

  8. Medical treatment for botulism.

    PubMed

    Chalk, Colin; Benstead, Tim J; Keezer, Mark

    2011-03-16

    Botulism is an acute paralytic illness caused by a neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum. Supportive care, including intensive care, is key but the role of other medical treatments is unclear. To assess the effects of medical treatments on mortality, duration of hospitalization, mechanical ventilation, tube or parenteral feeding and risk of adverse events in botulism. We searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register (10 January 2011), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (10 January 2010 in The Cochrane Library, Issue 4 2010), MEDLINE (January 1966 to January 2011) and EMBASE (January 1980 to January 2011). We reviewed bibliographies, and contacted authors and experts. We included randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials examining the medical treatment of any of the four major types of botulism (infant intestinal botulism, food-borne botulism, wound botulism and adult intestinal toxemia). Medical treatments included equine serum trivalent botulism antitoxin, human-derived botulinum immune globulin, plasma exchange, 3,4-diaminopyridine and guanidine. Two authors selected studies, assessed risk of bias and extracted data independently onto data extraction forms.Our primary outcome was in-hospital death from any cause occurring within four weeks. Secondary outcomes were death occurring within 12 weeks, duration of hospitalization, mechanical ventilation, tube or parenteral feeding and risk of adverse events. A single randomized controlled trial met the inclusion criteria. This trial evaluated human-derived botulinum immune globulin for the treatment of infant botulism. This study included 59 treatment patients and 63 control patients. There were no deaths in either group making any treatment effect on mortality inestimable. There was a significant benefit in the treatment group on duration of hospitalization (mean difference (MD) 3.10 weeks, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.68 to 4.52), mechanical

  9. Treatment of Radiation Injury

    PubMed Central

    Akita, Sadanori

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Radiation exposure as a result of radiation treatment, accident, or terrorism may cause serious problems such as deficiency due to necrosis or loss of function, fibrosis, or intractable ulcers in the tissues and organs. When the skin, bone, oral mucous membrane, guts, or salivary glands are damaged by ionizing radiation, the management and treatment are very lengthy and difficult. Critical Issues: In severe and irreversible injuries, surgery remains the mainstay of treatment. Several surgical procedures, such as debridement, skin grafting, and local and free-vascularized flaps, are widely used. Recent Advances: In specific cases of major morbidity or in high-risk patients, a newly developed therapy using a patient's own stem cells is safe and effective. Adipose tissue, normally a rich source of mesenchymal stem cells, which are similar to those from the bone marrow, can be harvested, since the procedure is easy, and abundant tissue can be obtained with minimal invasiveness. Future Directions: Based on the molecular basis of radiation injuries, several prospective treatments are under development. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms focus on an individual's sensitivity to radiation in radiogenomics, and the pathology of radiation fibrosis or the effect of radiation on wound healing is being studied and will lead to new insight into the treatment of radiation injuries. Protectors and mitigators are being actively investigated in terms of the timing of administration or dose. PMID:24761339

  10. Treatment Deployment Evaluation Tool

    SciTech Connect

    M. A. Rynearson; M. M. Plum

    1999-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the final disposition of legacy spent nuclear fuel (SNF). As a response, DOE's National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP) has been given the responsibility for the disposition of DOE-owned SNF. Many treatment technologies have been identified to treat some forms of SNF so that the resulting treated product is acceptable by the disposition site. One of these promising treatment processes is the electrometallurgical treatment (EMT) currently in development; a second is an Acid Wash Decladding process. The NSNFP has been tasked with identifying possible strategies for the deployment of these treatment processes in the event that a treatment path is deemed necessary. To support the siting studies of these strategies, economic evaluations are being performed to identify the least-cost deployment path. This model (tool) was developed to consider the full scope of costs, technical feasibility, process material disposition, and schedule attributes over the life of each deployment alternative. Using standard personal computer (PC) software, the model was developed as a comprehensive technology economic assessment tool using a Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis methodology. Model development was planned as a systematic, iterative process of identifying and bounding the required activities to dispose of SNF. To support the evaluation process, activities are decomposed into lower level, easier to estimate activities. Sensitivity studies can then be performed on these activities, defining cost issues and testing results against the originally stated problem.

  11. Treatment Deployment Evaluation Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Rynearson, Michael Ardel; Plum, Martin Michael

    1999-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the final disposition of legacy spent nuclear fuel (SNF). As a response, DOE's National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP) has been given the responsibility for the disposition of DOE -owned SNF. Many treatment technologies have been identified to treat some forms of SNF so that the resulting treated product is acceptable by the disposition site. One of these promising treatment processes is the electrometallurgical treatment (EMT) currently in development; a second is an Acid Wash Decladding process. The NSNFP has been tasked with identifying possible strategies for the deployment of these treatment processes in the event that the treatment path is deemed necessary. To support the siting studies of these strategies, economic evaluations are being performed to identify the least-cost deployment path. This model (tool) was developed to consider the full scope of costs, technical feasibility, process material disposition, and schedule attributes over the life of each deployment alternative. Using standard personal computer (PC) software, the model was developed as a comprehensive technology economic assessment tool using a Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis methodology. Model development was planned as a systematic, iterative process of identifying and bounding the required activities to dispose of SNF. To support the evaluation process, activities are decomposed into lower level, easier to estimate activities. Sensitivity studies can then be performed on these activities, defining cost issues and testing results against the originally stated problem.

  12. Treatments for hidradenitis suppurativa.

    PubMed

    Andersen, R Kjærsgaard; Jemec, Gregor B E

    Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is not easily treated. Although not uncommon, HS is often misdiagnosed outside specialized clinics and inappropriately treated as a simple boil or abscess. In recent years, guidelines have been developed on the basis of expert opinion and the available literature. A multifaceted approach is necessary as HS lesions include both inflammation (amenable to medical treatment) as well as fibrosis (amenable to surgery only). The recommended antiinflammatory therapies encompass both antimicrobials and regular anti-inflammatory drugs. We have, therefore, reviewed treatments with the following agents: clindamycin, tetracycline, rifampicin, ertapenem, dapsone, triamcinolone, infliximab, adalimumab, and anakinra. The development of new medical treatments, however, is an ongoing effort, and important new data have been presented since the publication of the guideline. The current approach to the management of fibrotic lesions is surgery. It is important, as manifest fibrosis is generally not susceptible to medical treatment. Here minor excision, carbon dioxide-laser, and major surgery are discussed, and current evidence supporting their use is provided. A comprehensive three-pronged approach with adjuvant therapy, medical therapy, and surgery is recommended. The importance of adjuvant therapy, that is, pain management, wound care, and attention, is stressed. Adjuvant therapy not only plays a major role in patients' perception of a successful treatment but also is of practical importance to their coping and self-management. HS presents a significant unmet need, and this review provides a mechanistic update on the current real-world therapeutic option for the management of this distressing disease.

  13. Treatment for Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Jirka; Marjanovic, Sonja; Nolte, Ellen; Pollitt, Alexandra; Rubin, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The past few decades have seen a number of medical breakthroughs that enabled the effective treatment of a range of conditions, transforming them from fatal into manageable ones. Examples include certain cancers and HIV. Conversely, progress on dementia has been limited. There are currently no treatments that will cure or even alter the progressive course of dementia, despite ongoing research investigating new therapies and care options. The UK Department of Health is interested in the potential to learn from other disease areas to better understand the particular social, economic, political, legislative and scientific contexts that have contributed to accelerating progress and breakthroughs in treatment. Such learning could helpfully inform dementia research and innovation efforts, and help identify levers for supportive policy development. This project analysed breakthroughs in the treatment of four selected conditions of ill health and seeks to identify potentially transferable lessons for the dementia context. Using evidence review and key informant interviews we sought to identify the series of “events” that eventually led to a given breakthrough, and the key milestones in the process that have helped improve understanding and potential for treatment. We also aimed to capture the temporal and causal relationships between “notable” events looking at a variety of factors implicated in the breakthrough pathway. The focus of this work was on political, economic, social, scientific and technological, and legal, regulatory and environmental factors. PMID:28083433

  14. Cocaine. Diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Weddington, W W

    1993-03-01

    Significant advances in our understanding the phenomenology of cocaine addiction have occurred in the past 12 years such that we now recognize addiction to cocaine as a major public health problem. We now can diagnose cocaine addiction more accurately. Furthermore, cocaine addiction has stimulated creation and testing of novel treatment efforts because standard addiction treatment, although efficacious, is not as effective for cocaine addiction as compared with other addictions. Much remains to be learned. We need to clarify symptoms and syndromes associated with cocaine addiction to more precisely delineate true "comorbidity." Special attention is needed to understand the course and response to treatment in women addicted to cocaine. Also, work is needed to clarify the interaction of HIV, cocaine, and pharmacotherapy used to treat HIV. Regarding treatment, effort is needed to better understand the interactions among educational, group, cognitive-behavioral, and pharmacologic interventions. Specific attention is needed regarding use of 12-step recovery programs adapted for cocaine addicts with comorbid psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, mood, and anxiety disorders. Finally, we need to better understand ways of attracting and holding cocaine addicts in treatment earlier in the course of their disorder. To that end, "nontraditional" interventions, such as acupuncture, deserve systematic examination as alternative methods of recruitment and intervention for certain populations of cocaine addicts.

  15. OSTEOPOROSIS DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Márcio Passini Gonçalves

    2015-01-01

    Articles that update the state of knowledge regarding osteoporosis run the risk of quickly becoming obsolete because research and studies on osteoporosis today are arousing great interest among researchers, the pharmaceutical and medical equipment industries, governments and even WHO. All orthopedists know about osteoporosis because of its most deleterious effect: osteoporotic fracture. Osteoporosis without fractures does not arouse suspicion because this is a pathological condition with a nonspecific clinical profile. Osteoporotic fractures have an economic cost (from treatment), a social cost (from its sequelae) and a medical cost (from deaths). Many fractures could be avoided through diagnosing osteoporosis prior to the first fracture and thus many temporary and permanent disabilities could be avoided and many lives saved. Awareness of the risk factors for osteoporosis raises suspicions and bone densitometry aids in diagnosis. Treatment should be based on the physiopathology of the disease. Hence, for prevention or treatment of osteoporosis, the activity of osteoclasts should be diminished or the activity of osteoblasts should be increased, or both. Treatment that reduces the incidence of fractures by improving the bone geometry and microarchitecture would be ideal. Newly formed bone tissue needs to have good cell and matrix quality, normal mineralization, a good ratio between mineralized (mechanically resistant) and non-mineralized (flexible) bone, and no accumulated damage. The ideal treatment should have a positive remodeling rate and fast and long-lasting therapeutic effects. Such effects need to be easily detectable. They need to be safe. PMID:27022545

  16. Hirsutism: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Hohl, Alexandre; Ronsoni, Marcelo Fernando; Oliveira, Mônica de

    2014-03-01

    Hirsutism is defined as excessive terminal hair growth in androgen-dependent areas of the body in women, which grows in a typical male distribution pattern. Hirsutism is a common clinical problem in women, and the treatment depends on the cause. The condition is often associated with a loss of self-esteem. Hirsutism reflects the interaction between circulating androgen concentrations, local androgen concentrations, and the sensitivity of the hair follicle to androgens. Polycystic ovary syndrome and idiopathic hirsutism are the most common causes of the condition. A woman's history and, physical examination are particularly important in evaluating excess hair growth. The vast majority of women with hirsutism have the idiopathic variety, and the diagnosis is made by exclusion. Serum testosterone level>200 ng/dL is highly suggestive of adrenal or ovarian tumor. Treatment of hirsutism should be based on the degree of excess hair growth presented by the patient and in the pathophysiology of the disorder. Treatment includes lifestyle therapies, androgen suppression, peripheral androgen blockage, and cosmetic treatments. The current review discusses definition, pathogenesis, physiopathology, differential diagnosis, diagnostic strategies, and treatment.

  17. Treatment options for insomnia.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Kalyanakrishnan; Scheid, Dewey C

    2007-08-15

    The frequency of sleep disruption and the degree to which insomnia significantly affects daytime function determine the need for evaluation and treatment. Physicians may initiate treatment of insomnia at an initial visit; for patients with a clear acute stressor such as grief, no further evaluation may be indicated. However, if insomnia is severe or long-lasting, a thorough evaluation to uncover coexisting medical, neurologic, or psychiatric illness is warranted. Treatment should begin with nonpharmacologic therapy, addressing sleep hygiene issues and exercise. There is good evidence supporting the effectiveness of cognitive behavior therapy. Exercise improves sleep as effectively as benzodiazepines in some studies and, given its other health benefits, is recommended for patients with insomnia. Hypnotics generally should be prescribed for short periods only, with the frequency and duration of use customized to each patient's circumstances. Routine use of over-the-counter drugs containing antihistamines should be discouraged. Alcohol has the potential for abuse and should not be used as a sleep aid. Opiates are valuable in pain-associated insomnia. Benzodiazepines are most useful for short-term treatment; however, long-term use may lead to adverse effects and withdrawal phenomena. The better safety profile of the newer-generation nonbenzodiazepines (i.e., zolpidem, zaleplon, eszopidone, and ramelteon) makes them better first-line choices for long-term treatment of chronic insomnia.

  18. Generic phytosanitary irradiation treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallman, Guy J.

    2012-07-01

    The history of the development of generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zealand, 300 Gy for all arthropods on mango shipped from Australia to Malaysia, 350 Gy for all arthropods on lychee shipped from Australia to New Zealand and 400 Gy for all hosts of insects other than pupae and adult Lepidoptera shipped to the United States. Efforts to develop additional generic PI treatments and reduce the dose for the 400 Gy treatment are ongoing with a broad based 5-year, 12-nation cooperative research project coordinated by the joint Food and Agricultural Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency Program on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. Key groups identified for further development of generic PI treatments are Lepidoptera (eggs and larvae), mealybugs and scale insects. A dose of 250 Gy may suffice for these three groups plus others, such as thrips, weevils and whiteflies.

  19. Adjuvant Treatment of Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Moreno Nogueira, J. A.; Valero Arbizu, M.; Pérez Temprano, R.

    2013-01-01

    Melanomas represent 4% of all malignant tumors of the skin, yet account for 80% of deaths from skin cancer.While in the early stages patients can be successfully treated with surgical resection, metastatic melanoma prognosis is dismal. Several oncogenes have been identified in melanoma as BRAF, NRAS, c-Kit, and GNA11 GNAQ, each capable of activating MAPK pathway that increases cell proliferation and promotes angiogenesis, although NRAS and c-Kit also activate PI3 kinase pathway, including being more commonly BRAF activated oncogene. The treatment of choice for localised primary cutaneous melanoma is surgery plus lymphadenectomy if regional lymph nodes are involved. The justification for treatment in addition to surgery is based on the poor prognosis for high risk melanomas with a relapse index of 50–80%. Patients included in the high risk group should be assessed for adjuvant treatment with high doses of Interferon-α2b, as it is the only treatment shown to significantly improve disease free and possibly global survival. In the future we will have to analyze all these therapeutic possibilities on specific targets, probably associated with chemotherapy and/or interferon in the adjuvant treatment, if we want to change the natural history of melanomas. PMID:23476798

  20. Treatment Options for Myopia

    PubMed Central

    Gwiazda, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Myopia is a significant public health problem and its prevalence may be increasing over time. The main treatment options of single vision spectacle lenses, contact lenses, and refractive surgery do not slow the accompanying eye growth or retard the physiological changes associated with excessive axial elongation. High myopia is a predisposing factor for retinal detachment, myopic retinopathy, and glaucoma, contributing to loss of vision and blindness. The high prevalence of myopia and its prominence as a public health problem emphasize the importance of finding effective treatments that slow myopia progression and axial elongation. Treatments that have been investigated include various types of spectacle lenses and contact lenses, as well as pharmaceutical agents such as atropine and pirenzepine. The bulk of evidence from well-conducted studies shows that overall, most therapies for myopia have small treatment benefits that last for a relatively short period of time or have significant side effects. Some therapies may be more effective in subsets of myopic children. This review of treatment options for myopia will emphasize recent results from well-designed clinical studies and will suggest possible future therapies. PMID:19390466

  1. OSTEOPOROSIS DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Márcio Passini Gonçalves

    2010-01-01

    Articles that update the state of knowledge regarding osteoporosis run the risk of quickly becoming obsolete because research and studies on osteoporosis today are arousing great interest among researchers, the pharmaceutical and medical equipment industries, governments and even WHO. All orthopedists know about osteoporosis because of its most deleterious effect: osteoporotic fracture. Osteoporosis without fractures does not arouse suspicion because this is a pathological condition with a nonspecific clinical profile. Osteoporotic fractures have an economic cost (from treatment), a social cost (from its sequelae) and a medical cost (from deaths). Many fractures could be avoided through diagnosing osteoporosis prior to the first fracture and thus many temporary and permanent disabilities could be avoided and many lives saved. Awareness of the risk factors for osteoporosis raises suspicions and bone densitometry aids in diagnosis. Treatment should be based on the physiopathology of the disease. Hence, for prevention or treatment of osteoporosis, the activity of osteoclasts should be diminished or the activity of osteoblasts should be increased, or both. Treatment that reduces the incidence of fractures by improving the bone geometry and microarchitecture would be ideal. Newly formed bone tissue needs to have good cell and matrix quality, normal mineralization, a good ratio between mineralized (mechanically resistant) and non-mineralized (flexible) bone, and no accumulated damage. The ideal treatment should have a positive remodeling rate and fast and long-lasting therapeutic effects. Such effects need to be easily detectable. They need to be safe.

  2. Multidirectional Shoulder Instability: Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz Ibán, Miguel Angel; Díaz Heredia, Jorge; García Navlet, Miguel; Serrano, Francisco; Santos Oliete, María

    2017-01-01

    Background: The treatment of multidirectional instability of the shoulder is complex. The surgeon should have a clear understanding of the role of hiperlaxity, anatomical variations, muscle misbalance and possible traumatic incidents in each patient. Methods: A review of the relevant literature was performed including indexed journals in English and Spanish. The review was focused in both surgical and conservative management of multidirectional shoulder instability. Results: Most patients with multidirectional instability will be best served with a period of conservative management with physical therapy; this should focus in restoring strength and balance of the dynamic stabilizers of the shoulder. The presence of a significant traumatic incident, anatomic alterations and psychological problems are widely considered to be poor prognostic factors for conservative treatment. Patients who do not show a favorable response after 3 months of conservative treatment seem to get no benefit from further physical therapy. When conservative treatment fails, a surgical intervention is warranted. Both open capsular shift and arthroscopic capsular plication are considered to be the treatment of choice in these patients and have similar outcomes. Thermal or laser capsuloraphy is no longer recommended. Conclusion: Multidirectional instability is a complex problem. Conservative management with focus on strengthening and balancing of the dynamic shoulder stabilizers is the first alternative. Some patients will fare poorly and require either open or arthroscopic capsular plication.

  3. Barriers to obesity treatment.

    PubMed

    Mauro, Marina; Taylor, Valerie; Wharton, Sean; Sharma, Arya M

    2008-05-01

    Obesity, one of the most prevalent health problems in the Western world, is a chronic and progressive condition. Therefore, as with other chronic diseases, patients with obesity require lifelong treatment. Long-term efficacy and effectiveness of obesity treatments is notoriously poor. This may in part be attributable to the substantial barriers that undermine long-term obesity management strategies. These can include lack of recognition of obesity as a chronic condition, low socioeconomic status, time constraints, intimate saboteurs, and a wide range of comorbidities including mental health, sleep, chronic pain, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive and endocrine disorders. Furthermore, medications used to treat some of these disorders may further undermine weight-loss efforts. Lack of specific obesity training of health professionals, attitudes and beliefs as well as coverage and availability of obesity treatments can likewise pose important barriers. Health professionals need to take care to identify, acknowledge and address these barriers where possible to increase patient success as well as compliance and adherence with treatments. Failure to do so may further undermine the sense of failure, low self esteem and self efficacy already common among obese individuals. Addressing treatment barriers can save resources and increase the prospect of long-term success.

  4. Preventive Migraine Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Silberstein, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of Review: This article reviews the evidence base for the preventive treatment of migraine. Recent Findings: Evidence-based guidelines for the preventive treatment of migraine have recently been published by the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) and the Canadian Headache Society (CHS), providing valuable guidance for clinicians. Strong evidence exists to support the use of metoprolol, timolol, propranolol, divalproex sodium, sodium valproate, and topiramate for migraine prevention, according to the AAN. Based on best available evidence, adverse event profile, and expert consensus, topiramate, propranolol, nadolol, metoprolol, amitriptyline, gabapentin, candesartan, Petasites (butterbur), riboflavin, coenzyme Q10, and magnesium citrate received a strong recommendation for use from the CHS. Summary: Migraine preventive drug treatments are underutilized in clinical practice. Principles of preventive treatment are important to improve compliance, minimize side effects, and improve patient outcomes. Choice of preventive treatment of migraine should be based on the presence of comorbid and coexistent illness, patient preference, reproductive potential and planning, and best available evidence. PMID:26252585

  5. [Treatment of onychomycosis].

    PubMed

    Feuilhade de Chauvin, M

    2014-12-01

    A positive mycological examination is required before discussion of treatment of onychomycosis. Onychomycosis is most commonly due to dermatophytes in association with tinea pedis and/or tinea manuum. It is a catched infection. Candida onychomycosis is a rare opportunistic infection and onychomycosis due to non-dermatophytic moulds is very rare as a "chance mishap". The treatment of dermatophyte onychomycosis takes each infected part of the nail into account. Topical antifungal agents should be reserved for mild to moderate onychomycosis. Systemic antifungal agents are required to severe onychomycosis. In all cases, removal of infected nail parts is useful to facilitate the penetration of antifungal drugs and eradication of reinfection sites may be done to prevent recurrences and relapses. In primary, Candida onychomycosis treatment with topical antifungal drugs may be effective but in case of treatment failure, a systemic therapy is required. Suppression predisposing factors is useful. The treatment of non-dermatophytic moulds onychomycosis is still a challenge. Except Neoscytalidium spp., which mimic a dermatophytosis, non-dermatophytic moulds may be isolated from dystrophic nails and it is always difficult to specify their role as a primary pathogen or as a colonizer of nails. The available topical and systemic antifungal drugs are not effective against these non-dermatophytic moulds except itraconazole for onychomycosis due to Aspergillus spp. New therapy such as light and laser therapy are in evaluation.

  6. Treatment options for osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurkirpal

    2003-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a debilitating, degenerative disease of the articular cartilage and synovial fluid. Approximately 20 million Americans suffer from this disease for which no cure exists as yet. The primary goals of current OA therapy are centered on controlling pain; improving, preserving, or both, joint function and mobility; and improving health-related quality of life-but not on reversing the disease process. Current treatment options of OA consist of both non-pharmacological and pharmacological modalities. Non-pharmacological therapy that consists of patient education and physical/occupational therapy is a primary component of OA management, either rendered alone or in combination with pharmacological treatment. The several options for pharmacological treatment include acetaminophen, nonspecific NSAIDs, and COX-2 specific inhibitors. Many of these drugs, however, are beset with serious side effects. For patients with severe OA not responsive to medical treatment, nonsurgical interventions such as viscosupplements and injectable compounds that mimic healthy synovial fluid or surgical interventions are two likely options. The former, however, have not been shown unequivocally to be effective. Future treatment modalities for OA are geared toward reversing the disease process and may include disease-modifying drugs and gene therapy.

  7. Treatment of onchocerciasis.

    PubMed

    Van Laethem, Y; Lopes, C

    1996-12-01

    Onchocerciasis ('river blindness') has for several centuries been the scourge of people living in certain areas of the world where the disease is endemic. The treatment available up to 10 years ago, diethylcarbamazine, had very severe secondary effects. The availability of ivermectin--a well tolerated and highly effective microfilaricidal drug--has completely changed this scenario. Ivermectin is now considered to be the drug of choice for the treatment of onchocerciasis. The prognosis for people with onchocerciasis has changed greatly. It is now possible to avoid the heavy infection loads seen previously, and patients, especially expatriates, may have their symptoms relieved by treatment. Ivermectin, used in mass treatment, may also improve the epidemiological situation, reducing the level of microfilariae in the skin of infected people and thus reducing the source for vector infestation. However, the treatment has to be repeated because the drug has no macrofilaricidal effect. Research today is focused on the finding of a drug able to destroy the adult worms that go on producing microfilariae for the length of their lives.

  8. Treatment of Psychosomatic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wittkower, E. D.

    1964-01-01

    Goals, potentialities and limitations of treatment of psychosomatic disorders are reviewed. Removal of a disturbing psychosomatic symptom may be all that can be accomplished. The bulk of patients suffering from psychosomatic disorders should be treated by physicians other than psychiatrists. Difficulties arise, owing to differences in approach, when treatment is carried out by a general physician as well as a psychiatrist. In appraising the prospects of treatment, the age on examination, intelligence, duration of illness, degree of insight, nature of illness, environmental stress and personality structure of the patients should be considered. Psychiatric measures which have been employed include: electroconvulsive therapy, psychotropic drugs, hypnosis, drug abreaction, group therapy, supportive psychotherapy and psychoanalysis. Psychoanalysis provides the best understanding of the psychodynamics of psychosomatic illness but is, for a variety of reasons, applicable only to a small number of patients. Alternations and removal of disturbing symptoms can be accomplished by the other therapeutic means. PMID:14146853

  9. New treatments for gout.

    PubMed

    Mapa, Janet B; Pillinger, Michael H

    2010-05-01

    Gout is a commonly occurring medical condition that can lead to significant morbidity. Therapies available for the treatment of both acute and chronic gouty arthritis have not changed significantly since the 1960s. Although these treatments are well established, they are often contraindicated in the presence of various different comorbidities, including diabetes, renal insufficiency, hypertension and gastrointestinal disease, all of which can occur frequently in patients with gout. Therefore, new treatments are needed. This review describes recent advances in therapeutics for gout, including drugs designed to reduce levels of urate and to inhibit acute or chronic inflammation. While some of these strategies are currently available, others are undergoing regulatory evaluation or are at earlier stages of development.

  10. Treatment of delinquents.

    PubMed Central

    Sheldrick, C

    1992-01-01

    The medical role in the treatment of delinquency is a limited one. There is conflicting evidence as to whether treatment aims should be directed towards the individual, to the family, the institution, or the therapist. Nevertheless there seems to be a consensus of opinion that short term, focused therapies aimed at improving educational, vocational and social skills, possibly from a preschool age, are the most effective. Any treatment gains achieved while in residential care appear to be short lived. It therefore seems that this should be reserved for those individuals who commit repeated, violent crimes and for those from very damaging family backgrounds who repeatedly abscond or absent themselves from community based programmes. PMID:1471896

  11. TREATMENT OF THROMBOPHLEBITIS

    PubMed Central

    Kirtland, Howard B.; Brown, Roland G.; McDonald, Richard T.

    1960-01-01

    Venous stasis, injury or alteration of the intima and alterations in the coagulability of the blood are the three most common etiologic factors in thrombophlebitis. Usually at least two of these factors must be present before the clinical manifestations of the disease develop. A plan of treatment based on correcting these three factors has been used in over 250 cases of thrombophlebitis, and it is believed that a significant decrease was brought about in the acute and long term disability and in the occurrence of complications. The program consists of absolute bed rest in a hospital for about a week, elevation of the foot of the bed, administration of anticoagulants and adenosine-5-monophosphate for at least six weeks, progressive ambulation after the fourth day of treatment, with avoidance of prolonged standing and sitting, and adequate elastic support. Treatment must be continued until the patient has returned to full, normal activity and all signs of phlebitis have disappeared. PMID:14409404

  12. Diagnosis & Treatment of Dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Jinnah, H. A.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis The dystonias are a group of disorders characterized by excessive involuntary muscle contractions leading to abnormal postures and/or repetitive movements. There are many different clinical manifestations and many different causes. A careful assessment of the clinical manifestations is helpful for identifying syndromic patterns that focus diagnostic testing on potential causes. If a cause can be identified, specific etiology-based treatments may be available. However, in the majority of cases, a specific cause cannot be identified, and treatments are based on symptoms. Treatment options include counseling and education, oral medications, botulinum toxin injections, and several surgical procedures. A substantial reduction in symptoms and improved quality of life can be achieved in the majority of patients by combining these various options. PMID:25432724

  13. Treatment of Lyme borreliosis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis in humans. This inflammatory disease can affect the skin, the peripheral and central nervous system, the musculoskeletal and cardiovascular system and rarely the eyes. Early stages are directly associated with viable bacteria at the site of inflammation. The pathogen-host interaction is complex and has been elucidated only in part. B. burgdorferi is highly susceptible to antibiotic treatment and the majority of patients profit from this treatment. Some patients develop chronic persistent disease despite repeated antibiotics. Whether this is a sequel of pathogen persistence or a status of chronic auto-inflammation, auto-immunity or a form of fibromyalgia is highly debated. Since vaccination is not available, prevention of a tick bite or chemoprophylaxis is important. If the infection is manifest, then treatment strategies should target not only the pathogen by using antibiotics but also the chronic inflammation by using anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:20067594

  14. Hyperthyroidism: Diagnosis and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Kravets, Igor

    2016-03-01

    Hyperthyroidism is an excessive concentration of thyroid hormones in tissues caused by increased synthesis of thyroid hormones, excessive release of preformed thyroid hormones, or an endogenous or exogenous extrathyroidal source. The most common causes of an excessive production of thyroid hormones are Graves disease, toxic multinodular goiter, and toxic adenoma. The most common cause of an excessive passive release of thyroid hormones is painless (silent) thyroiditis, although its clinical presentation is the same as with other causes. Hyperthyroidism caused by overproduction of thyroid hormones can be treated with antithyroid medications (methimazole and propylthiouracil), radioactive iodine ablation of the thyroid gland, or surgical thyroidectomy. Radioactive iodine ablation is the most widely used treatment in the United States. The choice of treatment depends on the underlying diagnosis, the presence of contraindications to a particular treatment modality, the severity of hyperthyroidism, and the patient's preference.

  15. Amblyopia update: new treatments.

    PubMed

    Vagge, Aldo; Nelson, Leonard B

    2016-09-01

    This review article is an update on the current treatments for amblyopia. In particular, the authors focus on the concepts of brain plasticity and their implications for novel treatment strategies for both children and adults affected by amblyopia. A variety of strategies has been developed to treat amblyopia in children and adults. New evidence on the pathogenesis of amblyopia has been obtained both in animal models and in clinical trials. Mainly, these studies have challenged the classical concept that amblyopia becomes untreatable after the 'end' of the sensitive or critical period of visual development, because of a lack of sufficient plasticity in the adult brain. New treatments for amblyopia in children and adults are desirable and should be encouraged. However, further studies should be completed before such therapies are widely accepted into clinical practice.

  16. [Treatment of parasomnias].

    PubMed

    Vecchierini, M F

    2001-11-01

    In this article the most frequent and interesting treatments for parasomnias are reviewed. Arousal disorders, REM sleep behavior disorders and nightmares, bruxism (which can occur in any sleep state) are considered. The pathophysiological mechanisms of parasomnias are unknown, explaining why there is rarely a specific treatment precipitating. Management depends on the patient's age, the frequency and intensity of the episodes, the familial structure, the presence of precipitating and risk factors, psychological disorders and the parasomnia itself. Different therapeutic approaches are described including (1), explanation and reassurance, (2) counselling to avoid precipitating factors such as irregular sleep patterns, alcohol or drug intake (3) strategies to avoid injury (4) psychological approaches such as behavioral therapies in some parasomnias such as nightmares or arousal disorders. However, very few controlled studies have been done making it difficult to provide recommendations based on controlled clinical trials. Pharmacologic treatments are rarely necessary except in REM sleep behavior disorders; they are most often needed for short term.

  17. [Treatment of status epilepticus].

    PubMed

    Yamanouchi, Hideo

    2014-05-01

    Status epilepticus is defined as epileptic seizure with the duration for over 30 min or clustered seizure without complete recovery of consciousness for 30 min or more. From the management point of view, therapeutic intervention is recommended for prolonged seizures for 5 min or more. Intranasal, buccal or intramuscular administration of midazolam is strongly evidence-based and highly recommended method for the treatment of prolonged seizures before the intravenous access. Diazepam or midazolam is the first choice as initial intravenous treatment. Intravenous bolus administration of fosphenytoin or phenobarbital is the second line treatment. General anesthesia using such as thiopental or propofol is indicated for refractory status epileptic, which should be managed in the intensive care unit.

  18. Family Treatment for Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    FALLOON, IAN R. H.; MCGILL, CHARISTINE W.; MATTHEWS, SUSAN M.; KEITH, SAMUEL J.; SCHOOLER, NINA R.

    1996-01-01

    The NIMH Treatment Strategies in Schizophrenia (TSS) collaborative study group investigated the efficacy of antisychotic drug maintenance strategies involving reduced medication exposure in interaction with applied and supportive family management for the long-term treatment of schizophrenia. Therapy was provided at five centers by 25 clinicians who did not participate in the development of the therapies. They were trained by two of the authors, I.R.H.F and C.W.M, in applied family management, a homebased treatment derived from the behavioral family therapy developed by them. Clinicians’ characteristics, selection, and training methods, as well as patient rehospitalization rates, are reported for the two family management conditions. The TSS study represents a bridge between the development of a novel therapy and its dissemination in general clinical practice. PMID:22700264

  19. Epilepsy treatment and creativity.

    PubMed

    Zubkov, Sarah; Friedman, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Creativity can be defined as the ability to understand, develop, and express, in a systematic fashion, novel orderly relationships. It is sometimes difficult to separate cognitive skills requisite for the creative process from the drive that generates unique new ideas and associations. Epilepsy itself may affect the creative process. The treatment of epilepsy and its comorbidities, by altering or disrupting the same neural networks through antiseizure drugs (ASDs), treatment of epilepsy comorbidities, ablative surgery, or neurostimulation may also affect creativity. In this review, we discuss the potential mechanisms by which treatment can influence the creative process and review the literature on the consequences of therapy on different aspects of creativity in people with epilepsy. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Epilepsy, Art, and Creativity".

  20. Dynamic Treatment Effects

    PubMed Central

    Heckman, James J.; Humphries, John Eric; Veramendi, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    This paper develops robust models for estimating and interpreting treatment effects arising from both ordered and unordered multistage decision problems. Identification is secured through instrumental variables and/or conditional independence (matching) assumptions. We decompose treatment effects into direct effects and continuation values associated with moving to the next stage of a decision problem. Using our framework, we decompose the IV estimator, showing that IV generally does not estimate economically interpretable or policy relevant parameters in prototypical dynamic discrete choice models, unless policy variables are instruments. Continuation values are an empirically important component of estimated total treatment effects of education. We use our analysis to estimate the components of what LATE estimates in a dynamic discrete choice model. PMID:27041793

  1. [Cellulite - causes, prevention, treatment ].

    PubMed

    Janda, Katarzyna; Tomikowska, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Cellulite is a multifactorial etiology ailment. It changes the skin topography by the formation of the skin surface's appearance, changes described as "orange peel". This prob- lem concerns 85-98% of women, and for them it is one of the most intolerable aesthetic imperfections. In the past few years the interest of scientists in this problem has clearly increased. Several theories on the pathophysiology of cel- lulite have been produced A number of different thera- peutic regimens have been developed using modern tech- nology. However, despite the many treatment options for cellulite, it is extremely important that patients should be aware that only multidirectional treatment can bring sat- isfactory results. The aim of this review was to describe the causes of cellulite, and its prevention and treatment.

  2. Dynamic Treatment Effects.

    PubMed

    Heckman, James J; Humphries, John Eric; Veramendi, Gregory

    2016-02-01

    This paper develops robust models for estimating and interpreting treatment effects arising from both ordered and unordered multistage decision problems. Identification is secured through instrumental variables and/or conditional independence (matching) assumptions. We decompose treatment effects into direct effects and continuation values associated with moving to the next stage of a decision problem. Using our framework, we decompose the IV estimator, showing that IV generally does not estimate economically interpretable or policy relevant parameters in prototypical dynamic discrete choice models, unless policy variables are instruments. Continuation values are an empirically important component of estimated total treatment effects of education. We use our analysis to estimate the components of what LATE estimates in a dynamic discrete choice model.

  3. Ivermectin treatment of onchocerciasis.

    PubMed

    Taylor, H R

    1989-11-01

    Ivermectin is a recently developed macrocyclic lactone that has widespread antiparasitic activity. A series of clinical trials has shown that ivermectin is safe and effective in the treatment of human infection with Onchocerca volvulus. Although it is rapidly microfilaricidal, it does not cause a severe reaction as is seen with diethylcarbamazine treatment. The drug also temporarily interrupts production of microfilaria but has no known long-lasting effects on the adult worms. In patients with onchocerciasis, a single oral dose of ivermectin (150 micrograms/kg) repeated once a year leads to a marked reduction in skin microfilaria counts and ocular involvement. At this dose, ivermectin causes minimal side effects and appears to be sufficiently free of severe adverse reactions to be used on a mass scale. Its use promises to revolutionise the treatment of onchocerciasis.

  4. Enhanced industrial wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Nachabe, A.H.; Durlak, E.

    1997-12-31

    The sodium sulfide/ferrous sulfate (SS/FS) process is a treatment technology for the reduction of hexavalent chromium and precipitation of heavy metals in industrial wastewater treatment plants (IWTP). When the ferrous ion, as ferrous sulfate, is mixed with sulfide, the hexavalent chromium is rapidly reduced to its trivalent state at a neutral pH and then precipitated. SS/FS technology can be used to replace the current hydroxide treatment chemistry in Navy IWTPs. This paper will present the results and lessons learned from full-scale implementation of SS/FS at Naval Undersea Warfare Center (NUWC) Keyport, Washington. The SS/FS treatment process reduced the chemical cost by fifty nine percent and sludge disposal cost by thirty one percent. On an annual basis total cost savings amounted to $31,950 or thirty four percent. The SS/FS treatment process lowered the amount of treatment chemicals used in the IWTP. Furthermore, metal sulfides tend to be two to three orders of magnitude less soluble than their corresponding metal hydroxides. This allows for cleaner effluent, which will help the facility meet environmental discharge requirements. Further benefits include the removal from the shop area of the high pressure sulfur dioxide cylinder (used in the hydroxide process), a faster and more reliable chrome reduction method, neutral pH operation that extends tank and equipment life, and less acid and caustic chemicals stored on the shop floor. As Navy activities respond to the ever increasing pressures to do more with less, the SS/FS process can help them meet the increasingly stringent standards.

  5. Cancer Treatment - Cancer Currents Blog

    Cancer.gov

    A catalog of posts from NCI’s Cancer Currents blog on cancer treatment research. Includes posts on new treatments for cancer and their effects, clinical trial results, and overcoming treatment resistance.

  6. Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD): Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Doctors & Departments Research & Science Education & Training Home Conditions Food Allergies Treatment Treatment Make an Appointment Refer a Patient ... 01, 2015) There is currently no cure for food allergy, but treatments are currently being investigated. As a ...

  7. Laser treatment of tattoos.

    PubMed

    Kilmer, S L

    1997-07-01

    All three Q-switched laser systems can effectively remove most tattoos with minimal scarring or other adverse sequelae. Despite advances in laser technology, all tattoos cannot be completely eliminated, and several wavelengths remain necessary to optimally treat multicolored tattoos. The major advantage of Q-switched laser irradiation to effect tattoo removal is the low risk of scarring associated with treatment. Limitations include the need for multiple treatment sessions, minimal to incomplete responses in some cases, and the possibility of pigmentary and textural changes. Research continues in an effort to perfect laser removal of tattoos.

  8. Treatment of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Raya, Amanda K; Diringer, Michael N

    2014-10-01

    Nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage from intracranial aneurysm rupture presents with sudden severe headache. Initial treatment focuses on airway management, blood pressure control, and extraventricular drain for hydrocephalus. After identifying the aneurysm, they may be clipped surgically or endovascularly coiled. Nimodipine is administered to maintain a euvolemic state and prevent delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). Patients may receive anticonvulsants. Monitoring includes serial neurologic assessments, transcranial Doppler ultrasonography, computed tomography perfusion, and angiographic studies. Treatment includes augmentation of blood pressure and cardiac output, cerebral angioplasty, and intra-arterial infusions of vasodilators. Although early mortality is high, about one half of survivors recover with little disability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Experimental pavement delineation treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryden, J. E.; Lorini, R. A.

    1981-06-01

    Visibility and durability of materials used to delineate shoulders and medians adjacent to asphalt pavements were evaluated. Materials evaluated were polysulfide and coal tar epoxies, one and two component polyesters, portland cement, acrylic paints, modified-alkyd traffic paint, preformed plastic tape, and thermoplastic markings. Neat applications, sand mortars, and surface treatments were installed in several geometric patterns including cross hatches, solid median treatments, and various widths of edge lines. Thermoplastic pavement markings generally performed very well, providing good visibility under adverse viewing conditions for at least 4 years. Thermoplastic 4 in. wide edge lines appear to provide adequate visibility for most conditions.

  10. Fluorosis varied treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, I Anand

    2010-01-01

    Fluorosis has been reported way back in 1901. The treatment options for fluorosis are varied depending upon individual cases. This article comes from Madurai in India where its surrounding towns are fluorosis-prone zones. The purpose of this article is to report various treatment options available for dental fluorosis; this is the first time that complete full mouth rehabilitation for dental fluorosis is being reported. This article also dwells on the need for the dentists to be aware of their local indigenous pathologies to treat it in a better manner. PMID:20582220

  11. Myofascial pain syndrome treatments.

    PubMed

    Borg-Stein, Joanne; Iaccarino, Mary Alexis

    2014-05-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a regional pain disorder caused by taut bands of muscle fibers in skeletal muscles called myofascial trigger points. MPS is a common disorder, often diagnosed and treated by physiatrists. Treatment strategies for MPS include exercises, patient education, and trigger point injection. Pharmacologic interventions are also common, and a variety of analgesics, antiinflammatories, antidepressants, and other medications are used in clinical practice. This review explores the various treatment options for MPS, including those therapies that target myofascial trigger points and common secondary symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Psychostimulant addiction treatment.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Karran A; Epstein, David H; Preston, Kenzie L

    2014-12-01

    Treatment of psychostimulant addiction has been a major, and not fully met, challenge. For opioid addiction, there is strong evidence for the effectiveness of several medications. For psychostimulants, there is no corresponding form of agonist maintenance that has met criteria for regulatory approval or generally accepted use. Stimulant-use disorders remain prevalent and can result in both short-term and long-term adverse consequences. The mainstay of treatment remains behavioral interventions. In this paper, we discuss those interventions and some promising candidates in the search for pharmacological interventions. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'CNS Stimulants'.

  13. Treatment of Kounis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cevik, Cihan; Nugent, Kenneth; Shome, Goutam P; Kounis, Nicholas G

    2010-09-03

    Kounis syndrome is potentially a life-threatening medical emergency with both a severe allergic reaction and acute coronary syndrome. Most of the information about this syndrome has come from the case reports. The management of these patients may be challenging for clinicians, and unfortunately guidelines have not been established yet. In this article, we review the current guidelines of acute coronary syndromes and anaphylaxis along with the published cases with Kounis syndrome secondary to beta-lactam antibiotics. We have summarized our recommendations for the work-up and treatment of Kounis syndrome from available data. Obviously, larger prospective studies are needed to establish definitive treatment guidelines for these patients.

  14. Treatment of hay fever.

    PubMed Central

    Wood, S F

    1989-01-01

    The range of treatments for hay fever available to the general practitioner has changed considerably in recent years. New antihistamines have addressed the problem of sedation and moved towards one daily dose; nasally applied corticosteroids avoid the need for systemic steroid therapy and its potential adverse effect; and regulatory decisions have set a trend away from immunotherapy in general practice. However, knowledge about the mechanism of action of immunotherapy is increasing and new developments with improved safety profiles include allergen polymers, allergoids, oral immunotherapy and nasal immunotherapy. Choice of treatment depends, as always, on the individual circumstances of the patient and his or her disease. PMID:2556545

  15. [Treatment of smoking].

    PubMed

    Bello, S

    1991-06-01

    Smoking is difficult to treat, since addiction to tobacco is very strong and a deprivation syndrome may follow cessation of nicotine consumption. The ultimate goal of treatment is smoking cessation. Anti-smoking counseling and self teaching manuals are used as public health strategies, while nicotine chewing gum, clonidine, hypnosis, acupuncture and negative conditioning are individual strategies. Success rates in treatment of smoking vary between 5 and 40% at 1 to 2 years. Individualized therapy including care for the smoker as a person, family and labor support are needed to increase the chance of success.

  16. [Cosmetic treatments and acne].

    PubMed

    Poli, Florence

    2002-04-15

    Cosmetic products contribute to the efficacy of anti-acneic treatment. Cleaning bars without soap and lotions are to be preferred to soaps. Morning application of moisturizing creams compensate for dryness and irritation induced by topical treatment. Some of these cosmetic products may have a limited efficacy of the shiny appearance and/or acne lesions. Scrubs, abrasive sponges, masks and patches have a very limited usefulness. Make up and camouflage techniques are authorized, provided that the products have been tested non comedogenic and non acne-genic.

  17. Enuresis: evaluation and treatment.

    PubMed

    Traisman, Edward S

    2015-04-01

    Enuresis is a common pediatric problem that creates a lot of stress for both the child and his/her family. Unfortunately, many of these patients do not seek medical attention for evaluation and treatment. It is important in the care of the child with enuresis to understand the definitions of the disorder, routinely ask about bowel and bladder habits, clarify the nature of the wetting (daytime, nighttime, or both) in the child, and perform a thorough history and physical examination. Laboratory studies are often minimal. Treatment (behavioral or medicinal) is dependent on the type of enuresis present, and patient compliance. Successful management of enuresis has benefits to both the child and family.

  18. Eclampsia: treatment and referral.

    PubMed

    Sibai, B M; McCubbin, J H; Anderson, G D; Dilts, P V

    1982-03-01

    Although the recognition and treatment of preeclampsia theoretically should eliminate eclampsia, it has not disappeared and remains a substantial threat to maternal and fetal well-being. The therapy of choice for treatment and prevention of convulsions is magnesium sulfate (MgSO4 . 7H2O USP) and that for severe hypertension is intravenous hydralazine. Delivery of the fetus and placenta is recommended after the mother is stabilized from the effects of the convulsion(s). If the mother is to be transported before delivery, it is important that she receive an adequate dose of MgSO4.

  19. Treatment of hypomagnesemia.

    PubMed

    Ayuk, John; Gittoes, Neil J L

    2014-04-01

    Serum magnesium concentration is determined by the interplay of intestinal absorption and renal excretion. Hypomagnesemia can occur as a result of insufficient magnesium intake, increased gastrointestinal or renal loss, or redistribution from extracellular to intracellular compartments. A number of drugs are known to cause hypomagnesemia, including proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). We report the case of a patient with symptomatic hypomagnesemia due to short bowel syndrome and PPI therapy. Investigations revealed low 24-hour urinary magnesium excretion and secondary hypocalcemia. PPI treatment was withdrawn and the patient was managed with intravenous and oral magnesium and calcium replacement. This teaching case provides an evidence-based discussion of the treatment of hypomagnesemia.

  20. Surgical treatment for epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Jerome; Wiebe, Samuel; Radhakrishnan, Kurupath; Palmini, André

    2016-01-01

    Surgical treatment for epilepsy remains highly underutilized: in the United States, there has been no increase in the number of surgical procedures performed annually since 19901; for most patients referred, the average duration of epilepsy is 22 years2; and there has been no change in this delay to surgery3, despite two randomized controlled trials4, 5 and an American Academy of Neurology practice parameter that recommended surgery as the treatment of choice for medically refractory temporal lobe epilepsy6. This session addressed issues relevant to increasing the availability of epilepsy surgery, particularly in countries with limited resources.

  1. Achilles tendinosis: treatment options.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Roberto Gabriel L; Jung, Hong-Geun

    2015-03-01

    Athletes usually complain of an ongoing or chronic pain over the Achilles tendon, but recently even non-athletes are experiencing the same kind of pain which affects their daily activities. Achilles tendinosis refers to a degenerative process of the tendon without histologic or clinical signs of intratendinous inflammation. Treatment is based on whether to stimulate or prevent neovascularization. Thus, until now, there is no consensus as to the best treatment for this condition. This paper aims to review the common ways of treating this condition from the conservative to the surgical options.

  2. Achilles Tendinosis: Treatment Options

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Roberto Gabriel L.

    2015-01-01

    Athletes usually complain of an ongoing or chronic pain over the Achilles tendon, but recently even non-athletes are experiencing the same kind of pain which affects their daily activities. Achilles tendinosis refers to a degenerative process of the tendon without histologic or clinical signs of intratendinous inflammation. Treatment is based on whether to stimulate or prevent neovascularization. Thus, until now, there is no consensus as to the best treatment for this condition. This paper aims to review the common ways of treating this condition from the conservative to the surgical options. PMID:25729512

  3. Medical treatment for botulism.

    PubMed

    Chalk, Colin H; Benstead, Tim J; Keezer, Mark

    2014-02-20

    Botulism is an acute paralytic illness caused by a neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum. Supportive care, including intensive care, is key but the role of other medical treatments is unclear. This is an update of a review first published in 2011. To assess the effects of medical treatments on mortality, duration of hospitalization, mechanical ventilation, tube or parenteral feeding and risk of adverse events in botulism. On 30 March 2013, we searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register (30 March 2013), CENTRAL (2013, Issue 3) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (January 1966 to March 2013) and EMBASE (January 1980 to March 2013). We reviewed bibliographies and contacted authors and experts. Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials examining the medical treatment of any of the four major types of botulism (infant intestinal botulism, food-borne botulism, wound botulism and adult intestinal toxemia). Potential medical treatments included equine serum trivalent botulism antitoxin, human-derived botulinum immune globulin, plasma exchange, 3,4-diaminopyridine and guanidine. Two authors independently selected studies, assessed risk of bias and extracted data onto data extraction forms.Our primary outcome was in-hospital death from any cause occurring within four weeks. Secondary outcomes were death occurring within 12 weeks, duration of hospitalization, mechanical ventilation, tube or parenteral feeding and risk of adverse events. A single randomized controlled trial met the inclusion criteria. We found no additional trials when we updated the searches in 2013. This trial evaluated human-derived botulinum immune globulin (BIG) for the treatment of infant botulism and included 59 treatment participants as well as 63 control participants. The control group received a control immune globulin which did not have an effect on botulinum toxin. In this trial there was some violation of intention-to-treat principles, and possibly some

  4. TOPICAL TREATMENT OF MELASMA

    PubMed Central

    Bandyopadhyay, Debabrata

    2009-01-01

    Melasma is a common hypermelanotic disorder affecting the face that is associated with considerable psychological impacts. The management of melasma is challenging and requires a long-term treatment plan. In addition to avoidance of aggravating factors like oral pills and ultraviolet exposure, topical therapy has remained the mainstay of treatment. Multiple options for topical treatment are available, of which hydroquinone (HQ) is the most commonly prescribed agent. Besides HQ, other topical agents for which varying degrees of evidence for clinical efficacy exist include azelaic acid, kojic acid, retinoids, topical steroids, glycolic acid, mequinol, and arbutin. Topical medications modify various stages of melanogenesis, the most common mode of action being inhibition of the enzyme, tyrosinase. Combination therapy is the preferred mode of treatment for the synergism and reduction of untoward effects. The most popular combination consists of HQ, a topical steroid, and retinoic acid. Prolonged HQ usage may lead to untoward effects like depigmentation and exogenous ochronosis. The search for safer alternatives has given rise to the development of many newer agents, several of them from natural sources. Well-designed controlled clinical trials are needed to clarify their role in the routine management of melasma. PMID:20101327

  5. Water Treatment Technology - Filtration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on filtration provides instructional materials for six competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: purposes of sedimentation basins and flocculation…

  6. Physicochemical treatment processes

    SciTech Connect

    Grasso, D.; Morico, K.; Kock, N.; Flood, K.; Armstrong, R. ); Walters, R. ); Ellis, G. ); Chin, Yuping )

    1990-06-01

    This article discussed work done and accomplishments made in various methods and processes for physicochemical wastewater treatment. Processes discussed include general, precipitation, coagulation/flocculation, sedimentation/flotation, filtration, adsorption, ion exchange, membrane processes, mass transfer processes, phtotlytic processes, and oxidation/reduction processes.

  7. Bisphosphonate Treatment and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... 579. Rutgers-Verhange AR et al. 2003. No effects of bisphosphonates on the human fetus. Birth Defects Res(Part A);7:203-4. Siminoski K et al. 2000. Intravenous pamidronate for treatment of reflex sympathetic dystrophy during breast feeding. J Bone Miner Res 15(10):2052-2054. Vujasinovic-Stupar ...

  8. Anaphylaxis: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Bethel, James

    Anaphylaxis is a severe and potentially life-threatening condition that is becoming increasingly prevalent. Healthcare professionals working in a variety of settings need to know how to recognise this condition and the importance of treating it promptly. This article describes the pathophysiology, causes and treatment of anaphylaxis.

  9. Water Treatment Technology - Wells.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on wells provides instructional materials for five competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: dug, driven, and chilled wells, aquifer types, deep well…

  10. Water Treatment Technology - Flouridation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on flouridation provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: purpose and process of flouridation, correct…

  11. Water Treatment Technology - Springs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on springs provides instructional materials for two competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on spring basin construction and spring protection. For each competency, student…

  12. Water Treatment Technology - Hydraulics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on hydraulics provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: head loss in pipes in series, function loss in…

  13. Water Treatment Technology - Filtration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on filtration provides instructional materials for six competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: purposes of sedimentation basins and flocculation…

  14. Microalgae and wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Raouf, N; Al-Homaidan, A A; Ibraheem, I B M

    2012-07-01

    Organic and inorganic substances which were released into the environment as a result of domestic, agricultural and industrial water activities lead to organic and inorganic pollution. The normal primary and secondary treatment processes of these wastewaters have been introduced in a growing number of places, in order to eliminate the easily settled materials and to oxidize the organic material present in wastewater. The final result is a clear, apparently clean effluent which is discharged into natural water bodies. This secondary effluent is, however, loaded with inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus and causes eutrophication and more long-term problems because of refractory organics and heavy metals that are discharged. Microalgae culture offers an interesting step for wastewater treatments, because they provide a tertiary biotreatment coupled with the production of potentially valuable biomass, which can be used for several purposes. Microalgae cultures offer an elegant solution to tertiary and quandary treatments due to the ability of microalgae to use inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus for their growth. And also, for their capacity to remove heavy metals, as well as some toxic organic compounds, therefore, it does not lead to secondary pollution. In the current review we will highlight on the role of micro-algae in the treatment of wastewater.

  15. Soil Classification and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    This instructional unit was designed to enable students, primarily at the secondary level, to (1) classify soils according to current capability classifications of the Soil Conservation Service, (2) select treatments needed for a given soil class according to current recommendations provided by the Soil Conservation Service, and (3) interpret a…

  16. Chickenpox Prevention and Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Multimedia Related Links Medline Plus Healthfinder.gov Shingles Prevention & Treatment Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... by Your Doctor Español: Prevención y tratamiento Prevention The best way to prevent chickenpox is to ...

  17. Treatment of violent families.

    PubMed Central

    Bell, C. C.; Chance-Hill, G.

    1991-01-01

    Family violence is responsible for a significant proportion of homicides, a major cause of premature deaths in African-Americans. This article reviews the prevalence of family violence and explores associated risk factors. Principles and tips of treatment, along with a cognitive framework to guide the actual therapy, are outlined. Finally, issues of preventing family violence are discussed. PMID:2038079

  18. Marijuana Neurobiology and Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkashef, Ahmed; Vocci, Frank; Huestis, Marilyn; Haney, Margaret; Budney, Alan; Gruber, Amanda; el-Guebaly, Nady

    2008-01-01

    Marijuana is the number one illicit drug of abuse worldwide and a major public health problem, especially in the younger population. The objective of this article is to update and review the state of the science and treatments available for marijuana dependence based on a pre-meeting workshop that was presented at ISAM 2006. At the workshop,…

  19. Humane Treatment of Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Joan Smithey

    This booklet is designed to give teachers resource information about the humane treatment of and care for animals. The topics are presented as springboards for discussion and class activity. Topics include the care of dogs, cats, birds, horses, and fish; wildlife and ecological relationships; and careers with animals. Illustrations on some pages…

  20. Treatment strategies for dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Cloud, Leslie J; Jinnah, HA

    2012-01-01

    Importance of the field Dystonia is a neurological syndrome characterized by involuntary twisting movements and unnatural postures. It has many different manifestations and causes, and many different treatment options are available. These options include physical and occupational therapy, oral medications, intramuscular injection of botulinum toxins, and neurosurgical interventions. Areas covered in this review In this review, we first summarize the treatment options available, then we provide suggestions from our own experience for how these can be applied in different types of dystonia. In preparing this review article, an extensive literature search was undertaken using PubMed. Only selected references from 1970 to 2008 are cited. What the reader will gain This review is intended to provide the clinician with a practical guide to the treatment of dystonia. Take home message Treatment of dystonia begins with proper diagnosis and classification, followed by an appropriate search for underlying etiology, and an assessment of the functional impairment associated with the dystonia. The therapeutic approach, which is usually limited to symptomatic therapy, must then be tailored to the individual needs of the patient. PMID:20001425

  1. Trichotillomania: Identification and Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, K. Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Trichotillomania is a disorder distinguished by recurrent hair pulling resulting in hair loss (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). This review of the literature provides a broad overview of the disorder so that counselors can better understand, describe, identify, and implement effective treatment for clients with trichotillomania.…

  2. [Treatment of lupus nephritis].

    PubMed

    Novak, Srdan

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 50% of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus will develop lupus nephritis. Signs of renal involvement such as proteinuria > or = 0.5 g/24 h especially with glomerular hematuria and/or cellular casts should be an indication for biopsy. Goals of immunosuppressive treatment in lupus nephritis is remission with avoidance of treatment-re- lated harms. Initial treatment for patients with class III (+/- V) and class IV (+/- V) LN are intravenous cyclophosphamide (total dose 3 g over 3 months) or mycophenolate mofetil (or mycophenolic acid) in target dose of 3 g/day for 6 months, always in combination with glucocorticoids, wihile in class V, mycophenolate mofetil in combination with glucocorticoids is recommended. In patients improving after initial treatment, mycophenolate mofetil at lower doses (2 g/day) or azatioprine (2 mg/kg/day), both in combination with low dose prednisone for at least 3 years are recommended. In resistant and relapse cases switch from cyclophosphamide to mycophenolate mofetil, or vice versa, or rituximab is recommended.

  3. Bleeding during cancer treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... throwing up blood or your vomit looks like coffee grounds Long or heavy periods (women) Headaches that do not go away or are very bad Blurry or double vision Abdominal pains Alternative Names Cancer treatment - bleeding; Chemotherapy - bleeding; Radiation - bleeding; Bone marrow ...

  4. [Balneotherapy and osteoarthritis treatment].

    PubMed

    Latrille, Christian Roques

    2012-09-01

    Balneotherapy is a complementary form of medicine which uses natural thermal mineral resources in situ. It provides patients with osteoarthritis with a full treatment to ease pain and improve functions in the long-term without causing any significant therapeutic risks.

  5. Mentalization-Based Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bateman, Anthony; Fonagy, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The concept of mentalizing has captured the interest and imagination of an astonishing range of people—from psychoanalysts to neuroscientists, from child development researchers to geneticists, from existential philosophers to phenomenologists—all of whom seem to have found it useful. According to the Thompson Reuter maintained Web of Science, the use of the term in titles and abstracts of scientific papers increased from 10 to 2,750 between 1991 and 2011. Clinicians in particular have enthusiastically embraced the idea, and have put it to innovative use in their practices. Mentalization-based treatment (MBT)—making mentalizing a core focus of therapy—was initially developed for the treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in routine clinical services delivered in group and individual modalities. Therapy with mentalizing as a central component is currently being developed for treatment of numerous groups, including people with antisocial personality disorder, substance abuse, eating disorders, and at-risk mothers with infants and children (A. Bateman & Fonagy, 2011). It is also being used with families and adolescents, in schools, and in managing social groups (Asen & Fonagy, 2011; Fonagy et al., 2009; Twemlow, Fonagy, & Sacco, 2005a, 2005b). In this article, we focus on MBT in the treatment of BPD. PMID:26157198

  6. Dental Treatment Considerations

    MedlinePlus

    ... May predispose to oral/wound infection. • May delay wound healing. • Consider need for antibiotic treatment after oral surgery. ... May predispose to oral/wound infection. • May delay wound healing. • Consider need for antibiotic after oral surgery. • May ...

  7. NANETS Treatment Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Kulke, Matthew H.; Anthony, Lowell B.; Bushnell, David L.; de Herder, Wouter W.; Goldsmith, Stanley J.; Klimstra, David S.; Marx, Stephen J.; Pasieka, Janice L.; Pommier, Rodney F.; Yao, James C.; Jensen, Robert T.

    2011-01-01

    Well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) of the stomach and pancreas represent 2 major subtypes of gastrointestinal NETs. Historically, there has been little consensus on the classification and management of patients with these tumor subtypes. We provide an overview of well-differentiated NETs of the stomach and pancreas and describe consensus guidelines for the treatment of patients with these malignancies. PMID:20664472

  8. ARSENIC TREATMENT OPTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The PPT presentation will provide information on the drinking water treatment options for small utilities to remove arsenic from ground water. The discussion will include information on the EPA BAT listed processes and on some of the newer technologies, such as the iron based ad...

  9. DRINKING WATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of water treatment is threefold: 1. To improve the aethetic quality ofwater, 2. to remove toxic or health-hazardous chemicals, 3. to remove and/or inactivate any disease causing microorganisms. These objectives should be accomplished using a reasonable safety factor...

  10. Humane Treatment of Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Joan Smithey

    This booklet is designed to give teachers resource information about the humane treatment of and care for animals. The topics are presented as springboards for discussion and class activity. Topics include the care of dogs, cats, birds, horses, and fish; wildlife and ecological relationships; and careers with animals. Illustrations on some pages…

  11. Treatment for Constipation

    MedlinePlus

    ... that do not respond to at-home treatments. Anal fissures You can treat anal fissures at home by making changes in your ... baths Your doctor may recommend surgery to treat anal fissures that don’t heal with at-home ...

  12. Water Treatment Technology - Chlorination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on chlorination provides instructional materials for nine competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: purpose and process of chlorination, chlorine…

  13. [Urticaria: diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Soria, A; Francès, C

    2014-09-01

    Urticaria is a common inflammatory skin disease. It is clinically defined as the occurrence of transient papular skin and/or mucosal lesions or subcutaneous lesions called angioedema. Chronic urticaria is defined as a clinical course over more than 6weeks. Different clinical forms of urticaria can coexist in the same patient. Urticaria results of mast cell activation. The diagnosis of urticaria is based on clinical examination. An allergic etiology for acute urticaria, although rare, is always to find and remove. Chronic urticaria is not allergic. Diagnosis is based on questioning and a careful clinical examination to rule out differential diagnoses. Few diagnostic tests are necessary for diagnosis and management, and are especially useful in case of doubtful diagnosis. The treatment of urticaria is symptomatic and based on anti-H1 second generation antihistamines as first-line therapy. In some chronic urticarial, antihistamines up dosing may be necessary. In the majority of patients, this treatment is sufficient to control chronic urticaria. In case of antihistamines failure, other treatment particularly immunomodulatory treatments can be offered in specialized departments.

  14. [Urologic treatment of lithiasis].

    PubMed

    Meid, Florian; Leisinger, Hans-Juerg; Jichlinski, Patrice

    2004-08-01

    The urological treatment of urolithiasis has completely changed during the last 20 years with a huge technical development. Many eclectic fields as aeronautical, micromechanic, Laser and optical research as well as computerised radiology have contributed to this evolution. We discuss here, the several therapeutic modalities, with there applications, combinations and various indications.

  15. Microbiology of Waste Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unz, Richard F.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the microbiology of waste treatment, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes topics such as: (1) sanitary microbiology; (2) wastewater disinfectant; (3) viruses in wastewater; and (4) wastewater microbial populations. A list of 142 references is also presented. (HM)

  16. Water Treatment Technology - Chlorination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on chlorination provides instructional materials for nine competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: purpose and process of chlorination, chlorine…

  17. Engineered damping treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, J.; Ray, Manas C.; Baz, Amr M.

    2001-07-01

    Engineered Damping Treatments (EDT) that have high damping characteristics per unit volume are presented. The EDT's under consideration, consist of cellular viscoelastic damping matrices with optimally selected cell configuration, size and distribution. The cellular topology of the EDT's is designed using Computer-Aided-Design (CAD) strategies and the obtained optimal configurations will be manufactured using the state-of-the-art technology of Rapid Prototyping (RP). The EDT's are modeled using the finite element method in an attempt to determine the optimal topologies that maximize the strain energy, maximize the damping characteristics and minimize the total weight. The CAD files of the prototypes of the EDT's. The damping characteristics of the manufactured EDT's are evaluated and compared with the corresponding characteristics obtained by conventional solid damping treatments in order to emphasize the importance of using optimally configured damping treatment to achieve high damping characteristics. The presented procedures are invaluable for designing efficient damping treatments for many military and civilian structures whose vibrations and noise must be effectively controlled.

  18. Ethics, treatment and consent.

    PubMed

    Gupta, M

    1999-09-01

    This article highlights notable developments in consent in psychiatry over the last year. In particular, it identifies increasingly sophisticated conceptualizations of consent and competence, and discusses advances in the process of decision-making and informed consent to non-treatment areas within psychiatry.

  19. The Family in Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlop, Jean D.

    This paper describes Laurelhurst Manor's family treatment program to help families affected by chemical dependency, a 7-month program which treats family members from the perspective of developmental stages and family roles. The center, located in Portland, Oregon, is a 40-bed, free-standing facility having a 20-bed adolescent unit and a 20-bed…

  20. Treatment Options in Psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Dantow, James E.

    1992-01-01

    Psoriasis is a common skin disease with a variety of clinical presentations. Fortunately, many treatment options are available to the patient and to the physician. Topical, systemic, and physical therapies can be tailored to the patient's needs. Patient compliance and a knowledgeable, caring physician are vital to successful control of the disease. Continuing research offers hope for the chronically disabled. PMID:21221381