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Sample records for nanocrystalline ni-fe alloy

  1. Effect of grain orientation on ductility in a nanocrystalline Ni-Fe alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Hongqi; Misra, Amit; Liaw, Peter K; Choo, Hahn

    2008-01-01

    The influence of columnar grain geometry on mechanical property was studied in an electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ni-Fe alloy. The compressive results show that the strength is independent of grain orientation. However, the plastic strain increased remarkably when the loading axis is parallel to the direction of grain columns, which is due to the enhanced grain boundary and dislocation activities. The significance of the current study is that a new strategy was developed to improve the ductility of nanocrystalline materials.

  2. Plasticity of nanocrystalline alloys with chemical order: on the strength and ductility of nanocrystalline Ni-Fe.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Jonathan; Albe, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    Plastic deformation and alloying of nanocrystalline Ni-Fe is studied by means of atomic scale computer simulations. By using a combination of Monte-Carlo and molecular dynamics methods we find that solutes have an ordering tendency even if grain sizes are in the nanometer regime, where the phase field of the ordered state is widened as compared to larger grain sizes. Tensile testing of disordered structures with various elemental distributions and the simultaneous analysis of intragranular defects reveal that solid solution strengthening is absent for the studied grain sizes. The composition and relaxation state of the grain boundary control the strength of the material, which is also found for ordered structures (L12), where dislocation activity is suppressed.

  3. Dislocation density evolution during high pressure torsion of a nanocrystalline Ni-Fe alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Hongqi; Wang, Y B; Ho, J C; Cao, Y; Liao, X Z; Ringer, S P; Zhu, Y T; Zhao, Y H; Lavernia, E J

    2009-01-01

    High-pressure torsion (HPT) induced dislocation density evolution in a nanocrystalline Ni-20wt.%Fe alloy was investigated using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Results suggest that the dislocation density evolution is different from that in coarse-grained materials. An HPT process first reduces the dislocation density within nanocrystalline grains and produces a large number of dislocations located at small-angle sub grain boundaries that are formed via grain rotation and coalescence. Continuing the deformation process eliminates the sub grain boundaries but significantly increases the dislocation density in grains. This phenomenon provides an explanation of the mechanical behavior of some nanostructured materials.

  4. Shear-Coupled Grain Growth and Texture Development in a Nanocrystalline Ni-Fe Alloy during Cold Rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li; Ungár, Tamás; Toth, Laszlo S.; Skrotzki, Werner; Wang, Yan Dong; Ren, Yang; Choo, Hahn; Fogarassy, Zsolt; Zhou, X. T.; Liaw, Peter K.

    2016-12-01

    The evolution of texture, grain size, grain shape, dislocation, and twin density has been determined by synchrotron X-ray diffraction and line profile analysis in a nanocrystalline Ni-Fe alloy after cold rolling along different directions related to the initial fiber and the long axis of grains. The texture evolution has been simulated by the Taylor-type relaxed-constraints viscoplastic polycrystal model. The simulations were based on the activity of partial dislocations in correlation with the experimental results of dislocation density determination. The concept of stress-induced shear coupling is supported and strengthened by both the texture simulations and the experimentally determined evolution of the microstructure parameters. Grain growth and texture evolution are shown to proceed by the shear coupling mechanism supported by dislocation activity as long as the grain size is not smaller than about 20 nm.

  5. Shear-Coupled Grain Growth and Texture Development in a Nanocrystalline Ni-Fe Alloy during Cold Rolling

    SciTech Connect

    Li, L.; Ungar, T.; Toth, L. S.; Skrotzki, W.; Wang, Y. D.; Ren, Y.; Choo, H.; Fogarassy, Zs.; Zhou, X. T.; Liaw, P. K.

    2016-12-01

    The evolution of texture, grain size, grain shape, dislocation and twin density has been determined by synchrotron X-ray diffraction and line profile analysis in a nanocrystalline Ni- Fe alloy after cold rolling along different directions related to the initial fiber and the long axis of grains. The texture evolution has been simulated by the Taylor-type relaxed constraints viscoplastic polycrystal model. The simulations were based on the activity of partial dislocations in correlation with the experimental results of dislocation density determination. The concept of stress-induced shear-coupling is supported and strengthened by both the texture simulations and the experimentally determined evolution of the microstructure parameters. Grain-growth and texture evolution are shown to proceed by the shear-coupling mechanism supported by dislocation activity as long as the grain size is not smaller than about 20 nm.

  6. Mechanism of grain growth during severe plastic deformation of a nanocrystalline Ni-Fe alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Hongqi; Wang, Y B; Ho, J C; Liao, X Z; Zhu, Y T; Ringer, S P

    2009-01-01

    Deformation induced grain growth has been widely reported in nanocrystalline materials. However, the grain growth mechanism remains an open question. This study applies high-pressure torsion to severely deform bulk nanocrystalline Ni-20 wt % Fe disks and uses transmission electron microscopy to characterize the grain growth process. Our results provide solid evidence suggesting that high pressure torsion induced grain growth is achieved primarily via grain rotation for grains much smaller than 100 nm. Dislocations are mainly seen at small-angle subgrain boundaries during the grain growth process but are seen everywhere in grains after the grains have grown large.

  7. Fatigue and Fracture of a Bulk Nanocrystalline NiFe Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Imasogie, B.; Fan, G. J.; Liaw, Peter K.; Soboyejo, W. O.

    2008-05-01

    This article presents the results of an experimental study of fracture and fatigue in a nanostructured (an average grain size of ˜23 nm) bulk Ni-18 wt pct Fe alloy that was produced using a pulsed electrodeposition technique. The fracture behavior of the alloy is investigated using fracture resistance experiments, while the fatigue behavior is studied in fatigue crack growth experiments. The alloy exhibits limited toughening as the crack initiates at a fracture toughness of about 25 {text{MPa}}{sqrt {text{m}} } and propagates with a slight increase to a plateau value of about 30 {text{MPa}}{sqrt {text{m}} } . The limited toughening arises from the slight increase in the crack-tip plastic-deformation zone at the early crack growth and ligament bridging due to the microcrack formation ahead of the tip of the main crack. In contrast with a flat fatigue-crack wake, a wavy crack wake was observed under monotonic loading. This trend is attributed to the following: (a) nanovoid coalescence at grain boundaries, (b) microcrack formation by joining nanovoids, and (c) the linking of microcracks with the main crack through the fracture of inclined bridging ligaments. The fractured surface is shown to contain ductile dimple structures with average diameters of ˜100 nm. Focused-ion-beam (FIB) methods are also used to study fatigue-crack growth. These results show that fatigue crack growth occurs by the coalescence of nanovoids that form ahead of the crack tip. The observed mechanisms of fatigue crack growth are shown to be consistent with the results of prior atomistic simulations.

  8. Structure modulation driven by cyclic deformation in nanocrystalline NiFe

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Sheng; Wang, Xun-Li; Zhao, Yh; Wang, Yinmin; Liaw, Peter K; Lavernia, Ej

    2010-01-01

    Theoretical modeling suggests that the grain size remains unchanged during fatigue crack growth in nanocrystalline metals. Here we demonstrate that a modulated structure is generated in a nanocrystalline Ni-Fe alloy under cyclic deformation. Substantial grain coarsening and loss of growth twins are observed in the path of fatigue cracks, while the grains away from the cracks remain largely unaffected. Statistical analyses suggest that the grain coarsening is realized through the grain lattice rotation and coalescence and the loss of growth twins may be related to the detwinning process near crack tip.

  9. Evidence that abnormal grain growth precedes fatigue crack initiation in nanocrystalline Ni-Fe

    DOE PAGES

    Furnish, Timothy A.; Bufford, Daniel C.; Ren, Fang; ...

    2018-09-06

    Prior studies on the high-cycle fatigue behavior of nanocrystalline metals have shown that fatigue fracture is associated with abnormal grain growth (AGG). However, those previous studies have been unable to determine if AGG precedes fatigue crack initiation, or vice-versa. The present study shows that AGG indeed occurs prior to crack formation in nanocrystalline Ni-Fe by using a recently developed synchrotron X-ray diffraction modality that has been adapted for in-situ analysis. The technique allows fatigue tests to be interrupted at the initial signs of the AGG process, and subsequent microscopy reveals the precursor damage state preceding crack initiation.

  10. On the orientations of abnormally grown grains in nanocrystalline Ni and Ni-Fe.

    PubMed

    Klement, U; da Silva, M; Skrotzki, W

    2008-06-01

    The scanning electron microscopy-based electron backscatter diffraction technique has been used to determine grain orientations of abnormally grown grains upon annealing in nanocrystalline Ni and Ni-20 at.% Fe electrodeposits. The results show that in nanocrystalline Ni and Ni-Fe, the first grown grains that can be detected are 411 oriented with respect to the normal direction (411//ND). Upon annealing, further grain growth occurs and the dominant orientation of the abnormally growing grains changes from 411//ND to 111//ND. Twinning is found to be the mechanism responsible for the orientation change and is for the first time described in connection with abnormal grain growth in nanocrystalline materials. This means that well-known models for the formation of annealing twins (initially introduced in connection with recrystallization) also seem to apply in nanocrystalline materials.

  11. Effects of Annealing Temperature on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Electrodeposited Ni-Fe Alloy Foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, H. R.; Guo, L.; Guo, Z. C.

    2017-03-01

    The plasticity, elastic modulus and thermal stability restrict the applications of electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ni-Fe alloy foils. To improve its mechanical properties, the electrodeposited Ni-Fe alloy foils were heat treated within the temperature 900-1,150 °C. The microstructure and texture of the samples were further analyzed with a combination of SEM, XRD and EBSD. The experimental results indicated that the electrodeposited Ni-Fe alloy foil had poor mechanical properties at about 1,000 °C, which was mainly attributed to the development of a mixed grain microstructure. At 900-950 °C, the plastic and elastic modulus were greatly improved, which were owed to the uniformed microstructure and the decrease of structure defects. At 1,050-1,150 °C, the degree of the mixed grain microstructure decreased, resulting in improved plasticity and higher elastic modulus. However, the strength of the foil obviously decreased, which was mainly associated with the increase of the average grain size.

  12. Cyclic voltammetric study of Co-Ni-Fe alloys electrodeposition in sulfate medium

    SciTech Connect

    Hanafi, I.; Daud, A. R.; Radiman, S.

    2013-11-27

    Electrochemical technique has been used to study the electrodeposition of cobalt, nickel, iron and Co-Ni-Fe alloy on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate. To obtain the nucleation mechanism, cyclic voltammetry is used to characterize the Co-Ni-Fe system. The scanning rate effect on the deposition process was investigated. Deposition of single metal occurs at potential values more positive than that estimated stability potential. Based on the cyclic voltammetry results, the electrodeposition of cobalt, nickel, iron and Co-Ni-Fe alloy clearly show that the process of diffusion occurs is controlled by the typical nucleation mechanism.

  13. Abnormal magnetization behaviors in Sm-Ni-Fe-Cu alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, W. Y.; Zhang, Y. F.; Zhao, H.; Chen, G. F.; Zhang, Y.; Du, H. L.; Liu, S. Q.; Wang, C. S.; Han, J. Z.; Yang, Y. C.; Yang, J. B.

    2016-06-01

    The magnetization behaviors in Sm-Ni-Fe-Cu alloys at low temperatures have been investigated. It was found that the hysteresis loops show wasp-waisted character at low temperatures, which has been proved to be related to the existence of multi-phases, the Fe/Ni soft magnetic phases and the CaCu5-type hard magnetic phase. A smooth-jump behavior of the magnetization is observed at T>5 K, whereas a step-like magnetization process appears at T<5 K. The CaCu5-type phase is responsible for such abnormal magnetization behavior. The magnetic moment reversal model with thermal activation is used to explain the relation of the critical magnetic field (Hcm) to the temperature (T>5 K). The reversal of the moment direction has to cross over an energy barrier of about 6.6×10-15 erg. The step-like jumps of the magnetization below 5 K is proposed to be resulted from a sharp increase of the sample temperature under the heat released by the irreversible domain wall motion.

  14. A NiFeCu alloy anode catalyst for direct-methane solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Zhu, Huaiyu; Yang, Guangming; Park, Hee Jung; Jung, Doh Won; Kwak, Chan; Shao, Zongping

    2014-07-01

    In this study, a new anode catalyst based on a NiFeCu alloy is investigated for use in direct-methane solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The influence of the conductive copper introduced into the anode catalyst layer on the performance of the SOFCs is systematically studied. The catalytic activity for partial oxidation of methane and coking resistance tests are proposed with various anode catalyst layer materials prepared using different methods, including glycine nitrate process (GNP), physical mixing (PM) and impregnation (IMP). The surface conductivity tests indicate that the conductivities of the NiFe-ZrO2/Cu (PM) and NiFe-ZrO2/Cu (IMP) catalysts are considerably greater than that of NiFe-ZrO2/Cu (GNP), which is consistent with the SEM results. Among the three preparation methods, the cell containing the NiFe-ZrO2/Cu (IMP) catalyst layer performs best on CH4-O2 fuel, especially under reduced temperatures, because the coking resistance should be considered in real fuel cell conditions. The cell containing the NiFe-ZrO2/Cu (IMP) catalyst layer also delivers an excellent operational stability using CH4-O2 fuel for 100 h without any signs of decay. In summary, this work provides new alternative anode catalytic materials to accelerate the commercialization of SOFC technology.

  15. Nickel recovery from electronic waste II electrodeposition of Ni and Ni-Fe alloys from diluted sulfate solutions.

    PubMed

    Robotin, B; Ispas, A; Coman, V; Bund, A; Ilea, P

    2013-11-01

    This study focuses on the electrodeposition of Ni and Ni-Fe alloys from synthetic solutions similar to those obtained by the dissolution of electron gun (an electrical component of cathode ray tubes) waste. The influence of various parameters (pH, electrolyte composition, Ni(2+)/Fe(2+) ratio, current density) on the electrodeposition process was investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRFA) were used to provide information about the obtained deposits' thickness, morphology, and elemental composition. By controlling the experimental parameters, the composition of the Ni-Fe alloys can be tailored towards specific applications. Complementarily, the differences in the nucleation mechanisms for Ni, Fe and Ni-Fe deposition from sulfate solutions have been evaluated and discussed using cyclic voltammetry and potential step chronoamperometry. The obtained results suggest a progressive nucleation mechanism for Ni, while for Fe and Ni-Fe, the obtained data points are best fitted to an instantaneous nucleation model.

  16. Phonon densities of states of face-centered-cubic Ni-Fe alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Matthew; Mauger, L; Munoz, Jorge A.; Halevy, I; Horwath, J; Semiatin, S L; Leontsev, S. O.; Stone, Matthew B; Abernathy, Douglas L; Xiao, Yuming; Chow, P; Fultz, B.

    2013-01-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering and nuclear resonant inelastic x-ray scattering were used to determine the phonon densities of states of face-centered-cubic Ni-Fe alloys. Increasing Fe concentration results in an average softening of the phonon modes. Chemical ordering of the Ni0.72Fe0.28 alloy results in a reduction of the partial vibrational entropy of the Fe atoms but does not significantly change the partial vibrational entropy of the Ni atoms. Changes in the phonon densities of states with composition and chemical ordering are discussed and analyzed with a cluster expansion method.

  17. Nanocomposite Formation in Zr-Al-Cu-Ni-Fe Amorphous Alloys by Mechanically Assisted Nitriding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bab, M. A.; Damonte, L. C.; Mendoza-Zélis, L. A.

    2005-04-01

    Zr-Al-Cu-Ni-Fe belongs to the best glass forming systems known. These glasses present a high thermal stability and are suitable as precursor material for nanocomposites containing a variety of particles. At this respect, the presence of a second phase embedded in the amorphous matrix improves their mechanical properties. Ball milling has already demonstrated to be a valuable processing route for producing amorphous matrix nanocomposites, allowing by passing most of the limitations inherent to the casting techniques. In this work we present results on the formation, structure and thermal stability of nanocrystalline nitride particles dispersed in a Zr-Cu-Al-Ni-Fe amorphous matrix. The nitride particles were obtained by high-energy ball milling of Zr64Al7Cu17Ni10Fe2 amorphous ribbons in nitrogen atmosphere. The resulting nanocomposite structure was studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. Their thermal behavior was analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry, showing an increase in the thermal stability of the amorphous matrix by the composite formation.

  18. Nanocrystalline Pd:NiFe2O4 thin films: A selective ethanol gas sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Pratibha; Godbole, R. V.; Bhagwat, Sunita

    2016-10-01

    In this work, Pd:NiFe2O4 thin films were investigated for the detection of reducing gases. These films were fabricated using spray pyrolysis technique and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) to confirm the crystal structure. The surface morphology was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Magnetization measurements were carried out using SQUID VSM, which shows ferrimagnetic behavior of the samples. These thin film sensors were tested against methanol, ethanol, hydrogen sulfide and liquid petroleum gas, where they were found to be more selective to ethanol. The fabricated thin film sensors exhibited linear response signal for all the gases with concentrations up to 5 w/o Pd. Reduction in optimum operating temperature and enhancement in response was also observed. Pd:NiFe2O4 thin films exhibited faster response and recovery characteristic. These sensors have potential for industrial applications because of their long-term stability, low power requirement and low production cost.

  19. Lattice dynamics and external magnetic-field effects in Ni-Fe-Ga alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Landazábal, J. I.; Recarte, V.; Sánchez-Alarcos, V.; Rodríguez-Velamazán, J. A.; Jiménez-Ruiz, M.; Link, P.; Cesari, E.; Chumlyakov, Y. I.

    2009-10-01

    Precursor phenomena were investigated in a Ni-Fe-Ga alloy close to the stoichiometric Heusler composition Ni2FeGa . In particular, the phonon-dispersion curves, the diffuse scattering and the magnetic properties of a single crystalline Ni51.5Fe21.5Ga27 alloy were measured as a function of temperature. The TA2 branch along the [110] direction of the L21 phase shows a significant phonon softening around ξ=0.35 resulting in a marked dip which becomes more pronounced as the temperature decreases. Diffuse neutron-scattering measurements performed along [ξ¯ξ0] direction around Bragg reflections also reveal the presence of small satellite peaks at ξ=0.33 whose intensity increases on approaching the martensitic transformation temperature. Both elastic and inelastic-scattering anomalies confirm the occurrence of premartensitic phenomena in Ni-Fe-Ga alloys. The influence of an external magnetic field (6 T) on the anomalous phonon is shown to be negligible and just a small shift of the transformation temperature takes place because of the magnetic field.

  20. Spin-driven ordering of Cr in the equiatomic high entropy alloy NiFeCrCo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, C.; Zaddach, A. J.; Oni, A. A.; Sang, X.; Hurt, J. W.; LeBeau, J. M.; Koch, C. C.; Irving, D. L.

    2015-04-01

    Spin-driven ordering of Cr in an equiatomic fcc NiFeCrCo high entropy alloy (HEA) was predicted by first-principles calculations. Ordering of Cr is driven by the reduction in energy realized by surrounding anti-ferromagnetic Cr with ferromagnetic Ni, Fe, and Co in an alloyed L12 structure. The fully Cr-ordered alloyed L12 phase was predicted to have a magnetic moment that is 36% of that for the magnetically frustrated random solid solution. Three samples were synthesized by milling or casting/annealing. The cast/annealed sample was found to have a low temperature magnetic moment that is 44% of the moment in the milled sample, which is consistent with theoretical predictions for ordering. Scanning transmission electron microscopy measurements were performed and the presence of ordered nano-domains in cast/annealed samples throughout the equiatomic NiFeCrCo HEA was identified.

  1. Spin-driven ordering of Cr in the equiatomic high entropy alloy NiFeCrCo

    SciTech Connect

    Niu, C.; Zaddach, A. J.; Oni, A. A.; Sang, X.; LeBeau, J. M.; Koch, C. C.; Irving, D. L.; Hurt, J. W.

    2015-04-20

    Spin-driven ordering of Cr in an equiatomic fcc NiFeCrCo high entropy alloy (HEA) was predicted by first-principles calculations. Ordering of Cr is driven by the reduction in energy realized by surrounding anti-ferromagnetic Cr with ferromagnetic Ni, Fe, and Co in an alloyed L1{sub 2} structure. The fully Cr-ordered alloyed L1{sub 2} phase was predicted to have a magnetic moment that is 36% of that for the magnetically frustrated random solid solution. Three samples were synthesized by milling or casting/annealing. The cast/annealed sample was found to have a low temperature magnetic moment that is 44% of the moment in the milled sample, which is consistent with theoretical predictions for ordering. Scanning transmission electron microscopy measurements were performed and the presence of ordered nano-domains in cast/annealed samples throughout the equiatomic NiFeCrCo HEA was identified.

  2. Solidification characteristics and segregation behavior of a P-containing Ni-Fe-Cr-based alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Changshuai; Su, Haijun; Guo, YongAn; Guo, Jianting; Zhou, Lanzhang

    2017-09-01

    Solidification characteristics and segregation behavior of a P-containing Ni-Fe-Cr-based alloy, considered as boiler and turbine materials in 700 °C advanced ultra-supercritical coal-fired power plants, have been investigated by differential thermal analysis and directional solidification quenching technique. Results reveal that P decreases the solidus temperature, but only has negligible influence on liquidus temperature. After P was added, the solidification sequence has no apparent change, but the width of the mushy zone increases and dendritic structures become coarser. Moreover, P increases the amount and changes the morphology of MC carbide. Energy-dispersive spectroscopy analysis reveals that P has obvious influence on the segregation behavior of the constitute elements with equilibrium partition coefficients (ki) far away from unity, whereas has negligible effect on the constituent elements with ki close to unity and has more influence on the final stage of solidification than at early stage. The distribution profiles reveal that P atoms pile up ahead of the solid/liquid (S/L) interface and strongly segregate to the interdendritic liquid region. The influence of P on solidification characteristics and segregation behavior of Ni-Fe-Cr-based alloy could be attributed to the accumulation of P ahead of the S/L interface during solidification.

  3. Signature effects of spin clustering and distribution of spin couplings on magnetization behaviour in Ni-Fe-Mo and Ni-Fe-W alloys.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Mitali; Singh, Avinash; Majumdar, A K; Nigam, A K

    2011-08-03

    Spontaneous magnetization as a function of temperature is investigated for a number of disordered Ni-Fe-Mo and Ni-Fe-W alloys using superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry, with a focus on the low-T behaviour as well as the critical exponents associated with the magnetic phase transition. While the low-T magnetization is found to be well described by Bloch's T(3/2) law, extraordinary enhancements of the spin-wave parameter B and the reduced coefficient B(3/2) = BT(C)(3/2) are observed with increasing Fe dilution as compared to conventional 3d ferromagnets, whereas the critical amplitudes are found to decrease systematically. Recent locally self-consistent calculations of finite-temperature spin dynamics in a generic diluted magnet provide an understanding in terms of two distinct energy scales associated with weakly coupled bulk spins in the ferromagnetic matrix and strongly coupled cluster spins. In view of the similar behaviour observed in diluted magnetic semiconductors and other ferromagnetic alloys, it is proposed that these distinctive features corresponding to the three important temperature regimes provide macroscopic indicators of signature effects of spin clustering on the magnetization behaviour in disordered ferromagnets.

  4. Nanocrystalline Al-based alloys - lightweight materials with attractive mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latuch, J.; Cieslak, G.; Dimitrov, H.; Krasnowski, M.; Kulik, T.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, several ways of bulk nanocrystalline Al-based alloys' production by high-pressure compaction of powders were explored. The effect of chemical composition and compaction parameters on the structure, quality and mechanical properties of the bulk samples was studied. Bulk nanocrystalline Al-Mm-Ni-(Fe,Co) alloys were prepared by ball-milling of amorphous ribbons followed by consolidation. The maximum microhardness (540 HV0.1) was achieved for the samples compacted at 275 °C under 7.7 GPa (which resulted in an amorphous bulk) and nanocrystallised at 235 °C for 20 min. Another group of the produced materials were bulk nanocrystalline Al-Si-(Ni,Fe)-Mm alloys obtained by ball-milling of nanocrystalline ribbons and consolidation. The hardness of these samples achieved the value five times higher (350HV) than that of commercial 4xxx series Al alloys. Nanocrystalline Al-based alloys were also prepared by mechanical alloying followed by hot-pressing. In this group of materials, there were Al-Fe alloys containing 50-85 at.% of Al and ternary or quaternary Al-Fe-(Ti, Si, Ni, Mg, B) alloys. Microhardness of these alloys was in the range of 613 - 1235 HV0.2, depending on the composition.

  5. Stress Corrosion Cracking of Ni-Fe-Cr Alloys Relevant to Nuclear Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persaud, Suraj

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of Ni-Fe-Cr alloys and weld metals was investigated in simulated environments representative of high temperature water used in the primary and secondary circuits of nuclear power plants. The mechanism of primary water SCC (PWSCC) was studied in Alloys 600, 690, 800 and Alloy 82 dissimilar metal welds using the internal oxidation model as a guide. Initial experiments were carried out in a 480°C hydrogenated steam environment considered to simulate high temperature reducing primary water. Ni alloys underwent classical internal oxidation intragranularly resulting in the expulsion of the solvent metal, Ni, to the surface. Selective intergranular oxidation of Cr in Alloy 600 resulted in embrittlement, while other alloys were resistant owing to their increased Cr contents. Atom probe tomography was used to determine the short-circuit diffusion path used for Ni expulsion at a sub-nanometer scale, which was concluded to be oxide-metal interfaces. Further exposures of Alloys 600 and 800 were done in 315°C simulated primary water and intergranular oxidation tendency was comparable to 480°C hydrogenated steam. Secondary side work involved SCC experiments and electrochemical measurements, which were done at 315°C in acid sulfate solutions. Alloy 800 C-rings were found to undergo acid sulfate SCC (AcSCC) to a depth of up to 300 microm in 0.55 M sulfate solution at pH 4.3. A focused-ion beam was used to extract a crack tip from a C-ring and high resolution analytical electron microscopy revealed a duplex oxide structure and the presence of sulfur. Electrochemical measurements were taken on Ni alloys to complement crack tip analysis; sulfate was concluded to be the aggressive anion in mixed sulfate and chloride systems. Results from electrochemical measurements and crack tip analysis suggested a slip dissolution-type mechanism to explain AcSCC in Ni alloys.

  6. Evolution of irradiation-induced strain in an equiatomic NiFe alloy

    DOE PAGES

    Ullah, Mohammad W.; Zhang, Yanwen; Sellami, Neila; ...

    2017-07-10

    Here, we investigate the formation and accumulation of irradiation-induced atomic strain in an equiatomic NiFe concentrated solid-solution alloy using both atomistic simulations and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of irradiated samples. Experimentally, the irradiations are performed using 1.5 MeV Ni ions to fluences ranging from 1 × 1013 to 1 × 1014 cm-2. The irradiation simulations are carried out by overlapping 5 keV Ni recoils cascades up to a total of 300 recoils. An increase of volumetric strain is observed at low dose, which is associated with production of point defects and small clusters. A relaxation of strain occurs at highermore » doses, when large defect clusters, like dislocation loops, dominate.« less

  7. Examination of Austenite Solidification and Spheroidal Graphite Growth in Ni-Fe-C Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qing, J.; Richards, V. L.; Van Aken, D. C.

    The austenite phase and the spheroidal graphite in a Ni-Fe-C alloy at various solidification stages were captured by quenching experiments using spherical ceramic shell molds with inserted thermocouples. Multiple graphite nodules /spheroidal graphite particles inside an eutectic cell were observed using optical microscopy. Individual eutectic cells were differentiated by an intermetallic phase occurring within the interdendritic regions. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and orientation image mapping (OIM) analyses were performed to investigate the crystallographic orientation and the grain boundary distribution of the austenite grains surrounding individual spheroidal graphite particles. The austenite engulfment process around the spheroidal graphite was revealed by EBSD/OIM analyses. Examination of the graphite nodules extracted by deep etching experiments revealed three stages of growth for the spheroidal graphite particles.

  8. Martensitic transformation and magnetic properties of Heusler alloy Ni-Fe-Ga ribbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z. H.; Liu, H.; Zhang, X. X.; Zhang, M.; Dai, X. F.; Hu, H. N.; Chen, J. L.; Wu, G. H.

    2004-08-01

    The martensitic transformation and magnetic properties of ferromagnetic shape memory alloy Ni 50+ xFe 25- xGa 25 ( x=-1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4) ribbons have been systematically studied. It has been found that with the increase of Ni concentration, the martensitic transformation temperature increases, but the Curie temperature decreases. Both the two-step thermally induced structural transformation and the one-step transition have been observed in NiFeGa alloys with different compositions. It is found that the two-step transition became the one-step transition after the ribbon being heat treated at 873 K or higher. X-ray diffraction patterns show that only L2→B2 transition occurs in the samples treated at 873 K, while the γ phase will form in the samples treated at higher temperature. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies show that the alloys with martensitic transformation temperature above the room temperature are non-modulated martensite with the large domain size, being different from the stoichiometric Ni 2FeGa alloy that is a modulated martensite with small domain size. The influences of Fe substitution for Ni in Ni 2FeGa on the saturation magnetization and exchange interaction are also discussed.

  9. Atomic-scale dynamics of edge dislocations in Ni and concentrated solid solution NiFe alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Zhao, Shijun; Osetsky, Yuri N.; Zhang, Yanwen; ...

    2017-01-19

    Single-phase concentrated solid solution alloys (CSAs), including high entropy alloys, exhibit excellent mechanical properties compared to conventional dilute alloys. However, the origin of this observation is not clear yet because the dislocation properties in CSAs are poorly understood. In this work, the mobility of a <110>{111} edge dislocation in pure Ni and equiatomic solid solution Ni0.5Fe0.5 (NiFe) is studied using molecular dynamics simulations with different empirical potentials. The threshold stress to initiate dislocation movement in NiFe is found to be much higher compared to pure Ni. The drag coefficient of the dislocation motion calculated from the linear regime of dislocationmore » velocities versus applied stress suggests that the movement of dislocations in NiFe is strongly damped compared to that in Ni. The present results indicate that the mobility of edge dislocations in fcc CSAs are controlled by the fluctuations in local stacking fault energy caused by the local variation of alloy composition.« less

  10. In Situ Derived NixFe1-xOOH/NiFe/NixFe1-xOOH Nanotube Arrays from NiFe Alloys as Efficient Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Evolution.

    PubMed

    Wang, An-Liang; Dong, Yu-Tao; Li, Mei; Liang, Chaolun; Li, Gao-Ren

    2017-10-11

    Herein, NixFe1-xOOH/NiFe/NixFe1-xOOH sandwich-structured nanotube arrays (SNTAs) supported on carbon fiber cloth (CFC) (NixFe1-xOOH/NiFe/NixFe1-xOOH SNTAs-CFC) have been developed as flexible high-performance oxygen evolution reaction (OER) catalysts by a facile in situ electrochemical oxidation of NiFe metallic alloy nanotube arrays during oxygen evolution process. Benefiting from the advantages of high conductivity, hollow nanotube array, and porous structure, NixFe1-xOOH/NiFe/NixFe1-xOOH SNTAs-CFC exhibited a low overpotential of ∼220 mV at the current density of 10 mA cm(-2) and a small Tafel slope of 57 mV dec(-1) in alkaline solution, both of which are smaller than those of most OER electrocatalysts. Furthermore, NixFe1-xOOH/NiFe/NixFe1-xOOH SNTAs-CFC exhibits excellent stability at 100 mA cm(-2) for more than 30 h. It is believed that the present work can provide a valuable route for the design and synthesis of inexpensive and efficient OER electrocatalysts.

  11. Exploration of thermal conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, and Lorenz number deviations in Ni-Fe alloy films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zink, B. L.; Avery, A. D.; Sultan, R.; Bassett, D.; Cotteril, G.

    2011-03-01

    As electronic and spintronic systems continue to shrink, exploration of the fundamental physics affecting thermal transport in prospective materials becomes increasingly essential. For example, the potential use of spin-torque driven domain wall motion in ferromagnetic nanowires as a memory element requires application of large current densities to these tiny structures. The resulting heating could have both helpful and harmful effects, and is in general not yet well-understood. This is partly due to a gap in the fundamental knowledge of thermal properties of nanoscale systems that is due to the challenging nature of the necessary measurements. We have recently developed a micromachined thermal isolation platform that allows measurement of thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, and thermopower (or Seebeck effect) in thin film systems. In this talk we present our recent data on thermal conductivity, resistivity, and Seebeck coefficient, for Ni-Fe alloy films with thicknesses varying from 25-100 nm. We compare our results to the predictions of the Wiedemann-Franz law and discuss variations represented by deviations from the Sommerfeld value of the Lorenz number, and conclude with our plans to extend the technique to yet smaller structures. We thank the NRI-WIN and the NSF CAREER program for support.

  12. Investigation of electronic and local structural changes during lithium uptake and release of nano-crystalline NiFe2O4 by X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Dong; Permien, Stefan; Rana, Jatinkumar; Krengel, Markus; Sun, Fu; Schumacher, Gerhard; Bensch, Wolfgang; Banhart, John

    2017-02-01

    Nano-crystalline NiFe2O4 particles were synthesized and used as active electrode material for a lithium ion battery that showed a high discharge capacity of 1534 mAh g-1 and charge capacity of 1170 mAh g-1 during the 1st cycle. X-ray absorption spectroscopy including XANES and EXAFS were used to investigate electronic and local structural changes of NiFe2O4 during the 1st lithiation and de-lithiation process. As lithium is inserted into the structure, tetrahedral site Fe3+ ions are reduced to Fe2+ and moved from tetrahedral sites to empty octahedral sites, while Ni2+ ions are unaffected. As a consequence, the matrix spinel structure collapses and transforms to an intermediate rock-salt monoxide phase. Meanwhile, the inserted Li is partially consumed by the formation of SEI and other side reactions during the conversion reaction. With further lithiation, the monoxide phase is reduced to highly disordered metallic Fe/Ni nanoparticles with a number of nearest neighbors of 6.0(8) and 8.1(4) for Fe and Ni, respectively. During subsequent de-lithiation, the metal particles are individually re-oxidized to Fe2O3 and NiO phases instead to the original NiFe2O4 spinel phase.

  13. Room-temperature deformation behavior of directionally solidified multiphase Ni-Fe-Al alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, A.; Gibala, R.

    1997-03-01

    Directionally solidified (DS) β+(γ+γ') Ni-Fe-Al alloys have been used to investigate the effect of a ductile second phase on the room-temperature mechanical behavior of a brittle <001>-oriented β (B2) phase. The ductile phase in the composite consisted of a fine distribution of ordered γ' precipitates in a γ (fcc) matrix. Three microstructures were studied: 100 pct lamellar/rod, lamellar+proeutectic β, and discontinuous γ. The β matrix in the latter two microstructures contained fine-scale bcc precipitates formed due to spinodal decomposition. Room-temperature tensile ductilities as high as 12 pct and fracture toughness (K Q) of 30.4 MPa sqrt m were observed in the 100 pct lamellar/rod microstructure. Observations of slip traces and dislocation substructures indicated that a substantial portion of the ductility was a result of slip transfer from the ductile phase to the brittle matrix. This slip transfer was facilitated by the Kurdjumov-Sachs (KS) orientation relationship between the two phases and the strong interphase interface which showed no decohesion during deformation. In microstructures which show higher values of tensile ductility and fracture toughness, <100> slip was seen in the β phase, whereas <111> slip was seen in the β phase in the microstructure which showed limited ductility. The high ductility and toughness are explained in terms of increased mobile dislocation density afforded by interface constraint. The effect of extrinsic toughening mechanisms on enhancing the ductility or toughness is secondary to that of slip transfer.

  14. Effect of magnetic field annealing on the magneto-elastic properties of nanocrystalline NiFe2O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowmya, N. Shara; Srinivas, A.; Saravanan, P.; Reddy, K. Venu Gopal; Reddy, Monaji Vinitha; Das, Dibakar; Kamat, S. V.

    2017-08-01

    The effect of magnetic-field annealing on the strain sensitivity (q) and saturation magnetostriction (λs) of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles synthesized by citrate-gel method was investigated. The use of field-annealing resulted in improved magnetoelastic properties at the expense of coercivity. A maximum λs of -40 ppm at 2 kOe, associated with q value of -3.3 ppm/Oe at 5 Oe was achieved in the field-annealed NiFe2O4.

  15. Electromagnetic properties of core-shell particles by way of electroless Ni-Fe-P alloy plating on flake-shaped diatomite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Deyuan; Yuan, Liming; Lan, Mingming; Hu, Yanyan; Cai, Jun; Zhang, Wenqiang; Li, Haiyang

    2013-11-01

    Flake-shaped diatomite particles coated by Ni-Fe-P alloy were prepared by electroless plating technique and processed by heat treatment. The samples were characterized by SEM, EDS and XRD. The results indicated that the magnetic diatomite particles had continuous and homogeneous Ni-Fe-P coating, and the phase constitution of the Ni-Fe-P coating was transformed from an amorphous structure to a crystalline structure during heat treatment. The measured electromagnetic parameters and the calculated reflection loss suggested that heat treatment was able to enhance the microwave absorption performance of the paraffin wax based composites. In a word, the Ni-Fe-P coated diatomite particle obtained in this paper is a promising candidate for lightweight microwave absorbing inclusions.

  16. Quantification of site disorder and its role on spin polarization in the nearly half-metallic Heusler alloy NiFeMnSn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukadam, M. D.; Roy, Syamashree; Meena, S. S.; Bhatt, Pramod; Yusuf, S. M.

    2016-12-01

    The electronic structure and magnetism of the quaternary Heusler alloy NiFeMnSn are studied using the full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave (FPLAPW) method. The calculation for the perfectly LiMgPdSn-type ordered crystal structure (type I) of NiFeMnSn shows a high spin polarization (˜76 %) with a ferromagnetic ground state. The total spin magnetic moment is in good agreement with the Slater-Pauling rule. The structural investigations using neutron diffraction at 500 K, and Mössbauer spectroscopy at 300 K on the NiFeMnSn alloy, prepared using an arc melting, show the presence of atomic site disorder. The electronic structure calculation for the disordered structure shows that the site disorder destroys the nearly half-metallic nature of this alloy. The magnetization measurements indicate that the Curie temperature is well above room temperature (˜405 K) as desired for the spintronics application.

  17. Prediction of microstructure evolution during high temperature blade forging of a Ni-Fe based superalloy, Alloy 718

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Young-Sang; Yeom, Jong-Taek; Park, Nho-Kwang; Lee, Jai-Young

    2003-02-01

    The mechanical properties of the Ni-Fe-based Alloy 718 depend very much on grain size, as well as the strengthening phases, γ' and γ. The grain structure of the superalloy components is mainly controlled during thermo-mechanical processes by the dynamic, meta-dynamic recrystallization and grain growth. In this investigation, the evolution of the grain structure in the process of two-step blade forging was experimentally and numerically dealt with. The evolution of the grain structure in Alloy 718 during blade forging was predicted using a 2-DFE simulator with implemented constitutive models on dynamic recrystallization and grain growth. The comparison of the simulated microstructure with the actual grain structure of the forged parts validated the prediction of the grain structure evolution. The effect of dynamic recrystallization on the evolution of grain structure is highlighted in this article.

  18. Uncommon deformation mechanisms during fatigue-crack propagation in nanocrystalline alloys.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Sheng; Lee, Soo Yeol; Li, Li; Lei, Changhui; Almer, Jon; Wang, Xun-Li; Ungar, Tamas; Wang, Yinmin; Liaw, Peter K

    2013-03-29

    The irreversible damage at cracks during the fatigue of crystalline solids is well known. Here we report on in situ high-energy x-ray evidence of reversible fatigue behavior in a nanocrystalline NiFe alloy both in the plastic zone and around the crack tip. In the plastic zone, the deformation is fully recoverable as the crack propagates, and the plastic deformation invokes reversible interactions of dislocation and twinning in the nanograins. But around the crack tip lies a regime with reversible grain lattice reorientation promoted by a change of local stress state. These observations suggest unprecedented fatigue deformation mechanisms in nanostructured systems that are not addressed theoretically.

  19. Structure-Property Relationship of Cu-Al-Ni-Fe Shape Memory Alloys in Different Quenching Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saud, Safaa N.; Hamzah, E.; Abubakar, T.; Farahany, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the effects of heat treatments using various quenching media on the phase transformation parameters and microstructure parameters. The effects of different quenching methods, step-quenched and up-quenched, in various media were evaluated by using differential scanning calorimetry, field emission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectrometry, atomic force microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and Vicker's hardness. The variations of the structure and properties of Cu-Al-Ni-Fe shape memory alloys were linked to the variations of morphology, type, and stabilization of the obtained phase. From the DSC results, the use of ice water as a quenching medium produced the highest transformation temperatures, while a brine solution-quenching medium resulted in the highest change of the entropy and enthalpy. Additionally, it was found that the best grain refinement was observed through the use of an oil-quenching medium, due to its high cooling rate.

  20. Point defect evolution in Ni, NiFe and NiCr alloys from atomistic simulations and irradiation experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Aidhy, Dilpuneet S.; Lu, Chenyang; Jin, Ke; Bei, Hongbin; Zhang, Yanwen; Wang, Lumin; Weber, William J.

    2015-08-08

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, we elucidate irradiation-induced point defect evolution in fcc pure Ni, Ni0.5Fe0.5, and Ni0.8Cr0.2 solid solution alloys. We find that irradiation-induced interstitials form dislocation loops that are of 1/3 <111>{111}-type, consistent with our experimental results. While the loops are formed in all the three materials, the kinetics of formation is considerably slower in NiFe and NiCr than in pure Ni, indicating that defect migration barriers and extended defect formation energies could be higher in the alloys than pure Ni. As a result, while larger size clusters are formed in pure Ni, smaller and more clusters are observed in the alloys. The vacancy diffusion occurs at relatively higher temperatures than interstitials, and their clustering leads to formation of stacking fault tetrahedra, also consistent with our experiments. The results also show that the surviving Frenkel pairs are composition-dependent and are largely Ni dominated.

  1. Point defect evolution in Ni, NiFe and NiCr alloys from atomistic simulations and irradiation experiments

    DOE PAGES

    Aidhy, Dilpuneet S.; Lu, Chenyang; Jin, Ke; ...

    2015-08-08

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, we elucidate irradiation-induced point defect evolution in fcc pure Ni, Ni0.5Fe0.5, and Ni0.8Cr0.2 solid solution alloys. We find that irradiation-induced interstitials form dislocation loops that are of 1/3 <111>{111}-type, consistent with our experimental results. While the loops are formed in all the three materials, the kinetics of formation is considerably slower in NiFe and NiCr than in pure Ni, indicating that defect migration barriers and extended defect formation energies could be higher in the alloys than pure Ni. As a result, while larger size clusters are formed in pure Ni, smaller and more clusters are observedmore » in the alloys. The vacancy diffusion occurs at relatively higher temperatures than interstitials, and their clustering leads to formation of stacking fault tetrahedra, also consistent with our experiments. The results also show that the surviving Frenkel pairs are composition-dependent and are largely Ni dominated.« less

  2. Preferential diffusion in concentrated solid solution alloys: NiFe, NiCo and NiCoCr

    DOE PAGES

    Zhao, Shijun; Osetsky, Yuri; Zhang, Yanwen

    2017-02-13

    In single-phase concentrated solid-solution alloys (CSAs), including high entropy alloys (HEAs), remarkable mechanical properties are exhibited, as well as extraordinary corrosion and radiation resistance compared to pure metals and dilute alloys. But, the mechanisms responsible for these properties are unknown in many cases. In this work, we employ ab initio molecular dynamics based on density functional theory to study the diffusion of interstitial atoms in Ni and Ni-based face-centered cubic CSAs including NiFe, NiCo and NiCoCr. We model the defect trajectories over >100 ps and estimate tracer diffusion coefficients, correlation factors and activation energies. Furthermore, we found that the diffusionmore » mass transport in CSAs is not only slower than that in pure components, i.e. sluggish diffusion, but also chemically non-homogeneous. The results obtained here can be used in understanding and predicting the atomic segregation and phase separation in CSAs under irradiation conditions.« less

  3. The Diverse Nanostructure of Electroless Plated CoNiFeB Alloy: Thin Film, Nanotubes and Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, D.; Rhen, F. M. F.

    We prepared Co-Ni-Fe-B alloys by electroless plating into porous polycarbonate membranes and investigated the formation of the nanostructure using high-resolution scanning electron microscope images and magnetic measurements. The formation of the nanostructure occurs in five stages: nucleation, particle growth, percolation, film formation and films growth. High-resolution SEM images combined with magnetic measurements reveals that the nanostructure of the deposits consists of nanotubes, nanoparticles and thin film, which is directly linked to the stages of formation. Nanotubes with various lengths were obtained with typical values between 3 to 6 μm and with wall thickness varying from 50 to 90 nm, whereas nanoparticles have average diameter up to 45 nm both depending on deposition time. The magnetic measurements show that the nanostructured (Co12Ni60Fe28)88B12 alloys have specific saturation magnetization of (88.6 ± 7.7) JT-1kg-1 for samples deposited for periods ranging from 2 to 60 min.

  4. N-doped graphene layers encapsulated NiFe alloy nanoparticles derived from MOFs with superior electrochemical performance for oxygen evolution reaction

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yi; Yu, Xin-Yao; Paik, Ungyu

    2016-01-01

    Water splitting, an efficient approach for hydrogen production, is often hindered by unfavorable kinetics of oxygen evolution reaction (OER). In order to reduce the overpotential, noble metal oxides-based electrocatalysts like RuO2 and IrO2 are usually utilized. However, due to their scarcity, the development of cost-effective non-precious OER electrocatalysts with high efficiency and good stability is urgently required. Herein, we report a facile one-step annealing of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) strategy to synthesize N-doped graphene layers encapsulated NiFe alloy nanoparticles (NiFe@C). Through tuning the nanoparticle size and calcination temperature, NiFe@C with an average size of around 16 nm obtained at 700 °C exhibits superior OER performance with an overpotential of only 281 mV at 10 mA cm−2 and high durability. The facile synthesis method and excellent electrochemical performance show great potential of NiFe@C in replacing the precious metal-based electrocatalysts in the OER. PMID:27658968

  5. N-doped graphene layers encapsulated NiFe alloy nanoparticles derived from MOFs with superior electrochemical performance for oxygen evolution reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yi; Yu, Xin-Yao; Paik, Ungyu

    2016-09-01

    Water splitting, an efficient approach for hydrogen production, is often hindered by unfavorable kinetics of oxygen evolution reaction (OER). In order to reduce the overpotential, noble metal oxides-based electrocatalysts like RuO2 and IrO2 are usually utilized. However, due to their scarcity, the development of cost-effective non-precious OER electrocatalysts with high efficiency and good stability is urgently required. Herein, we report a facile one-step annealing of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) strategy to synthesize N-doped graphene layers encapsulated NiFe alloy nanoparticles (NiFe@C). Through tuning the nanoparticle size and calcination temperature, NiFe@C with an average size of around 16 nm obtained at 700 °C exhibits superior OER performance with an overpotential of only 281 mV at 10 mA cm-2 and high durability. The facile synthesis method and excellent electrochemical performance show great potential of NiFe@C in replacing the precious metal-based electrocatalysts in the OER.

  6. Effect of cathode vibration and heat treatment on electromagnetic properties of flake-shaped diatomite coated with Ni-Fe alloy by electroplating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Mingming; Li, Huiqin; Huang, Weihua; Xu, Guangyin; Li, Yan

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, flake-shaped diatomite particles were used as forming templates for the fabrication of the ferromagnetic functional fillers by way of electroplating Ni-Fe alloy method. The effects of cathode vibration frequency on the content of Ni-Fe alloy in the coating and the surface morphologies of the coatings were evaluated. The electromagnetic properties of the coated diatomite particles before and after heat treatment were also investigated in detail. The results show that the core-shell flake-shaped diatomite particles with high content of Ni-Fe alloy and good surface qualities of the coatings can be obtained by adjusting cathode vibration frequency. The coated diatomite particles with heat treatment filled paraffin wax composites exhibit a superior microwave absorbing and electromagnetic properties compared to the non-heat treated samples. Additionally, the peaks of reflection loss are found to be able to shift to lower frequency by the heat treatment process, which indicates the heat treatment can adjust microwave absorbing frequency band.

  7. Microstructural and magnetic characterization of iron precipitation in Ni-Fe-Al alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Duman, Nagehan; Mekhrabov, Amdulla O.; Akdeniz, M. Vedat

    2011-06-15

    The influence of annealing on the microstructural evolution and magnetic properties of Ni{sub 50}Fe{sub x}Al{sub 50-x} alloys for x = 20, 25, and 30 has been investigated. Solidification microstructures of as-cast alloys reveal coarse grains of a single B2 type {beta}-phase and typical off eutectic microstructure consisting of proeutectic B2 type {beta} dendrites and interdendritic eutectic for x = 20 and x > 20 at.% Fe respectively. However, annealing at 1073 K results in the formation of FCC {gamma}-phase particles along the grain boundaries as well as grain interior in x = 20 at.% Fe alloy. The volume fraction of interdentritic eutectic regions tend to decrease and their morphologies start to degenerate by forming FCC {gamma}-phase for x > 20 at.% Fe alloys with increasing annealing temperatures. Increasing Fe content of alloys induce an enhancement in magnetization and a rise in the Curie transition temperature (T{sub C}). Temperature scan magnetic measurements and transmission electron microscopy reveal that a transient rise in the magnetization at temperatures well above the T{sub C} of the alloys would be attributed to the precipitation of a nano-scale ferromagnetic BCC {alpha}-Fe phase. Retained magnetization above the Curie transition temperature of alloy matrix, together with enhanced room temperature saturation magnetization of alloys annealed at favorable temperatures support the presence of ferromagnetic precipitates. These nano-scale precipitates are shown to induce significant precipitation hardening of the {beta}-phase in conjunction with enhanced room temperature saturation magnetization in particular when an annealing temperature of 673 K is used. - Research Highlights: {yields} Evolution of microstructure and magnetic properties with varying Fe content. {yields} Transient rise in magnetization via the formation of ferromagnetic phase. {yields} Enhancements in saturation magnetization owing to precipitated ferromagnetic phase. {yields} Nanoscale

  8. Hydrogen storage properties of a Ni, Fe and Ti-added Mg-based alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Myoung Youp; Kwon, Sung Nam; Hong, Seong-Hyeon; Park, Hye Ryoung

    2012-04-01

    Mg-5wt%Ni-2.5wt%Fe-2.5wt%Ti (referred to as Mg-5Ni-2.5Fe-2.5Ti) hydrogen storage material was prepared by reactive mechanical grinding, after which the hydrogen absorption and desorption kinetics were investigated using a Sievert-type volumetric apparatus. A nanocrystalline Mg-5Ni-2.5Fe-2.5Ti sample was prepared by reactive mechanical grinding and hydriding-dehydriding cycling. Analysis by the Williamson-Hall method from an XRD pattern of this sample after 10 hydriding-dehydriding cycles showed that the crystallite size of Mg was 37.0 nm and that its strain was 0.0407%. The activation of Mg-5Ni-2.5Fe-2.5Ti was completed after three hydriding-dehydriding cycles. The prepared Mg-5Ni-2.5Fe-2.5Ti sample had an effective hydrogen-storage capacity near 5 wt% H. The activated Mg-5Ni-2.5Fe-2.5Ti sample absorbed 4.37 and 4.90 wt% H for 5 and 60 min, respectively, at 593K under 12 bar H2, and desorbed 1.69, 3.81, and 4.85 wt% H for 5, 10 and 60 min, respectively, at 593K under 1.0 bar H2.

  9. Strongly Coupled FeNi Alloys/NiFe2O4@Carbonitride Layers-Assembled Microboxes for Enhanced Oxygen Evolution Reaction.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yangde; Dai, Xiaoping; Liu, Mengzhao; Yong, Jiaxi; Qiao, Hongyan; Jin, Axiang; Li, Zhanzhao; Huang, Xingliang; Wang, Hai; Zhang, Xin

    2016-12-21

    Hydrogen produced from electrocatalytic water splitting is a promising route due to the sustainable powers derived from the solar and wind energy. However, the sluggish kinetics at the anode for water splitting makes the highly effective and inexpensive electrocatalysts desirable in oxygen evolution reaction (OER) by structure and composition modulations. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been intensively used as the templates/precursors to synthesize complex hollow structures for various energy-related applications. Herein, an effective and facile template-engaged strategy originated from bimetal MOFs is developed to construct hollow microcubes assembled by interconnected nanopolyhedron, consisting of intimately dominant FeNi alloys coupled with a small NiFe2O4 oxide, which was confined within carbonitride outer shell (denoted as FeNi/NiFe2O4@NC) via one-step annealing treatment. The optimized FeNi/NiFe2O4@NC exhibits excellent electrocatalytic performances toward OER in alkaline media, showing 10 mA·cm(-2) at η = 316 mV, lower Tafel slope (60 mV·dec(-1)), and excellent durability without decay after 5000 CV cycles, which also surpasses the IrO2 catalyst and most of non-noble catalysts in the OER, demonstrating a great perspective. The superior OER performance is ascribed to the hollow interior for fast mass transport, in situ formed strong coupling between FeNi alloys and NiFe2O4 for electron transfer, and the protection of carbonitride layers for long stability.

  10. Damage tolerance of wrought alloy 718 Ni- Fe-base superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, M.; Koul, A. K.; Au, P.; Terada, T.

    1994-06-01

    The influence of a modified heat treatment (MHT) and the standard heat treatment (SHT) on the damage tolerance of alloy 718 turbine disk material has been studied over a range of temperatures— from room temperature to 650 °. The influence of these heat treatments on creep, low-cycle fatigue (LCF), notch sensitivity, cyclic stability, and fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) properties has been studied. The microstructure developed through the MHT sequence is shown to be damage tolerant over the temperature range studied. Shot peening leads to a marked improvement in the LCF crack initiation life of the MHT material relative to the SHT material at 650 °. Serrated grain boundaries formed through controlled precipitation of grain-boundary 5 phase are beneficial to elevated- temperature FCGRs. The S-phase precipitates formed at an angle to the grain boundaries do not make the material notch sensitive.

  11. Effects of Fe concentration on the ion-irradiation induced defect evolution and hardening in Ni-Fe solid solution alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Jin, Ke; Guo, Wei; Lu, Chenyang; ...

    2016-12-01

    Understanding alloying effects on the irradiation response of structural materials is pivotal in nuclear engineering. In order to systematically explore the effects of Fe concentration on the irradiation-induced defect evolution and hardening in face-centered cubic Ni-Fe binary solid solution alloys, single crystalline Ni-xFe (x = 0–60 at%) alloys have been grown and irradiated with 1.5 MeV Ni ions. The irradiations have been performed over a wide range of fluences from 3 × 1013 to 3 × 1016 cm-2 at room temperature. Ion channeling technique has shown reduced damage accumulation with increasing Fe concentration in the low fluence regime, which ismore » consistent to the results from molecular dynamic simulations. We did not observe any irradiation-induced compositional segregation in atom probe tomography within the detection limit, even in the samples irradiated with high fluence Ni ions. Transmission electron microscopy analyses have further demonstrated that the defect size significantly decreases with increasing Fe concentration, indicating a delay in defect evolution. Furthermore, irradiation induced hardening has been measured by nanoindentation tests. Ni and the Ni-Fe alloys have largely different initial hardness, but they all follow a similar trend for the increase of hardness as a function of irradiation fluence.« less

  12. Effects of Fe concentration on the ion-irradiation induced defect evolution and hardening in Ni-Fe solid solution alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Ke; Guo, Wei; Lu, Chenyang; Ullah, Mohammad W.; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.; Wang, Lumin; Poplawsky, Jonathan D.; Bei, Hongbin

    2016-12-01

    Understanding alloying effects on the irradiation response of structural materials is pivotal in nuclear engineering. In order to systematically explore the effects of Fe concentration on the irradiation-induced defect evolution and hardening in face-centered cubic Ni-Fe binary solid solution alloys, single crystalline Ni-xFe (x = 0–60 at%) alloys have been grown and irradiated with 1.5 MeV Ni ions. The irradiations have been performed over a wide range of fluences from 3 × 1013 to 3 × 1016 cm-2 at room temperature. Ion channeling technique has shown reduced damage accumulation with increasing Fe concentration in the low fluence regime, which is consistent to the results from molecular dynamic simulations. We did not observe any irradiation-induced compositional segregation in atom probe tomography within the detection limit, even in the samples irradiated with high fluence Ni ions. Transmission electron microscopy analyses have further demonstrated that the defect size significantly decreases with increasing Fe concentration, indicating a delay in defect evolution. Furthermore, irradiation induced hardening has been measured by nanoindentation tests. Ni and the Ni-Fe alloys have largely different initial hardness, but they all follow a similar trend for the increase of hardness as a function of irradiation fluence.

  13. The Influence of Cooling Rate During Crystallization on the Effective Partitioning Coefficient in High-Entropy Alloys from Al-Ti-Co-Ni-Fe System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Górecki, Kamil; Bala, Piotr; Cios, Grzegorz; Koziel, Tomasz; Stępień, Milena; Wieczerzak, Krzysztof

    2016-07-01

    An influence of two different cooling rates on the microstructure and dispersion of the components of high-entropy alloy from Al-Ti-Co-Ni-Fe system has been examined. For investigated alloys, the effective partitioning coefficient has been calculated. This factor indicates the degree of segregation of elements and allows for the specification of the differences between dendrites and interdendritic regions. The obtained results allow for the conclusion that the cooling rate substantially affect the growth of dendrites and the volume fraction of interdendritic regions as well as the partitioning of elements in the alloy. Furthermore, the obtained results made it possible to compare the influence of the cooling rate and the chemical composition on the dispersion of the alloying elements.

  14. Experimental Investigations on Pulsed Nd:YAG Laser Welding of C17300 Copper-Beryllium and 49Ni-Fe Soft Magnetic Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousavi, S. A. A. Akbari; Ebrahimzadeh, H.

    2011-01-01

    Copper-beryllium and soft magnetic alloys must be joined in electrical and electro-mechanical applications. There is a high difference in melting temperatures of these alloys which cause to make the joining process very difficult. In addition, copper-beryllium alloys are of age hardenable alloys and precipitations can brittle the weld. 49Ni-Fe alloy is very hot crack sensitive. Moreover, these alloys have different heat transfer coefficients and reflection of laser beam in laser welding process. Therefore, the control of welding parameters on the formation of adequate weld puddle composition is very difficult. Laser welding is an advanced technique for joining of dissimilar materials since it can precisely control and adjust the welding parameters. In this study, a 100W Nd:YAG pulsed laser machine was used for joining 49Ni-Fe soft magnetic to C17300 copper-beryllium alloys. Welding of samples was carried out autogenously by changing the pulse duration, diameter of beam, welding speed, voltage and frequency. The spacing between samples was set to almost zero. The ample were butt welded. It was required to apply high voltage in this study due to high reflection coefficient of copper alloys. Metallography, SEM analysis, XRD and microhardness measurement was used for survey of results. The results show that the weld strength depends upon the chemical composition of the joints. To change the wells composition and heat input of the welds, it was attempted to deviate the laser focus away from the weld centerline. The best strength was achieved by deviation of the laser beam away about 0.1mm from the weld centerline. The result shows no intermetallic compounds if the laser beam is deviated away from the joint.

  15. Experimental Investigations on Pulsed Nd:YAG Laser Welding of C17300 Copper-Beryllium and 49Ni-Fe Soft Magnetic Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Mousavi, S. A. A. Akbari; Ebrahimzadeh, H.

    2011-01-17

    Copper-beryllium and soft magnetic alloys must be joined in electrical and electro-mechanical applications. There is a high difference in melting temperatures of these alloys which cause to make the joining process very difficult. In addition, copper-beryllium alloys are of age hardenable alloys and precipitations can brittle the weld. 49Ni-Fe alloy is very hot crack sensitive. Moreover, these alloys have different heat transfer coefficients and reflection of laser beam in laser welding process. Therefore, the control of welding parameters on the formation of adequate weld puddle composition is very difficult. Laser welding is an advanced technique for joining of dissimilar materials since it can precisely control and adjust the welding parameters. In this study, a 100W Nd:YAG pulsed laser machine was used for joining 49Ni-Fe soft magnetic to C17300 copper-beryllium alloys. Welding of samples was carried out autogenously by changing the pulse duration, diameter of beam, welding speed, voltage and frequency. The spacing between samples was set to almost zero. The ample were butt welded. It was required to apply high voltage in this study due to high reflection coefficient of copper alloys. Metallography, SEM analysis, XRD and microhardness measurement was used for survey of results. The results show that the weld strength depends upon the chemical composition of the joints. To change the wells composition and heat input of the welds, it was attempted to deviate the laser focus away from the weld centerline. The best strength was achieved by deviation of the laser beam away about 0.1mm from the weld centerline. The result shows no intermetallic compounds if the laser beam is deviated away from the joint.

  16. A facile method to synthesize boron-doped Ni/Fe alloy nano-chains as electrocatalyst for water oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yisu; Zhuang, Linzhou; Lin, Rijia; Li, Mengran; Xu, Xiaoyong; Rufford, Thomas E.; Zhu, Zhonghua

    2017-05-01

    We report a novel magnetic field assisted chemical reduction method for the synthesis of boron-doped Ni/Fe nano-chains as promising catalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). The boron-doped Ni/Fe nano-chains were synthesised in a one step process at room temperature using NaBH4 as a reducing agent. The addition of boron reduced the magnetic moment of the intermediate synthesis products and produced nano-chains with a high specific surface area of 73.4 m2 g-1. The boron-doped Ni/Fe nano-chains exhibited catalytic performance superior to state-of-the-art Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ perovskite and RuO2 noble metal oxide catalysts. The mass normalized activity of the boron-doped Ni/Fe nano-chains measured at an overpotential of 0.35 V was 64.0 A g-1, with a Tafel slope of only 40 mV dec-1. The excellent performance of the boron-doped Ni/Fe nano-chains can be attributed to the uniform elemental distribution and highly amorphous structure of the B-doped nano-chains. These results provide new insights into the effect of doping transition-metal based OER catalysts with non-metallic elements. The study demonstrates a facile approach to prepare transition metal nano-chains using magnetic field assisted chemical reduction method as cheap and highly active catalysts for electrochemical water oxidation.

  17. Mössbauer study of Mg Ni(Fe) alloys processed as materials for solid state hydrogen storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palade, P.; Principi, G.; Sartori, S.; Maddalena, A.; Lo Russo, S.; Schinteie, G.; Kuncser, V.; Filoti, G.

    2006-02-01

    Mg Ni Fe magnesium-rich intermetallic compounds were prepared following two distinct routes. A Mg88Ni11Fe1 sample (A) was prepared by melt spinning Mg Ni Fe pellets and then by high-energy ball milling for 6 h the obtained ribbons. A (MgH2)88Ni11Fe1 sample (B) was obtained by high-energy ball milling for 20 h a mixture of Ni, Fe and MgH2 powders in the due proportions. A SPEX8000 shaker mill with a 10:1 ball to powder ratio was used for milling in argon atmosphere. The samples were submitted to repeated hydrogen absorption/desorption cycles in a Sievert type gas solid reaction controller at temperatures in the range 520 ÷ 590 K and a maximum pressure of 2.5 MPa during absorption. The samples were analysed before and after the hydrogen absorption/desorption cycles by X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The results concerning the hydrogen storage properties of the studied compounds are discussed in connection with the micro-structural characteristics found by means of the used analytical techniques. The improved kinetics of hydrogen desorption for sample A, in comparison to sample B, has been ascribed to the different behaviour of iron atoms in the two cases, as proved by Mössbauer spectroscopy. In fact, iron results homogeneously distributed in sample A, partly at the Mg2Ni grain boundaries, with catalytic effect on the gas solid reaction; in sample B, instead, iron is dispersed inside the hydride powder as metallic iron or superparamagnetic iron.

  18. Mössbauer study of Mg-Ni(Fe) alloys processed as materials for solid state hydrogen storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palade, P.; Principi, G.; Sartori, S.; Maddalena, A.; Lo Russo, S.; Schinteie, G.; Kuncser, V.; Filoti, G.

    Mg-Ni-Fe magnesium-rich intermetallic compounds were prepared following two distinct routes. A Mg88Ni11Fe1 sample (A) was prepared by melt spinning Mg-Ni-Fe pellets and then by high-energy ball milling for 6 h the obtained ribbons. A (MgH2)88Ni11Fe1 sample (B) was obtained by high-energy ball milling for 20 h a mixture ofNi, Fe and MgH2 powders in the due proportions. A SPEX8000 shaker mill with a 10∶1 ball to powder ratio was used for milling in argon atmosphere. The samples were submitted to repeated hydrogen absorption/desorption cycles in a Sievert type gas-solid reaction controller at temperatures in the range 520÷590 K and a maximum pressure of 2.5 MPa during absorption. The samples were analysed before and after the hydrogen absorption/ desorption cycles by X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The results concerning the hydrogen storage properties of the studied compounds are discussed in connection with the micro-structural characteristics found by means of the used analytical techniques. The improved kinetics of hydrogen desorption for sample A, in comparison to sample B, has been ascribed to the different behaviour of iron atoms in the two cases, as proved by Mössbauer spectroscopy. In fact, iron results homogeneously distributed in sample A, partly at the Mg2Ni grain boundaries, with catalytic effect on the gas-solid reaction; in sample B, instead, iron is dispersed inside the hydride powder as metallic iron or superparamagnetic iron.

  19. Thermodynamic stabilization of nanocrystalline binary alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saber, Mostafa; Kotan, Hasan; Koch, Carl C.; Scattergood, Ronald O.

    2013-02-01

    The work presented here was motivated by the need to develop a predictive model for thermodynamic stabilization of binary alloys that is applicable to strongly segregating size-misfit solutes, and that can use available input data for a wide range of solvent-solute combinations. This will serve as a benchmark for selecting solutes and assessing the possible contribution of thermodynamic stabilization for development of high-temperature nanocrystalline alloys. Following a regular solution model that distinguishes the grain boundary and grain interior volume fractions by a transitional interface in a closed system, we include both the chemical and elastic strain energy contributions to the mixing enthalpy ΔHmix using an appropriately scaled linear superposition. The total Gibbs mixing free energy ΔGmix is minimized with respect to simultaneous variations in the grain-boundary volume fraction and the solute contents in the grain boundary and grain interior. The Lagrange multiplier method was used to obtain numerical solutions with the constraint of fixed total solute content. The model predictions are presented using a parametric variation of the required input parameters. Applications are then given for the dependence of the nanocrystalline grain size on temperature and total solute content for selected binary systems where experimental results suggest that thermodynamic stabilization could be effective.

  20. Electronic structure and half-metallicity of new quaternary Heusler alloys NiFeTiZ (Z=Si, P, Ge, and As)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimian, N.; Ahmadian, F.

    2015-12-01

    The electronic structure and magnetic properties of NiFeTiZ (Z=Si, P, Ge, and As) quaternary Heusler compounds were investigated using the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FPLAPW) method in framework of the density functional theory (DFT). The results showed that NiFeTiZ (Z=Si, P, Ge, and As) compounds were stable in YI structure and the NiFeTiP and NiFeTiSi compounds were true half-metallic (HM) ferromagnets. The NiFeTiGe had a nearly HM characteristic, while NiFeTiAs was a conventional ferromagnet. The majority and half-metallic band gaps were respectively 0.44 and 0.3 eV for NiFeTiP and 0.18 and 0.08 eV for NiFeTiSi. The origin and mechanism of the formation of majority band gap in NiFeTiP were also verified. The total magnetic moments of NiFeTiP and NiFeTiSi compounds were respectively obtained 1μB and 2μB per formula unit, which were in agreement with Slater-Pauling rule (Mtot=28-Ztot). Half-metalliciy exists in relatively wide ranges of 5.43-5.80 Å and 5.60-5.87 Å for NiFeTiP and NiFeTiSi compounds, respectively, which makes them promising candidates in spintronics.

  1. Application of the radioisotope excited X-ray fluorescence technique in charge optimization during thermite smelting of Fe-Ni, Fe-cr, and Fe-Ti alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, I.G.; Joseph, D.; Lal, M.; Bose, D.K.

    1995-10-01

    A wide range of ferroalloys are used to facilitate the addition of different alloying elements to molten steel. High-carbon ferroalloys are produced on a tonnage basis by carbothermic smelting in an electric furnace, and an aluminothermic route is generally adopted for small scale production of low-carbon varieties. The physicochemical principles of carbothermy and aluminothermy have been well documented in the literature. However, limited technical data are reported on the production of individual ferroalloys of low-carbon varieties from their selected resources. The authors demonstrate her the application of an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique in meeting the analytical requirements of a thermite smelting campaign, carried out with the aim of preparing low-carbon-low-nitrogen Fe-Ni, Fe-Cr, and Fe-Ti alloys from indigenously available nickel bearing spent catalyst, mineral chromite, and ilmenite/rutile, respectively. They have chosen the EDXRF technique to meet the analytical requirements because of its capability to analyze samples of ore, minerals, a metal, and alloys in different forms, such as powder, sponge, as-smelted, or as-cast, to obtain rapid multielement analyses with ease. Rapid analyses of thermite feed and product by this technique have aided in the appropriate alterations of the charge constitutents to obtain optimum charge consumption.

  2. Mössbauer and XRD study of pulse plated Sn-Fe, Sn-Ni and Sn-Ni-Fe electrodeposited alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stichleutner, S.; Lak, G. B.; Kuzmann, E.; Chisholm, C. U.; El-Sharif, M.; Homonnay, Z.; Sziráki, L.

    2014-04-01

    Effect of pulse plating on novel electrodeposited binary and ternary amorphous alloys was studied by 57Fe and 119Sn conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Our results show that by adjusting the parameters of pulse plating a fine tuning of the composition and current efficiency can be achieved within these systems. On the contrary to direct current deposition, where the crystalline FeSn2 phase dominates, pulse plating technique produces amorphous Sn-Fe alloy phases, of which the ferromagnetic phase is the dominant one. Both, direct current and pulse plated Sn-Ni deposits consist of paramagnetic alloy phases and minor amounts of β-Sn, the occurrence of which correlates with the tin content of the samples. Pulse plated Sn-Ni-Fe coatings are amorphous and in a dominantly ferromagnetic state, however at long on- and off-pulse times and high peak current density the paramagnetic state dominates and β-Sn segregation also occurs.

  3. Vibrational and magnetic contributions to the entropy change associated with the martensitic transformation of Ni-Fe-Ga ferromagnetic shape memory alloys.

    PubMed

    Recarte, V; Pérez-Landazábal, J I; Gómez-Polo, C; Sánchez-Alarcos, V; Cesari, E; Pons, J

    2010-10-20

    Ferromagnetic shape memory alloys undergo a martensitic transformation accompanied by a change in the magnetic and vibrational properties. However, these property changes are not independent. In this paper, the interplay between magnetic and vibrational properties in the martensitic transformation entropy change has been analyzed for Ni-Fe-Ga ferromagnetic shape memory alloys. The martensitic transformation entropy change has a magnetic and a vibrational contribution, ΔS(p−>m)=ΔS(vib)(p−>m) + ΔS(mag)(p−>m). Using a mean field approximation for the magnetic entropy, the full entropy ΔS(p−>m) has been decomposed and the magnetic contribution ΔS(mag)(p−>m) calculated. Upon removing the magnetic term, the vibrational entropy ΔS(vib)(p−>m) does not change substantially in the composition range where T(M) is below T(C). This latter contribution to the martensitic transformation entropy change has been analyzed using a Debye distribution for the density of states and a proportion of Einstein modes that account for the anomalous phonon mode of the austenite.

  4. Comparison of high temperature, high frequency core loss and dynamic B-H loops of two 50 Ni-Fe crystalline alloys and an iron-based amorphous alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wieserman, W. R.; Schwarze, G. E.; Niedra, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    The availability of experimental data that characterizes the performance of soft magnetic materials for the combined conditions of high temperature and high frequency is almost nonexistent. An experimental investigation was conducted over the temperature range of 23 to 300 C and frequency range of 1 to 50 kHz to determine the effects of temperature and frequency on the core loss and dynamic B-H loops of three different soft magnetic materials; and oriented grain 50Ni-50Fe alloy, a nonoriented grain 50Ni-Fe alloy, and an iron based amorphous material (Metglas 2605SC). A comparison of these materials shows that the nonoriented grain 50Ni-50Fe alloy tends to have either the lowest or next lowest core loss for all temperatures and frequencies investigated.

  5. High-Temperature Oxidation Behavior of Al-Co-Cr-Ni-(Fe or Si) Multicomponent High-Entropy Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, T. M.; Alfano, J. P.; Martens, R. L.; Weaver, M. L.

    2015-01-01

    High-entropy alloys (HEAs) are a class of alloys that are being considered for a number of applications. In the present study, the microstructures and 1050°C oxidation behaviors of two HEAs, Al10Cr22.5Co22.5Ni22.5Fe22.5 (at.%) and Al20Cr25Co25Ni25Si5 have been investigated along with Al15Cr10Co35Ni35Si5, which is a high-temperature shape-memory alloy. Oxide formation occurred via selective oxidation in a manner that was consistent with the oxide formation model devised by Giggins and Pettit for model Ni-Cr-Al alloys. The lower Al content alloy formed an external Cr2O3 scale and an internal subscale consisting of Al2O3 and AlN precipitates. The higher Al content alloys exhibited smaller mass gains and formed external Al2O3 scales without any internal oxidation of the alloys.

  6. Characterization of Nanocrystalline Aluminum Alloy 5083 Powders Produced by Cryogenic Attrition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    Characterization of Nanocrystalline Aluminum Alloy 5083 Powders Produced by Cryogenic Attrition by Tiffany Ngo ARL-TN-0643...November 2014 Characterization of Nanocrystalline Aluminum Alloy 5083 Powders Produced by Cryogenic Attrition Tiffany Ngo Weapons and...3. DATES COVERED (From - To) August 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Characterization of Nanocrystalline Aluminum Alloy 5083 Powders Produced by

  7. Fabrication and electromagnetic properties of bio-based helical soft-core particles by way of Ni-Fe alloy electroplating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Mingming; Zhang, Deyuan; Cai, Jun; Zhang, Wenqiang; Yuan, Liming

    2011-12-01

    Ni-Fe alloy electroplating was used as a bio-limited forming process to fabricate bio-based helical soft-core ferromagnetic particles, and a low frequency vibration device was applied to the cathode to avoid microorganism (Spirulina platens) cells adhesion to the copper net during the course of plating. The morphologies and ingredients of the coated Spirulina cells were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometer. The complex permittivity and permeability of the samples containing the coated Spirulina cells before and after heat treatment were measured and investigated by a vector network analyzer. The results show that the Spirulina cells after plating keep their initial helical shape, and applying low frequency vibration to the copper net cathode in the plating process can effectively prevent agglomeration and intertwinement of the Spirulina cells. The microwave absorbing and electromagnetic properties of the samples containing the coated Spirulina cells particles with heat treatment are superior to those samples containing the coated Spirulina cells particles without heat treatment.

  8. Temperature dependent cation distribution correlated with optical and magnetic properties of nanocrystalline NiFe1.8Gd0.2O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiba, Zein K.; Imam, N. G.; Bakr Mohamed, Mohamed

    2015-09-01

    Nano crystalline NiFe1.8Gd0.2O4 ferrite was synthesized through citrate method at 400, 500, 600, 700 and 800 °C. Samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM), photoluminescence (PL) spectrophotometer, vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique. XRD analysis confirmed the formation of single-phase spinel structure in all the samples. From Rietveld analysis, the system is found to be inverse spinal structure with Gd3+ residing on octahedral 16c B-site and the grain boundary, while Ni2+ occupying the B-site at both 16c and 16d. The effect of preparation temperature on the crystalline phase, crystallite size, morphology, magnetic and optical properties was investigated in detail. The PL intensity of the ferrite material is enhanced upon increasing the sintering temperature from 500 to 800 °C. Upon increasing the sintering temperature, the coercive field first decreases then increases; while, on the contrary, the saturation of magnetization (Ms) first deceases then increases.

  9. Influence of the chemical composition of rapidly quenched amorphous alloys (Ni, Fe, Cr)-B-Si on its crystallization process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmanov, G.; Dzhumaev, P.; Ivanitskaya, E.; Skrytnyi, V.; Ruslanov, A.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents results of research of the structure and phase transformations during the multistage crystallization of the metallic glasses with the compositions Ni71,5Cr6,8Fe2,7B11,9Si7,1 and Ni63,4Cr7,4Fe4,3Mn0,8B15,6Si8,5 labeled as AWS BNi-2 according to American Welding Society. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX) were used as experimental research methods. The influence of the alloys chemical composition (boron, manganese and iron) on the temperatures and the exothermic heat effects of phase transformations, as well as on the phase composition of alloys at three stages of crystallization was analyzed. We present a thermodynamic explanation of the observed heat effects. It has been shown that manganese has the main influence on the phase transformations temperatures and heat effects in these two alloys. It is also assumed that at the final crystallization stage simultaneously with the formation of phases Ni3B and β1-Ni3Si should occur the nucleation of borides of CrB type with high Cr and low Si content.

  10. Comparison of high frequency, high temperature core loss and B-H loop characteristics of an 80 Ni-Fe crystalline alloy and two iron-based amorphous alloys. [Ni; Fe

    SciTech Connect

    Wieserman, W.R. ); Schwarze, G.E. ); Niedra, J.M. )

    1991-01-10

    Limited experimental data exists for the specific core loss and dynamic B-H loops for soft magnetic materials for the combined conditions of high frequency and high temperature. This experimental study investigates the specific core loss and dynamic B-H characteristics of a nickel-iron crystalline magnetic alloy (Supermalloy) and two-iron-based amorphous magnetic materials (Metglas 2605S-3A and Metglas 2605SC) over the frequency range of 1--50 kHz and temperature range of 23--300 C under sinusoidal voltage excitation. The effects of maximum magnetic flux density, frequency, and temperature on the specific core loss and on the size and shape of the B-H loops are examined. The Supermalloy and Metglas 2605S-3A and 2605SC data are used to compare the core loss of transformers with identical kVA and voltage ratings.

  11. Effect of Fe substitution by Co on off-stoichiometric Ni-Fe-Co-Mn-Sn Heusler alloy ribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, S. S.; Mukhopadhyay, Semanti; Yadav, T. P.; Yadav, R. M.; Radhakrishnan, Sruthi; Vajtai, R.; Ajayan, P. M.; Mukhopadhyay, N. K.; Singh, H. K.; Srivastava, O. N.

    2017-08-01

    We have synthesized Ni45Fe5-X Co X Mn40Sn10 Heusler alloy with different Co doping and studied the effect on the structural and magnetic properties of Ni45Fe5-X Co X Mn40Sn10 (at. X  =  0, 2.5, 5) ribbons. X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopic characterization reveal the structural/microstructural features in melt-spun ribbons of different compositions. A significant transformation in the crystal structure has been observed in Fe substituted ribbons. The crystal structure changes from cubic L21 phase to bi-phasic 4O  +  L21 and 10M  +  L21 modulated phases for the partial and complete substitution of Fe by Co specimens respectively. Williamson-Hall analysis of x-ray diffraction data was used to compute the crystallite size and residual elastic strain. Magnetic properties and magnetic field-induced structural transformation of melt-spun alloy ribbons over a large temperature range of 10 K  ⩽  T  ⩽  500 K were examined. Our results revealed that Fe substitution by Co causes a change in the magnetic behavior which could be ascribed to the increase in the lattice strain as well as a magnetic strain due to high antiferromagnetic fraction.

  12. Modeling the deformation behavior of nanocrystalline alloy with hierarchical microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongxi; Zhou, Jianqiu; Zhao, Yonghao

    2016-02-01

    A mechanism-based plasticity model based on dislocation theory is developed to describe the mechanical behavior of the hierarchical nanocrystalline alloys. The stress-strain relationship is derived by invoking the impeding effect of the intra-granular solute clusters and the inter-granular nanostructures on the dislocation movements along the sliding path. We found that the interaction between dislocations and the hierarchical microstructures contributes to the strain hardening property and greatly influence the ductility of nanocrystalline metals. The analysis indicates that the proposed model can successfully describe the enhanced strength of the nanocrystalline hierarchical alloy. Moreover, the strain hardening rate is sensitive to the volume fraction of the hierarchical microstructures. The present model provides a new perspective to design the microstructures for optimizing the mechanical properties in nanostructural metals.

  13. Indentation creep of nanocrystalline Cu-TiC alloys prepared by mechanical alloying

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, B.L.; Itoi, T.; Yamasaki, T.; Ogino, Y.

    2000-04-01

    In recent years, nanocrystalline materials have attracted much attention in materials research because they behave differently from conventional materials. For example, the nanocrystalline materials exhibit enhanced mechanical properties, such as high strength and hardness. The present study was performed to investigate the indentation creep mechanism of nanocrystalline Cu-TiC alloys which were prepared by HIP (Hot Isostatic Press) processing of MA (Mechanical Alloying) powders and hot rolling afterwards. As these materials have high densities and high structural stability, the authors could investigate creep behavior at wide temperature ranges below 0.5Tm (Tm is the melting temperature of copper).

  14. On the Formation of Lightweight Nanocrystalline Aluminum Alloys by Electrodeposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilty, Robert D.; Masur, Lawrence J.

    2017-08-01

    New nanocrystalline aluminum alloys have been fabricated by electrodeposition. These are thermodynamically stable alloys of Al-Mn and Al-Zr with grain sizes <100 nm. Al-Mn and Al-Zr alloys are characterized here showing high strength (up to 1350 MPa) and hardness (up to 450 HVN) while maintaining the specific gravity of Al. Smooth and dense deposits plated from ionic liquids, such as EMIM:Cl (1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride), can develop to thicknesses of 1 mm or more.

  15. Extreme creep resistance in a microstructurally stable nanocrystalline alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darling, K. A.; Rajagopalan, M.; Komarasamy, M.; Bhatia, M. A.; Hornbuckle, B. C.; Mishra, R. S.; Solanki, K. N.

    2016-09-01

    Nanocrystalline metals, with a mean grain size of less than 100 nanometres, have greater room-temperature strength than their coarse-grained equivalents, in part owing to a large reduction in grain size. However, this high strength generally comes with substantial losses in other mechanical properties, such as creep resistance, which limits their practical utility; for example, creep rates in nanocrystalline copper are about four orders of magnitude higher than those in typical coarse-grained copper. The degradation of creep resistance in nanocrystalline materials is in part due to an increase in the volume fraction of grain boundaries, which lack long-range crystalline order and lead to processes such as diffusional creep, sliding and rotation. Here we show that nanocrystalline copper-tantalum alloys possess an unprecedented combination of properties: high strength combined with extremely high-temperature creep resistance, while maintaining mechanical and thermal stability. Precursory work on this family of immiscible alloys has previously highlighted their thermo-mechanical stability and strength, which has motivated their study under more extreme conditions, such as creep. We find a steady-state creep rate of less than 10-6 per second—six to eight orders of magnitude lower than most nanocrystalline metals—at various temperatures between 0.5 and 0.64 times the melting temperature of the matrix (1,356 kelvin) under an applied stress ranging from 0.85 per cent to 1.2 per cent of the shear modulus. The unusual combination of properties in our nanocrystalline alloy is achieved via a processing route that creates distinct nanoclusters of atoms that pin grain boundaries within the alloy. This pinning improves the kinetic stability of the grains by increasing the energy barrier for grain-boundary sliding and rotation and by inhibiting grain coarsening, under extremely long-term creep conditions. Our processing approach should enable the development of

  16. Extreme creep resistance in a microstructurally stable nanocrystalline alloy.

    PubMed

    Darling, K A; Rajagopalan, M; Komarasamy, M; Bhatia, M A; Hornbuckle, B C; Mishra, R S; Solanki, K N

    2016-09-15

    Nanocrystalline metals, with a mean grain size of less than 100 nanometres, have greater room-temperature strength than their coarse-grained equivalents, in part owing to a large reduction in grain size. However, this high strength generally comes with substantial losses in other mechanical properties, such as creep resistance, which limits their practical utility; for example, creep rates in nanocrystalline copper are about four orders of magnitude higher than those in typical coarse-grained copper. The degradation of creep resistance in nanocrystalline materials is in part due to an increase in the volume fraction of grain boundaries, which lack long-range crystalline order and lead to processes such as diffusional creep, sliding and rotation. Here we show that nanocrystalline copper-tantalum alloys possess an unprecedented combination of properties: high strength combined with extremely high-temperature creep resistance, while maintaining mechanical and thermal stability. Precursory work on this family of immiscible alloys has previously highlighted their thermo-mechanical stability and strength, which has motivated their study under more extreme conditions, such as creep. We find a steady-state creep rate of less than 10(-6) per second-six to eight orders of magnitude lower than most nanocrystalline metals-at various temperatures between 0.5 and 0.64 times the melting temperature of the matrix (1,356 kelvin) under an applied stress ranging from 0.85 per cent to 1.2 per cent of the shear modulus. The unusual combination of properties in our nanocrystalline alloy is achieved via a processing route that creates distinct nanoclusters of atoms that pin grain boundaries within the alloy. This pinning improves the kinetic stability of the grains by increasing the energy barrier for grain-boundary sliding and rotation and by inhibiting grain coarsening, under extremely long-term creep conditions. Our processing approach should enable the development of

  17. Influence of hot isostatic pressing on the structure and properties of an innovative low-alloy high-strength aluminum cast alloy based on the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Ni-Fe system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akopyan, T. K.; Padalko, A. G.; Belov, N. A.

    2015-11-01

    Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) is applied for treatment of castings of innovative low-ally high-strength aluminum alloy, nikalin ATs6N0.5Zh based on the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Ni-Fe system. The influence of HIP on the structure and properties of castings is studied by means of three regimes of barometric treatment with different temperatures of isometric holding: t 1 = 505 ± 2°C, p 1 = 100 MPa, τ1 = 3 h (HIP1); t 2 = 525 ± 2°C, p 2 = 100 MPa, τ2 = 3 h (HIP2); and t 3 = 545 ± 2°C, p 3 = 100 MPa, τ3 = 3 h (HIP3). It is established that high-temperature HIP leads to actually complete elimination of porosity and additional improvement of the morphology of second phases. Improved structure after HIP provides improvement properties, especially of plasticity. In particular, after heat treatment according of regime HIP2 + T4 (T4 is natural aging), the alloy plasticity is improved by about two times in comparison with the initial state (from ~6 to 12%). While applying regime HIP3 + T6 (T6 is artificial aging for reaching the maximum strength), the plasticity has improved by more than three times in comparison with the initial state, as after treatment according to regimes HIP1 + T6 and HIP2 + T6 (from ~1.2 to ~5.0%), which are characterized by a lower HIP temperature.

  18. Precipitation phase transformation in nanocrystalline Fe-Mo alloys.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Subhajit; Bansal, Chandrahaas

    2004-01-01

    Precipitation phase transformation was studied in nanocrystalline Fe-rich Fe-Mo alloys with the use of X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Alloys up to 5 at% Mo in Fe were synthesized by mechanical alloying and formed in alpha phase bcc solid solutions with average grain sizes in the range of 10-13 nm. The precipitation transformation (alpha-->alpha + lambda) was found to proceed via a Mo clustering that was correlated with the size of the nanograins. This was understood in terms of the Gibbs Thomson effect with a concept of negative surface energy contribution to the Gibbs free energy of mixing in a nanocrystalline alloy with positive internal energy of mixing. This contribution increased the stability of the solid solution for nanosized grains, and the Mo precipitation started once the grains grew beyond a critical size. We argue that the Mo precipitation takes place in the grain boundary regions, and the Mo-rich lambda phase also precipitates directly in the grain boundary regions, in contrast to the microcrystalline alloys, where the Mo clusters formed within the grains and were first dissolved in the Fe matrix before the lambda phase was formed.

  19. On the remarkable thermal stability of nanocrystalline cobalt via alloying

    PubMed Central

    Bachmaier, A.; Motz, C.

    2015-01-01

    Nanostructured Co materials are produced by severe plastic deformation via alloying with small amounts of C and larger amounts of Cu. The thermal stability of the different nanostructured Co materials is studied through isothermal annealing at different temperatures for various times and compared to the stability of severe plastically deformed high-purity nanocrystalline Co. The microstructural changes taking place during annealing are evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and microhardness measurements. In the present work it is shown that the least stable nanostructured material is the single-phase high purity Co. Alloying with C improves the thermal stability to a certain extent. A remarkable thermal stability is achieved by alloying Co with Cu resulting in stabilized nanostructures even after annealing for long times at high temperatures. The essential reason for the enhanced thermal stability is to be found in the immiscibility of both components of the alloy. PMID:25892849

  20. Magnetic Properties of Grain Boundaries of Nanocrystalline Ni and of Ni Precipitates in Nanocrystalline NiCu Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, H.; Guan, Z.; Li, X.; Wichert, Th.

    2001-11-01

    Perturbed γγ-angular correlation spectroscopy (PAC) was used to investigate nanocrystalline Ni and NiCu alloys, which are prepared by pulsed electrodeposition (PED). Using diffusion for doping nanocrystalline Ni with 111In four different ordered grain boundary structures are observed, which are characterized by unique electric field gradients. The incorporation of 111In on substitutional bulk sites of Ni is caused by moving grain boundaries below 1000 K and by volume diffusion above 1000 K. The nanocrystalline NiCu alloys prepared by PED are microscopically inhomogeneous as observed by PAC. In contrast, this inhomogeneity cannot be detected by X-ray diffraction. The influence of the temperature of the electrolyte, the current density during deposition, and the optional addition of saccharin to the electrolyte on the homogeneity of nanocrystalline NiCu alloys was investigated.

  1. Hardness and Abrasion Resistance of Nanocrystalline Nickel Alloys Near the Hall-Petch Breakdown Regime

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    for structural applications. In this work we discuss the hardness and scratch resistance of nanocrystalline nickel and nickel-tungsten solid solution alloys...hardness and abrasion data. The role of solid solution alloying on this breakdown is also discussed.

  2. Integration of Electrodeposited Ni-Fe in MEMS with Low-Temperature Deposition and Etch Processes.

    PubMed

    Schiavone, Giuseppe; Murray, Jeremy; Perry, Richard; Mount, Andrew R; Desmulliez, Marc P Y; Walton, Anthony J

    2017-03-22

    This article presents a set of low-temperature deposition and etching processes for the integration of electrochemically deposited Ni-Fe alloys in complex magnetic microelectromechanical systems, as Ni-Fe is known to suffer from detrimental stress development when subjected to excessive thermal loads. A selective etch process is reported which enables the copper seed layer used for electrodeposition to be removed while preserving the integrity of Ni-Fe. In addition, a low temperature deposition and surface micromachining process is presented in which silicon dioxide and silicon nitride are used, respectively, as sacrificial material and structural dielectric. The sacrificial layer can be patterned and removed by wet buffered oxide etch or vapour HF etching. The reported methods limit the thermal budget and minimise the stress development in Ni-Fe. This combination of techniques represents an advance towards the reliable integration of Ni-Fe components in complex surface micromachined magnetic MEMS.

  3. Integration of Electrodeposited Ni-Fe in MEMS with Low-Temperature Deposition and Etch Processes

    PubMed Central

    Schiavone, Giuseppe; Murray, Jeremy; Perry, Richard; Mount, Andrew R.; Desmulliez, Marc P. Y.; Walton, Anthony J.

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a set of low-temperature deposition and etching processes for the integration of electrochemically deposited Ni-Fe alloys in complex magnetic microelectromechanical systems, as Ni-Fe is known to suffer from detrimental stress development when subjected to excessive thermal loads. A selective etch process is reported which enables the copper seed layer used for electrodeposition to be removed while preserving the integrity of Ni-Fe. In addition, a low temperature deposition and surface micromachining process is presented in which silicon dioxide and silicon nitride are used, respectively, as sacrificial material and structural dielectric. The sacrificial layer can be patterned and removed by wet buffered oxide etch or vapour HF etching. The reported methods limit the thermal budget and minimise the stress development in Ni-Fe. This combination of techniques represents an advance towards the reliable integration of Ni-Fe components in complex surface micromachined magnetic MEMS. PMID:28772683

  4. Diffusion, phase equilibria and partitioning experiments in the Ni-Fe-Ru system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, Joel D.; Wasserburg, G. J.; Hutcheon, I. D.; Beckett, J. R.; Stolper, E. M.

    1989-02-01

    Results are presented on thin-film diffusion experiments designed to investigate phase equilibria in systems containing high concentrations of Pt-group elements, such as Ni-Fe-Ru-rich systems containing Pt, at temperatures of 1273, 1073, and 873 K. The rate of Ru diffusion in Ni was determined as a function of temperature, and, in addition, the degree of Pt and Ir partitioning between phases in a Ni-Fe-Ru-rich system and of V between phases in a Ni-Fe-O-rich system at 873 were determined. It was found that Pt preferentially partitions into the (gamma)Ni-Fe phase, whereas Ir prefers the (epsilon)Ru-Fe phase. V partitions strongly into Fe oxides relative to (gamma)Ni-Fe. These results have direct application to the origin and thermal history of the alloys rich in Pt-group elements in meteorites.

  5. Diffusion, phase equilibria and partitioning experiments in the Ni-Fe-Ru system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blum, Joel D.; Wasserburg, G. J.; Hutcheon, I. D.; Beckett, J. R.; Stolper, E. M.

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented on thin-film diffusion experiments designed to investigate phase equilibria in systems containing high concentrations of Pt-group elements, such as Ni-Fe-Ru-rich systems containing Pt, at temperatures of 1273, 1073, and 873 K. The rate of Ru diffusion in Ni was determined as a function of temperature, and, in addition, the degree of Pt and Ir partitioning between phases in a Ni-Fe-Ru-rich system and of V between phases in a Ni-Fe-O-rich system at 873 were determined. It was found that Pt preferentially partitions into the (gamma)Ni-Fe phase, whereas Ir prefers the (epsilon)Ru-Fe phase. V partitions strongly into Fe oxides relative to (gamma)Ni-Fe. These results have direct application to the origin and thermal history of the alloys rich in Pt-group elements in meteorites.

  6. Demonstration of Ultra High-Strength Nanocrystalline Copper Alloys for Military Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-22

    2 Current Status of CuBe Alloys ......................................................................................... 2...Nanocrystalline Metals, A Suitable Alternative Replacement Material? ......................... 3 Theory on Stabilizing Nanocrystalline Metals for CuBe ...17: Wear test data for work hardened and annealed Cu, Cu-Ta processed by FAST and hardened D2 tool steel

  7. Research of creep deformation in amorphous and nanocrystalline alloys at variable temperature field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorov, V. A.; Berezner, A. D.; Pluzhnikova, T. N.

    2017-01-01

    Investigations of Co-based amorphous alloys and Fe-based nanocrystalline alloy failure strain at creep tests within a temperature range being from 300 to 1023 K have been performed. A creep curve analytical form for all investigated alloys has been established.

  8. Thermal Stability of Nanocrystalline Copper Alloyed with Antimony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwater, Mark A.; Mula, Suhrit; Scattergood, Ronald O.; Koch, Carl C.

    2013-12-01

    Nanocrystalline copper (Cu) was generated by cryogenic, high-energy ball milling. Antimony (Sb) was added to investigate its utility in stabilizing the grain structure during annealing up to a maximum temperature of 1073 K (800 °C). When alloyed with Sb in quantities up to 1 at. pct, thermal stability was maintained up to 673 K (400 °C). Cu and Sb have very different molar volumes which can drive segregation of the solute due to the elastic strain energy and hence stabilize the grain size by reducing grain boundary energy. The elastic mismatch of Sb in Cu is calculated to be quite large (113 kJ/mol) when molar volume is used, but when an equivalent equation using atomic radius is applied, the driving force is nearly an order of magnitude lower (~12 kJ/mol). The low elastic mismatch is corroborated by the large equilibrium solubility of Sb in Cu. The results for the Cu-Sb system are compared to the nanocrystalline Ni-W system and the large amount of equilibrium solubility of the solute in both cases is thought to hinder thermal stabilization since segregation is not strongly favored.

  9. Morphology and mechanical properties of nanocrystalline Cu/Ag alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ao; Szlufarska, Izabela

    2017-04-01

    Hybrid Monte Carlo (MC)/molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are conducted to study the microstructures of nanocrystalline (nc) Cu/Ag alloys with various Ag concentrations. When the Ag concentration is below 50 Ag atoms/nm!, an increase in Ag concentration leads to a gradual growth of monolayer grain boundary (GB) complexions into nanolayer complexions. Above the concentration of 50 Ag atoms/nm!, wetting layers with a bulk crystalline phase are observed. The effects of Ag on mechanical properties and deformation mechanisms of nc Cu/Ag alloys are investigated in MD simulations of uniaxial tension. GB sliding resistance is found to first increase and then decrease with an increase in Ag concentration. Surprisingly, we also find that the dislocation density decreases monotonically with an increase in Ag concentration, which suggests that the grain interiors are softened by the introduction of Ag dopants at GBs. In addition, there is a critical Ag concentration that maximizes flow stress of nc Cu/Ag alloys. The flow stress, GB sliding resistance, and the intragranular dislocation densities become less sensitive to Ag dopants when the grain diameter increases from 5nm to 40nm.

  10. Optical Properties of ZnO-Alloyed Nanocrystalline Films

    DOE PAGES

    Che, Hui; Huso, Jesse; Morrison, John L.; ...

    2012-01-01

    ZnO is emore » merging as one of the materials of choice for UV applications. It has a deep excitonic energy level and a direct bandgap of ~3.4 eV. Alloying ZnO with certain atomic constituents adds new optical and electronic functionalities to ZnO. This paper presents research on M g x Z n 1 − x O and Z n S 1 − x O x nanocrystalline flexible films, which enable tunable optical properties in the deep-UV and in the visible range. The ZnO and Mg 0 .3 Zn 0 .7 O films were found to have bandgaps at 3.35 and 4.02 eV, respectively. The photoluminescence of the Mg 0 .3 Zn 0 .7 O exhibited a bandedge emission at 3.95 eV, and at lower energy 3.38 eV due to the limited solubility inherent to these alloys. ZnS 0 .76 O 0 .24 and ZnS 0 .16 O 0 .84 were found to have bandgaps at 3.21 and 2.65 eV, respectively. The effect of nitrogen doping on ZnS 0 .16 O 0 .84 is discussed in terms of the highly lattice mismatched nature of these alloys and the resulting valence-band modification.« less

  11. Simulation of grain size effects in nanocrystalline shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahluwalia, Rajeev; Quek, Siu Sin; Wu, David T.

    2015-06-01

    Recently, it has been demonstrated that martensitic transformation in nanocrystalline shape memory alloys can be suppressed for small grain sizes. Motivated by these results, we study the grain size dependence of martensitic transformations and stress-strain response of nanocrystalline shape memory alloys within the framework of the Ginzburg-Landau (GL) theory. A GL model for a square to rectangle transformation in polycrystals is extended to account for grain boundary effects. We propose that an inhibition of the transformation in grain boundary regions can occur, if the grain boundary energy of the martensite is higher than that of the austenite phase. We show that this inhibition of transformation in grain boundary regions has a strong influence on domain patterns inside grains. Although the transformation is inhibited only at the grain boundaries, it leads to a suppression of the transformation even inside the grains as grain size is decreased. In fact, below a critical grain size, the transformation can be completely suppressed. We explain these results in terms of the extra strain gradient cost associated with grain boundaries, when the transformation is inhibited at grain boundaries. On the other hand, no significant size effects are observed when transformation is not inhibited at grain boundaries. We also study the grain size dependence of the stress strain curve. It is found that when the transformation is inhibited at grain boundaries, a significant reduction in the hysteresis associated with stress-strain curves during the loading-unloading cycles is observed. The hysteresis for this situation reduces even further as the grain size is reduced, which is consistent with recent experiments. The simulations also demonstrate that the mechanical behavior is influenced by inter-granular interactions and the local microstructural neighbourhood of a grain has a stronger influence than the orientation of the grain itself.

  12. Elastic moduli of nanocrystalline binary Al alloys with Fe, Co, Ti, Mg and Pb alloying elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babicheva, Rita I.; Bachurin, Dmitry V.; Dmitriev, Sergey V.; Zhang, Ying; Kok, Shaw Wei; Bai, Lichun; Zhou, Kun

    2016-05-01

    The paper studies the elastic moduli of nanocrystalline (NC) Al and NC binary Al-X alloys (X is Fe, Co, Ti, Mg or Pb) by using molecular dynamics simulations. X atoms in the alloys are either segregated to grain boundaries (GBs) or distributed randomly as in disordered solid solution. At 0 K, the rigidity of the alloys increases with decrease in atomic radii of the alloying elements. An addition of Fe, Co or Ti to the NC Al leads to increase in the Young's E and shear μ moduli, while an alloying with Pb decreases them. The elastic moduli of the alloys depend on a distribution of the alloying elements. The alloys with the random distribution of Fe or Ti demonstrate larger E and μ than those for the corresponding alloys with GB segregations, while the rigidity of the Al-Co alloy is higher for the case of the GB segregations. The moduli E and μ for polycrystalline aggregates of Al and Al-X alloys with randomly distributed X atoms are estimated based on the elastic constants of corresponding single-crystals according to the Voigt-Reuss-Hill approximation, which neglects the contribution of GBs to the rigidity. The results show that GBs in NC materials noticeably reduce their rigidity. Furthermore, the temperature dependence of μ for the NC Al-X alloys is analyzed. Only the Al-Co alloy with GB segregations shows the decrease in μ to the lowest extent in the temperature range of 0-600 K in comparison with the NC pure Al.

  13. Synthesis and consolidation of γ-Ni-Fe nanoalloy powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. S.; Nam, J. G.; Knorr, P.

    1999-04-01

    The present work studies the synthesis and consolidation of γ-Ni-Fe nanoalloy powder by the mechano-chemical process comprising high-energy ball-milling of NiO-Fe2O3 powder and a subsequent hydrogen reduction process. To examine the formation mechanism of the nanoalloy powder, the effect of the oxide powder char-acteristics on the reduction process and alloying was investigated by varying the ball-milling time. The reduction process and the alloying of the γ-Ni-Fe phase proved to accelerate as the ball-milling time increased. However, prolonged milling (for 30 hours) retarded the reduction of Fe2O3 as well as the alloying process. The densification process of the Ni-Fe nanoalloy powder strongly depended on the degree of agglomeration which results in enhancing homogeneous sintering. The limited densification of the nanoalloy powder originates from the high degree of particle agglomeration. While intra-agglomerate porosity is easily eliminated in the course of sintering, it is found to resist densification. The limitation of the sintered density could be overcome by increasing the green density of the powder compacts. Full density was achieved by starting with a green density of 72% theoretical density.

  14. Structural Investigations of Nanocrystalline Cu-Cr-Mo Alloy Prepared by High-Energy Ball Milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Avanish; Pradhan, Sunil Kumar; Jayasankar, Kalidoss; Debata, Mayadhar; Sharma, Rajendra Kumar; Mandal, Animesh

    2017-02-01

    Cu-Cr-Mo alloy could be a suitable candidate material for collector electrodes in high-power microwave tube devices. An attempt has been made to synthesize ternary Cu-Cr-Mo alloys by mechanical alloying of elemental Cu, Cr, and Mo powders, to extend the solid solubility of Cr and Mo in Cu, using a commercial planetary ball mill. For the first ternary alloy, a mixture of 80 wt.% Cu, 10 wt.% Cr, and 10 wt.% Mo was mechanically milled for 50 h. For the second ternary alloy, a mixture of 50 wt.% Cr and 50 wt.% Mo was mechanically milled for 50 h to obtain nanocrystalline Cr(Mo) alloy, which was later added to Cu powder and milled for 40 h to obtain Cu-20 wt.%Cr(Mo) alloy. Both nanocrystalline Cu-Cr-Mo ternary alloys exhibited crystallite size below 20 nm. It was concluded that, with addition of nanocrystalline Cr(Mo) to Cu, it was possible to extend the solid solubility of Cr and Mo in Cu, which otherwise was not possible by mechanical alloying of elemental powders. The resulting microstructure of the Cu-20 wt.%Cr(Mo) alloy comprised a homogeneous distribution of fine and hard (Cr, Mo) particles in a copper matrix. Furthermore, Cu-20 wt.%Cr(Mo) alloy showed better densification compared with Cu-10 wt.%Cr-10 wt.%Mo alloy.

  15. Nanoscale thermodynamic study on phase transformation in the nanocrystalline Sm2Co17 alloy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenwu; Song, Xiaoyan; Lu, Nianduan; Seyring, Martin; Rettenmayr, Markus

    2009-11-01

    The characteristics of phase transformation in nanocrystalline alloys were studied both theoretically and experimentally from the viewpoint of thermodynamics. With a developed thermodynamic model, the dependence of phase stability and phase transformation tendency on the temperature and the nanograin size were calculated for the nanocrystalline Sm(2)Co(17) alloy. It is thermodynamically predicted that the critical grain size for the phase transformation between hexagonal and rhombohedral nanocrystalline Sm(2)Co(17) phases increases with increasing temperature. When the grain size is reduced to below 30 nm, the hexagonal Sm(2)Co(17) phase can stay stable at room temperature, which is a stable phase only at temperatures above 1520 K in the conventional polycrystalline alloys. A series of experiments were performed to investigate the correlation between the phase constitution and the grain structure in the nanocrystalline Sm(2)Co(17) alloy with different grain size levels. The experimental results agree well with the thermodynamic predictions of the grain-size dependence of the room-temperature phase stability. It is proposed that at a given temperature the thermodynamic properties, as well as the phase stability and phase transformation behavior of the nanocrystalline alloys, are modulated by the variation of nanograin size, i.e. the grain size effects on the structure and energy state of the nanograin boundaries.

  16. Mechanochemical synthesis of nanocrystalline Fe and Fe-B magnetic alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, Majid; Ghasemi, Ali; Tavoosi, Majid

    2016-12-01

    Mechanochemical synthesis and magnetic characterization of nanocrystalline Fe and Fe-B magnetic alloys was the goal of this study. In this regard, different Fe2O3-B2O3 powder mixtures with sufficient amount of CaH2 were milled in a planetary ball mill in order to produce nanocrystalline Fe, Fe95B5 and Fe85B15 alloys. The produced samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The results showed that, nanocrystalline Fe, Fe95B5 and Fe85B15 alloys can be successfully synthesized by the reduction reaction of Fe2O3 and B2O3 with CaH2 during mechanical alloying. The structure of produced Fe95B5 and Fe85B15 alloys was a combination of Fe and Fe2B phases with average crystallite sizes of about 15 and 10 nm, respectively. The produced nanocrystalline alloys exhibited soft magnetic properties with the coercivity and saturation of magnetization in the range of 170-240 Oe and 9-28 emu/g, respectively. Increasing the boron content has a destructive effect on soft magnetic properties of Fe-B alloys.

  17. Anomalous behavior of curves of pseudo-elastic deformation of Ni-Fe-Ga-Co alloy crystals as a result of interphase stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malygin, G. A.; Nikolaev, V. I.; Averkin, A. I.; Zograf, A. P.

    2016-12-01

    The compression diagram of Ni49Fe18Ga27Co6 alloy crystals in the [011] direction was studied until full shape memory strain at various temperatures in the range of 259-340 K. It is found that all load curves are anomalously shaped and contain portions of sharp and gradual decreases in deformation stresses. Simulation of pseudo-elastic stress-strain curves within the theory of diffuse martensitic transitions, describing not only equilibrium of phases, but also the kinetics of the transition between them, shows that elastic interphase stresses during martensitic reactions Ll 2 → 14 M and 14 M → Ll 0 characteristic of this alloy can be responsible for the extraordinary shape of compression diagrams.

  18. Nanocrystalline films of soft magnetic iron-based alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheftel', E. N.; Bannykh, O. A.

    2006-10-01

    The physicochemical and structural aspects of designing soft magnetic alloys Fe- MX (where M is a Group III V metal of the periodic table and X = C, N, O) in the form of nanocrystalline films precipitation-hardened by refractory interstitial phases are discussed and developed. The results of studying the structure and magnetic properties of Fe78Zr10N12 films are reported. The films in the amorphous state are produced by reactive magnetron sputtering. Upon annealing at 300 600°C, the amorphous films crystallize to form mainly a bcc α-Fe-based phase and the fcc ZrN phase. The grain size of the bcc phase is shown to increase from ˜3 nm to ˜30 nm as the annealing temperature increases; the grain size of the fcc phase does not exceed 2 3 nm. Films annealed at 400°C exhibit a record level of magnetic properties: H c = 5 6 A/m and B s = 1.7 1.8 T. The experimental results obtained confirm the validity of our scientific approach.

  19. Ultrasonically assisted hydrothermal synthesis of nanocrystalline ZrO2, TiO2, NiFe2O4 and Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 powders.

    PubMed

    Meskin, Pavel E; Ivanov, Vladimir K; Barantchikov, Alexander E; Churagulov, Bulat R; Tretyakov, Yury D

    2006-01-01

    Ultrasonic-hydrothermal and hydrothermal treatment was used for synthesis of nanocrystalline zirconia, titania, nickel and nickel-zinc ferrites powders from precipitated amorphous zirconyl, titanyl, binary nickel-iron and ternary nickel-zinc-iron hydroxides, respectively. Resulted nanopowders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nitrogen adsorption (BET), and magnetic susceptibility measurements. It was established that ultrasonically assisted hydrothermal treatment of amorphous zirconyl and titanyl gels results in significant rise of the rate of ZrO2 and TiO2 crystallization and promotes formation of thermodynamically stable monoclinic zirconia, but does not affect the microstructure and mean particles size of resulting nanopowders. Ultrasonic-hydrothermal processing of co-precipitated amorphous nickel, zinc and iron hydroxides favours formation of nanocrystalline ferrite powders with narrower particle size distribution.

  20. Giant and reversible room-temperature elastocaloric effect in a single-crystalline Ni-Fe-Ga magnetic shape memory alloy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Zhao, Dewei; Liu, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Good mechanical properties and large adiabatic temperature change render Heusler-type Ni2FeGa-based magnetic shape memory alloys as a promising candidate material for solid-state mechanical cooling application at ambient conditions. Superelastic behavior and associated elastocaloric effect strongly reply on deformation conditions (e.g. applied strain rate and strain level) of stress-induced martensitic transformations. With the aim of developing high-performance elastic cooling materials, in this work, we have carried out a systematic study on a Ni54Fe19Ga27 [420]-oriented single crystal by exploring the interaction between dynamic deformation parameters and thermal response. A giant and reversible adiabatic temperature change of ±7.5 K triggered by a low stress of 30 MPa was achieved. Such a high specific cooling performance thus offers the great advantage for the small scale solid-state mechanical cooling applications. Besides, a significant temporary residual strain effect has been observed at high strain rate, which is unfavorable for reversible elastocaloric effect but can be overcome by reducing stress hysteresis, and/or by elevating initial environmental temperature. The established criterion for the desirable reversible elastocaloric properties goes beyond the present system, and can be applicable for other shape memory alloys used for elastic cooling techniques. PMID:27138030

  1. Abiotic ammonium formation in the presence of Ni-Fe metals and alloys and its implications for the Hadean nitrogen cycle.

    PubMed

    Smirnov, Alexander; Hausner, Douglas; Laffers, Richard; Strongin, Daniel R; Schoonen, Martin A A

    2008-05-19

    Experiments with dinitrogen-, nitrite-, nitrate-containing solutions were conducted without headspace in Ti reactors (200 degrees C), borosilicate septum bottles (70 degrees C) and HDPE tubes (22 degrees C) in the presence of Fe and Ni metal, awaruite (Ni80Fe20) and tetrataenite (Ni50Fe50). In general, metals used in this investigation were more reactive than alloys toward all investigated nitrogen species. Nitrite and nitrate were converted to ammonium more rapidly than dinitrogen, and the reduction process had a strong temperature dependence. We concluded from our experimental observations that Hadean submarine hydrothermal systems could have supplied significant quantities of ammonium for reactions that are generally associated with prebiotic synthesis, especially in localized environments. Several natural meteorites (octahedrites) were found to contain up to 22 ppm Ntot. While the oxidation state of N in the octahedrites was not determined, XPS analysis of metals and alloys used in the study shows that N is likely present as nitride (N3-). This observation may have implications toward the Hadean environment, since, terrestrial (e.g., oceanic) ammonium production may have been supplemented by reduced nitrogen delivered by metal-rich meteorites. This notion is based on the fact that nitrogen dissolves into metallic melts.

  2. Giant and reversible room-temperature elastocaloric effect in a single-crystalline Ni-Fe-Ga magnetic shape memory alloy.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Zhao, Dewei; Liu, Jian

    2016-05-03

    Good mechanical properties and large adiabatic temperature change render Heusler-type Ni2FeGa-based magnetic shape memory alloys as a promising candidate material for solid-state mechanical cooling application at ambient conditions. Superelastic behavior and associated elastocaloric effect strongly reply on deformation conditions (e.g. applied strain rate and strain level) of stress-induced martensitic transformations. With the aim of developing high-performance elastic cooling materials, in this work, we have carried out a systematic study on a Ni54Fe19Ga27 [420]-oriented single crystal by exploring the interaction between dynamic deformation parameters and thermal response. A giant and reversible adiabatic temperature change of ±7.5 K triggered by a low stress of 30 MPa was achieved. Such a high specific cooling performance thus offers the great advantage for the small scale solid-state mechanical cooling applications. Besides, a significant temporary residual strain effect has been observed at high strain rate, which is unfavorable for reversible elastocaloric effect but can be overcome by reducing stress hysteresis, and/or by elevating initial environmental temperature. The established criterion for the desirable reversible elastocaloric properties goes beyond the present system, and can be applicable for other shape memory alloys used for elastic cooling techniques.

  3. Abiotic ammonium formation in the presence of Ni-Fe metals and alloys and its implications for the Hadean nitrogen cycle

    PubMed Central

    Smirnov, Alexander; Hausner, Douglas; Laffers, Richard; Strongin, Daniel R; Schoonen, Martin AA

    2008-01-01

    Experiments with dinitrogen-, nitrite-, nitrate-containing solutions were conducted without headspace in Ti reactors (200°C), borosilicate septum bottles (70°C) and HDPE tubes (22°C) in the presence of Fe and Ni metal, awaruite (Ni80Fe20) and tetrataenite (Ni50Fe50). In general, metals used in this investigation were more reactive than alloys toward all investigated nitrogen species. Nitrite and nitrate were converted to ammonium more rapidly than dinitrogen, and the reduction process had a strong temperature dependence. We concluded from our experimental observations that Hadean submarine hydrothermal systems could have supplied significant quantities of ammonium for reactions that are generally associated with prebiotic synthesis, especially in localized environments. Several natural meteorites (octahedrites) were found to contain up to 22 ppm Ntot. While the oxidation state of N in the octahedrites was not determined, XPS analysis of metals and alloys used in the study shows that N is likely present as nitride (N3-). This observation may have implications toward the Hadean environment, since, terrestrial (e.g., oceanic) ammonium production may have been supplemented by reduced nitrogen delivered by metal-rich meteorites. This notion is based on the fact that nitrogen dissolves into metallic melts. PMID:18489746

  4. Giant and reversible room-temperature elastocaloric effect in a single-crystalline Ni-Fe-Ga magnetic shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yang; Zhao, Dewei; Liu, Jian

    2016-05-01

    Good mechanical properties and large adiabatic temperature change render Heusler-type Ni2FeGa-based magnetic shape memory alloys as a promising candidate material for solid-state mechanical cooling application at ambient conditions. Superelastic behavior and associated elastocaloric effect strongly reply on deformation conditions (e.g. applied strain rate and strain level) of stress-induced martensitic transformations. With the aim of developing high-performance elastic cooling materials, in this work, we have carried out a systematic study on a Ni54Fe19Ga27 [420]-oriented single crystal by exploring the interaction between dynamic deformation parameters and thermal response. A giant and reversible adiabatic temperature change of ±7.5 K triggered by a low stress of 30 MPa was achieved. Such a high specific cooling performance thus offers the great advantage for the small scale solid-state mechanical cooling applications. Besides, a significant temporary residual strain effect has been observed at high strain rate, which is unfavorable for reversible elastocaloric effect but can be overcome by reducing stress hysteresis, and/or by elevating initial environmental temperature. The established criterion for the desirable reversible elastocaloric properties goes beyond the present system, and can be applicable for other shape memory alloys used for elastic cooling techniques.

  5. Recent progress in high Bs Fe-based nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, M.; Yoshizawa, Y.

    2011-02-01

    High saturation magnetic flux density (high-Bs) alloy has been developed in an Fe-based nanocrystalline alloy system. A nanocrystalline phase with an average grain size of about 20 nm is obtained by annealing Cu-substituted and/or Cu-and-Si-complex-substituted Fe-B amorphous alloys. The alloy exhibits low coercivity of less than 7 A m-1 and a high Bs of more than 1.8 T. The iron loss at 50 Hz and 1.6 T for a toroidal core made of Fe80.5Cu1.5Si4B14 nanocrystalline alloy is 0.46 W kg-1, which is about 2/3 of that of grain-oriented Si steel. Moreover, the iron loss at 10 kHz and 0.2 T for a wound core made of this alloy is 7.5 W kg-1, which is about 25% of that of non-grain-oriented Si steel and about 60% of that of an Fe-based amorphous alloy. In addition, the cut cores made of the alloy show good superimposed dc-current characteristics and appear promising in applications such as power choke coils (at the high-frequency region).

  6. Influence of partial shape memory deformation on the burst character of its recovery in heated Ni-Fe-Ga-Co alloy crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaev, V. I.; Yakushev, P. N.; Malygin, G. A.; Averkin, A. I.; Pulnev, S. A.; Zograf, G. P.; Kustov, S. B.; Chumlyakov, Yu. I.

    2016-04-01

    Room-temperature stress-strain curves of Ni49Fe18Ga27Co6 alloy single crystals possessing shape memory (SM) have been studied. Specific features of these diagrams are revealed upon compressive loading of these single crystals in the [110] A direction. The influence of preliminary SM deformation on the process of its recovery during the reverse martensite transformation has been studied. It is established that SM deformation above 4.2% leads to a sharp increase in the shape recovery on heating and the process exhibits a burst character, involving motion of the entire crystal. The experimental data are analyzed and stress-strain curves are simulated in the framework of the theory of diffuse martensitic transitions.

  7. In-situ TOF neutron diffraction studies of cyclic softening in superelasticity of a NiFeGaCo shape memory alloy

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Hui; Yu, Dunji; Chen, Yan; ...

    2016-10-24

    Real-time in-situ neutron diffraction was conducted during uniaxial cycling compression of a Ni49.3Fe18Ga27Co5.7 shape memory alloy to explore the mechanism on its superelasticity at room temperature, which was manifested by the almost recoverable large strains and the apparent cyclic softening. Based on the Rietveld refinements, the real-time evolution of volume fraction of martensite was in-situ monitored, indicating the incremental amount of residual martensite with increasing load cycles. Real-time changes in intensities and lattice strains of {hkl} reflections for individual phase were obtained through fitting individual peaks, which reveal the quantitative information on phase transformation kinetics as a function ofmore » grain orientation and stress/strain partitioning. Moreover, a large compressive residual stress was evidenced in the parent phase, which should be balanced by the residual martensite after the second unloading cycle. As a result, the large compressive residual stress found in the parent austenite phase may account for the cyclic effect on critical stress required for triggering the martensitic transformation in the subsequent loading.« less

  8. In-situ TOF neutron diffraction studies of cyclic softening in superelasticity of a NiFeGaCo shape memory alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Hui; Yu, Dunji; Chen, Yan; Mu, Juan; Wang, Y. D.; An, Ke

    2016-10-24

    Real-time in-situ neutron diffraction was conducted during uniaxial cycling compression of a Ni49.3Fe18Ga27Co5.7 shape memory alloy to explore the mechanism on its superelasticity at room temperature, which was manifested by the almost recoverable large strains and the apparent cyclic softening. Based on the Rietveld refinements, the real-time evolution of volume fraction of martensite was in-situ monitored, indicating the incremental amount of residual martensite with increasing load cycles. Real-time changes in intensities and lattice strains of {hkl} reflections for individual phase were obtained through fitting individual peaks, which reveal the quantitative information on phase transformation kinetics as a function of grain orientation and stress/strain partitioning. Moreover, a large compressive residual stress was evidenced in the parent phase, which should be balanced by the residual martensite after the second unloading cycle. As a result, the large compressive residual stress found in the parent austenite phase may account for the cyclic effect on critical stress required for triggering the martensitic transformation in the subsequent loading.

  9. Microstructural evolution of nanocrystalline Fe–Zr alloys upon annealing treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, X.H.; Chen, Y.Z.; Ma, X.Y.; Wang, H.T.; Liu, F.

    2015-05-15

    Nanocrystalline Fe–Zr alloys exhibit an extraordinary thermal stability at elevated temperatures, which enables their potential applications in various fields. However, there remain concerns regarding the controlling stabilization mechanisms responsible for their thermal stability. In this work, two nanocrystalline Fe–Zr alloys containing 1 at.% Zr and 5 at.% Zr were annealed at various temperatures (T{sub ann}) up to 900 °C. Microstructural evolution of the alloys upon annealing was investigated by means of an X-ray diffractometer equipped with a 2-dimensional detector and transmission electron microscopy. Below 600 °C, microstructures of the two alloys consist of single nanocrystalline ferrite whose grain size is rather stable upon annealing treatments. Above 600 °C, accompanying the precipitation of Fe{sub 3}Zr phase, an apparent grain coarsening of ferrite is observed, whereas the thermal stability of the alloys is still considerably higher than that of nanocrystalline pure Fe. Based on the experimental results, it was claimed that stabilization of the nanocrystalline Fe–Zr alloys should not be totally ascribed to the thermodynamic stabilization mechanism due to the reduction in grain boundary energy as suggested in earlier investigations [K.A. Darling et al., Scr. Mater. 59 (2008) 530 and K.A. Darling et al., Mater. Sci. Eng. A527 (2010) 3572]; when T{sub ann} is higher than 600 °C, along with the precipitation of Fe{sub 3}Zr, the effect of thermodynamic stabilization is weakened, the kinetic effect arising from Zener pinning of Fe{sub 3}Zr precipitates turns to be an important mechanism contributing to the stabilization of the nanoscale grain size. - Highlights: • We show clear evidence of precipitation of Fe{sub 3}Zr phase above 600 °C. • Stabilization of nanostructure is not solely controlled by thermodynamic mechanism. • Above 600 °C, Zener pinning plays an important role in stabilizing nanostructure.

  10. Cu-Ni-Fe anodes having improved microstructure

    DOEpatents

    Bergsma, S. Craig; Brown, Craig W.

    2004-04-20

    A method of producing aluminum in a low temperature electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte. The method comprises the steps of providing a molten electrolyte having alumina dissolved therein in an electrolytic cell containing the electrolyte. A non-consumable anode and cathode is disposed in the electrolyte, the anode comprised of Cu--Ni--Fe alloys having single metallurgical phase. Electric current is passed from the anode, through the electrolyte to the cathode thereby depositing aluminum on the cathode, and molten aluminum is collected from the cathode.

  11. Magnetic properties of nanocrystalline transition metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aus, Martin J.

    1999-09-01

    In the past decade, considerable attention has been devoted to the nanoprocessing of magnetic materials to enhance specific magnetic properties. For nanocrystalline materials in which the grain size approaches the dimensions of the domain wall thickness of conventional materials, considerable changes in magnetic behaviour are expected. In the present work, various electrodeposited ferromagnetic nanocrystalline pure metals and alloys were characterized by using a vibrating sample magnetometer. The systems investigated include pure Ni and Co as well as alloys of Ni-P, Ni-Fe and Co-Fe. These studies explored the effect of gram size on coercivity, indicating that the crystallographic texture is more significant than gram size. In addition, these studies reported, for the first time, that saturation magnetization of pore-free electroplated bulk nanocrystalline transition metals and their alloys is relatively little affected by grain size. In contrast, previously reported results for ultra-fine particles and nanomaterials produced from compacted powders showed a strong decrease in saturation magnetization with decreasing grain size. The difference in results for pore-free electrodeposits and ultrafine particles/compacted powders has been attributed to antiferromagnetic surface oxide layers, which is a direct result of large internal porosity in the latter group of materials. Further magnetic studies were completed on nanocrystalline electrodeposits produced by magnetoelectrohydrolysis. The effects of applied magnetic field strength and substrate orientation on saturation magnetization and coercivity of Ni-Fe and Co were explored. The results have shown that both nanoprocessing and electroplating in a magnetic field can improve soft magnetic properties by lowering the coercivity. Thermomagnetic studies examined saturation magnetization as a function of temperature, Curie temperature and coercivity changes during annealing. The Curie temperatures of electrodeposited

  12. Stability of nanocrystalline Ni-based alloys: coupling Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waseda, O.; Goldenstein, H.; Silva, G. F. B. Lenz e.; Neiva, A.; Chantrenne, P.; Morthomas, J.; Perez, M.; Becquart, C. S.; Veiga, R. G. A.

    2017-10-01

    The thermal stability of nanocrystalline Ni due to small additions of Mo or W (up to 1 at%) was investigated in computer simulations by means of a combined Monte Carlo (MC)/molecular dynamics (MD) two-steps approach. In the first step, energy-biased on-lattice MC revealed segregation of the alloying elements to grain boundaries. However, the condition for the thermodynamic stability of these nanocrystalline Ni alloys (zero grain boundary energy) was not fulfilled. Subsequently, MD simulations were carried out for up to 0.5 μs at 1000 K. At this temperature, grain growth was hindered for minimum global concentrations of 0.5 at% W and 0.7 at% Mo, thus preserving most of the nanocrystalline structure. This is in clear contrast to a pure Ni model system, for which the transformation into a monocrystal was observed in MD simulations within 0.2 μs at the same temperature. These results suggest that grain boundary segregation of low-soluble alloying elements in low-alloyed systems can produce high-temperature metastable nanocrystalline materials. MD simulations carried out at 1200 K for 1 at% Mo/W showed significant grain boundary migration accompanied by some degree of solute diffusion, thus providing additional evidence that solute drag mostly contributed to the nanostructure stability observed at lower temperature.

  13. Deformation behavior and microstructural evolution of nanocrystalline aluminum alloys and composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Byungmin

    Nanocrystalline or ultrafine-grained Al alloys are often produced by severe plastic deformation methods and exhibit remarkably enhanced strength and hardness compared to conventional coarse-grained materials, resulting in great potential for structural applications. To achieve nanocrystalline structure, grains were refined by cryomilling (mechanical milling at cryogenic temperature) pre-alloyed powders. Cryomilling provides capability for rapid grain refinement and synthesis of commercial quantities (30-40 kg). The cryomilled powder was primarily consolidated by hot or cold isostatic pressing in general. Secondary consolidation was achieved by extrusion or forging. Alternatively, quasi-isostatic forging was applied either as an initial consolidation or as a further deformation step. To improve insufficient ductility and toughness of nanocrystalline materials, an intelligent design with microstructural modification was introduced by generation of multiple size scales. A bimodal grain structure consisting of nanocrystalline grains and inclusions of coarse-grained material was produced by consolidation of blended powders. The resulting materials exhibited enhanced ductility compared to 100% nanocrystalline materials, with only moderate decreases in strength. A similar process was used to produce hybrid trimodal microstructures comprised of regions of nanocrystalline and coarse grains, as well as hard ceramic particles, providing super-high compressive strength. For cryomilled nanocrystalline Al alloys, effects of degassing temperature were investigated in terms of microstructural evolution. Higher degassing temperatures resulted in higher density and lower hydrogen content, which can reduce loss of toughness in consolidated materials. Different consolidation methods were compared with regard to the relation between the microstructures and mechanical properties. Quasi-isostatic forging led to greater and more isotropic fracture toughness, compared with other processing

  14. Structural, thermal and magnetic investigations on immiscible Ag-Co nanocrystalline alloy with addition of Mn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, B. N.; Chabri, S.; Sardar, G.; Nath, D. N.; Chattopadhyay, P. P.

    2016-08-01

    50Ag-50Co (at%) and 40Ag-40Co-20Mn (at%) alloys prepared by ball milling up to 50 h and subsequent isothermal annealing at the temperature range of 350-650 °C for 1 h has been investigated systematically. Mn promotes early formation of the nanostructures and solid solutions of the alloys by ball milling. In contrast, annealing at 350 °C of Ag-Co alloy resulted the dissolution of hcp Co. Annealing above 350 °C decomposes the metastable Ag-Co alloy into the polycrystalline and segregated Ag and fcc Co. Enthalpy of mixing of both the alloy has increased with increase in milling time. Both the nanocrystalline alloys prepared by ball milling and annealing have been revealed the ferromagnetic behavior. The most significant improvement of magnetic properties is yielded in as-milled Ag-Co-Mn alloy obtained after annealing at 550 °C for 1 h.

  15. "Bulk" Nanocrystalline Metals: Review of the Current State of the Art and Future Opportunities for Copper and Copper Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschopp, M. A.; Murdoch, H. A.; Kecskes, L. J.; Darling, K. A.

    2014-06-01

    It is a new beginning for innovative fundamental and applied science in nanocrystalline materials. Many of the processing and consolidation challenges that have haunted nanocrystalline materials are now more fully understood, opening the doors for bulk nanocrystalline materials and parts to be produced. While challenges remain, recent advances in experimental, computational, and theoretical capability have allowed for bulk specimens that have heretofore been pursued only on a limited basis. This article discusses the methodology for synthesis and consolidation of bulk nanocrystalline materials using mechanical alloying, the alloy development and synthesis process for stabilizing these materials at elevated temperatures, and the physical and mechanical properties of nanocrystalline materials with a focus throughout on nanocrystalline copper and a nanocrystalline Cu-Ta system, consolidated via equal channel angular extrusion, with properties rivaling that of nanocrystalline pure Ta. Moreover, modeling and simulation approaches as well as experimental results for grain growth, grain boundary processes, and deformation mechanisms in nanocrystalline copper are briefly reviewed and discussed. Integrating experiments and computational materials science for synthesizing bulk nanocrystalline materials can bring about the next generation of ultrahigh strength materials for defense and energy applications.

  16. Solid-state synthesis and phase transformations in Ni/Fe films: Structural and magnetic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myagkov, V. G.; Zhigalov, V. C.; Bykova, L. E.; Bondarenko, G. N.

    2006-10-01

    We have used X-ray diffraction, volume magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant and resistance measurements to study solid-state synthesis in Ni(0 0 1)/Fe(0 0 1), Ni/Fe(0 0 1) and Ni/Fe thin films with the atomic ratio between Fe and Ni of 1:1 (1Fe:1Ni), and 3:1 (3Fe:1Ni). We have found that the formation of Ni 3Fe and NiFe phases in the 1Fe:1Ni films takes place at temperatures ˜620 and ˜720 K, correspondingly. In the case of the 3Fe:1Ni films the solid-state synthesis starts with Ni 3Fe and NiFe phase formation at the same temperatures as for the 1Fe:1Ni films. The increasing of annealing temperature above 820 K leads to the nucleation of a paramagnetic γpar phase at the FeNi/Fe interface. The final products of solid-state synthesis in the Ni(0 0 1)/Fe(0 0 1) thin films are crystallites which consist of the epitaxially intergrown NiFe and γpar phases according to the [1 0 0](0 0 1)NiFe||[1 0 0](0 0 1) γpar orientation relationship. The crystalline perfection and epitaxial growth of the (NiFe+ γpar) crystallites on the MgO(0 0 1) surface allow to distinguish (0 0 2) γpar and (0 0 2)NiFe X-ray peaks (the cell parameters are: a( γpar)=0.3600±0.0005 nm and a(NiFe)=0.3578±0.0005 nm, correspondingly). At low temperatures the paramagnetic γpar phase undergoes the martensite γ→α' phase transition which can be hindered by thermal and epitaxial strains and epitaxial clamping with a MgO substrate. On the basis of the studies of the thin-film solid-state synthesis we predict the existence of two novel structural phase transformations at the temperatures of about 720 and 820 K for alloys of the invar region of the Fe-Ni system.

  17. Effects of grain size on the properties of bulk nanocrystalline Co-Ni alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Gui-Ying; Xiao, Fu-Ren

    2017-08-01

    Bulk nanocrystalline Co78Ni22 alloys with grain size ranging from 5 nm to 35 nm were prepared by high-speed jet electrodeposition (HSJED) and annealing. Microhardness and magnetic properties of these alloys were investigated by microhardness tester and vibrating sample magnetometer. Effects of grain size on these characteristics were also discussed. Results show that the microhardness of nanocrystalline Co78Ni22 alloys increases following a d -1/2-power law with decreasing grain size d. This phenomenon fits the Hall-Petch law when the grain size ranges from 5 nm to 35 nm. However, coercivity H c increases following a 1/d-power law with increasing grain size when the grain size ranges from 5 nm to 15.9 nm. Coercivity H c decreases again for grain sizes above 16.6 nm according to the d 6-power law.

  18. Bottom and top AF/FM interfaces of NiFe/FeMn/NiFe trilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, V. P.; Passamani, E. C.; Alvarenga, A. D.; Biondo, A.; Pelegrini, F.; Saitovitch, E. Baggio

    2008-01-01

    X-ray reflectivity analyses were performed in the Si/WTi (7 nm)/NiFe (30 nm)/FeMn (13 nm)/NiFe (10 nm)/WTi (7 nm) exchange-biased system prepared by magnetron sputtering under three different argon working pressures. Layer-by-layer analyses were realized in order to obtain the interfacial roughness parameters quantitatively. For a fixed argon pressure, the root-mean-square roughness (including the atomic grading) of the upper (FeMn/NiFe) interface are greater than that for the lower one in all studied samples. Argon working pressure also has severe influence over the NiFe/FeMn interfaces, being more pronounced at the upper interfaces.

  19. Electrodeposition of nanocrystalline Zn-Ni alloy from alkaline glycinate bath containing saccharin as additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosavat, S. H.; Bahrololoom, M. E.; Shariat, M. H.

    2011-08-01

    Nanocrystalline Zn-Ni (crystallite sizes 13-68 nm) alloy coatings were produced from an alkaline glycinate bath containing saccharin as additive. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to determine the phase composition and average crystallite size of nanocrystalline Zn-Ni alloy coatings. The average grain size of a deposit was also studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effects of saccharin concentration and current density on the crystallite size and surface roughness of the coatings were studied. Crystallite size and average surface roughness were diminished as a result of increasing saccharin concentration. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination showed that coatings had a colony-like morphology and the colony size was increased with increasing current density. Microhardness testing was carried out in order to determine the degree of dependence of this mechanical property on the crystallite size. It was found that microhardness did not depend on crystallite size (Hall-Petch).

  20. Control of nanocrystalline orientation using the application of a stress field in an amorphous alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogura, A.; Tarumi, R.; Shimojo, M.; Takashima, K.; Higo, Y.

    2001-08-01

    Precipitation of nanocrystals in a Ni-P amorphous alloy film during application of a stress field has been investigated. Microsized cantilever-beam-type specimens were prepared from the film by focused-ion-beam machining and bending stress was applied to the specimen using a mechanical testing machine for microsized specimens. Transmission electron microscopy observation in the plane strain deformed region has revealed that the deformation induces the precipitation of nanocrystalline Ni particles, and a (111) plane of all crystalline particles is aligned parallel to the side surface of the specimen. This suggests that control of the nanocrystalline orientation in amorphous alloys would be possible using the application of a stress field.

  1. Novel synthesis of Ni-ferrite (NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) electrode material for supercapacitor applications

    SciTech Connect

    Venkatachalam, V.; Jayavel, R.

    2015-06-24

    Novel nanocrystalline NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} has been synthesized through combustion route using citric acid as a fuel. Phase of the synthesized material was analyzed using powder X-ray diffraction. The XRD study revealed the formation of spinel phase cubic NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} with high crystallinity. The average crystallite size of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanomaterial was calculated from scherrer equation. The electrochemical properties were realized by cyclic voltammetry, chronopotentiometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The electrode material shows a maximum specific capacitance of 454 F/g with pseudocapacitive behavior. High capacitance retention of electrode material over 1000 continuous charging-discharging cycles suggests its excellent electrochemical stability. The results revealed that the nickel ferrite electrode is a potential candidate for energy storage applications in supercapacitor.

  2. Novel synthesis of Ni-ferrite (NiFe2O4) electrode material for supercapacitor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatachalam, V.; Jayavel, R.

    2015-06-01

    Novel nanocrystalline NiFe2O4 has been synthesized through combustion route using citric acid as a fuel. Phase of the synthesized material was analyzed using powder X-ray diffraction. The XRD study revealed the formation of spinel phase cubic NiFe2O4 with high crystallinity. The average crystallite size of NiFe2O4 nanomaterial was calculated from scherrer equation. The electrochemical properties were realized by cyclic voltammetry, chronopotentiometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The electrode material shows a maximum specific capacitance of 454 F/g with pseudocapacitive behavior. High capacitance retention of electrode material over 1000 continuous charging-discharging cycles suggests its excellent electrochemical stability. The results revealed that the nickel ferrite electrode is a potential candidate for energy storage applications in supercapacitor.

  3. Indentation creep in nanocrystalline Fe-TiN and Ni-TiN alloys prepared by mechanical alloying

    SciTech Connect

    Ogino, Yoshikiyo; Yamasaki, Tohru; Shen, B.L.

    1997-04-01

    Mechanical properties of nanocrystalline Fe-TiN and Ni-TiN alloys with various TiN contents between 17 and 64 vol pct, which are prepared by dynamically consolidating mechanically alloyed powders, have been investigated by means of hardness measurements and indentation creep tests at intermediate temperatures. The hardness increases with decreasing grain size to about 10 nm. The indentation creep curves conform well to an equation derived from a transient creep rate equation. The analysis of creep curves indicates that the deformation occurs by a dislocation mechanism controlled by grain boundary diffusion.

  4. Plasticity of nanocrystalline alloys with chemical order: on the strength and ductility of nanocrystalline Ni–Fe

    PubMed Central

    Albe, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    Summary Plastic deformation and alloying of nanocrystalline Ni–Fe is studied by means of atomic scale computer simulations. By using a combination of Monte-Carlo and molecular dynamics methods we find that solutes have an ordering tendency even if grain sizes are in the nanometer regime, where the phase field of the ordered state is widened as compared to larger grain sizes. Tensile testing of disordered structures with various elemental distributions and the simultaneous analysis of intragranular defects reveal that solid solution strengthening is absent for the studied grain sizes. The composition and relaxation state of the grain boundary control the strength of the material, which is also found for ordered structures (L12), where dislocation activity is suppressed. PMID:24205450

  5. Formation of nanocrystalline phases during thermal decomposition of amorphous Ni-P alloys by isothermal annealing.

    PubMed

    Révész, A; Lendvai, J; Cziráki, A; Liebermann, H H; Bakonyi, I

    2001-06-01

    The microstructure and the average grain size were investigated by x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy for nanocrystalline (n) Ni-P alloys with 18, 19, and 22 at.% P. A detailed study of the nanocrystalline states obtained along different heat treatment routes has been performed: (1) a-->ni by isothermal annealing of the melt-quenched amorphous (a) Ni-P alloys; (2) ni-->nii by isothermal annealing of the nanocrystalline ni state; (3) ni-->nii by linear heating of the ni state. The heats evolved during the structural transformations were determined by differential scanning calorimetry. From these studies, a scheme of the structural transformations and their energetics was constructed, which also includes previous results on phases obtained by linear heating of the as-quenched amorphous state of the same alloys. Grain boundary energies also have been estimated. In some cases it was necessary to assume a variation of the specific grain boundary energy during the phase transformation to understand the enthalpy and microstructure changes during the different heat treatments.

  6. Superior magnetic softness at elevated temperature of Si-rich Fe-based nanocrystalline alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Rui-min; Wang, Zhi; Jia, Yun-yun; Wen, Zhuan-ping; Wang, Bo-wen; Zhang, Tao

    2012-10-01

    An excellent high-temperature magnetic softness was observed in a Si-rich nanocrystalline Fe74.5Cu1Nb2Si17.5B5 alloy. The Curie temperatures of amorphous and crystal phases, TCA* and TCcry, for this alloy were detected to be 365 °C and 580 °C, respectively. For the 480 °C-annealed alloy, the initial permeability μi drops to nearly zero just above TCA*; however, for the 540 °C-annealed alloy, the μi of about 10 000 at f = 10 kHz has no perceivable decline in this temperature range and can hold up to more than 400 °C. Such a magnetic softness at elevated temperature is superior to that of Finemet-type Fe-based nanocrystalline alloys ever reported. The origin of the high temperature magnetic softness was interpreted by the enhancement effect of Curie temperature in residual amorphous matrix.

  7. Reduced magnetic coercivity and switching field in NiFeCuMo/Ru/NiFeCuMo synthetic-ferrimagnetic nanodots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Leung, C. W.; Chiu, C.-C.; Lin, K.-W.; Chan, Mansun; Zhou, Y.; Pong, Philip W. T.

    2017-07-01

    The coercivity (Hc) and switching field (Hsw) of free layers increase remarkably with shrinking structural dimensions, reducing the sensitivity of nanosized magnetoresistive sensors. In this work, conetic-alloy (NiFeCuMo) synthetic ferrimagnetic (SyF) trilayers are proposed to reduce Hc and Hsw in magnetic nanostructures. SyF stacks of NiFeCuMo/Ru/NiFeCuMo were patterned into nanodot arrays with diameter of 60 nm by nanosphere lithography. The thickness of Ru layer was chosen so that high interlayer coupling energy existed in the continuous film. The linear dependence of Hc and Hsw of SyF nanodot on the amplification factor was revealed. Magnetic field annealing was conducted at various temperatures (Tan) ranging from 373 K to 673 K. Annealing at low temperature (Tan ≤ 473 K) relaxed the structural disorders, resulting in reduced surface roughness and decreased Hc and Hsw. Higher Tan changed the preferred orientations in the crystalline structures, leading to increased roughness and higher Hc and Hsw. This work shows that the Hc and Hsw of nanostructures can be reduced through engaging Conetic alloy in SyF stack. The Conetic-alloy-based SyF structures are a promising candidate as free layers in nanosized spintronic devices.

  8. Structural and microstructural characterizations of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite synthesized by mechanical alloying.

    PubMed

    Lala, S; Satpati, B; Kar, T; Pradhan, S K

    2013-07-01

    Single phase nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (HAp) powder has been synthesized by mechanical alloying the stoichiometric mixture of CaCO3 and CaHPO4 powders in open air at room temperature, for the first time, within 2 h of milling. Nanocrystalline hexagonal single crystals are obtained by sintering of 2h milled sample at 500 °C. Structural and microstructural properties of as-milled and sintered powders are revealed from both the X-ray line profile analysis and transmission electron microscopy. Shape and lattice strain of nanocrystalline HAp particles are found to be anisotropic in nature. Particle size of HAp powder remains almost invariant up to 10h of milling and there is no significant growth of nanocrystalline HAp particles after sintering at 500 °C for 3 h. Changes in lattice volume and some primary bond lengths of as-milled and sintered are critically measured, which indicate that lattice imperfections introduced into the HAp lattice during ball milling have been reduced partially after sintering the powder at elevated temperatures. We could achieve ~96.7% of theoretical density of HAp within 3h by sintering the pellet of nanocrystalline powder at a lower temperature of 1000 °C. Vickers microhardness (VHN) of the uni-axially pressed (6.86 MPa) pellet of nanocrystalline HAp is 4.5 GPa at 100 gm load which is close to the VHN of bulk HAp sintered at higher temperature. The strain-hardening index (n) of the sintered pellet is found to be >2, indicating a further increase in microhardness value at higher load.

  9. Thermal stability comparison of nanocrystalline Fe-based binary alloy pairs

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Blythe G.; Hattar, Khalid Mikhiel; Marshall, Michael Thomas; Chookajorn, Tonghai; Boyce, Brad L.; Schuh, Christopher A.

    2016-03-24

    Here, the widely recognized property improvements of nanocrystalline (NC) materials have generated significant interest, yet have been difficult to realize in engineering applications due to the propensity for grain growth in these interface-dense systems. While traditional pathways to thermal stabilization can slow the mobility of grain boundaries, recent theories suggest that solute segregation in NC alloy can reduce the grain boundary energy such that thermodynamic stabilization is achieved. Following the predictions of Murdock et al., here we compare for the first time the thermal stability of a predicted NC stable alloy (Fe-10at.% Mg) with a predicted non-NC stable alloy (Fe-10at.% Cu) using the same processing and characterization methodologies. Results indicate improved thermal stability of the Fe-Mg alloy in comparison to the Fe-Cu, and observed microstructures are consistent with those predicted by Monte Carlo simulations.

  10. Thermal stability comparison of nanocrystalline Fe-based binary alloy pairs

    DOE PAGES

    Clark, Blythe G.; Hattar, Khalid Mikhiel; Marshall, Michael Thomas; ...

    2016-03-24

    Here, the widely recognized property improvements of nanocrystalline (NC) materials have generated significant interest, yet have been difficult to realize in engineering applications due to the propensity for grain growth in these interface-dense systems. While traditional pathways to thermal stabilization can slow the mobility of grain boundaries, recent theories suggest that solute segregation in NC alloy can reduce the grain boundary energy such that thermodynamic stabilization is achieved. Following the predictions of Murdock et al., here we compare for the first time the thermal stability of a predicted NC stable alloy (Fe-10at.% Mg) with a predicted non-NC stable alloy (Fe-10at.%more » Cu) using the same processing and characterization methodologies. Results indicate improved thermal stability of the Fe-Mg alloy in comparison to the Fe-Cu, and observed microstructures are consistent with those predicted by Monte Carlo simulations.« less

  11. Thermal Stability Comparison of Nanocrystalline Fe-Based Binary Alloy Pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, B. G.; Hattar, K.; Marshall, M. T.; Chookajorn, T.; Boyce, B. L.; Schuh, C. A.

    2016-06-01

    The widely recognized property improvements of nanocrystalline (NC) materials have generated significant interest; yet, they have been difficult to realize in engineering applications due to the propensity for grain growth in these interface-dominated systems. Although traditional pathways to thermal stabilization can slow the mobility of grain boundaries, recent theories suggest that solute segregation in NC alloys can reduce the grain boundary energy such that thermodynamic stabilization is achieved. Following the predictions of Murdoch et al., here we compare for the first time the thermal stability of a predicted NC stable alloy (Fe-10 at.% Mg) with a predicted non-NC stable alloy (Fe-10 at.% Cu) using the same processing and characterization methodologies. Results show improved thermal stability of the Fe-Mg alloy in comparison with the Fe-Cu, and thermally-evolved microstructures that are consistent with those predicted by Monte Carlo simulations.

  12. Ordering of FeCo nanocrystalline phase in FeCoNbB alloy: An anomalous diffraction study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, P.; Ganguli, Tapas; Sinha, A. K.; Singh, M. N.; Svec, P., Jr.; Deb, S. K.

    2013-02-01

    The effect of Co addition on the atomic ordering of bcc FeCo-phase in partially nanocrystalline Fe81-xCoxNb7B12 alloys (x= 20.25, 27, 40.5, 54, 60.75) was investigated. In the partially nanocrystalline state of the alloy, the anomalous diffraction measurements provides unambiguous evidence of atomically ordered α'-FeCo phase (CsCl type) as the nanocrystalline ferromagnetic phase by the presence of (100) super lattice reflection in all the alloy compositions with x≥ 40.5, this reflection was found absent in specimens with x ≤ 27. The Bragg-Williams long range order parameter (S) possess high value for the alloys close to equi-atomic composition (x=40.5 and 54), however in the specimen with x=60.75 the value of S decreases drastically by almost 60 %, which signifies less degree of ordering in the same.

  13. Domain Structures and Anisotropy in Exchange-coupled [Co/Pd]-NiFe and [Co/Ni]-NiFe Multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tryputen, Larysa; Chung, Sunjae; Mohseni, Majid; Nguyen, T. N. Anh; Åkerman, Johan; Guo, Feng; McMichael, Robert D.; Ross, Caroline A.

    2014-03-01

    Exchange-coupled multilayers [Co/Pd]5-/NiFe and [Co/Ni]4-NiFe with strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy have been proposed to use in spin-torque switching and oscillators devices with tilted fixed and free layer to improve their functional performance. We present an experimental study of the magnetization behavior of [Co/Pd]5-/NiFe and [Co/Ni]4-NiFe multilayers measured using magnetometry, magnetic force microscopy (MFM) and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) as a function of the thickness of the top NiFe layer. We varied the thickness of the NiFe layer in [Co/Pd]5-NiFe (t), t = 0 - 80 nm and [Co/Ni]4-NiFe (t), t = 0.5 - 2.5 nm in order to study the interplay between perpendicular magnetization of the Co/Pd or Co/Ni multilayers and in-plane magnetization of the NiFe. Our magnetometry and FMR data suggest that the [Co/Ni]4/NiFe multilayer behaves like a homogeneous ferromagnetic film with anisotropy that reorients towards in-plane as the NiFe thickness increases, whereas the [Co/Pd]5/NiFe multilayer reveals more complex behavior in which the [Co/Pd] layer retains out-of-plane anisotropy while the magnetization of NiFe layer tilts in-plane with increasing thickness. MFM showed that domains with ~0.1 +/-m size were visible in [Co/Pd]-/NiFe with NiFe thickness of 20-80 nm. Multilayers were patterned into sub-100 nm dots using ion beam etching and their magnetization behavior are compared with unpatterned films.

  14. Nanocrystalline High-Entropy Alloys: A New Paradigm in High-Temperature Strength and Stability.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yu; Wheeler, Jeffrey M; Ma, Huan; Okle, Philipp; Spolenak, Ralph

    2017-03-08

    Metals with nanometer-scale grains or nanocrystalline metals exhibit high strengths at ambient conditions, yet their strengths substantially decrease with increasing temperature, rendering them unsuitable for usage at high temperatures. Here, we show that a nanocrystalline high-entropy alloy (HEA) retains an extraordinarily high yield strength over 5 GPa up to 600 °C, 1 order of magnitude higher than that of its coarse-grained form and 5 times higher than that of its single-crystalline equivalent. As a result, such nanostructured HEAs reveal strengthening figures of merit-normalized strength by the shear modulus above 1/50 and strength-to-density ratios above 0.4 MJ/kg, which are substantially higher than any previously reported values for nanocrystalline metals in the same homologous temperature range, as well as low strain-rate sensitivity of ∼0.005. Nanocrystalline HEAs with these properties represent a new class of nanomaterials for high-stress and high-temperature applications in aerospace, civilian infrastructure, and energy sectors.

  15. PAS consolidating behavior of mechanically alloyed nanocrystalline NiAl intermetallic compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jae Woong; Kang, Sung Goon

    2003-02-01

    In this study, nanocrystalline NiAl intermetallic compound was obtained by mechanical alloying and PAS (plasma activated sintering method). Nanocrystalline NiAl powder was fabricated after 30 hr of milling with 2 wt.% stearic acid added as a PCA (process control agent) to the Ni-50at%Al composition. The grain size of the nanocrystalline NiAl powder was about 10 nm. Nanocrystalline NiAl powder was consolidated at 1000°C, 1100°C, 1200°C and 1300°C for 2 min with 30 MPa compressive force. The surface morphology of the NiAl consolidated at 1300°C was very regular and dense, above 96% of theoretical density (5.9 g/cm3). Al4C3 was observed in the NiAl consolidated at 1300°C by TEM analysis. It is thought that the carbons came from the stearic acid during the MA process and the graphite mold during the PAS process. The grain size of the NiAl consolidated at 1300°C did not increase but the grain shape became flat due to compressive force.

  16. Preparation and electrocatalytic activity of nanocrystalline Ni-Mo-Co alloy electrode for hydrogen evolution.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lijian; Du, Jingjing; Chen, Baizhen

    2013-03-01

    Ni-Mo-Co alloy electrodes were prepared by electrodeposition technique with citric acid as a complexing agent. The influence of the main technical parameters such as the concentration of CoSO4 7H2O, the current density and the bath temperature on the component content in the Ni-Mo-Co alloy electrode were investigated by electron dispersive spectrometer (EDS), the microstructure and surface morphology of Ni-Mo-Co alloy electrodes were characterized by employing X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), and the electrocatalytic activity of Ni-Mo-Co alloy electrode for hydrogen evolution was investigated by the method of the cathode polarization curves. The results showed that the excellent Ni-Mo-Co alloy electrode with 41.39 wt% Ni, 53.82 wt% Mo and 4.79 wt% Co was obtained when the concentration of CoSO4 x 7H2O was 8 g/L, the current density was 12 A/dm2 and the bath temperature was 25 degrees C. The mircostructure of the Ni-Mo-Co alloy was nanocrystalline and the average grain size was about 25 nm by calculating using Scherrer Equation. The electrocatalytic activity of Ni-Mo-Co alloy electrode for hydrogen evolution was better than that of Ni-Mo alloy electrode.

  17. Formation and Stability of Equiatomic and Nonequiatomic Nanocrystalline CuNiCoZnAlTi High-Entropy Alloys by Mechanical Alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varalakshmi, S.; Kamaraj, M.; Murty, B. S.

    2010-10-01

    Nanocrystalline equiatomic high-entropy alloys (HEAs) have been synthesized by mechanical alloying in the Cu-Ni-Co-Zn-Al-Ti system from the binary CuNi alloy to the hexanary CuNiCoZnAlTi alloy. An attempt also has been made to find the influence of nonequiatomic compositions on the HEA formation by varying the Cu content up to 50 at. pct (Cu x NiCoZnAlTi; x = 0, 8.33, 33.33, 49.98 at. pct). The phase formation and stability of mechanically alloyed powder at an elevated temperature (1073 K [800 °C] for 1 hour) were studied. The nanocrystalline equiatomic Cu-Ni-Co-Zn-Al-Ti alloys have a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure up to quinary compositions and have a body-centered cubic (bcc) structure in a hexanary alloy. In nonequiatomic alloys, bcc is the dominating phase in the alloys containing 0 and 8.33 at. pct of Cu, and the fcc phase was observed in alloys with 33.33 and 49.98 at. pct of Cu. The Vicker’s bulk hardness and compressive strength of the equiatomic nanocrystalline hexanary CuNiCoZnAlTi HEA after hot isostatic pressing is 8.79 GPa, and the compressive strength is 2.76 GPa. The hardness of these HEAs is higher than most commercial hard facing alloys ( e.g., Stellite, which is 4.94 GPa).

  18. Change of magnetic properties of nanocrystalline alloys under influence of external factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitek, Jozef; Holková, Dominika; Dekan, Julius; Novák, Patrik

    2016-10-01

    Nanocrystalline (Fe3Ni1)81Nb7B12 alloys were irradiated using different types of radiation and subsequently studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy. External magnetic field of 0.5 T, electron-beam irradiation up to 4 MGy, neutron irradiation up to 1017 neutrons/cm2 and irradiation with Cu ions were applied on the samples. All types of external factors had an influence on the magnetic microstructure manifested as a change in the direction of the net magnetic moment, intensity of the internal magnetic field and volumetric fraction of the constituent phases. The direction of the net magnetic moment was the most sensitive parameter. Changes of the microscopic magnetic parameters were compared after different external influence and results of nanocrystalline samples were compared with their amorphous precursors.

  19. Effect of annealing on structural and magnetic properties of Al substituted nanocrystalline Fe-Si-Co alloy powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shyni, P. C.; Alagarsamy, Perumal

    2016-11-01

    We report effects of annealing and substitution of Al on structural and magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Fe80-xAlxCo5Si15 (x=0-10) alloy powders prepared by mechanical alloying process using a planetary ball mill technique. All the as-milled powders exhibit non-equilibrium solid solution of α-Fe (Si,Co,Al). While the average size of crystals decreases, the lattice constant and dislocation density increase with increasing Al content. On the other hand, the annealing at elevated temperatures increases the size of the crystals and decreases the dislocation density. In addition, the substitution of Al in FeAlCoSi alloy powders controls growth of the crystals during annealing. As a result, coercivity (HC) of the annealed powders decreases considerably. However, the variation in HC is dominated by the dislocation density. Fe70Al10Co5Si15 powder annealed at 900 °C exhibits improved magnetic properties (HC~14 Oe and moderate magnetization of 160 emu/g) due to optimum nanocrystalline microstructure with fine nanocrystals (~18 nm) and reduced dislocation density. Systematic correlations observed between structural and magnetic properties for Fe80-xAlxCo5Si15 powders reveal a promising approach to control the growth of the crystals in the annealed nanocrystalline alloys and to improve the magnetic properties of mechanically alloyed Fe-Si based nanocrystalline alloys by adding suitable substituting elements.

  20. Cooperativity and Dynamics Increase the Performance of NiFe Dry Reforming Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Min; Abdala, Paula Macarena; Margossian, Tigran; Hosseini, Davood; Foppa, Lucas; Armutlulu, Andac; van Beek, Wouter; Comas-Vives, Aleix; Copéret, Christophe; Müller, Christoph

    2017-02-08

    The dry reforming of methane (DRM), i.e., the reaction of methane and CO2 to form a synthesis gas, converts two major greenhouse gases into a useful chemical feedstock. In this work, we probe the effect and role of Fe in bimetallic NiFe dry reforming catalysts. To this end, monometallic Ni, Fe, and bimetallic Ni-Fe catalysts supported on a MgxAlyOz matrix derived via a hydrotalcite-like precursor were synthesized. Importantly, the textural features of the catalysts, i.e., the specific surface area (172-178 m(2)/gcat), pore volume (0.51-0.66 cm(3)/gcat), and particle size (5.4-5.8 nm) were kept constant. Bimetallic, Ni4Fe1 with Ni/(Ni + Fe) = 0.8, showed the highest activity and stability, whereas rapid deactivation and a low catalytic activity were observed for monometallic Ni and Fe catalysts, respectively. XRD, Raman, TPO, and TEM analysis confirmed that the deactivation of monometallic Ni catalysts was in large due to the formation of graphitic carbon. The promoting effect of Fe in bimetallic Ni-Fe was elucidated by combining operando XRD and XAS analyses and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy complemented with density functional theory calculations. Under dry reforming conditions, Fe is oxidized partially to FeO leading to a partial dealloying and formation of a Ni-richer NiFe alloy. Fe migrates leading to the formation of FeO preferentially at the surface. Experiments in an inert helium atmosphere confirm that FeO reacts via a redox mechanism with carbon deposits forming CO, whereby the reduced Fe restores the original Ni-Fe alloy. Owing to the high activity of the material and the absence of any XRD signature of FeO, it is very likely that FeO is formed as small domains of a few atom layer thickness covering a fraction of the surface of the Ni-rich particles, ensuring a close proximity of the carbon removal (FeO) and methane activation (Ni) sites.

  1. Thermal Stability of Nanocrystalline Alloys by Solute Additions and A Thermodynamic Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saber, Mostafa

    Nanocrystalline alloys show superior properties due to their exceptional microstructure. Thermal stability of these materials is a critical aspect. It is well known that grain boundaries in nanocrystalline microstructures cause a significant increase in the total free energy of the system. A driving force provided to reduce this excess free energy can cause grain growth. The presence of a solute addition within a nanocrystalline alloy can lead to the thermal stability. Kinetic and thermodynamic stabilization are the two basic mechanisms with which stability of a nanoscale grain size can be achieved at high temperatures. The basis of this thesis is to study the effect of solute addition on thermal stability of nanocrystalline alloys. The objective is to determine the effect of Zr addition on the thermal stability of mechanically alloyed nanocrysatillne Fe-Cr and Fe-Ni alloys. In Fe-Cr-Zr alloy system, nanoscale grain size stabilization was maintained up to 900 °C by adding 2 at% Zr. Kinetic pinning by intermetallic particles in the nanoscale range was identified as a primary mechanism of thermal stabilization. In addition to the grain size strengthening, intermetallic particles also contribute to strengthening mechanisms. The analysis of microhardness, XRD data, and measured grain sizes from TEM micrographs suggested that both thermodynamic and kinetic mechanisms are possible mechanisms. It was found that alpha → gamma phase transformation in Fe-Cr-Zr system does not influence the grain size stabilization. In the Fe-Ni-Zr alloy system, it was shown that the grain growth in Fe-8Ni-1Zr alloy is much less than that of pure Fe and Fe-8Ni alloy at elevated temperatures. The microstructure of the ternary Fe-8Ni-1Zr alloy remains in the nanoscale range up to 700 °C. Using an in-situ TEM study, it was determined that drastic grain growth occurs when the alpha → gamma phase transformation occurs. Accordingly, there can be a synergistic relationship between grain growth

  2. Industrialization of nanocrystalline Fe-Si-B-P-Cu alloys for high magnetic flux density cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takenaka, Kana; Setyawan, Albertus D.; Sharma, Parmanand; Nishiyama, Nobuyuki; Makino, Akihiro

    2016-03-01

    Nanocrystalline Fe-Si-B-P-Cu alloys exhibit high saturation magnetic flux density (Bs) and extremely low magnetic core loss (W), simultaneously. Low amorphous-forming ability of these alloys hinders their application potential in power transformers and motors. Here we report a solution to this problem. Minor addition of C is found to be effective in increasing the amorphous-forming ability of Fe-Si-B-P-Cu alloys. It allows fabrication of 120 mm wide ribbons (which was limited to less than 40 mm) without noticeable degradation in magnetic properties. The nanocrystalline (Fe85.7Si0.5B9.5P3.5Cu0.8)99C1 ribbons exhibit low coercivity (Hc)~4.5 A/m, high Bs~1.83 T and low W~0.27 W/kg (@ 1.5 T and 50 Hz). Success in fabrication of long (60-100 m) and wide (~120 mm) ribbons, which are made up of low cost elements is promising for mass production of energy efficient high power transformers and motors

  3. Feasibility of formation of nanocrystalline Fe-Cr-Y alloys: Mechanical properties and thermal stability

    SciTech Connect

    Muthaiah, V.M. Suntharavel; Babu, L. Hari; Koch, Carl C.; Mula, Suhrit

    2016-04-15

    Aim of the present study is to investigate the feasibility of formation of Fe-Cr-Y disordered solid solutions by mechanical alloying and effect of Y on the thermal stability and mechanical properties of such nanocrystalline alloys. Thermodynamic analysis by Miedema's and Toop's models confirms that the energy barrier required to form the disordered solid solutions has been overcome by the stored energy due to strain dislocations and grain boundary defects. Although limited grain growth was observed during annealing of metastable Fe-15Cr-1Y alloy, the grains size found to stabilize at ~ 53 nm after annealing at 1000 °C; and the corresponding hardness value measured to be also quite high (8 GPa). The grain size analysis by TEM and AFM is well-corroborated with the XRD crystallite size. The high thermal stability and large strengthening effect have been discussed in the light of grain boundary pinning by solute segregation, solute drag effect and Zener pinning due to intermetallic phase(s). - Highlights: • Metastable Fe-Cr-Y alloys were developed by mechanical alloying for nuclear applications. • Formation of Fe-Cr-Y solid solutions was explained from the Gibbs free energy change using Toop's model. • 1 at.% Y found to be very effective in the stabilization of Fe-Cr alloys at high temperatures. • Solute drag effect and/or segregation of Y atoms played a pivotal role in the stabilization.

  4. Magnetocaloric response of amorphous and nanocrystalline Cr-containing Vitroperm-type alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno-Ramírez, L. M.; Blázquez, J. S.; Franco, V.; Conde, A.; Marsilius, M.; Budinsky, V.; Herzer, G.

    2016-07-01

    The broad compositional range in which transition metal (TM) based amorphous alloys can be obtained, yields an easily tunable magnetocaloric effect (MCE) in a wide temperature range. In some TM-based alloys, anomalous behaviors are reported, as a non-monotonous trend with magnetic moment (e.g. FeZrB alloys). Moreover, in certain Cr-containing Vitroperm alloys anomalously high values of the magnetic entropy change were published. In this work, a systematic study on MCE response of Cr-containing amorphous alloys of composition Fe74-xCrxCu1Nb3Si15.5B6.5 (with x=2, 8, 10, 12, 13, 14 and 20) has been performed in a broad Curie temperature range from 100 K to 550 K. Curie temperature and magnetic entropy change peak of the amorphous alloys decrease with the increase of Cr content at rates of -25.6 K/at% Cr and -54 mJ kg-1 K-1/at% Cr, respectively, following a linear trend with the magnetic moment in both cases. The presence of nanocrystalline phases has been considered as a possible cause in order to explain the anomalies. The samples were nanocrystallized in different stages, however, the magnetocaloric response decreases as crystallization progresses due to the large separation of the Curie temperatures of the two phases.

  5. Corrosion-wear behavior of nanocrystalline Fe88Si12 alloy in acid and alkaline solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Li-cai; Qin, Wen; Yang, Jun; Liu, Wei-min; Zhou, Ling-ping

    2017-01-01

    The corrosion-wear behavior of a nanocrystalline Fe88Si12 alloy disc coupled with a Si3N4 ball was investigated in acid (pH 3) and alkaline (pH 9) aqueous solutions. The dry wear was also measured for reference. The average friction coefficient of Fe88Si12 alloy in the pH 9 solution was approximately 0.2, which was lower than those observed for Fe88Si12 alloy in the pH 3 solution and in the case of dry wear. The fluctuation of the friction coefficient of samples subjected to the pH 9 solution also showed similar characteristics. The wear rate in the pH 9 solution slightly increased with increasing applied load. The wear rate was approximately one order of magnitude less than that in the pH 3 solution and was far lower than that in the case of dry wear, especially at high applied load. The wear traces of Fe88Si12 alloy under different wear conditions were examined and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results indicated that the tribo-chemical reactions that involve oxidation of the worn surface and hydrolysis of the Si3N4 ball in the acid solution were restricted in the pH 9 aqueous solution. Thus, water lubrication can effectively improve the wear resistance of nanocrystalline Fe88Si12 alloy in the pH 9 aqueous solution.

  6. Magnetic ageing study of high and medium permeability nanocrystalline FeSiCuNbB alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekdim, Atef; Morel, Laurent; Raulet, Marie-Ange

    2017-04-01

    increasing the energy efficiency is one of the most important issues in modern power electronic systems. In aircraft applications, the energy efficiency must be associated with a maximum reduction of mass and volume, so a high components compactness. A consequence from this compactness is the increase of operating temperature. Thus, the magnetic materials used in these applications, have to work at high temperature. It raises the question of the thermal ageing problem. The reliability of these components operating at this condition becomes a real problem which deserves serious interest. Our work takes part in this context by studying the magnetic material thermal ageing. The nanocrystalline materials are getting more and more used in power electronic applications. Main advantages of nanocrystalline materials compared to ferrite are: high saturation flux density of almost 1.25 T and low dynamic losses for low and medium frequencies. The nanocrystalline Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si15.5B7 alloys have been chosen in our aging study. This study is based on monitoring the magnetic characteristics for several continuous thermal ageing (100, 150, 200 and 240 °C). An important experimental work of magnetic characterization is being done following a specific monitoring protocol. Elsewhere, X-Ray Diffraction and magnetostriction measurements were carried out to support the study of the anisotropy energies evolution with ageing. This latter is discussed in this paper to explain and give hypothesis about the ageing phenomena.

  7. Spark plasma sintering synthesis of porous nanocrystalline titanium alloys for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Nicula, R; Lüthen, F; Stir, M; Nebe, B; Burkel, E

    2007-11-01

    The reason for the extended use of titanium and its alloys as implant biomaterials stems from their lower elastic modulus, their superior biocompatibility and improved corrosion resistance compared to the more conventional stainless steel and cobalt-based alloys [Niinomi, M., Hattori, T., Niwa, S., 2004. Material characteristics and biocompatibility of low rigidity titanium alloys for biomedical applications. In: Jaszemski, M.J., Trantolo, D.J., Lewandrowski, K.U., Hasirci, V., Altobelli, D.E., Wise, D.L. (Eds.), Biomaterials in Orthopedics. Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, pp. 41-62]. Nanostructured titanium-based biomaterials with tailored porosity are important for cell-adhesion, viability, differentiation and growth. Newer technologies like foaming or low-density core processing were recently used for the surface modification of titanium alloy implant bodies to stimulate bone in-growth and improve osseointegration and cell-adhesion, which in turn play a key role in the acceptance of the implants. We here report preliminary results concerning the synthesis of mesoporous titanium alloy bodies by spark plasma sintering. Nanocrystalline cp Ti, Ti-6Al-4V, Ti-Al-V-Cr and Ti-Mn-V-Cr-Al alloy powders were prepared by high-energy wet-milling and sintered to either full-density (cp Ti, Ti-Al-V) or uniform porous (Ti-Al-V-Cr, Ti-Mn-V-Cr-Al) bulk specimens by field-assisted spark plasma sintering (FAST/SPS). Cellular interactions with the porous titanium alloy surfaces were tested with osteoblast-like human MG-63 cells. Cell morphology was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The SEM analysis results were correlated with the alloy chemistry and the topographic features of the surface, namely porosity and roughness.

  8. Bandgap engineering through nanocrystalline magnetic alloy grafting on reduced graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    De, D; Chakraborty, M; Majumdar, S; Giri, S

    2014-09-28

    High conductivity and the absence of ferromagnetism in pristine graphene fail to satisfy primary criteria for possible technological application in spintronics. Opening of the bandgap in graphene is primarily desirable for such applications. We report a simplified and novel approach of controlled grafting of a magnetic alloy on reduced graphene oxide. This eventually leads to ferromagnetism of the stable hybrid material at room temperature, with a large moment (∼1.2 μB) and a remarkable decrease in conductivity (∼10 times) compared to highly ordered pyrolytic graphite. Our model band-structure calculation indicates that the combined effect of controlled vacancies and impurities attributed to the nanocrystalline alloy grafting leads to a promising step toward band gap engineering.

  9. Nanocrystalline Hydroxyapatite/Si Coating by Mechanical Alloying Technique

    PubMed Central

    Hannora, Ahmed E.; Mukasyan, Alexander S.; Mansurov, Zulkhair A.

    2012-01-01

    A novel approach for depositing hydroxyapatite (HA) films on titanium substrates by using mechanical alloying (MA) technique has been developed. However, it was shown that one-hour heat treatment at 800°C of such mechanically coated HA layer leads to partial transformation of desired HA phase to beta-tri-calcium phosphate (β-TCP) phase. It appears that the grain boundary and interface defects formed during MA promote this transformation. It was discovered that doping HA by silicon results in hindering this phase transformation process. The Si-doped HA does not show phase transition to β-TCP or decomposition after heat treatment even at 900°C. PMID:22312324

  10. Phase transformation during mechano-synthesis of nanocrystalline/amorphous Fe–32Mn–6Si alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Amini, Rasool; Shamsipoor, Ali; Ghaffari, Mohammad; Alizadeh, Morteza; Okyay, Ali Kemal

    2013-10-15

    Mechano-synthesis of Fe–32Mn–6Si alloy by mechanical alloying of the elemental powder mixtures was evaluated by running the ball milling process under an inert argon gas atmosphere. In order to characterize the as-milled powders, powder sampling was performed at predetermined intervals from 0.5 to 192 h. X-ray florescence analyzer, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, and high resolution transmission electron microscope were utilized to investigate the chemical composition, structural evolution, morphological changes, and microstructure of the as-milled powders, respectively. According to the results, the nanocrystalline Fe–Mn–Si alloys were completely synthesized after 48 h of milling. Moreover, the formation of a considerable amount of amorphous phase during the milling process was indicated by quantitative X-ray diffraction analysis as well as high resolution transmission electron microscopy image and its selected area diffraction pattern. It was found that the α-to-γ and subsequently the amorphous-to-crystalline (especially martensite) phase transformation occurred by milling development. - Graphical abstract: Mechano-synthesis of nanocrystalline/amorphous Fe–32Mn–6Si shape memory alloys in the powder form: amorphous phase formation, α-to-γ phase transformation, mechano-crystallization of the amorphous, and martensite phase formation during the process. Highlights: • During MA, the α-to-γ phase transformation and amorphization occurred. • Mechano-crystallization of the amorphous phase occurred at sufficient milling time. • The formation of high amount of ε-martensite was evidenced at high milling times. • The platelet, spherical, and then irregular particle shapes was extended by MA. • By MA, the particles size was increased, then reduced, and afterward re-increased.

  11. Development of FeSiBNbCu Nanocrystalline Soft Magnetic Alloys with High B s and Good Manufacturability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Fangpei; He, Aina; Zhang, Jianhua; Song, Jiancheng; Wang, Anding; Chang, Chuntao; Wang, Xinmin

    2016-10-01

    In order to develop Fe-based nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloys with high saturation magnetic flux density ( B s) and good manufacturability, the effect of the Nb content on the thermal stability, microstructural evolution and soft magnetic properties of Fe78- x Si13B8Nb x Cu1 ( x = 0, 1, 2 and 3) alloys were investigated. It is found that proper Nb addition is effective in widening the optimum annealing temperature range and refining the α-Fe grain in addition to enhancing the soft magnetic properties. For the representative Fe76 Si13B8Nb2Cu1 alloy, the effective annealing time can be over 60 min in the optimal temperature range of 500-600°C. FeSiBNbCu nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloys with desirable soft magnetic properties including high B s of 1.39 T, low coercivity ( H c) of 1.5 A/m and high effective permeability ( μ e) of 21,500 at 1 kHz have been developed. The enhanced soft magnetic performance and manufacturability of the FeSiBNbCu nanocrystalline alloys are attributed to the high activated energy for the precipitation of α-Fe(Si) and the second phase. These alloys with excellent performance have promising applications in electromagnetic fields like inductors.

  12. Investigating the Thermal and Phase Stability of Nanocrystalline Ni-W Produced by Electrodeposition, Sputtering, and Mechanical Alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvel, Christopher Jonathan

    The development of nanocrystalline materials has been increasingly pursued over the last few decades. They have been shown to exhibit superior properties compared to their coarse-grain counterparts, and thus present a tremendous opportunity to revolutionize the performance of nanoscale devices or bulk structural materials. However, nanocrystalline materials are highly prone to grain growth, and if the nanocrystalline grains coarsen, the beneficial properties are lost. There is a strong effort to determine the most effective thermal stability mechanisms to avoid grain growth, but the physical nature of nanocrystalline grain growth is still unclear due to a lack of detailed understanding of nanocrystalline microstructures. Furthermore, the influence of contamination has scarcely been explored with advanced transmission electron microscopy techniques, nor has there been a direct comparison of alloys fabricated with different bulk processes. Therefore, this research has applied aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy to characterize nanocrystalline Ni-W on the atomic scale and elucidate the physical grain growth behavior. Three primary objectives were pursued: (1) explore the thermal stability mechanisms of nanocrystalline Ni-W, (2) evaluate the phase stability of Ni-W and link any findings to grain growth behavior, and (3) compare the influences of bulk fabrication processing, including electrodeposition, DC magnetron sputtering, and mechanical alloying, on the thermal stability and phase stability of Ni-W. Several thermal stability mechanisms were identified throughout the course of this research. First and foremost, W-segregation was scarcely observed to grain boundaries, and it is unclear if W-segregation improves thermal stability contrary to most reports in the 2 literature. Long-range Ni4W chemical ordering was observed in alloys with more than 20 at.% W, and it is likely Ni4W domains reduce grain boundary mobility. In addition, lattice

  13. Electrodeposited Nanolaminated CoNiFe Cores for Ultracompact DC-DC Power Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J; Kim, M; Herrault, F; Park, JY; Allen, MG

    2015-09-01

    Laminated metallic alloy cores (i.e., alternating layers of thin film metallic alloy and insulating material) of appropriate lamination thickness enable suppression of eddy current losses at high frequencies. Magnetic cores comprised of many such laminations yield substantial overall magnetic volume, thereby enabling high-power operation. Previously, we reported nanolaminated permalloy (Ni-80 Fe-20) cores based on a sequential electrodeposition technique, demonstrating negligible eddy current losses at peak flux densities up to 0.5 T and operating at megahertz frequencies. This paper demonstrates improved performance of nanolaminated cores comprising tens to hundreds of layers of 300-500-nm-thick CoNiFe films that exhibit superior magnetic properties (e.g., higher saturation flux density and lower coercivity) than permalloy. Nanolaminated CoNiFe cores can be operated up to a peak flux density of 0.9 T, demonstrating improved power handling capacity and exhibiting 30% reduced volumetric core loss, attributed to lowered hysteresis losses compared to the nanolaminated permalloy core of the same geometry. Operating these cores in a buck dc-dc power converter at a switching frequency of 1 MHz, the nanolaminated CoNiFe cores achieved a conversion efficiency exceeding 90% at output power levels up to 7 W, compared to an achieved permalloy core conversion efficiency below 86% at 6 W.

  14. Structure and function of [NiFe] hydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Hideaki; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Higuchi, Yoshiki

    2016-11-01

    Hydrogenases catalyze the reversible conversion of molecular hydrogen to protons and electrons via a heterolytic splitting mechanism. The active sites of [NiFe] hydrogenases comprise a dinuclear Ni-Fe center carrying CO and CN(-) ligands. The catalytic activity of the standard (O2-sensitive) [NiFe] hydrogenases vanishes under aerobic conditions. The O2-tolerant [NiFe] hydrogenases can sustain H2 oxidation activity under atmospheric conditions. These hydrogenases have very similar active site structures that change the ligand sphere during the activation/catalytic process. An important structural difference between these hydrogenases has been found for the proximal iron-sulphur cluster located in the vicinity of the active site. This unprecedented [4Fe-3S]-6Cys cluster can supply two electrons, which lead to rapid recovery of the O2 inactivation, to the [NiFe] active site.

  15. Characterization of Magnetic NiFe Nanoparticles with Controlled Bimetallic Composition

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yan; Chi, Yanxiu; Shan, Shiyao; Yin, Jun; Luo, Jin; Zhong, Chuan-Jian

    2014-02-25

    The exploration of the magnetic properties of bimetallic alloy nanoparticles for various technological applications requires the ability to control the morphology, composition, and surface properties. In this report, we describe new findings of an investigation of the morphology and composition of NiFe alloy nanoparticles synthesized under controlled conditions. The controllability over the bimetallic composition has been demonstrated by the observation of an approximate linear relationship between the composition in the nanoparticles and in the synthetic feeding. The morphology of the NiFe nanoparticles is consistent with an fcc-type alloy, with the lattice strain increasing linearly with the iron content in the nanoparticles. The alloy nanoparticles exhibit remarkable resistance to air oxidation in comparison with Ni or Fe particles. The thermal stability and the magnetic properties of the as-synthesized alloy nanoparticles are shown to depend on the composition. The alloy nanoparticles have also be sown to display low saturation magnetization and coercivity values in comparison with the Ni nanoparticles, in line with the superparamagnetic characteristic. These findings have important implications for the design of stable and controllable magnetic nanoparticles for various technological applications.

  16. Characterization of Nanocrystalline Nickel-Cobalt Alloys Synthesized by Direct and Pulse Electrodeposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehi, M.; Saidi, A.; Ahmadian, M.; Raeissi, K.

    2014-01-01

    Nanocrystalline Ni-Co alloys are electrodeposited by direct (DC) and pulse current (PC) in an electrolyte solution which consisted of nickel sulfate, cobalt sulfate and boric acid. Electrodeposition parameters including current density, electrolyte pH and pulse times in a single electrolyte bath were changed. XRD pattern showed that the structure of the alloys depends on Co content and the synthesis parameter and changed from single phase structure (fcc) to dual phase structure (fcc + hcp). The Co content in the deposited alloys declined from 70 at.% to 50 at.% by increasing in direct current from 70 mA/cm2 to 115 mA/cm2 and also decreased from 75 at.% to 33 at.% with decrease in pH values from 4 to 2. By applying PC the Co content changed from 76 at.% to 41 at.%. Magnetic properties measurements showed the saturation magnetization (Ms) increased with increasing the Co content. There was no significant effect on coercivity values (Hc) with change in Co content and about 40 Oe was obtained for all samples. The grain size of deposited alloys obtained between 24-58 nm and 15-21 nm by applying DC and PC, respectively.

  17. Corrosive electrochemical behavior of amorphous and nanocrystalline Fe-P-Si-Mn-V alloys in a moist SO2-contaminated atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vavilova, V. V.; Korneev, V. P.; Anosova, M. O.

    2016-01-01

    Nanocrystalline soft magnetic Finemet alloys, which are currently used in power electrical engineering and electrical equipment, are alloyed with expensive and scarce metals (Nb, Cu). We searched for low-cost soft magnetic alloys that are comparable with Finemets in the corrosion resistance.

  18. Effect of Nano-crystalline Ceramic Coats Produced by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation on Corrosion Behavior of AA5083 Aluminum Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Thayananth, T.; Muthupandi, V.; Rao, S. R. Koteswara

    2010-10-04

    High specific strength offered by aluminum and magnesium alloys makes them desirable in modern transportation industries. Often the restrictions imposed on the usage of these alloys are due to their poor tribological and corrosion properties. However, their corrosion properties can be further enhanced by synthesizing ceramic coating on the substrate through Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) process. In this study, nano-crystalline alumina coatings were formed on the surface of AA5083 aluminum alloy test coupons using PEO process in aqueous alkali-silicate electrolyte with and without addition of sodium aluminate. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies showed that the crystallite size varied between 38 and 46 nm and {alpha}- and {gamma}- alumina were the dominant phases present in the coatings. Corrosion studies by potentiodynamic polarization tests in 3.5% NaCl revealed that the electrolyte composition has an influence on the corrosion resistance of nano-crystalline oxide layer formed.

  19. Phosphorus segregation in nanocrystalline Ni-3.6 at.% P alloy investigated with the tomographic atom probe (TAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Faerber, B.; Cadel, E.; Menand, A.; Schmitz, G.; Kirchheim, R.

    2000-02-09

    The microstructures of electroless plated and thermally aged nanocrystalline nickel-3.6 at.% phosphorus layers were investigated on an atomic scale with a tomographic atom probe (TAP). After heat treatments at 250 and 400 C, a continuous P-segregation in the grain boundaries of the nanocrystalline structure was directly proved for the first time. This segregation effect explains the comparatively high thermal stability of the material. Assuming the existence of a metastable equilibrium, a simple mass balance calculation, which uses experimentally determined data exclusively, makes it possible to predict grain sizes of other NiP alloys within the thermal stability region.

  20. Processing and Consolidation of Nanocrystalline Cu-Zn-Ti-Fe-Cr High-Entropy Alloys via Mechanical Alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mridha, Sanghita; Samal, Sumanta; Khan, P. Yousaf; Biswas, Krishanu; Govind

    2013-10-01

    In the current investigation, nanocrystalline multicomponent high-entropy alloys (HEAs) have been synthesized in the Cu x Zn y Ti20Fe20Cr20 system ( x/ y = 1/0, 3/1, 1; and x + y = 40) by mechanical alloying and subsequently consolidated using spark plasma sintering (SPS) in argon atmosphere at a pressure of 50 MPa. A detailed X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy study reveals the presence of both FCC copper solid-solution, (Cu)ss and BCC chromium solid-solution, (Cr)ss phases in both the mechanically alloyed powders as well as the sintered compacts. The phase formation and stability of the sintered multicomponent Cu x Zn y Ti20Fe20Cr20 with x/ y = 3/1 and x + y = 40 pellet have been studied at different sintering temperatures, i.e., 873 K, 973 K, 1073 K, and 1173 K (600 °C, 700 °C, 800 °C, and 900 °C). The important findings include that high Vickers bulk hardness of around 6 GPa and relative density of around 95 pct reported in the Cu x Zn y Ti20Fe20Cr20 with x/ y = 3/1 and x + y = 40 HEAs, SPSed at 1173 K (900 °C). The formation, consolidation, and microstructural details are analyzed critically and discussed.

  1. Influence of boron on the magnetic and transport properties of FeZr amorphous and nanocrystalline alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Barandiaran, J.M.; Gorria, P. . Dept. de Electricidad y Electronica); Sal, J.C.G.; Brquin, L.F. ); Kaul, S.N. . School of Physics)

    1994-11-01

    The magnetic properties and electrical resistivity of amorphous and nanocrystalline FeZr and FeZrB(Cu) alloys are compared in a wide range of temperatures (4 to 1,000 K). The addition of boron increases the Curie temperature of the alloys and induces a broad minimum in the resistivity vs temperatures. A first step of crystallization occurs around 700 K in all the alloys, giving rise to [alpha]-Fe crystallites of very small size. Small amounts of boron greatly influence the exchange interactions, enhancing the ferromagnetic character of these compounds.

  2. Galvanostatic charge-discharge tests, 57Fe and 119Sn Mössbauer and XRD measurements on novel Sn-Ni-Fe electrodeposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lak, G. B.; Kuzmann, E.; El-Sharif, M.; Chisholm, C. U.; Stichleutner, S.; Homonnay, Z.; Sziráki, L.

    2013-04-01

    Novel Sn-Ni-Fe ternary alloys were successfully deposited by pulse plating technique from an electrolyte based on sodium gluconate which acts as a complexing agent. XRD results revealed the predominantly amorphous character for the majority of the deposits. 57Fe and 119Sn conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy indicated the formation of a paramagnetic amorphous alloy using a short on-pulse duration and where the Fe content was less than 22 wt.%. Galvanostatic charge-discharge tests of the novel Sn-Ni-Fe deposits were carried out in a model Li-ion cell and indicated that the Sn-Ni-Fe alloys have potential as an electrode material.

  3. Deformation of nanocrystalline binary aluminum alloys with segregation of Mg, Co and Ti at grain boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinovev, A. V.; Bapanina, M. G.; Babicheva, R. I.; Enikeev, N. A.; Dmitriev, S. V.; Zhou, K.

    2017-01-01

    The influence of the temperature and sort of alloying element on the deformation of the nanocrystalline (NC) binary Al alloys with segregation of 10.2 at % Ti, Co, or Mg over grain boundaries has been studied using the molecular dynamics. The deformation behavior of the materials has been studied in detail by the simulation of the shear deformation of various Al bicrystals with the grain-boundary segregation of impurity atoms, namely, Ti, Co, or Mg. The deformation of bicrystals with different grain orientation has been studied. It has been found that Co introduction into grain boundaries of NC Al has a strengthening effect due to the deceleration of the grain-boundary migration (GBM) and difficulty in the grain-boundary sliding (GBS). The Mg segregation at the boundaries greatly impedes the GBM, but stimulates the development of the GBS. In the NC alloy of Al-Ti, the GBM occurs actively, and the flow-stress values are close to the values characteristic of pure Al.

  4. High-Temperature Stability and Grain Boundary Complexion Formation in a Nanocrystalline Cu-Zr Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalajhedayati, Amirhossein; Rupert, Timothy J.

    2015-12-01

    Nanocrystalline Cu-3 at.% Zr powders with ~20 nm average grain size were created with mechanical alloying and their thermal stability was studied from 550-950°C. Annealing drove Zr segregation to the grain boundaries, which led to the formation of amorphous intergranular complexions at higher temperatures. Grain growth was retarded significantly, with 1 week of annealing at 950°C, or 98% of the solidus temperature, only leading to coarsening of the average grain size to 54 nm. The enhanced thermal stability can be connected to both a reduction in grain boundary energy with doping as well as the precipitation of ZrC particles. High mechanical strength is retained even after these aggressive heat treatments, showing that complexion engineering may be a viable path toward the fabrication of bulk nanostructured materials with excellent properties.

  5. Safflorite, (Co,Ni,Fe)As2, isomorphous with marcasite

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hexiong; Downs, Robert T.; Eichler, Carla

    2008-01-01

    Safflorite, a naturally occurring cobalt-nickel-iron diarsenide (Co,Ni,Fe)As2, possesses the marcasite-type structure, with cations (M = Co + Ni + Fe) at site symmetry 2/m and As anions at m. The MAs6 octa­hedra share two edges, forming chains parallel to c. The chemical formula for safflorite should be expressed as (Co,Ni,Fe)As2, rather than the end-member format CoAs2, as its structure stabilization requires the simultaneous inter­action of the electronic states of Co, Ni, and Fe with As2 2− dianions. PMID:21201568

  6. Toward CH4 dissociation and C diffusion during Ni/Fe-catalyzed carbon nanofiber growth: A density functional theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Chen; Zhou, Xing-Gui; Chen, De; Cheng, Hong-Ye; Zhu, Yi-An

    2011-04-01

    First-principles calculations have been performed to investigate CH4 dissociation and C diffusion during the Ni/Fe-catalyzed growth of carbon nanofibers (CNFs). Two bulk models with different Ni to Fe molar ratios (1:1 and 2:1) are constructed, and x-ray diffraction (XRD) simulations are conducted to evaluate their reliability. With the comparison between the calculated and experimental XRD patterns, these models are found to be well suited to reproduce the crystalline structures of Ni/Fe bulk alloys. The calculations indicate the binding of the C1 derivatives to the Ni/Fe closest-packed surfaces is strengthened compared to that on Ni(111), arising from the upshift of the weighted d-band centers of catalyst surfaces. Then, the transition states for the four successive dehydrogenation steps in CH4 dissociation are located using the dimer method. It is found that the energy barriers for the first three steps are rather close on the alloyed Ni/Fe and Ni surfaces, while the activation energy for CH dissociation is substantially lowered with the introduction of Fe. The dissolution of the generated C from the surface into the bulk of the Ni/Fe alloys is thermodynamically favorable, and the diffusion of C through catalyst particles is hindered by the Fe component. With the combination of density functional theory calculations and kinetic analysis, the C concentration in catalyst particles is predicted to increase with the Fe content. Meanwhile, other experimental conditions, such as the composition of carbon-containing gases, feedstock partial pressure, and reaction temperature, are also found to play a key role in determining the C concentration in bulk metal, and hence the microstructures of generated CNFs.

  7. Effect of Co addition on the magnetic properties and microstructure of FeNbBCu nanocrystalline alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Lin; Yang, Weiming; Liu, Haishun; Men, He; Wang, Anding; Chang, Chuntao; Shen, Baolong

    2016-12-01

    Through gradient substitution of Co for Fe, the magnetic properties and microstructures of (Fe1-xCox)83Nb2B14Cu1 (x=0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5) nanocrystalline alloys were investigated. Because of the strong ferromagnetic exchange coupling between Co and Fe, substantial improvement in saturation magnetization was achieved with proper levels of Co addition. Meanwhile, the Curie temperature increased noticeably with increasing Co addition. After heat treatment, the (Fe0.9Co0.1)83Nb2B14Cu1 nanocrystalline alloy showed a refined microstructure with an average grain size of 10-20 nm, exhibiting a comparatively high saturation magnetization of 1.82 T and a lower coercivity of 12 A/m compared to other Hitperm-type alloys with higher Co contents. Additionally, the Curie temperature reached 1150 K upon introduction of Co. As the soft magnetic properties are strengthened by adding a small amount of Co, the combination of fine, soft magnetic properties and low cost make this nanocrystalline alloy a potential magnetic material.

  8. Low-frequency creep in CoNiFe films.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartran, D. S.; Bourne, H. C., Jr.; Chow, L. G.

    1972-01-01

    Domain wall motion excited by slow rise-time, bipolar, hard-axis pulses in vacuum deposited CoNiFe films from 1500 to 2000 A thick is studied. The results are consistent with those of comparable NiFe films. Furthermore, the wall coercivity is found to be the most significant sample property correlated to the low-frequency creep properties of all the samples.

  9. Low-frequency creep in CoNiFe films.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartran, D. S.; Bourne, H. C., Jr.; Chow, L. G.

    1972-01-01

    Domain wall motion excited by slow rise-time, bipolar, hard-axis pulses in vacuum deposited CoNiFe films from 1500 to 2000 A thick is studied. The results are consistent with those of comparable NiFe films. Furthermore, the wall coercivity is found to be the most significant sample property correlated to the low-frequency creep properties of all the samples.

  10. Synthesis of Binary Nanocrystalline Aluminum Alloys through High Energy Ball Milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwab, Lacey L.

    Nanocrystalline metals have useful mechanical properties such as high strength, improved wear resistance, and longer fatigue life; however, they are relatively unstable--grain boundary doping is a viable method towards stabilization [1-3]. After comparing the work of Murdoch and Schuh, that used a thermodynamic model to estimate grain boundary segregation enthalpy to the experimental work of Umbrajkar et al., it was realized that mechanical alloying is a processing route for grain boundary stabilization [10,11]. Whether or not chemical mixing has occurred is a good indicator of a powder system's potential for grain boundary doping. 99Al1Si, 99Al1Mg, 99Al1Zr, and 99Al11Zn were mechanically alloyed with a Retch 100 Planetary Bal Mill. The samples were then analyzed with a Rigaku Ultima III X-ray Diffractometer to determine whether or not these powder systems have chemically mixed. It was found that the 99Al1Mg powder system chemically mixed during the 8Hr, 8mL run and during the 16Hr, 16.5mL run, and the 99Al1Zr powder system chemically mixed during the 4Hr, 16.5mL run. The enthalpy of segregation values for each binary powder system correlated to the chemical mixing shown in these results.

  11. Anomalous Fatigue Behavior and Fatigue-Induced Grain Growth in Nanocrystalline Nickel Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyce, Brad L.; Padilla, Henry A.

    2011-07-01

    Fatigue failure due to repetitive loading of metallic devices is a pervasive engineering concern. The present work reveals extraordinary fatigue resistance in nanocrystalline (NC) alloys, which appears to be associated with the small (<100 nm) grain size inhibiting traditional cyclic damage processes. In this study, we examine the fatigue performance of three electrodeposited NC Ni-based metals: Ni, Ni-0.5Mn, and Ni-22Fe (PERMALLOY). When subjected to fatigue stresses at and above the tensile yield strength where conventional coarse-grained (CG) counterparts undergo low-cycle fatigue failure (<104 cycles to failure), these alloys exhibit exceptional fatigue lives (in some cases, >107 cycles to failure). Postmortem examinations show that failed samples contain an aggregate of coarsened grains at the crack initiation site. The experimental data and accompanying microscopy suggest that the NC matrix undergoes abnormal grain growth during cyclic loading, allowing dislocation activity to persist over length scales necessary to initiate a fatigue crack by traditional fatigue mechanisms. Thus, the present observations demonstrate anomalous fatigue behavior in two regards: (1) quantitatively anomalous when considering the extremely high stress levels needed to drive fatigue failure and (2) mechanistically anomalous in light of the grain growth process that appears to be a necessary precursor to crack initiation.

  12. Comparative Study of Thermal Stability of NiFe and NiFeTa Thin Films Grown by Cosputtering Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phuoc, Nguyen N.; Ong, C. K.

    2016-08-01

    A comparative study of the thermal behavior of dynamic permeability spectra for compositionally graded NiFeTa and uniform-composition NiFe thin films has been carried out. We found that the resonance frequency of the compositionally graded NiFeTa film increased with increasing temperature, while it decreased for the case of the uniform-composition NiFe thin film. This finding unambiguously suggests that the compositional gradient of the film is the only reason for the increase of the magnetic anisotropy with temperature due to its stress-induced origin, while the cosputtering technique does not play any role in this peculiar behavior. The temperature dependence of the frequency linewidth is also presented and discussed.

  13. Enhanced Hydrogen Storage Kinetics of Nanocrystalline and Amorphous Mg2Ni-type Alloy by Melt Spinning

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yang-Huan; Li, Bao-Wei; Ren, Hui-Ping; Li, Xia; Qi, Yan; Zhao, Dong-Liang

    2011-01-01

    Mg2Ni-type Mg2Ni1−xCox (x = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4) alloys were fabricated by melt spinning technique. The structures of the as-spun alloys were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The hydrogen absorption and desorption kinetics of the alloys were measured by an automatically controlled Sieverts apparatus. The electrochemical hydrogen storage kinetics of the as-spun alloys was tested by an automatic galvanostatic system. The results show that the as-spun (x = 0.1) alloy exhibits a typical nanocrystalline structure, while the as-spun (x = 0.4) alloy displays a nanocrystalline and amorphous structure, confirming that the substitution of Co for Ni notably intensifies the glass forming ability of the Mg2Ni-type alloy. The melt spinning treatment notably improves the hydriding and dehydriding kinetics as well as the high rate discharge ability (HRD) of the alloys. With an increase in the spinning rate from 0 (as-cast is defined as spinning rate of 0 m/s) to 30 m/s, the hydrogen absorption saturation ratio (R5a) of the (x = 0.4) alloy increases from 77.1 to 93.5%, the hydrogen desorption ratio (R20d) from 54.5 to 70.2%, the hydrogen diffusion coefficient (D) from 0.75 × 10−11 to 3.88 × 10−11 cm2/s and the limiting current density IL from 150.9 to 887.4 mA/g. PMID:28879988

  14. Structural and magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Fe-Co-Ni alloy processed by mechanical alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raanaei, Hossein; Eskandari, Hossein; Mohammad-Hosseini, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    In this present work, a nanostructured iron-cobalt-nickel alloy with Fe50Co30Ni20 composition has been processed by mechanical alloying. The structural and magnetic properties have been investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer. It is shown that the crystallize size reaches to about 18.7 nm after 32 h milling time. A remarkable decrease in coercivity after 16 h milling time and also a continuous increase in remanent magnetization during the mechanical alloying process are observed. Heat treatment of the samples milled at 32 and 48 h demonstrates the crystalline constituent elements and also Fe3O4 crystalline phase.

  15. Ferromagnetic resonance studies of amorphous and nanocrystalline FeCuNbSiB alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Schmool, D.S.; Gorria, P.; Barandiaran, J.M.

    1997-04-01

    Alloys with composition Fe{sub 73.5}Cu{sub 1}Nb{sub 3}Si{sub 22.5{minus}x}B{sub x}, where x=6 and 9, have been studied from the as-cast state, through various stages of crystallization, in annealing range of 300{endash}650{degree}C, by the technique of ferromagnetic resonance (FMR). The annealing was performed isothermally at preset temperatures to produce nanocrystalline structures in an amorphous matrix. Both the nanocrystalline structures and the surrounding amorphous matrix are ferromagnetic, and will therefore contribute to the FMR spectra. The spectral features, resonance field, intensity, and linewidth have been used to characterize the structurally related changes in the sample during the crystallization process. The major changes in the spectra are observed to occur in the region of the crystallization peak in the differential thermal analysis curves for these samples. The FMR spectra exhibit a complex in-plane angular variation, which is understood in terms of preferential orientation of the magnetization vector in the direction of the ribbon, and shape effects. The square cut samples give rise to multipeaked spectra when the external magnetic field is applied in an {open_quotes}off-square{close_quotes} direction. This is the first report of the appearance of a second resonance feature of this type. This is explained as arising from the magnetic confinement of the nanocrystallites in the amorphous matrix, producing spin waves localized at the interface of the two phases. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. Films of Soft-Magnetic Fe-Based Nanocrystalline Alloys for High-Density Magnetic Storage Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shefteľ, E. N.; Bannykh, O. A.

    This paper presents a review of works related to the problem of development of soft-magnetic film Fe-based alloys exhibiting the combination of properties, such as the high saturation inductance, high level of soft-magnetic parameters over a wide range of MHz-frequencies, high wear-resistance and thermal stability, and an ability to be prepared by thin-film technologies. Magnetic cores of high-density recording heads are the principal application of these materials. Physical fundamentals of explanation of ferromagnetic behavior of a material with nano-sized structure, which have been developed for FINEMETs (Fe-Nb-Cu-Si-B) with the mixed amorphous + nanocrystalline structure, are considered. A new class of alloys Fe-Me-X (Me=Metal of III-V groups of the Periodic Table and X=C, N, O, and B) whose properties are higher that those of FINEMETs are discussed. The structure of these alloys consists of two nanocrystalline phases, such as the ferromagnetic α-Fe-based and nonmagnetic MeX phases. This structure provides the dispersion strengthening of the alloys. Metal science approaches to the selection of both chemical compositions and conditions of structure formation for these film alloys have been developed by authors and are discussed in this article.

  17. Investigation of (Fe,Co)NbB-Based Nanocrystalline Soft Magnetic Alloys by Lorentz Microscopy and Off-Axis Electron Holography.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Changlin; Kirmse, Holm; Long, Jianguo; Laughlin, David E; McHenry, Michael E; Neumann, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    The relationship between microstructure and magnetic properties of a (Fe,Co)NbB-based nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloy was investigated by analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The microstructures of (Fe0.5Co0.5)80Nb4B13Ge2Cu1 nanocrystalline alloys annealed at different temperatures were characterized by TEM and electron diffraction. The magnetic structures were analyzed by Lorentz microscopy and off-axis electron holography, including quantitative measurement of domain wall width, induction, and in situ magnetic domain imaging. The results indicate that the magnetic domain structure and particularly the dynamical magnetization behavior of the alloys strongly depend on the microstructure of the nanocrystalline alloys. Smaller grain size and random orientation of the fine particles decrease the magneto-crystalline anisotropy and suggests better soft magnetic properties which may be explained by the anisotropy model of Herzer.

  18. Amperometric hydrogen peroxide and glucose biosensor based on NiFe2/ordered mesoporous carbon nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Dong; Yin, Longwei; Ma, Jingyun; Guo, Enyan; Li, Qun; Li, Zhaoqiang; Liu, Kegao

    2015-01-21

    Nanocomposites of NiFex embedded in ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) (x = 0, 1, 2) were prepared by a wet impregnation and hydrogen reduction process and were used to construct electrochemical biosensors for the amperometric detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or glucose. The NiFe2/OMC nanocomposites were demonstrated to have a large surface area, suitable mesoporous channels, many edge-plane-like defective sites, and a good distribution of alloyed nanoparticles. The NiFe2/OMC and Nafion modified glass carbon electrode (GCE) exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activities toward the reduction of H2O2 as well. By utilizing it as a bioplatform, GOx (glucose oxidase) cross-linked with Nafion was immobilized on the surface of the electrode for the construction of an amperometric glucose biosensor. Our results indicated that the amperometric hydrogen peroxide biosensor (NiFe2/OMC + Nafion + GCE) showed good analytical performances in term of a high sensitivity of 4.29 μA mM(-1) cm(-2), wide linearity from 6.2 to 42,710 μM and a low detection limit of 0.24 μM at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 (S/N = 3). This biosensor exhibited excellent selectivity, high stability and negligible interference for the detection of H2O2. In addition, the immobilized enzyme on NiFe2/OMC + Nafion + GCE, retaining its bioactivity, exhibited a reversible two-proton and two-electron transfer reaction, a fast heterogeneous electron transfer rate and an effective Michaelis-Menten constant (K) (3.18 mM). The GOx + NiFe2/OMC + Nafion + GCE could be used to detect glucose based on the oxidation of glucose catalyzed by GOx and exhibited a wide detection range of 48.6-12,500 μM with a high sensitivity of 6.9 μA mM(-1) cm(-2) and a low detection limit of 2.7 μM (S/N = 3). The enzymic biosensor maintained a high selectivity and stability features, and shows great promise for application in the detection of glucose.

  19. Electronic structure and magnetic properties of LiMn{sub 1.5}M{sub 0.5}O{sub 4} (M=Al, Mg, Ni, Fe) and LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2} nanocrystalline electrode materials

    SciTech Connect

    Talik, E.; Lipińska, L.; Zajdel, P.; Załóg, A.; Michalska, M.; Guzik, A.

    2013-10-15

    The process of sol–gel synthesis was applied to obtain LiMn{sub 1.5}M{sub 0.5}O{sub 4} (M=Al, Mg, Ni, Fe) and LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2} nanopowders. The samples were characterized by following methods: X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and SQUID magnetometry. XPS was used to examine the chemical composition and oxidation state of manganese, in particular the Mn{sup 3+}/Mn{sup 4+} ratio from the deconvolution of the complex Mn3p lines. The size of the grains and crystallites were independently obtained from SEM images and XRD patterns, respectively. In all the cases a critical interplay of electronic (Mn{sup 3+}/Mn{sup 4+} ratio), structural (unit cell volume) and magnetic properties was observed depending on the synthesis process. - Graphical abstract: SEM image of Li{sub 0.79}Ni{sub 0.41}Mn{sub 1.35}O{sub 4.45} sample. Display Omitted - Highlights: • LiMn{sub 1.5}M{sub 0.5}O{sub 4} (M=Al, Mg, Ni, Fe) and LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2} obtained by sol–gel method. • XRD method was used to determine the crystal structure. • SEM/EDX imaging have been done. • XPS electronic structure was examined and discussed. • Experimental effective magnetic moment and the calculated one were compared.

  20. Average widths of grain boundaries in nanophase alloys synthesized by mechanical attrition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fultz, B.; Kuwano, H.; Ouyang, H.

    1995-04-01

    Many binary ferrous alloys were synthesized by mechanical attrition in a high-energy ball mill. X-ray diffractometry and transmission electron microscopy were used to measure grain sizes, which were as small as a few nanometers in several alloys. The nanocrystalline alloys showed new features in their Mössbauer spectra, which we associated with 57Fe atoms at and near grain boundaries. The experimental data on the fraction of 57Fe atoms at and near grain boundaries were correlated to the measured grain sizes to obtain an average width of the grain boundaries. The average grain-boundary widths of the fcc alloys Fe-Mn and Ni-Fe were approximately 0.5 nm, but the average widths of grain boundaries in the bcc alloys Cr-Fe, Mo-Fe, and Fe-Ti were somewhat larger than 1 nm.

  1. Tailoring the mechanical behavior of nanocrystalline thin films with alloying and heat treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, Suman

    Metals and alloys with grain sizes below a hundred nanometers exhibit very different mechanical and physical properties compared to their coarse grained counterparts. Unique nanoscale deformation mechanisms are triggered by the ubiquitous nature of grain boundaries in nanocrystalline (NC) materials. Microstructural instabilities can develop in NC materials during deformation due to stress-coupled grain boundary migration and global stress-driven grain growth. The presence or absence of these mechanisms can dramatically affect the attendant mechanical response of the material. The ability to control these grain boundary instabilities with impurity doping might make it possible to engineer nanostructured materials with desired properties. Motivated by this prospect, a collaborative effort was launched with scientists from The University of Pennsylvania, The University of Sydney and The Johns Hopkins University. This dissertation, in particular, describes efforts to tailor mechanical behavior of NC alloy systems by controlling global stress-driven grain growth through alloying and annealing treatments. NC aluminum and nickel, which have been shown to exhibit stress-assisted grain growth, were chosen as the parent materials for this study. NC aluminum was doped with oxygen, and NC nickel with phosphorus, to assess the role of grain boundary solutes in stabilizing grains against stress-assisted grain growth. Confocal co-sputtering techniques were employed to fabricate alloy thin films with precise control over chemistry and microstructure. Tensile properties were measured through microtensile testing and microstructural evolution associated with deformation was characterized using ex-situ and in-situ precession-assisted crystal orientation mapping in TEM. The critical global solute concentrations required to stabilize grain boundaries against applied stresses were identified. Local grain boundary pinning imparted mechanical stability to the microstructure and resulted

  2. Amorphous and nanocrystalline phase formation in highly-driven Al-based binary alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Kalay, Yunus Eren

    2009-01-01

    each other. This deviation indicates an adiabatic type solidification path where heat of fusion is reabsorbed. It is interesting that this particle size range is also consistent with the appearance of a microcellular growth. While no glass formation is observed within this system, the smallest size powders appear to consist of a mixture of nanocrystalline Si and Al. Al-Sm alloys have been investigated within a composition range of 34 to 42 wt% Sm. Gas atomized powders of Al-Sm are investigated to explore the morphological and structural hierarchy that correlates with different degrees of departure from full equilibrium conditions. The resultant powders show a variety of structural selection with respect to amount of undercooling, with an amorphous structure appearing at the highest cooling rates. Because of the chaotic nature of gas atomization, Cu-block melt-spinning is used to produce a homogeneous amorphous structure. The as-quenched structure within Al-34 to 42 wt% Sm consists of nanocrystalline fcc-Al (on the order of 5 nm) embedded in an amorphous matrix. The nucleation density of fcc-Al after initial crystallization is on the order of 1022-1023m-3, which is 105-106 orders of magnitude higher than what classical nucleation theory predicts. Detailed analysis of liquid and as-quenched structures using high energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction, high energy transmission electron microscopy, and atom probe tomography techniques revealed an Al-Sm network similar in appearance to a medium range order (MRO) structure. A model whereby these MRO clusters promote the observed high nucleation density of fcc-Al nanocrystals is proposed. The devitrification path was identified using high temperature, in-situ, high energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction techniques and the crystallization kinetics were described using an analytical Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (JMA) approach.

  3. Induced Anisotropy in FeCo-Based Nanocrystalline Ferromagnetic Alloys (HITPERM) by Very High Field Annealing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, F.; Garmestani, H.; Chu, S.-Y.; McHenry, M. E.; Laughlin, D. E.

    2004-01-01

    Very high magnetic field annealing is shown to affect the magnetic anisotropy in FeCo-base nanocrystalline soft ferromagnetic alloys. Alloys of composition Fe(44.5)Co(44.5)Zr(7)B(4) were prepared by melt spinning into amorphous ribbons, then wound to form toroidal bobbin cores. One set of cores was crystallized in a zero field at 600 deg. C for 1 h, then, field annealed at 17 tesla (T) at 480 deg. C for 1 h. Another set was crystallized in a 17-T field at 480 deg. C for 1 h. Field orientation was transverse to the magnetic path of the toroidal cores. An induced anisotropy is indicated by a sheared hysteresis loop. Sensitive torque magnetometry measurements with a Si cantilever sensor indicated a strong, uniaxial, longitudinal easy axis in the zero-field-crystallized sample. The source is most likely magnetoelastic anisotropy, caused by the residual stress from nanocrystallization and the nonzero magnetostriction coefficient for this material. The magnetostrictive coefficient lambda(5) is measured to be 36 ppm by a strain gage technique. Field annealing reduces the magnitude of the induced anisotropy. Core loss measurements were made in the zero-field-crystallized, zero-field-crystallized- than-field-annealed, and field-crystallized states. Core loss is reduced 30%-50% (depending on frequency) by field annealing. X-ray diffraction reveals no evidence of crystalline texture or orientation that would cause the induced anisotropy. Diffusional pair ordering is thought to be the cause of the induced anisotropy. However, reannealing the samples in the absence of a magnetic field at 480 deg. C does not completely remove the induced anisotropy.

  4. Nanocrystalline Al7075 + 1 wt % Zr Alloy Prepared Using Mechanical Milling and Spark Plasma Sintering.

    PubMed

    Molnárová, Orsolya; Málek, Přemysl; Veselý, Jozef; Šlapáková, Michaela; Minárik, Peter; Lukáč, František; Chráska, Tomáš; Novák, Pavel; Průša, Filip

    2017-09-20

    The microstructure, phase composition, and microhardness of both gas-atomized and mechanically milled powders of the Al7075 + 1 wt % Zr alloy were investigated. The gas-atomized powder exhibited a cellular microstructure (grain size of a few µm) with layers of intermetallic phases along the cell boundaries. Mechanical milling (400 revolutions per minute (RPM)/8 h) resulted in a grain size reduction to the nanocrystalline range (20 to 100 nm) along with the dissolution of the intermetallic phases. Milling led to an increase in the powder's microhardness from 97 to 343 HV. Compacts prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS) exhibited negligible porosity. The grain size of the originally gas-atomized material was retained, but the continuous layers of intermetallic phases were replaced by individual particles. Recrystallization led to a grain size increase to 365 nm in the SPS compact prepared from the originally milled powder. Small precipitates of the Al₃Zr phase were observed in the SPS compacts, and they are believed to be responsible for the retainment of the sub-microcrystalline microstructure during SPS. A more intensive precipitation in this SPS compact can be attributed to a faster diffusion due to a high density of dislocations and grain boundaries in the milled powder.

  5. Effective magnetic anisotropy and internal demagnetization investigations in soft magnetic nanocrystalline alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga, L. K.; Novák, L.; Mazaleyrat, F.

    2000-02-01

    In order to clarify the effect of the initial anisotropy K1 of the nanograins on the effective < K> of two-phase nanocrystalline Fe 73.5Si 13.5B 9Nb 3Cu 1 (Finemet) and Fe 86Zr 7B 6Cu 1 alloys, the coercivity, virgin and anhysteretic curves have been studied at room temperature after different annealing. The experimental determination of the effective < K> was found to be 280 and 500 J/m 3, respectively, instead of the order of unity J/m 3 expected by random anisotropy model calculations. The internal demagnetization factor, as a measure of magnetic heterogeneities was found to have a negligible contribution to the effective < K> in both materials although it is higher in the FeZr-based one. The coercivity results are explained well by our adaptation of the Friedberg and Paul formula in which the ratio of the Curie temperatures are considered for the ratio of the two local exchange constants. Further more calculations are developed from this formula in order to connect qualitatively the coercivity and the internal demagnetizing factor

  6. Outstanding efficiency in energy conversion for electric motors constructed by nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloy "NANOMET®" cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, N.; Tanimoto, K.; Makino, A.

    2016-05-01

    Recently updated nanocrystalline soft magnetic Fe-Co-Si-B-P-Cu alloys "NANOMET®" exhibit high saturation magnetic flux density (Bs > 1.8 T), low coercivity (Hc < 10 A/m) and low core loss (W1.7/50 ˜ 0.4 W/kg) even in a ribbon form with a thickness of up to 40 μm. By utilize excellent magnetic softness, several products such as motors or transformers for electrical appliances are now under developing by industry-academia collaboration. In particular, it is found that a brushless DC motor using NANOMET® core exhibited remarkable improvement in energy consumption. The prototype motor with an outer core diameter of 70 mm and a core thickness of 50 mm was constructed using laminated nano-crystallized NANOMET® ribbons. Core-loss for the constructed motor was improved from 1.4 W to 0.4 W only by replacing the non-oriented Si-steel core with NANOMET® one. The overall motor efficiency is evaluated to be 3% improvement. In this work, the relation between processing and resulting magnetic properties will be presented. In addition, feasibility for commercialization will also be discussed.

  7. Microstructural refinement of Al-Si alloy upon ultrasonic nanocrystalline surface modification treatment.

    PubMed

    He, Yinsheng; Li, Kejian; Cho, In Shik; Park, In Gyu; Shin, Keesam

    2014-11-01

    In this work, an Al-7 wt.% Si alloy, which is widely used as the structural materials in the automotive and aerospace industries for their high specific strength, was subjected to ultrasonic nanocrystalline surface modification (UNSM) treatment. After UNSM treatment, the effect of UNSM on the microstructural evolution of both Al grain and the dispersed Si particles was studied by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Experimental results show that the ultra-fine grain (UFG, - 400 nm in size) structure is developed in the top surface layer (up to - 15 μm in depth). The coarse Si particles were refined and well dispersed in the UFG Al matrix. Cross-sectional TEM observation revealed that the grain refinement mechanism involved the formation of new grain boundaries dividing the coarse grain into UFG structure. Nanotwin and nanosize Si were formed within the original coarse Si particles. The presence of dispersed Si particles in the Al matrix accelerated the Al grain refinement process.

  8. Surface nanocrystalline and hardening effects of Ti-Al-V alloy by electropulsing ultrasonic shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Xiaoxin

    2015-04-01

    The effect of electropulsing ultrasonic shock (EUS) on the surface hardening and microstructure of Ti6Al4V alloy was studied. It was found that electropulsing improved the microhardness dramatically both in the influential depth and maximum value, compared with the only ultrasonic-shocked sample. It's indicated that refined surface layer with nanocrystalline and improved microhardness were obtained on account of surface severe plastic deformation, dynamic recrystallization (DRX) and phase change, which was implemented at relative low temperature and high strain rate/capacity due to the coupling of the thermal and athermal effects of EUS. It's different from conventional experiments and theory. It's discussed that the positive contributions of EPT in the thermodynamics and kinetics of microstructure and properties change were attributed to the reduction of nucleation energy barrier and acceleration of atomic diffusion. Therefore, it's supposed that EUS is an energy-saving and high-efficiency method of surface treatment technique with the help of high-energy electropulses, which is promising in cost reduction of the surface engineering and energy management.

  9. Structural and magnetic studies of the nanocrystalline Nd-Fe-B-Nb alloy ribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szwaja, M.; Pawlik, K.; Pawlik, P.; Kaszuwara, W.; Wysłocki, J. J.; Gębara, P.

    2013-01-01

    A detailed studies of the phase constitution, microstructure and magnetic properties of the nanocrystalline Nd9.2Fe61.64B21.16Nb8 alloy ribbons, are reported. It was shown that the rapidly solidified ribbons have partially amorphous structure and soft magnetic properties in the as-cast state. The heat treatment at temperatures higher than 923 K led to the growth of the hard magnetic Nd2Fe14B phase and the metastable Nd2Fe23B3 phase. The Mössbauer confirmed that during annealing of the samples at temperature higher than 923 K the paramagnetic Nd1+ɛFe4B4 phase was also formed. The microstructure consisting of mixture of constituent phases was observed with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Furthermore, with increasing annealing temperature the decrease of the saturation polarization Js was observed. The maximum values of coercivity JHc = 1175 kA/m was obtained for a sample annealed at 1023K. However, annealing at 1003 K resulted in the improvement of remanence polarization Jr = 0.35 T and the maximum energy product (BH)max = 21 kJ/m3.

  10. Nanocrystalline Al7075 + 1 wt % Zr Alloy Prepared Using Mechanical Milling and Spark Plasma Sintering

    PubMed Central

    Málek, Přemysl; Minárik, Peter; Chráska, Tomáš; Novák, Pavel; Průša, Filip

    2017-01-01

    The microstructure, phase composition, and microhardness of both gas-atomized and mechanically milled powders of the Al7075 + 1 wt % Zr alloy were investigated. The gas-atomized powder exhibited a cellular microstructure (grain size of a few µm) with layers of intermetallic phases along the cell boundaries. Mechanical milling (400 revolutions per minute (RPM)/8 h) resulted in a grain size reduction to the nanocrystalline range (20 to 100 nm) along with the dissolution of the intermetallic phases. Milling led to an increase in the powder’s microhardness from 97 to 343 HV. Compacts prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS) exhibited negligible porosity. The grain size of the originally gas-atomized material was retained, but the continuous layers of intermetallic phases were replaced by individual particles. Recrystallization led to a grain size increase to 365 nm in the SPS compact prepared from the originally milled powder. Small precipitates of the Al3Zr phase were observed in the SPS compacts, and they are believed to be responsible for the retainment of the sub-microcrystalline microstructure during SPS. A more intensive precipitation in this SPS compact can be attributed to a faster diffusion due to a high density of dislocations and grain boundaries in the milled powder. PMID:28930192

  11. Properties of nanocrystalline Fe75Si15M10 (M-Cr and Al) powders prepared by mechanical alloying.

    PubMed

    Kalita, M P C; Perumal, A; Srinivasan, A; Pandey, Brajesh; Verma, H C

    2008-08-01

    We report the structural and magnetic properties of the nanocrystalline Fe75Si15M10 (M-Al and Cr) powders prepared by mechanical alloying. The milling process produced a non-equilibrium solid solutions of bcc alpha-Fe(Si,Cr) and alpha-Fe(Si,Al). The average dislocation density increases and the average crystallite size decreases with increasing milling time. Magnetic property studies show that the coercivity of the sample increases and magnetization of the sample decreases with increasing milling time. The evolution of a non-equilibrium solid solution and the resulting magnetic properties of nanocrystalline powders are explained on the basis of Neel theory and modified random anisotropy model proposed by Shen et al.

  12. Correlation between bias fields and magnetoresistance in CoPt biased NiFe/Ta/NiFe heterosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi; He, Xi; Sahoo, Sarbeswar; Binek, Christian

    2010-03-01

    Exchange coupled magnetic hard layer / soft layer (SL) thin films show SL biasing in close analogy to exchange bias systems with antiferromagnetic pinning.^1 Here we study CoPt(35nm)/NiFe(450nm)/Ta(d)/NiFe(450nm) heterostructures with d between 0.7 and 5nm. We use AGFM and SQUID to measure the overall magnetization reversal and minor loop behavior of the top NiFe layer followed by reversal of the CoPt-pinned NiFe layer. Magnetoresistance (MR) is measured by four-point methodology and modeled using magnetization data thus confirming the assumptions of uniform rotation of the top layer and exchange spring behavior of the pinned NiFe layer. In the absence of vector magnetometry, MR provides evidence for the distinct reversal mechanisms. ^1Ch. Binek, S. Polisetty, Xi He and A. Berger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 067201 (2006). Financial support by NSF through Career, MRSEC and the NRI.

  13. Predeformation and Subsequent Annealing—A Way for Controlling Morphology of Carbides in Large Dimensional Bulk Nanocrystalline Fe-Al-Cr Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongding; La, Peiqing; Shi, Ting; Wei, Yupeng; Jiao, Huisheng

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a processing route is introduced to control the morphology of carbide and the grain size of nanocrystalline matrix of Fe-Al-Cr alloy. After predeformation followed by annealing treatment, the grain size of nanocrystalline matrix decreased slightly and the Cr7C3 phases transformed from a fiber shape to the globular shape. The yield strength and the flow stress of the alloy increased from 1048 to 1338 MPa and 1150 to 1550 MPa, respectively, while the ductility of the alloy also became better. This proposed method may open a way for controlling the morphology of carbide and the grain size of matrix in bulk nanocrystalline materials to receive higher strength and better plasticity.

  14. Nonreciprocal spin wave spectroscopy of thin Ni-Fe stripes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalili Amiri, Pedram; Rejaei, Behzad; Vroubel, Marina; Zhuang, Yan

    2007-08-01

    The authors report on the observation of nonreciprocal spin wave propagation in a thin (˜200nm) patterned Ni-Fe stripe. The spin wave transmission spectrum is measured using a pair of microstrip lines as antennas. The nonreciprocity of surface wave dispersion brought about by an adjacent aluminum ground leads to a nonreciprocal coupling of the antennas. The effects of Ni-Fe film conductivity, thickness, and reflections caused by the lateral confinement of the magnetic stripe are discussed. The nonreciprocity observed in this structure can potentially be used to realize nonreciprocal microwave devices on silicon.

  15. The effect of Ni addition on microstructure and soft magnetic properties of FeCoZrBCu nanocrystalline alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xingdu; Tang, Yongtian; Shi, Zhixiang; Jiang, Mufeng; Shen, Baolong

    2017-05-01

    (Fe0.7Co0.3-xNix)88Zr7B4Cu1 nanocrystalline alloys were developed with the aim of improving the magnetic properties while keeping high Curie temperature (TC). It was revealed that Ni addition inhibited the precipitation of metastable fcc-(Fe,Co,Ni) phase hence increased thermal stability. Although the saturation magnetic flux density (Bs) showed a slight decrease, uniform nanostructure with small grain size and high volume fraction of crystals was formed with increasing Ni addition. As a result, the (Fe0.7Co0.3-xNix)88Zr7B4Cu1 nanocrystalline alloys exhibited excellent magnetic properties with a high Bs of 1.54-1.79 T, low coercivity (Hc) of 17-20 A/m and low core loss of 9.1-11.1 W/kg at 1 T and 400 Hz. The combination of high TC of 747-972 °C, low core loss as well as low material cost promised this FeCoNiZrBCu alloys broad application prospect at high temperature.

  16. Gallium-enhanced phase contrast in atom probe tomography of nanocrystalline and amorphous Al-Mn alloys.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Shiyun; Torres, Karen L; Thompson, Gregory B; Schuh, Christopher A

    2011-07-01

    Over a narrow range of composition, electrodeposited Al-Mn alloys transition from a nanocrystalline structure to an amorphous one, passing through an intermediate dual-phase nanocrystal/amorphous structure. Although the structural change is significant, the chemical difference between the phases is subtle. In this study, the solute distribution in these alloys is revealed by developing a method to enhance phase contrast in atom probe tomography (APT). Standard APT data analysis techniques show that Mn distributes uniformly in single phase (nanocrystalline or amorphous) specimens, and despite some slight deviations from randomness, standard methods reveal no convincing evidence of Mn segregation in dual-phase samples either. However, implanted Ga ions deposited during sample preparation by focused ion-beam milling are found to act as chemical markers that preferentially occupy the amorphous phase. This additional information permits more robust identification of the phases and measurement of their compositions. As a result, a weak partitioning tendency of Mn into the amorphous phase (about 2 at%) is discerned in these alloys.

  17. Growth in solution of hooked Ni-Fe fibers by oriented rotation and attachment approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Wei-ze

    2016-04-01

    Inspired by the curved branches of fractal trees, hooked Ni-Fe fibers were grown in situ in Ni-Fe composite coatings on a spheroidal graphite cast iron substrate. These hooked Ni-Fe fibers exhibited inclination angles of about 39°, which was in accordance with the theoretical prediction of 37°. Ni-Fe nanostructures self-assembled to form dendrites and evolved into hooked fibers by an oriented attachment reaction. The orientation rotation of Ni-Fe nanostructures played an important role in the growth of curved hooked Ni-Fe fibers. During sliding wear tests, the volume loss of the spheroidal graphite cast iron substrate was 2.2 times as large as that of the Ni-Fe coating reinforced by hooked fibers. The good load-transferring ability of hooked Ni-Fe fibers led to an improvement in their wear properties during wear tests.

  18. Synthesis and characterizations of Ni-Fe-spinel oxide core-shell nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, H.T. Ding, J.; Chow, G.M.

    2009-05-06

    Core-shell Ni-Fe-ferrite nanoparticles with an average diameter of 14 nm and shell thickness of 3 nm were synthesized through a redox-transmetalation process. The alloy core and spinel oxide shell were verified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. The hydrophobic oleylamine molecules on the surface were replaced by hydrophilic meso-2,3-Dimercaptosuccinic acid to make the nanoparticles to be water-soluble. X-ray diffraction study of the as-prepared core-shell nanoparticles indicates that they remained face centered cubic alloy core and spinel shell form in air. Magnetic measurements indicate that the core-shell nanoparticles exhibit superparamagnetic and exchange bias characteristics at 300 K and 5 K, respectively.

  19. Structural, thermal, optical, and photoacoustic study of nanocrystalline Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} produced by mechanical alloying

    SciTech Connect

    Souza, S. M.; Triches, D. M.; Poffo, C. M.; Lima, J. C. de; Grandi, T. A.; Biasi, R. S. de

    2011-01-01

    Nanocrystalline Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} was produced by mechanical alloying and its properties were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) x-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy (RS), and photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS). Combining the XRD and RS results, the volume fraction of the interfacial component in as-milled and annealed samples was estimated. The PAS results suggest that the contribution of the interfacial component to the thermal diffusivity of nanostructured Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} is very significant.

  20. Structural Inheritance and Redox Performance of Nanoporous Electrodes from Nanocrystalline Fe85.2B10-14P0-4Cu0.8 Alloys.

    PubMed

    Fu, Chaoqun; Xu, Lijun; Dan, Zhenhua; Makino, Akihiro; Hara, Nobuyoshi; Qin, Fengxiang; Chang, Hui

    2017-06-08

    Nanoporous electrodes have been fabricated by selectively dissolving the less noble α-Fe crystalline phase from nanocrystalline Fe85.2B14-xPxCu0.8 alloys (x= 0, 2, 4 at.%). The preferential dissolution is triggered by the weaker electrochemical stability of α-Fe nanocrystals than amorphous phase. The final nanoporous structure is mainly composed of amorphous residual phase and minor undissolved α-Fe crystals and can be predicted from initial microstructure of nanocrystalline precursor alloys. The structural inheritance is proved by the similarity of the size and outlines between nanopores formed after dealloying in 0.1 M H₂SO₄ and α-Fe nanocrystals precipitated after annealing of amorphous Fe85.2B14-xPxCu0.8 (x = 0, 2, 4 at.%) alloys. The Redox peak current density of the nanoporous electrodes obtained from nanocrystalline Fe85.2B10P₄Cu0.8 alloys is more than one order higher than those of Fe plate electrode and its counterpart nanocrystalline alloys due to the large surface area and nearly-amorphous nature of ligaments.

  1. Structural Inheritance and Redox Performance of Nanoporous Electrodes from Nanocrystalline Fe85.2B10-14P0-4Cu0.8 Alloys

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Chaoqun; Xu, Lijun; Dan, Zhenhua; Makino, Akihiro; Hara, Nobuyoshi; Qin, Fengxiang; Chang, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Nanoporous electrodes have been fabricated by selectively dissolving the less noble α-Fe crystalline phase from nanocrystalline Fe85.2B14–xPxCu0.8 alloys (x= 0, 2, 4 at.%). The preferential dissolution is triggered by the weaker electrochemical stability of α-Fe nanocrystals than amorphous phase. The final nanoporous structure is mainly composed of amorphous residual phase and minor undissolved α-Fe crystals and can be predicted from initial microstructure of nanocrystalline precursor alloys. The structural inheritance is proved by the similarity of the size and outlines between nanopores formed after dealloying in 0.1 M H2SO4 and α-Fe nanocrystals precipitated after annealing of amorphous Fe85.2B14−xPxCu0.8 (x = 0, 2, 4 at.%) alloys. The Redox peak current density of the nanoporous electrodes obtained from nanocrystalline Fe85.2B10P4Cu0.8 alloys is more than one order higher than those of Fe plate electrode and its counterpart nanocrystalline alloys due to the large surface area and nearly-amorphous nature of ligaments. PMID:28594378

  2. 90° magnetic coupling in a NiFe/FeMn/biased NiFe multilayer spin valve component investigated by polarized neutron reflectometry

    SciTech Connect

    Callori, S. J. Bertinshaw, J.; Cortie, D. L.; Cai, J. W. Zhu, T.; Le Brun, A. P.; Klose, F.

    2014-07-21

    We have observed 90° magnetic coupling in a NiFe/FeMn/biased NiFe multilayer system using polarized neutron reflectometry. Magnetometry results show magnetic switching for both the biased and free NiFe layers, the latter of which reverses at low applied fields. As these measurements are only capable of providing information about the total magnetization within a sample, polarized neutron reflectometry was used to investigate the reversal behavior of the NiFe layers individually. Both the non-spin-flip and spin-flip neutron reflectometry signals were tracked around the free NiFe layer hysteresis loop and were used to detail the evolution of the magnetization during reversal. At low magnetic fields near the free NiFe coercive field, a large spin-flip signal was observed, indicating magnetization aligned perpendicular to both the applied field and pinned layer.

  3. Anti-microbial active composite nanoparticles with magnetic core and photocatalytic shell: TiO2-NiFe2O4 biomaterial system.

    PubMed

    Rana, S; Rawat, J; Misra, R D K

    2005-11-01

    Reverse micelle and chemical hydrolysis techniques have been successfully combined to synthesize composite nanoparticles consisting of a photocatalytic shell of titania and a magnetic core of nickel ferrite. The nature of titania shell, i.e. anatase or brookite, depends on the TiO2 and NiFe2O4 molar ratio. The work presented here describes the photocatalytic and anti-microbial activity of the composite nanoparticles together with the magnetic characteristics of the nickel ferrite core. The TiO2-coated NiFe2O4 nanoparticles retain the magnetic characteristics of uncoated nanocrystalline nickel ferrites (superparamagnetism; absence of hysteresis, remanence and coercivity at 300 K) encouraging their application as removable anti-microbial photocatalyst nanoparticles that can be extracted from the sprayed surface (human body or environment) after exposure.

  4. Preparation of nanocrystalline Ce1-xSmx(Fe,Co)11Ti by melt spinning and mechanical alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuest, H.; Bommer, L.; Huber, A. M.; Goll, D.; Weissgaerber, T.; Kieback, B.

    2017-04-01

    Permanent magnetic materials based on Ce(Fe, Co)12-xTix with the ThMn12 structure are promising candidates for replacing NdFeB magnets. Its intrinsic magnetic properties are not far below the values of Nd2Fe14B, and the high amount of Fe and the fact that Ce is much more abundant and less expensive than Nd encourages the reasonable interest in these compounds. Nanocrystalline magnetic material of the composition Ce1-xSmxFe11-yCoyTi (x=0-1 and y=0; 1.95) has been produced by both melt spinning and mechanical alloying. Alloys containing only Ce as rare earth element (x=0) show coercivities below 77 kA/m, while for x=1 Hc,J values up to 392 kA/m are reached. Coercivity shows rather an exponential than a linear dependence on the gradual substitution of Ce by Sm.

  5. Chemical synthesis, characterizations and magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Fe{sub 50}Co{sub 50} alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Dalavi, Shankar B.; Panda, Rabi Narayan; Raja, M. Manivel

    2014-04-24

    Nanocrystalline Fe{sub 50}Co{sub 50} alloy has been synthesized successfully by chemical reduction route using superhydride as reducing agent and oleic acid and oleylamine as capping agents. Phase purity, crystallite size and lattice parameters of the synthesized NPs are determined by X-ray powder diffraction method. FeCo alloy crystallizes in body centered cubic (bcc) structure having crystallite size equal to 29 nm and lattice parameters equal to 2.8546 Å. The size and shape morphologies of the material were studied by SEM analysis. SEM micrograph study shows the average particle size to be 60 nm and indicates the appearance of agglomerates of the nano-particles consisting of several crystallites. The room temperature magnetic hysteresis studies indicate ferromagnetic behavior of the materials. The values of saturation magnetization and coercivity were 65 emu/g and 460 Oe, respectively. Magnetic properties of the material were interpreted on the basis of fine particle magnetism.

  6. Magnetic and microstructural properties of nanocrystalline Fe-25 at% Al and Fe-25 at% Al +0.2 at%B alloys prepared by mechanical alloying process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibn Gharsallah, H.; Makhlouf, T.; Escoda, L.; Suñol, J. J.; Khitouni, M.

    2016-04-01

    In the present work, structural and magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Fe-25at%Al and Fe-25at%Al+0.02at%B alloys produced by mechanical alloying were studied. Their microstructural properties were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer. A BCC-nanostructured Fe(Al,B) solid solution with an average crystallite size of about 18nm has been produced by milling for 4h. Whereas in Fe-25at%Al the alloying process has been accomplished after 16h of milling. It is found that B speeds up the formation of a bcc phase with finer microstructure (around 5nm) after 40h of milling. When increasing the milling time, the crystallite size decreases for all powders. An increase in microstrain was observed with increasing the milling time and also with addition of boron. Coercivity and the saturation magnetization of alloyed powders were measured at room temperature by a vibration sample magnetization. The magnetic measurements show a contrasting saturation magnetization and coercivity ( Hc) in both alloys. These variations are explained by crystallite size and strain variations in the samples during milling.

  7. Magnetic and magnetotransport properties of nanocrystalline Ag 0.85Fe 0.15 and Ag 0.70Fe 0.30 alloys prepared by mechanical alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, J. A.; Xia, S. K.; Passamani, E. C.; Giordanengo, B.; Baggio-Saitovitch, E. M.

    2001-01-01

    The magnetic and magnetotransport properties of nanocrystalline Ag 0.85Fe 0.15 and Ag 0.70Fe 0.30 alloys have been studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy, magnetization and resistivity measurements. The samples were prepared by mechanical alloying of Fe and Ag powders in a high-energy ball mill. Mössbauer spectroscopy and magnetic measurements of the final milled samples indicate the presence of single-domain 'Fe' particles. The magnetoresistance values, at 4.2 K and for a magnetic field of 8 T, are 2.5% and 5.7% for samples Ag 0.85Fe 0.15 and Ag 0.70Fe 0.30, respectively. The magnetoresistance behavior indicates the cluster-glass-like features in both the final milled samples.

  8. Effect of temperature and stress on creep behavior of ultrafine grained nanocrystalline Ni-3 at% Zr alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meraj, Md.; Pal, Snehanshu

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation based study of creep behavior for nanocrystalline (NC) Ni-3 at% Zr alloy having grain size 6 nm has been performed using embedded atom method (EAM) potential to study the influence of variation of temperature (1220-1450 K) as well as change in stress (0.5-1.5 GPa) on creep behavior. All the simulated creep curves for this ultra-fine grained NC Ni-Zr alloy has extensive tertiary creep regime. Primary creep regime is very short and steady state creep part is almost absent. The effect of temperatures and stress is prominent on the nature of the simulated creep curves and corresponding atomic configurations. Additionally, mean square displacement calculation has been performed at 1220 K, 1250 K, 1350 K, and 1450 K temperatures to correlate the activation energy of atomic diffusion and creep. The activation energy of creep process found to be less compared to activation energies of self-diffusion for Ni and Zr in NC Ni-3 at% Zr alloy. Formation of martensite is identified during creep process by common neighbour analysis. Presence of dislocations is observed only in primary regime of creep curve up till 20 ps, as evident from calculated dislocation density through MD simulations. Coble creep is found to be main operative mechanism for creep deformation of ultrafine grained NC Ni-3 at% Zr alloy.

  9. Nanocrystallinity and magnetic property enhancement in melt-spun iron-rare earth-base hard magnetic alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, H.A.; Manaf, A.; Zhang, P.Z. . Dept. of Engineering Materials)

    1993-08-01

    Refinement of the grain size below [approximately]35 nm mean diameter in melt-spun FeNdB-base alloys leads to enhancement of remanent polarization, J[sub r], above the level predicted by the Stoner-Wohlfarth theory for an aggregate of independent, randomly oriented, and uniaxial magnetic particles. This article summarizes the results of the recent systematic research on this phenomenon, including the influence of alloy composition and processing conditions on the crystallite size, degree of enhancement of J[sub r], and maximum energy product (BH)[sub max]. It has been shown that the effect can also occur in ternary FeNdB alloys, without the addition of silicon or aluminum, which was originally thought necessary, providing the nanocrystallites are not magnetically decoupled by a paramagnetic second phase. Values of (BH)[sub max] above 160 kJ. m[sup [minus]3] have been achieved. The relationship between grain size, J[sub r], intrinsic coercivity, [sub J]H[sub c], and (BH)[sub max] are discussed in terms of magnetic exchange coupling, anisotropy, and other parameters. Recent extension of this work to the enhancement of properties in Fe-Mischmental-Boron-base alloys and to bonded magnets with a nanocrystalline structure is also described.

  10. The effect of temperature and stress on creep behavior of ultrafine grained nanocrystalline Ni-3 at% Zr alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meraj, Md.; Pal, Snehanshu

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation based study of creep behavior for nanocrystalline (NC) Ni-3 at% Zr alloy having grain size 6 nm has been performed using embedded atom method (EAM) potential to study the influence of variation of temperature (1220-1450 K) as well as change in stress (0.5-1.5 GPa) on creep behavior. All the simulated creep curves for this ultra-fine grained NC Ni-Zr alloy has extensive tertiary creep regime. Primary creep regime is very short and steady state creep part is almost absent. The effect of temperatures and stress is prominent on the nature of the simulated creep curves and corresponding atomic configurations. Additionally, mean square displacement calculation has been performed at 1220 K, 1250 K, 1350 K, and 1450 K temperatures to correlate the activation energy of atomic diffusion and creep. The activation energy of creep process found to be less compared to activation energies of self-diffusion for Ni and Zr in NC Ni-3 at% Zr alloy. Formation of martensite is identified during creep process by common neighbour analysis. Presence of dislocations is observed only in primary regime of creep curve up till 20 ps, as evident from calculated dislocation density through MD simulations. Coble creep is found to be main operative mechanism for creep deformation of ultrafine grained NC Ni-3 at% Zr alloy.

  11. Exchange bias magnetism in films of NiFe/(Ni,Fe)O nanocrystallite dispersions

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiao, C.-H.; Chi, C.-C.; Wang, S.; Ouyang, H.; Desautels, R. D.; Lierop, J. van; Lin, K.-W.; Lin, T.-L.

    2014-05-07

    Ni{sub 3}Fe/(Ni,Fe)O thin films having a nanocrystallite dispersion morphology were prepared by a reactive ion beam-assisted deposition technique. The crystallite sizes of these dispersion-based films were observed to decrease from 8.4 ± 0.3 nm to 3.4 ± 0.3 nm as the deposition flow-rate increased from 2.78% to 7.89% O{sub 2}/Ar. Thin film composition was determined using selective area electron diffraction images and Multislice simulations. Through a detailed analysis of high resolution transmission electron microscopy images, the nanocrystallites were determined to be Ni{sub 3}Fe (a ferromagnet), NiO, and FeO (both antiferromagnets). It was determined that the interfacial molar Ni{sub 3}Fe ratio in the nanocrystallite dispersions increased slightly at first, then decreased as the oxygen content was increased; at 7.89% O{sub 2}/Ar, the interfacial molar ratio was essentially zero (only NiO and FeO remained). For nanocrystallite dispersion films grown with O{sub 2}/Ar flow-rate greater than 7.89%, no interfacial (intermixed) Ni{sub 3}Fe phase was detected, which resulted in no measurable exchange bias. Comparing the exchange bias field between the nanocrystallite dispersion films at 5 K, we observed a decrease in the magnitude of the exchange bias field as the nanocrystallite size decreased. The exchange bias coupling for all samples measured set in at essentially the same temperature (i.e., the exchange bias blocking temperature). Since the ferromagnetic/anti-ferromagnetic (FM/AFM) contact area in the nanocrystallite dispersion films increased as the nanocrystallite size decreased, the increase in the magnitude of the exchange bias could be attributed to larger regions of defects (vacancies and bond distortions) which occupied a significant portion of the FM/AFM interfaces in the nanocrystallite dispersion films.

  12. Morphology, structural and thermal characterization of nanocrystalline Ni50Cu30(Fe2B)10P10 powders prepared by mechanical alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slimi, M.; Suñol, J. J.; Khitouni, M.

    2016-05-01

    The mechanical alloying process has been used to prepare nanocrystalline Ni50Cu30(Fe2B)10P10 alloy from powder mixture. The transformations occurring in the material during milling were studied with the use of X-ray diffraction. In addition, lattice microstrain, average crystallite size, dislocation density and the lattice parameter were determined. The patterns so obtained were analyzed using the Maud program. The final product of the mechanical alloying process after 30h of milling was nanocrystalline Ni, Cu3P and Fe2B phases with a mean crystallite size in the range of a few nanometers. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed to examine the morphology of the samples as a function of milling times. Thermal behaviour of the milled powders was examined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).

  13. RECENT PROGRESS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF DUCTILE-PHASE TOUGHENED TUNGSTEN FOR PLASMA-FACING MATERIALS: W-Ni-Fe COMPOSITES

    SciTech Connect

    Henager, Charles H.; Stevens, Erica L.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Roosendaal, Timothy J.; Nyberg, Eric A.; Lavender, Curt A.; Odette, G Robert; Cunningham, Kevin; Zok, Frank W.

    2015-06-30

    A promising approach to increasing fracture toughness and decreasing the DBTT of a W-alloy is by ductile-phase toughening (DPT). In this method, a ductile phase is included in a brittle matrix to prevent fracture propagation by crack bridging or crack deflection. Liquid-phase sintered W-Ni-Fe alloys consisting of nearly spherical W-particles embedded within a Ni-Fe-W ductile matrix are being manipulated by hot-rolling to create lamellar W/Fe-Ni-W composites with anisotropic fracture properties. The rolled W-Ni-Fe alloy becomes a lamellar alloy consisting of W lamellae separated by ductile-phase regions. The W-rich lamellae are strong but brittle, while the ductile-phase metallic regions have a thin, plate-like morphology to provide a ductile bridging region. This rolled material is oriented with the W-rich lamellae parallel to principal stresses so that surface cracking is normal to the ductile-phase bridging regions.

  14. Correlation between bias fields and magnetoresistance in CoPt biased NiFe/Ta/NiFe heterosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi; He, Xi; Mukherjee, Tathagata; Sahoo, Sarbeswar; Fitzsimmons, Michael; Binek, Christian

    2011-03-01

    Exchange coupled magnetic hard layer/soft layer (SL) thin films show SL biasing in close analogy to exchange bias systems with antiferromagnetic pinning. Here we study CoPt(35nm)/NiFe(450nm)/Ta(d)/NiFe(450nm) heterostructures with 0.7 < d <5nm. We use alternating gradient force magnetometry to measure the overall magnetization reversal and minor loop behavior. Magnetoresistance (MR) is measured by four-point methodology and modeled using magnetization data thus confirming the assumptions of uniform rotation of the top layer and exchange spring behavior of the pinned NiFe layer. In addition, Polarized Neutron Reflectometry (PNR) provides an independent data set for magnetization depth profiles. We compare and contrast results from our magnetometry and MR technique with PNR results. The objective of this comparison is to show that single-component magnetometry in concert with MR and modeling reveals the full vector and depth profile information of the distinct magnetization reversal mechanisms. Financial support by NSF through Career, MRSEC, DOE-OBES

  15. Study of the nanocrystalline bulk Al alloys synthesized by high energy mechanical milling followed by room temperature high pressing consolidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhlouf, T.; Azabou, M.; Ghrib, M.; Ghrib, T.; Yacoubi, N.; Khitouni, M.

    2009-11-01

    In the present study high energy mechanical milling followed by high-pressing consolidation has been used to obtain bulk nanocrystalline Al-Fe-Si alloy. Quantitative XRD analysis and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the material evolution during thermal treatments in the temperature range 25- 500∘ C. The cold-worked structure have been synthesized with microstructure showing a mixture of a significant low size of crystallite (70 nm) and a high level of lattice strains (0.85%). Starting from the nanocrystalline specimens, isochronal experiments were carried out to monitor the reserve microstructure and transformations. The high temperature annealing is required for ameliorating the quality of room temperature consolidated materials by removing all porosity and obtaining good interparticle bonding. The thermal conductivity and the thermal diffusivity are investigated with the Photothermal deflection technique. These thermal parameters increase with the annealing temperatures. This behavior is attributed to the increase in the rate of diffusion coefficient of added elements inside the aluminum matrix.

  16. Thermally Stable Nanocrystalline Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulme-Smith, Christopher Neil; Ooi, Shgh Woei; Bhadeshia, Harshad K. D. H.

    2017-10-01

    Two novel nanocrystalline steels were designed to withstand elevated temperatures without catastrophic microstructural changes. In the most successful alloy, a large quantity of nickel was added to stabilize austenite and allow a reduction in the carbon content. A 50 kg cast of the novel alloy was produced and used to verify the formation of nanocrystalline bainite. Synchrotron X-ray diffractometry using in situ heating showed that austenite was able to survive more than 1 hour at 773 K (500 °C) and subsequent cooling to ambient temperature. This is the first reported nanocrystalline steel with high-temperature capability.

  17. Microstructural evolution and surface properties of nanostructured Cu-based alloy by ultrasonic nanocrystalline surface modification technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amanov, Auezhan; Cho, In-Sik; Pyun, Young-Sik

    2016-12-01

    A nanostructured surface layer with a thickness of about 180 μm was successfully produced in Cu-based alloy using an ultrasonic nanocrystalline surface modification (UNSM) technique. Cu-based alloy was sintered onto low carbon steel using a powder metallurgy (P/M) method. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) characterization revealed that the severe plastic deformation introduced by UNSM technique resulted in nano-sized grains in the topmost surface layer and deformation twins. It was also found by atomic force microscope (AFM) observations that the UNSM technique provides a significant reduction in number of interconnected pores. The effectiveness of nanostructured surface layer on the tribological and micro-scratch properties of Cu-based alloy specimens was investigated using a ball-on-disk tribometer and micro-scratch tester, respectively. Results exhibited that the UNSM-treated specimen led to an improvement in tribological and micro-scratch properties compared to that of the sintered specimen, which may be attributed to the presence of nanostructured surface layer having an increase in surface hardness and reduction in surface roughness. The findings from this study are expected to be implemented to the automotive industry, in particular connected rod bearings and bushings in order to increase the efficiency and performance of internal combustion engines (ICEs).

  18. Formation of the Nanocrystalline Structure in an Equiatomic NiTi Shape-Memory Alloy by Thermomechanical Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad Sharifi, E.; Kermanpur, A.; Karimzadeh, F.; Esmaili, A.

    2014-04-01

    The microstructural evolution during cold rolling followed by annealing of an equiatomic NiTi shape-memory alloy was investigated. The high purity Ni50Ti50 alloy was cast by a copper boat vacuum induction-melting technique. The as-cast ingots were then homogenized, hot rolled, and annealed to prepare the suitable initial microstructure. Thereafter, annealed specimens were cold rolled up to 70 % thickness reduction at room temperature. Post-deformation annealing was conducted at 400 °C for 1 h. The microstructure was characterized using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry techniques. The initial microstructure was free from segregation and Ti- or Ni-rich precipitates and was composed of coarse grains with an average size of 50 μm. The cold rolling of NiTi alloy resulted in a partial amorphization and the deformation-induced grain refinement. A nanocrystalline structure with the grain size of about 20-70 nm was formed during the post-deformation annealing.

  19. Loading Rate-Dependent Mechanical Properties of Bulk Two-Phase Nanocrystalline Al-Pb Alloys Studied by Nanoindentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varam, Sreedevi; Rajulapati, Koteswararao V.; Bhanu Sankara Rao, K.; Scattergood, Ronald O.; Murty, Korukonda L.; Koch, Carl C.

    2014-10-01

    Bulk samples (dia. = 20 mm) of various nanocrystalline (nc) Al-Pb alloys with Pb content varying from 1 to 4 at. pct are fabricated using spark plasma sintering of ball-milled powders. Al matrix in Al-2 at. pct Pb alloy had a grain size of 53 nm, and Pb particle size was 6 ± 2 nm. High angle annular dark-field image obtained in STEM mode of TEM indicates the presence of Pb along the nc Al grain boundaries as well as dispersion of smaller Pb particles in the intra-granular regions. Hardness studies are carried out using microindentation and nanoindentation with load varying over three orders of magnitude (100 - 0.1 g). Microindentation yielded slightly smaller hardness values in comparison to nanoindentation possibly because of indentation size effect. Nevertheless both microindentation and nanoindentation resulted in the same trend of hardness for various nc Al-Pb alloys. Hardness of Al-Pb alloys increased with increase in Pb content up to the additions of 2 at. pct Pb, beyond that the hardness is decreased for higher Pb additions of 3 and 4 pct. The initial hardening behavior is explained based on the Orowan particle strengthening. Strain rate sensitivity (SRS) has increased with increase in Pb content reaching a value of 0.1 for Al-4 at. pct Pb alloy. Activation volumes measured are between 2.84 and 6.15 b 3. Higher SRS and lower activation volume suggest that grain boundary-mediated processes are controlling the deformation characteristics.

  20. Nanoindentation testing as a powerful screening tool for assessing phase stability of nanocrystalline high-entropy alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Maier-Kiener, Verena; Schuh, Benjamin; George, Easo P.; ...

    2016-11-19

    The equiatomic high-entropy alloy (HEA), CrMnFeCoNi, has recently been shown to be microstructurally unstable, resulting in a multi-phase microstructure after intermediate-temperature annealing treatments. The decomposition occurs rapidly in the nanocrystalline (NC) state and after longer annealing times in coarse-grained states. To characterize the mechanical properties of differently annealed NC states containing multiple phases, nanoindentation was used in this paper. The results revealed besides drastic changes in hardness, also for the first time significant changes in the Young's modulus and strain rate sensitivity. Finally, nanoindentation of NC HEAs is, therefore, a useful complementary screening tool with high potential as a highmore » throughput approach to detect phase decomposition, which can also be used to qualitatively predict the long-term stability of single-phase HEAs.« less

  1. Nanoindentation testing as a powerful screening tool for assessing phase stability of nanocrystalline high-entropy alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Maier-Kiener, Verena; Schuh, Benjamin; George, Easo P.; Clemens, Helmut; Hohenwarter, Anton

    2016-11-19

    The equiatomic high-entropy alloy (HEA), CrMnFeCoNi, has recently been shown to be microstructurally unstable, resulting in a multi-phase microstructure after intermediate-temperature annealing treatments. The decomposition occurs rapidly in the nanocrystalline (NC) state and after longer annealing times in coarse-grained states. To characterize the mechanical properties of differently annealed NC states containing multiple phases, nanoindentation was used in this paper. The results revealed besides drastic changes in hardness, also for the first time significant changes in the Young's modulus and strain rate sensitivity. Finally, nanoindentation of NC HEAs is, therefore, a useful complementary screening tool with high potential as a high throughput approach to detect phase decomposition, which can also be used to qualitatively predict the long-term stability of single-phase HEAs.

  2. Morphology and magnetic behavior of cobalt rich amorphous/nanocrystalline (Co-Ni)70Ti10B20 alloyed powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raanaei, Hossein; Mohammad-Hosseini, Vahid

    2016-09-01

    The effect of milling time on microstructural and magnetic behavior of mechanically alloyed Co49Ni21Ti10B20 is investigated by using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and vibrating sample magnetometer. It is shown, with increasing milling time, the crystallite size decreases and finally reaches to a low value after 190 h of milling time. The increase in microstrain is also observed during the milling process. The results indicate the coexistence between amorphous and nanocrystalline phases after 190 h of milling time. Moreover, the lowest magnetic coercivity of about 39 Oe at the final milling stage is observed. The results of annealed sample reveal structural ordering of constituent elements.

  3. Phase Evolution and Thermal Analysis of Nanocrystalline AlCrCuFeNiZn High Entropy Alloy Produced by Mechanical Alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koundinya, N. T. B. N.; Sajith Babu, C.; Sivaprasad, K.; Susila, P.; Kishore Babu, N.; Baburao, J.

    2013-10-01

    A multi-component nanocrystalline AlCrCuFeNiZn high entropy alloy with 12 nm crystallite size was successfully synthesized using high energy ball milling. The progress of solid solution formation during milling was analyzed using XRD. A major portion of the HEA is observed to be BCC in crystal structure after 30 h of milling. Thermal analysis showed that HEA powders exhibited exponential oxidation characteristics. Thermal analysis showed that low activation energy was sufficient to start recrystallization because of high energy stored in the milled powders. The crystallite size after consolidation is in nanocrystalline range due to the sluggish diffusion of atoms and nanotwinning. After consolidation, the crystallite size is around 79 nm. Samples sintered at 850 °C for 2 h exhibited high hardness values of 700 ± 15 HV1.0, major volume fraction of the phases are having FCC crystal structure along with a minor phase having BCC crystal structure. Due to positive enthalpy mixing of Cu with other elements, decomposition of BCC to new FCC phases occurs.

  4. Nanostructured NiFe2O4 Soft Magnetic Ferrite

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-11-01

    Ferrite Zongtao Zhang’, Y. D. Zhang’, T. D. Xiao’, Shihui Ge2, Mingzhong Wu 2, W. A . Hines2, j. 1. Budnick2, J. M. Gromek 2, M. J. Yacaman3, and H. E ...of the overall compilation report and not as a stand-alone technical report. The following component part numbers comprise the compilation report...approaches for fabricating ferrite materials with improved performance, a study of fabricating nanostructured NiFe 20 4 using wet chemical approaches has been

  5. The activity of nanocrystalline Fe-based alloys as electrode materials for the hydrogen evolution reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Christian Immanuel; Sellschopp, Kai; Tegel, Marcus; Rauscher, Thomas; Kieback, Bernd; Röntzsch, Lars

    2016-02-01

    In view of alkaline water electrolysis, the activities for the hydrogen evolution reaction of nanocrystalline Fe-based electrode materials were investigated and compared with the activities of polycrystalline Fe and Ni. Electrochemical methods were used to elucidate the overpotential value, the charge transfer resistance and the double layer capacity. Structural properties of the electrode surface were determined with SEM, XRD and XPS analyses. Thus, a correlation between electrochemical and structural parameters was found. In this context, we report on a cyclic voltammetric activation procedure which causes a significant increase of the surface area of Fe-based electrodes leading to a boost in effective activity of the activated electrodes. It was found that the intrinsic activity of activated Fe-based electrodes is very high due to the formation of a nanocrystalline surface layer. In contrast, the activation procedure influences only the intrinsic activity of the Ni electrodes without the formation of a porous surface layer.

  6. Abrasion Resistance of Al-Ni-Mm-Fe Amorphous and Nanocrystalline Composite Coating on the Surface of AZ91 Magnesium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z. B.; Liang, X. B.; Chen, Y. X.; Xu, B. S.

    An Al-Ni-Mm-Fe amorphous and nanocrystalline composite coating was prepared onto the surface of AZ91 magnesium alloy by high velocity arc spraying process. And the microstructure of the coating was analyzed by scanning electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The analysis results indicated that the coating consists of amorphous, nanocrystalline and crystalline phases. It has a dense structure with a low porosity of about 2.0%. Its average micro Vickers hardness value is about 330 HV0.1, which is five times than that of AZ91 magnesium alloy (62 HV0.1) and four times than that of pure Al coating (71 HV0.1). The abrasion tests showed that the Al-Ni-Mm-Fe coating exhibits a good abrasion resistance.

  7. Novel H2-oxidizing [NiFeSe]hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris Miyazaki F.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Kyoshiro; Nguyen, Nga T; Yoon, Ki-Seok; Ogo, Seiji

    2013-04-01

    [NiFeSe]hydrogenases are promising biocatalysts in H2-based technology due to their high catalytic activity and O2-stability. Here, we report purification and characterization of a new membrane-associated [NiFeSe]hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris Miyazaki F ([NiFeSe]DvMF). The [NiFeSe]DvMF was composed of two subunits, corresponding to a large subunit of 58.3 kDa and a small subunit of 29.3 kDa determined by SDS-PAGE. Unlike conventional [NiFeSe]hydrogenases having catalytic bias toward H2-production, the [NiFeSe]DvMF showed 11-fold higher specific activity of H2-oxidation (2444 U/mg) than that of H2-production (217 U/mg). At the optimal reaction temperature of the enzyme (65°C), the specific activity of H2-oxidation could reach up to 21,553 U/mg. Amperometric assays of the [NiFeSe]DvMF clearly indicated that the enzyme had a remarkable O2-stability. According to the amino acid sequence alignment, the conserved cysteine residue at position 281 in medial cluster of other [NiFeSe]hydrogenases was specifically replaced by a serine residue (Ser281) in the [NiFeSe]DvMF. These results indicate that the [NiFeSe]DvMF can play as a new H2-oxidizing and O2-stable biocatalyst, along with providing helpful insights into the structure-function relationship of [NiFeSe]hydrogenases.

  8. Corrosion properties of electroplated CoNiFe films

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, M.; Yamada, K.; Ohashi, K.; Yasue, Y.; Sogawa, Y.; Osaka, T.

    1999-08-01

    Electroplated CoNiFe films with a saturation flux density as high as 2.1 T are potentially useful in high-density magnetic recording heads. The authors found that films electroplated at a high current density (15 mA/cm{sup 2}) from a bath without saccharin have a sufficient anodic pitting-corrosion potential ({minus}65 mV). The authors also found that the pitting-corrosion potential of films electroplated under a low current density (5 mA/cm{sup 2}) from saccharin-free baths have anodic pitting-corrosion potentials of less than {minus}300 mV. However, the corrosion resistance improved after annealing at temperatures above 100 C. The crystal-grain boundaries in the as-plated film that electroplated under a low current density from saccharin-free baths are not clear (i.e., that the phase is amorphous). But the crystal grain boundaries in the annealed film are clear. Films electroplated from baths containing saccharin also have anodic pitting-corrosion potentials of less than {minus}300 mV. Their corrosion resistance did not improve when they were annealed at 250 C. The deterioration of the corrosion resistance is attributed to the defects that increase the face-centered cubic (111) lattice constant. One of the most important characteristics of a highly corrosion-resistant CoNiFe film is fine crystal structure with very few defects.

  9. A highly active and coke-resistant steam reforming catalyst comprising uniform nickel-iron alloy nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Koike, Mitsuru; Li, Dalin; Nakagawa, Yoshinao; Tomishige, Keiichi

    2012-12-01

    Doing fine with Ni-Fe: The calcination and reduction of a hydrotalcite precursor containing Ni and Fe ions gives uniform Ni-Fe alloy nanoparticles mixed with Mg(Ni, Fe, Al)O particles. The uniformity of the Ni-Fe alloy nanoparticles is connected to the catalyst's high activity and resistance to coke formation in toluene and phenol steam reforming reactions.

  10. Magnetic characterization of nanocrystalline Fe80-xCrxCo20 (15≤x≤35) alloys during milling and subsequent annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastabi, Reza Amini; Ghasemi, Ali; Tavoosi, Majid; Sodaee, Tahmineh

    2016-10-01

    Magnetic characterization of nanocrystalline Fe-Cr-Co alloys during milling and annealing process was the goal of this study. To formation of Fe80-xCrxCo20 (15≤x≤35) solid solution, different powder mixtures of Fe, Cr and Co elements were mechanically milled in a planetary ball mill. The annealing process was done in as-milled samples at different temperature in the range of 500-640 °C for 2 h. The produced samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and vibrating sample magnetometer. Performed mechanical alloying in different powder mixtures lead to the formation of Fe-Cr-Co α-phase solid solution with average crystallite sizes of about 10 nm. The produced nanocrystalline alloys exhibit magnetic properties with the coercivity and saturation of magnetization in the range of 110-200 Oe and 150-220 emu/g, respectively. The coercivity of produced alloys after annealing process decreased and reached to about 40-150 Oe. The highest value of coercivity in as-milled and annealed samples was achieved in alloys with higher Cr contents.

  11. Highly improved hydrogen storage capacity and kinetics of the nanocrystalline and amorphous PrMg12-type alloys by mechanical milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. H.; Shang, H. W.; Li, Y. Q.; Yuan, Z. M.; Yang, T.; Zhao, D. L.

    2017-01-01

    Nanocrystalline and amorphous PrMg11Ni + x wt.% Ni (x = 100, 200) alloys were synthesized by mechanical milling. Effects of Ni content and milling duration on the structures, hydrogen storage capacity and kinetics of the as-milled alloys were investigated systematically. The structures were characterized by XRD and HRTEM. The hydrogen desorption activation energy was calculated by using Kissinger method. The results show that increasing Ni content dramatically improves the electrochemical discharge capacity of the as-milled alloys. Furthermore, the variation of milling time has a significant impact on the kinetics of the alloys. As the milling time increased, the high-rate discharge ability (HRD), gaseous hydrogen absorption capacity and hydrogenation rate increased at first but decreased finally, while the dehydrogenation rate always increased.

  12. Switching characteristics of NiFe free layer with respect to hard axis field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young-Woo; Yoon, Sang-Min; Kim, Cheolgi; Kim, Chong-Oh

    2004-05-01

    The switching characteristics of NiFe free layers is investigated with respect to hard axis field in magnetic tunnel junctions. An AC magnetic field is swept along easy axis with a Helmholtz coil. As the hard axis field increases, the coercivity and the squareness of magnetoresistance loops decrease. When the hard axis field is larger than +/-16.5Oe, the NiFe free layer is saturated in the hard direction and switching coercivity decreases to the constant value of 2.6Oe. Switching loops of NiFe layer shift as the NiFe free layer is magnetized along the hard direction. This shift is induced by the stray field of the NiFe free layer.

  13. An advanced Ni-Fe layered double hydroxide electrocatalyst for water oxidation.

    PubMed

    Gong, Ming; Li, Yanguang; Wang, Hailiang; Liang, Yongye; Wu, Justin Z; Zhou, Jigang; Wang, Jian; Regier, Tom; Wei, Fei; Dai, Hongjie

    2013-06-12

    Highly active, durable, and cost-effective electrocatalysts for water oxidation to evolve oxygen gas hold a key to a range of renewable energy solutions, including water-splitting and rechargeable metal-air batteries. Here, we report the synthesis of ultrathin nickel-iron layered double hydroxide (NiFe-LDH) nanoplates on mildly oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Incorporation of Fe into the nickel hydroxide induced the formation of NiFe-LDH. The crystalline NiFe-LDH phase in nanoplate form is found to be highly active for oxygen evolution reaction in alkaline solutions. For NiFe-LDH grown on a network of CNTs, the resulting NiFe-LDH/CNT complex exhibits higher electrocatalytic activity and stability for oxygen evolution than commercial precious metal Ir catalysts.

  14. Influence of quenching rate on the magnetic and martensitic properties of Ni-Fe-Ga melt-spun ribbons

    SciTech Connect

    Okumura, H.; Uemura, K.

    2010-08-15

    We have fabricated Ni-Fe-Ga {beta} single phase alloy ribbons with Ga content less than 25 at. %. Higher spinning rate of melt-spinning technique can produce {beta} single phase alloys without precipitation of {gamma} particles, whereas lower spinning rate results in the {beta}+{gamma} two phase structure. This higher quenching rate is found to be able to fully suppress the formation of {gamma} phase during fabrication. The martensitic and magnetic transition temperatures of {beta} phase ribbons are both above room temperature, and the ribbon show saturation magnetization as high as 56.5 emu/g at room temperature. These features are attractive for practical applications. The effects of quenching rate on microstructure, martensitic transformation, and magnetic properties are discussed.

  15. Structural and Mechanical Characterization of Nanocrystalline Tungsten and Tungsten-Based Alloy Thin Films for Extreme Environment Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Gustavo

    Extreme environments associated with nuclear applications often results in degradation of the physical, mechanical and thermo-mechanical properties of the materials. Tungsten (W) exhibits unique physical and mechanical properties, which makes tungsten a good candidate for nuclear applications; however, intrinsic W exhibits low fracture toughness at all temperatures in addition to a high ductile to brittle transition. In the present work, nanocrystalline W, W-Y and W-Mo alloys were nanoengineered for nuclear applications. Nanocrystalline tungsten coatings with a thickness of 1 microm were deposited onto Silicon (100) and Sapphire (C-plane) using RF and DC sputtering techniques under various growth conditions. Yttrium content in W-Y alloys has been varied to enhance the irradiation tolerance under optimum concentration. The W, W-Y coatings were characterized to understand the structure and morphology and to establish a mapping of conditions to obtain phase and size controlled materials. The samples were then subjected to depth-controlled irradiation by neutrons and Au3+ ions. Solid solution strengthening was achieved by doping molybdenum (Mo) solute atoms to W matrix under varied sputtering pressures and temperatures with the intention of creating interstitial point defects in the crystals that impede dislocation motion, increasing the hardness and young modulus of the material. The effect of PAr (3-19 mTorr) was also investigated and associated microstructure are significant on the mechanical characteristics; the hardness (H) and modulus of elasticity (Er) of the nc W-Mo thin films were higher at lower pressures but decreases continuously with increasing PAr. Using nano-indentation and nano-scratch technique, mechanical characterization testing was performed before and after irradiation. The structure, mechanics and irradiation stability of the W and W-Y coatings will be presented and discussed to demonstrate that Y-addition coupled with nano-scale features

  16. Property of Amorphous/Nanocrystalline Hybrid Wires of TiNi-Base Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Koichi; Koike, Tadahiro

    2011-07-01

    The microstructures and mechanical properties of amorphous/nanocrystalline hybrid TiNi wires produced by severe cold drawing were investigated. Annealed wires of Ti-50.9 mol%Ni and Ti-41 mol%Ni-8.5 mol%Cu were subjected to severe cold drawing of 50-70% reduction. The as-drawn TiNi wires were composed of the mixture of amorphous phase and predominantly B2 nanocrystalline phase. Young's modulus increased with the drawing reduction which can be attributed to the increase in the amount of amorphous phase. For the binary TiNi wires, the volume fraction of amorphous phase was estimated to be about 60% from Young's modulus and electrical resistivity. The wires drawn over 60% exhibited peculiar large linear elastic strain which is quite different from superelasticity. Aging at 573 K led to an increase in tensile elongation as well as in the recoverable strain. The amorphization by cold drawing was also confirmed for Ti-41 mol%Ni-8.5 mol%Cu in 62% drawn wires.

  17. RECENT PROGRESS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF DUCTILE-PHASE TOUGHENED TUNGSTEN FOR PLASMA-FACING MATERIALS: W-Ni-Fe COMPOSITES

    SciTech Connect

    Henager, Charles H.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Roosendaal, Timothy J.; Borlaug, Brennan A.; Nyberg, Eric A.; Lavender, Curt A.; Odette, G Robert; Cunningham, Kevin; Zok, Frank W.

    2015-03-02

    A promising approach to increasing fracture toughness and decreasing the DBTT of a W-alloy is by ductile-phase toughening (DPT) [1-3]. In this method, a ductile phase is included in a brittle matrix to prevent fracture propagation by crack bridging. W-Ni-Fe alloys consisting of nearly spherical W-particles embedded within a Fe-Ni-W ductile matrix are being manipulated by hot-rolling to create lamellar W/Fe-Ni-W composites with anisotropic fracture properties.

  18. Tailoring the magnetoimpedance effect of NiFe/Ag multilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrêa, M. A.; Bohn, F.; Chesman, C.; da Silva, R. B.; Viegas, A. D. C.; Sommer, R. L.

    2010-07-01

    The magnetoimpedance (MI) effect was investigated in NiFe/Ag multilayered (ML) and ML/SiO2/Ag/SiO2/ML structured multilayered (SD) ferromagnetic films grown by magnetron sputtering. The MI measurements were performed with an impedance analyzer over a wide frequency range, from 10 MHz to 1.8 GHz. Sample geometries are mainly responsible for the different MI behaviours and by considering the entire frequency range, distinct mechanisms responsible for MI changes were associated. For the ML sample, a maximum value of 80%, associated with the appearance of ferromagnetic resonance (FMR), was reached at around 1 GHz. For the SD sample, the striking feature is the existence of two distinct frequency ranges with high MI% values of 80% at around 100 MHz, related to the skin and magnetoinductive effects, and of 120% at around 1 GHz, associated with the strong skin and FMR effect.

  19. Structure-activity relationships in Ni-Fe (oxy)hydroxide oxygen evolution electrocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchellor, Adam S.

    The oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is kinetically slow and hence a significant efficiency loss in electricity-driven water electrolysis. Understanding the relationships between architecture, composition, and activity in high-performing catalyst systems are critical for the development of better catalysts. This dissertation discusses areas both fundamental and applied that seek to better understand how to accurately measure catalyst activity as well as ways to design higher performing catalysts. Chapter I introduces the work that has been done in the field to date. Chapter II compares various methods of determining the electrochemically active surface area of a film. It further discusses how pulsed and continuous electrodepostition techniques effect film morphology and behavior, and shows that using a simple electrodeposition can create high loading films with architectures that outperform those deposited onto inert substrates. The reversibility of the films, a measure of the films transport efficiency, is introduced and shown to correlate strongly with performance. Chapter III uses high energy x-ray scattering to probe the nanocrystalline domains of the largely amorphous NiFe oxyhydroxide catalysts, and shows that significant similarities in the local structure are not responsible for the change in performance for the films synthesized under different conditions. Bond lengths for oxidized and reduced catalysts are determined, and show no significant phase segregation occurs. Chapter IV seeks to optimize the deposition conditions introduced in Chapter II and to provide a physical representation of how tuning each of the parameters affects film morphology. The deposition current density is shown to be the most important factor affecting film performance at a given loading. Chapter V highlights the different design considerations for films being used in a photoelectrochemical cell, and how in situ techniques can provide information that may otherwise be unobtainable

  20. Correlation between crystallographic texture, microstructure and magnetic properties of pulse electrodeposited nanocrystalline Nickel-Cobalt alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Amit; Chhangani, Sumit; Madhavan, R.; Suwas, Satyam

    2017-07-01

    This paper reports the evolution of microstructure and texture in Nickel-Cobalt electrodeposits fabricated by pulse electrodeposition (PED) technique and the correlation of these attributes with the magnetic properties. The structural and microstructural investigation using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopic studies indicate the presence of nanocrystalline grains and nano-twins in the electrodeposits. Convoluted Multiple Whole profile fitting reveals an increase in dislocation density and twin density with increasing cobalt content in the as-deposited samples. Strengthening of <1 1 1> fibre texture and weakening of <2 0 0> fibre texture with increasing cobalt concentration has been observed with X-ray texture analysis. A corresponding significant increase in the saturation magnetization and coercivity observed with increasing cobalt content. A significant improvement in the soft magnetic character in the electrodeposits in terms of increase in saturation magnetization and decrease in coercivity has been observed with thermal annealing.

  1. Preparation of soft magnetic films of nanocrystalline Fe-Cu-Nb-Si-B alloy by facing targets sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naoe, Masahiko; Matsumiya, Hiroaki; Ichihara, Takayuki; Nakagawa, Shigeki

    1998-06-01

    Soft magnetic thin films of nanocrystalline Fe-Cu-Nb-Si-B alloy were deposited using the facing targets sputtering (FTS) apparatus. It was found that the Fe-Cu-Nb-Si-B single layers thinner than 100 nm revealed good soft magnetic properties, of which the saturation magnetization 4πMs and the relative permeability μr were 11.3 kG and 500, respectively. However, when these films were thicker than 100 nm, their soft magnetic properties degraded due to the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. On the other hand, the soft magnetic properties of the post-annealed films were improved owing to the release of stress in the films. Especially, μr of the post-annealed films with thickness of 120 nm increased drastically up to around 6200. Furthermore, Fe-Cu-Nb-Si-B/Al multilayers revealed superior soft magnetic properties due to the magnetostatic coupling between the two ferromagnetic layers. These multilayers post-annealed at 300 °C revealed softer magnetic properties than single layers. They exhibited very low coercivity Hc of 0.63 Oe, large 4πMs of 13.2 kG and high μr of 4600.

  2. Voltammetric behavior of tiopronin on carbon paste electrode modified with nanocrystalline Fe₅₀Ni₅₀ alloys.

    PubMed

    Baghayeri, Mehdi; Maleki, Behrooz; Zarghani, Rahele

    2014-11-01

    A simple and sensitive sensor was proposed for the rapid determination of tiopronin (TP) using a carbon paste electrode (CPE) modified with synthesized nanocrystalline Ni50-Fe50 alloys (nano-Ni50-Fe50) and ferrocene carboxylic acid (FcCa). The synthesized nano-Ni50-Fe50 was characterized by different methods such as TEM, SEM and XRD. The electrochemical oxidation of TP on the nano-Ni50-Fe50/FcCa carbon paste electrode (nano-Ni50-Fe50/FcCa/CPE) was studied. The nano-Ni50-Fe50/FcCa/CPE exhibited good electrocatalytic properties towards oxidation of TP in phosphate buffer solution (pH7.0) with an overpotential of about 500 mV lower than that of the bare electrode. The rate constant for the catalytic oxidation of TP was evaluated by rotating disk voltammetry and the value of kc was found to be 3.2 × 10(7) cm(3)mol(-1)s(-1). Using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), the determination of TP was explored at the modified electrode. The results indicated that the differential pulse response of TP was linear with its concentration in the range of 0.01-50.0 μM. The detection limit was 7.46 nM (S/N=3). The proposed sensor was successfully applied for the determination of TP in tablet and urine samples.

  3. Effects of peak current density on the mechanical properties of nanocrystalline Ni Co alloys produced by pulse electrodeposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yundong; Jiang, Hui; Huang, Weihua; Tian, Hui

    2008-08-01

    Cobalt content, grain size, microhardness and tensile strength of nanocrystalline Ni-Co deposits produced from a solution containing saccharin and cobalt sulfate at constant electrodeposition conditions (pulse on-time Ton at 1 ms and pulse off-time Toff at 15 ms) but varying the peak current density Jp were investigated. It is found that an increase in Jp makes the deposit Co content lower, colony-like morphology more obvious, grain size smaller, and hardness and tensile strength higher. All of the facts are believed to result from the higher overpotential and nucleation rates caused by the Jp increase. But its further increase could lead to reduction in the hardness and tensile strength. Peak current densities in the range of 100-120 A dm -2 are recommended for the preparation of nanostructured Ni-Co alloy deposits with grain sizes in the range of 15-20 nm, containing 7-8% Co, possessing hardness of 590-600 kg mm -2 and tensile strength of 1180-1200 MPa—significantly higher than the strength of pure nickel deposit which is produced by the similar method and gets similar grain size.

  4. Magnetic characterization of nanocrystalline Fe14Nd2B1 alloy during melt spinning and subsequent annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarafrazian, S.; Ghasemi, A.; Tavoosi, M.

    2016-03-01

    The magnetic characterization of amorphous/nanocrystalline Fe14Nd2B1 alloy during melt spinning and subsequent annealing was the goal of this study. The melt spinning process was done at different wheel speeds in the range of 20 to 40 m s-1. To achieving the desired microstructure, the annealing process was also done in melt spun ribbons at temperature range of 500 to 700 °C for different periods of time. The melt spun and annealed samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and vibrating scanning magnetometer (VSM). According to achieved results, the microstructure of melt spun ribbons were combination of Nd2Fe14B, Fe-α and amorphous phases with the coercivity and saturation of magnetization in the range of 11.2-125.6 kA/m and 65-120 A m2/kg, respectively. By annealing the ribbons, the coercivity and saturation of magnetization increased and decreased, respectively. The highest values of coercivity (752 kA/m) and stored magnetic energy (about 267.68 kJ/m3) were achieved in annealed sample at 600 °C for 6 h.

  5. Synthesis of Pt-Ni-Fe/CNT/CP nanocomposite as an electrocatalytic electrode for PEM fuel cell cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litkohi, Hajar Rajaei; Bahari, Ali; Ojani, Reza

    2017-08-01

    In order to use carbon nanotube (CNT)-supported catalyst as fuel cell electrodes, Pt-Ni-Fe/CNT/carbon paper (CP) electrode was prepared using an ethylene glycol reduction method. CNTs were directly synthesized on Ni-impregnated carbon paper, plain carbon cloth, and Teflonized carbon cloth using chemical vapor deposition. FESEM and TEM images and thermogravimetric analysis indicated that in situ CNT on carbon paper (ICNT/CP) possesses more appropriate structural quality and stronger adhesion to the substrate than other substrates. The contact angle analysis demonstrated that the degree of ICNT/CP surface hydrophobicity encountered a 24% increase in comparison to CP and promoted to superhydrophobicity from hydrophobicity. The polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results of the loaded Pt-Ni-Fe on in situ and ex situ CNT/CP illustrated that the power density increased and charge transfer resistance reduced compared to commercial Pt/C loaded on CP. The results can be attributed to the outstanding properties of CNTs and high catalytic activity of triple catalysts causing alloying of Pt with Ni and Fe, which makes them a proper candidate to be used as cathode electrodes in proton exchange membrane fuel cells.

  6. Spin pumping and inverse Rashba-Edelstein effect in NiFe/Ag/Bi and NiFe/Ag/Sb

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Wei; Jungfleisch, Matthias B.; Jiang, Wanjun; ...

    2015-03-20

    The Rashba effect is an interaction between the spin and the momentum of electrons induced by the spin-orbit coupling in surface or interface states. Here, we measured the inverse Rashba-Edelstein effect via spin pumping in Ag/Bi and Ag/Sb interfaces. The spin current is injected from the ferromagnetic resonance of a NiFe layer towards the Rashba interfaces, where it is further converted into a charge current. While using spin pumping theory, we quantify the conversion parameter of spin to charge current to be 0.11 ± 0.02 nm for Ag/Bi and a factor of ten smaller for Ag/Sb. Furthermore, the relative strengthmore » of the effect is in agreement with spectroscopic measurements and first principles calculations. The spin pumping experiment offers a straight-forward approach of using spin current as an efficient probe for detecting interface Rashba splitting.« less

  7. Spin pumping and inverse Rashba-Edelstein effect in NiFe/Ag/Bi and NiFe/Ag/Sb

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wei; Jungfleisch, Matthias B.; Jiang, Wanjun; Pearson, John E.; Hoffmann, Axel

    2015-03-20

    The Rashba effect is an interaction between the spin and the momentum of electrons induced by the spin-orbit coupling in surface or interface states. Here, we measured the inverse Rashba-Edelstein effect via spin pumping in Ag/Bi and Ag/Sb interfaces. The spin current is injected from the ferromagnetic resonance of a NiFe layer towards the Rashba interfaces, where it is further converted into a charge current. While using spin pumping theory, we quantify the conversion parameter of spin to charge current to be 0.11 ± 0.02 nm for Ag/Bi and a factor of ten smaller for Ag/Sb. Furthermore, the relative strength of the effect is in agreement with spectroscopic measurements and first principles calculations. The spin pumping experiment offers a straight-forward approach of using spin current as an efficient probe for detecting interface Rashba splitting.

  8. Synthesis, characterization and low temperature electrical conductivity of Polyaniline/NiFe2O4 nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasanna, G. D.; Prasad, V. B.; Jayanna, H. S.

    2015-02-01

    Conducting polymer/ferrite nanocomposites with an organized structure provide a new functional hybrid between organic and inorganic materials. The most popular among the conductive polymers is the polyaniline (PANI) due to its wide application in different fields. In the present work nickel ferrite (NiFe2O4) nanoparticles were prepared by sol-gel citrate-nitrate method with an average size of 21.6nm. PANI/NiFe2O4 nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple general and inexpensive in-situ polymerization in the presence of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles. The effects of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles on the dc-electrical properties of polyaniline were investigated. The structural components in the nanocomposites were identified from Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The crystalline phase of nanocomposites was characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The Scanning Electron Micrograph (SEM) reveals that there was some interaction between the NiFe2O4 particles and polyaniline and the nanocomposites are composed of polycrystalline ferrite nanoparticles and PANI. The dc conductivity of polyaniline/NiFe2O4 nanocomposites have been measured as a function of temperature in the range of 80K to 300K. It is observed that the room temperature conductivity cRT decreases with increase in the relative content of NiFe2O4. The experimental data reveals that the resistivity increases for all composites with decrease of temperature exhibiting semiconductor behaviour.

  9. The direct role of selenocysteine in [NiFeSe] hydrogenase maturation and catalysis.

    PubMed

    Marques, Marta C; Tapia, Cristina; Gutiérrez-Sanz, Oscar; Ramos, Ana Raquel; Keller, Kimberly L; Wall, Judy D; De Lacey, Antonio L; Matias, Pedro M; Pereira, Inês A C

    2017-03-20

    Hydrogenases are highly active enzymes for hydrogen production and oxidation. [NiFeSe] hydrogenases, in which selenocysteine is a ligand to the active site Ni, have high catalytic activity and a bias for H2 production. In contrast to [NiFe] hydrogenases, they display reduced H2 inhibition and are rapidly reactivated after contact with oxygen. Here we report an expression system for production of recombinant [NiFeSe] hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough and study of a selenocysteine-to-cysteine variant (Sec489Cys) in which, for the first time, a [NiFeSe] hydrogenase was converted to a [NiFe] type. This modification led to severely reduced Ni incorporation, revealing the direct involvement of this residue in the maturation process. The Ni-depleted protein could be partly reconstituted to generate an enzyme showing much lower activity and inactive states characteristic of [NiFe] hydrogenases. The Ni-Sec489Cys variant shows that selenium has a crucial role in protection against oxidative damage and the high catalytic activities of the [NiFeSe] hydrogenases.

  10. Atomic structure and magnetic properties of Cu 80Co 20 nanocrystalline compound produced by mechanical alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivchenko, V. A.; Uimin, M. A.; Yermakov, A. Ye; Korobeinikov, A. Yu

    1999-10-01

    Direct observation of the atomic structure of the mechanically alloyed Cu 80Co 20 compounds has been made using the field ion microscope (FIM). Phase composition, defect structure and morphology of material on the atomic scale have been determined. It has been established that the studied material is chemically inhomogeneous, presenting a mixture of two main phases: heterogeneous solid solution of cobalt in copper, and pure cobalt. Phase volume ratios, particle and cluster sizes have been estimated. An evaluation of Co content in CuCo solid solution has been made. The width of interfaces in this mechanically alloyed material was revealed to be at least twice the width of phase boundaries in metals and alloys. Superparamagnetism of the compound studied at elevated temperatures and saturation magnetization deficit at low temperatures are discussed on the basis of the above-mentioned structural data.

  11. Ferromagnetic behavior of nanocrystalline Cu-Mn alloy prepared by ball milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, B. N.; Sardar, G.; Nath, D. N.; Chattopadhyay, P. P.

    2014-12-01

    50Cu-50Mn (wt%) alloy was produced by ball milling. The milling was continued up to 30 h followed by isothermal annealing over a four interval of temperature from 350 to 650 °C held for 1 h. Crystallite size, lattice strain, lattice parameter were determined by Rietveld refinement structure analysis of X-ray diffraction data. The amount of dissolved/precipitated Mn (wt%) after ball milling/milling followed by annealing was calculated by quantative phase analysis (QPA). The increase of coercivity could be attributed to the introduction of lattice strain and reduction of crystallite size as a function of milling time. Electron paramagnetic resonance and superconducting quantum interface device analysis indicate that soft ferromagnetic behavior has been achieved by ball milled and annealed Cu-Mn alloy. The maximum coercivity value of Cu-Mn alloy obtained after annealing at 350 °C for 1 h is 277 Oe.

  12. Hydrogen Storage Characteristics of Nanocrystalline and Amorphous Nd-Mg-Ni-Based NdMg12-Type Alloys Synthesized via Mechanical Milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanghuan; Shang, Hongwei; Hou, Zhonghui; Yuan, Zeming; Yang, Tai; Qi, Yan

    2016-12-01

    In this study, Mg was partially substituted by Ni with the intent of improving the hydrogen storage kinetics performance of NdMg12-type alloy. Mechanical milling technology was adopted to fabricate the nanocrystalline and amorphous NdMg11Ni + x wt pct Ni ( x = 100, 200) alloys. The effects of Ni content and milling duration on the microstructures and hydrogen storage kinetics of as-milled alloys have been systematically investigated. The structures were characterized by XRD and HRTEM. The electrochemical hydrogen storage properties were tested by an automatic galvanostatic system. Moreover, the gaseous hydrogen storage properties were investigated by Sievert apparatus and a differential scanning calorimeter connected with a H2 detector. Hydrogen desorption activation energy of alloy hydrides was estimated by using Arrhenius and Kissinger methods. The results reveal that the increase of Ni content dramatically ameliorates the gaseous and electrochemical hydrogen storage kinetics performance of the as-milled alloys. Furthermore, high rate discharge ability (HRD) reach the maximum value with the variation of milling time. The maximum HRDs of the NdMg11Ni + x wt pct Ni ( x = 100, 200) alloys are 80.24 and 85.17 pct. The improved gaseous hydrogen storage kinetics of alloys via increasing Ni content and milling time can be attributed to a decrease in the hydrogen desorption activation energy.

  13. Lattice dynamics and thermoelectric properties of nanocrystalline silicon-germanium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Claudio, Tania; Stein, Niklas; Peterman, Nils; Stroppa, Daniel; Koza, Michael M.; Wiggers, Hartmut; Klobes, B.; Schierning, Gabi; Hermann, Raphael P.

    2015-10-26

    The lattice dynamics and thermoelectric properties of sintered phosphorus-doped nanostructured silicon- germanium alloys obtained by gas-phase synthesis were studied. Measurements of the density of phonon states by inelastic neutron scattering were combined with measurements of the elastic constants and the low- temperature heat capacity. A strong influence of nanostructuring and alloying on the lattice dynamics was observed. The thermoelectric transport properties of samples with different doping as well as samples sintered at different temperature were characterized between room temperature and 1000C. A peak figure of merit zT = 0:88 at 900C is observed and comparatively insensitive to the aforementioned param- eter variations.

  14. Fe-based nanocrystalline FeBCCu soft magnetic alloys with high magnetic flux density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xingdu; Ma, Aibin; Men, He; Xie, Guoqiang; Shen, Baolong; Makino, Akihiro; Inoue, Akihisa

    2011-04-01

    In this study, the magnetic properties and crystalline behavior of Fe84-xB10C6Cux (x = 0-1.3) alloys prepared by annealing the melt-spun ribbon have been investigated. A Cu element was added to this system with the aim of decreasing the coercivity because the addition of Cu clusters prior to the crystallization stimulates the nucleation of α-Fe primary crystals, which greatly influences the final microstructure. It is found that in the Fe84-xB10C6Cux alloy system, the coercivity decreases with increasing x and exhibits a minimum at around x = 1.0. When x = 1.0, the alloy exhibits excellent magnetic properties after the appropriate heat treatment with a high Bs of 1.78 T, low Hc of 5.1 A/m, and low core loss less than 4.3 W/kg at 1.0 T and 400 Hz that is about 55% of that of oriented Si-steel. These results indicate that the application of this alloy to power transformers will produce very large energy savings.

  15. Modulated exchange bias in NiFe/CoO/α-Fe2O3 trilayers and NiFe/CoO bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Lin, K.-W.; Yeh, W.-C.; Desautels, R. D.; van Lierop, J.; Pong, Philip W. T.

    2017-02-01

    While the exchange bias in ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic (FM/AF) bilayer and FM1/AF/FM2 trilayer configurations has been widely investigated, the role of an AF2 layer in FM/AF1/AF2 trilayer configurations is still not well understood. In this work, the magnetic properties of NiFe/CoO, NiFe/α-Fe2O3 bilayers, and NiFe/CoO/α-Fe2O3 trilayer were studied comparatively. The microstructure and chemical composition were characterized. Temperature dependent magnetometry reveals increased irreversibility temperature in NiFe/CoO/α-Fe2O3 trilayer compared with NiFe/CoO bilayer. The magnetic hysteresis loops show that the exchange bias (Hex) and coercivity (Hc) depend strongly on the anisotropy of AF layer (CoO, α-Fe2O3 and CoO/α-Fe2O3). Our work shows that the AF1/AF2 interfacial interactions can be used effectively for tuning the exchange bias in FM/AF1/AF2 trilayers.

  16. The Sm-Ni-Fe System: Isothermal Section and Microwave Absorption Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Qingrong; Shen, Yihao; Yang, Pengcheng; Rao, Guanghui; Zhou, Huiying; Deng, Jianqiu; Wang, Zhongmin

    2017-04-01

    The Sm-Ni-Fe ternary system has been investigated at 773 K by means of powder x-ray diffraction, metallography and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The isothermal section consists of 16 single-phase regions, 29 two-phase regions and 14 three-phase regions. The influence of Fe-doping on the structure and the microwave absorption properties of the SmNi5 compound has been systematically studied. The homogeneity range in Sm16.67Ni83.33- x Fe x was determined as x = 16.67. The lattice parameters were found to gradually increase and the particle size become much finer with the increase of Fe concentration. All the samples exhibited good microwave absorption properties in the X-band (8-12 GHz). The highest reflection loss of the Sm16.67Ni83.33- x Fe x ( x = 0.0, 5.0, 10.0,15.0, 16.67) alloys are -10.12 dB, -10.39 dB, -16.44 dB, -20.69 dB, and -43.05 dB at 6.96 GHz, 7.92 GHz, 8.56 GHz, 10.04 GHz, and 11.08 GHz, respectively. The absorption peak shifted towards the higher frequency region with the increasing amount of Fe substitution.

  17. Electrochemical Evaluation of Nanocrystalline Diamond Thin Films on Ti-6Al-4V Implant Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fries, Marc; Venugopalan, Ramakrishna; Vohra, Yogesh

    2002-03-01

    Some 186,000 hip replacement surgeries are peformed every year in the United States alone. About 10surgeries are revision operations to replace an implant that has most likely failed through mechanical-electrochemical interactions resulting in implant wear. The ability to enhance the resistance to such mechanical-electrochemical interaction and thereby reduce wear could result in significantly increased device lifespan. Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) thin films were deposited on Ti-6Al-4V disk samples (processed per ASTM F86 standard for medical implant surface conditions) using microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD). As a first step, these samples (n=3/test per group) were subjected to electrochemical evaluation in inorganic neutral salt solution at 37 C. The electrochemical evaluation involved both impedence spectroscopy (per ASTM G106) and polarization testing (per ASTM G5). The impedence spectroscopy data indicated a significantly higher charge transfer resistance at the interface due to the protective NCD as compared to the bare or uncoated substrate. The polarization test data confirmed that this increased charge transfer resistance resulted in a decreased current density measurement. This decreased current density measurement resulted in an order of magnitude lower calculated static corrosion rate from the NCD coated samples as opposed to the uncoated controls. Future studies will focus on investigations that will facilitate transfer of these static electrochemical resistance results to a more relevant mechanical-electrochemical interaction milieu.

  18. Magnetic properties of Fe-Cu-Nb-Si-B nanocrystalline magnetic alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia del Muro, M.; Batlle, X.; Zquiak, R.; Tejada, J.; Polak, C.; Groessinger, R.

    1994-03-01

    Several ribbons of composition Fe{sub 73.5}Cu{sub 1}Nb{sub 3}Si{sub 16.5}B{sub 6} and Fe{sub 73.5}Cu{sub 1}Nb{sub 3}Si{sub 13.5}B{sub 9} were prepared by annealing the as-quenched samples between 525 C and 700 C, which induced nucleation of nanocrystallites of Fe bcc-type composition. Mean grain sizes were obtained from X-ray diffraction. Static magnetic properties were measured with both a Magnet Physik Hysteresis-Graph (up to 200 Oe) and a SHE S.Q.U.I.D. Magnetometer (up to 50 kOe). Soft magnetic parameters (coercive field and initial permeability) were very sensitive to grain size. The ZFC magnetization at low field showed a broad peak at a temperature T{sub M}, thus signaling a certain distribution of nanocrystalline sizes, and T{sub M} strongly decreased when the mean grain size decreased. Isothermal magnetization curves at low temperature showed the expected asymptotic behavior of a random magnet material at low and high fields.

  19. Connecting structural, mechanical and tribological characteristics of Al alloyed nanocrystalline molybdenum silicide coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiang; Mao, XiangZhen; Xie, Zong-Han; Munroe, Paul

    2013-02-01

    In this study, novel nanocrystalline molybdenum silicide coatings with differing Al contents were deposited on a commercial titanium substrate using a double-cathode glow discharge apparatus. Their microstructures were characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy. These coatings mainly consisted of MoSi2 and Mo5Si3 phases; the ratio of Mo5Si3 to MoSi2 gradually increased from the surface towards the interior of coatings, forming a graded structure. With the increase in Al content, the hardness and elastic modulus of the coatings slightly decreased, but the ratios of H/E and 1/E2H, as well as damage tolerance, increased. Furthermore, these newly developed coatings showed excellent wear resistance; their specific wear rates were not only considerably lower than that of the monolithic MoSi2 coating, but also decreased with increasing Al content. The plan and cross-sectional views of the worn surfaces and wear debris were analysed using SEM and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The relationships between coating structure, mechanical property and wear mechanism were then clarified, which will help in designing hard, tough and wear-resistant coatings for applications involving severe loading conditions.

  20. Grain size effects on stability of nonlinear vibration with nanocrystalline NiTi shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Minglu; Sun, Qingping

    2017-10-01

    Grain size effects on stability of thermomechanical responses for a nonlinear torsional vibration system with nanocrystalline superelastic NiTi bar are investigated in the frequency and amplitude domains. NiTi bars with average grain size from 10 nm to 100 nm are fabricated through cold-rolling and subsequent annealing. Thermomechanical responses of the NiTi bar as a softening nonlinear damping spring in the torsional vibration system are obtained by synchronised acquisition of rotational angle and temperature under external sinusoidal excitation. It is shown that nonlinearity and damping capacity of the NiTi bar decrease as average grain size of the material is reduced below 100 nm. Therefore jump phenomena of thermomechanical responses become less significant or even vanish and the vibration system becomes more stable. The work in this paper provides a solid experimental base for manipulating the undesired jump phenomena of thermomechanical responses and stabilising the mechanical vibration system through grain refinement of NiTi SMA.

  1. Novel Nanocrystalline Intermetallic Coatings for Metal Alloys in Coal-fired Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Z. Zak Fang; H. Y. Sohn

    2009-08-31

    Intermetallic coatings (iron aluminide and nickel aluminide) were prepared by a novel reaction process. In the process, the aluminide coating is formed by an in-situ reaction between the aluminum powder fed through a plasma transferred arc (PTA) torch and the metal substrate (steel or Ni-base alloy). Subjected to the high temperature within an argon plasma zone, aluminum powder and the surface of the substrate melt and react to form the aluminide coatings. The prepared coatings were found to be aluminide phases that are porosity-free and metallurgically bonded to the substrate. The coatings also exhibit excellent high-temperature corrosion resistance under the conditions which simulate the steam-side and fire-side environments in coal-fired boilers. It is expected that the principle demonstrated in this process can be applied to the preparation of other intermetallic and alloy coatings.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of nanocrystalline Co-Fe-Nb-Ta-B alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raanaei, Hossein; Fakhraee, Morteza

    2017-09-01

    In this research work, structural and magnetic evolution of Co57Fe13Nb8Ta4B18 alloy, during mechanical alloying process, have been investigated by using, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, differential thermal analysis and also vibrating sample magnetometer. It is observed that at 120 milling time, the crystallite size reaches to about 7.8 nm. Structural analyses show that, the solid solution of the initial powder mixture occurs at160 h milling time. The coercivity behavior demonstrates a rise, up to 70 h followed by decreasing tendency up to final stage of milling process. Thermal analysis of 160 h milling time sample reveals two endothermic peaks. The characterization of annealed milled sample for 160 h milling time at 427 °C shows crystallite size growth accompanied by increasing in saturation magnetization.

  3. Lattice dynamics and thermoelectric properties of nanocrystalline silicon-germanium alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Claudio, Tania; Stein, Niklas; Peterman, Nils; ...

    2015-10-26

    The lattice dynamics and thermoelectric properties of sintered phosphorus-doped nanostructured silicon- germanium alloys obtained by gas-phase synthesis were studied. Measurements of the density of phonon states by inelastic neutron scattering were combined with measurements of the elastic constants and the low- temperature heat capacity. A strong influence of nanostructuring and alloying on the lattice dynamics was observed. The thermoelectric transport properties of samples with different doping as well as samples sintered at different temperature were characterized between room temperature and 1000C. A peak figure of merit zT = 0:88 at 900C is observed and comparatively insensitive to the aforementioned param-more » eter variations.« less

  4. FTIR study of CO adsorption on Rh/MgO modified with Co, Ni, Fe, or CeO2 for the catalytic partial oxidation of methane.

    PubMed

    Li, Dalin; Sakai, Shigemasa; Nakagawa, Yoshinao; Tomishige, Keiichi

    2012-07-07

    The surface state of Rh/MgO catalysts modified with Co, Ni, Fe, or CeO(2) after the reduction and partial oxidation pretreatments as well as during the catalytic partial oxidation of methane has been investigated by FTIR of adsorbed CO. The results of CO adsorption on the reduced catalysts suggest the formation of Rh-M alloy on Rh-M/MgO (M = Co, Ni, Fe) and Rh particles partially covered with reduced ceria on Rh-CeO(2)/MgO. The strength of CO adsorption on Rh/MgO is weakened by the modification with Co, Ni, Fe, or CeO(2). Partial oxidation pretreatment of Rh/MgO leads to a significant decrease in the CO adsorption due to the oxidation of Rh. In contrast, on partially oxidized Rh-M/MgO (M = Co, Ni, Fe) and Rh-CeO(2)/MgO, the preferential oxidation of the surface M atoms or reduced ceria maintains the metallic Rh and preserves the CO adsorbed on the surface Rh atoms. The CO adsorption during the reaction of catalytic partial oxidation of methane on Rh/MgO and Rh-Ni/MgO is similar to that on the reduced catalysts. On the other hand, the CO adsorption during the reaction on Rh-Co/MgO, Rh-Fe/MgO, and Rh-CeO(2)/MgO is different from that on the reduced catalysts, and this is related to the structural change of these catalysts during the reaction.

  5. A lifetime-prediction approach to understanding corrosion: The corrosion-fatigue and corrosion behavior of a nickel-based superalloy and a nanocrystalline alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steward, Rejanah Vernice

    Lifetime-prediction models are useful for simulating a material's in-service behavior or outcome. Perhaps the greatest advantage of these models is the ability to use the predicted results to help optimize engineering designs and reduce costs. The HastelloyRTM C-2000RTM superalloy is a single-phase material and face-centered cubic in structure at all temperatures. The C-2000RTM alloy is a commercially designed alloy manufactured to function in both reducing and oxidizing solutions. C-2000RTM is used as a fabrication material for heat exchangers, piping for chemical refineries, and storage repositories. The corrosion properties of C-2000RTM are excellent, and the ductility and fatigue properties are good. In this study, C-2000RTM is used to verify the theoretical basis of an electrochemical-micromechanical crack-initiation corrosion-fatigue model for materials under passive electrochemical conditions. The results from electrochemical and mechanical experiments, along with the findings from the conventional electron microscopy and a laser interferometer will be presented. A nanocrystalline Ni-18 weight percent (wt.%) Fe alloy is examined to investigate its electrochemical behavior in a 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. Three Ni-18 wt.% Fe samples were annealed at 400°C for 3, 8, and 24 hours (hrs.) to study the effects of grain sizes on the electrochemical properties of bulk Ni-18 wt.% Fe. The electrochemical results from the annealed samples are compared with those measured for the as-received Ni-18 wt.% Fe material consisting of an average grain size of 23 nanometers (nm). The samples annealed for times longer than 8 hrs. appear to have undergone an abnormal grain growth, where nanometer and micrometer (mum) grain sizes are present. Unlike the electrochemical results for the as-received material, the annealed nanocrystalline materials appear to be susceptible to localized corrosion. Consequently, these larger grains within the nanoncrystalline-grain matrix are

  6. Molecular evolution of gas cavity in [NiFeSe] hydrogenases resurrected in silico

    PubMed Central

    Tamura, Takashi; Tsunekawa, Naoki; Nemoto, Michiko; Inagaki, Kenji; Hirano, Toshiyuki; Sato, Fumitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen tolerance of selenium-containing [NiFeSe] hydrogenases (Hases) is attributable to the high reducing power of the selenocysteine residue, which sustains the bimetallic Ni–Fe catalytic center in the large subunit. Genes encoding [NiFeSe] Hases are inherited by few sulphate-reducing δ-proteobacteria globally distributed under various anoxic conditions. Ancestral sequences of [NiFeSe] Hases were elucidated and their three-dimensional structures were recreated in silico using homology modelling and molecular dynamic simulation, which suggested that deep gas channels gradually developed in [NiFeSe] Hases under absolute anaerobic conditions, whereas the enzyme remained as a sealed edifice under environmental conditions of a higher oxygen exposure risk. The development of a gas cavity appears to be driven by non-synonymous mutations, which cause subtle conformational changes locally and distantly, even including highly conserved sequence regions. PMID:26818780

  7. Formation of NiFe2O4/Expanded Graphite Nanocomposites with Superior Lithium Storage Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yinglin; Zai, Jiantao; Tian, Bingbing; Qian, Xuefeng

    2017-07-01

    A NiFe2O4/expanded graphite (NiFe2O4/EG) nanocomposite was prepared via a simple and inexpensive synthesis method. Its lithium storage properties were studied with the goal of applying it as an anode in a lithium-ion battery. The obtained nanocomposite exhibited a good cycle performance, with a capacity of 601 mAh g-1 at a current of 1 A g-1 after 800 cycles. This good performance may be attributed to the enhanced electrical conductivity and layered structure of the EG. Its high mechanical strength could postpone the disintegration of the nanocomposite structure, efficiently accommodate volume changes in the NiFe2O4-based anodes, and alleviate aggregation of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles.

  8. One-Pot Synthesis of (NiFe2O4)x-(SrFe12O19)1-x Nanocomposites and Their Microwave Absorption Properties.

    PubMed

    Hazra, Subhenjit; Ghosh, Barun Kumar; Patra, Manoj Kumar; Jani, Raj Kumar; Vadera, Sampat Raj; Ghosh, Narendra Nath

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we report a simple but novel aqueous solution based 'one-pot' method for preparation of (NiFe2O4)x-(SrFe12O19)1-x nanocomposites consist of hard ferrite-soft ferrite phases. A physical mixing method has also been employed to prepare nanocomposites having same compositions. The effects of synthetic methodologies on the microstructures of the nanocomposites as well as their magnetic and microwave absorption properties have been evaluated. Crystal structures and microstructures of these composites have been investigated by using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope and scanning electron microscope. In the nanocomposites, prepared by both methods, presence of nanocrystalline NiFe2O4 and SrFe12O19 phases was detected. However, nanocomposites, prepared by one-pot method, possessed better homogeneous distribution of hard and soft ferrite phases than the nanocomposites, prepared by physical mixing method. Nanocomposites, prepared by one-pot method, demonstrated significant spring exchange coupling interaction between hard and soft ferrite phases and exhibited magnetically single phase behaviour. The spring exchange coupling interaction enhanced the magnetic properties (high saturation magnetization and coercivity) and microwave absorption properties of the nanocomposites, prepared by one-pot method, in comparison with the nanocomposites prepared by physical mixing method as well as pure NiFe2O4 and SrFe12O19 nanoparticles. Minimum reflection loss of the composite was ~ -17 dB (i.e., 98% absorption) at 8.2 GHz for an absorber thickness of 3.2 mm.

  9. Unusual reaction of [NiFe]-hydrogenases with cyanide.

    PubMed

    Hexter, Suzannah V; Chung, Min-Wen; Vincent, Kylie A; Armstrong, Fraser A

    2014-07-23

    Cyanide reacts rapidly with [NiFe]-hydrogenases (hydrogenase-1 and hydrogenase-2 from Escherichia coli) under mild oxidizing conditions, inhibiting the electrocatalytic oxidation of hydrogen as recorded by protein film electrochemistry. Electrochemical, EPR, and FTIR measurements show that the final enzyme product, formed within a second (even under 100% H2), is the resting state known as Ni-B, which contains a hydroxido-bridged species, Ni(III)-μ(OH)-Fe(II), at the active site. "Cyanide inhibition" is easily reversed because it is simply the reductive activation of Ni-B. This paper brings back into focus an observation originally made in the 1940s that cyanide inhibits microbial H2 oxidation and addresses the interesting mechanism by which cyanide promotes the formation of Ni-B. As a much stronger nucleophile than hydroxide, cyanide binds more rapidly and promotes oxidation of Ni(II) to Ni(III); however, it is quickly replaced by hydroxide which is a far superior bridging ligand.

  10. Mechanisms of Formation and Transformation of Ni-Fe Hydroxycarbonates

    SciTech Connect

    Refait, Ph.; Jeannin, M.; Reffass, M.; Drissi, S.H.; Abdelmoula, M.; Genin, J.-M.R.

    2005-04-26

    The mechanisms of the transformation of (Ni,Fe)(OH)2 precipitates in carbonated aqueous solutions were studied. The reactions were monitored by measuring the redox potential of the aqueous suspension, and end products were studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The oxidation processes were compared to those occurring without Ni, that is when the initial hydroxide is Fe(OH)2. Schematically, the oxidation of Fe(OH)2 involves two intermediate compounds, the carbonated GR of formula Fe{sup II}{sub 4}Fe{sup III}{sub 2}(OH){sub 12}CO{sub 3} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O, and ferrihydrite, before to lead finally to goethite {alpha}-FeOOH. It proved possible to prepare Ni(II)-Fe(III) hydroxycarbonates with ratios Fe/Ni from 1/6 to 1/3. When the Fe/Ni ratio is larger than 1/3, a two stage oxidation process takes place. The first stage leads to a Ni(II)-Fe(II)-Fe(III) hydroxycarbonate. The second stage corresponds to the oxidation of the Fe(II) remaining inside the hydroxycarbonate and leads to a mixture of Ni(II)-Fe(III) hydroxycarbonate with ferrihydrite. The main effect of Ni is then to stop the reaction at an intermediate stage, as Ni(II) is not oxidised by O2, leaving unchanged the main features of the mechanisms of transformation.

  11. Analyzing the magnetic profile in NiFe/NiO bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tafur, Miguel; Nascimento, V. P.; Alayo, W.; Xing, Y. T.; Baggio-Saitovitch, E.

    2017-04-01

    The magnetic profile of the Si(100)/NiO(35 nm)/NiFe(10 nm)/Ta(1 nm) sample has been obtained by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and the X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). Two experimental procedures were used. In the procedure 1, the magnetic depth profile has been determines using samples deposited with different NiFe thicknesses, Si(100)/NiO(35 nm)/NiFe(t)/Ta(1 nm), t = 1 , 3 , 5 , 7 , 10 nm . In procedure 2, the sample (NiFe=10 nm), was thinned by several in situ sputtering cycles with Ar+ ions, followed by XAS and XMCD analysis. In both procedures, the calculated magnetic moments values tend to decrease close to interface with the NiO antiferromagnetic (AF) layer, however, this decreasement is more evidenced in the sputtered sample. There is no charge transfer between Ni and Fe in the inner part of the NiFe layer, a reduction of the morb /mspineff has been found at the NiFe/NiO interface. Procedure 1 emerged as the most indicated to analyse the interface region.

  12. Force Field Development and Molecular Dynamics of [NiFe] Hydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Dayle MA; Xiong, Yijia; Straatsma, TP; Rosso, Kevin M.; Squier, Thomas C.

    2012-05-09

    Classical molecular force-field parameters describing the structure and motion of metal clusters in [NiFe] hydrogenase enzymes can be used to compare the dynamics and thermodynamics of [NiFe] under different oxidation, protonation, and ligation circumstances. Using density functional theory (DFT) calculations of small model clusters representative of the active site and the proximal, medial, and distal Fe/S metal centers and their attached protein side chains, we have calculated classical force-field parameters for [NiFe] in reduced and oxidized states, including internal coordinates, force constants, and atom-centered charges. Derived force constants revealed that cysteinate ligands bound to the metal ions are more flexible in the Ni-B active site, which has a bridging hydroxide ligand, than in the Ni-C active site, which has a bridging hydride. Ten nanosecond all-atom, explicit-solvent MD simulations of [NiFe] hydrogenase in oxidized and reduced catalytic states established the stability of the derived force-field parameters in terms of C{alpha} and metal cluster fluctuations. Average active site structures from the protein MD simulations are consistent with [NiFe] structures from the Protein Data Bank, suggesting that the derived force-field parameters are transferrable to other hydrogenases beyond the structure used for testing. A comparison of experimental H{sub 2}-production rates demonstrated a relationship between cysteinate side chain rotation and activity, justifying the use of a fully dynamic model of [NiFe] metal cluster motion.

  13. Structural, thermal, and photoacoustic study of nanocrystalline Cr{sub 3}Ge produced by mechanical alloying

    SciTech Connect

    Prates, P. B.; Maliska, A. M.; Ferreira, A. S.; Borges, Z. V.; Lima, J. C. de

    2015-10-21

    A thermodynamic analysis of the Cr-Ge system suggested that it was possible to produce a nanostructured Cr{sub 3}Ge phase by mechanical alloying. The same analysis showed that, due to low activation energies, Cr-poor crystalline and/or amorphous alloy could also be formed. In fact, when the experiment was performed, Cr{sub 11}Ge{sub 19} and amorphous phases were present for small milling times. For milling times larger than 15 h these additional phases decomposed and only the nanostructured Cr{sub 3}Ge phase remained up to the highest milling time used (32 h). From the differential scanning calorimetry measurements, the Avrami exponent n was obtained, indicating that the nucleation and growth of the nanostructured Cr{sub 3}Ge phase may be restricted to one or two dimensions, where the Cr and Ge atoms diffuse along the surface and grain boundaries. In addition, contributions from three-dimensional diffusion with a constant nucleation rate may be present. The thermal diffusivity of the nanostructured Cr{sub 3}Ge phase was determined by photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy measurements.

  14. Differences observed in the surface morphology and microstructure of Ni-Fe-Cu ternary thin films electrochemically deposited at low and high applied current densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarac, U.; Kaya, M.; Baykul, M. C.

    2016-10-01

    In this research, nanocrystalline Ni-Fe-Cu ternary thin films using electrochemical deposition technique were produced at low and high applied current densities onto Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) coated conducting glass substrates. Change of surface morphology and microstructural properties of the films were investigated. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) measurements showed that the Ni-Fe-Cu ternary thin films exhibit anomalous codeposition behaviour during the electrochemical deposition process. From the X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses, it was revealed that there are two segregated phases such as Cu- rich and Ni-rich within the films. The crystallographic structure of the films was face-centered cubic (FCC). It was also observed that the film has lower lattice micro-strain and higher texture degree at high applied current density. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies revealed that the films have rounded shape particles on the base part and cauliflower-like structures on the upper part. The film electrodeposited at high current density had considerably smaller rounded shape particles and cauliflower-like structures. From the atomic force microscopy (AFM) analyses, it was shown that the film deposited at high current density has smaller particle size and surface roughness than the film grown at low current density.

  15. Spin pumping and inverse Rashba-Edelstein effect in NiFe/Ag/Bi and NiFe/Ag/Sb

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wei Jungfleisch, Matthias B.; Jiang, Wanjun; Pearson, John E.; Hoffmann, Axel

    2015-05-07

    The Rashba effect is an interaction between the spin and the momentum of electrons induced by the spin-orbit coupling in surface or interface states. We measured the inverse Rashba-Edelstein effect via spin pumping in Ag/Bi and Ag/Sb interfaces. The spin current is injected from the ferromagnetic resonance of a NiFe layer towards the Rashba interfaces, where it is further converted into a charge current. Using spin pumping theory, we quantify the conversion parameter of spin to charge current to be 0.11 ± 0.02 nm for Ag/Bi and a factor of ten smaller for Ag/Sb. The relative strength of the effect is in agreement with spectroscopic measurements and first principles calculations. We also vary the interlayer materials to study the voltage output in relation to the change of the effective spin mixing conductance. The spin pumping experiment offers a straight-forward approach of using spin current as an efficient probe for detecting interface Rashba splitting.

  16. Interplay between out-of-plane anisotropic L1{sub 1}-type CoPt and in-plane anisotropic NiFe layers in CoPt/NiFe exchange springs

    SciTech Connect

    Saravanan, P.; Hsu, Jen-Hwa Tsai, C. L.; Tsai, C. Y.; Lin, Y. H.; Kuo, C. Y.; Wu, J.-C.; Lee, C.-M.

    2014-06-28

    Films of L1{sub 1}-type CoPt/NiFe exchange springs were grown with different NiFe (Permalloy) layer thickness (t{sub NiFe} = 0–10 nm). X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that the characteristic peak position of NiFe(111) is not affected by the CoPt-layer—confirming the absence of any inter-diffusion between the CoPt and NiFe layers. Magnetic studies indicate that the magnetization orientation of NiFe layer can be tuned through varying t{sub NiFe} and the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of L1{sub 1}-type CoPt/NiFe films cannot sustain for t{sub NiFe} larger than 3.0 nm due to the existence of exchange interaction at the interface of L1{sub 1}-CoPt and NiFe layers. Magnetic force microscopy analysis on the as-grown samples shows the changes in morphology from maze-like domains with good contrast to hazy domains when t{sub NiFe} ≥ 3.0 nm. The three-dimensional micro-magnetic simulation results demonstrate that the magnetization orientation in NiFe layer is not uniform, which continuously increases from the interface to the top of NiFe layer. Furthermore, the tilt angle of the topmost NiFe layers can be changed over a very wide range from a small number to about 75° by varying t{sub NiFe} from 1 to 10 nm. It is worth noting that there is an abrupt change in the magnetization direction at the interface, for all the t{sub NiFe} investigated. The results of present study demonstrate that the tunable tilted exchange springs can be realized with L1{sub 1}-type CoPt/NiFe bilayers for future applications in three-axis magnetic sensors or advanced spintronic devices demanding inclined magnetic anisotropy.

  17. Specific features of formation and growth mechanism of multilayered quasi-one-dimensional (Co-Ni-Fe)/Cu systems in pores of anodic alumina matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trukhanov, A. V.; Grabchikov, S. S.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Sharko, S. A.; Mukhurov, N. I.; Gasenkova, I. V.

    2014-09-01

    A method for fabricating multilayered quasi-one-dimensional ferromagnet-diamagnet systems is described by the example of Co-Ni-Fe/Cu nanowires. The fabrication is implemented in a unified technological cycle from a combined electrolyte by pulsed potentiostatic electrodeposition. Regimes of the formation of layers of different systems, from pure ferromagnetic metals to alloys on their basis, are described. Mechanisms of nanowire growth are proposed. The distribution of chemical elements in the layers is investigated as a function of the electrolyte composition and the fabrication conditions. The nanowire microstructure is investigated by high-resolution scanning electron microscopy.

  18. Determination of Microstructural Parameters of Nanocrystalline Hydroxyapatite Prepared by Mechanical Alloying Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joughehdoust, Sedigheh; Manafi, Sahebali

    2011-12-01

    Hydroxyapatite [HA, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2] is chemically similar to the mineral component of bones and hard tissues. HA can support bone ingrowth and osseointegration when used in orthopaedic, dental and maxillofacial applications. In this research, HA nanostructure was synthesized by mechanical alloying method. Phase development, particle size and morphology of HA were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern, zetasizer instrument, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. XRD pattern has been used to determination of the microstructural parameters (crystallite size, lattice parameters and crystallinity percent) by Williamson-Hall equation, Nelson-Riley method and calculating the areas under the peaks, respectively. The crystallite size and particle size of HA powders were in nanometric scales. SEM images showed that some parts of HA particles have agglomerates. The ratio of lattice parameters of synthetic hydroxyapatite (c/a = 0.73) was determined in this study is the same as natural hydroxyapatite structure.

  19. Effect of surface crystallization on magnetic properties of Fe82Cu1Si4B11.5Nb1.5 nanocrystalline alloy ribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianhua; Wan, Fangpei; Li, Yecheng; Zheng, Jiecheng; Wang, Anding; Song, Jiancheng; Tian, Muqin; He, Aina; Chang, Chuntao

    2017-09-01

    In this study, Fe82Cu1Si4B11.5Nb1.5 nanocrystalline alloy ribbons with completely amorphous structure and surface crystallization were prepared using melt-spinning technique with wheel speeds of 45 m/s, 35 m/s and 25 m/s. The effect of surface crystallization layers on the soft-magnetic properties, core loss and dynamic magnetization process were systematically investigated. Moreover, the permeability-frequency spectra were measured as a function of the AC magnetic field, ranging from 1 to 75 A/m. It was found that decreasing the melt-spinning wheel speed can widen the annealing temperature range and the coercivity increases with the increase of surface crystallization. Excessive crystallization layers will increase the pinning field (Hp), which will lead to an increase of magnetic anisotropy constant K and eventually decrease the effective permeability. The crystallization mechanism of the Fe82Cu1Si4B11.5Nb1.5 nanocrystalline alloy ribbons with surface crystallization layers was discussed from the aspects of diffusion and competitive processes, which is helpful for further understanding the nanocrystallization process.

  20. Analysis and comparison of nucleotide sequences encoding the genes for [NiFe] and [NiFeSe] hydrogenases from Desulfovibrio gigas and Desulfovibrio baculatus.

    PubMed Central

    Voordouw, G; Menon, N K; LeGall, J; Choi, E S; Peck, H D; Przybyla, A E

    1989-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences encoding the [NiFe] hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio gigas and the [NiFeSe] hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio baculatus (N.K. Menon, H.D. Peck, Jr., J. LeGall, and A.E. Przybyla, J. Bacteriol. 169:5401-5407, 1987; C. Li, H.D. Peck, Jr., J. LeGall, and A.E. Przybyla, DNA 6:539-551, 1987) were analyzed by the codon usage method of Staden and McLachlan. The reported reading frames were found to contain regions of low codon probability which are matched by more probable sequences in other frames. Renewed nucleotide sequencing showed the probable frames to be correct. The corrected sequences of the two small and large subunits share a significant degree of sequence homology. The small subunit, which contains 10 conserved cysteine residues, is likely to coordinate at least 2 iron-sulfur clusters, while the finding of a selenocysteine codon (TGA) near the 3' end of the [NiFeSe] large-subunit gene matched by a regular cysteine codon (TGC) in the [NiFe] large-subunit gene indicates the presence of some of the ligands to the active-site nickel in the large subunit. PMID:2651421

  1. The effects of fuel type in synthesis of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles by microwave assisted combustion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karcıoğlu Karakaş, Zeynep; Boncukçuoğlu, Recep; Karakaş, İbrahim H.

    2016-04-01

    In this study, it was investigated the effects of the used fuels on structural, morphological and magnetic properties of nanoparticles in nanoparticle synthesis with microwave assisted combustion method with an important method in quick, simple and low cost at synthesis of the nanoparticles. In this aim, glycine, urea and citric acid were used as fuel, respectively. The synthesised nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Brunauer-Emmet-Teller surface area (BET), and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) techniques. We observed that fuel type is quite effective on magnetic properties and surface properties of the nanoparticles. X-ray difractograms of the obtained nanoparticles were compared with standard powder diffraction cards of NiFe2O4 (JCPDS Card Number 54-0964). The results demonstrated that difractograms are fully compatible with standard reflection peaks. According to the results of the XRD analysis, the highest crystallinity was observed at nanoparticles synthesized with glycine. The results demonstrated that the nanoparticles prepared with urea has the highest surface area. The micrographs of SEM showed that all of the nanoparticles have nano-crystalline behaviour and particles indication cubic shape. VSM analysis demonstrated that the type of fuel used for synthesis is highly effective a parameter on magnetic properties of nanoparticles.

  2. [NiFe]Hydrogenase from Citrobacter sp. S-77 surpasses platinum as an electrode for H2 oxidation reaction.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takahiro; Eguchi, Shigenobu; Nakai, Hidetaka; Hibino, Takashi; Yoon, Ki-Seok; Ogo, Seiji

    2014-08-18

    Reported herein is an electrode for dihydrogen (H2) oxidation, and it is based on [NiFe]Hydrogenase from Citrobacter sp. S-77 ([NiFe]S77). It has a 637 times higher mass activity than Pt (calculated based on 1 mg of [NiFe]S77 or Pt) at 50 mV in a hydrogen half-cell. The [NiFe]S77 electrode is also stable in air and, unlike Pt, can be recovered 100 % after poisoning by carbon monoxide. Following characterization of the [NiFe]S77 electrode, a fuel cell comprising a [NiFe]S77 anode and Pt cathode was constructed and shown to have a a higher power density than that achievable by Pt.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of nanocrystalline Al 2024-B4C composite powders by mechanical alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varol, T.; Canakci, A.

    2013-06-01

    In the present work, the effect of milling parameters on the morphology and microstructure of nanostructure Al2024-B4C composite powders obtained by mechanical alloying (MA) was studied. The effects of milling time and B4C content on the morphology, microstructure and particle size of nanostructure Al2024-B4C composite powders have been investigated. Different amounts of B4C particles (0, 5, 10 and 20 wt.%) were mixed with Al2024 powders and milled in a planetary ball mill for 30, 60, 120, 300, 420 and 600 min. Al 2024-B4C composite powders were characterized using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), laser particle-size analyzer, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and the Vickers microhardness test. The results showed that the nanostructure Al2024-B4C composite powders were produced when they were milled for 600 min. The size of composite powder in the milled powder mixture was affected by the milling time and content of B4C particles. Moreover, it was observed that when MA reached a steady state, the properties of composite powders were stabilized.

  4. Stability of an Electrodeposited Nanocrystalline Ni-Based Alloy Coating in Oil and Gas Wells with the Coexistence of H2S and CO2

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Yiyong; Sun, Chong; Sun, Jianbo; Pu, Baolin; Ren, Wei; Zhao, Weimin

    2017-01-01

    The stability of an electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ni-based alloy coating in a H2S/CO2 environment was investigated by electrochemical measurements, weight loss method, and surface characterization. The results showed that both the cathodic and anodic processes of the Ni-based alloy coating were simultaneously suppressed, displaying a dramatic decrease of the corrosion current density. The corrosion of the Ni-based alloy coating was controlled by H2S corrosion and showed general corrosion morphology under the test temperatures. The corrosion products, mainly consisting of Ni3S2, NiS, or Ni3S4, had excellent stability in acid solution. The corrosion rate decreased with the rise of temperature, while the adhesive force of the corrosion scale increased. With the rise of temperature, the deposited morphology and composition of corrosion products changed, the NiS content in the corrosion scale increased, and the stability and adhesive strength of the corrosion scale improved. The corrosion scale of the Ni-based alloy coating was stable, compact, had strong adhesion, and caused low weight loss, so the corrosion rates calculated by the weight loss method cannot reveal the actual oxidation rate of the coating. As the corrosion time was prolonged, the Ni-based coating was thinned while the corrosion scale thickened. The corrosion scale was closely combined with the coating, but cannot fully prevent the corrosive reactants from reaching the substrate. PMID:28772995

  5. Fabrication and photocatalytic property of magnetic NiFe2O4/Cu2O composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zuming; Xia, Yongmei; Tang, Bin; Su, Jiangbin

    2017-09-01

    Magnetically separable NiFe2O4/Cu2O composites were successfully synthesized by a two-step method. The samples were characterized by XRD, XPS, SEM and VSM as well as their PL spectra and UV–vis adsorption spectra. The results showed that the NiFe2O4/Cu2O composites were composed of cubic-structured Cu2O and spinel-structured NiFe2O4, were able to absorb a large amount of visible light, exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity under simulated solar light irradiation and could be easily separated by an external magnetic field. The NiFe2O4/Cu2O composites exhibited higher photocatalytic performance than that of a single semiconductor. It was found that the prominently enhanced photocatalytic performance of NiFe2O4/Cu2O composites was ascribed to the effective separation of photo-generated electron–hole pairs and the effective generation of the hydroxyl radical •OH.

  6. Catalytic hydrodechlorination of monochloroacetic acid in wastewater using Ni-Fe bimetal prepared by ball milling.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hong; Xu, Fuyuan; Zhao, Jianzhuang; Jia, Linfang; Wu, Kunming

    2015-09-01

    Monochloroacetic acid (MCA) is a chemically stable and biologically toxic pollutant. It is often generated during the production of the pesticide dimethoate. Conventional wastewater treatment processes have difficulty degrading it. In this work, the dechlorination effects of Ni-Fe bimetal prepared using ball milling (BM) technology for the high concentrations of MCA in wastewater were examined. The MCA in aqueous solution was found to be degraded efficiently by the Ni-Fe bimetal. However, S-(methoxycarbonyl) methyl O, O-dimethyl phosphorodithioate (SMOPD) in wastewater, a by-product of the dimethoate production process, significantly inhibited the reductive dechlorination activity of Ni-Fe bimetal. Increasing the reaction temperature in the MCA wastewater enhanced the reduction activity of the Ni-Fe bimetal effectively. Oxygen was found to be unfavorable to dechlorination. Sealing the reaction to prevent oxidation was found to render the degradation process more efficient. The process retained over 88% efficiency after 10 treatment cycles with 50 g/L of Ni-Fe bimetal under field conditions.

  7. Electrochemical insights into the mechanism of NiFe membrane-bound hydrogenases

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, Lindsey A.; Parkin, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogenases are enzymes of great biotechnological relevance because they catalyse the interconversion of H2, water (protons) and electricity using non-precious metal catalytic active sites. Electrochemical studies into the reactivity of NiFe membrane-bound hydrogenases (MBH) have provided a particularly detailed insight into the reactivity and mechanism of this group of enzymes. Significantly, the control centre for enabling O2 tolerance has been revealed as the electron-transfer relay of FeS clusters, rather than the NiFe bimetallic active site. The present review paper will discuss how electrochemistry results have complemented those obtained from structural and spectroscopic studies, to present a complete picture of our current understanding of NiFe MBH. PMID:26862221

  8. Magnetic resonance of the NiFe2O4 nanoparticles in the gigahertz range

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We report an adjustable magnetic resonance frequency from 1.45 to 2.54 GHz for NiFe2O4 nanoparticles which were prepared by a sol–gel process. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy results indicate that the samples are polycrystalline nanoparticles, and the size of the particles increases obviously with the thermal treatment temperature. The consequence of the surface composition suggests that the oxygen defects are present in the nanoparticle surface, and this surface magnetic state can show a strong surface anisotropy. With decreasing size of the particle, the surface magnetic effect is predominant, resulting in an increase of resonance frequency for NiFe2O4 nanoparticles. This finding provides a new route for NiFe2O4 materials that can be used in the gigahertz range. PMID:24083340

  9. Electric-field tunable spin diode FMR in patterned PMN-PT/NiFe structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zietek, Slawomir; Ogrodnik, Piotr; Skowroński, Witold; Stobiecki, Feliks; van Dijken, Sebastiaan; Barnaś, Józef; Stobiecki, Tomasz

    2016-08-01

    Dynamic properties of NiFe thin films on PMN-PT piezoelectric substrate are investigated using the spin-diode method. Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectra of microstrips with varying width are measured as a function of magnetic field and frequency. The FMR frequency is shown to depend on the electric field applied across the substrate, which induces strain in the NiFe layer. Electric field tunability of up to 100 MHz per 1 kV/cm is achieved. An analytical model based on total energy minimization and the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation, taking into account the magnetostriction effect, is used to explain the measured dynamics. Based on this model, conditions for optimal electric-field tunable spin diode FMR in patterned NiFe/PMN-PT structures are derived.

  10. Electric-field tunable spin diode FMR in patterned PMN-PT/NiFe structures

    SciTech Connect

    Ziętek, Slawomir Skowroński, Witold; Stobiecki, Tomasz; Ogrodnik, Piotr; Stobiecki, Feliks; Dijken, Sebastiaan van; Barnaś, Józef

    2016-08-15

    Dynamic properties of NiFe thin films on PMN-PT piezoelectric substrate are investigated using the spin-diode method. Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectra of microstrips with varying width are measured as a function of magnetic field and frequency. The FMR frequency is shown to depend on the electric field applied across the substrate, which induces strain in the NiFe layer. Electric field tunability of up to 100 MHz per 1 kV/cm is achieved. An analytical model based on total energy minimization and the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation, taking into account the magnetostriction effect, is used to explain the measured dynamics. Based on this model, conditions for optimal electric-field tunable spin diode FMR in patterned NiFe/PMN-PT structures are derived.

  11. Tensile Properties and Deformation Characteristics of a Ni-Fe-Base Superalloy for Steam Boiler Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Zhihong; Gu, Yuefeng; Yuan, Yong; Shi, Zhan

    2014-01-01

    Ni-Fe-base superalloys due to their good manufacturability and low cost are the proper candidates for boiler materials in advanced power plants. The major concerns with Ni-Fe-base superalloys are the insufficient mechanical properties at elevated temperatures. In this paper, tensile properties, deformation, and fracture characteristics of a Ni-Fe-base superalloy primarily strengthened by γ' precipitates have been investigated from room temperature to 1073 K (800 °C). The results showed a gradual decrease in the strength up to about 973 K (700 °C) followed by a rapid drop above this temperature and a ductility minimum at around 973 K (700 °C). The fracture surfaces were studied using scanning electron microscopy and the deformation mechanisms were determined by the observation of deformed microstructures using transmission electron microscopy. An attempt has been made to correlate the tensile properties and fracture characteristics at different temperatures with the observed deformation mechanisms.

  12. Atomic simulation of mechanical behavior of Mg in a super-lattice of nanocrystalline Mg and amorphous Mg-Al alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Song, H. Y.; An, M. R.; Li, Y. L. Deng, Q.

    2014-12-07

    The mechanical properties of a super-lattice architecture composed of nanocrystalline Mg and Mg-Al amorphous alloy are investigated using molecular dynamics simulation. The results indicate that deformation mechanism of nanocrystalline Mg is obviously affected by the amorphous boundary spacing and temperature. The strength of the material increases with the decrease of amorphous boundary spacing, presenting a Hall-Petch effect at both 10 K and 300 K. A stress platform and following stiffness softening, as well as a linear strengthening in the plastic stage, are observed when the amorphous boundary spacing below 8.792 nm at 10 K. The implying reason may be that the amorphous boundary acts as the dislocations emission and absorption source. However, the second stress peak is not observed for the models at 300 K. Instead, the flow stress in plastic stage is a nearly constant value. The simulation demonstrates the emergence of the new grain, accompanied by the deformation twins and stacking faults associated with the plastic behaviors at 300 K. The general conclusions derived from this work may provide a guideline for the design of high-performance hexagonal close-packed metals.

  13. Comparison of spin-orbit torques and spin pumping across NiFe/Pt and NiFe/Cu/Pt interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, Tianxiang; Emori, Satoru; Boone, Carl T.; Wang, Xinjun; Oxholm, Trevor M.; Jones, John G.; Howe, Brandon M.; Brown, Gail J.; Sun, Nian X.

    2015-06-01

    We experimentally investigate spin-orbit torques and spin pumping in NiFe/Pt bilayers with direct and interrupted interfaces. The dampinglike and fieldlike torques are simultaneously measured with spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance tuned by a dc-bias current, whereas spin pumping is measured electrically through the inverse spin-Hall effect using a microwave cavity. Insertion of an atomically thin Cu dusting layer at the interface reduces the dampinglike torque, fieldlike torque, and spin pumping by nearly the same factor of ≈1.4 . This finding confirms that the observed spin-orbit torques predominantly arise from diffusive transport of spin current generated by the spin-Hall effect. We also find that spin-current scattering at the NiFe/Pt interface contributes to additional enhancement in magnetization damping that is distinct from spin pumping.

  14. Direct selenylation of mixed Ni/Fe metal-organic frameworks to NiFe-Se/C nanorods for overall water splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Bo; Yang, He; Yuan, Lincheng; Sun, Yiqiang; Chen, Zhiming; Li, Cuncheng

    2017-10-01

    Development of low-cost, highly active bifunctional catalyst for efficient overall water splitting based on earth-abundant metals is still a great challenging task. In this work, we report a NiFe-Se/C composite nanorod as efficient non-precious-metal electrochemical catalyst derived from direct selenylation of a mixed Ni/Fe metal-organic framework. The as-obtained catalyst requires low overpotential to drive 10 mA cm-2 for HER (160 mV) and OER (240 mV) in 1.0 M KOH, respectively, and its catalytic activity is maintained for at least 20 h. Moreover, water electrolysis using this catalyst achieves high water splitting current density of 10 mA cm-2 at cell voltage of 1.68 V.

  15. Purification and Characterization of the [NiFe]-Hydrogenase of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 ▿

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Liang; Belchik, Sara M.; Plymale, Andrew E.; Heald, Steve; Dohnalkova, Alice C.; Sybirna, Kateryna; Bottin, Hervé; Squier, Thomas C.; Zachara, John M.; Fredrickson, James K.

    2011-01-01

    Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 possesses a periplasmic [NiFe]-hydrogenase (MR-1 [NiFe]-H2ase) that has been implicated in H2 production and oxidation as well as technetium [Tc(VII)] reduction. To characterize the roles of MR-1 [NiFe]-H2ase in these proposed reactions, the genes encoding both subunits of MR-1 [NiFe]-H2ase were cloned and then expressed in an MR-1 mutant without hyaB and hydA genes. Expression of recombinant MR-1 [NiFe]-H2ase in trans restored the mutant's ability to produce H2 at 37% of that for the wild type. Following purification, MR-1 [NiFe]-H2ase coupled H2 oxidation to reduction of Tc(VII)O4− and methyl viologen. Change of the buffers used affected MR-1 [NiFe]-H2ase-mediated reduction of Tc(VII)O4− but not methyl viologen. Under the conditions tested, all Tc(VII)O4− used was reduced in Tris buffer, while in HEPES buffer, only 20% of Tc(VII)O4− was reduced. The reduced products were soluble in Tris buffer but insoluble in HEPES buffer. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that Tc precipitates reduced in HEPES buffer were aggregates of crystallites with diameters of ∼5 nm. Measurements with X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy revealed that the reduction products were a mixture of Tc(IV) and Tc(V) in Tris buffer but only Tc(IV) in HEPES buffer. Measurements with extended X-ray adsorption fine structure showed that while the Tc bonding environment in Tris buffer could not be determined, the Tc(IV) product in HEPES buffer was very similar to Tc(IV)O2·nH2O, which was also the product of Tc(VII)O4− reduction by MR-1 cells. These results shows for the first time that MR-1 [NiFe]-H2ase catalyzes Tc(VII)O4− reduction directly by coupling to H2 oxidation. PMID:21724888

  16. Effect of composition on magnetic softness and magnetoimpedance of electrodeposited NiFe/Cu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, A. C.

    2014-04-01

    A systematic variation of film composition was done during electrodeposition of NiFe thin films onto 100 μm diameter copper wire. Current density of deposition was maintained at 20 mA/cm2 to ensure constant film thickness. Pure Ni film as well as Fe rich NiFe film were not magnetically soft enough and showed poor magnetoimpedance effect. As Fe concentration was systematically varied, softest magnetic properties and magnetoimpedance value were found for the film composition Ni79Fe21. Soft magnetic properties induced and magnetoimpedance effect observed at this composition was attributed to the lowering of magnetoelastic anisotropy as well as magnetocrystalline anisotropy.

  17. Purification and characterization of the [NiFe]-hydrogenase of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1.

    PubMed

    Shi, Liang; Belchik, Sara M; Plymale, Andrew E; Heald, Steve; Dohnalkova, Alice C; Sybirna, Kateryna; Bottin, Hervé; Squier, Thomas C; Zachara, John M; Fredrickson, James K

    2011-08-15

    Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 possesses a periplasmic [NiFe]-hydrogenase (MR-1 [NiFe]-H(2)ase) that has been implicated in H(2) production and oxidation as well as technetium [Tc(VII)] reduction. To characterize the roles of MR-1 [NiFe]-H(2)ase in these proposed reactions, the genes encoding both subunits of MR-1 [NiFe]-H(2)ase were cloned and then expressed in an MR-1 mutant without hyaB and hydA genes. Expression of recombinant MR-1 [NiFe]-H(2)ase in trans restored the mutant's ability to produce H(2) at 37% of that for the wild type. Following purification, MR-1 [NiFe]-H(2)ase coupled H(2) oxidation to reduction of Tc(VII)O(4)(-) and methyl viologen. Change of the buffers used affected MR-1 [NiFe]-H(2)ase-mediated reduction of Tc(VII)O(4)(-) but not methyl viologen. Under the conditions tested, all Tc(VII)O(4)(-) used was reduced in Tris buffer, while in HEPES buffer, only 20% of Tc(VII)O(4)(-) was reduced. The reduced products were soluble in Tris buffer but insoluble in HEPES buffer. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that Tc precipitates reduced in HEPES buffer were aggregates of crystallites with diameters of ∼5 nm. Measurements with X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy revealed that the reduction products were a mixture of Tc(IV) and Tc(V) in Tris buffer but only Tc(IV) in HEPES buffer. Measurements with extended X-ray adsorption fine structure showed that while the Tc bonding environment in Tris buffer could not be determined, the Tc(IV) product in HEPES buffer was very similar to Tc(IV)O(2)·nH(2)O, which was also the product of Tc(VII)O(4)(-) reduction by MR-1 cells. These results shows for the first time that MR-1 [NiFe]-H(2)ase catalyzes Tc(VII)O(4)(-) reduction directly by coupling to H(2) oxidation.

  18. Properties of the roughness in NiFe/FeMn exchange-biased system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, V. P.; Passamani, E. C.; Biondo, A.; Nunes, V. B.; Saitovitch, E. Baggio

    2007-05-01

    X-ray reflectivity and atomic force microscopy analyses were performed in the Si/WTi (7 nm)/NiFe (5 nm)/FeMn (13 nm)/WTi (7 nm) exchange-biased system prepared by magnetron sputtering. Layer-by-layer analyses were done in order to have interfacial roughness parameters quantitatively. X-ray reflectivity results indicate that the successive layer deposition gives rise to a cumulative roughness. In addition, the atomic force microscopic images analyses have revealed that the roughness enhancement caused by the successive layer deposition can be associated with an appearance of a longer wavelength roughness induced by the NiFe layer deposition.

  19. Preparation, characterization, and antibacterial activity of NiFe2O4/PAMA/Ag-TiO2 nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allafchian, Alireza; Jalali, Seyed Amir Hossein; Bahramian, Hamid; Ahmadvand, Hossein

    2016-04-01

    We have described a facile fabrication of silver deposited on the TiO2, Poly Acrylonitrile Co Maleic Anhydride (PAMA) polymer and nickel ferrite composite (NiFe2O4/PAMA/Ag-TiO2) through a three-step procedure. A pre-synthesized NiFe2O4 was first coated with PAMA polymer and then Ag-TiO2 was deposited on the surface of PAMA polymer shell. After the characterization of this three-component composite by various techniques, such as FTIR, XRD, FESEM, BET, TEM and VSM, it was impregnated in standard antibiotic discs. The antibacterial activity of NiFe2O4/PAMA/Ag-TiO2 nanocomposite was investigated against some gram positive and gram negative bacteria by employing disc diffusion assay and then compared with that of naked NiFe2O4, NiFe2O4/Ag, AgNPs and NiFe2O4/PAMA. The results demonstrated that the AgNPs, when embedded in TiO2 and combined with NiFe2O4/PAMA, became an excellent antibacterial agent. The NiFe2O4/PAMA/Ag-TiO2 nanocomposite could be readily separated from water solution after the disinfection process by applying an external magnetic field.

  20. Sintered powder cores of high Bs and low coreloss Fe84.3Si4B8P3Cu0.7 nano-crystalline alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan; Sharma, Parmanand; Makino, Akihiro

    2013-06-01

    Nano-crystalline Fe-rich Fe84.3Si4B8P3Cu0.7 alloy ribbon with saturation magnetic flux density (Bs) close to Si-steel exhibits much lower core loss (Wt) than Si-Steels. Low glass forming ability of this alloy limits fabrication of magnetic cores only to stack/wound types. Here, we report on fabrication, structural, thermal and magnetic properties of bulk Fe84.3Si4B8P3Cu0.7 cores. Partially crystallized ribbons (obtained after salt-bath annealing treatment) were crushed into powdered form (by ball milling), and were compacted to high-density (˜88%) bulk cores by spark plasma sintering (SPS). Nano-crystalline structure (consisting of α-Fe grain in remaining amorphous matrix) similar to wound ribbon cores is preserved in the compacted cores. At 50 Hz, cores sintered at Ts = 680 K show Wt < 10 W/kg (f = 50 Hz, Bm ˜1 T). Coating/mixing of powders with an insulating agent like SiO2 is shown to be effective in further reduction of Wt at f > 1 kHz. A trade-off between porosity and electrical resistivity is necessary to get low Wt at higher f. In the f range of ˜1 to 100 kHz, we have shown that the cores mixed with SiO2 exhibit much lower Wt than Fe-powder cores, non-oriented Si-steel sheets and commercially available sintered cores. We believe our core material is very promising to make power electronics/electrical devices much more energy-efficient.

  1. Easily Dispersible NiFe2O4/RGO Composite for Microwave Absorption Properties in the X-Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bateer, Buhe; Zhang, Jianjao; Zhang, Hongchen; Zhang, Xiaochen; Wang, Chunyan; Qi, Haiqun

    2017-09-01

    Composites with good dispersion and excellent microwave absorption properties have important applications. Therefore, an easily dispersible NiFe2O4/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) composite has been prepared conveniently through a simple hydrothermal method. Highly crystalline, small size (about 7 nm) monodispersed NiFe2O4 nanoparticles (NPs) are evenly distributed on the surface of RGO. The microwave absorbability revealed that the NiFe2O4/RGO composite exhibits excellent microwave absorption properties in the X-band (8-12 GHz), and the minimum reflection loss of the NiFe2O4/RGO composite is -27.7 dB at 9.2 GHz. The NiFe2O4/RGO composite has good dispersibility in nonpolar solvent, which facilitates the preparation of stable commercial microwave absorbing coatings. It can be a promising candidate for lightweight microwave absorption materials in many application fields.

  2. Degradation of tetrachloromethane and tetrachloroethene by Ni/Fe bimetallic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y. Y.; Liu, F.; Li, H. D.

    2009-09-01

    The study investigated the potential of nanoscale Ni/Fe bimetallic particles reduction for carbon tetrachloride (CT) and tetrachloroethene (PCE). BET specific surface areas of the laboratory synthesized Ni/Fe (2% wt.) particle, with diameter on the order of 20-60nm, was approximately 52.61m2/g. Batch studies demonstrated that rapid transformations of PCE and CT were achieved with nanoscale Ni/Fe particles. The degradation process appeared to be pseudo-first-order. Values of the surface area normalized rate coefficients (KSA) of PCE and CT for the reaction with nano Ni/Fe were 2.068mL/(m2·h), 10.08mL/(m2·h), respectively. This indicated that the degradation rate of CT was about 5 times larger than that of PCE under comparable environmental condition. Significant amounts of DCM were detected for the reaction with CT unlike the PCE transformation where ethane was the only end-product, amount to 103% of the initial PCE carbon. Both DCM (~15%) and methane (~27%) were the major end products for CT reaction. Based on the rapid rate of degradation and no or less chlorinated byproducts, the nanoscale particles technology offered great opportunities for both fundamental research and technological application for remediation of contaminated ground water.

  3. Nickel-centred proton reduction catalysis in a model of [NiFe] hydrogenase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brazzolotto, Deborah; Gennari, Marcello; Queyriaux, Nicolas; Simmons, Trevor R.; Pécaut, Jacques; Demeshko, Serhiy; Meyer, Franc; Orio, Maylis; Artero, Vincent; Duboc, Carole

    2016-11-01

    Hydrogen production through water splitting is one of the most promising solutions for the storage of renewable energy. [NiFe] hydrogenases are organometallic enzymes containing nickel and iron centres that catalyse hydrogen evolution with performances that rival those of platinum. These enzymes provide inspiration for the design of new molecular catalysts that do not require precious metals. However, all heterodinuclear NiFe models reported so far do not reproduce the Ni-centred reactivity found at the active site of [NiFe] hydrogenases. Here, we report a structural and functional NiFe mimic that displays reactivity at the Ni site. This is shown by the detection of two catalytic intermediates that reproduce structural and electronic features of the Ni-L and Ni-R states of the enzyme during catalytic turnover. Under electrocatalytic conditions, this mimic displays high rates for H2 evolution (second-order rate constant of 2.5 × 104 M-1 s-1 turnover frequency of 250 s-1 at 10 mM H+ concentration) from mildly acidic solutions.

  4. The key role of biochar in the rapid removal of decabromodiphenyl ether from aqueous solution by biochar-supported Ni/Fe bimetallic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Yunqiang; Wu, Juan; Wei, Yufen; Fang, Zhanqiang; Tsang, Eric Pokeung

    2017-07-01

    Some problems exist in the current remediation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) from aqueous solution by using iron-based nanoparticles. Our efforts have contributed to the synthesis of biochar-supported Ni/Fe bimetallic nanoparticle composites (BC@Ni/Fe). Under the optimum operating parameters of BC@Ni/Fe, the morphologic analysis revealed that biochar effectively solved the agglomeration of Ni/Fe nanoparticles and the removal efficiency of BDE209 obtained by BC@Ni/Fe (91.29%) was seven times higher than the sum of biochar (2.55%) and Ni/Fe (11.22%) in 10 min. The degradation products of BDE209 in the solution and absorbed on the BC@Ni/Fe were analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy, which indicated that the degradation of BDE209 was mainly a process of stepwise debromination. Meanwhile, compared with Ni/Fe nanoparticles, the adsorption ability of the by-products of BDE209 by BC@Ni/Fe was greater, to a certain extent, which reduced the additional environmental burden. In addition, the concentration of nickle ion leaching from the Ni/Fe nanoparticles was 3.09 mg/L; conversely, the concentration of nickle leaching from BC@Ni/Fe was not detected. This excellent performance in our study indicates a possible means to enhance the reactivity and reduce the secondary risks of Ni/Fe nanoparticles.

  5. Proton Transfer in the Catalytic Cycle of [NiFe] Hydrogenases: Insight from Vibrational Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Catalysis of H2 production and oxidation reactions is critical in renewable energy systems based around H2 as a clean fuel, but the present reliance on platinum-based catalysts is not sustainable. In nature, H2 is oxidized at minimal overpotential and high turnover frequencies at [NiFe] catalytic sites in hydrogenase enzymes. Although an outline mechanism has been established for the [NiFe] hydrogenases involving heterolytic cleavage of H2 followed by a first and then second transfer of a proton and electron away from the active site, details remain vague concerning how the proton transfers are facilitated by the protein environment close to the active site. Furthermore, although [NiFe] hydrogenases from different organisms or cellular environments share a common active site, they exhibit a broad range of catalytic characteristics indicating the importance of subtle changes in the surrounding protein in controlling their behavior. Here we review recent time-resolved infrared (IR) spectroscopic studies and IR spectroelectrochemical studies carried out in situ during electrocatalytic turnover. Additionally, we re-evaluate the significant body of IR spectroscopic data on hydrogenase active site states determined through more conventional solution studies, in order to highlight mechanistic steps that seem to apply generally across the [NiFe] hydrogenases, as well as steps which so far seem limited to specific groups of these enzymes. This analysis is intended to help focus attention on the key open questions where further work is needed to assess important aspects of proton and electron transfer in the mechanism of [NiFe] hydrogenases.

  6. Hierachical Ni@Fe2O3 superparticles through epitaxial growth of γ-Fe2O3 nanorods on in situ formed Ni nanoplates.

    PubMed

    Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Herzberger, Jana; Natalio, Filipe; Köhler, Oskar; Branscheid, Robert; Mugnaioli, Enrico; Ksenofontov, Vadim; Panthöfer, Martin; Kolb, Ute; Frey, Holger; Tremel, Wolfgang

    2016-05-05

    One endeavour of nanochemistry is the bottom-up synthesis of functional mesoscale structures from basic building blocks. We report a one-pot wet chemical synthesis of Ni@γ-Fe2O3 superparticles containing Ni cores densely covered with highly oriented γ-Fe2O3 (maghemite) nanorods (NRs) by controlled reduction/decomposition of nickel acetate (Ni(ac)2) and Fe(CO)5. Automated diffraction tomography (ADT) of the Ni-Fe2O3 interface in combination with Mössbauer spectroscopy showed that selective and oriented growth of the γ-Fe2O3 nanorods on the Ni core is facilitated through the formation of a Fe0.05Ni0.95 alloy and the appearance of superstructure features that may reduce strain at the Ni-Fe2O3 interface. The common orientation of the maghemite nanorods on the Ni core of the superparticles leads to a greatly enhanced magnetization. After functionalization with a catechol-functional polyethylene glycol (C-PEG) ligand the Ni@γ-Fe2O3 superparticles were dispersible in water.

  7. Thermodynamic analysis of binary Fe85B15 to quinary Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 alloys for primary crystallizations of α-Fe in nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, A.; Zhang, Y.; Takenaka, K.; Makino, A.

    2015-05-01

    Fe-based Fe85B15, Fe84B15Cu1, Fe82Si2B15Cu1, Fe85Si2B12Cu1, and Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 (NANOMET®) alloys were experimental and computational analyzed to clarify the features of NANOMET that exhibits high saturation magnetic flux density (Bs) nearly 1.9 T and low core loss than conventional nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloys. The X-ray diffraction analysis for ribbon specimens produced experimentally by melt spinning from melts revealed that the samples were almost formed into an amorphous single phase. Then, the as-quenched samples were analyzed with differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) experimentally for exothermic enthalpies of the primary and secondary crystallizations (ΔHx1 and ΔHx2) and their crystallization temperatures (Tx1 and Tx2), respectively. The ratio ΔHx1/ΔHx2 measured by DSC experimentally tended to be extremely high for the Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 alloy, and this tendency was reproduced by the analysis with commercial software, Thermo-Calc, with database for Fe-based alloys, TCFE7 for Gibbs free energy (G) assessments. The calculations exhibit that a volume fraction (Vf) of α-Fe tends to increase from 0.56 for the Fe85B15 to 0.75 for the Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 alloy. The computational analysis of the alloys for G of α-Fe and amorphous phases (Gα-Fe and Gamor) shows that a relationship Gα-Fe ˜ Gamor holds for the Fe85Si2B12Cu1, whereas Gα-Fe < Gamor for the Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 alloy at Tx1 and that an extremely high Vf = 0.75 was achieved for the Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 alloy by including 2.8 at. % Si and 4.5 at. % P into α-Fe. These computational results indicate that the Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 alloy barely forms amorphous phase, which, in turn, leads to high Vf and resultant high Bs.

  8. On the AC-conductivity mechanism in nano-crystalline Se79-xTe15In6Pbx (x = 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10) alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anjali; Patial, Balbir Singh; Bhardwaj, Suresh; Awasthi, A. M.; Thakur, Nagesh

    2017-10-01

    In-depth analysis of complex AC-conductivity for nano-crystalline Se79-xTe15In6Pbx (x = 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 at wt%) alloys is made in the temperature range 308-423 K and over the frequency range 10-1-107 Hz, to understand the conduction mechanism. The investigated nano-crystalline alloys were prepared by melt-quench technique. Sharp structural peaks in X-ray diffraction pattern indicate the nano-crystalline nature, which is also confirmed by FESEM. The AC conductivity shows universal characteristics and at higher frequency a transition from dc to dispersive behavior occurs. Moreover, it is confirmed that ac conductivity (σac) obeys the Jonscher power law as ωs (s< 1). The obtained results are analyzed in the light of various theoretical models. The correlated barrier hopping (CBH) model associated with non-intimate valence alternation pairs (NVAP's) is found most appropriate to describe the conduction mechanisms in these alloys. In addition, the CBH model description reveals that the bipolaron (single polaron) transport dominates at lower (higher) temperature. The density of localized states has also been deduced.

  9. Occasional ``long-range'' nonequilibrium body-centered-cubic structures in NiFe/Cu spin valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, H.; Heckman, J. W.; Pratt, W. P.; Bass, J.; Espinosa, F. J.; Conradson, S. D.; Lederman, D.; Crimp, M. A.

    1999-10-01

    We describe conventional and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) characterization of the microstructure of sputtered NiFe/Cu giant magnetoresistance spin valves (Cu/FeMn/NiFe/Cu/NiFe) sandwiched between thick Nb contact layers. Six spin valves, sputtered at different temperatures, three with thin (3 nm) and three with thick (24 and 30 nm) NiFe layers, were studied. All of the spin-valve layers were smooth and continuous, consisting of columnar grains generally 20-90 nm wide. In most cases, the grains had grown epitaxially from the bottom contact, through the entire multilayer, to the top contact layer. The columnar grains grew on the closest-packed planes (i.e., {110} planes for bcc Nb and {111} planes for fcc Cu, FeMn, and NiFe spin-valve components). This epitaxial growth yields an apparent Kurdjumov-Sachs {111}fcc∥{110}bcc; <110>fcc∥<111>bcc orientation relationship. However, HRTEM imaging supported by fast Fourier transform analysis reveals that in some of the columnar grains the Cu, FeMn, and NiFe layers take up a nonequilibrium bcc structure. In these cases, the bcc Cu, FeMn, and NiFe layers grow on {110} planes and are epitaxial with the Nb contacts for the individual grain columns. While bcc Cu has been observed elsewhere, the length scale of the nonequilibrium bcc phases reported here is an order of magnitude greater than previously observed.

  10. Thermal annealing and magnetic anisotropy of NiFe thin films on n+-Si for spintronic device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Q. H.; Huang, R.; Wang, L. S.; Wu, Z. G.; Li, C.; Luo, Q.; Zuo, S. Y.; Li, J.; Peng, D. L.; Han, G. L.; Yan, P. X.

    2015-11-01

    To ensure that the magnetic metal electrodes can meet the requirements of the spin injection, NiFe films prepared both on HfO2 dielectric layer and n+-Si directly by sputtering deposition, and treated by conventional furnace annealing and/or high vacuum magnetic field annealing were investigated. It was found that thermal annealing at 250 °C improved the crystalline quality and reduced surface roughness of the NiFe films, thus enhancing its saturation magnetization intensity. The 100 nm thick NiFe films had too large coercive force and saturation magnetization intensity in vertical direction to meet the requirements of Hanle curve detection. While, 30 nm thick NiFe films showed paramagnetic hysteresis loops in vertical direction, and the magnetization intensity of the sample after annealing at 250 °C for 30 min was less than 2% to the parallel when the external magnetic field was given between ±10 Oe. This was preferred to Hanle curve detection. The thin HfO2 dielectric layer between metal and Si partially suppressed the diffusion of Ni in NiFe into Si substrate and formation of NiSi, greatly enhancing the saturation magnetization intensity of the Al/NiFe/HfO2/Si sample by thermal annealing. Those results suggest that Al/NiFe/HfO2/Si structure, from the point view of magnetic electrodes, would be suitable for spin injection and detection applications.

  11. Role of the antiferromagnetic pinning layer on spin wave properties in IrMn/NiFe based spin-valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubbiotti, G.; Tacchi, S.; Del Bianco, L.; Bonfiglioli, E.; Giovannini, L.; Tamisari, M.; Spizzo, F.; Zivieri, R.

    2015-05-01

    Brillouin light scattering (BLS) was exploited to study the spin wave properties of spin-valve (SV) type samples basically consisting of two 5 nm-thick NiFe layers (separated by a Cu spacer of 5 nm), differently biased through the interface exchange coupling with an antiferromagnetic IrMn layer. Three samples were investigated: a reference SV sample, without IrMn (reference); one sample with an IrMn underlayer (10 nm thick) coupled to the bottom NiFe film; one sample with IrMn underlayer and overlayer of different thickness (10 nm and 6 nm), coupled to the bottom and top NiFe film, respectively. The exchange coupling with the IrMn, causing the insurgence of the exchange bias effect, allowed the relative orientation of the NiFe magnetization vectors to be controlled by an external magnetic field, as assessed through hysteresis loop measurements by magneto-optic magnetometry. Thus, BLS spectra were acquired by sweeping the magnetic field so as to encompass both the parallel and antiparallel alignment of the NiFe layers. The BLS results, well reproduced by the presented theoretical model, clearly revealed the combined effects on the spin dynamic properties of the dipolar interaction between the two NiFe films and of the interface IrMn/NiFe exchange coupling.

  12. Role of the antiferromagnetic pinning layer on spin wave properties in IrMn/NiFe based spin-valves

    SciTech Connect

    Gubbiotti, G. Tacchi, S.; Del Bianco, L.; Bonfiglioli, E.; Giovannini, L.; Spizzo, F.; Zivieri, R.; Tamisari, M.

    2015-05-07

    Brillouin light scattering (BLS) was exploited to study the spin wave properties of spin-valve (SV) type samples basically consisting of two 5 nm-thick NiFe layers (separated by a Cu spacer of 5 nm), differently biased through the interface exchange coupling with an antiferromagnetic IrMn layer. Three samples were investigated: a reference SV sample, without IrMn (reference); one sample with an IrMn underlayer (10 nm thick) coupled to the bottom NiFe film; one sample with IrMn underlayer and overlayer of different thickness (10 nm and 6 nm), coupled to the bottom and top NiFe film, respectively. The exchange coupling with the IrMn, causing the insurgence of the exchange bias effect, allowed the relative orientation of the NiFe magnetization vectors to be controlled by an external magnetic field, as assessed through hysteresis loop measurements by magneto-optic magnetometry. Thus, BLS spectra were acquired by sweeping the magnetic field so as to encompass both the parallel and antiparallel alignment of the NiFe layers. The BLS results, well reproduced by the presented theoretical model, clearly revealed the combined effects on the spin dynamic properties of the dipolar interaction between the two NiFe films and of the interface IrMn/NiFe exchange coupling.

  13. Morphology and composition of chalcopyrite, chromite, Cu, Ni-Fe, pentlandite, and troilite in vugs of 76015 and 76215

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, J. L.; Clanton, U. S.; Laughon, R. B.; Mckay, D. S.; Usselman, T. M.; Fuhrman, R.

    1975-01-01

    Vugs from 76015 and 76215 are lined with euhedral crystals of plagioclase, pyroxene, ilmenite, Ni-Fe, and troilite. Smaller crystals of chromite, pentlandite, and chalcopyrite occur on the surface of the troilite in 76015. Wire Cu and dendritic-metallic Cu occurs with metallic Ni-Fe and troilite in some vugs of 76215. Troilite in both samples may have crystallized from an immiscible sulfide liquid. With falling temperature, chalcopyrite, and pentlandite may have exsolved from the troilite in 76015. By contrast, metallic Cu may have formed in 76215 by thermal breakdown of a bornite, troilite, and Ni-Fe assemblage which originally crystallized from a low-Ni immiscible sulfide liquid.

  14. Microstructure and tribological properties of Zr-based amorphous-nanocrystalline coatings deposited on the surface of titanium alloys by Electrospark Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Xiang; Tan, Yefa; Zhou, Chunhua; Xu, Ting; Zhang, Zhongwei

    2015-11-01

    In order to improve the wear resistance of titanium alloys, the Zr-based amorphous-nanocrystalline coatings were prepared by Electrospark Deposition (ESD) on the surface of TC11. The microstructure of the coatings was analyzed and the tribological behavior and mechanism of the coatings were investigated. The results show that the coating is mainly composed of amorphous phase Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5 and distributed a large number of nano particles with the diameter between 2 nm and 4 nm such as CuZr3, Ni2Zr3, NiZr2, etc. The new alloy system made up of molten electrode material of Zr-based alloy and TC11 substrate has a large glass forming ability, which transforms to amorphous phase in the rapid heating and cooling ESD process. The long-range diffusions of atoms such as Zr and Cu in amorphous microstructure play an important role in nano nucleation growth. The coating is dense, uniform, bonding with TC11 substrate metallurgically. The thickness of the coating is from 55 μm to 60 μm and the average microhardness is 801.3 HV0.025. The coating has good friction-reducing and anti-wear properties. The friction coefficient of the coating changes between 0.13 and 0.21 with small fluctuation, decreasing about 60% compared to that of TC11 substrate. And the wear resistance of the coating is increased by 57% than that of TC11 substrate. The main wear mechanism of the coating is micro-cutting wear accompanied with oxidation wear.

  15. Influence of static and dynamic dipolar fields in bulk YIG/thin film NiFe systems probed via spin rectification effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soh, Wee Tee; Tay, Z. J.; Yakovlev, N. L.; Peng, Bin; Ong, C. K.

    2017-03-01

    The characteristics of the static and dynamic components of the dipolar fields originating from a bulk polycrystalline yttrium iron garnet (YIG) substrate are probed by depositing a NiFe (Permalloy) layer on it, which acts as a detector. By measuring dc voltages generated via spin rectification effect (SRE) within the NiFe layer under microwave excitation, we characterize the influence of dipolar fields from bulk YIG on the NiFe layer. It is found that the dynamic YIG dipolar fields modify the self-SRE of NiFe, driving its own rectification voltages within the NiFe layer, an effect we term as non-local SRE. This non-local SRE only occurs near the simultaneous resonance of both YIG and NiFe. On the other hand, the static dipolar field from YIG manifests itself as a negative anisotropy in the NiFe layer which shifts the latter's ferromagnetic resonance frequency.

  16. Enhancing the High Temperature Capability of Nanocrystalline Alloys: Utilizing Thermodynamic Stability Maps to Mitigate Grain Growth Through Solute Selection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    alloy contents. At higher solute concentrations x0, there is additional solute to stabilize the grain boundaries. At the higher Zr contents...element on grain boundary energy. The effect of ∆Hmix for Fe– Zr alloys is examined in figure 4 for x0 = 0.04 by systematically changing the ∆Hmix...values. For a hypothetical case of no chemical effect with ∆Hmix = 0, dm = 10 nm is predicted at the melting point of Fe. In an Fe–4% Zr alloy annealed at

  17. Microstructure, magnetic, and magnetoimpedance properties of electrodeposited NiFe/Cu and CoNiFe/Cu wire: A study on influence of saccharin additive in plating bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Amaresh Chandra; Sahoo, Trilochan; Srinivas, V.; Thakur, Awalendra K.

    2011-04-01

    Magnetic thin films of NiFe and CoNiFe were electrodeposited from three different deposition baths on copper wires of 100 μm diameter. The magnetic and magneto-impedance (MI) properties of the samples were investigated as a function of saccharin additive concentration in the plating bath. For all intermediate frequencies, the MI ratio increased with saccharin concentration in the plating bath up to a critical concentration and then saturates. The change in MI with saccharin concentration in electrodeposition bath was attributed to the grain size reducing action of saccharin which in turn reduces the coercivity of the film, making it soft magnetic. The origin of MI lies in the combined effect of domain wall motion and spin rotation which contributes to permeability. Inductance spectroscopy was used to evaluate the magnetic characteristic of the samples by modeling magnetic film-coated wires in terms of equivalent electrical circuit; namely parallel inductance and resistance circuit in series with series A circuit. The domain wall motion was found to be greatly affected by saccharin addition to the bath, which was revealed through the study of variations in these circuit parameters. The domain wall motion thereby affects the magnetic softness of samples, which is reflected by MI enhancement.

  18. Hydriding of TiZrNiFe nanocompounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żywczak, A.; Shinya, Daigo; Gondek, Ł.; Takasaki, Akito; Figiel, H.

    2010-01-01

    Ti-based quasicrystals belong to the second largest group of the stable quasicrystals, showing attractive properties as hydrogen storage materials. The Ti 45Zr 38Ni 17 intermetallic compound forms an icosahedral ( i-phase) structure, in which Ti and Zr atoms possess very good chemical affinity for hydrogen absorption. We modified the Ti 45Zr 38Ni 17 compounds by substituting 3d metals (iron) for Ni to obtain amorphous phase. The samples were produced by mechanical alloying. The 3d metal atoms are located in the same positions as nickel. The structural characterization was made by means of XRD measurements. Thermodynamic properties were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). The obtained amorphous phases Ti 45Zr 38Ni (9,13)Fe (8,4) transform to the i-phase at the similar temperature range as Ti 45Zr 38Ni 17. The final concentration of absorbed hydrogen depends on the amount of Fe. When increasing the amount of iron, the hydrogen release temperature becomes lower. After hydriding, the samples decompose into simple metal hydrides.

  19. Effects of two-temperature model on cascade evolution in Ni and NiFe

    DOE PAGES

    Samolyuk, German D.; Xue, Haizhou; Bei, Hongbin; ...

    2016-07-05

    We perform molecular dynamics simulations of Ni ion cascades in Ni and equiatomic NiFe under the following conditions: (a) classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations without consideration of electronic energy loss, (b) classical MD simulations with the electronic stopping included, and (c) using the coupled two-temperature MD (2T-MD) model that incorporates both the electronic stopping and the electron-phonon interactions. Our results indicate that the electronic effects are more profound in the higher-energy cascades, and that the 2T-MD model results in a smaller amount of surviving damage and smaller defect clusters, while less damage is produced in NiFe than in Ni.

  20. Effects of Sodium Citrate Concentration on Electroless Ni-Fe Bath Stability and Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Myung-Won; Kang, Sung K.; Lee, Jae-Ho

    2014-01-01

    In this research, electroless Ni-Fe bath stability and deposition characteristics were investigated for various sodium citrate concentrations. Complexing agents such as sodium citrate are one of the main components of such electroless plating baths. Since they could play various roles such as maintaining pH stability, preventing precipitation of metal salts, and reducing the concentrations of free metal ions, the concentration of complexing agents in the plating bath is an important parameter for electroless deposition processes. In this research, unstable baths were obtained for insufficient sodium citrate concentrations, and these phenomena were analyzed with ChemEQL. Moreover, the deposition characteristics of electroless Ni-Fe for under bump metallurgy diffusion barriers were also investigated using energy-dispersive spectroscopy and field-emission scanning electron microscopy.

  1. Prediction of the new efficient permanent magnet SmCoNiFe3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Söderlind, P.; Landa, A.; Locht, I. L. M.; Åberg, D.; Kvashnin, Y.; Pereiro, M.; Däne, M.; Turchi, P. E. A.; Antropov, V. P.; Eriksson, O.

    2017-09-01

    We propose a new efficient permanent magnet, SmCoNiFe3, which is a development of the well-known SmCo5 prototype. More modern neodymium magnets of the Nd-Fe-B type have an advantage over SmCo5 because of their greater maximum energy products due to their iron-rich stoichiometry. Our new magnet, however, removes most of this disadvantage of SmCo5 while preserving its superior high-temperature efficiency over the neodymium magnets. We show by means of first-principles electronic-structure calculations that SmCoNiFe3 has very favorable magnetic properties and could therefore potentially replace SmCo5 or Nd-Fe-B types in various applications.

  2. Electrical measurement of antiferromagnetic moments in exchange-coupled IrMn/NiFe stacks.

    PubMed

    Martí, X; Park, B G; Wunderlich, J; Reichlová, H; Kurosaki, Y; Yamada, M; Yamamoto, H; Nishide, A; Hayakawa, J; Takahashi, H; Jungwirth, T

    2012-01-06

    We employ antiferromagnetic tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance to study the behavior of antiferromagnetically ordered moments in IrMn exchange coupled to NiFe. Experiments performed by common laboratory tools for magnetization and electrical transport measurements allow us to directly link the broadening of the NiFe hysteresis loop and its shift (exchange bias) to the rotation and pinning of antiferromagnetic moments in IrMn. At higher temperatures, the broadened loops show zero shift, which correlates with the observation of fully rotating antiferromagnetic moments inside the IrMn film. The onset of exchange bias at lower temperatures is linked to a partial rotation between distinct metastable states and pinning of the IrMn antiferromagnetic moments in these states. The observation complements common pictures of exchange bias and reveals an electrically measurable memory effect in an antiferromagnet.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of water based NiFe2O4 ferrofluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharat, Prashant B.; Shisode, M. V.; Birajdar, S. D.; Bhoyar, D. N.; Jadhav, K. M.

    2017-05-01

    Highly stable NiFe2O4 ferrofluids were successfully prepared by two step method. The magnetic NiFe2O4 nanoparticles were prepared by sol-gel auto combustion method. In order to prepare ferrofluid distilled water was used as a base fluid. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize structure and morphology of the nanoparticles. XRD results show the single phase spinel structure with crystallite of 27nm. Electrical conductivity of ferrofluids was measured by Aqua Pro Electrical Conductivity (EC) meter. Density of ferrofluids was measured by specific gravity bottle. Electrical conductivity and density of the ferrofluids were measured as a function of volume fraction. It is observed that, the electrical conductivity and density of ferrofluids increases with increase in volume fraction.

  4. Glycerol Steam Reforming Over Ni-Fe-Ce/Al2O3 Catalyst: Effect of Cerium.

    PubMed

    Go, Gwang-Sub; Go, Yoo-Jin; Lee, Hong-Joo; Moon, Dong-Ju; Park, Nam-Cook; Kim, Young-Chul

    2016-02-01

    In this work, hydrogen production from glycerol by steam reforming was studied using Ni-metal oxide catalysts. Ni-based catalyst becomes deactivated during steam reforming reactions because of coke deposits and sintering. Therefore, the aim of this study was to reduce carbon deposits and sintering on the catalyst surface by adding a promoter. Ni-metal oxide catalysts supported on Al2O3 were prepared via impregnation method, and the calcined catalyst was reduced under H2 flow for 2 h prior to the reaction. The characteristics of the catalysts were examined by XRD, TPR, TGA, and SEM. The Ni-Fe-Ce/Al2O3 catalyst, which contained less than 2 wt% Ce, showed the highest hydrogen selectivity and glycerol conversion. Further analysis of the catalysts revealed that the Ni-Fe-Ce/Al2O3 catalyst required a lower reduction temperature and produced minimum carbon deposit.

  5. Effects of two-temperature model on cascade evolution in Ni and NiFe

    SciTech Connect

    Samolyuk, German D.; Xue, Haizhou; Bei, Hongbin; Weber, William J.

    2016-07-05

    We perform molecular dynamics simulations of Ni ion cascades in Ni and equiatomic NiFe under the following conditions: (a) classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations without consideration of electronic energy loss, (b) classical MD simulations with the electronic stopping included, and (c) using the coupled two-temperature MD (2T-MD) model that incorporates both the electronic stopping and the electron-phonon interactions. Our results indicate that the electronic effects are more profound in the higher-energy cascades, and that the 2T-MD model results in a smaller amount of surviving damage and smaller defect clusters, while less damage is produced in NiFe than in Ni.

  6. Room temperature spin valve effect in NiFe/WS2/Co junctions

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Muhammad Zahir; Iqbal, Muhammad Waqas; Siddique, Salma; Khan, Muhammad Farooq; Ramay, Shahid Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    The two-dimensional (2D) layered electronic materials of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) have been recently proposed as an emerging canddiate for spintronic applications. Here, we report the exfoliated single layer WS2-intelayer based spin valve effect in NiFe/WS2/Co junction from room temperature to 4.2 K. The ratio of relative magnetoresistance in spin valve effect increases from 0.18% at room temperature to 0.47% at 4.2 K. We observed that the junction resistance decreases monotonically as temperature is lowered. These results revealed that semiconducting WS2 thin film works as a metallic conducting interlayer between NiFe and Co electrodes. PMID:26868638

  7. Functionally Graded Coating of Ni-Fe Fabricated by Pulse Electrodeposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torabinejad, V.; Aliofkhazraei, M.; Sabour Rouhaghdam, A.; Allahyarzadeh, M. H.

    2016-12-01

    Functionally graded (FG) coatings of Ni-Fe were deposited on mild steel substrate by applying pulse electrodeposition. First, the Ni-Fe FG coatings at constant frequency by gradually reducing the pulse duty cycle in eight steps (D coatings). In these coatings, the amount of Fe was gradually decreased from the substrate/coating interface toward the top surface. Next, the frequency was changed continuously at constant duty cycle (F Coatings), where partial changes were observed in the chemical composition of the coatings. In order to assess corrosion and the tribological behavior of the coatings, potentiodynamic and pin-on-disk tests were conducted. The corrosion tests showed that the corrosion resistance of the D coatings is higher than the F coatings. In addition, increasing the pulse frequency decreased the corrosion resistance of the D coatings. Finally, the wear test results showed that reduction of frequency improves the wear resistance of the D coatings.

  8. Enhanced ferrimagnetism in auxetic NiFe2O4 in the crossover to the ultrathin-film limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoppe, Michael; Döring, Sven; Gorgoi, Mihaela; Cramm, Stefan; Müller, Martina

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the sensitive interplay between magnetic, electronic, and structural properties in the ferrimagnetic oxide NiFe2O4 . Emphasis is placed on the impact of reduced dimensionality in the crossover from bulk-like to ultrathin films. We observed an enhanced saturation magnetization MS for ultrathin NiFe2O4 films on Nb-SrTiO3 (001) substrates that co-occurs with a reduced out-of-plane lattice constant under compressive in-plane epitaxial strain. We found a bulk-like cationic coordination of the inverse spinel lattice independent of the NiFe2O4 film thickness, thus ruling out a cationic inversion that nominally could account for an enhanced MS. Moreover, our study instead uncovers a reduction of the unit cell volume, i.e., an auxetic behavior in ultrathin NiFe2O4 films.

  9. Analysis of the weak coupling of the IrMn/Co/Ru/NiFe structures by ferromagnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Alayo, W.; Baggio-Saitovitch, E.; Sousa, M. A.; Pelegrini, F.

    2011-04-15

    The Ir{sub 20}Mn{sub 80}/Co/Ru/Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19} spin valve structures have been produced by sputtering deposition and analyzed by ferromagnetic resonance. Two well resolved modes are identified in the FMR spectra as the resonance of the Co and NiFe layers. The in-plane angular dependence of the resonance peaks for the NiFe layer present a small asymmetry, which is attributed to the interlayer exchange interaction between ferromagnetic layers across the nonmagnetic spacer. The data were analyzed considering the exchange bias at the IrMn/Co interface and the indirect coupling between Co and NiFe. The in-plane angular dependence of the resonance fields of both Co and NiFe layers present an upward (downward) shift for antiferromagnetic (ferromagnetic) coupling with respect to a system with no interlayer coupling.

  10. Analysis of the weak coupling of the IrMn/Co/Ru/NiFe structures by ferromagnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alayo, W.; Sousa, M. A.; Pelegrini, F.; Baggio-Saitovitch, E.

    2011-04-01

    The Ir20Mn80/Co/Ru/Ni81Fe19 spin valve structures have been produced by sputtering deposition and analyzed by ferromagnetic resonance. Two well resolved modes are identified in the FMR spectra as the resonance of the Co and NiFe layers. The in-plane angular dependence of the resonance peaks for the NiFe layer present a small asymmetry, which is attributed to the interlayer exchange interaction between ferromagnetic layers across the nonmagnetic spacer. The data were analyzed considering the exchange bias at the IrMn/Co interface and the indirect coupling between Co and NiFe. The in-plane angular dependence of the resonance fields of both Co and NiFe layers present an upward (downward) shift for antiferromagnetic (ferromagnetic) coupling with respect to a system with no interlayer coupling.

  11. [FeFe]- and [NiFe]-hydrogenase diversity, mechanism, and maturation.

    PubMed

    Peters, John W; Schut, Gerrit J; Boyd, Eric S; Mulder, David W; Shepard, Eric M; Broderick, Joan B; King, Paul W; Adams, Michael W W

    2015-06-01

    The [FeFe]- and [NiFe]-hydrogenases catalyze the formal interconversion between hydrogen and protons and electrons, possess characteristic non-protein ligands at their catalytic sites and thus share common mechanistic features. Despite the similarities between these two types of hydrogenases, they clearly have distinct evolutionary origins and likely emerged from different selective pressures. [FeFe]-hydrogenases are widely distributed in fermentative anaerobic microorganisms and likely evolved under selective pressure to couple hydrogen production to the recycling of electron carriers that accumulate during anaerobic metabolism. In contrast, many [NiFe]-hydrogenases catalyze hydrogen oxidation as part of energy metabolism and were likely key enzymes in early life and arguably represent the predecessors of modern respiratory metabolism. Although the reversible combination of protons and electrons to generate hydrogen gas is the simplest of chemical reactions, the [FeFe]- and [NiFe]-hydrogenases have distinct mechanisms and differ in the fundamental chemistry associated with proton transfer and control of electron flow that also help to define catalytic bias. A unifying feature of these enzymes is that hydrogen activation itself has been restricted to one solution involving diatomic ligands (carbon monoxide and cyanide) bound to an Fe ion. On the other hand, and quite remarkably, the biosynthetic mechanisms to produce these ligands are exclusive to each type of enzyme. Furthermore, these mechanisms represent two independent solutions to the formation of complex bioinorganic active sites for catalyzing the simplest of chemical reactions, reversible hydrogen oxidation. As such, the [FeFe]- and [NiFe]-hydrogenases are arguably the most profound case of convergent evolution. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Fe/S proteins: Analysis, structure, function, biogenesis and diseases.

  12. Characterization of NiFe oxyhydroxide electrocatalysts by integrated electronic structure calculations and spectroelectrochemistry.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Zachary K; Harshan, Aparna K; Gerken, James B; Vörös, Márton; Galli, Giulia; Stahl, Shannon S; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2017-03-21

    NiFe oxyhydroxide materials are highly active electrocatalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER), an important process for carbon-neutral energy storage. Recent spectroscopic and computational studies increasingly support iron as the site of catalytic activity but differ with respect to the relevant iron redox state. A combination of hybrid periodic density functional theory calculations and spectroelectrochemical experiments elucidate the electronic structure and redox thermodynamics of Ni-only and mixed NiFe oxyhydroxide thin-film electrocatalysts. The UV/visible light absorbance of the Ni-only catalyst depends on the applied potential as metal ions in the film are oxidized before the onset of OER activity. In contrast, absorbance changes are negligible in a 25% Fe-doped catalyst up to the onset of OER activity. First-principles calculations of proton-coupled redox potentials and magnetizations reveal that the Ni-only system features oxidation of Ni(2+) to Ni(3+), followed by oxidation to a mixed Ni(3+/4+) state at a potential coincident with the onset of OER activity. Calculations on the 25% Fe-doped system show the catalyst is redox inert before the onset of catalysis, which coincides with the formation of Fe(4+) and mixed Ni oxidation states. The calculations indicate that introduction of Fe dopants changes the character of the conduction band minimum from Ni-oxide in the Ni-only to predominantly Fe-oxide in the NiFe electrocatalyst. These findings provide a unified experimental and theoretical description of the electrochemical and optical properties of Ni and NiFe oxyhydroxide electrocatalysts and serve as an important benchmark for computational characterization of mixed-metal oxidation states in heterogeneous catalysts.

  13. Electrocatalytic oxygen evolution over supported small amorphous Ni-Fe nanoparticles in alkaline electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yang; Xin, Le; Li, Wenzhen

    2014-07-08

    The electrocatalytic oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is a critical anode reaction often coupled with electron or photoelectron CO2 reduction and H2 evolution reactions at the cathode for renewable energy conversion and storage. However, the sluggish OER kinetics and the utilization of precious metal catalysts are key obstacles in the broad deployment of these energy technologies. Herein, inexpensive supported 4 nm Ni-Fe nanoparticles (NiyFe1-yOx/C) featuring amorphous structures have been prepared via a solution-phase nanocapsule method for active and durable OER electrocatalysts in alkaline electrolyte. The Ni-Fe nanoparticle catalyst containing 31% Fe (Ni0.69Fe0.31Ox/C) shows the highest activity, exhibiting a 280 mV overpotential at 10 mA cm(-2) (equivalent to 10% efficiency of solar-to-fuel conversion) and a Tafel slope of 30 mV dec(-1) in 1.0 M KOH solution. The achieved OER activity outperforms NiOx/C and commercial Ir/C catalysts and is close to the highest performance of crystalline Ni-Fe thin films reported in the literature. In addition, a Faradaic efficiency of 97% measured on Ni0.69Fe0.31Ox/C suggests that carbon support corrosion and further oxidation of nanoparticle catalysts are negligible during the electrocatalytic OER tests. Ni0.69Fe0.31Ox/C further demonstrates high stability as there is no apparent OER activity loss (based on a chronoamperometry test) or particle aggregation (based on TEM image observation) after a 6 h anodization test. The high efficiency and durability make these supported amorphous Ni-Fe nanoparticles potentially applicable in the (photo)electrochemical cells for water splitting to make H2 fuel or CO2 reduction to produce usable fuels and chemicals.

  14. Characterization of NiFe oxyhydroxide electrocatalysts by integrated electronic structure calculations and spectroelectrochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Goldsmith, Zachary K.; Harshan, Aparna K.; Gerken, James B.; Galli, Giulia; Stahl, Shannon S.

    2017-01-01

    NiFe oxyhydroxide materials are highly active electrocatalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER), an important process for carbon-neutral energy storage. Recent spectroscopic and computational studies increasingly support iron as the site of catalytic activity but differ with respect to the relevant iron redox state. A combination of hybrid periodic density functional theory calculations and spectroelectrochemical experiments elucidate the electronic structure and redox thermodynamics of Ni-only and mixed NiFe oxyhydroxide thin-film electrocatalysts. The UV/visible light absorbance of the Ni-only catalyst depends on the applied potential as metal ions in the film are oxidized before the onset of OER activity. In contrast, absorbance changes are negligible in a 25% Fe-doped catalyst up to the onset of OER activity. First-principles calculations of proton-coupled redox potentials and magnetizations reveal that the Ni-only system features oxidation of Ni2+ to Ni3+, followed by oxidation to a mixed Ni3+/4+ state at a potential coincident with the onset of OER activity. Calculations on the 25% Fe-doped system show the catalyst is redox inert before the onset of catalysis, which coincides with the formation of Fe4+ and mixed Ni oxidation states. The calculations indicate that introduction of Fe dopants changes the character of the conduction band minimum from Ni-oxide in the Ni-only to predominantly Fe-oxide in the NiFe electrocatalyst. These findings provide a unified experimental and theoretical description of the electrochemical and optical properties of Ni and NiFe oxyhydroxide electrocatalysts and serve as an important benchmark for computational characterization of mixed-metal oxidation states in heterogeneous catalysts. PMID:28265083

  15. Magnetic and electrical characterization of nickel-rich NiFe thin films synthesized by atomic layer deposition and subsequent thermal reduction.

    PubMed

    Espejo, A P; Zierold, R; Gooth, J; Dendooven, J; Detavernier, C; Escrig, J; Nielsch, K

    2016-08-26

    Nickel-rich NiFe thin films (Ni92Fe8, Ni89Fe11 and Ni83Fe17) were prepared by combining atomic layer deposition (ALD) with a subsequent thermal reduction process. In order to obtain Ni x Fe1-x O y films, one ALD supercycle was performed according to the following sequence: m NiCp2/O3, with m = 1, 2 or 3, followed by one FeCp2/O3 cycle. The supercycle was repeated n times. The thermal reduction process in hydrogen atmosphere was investigated by in situ x-ray diffraction studies as a function of temperature. The metallic nickel iron alloy thin films were investigated and characterized with respect to crystallinity, morphology, resistivity, and magnetism. As proof-of-concept magnetic properties of an array of Ni83Fe17, close to the perfect Permalloy stoichiometry, nanotubes and an isolated tube were investigated.

  16. Magnetic and electrical characterization of nickel-rich NiFe thin films synthesized by atomic layer deposition and subsequent thermal reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espejo, A. P.; Zierold, R.; Gooth, J.; Dendooven, J.; Detavernier, C.; Escrig, J.; Nielsch, K.

    2016-08-01

    Nickel-rich NiFe thin films (Ni92Fe8, Ni89Fe11 and Ni83Fe17) were prepared by combining atomic layer deposition (ALD) with a subsequent thermal reduction process. In order to obtain Ni x Fe1-x O y films, one ALD supercycle was performed according to the following sequence: m NiCp2/O3, with m = 1, 2 or 3, followed by one FeCp2/O3 cycle. The supercycle was repeated n times. The thermal reduction process in hydrogen atmosphere was investigated by in situ x-ray diffraction studies as a function of temperature. The metallic nickel iron alloy thin films were investigated and characterized with respect to crystallinity, morphology, resistivity, and magnetism. As proof-of-concept magnetic properties of an array of Ni83Fe17, close to the perfect Permalloy stoichiometry, nanotubes and an isolated tube were investigated.

  17. Dechlorination of chlorinated hydrocarbons by bimetallic Ni/Fe immobilized on polyethylene glycol-grafted microfiltration membranes under anoxic conditions.

    PubMed

    Parshetti, Ganesh K; Doong, Ruey-an

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the dechlorination of chlorinated hydrocarbons including trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and carbon tetrachloride (CT) by bimetallic Ni/Fe nanoparticles immobilized on four different membranes was investigated under anoxic conditions. Effects of several parameters including the nature of membrane, initial concentration, pH value, and reaction temperature on the dechlorination efficiency were examined. The scanning electron microscopic images showed that the Ni/Fe nanoparticles were successfully immobilized inside the four membranes using polyethylene glycol as the cross-linker. The agglomeration of Ni/Fe were observed in poly(vinylidene fluoride), Millex GS and mixed cellulose ester membranes, while a relatively uniform distribution of Ni/Fe was found in nylon-66 membrane because of its hydrophilic nature. The immobilized Ni/Fe nanoparticles exhibited good reactivity towards the dechlorination of chlorinated hydrocarbons, and the pseudo-first-order rate constant for TCE dechlorination by Ni/Fe in nylon-66 were 3.7-11.7 times higher than those in other membranes. In addition, the dechlorination efficiency of chlorinated hydrocarbons followed the order TCE>PCE>CT. Ethane was the only end product for TCE and PCE dechlorination, while dichloromethane and methane were found to be the major products for CT dechlorination, clearly indicating the involvement of reactive hydrogen species in dechlorination. In addition, the initial rate constant for TCE dechlorination increased upon increasing initial TCE concentrations and the activation energy for TCE dechlorination by immobilized Ni/Fe was 34.9 kJ mol(-1), showing that the dechlorination of TCE by membrane-supported Ni/Fe nanoparticles is a surface-mediated reaction.

  18. Reliability testing of Ni-Fe as structural material in MEMS gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Ankush; Gopal, Ram

    2016-10-01

    We report reliability testing results for Ni-Fe when used as a structural material in a MEMS gyroscope. The tests are performed on a 2-degree-of-freedom torsional gyroscope fabricated by an SU-8-based ultraviolet-lithographie, galvanoformung, abformung process having 8-μm-thick Ni-Fe as the structural layer. The device is vacuum packaged in a 24-pin dual in-line package with a glass lid before measuring its frequency response and extracting the mode shapes using laser Doppler vibrometer. To check the reliability of the Ni-Fe structural layer, three types of tests, fatigue, shock, and vibration, are conducted. In fatigue testing, the packaged device is excited at its resonance frequency for more than a billion cycles, and it is checked periodically for any physical damage or change in the resonance frequency. The shock test is performed by dropping the device chip on a hard surface floor from 1 m height. The vibration test is carried out by subjecting the packaged device to more than 4g acceleration having frequency of 200 Hz for 30 min.

  19. Multilayer Ni/Fe thin films as oxygen evolution catalysts for solar fuel production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biset-Peiró, M.; Murcia-López, S.; Fàbrega, C.; Morante, J. R.; Andreu, T.

    2017-03-01

    The slow kinetics and high overpotential of the oxygen evolution reaction is one of the main limiting factors to achieve the minimum required performances of the so-called photoelectrochemical water splitting systems. An oxygen evolution catalyst (OEC) becomes essential in order to perform this process with higher efficiency. Herein, we report the physical, optical and electrochemical characterization of multilayer Ni/Fe thin films as earth-abundant OEC, to avoid the use of platinum group metals (PGM). Uniform films of thicknesses ranging from 1 to 10 nm were fabricated by sequential and alternate thermal evaporation of Ni and Fe. It was found that the successive deposition allows the fabrication of a Ni terminated surface that does not need activation due to the Fe underlayer. The lowest overpotential achieved for NiFe was 370 mV at 10 mA cm-2 and a Tafel slope of 37 mV dec-1 with 1 nm thickness and 95% transmittance. Finally, NiFe OEC was implemented on top of Mo:BiVO4 photoanodes which resulted in a reduction of the open circuit potential of 0.2 V and up to five fold increase of the oxidation efficiency at 0.7 VRHE. The results presented facilitate the practical implementation of BiVO4 photoanodes in tandem configuration for bias free photoassisted water splitting.

  20. Microwave absorption of electroplated NiFeCu/Cu multilayers deposited directly on Si (100) substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, B. G.; Gonzalez-Chavez, D. E.; Filho, J. Gomes; Sommer, R. L.

    2016-12-01

    We study the magnetic properties and broadband microwave absorption of electroplated NiFeCu/Cu multilayered thin films deposited directly on Si (100) substrates. We produced samples with 20 nm thick NiFeCu layers and Cu layer thickness tCu in the range 0-2.8 nm. Structural properties were studied by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), while the composition and morphological aspects were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). GIXRD confirmed the cubic face centered FCC phase of NiFeCu with all diffraction peaks drifting toward lower angles with tCu. SEM images show the appearance of Cu islands instead of continuous Cu layers. A minimum coercive field of 1.4 Oe is obtained for tCu = 1.0 nm, while the ferromagnetic resonance linewidth exhibited 200 Oe constant values for tCu between 0.7 and 2.1 nm. The effective magnetization increases with tCu, possibly associated to the increase on Fe content as observed by EDX. The effective dynamic anisotropy behavior with tCu seems to be associated to the island structure observed in the films.

  1. He, Ne and Ar in chondritic Ni-Fe as irradiation hardness sensors.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, L.; Funk, H.; Schultz, L.; Signer, P.

    1973-01-01

    Noble gas analyses of the Ni-Fe of 9 L, 5 H, and 2 LL chondrites quantitatively support previous suggestions of radiogenic He-4 recoil and He-3 deficits. Furthermore, noble gases in the Ni-Fe show evidence for in situ produced radiogenic He-4 and in some cases for recoil loss of Ar-38 and gain of Ne-21. The ratio of spallogenic Ar-38 and Ne-21 in the metal phase is found to correlate strongly with He-3/Ne-21 and Ne-22/Ne-21 in bulk samples of these chondrites. This is proof of the dependence of these ratios on the irradiation hardness experienced by the meteoroid in space. 'Hardness indices' n equals 1.9-2.2 are found, indicating that on the average the stone meteoroids from which the samples came were smaller in mass than iron meteoroids. The spallogenic Ne-21/Ar-38 ratio in metallic Ni-Fe can be used with the semi-empirical production model deduced from the Grant iron meteorite to calibrate spallogenic He-3/Ne-21 and Ne-21/Ar-38 in bulk samples of L, LL and H chondrites for meteoroid size and sample location allowing the estimation of minimal meteoroid masses.

  2. Magnetic properties of Ni-Fe nanowire arrays: effect of template material and deposition conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Singleton, John; Aravamudhan, Shyan; Goddard, Paul A; Bhansali, Shekhar

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this work is to study the magnetic properties of arrays of Ni-Fe nanowires electrodeposited in different template materials such as porous silicon, polycarbonate and alumina. Magnetic properties were studied as a function of template material, applied magnetic field (parallel and perpendicular) during deposition, wire length, as well as magnetic field orientation during measurement. The results show that application of magnetic field during deposition strongly influences the c-axis preferred orientation growth of Ni-Fe nanowires. The samples with magnetic field perpendicular to template plane during deposition exhibits strong perpendicular anisotropy with greatly enhanced coercivity and squareness ratio, particularly in Ni-Fe nanowires deposited in polycarbonate templates. In case of polycarbonate template, as magnetic field during deposition increases, both coercivity and squareness ratio also increase. The wire length dependence was also measured for polycarbonate templates. As wire length increases, coercivity and squarness ratio decrease, but saturation field increases. Such magnetic behavior (dependence on template material, magnetic field, wire length) can be qualitatively explained by preferential growth phenomena, dipolar interactions among nanowires, and perpendicular shape anisotropy in individual nanowires.

  3. Ni-Fe2O4 nanoparticles as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Tanveer; Rhee, Ilsu; Hong, Sungwook; Chang, Yongmin; Lee, Jaejun

    2011-07-01

    Reported herein is the synthesis of a dextran coating on nickel ferrite (Ni-Fe2O4) nanoparticles via chemical coprecipitation. The aqueous solution of the synthesized nanoparticles showed good colloidal stability, and no precipitate was observed 20 months after the synthesis. The coated nanoparticles were found to be cylindrical in shape in the TEM images, and showed a uniform size distribution with an average length and diameter of 17 and 4 nm, respectively. The coated particles were evaluated as potential T1 and T2 contrast agents for MRI. The T1 and T2 relaxations of the hydrogen protons in the water molecules in an aqueous solution of dextran-coated Ni-Fe2O4 nanoparticles were studied. It was found that the T1 relaxivity for the aqueous solution of dextran-coated nanoparticles was slightly greater than that of a commercial Gd-DTPA-BMA contrast agent. The T2 relaxivity, however, was almost twice that of the commercial Gd-DTPA-BMA contrast agent. Animal experimentation also demonstrated that the dextran-coated Ni-Fe2O4 nanoparticles are suitable for use as either T1 or T2 contrast agents in MRI.

  4. He, Ne and Ar in chondritic Ni-Fe as irradiation hardness sensors.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, L.; Funk, H.; Schultz, L.; Signer, P.

    1973-01-01

    Noble gas analyses of the Ni-Fe of 9 L, 5 H, and 2 LL chondrites quantitatively support previous suggestions of radiogenic He-4 recoil and He-3 deficits. Furthermore, noble gases in the Ni-Fe show evidence for in situ produced radiogenic He-4 and in some cases for recoil loss of Ar-38 and gain of Ne-21. The ratio of spallogenic Ar-38 and Ne-21 in the metal phase is found to correlate strongly with He-3/Ne-21 and Ne-22/Ne-21 in bulk samples of these chondrites. This is proof of the dependence of these ratios on the irradiation hardness experienced by the meteoroid in space. 'Hardness indices' n equals 1.9-2.2 are found, indicating that on the average the stone meteoroids from which the samples came were smaller in mass than iron meteoroids. The spallogenic Ne-21/Ar-38 ratio in metallic Ni-Fe can be used with the semi-empirical production model deduced from the Grant iron meteorite to calibrate spallogenic He-3/Ne-21 and Ne-21/Ar-38 in bulk samples of L, LL and H chondrites for meteoroid size and sample location allowing the estimation of minimal meteoroid masses.

  5. Role of the NiFe Hydrogenase Hya in Oxidative Stress Defense in Geobacter sulfurreducens

    PubMed Central

    Lovley, Derek R.

    2012-01-01

    Geobacter sulfurreducens, an Fe(III)-reducing deltaproteobacterium found in anoxic subsurface environments, contains 4 NiFe hydrogenases. Hyb, a periplasmically oriented membrane-bound NiFe hydrogenase, is essential for hydrogen-dependent growth. The functions of the three other hydrogenases are unknown. We show here that the other periplasmically oriented membrane-bound NiFe hydrogenase, Hya, is necessary for growth after exposure to oxidative stress when hydrogen or a highly limiting concentration of acetate is the electron source. The beneficial impact of Hya on growth was dependent on the presence of H2 in the atmosphere. Moreover, the Hya-deficient strain was more sensitive to the presence of superoxide or hydrogen peroxide. Hya was also required to safeguard Hyb hydrogen oxidation activity after exposure to O2. Overexpression studies demonstrated that Hya was more resistant to oxidative stress than Hyb. Overexpression of Hya also resulted in the creation of a recombinant strain better fitted for exposure to oxidative stress than wild-type G. sulfurreducens. These results demonstrate that one of the physiological roles of the O2-resistant Hya is to participate in the oxidative stress defense of G. sulfurreducens. PMID:22366414

  6. The Mechanism of Orientation Dependence of Cyclic Stability of Superelesticity in NiFeGaCo Single Crystals Under Compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timofeeva, E. E.; Panchenko, E. Yu.; Vetoshkina, N. G.; Chumlyakov, Yu. I.; Tagiltsev, A. I.; Eftifeeva, A. S.; Maier, H.

    2016-12-01

    Using single crystals of the Ni49Fe18Ga27Co6 (at.%) alloy, oriented along [001]- and [123]-directions, cyclic stability of superelasticity is investigated in isothermal loading/unloading cycles at T = Af +(12-15) K (100 cycles) under compressive stress as a function of given strain per cycle, presence of disperse γ-phase particles measuring 5-10 μm, austenitic (B2 or L21) and stress-induced martensitic crystal structure (14M or L10). It is shown that single-phase L21-crystals demonstrate high cyclic stability during L21-14M-transitions with narrow hysteresises Δσ < 50 MPa in the absence of detwinning of the martensite. During the development of L21-14M stress-induced transformation, the reversible energy ΔGrev for these crystals exceeds the dissipated energy ΔGirr, and ΔGrev/ΔGirr = 1.7-1.8. A significant degradation of superelasticity is observed in [123]-oriented crystals during the development of L21-14M-L10-transformations followed by detwinning of the L10-martensite crystals and heterophase (B2+γ) single crystals, irrespective of their orientation during the B2-L10-transition. In the latter case, martensitic transformations are characterized by a wide stress hysteresis Δσ ≥ 80 MPa and the dissipated energy exceeds the reversible energy ΔGrev/ΔGirr = 0.5. The empirical criterion, relying on the analysis of the reversible-to-irreversible energy ratio, ΔGrev/ΔGirr, during stressinduced martensitic transformations, can be used to predict the cyclic stability of superelasticity in NiFeGaCo alloys subjected to different types of heat treatment.

  7. Bio-inspired fabrication of hierarchical Ni-Fe-P coated skin collagen fibers for high-performance microwave absorption.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoling; Liao, Xuepin; Zhang, Wenhua; Shi, Bi

    2015-01-21

    In the present investigation, skin collagen fiber (CF) with a well defined hierarchical 3D fibrous structure was employed for the bio-inspired fabrication of high-performance microwave absorption materials. The hierarchical 3D structure of the CF was retained in the CF@Ni-Fe-P composites, and the formation of the Ni-Fe-P coating on the CF surface was identified by XRD and XPS analysis. Based on the electromagnetism parameter measurements, the maximum reflection loss (RL) of the CF@Ni-Fe-P composites reached -31.0 dB, and the width of the absorption band where reflection loss values exceeded -10.0 dB covered the whole Ku-band and some parts of the X-band (9.5-18.0 GHz). The complex permittivity and complex permeability measurements indicated that electronic loss and magnetic loss were involved in the CF@Ni-Fe-P composites for microwave absorption. In addition, due to the magnetic properties of the Ni-Fe-P coating, these CF@Ni-Fe-P composites exhibited excellent magnetic characteristics with high saturation magnetization and low coercivity values. The present investigation indicates a new possibility for the bio-matrix-based fabrication of high-performance microwave absorbing materials with lightweight and efficient absorption properties.

  8. NiFe(C2O4)x as a heterogeneous Fenton catalyst for removal of methyl orange.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yucan; Zhang, Guangming; Chong, Shan; Zhang, Nan; Chang, Huazhen; Huang, Ting; Fang, Shunyan

    2017-05-01

    This paper studies a heterogeneous Fenton catalyst NiFe(C2O4)x, which showed better catalytic activity than Ni(C2O4)x and better re-usability than Fe(C2O4)x. The methyl orange removal efficiency was 98% in heterogeneous Fenton system using NiFe(C2O4)x. The prepared NiFe(C2O4)x had a laminated shape and the size was in the range of 2-4 μm, and Ni was doped into catalyst's structure successfully. The NiFe(C2O4)x had a synergistic effect of catalyst of 24.7 for methyl orange removal, and the dope of Ni significantly reduced the leaching of Fe by 77%. The reaction factors and kinetics were investigated. Under the optimal conditions, 0.4 g/L of catalyst dose and 10 mmol/L of hydrogen peroxide concentration, 98% of methyl orange was removed within 20 min. Analysis showed that hydroxyl radicals and superoxide radicals participated in the reaction. With NiFe(C2O4)x catalyst, the suitable pH range for heterogeneous Fenton system was wide from 3 to 10. The catalyst showed good efficiency after five times re-use. NiFe(C2O4)x provided great potential in treatment of refractory wastewater with excellent property. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Magnetically separable Ag/AgBr/NiFe2O4 composite as a highly efficient visible light plasmonic photocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Ming; Liu, Wei; Hu, Xin-Rong; Li, Zhen-Lu

    2017-10-01

    A magnetic Ag/AgBr/NiFe2O4 plasmonic photocatalyst was firstly prepared by coupling a hydrothermal route with a solvothermal method. The as-synthesized Ag/AgBr/NiFe2O4 was characterized by XRD, XPS, FE-SEM, UV-vis DRS, PL and BET surface area. Under visible light irradiation, the resulting Ag/AgBr/NiFe2O4 exhibited a higher photocatalytic activity for rhodamine B (RhB) degradation compared with Ag/AgBr, which was ascribed to the heterostructured Ag/AgBr/NiFe2O4 and the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect of Ag nanoparticles. Moreover, the Ag/AgBr/NiFe2O4 plasmonic photocatalyst can be recovered and recycled by a magnetic field along with good stability. A plausible mechanism is also proposed via active species trapping experiments, which indicating that the superoxide radicals (O2-•) are the main reactive oxygen species for RhB degradation in Ag/AgBr/NiFe2O4 suspension under visible light.

  10. Nanoscale characterization and magnetic reversal mechanism investigation of electrospun NiFe2O4 multi-particle-chain nanofibres.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junli; Fu, Jiecai; Tan, Guoguo; Li, Fashen; Luo, Caiqin; Zhao, Jianguo; Xie, Erqing; Xue, Desheng; Zhang, Haoli; Mellors, Nigel J; Peng, Yong

    2012-04-21

    NiFe(2)O(4) multi-particle-chain nanofibres have been successfully fabricated using electrospinning followed by calcination, and their morphology, chemistry and crystal structure were characterized at the nanoscale. Individual NiFe(2)O(4) nanofibres were found to consist of many nanocrystallites stacked along the nanofibre axis. Chemical analysis shows that the atomic ratio of Ni : Fe is 1 : 2, indicating that the composition was NiFe(2)O(4). The crystal structure of individual NiFe(2)O(4) multi-particle-chain nanofibres proved to be polycrystalline with a face centered cubic (fcc) structure. The nanocrystallites in the nanofibres were revealed to have a single-crystal structure with random crystallographic orientations. The magnetic measurements reveal that the NiFe(2)O(4) multi-particle-chain nanofibres have a coercivity force of 166 Oe. A "chain of sheets" micromagentism model was proposed to interpret the observed magnetic behaviour of the NiFe(2)O(4) multi-particle-chain nanofibres. Simulation studies of the coercivity are in good agreement with the experimental results at room temperature. It is believed that this work will significantly expand the use and application of these compounds in the field of biomagnetic nano-devices and improve understanding of the magnetic origin of spinel ferrites.

  11. Lightweight NiFe2O4 with controllable 3D network structure and enhanced microwave absorbing properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fen; Wang, Xing; Zhu, Jianfeng; Yang, Haibo; Kong, Xingang; Liu, Xiao

    2016-11-01

    3D network structure NiFe2O4 was successfully synthesized by a templated salt precipitation method using PMMA colloid crystal as templates. The morphology, phase composition and microwave absorbing properties of as-prepared samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), vector network analyzer (VNA), and so on. The results revealed that the 3D network structure was configurated with smooth spherical walls composed of NiFe2O4 nanocrystals and their pore diameters being in the range of 80–250 nm. The microwave absorption properties of the 3D network structure NiFe2O4 were crucially determined by the special structure. The synergy of intrinsic magnetic loss of magnetic NiFe2O4 and the interfacial polarization enhanced by 3D network structure and the interaction of multiple mechanisms endowed the sample with the feature of strong absorption, broad bandwidth and lightweight. There is more than one valley in the reflection loss curves and the maximum reflection loss is 27.5 dB with a bandwidth of 4 GHz. Moreover, the 3D network structure NiFe2O4 show a greater reflection loss with the same thickness comparing to the ordinary NiFe2O4 nanoparticles, which could achieve the feature of lightweight of the microwave absorbing materials.

  12. Lightweight NiFe2O4 with controllable 3D network structure and enhanced microwave absorbing properties

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fen; Wang, Xing; Zhu, Jianfeng; Yang, Haibo; Kong, Xingang; Liu, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    3D network structure NiFe2O4 was successfully synthesized by a templated salt precipitation method using PMMA colloid crystal as templates. The morphology, phase composition and microwave absorbing properties of as-prepared samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), vector network analyzer (VNA), and so on. The results revealed that the 3D network structure was configurated with smooth spherical walls composed of NiFe2O4 nanocrystals and their pore diameters being in the range of 80–250 nm. The microwave absorption properties of the 3D network structure NiFe2O4 were crucially determined by the special structure. The synergy of intrinsic magnetic loss of magnetic NiFe2O4 and the interfacial polarization enhanced by 3D network structure and the interaction of multiple mechanisms endowed the sample with the feature of strong absorption, broad bandwidth and lightweight. There is more than one valley in the reflection loss curves and the maximum reflection loss is 27.5 dB with a bandwidth of 4 GHz. Moreover, the 3D network structure NiFe2O4 show a greater reflection loss with the same thickness comparing to the ordinary NiFe2O4 nanoparticles, which could achieve the feature of lightweight of the microwave absorbing materials. PMID:27897209

  13. Highly active and stable Ni-Fe bimetal prepared by ball milling for catalytic hydrodechlorination of 4-chlorophenol.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fuyuan; Deng, Shubo; Xu, Jie; Zhang, Wang; Wu, Min; Wang, Bin; Huang, Jun; Yu, Gang

    2012-04-17

    A novel Ni-Fe bimetal with high dechlorination activity for 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) was prepared by ball milling (BM) in this study. Increasing Ni content and milling time greatly enhanced the dechlorination activity, which was mainly attributed to the homogeneous distribution of Ni nanoparticles (50-100 nm) in bulk Fe visualized by scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDS) with image mapping. In comparison with the Ni-Fe bimetal prepared by a chemical solution deposition (CSD) process, the ball milled Ni-Fe bimetal possessed high dechlorination activity and stability before being used up. Dechlorination kinetics indicated that the dechlorination rates of 4-CP increased with increasing Ni-Fe dose but decreased with increasing solution pH. Solution pH had a significant effect on the dechlorination of 4-CP and the passivation of the Ni-Fe bimetal. The enhanced pH during the dechlorination process significantly accelerated the formation of passivating film on the bimetallic surface. The Ni-Fe bimetal at the dose of 60 g/L was reused 10 times without losing dechlorination activity for 4-CP at initial pH less than 6.0, but the gradual passivation was observed at initial pH above 7.0.

  14. Lightweight NiFe2O4 with controllable 3D network structure and enhanced microwave absorbing properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fen; Wang, Xing; Zhu, Jianfeng; Yang, Haibo; Kong, Xingang; Liu, Xiao

    2016-11-29

    3D network structure NiFe2O4 was successfully synthesized by a templated salt precipitation method using PMMA colloid crystal as templates. The morphology, phase composition and microwave absorbing properties of as-prepared samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), vector network analyzer (VNA), and so on. The results revealed that the 3D network structure was configurated with smooth spherical walls composed of NiFe2O4 nanocrystals and their pore diameters being in the range of 80-250 nm. The microwave absorption properties of the 3D network structure NiFe2O4 were crucially determined by the special structure. The synergy of intrinsic magnetic loss of magnetic NiFe2O4 and the interfacial polarization enhanced by 3D network structure and the interaction of multiple mechanisms endowed the sample with the feature of strong absorption, broad bandwidth and lightweight. There is more than one valley in the reflection loss curves and the maximum reflection loss is 27.5 dB with a bandwidth of 4 GHz. Moreover, the 3D network structure NiFe2O4 show a greater reflection loss with the same thickness comparing to the ordinary NiFe2O4 nanoparticles, which could achieve the feature of lightweight of the microwave absorbing materials.

  15. Excellently reactive Ni/Fe bimetallic catalyst supported by biochar for the remediation of decabromodiphenyl contaminated soil: Reactivity, mechanism, pathways and reducing secondary risks.

    PubMed

    Wu, Juan; Yi, YunQiang; Li, YuQing; Fang, Zhanqiang; Tsang, Eric Pokeung

    2016-12-15

    Ni/Fe bimetallic nanoparticles were synthesized using biochar as a support (BC@Ni/Fe) and their effectiveness in removing BDE209 from soil was investigated. BET, SEM, TEM, XPS and FTIR were used to characterize the catalyst, and the efficiencies of biochar, Ni/Fe nanoparticles and BC@Ni/Fe for removing BDE209 from soil were compared. The results showed that Ni/Fe bimetallic nanoparticles highly dispersed in the biochar, reducing its agglomeration. Thus, the reaction activity of BC@Ni/Fe was increased. The removal efficiency of BDE209 by BC@Ni/Fe was 30.2% and 69% higher than that by neat Ni/Fe and biochar, respectively. Meanwhile, an enhanced degradation efficiency of PBDEs in soil was realized by monitoring the formation of Br(-) ions with time in the system. In addition, the degradation products identified by GC-MS showed that the reductive degradation of BDE209 proceeded through stepwise or multistage debromination, for which the degradation pathways and removal mechanisms were speculated. Furthermore, BC@Ni/Fe reduced the bioavailability of metals in soil and adsorbed the degradation products of BDE209, representing an improvement over neat Ni/Fe nanoparticles for the remediation of PBDEs-contaminated soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Corrosion of pre-oxidized nickel alloy X-750 in simulated BWR environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuzi, Silvia; Lai, Haiping; Göransson, Kenneth; Thuvander, Mattias; Stiller, Krystyna

    2017-04-01

    Samples of pre-oxidized Alloy X-750 were exposed to a simulated boiling water reactor environment in an autoclave at a temperature of 286 °C and a pressure of 80 bar for four weeks. The effect of alloy iron content on corrosion was investigated by comparing samples with 5 and 8 wt% Fe, respectively. In addition, the effect of two different surface pre-treatments was investigated. The microstructure of the formed oxide scales was studied using mainly electron microscopy. The results showed positive effects of an increased Fe content and of removing the deformed surface layer by pickling. After four weeks of exposure the oxide scale consists of oxides formed in three different ways. The oxide formed during pre-oxidization at 700 °C, mainly consisting of chromia, is partly still present. There is also an outer oxide consisting of NiFe2O4 crystals, reaching a maximum size of 3 μm, which has formed by precipitation of dissolved metal ions. Finally, there is an inner nanocrystalline and porous oxide, with a metallic content reflecting the alloy composition, which has formed by corrosion.

  17. Tuneable magnetic properties of hydrothermally synthesised core/shell CoFe2O4/NiFe2O4 and NiFe2O4/CoFe2O4 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Trevor P.; Moro, Fabrizio; Fay, Michael W.; Zhu, Yanqiu; Brown, Paul D.

    2014-05-01

    Core/shell hetero-nanostructures of hydrothermally synthesised cobalt and nickel ferrites are shown to exhibit novel magnetic properties. The compositions and phase distributions of homogeneous Co0.5Ni0.5Fe2O4, and core/shell NiFe2O4-Core/CoFe2O4-Shell and CoFe2O4-Core/NiFe2O4-Shell nanoparticles (NPs) are confirmed using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy. SQUID magnetometry investigations demonstrate that, at room temperature, homogeneous Co0.5Ni0.5Fe2O4 NPs ( 8 nm in diameter) are in the super-paramagnetic state, the magnetisation of NiFe2O4-Core/CoFe2O4-Shell NPs ( 11 nm in diameter) is partially blocked, whilst CoFe2O4-Core/NiFe2O4-Shell NPs ( 11 nm in diameter) are in a blocked state. In particular, NiFe2O4-Core/CoFe2O4-Shell NPs exhibit twice the out-of-phase χ″ susceptibility of CoFe2O4-Core/NiFe2O4-Shell NPs, being dominated by the magnetisation of the core ferrite phase. Hence, when exposed to a high-frequency magnetic field, it is considered that the high χ″ susceptibility of NiFe2O4-Core/CoFe2O4-Shell NPs will promote large magnetically induced heating effects, making these core/shell NPs strong candidates for hyperthermia applications.

  18. Effect of zinc substitution on magnetic and electrical properties of nanocrystalline nickel ferrite synthesized by refluxing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandapure, A. I.; Kondawar, S. B.; Sawadh, P. S.; Nandapure, B. I.

    2012-04-01

    Nanocrystalline Nickel ferrite (NiFe2O4) and Zn substituted nickel ferrite (NiZnFe2O4) have been synthesized by the refluxing method. These ferrites were characterized by XRD, TEM, Mossbauer spectroscopy and VSM in order to study the effect of zinc substitution in nickel ferrite. XRD diffraction results confirm the spinel structure for the prepared nanocrystalline ferrites with an average crystallite size of 14-16 nm. Lattice parameter was found to increase with the substitution of Zn2+ ions from 8.40 Å to 8.42 Å. TEM images confirmed average particle size of about 20 nm and indicates nanocrystalline nature of the compounds. A shift in isomeric deviation with the doublet was observed due to the influence of Zn substitution in the nickel ferrite. The Zn content has a significant influence on the magnetic behavior and electrical conductivity of NiFe2O4. Saturation magnetization drastically increased whereas room temperature electrical conductivity decreased due to the addition of Zn content in NiFe2O4, indicating super magnetic material with lesser coercivity.

  19. Mechanical properties, microstructure and thermal stability of a nanocrystalline CoCrFeMnNi high-entropy alloy after severe plastic deformation

    DOE PAGES

    Schuh, B.; Mendez-Martin, F.; Völker, B.; ...

    2015-06-24

    An equiatomic CoCrFeMnNi high-entropy alloy (HEA), produced by arc melting and drop casting, was subjected to severe plastic deformation (SPD) using high-pressure torsion. This process induced substantial grain refinement in the coarse-grained casting leading to a grain size of approximately 50 nm. As a result, strength increased significantly to 1950 MPa, and hardness to similar to 520 MV. Analyses using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and 3-dimensional atom probe tomography (3D-APT) showed that, after SPD, the alloy remained a true single-phase solid solution down to the atomic scale. Subsequent investigations characterized the evolution of mechanical properties and microstructure of this nanocrystallinemore » HEA upon annealing. Isochronal (for 1 h) and isothermal heat treatments were performed followed by microhardness and tensile tests. The isochronal anneals led to a marked hardness increase with a maximum hardness of similar to 630 HV at about 450 degrees C before softening set in at higher temperatures. The isothermal anneals, performed at this peak hardness temperature, revealed an additional hardness rise to a maximum of about 910 MV after 100 h. To clarify this unexpected annealing response, comprehensive microstructural analyses were performed using TEM and 3D-APT. New nano-scale phases were observed to form in the originally single-phase HEA. After times as short as 5 min at 450 degrees C, a NiMn phase and Cr-rich phase formed. With increasing annealing time, their volume fractions increased and a third phase, FeCo, also formed. It appears that the surfeit of grain boundaries in the nanocrystalline HEA offer many fast diffusion pathways and nucleation sites to facilitate this phase decomposition. The hardness increase, especially for the longer annealing times, can be attributed to these nano-scaled phases embedded in the HEA matrix. The present results give new valuable insights into the phase stability of single-phase high-entropy alloys as

  20. Enhanced dechlorination of 2,4-dichlorophenol by recoverable Ni/Fe-Fe3O4 nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Xu, Cancan; Liu, Rui; Chen, Lvjun; Tang, Jialu

    2016-10-01

    Ni/Fe-Fe3O4 nanocomposites were synthesized for dechlorination of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP). The effects of the Ni content in Ni/Fe-Fe3O4 nanocomposites, solution pH, and common dissolved ions on the dechlorination efficiency were investigated, in addition to the reusability of the nanocomposites. The results showed that increasing content of Ni in Ni/Fe-Fe3O4 nanocomposites, from 1 to 5wt.%, greatly increased the dechlorination efficiency; the Ni/Fe-Fe3O4 nanocomposites had much higher dechlorination efficiency than bare Ni/Fe nanoparticles. Ni content of 5wt.% and initial pH below 6.0 was found to be the optimal conditions for the catalytic dechlorination of 2,4-DCP. Both 2,4-DCP and the intermediate product 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) were completely removed, and the concentration of the final product phenol was close to the theoretical phenol production from complete dechlorination of 20mg/L of 2,4-DCP, after 3hr reaction at initial pH value of 6.0, 3g/L Ni/Fe-Fe3O4, 5wt.% Ni content in the composite, and temperature of 22°C. 2,4-DCP dechlorination was enhanced by Cl(-) and inhibited by NO3(-) and SO4(2-). The nanocomposites were easily separated from the solution by an applied magnetic field. When the catalyst was reused, the removal efficiency of 2,4-DCP was almost 100% for the first seven uses, and gradually decreased to 75% in cycles 8-10. Therefore, the Ni/Fe-Fe3O4 nanocomposites can be considered as a potentially effective tool for remediation of pollution by 2,4-DCP.

  1. Optimization of NiFe2O4/rGO composite electrode for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chen; Wang, Xia; Li, Shandong; Li, Qiang; Xu, Jie; Liu, Xiaomin; Liu, Changkun; Xu, Yuanhong; Liu, Jingquan; Li, Hongliang; Guo, Peizhi; Zhao, Xiu Song

    2017-09-01

    The combination of carbon compositing and the proper choice of binders in one system offer an effective strategy for improving electrode performance for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Here, we focus on the optimization of reduced graphene oxide content in NiFe2O4/reduced graphene oxide (abbreviated to NiFe2O4/rGO) composites and the proper choice of binders to enhance the cycling stability of the NiFe2O4 electrode. The NiFe2O4/rGO composites were fabricated by a hydrothermal-annealing method, in which the mean size of spinel NiFe2O4 nanoparticles was approximately 20 nm. When tested as anode materials for LIBs, the NiFe2O4/rGO electrodes with carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) binder exhibited excellent lithium-storage performance including high reversible capacity, good cycling durability and high-rate capability. The capacity could be retained as high as 1105 mAh g-1 at a current density of 100 mA g-1 for over 50 cycles, even cycled at higher current density of 1000 mA g-1, a capacity of 800 mAh g-1can be obtained, whereas the electrode with the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) binder suffered from rapid capacity decay under the same test conditions. As a result, the NiFe2O4/rGO composites with CMC binder electrode in this work are promising as anodes for high-performance LIBs, resulting from the synergistic effect of optimal graphene content and proper choice of binder.

  2. Modifying exchange-spring behavior of CoPt/NiFe bilayer by inserting a Pt or Ru spacer

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Jen-Hwa Tsai, C. L.; Lee, C.-M.; Saravanan, P.

    2015-05-07

    We herein explore the possibility of obtaining tunable tilted magnetic anisotropy in ordered-CoPt (5 nm)/NiFe(t{sub NiFe}) bilayers through modifying their exchange spring behavior by inserting Pt and Ru-spacers. The tuning process of tilt angle magnetization of NiFe-layer was systematically investigated by varying the Pt or Ru thickness (t{sub Pt} or t{sub Ru}) from 0 to 8 nm at different thicknesses of NiFe (t{sub NiFe} = 1.5, 4.0, and 6.0 nm). Polar magneto-optic Kerr effect (p-MOKE) studies reveal that the bilayers grown in absence of spacers exhibit almost a rectangular hysteresis loop. With the insertion of Pt-spacer, the loop becomes more and more tilted as t{sub Pt} increases; whereas, in the case of Ru-spacer, the nature of the loops is not simply changing in one direction. The estimated SQR{sub ⊥} (= θ{sub r}/θ{sub s}) values from the p-MOKE loops are found to monotonically decrease with increasing t{sub Pt} when t{sub Pt} ≦ 4 nm. In contrast, in the case of Ru-spacer, an oscillatory behavior for the SQR{sub ⊥} values is apparent when t{sub Ru} ≦ 4 nm. As a result, an oscillatory tilted angle of NiFe spin configuration was obtained in the case of Ru-spacer; while a decoupling effect was prominent for the Pt-spacer. The results of present study reveal that the insertion of Pt and Ru-spacers as an appropriate means for realizing tunable tilted magnetic anisotropy in the CoPt/NiFe exchange springs.

  3. Nature of hardness evolution in nanocrystalline NiTi shape memory alloys during solid-state phase transition.

    PubMed

    Amini, Abbas; Cheng, Chun

    2013-01-01

    Due to a distinct nature of thermomechanical smart materials' reaction to applied loads, a revolutionary approach is needed to measure the hardness and to understand its size effect for pseudoelastic NiTi shape memory alloys (SMAs) during the solid-state phase transition. Spherical hardness is increased with depths during the phase transition in NiTi SMAs. This behaviour is contrary to the decrease in the hardness of NiTi SMAs with depths using sharp tips and the depth-insensitive hardness of traditional metallic alloys using spherical tips. In contrast with the common dislocation theory for the hardness measurement, the nature of NiTi SMAs' hardness is explained by the balance between the interface and the bulk energy of phase transformed SMAs. Contrary to the energy balance in the indentation zone using sharp tips, the interface energy was numerically shown to be less dominant than the bulk energy of the phase transition zone using spherical tips.

  4. Nature of hardness evolution in nanocrystalline NiTi shape memory alloys during solid-state phase transition

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Abbas; Cheng, Chun

    2013-01-01

    Due to a distinct nature of thermomechanical smart materials' reaction to applied loads, a revolutionary approach is needed to measure the hardness and to understand its size effect for pseudoelastic NiTi shape memory alloys (SMAs) during the solid-state phase transition. Spherical hardness is increased with depths during the phase transition in NiTi SMAs. This behaviour is contrary to the decrease in the hardness of NiTi SMAs with depths using sharp tips and the depth-insensitive hardness of traditional metallic alloys using spherical tips. In contrast with the common dislocation theory for the hardness measurement, the nature of NiTi SMAs' hardness is explained by the balance between the interface and the bulk energy of phase transformed SMAs. Contrary to the energy balance in the indentation zone using sharp tips, the interface energy was numerically shown to be less dominant than the bulk energy of the phase transition zone using spherical tips. PMID:23963305

  5. Hierachical Ni@Fe2O3 superparticles through epitaxial growth of γ-Fe2O3 nanorods on in situ formed Ni nanoplates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Herzberger, Jana; Natalio, Filipe; Köhler, Oskar; Branscheid, Robert; Mugnaioli, Enrico; Ksenofontov, Vadim; Panthöfer, Martin; Kolb, Ute; Frey, Holger; Tremel, Wolfgang

    2016-05-01

    One endeavour of nanochemistry is the bottom-up synthesis of functional mesoscale structures from basic building blocks. We report a one-pot wet chemical synthesis of Ni@γ-Fe2O3 superparticles containing Ni cores densely covered with highly oriented γ-Fe2O3 (maghemite) nanorods (NRs) by controlled reduction/decomposition of nickel acetate (Ni(ac)2) and Fe(CO)5. Automated diffraction tomography (ADT) of the Ni-Fe2O3 interface in combination with Mössbauer spectroscopy showed that selective and oriented growth of the γ-Fe2O3 nanorods on the Ni core is facilitated through the formation of a Fe0.05Ni0.95 alloy and the appearance of superstructure features that may reduce strain at the Ni-Fe2O3 interface. The common orientation of the maghemite nanorods on the Ni core of the superparticles leads to a greatly enhanced magnetization. After functionalization with a catechol-functional polyethylene glycol (C-PEG) ligand the Ni@γ-Fe2O3 superparticles were dispersible in water.One endeavour of nanochemistry is the bottom-up synthesis of functional mesoscale structures from basic building blocks. We report a one-pot wet chemical synthesis of Ni@γ-Fe2O3 superparticles containing Ni cores densely covered with highly oriented γ-Fe2O3 (maghemite) nanorods (NRs) by controlled reduction/decomposition of nickel acetate (Ni(ac)2) and Fe(CO)5. Automated diffraction tomography (ADT) of the Ni-Fe2O3 interface in combination with Mössbauer spectroscopy showed that selective and oriented growth of the γ-Fe2O3 nanorods on the Ni core is facilitated through the formation of a Fe0.05Ni0.95 alloy and the appearance of superstructure features that may reduce strain at the Ni-Fe2O3 interface. The common orientation of the maghemite nanorods on the Ni core of the superparticles leads to a greatly enhanced magnetization. After functionalization with a catechol-functional polyethylene glycol (C-PEG) ligand the Ni@γ-Fe2O3 superparticles were dispersible in water. Electronic supplementary

  6. Characterization of atomic-level structure in Fe-based amorphous and nanocrystalline alloy by experimental and modeling methods

    SciTech Connect

    Babilas, Rafał

    2015-09-15

    The atomic structure of Fe{sub 70}Nb{sub 10}B{sub 20} alloy in “as-cast” state and after annealing was investigated using high-energy X-ray diffraction (XRD), Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The HRTEM observations allowed to indicate some medium-range order (MRO) regions about 2 nm in size and formation of some kinds of short-range order (SRO) structures represented by atomic clusters with diameter ca. 0.5 nm. The Reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) method basing on the results of XRD measurements was used in modeling the atomic structure of Fe-based alloy. The structural model was described by peak values of partial pair correlation functions and coordination numbers determined by Mössbauer spectroscopy investigations. The three-dimensional configuration box of atoms was obtained from the RMC simulation and the representative Fe-centered clusters were taken from the calculated structure. According to the Gonser et al. approach, the measured spectra of alloy studied were decomposed into 5 subspectra representing average Fe–Fe coordination numbers. Basing on the results of disaccommodation of magnetic permeability, which is sensitive to the short order of the random packing of atoms, it was stated that an occurrence of free volume is not detected after nanocrystallization process. - Highlights: • Atomic cluster model of amorphous structure was proposed for studied glassy alloy. • Short range order (ca. 0.5 nm) regions interpreted as clusters were identified by HREM. • Clusters correspond to coordination numbers (N = 4,6,8,9) calculated by using Gonser approach. • Medium-range order (ca. 2 nm) could be referred to few atomic clusters. • SRO regions are able to grow up as nuclei of crystalline bcc Fe and iron borides. • Crystalline particles have spherical morphology with an average diameter of 20 nm.

  7. The effect of solution pH on the electrochemical performance of nanocrystalline metal ferrites MFe2O4 (M=Cu, Zn, and Ni) thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsayed, E. M.; Rashad, M. M.; Khalil, H. F. Y.; Ibrahim, I. A.; Hussein, M. R.; El-Sabbah, M. M. B.

    2016-04-01

    Nanocrystalline metal ferrite MFe2O4 (M=Cu, Zn, and Ni) thin films have been synthesized via electrodeposition-anodization process. Electrodeposited (M)Fe2 alloys were obtained from aqueous sulfate bath. The formed alloys were electrochemically oxidized (anodized) in aqueous (1 M KOH) solution, at room temperature, to the corresponding hydroxides. The parameters controlling the current efficiency of the electrodeposition of (M)Fe2 alloys such as the bath composition and the current density were studied and optimized. The anodized (M)Fe2 alloy films were annealed in air at 400 °C for 2 h. The results revealed the formation of three ferrite thin films were formed. The crystallite sizes of the produced films were in the range between 45 and 60 nm. The microstructure of the formed film was ferrite type dependent. The corrosion behavior of ferrite thin films in different pH solutions was investigated using open circuit potential (OCP) and potentiodynamic polarization measurements. The open circuit potential indicates that the initial potential E im of ZnFe2O4 thin films remained constant for a short time, then sharply increased in the less negative direction in acidic and alkaline medium compared with Ni and Cu ferrite films. The values of the corrosion current density I corr were higher for the ZnFe2O4 films at pH values of 1 and 12 compared with that of NiFe2O4 and CuFe2O4 which were higher only at pH value 1. The corrosion rate was very low for the three ferrite films when immersion in the neutral medium. The surface morphology recommended that Ni and Cu ferrite films were safely used in neutral and alkaline medium, whereas Zn ferrite film was only used in neutral atmospheres.

  8. Non-local detection of spin dynamics via spin rectification effect in yttrium iron garnet/SiO{sub 2}/NiFe trilayers near simultaneous ferromagnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Soh, Wee Tee Ong, C. K.; Peng, Bin

    2015-08-15

    The spin rectification effect (SRE), a phenomenon that generates dc voltages from ac microwave fields incident onto a conducting ferromagnet, has attracted widespread attention due to its high sensitivity to ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) as well as its relevance to spintronics. Here, we report the non-local detection of yttrium iron garnet (YIG) spin dynamics by measuring SRE voltages from an adjacent conducting NiFe layer up to 200 nm thick. In particular, we detect, within the NiFe layer, SRE voltages stemming from magnetostatic surface spin waves (MSSWs) of the adjacent bulk YIG which are excited by a shorted coaxial probe. These non-local SRE voltages within the NiFe layer that originates from YIG MSSWs are present even in 200 nm-thick NiFe films with a 50 nm thick SiO{sub 2} spacer between NiFe and YIG, thus strongly ruling out the mechanism of spin-pumping induced inverse spin Hall effect in NiFe as the source of these voltages. This long-range influence of YIG dynamics is suggested to be mediated by dynamic fields generated from YIG spin precession near YIG/NiFe interface, which interacts with NiFe spins near the simultaneous resonance of both spins, to generate a non-local SRE voltage within the NiFe layer.

  9. Direct observation of domain walls in NiFe films using high-resolution Lorentz microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Bunsen Y.; Laughlin, David E.

    1996-04-01

    A novel approach to observe the interaction between magnetic domain wall and nanoscale microstructural features is demonstrated. The method is based on Focault mode Lorentz microscopy and utilizes a Gatan energy image filter to provide additional magnification. A postexperimental image processing technique was applied to separate lattice diffraction from that induced by magnetic domains. The effect of NiFe thickness on the width of a 180° Néel wall has been studied. It was found that the thickness dependence has a similar profile to the theoretically predicted trend but the actual wall thickness is smaller than the calculated values.

  10. Effect of biquadratic coupling on current induced magnetization switching in Co/Cu/Ni-Fe nanopillar

    SciTech Connect

    Aravinthan, D.; Daniel, M.; Sabareesan, P.

    2016-05-23

    The effect of biquadratic coupling on spin current induced magnetization switching in a Co/Cu/Ni-Fe nanopillar device is investigated by solving the free layer magnetization switching dynamics governed by the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert-Slonczewski (LLGS) equation. The LLGS equation is numerically solved by using Runge-Kutta fourth order procedure for an applied current density of 5 × 10{sup 12} Am{sup -2}. Presence of biquadratic coupling in the ferromagnetic layers reduces the magnetization switching time of the nanopillar device from 61 ps to 49 ps.

  11. Kinetics and thermodynamics of gas diffusion in a NiFe hydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Topin, Jérémie; Rousset, Marc; Antonczak, Serge; Golebiowski, Jérôme

    2012-03-01

    We have investigated O₂ and H₂ transport across a NiFe hydrogenase at the atomic scale by means of computational methods. The Wild Type protein has been compared with the V74Q mutant. Two distinct methodologies have been applied to study the gas access to the active site. Temperature locally enhanced sampling simulations have emphasized the importance of protein dynamics on gas diffusion. The O₂ diffusion free energy profiles, obtained by umbrella sampling, are in agreement with the known kinetic data and show that in the V74Q mutant, the inhibition process is lowered from both a kinetic and a thermodynamic point of view. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Ni, Fe Co-doped ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by solution combustion method

    SciTech Connect

    Dhiman, Pooja Chand, Jagdish Verma, S. Sarveena, Singh, M.

    2014-04-24

    This paper outlines the synthesis and characterization of Ni-Fe co-doped ZnO nanoparticles by facile solution combustion method. The structural characterization by XRD confirmed the phase purity of the samples. Surface morphology studied by scanning electron microscope revealed cubic type shape of grains. EDS analysis conformed the elemental composition. Higher value of DC electrical conductivity and less band gap for co-doped ZnO from UV-Vis studies confirmed the change in defect chemistry of ZnO Matrix.

  13. Ni, Fe Co-doped ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by solution combustion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhiman, Pooja; Chand, Jagdish; Verma, S.; Sarveena, Singh, M.

    2014-04-01

    This paper outlines the synthesis and characterization of Ni-Fe co-doped ZnO nanoparticles by facile solution combustion method. The structural characterization by XRD confirmed the phase purity of the samples. Surface morphology studied by scanning electron microscope revealed cubic type shape of grains. EDS analysis conformed the elemental composition. Higher value of DC electrical conductivity and less band gap for co-doped ZnO from UV-Vis studies confirmed the change in defect chemistry of ZnO Matrix.

  14. A flexible alkaline rechargeable Ni/Fe battery based on graphene foam/carbon nanotubes hybrid film.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jilei; Chen, Minghua; Zhang, Lili; Jiang, Jian; Yan, Jiaxu; Huang, Yizhong; Lin, Jianyi; Fan, Hong Jin; Shen, Ze Xiang

    2014-12-10

    The development of portable and wearable electronics has promoted increasing demand for high-performance power sources with high energy/power density, low cost, lightweight, as well as ultrathin and flexible features. Here, a new type of flexible Ni/Fe cell is designed and fabricated by employing Ni(OH)2 nanosheets and porous Fe2O3 nanorods grown on lightweight graphene foam (GF)/carbon nanotubes (CNTs) hybrid films as electrodes. The assembled f-Ni/Fe cells are able to deliver high energy/power densities (100.7 Wh/kg at 287 W/kg and 70.9 Wh/kg at 1.4 kW/kg, based on the total mass of active materials) and outstanding cycling stabilities (retention 89.1% after 1000 charge/discharge cycles). Benefiting from the use of ultralight and thin GF/CNTs hybrid films as current collectors, our f-Ni/Fe cell can exhibit a volumetric energy density of 16.6 Wh/l (based on the total volume of full cell), which is comparable to that of thin film battery and better than that of typical commercial supercapacitors. Moreover, the f-Ni/Fe cells can retain the electrochemical performance with repeated bendings. These features endow our f-Ni/Fe cells a highly promising candidate for next generation flexible energy storage systems.

  15. The influence of an MgO nanolayer on the planar Hall effect in NiFe films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Minghua; Zhao, Zhiduo; Ma, Lin; Yu, Guoqiang; Lu, Xiangan; Teng, Jiao; Yu, Guanghua; Zhou, Wenping; Amiri, Pedram Khalili; Wang, Kang L.

    2015-03-01

    The Planar Hall Effect (PHE) in NiFe films was studied using MgO as the buffer and capping layer to reduce the shunt effect. The thermal annealing was found to be effective in increasing the sensitivity. The sensitivity of the magnetic field reached as high as 865 V/AT in a MgO (3 nm)/NiFe (5 nm)/MgO(3 nm)/Ta(3 nm) structure after annealing at 500 °C for 2 h, which is close to the sensitivity of semiconductor Hall Effect (HE) sensors. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) were used to study the sample. The results show that the top crystallization of MgO and NiFe (111) texture were improved by proper annealing. The smooth and clear bottom MgO/NiFe and top NiFe/MgO interface is evident from our data. In addition, the shunt current of Ta was decreased. These combined factors facilitate the improvement of the sensitivity of the magnetic field.

  16. The influence of an MgO nanolayer on the planar Hall effect in NiFe films

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Minghua; Zhao, Zhiduo; Ma, Lin; Lu, Xiangan; Teng, Jiao; Yu, Guanghua; Yu, Guoqiang; Amiri, Pedram Khalili; Wang, Kang L.; Zhou, Wenping

    2015-03-28

    The Planar Hall Effect (PHE) in NiFe films was studied using MgO as the buffer and capping layer to reduce the shunt effect. The thermal annealing was found to be effective in increasing the sensitivity. The sensitivity of the magnetic field reached as high as 865 V/AT in a MgO (3 nm)/NiFe (5 nm)/MgO(3 nm)/Ta(3 nm) structure after annealing at 500 °C for 2 h, which is close to the sensitivity of semiconductor Hall Effect (HE) sensors. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) were used to study the sample. The results show that the top crystallization of MgO and NiFe (111) texture were improved by proper annealing. The smooth and clear bottom MgO/NiFe and top NiFe/MgO interface is evident from our data. In addition, the shunt current of Ta was decreased. These combined factors facilitate the improvement of the sensitivity of the magnetic field.

  17. Influence of metallurgical parameters on the electrochemical behavior of electrodeposited Ni and Ni-W nanocrystalline alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakibi Nia, N.; Creus, J.; Feaugas, X.; Savall, C.

    2016-05-01

    The electrochemical behavior of electrodeposited nickel and Ni-W nanostructured alloys is discussed by studying the polarization curves in acidic medium. As tungsten content varies, several metallurgical parameters that can influence the electrochemical behavior are also modified, namely grain size, nature of grain boundaries, crystallographic texture and light element contamination. Comparing the behavior of Ni-W coatings with that of pure nickel and annealed coatings highlights that tungsten incorporation enhances anodic dissolution and has a detrimental influence on passive film, whereas grain size and grain boundary character behave as second-order parameters.

  18. Lattice dynamics and thermoelectric properties of nanocrystalline silicon-germanium alloys: Lattice dynamics and thermoelectric properties of nc Si-Ge alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Claudio, Tania; Stein, Niklas; Petermann, Nils; Stroppa, Daniel G.; Koza, Michael Marek; Wiggers, Hartmut; Klobes, Benedikt; Schierning, Gabi; Hermann, Raphaël P.

    2015-10-26

    The lattice dynamics and thermoelectric properties of sintered phosphorus-doped nanostructured silicon–germanium alloys obtained by gas-phase synthesis were studied. Measurements of the density of phonon states by inelastic neutron scattering were combined with measurements of the elastic constants and the low-temperature heat capacity. A strong influence of nanostructuring and alloying on the lattice dynamics was observed. The thermoelectric transport properties of samples with different doping as well as samples sintered at different temperature were characterized between room temperature and 1000°C. A peak figure of merit zT=0.88 at 900°C is observed and is comparatively insensitive to the aforementioned parameter variations.

  19. Regenerability of hydrotalcite-derived nickel-iron alloy nanoparticles for syngas production from biomass tar.

    PubMed

    Li, Dalin; Koike, Mitsuru; Wang, Lei; Nakagawa, Yoshinao; Xu, Ya; Tomishige, Keiichi

    2014-02-01

    Nickel-iron/magnesium/aluminum bimetallic catalysts were prepared by the calcination and reduction of nickel-magnesium-iron-aluminum hydrotalcite-like compounds. Characterization suggests that, at iron/nickel≤0.5, both nickel and iron species are homogeneously distributed in the hydrotalcite precursor and incorporated into the Mg(Ni, Fe, Al)O periclase after calcination, giving rise to uniform nickel-iron alloy nanoparticles after reduction. Ni-Fe/Mg/Al (Fe/Ni=0.25) exhibits the best catalytic performance for the steam reforming of tar derived from the pyrolysis of biomass. It is suggested that the uniform nickel-iron alloy nanoparticles and the synergy between nickel and iron are responsible for the high catalytic performance. Moreover, the Ni-Fe/Mg/Al catalyst exhibits much better regenerability toward oxidation-reduction treatment for the removal of deposited coke than that of conventional Ni-Fe/α-Al2 O3 . This property can be attributed to the better regeneration of Ni-Fe alloy nanoparticles through the formation and reduction of Mg(Ni, Fe, Al)O. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Effects of Ni content on nanocrystalline Fe-Co-Ni ternary alloys synthesized by a chemical reduction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chokprasombat, Komkrich; Pinitsoontorn, Supree; Maensiri, Santi

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic properties of Fe-Co-Ni ternary alloys could be altered by changing of the particle size, elemental compositions, and crystalline structures. In this work, Fe50Co50-xNix nanoparticles (x=10, 20, 40, and 50) were prepared by the novel chemical reduction process. Hydrazine monohydrate was used as a reducing agent under the concentrated basic condition with the presence of poly(vinylpyrrolidone). We found that the nanoparticles were composed of Fe, Co and Ni with compositions according to the molar ratio of the metal sources. Interestingly, the particles were well-crystalline at the as-prepared state without post-annealing at high temperature. Increasing Ni content resulted in phase transformation from body centered cubic (bcc) to face centered cubic (fcc). For the fcc phase, the average particle size decreased when increased the Ni content; the Fe50Ni50 nanoparticles had the smallest average size with the narrowest size distribution. In additions, the particles exhibited ferromagnetic properties at room temperature with the coercivities higher than 300 Oe, and the saturation magnetiation decreased with increasing Ni content. These results suggest that the structural and magnetic properties of Fe-Co-Ni alloys could be adjusted by varying the Ni content.

  1. Development and structural characterization of exchange-spring-like nanomagnets in (Fe,Co)-Pt bulk nanocrystalline alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisan, O.; Crisan, A. D.; Mercioniu, I.; Nicula, R.; Vasiliu, F.

    2016-03-01

    FePt-based alloys are currently under scrutiny for their possible use as materials for perpendicular magnetic recording. Another possible application is in the field of permanent magnets without rare-earths, magnets that may operate at higher temperatures than the classic Nd-Fe-B magnets. Within this study, FeCoPt alloys prepared by rapid solidification from the melt are structurally and magnetically characterized. In the as-cast FeCoPt ribbons, a three-phase structure comprising well-ordered CoFePt and CoPt L10 phases embedded in a disordered fcc FePt matrix was evidenced by XRD, HREM and SAED. Extended transmission electron microscopy analysis demonstrates the incipient formation of ordered L10 phases. X-ray diffraction was used to characterize the phase structure and to obtain the structural parameters of interest for L10 ordering. In the as-cast state, the co-existence of hard magnetic CoFePt and CoPt L10 tetragonal phases with the soft fcc FePt phase is obtained within a refined microstructure made of alternatively disposed grains (grain sizes from 1 to 7 nm). Following a thermal treatment of 1 h at 670 °C, the soft magnetic fcc matrix phase transforms to tetragonal L10 phases (disorder-order transition). The resulting CoPt and CoFePt L10 phases have grains of around 5-20 nm in size. In the as-cast state, magnetic measurements show a quite large remanence (0.75 T), close to the value of the parent L10 FePt phase. Coercive fields of about 200 kA/m at 5 K were obtained, comparable with those reported for some FePt-based bulk alloys. Upon annealing both remanence and coercivity are increased and values of up to 254 kA/m at 300 K are obtained. The polycrystalline structure of the annealed FeCoPt samples, as well as the formation of multiple c-axis domains in different CoPt and CoFePt regions (which leads to a reduction of the magneto-crystalline anisotropy) may account for the observed coercive fields that are lower than in the case of very thin FeCoPt films. A

  2. The role of the non-magnetic material in spin pumping and magnetization dynamics in NiFe and CoFeB multilayer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Calaforra, A.; Brächer, T.; Lauer, V.; Pirro, P.; Heinz, B.; Geilen, M.; Chumak, A. V.; Conca, A.; Leven, B.; Hillebrands, B.

    2015-04-01

    We present a study of the effective magnetization M eff and the effective damping parameter α eff by means of ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy on the ferromagnetic (FM) materials Ni81Fe19 (NiFe) and Co40Fe40B20 (CoFeB) in FM/Pt, FM/NM, and FM/NM/Pt systems with the non-magnetic (NM) materials Ru, Cr, Al, and MgO. Moreover, for NiFe layer systems, the influence of interface effects is studied by way of thickness dependent measurements of M eff and α eff . Additionally, spin pumping in NiFe/NM/Pt is investigated by means of inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) measurements. We observe a large dependence of M eff and α eff of the NiFe films on the adjacent NM layer. While Cr and Al do not induce a large change in the magnetic properties, Ru, Pt, and MgO affect M eff and α eff in different degrees. In particular, NiFe/Ru and NiFe/Ru/Pt systems show a large perpendicular surface anisotropy and a significant enhancement of the damping. In contrast, the magnetic properties of CoFeB films do not have a large influence of the NM adjacent material and only CoFeB/Pt systems present an enhancement of α eff . However, this enhancement is much more pronounced in NiFe/Pt. By the introduction of the NM spacer material, this enhancement is reduced. Furthermore, a difference in symmetry between NiFe/NM/Pt and NiFe/NM systems in the output voltage signal from the ISHE measurements reveals the presence of spin pumping into the Pt layer in all-metallic NiFe/NM/Pt and NiFe/Pt systems.

  3. Supersolar Ni/Fe production in the Type IIP SN 2012ec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerkstrand, A.; Smartt, S. J.; Sollerman, J.; Inserra, C.; Fraser, M.; Spyromilio, J.; Fransson, C.; Chen, T.-W.; Barbarino, C.; Dall'Ora, M.; Botticella, M. T.; Della Valle, M.; Gal-Yam, A.; Valenti, S.; Maguire, K.; Mazzali, P.; Tomasella, L.

    2015-04-01

    SN 2012ec is a Type IIP supernova (SN) with a progenitor detection and comprehensive photospheric phase observational coverage. Here, we present Very Large Telescope and Public ESO Spectroscopic Survey of Transient Objects observations of this SN in the nebular phase. We model the nebular [O I] λλ6300, 6364 lines and find their strength to suggest a progenitor main-sequence mass of 13-15 M⊙. SN 2012ec is unique among hydrogen-rich SNe in showing a distinct line of stable nickel [Ni II] λ7378. This line is produced by 58Ni, a nuclear burning ash whose abundance is a sensitive tracer of explosive burning conditions. Using spectral synthesis modelling, we use the relative strengths of [Ni II] λ7378 and [Fe II] λ7155 (the progenitor of which is 56Ni) to derive a Ni/Fe production ratio of 0.20 ± 0.07 (by mass), which is a factor 3.4 ± 1.2 times the solar value. High production of stable nickel is confirmed by a strong [Ni II] 1.939 μm line. This is the third reported case of a core-collapse SN producing a Ni/Fe ratio far above the solar value, which has implications for core-collapse explosion theory and galactic chemical evolution models.

  4. Atomically thin layered NiFe double hydroxides assembled 3D microspheres with promoted electrochemical performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaomin; Zai, Jiantao; Liu, Yuanyuan; He, Xiaobo; Xiang, Shijie; Ma, Zifeng; Qian, Xuefeng

    2016-09-01

    LDHs in atomic thickness (mono-/bi-layers) usually exhibit novel physicochemical properties, especially in surface-dependent energy storage and catalysis areas. However, the thickness of the commonly reported 2D LDHs is in nanoscale and the bottom-up synthesis of atomically thin LDHs is rarely reported. Herein, high-quality atomically thin layered NiFe-LDHs assembled 3D microspheres were synthesized via a rational designed reaction system, where the formation of atomically thin building blocks was controlled by the synergetic effects of released carbonate anions and butanol. Furthermore, the complexant and solvents played important effects on the process of coprecipitation and the assembling of LDHs. Due to the nature of atomically thin LDHs nanosheets and unique 3D hierarchical structures, the obtained microspheres exhibited excellent electrocatalytic oxygen evolution reaction (OER) activity in alkaline medium with an onset overpotential (0.435 V, which is lower than that of common LDHs) and good durability. The as-prepared 3D NiFe-LDHs microspheres were also firstly used as supercapacitor materials and displayed a high specific capacitance of 1061 F g-1 at the current density of 1 A g-1.

  5. Proton-coupled electron transfer dynamics in the catalytic mechanism of a [NiFe]-hydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Greene, Brandon L; Wu, Chang-Hao; McTernan, Patrick M; Adams, Michael W W; Dyer, R Brian

    2015-04-08

    The movement of protons and electrons is common to the synthesis of all chemical fuels such as H2. Hydrogenases, which catalyze the reversible reduction of protons, necessitate transport and reactivity between protons and electrons, but a detailed mechanism has thus far been elusive. Here, we use a phototriggered chemical potential jump method to rapidly initiate the proton reduction activity of a [NiFe] hydrogenase. Coupling the photochemical initiation approach to nanosecond transient infrared and visible absorbance spectroscopy afforded direct observation of interfacial electron transfer and active site chemistry. Tuning of intramolecular proton transport by pH and isotopic substitution revealed distinct concerted and stepwise proton-coupled electron transfer mechanisms in catalysis. The observed heterogeneity in the two sequential proton-associated reduction processes suggests a highly engineered protein environment modulating catalysis and implicates three new reaction intermediates; Nia-I, Nia-D, and Nia-SR(-). The results establish an elementary mechanistic understanding of catalysis in a [NiFe] hydrogenase with implications in enzymatic proton-coupled electron transfer and biomimetic catalyst design.

  6. Hydride bridge in [NiFe]-hydrogenase observed by nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Hideaki; Krämer, Tobias; Wang, Hongxin; Schilter, David; Pelmenschikov, Vladimir; van Gastel, Maurice; Neese, Frank; Rauchfuss, Thomas B; Gee, Leland B; Scott, Aubrey D; Yoda, Yoshitaka; Tanaka, Yoshihito; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Cramer, Stephen P

    2015-08-10

    The metabolism of many anaerobes relies on [NiFe]-hydrogenases, whose characterization when bound to substrates has proven non-trivial. Presented here is direct evidence for a hydride bridge in the active site of the (57)Fe-labelled fully reduced Ni-R form of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Miyazaki F [NiFe]-hydrogenase. A unique 'wagging' mode involving H(-) motion perpendicular to the Ni(μ-H)(57)Fe plane was studied using (57)Fe-specific nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. On Ni(μ-D)(57)Fe deuteride substitution, this wagging causes a characteristic perturbation of Fe-CO/CN bands. Spectra have been interpreted by comparison with Ni(μ-H/D)(57)Fe enzyme mimics [(dppe)Ni(μ-pdt)(μ-H/D)(57)Fe(CO)3](+) and DFT calculations, which collectively indicate a low-spin Ni(II)(μ-H)Fe(II) core for Ni-R, with H(-) binding Ni more tightly than Fe. The present methodology is also relevant to characterizing Fe-H moieties in other important natural and synthetic catalysts.

  7. Hydride bridge in [NiFe]-hydrogenase observed by nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogata, Hideaki; Krämer, Tobias; Wang, Hongxin; Schilter, David; Pelmenschikov, Vladimir; van Gastel, Maurice; Neese, Frank; Rauchfuss, Thomas B.; Gee, Leland B.; Scott, Aubrey D.; Yoda, Yoshitaka; Tanaka, Yoshihito; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Cramer, Stephen P.

    2015-08-01

    The metabolism of many anaerobes relies on [NiFe]-hydrogenases, whose characterization when bound to substrates has proven non-trivial. Presented here is direct evidence for a hydride bridge in the active site of the 57Fe-labelled fully reduced Ni-R form of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Miyazaki F [NiFe]-hydrogenase. A unique `wagging' mode involving H- motion perpendicular to the Ni(μ-H)57Fe plane was studied using 57Fe-specific nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. On Ni(μ-D)57Fe deuteride substitution, this wagging causes a characteristic perturbation of Fe-CO/CN bands. Spectra have been interpreted by comparison with Ni(μ-H/D)57Fe enzyme mimics [(dppe)Ni(μ-pdt)(μ-H/D)57Fe(CO)3]+ and DFT calculations, which collectively indicate a low-spin Ni(II)(μ-H)Fe(II) core for Ni-R, with H- binding Ni more tightly than Fe. The present methodology is also relevant to characterizing Fe-H moieties in other important natural and synthetic catalysts.

  8. Hydride bridge in [NiFe]-hydrogenase observed by nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ogata, Hideaki; Krämer, Tobias; Wang, Hongxin; Schilter, David; Pelmenschikov, Vladimir; van Gastel, Maurice; Neese, Frank; Rauchfuss, Thomas B.; Gee, Leland B.; Scott, Aubrey D.; Yoda, Yoshitaka; Tanaka, Yoshihito; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Cramer, Stephen P.

    2015-01-01

    The metabolism of many anaerobes relies on [NiFe]-hydrogenases, whose characterization when bound to substrates has proven non-trivial. Presented here is direct evidence for a hydride bridge in the active site of the 57Fe-labelled fully reduced Ni-R form of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Miyazaki F [NiFe]-hydrogenase. A unique ‘wagging' mode involving H− motion perpendicular to the Ni(μ-H)57Fe plane was studied using 57Fe-specific nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. On Ni(μ-D)57Fe deuteride substitution, this wagging causes a characteristic perturbation of Fe–CO/CN bands. Spectra have been interpreted by comparison with Ni(μ-H/D)57Fe enzyme mimics [(dppe)Ni(μ-pdt)(μ-H/D)57Fe(CO)3]+ and DFT calculations, which collectively indicate a low-spin Ni(II)(μ-H)Fe(II) core for Ni-R, with H− binding Ni more tightly than Fe. The present methodology is also relevant to characterizing Fe–H moieties in other important natural and synthetic catalysts. PMID:26259066

  9. Structure evolution, magnetic properties and giant magnetoresistance of granular NiFeCo-Ag films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hao; Wong, S. P.; Lu, Xiang; Yan, Xin; Cheung, W. Y.; Ke, N.; Hu, Shejun; Zeng, Dechang; Liu, Zhenyi

    2000-06-01

    The structure evolution of granular (NiFeCo)xAg(1-x) (x = 9-41 at%) films was characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and magnetic force microscopy. The giant magnetoresistance of the films was measured as a function of temperature between 20 and 300 K using a conventional four-point probe dc technique in the presence of a magnetic field up to 7.6 kOe. The temperature dependence of magnetization and magnetic hysteresis loops for the films were measured by a SQUID magnetometer. It was found that the optimum concentration and annealing temperature for the maximum giant magnetoresistance was associated with the crystalline structure and the magnetic domain structure of the film. A clear flat-top parabola and a significant deviation from the quadratic law expected for equal-size, non-interacting superparamagnetic particles in the magnetoresistance (Δρ/ρ) against magnetization (M/Ms) curve were observed for the 500 °C annealed (NiFeCo)20Ag80 sample in a wide field region. The curves of Δρ/ρ against M/Ms were well described by a function of the form c(M/Ms)10. This behaviour was explained by combining the characteristics of the microstructure, magnetic domain structure and magnetic properties of the sample.

  10. Synthesis and magnetic properties of NiFe2-xSmxO4 nanopowder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanzadeh-Tabrizi, S. A.; Behbahanian, Shahrzad; Amighian, Jamshid

    2016-07-01

    NiFe2-xSmxO4 (x=0.00, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15) nanopowders were synthesized via a sol-gel combustion route. The structural studies were carried out by X-ray diffractometer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The XRD results confirmed the formation of single-phase spinel cubic structure. The crystallite size decreased with an increase of samarium ion concentration, while lattice parameter and lattice strain increased with samarium substitution. TEM micrographs showed that agglomerated nanoparticles with particle sizes ranging from 35 to 90 nm were obtained. The magnetic studies were carried out using vibrating sample magnetometer. Magnetic measurements revealed that the saturation magnetization (Ms) of NiFe2-xSmxO4 nanoparticles decreases with increasing Sm3+substitution. The reduction of saturation magnetization is attributed to the dilution of the magnetic interaction. The coercivity (Hc) of samples increases by adding samarium.

  11. Hydride bridge in [NiFe]-hydrogenase observed by nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ogata, Hideaki; Krämer, Tobias; Wang, Hongxin; Schilter, David; Pelmenschikov, Vladimir; van Gastel, Maurice; Neese, Frank; Rauchfuss, Thomas B.; Gee, Leland B.; Scott, Aubrey D.; Yoda, Yoshitaka; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Cramer, Stephen P.

    2015-08-10

    The metabolism of many anaerobes relies on [NiFe]-hydrogenases, whose characterization when bound to substrates has proven non-trivial. Presented here is direct evidence for a hydride bridge in the active site of the 57Fe-labelled fully reduced Ni-R form of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Miyazaki F [NiFe]-hydrogenase. A unique ‘wagging’ mode involving H- motion perpendicular to the Ni(μ-H)57Fe plane was studied using 57Fe-specific nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. On Ni(μ-D)57Fe deuteride substitution, this wagging causes a characteristic perturbation of Fe–CO/CN bands. Spectra have been interpreted by comparison with Ni(μ-H/D)57Fe enzyme mimics [(dppe)Ni(μ-pdt)(μ-H/D)57Fe(CO)3]+ and DFT calculations, which collectively indicate a low-spin Ni(II)(μ-H)Fe(II) core for Ni-R, with H- binding Ni more tightly than Fe. Lastly, the present methodology is also relevant to characterizing Fe–H moieties in other important natural and synthetic catalysts.

  12. Hydride bridge in [NiFe]-hydrogenase observed by nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Ogata, Hideaki; Krämer, Tobias; Wang, Hongxin; ...

    2015-08-10

    The metabolism of many anaerobes relies on [NiFe]-hydrogenases, whose characterization when bound to substrates has proven non-trivial. Presented here is direct evidence for a hydride bridge in the active site of the 57Fe-labelled fully reduced Ni-R form of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Miyazaki F [NiFe]-hydrogenase. A unique ‘wagging’ mode involving H- motion perpendicular to the Ni(μ-H)57Fe plane was studied using 57Fe-specific nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. On Ni(μ-D)57Fe deuteride substitution, this wagging causes a characteristic perturbation of Fe–CO/CN bands. Spectra have been interpreted by comparison with Ni(μ-H/D)57Fe enzyme mimics [(dppe)Ni(μ-pdt)(μ-H/D)57Fe(CO)3]+ and DFT calculations, which collectively indicate amore » low-spin Ni(II)(μ-H)Fe(II) core for Ni-R, with H- binding Ni more tightly than Fe. Lastly, the present methodology is also relevant to characterizing Fe–H moieties in other important natural and synthetic catalysts.« less

  13. Isotopic fractionation associated with [NiFe]- and [FeFe]-hydrogenases

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Hui; Gandhi, Hasand; Cornish, Adam J.; Moran, James J.; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Ostrom, Nathaniel; Hegg, Eric L.

    2016-01-30

    Hydrogenases catalyze the reversible formation of H2 from electrons and protons with high efficiency. Understanding the relationships between H2 production, H2 uptake, and H2-H2O exchange can provide insight into the metabolism of microbial communities in which H2 is an essential component in energy cycling. In this manuscript, we used stable H isotopes (1H and 2H) to probe the isotope effects associated with three [FeFe]-hydrogenases and three [NiFe]-hydrogenases. All six hydrogenases displayed fractionation factors for H2 formation that were significantly less than 1, producing H2 that was severely depleted in 2H relative to the substrate, water. Consistent with differences in their active site structure, the fractionation factors for each class appear to cluster, with the three [NiFe]-hydrogenases (α = 0.27-0.40) generally having smaller values than the three [FeFe]-hydrogenases (α = 0.41-0.55). We also obtained isotopic fractionation factors associated with H2 uptake and H2-H2O exchange under conditions similar to those utilized for H2 production, providing us with a more complete picture of the three reactions catalyzed by hydrogenases. The fractionation factors determined in our studies can be used as signatures for different hydrogenases to probe their activity under different growth conditions and to ascertain which hydrogenases are most responsible for H2 production and/or uptake in complex microbial communities.

  14. A functional [NiFe]-hydrogenase model compound that undergoes biologically relevant reversible thiolate protonation.

    PubMed

    Weber, Katharina; Krämer, Tobias; Shafaat, Hannah S; Weyhermüller, Thomas; Bill, Eckhard; van Gastel, Maurice; Neese, Frank; Lubitz, Wolfgang

    2012-12-26

    Two model compounds of the active site of [NiFe]-hydrogenases with an unusual {S(2)Ni(μ-S)(μ-CO)Fe(CO)(2)S}-coordination environment around the metals are reported. The neutral compound [Ni(xbsms)(μ-CO)(μ-S)Fe(CO)(2)('S')], (1) (H(2)xbsms = 1,2-bis(4-mercapto-3,3-dimethyl-2-thiabutyl)benzene) is converted to [1H][BF(4)] by reversible protonation using HBF(4)·Et(2)O. The protonation takes place at the terminal thiolate sulfur atom that is coordinated to nickel. Catalytic intermediates with a protonated terminal cysteinate were suggested for the native protein but have not yet been confirmed experimentally. [1H][BF(4)] is the first dinuclear [NiFe] model compound for such a species. Both complexes have been synthesized and characterized by X-ray crystallography, NMR-, FTIR-, and (57)Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy as well as by electronic absorption and resonance Raman spectroscopy. The experimental results clearly show that the protonation has a significant impact on the electronic structure of the iron center, although it takes place at the nickel site. DFT calculations support the interpretation of the spectroscopic data and indicate the presence of a bonding interaction between the metal ions, which is relevant for the enzyme as well. Electrochemical experiments show that both 1 and [1H][BF(4)] are active for electrocatalytic proton reduction in aprotic solvents.

  15. A kinetic and thermodynamic understanding of O2 tolerance in [NiFe]-hydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Cracknell, James A; Wait, Annemarie F; Lenz, Oliver; Friedrich, Bärbel; Armstrong, Fraser A

    2009-12-08

    In biology, rapid oxidation and evolution of H(2) is catalyzed by metalloenzymes known as hydrogenases. These enzymes have unusual active sites, consisting of iron complexed by carbonyl, cyanide, and thiolate ligands, often together with nickel, and are typically inhibited or irreversibly damaged by O(2). The Knallgas bacterium Ralstonia eutropha H16 (Re) uses H(2) as an energy source with O(2) as a terminal electron acceptor, and its membrane-bound uptake [NiFe]-hydrogenase (MBH) is an important example of an "O(2)-tolerant" hydrogenase. The mechanism of O(2) tolerance of Re MBH has been probed by measuring H(2) oxidation activity in the presence of O(2) over a range of potential, pH and temperature, and comparing with the same dependencies for individual processes involved in the attack by O(2) and subsequent reactivation of the active site. Most significantly, O(2) tolerance increases with increasing temperature and decreasing potentials. These trends correlate with the trends observed for reactivation kinetics but not for H(2) affinity or the kinetics of O(2) attack. Clearly, the rate of recovery is a crucial factor. We present a kinetic and thermodynamic model to account for O(2) tolerance in Re MBH that may be more widely applied to other [NiFe]-hydrogenases.

  16. Anionic Regulated NiFe (Oxy)Sulfide Electrocatalysts for Water Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo-Quan; Zhang, Shu-Yuan; Tang, Cheng; Cui, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Qiang

    2017-07-01

    The construction of active sites with intrinsic oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is of great significance to overcome the limited efficiency of abundant sustainable energy devices such as fuel cells, rechargeable metal-air batteries, and in water splitting. Anionic regulation of electrocatalysts by modulating the electronic structure of active sites significantly promotes OER performance. To prove the concept, NiFeS electrocatalysts are fabricated with gradual variation of atomic ratio of S:O. With the rise of S content, the overpotential for water oxidation exhibits a volcano plot under anionic regulation. The optimized NiFeS-2 electrocatalyst under anionic regulation possesses the lowest OER overpotential of 286 mV at 10 mA cm(-2) and the fastest kinetics being 56.3 mV dec(-1) to date. The anionic regulation methodology not only serves as an effective strategy to construct superb OER electrocatalysts, but also enlightens a new point of view for the in-depth understanding of electrocatalysis at the electronic and atomic level. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Anhysteretic magnetization and magnetostriction of thin NiFe films under stress and plastic deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkel, Peter; Garrity, Ed; Lofland, Sam

    2006-03-01

    The magnetic properties of thin samples of a thin film NiFe sample under tensile stress are investigated. The magnetostriction contribution to dc magnetization under elastic stress and the effect of the plastic strain on the hysteresis loops are discussed. Also, a role of the plastic deformation interrelated with the elastic stress in the magnetization process is established. An experimental system based on a conventional vibrating sample magnetometer equipped with the specially designed loading fixture and optical resonant spectroscopy tension monitoring technique is used to measure anhysteretic permeability and magnetization curve as a function of stress and temperature. This method used to measure anhysteretic permeability and magnetization curve of Ni-Fe as a function of stress and temperature. Anhysteretic permeability was extracted from the anhysteretic B-H curves constructed by degaussing the sample at given longitudinal (parallel to the stresses) dc field. The large positive magnetostriction constant of FeNi samples leads to higher susceptibility and lower coercivity with tensile stress while the large volume magnetostriction results in reduced saturation magnetization. Large stresses imposed on the sample result in plastic strain of the sample which induces increase in dislocation density and domain wall pinning. This causes the gain in hysteresis loss and coercivity to increase at the highest stresses. We also discuss the effect of the Ni composition on results of the measurements.

  18. Ferromagnetic resonance study of structure and relaxation of magnetization in NiFe/Ru superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alayo, W.; Landi, S., Jr.; Pelegrini, F.; Baggio-Saitovitch, E.

    2014-01-01

    The structural properties and relaxation processes of magnetization in [Ni81Fe19(t1)/Ru(t2)]N superlattices (N=number of bilayers) were analyzed by ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) with a fixed microwave frequency. One series of samples was deposited with constant NiFe layer thickness (t1) and variable Ru layer thickness (t2); the other series, with constant t2 and variable t1. A single FMR mode was observed for t2<15 Å and t1>75 Å and it has been attributed to the resonance of the exchange-coupled NiFe layers across the Ru interlayers. For the other values of t1 and t2, several FMR modes appeared and they were associated to non-coupled magnetic phases with different effective magnetization formed during the multilayer growth. The FMR linewidths were analyzed as a function of the magnetic layer thickness and a strong dependence on t1-2 was observed. It was attributed to the contribution of the two-magnon scattering mechanism for the linewidth.

  19. Synthesis and Photophysical Study of a [NiFe] Hydrogenase Biomimetic Compound Covalently Linked to a Re-diimine Photosensitizer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis, photophysics, and photochemistry of a linked dyad ([Re]-[NiFe2]) containing an analogue ([NiFe2]) of the active site of [NiFe] hydrogenase, covalently bound to a Re-diimine photosensitizer ([Re]), are described. Following excitation, the mechanisms of electron transfer involving the [Re] and [NiFe2] centers and the resulting decomposition were investigated. Excitation of the [Re] center results in the population of a diimine-based metal-to-ligand charge transfer excited state. Reductive quenching by NEt3 produces the radically reduced form of [Re], [Re]− (kq = 1.4 ± 0.1 × 107 M–1 s–1). Once formed, [Re]− reduces the [NiFe2] center to [NiFe2]−, and this reduction was followed using time-resolved infrared spectroscopy. The concentration dependence of the electron transfer rate constants suggests that both inter- and intramolecular electron transfer pathways are involved, and the rate constants for these processes have been estimated (kinter = 5.9 ± 0.7 × 108 M–1 s–1, kintra = 1.5 ± 0.1 × 105 s–1). For the analogous bimolecular system, only intermolecular electron transfer could be observed (kinter = 3.8 ± 0.5 × 109 M–1 s–1). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic studies confirms that decomposition of the dyad occurs upon prolonged photolysis, and this appears to be a major factor for the low activity of the system toward H2 production in acidic conditions. PMID:26605700

  20. The exchange bias in NiFe2O4-CoO nanocomposite prepared by polyol process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarveena, Singh, M.; Sharma, S. K.

    2017-05-01

    Exchange coupled NiFe2O4-CoO nanocomposite (NFOC) was synthesized by polyol process using NiFe2O4 seed. The nanocomposite was characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and SQUID magnetometer. A Field cooled hysteresis curve of NFOC at 4 K is clear signature of strong internal interaction and co-existence of different magnetic phases into the individual particles. The strong interfacial exchange coupling between the AFM and FiM part results in high value of coercivity with completely shifted loop along negative field axis.

  1. High Temperature Stable Nanocrystalline SiGe Thermoelectric Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Sherwin (Inventor); Matejczyk, Daniel Edward (Inventor); Determan, William (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method of forming a nanocomposite thermoelectric material having microstructural stability at temperatures greater than 1000 C. The method includes creating nanocrystalline powder by cryomilling. The method is particularly useful in forming SiGe alloy powder.

  2. NiFe layered double hydroxide/reduced graphene oxide nanohybrid as an efficient bifunctional electrocatalyst for oxygen evolution and reduction reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Tianrong; Zhang, Yumei; Liu, Xiaolin; Lu, SiSi; Hou, Wanguo

    2016-11-01

    Highly active and low-cost bifunctional electrocatalysts for oxygen evolution and reduction reactions (OER and ORR) hold a heart position for the renewable energy technologies such as metal-air batteries and fuel cells. Here, we reported the synthesis of NiFe layered double hydroxide/reduced graphene oxide (NiFe-LDH/rGO) nanohybrid via the facile solvothermal method followed by chemical reduction. The template role of surfactant and the hybridization of rGO supplied the NiFe-LDH/rGO catalyst with a porous nanostructure and an enhanced conductivity, favoring both mass transport and charge communication of electrocatalytic reactions. The NiFe-LDH/rGO composite not only displayed highly efficient OER activity in alkaline solution with a low onset overpotential of 240 mV, but also only needed an overpotential of 250 mV to reach the 10 mA cm-2 current density. The NiFe-LDH/rGO nanohybrid also offered excellent ORR catalytic activity with onset potential at 0.796 V in alkaline media. The rotating-disk and rotating-ring-disk electrodes both revealed that the ORR on NiFe-LDH/rGO mainly involved a direct four-electron reaction pathways accompanying part of the two-electron process. The excellent bifunctional activity of the NiFe-LDH/rGO nanohybrid could be attributed to the synergistic effects of rGO and NiFe-LDH components due to the strongly coupled interactions.

  3. Damage buildup and edge dislocation mobility in equiatomic multicomponent alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granberg, F.; Djurabekova, F.; Levo, E.; Nordlund, K.

    2017-02-01

    A new class of single phase metal alloys of equal atomic concentrations has shown very promising mechanical properties and good corrosion resistance. Moreover, a significant reduction in damage accumulation during prolonged irradiation has also been observed in these equiatomic multicomponent alloys. A comparison of elemental Ni with the two component NiFe- and the three component NiCoCr-alloy showed a substantial reduction in damage in both alloys, and an even larger difference was seen if only larger clusters were considered. One of the factors limiting the damage build-up in the alloys compared to the elemental material was seen to be dislocation mobility (Granberg et al., 2016). In this Article, we focus on a more thorough investigation of the mobility of edge dislocations in different cases of the Ni-, NiFe- and NiCoCr-samples. We find that even though the saturated amount of defects in the alloys is lower than in elemental Ni, the defect buildup in the early stages is faster in the alloys. We also find that the dislocation mobility in NiFe is lower than in Ni, at low stresses, and that the onset stress in NiFe is higher than in Ni. The same phenomenon was seen in comparison between NiFe and NiCoCr, since the three component alloy had lower dislocation mobility and higher onset stress. The dislocation velocity in elemental Ni plateaued out just under the forbidden velocity, whereas the alloys showed a more complex behaviour.

  4. Tensile and creep deformation of a newly developed Ni-Fe-based superalloy for 700 °C advanced ultra-supercritical boiler applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Y.; Zhong, Z. H.; Yu, Z. S.; Yin, H. F.; Dang, Y. Y.; Zhao, X. B.; Yang, Z.; Lu, J. T.; Yan, J. B.; Gu, Y.

    2015-07-01

    A new Ni-Fe-based superalloy, HT-X, has been developed for applications in 700 °C advanced ultra-supercritical (A-USC) boilers. The HT-X alloy is subjected to various heat treatments. Tensile tests are conducted at room temperature (RT), 700 °C and 750 °C. Creep tests are carried out under conditions of 700 °C/300 MPa and 750 °C/150 MPa. After aging treatment, the yield strength of the HT-X alloy at RT and 750 °C is 787 MPa and 624 MPa, respectively. When additional thermal exposure at 750 °C for 5400 h is applied, the yield strength is decreased to 656 MPa at RT and 480 MPa at 700 °C. For an aged specimen, the a/2<110>dislocation shearing process occurs when tensile testing is conducted at RT and 750 °C. As the γ' precipitate size increases in the specimen that is thermally exposed at 750 °C for 5400 h, Orowan bowing is the dominant dislocation process, and stacking faults develop in the γ' precipitates at both RT and 700 °C. Dislocation slip combined with climb is the dominant mechanism under the creep testing conditions. The factors that affect the mechanical properties and deformation mechanisms are discussed.

  5. Thermal memory fading by heating to a lower temperature: Experimental data on polycrystalline NiFeGa ribbons and 2D statistical model predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ţolea, F.; Ţolea, M.; Văleanu, M.

    2017-05-01

    Shape memory alloys are known to memorise one -or several- temperatures at which the martensite-austenite transformation was stopped before completion in the past, the memory manifesting as specific dips in subsequent calorimetric scans. Previous studies have shown that this memory can be erased by heating to higher temperatures than the ones previously recorded. In this paper, we study a distinct memory fading effect which takes place by heating to a lower temperature. This effect is reported in NiFeGa as polycrystalline ribbons, the alloy being initially studied as bulk for which the thermal memory effect was not found. If, after an initial incomplete heating up to T1 one performs a second incomplete heating up to T2

  6. Microstructure, AC impedance and DC electrical conductivity characteristics of NiFe2-xGdxO4 (x = 0, 0.05 and 0.075)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamala Bharathi, K.; Markandeyulu, G.; Ramana, C. V.

    2012-03-01

    The structure and electrical characteristics of Gd doped Ni ferrite materials, namely NiFe1.95Gd0.05O4 and NiFe1.925Gd0.075O4, are reported to demonstrate their improved electrical properties compared to that of pure NiFe2O4. NiFe1.95Gd0.05O4 and NiFe1.925Gd0.075O4 compounds crystallize in the cubic inverse spinel phase with a very small amount of GdFeO3 additional phase while pure NiFe2O4 crystallize in inverse spinel phase without any impurity phase. The back scattered electron imaging analysis indicate the primary and secondary formation in NiFe1.95Gd0.05O4 and NiFe1.925Gd0.075O4 compounds. Atomic force microscopy measurements indicate that the bulk grains are ˜2-5 micron size while the grain boundaries are thin compared to bulk grains. Impedance spectroscopic analysis at different temperature indicates the different relaxation mechanisms and their variation with temperature, bulk grain and grain-boundary contributions to the electrical conductivity (Rg) and capacitance (Cg) of these materials. The conductivity in pure NiFeO4 is found to be predominantly due to intrinsic bulk contribution (Rg=213 kΩ and Cg=4.5 x 10-8 F). In the case of NiFe1.95Gd0.05O4 and NiFe1.925Gd0.075O4 compounds, grain and grain-boundary contributions to the conductivity are clearly observed. The DC conductivity values (at 300 K) of NiFe2O4, NiFe1.95Gd0.05O4 and NiFe1.925Gd0.075O4 compounds are found to be 1.06 x 10-7 Ω-1 cm-1, 5.73 x 10-8 Ω-1 cm-1 and 1.28 x 10-8 Ω-1 cm-1 respectively.

  7. Achieving Superior Two-Way Actuation by the Stress-Coupling of Nanoribbons and Nanocrystalline Shape Memory Alloy.

    PubMed

    Hao, Shijie; Liu, Yinong; Ren, Yang; Jiang, Daqiang; Yang, Feng; Cong, Daoyong; Wang, Yandong; Cui, Lishan

    2016-06-29

    Inspired by the driving principle of traditional bias-type two-way actuators, we developed a novel two-way actuation nanocomposite wire in which a massive number of Nb nanoribbons with ultralarge elastic strains are loaded inside a shape memory alloy (SMA) matrix to form a continuous array of nanobias actuation pairs for two-way actuation. The composite exhibits a two-way actuation strain of 3.2% during a thermal cycle and an actuation stress of 934 MPa upon heating, which is about twice as high as that (∼500 MPa) found in reported two-way SMAs. Upon cooling, the composite shows an actuation stress of 134 MPa and a mechanical work output of 1.08 × 10(6) J/m(3), which are about three and five times higher than those of reported two-way SMAs, respectively. It was revealed that the massive number of Nb nanoribbons in the compressive state provides the high actuation stress and high work output upon cooling, and the SMA matrix with high yield strength offers the high actuation stress upon heating. Compared to traditional bias-type two-way actuators, the two-way actuation composite with a small volume and simple construct works well with the miniaturization and simplification of actuators.

  8. Achieving Superior Two-Way Actuation by the Stress-Coupling of Nanoribbons and Nanocrystalline Shape Memory Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Shijie; Liu, Yinong; Ren, Yang; Jiang, Daqiang; Yang, Feng; Cong, Daoyong; Wang, Yandong; Cui, Lishan

    2016-06-08

    Inspired by the driving principle of traditional bias-type two-way actuators, we developed a novel two-way actuation nanocomposite wire in which a massive number of Nb nanoribbons with ultra-large elastic strains are loaded inside a shape memory alloy (SMA) matrix to form a continuous array of nano bias actuation pairs for two-way actuation. The composite exhibits a two-way actuation strain of 3.2% during a thermal cycle and an actuation stress of 934 MPa upon heating, which is about twice higher than that (~500 MPa) found in reported two-way SMAs. Upon cooling, the composite shows an actuation stress of 134 MPa and a mechanical work output of 1.08*106 J/ m3, which are about three and five times higher than that of reported two-way SMAs, respectively. It is revealed that the massive number of Nb nanoribbons in compressive state provides the high actuation stress and high work output upon cooling and the SMA matrix with high yield strength offers the high actuation stress upon heating. Compared to traditional bias-type two-way actuators, the two-way actuation composite with small volume and simple construct is in favour of the miniaturization and simplification of actuators.

  9. Microstructure Of Multistage Annealed Nanocrystalline SmCo2Fe2B Alloy With Enhanced Magnetic Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Xiujuan; Devaraj, Arun; Balamurugan, B.; Cui, Jun; Shield, Jeffrey E.

    2014-02-11

    The microstructure and chemistry of SmCo2Fe2B melt-spun alloy after multistage annealing was investigated using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and 3D atom probe tomography. The multistage annealing resulted in an increase in both the coercivity and magnetization. The presence of Sm(Co,Fe)4B (1:4:1) and Sm2(Co,Fe)17Bx (2:17:x) magnetic phases were confirmed using both techniques. Fe2B at a scale of ~ 5 nm was found by HRTEM precipitating within the 1:4:1 phase after the second-stage annealing. Ordering within the 2:17:x phase was directly identified both by the presence of antiphase boundaries observed by TEM and the interconnected isocomposition surface network found in 3D atom probe results in addition to radial distribution function analysis. The variations in the local chemistry after the secondary annealing were considered pivotal in improving the magnetic properties.

  10. Microstructure of multistage annealed nanocrystalline SmCo{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}B alloy with enhanced magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Xiujuan Shield, Jeffrey E.; Devaraj, Arun; Balamurugan, B.; Cui, Jun

    2014-02-14

    The microstructure and chemistry of SmCo{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}B melt-spun alloy after multistage annealing was investigated using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and 3D atom probe tomography. The multistage annealing resulted in an increase in both the coercivity and magnetization. The presence of Sm(Co,Fe){sub 4}B (1:4:1) and Sm{sub 2}(Co,Fe){sub 17}B{sub x} (2:17:x) magnetic phases were confirmed using both techniques. Fe{sub 2}B at a scale of ∼5 nm was found by HRTEM precipitating within the 1:4:1 phase after the second-stage annealing. Ordering within the 2:17:x phase was directly identified both by the presence of antiphase boundaries observed by TEM and the interconnected isocomposition surface network found in 3D atom probe results in addition to radial distribution function analysis. The variations in the local chemistry after the secondary annealing were considered pivotal in improving the magnetic properties.

  11. A facile route to the synthesis of magnetically separable BiOBr/NiFe2O4 composites with enhanced photocatalytic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaowei; Wang, Li; Zhang, Lei; Zhuo, Shuping

    2017-10-01

    Novel magnetically separable BiOBr/NiFe2O4 composite photocatalysts with different mass ratios were fabricated through a facile hydrothermal treatment. The phases, morphologies and photophysical properties of the as-obtained samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microcopy (TEM) and diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS). Their visible light photocatalytic performances were examined by degradation of methylene blue (MB) and phenol. Compared with bare BiOBr and NiFe2O4, all heterostructured BiOBr/NiFe2O4 nanocomposites exhibited significantly enhanced photocatalytic efficiency. The BiOBr/NiFe2O4-20% composite showed the highest photodegradation capacity, which was about 3.2 and 22.4 times greater than that of individual BiOBr and NiFe2O4, respectively. The degradation efficiency of BiOBr/NiFe2O4-20% in the degradation of MB dye hardly changed after five cycles, signifying that the BiOBr/NiFe2O4-20% photocatalyst had excellent recyclability. In addition, BiOBr/NiFe2O4 composite photocatalysts could be easily separated from contaminant solution by using a magnet and recycled, exhibiting great potential for application in the fields of environmental purification of organic pollutants and wastewater treatment. In the light of experimental results, we proposed a photocatalytic mechanism which confirmed that the enhancement of photocatalytic performance for BiOBr/NiFe2O4 composites was mainly ascribed to the efficient separation of photo-induced charges resulting from the well-known ;heterostructure effect; between NiFe2O4 nanorods and BiOBr nanosheets.

  12. Nanocrystalline diamond thin films on titanium-6 aluminum-4 vanadium alloy temporomandibular joint prosthesis simulants by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fries, Marc Douglas

    A course of research has been performed to assess the suitability of nanocrystal-line diamond (NCD) films on Ti-6Al-4V alloy as wear-resistant coatings in biomedical implant use. A series of temporomandibular (TMJ) joint condyle simulants were polished and acid-passivated as per ASTM F86 standard for surface preparation of implants. A 3-mum-thick coating of NCD film was deposited by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) over the hemispherical articulation surfaces of the simulants. Plasma chemistry conditions were measured and monitored by optical emission spectroscopy (OES), using hydrogen as a relative standard. The films consist of diamond grains around 20 nm in diameter embedded in an amorphous carbon matrix, free of any detectable film stress gradient. Hardness averages 65 GPa and modulus measures 600 GPa at a depth of 250 nm into the film surface. A diffuse film/substrate boundary produces a minimal film adhesion toughness (GammaC) of 158 J/m2. The mean RMS roughness is 14.6 +/- 4.2 nm, with an average peak roughness of 82.6 +/- 65.9 nm. Examination of the surface morphology reveals a porous, dendritic surface. Wear testing resulted in two failed condylar coatings out of three tests. No macroscopic delamination was found on any sample, but micron-scale film pieces broke away, exposing the substrate. Electrochemical corrosion testing shows a seven-fold reduction in corrosion rate with the application of an NCD coating as opposed to polished, passivated Ti-6Al-4V, producing a corrosion rate comparable to wrought Co-Cr-Mo. In vivo biocompatibility testing indicates that implanted NCD films did not elicit an immune response in the rabbit model, and osteointegration was apparent for both compact and trabecular bone on both NCD film and bare Ti-6Al-4V. Overall, NCD thin film material is reasonably smooth, biocompatible, and very well adhered. Wear testing indicates that this material is unacceptable for use in demanding TMJ applications without

  13. Processing and alloying of tungsten heavy alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Bose, A.; Dowding, R.J.

    1993-12-31

    Tungsten heavy alloys are two-phase metal matrix composites with a unique combination of density, strength, and ductility. They are processed by liquid-phase sintering of mixed elemental powders. The final microstructure consists of a contiguous network of nearly pure tungsten grains embedded in a matrix of a ductile W-Ni-Fe alloy. Due to the unique property combination of the material, they are used extensively as kinetic energy penetrators, radiation shields. counterbalances, and a number of other applications in the defense industry. The properties of these alloys are extremely sensitive to the processing conditions. Porosity levels as low as 1% can drastically degrade the properties of these alloys. During processing, care must be taken to reduce or prevent incomplete densification, hydrogen embrittlement, impurity segregation to the grain boundaries, solidification shrinkage induced porosity, and in situ formation of pores due to the sintering atmosphere. This paper will discuss some of the key processing issues for obtaining tungsten heavy alloys with good properties. High strength tungsten heavy alloys are usually fabricated by swaging and aging the conventional as-sintered material. The influence of this on the shear localization tendency of a W-Ni-Co alloy will also be demonstrated. Recent developments have shown that the addition of certain refractory metals partially replacing tungsten can significantly improve the strength of the conventional heavy alloys. This development becomes significant due to the recent interest in near net shaping techniques such as powder injection moldings. The role of suitable alloying additions to the classic W-Ni-Fe based heavy alloys and their processing techniques will also be discussed in this paper.

  14. Remediation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in soil using Ni/Fe bimetallic nanoparticles: influencing factors, kinetics and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yingying; Fang, Zhanqiang; Cheng, Wen; Tsang, Pokeung Eric; Zhao, Dongye

    2014-07-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are commonly used as additive flame retardants in all kinds of electronic products. PBDEs are now ubiquitous in the environment, with soil as a major sink, especially in e-waste recycling sites. This study investigated the degradation of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) in a spiked soil using Ni/Fe bimetallic nanoparticles. The results indicated that Ni/Fe bimetallic nanoparticles are able to degrade BDE209 in soil at ambient temperature and the removal efficiency can reach 72% when an initial pH of 5.6 and at a Ni/Fe dosage of 0.03 g/g. A declining trend in degradation was noticed with decreasing Ni loading and increasing of initial BDE209 concentration. The degradation products of BDE209 were analyzed by GC-MS, which showed that the degradation of BDE209 was a process of stepwise debromination from nBr to (n-1)Br. And a possible debromination pathway was proposed. At last, the degradation process was analyzed as two-step mechanism, mass transfer and reaction. This current study shows the potential ability of Ni/Fe nanoparticles to be used for removal of PBDEs in contaminated soil.

  15. Structure of an Actinobacterial-Type [NiFe]-Hydrogenase Reveals Insight into O2-Tolerant H2 Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Caspar; Bommer, Martin; Hennig, Sandra E; Jeoung, Jae-Hun; Dobbek, Holger; Lenz, Oliver

    2016-02-02

    A novel group of bacterial [NiFe]-hydrogenases is responsible for high-affinity H2 uptake from the troposphere, and is therefore thought to play an important role in the global H2 cycle. Here we present the first crystal structure at 2.85-Å resolution of such an actinobacterial-type hydrogenase (AH), which was isolated from the dihydrogen oxidizing bacterium, Ralstonia eutropha. The enzyme has a dimeric structure carrying two active [NiFe] sites that are interconnected by six [4Fe4S] clusters over a range of approximately 90 Å. Unlike most other [NiFe]-hydrogenases, the [4Fe4S] cluster proximal to the [NiFe] site is coordinated by three cysteines and one aspartate. Mutagenesis experiments revealed that this aspartate residue is related to the apparent O2 insensitivity of the AH. Our data provide first structural insight into specialized hydrogenases that are supposed to consume atmospheric H2 under challenging conditions, i.e. at high O2 concentration and wide temperature and pH ranges.

  16. Electrodeposition, characterization and morphological investigations of NiFe/Cu multilayers prepared by pulsed galvanostatic, dual bath technique

    SciTech Connect

    Esmaili, S.; Bahrololoom, M.E.; Kavanagh, K.L.

    2011-02-15

    NiFe/Cu multilayers were grown sequentially by pulsed electrodeposition on copper (Cu) substrates. The layers were prepared in galvanostatic mode using a dual bath technique. The morphology, thickness, roughness and composition of the layers were studied using scanning electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. Analysis showed that the resulting multilayers were continuous layers with a root mean square roughness of 30 nm and a grain size of 20-60 nm. The Cu substrate and the electrodeposited Cu layer were preferentially (200) oriented while the NiFe layers were polycrystalline but with a preferred (200) texture. The thinnest multilayers produced were 20/40, NiFe/Cu, respectively. - Research Highlights: {yields} Thin MLs of Cu and Py can be ED utilizing a pulsed-galvanostatic, DBT. {yields} The resulting multilayers were continuous layers with an rms of 30 nm. {yields} The smallest average thickness achieved by DBT was 40 nm/20 nm for Cu/NiFe.

  17. Photosensitivity of the Ni-A state of [NiFe] hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris Miyazaki F with visible light.

    PubMed

    Osuka, Hisao; Shomura, Yasuhito; Komori, Hirofumi; Shibata, Naoki; Nagao, Satoshi; Higuchi, Yoshiki; Hirota, Shun

    2013-01-04

    [NiFe] hydrogenase catalyzes reversible oxidation of molecular hydrogen. Its active site is constructed of a hetero dinuclear Ni-Fe complex, and the oxidation state of the Ni ion changes according to the redox state of the enzyme. We found that the Ni-A state (an inactive unready, oxidized state) of [NiFe] hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris Miyazaki F (DvMF) is light sensitive and forms a new state (Ni-AL) with irradiation of visible light. The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) bands at 1956, 2084 and 2094 cm(-1) of the Ni-A state shifted to 1971, 2086 and 2098 cm(-1) in the Ni-AL state. The g-values of g(x)=2.30, g(y)=2.23 and g(z)=2.01 for the signals in the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum of the Ni-A state at room temperature varied for -0.009, +0.012 and +0.010, respectively, upon light irradiation. The light-induced Ni-AL state converted back immediately to the Ni-A state under dark condition at room temperature. These results show that the coordination structure of the Fe site of the Ni-A state of [NiFe] hydrogenase is perturbed significantly by light irradiation with relatively small coordination change at the Ni site.

  18. Biochar supported Ni/Fe bimetallic nanoparticles to remove 1,1,1-trichloroethane under various reaction conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Qiu, Yue-Feng; Wang, Xiao-Li; Yang, Jie; Yu, Yun-Jiang; Chen, Ya-Qin; Liu, Yong-di

    2017-02-01

    In this study, Ni/Fe nanoparticles supported by biochar to stimulate the reduction of 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCA) in groundwater remediation was investigated. In order to enhance the reactivity of ZVI (zero valent iron) nanoparticles, surface modification of ZVI was performed using nickel and biochar. The removal efficiency of 1,1,1-TCA increased from 42.3% to 99.3% as the biochar-to-Ni/Fe mass ratio increased from 0 to 1.0. However a higher biochar-to-Ni/Fe ratio showed little difference in the 1,1,1-TCA degradation efficiency. In the presence of Ni, atomic hydrogen generated by ZVI corrosion could be absorbed in the metal additive's lattice and then produce a hydride-like species (H) that represented the primary redox-active entity. The effects of various factors were evaluated, including pH, humic acid (HA) and inorganic matters (Cl(-), CO3(2-), HCO3(-), NO3(-) and SO4(2-)). The degradation of 1,1,1-TCA was greatly affected by pH. The presence of Cl(-), CO3(2-), HCO3(-) and SO4(2-) had negligible effects, but NO3(-) and HA showed a significant inhibitory effects on 1,1,1-TCA degradation. In conclusion, biochar supported Ni/Fe nanoparticles could be highly effective for 1,1,1-TCA degradation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Highly Laminated Soft Magnetic Electroplated CoNiFe Thick Films

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J; Kim, M; Herrault, F; Park, J; Allen, MG

    2013-01-01

    The fabrication and characterization of highly laminated (similar to 40 layers), thick (similar to 40 mu m) films of magnetically soft cobalt-nickel-iron are presented. Thick film fabrication is based on automated sequential electrodeposition of alternating CoNiFe and copper layers, followed by selective copper removal. The film, comprised tens of 1 mu m thick laminations, exhibits saturation flux density of 1.8 T and coercivity of approximately 1.3 Oe. High-frequency film characterization took place in a 36-turn test inductor, which demonstrated constant inductance of 1.6 mu H up to 10 MHz, indicating suppressed eddy-current loss. Quality factor exceeding 40 at 1 MHz, surpassing the performance of similarly fabricated Permalloy (Ni80Fe20) films.

  20. Superparamagnetic behavior and AC-losses in NiFe2O4 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yelenich, O. V.; Solopan, S. O.; Kolodiazhnyi, T. V.; Dzyublyuk, V. V.; Tovstolytkin, A. I.; Belous, A. G.

    2013-06-01

    Crystallographic, microstructural and magnetic properties of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles synthesized by precipitation from nonaqueous solutions have been studied in the work. The transmission electron microscopy studies reveal particle sizes ˜5 nm for the as-prepared particles which increase up to ˜20 nm upon annealing at 500 °C. Quasistatic magnetic measurements show superparamagnetic behavior with blocking temperature below room temperature for both the as-prepared and annealed particles. Characteristic magnetic parameters of the particles including average magnetic moment of an individual nanoparticle and effective anisotropy constant have been determined. The specific loss power which is released on the exposure of an ensemble of synthesized particles to an electromagnetic field is calculated and measured experimentally.

  1. In situ tailoring of magnetization configuration in NiFe film deposited onto flexible substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karboul-Trojet, W.; Faurie, D.; Aït-Yahiatène, E.; Roussigné, Y.; Mazaleyrat, F.; Chérif, S. M.

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, we study the effect of mechanical stress on the domain configuration of a NiFe film obliquely deposited on a compliant polyimide substrate. To this end, we have developed a new method combining in situ mechanical tests with magnetic force microscopy (MFM) imaging. This approach allows changing the static magnetization structure of the film by controlling the stress-induced anisotropy. In the absence of applied stress and magnetic field, the sample shows stripe domains with an in-plane tilted direction with respect to the stress axis. After saturating the film, application of an increasing stress regenerates progressively a stripe domains structure with a modified in-plane magnetization direction.

  2. Cu--Ni--Fe anode for use in aluminum producing electrolytic cell

    DOEpatents

    Bergsma, S. Craig; Brown, Craig W.; Bradford, Donald R; Barnett, Robert J.; Mezner, Michael B.

    2006-07-18

    A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte, the method comprising the steps of providing a molten salt electrolyte at a temperature of less than 900.degree. C. having alumina dissolved therein in an electrolytic cell having a liner for containing the electrolyte, the liner having a bottom and walls extending upwardly from said bottom. A plurality of non-consumable Cu--Ni--Fe anodes and cathodes are disposed in a vertical direction in the electrolyte, the cathodes having a plate configuration and the anodes having a flat configuration to compliment the cathodes. The anodes contain apertures therethrough to permit flow of electrolyte through the apertures to provide alumina-enriched electrolyte between the anodes and the cathodes. Electrical current is passed through the anodes and through the electrolyte to the cathodes, depositing aluminum at the cathodes and producing gas at the anodes.

  3. Magnetization reversal of uncompensated Fe moments in exchangebiased Ni/FeF2 bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Arenholz, Elke; Liu, Kai; Li, Zhipan; Schuller, Ivan K.

    2006-01-01

    The magnetization reversal of uncompensated Fe moments in exchange biased Ni/FeF{sub 2} bilayers was determined using soft x-ray magnetic circular and linear dichroism. The hysteresis loops resulting from the Fe moments are almost identical to those of the ferromagnetic Ni layer. However, a vertical loop shift indicates that some Fe moments are pinned in the antiferromagnetically ordered FeF{sub 2}. The pinned moments are oriented antiparallel to small cooling fields leading to negative exchange bias, but parallel to large cooling fields resulting in positive exchange bias. No indication for the formation of a parallel antiferromagnetic domain wall in the FeF{sub 2} layer upon magnetization reversal in the Ni layer was found.

  4. Transition metal interaction and Ni-Fe-Cu-Si phases in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heuer, M.; Buonassisi, T.; Istratov, A. A.; Pickett, M. D.; Marcus, M. A.; Minor, A. M.; Weber, E. R.

    2007-06-01

    In the present article we characterize several intermetallic phases of the Cu-Ni-Fe-Si system found as precipitates in the misfit dislocation layer of intentionally contaminated and slowly cooled Si1-xGex/Si-heterostructures. The clusters showed a characteristic phase speciation into a Cu-rich part similar to Cu3Si and an Fe-Ni-Cu-Si phase similar to NiSi2. It is suggested that the precipitate formation of the investigated intermetallic silicides involves a homogeneous precursor phase at higher temperatures that later decomposes into the observed phases. Our results indicate that chemical reactions between metals and silicon during precipitation may reduce the lattice mismatch compared to single-metal precipitates, rendering mixed-metal-silicide precipitates more stable and energetically favorable.

  5. Single crystal EPR study of the Ni center of NiFe hydrogenase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geßner, Ch.; Trofanchuk, O.; Kawagoe, K.; Higuchi, Y.; Yasuoka, N.; Lubitz, W.

    1996-07-01

    EPR spectra of single crystals of NiFe hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris Miyazaki F were evaluated and yielded the g-tensors of the Ni center for two different states of enzyme. The g-values associated with these states are identical to those measured in frozen solutions for the ready (NiB) and the unready (NiA) form of the Ni center. Directions of the g-tensor axes were determined relative to the crystal symmetry axes. The obtained changes of g-values and tensor axes orientations between NiA and NiB can be explained by a structural difference involving modification of a cysteine sulfur ligand.

  6. Monte Carlo simulations of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chenggang; Schulthess, T. C.; Landau, D. P.

    2006-04-01

    We use Monte Carlo simulations to study NiFe2O4 nanoparticles. Finite size and surface effects differentiate them from their bulk counterparts. A continuous version of the Wang-Landau algorithm is used to calculate the joint density of states g(Mz,E) efficiently. From g(Mz,E), we obtain the Bragg-Williams free energy of the particle, and other physical quantities. The hysteresis is observed when the nanoparticles have both surface disorder and surface anisotropy. We found that the finite coercivity is the result of interplay between surface disorder and surface anisotropy. If the surface disorder is absent or the surface anisotropy is relatively weak, the nanoparticles often exhibit superparamagnetism.

  7. Exchange anisotropy in NiFe layers coupled with multilayered MnFe/MnFeCr (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kung, Kenneth T.-Y.; Campbell, Richard T.

    1991-11-01

    The exchange anisotropy in a ferromagnetic NiFe layer coupled with an antiferromagnetic MnFe layer can be used to stabilize the single domain state of a magnetoresistive sensor,1 but this technology may be limited by the high corrosion sensitivity of MnFe. It is possible to improve the corrosion resistance of MnFe through impurity doping, e.g., MnFeCr with Cr concentrations of 3-12 at. %,2 but this technique will at the same time degrade the exchange anisotropy. In this work, we have investigated the exchange anisotropy in NiFe layers coupled with multilayered MnFe/MnFeCr. The samples had a configuration of glass substrates, followed by a NiFe (300 Å) layer, followed by a MnFe(x Å)/MnFeCr(y Å) multilayer, where the antiferromagnetic multilayer had either MnFe or MnFeCr interfacing with the NiFe and had a fixed total thickness of 240 Å. They were prepared by rf diode sputtering and, after a Ta (200 Å) protective layer deposition, were thermally cycled to a maximum temperature of 250 °C. The results can be summarized as follows: (1) The anisotropy energy, EUA, near the room temperature ranged from 0.03 to 0.10 erg/cm2; it was determined mostly by the antiferromagnetic layer (MnFe or MnFeCr) at the NiFe interface and was essentially independent of the rest of antiferromagnetic structure. (2) The critical temperature, TC, range from 90 to 160 °C; it was determined mostly by the relative amounts of MnFe and MnFeCr in the entire antiferromagnetic structure and not just at the NiFe interface. These results implied that, while one could improve the anisotropy energy at lower temperatures simply by improving the antiferromagnetic layer near the NiFe interface, to improve the anisotropy energy at higher temperatures one must improve the entire antiferromagnetic layer.

  8. Formation of Surface Corrosion-Resistant Nanocrystalline Structures on Steel.

    PubMed

    Nykyforchyn, Hryhoriy; Kyryliv, Volodymyr; Maksymiv, Olha; Slobodyan, Zvenomyra; Tsyrulnyk, Oleksandr

    2016-12-01

    Engineering materials with nanocrystalline structure could be exploited under simultaneous action of mechanical loading and corrosion environments; therefore, their corrosion resistance is important. Surface nanocrystalline structure was generated on middle carbon steels by severe plastic deformation using the method of mechanical pulse friction treatment. This treatment additionally includes high temperature phase transformation and alloying. Using a complex of the corrosive, electrochemical and physical investigations, it was established that nanocrystalline structures can be characterized by lower or increased corrosion resistance in comparison with the reference material. It is caused by the action of two confronting factors: arising energy level and anticorrosive alloying of the surface layer.

  9. Formation of Surface Corrosion-Resistant Nanocrystalline Structures on Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nykyforchyn, Hryhoriy; Kyryliv, Volodymyr; Maksymiv, Olha; Slobodyan, Zvenomyra; Tsyrulnyk, Oleksandr

    2016-02-01

    Engineering materials with nanocrystalline structure could be exploited under simultaneous action of mechanical loading and corrosion environments; therefore, their corrosion resistance is important. Surface nanocrystalline structure was generated on middle carbon steels by severe plastic deformation using the method of mechanical pulse friction treatment. This treatment additionally includes high temperature phase transformation and alloying. Using a complex of the corrosive, electrochemical and physical investigations, it was established that nanocrystalline structures can be characterized by lower or increased corrosion resistance in comparison with the reference material. It is caused by the action of two confronting factors: arising energy level and anticorrosive alloying of the surface layer.

  10. Rates and Routes of Electron Transfer of [NiFe]-Hydrogenase in an Enzymatic Fuel Cell.

    PubMed

    Petrenko, Alexander; Stein, Matthias

    2015-10-29

    Hydrogenase enzymes are being used in enzymatic fuel cells immobilized on a graphite or carbon electrode surface, for example. The enzyme is used for the anodic oxidation of molecular hydrogen (H2) to produce protons and electrons. The association and orientation of the enzyme at the anode electrode for a direct electron transfer is not completely resolved. The distal FeS-cluster in [NiFe]-hydrogenases contains a histidine residue which is known to play a critical role in the intermolecular electron transfer between the enzyme and the electrode surface. The [NiFe]-hydrogenase graphite electrode association was investigated using Brownian Dynamics simulations. Residues that were shown to be in proximity to the electrode surface were identified (His184, Ser196, Glu461, Glu464), and electron transfer routes connecting the distal FeS-cluster with the surface residues were investigated. Several possible pathways for electron transfer between the distal FeS-cluster and the terminal amino acid residues were probed in terms of their rates of electron transfer using DFT methods. The reorganization energies λ of the distal iron-sulfur cluster and coronene as a molecular model for graphite were calculated. The reorganization energy of the distal (His)(Cys)3 cluster was found to be not very different from that of a standard cubane clusters with a (Cys)4 coordination. Electronic coupling matrix elements and rates of electron transfer for the different pathways were calculated according to the Marcus equation. The rates for glutamate-mediated electrode binding were found to be incompatible with experimental data. A direct electron transfer from the histidine ligand of the distal FeS-cluster to the electrode yielded rates of electron transfer in excellent agreement with experiment. A second pathway, however, from the distal FeS-cluster to the Ser196 residue was found to be equally efficient and feasible.

  11. Novel, Oxygen-Insensitive Group 5 [NiFe]-Hydrogenase in Ralstonia eutropha

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Caspar; Friedrich, Bärbel

    2013-01-01

    Recently, a novel group of [NiFe]-hydrogenases has been defined that appear to have a great impact in the global hydrogen cycle. This so-called group 5 [NiFe]-hydrogenase is widespread in soil-living actinobacteria and can oxidize molecular hydrogen at atmospheric levels, which suggests a high affinity of the enzyme toward H2. Here, we provide a biochemical characterization of a group 5 hydrogenase from the betaproteobacterium Ralstonia eutropha H16. The hydrogenase was designated an actinobacterial hydrogenase (AH) and is catalytically active, as shown by the in vivo H2 uptake and by activity staining in native gels. However, the enzyme does not sustain autotrophic growth on H2. The AH was purified to homogeneity by affinity chromatography and consists of two subunits with molecular masses of 65 and 37 kDa. Among the electron acceptors tested, nitroblue tetrazolium chloride was reduced by the AH at highest rates. At 30°C and pH 8, the specific activity of the enzyme was 0.3 μmol of H2 per min and mg of protein. However, an unexpectedly high Michaelis constant (Km) for H2 of 3.6 ± 0.5 μM was determined, which is in contrast to the previously proposed low Km of group 5 hydrogenases and makes atmospheric H2 uptake by R. eutropha most unlikely. Amperometric activity measurements revealed that the AH maintains full H2 oxidation activity even at atmospheric oxygen concentrations, showing that the enzyme is insensitive toward O2. PMID:23793632

  12. Photochemical dihydrogen production using an analogue of the active site of [NiFe] hydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Summers, Peter A; Dawson, Joe; Ghiotto, Fabio; Hanson-Heine, Magnus W D; Vuong, Khuong Q; Davies, E Stephen; Sun, Xue-Z; Besley, Nicholas A; McMaster, Jonathan; George, Michael W; Schröder, Martin

    2014-05-05

    Photoproduction of dihydrogen (H2) by a low molecular weight analogue of the active site of [NiFe] hydrogenase has been investigated by reduction of the [NiFe2] cluster, 1, by a photosensitier PS (PS = [ReCl(CO)3(bpy)] or [Ru(bpy)3][PF6]2). Reductive quenching of the (3)MLCT excited state of the photosensitizer by NEt3 or N(CH2CH2OH)3 (TEOA) generates PS(•-), and subsequent intermolecular electron transfer to 1 produces the reduced anionic form of 1. Time-resolved infrared spectroscopy (TRIR) has been used to probe the intermediates throughout the reduction of 1 and subsequent photocatalytic H2 production from [HTEOA][BF4], which was monitored by gas chromatography. Two structural isomers of the reduced form of 1 (1a(•-) and 1b(•-)) were detected by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) in both CH3CN and DMF (dimethylformamide), while only 1a(•-) was detected in CH2Cl2. Structures for these intermediates are proposed from the results of density functional theory calculations and FTIR spectroscopy. 1a(•-) is assigned to a similar structure to 1 with six terminal carbonyl ligands, while calculations suggest that in 1b(•-) two of the carbonyl groups bridge the Fe centers, consistent with the peak observed at 1714 cm(-1) in the FTIR spectrum for 1b(•-) in CH3CN, assigned to a ν(CO) stretching vibration. Formation of 1a(•-) and 1b(•-) and production of H2 was studied in CH3CN, DMF, and CH2Cl2. Although the more catalytically active species (1a(•-) or 1b(•-)) could not be determined, photocatalysis was observed only in CH3CN and DMF.

  13. Photosensitivity of the Ni-A state of [NiFe] hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris Miyazaki F with visible light

    SciTech Connect

    Osuka, Hisao; Shomura, Yasuhito; Komori, Hirofumi; Shibata, Naoki; Nagao, Satoshi; Higuchi, Yoshiki; Hirota, Shun

    2013-01-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ni-A state of [NiFe] hydrogenase showed light sensitivity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New FT-IR bands were observed with light irradiation of the Ni-A state. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EPR g-values of the Ni-A state shifted upon light irradiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The light-induced state converted back to the Ni-A state under the dark condition. -- Abstract: [NiFe] hydrogenase catalyzes reversible oxidation of molecular hydrogen. Its active site is constructed of a hetero dinuclear Ni-Fe complex, and the oxidation state of the Ni ion changes according to the redox state of the enzyme. We found that the Ni-A state (an inactive unready, oxidized state) of [NiFe] hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris Miyazaki F (DvMF) is light sensitive and forms a new state (Ni-AL) with irradiation of visible light. The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) bands at 1956, 2084 and 2094 cm{sup -1} of the Ni-A state shifted to 1971, 2086 and 2098 cm{sup -1} in the Ni-AL state. The g-values of g{sub x} = 2.30, g{sub y} = 2.23 and g{sub z} = 2.01 for the signals in the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum of the Ni-A state at room temperature varied for -0.009, +0.012 and +0.010, respectively, upon light irradiation. The light-induced Ni-AL state converted back immediately to the Ni-A state under dark condition at room temperature. These results show that the coordination structure of the Fe site of the Ni-A state of [NiFe] hydrogenase is perturbed significantly by light irradiation with relatively small coordination change at the Ni site.

  14. hypD as a marker for [NiFe]-hydrogenases in microbial communities of surface waters.

    PubMed

    Beimgraben, Christian; Gutekunst, Kirstin; Opitz, Friederike; Appel, Jens

    2014-06-01

    Hydrogen is an important trace gas in the atmosphere. Soil microorganisms are known to be an important part of the biogeochemical H2 cycle, contributing 80 to 90% of the annual hydrogen uptake. Different aquatic ecosystems act as either sources or sinks of hydrogen, but the contribution of their microbial communities is unknown. [NiFe]-hydrogenases are the best candidates for hydrogen turnover in these environments since they are able to cope with oxygen. As they lack sufficiently conserved sequence motifs, reliable markers for these enzymes are missing, and consequently, little is known about their environmental distribution. We analyzed the essential maturation genes of [NiFe]-hydrogenases, including their frequency of horizontal gene transfer, and found hypD to be an applicable marker for the detection of the different known hydrogenase groups. Investigation of two freshwater lakes showed that [NiFe]-hydrogenases occur in many prokaryotic orders. We found that the respective hypD genes cooccur with oxygen-tolerant [NiFe]-hydrogenases (groups 1 and 5) mainly of Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Burkholderiales; cyanobacterial uptake hydrogenases (group 2a) of cyanobacteria; H2-sensing hydrogenases (group 2b) of Burkholderiales, Rhizobiales, and Rhodobacterales; and two groups of multimeric soluble hydrogenases (groups 3b and 3d) of Legionellales and cyanobacteria. These findings support and expand a previous analysis of metagenomic data (M. Barz et al., PLoS One 5:e13846, 2010, http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013846) and further identify [NiFe]-hydrogenases that could be involved in hydrogen cycling in aquatic surface waters.

  15. hypD as a Marker for [NiFe]-Hydrogenases in Microbial Communities of Surface Waters

    PubMed Central

    Beimgraben, Christian; Gutekunst, Kirstin; Opitz, Friederike

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen is an important trace gas in the atmosphere. Soil microorganisms are known to be an important part of the biogeochemical H2 cycle, contributing 80 to 90% of the annual hydrogen uptake. Different aquatic ecosystems act as either sources or sinks of hydrogen, but the contribution of their microbial communities is unknown. [NiFe]-hydrogenases are the best candidates for hydrogen turnover in these environments since they are able to cope with oxygen. As they lack sufficiently conserved sequence motifs, reliable markers for these enzymes are missing, and consequently, little is known about their environmental distribution. We analyzed the essential maturation genes of [NiFe]-hydrogenases, including their frequency of horizontal gene transfer, and found hypD to be an applicable marker for the detection of the different known hydrogenase groups. Investigation of two freshwater lakes showed that [NiFe]-hydrogenases occur in many prokaryotic orders. We found that the respective hypD genes cooccur with oxygen-tolerant [NiFe]-hydrogenases (groups 1 and 5) mainly of Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Burkholderiales; cyanobacterial uptake hydrogenases (group 2a) of cyanobacteria; H2-sensing hydrogenases (group 2b) of Burkholderiales, Rhizobiales, and Rhodobacterales; and two groups of multimeric soluble hydrogenases (groups 3b and 3d) of Legionellales and cyanobacteria. These findings support and expand a previous analysis of metagenomic data (M. Barz et al., PLoS One 5:e13846, 2010, http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013846) and further identify [NiFe]-hydrogenases that could be involved in hydrogen cycling in aquatic surface waters. PMID:24727276

  16. Thermal stability of magnetic properties of nanocrystalline (Fe0.7Co0.3)88Hf4Mo2Zr1B4Cu1 alloy with induced magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitrieva, N. V.; Lukshina, V. A.; Filippov, B. N.; Potapov, A. P.

    2016-10-01

    The effect of nanocrystallizing annealing in the presence of an ac magnetic field (magnetic heat treatment) and tensile stresses (thermomechanical treatment), as well as in the presence of both tensile stresses and an ac magnetic field (complex thermomechanical magnetic treatment) on the magnetic properties of the nanocrystalline (Fe0.7Co0.3)88Hf4Mo2Zr1B4Cu1 alloy and their thermal stability has been studied. It has been found that the nanocrystallization of the studied (Fe0.7Co0.3)88Hf4Mo2Zr1B4Cu1 alloy in the course of magnetic heat treatment, thermomechanical treatment, and thermomechanical magnetic treatment at low tensile stresses (6-30 MPa) leads to about a threefold decrease in the coercive force, but does not ensure the thermal stability of magnetic properties at high temperatures. In nanocrystallization, in the course of thermomechanical treatment at 620°C for 20 min under tensile stresses σ = 250 MPa has been found to be optimum for the high-temperature application (up to 550°C) of the studied alloy.

  17. Solid state consolidation nanocrystalline copper-tungsten using cold spray

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Aaron Christopher; Sarobol, Pylin; Argibay, Nicolas; Clark, Blythe; Diantonio, Christopher

    2015-09-01

    It is well known that nanostructured metals can exhibit significantly improved properties compared to metals with conventional grain size. Unfortunately, nanocrystalline metals typically are not thermodynamically stable and exhibit rapid grain growth at moderate temperatures. This severely limits their processing and use, making them impractical for most engineering applications. Recent work has shown that a number of thermodynamically stable nanocrystalline metal alloys exist. These alloys have been prepared as powders using severe plastic deformation (e.g. ball milling) processes. Consolidation of these powders without compromise of their nanocrystalline microstructure is a critical step to enabling their use as engineering materials. We demonstrate solid-state consolidation of ball milled copper-tantalum nanocrystalline metal powder using cold spray. Unfortunately, the nanocrystalline copper-tantalum powder that was consolidated did not contain the thermodynamically stable copper-tantalum nanostructure. Nevertheless, this does this demonstrates a pathway to preparation of bulk thermodynamically stable nanocrystalline copper-tantalum. Furthermore, it demonstrates a pathway to additive manufacturing (3D printing) of nanocrystalline copper-tantalum. Additive manufacturing of thermodynamically stable nanocrystalline metals is attractive because it enables maximum flexibility and efficiency in the use of these unique materials.

  18. Hydrogen Activation by Biomimetic [NiFe]-Hydrogenase Model Containing Protected Cyanide Cofactors

    PubMed Central

    Manor, Brian C.; Rauchfuss, Thomas B.

    2013-01-01

    Described are experiments that allow incorporation of cyanide cofactors and hydride substrate into active site models [NiFe]-hydrogenases (H2ases). Complexes of the type (CO)2(CN)2Fe(pdt)Ni(dxpe), (dxpe = dppe, 1; dxpe = dcpe, 2) bind the Lewis acid B(C6F5)3 (BArF3) to give the adducts (CO)2(CNBArF3)2Fe(pdt)Ni(dxpe), (1(BArF3)2, 2(BArF3)2). Upon decarbonylation using amine oxides, these adducts react with H2 to give hydrido derivatives Et4N[(CO)(CNBArF3)2Fe(H)(pdt)Ni(dxpe)], (dxpe = dppe, Et4N[H3(BArF3)2]; dxpe = dcpe, Et4N[H4(BArF3)2]). Crystallographic analysis shows that Et4N[H3(BArF3)2] generally resembles the active site of the enzyme in the reduced, hydride-containing states (Ni-C/R). The Fe-H…Ni center is unsymmetrical with rFe-H = 1.51(3) and rNi-H = 1.71(3) Å. Both crystallographic and 19F NMR analysis show that the CNBArF3− ligands occupy basal and apical sites. Unlike cationic Ni-Fe hydrides, [H3(BArF3)2]− and [H4(BArF3)2]− oxidize at mild potentials, near the Fc+/0 couple. Electrochemical measurements indicate that in the presence of base, [H3(BArF3)2]− catalyzes the oxidation of H2. NMR evidence indicates dihydrogen bonding between these anionic hydrides and ammonium salts, which is relevant to the mechanism of hydrogenogenesis. In the case of Et4N[H3(BArF3)2], strong acids such as HCl induce H2 release to give the chloride Et4N[(CO)(CNBArF3)2Fe(pdt)(Cl)Ni(dppe)]. PMID:23899049

  19. Hydrogen activation by biomimetic [NiFe]-hydrogenase model containing protected cyanide cofactors.

    PubMed

    Manor, Brian C; Rauchfuss, Thomas B

    2013-08-14

    Described are experiments demonstrating incorporation of cyanide cofactors and hydride substrate into [NiFe]-hydrogenase (H2ase) active site models. Complexes of the type (CO)2(CN)2Fe(pdt)Ni(dxpe) (dxpe = dppe, 1; dxpe = dcpe, 2) bind the Lewis acid B(C6F5)3 (BAr(F)3) to give the adducts (CO)2(CNBAr(F)3)2Fe(pdt)Ni(dxpe), (1(BAr(F)3)2, 2(BAr(F)3)2). Upon decarbonylation using amine oxides, these adducts react with H2 to give hydrido derivatives [(CO)(CNBAr(F)3)2Fe(H)(pdt)Ni(dxpe)](-) (dxpe = dppe, [H3(BAr(F)3)2](-); dxpe = dcpe, [H4(BAr(F)3)2](-)). Crystallographic analysis shows that Et4N[H3(BAr(F)3)2] generally resembles the active site of the enzyme in the reduced, hydride-containing states (Ni-C/R). The Fe-H···Ni center is unsymmetrical with r(Fe-H) = 1.51(3) Å and r(Ni-H) = 1.71(3) Å. Both crystallographic and (19)F NMR analyses show that the CNBAr(F)3(-) ligands occupy basal and apical sites. Unlike cationic Ni-Fe hydrides, [H3(BAr(F)3)2](-) and [H4(BAr(F)3)2](-) oxidize at mild potentials, near the Fc(+/0) couple. Electrochemical measurements indicate that in the presence of base, [H3(BAr(F)3)2](-) catalyzes the oxidation of H2. NMR evidence indicates dihydrogen bonding between these anionic hydrides and R3NH(+) salts, which is relevant to the mechanism of hydrogenogenesis. In the case of Et4N[H3(BAr(F)3)2], strong acids such as HCl induce H2 release to give the chloride Et4N[(CO)(CNBAr(F)3)2Fe(Cl)(pdt)Ni(dppe)].

  20. Development of High-Strength Nanostructured Magnesium Alloys for Light-Weight Weapon Systems and Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-13

    strength nanocrystalline Mg-alloys via cryomilling and spark - plasma - sintering , 2) demonstrate the unveil evidence of nanotwins in nanocrystalline...Christopher Melnyk, Wei H. Kao, Jenn-Ming Yang. Cryomilling and spark plasma sintering of nanocrystalline magnesium-based alloy, Journal of Materials...accomplished several important milestones: 1) manufacture of high strength nanocrystalline Mg-alloys via cryomilling and spark plasma sintering (SPS

  1. Effects of interfacial roughness on the planar Hall effect in NiFe/Cu/IrMn multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xu-Jing; Feng, Chun; Chen, Xi; Liu, Yang; Liu, Yi-Wei; Li, Ming-Hua; Yu, Guang-Hua

    2015-02-01

    This paper reports that the planar Hall effect in NiFe/Cu/IrMn multilayers was strongly influenced by the Cu spacer thickness ( t Cu), which was due to the variation of interfacial roughness. With t Cu increasing, a peculiar change of planar Hall voltage was observed. The reason for the voltage behaviors was that the interfacial roughness influenced the spin-asymmetry of spin-polarized electrons in ferromagnetic metals. The diffuse scattering to the electrons turned to specular scattering when the interface became flat, leading to the variation of resistivity change (Δ ρ). As the increase in t Cu, the extremum field was reduced because of the weaken exchange coupling between NiFe and IrMn layers.

  2. Thickness dependence of planar Hall resistance and field sensitivity in NiO(30 nm)/NiFe( t) bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D. Y.; Kim, C. G.; Park, B. S.; Park, C. M.

    2000-06-01

    We measured the planar Hall resistance (PHR) profiles in NiO (30 nm)/NiFe( t) bilayers for t=5, 10, 20 and 30 nm and analyzed its field sensitivity in terms of exchange-coupling field and anisotropy constant. The measured PHR shows linear field dependence at near H=0 as well as small hysteresis. The linear field range Δ H and resistance change, Δ R= R∥- R⊥, decrease with the NiFe thickness, where Δ H is calculated to be proportional to the anisotropy constant Ku and exchange-coupling field Hex. However, the field sensitivity Δ R/Δ H shows a maximum value at t=20 nm; where Ku is the minimum. The PHR has the advantage of a linear response at the operating field range and can be used for a recording read-out head and related applications.

  3. Crystal structure of a [NiFe] hydrogenase maturation protease HybD from Thermococcus kodakarensis KOD1.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Sunghark; Nishitani, Yuichi; Watanabe, Satoshi; Hirao, Yoshinori; Imanaka, Tadayuki; Kanai, Tamotsu; Atomi, Haruyuki; Miki, Kunio

    2016-09-01

    A [NiFe] hydrogenase maturation protease HybD from Thermococcus kodakarensis KOD1 (TkHybD) is involved in the cleavage of the C-terminal residues of [NiFe] hydrogenase large subunits by Ni recognition. Here, we report the crystal structure of TkHybD at 1.82 Å resolution to better understand this process. TkHybD exhibits an α/β/α sandwich fold with conserved residues responsible for the Ni recognition. Comparisons of TkHybD with homologous proteins also reveal that they share a common overall architecture, suggesting that they have similar catalytic functions. Our results including metal binding site prediction provide insight into the substrate recognition and catalysis mechanism of TkHybD. Proteins 2016; 84:1321-1327. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Electric-field tunable spin waves in PMN-PT/NiFe heterostructure: Experiment and micromagnetic simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziȩtek, Slawomir; Chȩciński, Jakub; Frankowski, Marek; Skowroński, Witold; Stobiecki, Tomasz

    2017-04-01

    We present a comprehensive theoretical and experimental study of voltage-controlled standing spin waves resonance (SSWR) in PMN-PT/NiFe multiferroic heterostructures patterned into microstrips. A spin-diode technique was used to observe ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) mode and SSWR in NiFe strip mechanically coupled with a piezoelectric substrate. Application of an electric field to a PMN-PT creates a strain in permalloy and thus shifts the FMR and SSWR fields due to the magnetostriction effect. The experimental results are compared with micromagnetic simulations and a good agreement between them is found for dynamics of FMR and SSWR with and without electric field. Moreover, micromagnetic simulations enable us to discuss the amplitude and phase spatial distributions of FMR and SSWR modes, which are not directly observable by means of spin diode detection technique.

  5. Effects of Ni/Fe bimetallic nanoparticles on phytotoxicity and translocation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Wu, Juan; Xie, Yingying; Fang, Zhanqiang; Cheng, Wen; Tsang, Pokeung Eric

    2016-11-01

    In vivo studies of the interactions of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in plants have generally focused on uptake, translocation, metabolism and accumulation, but there were limited reports about the phytotoxicity and translocation of PBDEs in contaminated soil with the effects of nanoparticles. In this study, the effects of Ni/Fe bimetallic nanoparticles on translocation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in contaminated soil and its phytotoxicity to Chinese cabbage were investigated by soil culture experiments. The results showed that the plant biomass, germination rate, and shoot and root lengths of treated soil (S-5) increased by 0.0044 g, 15%, and 5 and 6 mm, respectively, compared with untreated soil (S-2B). The average Ni and Fe contents of the edible parts(stem and leaf) of the S-5 sample, which contained 0.03 g/g Ni/Fe and 10 mg/kg BDE209, were measured at 1.71 and 184 mg/kg, respectively. The superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase activities in the S-5 sample decreased by 12%, 6.1% and 5.9%, respectively, while compared with the S-2B sample. In all treatments, the contents of BDE209 and the total PBDEs in sample S-5 were lowest, suggesting that the fresh Ni/Fe nanoparticles had higher toxicity than that of the aged nanoparticles. And the lower brominated PBDEs (tri-to nona-) were detected in samples, indicating uptake, debromination and/or metabolism of PBDEs existed in plants. The phytotoxicity and translocation of BDE209 in the contaminated soil decreased as a result of the effects of the Ni/Fe bimetallic nanoparticles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Time-domain excitation of quantized magnetostatic spin-wave modes in patterned NiFe thin film ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, T. M.; Covington, M.; Parker, G. J.

    2003-01-01

    We measure quantized spin waves excited by a spatially inhomogeneous pulsed magnetic field in patterned NiFe thin films by inductive detection of the dynamic magnetization. When anisotropy and numerically calculated demagnetizing fields are included in the magnetostatic Damon Eshbach spin-wave dispersion relation, the predicted mode frequencies agree closely with measurements. Micromagnetic calculations predict the correct mode frequencies and agree remarkably well with time-domain measurements.

  7. Life on carbon monoxide: X-ray structure of Rhodospirillum rubrum Ni-Fe-S carbon monoxide dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Drennan, Catherine L.; Heo, Jongyun; Sintchak, Michael D.; Schreiter, Eric; Ludden, Paul W.

    2001-01-01

    A crystal structure of the anaerobic Ni-Fe-S carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH) from Rhodospirillum rubrum has been determined to 2.8-Å resolution. The CODH family, for which the R. rubrum enzyme is the prototype, catalyzes the biological oxidation of CO at an unusual Ni-Fe-S cluster called the C-cluster. The Ni-Fe-S C-cluster contains a mononuclear site and a four-metal cubane. Surprisingly, anomalous dispersion data suggest that the mononuclear site contains Fe and not Ni, and the four-metal cubane has the form [NiFe3S4] and not [Fe4S4]. The mononuclear site and the four-metal cluster are bridged by means of Cys531 and one of the sulfides of the cube. CODH is organized as a dimer with a previously unidentified [Fe4S4] cluster bridging the two subunits. Each monomer is comprised of three domains: a helical domain at the N terminus, an α/β (Rossmann-like) domain in the middle, and an α/β (Rossmann-like) domain at the C terminus. The helical domain contributes ligands to the bridging [Fe4S4] cluster and another [Fe4S4] cluster, the B-cluster, which is involved in electron transfer. The two Rossmann domains contribute ligands to the active site C-cluster. This x-ray structure provides insight into the mechanism of biological CO oxidation and has broader significance for the roles of Ni and Fe in biological systems. PMID:11593006

  8. Discovery of [NiFe] hydrogenase genes in metagenomic DNA: cloning and heterologous expression in Thiocapsa roseopersicina.

    PubMed

    Maróti, Gergely; Tong, Yingkai; Yooseph, Shibu; Baden-Tillson, Holly; Smith, Hamilton O; Kovács, Kornél L; Frazier, Marvin; Venter, J Craig; Xu, Qing

    2009-09-01

    Using a metagenomics approach, we have cloned a piece of environmental DNA from the Sargasso Sea that encodes an [NiFe] hydrogenase showing 60% identity to the large subunit and 64% to the small subunit of a Thiocapsa roseopersicina O2-tolerant [NiFe] hydrogenase. The DNA sequence of the hydrogenase identified by the metagenomic approach was subsequently found to be 99% identical to the hyaA and hyaB genes of an Alteromonas macleodii hydrogenase, indicating that it belongs to the Alteromonas clade. We were able to express our new Alteromonas hydrogenase in T. roseopersicina. Expression was accomplished by coexpressing only two accessory genes, hyaD and hupH, without the need to express any of the hyp accessory genes (hypABCDEF). These results suggest that the native accessory proteins in T. roseopersicina could substitute for the Alteromonas counterparts that are absent in the host to facilitate the assembly of a functional Alteromonas hydrogenase. To further compare the complex assembly machineries of these two [NiFe] hydrogenases, we performed complementation experiments by introducing the new Alteromonas hyaD gene into the T. roseopersicina hynD mutant. Interestingly, Alteromonas endopeptidase HyaD could complement T. roseopersicina HynD to cleave endoproteolytically the C-terminal end of the T. roseopersicina HynL hydrogenase large subunit and activate the enzyme. This study refines our knowledge on the selectivity and pleiotropy of the elements of the [NiFe] hydrogenase assembly machineries. It also provides a model for functionally analyzing novel enzymes from environmental microbes in a culture-independent manner.

  9. The role of the non-magnetic material in spin pumping and magnetization dynamics in NiFe and CoFeB multilayer systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ruiz-Calaforra, A. Brächer, T.; Lauer, V.; Pirro, P.; Heinz, B.; Geilen, M.; Chumak, A. V.; Conca, A.; Leven, B.; Hillebrands, B.

    2015-04-28

    We present a study of the effective magnetization M{sub eff} and the effective damping parameter α{sub eff} by means of ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy on the ferromagnetic (FM) materials Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19} (NiFe) and Co{sub 40}Fe{sub 40}B{sub 20} (CoFeB) in FM/Pt, FM/NM, and FM/NM/Pt systems with the non-magnetic (NM) materials Ru, Cr, Al, and MgO. Moreover, for NiFe layer systems, the influence of interface effects is studied by way of thickness dependent measurements of M{sub eff} and α{sub eff}. Additionally, spin pumping in NiFe/NM/Pt is investigated by means of inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) measurements. We observe a large dependence of M{sub eff} and α{sub eff} of the NiFe films on the adjacent NM layer. While Cr and Al do not induce a large change in the magnetic properties, Ru, Pt, and MgO affect M{sub eff} and α{sub eff} in different degrees. In particular, NiFe/Ru and NiFe/Ru/Pt systems show a large perpendicular surface anisotropy and a significant enhancement of the damping. In contrast, the magnetic properties of CoFeB films do not have a large influence of the NM adjacent material and only CoFeB/Pt systems present an enhancement of α{sub eff}. However, this enhancement is much more pronounced in NiFe/Pt. By the introduction of the NM spacer material, this enhancement is reduced. Furthermore, a difference in symmetry between NiFe/NM/Pt and NiFe/NM systems in the output voltage signal from the ISHE measurements reveals the presence of spin pumping into the Pt layer in all-metallic NiFe/NM/Pt and NiFe/Pt systems.

  10. [NiFe]-hydrogenases: spectroscopic and electrochemical definition of reactions and intermediates.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Fraser A; Albracht, Simon P J

    2005-04-15

    Production and usage of di-hydrogen, H2, in micro-organisms is catalysed by highly active, 'ancient' metalloenzymes known as hydrogenases. Based on the number and identity of metal atoms in their active sites, hydrogenases fall into three main classes, [NiFe]-, [FeFe]- and [Fe]-. All contain the unusual ligand CO (and in most cases CN- as well) making them intriguing examples of 'organometallic' cofactors. These ligands render the active sites superbly 'visible' using infrared spectroscopy, which complements the use of electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy in studying mechanisms and identifying intermediates. Hydrogenases are becoming a focus of attention for research into future energy technologies, not only H2 production but also H2 oxidation in fuel cells. Hydrogenases immobilized on electrodes exhibit high electrocatalytic activity, providing not only an important new technique for their investigation, but also a basis for novel fuel cells either using the enzyme itself, or inspired synthetic catalysts. Favourable comparisons have been made with platinum electrocatalysts, an advantage of enzymes being their specificity for H2 and tolerance of CO. A challenge for exploiting hydrogenases is their sensitivity to O2, but some organisms are known to produce enzymes that overcome this problem by subtle alterations of the active site and gas access channels.

  11. Microstructure Modeling of a Ni-Fe-Based Superalloy During the Rotary Forging Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loyda, A.; Hernández-Muñoz, G. M.; Reyes, L. A.; Zambrano-Robledo, P.

    2016-06-01

    The microstructure evolution of Ni-Fe superalloys has a great influence on the mechanical behavior during service conditions. The rotary forging process offers an alternative to conventional bulk forming processes where the parts can be rotary forged with a fraction of the force commonly needed by conventional forging techniques. In this investigation, a numerical modeling of microstructure evolution for design and optimization of the hot forging operations has been used to manufacture a heat-resistant nickel-based superalloy. An Avrami model was implemented into finite element commercial platform DEFORM 3D to evaluate the average grain size and recrystallization during the rotary forging process. The simulations were carried out considering three initial temperatures, 980, 1000, and 1050 °C, to obtain the microstructure behavior after rotary forging. The final average grain size of one case was validated by comparing with results of previous experimental work of disk forging operation. This investigation was aimed to explore the influence of the rotary forging process on microstructure evolution in order to obtain a homogenous and refined grain size in the final component.

  12. Breakdown of antiferromagnet order in polycrystalline NiFe/NiO bilayers probed with acoustic emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebyodkin, M. A.; Lebedkina, T. A.; Shashkov, I. V.; Gornakov, V. S.

    2017-07-01

    Magnetization reversal of polycrystalline NiFe/NiO bilayers was investigated using magneto-optical indicator film imaging and acoustic emission techniques. Sporadic acoustic signals were detected in a constant magnetic field after the magnetization reversal. It is suggested that they are related to elastic waves excited by sharp shocks in the NiO layer with strong magnetostriction. Their probability depends on the history and number of repetitions of the field cycling, thus testifying the thermal-activation nature of the long-time relaxation of an antiferromagnetic order. These results provide evidence of spontaneous thermally activated switching of the antiferromagnetic order in NiO grains during magnetization reversal in ferromagnet/antiferromagnet (FM/AFM) heterostructures. The respective deformation modes are discussed in terms of the thermal fluctuation aftereffect in the Fulcomer and Charap model which predicts that irreversible breakdown of the original spin orientation can take place in some antiferromagnetic grains with disordered anisotropy axes during magnetization reversal of exchange-coupled FM/AFM structures. The spin reorientation in the saturated state may induce abrupt distortion of isolated metastable grains because of the NiO magnetostriction, leading to excitation of shock waves and formation of plate (or Lamb) waves.

  13. Switching magnetic interactions in the NiFe Prussian Blue Analogue: an ab initio inspection.

    PubMed

    Krah, Tim; Amor, Nadia Ben; Robert, Vincent

    2014-05-28

    The magnetic interaction in the Ni(ii)-Fe(iii) Prussian Blue Analogue is investigated by means of Difference Dedicated Configuration Interaction (DDCI) calculations. Embedded cluster calculations are performed to extract the exchange coupling constant J with respect to an opening of the Ni-NC-Fe bridge while maintaining a rigid Fe(CN)6 unit. It is shown that such active distortion significantly modifies the magnetic interaction scheme in the material. Not only a ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic transition is observed, but the J value is varied from +11.4 cm(-1) to -12.5 cm(-1) when the Ni-Fe cyanide bridge is opened by 20°. The enhancement of the intersite hopping electron transfer integral by a factor of 1.5 can be correlated with the observed Na(+)-ion mobility in a unified "cation-coupled electron transfer" (CCET) process. These results stress the complexity and originality of this class of compounds evidenced by the versatility of their magnetic network.

  14. Dynamic contributions to the anisotropy of thin NiFe films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Michael; Lopusnik, Radek; Kos, Anthony; Silva, Thomas

    2004-03-01

    We have characterized the effect of waveguide width for Pulsed Inductive Microwave Magnetometer measurements. NiFe films of thickness < 100 nm are excited with step pulses delivered by coplanar waveguides. Waveguides that are narrower than the studied samples cause a shift in the gyromagnetic precession frequency that can be partially accounted for by an additional induced magnetic dipole field term in the Kittel equation. Theory and data confirm that the induced dipole term is a function of the ratio of sample thickness to waveguide width. The theory assumes that the field profile of the waveguide excitation couples to a distribution of Damon-Eshbach magnetostatic modes. The average effect of the mode distribution is to increase the resonance frequency relative to the FMR frequency. We find that there are three contributions to the anisotropy in thin Permalloy films: (1) the induced anisotropy, (2) the dipolar contribution , and (3) a rotatable anisotropy that is independent of sample orientation or waveguide width. We speculate on the origin of the rotatable contribution.

  15. The fabrication of ordered arrays of exchange biased Ni/FeF2 nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Kovylina, M; Erekhinsky, M; Morales, R; Schuller, I K; Labarta, A; Batlle, X

    2010-04-30

    The fabrication of ordered arrays of exchange biased Ni/FeF(2) nanostructures by focused ion beam lithography is reported. High quality nano-elements, with controlled removal depth and no significant re-deposition, were carved using small ion beam currents (30 pA), moderate dwell times (1 micros) and repeated passages over the same area. Two types of nanostructures were fabricated: square arrays of circular dots with diameters from 125 +/- 8 to 500 +/- 12 nm and periodicities ranging from 200 +/- 8 to 1000 +/- 12 nm, and square arrays of square antidots (207 +/- 8 nm in edge length) with periodicities ranging from 300 +/- 8 to 1200 +/- 12 nm. The arrays were characterized using scanning ion and electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The effect of the patterning on the exchange bias field (i.e., the shift in the hysteresis loop of ferromagnetic Ni due to proximity to antiferromagnetic FeF(2)) was studied using magneto-transport measurements. These high quality nanostructures offer a unique method to address some of the open questions regarding the microscopic origin of exchange bias. This is not only of major relevance in the fabrication and miniaturization of magnetic devices but it is also one of the important proximity phenomena in nanoscience and materials science.

  16. Magnetic characteristics of a high-layer-number NiFe/FeMn multilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterson, G. W.; Gonçalves, F. J. T.; McFadzean, S.; O'Reilly, S.; Bowman, R.; Stamps, R. L.

    2015-11-01

    We report the static and dynamic magnetic characteristics of a high-layer-number NiFe/FeMn multilayer test structure with potential applications in broadband absorber and filter devices. To allow fine control over the absorption linewidths and to understand the mechanisms governing the resonances in a tailored structure similar to that expected to be used in real world applications, the multilayer was intentionally designed to have layer thickness and interface roughness variations. Magnetometry measurements show that the sample has complex hysteresis loops with features consistent with single ferromagnetic film reversals. Characterisation by transmission electron microscopy allows us to correlate the magnetic properties with structural features, including the film widths and interface roughnesses. Analysis of resonance frequencies from broadband ferromagnetic resonance measurements as a function of field magnitude and orientation provide values of the local exchange bias, rotatable anisotropy, and uniaxial anisotropy fields for specific layers in the stack and explain the observed mode softening. The linewidths of the multilayer are adjustable around the bias field, approaching twice that seen at larger fields, allowing control over the bandwidth of devices formed from the structure.

  17. Degradation of aniline by heterogeneous Fenton's reaction using a Ni-Fe oxalate complex catalyst.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yucan; Zhang, Guangming; Fang, Shunyan; Chong, Shan; Zhu, Jia

    2016-11-01

    A Ni-Fe oxalate complex catalyst was synthesized and characterized by means of Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) method, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS). The catalyst showed good catalytic activity for aniline degradation by heterogeneous Fenton's reaction, in which the synergetic index was 9.3. The effects of reaction temperature, catalyst dosage, hydrogen peroxide concentration and initial pH were investigated. Under the optimum conditions (T = 293 K, catalyst dosage = 0.2 g/L, H2O2 concentration = 4 mmol/L and initial pH = 5.4), 100% aniline could be removed within 35 min, and approximately 88% deamination efficiency was achieved in 60 min. The aniline degradation process followed the pseudo-first-order kinetic (k = 0.177 min(-1)) with activation energy (Ea) of 49.4 kJ mol(-1). Aniline could be removed in a broad initial pH (3-8) due to the excellent pH-tolerance property of the catalyst. The detected ammonium ion indicated that deamination occurred during aniline degradation. It was proposed that deamination synchronized with aniline removal, and aniline was attacked by free radicals to generate benzoquinonimine and phenol. This system is promising for the removal of aniline from water.

  18. Distal [FeS]-Cluster Coordination in [NiFe]-Hydrogenase Facilitates Intermolecular Electron Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Petrenko, Alexander; Stein, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Biohydrogen is a versatile energy carrier for the generation of electric energy from renewable sources. Hydrogenases can be used in enzymatic fuel cells to oxidize dihydrogen. The rate of electron transfer (ET) at the anodic side between the [NiFe]-hydrogenase enzyme distal iron–sulfur cluster and the electrode surface can be described by the Marcus equation. All parameters for the Marcus equation are accessible from Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. The distal cubane FeS-cluster has a three-cysteine and one-histidine coordination [Fe4S4](His)(Cys)3 first ligation sphere. The reorganization energy (inner- and outer-sphere) is almost unchanged upon a histidine-to-cysteine substitution. Differences in rates of electron transfer between the wild-type enzyme and an all-cysteine mutant can be rationalized by a diminished electronic coupling between the donor and acceptor molecules in the [Fe4S4](Cys)4 case. The fast and efficient electron transfer from the distal iron–sulfur cluster is realized by a fine-tuned protein environment, which facilitates the flow of electrons. This study enables the design and control of electron transfer rates and pathways by protein engineering. PMID:28067774

  19. Magnetic characteristics of a high-layer-number NiFe/FeMn multilayer

    SciTech Connect

    Paterson, G. W. Gonçalves, F. J. T.; McFadzean, S.; Stamps, R. L.; O'Reilly, S.; Bowman, R.

    2015-11-28

    We report the static and dynamic magnetic characteristics of a high-layer-number NiFe/FeMn multilayer test structure with potential applications in broadband absorber and filter devices. To allow fine control over the absorption linewidths and to understand the mechanisms governing the resonances in a tailored structure similar to that expected to be used in real world applications, the multilayer was intentionally designed to have layer thickness and interface roughness variations. Magnetometry measurements show that the sample has complex hysteresis loops with features consistent with single ferromagnetic film reversals. Characterisation by transmission electron microscopy allows us to correlate the magnetic properties with structural features, including the film widths and interface roughnesses. Analysis of resonance frequencies from broadband ferromagnetic resonance measurements as a function of field magnitude and orientation provide values of the local exchange bias, rotatable anisotropy, and uniaxial anisotropy fields for specific layers in the stack and explain the observed mode softening. The linewidths of the multilayer are adjustable around the bias field, approaching twice that seen at larger fields, allowing control over the bandwidth of devices formed from the structure.

  20. Imprinting topological domain structure in epitaxial Ni/Fe/Co/Cu(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Ali; Li, Jia; Qiu, Zi Qiang; Arenholz, Elke; Scholl, Andreas; Hwang, Chanyong

    2015-03-01

    A vortex state can be stabilized in magnetic thin films by reducing the lateral dimension of the thin film such that the shape anisotropy imposes flux-closure on the magnetic domains. In the language of skyrmions, a vortex state has a topological skyrmion charge Q = +/- 1 / 2 , with vorticity w = + 1 and helicity γ = +/- π / 2 . By tuning the interlayer coupling strength, various domain structures can be imprinted on an adjacent ferromagnetic layer. We investigated domain imprinting by cobalt (Co) vortices on nickel (Ni) layer through a face-centered-cubic (fcc) iron (Fe) interlayer in a Ni/Fe(wedge)/Co(disks)/Cu(001) trilayer system. Using element-specific X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism, we observed a strong antiferromagnetic IEC for 5 ML thick Fe interlayer. From the domain images of each elements obtained using Photoemission Electron Microscopy (PEEM), we observed that the relative strength of the bilinear and biquadratic exchange coupling changes as a function of Fe interlayer thickness, leading to non-collinear coupling between Ni and Co around 5.5 ML of Fe. The resulting Ni domain structures have topological skyrmion charge Q = +/- 1 / 2 , with vorticity w = + 1 but varying helicity γ.

  1. Thermal stability of exchange-biased NiFe/FeMn multilayered thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H. Y.; Phuoc, Nguyen N.; Ong, C. K.

    2012-09-01

    A systematic study of the effect of ferromagnetic thickness on magnetic and microwave properties of exchange-biased NiFe/FeMn multilayered thin films was carried out with regards to thermal stability. The temperature-dependent microwave characteristics of the films were obtained from the near-field microwave microscopy technique and analysed based on Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. The complex microwave permeability spectra of the magnetic thin films up to 5 GHz in the temperature range from room temperature to 420 K were measured. It was found that thicker ferromagnetic layers helped to reduce the dependence of the magnetic properties on temperature, leading to better thermal stability. The saturation magnetization MS, dynamic magnetic anisotropy field HKdyn, and ferromagnetic resonance frequency fFMR were found to decrease with temperature, while the effective damping coefficient αeff was increased with temperature. We also investigate the rotational magnetic anisotropy field HKrot with temperature which gives a measure of the rotatable magnetization of the antiferromagnetic layers and its thermal stability.

  2. NiFe/CoFe/Cu/CoFe/MnIr spin valves studied by ferromagnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timopheev, A. A.; Sobolev, N. A.; Pogorelov, Y. G.; Bunyaev, S. A.; Teixeira, J. M.; Cardoso, S.; Freitas, P. P.; Kakazei, G. N.

    2013-05-01

    Ion-beam deposited (Glass/Ta/NiFe/CoFe/Cu/CoFe/MnIr/Ta) spin valves (SVs) with a Cu-spacer thickness (tCu) varying from 14 to 28 Å have been studied by ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) and magnetoresistance (MR) measurements. With respect to the interlayer coupling strength between the free and fixed ferromagnetic layers, the samples have been divided in those with a weak coupling (for tCu > 16 Å) and a strong coupling regimes (for tCu ≤ 16 Å). The FMR behavior in these two regimes is quite different. For the weakly coupled series, there are two well-defined FMR peaks stemming from the free and fixed layers. Their in-plane angular dependences exhibit 180° and 360° symmetries, respectively. For the strongly coupled SVs, the resonance modes are hybridized and possess features of both layers simultaneously. The main coupling mechanism between the two layers, as concluded from the FMR and MR measurements, is the Néel "orange-peel" magnetostatic interaction, accompanied by a direct exchange due to pinholes in the Cu spacer for tCu < 17 Å.

  3. Thickness dependence of the magnetic anisotropy and dynamic magnetic response of ferromagnetic NiFe films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, E. F.; Corrêa, M. A.; Della Pace, R. D.; Plá Cid, C. C.; Kern, P. R.; Carara, M.; Chesman, C.; Alves Santos, O.; Rodríguez-Suárez, R. L.; Azevedo, A.; Rezende, S. M.; Bohn, F.

    2017-05-01

    We investigate the thickness dependence of the magnetic anisotropy and dynamic magnetic response of ferromagnetic NiFe films. We go beyond quasi-static measurements and focus on the dynamic magnetic response by considering three complementary techniques: the ferromagnetic resonance, magnetoimpedance and magnetic permeability measurements. We verify remarkable modifications in the magnetic anisotropy, i.e. the well-known behavior of in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy systems gives place to a complex magnetic behavior as the thickness increases, and splits the films in two groups according to the magnetic properties. We identify magnetoimpedance and magnetic permeability curves with multiple resonance peaks, as well as the evolution of the ferromagnetic resonance absorption spectra, as fingerprints of strong changes of the magnetic properties associated to the vanishing of the in-plane magnetic anisotropy and to the emergence of non-homogeneous magnetization configuration, local anisotropies and out-of-plane anisotropy contribution arisen as a consequence of the non-uniformities of the stress stored in the film as the thickness is increased and/or to the columnar growth of the film. We interpret the experimental results in terms of the structural and morphological properties, quasi-static magnetic behavior, magnetic domain structure and different mechanisms governing the magnetization dynamics at distinct frequency ranges.

  4. Intercalation of polyethylene oxide PEO in layered MPS{sub 3} (M = Ni, Fe) materials

    SciTech Connect

    Manriquez, V. . E-mail: vmanriqu@abello.dic.uchile.cl; Barahona, P.; Ruiz, D.; Avila, R.E.

    2005-03-08

    The intercalation compounds Li{sub 0.96}(H{sub 2}O){sub 0.77}(PEO){sub 0.63}Ni{sub 0.48}PS{sub 3} and Li{sub 0.94}(H{sub 2}O){sub 0.92}(PEO){sub 0.94}Fe{sub 0.48}PS{sub 3} obtained by the insertion of PEO in MPS{sub 3} form lithium-polyethylene oxide complexes containing Li{sup +} exchangeable cation in the interlayer space. Polyethylene oxide (PEO) is able to associate interlayer cation increasing the ionic conductivity of NiPS{sub 3} and FePS{sub 3.} These compounds constitute a new family of intercalates MPS{sub 3} (M = Ni, Fe) host-layer materials. The new materials were characterized by powder X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transformed infrared (FT-IR), differential thermal and thermogravimetric analyses (DTA/TG), energy dispersive X-Ray (EDX), inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and electrochemical impedance measurements. The intercalation compound Li{sub 0.96}(H{sub 2}O){sub 0.77}(PEO){sub 0.63}Ni{sub 0.48}PS{sub 3} shows an ionic conductivity of 0.13 {mu}S/cm, and dc electronic conductivity of ca. 0.1 {mu}S/cm which is twice that of NiPS{sub 3}.

  5. Current induced magnetization switching in Co/Cu/Ni-Fe nanopillar with orange peel coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Aravinthan, D.; Daniel, M.; Sabareesan, P.

    2015-07-15

    The impact of orange peel coupling on spin current induced magnetization switching in a Co/Cu/Ni-Fe nanopillar device is investigated by solving the switching dynamics of magnetization of the free layer governed by the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert-Slonczewski (LLGS) equation. The value of the critical current required to initiate the magnetization switching is calculated analytically by solving the LLGS equation and verified the same through numerical analysis. Results of numerical simulation of the LLGS equation using Runge-Kutta fourth order procedure shows that the presence of orange peel coupling between the spacer and the ferromagnetic layers reduces the switching time of the nanopillar device from 67 ps to 48 ps for an applied current density of 4 × 10{sup 12}Am{sup −2}. Also, the presence of orange peel coupling reduces the critical current required to initiate switching, and in this case, from 1.65 × 10{sup 12}Am{sup −2} to 1.39 × 10{sup 12}Am{sup −2}.

  6. Effects of Magnetic Domain Walls on the Anisotropic Magnetoresistance in NiFe Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Nam, Chunghee

    2015-10-01

    We show that a type of magnetic domain walls (DWs) can be monitored by anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) measurements due to a specific DW volume depending on the DW type in NiFe magnetic wires. A circular DW injection pad is used to generate DWs at a low magnetic field, resulting in reliable DW introduction into magnetic wires. DW pinning is induced by a change of DW energy at an asymmetric single notch. The injection of DW from the circular pad and its pinning at the notch is observed by using AMR and magnetic force microscope (MFM) measurements. A four-point probe AMR measurement allows us to distinguish the DW type in the switching process because DWs are pinned at the single notch, where voltage probes are closely placed around the notch. Two types of AMR behavior are observed in the AMR measurements, which is owing to a change of DW structures. MFM images and micromagnetic simulations are consistent with the AMR results.

  7. Distal [FeS]-Cluster Coordination in [NiFe]-Hydrogenase Facilitates Intermolecular Electron Transfer.

    PubMed

    Petrenko, Alexander; Stein, Matthias

    2017-01-05

    Biohydrogen is a versatile energy carrier for the generation of electric energy from renewable sources. Hydrogenases can be used in enzymatic fuel cells to oxidize dihydrogen. The rate of electron transfer (ET) at the anodic side between the [NiFe]-hydrogenase enzyme distal iron-sulfur cluster and the electrode surface can be described by the Marcus equation. All parameters for the Marcus equation are accessible from Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. The distal cubane FeS-cluster has a three-cysteine and one-histidine coordination [Fe₄S₄](His)(Cys)₃ first ligation sphere. The reorganization energy (inner- and outer-sphere) is almost unchanged upon a histidine-to-cysteine substitution. Differences in rates of electron transfer between the wild-type enzyme and an all-cysteine mutant can be rationalized by a diminished electronic coupling between the donor and acceptor molecules in the [Fe₄S₄](Cys)₄ case. The fast and efficient electron transfer from the distal iron-sulfur cluster is realized by a fine-tuned protein environment, which facilitates the flow of electrons. This study enables the design and control of electron transfer rates and pathways by protein engineering.

  8. Relaxation mechanism in NiFe thin films driven by spin angular momentum absorption throughout the antiferromagnetic phase transition in native surface oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frangou, L.; Forestier, G.; Auffret, S.; Gambarelli, S.; Baltz, V.

    2017-02-01

    We report an alternative mechanism for the physical origin of the temperature-dependent ferromagnetic relaxation observed in bare permalloy (NiFe) thin films. Through spin-pumping experiments, we demonstrate that the peak in the temperature dependence of NiFe damping can be understood in terms of enhanced absorption of spin angular momentum at the magnetic phase transition in native antiferromagnetic surface-oxidized layers. These results suggest some avenues for the investigation of an incompletely understood phenomenon in physics.

  9. Vertically Aligned FeOOH/NiFe Layered Double Hydroxides Electrode for Highly Efficient Oxygen Evolution Reaction.

    PubMed

    Chi, Jun; Yu, Hongmei; Qin, Bowen; Fu, Li; Jia, Jia; Yi, Baolian; Shao, Zhigang

    2017-01-11

    Employing a low-cost and highly efficient electrocatalyst to replace Ir-based catalysts for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) has drawn increasing interest in renewable energy storage. In this work, a vertically aligned FeOOH/NiFe layered double hydroxides (LDHs) nanosheets supported on Ni foam (VA FeOOH/NiFe LDHs-NF) is prepared as a highly effective OER electrode in alkaline electrolyte. The VA FeOOH/NiFe LDHs-NF represents nanosheet arrays on nickel foam with some interspace among them. The vertically aligned and interlayer-structured architecture is binder-free and contributes to facile strain relaxation, relieving the exfoliation of the catalysts layer caused by the oxygen evolution process. The as-prepared electrode shows current densities of 10 and 500 mA cm(-2) at overpotentials of 208 and 288 mV, and good stability in a half-cell electrolyzer. Besides, the alkaline polymer electrolyte water electrolyzer (APEWE) with this electrode showed 1.71 V at 200 mA cm(-2), and 2.041 V at 500 mA cm(-2), exhibiting the corresponding energy efficiency of 86.0% and 72.0% (based on the lower heating value of hydrogen), which is better than the typical commercial alkaline water electrolyzer.

  10. In situ studies of surface of NiFe2O4 catalyst during complete oxidation of methane

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Shiran; Shan, Junjun; Nie, Longhui; ...

    2015-12-21

    Here, NiFe2O4 with an inverse spinel structure exhibits high activity for a complete oxidation of methane at 400 °C–425 °C and a higher temperature. The surface of the catalyst and its adsorbates were well characterized with ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS) and in situ infrared spectroscopy (IR). In situ studies of the surface of NiFe2O4 using AP-XPS suggest the formation of methoxy-like and formate-like intermediates at a temperature lower than 200 °C, supported by the observed vibrational signatures in in situ IR studies. Evolutions of C1s photoemission features and the nominal atomic ratios of C/(Ni + Fe) of themore » catalyst surface suggest that the formate-like intermediate is transformed to product molecules CO2 and H2O in the temperature range of 250–300 °C. In situ studies suggest the formation of a spectator, – Olattice – CH2 – Olattice –. It strongly bonds to surface through C–O bonds and cannot be activated even at 400 °C.« less

  11. Highly Active Three-Dimensional NiFe/Cu2 O Nanowires/Cu Foam Electrode for Water Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hu; Gao, Yan; Sun, Licheng

    2017-04-10

    Water splitting is of paramount importance for exploiting renewable energy-conversion and -storage systems, but is greatly hindered by the kinetically sluggish oxygen evolution reaction (OER). In this work, a three-dimensional, highly efficient, and durable NiFe/Cu2 O nanowires/Cu foam anode (NiFe/Cu2 O NWs/CF) for water oxidation in 1.0 m KOH was developed. The obtained electrode exhibited a current density of 10 mA cm(-2) at a uniquely low overpotential of η=215 mV. The average specific current density (js ) was estimated, on the basis of the electrocatalytically active surface area, to be 0.163 mA cm(-2) at η=310 mV. The electrode also displayed a low Tafel slope of 42 mV decade(-1) . Moreover, the NiFe/Cu2 O NWs/CF electrode could maintain a steady current density of 100 mA cm(-2) for 50 h at an overpotential of η=260 mV. The outstanding electrochemical performance of the electrode for the OER was attributed to the high conductivity of the Cu foam and the specific structure of the electrode with a large interfacial area.

  12. Preparation and low-frequency microwave-absorbing properties of MWCNTs/Co-Ni/Fe3O4 hybrid material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Shao-Wei; Yuan, Chao-Jun; Jia, Cai-Xia; Ma, Ke-Ming; Wang, Xiao-Qiang

    2016-04-01

    MWCNTs/Co-Ni/Fe3O4 hybrid material has been successfully prepared by electroless plating and coprecipitation method, which is applied to the low-frequency microwave absorption. Their surface morphology, structure, magnetism and electromagnetic properties in the low-frequency range of 1-4GHz were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and vector network analyzer. Results indicated that magnetic Co-Ni/Fe3O4 particles were attached on the surface of multi-walled carbon nanotubes successfully. The saturation magnetization of MWCNTs/Co-Ni/Fe3O4 hybrid materials was 68.6emu/g and the coercivity is 17.9 Oe. The electromagnetic and microwave absorbing properties analysis in the low-frequency range of 1-4GHz indicated that the hybrid material exhibited excellent magnetic loss and the maximum reflection loss could reach -13.57dB at 1.51GHz with 1.05GHz bandwidth below -5dB.

  13. Phase Evolution and Ni-Fe Granular Growth of Saprolitic Laterite Ore-CaO Mixtures during Reductive Roasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jun; Li, Guanghui; Peng, Zhiwei; Rao, Mingjun; Zhang, Yuanbo; Jiang, Tao

    2016-12-01

    The correlations between phase evolution, fusion behavior, and Ni-Fe granules growth of laterite ore-CaO mixtures during reductive roasting have been investigated. The minimum melting point of 1220°C of the CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 system with 17-36 wt.% CaO is demonstrated via phase diagram analysis, and this point is decreased in the presence of FeO. This reveals that the fusion behavior in close association with the Fe-Ni granular growth can be regulated by altering the contents of CaO and FeO. Promoting the generation of diopside (CaMgSi2O6) may reduce the operating temperature from 1300-1350°C to 1150-1200°C, which ensures sufficient melting phase content. Moreover, reducing the CO partial fraction lowers the fusion temperature but hinders the growth of Ni-Fe grains. The average size of Ni-Fe granules in the reduced mixture with 17 wt.% CaO reaches nearly 20 μm at 1200°C for 1 h in a 100 vol.% CO atmosphere.

  14. In situ studies of surface of NiFe2O4 catalyst during complete oxidation of methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shiran; Shan, Junjun; Nie, Longhui; Nguyen, Luan; Wu, Zili; Tao, Franklin (Feng)

    2016-06-01

    NiFe2O4 with an inverse spinel structure exhibits high activity for a complete oxidation of methane at 400 °C-425 °C and a higher temperature. The surface of the catalyst and its adsorbates were well characterized with ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS) and in situ infrared spectroscopy (IR). In situ studies of the surface of NiFe2O4 using AP-XPS suggest the formation of methoxy-like and formate-like intermediates at a temperature lower than 200 °C, supported by the observed vibrational signatures in in situ IR studies. Evolutions of C1s photoemission features and the nominal atomic ratios of C/(Ni + Fe) of the catalyst surface suggest that the formate-like intermediate is transformed to product molecules CO2 and H2O in the temperature range of 250-300 °C. In situ studies suggest the formation of a spectator, - Olatticesbnd CH2sbnd Olattice -. It strongly bonds to surface through Csbnd O bonds and cannot be activated even at 400 °C.

  15. Non-Volatile Ferroelectric Switching of Ferromagnetic Resonance in NiFe/PLZT Multiferroic Thin Film Heterostructures

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhongqiang; Wang, Xinjun; Nan, Tianxiang; Zhou, Ziyao; Ma, Beihai; Chen, Xiaoqin; Jones, John G.; Howe, Brandon M.; Brown, Gail J.; Gao, Yuan; Lin, Hwaider; Wang, Zhiguang; Guo, Rongdi; Chen, Shuiyuan; Shi, Xiaoling; Shi, Wei; Sun, Hongzhi; Budil, David; Liu, Ming; Sun, Nian X.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetoelectric effect, arising from the interfacial coupling between magnetic and electrical order parameters, has recently emerged as a robust means to electrically manipulate the magnetic properties in multiferroic heterostructures. Challenge remains as finding an energy efficient way to modify the distinct magnetic states in a reliable, reversible, and non-volatile manner. Here we report ferroelectric switching of ferromagnetic resonance in multiferroic bilayers consisting of ultrathin ferromagnetic NiFe and ferroelectric Pb0.92La0.08Zr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PLZT) films, where the magnetic anisotropy of NiFe can be electrically modified by low voltages. Ferromagnetic resonance measurements confirm that the interfacial charge-mediated magnetoelectric effect is dominant in NiFe/PLZT heterostructures. Non-volatile modification of ferromagnetic resonance field is demonstrated by applying voltage pulses. The ferroelectric switching of magnetic anisotropy exhibits extensive applications in energy-efficient electronic devices such as magnetoelectric random access memories, magnetic field sensors, and tunable radio frequency (RF)/microwave devices. PMID:27581071

  16. Non-Volatile Ferroelectric Switching of Ferromagnetic Resonance in NiFe/PLZT Multiferroic Thin Film Heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhongqiang; Wang, Xinjun; Nan, Tianxiang; Zhou, Ziyao; Ma, Beihai; Chen, Xiaoqin; Jones, John G; Howe, Brandon M; Brown, Gail J; Gao, Yuan; Lin, Hwaider; Wang, Zhiguang; Guo, Rongdi; Chen, Shuiyuan; Shi, Xiaoling; Shi, Wei; Sun, Hongzhi; Budil, David; Liu, Ming; Sun, Nian X

    2016-09-01

    Magnetoelectric effect, arising from the interfacial coupling between magnetic and electrical order parameters, has recently emerged as a robust means to electrically manipulate the magnetic properties in multiferroic heterostructures. Challenge remains as finding an energy efficient way to modify the distinct magnetic states in a reliable, reversible, and non-volatile manner. Here we report ferroelectric switching of ferromagnetic resonance in multiferroic bilayers consisting of ultrathin ferromagnetic NiFe and ferroelectric Pb0.92La0.08Zr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PLZT) films, where the magnetic anisotropy of NiFe can be electrically modified by low voltages. Ferromagnetic resonance measurements confirm that the interfacial charge-mediated magnetoelectric effect is dominant in NiFe/PLZT heterostructures. Non-volatile modification of ferromagnetic resonance field is demonstrated by applying voltage pulses. The ferroelectric switching of magnetic anisotropy exhibits extensive applications in energy-efficient electronic devices such as magnetoelectric random access memories, magnetic field sensors, and tunable radio frequency (RF)/microwave devices.

  17. Synthesis of highly ordered 30 nm NiFe2O4 particles by the microwave-combustion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, M. H.; Elshahawy, A. M.; Makhlouf, Salah A.; Hamdeh, H. H.

    2014-11-01

    NiFe2O4 of 30 nm average size was synthesized by microwave combustion and subsequent solid state reaction at 1273 K. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, TEM, vibrating sample magnetometery and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The microwave combustion produced materials were comprised chemically of ferrites and a smaller amount of hematite. The NiFe2O4 particles have the cubic spinel structure with crystallites of sizes less than 10 nm, and were found to have low magnetization, and essentially no hysteresis loop; characteristics of superparamagnetism. Upon annealing at temperatures 973 K and below, crystallite growth was accompanied by increase in both coercive field and magnetization. The coercive field was a maximum for the sample annealed at 973 K. On the other hand, crystallite growth at higher annealing temperatures yielded mainly ferrites and improvement in soft magnetic properties. Mössbauer and magnetization measurements indicate that the fine NiFe2O4 particles produced at the annealing temperature of 1273 K are in good chemical and magnetic order, excluding the spins arrangement at the surface of the particles which show spin glass-like behavior.

  18. Identification, cloning and heterologous expression of active [NiFe]-hydrogenase 2 from Citrobacter sp. SG in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Maier, Johannes A H; Ragozin, Sergey; Jeltsch, Albert

    2015-04-10

    Hydrogen (H2) is a potential alternative energy carrier which only produces water and heat upon combustion. Today, industrial hydrogen production mainly uses thermochemical processes based on fossil fuels or electrolysis of water. Therefore, biotechnological approaches to produce H2 from biomass are an interesting alternative. We introduce here a novel direct hydrogen measurement system using a semiconducting device specific for hydrogen detection. Using this device, a bacterium producing considerable amounts of hydrogen under aerobic cultivation was isolated and identified by 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing as Citrobacter sp. The enzyme responsible for the observed hydrogenase activity was partially purified by 3 chromatographic purification steps and could be identified by peptide mass fingerprinting to be a type 2 [NiFe]-hydrogenase. Expression of the [NiFe]-hydrogenase 2 containing operon from Citrobacter sp. SG in Escherichia coli allowed recombinant hydrogen production. The [NiFe]-hydrogenase 2 identified here may be useful for biotechnological hydrogen production. We speculate that the expression of the hydrogenase in Citrobacter may be an adaptation to growth in acidic conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Nanocrystalline ceramic materials

    DOEpatents

    Siegel, Richard W.; Nieman, G. William; Weertman, Julia R.

    1994-01-01

    A method for preparing a treated nanocrystalline metallic material. The method of preparation includes providing a starting nanocrystalline metallic material with a grain size less than about 35 nm, compacting the starting nanocrystalline metallic material in an inert atmosphere and annealing the compacted metallic material at a temperature less than about one-half the melting point of the metallic material.

  20. Spin wave stiffness constant on the amorphous and nanocrystalline state of Fe{sub 76}Cu{sub 1}Nb{sub 3}Si{sub 14}B{sub 6} alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, S.C.; Kepa, H. |; Kim, W.T.; Zeiske, T.; Weiss, L.

    1995-11-01

    The authors report here on the effect of annealing temperatures on the spin wave excitations for the amorphous and nanocrystalline state of Fe{sub 76}Cu{sub 1}Nb{sub 3}Si{sub 14}B{sub 6} alloys, observed from the low temperature magnetization curves and the spectroscopic splitting g factors. The temperature dependence of saturation magnetization was measured with a vibrating sample magnetometer and the SQUID magnetometer. Spectroscopic splitting g-values were estimated from ferromagnetic resonance experiments (FMR). The thermo-magnetization curve is found to obey Bloch`s law, M{sub s}(T) = M{sub s}(0)(1- BT{sup 3/2}-CT{sup 5/2}). The spin wave stiffness constants were also observed from the preliminary results of the neutron inelastic scattering measurements. The spin wave stiffness constants obtained from two different experimental methods on the Fe{sub 76}Cu{sub 1}Nb{sub 3}Si{sub 14}B{sub 6} alloys agree fairly well.

  1. Importance of the Active Site "Canopy" Residues in an O2-Tolerant [NiFe]-Hydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Brooke, Emily J; Evans, Rhiannon M; Islam, Shams T A; Roberts, Gerri M; Wehlin, Sara A M; Carr, Stephen B; Phillips, Simon E V; Armstrong, Fraser A

    2017-01-10

    The active site of Hyd-1, an oxygen-tolerant membrane-bound [NiFe]-hydrogenase from Escherichia coli, contains four highly conserved residues that form a "canopy" above the bimetallic center, closest to the site at which exogenous agents CO and O2 interact, substrate H2 binds, and a hydrido intermediate is stabilized. Genetic modification of the Hyd-1 canopy has allowed the first systematic and detailed kinetic and structural investigation of the influence of the immediate outer coordination shell on H2 activation. The central canopy residue, arginine 509, suspends a guanidine/guanidinium side chain at close range above the open coordination site lying between the Ni and Fe atoms (N-metal distance of 4.4 Å): its replacement with lysine lowers the H2 oxidation rate by nearly 2 orders of magnitude and markedly decreases the H2/D2 kinetic isotope effect. Importantly, this collapse in rate constant can now be ascribed to a very unfavorable activation entropy (easily overriding the more favorable activation enthalpy of the R509K variant). The second most important canopy residue for H2 oxidation is aspartate 118, which forms a salt bridge to the arginine 509 headgroup: its mutation to alanine greatly decreases the H2 oxidation efficiency, observed as a 10-fold increase in the potential-dependent Michaelis constant. Mutations of aspartate 574 (also salt-bridged to R509) to asparagine and proline 508 to alanine have much smaller effects on kinetic properties. None of the mutations significantly increase sensitivity to CO, but neutralizing the expected negative charges from D118 and D574 decreases O2 tolerance by stabilizing the oxidized resting Ni(III)-OH state ("Ni-B"). An extensive model of the catalytic importance of residues close to the active site now emerges, whereby a conserved gas channel culminates in the arginine headgroup suspended above the Ni and Fe.

  2. Theoretical insights into [NiFe]-hydrogenases oxidation resulting in a slowly reactivating inactive state.

    PubMed

    Breglia, Raffaella; Ruiz-Rodriguez, Manuel Antonio; Vitriolo, Alessandro; Gonzàlez-Laredo, Rubén Francisco; De Gioia, Luca; Greco, Claudio; Bruschi, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    [NiFe]-hydrogenases catalyse the relevant H2 → 2H(+) + 2e(-) reaction. Aerobic oxidation or anaerobic oxidation of this enzyme yields two inactive states called Ni-A and Ni-B. These states differ for the reactivation kinetics which are slower for Ni-A than Ni-B. While there is a general consensus on the structure of Ni-B, the nature of Ni-A is still controversial. Indeed, several crystallographic structures assigned to the Ni-A state have been proposed, which, however, differ for the nature of the bridging ligand and for the presence of modified cysteine residues. The spectroscopic characterization of Ni-A has been of little help due to small differences of calculated spectroscopic parameters, which does not allow to discriminate among the various forms proposed for Ni-A. Here, we report a DFT investigation on the nature of the Ni-A state, based on systematic explorations of conformational and configurational space relying on accurate energy calculations, and on comparisons of theoretical geometries with the X-ray structures currently available. The results presented in this work show that, among all plausible isomers featuring various protonation patterns and oxygenic ligands, the one corresponding to the crystallographic structure recently reported by Volbeda et al. (J Biol Inorg Chem 20:11-22, 19)-featuring a bridging hydroxide ligand and the sulphur atom of Cys64 oxidized to bridging sulfenate-is the most stable. However, isomers with cysteine residues oxidized to terminal sulfenate are very close in energy, and modifications in the network of H-bond with neighbouring residues may alter the stability order of such species.

  3. Effect of a CoFeB layer on the anisotropic magnetoresistance of Ta/CoFeB/MgO/NiFe/MgO/CoFeB/Ta films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Minghua; Shi, Hui; Dong, Yuegang; Ding, Lei; Han, Gang; Zhang, Yao; Liu, Ye; Yu, Guanghua

    2017-10-01

    The anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) and magnetic properties of NiFe films can be remarkably enhanced via CoFeB layer. In the case of an ultrathin NiFe film having a Ta/CoFeB/MgO/NiFe/MgO/CoFeB/Ta structure, the CoFeB/MgO layers suppressed the formation of magnetic dead layers and the interdiffusions and interface reactions between the NiFe and Ta layers. The AMR reached a maximum value of 3.56% at 450 °C. More importantly, a single NiFe (1 1 1) peak can be formed resulting in higher AMR values for films having CoFeB layer. This enhanced AMR also originated from the significant specular reflection of electrons owing to the crystalline MgO layer, together with the sharp interfaces with the NiFe layer. These factors together resulted in higher AMR and improved magnetic properties.

  4. Controllable synthesis and enhanced microwave absorbing properties of Fe3O4/NiFe2O4/Ni heterostructure porous rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yana; Wu, Tong; Jin, Keying; Qian, Yao; Qian, Naxin; Jiang, Kedan; Wu, Wenhua; Tong, Guoxiu

    2016-11-01

    We developed a coordinated self-assembly/precipitate transfer/sintering method that allows the controllable synthesis of Fe3O4/NiFe2O4/Ni heterostructure porous rods (HPRs). A series of characterizations confirms that changing [Ni2+] can effectively control the crystal size, internal strain, composition, textural characteristics, and properties of HPRs. Molar percentages of Ni and NiFe2O4 in HPRs increase with [Ni2+] in various Boltzmann function modes. Saturation magnetization Ms and coercivity Hc show U-shaped change trends because of crystal size, composition, and interface magnetic coupling. High magnetic loss is maintained after decorating NiFe2O4 and Ni on the surface of Fe3O4 PRs. Controlling the NiFe2O4 interface layers and Ni content can improve impedance matching and dielectric losses, thereby leading to lighter weight, stronger absorption, and broader absorption band of Fe3O4/NiFe2O4/Ni HPRs than Fe3O4 PRs. An optimum EM wave absorbing property was exhibited by Fe3O4/NiFe2O4/Ni HPRs formed at [Ni2+] = 0.05 M. The maximum reflection loss (RL) reaches -58.4 dB at 13.68 GHz, which corresponds to a 2.1 mm matching thickness. The absorbing bandwidth (RL ≤ -20 dB) reaches 14.4 GHz with the sample thickness at 1.6-2.4 and 2.8-10.0 mm. These excellent properties verify that Fe3O4/NiFe2O4/Ni HPRs are promising candidates for new and effective absorptive materials.

  5. One-pot fabrication of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles on α-Ni(OH)2 nanosheet for enhanced water oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hong; Yan, Junqing; Wu, Huan; Zhang, Yunxia; Liu, Shengzhong (Frank)

    2016-08-01

    Water splitting has been intensively investigated as a promising solution to resolve the future environmental and energy crises. The oxygen evolution reaction (OER) of the photo- and electric field-induced water splitting limits the development of other reactions, including hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Fe, Ni and NiFe (hydro) oxide-based catalysts are generally acknowledged among the best candidates of OER catalysts for water splitting. Herein, we developed a one-pot simple hydrothermal process to assemble NiFe2O4 nanoparticles onto the α-Ni(OH)2 nanosheets. The first formed NiFe2O4 under high temperature and pressure environment induces and assists the α-Ni(OH)2 formation without any further additives, because the distance between the neighboring Ni atoms in the cubic NiFe2O4 is similar to that in the α-Ni(OH)2 {003} facets. We have synthesized a series of NiFe2O4/α-Ni(OH)2 compounds and find that the overpotential decreases with the increase of Ni(OH)2 content while the OER kinetics stays unchanged, suggesting that Ni(OH)2 plays a major role in overpotential while NiFe2O4 mainly affects the OER kinetics. The obtained NiFe2O4/α-Ni(OH)2 compounds is also found to be a promising co-catalyst for the photocatalytic water oxidation. In fact, it is even more active than the noble PtOx with acceptable stability for the oxygen generation.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}–Pd magnetically recyclable catalyst for hydrogenation reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Karaoğlu, E.; Özel, U.; Caner, C.; Baykal, A.; Summak, M.M.; Sözeri, H.

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Novel superparamagnetic NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}–Pd magnetically recyclable catalyst was fabricated through co-precipitation. ► It could be reused several times without significant loss in catalytic activity for hydrogenation reaction. ► No further modification of the NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}–Pd magnetically recyclable catalyst is necessary for utilization as catalyst. -- Abstract: Herein we report the fabrication and characterization magnetically recyclable catalysts of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}–Pd nanocomposite as highly effective catalysts for reduction reactions in liquid phase. The reduction Pd{sup 2+} was accomplished with polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG-400) instead of sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}) and NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles was prepared by sonochemically using FeCI{sub 3}·6H{sub 2}O and NiCl{sub 2}. The chemical characterization of the product was done with X-ray diffractometry, Infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, UV–Vis spectroscopy, thermal gravimetry and inductively coupled plasma. Thus formed NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}–Pd MRCs showed a very high activity in reduction reactions of 4-nitro aniline and 1,3-dinitrobenzene in liquid phase. It was found out that the catalytic activity of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}–Pd MRCs on the reduction of 4-nitro aniline and 1,3-dinitrobenzene in liquid phase are between 99–93% and 98–93%, respectively. Magnetic character of this system allowed recovery and multiple use without significant loss of its catalytic activity. It is found that NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}–Pd MRCs showed very efficient catalytic activity and multiple usability.

  7. Nanocrystalline Aluminum Truss Cores for Lightweight Sandwich Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaedler, Tobias A.; Chan, Lisa J.; Clough, Eric C.; Stilke, Morgan A.; Hundley, Jacob M.; Masur, Lawrence J.

    2017-08-01

    Substitution of conventional honeycomb composite sandwich structures with lighter alternatives has the potential to reduce the mass of future vehicles. Here we demonstrate nanocrystalline aluminum-manganese truss cores that achieve 2-4 times higher strength than aluminum alloy 5056 honeycombs of the same density. The scalable fabrication approach starts with additive manufacturing of polymer templates, followed by electrodeposition of nanocrystalline Al-Mn alloy, removal of the polymer, and facesheet integration. This facilitates curved and net-shaped sandwich structures, as well as co-curing of the facesheets, which eliminates the need for extra adhesive. The nanocrystalline Al-Mn alloy thin-film material exhibits high strength and ductility and can be converted into a three-dimensional hollow truss structure with this approach. Ultra-lightweight sandwich structures are of interest for a range of applications in aerospace, such as fairings, wings, and flaps, as well as for the automotive and sports industries.

  8. Detection of the dynamic magnetic behavior of the antiferromagnet in exchange-coupled NiFe/IrMn bilayers.

    PubMed

    Spizzo, F; Tamisari, M; Bonfiglioli, E; Del Bianco, L

    2013-09-25

    The magnetothermal behavior of antiferromagnetic IrMn layers of different thickness (3, 6, 10 nm) has been studied by exploiting the exchange coupling with a ferromagnetic 5 nm-thick NiFe layer. A procedure has been devised for the measurement of the magnetization of the NiFe/IrMn bilayers as a function of temperature and time at different values of an external magnetic field, Hinv, antiparallel to the unidirectional exchange anisotropy. This analysis allows one to probe the effective distribution of anisotropy energy barriers of the antiferromagnetic phase, as sensed by the ferromagnetic layer. Two magnetic regimes have been distinguished. At temperature T < 100 K, the interfacial IrMn spins are frozen in a glassy state and are collectively involved in the exchange coupling with the NiFe spins. At T ∼ 100 K the collective state breaks up; thus, above this temperature, only the interfacial IrMn spins which are tightly polarized by the IrMn nanograins, forming the bulk of the layer, are effectively involved in the exchange coupling mechanism. Due to that, for T > 100 K the exchange coupling is ruled by the anisotropy energy barriers of the bulk IrMn nanograins, namely by the layer thickness. The thermal evolution of the exchange field and of the coercivity in the three samples is coherently explained in the framework of this description of the dynamic magnetic behavior of the IrMn phase.

  9. Mechanistic insight into the blocking of CO diffusion in [NiFe]-hydrogenase mutants through multiscale simulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Po-hung; Blumberger, Jochen

    2012-04-24

    [NiFe]-hydrogenases are fascinating biological catalysts with potential application in biofuel cells. However, a severe problem in practical application is the strong sensitivity of hydrogenase to gaseous inhibitor molecules such as CO and O(2). Recently, a number of successful protein engineering studies have been reported that aimed at lowering the access of diatomic inhibitors to the active site pocket, but the molecular mechanism conferring increased resistance remained unclear. Here we use a multiscale simulation approach combining molecular dynamics with a master equation formalism to explain the steady drop in CO diffusion rate observed for the mutants V74M L122A, V74M L122M, and V74M of Desulfovibrio fructosovorans [NiFe]-hydrogenase. We find that diffusion in these variants is controlled by two gates, one between residues 74 and 476 and the other between residues 74 and 122. The existence of two control points in different locations explains why the reduction in the experimental diffusion rate does not simply correlate with the width of the main gas channel. We also find that in the more effective mutation (V74M) CO molecules are still able to reach the active site through transitions that are gated by the microsecond dihedral motions of the side chain of R476 and the thermal fluctuations of the width of the gas channel defined by M74 and L122. Reflecting on the molecular information gained from simulation, we discuss future mutation experiments that could further lower the diffusion rates of small ligands inhibiting [NiFe]-hydrogenase.

  10. Anisotropic and vector hysteresis model for magnetic materials application to a cubic textured NiFe sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernescu-Spornic, Cristina; Kedous-Lebouc, Afef; Spornic, Sorin Aurel; Ossart, Florence

    2000-01-01

    Nowadays, several research teams are involved in vector and anisotropic hysteresis modelling of soft magnetic materials. In this paper a new model is presented. It is based on the Preisach model, but uses a four-state vector operator. The model is applied to a cubic textured NiFe sheet and verified for unixial and rotating exciting field. At high induction level the behaviour of the material is well described. However, discrepancy with experiment is observed at low induction. This phenomena is currently under analysis in order to adapt the model for such working conditions.

  11. First-principles study of ferroelectricity induced by p-d hybridization in ferrimagnetic NiFe2O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jong, Un-Gi; Yu, Chol-Jun; Park, Yong-Su; Ri, Chong-Suk

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the ferrimagnetism and ferroelectricity of bulk NiFe2O4 with tetragonal P41 22 symmetry by means of density functional theory calculations using generalized gradient approximation + Hubbard U approach. Special attention is paid to finding the most energetically favorable configuration on magnetic ordering and further calculating the reliable spontaneous electric polarization. With the fully optimized crystalline structure of the most stable configuration, the spontaneous polarization is obtained to be 23 μC/cm2 along the z direction, which originates from the hybridization between the 3d states of the Fe3+ cation and the 2p states of oxygen induced by Jahn-Teller effect.

  12. Thermo-therapeutic applications of chitosan- and PEG-coated NiFe2O4 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manjura Hoque, S.; Tariq, Mehrin; Liba, S. I.; Salehin, F.; Mahmood, Z. H.; Khan, M. N. I.; Chattopadhayay, K.; Islam, Rafiqul; Akhter, S.

    2016-07-01

    The paper reports the thermo-therapeutic applications of chitosan- and PEG-coated nickel ferrite (NiFe2O4) nanoparticles. In this study NiFe2O4 nanoparticles were synthesized by the co-precipitation method, tuning the particle size through heat treatment in the temperature range from 200-800 °C for 3 h. XRD and TEM analysis revealed that the the ultrafine nanoparticles were of size 2-58 nm. Crystallinity of the NiFe2O4 nanoparticles in the as-dried condition with the particle size ˜2-3 nm was confirmed from the presence of a lattice fringe in the HRTEM image. VSM measurements showed that a superparamagnetic/ferromagnetic transition occurs with increasing particle size, which was further confirmed by Mössbauer spectroscopy. The nickel ferrite nanoparticles with optimum particle size of 10 nm were then coated with materials commonly used for biomedical applications, i.e. chitosan and PEG, to form homogeneous suspensions. The hydrodynamic diameter and the polydispersity index (PDI) were analyzed by dynamic light scattering at the physiological temperature of 37 °C and found to be 187 nm and 0.21 for chitosan-coated nanoparticles and 285 nm and 0.32 for PEG-coated ones. The specific loss power of rf induction heating by the set-up for hyperthermia and r 2 relaxivity by the nuclear magnetic resonance were determined. The results of induction heating measurements showed that the temperature attained by the nanoparticles of size 10 nm and concentration of about 20 mg ml-1 was >70 °C (for chitosan) and >64 °C (for PEG). It has been demonstrated that the required temperature for hyperthermia heating could be tuned by tuning the particle size, shape and magnetization and the concentration of solution. For other potential biomedical applications of the NiFe2O4 nanoparticle solution, e.g. magnetic resonance imaging, the NMR studies yielded the T 1 and T 2 relaxivities as 0.348 and 89 mM-1 s-1 respectively. The fact that the T 2 relaxivity is orders of magnitude higher

  13. Fast-pulverization enabled simultaneous enhancement on cycling stability and rate capability of C@NiFe2O4 hierarchical fibrous bundle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zerui; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Xiaoling; Sun, Wenping; Dou, Shixue; Huang, Xin; Shi, Bi

    2017-09-01

    Electrochemical-grinding induced pulverization is the origin of capacity fading in NiFe2O4. Increasing current density normally accelerates the pulverization that deteriorates lithium storage properties of NiFe2O4. Here we show that the high current induced fast-pulverization can serve as an efficient activation strategy for quick and simultaneous enhancement on cycling stability and rate capability of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles (NPs) that are densely packed on the hierarchically structured carbon nanofiber strand. At a high current density, the pulverization of NiFe2O4 NPs can be accomplished in a few cycles exposing more active surface. During the fast-pulverization, the hierarchically structured carbon nanofiber strand maintains conductive contact for the densely packed NiFe2O4 NPs regardless of charge or discharge, which also effectively suppresses the repetitive breaks and growths of solid-electrolyte-interphase (SEI) via multiple-level structural adaption that favourites the quick formation of a thin and dense SEI, thus providing strong interparticle connectivity with enhancement on cycling stability and rate capability (e.g. doubled capacity). Our findings demonstrate the potential importance of high current induced fast-pulverization as an efficient activation strategy for achieving durable electrode materials suffering from electrochemical-grinding effects.

  14. Disclosure of key stereoelectronic factors for efficient H2 binding and cleavage in the active site of [NiFe]-hydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Bruschi, Maurizio; Tiberti, Matteo; Guerra, Alessandro; De Gioia, Luca

    2014-02-05

    A comparative analysis of a series of DFT models of [NiFe]-hydrogenases, ranging from minimal NiFe clusters to very large systems including both the first and second coordination sphere of the bimetallic cofactor, was carried out with the aim of unraveling which stereoelectronic properties of the active site of [NiFe]-hydrogenases are crucial for efficient H2 binding and cleavage. H2 binding to the Ni-SIa redox state is energetically favored (by 4.0 kcal mol(-1)) only when H2 binds to Ni, the NiFe metal cluster is in a low spin state, and the Ni cysteine ligands have a peculiar seesaw coordination geometry, which in the enzyme is stabilized by the protein environment. The influence of the Ni coordination geometry on the H2 binding affinity was then quantitatively evaluated and rationalized analyzing frontier molecular orbitals and populations. Several plausible reaction pathways leading to H2 cleavage were also studied. It turned out that a two-step pathway, where H2 cleavage takes place on the Ni-SIa redox state of the enzyme, is characterized by very low reaction barriers and favorable reaction energies. More importantly, the seesaw coordination geometry of Ni was found to be a key feature for facile H2 cleavage. The discovery of the crucial influence of the Ni coordination geometry on H2 binding and activation in the active site of [NiFe]-hydrogenases could be exploited in the design of novel biomimetic synthetic catalysts.

  15. Predicting Grain Growth in Nanocrystalline Materials: A Thermodynamic and Kinetic-Based Model Informed by High Temperature X-ray Diffraction Experiments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    first focuses on the iron– zirconium (Fe–Zr) nanocrystalline alloys. In the nanocrystalline Fe–Zr system, experimental studies14,16 have found that a...Scattergood RO, Koch CC. The thermal stability of nanocrystalline cartridge brass and the effect of zirconium additions. Journal of Materials Science...nanocrystalline copper by zirconium . Materials Science and Engineering A. 2013;559:250–256. 14. Darling KA, Chan RN, Wong PZ, Semones JE, Scattergood RO

  16. Dithiolate-bridged Fe-Ni-Fe trinuclear complexes consisting of Fe(CO)(3-n)(CN)(n) (n = 0, 1) components relevant to the active site of [NiFe] hydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Pal, Satyanarayan; Ohki, Yasuhiro; Yoshikawa, Teppei; Kuge, Katsuaki; Tatsumi, Kazuyuki

    2009-06-02

    A dithiolate-bridged Fe-Ni-Fe trinuclear carbonyl complex [(CO)(3)Fe(mu-ndt)Ni(mu-ndt)Fe(CO)(3)] (1, ndt = norbornane-exo-2,3-dithiolate) has been synthesized from the reaction of [Fe(CO)(4)I(2)] and Li(2)[Ni(ndt)(2)]. This reaction was found to occur with concomitant formation of a tetranuclear cluster [Ni(3)(mu-ndt)(4)FeI] (2). Treatment of 1 with Na[N(SiMe(3))(2)] transforms some of the CO ligands into CN(-), and the monocyanide complex (PPh(4))[(CO)(2)(CN)Fe(mu-ndt)Ni(mu-ndt)Fe(CO)(3)] (3) and the dicyanide complex (PPh(4))(2)[(CO)(2)(CN)Fe(mu-ndt)Ni(mu-ndt)Fe(CO)(2)(CN)] (4) were isolated. X-ray structural analyses of the trinuclear complexes revealed a Fe-Ni-Fe array in which the metal centers are connected by the ndt sulfur bridges and direct Fe-Ni bonds. Hydrogen bonding between the CN ligand in 3 and cocrystallized ethanol was found in the solid-state structure. The monocyanide complex 3 and dicyanide complex 4 reacted with acids such as HOTf or HCl generating insoluble materials, whereas complex 1 did not react.

  17. Nanocrystalline ceramic materials

    DOEpatents

    Siegel, R.W.; Nieman, G.W.; Weertman, J.R.

    1994-06-14

    A method is disclosed for preparing a treated nanocrystalline metallic material. The method of preparation includes providing a starting nanocrystalline metallic material with a grain size less than about 35 nm, compacting the starting nanocrystalline metallic material in an inert atmosphere and annealing the compacted metallic material at a temperature less than about one-half the melting point of the metallic material. 19 figs.

  18. The effect of alloying nickel with iron on the supersonic ballistic stage of high energy displacement cascades

    SciTech Connect

    Béland, Laurent Karim; Osetsky, Yuri N.; Stoller, Roger E.

    2016-06-23

    Previous experimental and theoretical studies suggest that the production of extended defect structures by collision cascades is inhibited in equiatomic NiFe, in comparison to pure Ni. It is also known that the production of such extend defect structures results from the formation of subcascades by high-energy recoils and their subsequent interaction. A detailed analysis of the ballistics of 40 keV cascades in Ni and NiFe is performed to identify the formation of such subcascades and to assess their spatial distribution. It is found that subcascades in Ni and NiFe are created with nearly identical energies and distributed similarly in space. This suggests that the differences in production of extended defect structures is not related to processes taking place in the ballistic phase of the collision cascade. Lastly, these results can be generalized to other, more chemically complex, concentrated alloys where the elements have similar atomic numbers, such as many high-entropy alloys.

  19. The effect of alloying nickel with iron on the supersonic ballistic stage of high energy displacement cascades

    SciTech Connect

    Béland, Laurent Karim; Osetsky, Yuri N.; Stoller, Roger E.

    2016-06-23

    Previous experimental and theoretical studies suggest that the production of extended defect structures by collision cascades is inhibited in equiatomic NiFe, in comparison to pure Ni. It is also known that the production of such extend defect structures results from the formation of subcascades by high-energy recoils and their subsequent interaction. A detailed analysis of the ballistics of 40 keV cascades in Ni and NiFe is performed to identify the formation of such subcascades and to assess their spatial distribution. It is found that subcascades in Ni and NiFe are created with nearly identical energies and distributed similarly in space. This suggests that the differences in production of extended defect structures is not related to processes taking place in the ballistic phase of the collision cascade. Lastly, these results can be generalized to other, more chemically complex, concentrated alloys where the elements have similar atomic numbers, such as many high-entropy alloys.

  20. Investigation of dielectric and electrical behaviour of nanocrystalline Zn1-xMnxO (x=0 to 0.10) semiconductors synthesized by mechanical alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, S.; Sain, S.; Mandal, M. K.; Pradhan, S. K.; Meikap, A. K.

    2016-07-01

    The results on the measurement of electric and dielectric behaviour and capacitance-voltage characteristics of Zn1-xMnxO (x=0 to 0.10) nanocrystalline semiconductors are reported. Direct current conductivity increases with the increase Mn concentration and its thermal behavior can be explained by adiabatic polaronic hopping model. The alternating current conductivity obeys a power law of temperature and frequency. The temperature exponent p strongly depends on Mn concentration. The temperature dependence of frequency exponent s suggests that the overlapping large polaron conduction model is the appropriate conduction mechanism for the investigated samples. The interfacial boundaries and grain contribution to the dielectric properties can be identified by the analysis of complex impedance. Relaxation behaviour of the samples can be explained from the analysis of the electric modulus. Formation of Schottky diode can be described from capacitance-voltage characteristic of the samples and different diode parameters can be extracted from it.