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Sample records for nanocrystals fundamentals materials

  1. Nonthermal Plasma Synthesis of Nanocrystals: Fundamental Principles, Materials, and Applications.

    PubMed

    Kortshagen, Uwe R; Sankaran, R Mohan; Pereira, Rui N; Girshick, Steven L; Wu, Jeslin J; Aydil, Eray S

    2016-09-28

    Nonthermal plasmas have emerged as a viable synthesis technique for nanocrystal materials. Inherently solvent and ligand-free, nonthermal plasmas offer the ability to synthesize high purity nanocrystals of materials that require high synthesis temperatures. The nonequilibrium environment in nonthermal plasmas has a number of attractive attributes: energetic surface reactions selectively heat the nanoparticles to temperatures that can strongly exceed the gas temperature; charging of nanoparticles through plasma electrons reduces or eliminates nanoparticle agglomeration; and the large difference between the chemical potentials of the gaseous growth species and the species bound to the nanoparticle surfaces facilitates nanocrystal doping. This paper reviews the state of the art in nonthermal plasma synthesis of nanocrystals. It discusses the fundamentals of nanocrystal formation in plasmas, reviews practical implementations of plasma reactors, surveys the materials that have been produced with nonthermal plasmas and surface chemistries that have been developed, and provides an overview of applications of plasma-synthesized nanocrystals.

  2. Nonthermal Plasma Synthesis of Nanocrystals: Fundamental Principles, Materials, and Applications.

    PubMed

    Kortshagen, Uwe R; Sankaran, R Mohan; Pereira, Rui N; Girshick, Steven L; Wu, Jeslin J; Aydil, Eray S

    2016-09-28

    Nonthermal plasmas have emerged as a viable synthesis technique for nanocrystal materials. Inherently solvent and ligand-free, nonthermal plasmas offer the ability to synthesize high purity nanocrystals of materials that require high synthesis temperatures. The nonequilibrium environment in nonthermal plasmas has a number of attractive attributes: energetic surface reactions selectively heat the nanoparticles to temperatures that can strongly exceed the gas temperature; charging of nanoparticles through plasma electrons reduces or eliminates nanoparticle agglomeration; and the large difference between the chemical potentials of the gaseous growth species and the species bound to the nanoparticle surfaces facilitates nanocrystal doping. This paper reviews the state of the art in nonthermal plasma synthesis of nanocrystals. It discusses the fundamentals of nanocrystal formation in plasmas, reviews practical implementations of plasma reactors, surveys the materials that have been produced with nonthermal plasmas and surface chemistries that have been developed, and provides an overview of applications of plasma-synthesized nanocrystals. PMID:27550744

  3. Controlled Crystallinity and Fundamental Coupling Interactions in Nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Min

    2009-03-01

    Metal and semiconductor nanocrystals show many unusual properties and functionalities, and can serve as model system to explore fundamental quantum and classical coupling interactions as well as building blocks of many practical applications. However, because of their small size, these nanoparticles typically exhibit different crystalline properties as compared with their bulk counterpart, and controlling crystallinity (and structural defects) within nanoparticles has posed significant technical challenges. In this talk, I will firstly apply silver metal nanoparticles as an example and present a novel chemical synthetic technique to achieve unprecedented crystallinity control at the nanoscale. This engineering of nanocrystallinity enables manipulation of intrinsic chemical functionalities, physical properties as well as nano-device performance [1]. For example, I will highlight that electron- phonon coupling constant can be significantly reduced by about four times and elastic modulus is increased ˜40% in perfect single crystalline silver nanoparticles as compared with those in disordered twinned nanoparticles. One important application of metal nanoparticles is nanoscale sensors. I will thus demonstrate that performance of nanoparticles based molecular sensing devices can be optimized with three times improvement of figure-of-merit if perfect single crystalline nanoparticles are applied. Lastly, I will present our related studies on semiconductor nanocrystals as well as their hybrid heterostructures. These discussions should offer important implications for our understanding of the fundamental properties at nanoscale and potential applications of metal nanoparticles. [4pt] [1] Yun Tang and Min Ouyang, Nature Materials, 6, 754, 2007.

  4. New materials for tunable plasmonic colloidal nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Comin, Alberto; Manna, Liberato

    2014-06-01

    We present a review on the emerging materials for novel plasmonic colloidal nanocrystals. We start by explaining the basic processes involved in surface plasmon resonances in nanoparticles and then discuss the classes of nanocrystals that to date are particularly promising for tunable plasmonics: non-stoichiometric copper chalcogenides, extrinsically doped metal oxides, oxygen-deficient metal oxides and conductive metal oxides. We additionally introduce other emerging types of plasmonic nanocrystals and finally we give an outlook on nanocrystals of materials that could potentially display interesting plasmonic properties.

  5. Designer Nanocrystal Materials for Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagan, Cherie

    Advances in synthetic methods allow a wide range of semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) to be tailored in size and shape and to be used as building blocks in the design of NC solids. However, the long, insulating ligands commonly employed in the synthesis of colloidal NCs inhibit strong interparticle coupling and charge transport once NCs are assembled into the solids state as NC arrays. We will describe the range of short, compact ligand chemistries we employ to exchange the long, insulating ligands used in synthesis and to increase interparticle coupling. These ligand exchange processes can have a dramatic influence on NC surface chemistry as well as NC organization in the solids, showing examples of short-range order. Synergistically, we use 1) thermal evaporation and diffusion and 2) wet-chemical methods to introduce extrinsic impurities and non-stoichiometry to passivate surface traps and dope NC solids. NC coupling and doping provide control over the density of states and the carrier type, concentration, mobility, and lifetime, which we characterize by a range of electronic and spectroscopic techniques. We will describe the importance of engineering device interfaces to design NC materials for solar photovoltaics.

  6. Comparison of Silicon Nanocrystals Prepared by Two Fundamentally Different Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, Ondřej; Vorkötter, Christoph; Purkrt, Adam; Holovský, Jakub; Benedikt, Jan; Herynková, Kateřina

    2016-10-01

    This work compares structural and optical properties of silicon nanocrystals prepared by two fundamentally different methods, namely, electrochemical etching of Si wafers and low-pressure plasma synthesis, completed with a mechano-photo-chemical treatment. This treatment leads to surface passivation of the nanoparticles by methyl groups. Plasma synthesis unlike electrochemical etching allows selecting of the particle sizes. Measured sizes of the nanoparticles by dynamic light scattering show 3 and 20 nm for electrochemically etched and plasma-synthetized samples, respectively. Plasma-synthetized 20-nm particles do not exhibit photoluminescence due to absence of quantum confinement effect, and freshly appeared photoluminescence after surface passivation could indicate presence of organic molecules on the nanoparticle surface, luminescing instead of nanocrystal core. Electrochemically etched sample exhibits dramatic changes in photoluminescence during the mechano-photo-chemical treatment while no photoluminescence is observed for the plasma-synthetized one. We also used the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for comparison of the chemical changes happened during the treatment.

  7. Three-Dimensional Self Assembly of Semiconducting Colloidal Nanocrystals: From Fundamental Forces to Collective Optical Properties.

    PubMed

    Abécassis, Benjamin

    2016-03-01

    Self-assembly of colloidal nanoparticles into higher order superstructures is becoming an important topic in current research in nanoscience. More and more research efforts are being dedicated to the controlled processing of nanoparticle dispersions to yield complex architectures from these simple building blocks. This is due to the fact that collective effects can emerge from an assembly of organized nanoparticles. Semiconducting colloidal nanocrystals such as quantum dots are promising materials for a wide range of applications in optoelectronic photovoltaics. The fundamental interactions that dictate the self-assembly of semiconducting colloidal nanocrystals in apolar solvents are reviewed with a focus on 3D structures and basic shapes (spheres, rods, and platelets). Emergent collective properties and the effect of the self-assembly on the optical properties of the particles are also discussed.

  8. Fundamentals of polymeric materials

    SciTech Connect

    Shilling, M.S.

    1998-12-31

    The polymer industry is a young industry that has undergone tremendous growth and change over the last sixty years. Many important discoveries in polymer science have been accidental. Most of the learning has been by trial and error and most of the understanding is still basically empirical--make a polymer material or compound and then put it to the test to study what it is and how it performs. This article provides an overview of what polymers and polymer compounds are, why they behave as they do, and it discusses several examples of failures of rubber and plastic components.

  9. Composite material including nanocrystals and methods of making

    DOEpatents

    Bawendi, Moungi G.; Sundar, Vikram C.

    2010-04-06

    Temperature-sensing compositions can include an inorganic material, such as a semiconductor nanocrystal. The nanocrystal can be a dependable and accurate indicator of temperature. The intensity of emission of the nanocrystal varies with temperature and can be highly sensitive to surface temperature. The nanocrystals can be processed with a binder to form a matrix, which can be varied by altering the chemical nature of the surface of the nanocrystal. A nanocrystal with a compatibilizing outer layer can be incorporated into a coating formulation and retain its temperature sensitive emissive properties.

  10. Composite material including nanocrystals and methods of making

    DOEpatents

    Bawendi, Moungi G.; Sundar, Vikram C.

    2008-02-05

    Temperature-sensing compositions can include an inorganic material, such as a semiconductor nanocrystal. The nanocrystal can be a dependable and accurate indicator of temperature. The intensity of emission of the nanocrystal varies with temperature and can be highly sensitive to surface temperature. The nanocrystals can be processed with a binder to form a matrix, which can be varied by altering the chemical nature of the surface of the nanocrystal. A nanocrystal with a compatibilizing outer layer can be incorporated into a coating formulation and retain its temperature sensitive emissive properties

  11. Self-Assembly of Colloidal Nanocrystals: From Intricate Structures to Functional Materials.

    PubMed

    Boles, Michael A; Engel, Michael; Talapin, Dmitri V

    2016-09-28

    Chemical methods developed over the past two decades enable preparation of colloidal nanocrystals with uniform size and shape. These Brownian objects readily order into superlattices. Recently, the range of accessible inorganic cores and tunable surface chemistries dramatically increased, expanding the set of nanocrystal arrangements experimentally attainable. In this review, we discuss efforts to create next-generation materials via bottom-up organization of nanocrystals with preprogrammed functionality and self-assembly instructions. This process is often driven by both interparticle interactions and the influence of the assembly environment. The introduction provides the reader with a practical overview of nanocrystal synthesis, self-assembly, and superlattice characterization. We then summarize the theory of nanocrystal interactions and examine fundamental principles governing nanocrystal self-assembly from hard and soft particle perspectives borrowed from the comparatively established fields of micrometer colloids and block copolymer assembly. We outline the extensive catalog of superlattices prepared to date using hydrocarbon-capped nanocrystals with spherical, polyhedral, rod, plate, and branched inorganic core shapes, as well as those obtained by mixing combinations thereof. We also provide an overview of structural defects in nanocrystal superlattices. We then explore the unique possibilities offered by leveraging nontraditional surface chemistries and assembly environments to control superlattice structure and produce nonbulk assemblies. We end with a discussion of the unique optical, magnetic, electronic, and catalytic properties of ordered nanocrystal superlattices, and the coming advances required to make use of this new class of solids.

  12. Cobalt Nanocrystals as Starting Materials for Shape Modificationand Assembly Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Erdonmez, Can Kerem

    2005-01-01

    Surfactant-coated cobalt nanocrystals can be prepared with areasonable degree of control over particle size and shape using athermolytic route. The small crystallite size, enhanced reactivity andtunable interparticle interactions enable use of this material asstarting material for demonstration of achievement of novel structuresusing extremely simple solution-based approaches. In particular,formation of hollow cobalt sulfide nanocrystals upon chemicalmodification and emergence of long-range orientational order upondrying-mediated assembly of cobalt nanocrystals is reportedhere.Colloidal preparation of Co nanocrystals has been well-studied.Here, we emphasize general principles and crystallographic/morphologicalcharacterization of disk-shaped hcp-Co nanocrystals. Use of surfactantmolecules enables achievement of multiple morphologies in one syntheticsystem.Formation of hollow structures upon in-solution sulfidation of Conanocrystals is presented and discussed. A Kirkendall-type effect,involving dominant outward mass transport during formation of the ionicshell material explains the results naturally. It is expected that thisphenomenon will generalize extensively to formation of hollow structuresof an enormous variety of compositions. Detailed study of particlemorphology as a function of reaction conditions suggest phenomena likelyto be generally relevant to use of this approach. A short report ofcrystallographic co-alignment into vortex-like structures is alsoprovided. Our current best picture of this process involves an interplayof packing and magnetic interactions between facetedparticles.

  13. Nanocrystal assembly for bottom-up plasmonic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Andrea Rae

    2007-12-01

    Plasmonic materials are emerging as key platforms for applications that rely on the manipulation of light at small length scales. Materials that possess sub-wavelength metallic features support either localized or propagating surface plasmons that can induce huge local electromagnetic fields at the metal surface, facilitating a host of extraordinary optical phenomena. For many of the breakthrough photonic, spectroscopic, and optoelectronic applications of plasmonics, the bottom-up fabrication of these materials from low-dimensional structures has yet to be explored. Because colloidal metal nanostructures can be readily synthesized with controlled shapes and sizes, and because these structures also generate plasmon-mediated evanescent fields near their surfaces when irradiated with light, Ag nanocrystals and nanowires are ideal building blocks for rationally designed plasmonic materials. This dissertation addresses three major challenges: (1) the synthesis of Ag polyhedral nanocrystals and nanowires, (2) the bottom-up organization of these nanostructures into one-, two-, and three-dimensional assemblies, and (3) the application of these assemblies as spectroscopic sensing platforms. Faceted Ag colloids were synthesized in high yield and with remarkable monodispersity using the polyol process, where Ag+ is reduced in the presence of a polymer capping agent that serves to regulate nucleation and crystallographic growth direction. The resulting nanocrystals and nanowires are bound exclusively by {100} and {111} crystal planes, where nanowires possess pentagonal cross-sections and nanocrystals possess octahedral symmetry. Because allowed plasmon modes are explicitly dictated by geometric considerations, each shape exhibits a unique scattering spectrum in the optical wavelengths. These shaped colloidal building blocks were assembled into ordered groupings and superlattices to achieve controlled electromagnetic coupling between individual nanostructures. Of particular

  14. Methods of use of semiconductor nanocrystal probes for treating a material

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Shimon; Bruchez, Marcel; Alivisatos, Paul

    2007-04-27

    A semiconductor nanocrystal compound and probe are described. The compound is capable of linking to one or more affinity molecules. The compound comprises (1) one or more semiconductor nanocrystals capable of, in response to exposure to a first energy, providing a second energy, and (2) one or more linking agents, having a first portion linked to one or more semiconductor nanocrystals and a second portion capable of linking to one or more affinity molecules. One or more semiconductor nanocrystal compounds are linked to one or more affinity molecules to form a semiconductor nanocrystal probe capable of bonding with one or more detectable substances in a material being analyzed, and capable of, in response to exposure to a first energy, providing a second energy. Also described are processes for respectively: making the semiconductor nanocrystal compound; making the semiconductor nanocrystal probe; and treating materials with the probe.

  15. DOE fundamentals handbook: Material science. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    This handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors in providing operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of the structure and properties of metals. This volume contains the two modules: structure of metals (bonding, common lattic types, grain structure/boundary, polymorphis, alloys, imperfections in metals) and properties of metals (stress, strain, Young modulus, stress-strain relation, physical properties, working of metals, corrosion, hydrogen embrittlement, tritium/material compatibility).

  16. Fundamental physics of infrared detector materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinch, Michael A.

    2001-06-01

    The fundamental parameters of IR photon detection are discussed relevant to the meaningful comparison of a wide range of proposed IR detecting materials systems. The thermal generation rate of the IR material is seen to be the key parameter that enables this comparison. The simple materials physics of (1) intrinsic direct bandgap semiconductors, (2) extrinsic semiconductors, (3) quantum well devices, including types I, II, and III superlattices, (4) Si Schottky barriers, are examined with regard to the potential performance of these materials as IR detectors, utilizing the thermal generation rate as a differentiator. The possibility of room temperature photon detection over the whole IR spectral range is discussed, and comparison made with uncooled thermal detection.

  17. Fundamental physics of infrared detector materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinch, Michael A.

    2000-06-01

    The fundamental parameters of IR photon detection are discussed relevant to the meaningful comparison of a wide range of proposed IR detecting materials systems. The thermal generation rate of the IR material is seen to be the key parameter that enables this comparison. The simple materials physics of 1) intrinsic direct bandgap semiconductors; 2) extrinsic semiconductors; 3) quantum well devices, including types I, II, and III superlattices; 4) Si Schottky barriers; and 5) high temperature superconductors, will be examined with regard to the potential performance of these materials as IR detectors, utilizing the thermal generation rate as a differentiator. The possibility of room temperature photon detection over the whole IR spectral range is discussed, and comparisons made with uncooled thermal detection.

  18. Coupling single giant nanocrystal quantum dots to the fundamental mode of patch nanoantennas through fringe field

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Feng; Karan, Niladri S.; Minh Nguyen, Hue; Ghosh, Yagnaseni; Hollingsworth, Jennifer A.; Htoon, Han

    2015-09-23

    Through single dot spectroscopy and numerical simulation studies, we demonstrate that the fundamental mode of gold patch nanoantennas have fringe-field resonance capable of enhancing the nano-emitters coupled around the edge of the patch antenna. This fringe-field coupling is used to enhance the radiative rates of core/thick-shell nanocrystal quantum dots (g-NQDs) that cannot be embedded into the ultra-thin dielectric gap of patch nanoantennas due to their large sizes. We attain 14 and 3 times enhancements in single exciton radiative decay rate and bi-exciton emission efficiencies of g-NQDs respectively, with no detectable metal quenching. Our numerical studies confirmed our experimental results andmore » further reveal that patch nanoantennas can provide strong emission enhancement for dipoles lying not only in radial direction of the circular patches but also in the direction normal to the antennas surface. Finally, this provides a distinct advantage over the parallel gap-bar antennas that can provide enhancement only for the dipoles oriented across the gap.« less

  19. Coupling Single Giant Nanocrystal Quantum Dots to the Fundamental Mode of Patch Nanoantennas through Fringe Field

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feng; Karan, Niladri S.; Minh Nguyen, Hue; Ghosh, Yagnaseni; Hollingsworth, Jennifer A.; Htoon, Han

    2015-01-01

    Through single dot spectroscopy and numerical simulation studies, we demonstrate that the fundamental mode of gold patch nanoantennas have fringe-field resonance capable of enhancing the nano-emitters coupled around the edge of the patch antenna. This fringe-field coupling is used to enhance the radiative rates of core/thick-shell nanocrystal quantum dots (g-NQDs) that cannot be embedded into the ultra-thin dielectric gap of patch nanoantennas due to their large sizes. We attain 14 and 3 times enhancements in single exciton radiative decay rate and bi-exciton emission efficiencies of g-NQDs respectively, with no detectable metal quenching. Our numerical studies confirmed our experimental results and further reveal that patch nanoantennas can provide strong emission enhancement for dipoles lying not only in radial direction of the circular patches but also in the direction normal to the antennas surface. This provides a distinct advantage over the parallel gap-bar antennas that can provide enhancement only for the dipoles oriented across the gap. PMID:26394763

  20. Coupling single giant nanocrystal quantum dots to the fundamental mode of patch nanoantennas through fringe field

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Feng; Karan, Niladri S.; Minh Nguyen, Hue; Ghosh, Yagnaseni; Hollingsworth, Jennifer A.; Htoon, Han

    2015-09-23

    Through single dot spectroscopy and numerical simulation studies, we demonstrate that the fundamental mode of gold patch nanoantennas have fringe-field resonance capable of enhancing the nano-emitters coupled around the edge of the patch antenna. This fringe-field coupling is used to enhance the radiative rates of core/thick-shell nanocrystal quantum dots (g-NQDs) that cannot be embedded into the ultra-thin dielectric gap of patch nanoantennas due to their large sizes. We attain 14 and 3 times enhancements in single exciton radiative decay rate and bi-exciton emission efficiencies of g-NQDs respectively, with no detectable metal quenching. Our numerical studies confirmed our experimental results and further reveal that patch nanoantennas can provide strong emission enhancement for dipoles lying not only in radial direction of the circular patches but also in the direction normal to the antennas surface. Finally, this provides a distinct advantage over the parallel gap-bar antennas that can provide enhancement only for the dipoles oriented across the gap.

  1. Fundamentals of materials accounting for nuclear safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1989-04-01

    Materials accounting is essential to providing the necessary assurance for verifying the effectiveness of a safeguards system. The use of measurements, analyses, records, and reports to maintain knowledge of the quantities of nuclear material present in a defined area of a facility and the use of physical inventories and materials balances to verify the presence of special nuclear materials are collectively known as materials accounting for nuclear safeguards. This manual, prepared as part of the resource materials for the Safeguards Technology Training Program of the US Department of Energy, addresses fundamental aspects of materials accounting, enriching and complementing them with the first-hand experiences of authors from varied disciplines. The topics range from highly technical subjects to site-specific system designs and policy discussions. This collection of papers is prepared by more than 25 professionals from the nuclear safeguards field. Representing research institutions, industries, and regulatory agencies, the authors create a unique resource for the annual course titled ''Materials Accounting for Nuclear Safeguards,'' which is offered at the Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  2. Fundamental properties of semiconductor materials, and material performance in detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casper, K. J.

    1973-01-01

    Procedures for determining fundamental properties of semiconductor materials, their performance as radiation detectors, and their service life as such detectors are given. Relationships were established between the minority carrier lifetime in the bulk of the material and the charge collection efficiency of the detector.

  3. Fundamental properties and applications of low- dimensional materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Philip

    1999-11-01

    Physics in reduced dimensions has attracted much attention during the last decades owing to the discovery of new phenomena in low-dimensional materials and their potential importance in device applications. The unique properties of these low dimensional materials have been generally understood by considering the increased role of fluctuations and singularities in physical quantities due to the reduction in available phase space. In this thesis, I have investigated the fundamental physical properties of several low dimensional materials and have presented a technological application of these materials. Magnetic flux lines in high temperature superconductors (HTSCs) can be effectively treated as 2+1 dimensional systems due to the large anisotropy of HTSCs. The microscopic structure of the magnetic flux line lattice in Bi 2Sr2CaCu2O8 + x superconducting single crystals was studied at temperatures up to 77 K by Bitter magnetic decoration technique. Analysis of structural correlations shows that the flux line lattices are in the hexatic phase for the high temperature and low field regime, and enables us to estimate the flux line lattice freezing temperature. In addition, dislocation-free decoration images containing up to 80,000 vortices, which are two orders of magnitude larger number than that of previous studies, have been obtained. Analyses of these large length new data shows that the observed flux line lattices are in the random manifold regime with a roughening exponent of 0.44 for length scales up to 80-100 lattice constants. At larger length scales, the data exhibit nonequilibrium features that persist for different cooling rates and field histories. Charge density waves in transition-metal dichalcogenides are a good example of a two dispensional electronic system. A scanning tunneling microscope (STM) was used to fabricate T-phase tantalum diselenide (TaSe2) nanocrystals with sizes ranging from 7 to more than 100 nanometers within the surface layer of 2H phase

  4. Metal halide solid-state surface treatment for nanocrystal materials

    DOEpatents

    Luther, Joseph M.; Crisp, Ryan; Beard, Matthew C.

    2016-04-26

    Methods of treating nanocrystal and/or quantum dot devices are described. The methods include contacting the nanocrystals and/or quantum dots with a solution including metal ions and halogen ions, such that the solution displaces native ligands present on the surface of the nanocrystals and/or quantum dots via ligand exchange.

  5. Fundamental Characterization Studies of Advanced Photocatalytic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phivilay, Somphonh Peter

    Solar powered photocatalytic water splitting has been proposed as a method for the production of sustainable, non-carbon hydrogen fuel. Although much technological progress has been achieved in recent years in the discovery of advanced photocatalytic materials, the progress in the fundamental scientific understanding of such novel, complex mixed oxide and oxynitride photocatalysts has significantly lagged. One of the major reasons for this slow scientific progress is the limited number of reported surface characterization studies of the complex bulk mixed oxide and oxynitride photocatalyst systems. Although photocatalytic splitting of water by bulk mixed oxide and oxynitride materials involves both bulk (generation of excited electrons and holes) and surface phenomena (reaction of H2O with excited electrons and holes at the surface), the photocatalysis community has almost completely ignored the surface characteristics of such complex bulk photocatalysts and correlates the photocatalytic properties with bulk properties. Some of the most promising photocatalyst systems (NaTaO3, GaN, (Ga1-xZnx)(N1-xOx) and TaON) were investigated to establish fundamental bulk/surface structure photoactivity relationships. The bulk molecular and electronic structures of the photocatalysts were determined with Raman and UV-vis spectroscopy. Photoluminescence (PL) and transient PL spectroscopy were provided insight into how recombination of photogenerated electrons is related to the photocatalysis activity. The chemical states and atomic compositions of the surface region of the photocatalysts were determined with high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (˜1-3 nm) and high sensitivity-low energy ion scattering spectroscopy (˜0.3 nm). The new insights obtained from surface characterization clarified the role of La and Ni promoters species for the NaTaO3 photocatalyst system. The La2O3 additive was found to be a structural promoter that stabilizes small NaTaO3 nanoparticles (NPs

  6. Hydrazine-mediated construction of nanocrystal self-assembly materials.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ding; Liu, Min; Lin, Min; Bu, Xinyuan; Luo, Xintao; Zhang, Hao; Yang, Bai

    2014-10-28

    Self-assembly is the basic feature of supramolecular chemistry, which permits to integrate and enhance the functionalities of nano-objects. However, the conversion of self-assembled structures to practical materials is still laborious. In this work, on the basis of studying one-pot synthesis, spontaneous assembly, and in situ polymerization of aqueous semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs), NC self-assembly materials are produced and applied to design high performance white light-emitting diode (WLED). In producing self-assembly materials, the additive hydrazine (N2H4) is curial, which acts as the promoter to achieve room-temperature synthesis of aqueous NCs by favoring a reaction-controlled growth, as the polyelectrolyte to weaken inter-NC electrostatic repulsion and therewith facilitate the one-dimensional self-assembly, and in particular as the bifunctional monomers to polymerize with mercapto carboxylic acid-modified NCs via in situ amidation reaction. This strategy is versatile for mercapto carboxylic acid-modified aqueous NCs, for example CdS, CdSe, CdTe, CdSe(x)Te(1-x), and Cd(y)Hg(1-y)Te. Because of the multisite modification with carboxyl, the NCs act as macromonomers, thus producing cross-linked self-assembly materials with excellent thermal, solvent, and photostability. The assembled NCs preserve strong luminescence and avoid unpredictable fluorescent resonance energy transfer, the main problem in design WLED from multiple NC components. These advantages allow the fabrication of NC-based WLED with high color rendering index (86), high luminous efficacy (41 lm/W), and controllable color temperature.

  7. DOE fundamentals handbook: Material science. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The Mechanical Science Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors in providing operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of mechanical components and mechanical science. The handbook includes information on diesel engines, heat exchangers, pumps, valves, and miscellaneous mechanical components. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the construction and operation of mechanical components that are associated with various DOE nuclear facility operations and maintenance.

  8. EDITORIAL: Tribocorrosion: fundamentals, materials and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MORE ADDRESSES--> Alfons Fischer,

  1. Prediction and Design of Materials from Crystal Structures to Nanocrystal Morphology and Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennig, Richard

    2012-02-01

    Predictions of structure formation by computational methods have the potential to accelerate materials discovery and design. Here we present two computational approaches for the prediction of crystal structures and the morphology of nanoparticles. Many materials properties are controlled by composition and crystal structure. We show that evolutionary algorithms coupled to ab-initio relaxations can accurately predict the crystal structure and composition of compounds without any prior information about the system. We will discuss results for various systems including the prediction of unexpected quasi-1D and 2D electronic structures in Li-Be compounds under pressure [1] and of the crystal structure of the superconducting high-pressure phase of Eu [2]. The self-assembly of nanocrystals into mesoscale superlattices provides a path to the design of materials with tunable electronic, physical and chemical properties for various applications. The self-assembly is controlled by the nanocrystal shape and by ligand-mediated interactions between them. To understand this, it is necessary to know the effect of the ligands on the surface energies (which tune the nanocrystal shape), as well as the relative coverage of the different facets (which control the interactions). Density functional calculations for the binding energy of oleic acid-based ligands on PbSe nanocrystals determine the surface energies as a function of ligand coverage. The Wulff construction predicts the thermodynamic equilibrium shape of the PbSe nanocrystals as a function of the ligand coverage. We show that the different ligand binding energies on the 100 and 111 facets results in different ligand coverages on the facets and predict a transition in the equilibrium shape from octahedral to cubic when increasing the ligand concentration during synthesis. Our results furthermore suggest that the experimentally observed transformation of the nanocrystal superlattice structure from fcc to bcc is caused by the

  2. Nanostructured materials for rechargeable batteries: synthesis, fundamental understanding and limitations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhan, Hui; Xiao, Jie; Nie, Zimin; Li, Xiaolin; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun

    2013-05-30

    Nanostructured materials have emerged as very attrcative electrode materials for energy storage due to their small sizes and structure/morphology related properties. The purpose of this article to discuss the opportunities and challenges of nanostructured materials for advanced energy storage devices. Nanostructured silicon (Si) anodes together with other cathode and anode materials are used as examples to illustrate the different methods available for synthesis and the range of materials that can be produced to improve the storage capacity and stability. Recent progresses in using well-defined nanostructures to gain new fundamental understanding of the complex electrochemical reactions and charge-discharge processes are also discussed. Finally, the paper addresses some key problems that are yet to be solved and the need to optimize the microstructures and control the high level architectures beyond nanoscale.

  3. Fundamentals of lateral and vertical heterojunctions of atomically thin materials.

    PubMed

    Pant, Anupum; Mutlu, Zafer; Wickramaratne, Darshana; Cai, Hui; Lake, Roger K; Ozkan, Cengiz; Tongay, Sefaattin

    2016-02-21

    At the turn of this century, Herbert Kroemer, the 2000 Nobel Prize winner in Physics, famously commented that "the interface is the device". This statement has since opened up unparalleled opportunities at the interface of conventional three-dimensional (3D) materials (H. Kroemer, Quasi-Electric and Quasi-Magnetic Fields in Non-Uniform Semiconductors, RCA Rev., 1957, 18, 332-342). More than a decade later, Sir Andre Geim and Irina Grigorieva presented their views on 2D heterojunctions which further cultivated broad interests in the 2D materials field. Currently, advances in two-dimensional (2D) materials enable us to deposit layered materials that are only one or few unit-cells in thickness to construct sharp in-plane and out-of-plane interfaces between dissimilar materials, and to be able to fabricate novel devices using these cutting-edge techniques. The interface alone, which traditionally dominated overall device performance, thus has now become the device itself. Fueled by recent progress in atomically thin materials, we are now at the ultimate limit of interface physics, which brings to us new and exciting opportunities, with equally demanding challenges. This paper endeavors to provide stalwarts and newcomers a perspective on recent advances in synthesis, fundamentals, applications, and future prospects of a large variety of heterojunctions of atomically thin materials. PMID:26831401

  4. Fundamentals of lateral and vertical heterojunctions of atomically thin materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pant, Anupum; Mutlu, Zafer; Wickramaratne, Darshana; Cai, Hui; Lake, Roger K.; Ozkan, Cengiz; Tongay, Sefaattin

    2016-02-01

    At the turn of this century, Herbert Kroemer, the 2000 Nobel Prize winner in Physics, famously commented that ``the interface is the device''. This statement has since opened up unparalleled opportunities at the interface of conventional three-dimensional (3D) materials (H. Kroemer, Quasi-Electric and Quasi-Magnetic Fields in Non-Uniform Semiconductors, RCA Rev., 1957, 18, 332-342). More than a decade later, Sir Andre Geim and Irina Grigorieva presented their views on 2D heterojunctions which further cultivated broad interests in the 2D materials field. Currently, advances in two-dimensional (2D) materials enable us to deposit layered materials that are only one or few unit-cells in thickness to construct sharp in-plane and out-of-plane interfaces between dissimilar materials, and to be able to fabricate novel devices using these cutting-edge techniques. The interface alone, which traditionally dominated overall device performance, thus has now become the device itself. Fueled by recent progress in atomically thin materials, we are now at the ultimate limit of interface physics, which brings to us new and exciting opportunities, with equally demanding challenges. This paper endeavors to provide stalwarts and newcomers a perspective on recent advances in synthesis, fundamentals, applications, and future prospects of a large variety of heterojunctions of atomically thin materials.

  5. Fundamentals of lateral and vertical heterojunctions of atomically thin materials.

    PubMed

    Pant, Anupum; Mutlu, Zafer; Wickramaratne, Darshana; Cai, Hui; Lake, Roger K; Ozkan, Cengiz; Tongay, Sefaattin

    2016-02-21

    At the turn of this century, Herbert Kroemer, the 2000 Nobel Prize winner in Physics, famously commented that "the interface is the device". This statement has since opened up unparalleled opportunities at the interface of conventional three-dimensional (3D) materials (H. Kroemer, Quasi-Electric and Quasi-Magnetic Fields in Non-Uniform Semiconductors, RCA Rev., 1957, 18, 332-342). More than a decade later, Sir Andre Geim and Irina Grigorieva presented their views on 2D heterojunctions which further cultivated broad interests in the 2D materials field. Currently, advances in two-dimensional (2D) materials enable us to deposit layered materials that are only one or few unit-cells in thickness to construct sharp in-plane and out-of-plane interfaces between dissimilar materials, and to be able to fabricate novel devices using these cutting-edge techniques. The interface alone, which traditionally dominated overall device performance, thus has now become the device itself. Fueled by recent progress in atomically thin materials, we are now at the ultimate limit of interface physics, which brings to us new and exciting opportunities, with equally demanding challenges. This paper endeavors to provide stalwarts and newcomers a perspective on recent advances in synthesis, fundamentals, applications, and future prospects of a large variety of heterojunctions of atomically thin materials.

  6. Carrier Multiplication in Semiconductor Nanocrystals: Theoretical Screening of Candidate Materials Based on Band-Structure Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, J. W.; Franceschetti, A.; Zunger, A.

    2008-01-01

    Direct carrier multiplication (DCM) occurs when a highly excited electron-hole pair decays by transferring its excess energy to the electrons rather than to the lattice, possibly exciting additional electron-hole pairs. Atomistic electronic structure calculations have shown that DCM can be induced by electron-hole Coulomb interactions, in an impact-ionization-like process whose rate is proportional to the density of biexciton states {rho}{sub XX}. Here we introduce a DCM 'figure of merit' R{sub 2}(E) which is proportional to the ratio between the biexciton density of states {rho}{sub XX} and the single-exciton density of states {rho}{sub x}, restricted to single-exciton and biexciton states that are coupled by Coulomb interactions. Using R{sub 2}(E), we consider GaAs, InAs, InP, GaSb, InSb, CdSe, Ge, Si, and PbSe nanocrystals of different sizes. Although DCM can be affected by both quantum-confinement effects (reflecting the underly electronic structure of the confined dot-interior states) and surface effects, here we are interested to isolate the former. To this end the nanocrystal energy levels are obtained from the corresponding bulk band structure via the truncated crystal approximation. We find that PbSe, Si, GaAs, CdSe, and InP nanocrystals have larger DCM figure of merit than the other nanocrystals. Our calculations suggest that high DCM efficiency requires high degeneracy of the corresponding bulk band-edge states. Interestingly, by considering band structure effects we find that as the dot size increases the DCM critical energy E{sub 0} (the energy at which R{sub 2}(E) becomes {ge}1) is reduced, suggesting improved DCM. However, whether the normalized E{sub 0}/{var_epsilon}{sub g} increases or decreases as the dot size increases depends on dot material.

  7. Oxide Nanocrystal Model Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Huang, Weixin

    2016-03-15

    Model catalysts with uniform and well-defined surface structures have been extensively employed to explore structure-property relationships of powder catalysts. Traditional oxide model catalysts are based on oxide single crystals and single crystal thin films, and the surface chemistry and catalysis are studied under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions. However, the acquired fundamental understandings often suffer from the "materials gap" and "pressure gap" when they are extended to the real world of powder catalysts working at atmospheric or higher pressures. Recent advances in colloidal synthesis have realized controlled synthesis of catalytic oxide nanocrystals with uniform and well-defined morphologies. These oxide nanocrystals consist of a novel type of oxide model catalyst whose surface chemistry and catalysis can be studied under the same conditions as working oxide catalysts. In this Account, the emerging concept of oxide nanocrystal model catalysts is demonstrated using our investigations of surface chemistry and catalysis of uniform and well-defined cuprous oxide nanocrystals and ceria nanocrystals. Cu2O cubes enclosed with the {100} crystal planes, Cu2O octahedra enclosed with the {111} crystal planes, and Cu2O rhombic dodecahedra enclosed with the {110} crystal planes exhibit distinct morphology-dependent surface reactivities and catalytic properties that can be well correlated with the surface compositions and structures of exposed crystal planes. Among these types of Cu2O nanocrystals, the octahedra are most reactive and catalytically active due to the presence of coordination-unsaturated (1-fold-coordinated) Cu on the exposed {111} crystal planes. The crystal-plane-controlled surface restructuring and catalytic activity of Cu2O nanocrystals were observed in CO oxidation with excess oxygen. In the propylene oxidation reaction with O2, 1-fold-coordinated Cu on Cu2O(111), 3-fold-coordinated O on Cu2O(110), and 2-fold-coordinated O on Cu2O(100) were identified

  8. Fundamental Studies of Crystal Growth of Microporous Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, P.; George, M.; Ramachandran, N.; Schoeman, B.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Microporous materials are framework structures with well-defined porosity, often of molecular dimensions. Zeolites contain aluminum and silicon atoms in their framework and are the most extensively studied amongst all microporous materials. Framework structures with P, Ga, Fe, Co, Zn, B, Ti and a host of other elements have also been made. Typical synthesis of microporous materials involve mixing the framework elements (or compounds, thereof) in a basic solution, followed by aging in some cases and then heating at elevated temperatures. This process is termed hydrothermal synthesis, and involves complex chemical and physical changes. Because of a limited understanding of this process, most synthesis advancements happen by a trial and error approach. There is considerable interest in understanding the synthesis process at a molecular level with the expectation that eventually new framework structures will be built by design. The basic issues in the microporous materials crystallization process include: (1) Nature of the molecular units responsible for the crystal nuclei formation; (2) Nature of the nuclei and nucleation process; (3) Growth process of the nuclei into crystal; (4) Morphological control and size of the resulting crystal; (5) Surface structure of the resulting crystals; (6) Transformation of frameworks into other frameworks or condensed structures. The NASA-funded research described in this report focuses to varying degrees on all of the above issues and has been described in several publications. Following is the presentation of the highlights of our current research program. The report is divided into five sections: (1) Fundamental aspects of the crystal growth process; (2) Morphological and Surface properties of crystals; (3) Crystal dissolution and transformations; (4) Modeling of Crystal Growth; (5) Relevant Microgravity Experiments.

  9. Design, fabrication and fundamental studies of plasmonic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLellan, Erin C.

    2007-12-01

    Nanoplasmonics is an emerging branch of photonics that studies the optical properties of noble metals. Nanostructured noble metal materials, which can strongly interact with light and support various plasmon modes, are exceptional candidates for nanophotonic devices. This work describes the latest advances in the fabrication of ordered silver nanoparticles or nanowell arrays using both nanosphere lithography (NSL) and electron beam lithography (EBL). More specifically, three types of new NSL-derived materials are addressed in this thesis: (1) the application of electrochemistry to "fine tune" the structure of silver nanotriangles and the wavelength of their localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), (2) the fabrication of ordered arrays of in-plane, triangular cross-section nanowells with the aid of reactive ion etching (RIE), and (3) the anchoring of the truncated tetrahedrons for a more stabile sensing surface. Futhermore, utilizing EBL, studies looking deeper into the fundamental coupling interactions in both one and two dimensional arrays were performed. All of these studies will allow for the logical design of novel plasmonic devices for an array of applications.

  10. Nanocrystals Research for Energy Efficient and Clean Energy Technologies:

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, Sandra J

    2013-12-17

    Efforts centered on: nanocrystal photovoltaic fabrication, ultrafast dynamics and aberration-corrected STEM characterization of II-VI core, core/shell and alloyed nanocrystals, and fundamental investigation and applications of ultrasmall white light-emitting CdSe nanocrystal.

  11. Fundamental mechanisms of phosphate stabilization in granular waste materials

    SciTech Connect

    Eighmy, T.T.

    1996-10-01

    Phosphate minerals are known to be both geochemically stable and very insoluble. Consequently, orthophosphate has been considered to be an excellent chemical stabilization agent for immobilizing divalent metal cations in waste materials. We are presently involved in fundamental research on one commercial system used for a variety of wastes. A number of bulk and surface spectroscopic techniques were used to identify reaction mechanisms and reaction products. The Dutch Availability Leaching test was used to generate leached solids. pH-dependent leaching and the geochemical thermodynamic equilibrium model MINTEQA2 was used to model solid phase control of leaching. For lime-based dry scrubber residues from a U.S. waste-to-energy facility, the data suggests that the immobilization mechanisms are surface-based or discrete solid precipitation rather than surface sorption/ion exchange. Results to date also show that apatite family minerals (for Ca, Cd, and Pb) and tertiary metal phosphates (for Zn, Cu, and Cd) are dominant reaction products; these insoluble phases remain after aggressive leaching. Research is continuing on slags, contaminated soils, furnace dusts, and smelter dusts.

  12. Fundamentals of polycrystalline thin film materials and devices

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, B.N.; Birkmire, R.W.; Phillips, J.E.; Shafarman, W.N.; Hegedus, S.S.; McCandless, B.E. . Inst. of Energy Conversion)

    1991-01-01

    This report presents the results of a one-year research program on polycrystalline thin-film solar cells. The research was conducted to better understand the limitations and potential of solar cells using CuInSe{sub 2} and CdTe by systematically investigating the fundamental relationships linking material processing, material properties, and device behavior. By selenizing Cu and In layers, we fabricated device-quality CuInSe{sub 2} thin films and demonstrated a CuInSe{sub 2} solar cell with 7% efficiency. We added Ga, to increase the band gap of CuInSe{sub 2} devices to increase the open-circuit voltage to 0.55 V. We fabricated and analyzed Cu(InGa)Se{sub 2}/CuInSe{sub 2} devices to demonstrate the potential for combining the benefits of higher V{sub oc} while retaining the current-generating capacity of CuInSe{sub 2}. We fabricated an innovative superstrate device design with more than 5% efficiency, as well as a bifacial spectral-response technique for determining the electron diffusion length and optical absorption coefficient of CuInSe{sub 2} in an operational cell. The diffusion length was found to be greater than 1 {mu}m. We qualitatively modeled the effect of reducing heat treatments in hydrogen and oxidizing treatments in air on the I-V behavior of CuInSe{sub 2} devices. We also investigated post-deposition heat treatments and chemical processing and used them to fabricate a 9.6%-efficient CdTe/CdS solar cell using physical vapor deposition.

  13. Self-bonded composite films based on cellulose nanofibers and chitin nanocrystals as antifungal materials.

    PubMed

    Robles, Eduardo; Salaberria, Asier M; Herrera, Rene; Fernandes, Susana C M; Labidi, Jalel

    2016-06-25

    Cellulose nanofibers and chitin nanocrystals, two main components of agricultural and aquacultural by-products, were obtained from blue agave and yellow squat lobster industrial residues. Cellulose nanofibers were obtained using high pressure homogenization, while chitin nanocrystals were obtained by hydrolysis in acid medium. Cellulose nanofibers and chitin nanocrystals were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Atomic Force Microscopy and Infrared spectroscopy. Self-bonded composite films with different composition were fabricated by hot pressing and their properties were evaluated. Antifungal activity of chitin nanocrystals was studied using a Cellometer(®) cell count device, mechanical properties at tension were measured with a universal testing machine, water vapor permeability was evaluated with a thermohygrometer and surface tension with sessile drop contact angle method. The addition of chitin nanocrystals reduced slightly the mechanical properties of the composite. Presence of chitin nanocrystals influenced the growth of Aspergillus sp fungus in the surface of the composites as expected. PMID:27083791

  14. Covalently Coupled Ultrafine H-TiO2 Nanocrystals/Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Hybrid Materials for High-Performance Supercapacitor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuhua; Lin, Yuan; Song, Xuefeng; Zhang, Peng; Gao, Lian

    2015-08-19

    Hydrogenated TiO2 (H-TiO2) are considered one of the most promising materials for supercapacitors given its low-cost, high conductivity, and enhanced electrochemical activity. However, the electrochemical performances of H-TiO2 due to lacking suitable structures is unsatisfactory, and thus how to design energetic H-TiO2-based electrode architectures still remains a great challenge. Herein, covalently coupled ultrafine H-TiO2 nanocrystals/nitrogen-doped graphene (H-TiO2/NG) hybrid materials were developed through a simple hydrothermal route followed by hydrogenation. Within this architecture, the strong interaction between H-TiO2 nanocrystals and NG sheets via covalent chemical bonding affords high structural stability inhibiting the aggregation of H-TiO2 nanocrystals. Meanwhile, the NG matrices function as an electrical highway and a mechanical backbone so that most of well-dispersed ultrafine H-TiO2 nanocrystals are electrochemically active but stable. As a result, the optimized H-TiO2/NG (H-TiO2/NG-B) exhibited high reversible specific capacity of 385.2 F g(-1) at 1 A g(-1), enhanced rate performance of 320.1 F g(-1) at a high current density of 10 A g(-1), and excellent cycling stability with 98.8% capacity retention.

  15. Evaluation of Metal Phosphide Nanocrystals as Anode Materials for Na-ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Walter, Marc; Bodnarchuk, Maryna I; Kravchyk, Kostiantyn V; Kovalenko, Maksym V

    2015-01-01

    Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) are potential low-cost alternatives to lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) because of the much greater natural abundance of sodium salts. However, developing high-performance electrode materials for SIBs is a challenging task, especially due to the ∼50% larger ionic radius of the Na(+) ion compared to Li(+), leading to vastly different electrochemical behavior. Metal phosphides such as FeP, CoP, NiP(2), and CuP(2) remain unexplored as electrode materials for SIBs, despite their high theoretical charge storage capacities of 900-1300 mAh g(-1). Here we report on the synthesis of metal phosphide nanocrystals (NCs) and discuss their electrochemical properties as anode materials for SIBs, as well as for LIBs. We also compare the electrochemical characteristics of phosphides with their corresponding sulfides, using the environmentally benign iron compounds, FeP and FeS(2), as a case study. We show that despite the appealing initial charge storage capacities of up to 1200 mAh g(-1), enabled by effective nanosizing of the active electrode materials, further work toward optimization of the electrode/electrolyte pair is needed to improve the electrochemical performance upon cycling. PMID:26842319

  16. Superior pseudocapacitive behavior of confined lignin nanocrystals for renewable energy-storage materials.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Kon; Kim, Yun Ki; Lee, Hyunjoo; Lee, Sang Bok; Park, Ho Seok

    2014-04-01

    Strong demand for high-performance energy-storage devices has currently motivated the development of emerging capacitive materials that can resolve their critical challenge (i.e., low energy density) and that are renewable and inexpensive energy-storage materials from both environmental and economic viewpoints. Herein, the pseudocapacitive behavior of lignin nanocrystals confined on reduced graphene oxides (RGOs) used for renewable energy-storage materials is demonstrated. The excellent capacitive characteristics of the renewable hybrid electrodes were achieved by synergizing the fast and reversible redox charge transfer of surface-confined quinone and the interplay with electron-conducting RGOs. Accordingly, pseudocapacitors with remarkable rate and cyclic performances (~96 % retention after 3000 cycles) showed a maximum capacitance of 432 F g(-1), which was close to the theoretical capacitance of 482 F g(-1) and sixfold higher than that of RGO (93 F g(-1)). The chemical strategy delineated herein paves the way to develop advanced renewable electrodes for energy-storage applications and understand the redox chemistry of electroactive biomaterials.

  17. Nanocrystal doped matrixes

    SciTech Connect

    Parce, J. Wallace; Bernatis, Paul; Dubrow, Robert; Freeman, William P.; Gamoras, Joel; Kan, Shihai; Meisel, Andreas; Qian, Baixin; Whiteford, Jeffery A.; Ziebarth, Jonathan

    2010-01-12

    Matrixes doped with semiconductor nanocrystals are provided. In certain embodiments, the semiconductor nanocrystals have a size and composition such that they absorb or emit light at particular wavelengths. The nanocrystals can comprise ligands that allow for mixing with various matrix materials, including polymers, such that a minimal portion of light is scattered by the matrixes. The matrixes of the present invention can also be utilized in refractive index matching applications. In other embodiments, semiconductor nanocrystals are embedded within matrixes to form a nanocrystal density gradient, thereby creating an effective refractive index gradient. The matrixes of the present invention can also be used as filters and antireflective coatings on optical devices and as down-converting layers. Processes for producing matrixes comprising semiconductor nanocrystals are also provided. Nanostructures having high quantum efficiency, small size, and/or a narrow size distribution are also described, as are methods of producing indium phosphide nanostructures and core-shell nanostructures with Group II-VI shells.

  18. Exciton Dynamics in Alternative Solar Cell Materials: Polymers, Nanocrystals, and Small Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pundsack, Thomas J.

    To keep fossil fuel usage in 2040 even with 2010 usage, 50% of global energy will need to come from alternative sources such as solar cells. While the photovoltaic market is currently dominated by crystalline silicon, there are many low-cost solar cell materials such as conjugated polymers, semiconductor nanocrystals, and organic small molecules which could compete with fossil fuels. To create cost-competitive devices, understanding the excited state dynamics of these materials is necessary. The first section of this thesis looks at aggregation in poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) which is commonly used in organic photovoltaics. The amount of aggregation in P3HT thin films was controlled by using a mixture of regioregular and regiorandom P3HT. Even with few aggregates present, excited states were found to transfer from amorphous to aggregate domains in <50 fs which could indicate efficient long-range energy transfer. To further study P3HT aggregation, a triblock consisting of two P3HT chains with a coil polymer between them was investigated. By changing solvents, aggregation was induced in a stable and reversible manner allowing for spectroscopic studies of P3HT aggregates in solution. The polarity of the solvent was adjusted, and no change in excited state dynamics was observed implying the excited state has little charge-transfer character. Next, the conduction band density of states for copper zinc tin sulfide nanocrystals (CZTS NCs) was measured using pump-probe spectroscopy and found to be in agreement with theoretical results. The density of states shifted and dilated for smaller NCs indicative of quantum confinement. The excited state lifetime was found to be short (<20 ps) and independent of NC size which could limit the efficiency of CZTS photovoltaic devices. Finally, triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA) was studied in platinum octaethylporphyrin (PtOEP) thin films. By analyzing pump-probe spectra, the product of TTA in PtOEP thin films was assigned to a long

  19. Luminescent Colloidal Semiconductor Nanocrystals Containing Copper: Synthesis, Photophysics, and Applications.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Kathryn E; Hartstein, Kimberly H; Kilburn, Troy B; Marchioro, Arianna; Nelson, Heidi D; Whitham, Patrick J; Gamelin, Daniel R

    2016-09-28

    Copper-doped semiconductors are classic phosphor materials that have been used in a variety of applications for many decades. Colloidal copper-doped semiconductor nanocrystals have recently attracted a great deal of interest because they combine the solution processability and spectral tunability of colloidal nanocrystals with the unique photoluminescence properties of copper-doped semiconductor phosphors. Although ternary and quaternary semiconductors containing copper, such as CuInS2 and Cu2ZnSnS4, have been studied primarily in the context of their photovoltaic applications, when synthesized as colloidal nanocrystals, these materials have photoluminescence properties that are remarkably similar to those of copper-doped semiconductor nanocrystals. This review focuses on the luminescent properties of colloidal copper-doped, copper-based, and related copper-containing semiconductor nanocrystals. Fundamental investigations into the luminescence of copper-containing colloidal nanocrystals are reviewed in the context of the well-established luminescence mechanisms of bulk copper-doped semiconductors and copper(I) molecular coordination complexes. The use of colloidal copper-containing nanocrystals in applications that take advantage of their luminescent properties, such as bioimaging, solid-state lighting, and luminescent solar concentrators, is also discussed.

  20. Synthesis of Semiconductor Nanocrystals, Focusing on Nontoxic and Earth-Abundant Materials.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Peter; Carrière, Marie; Lincheneau, Christophe; Vaure, Louis; Tamang, Sudarsan

    2016-09-28

    We review the synthesis of semiconductor nanocrystals/colloidal quantum dots in organic solvents with special emphasis on earth-abundant and toxic heavy metal free compounds. Following the Introduction, section 2 defines the terms related to the toxicity of nanocrystals and gives a comprehensive overview on toxicity studies concerning all types of quantum dots. Section 3 aims at providing the reader with the basic concepts of nanocrystal synthesis. It starts with the concepts currently used to describe the nucleation and growth of monodisperse particles and next takes a closer look at the chemistry of the inorganic core and its interactions with surface ligands. Section 4 reviews in more detail the synthesis of different families of semiconductor nanocrystals, namely elemental group IV compounds (carbon nanodots, Si, Ge), III-V compounds (e.g., InP, InAs), and binary and multinary metal chalcogenides. Finally, the authors' view on the perspectives in this field is given. PMID:27391095

  1. Synthesis of Semiconductor Nanocrystals, Focusing on Nontoxic and Earth-Abundant Materials.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Peter; Carrière, Marie; Lincheneau, Christophe; Vaure, Louis; Tamang, Sudarsan

    2016-09-28

    We review the synthesis of semiconductor nanocrystals/colloidal quantum dots in organic solvents with special emphasis on earth-abundant and toxic heavy metal free compounds. Following the Introduction, section 2 defines the terms related to the toxicity of nanocrystals and gives a comprehensive overview on toxicity studies concerning all types of quantum dots. Section 3 aims at providing the reader with the basic concepts of nanocrystal synthesis. It starts with the concepts currently used to describe the nucleation and growth of monodisperse particles and next takes a closer look at the chemistry of the inorganic core and its interactions with surface ligands. Section 4 reviews in more detail the synthesis of different families of semiconductor nanocrystals, namely elemental group IV compounds (carbon nanodots, Si, Ge), III-V compounds (e.g., InP, InAs), and binary and multinary metal chalcogenides. Finally, the authors' view on the perspectives in this field is given.

  2. Biomineralization: Nanocrystals by design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Li; Nienhaus, Gerd Ulrich

    2015-10-01

    Nanocrystals with precisely defined structures offer promise as components of advanced materials yet they are challenging to create. Now, a nanocrystal made up of seven cadmium and twelve chloride ions has been synthesized via a biotemplating approach that uses a de novo designed protein.

  3. Fundamental Characterisation of Planetary Surface Material in Microgravity Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthur, D.; Senatore, C.; Iagnemma, K.; Andrade, J.; Anderson, R. C.

    2014-06-01

    We present the aspect of xTerramechanics concerned with design of experimental hardware and protocols for characterization of granular planetary surface material, and early testing aboard the Zero Gravity Corporation hyperbolic research flight.

  4. Fundamental Study of Material Flow in Friction Stir Welds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, Anthony P.

    1999-01-01

    The presented research project consists of two major parts. First, the material flow in solid-state, friction stir, butt-welds as been investigated using a marker insert technique. Changes in material flow due to welding parameter as well as tool geometry variations have been examined for different materials. The method provides a semi-quantitative, three-dimensional view of the material transport in the welded zone. Second, a FSW process model has been developed. The fully coupled model is based on fluid mechanics; the solid-state material transport during welding is treated as a laminar, viscous flow of a non-Newtonian fluid past a rotating circular cylinder. The heat necessary for the material softening is generated by deformation of the material. As a first step, a two-dimensional model, which contains only the pin of the FSW tool, has been created to test the suitability of the modeling approach and to perform parametric studies of the boundary conditions. The material flow visualization experiments agree very well with the predicted flow field. Accordingly, material within the pin diameter is transported only in the rotation direction around the pin. Due to the simplifying assumptions inherent in the 2-D model, other experimental data such as forces on the pin, torque, and weld energy cannot be directly used for validation. However, the 2-D model predicts the same trends as shown in the experiments. The model also predicts a deviation from the "normal" material flow at certain combinations of welding parameters, suggesting a possible mechanism for the occurrence of some typical FSW defects. The next step has been the development of a three-dimensional process model. The simplified FSW tool has been designed as a flat shoulder rotating on the top of the workpiece and a rotating, cylindrical pin, which extends throughout the total height of the flow domain. The thermal boundary conditions at the tool and at the contact area to the backing plate have been varied

  5. "Diffuse Scattering and the Fundamental Properties of materials"

    SciTech Connect

    Barabash, Rozaliya; Ice, Gene E; Turchi, Dr. Patrice E.A.

    2009-01-01

    This book highlights emerging research areas that exploit the ability of diffuse scattering to characterize local structures in materials. An emphasis is placed on the coming renaissance in diffuse scattering driven by new sources, better instrumentation, novel new materials, and advanced theories and methods. This book will provide an overview of some of the most exciting recent advances in diffuse scattering and provides guidance for students and researchers interested in new methods to characterize their samples.

  6. Photoactive hybrid material based on pyrene functionalized PbS nanocrystals decorating CVD monolayer graphene.

    PubMed

    Ingrosso, Chiara; Bianco, Giuseppe V; Corricelli, Michela; Comparelli, Roberto; Altamura, Davide; Agostiano, Angela; Striccoli, Marinella; Losurdo, Maria; Curri, M Lucia; Bruno, Giovanni

    2015-02-25

    A simple and facile solution-based procedure is implemented for decorating a large area, monolayer graphene film, grown by chemical vapor deposition, with size-tunable light absorbing colloidal PbS nanocrystals (NCs). The hybrid is obtained by exposing a large area graphene film to a solution of 1-pyrene butyric acid surface coated PbS NCs, obtained by a capping exchange procedure onto presynthesized organic-capped NCs. The results demonstrate that at the interface, multiple and cooperative π-π stacking interactions promoted by the pyrene ligand coordinating the NC surface lead to a successful anchoring of the nano-objects on the graphene platform which concomitantly preserves its aromatic structure. Interligand interactions provide organization of the nano-objects in highly interconnected nanostructured multilayer coatings, where the NCs retain geometry and composition. The resulting hybrid exhibits a sheet resistance lower than that of bare graphene, which is explained in terms of electronic communication in the hybrid, due to the interconnection of the NC film and to a hole transfer from photoexcited PbS NCs to graphene, channelled at the interface by pyrene. Such a direct electron coupling makes the manufactured hybrid material an interesting component for optoelectronics, sensors and for optical communication and information technology.

  7. Fundamentals of Concrete and Cement Masonry. Instructional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Laborn J.

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a course of instruction designed for training concrete masons who will make their careers in construction. It contains 4 sections and 18 instructional units in a standard format. Eight basic components that form a unit of instruction are performance objectives, suggested activities for the teacher,…

  8. Fundamental Studies of Crystal Growth of Microporous Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Ramsharan; Doolittle, John, Jr.; Payra, Pramatha; Dutta, Prabir K.; George, Michael A.; Ramachandran, Narayanan; Schoeman, Brian J.

    2003-01-01

    Microporous materials are framework structures with well-defined porosity, often of molecular dimensions. Zeolites contain aluminum and silicon atoms in their framework and are the most extensively studied amongst all microporous materials. Framework structures with P, Ga, Fe, Co, Zn, B, Ti and a host of other elements have also been made. Typical synthesis of microporous materials involve mixing the framework elements (or compounds, thereof) in a basic solution, followed by aging in some cases and then heating at elevated temperatures. This process is termed hydrothermal synthesis, and involves complex chemical and physical changes. Because of a limited understanding of this process, most synthesis advancements happen by a trial and error approach. There is considerable interest in understanding the synthesis process at a molecular level with the expectation that eventually new framework structures will be built by design. The basic issues in the microporous materials crystallization process include: (a) Nature of the molecular units responsible for the crystal nuclei formation; (b) Nature of the nuclei and nucleation process; (c) Growth process of the nuclei into crystal; (d) Morphological control and size of the resulting crystal; (e) Surface structure of the resulting crystals; and (f) Transformation of frameworks into other frameworks or condensed structures.

  9. Audiovisual Fundamentals; Basic Equipment Operation and Simple Materials Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullard, John R.; Mether, Calvin E.

    A guide illustrated with simple sketches explains the functions and step-by-step uses of audiovisual (AV) equipment. Principles of projection, audio, AV equipment, lettering, limited-quantity and quantity duplication, and materials preservation are outlined. Apparatus discussed include overhead, opaque, slide-filmstrip, and multiple-loading slide…

  10. Nanocrystal structures

    DOEpatents

    Eisler, Hans J.; Sundar, Vikram C.; Walsh, Michael E.; Klimov, Victor I.; Bawendi, Moungi G.; Smith, Henry I.

    2006-12-19

    A structure including a grating and a semiconductor nanocrystal layer on the grating, can be a laser. The semiconductor nanocrystal layer can include a plurality of semiconductor nanocrystals including a Group II–VI compound, the nanocrystals being distributed in a metal oxide matrix. The grating can have a periodicity from 200 nm to 500 nm.

  11. Nanocrystal structures

    SciTech Connect

    Eisler, Hans J.; Sundar, Vikram C.; Walsh, Michael E.; Klimov, Victor I.; Bawendi, Moungi G.; Smith, Henry I.

    2008-12-30

    A structure including a grating and a semiconductor nanocrystal layer on the grating, can be a laser. The semiconductor nanocrystal layer can include a plurality of semiconductor nanocrystals including a Group II-VI compound, the nanocrystals being distributed in a metal oxide matrix. The grating can have a periodicity from 200 nm to 500 nm.

  12. Fundamental ignition study for material fire safety improvement, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciorek, K. L.; Kratzer, R. H.; Kaufman, J.

    1971-01-01

    The autoignition behavior of polymeric compositions in oxidizing media was investigated as well as the nature and relative concentration of the volatiles produced during oxidative decomposition culminating in combustion. The materials investigated were Teflon, Fluorel KF-2140 raw gum and its compounded versions Refset and Ladicote, 45B3 intumenscent paint, and Ames isocyanurate foam. The majority of the tests were conducted using a stagnation burner arrangement which provided a laminar gas flow and allowed the sample block and gas temperatures to be varied independently. The oxidizing atmospheres were essentially air and oxygen, although in the case of the Fluorel family of materials, due to partial blockage of the gas inlet system, some tests were performed unintentionally in enriched air (not oxygen). The 45B3 paint was not amenable to sampling in a dynamic system, due to its highly intumescent nature. Consequently, selected experiments were conducted using a sealed tube technique both in air and oxygen media.

  13. Ultrafast laser diagnostics to investigate initiation fundamentals in energetic materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Farrow, Darcie; Jilek, Brook Anton; Kohl, Ian Thomas; Kearney, Sean Patrick

    2013-08-01

    We present the results of a two year early career LDRD project, which has focused on the development of ultrafast diagnostics to measure temperature, pressure and chemical change during the shock initiation of energetic materials. We compare two single-shot versions of femtosecond rotational CARS to measure nitrogen temperature: chirped-probe-pulse and ps/fs hybrid CARS thermometry. The applicability of measurements to the combustion of energetic materials will be discussed. We have also demonstrated laser shock and particle velocity measurements in thin film explosives using stretched femtosecond laser pulses. We will discuss preliminary results from Al and PETN thin films. Agreement between our results and previous work will be discussed.

  14. Materials Properties at Internal Interfaces: Fundamental Atomic Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Browning, Nigel

    2014-09-12

    During the course of this research, the microscopy methods were applied to many different systems (see publication list). However, the work can be broadly classified into three main areas: the statistical distribution of grain boundary structures under different doping conditions, the identification of individual dopant atoms in oxide materials, and the evaluation of nucleation and growth processes in liquid and more recently. The main results from each of these efforts will be discussed in the final report.

  15. Fundamental problems in porous materials: Experiments & computer simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhanping

    Porous materials have attracted massive scientific and technological interest because of their extremely high surface-to-volume ratio, molecular tunability in construction, and surface-based applications. Through my PhD work, porous materials were engineered to meet the design in selective binding, self-healing, and energy damping. For example, crystalline MOFs with pore size spanning from a few angstroms to a couple of nanometers were chemically engineered to show 120 times more efficiency in binding of large molecules. In addition, we found building blocks released from those crystals can be further patched back through a healing process at ambient and low temperatures down to -56 °C. When building blocks are replaced with graphenes, ultra-flyweight aerogels with pore size larger than 100 nm were made to delay shock waves. More stable rigid porous metal with larger pores (~um) was also fabricated, and its performance and survivability are under investigation. Aside from experimental studies, we also successfully applied numerical simulations to study the mutual interaction between the nonplanar liquid-solid interface and colloidal particles during the freezing of the colloidal suspensions. Colloidal particles can be either rejected or engulfed by the evolving interface depending on the freezing speed and strength of interface-particle interaction. Our interactive simulation was achieved by programming both simulation module and visualization module on high performance GPU devices.

  16. Cellulose nanocrystals in nanocomposite approach: Green and high-performance materials for industrial, biomedical and agricultural applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortunati, E.; Torre, L.

    2016-05-01

    The need to both avoid wastes and find new renewable resources has led to a new and promising research based on the possibility to revalorize the biomass producing sustainable chemicals and/or materials which may play a major role in replacing systems traditionally obtained from non-renewable sources. Most of the low-value biomass is termed lignocellulosic, referring to its main constituent biopolymers: cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin. In this context, nanocellulose, and in particular cellulose nanocrystals (CNC), have gain considerable attention as nanoreinforcement for polymer matrices, mainly biodegradable. Derived from the most abundant polymeric resource in nature and with inherent biodegradability, nanocellulose is an interesting nanofiller for the development of nanocomposites for industrial, biomedical and agricultural applications. Due to the high amount of hydroxyl groups on their surface, cellulose nanocrystals are easy to functionalize. Well dispersed CNC are able, in fact, to enhance several properties of polymers, i.e.: thermal, mechanical, barrier, surface wettability, controlled of active compound and/or drug release. The main objective here is to give a general overview of CNC applications, summarizing our recent developments of bio-based nanocomposite formulations reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals extracted from different natural sources and/or wastes for food packaging, medical and agricultural sectors.

  17. Defect Chemistry and Plasmon Physics of Colloidal Metal Oxide Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Lounis, SD; Runnerstrorm, EL; Llordes, A; Milliron, DJ

    2014-05-01

    Plasmonic nanocrystals of highly doped metal oxides have seen rapid development in the past decade and represent a class of materials with unique optoelectronic properties. In this Perspective, we discuss doping mechanisms in metal oxides and the accompanying physics of free carrier scattering, both of which have implications in determining the properties of localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) in these nanocrystals. The balance between activation and compensation of dopants limits the free carrier concentration of the most common metal oxides, placing a ceiling on the LSPR frequency. Furthermore, because of ionized impurity scattering of the oscillating plasma by dopant ions, scattering must be treated in a fundamentally different way in semiconductor metal oxide materials when compared with conventional metals. Though these effects are well-understood in bulk metal oxides, further study is needed to understand their manifestation in nanocrystals and corresponding impact on plasmonic properties, and to develop materials that surpass current limitations in free carrier concentration.

  18. On Ultrasmall Nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    McBride, James R.; Dukes, Albert D.; Schreuder, Michael A.; Rosenthal, Sandra J.

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasmall nanocrystals are a growing sub-class of traditional nanocrystals that exhibit new properties at diameters typically below 2 nm. In this review, we define what constitutes an ultrasmall nanoparticle while distinguishing between ultrasmall and magic-size nanoparticles. After a brief overview of ultrasmall nanoparticles, including ultrasmall gold clusters, our recent work is presented covering the optical properties, structure, and application of ultrasmall CdSe nanocrystals. This unique material has potential application in solid state lighting due to its balanced white emission. This section is followed by a discussion on the blurring boundary between what can be considered a nanoparticle and a molecule. PMID:21132106

  19. Biomolecularly capped uniformly sized nanocrystalline materials: glutathione-capped ZnS nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Martínez, Claudia L.; Nguyen, Liem; Kho, Richard; Bae, Weon; Bozhilov, Krassimir; Klimov, Victor; Mehra, Rajesh K.

    1999-09-01

    Micro-organisms such as bacteria and yeasts form CdS to detoxify toxic cadmium ions. Frequently, CdS particles formed in yeasts and bacteria were found to be associated with specific biomolecules. It was later determined that these biomolecules were present at the surface of CdS. This coating caused a restriction in the growth of CdS particles and resulted in the formation of nanometre-sized semiconductors (NCs) that exhibited typical quantum confinement properties. Glutathione and related phytochelatin peptides were shown to be the biomolecules that capped CdS nanocrystallites synthesized by yeasts Candida glabrata and Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Although early studies showed the existence of specific biochemical pathways for the synthesis of biomolecularly capped CdS NCs, these NCs could be formed in vitro under appropriate conditions. We have recently shown that cysteine and cysteine-containing peptides such as glutathione and phytochelatins can be used in vitro to dictate the formation of discrete sizes of CdS and ZnS nanocrystals. We have evolved protocols for the synthesis of ZnS or CdS nanocrystals within a narrow size distribution range. These procedures involve three steps: (1) formation of metallo-complexes of cysteine or cysteine-containing peptides, (2) introduction of stoichiometric amounts of inorganic sulfide into the metallo-complexes to initiate the formation of nanocrystallites and finally (3) size-selective precipitation of NCs with ethanol in the presence of Na+. The resulting NCs were characterized by optical spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), x-ray diffraction and electron diffraction. HRTEM showed that the diameter of the ZnS-glutathione nanocrystals was 3.45+/-0.5 nm. X-ray diffraction and electron diffraction analyses indicated ZnS-glutathione to be hexagonal. Photocatalytic studies suggest that glutathione-capped ZnS nanocrystals prepared by our procedure are highly efficient in degrading a test model

  20. Ultrafine and well dispersed silver nanocrystals on 2D nanosheets: synthesis and application as a multifunctional material for electrochemical catalysis and biosensing.

    PubMed

    Gao, Tao; Yang, Dawei; Ning, Limin; Lei, Lin; Ye, Zonghuang; Li, Genxi

    2014-12-21

    The strong coupling of inorganic nanocrystals with 2D nanosheets to produce function-enhanced nano-materials with uniform size, dispersion, and high coverage density has long been of interest to scientists from various research fields. Here, a simple and effective method has been described to fabricate ultrafine and well dispersed silver nanocrystals (AgNCs) on graphene oxide (GO), based on a facial-induced co-reduction strategy. The synthesized nanohybrid has shown uniform and well dispersed AgNCs (2.9 ± 1.4 nm), individually separated GO sheets, as well as highly covered surface (5250 nanocrystals per square micrometer), indicating the formation of a high-quality GO-based nanohybrid. Moreover, this material shows excellent catalytic activity for oxygen reduction reactions (ORRs) and exhibits enhanced signal readout for molecular sensing, demonstrating the potential application of this newly synthesized inorganic hybrid with strong synergistic coupling effects on advanced functional systems.

  1. Nanocrystal dispersed amorphous alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perepezko, John H. (Inventor); Allen, Donald R. (Inventor); Foley, James C. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Compositions and methods for obtaining nanocrystal dispersed amorphous alloys are described. A composition includes an amorphous matrix forming element (e.g., Al or Fe); at least one transition metal element; and at least one crystallizing agent that is insoluble in the resulting amorphous matrix. During devitrification, the crystallizing agent causes the formation of a high density nanocrystal dispersion. The compositions and methods provide advantages in that materials with superior properties are provided.

  2. Grafting Poly(3-hexylthiophene) from Silicon Nanocrystal Surfaces: Synthesis and Properties of a Functional Hybrid Material with Direct Interfacial Contact.

    PubMed

    Islam, Muhammad Amirul; Purkait, Tapas K; Mobarok, Md Hosnay; Hoehlein, Ignaz M D; Sinelnikov, Regina; Iqbal, Muhammad; Azulay, Doron; Balberg, Isaac; Millo, Oded; Rieger, Bernhard; Veinot, Jonathan G C

    2016-06-20

    Hybrid functional materials (HFMs) comprised of semiconductor nanoparticles and conjugated polymers offer the potential of synergetic photophysical properties. We have developed HFMs based upon silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs) and the conductive polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (SiNC@P3HT) by applying surface-initiated Kumada catalyst transfer polycondensation (SI-KCTP). One unique characteristic of the developed SiNC@P3HT is the formation of a direct covalent bonding between SiNCs and P3HT. The presented method for obtaining direct interfacial attachment, which is not accessible using other methods, may allow for the development of materials with efficient electronic communication at the donor-acceptor interfaces. Systematic characterization provides evidence of a core-shell structure, enhanced interfacial electron and/or energy transfer between the P3HT and SiNC components, as well as formation of a type-II heterostructure.

  3. Nanomechanics of silk: the fundamentals of a strong, tough and versatile material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Isabelle; Buehler, Markus J.

    2016-07-01

    Spider silk is a remarkable material that provides a template for upscaling molecular properties to the macroscale. In this article we review fundamental aspects of the mechanisms behind these behaviors, discuss the molecular makeup, chemical designs, and how these integrate in a complex arrangement to form webs, cocoons and other material architectures. Moreover, this review paper explores the unique ability of silk to tolerate various kinds of defects, in a way enabling this material platform to serve as one of the most resilient materials in nature. We conclude the discussion with a summary of key scaling laws, an attempt model and define hierarchical length-scales, and the translation to synthetic materials.

  4. The influence of dopant distribution on the optoelectronic properties of tin-doped indium oxide nanocrystals and nanocrystal films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lounis, Sebastien Dahmane

    Colloidally prepared nanocrystals of transparent conducting oxide (TCO) semiconductors have emerged in the past decade as an exciting new class of plasmonic materials. In recent years, there has been tremendous progress in developing synthetic methods for the growth of these nanocrystals, basic characterization of their properties, and their successful integration into optoelectronic and electrochemical devices. However, many fundamental questions remain about the physics of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in these materials, and how their optoelectronic properties derive from their underlying structural properties. In particular, the influence of the concentration and distribution of dopant ions and compensating defects on the optoelectronic properties of TCO nanocrystals has seen little investigation. Indium tin oxide (ITO) is the most widely studied and commercially deployed TCO. Herein we investigate the role of the distribution of tin dopants on the optoelectronic properties of colloidally prepared ITO nanocrystals. Owing to a high free electron density, ITO nanocrystals display strong LSPR absorption in the near infrared. Depending on the particular organic ligands used, they are soluble in various solvents and can readily be integrated into densely packed nanocrystal films with high conductivities. Using a combination of spectroscopic techniques, modeling and simulation of the optical properties of the nanocrystals using the Drude model, and transport measurements, it is demonstrated herein that the radial distribution of tin dopants has a strong effect on the optoelectronic properties of ITO nanocrystals. ITO nanocrystals were synthesized in both surface-segregated and uniformly distributed dopant profiles. Temperature dependent measurements of optical absorbance were first combined with Drude modeling to extract the internal electrical properties of the ITO nanocrystals, demonstrating that they are well-behaved degenerately doped semiconductors

  5. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education. Fundamentals of Electricity, 3-7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This self-paced correspondence course for independent study in electricity was adapted from military curriculum materials for use in vocational education. This basic course is designed to provide the student with some fundamentals of electricity--not with specific job skills. The seven lessons of the course each have a lesson assignment sheet with…

  6. Atomic Diffusion within Individual Gold Nanocrystal

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Gang; Clark, Jesse N.; Nicklin, Chris; Rawle, Jonathan; Robinson, Ian K.

    2014-01-01

    Due to their excess surface free energy and structural instabilities, nanoparticles exhibit interesting physical and chemical properties. There has been an ever-growing interest in investigating these properties, driven by the desire to further miniaturize electronic devices, develop new functional materials and catalysts. Here, the intriguing question of how diffusion evolves in a single nanoparticle is investigated by measuring the spatial and temporal variations of the diffracted coherent X-ray intensity during copper diffusion into a gold nanocrystal. Dislocation loops formed from the insertion of single layer of extra atoms between neighbouring gold host lattice planes are detected. Au-Cu alloy channels are found to penetrate the nanocrystal due to the differential diffusion rate along different directions. With the advent of higher brilliance sources and free-electron-lasers, Bragg Coherent X-ray Diffraction Imaging can play an important role in unveiling atomic behaviours in three dimensions for nanomaterials during various fundamental processes. PMID:25341377

  7. Atomic Diffusion within Individual Gold Nanocrystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Gang; Clark, Jesse N.; Nicklin, Chris; Rawle, Jonathan; Robinson, Ian K.

    2014-10-01

    Due to their excess surface free energy and structural instabilities, nanoparticles exhibit interesting physical and chemical properties. There has been an ever-growing interest in investigating these properties, driven by the desire to further miniaturize electronic devices, develop new functional materials and catalysts. Here, the intriguing question of how diffusion evolves in a single nanoparticle is investigated by measuring the spatial and temporal variations of the diffracted coherent X-ray intensity during copper diffusion into a gold nanocrystal. Dislocation loops formed from the insertion of single layer of extra atoms between neighbouring gold host lattice planes are detected. Au-Cu alloy channels are found to penetrate the nanocrystal due to the differential diffusion rate along different directions. With the advent of higher brilliance sources and free-electron-lasers, Bragg Coherent X-ray Diffraction Imaging can play an important role in unveiling atomic behaviours in three dimensions for nanomaterials during various fundamental processes.

  8. Surface modification of cellulose nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyley, Samuel; Thielemans, Wim

    2014-06-01

    Chemical modification of cellulose nanocrystals is an increasingly popular topic in the literature. This review analyses the type of cellulose nanocrystal modification reactions that have been published in the literature thus far and looks at the steps that have been taken towards analysing the products of the nanocrystal modifications. The main categories of reactions carried out on cellulose nanocrystals are oxidations, esterifications, amidations, carbamations and etherifications. More recently nucleophilic substitutions have been used to introduce more complex functionality to cellulose nanocrystals. Multi-step modifications are also considered. This review emphasizes quantification of modification at the nanocrystal surface in terms of degree of substitution and the validity of conclusions drawn from different analysis techniques in this area. The mechanisms of the modification reactions are presented and considered with respect to the effect on the outcome of the reactions. While great strides have been made in the quality of analytical data published in the field of cellulose nanocrystal modification, there is still vast scope for improvement, both in data quality and the quality of analysis of data. Given the difficulty of surface analysis, cross-checking of results from different analysis techniques is fundamental for the development of reliable cellulose nanocrystal modification techniques.

  9. Deformation twinning of a silver nanocrystal under high pressure. Supplementary materials

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, X. J.; Yang, W. G.; Harder, R.; Sun, Y.; Lu, M.; Chu, Y. S.; Robinson, I. K.; Mao, H. K.

    2015-10-20

    Within a high-pressure environment, crystal deformation is controlled by complex processes such as dislocation motion, twinning, and phase transitions, which change materials’ microscopic morphology and alter their properties. Likewise, understanding a crystal’s response to external stress provides a unique opportunity for rational tailoring of its functionalities. It is very challenging to track the strain evolution and physical deformation from a single nanoscale crystal under high-pressure stress. Here, we report an in situ three-dimensional mapping of morphology and strain evolutions in a single-crystal silver nanocube within a high-pressure environment using the Bragg Coherent Diffractive Imaging (CDI) method. We also observed a continuous lattice distortion, followed by a deformation twining process at a constant pressure. The ability to visualize stress-introduced deformation of nanocrystals with high spatial resolution and prominent strain sensitivity provides an important route for interpreting and engineering novel properties of nanomaterials.

  10. Deformation twinning of a silver nanocrystal under high pressure. Supplementary materials

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, X. J.; Yang, W. G.; Harder, R.; Sun, Y.; Lu, M.; Chu, Y. S.; Robinson, I. K.; Mao, H. K.

    2015-10-20

    Within a high-pressure environment, crystal deformation is controlled by complex processes such as dislocation motion, twinning, and phase transitions, which change materials’ microscopic morphology and alter their properties. Likewise, understanding a crystal’s response to external stress provides a unique opportunity for rational tailoring of its functionalities. It is very challenging to track the strain evolution and physical deformation from a single nanoscale crystal under high-pressure stress. Here, we report an in situ three-dimensional mapping of morphology and strain evolutions in a single-crystal silver nanocube within a high-pressure environment using the Bragg Coherent Diffractive Imaging (CDI) method. We also observed amore » continuous lattice distortion, followed by a deformation twining process at a constant pressure. The ability to visualize stress-introduced deformation of nanocrystals with high spatial resolution and prominent strain sensitivity provides an important route for interpreting and engineering novel properties of nanomaterials.« less

  11. Metal-organic framework nanocrystals as sacrificial templates for hollow and exceptionally porous titania and composite materials.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui; Kruger, Paul E; Telfer, Shane G

    2015-10-01

    We report a strategy that employs metal-organic framework (MOF) crystals in two roles for the fabrication of hollow nanomaterials. In the first role the MOF crystals provide a template on which a shell of material can be deposited. Etching of the MOF produces a hollow structure with a predetermined size and morphology. In combination with this strategy, the MOF crystals, including guest molecules in their pores, can provide the components of a secondary material that is deposited inside the initially formed shell. We used this approach to develop a straightforward and reproducible method for constructing well-defined, nonspherical hollow and exceptionally porous titania and titania-based composite nanomaterials. Uniform hollow nanostructures of amorphous titania, which assume the cubic or polyhedral shape of the original template, are delivered using nano- and microsized ZIF-8 and ZIF-67 crystal templates. These materials exhibit outstanding textural properties including hierarchical pore structures and BET surface areas of up to 800 m(2)/g. As a proof of principle, we further demonstrate that metal nanoparticles such as Pt nanoparticles, can be encapsulated into the TiO2 shell during the digestion process and used for subsequent heterogeneous catalysis. In addition, we show that the core components of the ZIF nanocrystals, along with their adsorbed guests, can be used as precursors for the formation of secondary materials, following their thermal decomposition, to produce hollow and porous metal sulfide/titania or metal oxide/titania composite nanostructures.

  12. Nanomechanics of silk: the fundamentals of a strong, tough and versatile material.

    PubMed

    Su, Isabelle; Buehler, Markus J

    2016-07-29

    Spider silk is a remarkable material that provides a template for upscaling molecular properties to the macroscale. In this article we review fundamental aspects of the mechanisms behind these behaviors, discuss the molecular makeup, chemical designs, and how these integrate in a complex arrangement to form webs, cocoons and other material architectures. Moreover, this review paper explores the unique ability of silk to tolerate various kinds of defects, in a way enabling this material platform to serve as one of the most resilient materials in nature. We conclude the discussion with a summary of key scaling laws, an attempt model and define hierarchical length-scales, and the translation to synthetic materials. PMID:27305929

  13. Mechanical Properties of Nanocrystal Supercrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Tam, Enrico; Podsiadlo, Paul; Shevchenko, Elena; Ogletree, D. Frank; Delplancke-Ogletree, Marie-Paule; Ashby, Paul D.

    2009-12-30

    Colloidal nanocrystals attract significant interest due to their potential applications in electronic, magnetic, and optical devices. Nanocrystal supercrystals (NCSCs) are particularly appealing for their well ordered structure and homogeneity. The interactions between organic ligands that passivate the inorganic nanocrystal cores critically influence their self-organization into supercrystals, By investigating the mechanical properties of supercrystals, we can directly characterize the particle-particle interactions in a well-defined geometry, and gain insight into both the self-assembly process and the potential applications of nanocrystal supercrystals. Here we report nanoindentation studies of well ordered lead-sulfide (Pbs) nanocrystal supercrystals. Their modulus and hardness were found to be similar to soft polymers at 1.7 GPa and 70 MPa respectively and the fractures toughness was 39 KPa/m1/2, revealing the extremely brittle nature of these materials.

  14. Nanocrystal/sol-gel nanocomposites

    DOEpatents

    Klimov, Victor L.; Petruska, Melissa A.

    2010-05-25

    The present invention is directed to a process for preparing a solid composite having colloidal nanocrystals dispersed within a sol-gel matrix, the process including admixing colloidal nanocrystals with an amphiphilic polymer including hydrophilic groups selected from the group consisting of --COOH, --OH, --SO.sub.3H, --NH.sub.2, and --PO.sub.3H.sub.2 within a solvent to form an alcohol-soluble colloidal nanocrystal-polymer complex, admixing the alcohol-soluble colloidal nanocrystal-polymer complex and a sol-gel precursor material, and, forming the solid composite from the admixture. The present invention is also directed to the resultant solid composites and to the alcohol-soluble colloidal nanocrystal-polymer complexes.

  15. Fundamental investigation of the tribological and mechanical responses of materials and nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucholz, Eric W.

    In the field of tribology, the ability to predict, and ultimately control, frictional performance is of critical importance for the optimization of tribological systems. As such, understanding the specific mechanisms involved in the lubrication processes for different materials is a fundamental step in tribological system design. In this work, a combination of computational and experimental methods that include classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments, and multivariate statistical analyses provides fundamental insight into the tribological and mechanical properties of carbon-based and inorganic nanostructures, lamellar materials, and inorganic ceramic compounds. One class of materials of modern interest for tribological applications is nanoparticles, which can be employed either as solid lubricating films or as lubricant additives. In experimental systems, however, it is often challenging to attain the in situ observation of tribological interfaces necessary to identify the atomic-level mechanisms involved during lubrication and response to mechanical deformation. Here, classical MD simulations establish the mechanisms occurring during the friction and compression of several types of nanoparticles including carbon nano-onions, amorphous carbon nanoparticles, and inorganic fullerene-like MoS2 nanoparticles. Specifically, the effect of a nanoparticle's structural properties on the lubrication mechanisms of rolling, sliding, and lamellar exfoliation is indicated; the findings quantify the relative impact of each mechanism on the tribological and mechanical properties of these nanoparticles. Beyond identifying the lubrication mechanisms of known lubricating materials, the continual advancement of modern technology necessitates the identification of new candidate materials for use in tribological applications. To this effect, atomic-scale AFM friction experiments on the aluminosilicate mineral pyrophyllite demonstrate that

  16. Fundamentals and Catalytic Applications of CeO2-Based Materials.

    PubMed

    Montini, Tiziano; Melchionna, Michele; Monai, Matteo; Fornasiero, Paolo

    2016-05-25

    Cerium dioxide (CeO2, ceria) is becoming an ubiquitous constituent in catalytic systems for a variety of applications. 2016 sees the 40(th) anniversary since ceria was first employed by Ford Motor Company as an oxygen storage component in car converters, to become in the years since its inception an irreplaceable component in three-way catalysts (TWCs). Apart from this well-established use, ceria is looming as a catalyst component for a wide range of catalytic applications. For some of these, such as fuel cells, CeO2-based materials have almost reached the market stage, while for some other catalytic reactions, such as reforming processes, photocatalysis, water-gas shift reaction, thermochemical water splitting, and organic reactions, ceria is emerging as a unique material, holding great promise for future market breakthroughs. While much knowledge about the fundamental characteristics of CeO2-based materials has already been acquired, new characterization techniques and powerful theoretical methods are deepening our understanding of these materials, helping us to predict their behavior and application potential. This review has a wide view on all those aspects related to ceria which promise to produce an important impact on our life, encompassing fundamental knowledge of CeO2 and its properties, characterization toolbox, emerging features, theoretical studies, and all the catalytic applications, organized by their degree of establishment on the market.

  17. Exploiting the colloidal nanocrystal library to construct electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Ji-Hyuk; Wang, Han; Oh, Soong Ju; Paik, Taejong; Sung, Pil; Sung, Jinwoo; Ye, Xingchen; Zhao, Tianshuo; Diroll, Benjamin T.; Murray, Christopher B.; Kagan, Cherie R.

    2016-04-01

    Synthetic methods produce libraries of colloidal nanocrystals with tunable physical properties by tailoring the nanocrystal size, shape, and composition. Here, we exploit colloidal nanocrystal diversity and design the materials, interfaces, and processes to construct all-nanocrystal electronic devices using solution-based processes. Metallic silver and semiconducting cadmium selenide nanocrystals are deposited to form high-conductivity and high-mobility thin-film electrodes and channel layers of field-effect transistors. Insulating aluminum oxide nanocrystals are assembled layer by layer with polyelectrolytes to form high–dielectric constant gate insulator layers for low-voltage device operation. Metallic indium nanocrystals are codispersed with silver nanocrystals to integrate an indium supply in the deposited electrodes that serves to passivate and dope the cadmium selenide nanocrystal channel layer. We fabricate all-nanocrystal field-effect transistors on flexible plastics with electron mobilities of 21.7 square centimeters per volt-second.

  18. Exploiting the colloidal nanocrystal library to construct electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Ji-Hyuk; Wang, Han; Oh, Soong Ju; Paik, Taejong; Sung, Pil; Sung, Jinwoo; Ye, Xingchen; Zhao, Tianshuo; Diroll, Benjamin T.; Murray, Christopher B.; Kagan, Cherie R.

    2016-04-01

    Synthetic methods produce libraries of colloidal nanocrystals with tunable physical properties by tailoring the nanocrystal size, shape, and composition. Here, we exploit colloidal nanocrystal diversity and design the materials, interfaces, and processes to construct all-nanocrystal electronic devices using solution-based processes. Metallic silver and semiconducting cadmium selenide nanocrystals are deposited to form high-conductivity and high-mobility thin-film electrodes and channel layers of field-effect transistors. Insulating aluminum oxide nanocrystals are assembled layer by layer with polyelectrolytes to form high-dielectric constant gate insulator layers for low-voltage device operation. Metallic indium nanocrystals are codispersed with silver nanocrystals to integrate an indium supply in the deposited electrodes that serves to passivate and dope the cadmium selenide nanocrystal channel layer. We fabricate all-nanocrystal field-effect transistors on flexible plastics with electron mobilities of 21.7 square centimeters per volt-second.

  19. Exploiting the colloidal nanocrystal library to construct electronic devices.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ji-Hyuk; Wang, Han; Oh, Soong Ju; Paik, Taejong; Sung, Pil; Sung, Jinwoo; Ye, Xingchen; Zhao, Tianshuo; Diroll, Benjamin T; Murray, Christopher B; Kagan, Cherie R

    2016-04-01

    Synthetic methods produce libraries of colloidal nanocrystals with tunable physical properties by tailoring the nanocrystal size, shape, and composition. Here, we exploit colloidal nanocrystal diversity and design the materials, interfaces, and processes to construct all-nanocrystal electronic devices using solution-based processes. Metallic silver and semiconducting cadmium selenide nanocrystals are deposited to form high-conductivity and high-mobility thin-film electrodes and channel layers of field-effect transistors. Insulating aluminum oxide nanocrystals are assembled layer by layer with polyelectrolytes to form high-dielectric constant gate insulator layers for low-voltage device operation. Metallic indium nanocrystals are codispersed with silver nanocrystals to integrate an indium supply in the deposited electrodes that serves to passivate and dope the cadmium selenide nanocrystal channel layer. We fabricate all-nanocrystal field-effect transistors on flexible plastics with electron mobilities of 21.7 square centimeters per volt-second. PMID:27124455

  20. Noble metal nanoparticles embedding into polymeric materials: From fundamentals to applications.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Jai; Pivin, J C; Swart, H C

    2015-12-01

    This review covers some key concepts related to embedding of the noble metal nanoparticles in polymer surfaces. The metal nanoparticles embedded into the polymer matrix can provide high-performance novel materials that find applications in modern nanotechnology. In particular, the origin of various processes that drive the embedding phenomenon, growth of the nanostructure at the surface, factors affecting the embedding including role of surface, interface energies and thermodynamic driving forces with emphasis on the fundamental and technological applications, under different conditions (annealing and ion beams) have been discussed. In addition to the conventional thermal process for embedding which includes the measure of fundamental polymer surface properties with relevant probing techniques, this review discusses the recent advances carried out in the understanding of embedding phenomenon starting from thin metal films to growth of the nanoparticles and embedded nanostructures using novel ion beam techniques. PMID:26584861

  1. Fluorine-Doped Tin Oxide Nanocrystal/Reduced Graphene Oxide Composites as Lithium Ion Battery Anode Material with High Capacity and Cycling Stability.

    PubMed

    Xu, Haiping; Shi, Liyi; Wang, Zhuyi; Liu, Jia; Zhu, Jiefang; Zhao, Yin; Zhang, Meihong; Yuan, Shuai

    2015-12-16

    Tin oxide (SnO2) is a kind of anode material with high theoretical capacity. However, the volume expansion and fast capability fading during cycling have prevented its practical application in lithium ion batteries. Herein, we report that the nanocomposite of fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) is an ideal anode material with high capacity, high rate capability, and high stability. The FTO conductive nanocrystals were successfully anchored on RGO nanosheets from an FTO nanocrystals colloid and RGO suspension by hydrothermal treatment. As the anode material, the FTO/RGO composite showed high structural stability during the lithiation and delithiation processes. The conductive FTO nanocrystals favor the formation of stable and thin solid electrolyte interface films. Significantly, the FTO/RGO composite retains a discharge capacity as high as 1439 mAhg(-1) after 200 cycles at a current density of 100 mAg(-1). Moreover, its rate capacity displays 1148 mAhg(-1) at a current density of 1000 mAg(-1). PMID:26606370

  2. Fluorine-Doped Tin Oxide Nanocrystal/Reduced Graphene Oxide Composites as Lithium Ion Battery Anode Material with High Capacity and Cycling Stability.

    PubMed

    Xu, Haiping; Shi, Liyi; Wang, Zhuyi; Liu, Jia; Zhu, Jiefang; Zhao, Yin; Zhang, Meihong; Yuan, Shuai

    2015-12-16

    Tin oxide (SnO2) is a kind of anode material with high theoretical capacity. However, the volume expansion and fast capability fading during cycling have prevented its practical application in lithium ion batteries. Herein, we report that the nanocomposite of fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) is an ideal anode material with high capacity, high rate capability, and high stability. The FTO conductive nanocrystals were successfully anchored on RGO nanosheets from an FTO nanocrystals colloid and RGO suspension by hydrothermal treatment. As the anode material, the FTO/RGO composite showed high structural stability during the lithiation and delithiation processes. The conductive FTO nanocrystals favor the formation of stable and thin solid electrolyte interface films. Significantly, the FTO/RGO composite retains a discharge capacity as high as 1439 mAhg(-1) after 200 cycles at a current density of 100 mAg(-1). Moreover, its rate capacity displays 1148 mAhg(-1) at a current density of 1000 mAg(-1).

  3. Highly stable sub-5 nm Sn₆O₄(OH)₄ nanocrystals with ultrahigh activity as advanced photocatalytic materials for photodegradation of methyl orange.

    PubMed

    Xiao, J; Wu, Q L; Liu, P; Liang, Y; Li, H B; Wu, M M; Yang, G W

    2014-04-01

    Among numerous active photocatalytic materials, Sn-based oxide nanomaterials are promising photocatalytic materials in environmental protection measures such as water remediation due to their excellent physicochemical property. Research on photocatalytic nanomaterials for photodegradation of methyl orange (MO) so far has focused on TiO₂-based nanostructures; e.g., TiO₂-P25 is recognized to be the best commercial photocatalyst to date, rather than Sn-based oxide nanomaterials, in spite of their impressive acid- and alkali-resistant properties and high stability. Here, we demonstrate very high photocatalytic activity of highly stable sub-5 nm hydromarchite (Sn₆O₄(OH)₄) nanocrystals synthesized by a simple and environmentally friendly laser-based technique. These Sn₆O₄(OH)₄ nanocrystals exhibit ultrahigh photocatalytic performance for photodegradation of MO and their degradation efficiency is far superior to that of TiO₂-P25. The detailed investigations demonstrated that the great photocatalytic activity results from the ultrafine size and unique surface activity induced by the laser-based technique. Mass production of reactive species of hydroxyl radicals was detected in the experiments due to the appropriate bandgap of Sn₆O₄(OH)₄ nanocrystals. These findings actually open a door to applications of Sn-based oxide nanomaterials as advanced photocatalytic materials.

  4. Formation of pure Cu nanocrystals upon post-growth annealing of Cu–C material obtained from focused electron beam induced deposition: comparison of different methods

    PubMed Central

    Szkudlarek, Aleksandra; Rodrigues Vaz, Alfredo; Zhang, Yucheng; Rudkowski, Andrzej; Kapusta, Czesław; Erni, Rolf; Moshkalev, Stanislav

    2015-01-01

    Summary In this paper we study in detail the post-growth annealing of a copper-containing material deposited with focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID). The organometallic precursor Cu(II)(hfac)2 was used for deposition and the results were compared to that of compared to earlier experiments with (hfac)Cu(I)(VTMS) and (hfac)Cu(I)(DMB). Transmission electron microscopy revealed the deposition of amorphous material from Cu(II)(hfac)2. In contrast, as-deposited material from (hfac)Cu(I)(VTMS) and (hfac)Cu(I)(DMB) was nano-composite with Cu nanocrystals dispersed in a carbonaceous matrix. After annealing at around 150–200 °C all deposits showed the formation of pure Cu nanocrystals at the outer surface of the initial deposit due to the migration of Cu atoms from the carbonaceous matrix containing the elements carbon, oxygen, and fluorine. Post-irradiation of deposits with 200 keV electrons in a transmission electron microscope favored the formation of Cu nanocrystals within the carbonaceous matrix of freestanding rods and suppressed the formation on their surface. Electrical four-point measurements on FEBID lines from Cu(hfac)2 showed five orders of magnitude improvement in conductivity when being annealed conventionally and by laser-induced heating in the scanning electron microscope chamber. PMID:26425404

  5. Center for Fundamental and Applied Research in Nanostructured and Lightweight Materials. Final Technical Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mullins, Michael; Rogers, Tony; King, Julia; Keith, Jason; Cornilsen, Bahne; Allen, Jeffrey; Gilbert, Ryan; Holles, Joseph

    2010-09-28

    The core projects for this DOE-sponsored Center at Michigan Tech have focused on several of the materials problems identified by the NAS. These include: new electrode materials, enhanced PEM materials, lighter and more effective bipolar plates, and improvement of the carbon used as a current carrier. This project involved fundamental and applied research in the development and testing of lightweight and nanostructured materials to be used in fuel cell applications and for chemical synthesis. The advent of new classes of materials engineered at the nanometer level can produce materials that are lightweight and have unique physical and chemical properties. The grant was used to obtain and improve the equipment infrastructure to support this research and also served to fund seven research projects. These included: 1. Development of lightweight, thermally conductive bipolar plates for improved thermal management in fuel cells; 2. Exploration of pseudomorphic nanoscale overlayer bimetallic catalysts for fuel cells; 3. Development of hybrid inorganic/organic polymer nanocomposites with improved ionic and electronic properties; 4. Development of oriented polymeric materials for membrane applications; 5. Preparation of a graphitic carbon foam current collectors; 6. The development of lightweight carbon electrodes using graphitic carbon foams for battery and fuel cell applications; and 7. Movement of water in fuel cell electrodes.

  6. Injected nanocrystals for targeted drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yi; Li, Ye; Wu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Nanocrystals are pure drug crystals with sizes in the nanometer range. Due to the advantages of high drug loading, platform stability, and ease of scaling-up, nanocrystals have been widely used to deliver poorly water-soluble drugs. Nanocrystals in the blood stream can be recognized and sequestered as exogenous materials by mononuclear phagocytic system (MPS) cells, leading to passive accumulation in MPS-rich organs, such as liver, spleen and lung. Particle size, morphology and surface modification affect the biodistribution of nanocrystals. Ligand conjugation and stimuli-responsive polymers can also be used to target nanocrystals to specific pathogenic sites. In this review, the progress on injected nanocrystals for targeted drug delivery is discussed following a brief introduction to nanocrystal preparation methods, i.e., top-down and bottom-up technologies. PMID:27006893

  7. Inexpensive Antimony Nanocrystals and Their Composites with Red Phosphorus as High-Performance Anode Materials for Na-ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Marc; Erni, Rolf; Kovalenko, Maksym V.

    2015-01-01

    Sodium-ion batteries increasingly become of immense research interest as a potential inexpensive alternative to Lithium-ion batteries. Development of high-energy-density negative electrodes (anodes) remains to be a great challenge, especially because of significant differences between lithium and sodium chemistries. Two Na-ion anode materials – antimony (Sb) and phosphorus (P) – have been recently shown to offer excellent cycling stability (Sb) and highest known Na-ion charge storage capacity (P). In this work we report on the synergistic Na-ion storage in a P/Sb/Cu-nanocomposite, produced by mixing inexpensive colloidal Sb nanocrystals with red P and with copper (Cu) nanowires. In comparison to electrodes composed of only phosphorus, such P/Sb/Cu-composite shows much greater cycling stability providing a capacity of above 1100 mAh g−1 after 50 charge/discharge cycles at a current density of 125 mA g−1. Furthermore, P/Sb/Cu-composite also exhibits excellent rate-capability, with capacity of more than 900 mAh g−1 at a high charge/discharge current density of 2000 mA g−1. PMID:25673146

  8. Inexpensive antimony nanocrystals and their composites with red phosphorus as high-performance anode materials for Na-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Walter, Marc; Erni, Rolf; Kovalenko, Maksym V

    2015-01-01

    Sodium-ion batteries increasingly become of immense research interest as a potential inexpensive alternative to Lithium-ion batteries. Development of high-energy-density negative electrodes (anodes) remains to be a great challenge, especially because of significant differences between lithium and sodium chemistries. Two Na-ion anode materials - antimony (Sb) and phosphorus (P) - have been recently shown to offer excellent cycling stability (Sb) and highest known Na-ion charge storage capacity (P). In this work we report on the synergistic Na-ion storage in a P/Sb/Cu-nanocomposite, produced by mixing inexpensive colloidal Sb nanocrystals with red P and with copper (Cu) nanowires. In comparison to electrodes composed of only phosphorus, such P/Sb/Cu-composite shows much greater cycling stability providing a capacity of above 1100 mAh g(-1) after 50 charge/discharge cycles at a current density of 125 mA g(-1). Furthermore, P/Sb/Cu-composite also exhibits excellent rate-capability, with capacity of more than 900 mAh g(-1) at a high charge/discharge current density of 2000 mA g(-1). PMID:25673146

  9. Inexpensive Antimony Nanocrystals and Their Composites with Red Phosphorus as High-Performance Anode Materials for Na-ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Marc; Erni, Rolf; Kovalenko, Maksym V.

    2015-02-01

    Sodium-ion batteries increasingly become of immense research interest as a potential inexpensive alternative to Lithium-ion batteries. Development of high-energy-density negative electrodes (anodes) remains to be a great challenge, especially because of significant differences between lithium and sodium chemistries. Two Na-ion anode materials - antimony (Sb) and phosphorus (P) - have been recently shown to offer excellent cycling stability (Sb) and highest known Na-ion charge storage capacity (P). In this work we report on the synergistic Na-ion storage in a P/Sb/Cu-nanocomposite, produced by mixing inexpensive colloidal Sb nanocrystals with red P and with copper (Cu) nanowires. In comparison to electrodes composed of only phosphorus, such P/Sb/Cu-composite shows much greater cycling stability providing a capacity of above 1100 mAh g-1 after 50 charge/discharge cycles at a current density of 125 mA g-1. Furthermore, P/Sb/Cu-composite also exhibits excellent rate-capability, with capacity of more than 900 mAh g-1 at a high charge/discharge current density of 2000 mA g-1.

  10. Ultrafine Nb2O5 Nanocrystal Coating on Reduced Graphene Oxide as Anode Material for High Performance Sodium Ion Battery.

    PubMed

    Yan, Litao; Chen, Gen; Sarker, Swagotom; Richins, Stephanie; Wang, Huiqiang; Xu, Weichuan; Rui, Xianhong; Luo, Hongmei

    2016-08-31

    Ultrafine niobium oxide nanocrystals/reduced graphene oxide (Nb2O5 NCs/rGO) was demonstrated as a promising anode material for sodium ion battery with high rate performance and high cycle durability. Nb2O5 NCs/rGO was synthesized by controllable hydrolysis of niobium ethoxide and followed by heat treatment at 450 °C in flowing forming gas. Transmission electron microscopy images showed that Nb2O5 NCs with average particle size of 3 nm were uniformly deposited on rGO sheets and voids among Nb2O5 NCs existed. The architecture of ultrafine Nb2O5 NCs anchored on a highly conductive rGO network can not only enhance charge transfer and buffer the volume change during sodiation/desodiation process but also provide more active surface area for sodium ion storage, resulting in superior rate and cycle performance. Ex situ XPS analysis revealed that the sodium ion storage mechanism in Nb2O5 could be accompanied by Nb(5+)/Nb(4+) redox reaction and the ultrafine Nb2O5 NCs provide more surface area to accomplish the redox reaction. PMID:27508452

  11. Ultrafine Nb2O5 Nanocrystal Coating on Reduced Graphene Oxide as Anode Material for High Performance Sodium Ion Battery.

    PubMed

    Yan, Litao; Chen, Gen; Sarker, Swagotom; Richins, Stephanie; Wang, Huiqiang; Xu, Weichuan; Rui, Xianhong; Luo, Hongmei

    2016-08-31

    Ultrafine niobium oxide nanocrystals/reduced graphene oxide (Nb2O5 NCs/rGO) was demonstrated as a promising anode material for sodium ion battery with high rate performance and high cycle durability. Nb2O5 NCs/rGO was synthesized by controllable hydrolysis of niobium ethoxide and followed by heat treatment at 450 °C in flowing forming gas. Transmission electron microscopy images showed that Nb2O5 NCs with average particle size of 3 nm were uniformly deposited on rGO sheets and voids among Nb2O5 NCs existed. The architecture of ultrafine Nb2O5 NCs anchored on a highly conductive rGO network can not only enhance charge transfer and buffer the volume change during sodiation/desodiation process but also provide more active surface area for sodium ion storage, resulting in superior rate and cycle performance. Ex situ XPS analysis revealed that the sodium ion storage mechanism in Nb2O5 could be accompanied by Nb(5+)/Nb(4+) redox reaction and the ultrafine Nb2O5 NCs provide more surface area to accomplish the redox reaction.

  12. Extracting hot carriers from photoexcited semiconductor nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Xiaoyang

    2014-12-10

    This research program addresses a fundamental question related to the use of nanomaterials in solar energy -- namely, whether semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) can help surpass the efficiency limits, the so-called “Shockley-Queisser” limit, in conventional solar cells. In these cells, absorption of photons with energies above the semiconductor bandgap generates “hot” charge carriers that quickly “cool” to the band edges before they can be utilized to do work; this sets the solar cell efficiency at a limit of ~31%. If instead, all of the energy of the hot carriers could be captured, solar-to-electric power conversion efficiencies could be increased, theoretically, to as high as 66%. A potential route to capture this energy is to utilize semiconductor nanocrystals. In these materials, the quasi-continuous conduction and valence bands of the bulk semiconductor become discretized due to confinement of the charge carriers. Consequently, the energy spacing between the electronic levels can be much larger than the highest phonon frequency of the lattice, creating a “phonon bottleneck” wherein hot-carrier relaxation is possible via slower multiphonon emission. For example, hot-electron lifetimes as long as ~1 ns have been observed in NCs grown by molecular beam epitaxy. In colloidal NCs, long lifetimes have been demonstrated through careful design of the nanocrystal interfaces. Due to their ability to slow electronic relaxation, semiconductor NCs can in principle enable extraction of hot carriers before they cool to the band edges, leading to more efficient solar cells.

  13. Cu3-xP Nanocrystals as a Material Platform for Near-Infrared Plasmonics and Cation Exchange Reactions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Synthesis approaches to colloidal Cu3P nanocrystals (NCs) have been recently developed, and their optical absorption features in the near-infrared (NIR) have been interpreted as arising from a localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). Our pump–probe measurements on platelet-shaped Cu3-xP NCs corroborate the plasmonic character of this absorption. In accordance with studies on crystal structure analysis of Cu3P dating back to the 1970s, our density functional calculations indicate that this material is substoichiometric in copper, since the energy of formation of Cu vacancies in certain crystallographic sites is negative, that is, they are thermodynamically favored. Also, thermoelectric measurements point to a p-type behavior of the majority carriers from films of Cu3-xP NCs. It is likely that both the LSPR and the p-type character of our Cu3-xP NCs arise from the presence of a large number of Cu vacancies in such NCs. Motivated by the presence of Cu vacancies that facilitate the ion diffusion, we have additionally exploited Cu3-xP NCs as a starting material on which to probe cation exchange reactions. We demonstrate here that Cu3-xP NCs can be easily cation-exchanged to hexagonal wurtzite InP NCs, with preservation of the anion framework (the anion framework in Cu3-xP is very close to that of wurtzite InP). Intermediate steps in this reaction are represented by Cu3-xP/InP heterostructures, as a consequence of the fact that the exchange between Cu+ and In3+ ions starts from the peripheral corners of each NC and gradually evolves toward the center. The feasibility of this transformation makes Cu3-xP NCs an interesting material platform from which to access other metal phosphides by cation exchange. PMID:25960605

  14. Fundamental studies to develop certified reference material to calibrate spectrophotometer in the ultraviolet region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Conceição, F. C.; Borges, P. P.; Gomes, J. F. S.

    2016-07-01

    Spectrophotometry is the technique used in a great number of laboratories around the world. Quantitative determination of a high number of inorganic, organic and biological species can be made by spectrophotometry using calibrated spectrophotometers. International standards require the use of optical filters to perform the calibration of spectrophotometers. One of the recommended materials is the crystalline potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7), which is used to prepare solutions in specific concentrations for calibration or verification of spectrophotometers in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral regions. This paper presents the results concerning the fundamental studies for developing a certified reference material (CRM) of crystalline potassium dichromate to be used as standard of spectrophotometers in order to contribute to reliable quantitative analyses.

  15. Material nature versus structural nurture: the embodied carbon of fundamental structural elements.

    PubMed

    Purnell, P

    2012-01-01

    The construction industry is under considerable legislative pressure to reduce its CO(2) emissions. The current focus is on operational CO(2) emissions, but as these are compulsorily reduced, the embodied CO(2) of structural components, overwhelmingly attributable to the material from which they are manufactured, will become of greater interest. Choice of structural materials for minimal embodied CO(2) is currently based either on subjective narrative arguments, or values of embodied CO(2) per unit volume or mass. Here we show that such arguments are invalid. We found that structural design parameters (dimensions, section choice, and load capacity) for fundamental structural components (simple beams and columns) are at least as important as material choice with regard to their effect on embodied CO(2) per unit load capacity per unit dimension, which can vary over several decades within and between material choices. This result demonstrates that relying on apparently objective analyses based on embodied CO(2) per unit volume or mass will not lead to minimum carbon solutions; a formal definition of the correct functional unit for embodied CO(2) must be used. In short, there is no such thing as a green structural material. PMID:22084900

  16. Understanding Fundamental Material Degradation Processes in High Temperature Aggressive Chemomechanical Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Stubbins, James; Gewirth, Andrew; Sehitoglu, Huseyin; Sofronis, Petros; Robertson, Ian

    2014-01-16

    The objective of this project is to develop a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that limit materials durability for very high-temperature applications. Current design limitations are based on material strength and corrosion resistance. This project will characterize the interactions of high-temperature creep, fatigue, and environmental attack in structural metallic alloys of interest for the very high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) or Next–Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) and for the associated thermo-chemical processing systems for hydrogen generation. Each of these degradation processes presents a major materials design challenge on its own, but in combination, they can act synergistically to rapidly degrade materials and limit component lives. This research and development effort will provide experimental results to characterize creep-fatigue-environment interactions and develop predictive models to define operation limits for high-temperature structural material applications. Researchers will study individually and in combination creep-fatigue-environmental attack processes in Alloys 617, 230, and 800H, as well as in an advanced Ni-Cr oxide dispersion strengthened steel (ODS) system. For comparison, the study will also examine basic degradation processes in nichrome (Ni-20Cr), which is a basis for most high-temperature structural materials, as well as many of the superalloys. These materials are selected to represent primary candidate alloys, one advanced developmental alloy that may have superior high-temperature durability, and one model system on which basic performance and modeling efforts can be based. The research program is presented in four parts, which all complement each other. The first three are primarily experimental in nature, and the last will tie the work together in a coordinated modeling effort. The sections are (1) dynamic creep-fatigue-environment process, (2) subcritical crack processes, (3) dynamic corrosion – crack

  17. In situ Transmission Electron Microscopy observation of Ag nanocrystal evolution by surfactant free electron-driven synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Longo, Elson; Avansi, Waldir; Bettini, Jefferson; Andrés, Juan; Gracia, Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    The study of the interaction of electron irradiation with matter and the response of the material to the passage of electrons is a very challenging problem. However, the growth mechanism observed during nanostructural evolution appears to be a broad and promising scientific field in nanotechnology. We report the in situ TEM study of nanostructural evolution of electron-driven silver (Ag) nanocrystals through an additive-free synthetic procedure. Observations revealed the direct effect of the electron beam on the morphological evolution of Ag nanocrystals through different mechanisms, such as mass transport, site-selective coalescence, and an appropriate structural configuration after coalescence leading to a more stable configuration. A fundamental understanding of the growth and formation mechanisms of Ag nanocrystals, which interact with the electron beam, is essential to improve the nanocrystal shape-control mechanisms as well as the future design and study of nanomaterials. PMID:26979671

  18. NaNaX 4--4th event of the international conference series "Nanoscience with Nanocrystals".

    PubMed

    Reiss, Peter

    2010-07-27

    The conference "NaNaX 4--Nanoscience with Nanocrystals" held near Munich (April 11-15, 2010) brought together a wide range of scientists discussing the most important current issues in the field of colloidal nanoparticles. Chemical synthesis gives access to nanocrystals of controlled size, shape, composition, and surface functionalization. Past research mainly concentrated on cadmium and lead chalcogenide nanocrystals as well as on gold and iron oxide nanoparticles. Today, there is a trend toward the development of nanoscale heterostructures, which combine different classes of materials and exhibit unique optical, magnetic, and electronic properties. Beside their interest for fundamental science, colloidal nanoparticles hold great promise for a wide range of applications. To this end, speakers and poster presenters showed routes for designing and using nanocrystals in biological imaging and sensing, in energy-related applications, and in catalysis. This report gives a nonexhaustive overview of selected "hot topics" in nanoparticle research discussed at NaNaX 4.

  19. Fundamentals of Materials, Techniques, and Instrumentation for OSL and FNTD Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Akselrod, M. S.

    2011-05-05

    The optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) technique has already become a successful commercial tool in personal radiation dosimetry, medical dosimetry, diagnostic imaging, geological and archeological dating. This review briefly describes the history and fundamental principles of OSL materials, methods and instrumentation. The advantages of OSL technology and instrumentation in comparison with thermoluminescent technique are analyzed. Progress in material and detector engineering has allowed new and promising developments regarding OSL applications in the medical field. Special attention is dedicated to Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C as a material of choice for many dosimetric applications. Different aspects of OSL theory, materials optical and dosimetric properties, instrumentation, and data processing algorithms are described. The next technological breakthrough was done with Fluorescent Nuclear Track Detectors (FNTD) that have some important advantages in measuring fast neutron and high energy heavy charge particles that have become the latest tool in radiation therapy. New Mg-doped aluminum oxide crystals and novel type of imaging instrumentation for FNTD technology are discussed with regard to application in mixed neutron-gamma fields, medical dosimetry and radiobiological research.

  20. Fundamentals of Materials, Techniques, and Instrumentation for OSL and FNTD Dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akselrod, M. S.

    2011-05-01

    The optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) technique has already become a successful commercial tool in personal radiation dosimetry, medical dosimetry, diagnostic imaging, geological and archeological dating. This review briefly describes the history and fundamental principles of OSL materials, methods and instrumentation. The advantages of OSL technology and instrumentation in comparison with thermoluminescent technique are analyzed. Progress in material and detector engineering has allowed new and promising developments regarding OSL applications in the medical field. Special attention is dedicated to Al2O3:C as a material of choice for many dosimetric applications. Different aspects of OSL theory, materials optical and dosimetric properties, instrumentation, and data processing algorithms are described. The next technological breakthrough was done with Fluorescent Nuclear Track Detectors (FNTD) that have some important advantages in measuring fast neutron and high energy heavy charge particles that have become the latest tool in radiation therapy. New Mg-doped aluminum oxide crystals and novel type of imaging instrumentation for FNTD technology are discussed with regard to application in mixed neutron-gamma fields, medical dosimetry and radiobiological research.

  1. Gram-scale synthesis of catalytic Co9S8 nanocrystal ink as a cathode material for spray-deposited, large-area dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shu-Hao; Lu, Ming-De; Tung, Yung-Liang; Tuan, Hsing-Yu

    2013-10-22

    We report the development of Co9S8 nanocrystals as a cost-effective cathode material that can be readily combined with spraying techniques to fabricate large-area dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) devices and can be further connected with series or parallel cell architectures to obtain a relatively high output voltage or current. A gram-scale synthesis of Co9S8 nanocrystal is carried out via a noninjection reaction by mixing anhydrous CoCl2 with trioctylphosphine (TOP), dodecanethiol and oleylamine (OLA) at 250 °C. The Co9S8 nanocrystals possess excellent catalytic ability with respect to I(-)/I3(-) redox reactions. The Co9S8 nanocrystals are prepared as nanoinks to fabricate uniform, crack-free Co9S8 thin films on different substrates by using a spray deposition technique. These Co9S8 films are used as counter electrodes assembled with dye-adsorbed TiO2 photoanodes to fabricate DSSC devices having a working area of 2 cm(2) and an average power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.02 ± 0.18% under AM 1.5 solar illumination, which is comparable with the PCE of 7.2 ± 0.12% obtained using a Pt cathode. Furthermore, six 2 cm(2)-sized DSSC devices connected in series output an open-circuit voltage of 4.2 V that can power a wide range of electronic devices such as LED arrays and can charge commercial lithium ion batteries. PMID:23992127

  2. Cellulose nanocrystals: synthesis, functional properties, and applications.

    PubMed

    George, Johnsy; Sabapathi, S N

    2015-01-01

    Cellulose nanocrystals are unique nanomaterials derived from the most abundant and almost inexhaustible natural polymer, cellulose. These nanomaterials have received significant interest due to their mechanical, optical, chemical, and rheological properties. Cellulose nanocrystals primarily obtained from naturally occurring cellulose fibers are biodegradable and renewable in nature and hence they serve as a sustainable and environmentally friendly material for most applications. These nanocrystals are basically hydrophilic in nature; however, they can be surface functionalized to meet various challenging requirements, such as the development of high-performance nanocomposites, using hydrophobic polymer matrices. Considering the ever-increasing interdisciplinary research being carried out on cellulose nanocrystals, this review aims to collate the knowledge available about the sources, chemical structure, and physical and chemical isolation procedures, as well as describes the mechanical, optical, and rheological properties, of cellulose nanocrystals. Innovative applications in diverse fields such as biomedical engineering, material sciences, electronics, catalysis, etc, wherein these cellulose nanocrystals can be used, are highlighted. PMID:26604715

  3. Cellulose nanocrystals: synthesis, functional properties, and applications

    PubMed Central

    George, Johnsy; Sabapathi, SN

    2015-01-01

    Cellulose nanocrystals are unique nanomaterials derived from the most abundant and almost inexhaustible natural polymer, cellulose. These nanomaterials have received significant interest due to their mechanical, optical, chemical, and rheological properties. Cellulose nanocrystals primarily obtained from naturally occurring cellulose fibers are biodegradable and renewable in nature and hence they serve as a sustainable and environmentally friendly material for most applications. These nanocrystals are basically hydrophilic in nature; however, they can be surface functionalized to meet various challenging requirements, such as the development of high-performance nanocomposites, using hydrophobic polymer matrices. Considering the ever-increasing interdisciplinary research being carried out on cellulose nanocrystals, this review aims to collate the knowledge available about the sources, chemical structure, and physical and chemical isolation procedures, as well as describes the mechanical, optical, and rheological properties, of cellulose nanocrystals. Innovative applications in diverse fields such as biomedical engineering, material sciences, electronics, catalysis, etc, wherein these cellulose nanocrystals can be used, are highlighted. PMID:26604715

  4. Thin films and assemblies of photosensitive membrane proteins and colloidal nanocrystals for engineering of hybrid materials with advanced properties.

    PubMed

    Zaitsev, Sergei Yu; Solovyeva, Daria O; Nabiev, Igor

    2012-11-15

    Langmuir-Schaefer methods < self-assembly and layer-by-layer methods. The key advances in the techniques of preparation of the assemblies or complexes of colloidal nanocrystals with bR, purple membranes, or photosynthetic reaction centres are also reviewed. Approaches to the fabrication of the prototype photosensitive nano-bio hybrid materials with advanced photovoltaic, energy transfer, and optical switching properties and future prospects in this field are analyzed in the concluding part of the review.

  5. Fundamentals of materials, techniques and instrumentation for OSL and FNTD dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akselrod, M. S.

    2013-02-01

    The optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) technique has already become a successful commercial tool in personal radiation dosimetry, medical dosimetry, diagnostic imaging, geological and archeological dating. This review briefly describes the history and fundamental principles of OSL materials, methods and instrumentation. The advantages of OSL technology and instrumentation in comparison with thermoluminescent technique are analyzed. Progress in material and detector engineering has allowed new and promising developments regarding OSL applications in the medical field. Special attention is dedicated to Al2O3:C as a material of choice for many dosimetric applications including fiberoptic OSL/RL sensors with diameters as small as 300 μm. A new RL/OSL fiberoptic system has a high potential for in vivo and in vitro dosimetry in both radiation therapy and diagnostic mammography. Different aspects of instrumentation, data processing algorithms, post-irradiation and real-time measurements are described. The next technological breakthrough was done with Fluorescent Nuclear Track detectors (FNTD) that has some important advantages in measuring fast neutron and high energy heavy charge particles that became the latest tool in radiation therapy. New Mg-doped aluminum oxide crystals and novel type of imaging instrumentation for FNTD technology were engineered and successfully demonstrated for occupational and accident dosimetry, for medical dosimetry and radiobiological research.

  6. Biomolecular Assembly of Gold Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Micheel, Christine Marya

    2005-05-20

    Over the past ten years, methods have been developed to construct discrete nanostructures using nanocrystals and biomolecules. While these frequently consist of gold nanocrystals and DNA, semiconductor nanocrystals as well as antibodies and enzymes have also been used. One example of discrete nanostructures is dimers of gold nanocrystals linked together with complementary DNA. This type of nanostructure is also known as a nanocrystal molecule. Discrete nanostructures of this kind have a number of potential applications, from highly parallel self-assembly of electronics components and rapid read-out of DNA computations to biological imaging and a variety of bioassays. My research focused in three main areas. The first area, the refinement of electrophoresis as a purification and characterization method, included application of agarose gel electrophoresis to the purification of discrete gold nanocrystal/DNA conjugates and nanocrystal molecules, as well as development of a more detailed understanding of the hydrodynamic behavior of these materials in gels. The second area, the development of methods for quantitative analysis of transmission electron microscope data, used computer programs written to find pair correlations as well as higher order correlations. With these programs, it is possible to reliably locate and measure nanocrystal molecules in TEM images. The final area of research explored the use of DNA ligase in the formation of nanocrystal molecules. Synthesis of dimers of gold particles linked with a single strand of DNA possible through the use of DNA ligase opens the possibility for amplification of nanostructures in a manner similar to polymerase chain reaction. These three areas are discussed in the context of the work in the Alivisatos group, as well as the field as a whole.

  7. 2009 Clusters, Nanocrystals & Nanostructures GRC

    SciTech Connect

    Lai-Sheng Wang

    2009-07-19

    For over thirty years, this Gordon Conference has been the premiere meeting for the field of cluster science, which studies the phenomena that arise when matter becomes small. During its history, participants have witnessed the discovery and development of many novel materials, including C60, carbon nanotubes, semiconductor and metal nanocrystals, and nanowires. In addition to addressing fundamental scientific questions related to these materials, the meeting has always included a discussion of their potential applications. Consequently, this conference has played a critical role in the birth and growth of nanoscience and engineering. The goal of the 2009 Gordon Conference is to continue the forward-looking tradition of this meeting and discuss the most recent advances in the field of clusters, nanocrystals, and nanostructures. As in past meetings, this will include new topics that broaden the field. In particular, a special emphasis will be placed on nanomaterials related to the efficient use, generation, or conversion of energy. For example, we anticipate presentations related to batteries, catalysts, photovoltaics, and thermoelectrics. In addition, we expect to address the controversy surrounding carrier multiplication with a session in which recent results addressing this phenomenon will be discussed and debated. The atmosphere of the conference, which emphasizes the presentation of unpublished results and lengthy discussion periods, ensures that attendees will enjoy a valuable and stimulating experience. Because only a limited number of participants are allowed to attend this conference, and oversubscription is anticipated, we encourage all interested researchers from academia, industry, and government institutions to apply as early as possible. An invitation is not required. We also encourage all attendees to submit their latest results for presentation at the poster sessions. We anticipate that several posters will be selected for 'hot topic' oral

  8. Ultrafine SnO{sub 2} nanocrystals anchored graphene composites as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jun Chang, Ling; Wang, Fengxian; Xie, Dong; Su, Qingmei; Du, Gaohui

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Ultrafine SnO{sub 2}@graphene composite is synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method. • SnO{sub 2} nanocrystals with size of ∼5 nm are distributed on the graphene sheets uniformly. • A reversible capacity of 808 mAh g{sup −1} is retained after 100 cycles at 200 mA g{sup −1}. • The capacity recovers to 1290 mAh g{sup −1} after being cycled at various rates for 60 cycles. - Abstract: Ultrafine tin dioxide (SnO{sub 2}) nanocrystals anchored graphene composite is synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method. Well-defined SnO{sub 2} nanocrystals with size of ∼5 nm are uniformly anchored on the graphene sheets. The two-dimensional nanostructure inherits the advantages of graphene, which possesses high electrical conductivity and large surface area. Furthermore, the ultrafine SnO{sub 2} nanocrystals anchoring on graphene sheets facilitate fast ion transportation and prevent aggregation. As a result, the produced nanocomposite exhibits an excellent cycling stability and rate capability for lithium storage (808 mAh g{sup −1} after 100 cycles at 200 mA g{sup −1}, 1290 mAh g{sup −1} at the current of 50 mA g{sup −1} after being cycled at various current densities for 60 cycles)

  9. Cellulose nanocrystals the next big nano-thing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postek, Michael T.; Vladar, Andras; Dagata, John; Farkas, Natalia; Ming, Bin; Sabo, Ronald; Wegner, Theodore H.; Beecher, James

    2008-08-01

    Biomass surrounds us from the smallest alga to the largest redwood tree. Even the largest trees owe their strength to a newly-appreciated class of nanomaterials known as cellulose nanocrystals (CNC). Cellulose, the world's most abundant natural, renewable, biodegradable polymer, occurs as whisker like microfibrils that are biosynthesized and deposited in plant material in a continuous fashion. Therefore, the basic raw materials for a future of new nanomaterials breakthroughs already abound in the environment and are available to be utilized in an array of future materials once the manufacturing processes and nanometrology are fully developed. This presentation will discuss some of the instrumentation, metrology and standards issues associated with nanomanufacturing of cellulose nanocrystals. The use of lignocellulosic fibers derived from sustainable, annually renewable resources as a reinforcing phase in polymeric matrix composites provides positive environmental benefits with respect to ultimate disposability and raw material use. Today we lack the essential metrology infrastructure that would enable the manufacture of nanotechnology-based products based on CNCs (or other new nanomaterial) to significantly impact the U.S. economy. The basic processes common to manufacturing - qualification of raw materials, continuous synthesis methods, process monitoring and control, in-line and off-line characterization of product for quality control purposes, validation by standard reference materials - are not generally in place for nanotechnology based products, and thus are barriers to innovation. One advantage presented by the study of CNCs is that, unlike other nanomaterials, at least, cellulose nanocrystal manufacturing is already a sustainable and viable bulk process. Literally tons of cellulose nanocrystals can be generated each day, producing other viable byproducts such as glucose (for alternative fuel) and gypsum (for buildings).There is an immediate need for the

  10. Composite materials with metal oxide attached to lead chalcogenide nanocrystal quantum dots with linkers

    DOEpatents

    Fuke, Nobuhiro; Koposov, Alexey Y; Sykora, Milan; Hoch, Laura

    2014-12-16

    Composite materials useful for devices such as photoelectrochemical solar cells include a substrate, a metal oxide film on the substrate, nanocrystalline quantum dots (NQDs) of lead sulfide, lead selenide, and lead telluride, and linkers that attach the NQDs to the metal oxide film. Suitable linkers preserve the 1s absorption peak of the NQDs. A suitable linker has a general structure A-B-C where A is a chemical group adapted for binding to a MO.sub.x and C is a chemical group adapted for binding to a NQD and B is a divalent, rigid, or semi-rigid organic spacer moiety. Other linkers that preserve the 1s absorption peak may also be used.

  11. Prospects of nanoscience with nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Kovalenko, Maksym V.; Manna, Liberato; Cabot, Andreu; Hens, Zeger; Talapin, Dmitri V.; Kagan, Cherie R.; Klimov, Victor I.; Rogach, Andrey L.; Reiss, Peter; Milliron, Delia J.; Guyot-Sionnnest, Philippe; Konstantatos, Gerasimos; Parak, Wolfgang J.; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Korgel, Brian A.; Murray, Christopher B.; Heiss, Wolfgang

    2015-01-22

    Colloidal nanocrystals (NCs, i.e., crystalline nanoparticles) have become an important class of materials with great potential for applications ranging from medicine to electronic and optoelectronic devices. Today's strong research focus on NCs has been prompted by the tremendous progress in their synthesis. Impressively narrow size distributions of just a few percent, rational shape-engineering, compositional modulation, electronic doping, and tailored surface chemistries are now feasible for a broad range of inorganic compounds. Furthermore, the performance of inorganic NC-based photovoltaic and lightemitting devices has become competitive to other state-of-the-art materials. Semiconductor NCs hold unique promise for near- and mid-infrared technologies, where very few semiconductor materials are available. On a purely fundamental side, new insights into NC growth, chemical transformations, and self-organization can be gained from rapidly progressing in situ characterization and direct imaging techniques. New phenomena are constantly being discovered in the photophysics of NCs and in the electronic properties of NC solids. In our Nano Focus, we review the state of the art in research on colloidal NCs focusing on the most recent works published in the last 2 years.

  12. Prospects of nanoscience with nanocrystals

    DOE PAGES

    Kovalenko, Maksym V.; Manna, Liberato; Cabot, Andreu; Hens, Zeger; Talapin, Dmitri V.; Kagan, Cherie R.; Klimov, Victor I.; Rogach, Andrey L.; Reiss, Peter; Milliron, Delia J.; et al

    2015-01-22

    Colloidal nanocrystals (NCs, i.e., crystalline nanoparticles) have become an important class of materials with great potential for applications ranging from medicine to electronic and optoelectronic devices. Today's strong research focus on NCs has been prompted by the tremendous progress in their synthesis. Impressively narrow size distributions of just a few percent, rational shape-engineering, compositional modulation, electronic doping, and tailored surface chemistries are now feasible for a broad range of inorganic compounds. Furthermore, the performance of inorganic NC-based photovoltaic and lightemitting devices has become competitive to other state-of-the-art materials. Semiconductor NCs hold unique promise for near- and mid-infrared technologies, where verymore » few semiconductor materials are available. On a purely fundamental side, new insights into NC growth, chemical transformations, and self-organization can be gained from rapidly progressing in situ characterization and direct imaging techniques. New phenomena are constantly being discovered in the photophysics of NCs and in the electronic properties of NC solids. In our Nano Focus, we review the state of the art in research on colloidal NCs focusing on the most recent works published in the last 2 years.« less

  13. Influence of dopant distribution on the plasmonic properties of indium tin oxide nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Lounis, Sebastien D; Runnerstrom, Evan L; Bergerud, Amy; Nordlund, Dennis; Milliron, Delia J

    2014-05-14

    Doped metal oxide nanocrystals represent an exciting frontier for colloidal synthesis of plasmonic materials, displaying unique optoelectronic properties and showing promise for a variety of applications. However, fundamental questions about the nature of doping in these materials remain. In this article, the strong influence of radial dopant distribution on the optoelectronic properties of colloidal indium tin oxide nanocrystals is reported. Comparing elemental depth-profiling by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) with detailed modeling and simulation of the optical extinction of these nanocrystals using the Drude model for free electrons, a correlation between surface segregation of tin ions and the average activation of dopants is observed. A strong influence of surface segregation of tin on the line shape of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) is also reported. Samples with tin segregated near the surface show a symmetric line shape that suggests weak or no damping of the plasmon by ionized impurities. It is suggested that segregation of tin near the surface facilitates compensation of the dopant ions by electronic defects and oxygen interstitials, thus reducing activation. A core-shell model is proposed to explain the observed differences in line shape. These results demonstrate the nuanced role of dopant distribution in determining the optoelectronic properties of semiconductor nanocrystals and suggest that more detailed study of the distribution and structure of defects in plasmonic colloidal nanocrystals is warranted.

  14. Influence of Dopant Distribution on the Plasmonic Properties of Indium Tin Oxide Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Lounis, SD; Runnerstrom, EL; Bergerud, A; Nordlund, D; Milliron, DJ

    2014-05-14

    Doped metal oxide nanocrystals represent an exciting frontier for colloidal synthesis of plasmonic materials, displaying unique optoelectronic properties and showing promise for a variety of applications. However, fundamental questions about the nature of doping in these materials remain. In this article, the strong influence of radial dopant distribution on the optoelectronic properties of colloidal indium tin oxide nanocrystals is reported. Comparing elemental depth-profiling by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) with detailed modeling and simulation of the optical extinction of these nanocrystals using the Drude model for free electrons, a correlation between surface segregation of tin ions and the average activation of dopants is observed. A strong influence of surface segregation of tin on the line shape of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) is also reported. Samples with tin segregated near the surface show a symmetric line shape that suggests weak or no damping of the plasmon by ionized impurities. It is suggested that segregation of tin near the surface facilitates compensation of the dopant ions by electronic defects and oxygen interstitials, thus reducing activation. A core shell model is proposed to explain the observed differences in line shape. These results demonstrate the nuanced role of dopant distribution in determining the optoelectronic properties of semiconductor nanocrystals and suggest that more detailed study of the distribution and structure of defects in plasmonic colloidal nanocrystals is warranted.

  15. Fundamental chemistry and materials science of americium in selected immobilization glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Haire, R.G.; Stump, N.A.

    1996-12-01

    We have pursued some of the fundamental chemistry and materials science of Am in 3 glass matrices, two being high-temperature (850 and 1400 C mp) silicate-based glasses and the third a sol-gel glass. Optical spectroscopy was the principal tool. One aspect of this work was to determine the oxidation state exhibited by Am in these matrices, as well as factors that control or may alter this state. A correlation was noted between the oxidation state of the f-elements in the two high-temperature glasses with their high-temperature oxide chemistries. One exception was Am: although AmO{sub 2} is the stable oxide encountered in air, when this dioxide was incorporated into the high-temperature glasses, only trivalent Am was found in the products. When Am(III) was used to prepare the sol-gel glasses at ambient temperature, and after these products were heated in air to 800 C, only Am(III) was observed. Potential explanations for the unexpected Am behavior is offered in the context of its basic chemistry. Experimental spectra, spectroscopic assignments, etc. are discussed.

  16. OLED Fundamentals: Materials, Devices, and Processing of Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Blochwitz-Nimoth, Jan; Bhandari, Abhinav; Boesch, Damien; Fincher, Curtis R.; Gaspar, Daniel J.; Gotthold, David W.; Greiner, Mark T.; Kido, Junji; Kondakov, Denis; Korotkov, Roman; Krylova, Valentina A.; Loeser, Falk; Lu, Min-Hao; Lu, Zheng-Hong; Lussem, Bjorn; Moro, Lorenza; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Rostovtsev, Vsevolod V.; Sasabe, Hisahiro; Silverman, Gary; Thompson, Mark E.; Tietze, Max; Tyan, Yuan-Sheng; Weaver, Michael; Xin , Xu; Zeng, Xianghui

    2015-05-26

    -efficiency OLED demonstrated in 1987. Thus, we expect to see exciting advances in the science, technology and commercialization in the coming years. We hope that this book helps to advance the field in some small way. Contributors to this monograph are experts from top academic institutions, industry and national laboratories who provide comprehensive and up-to-date coverage of the rapidly evolving field of OLEDs. Furthermore, this monograph collects in one place, for the first time, key topics across the field of OLEDs, from fundamental chemistry and physics, to practical materials science and engineering topics, to aspects of design and manufacturing. The monograph synthesizes and puts into context information scattered throughout the literature for easy review in one book. The scope of the monograph reflects the necessity to focus on new technological challenges brought about by the transition to manufacturing. In the Section 1, all materials of construction of the OLED device are covered, from substrate to encapsulation. In Section 2, for the first time, additional challenges in devices and processing are addressed. This book is geared towards a broad audience, including materials scientists, device physicists, synthetic chemists and electrical engineers. Furthermore, this book makes a great introduction to scientists in industry and academia, as well as graduate students interested in applied aspects of photophysics and electrochemistry in organic thin films. This book is a comprehensive source for OLED R&D professionals from all backgrounds and institutions.

  17. A fundamental discussion of what triggers localized deformation in geological materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Max; Paesold, Martin; Poulet, Thomas; Herwegh, Marco; Regenauer-Lieb, Klaus; Veveakis, Manolis

    2015-04-01

    critical amount of dissipative work translated into heat over the diffusive capacity of the system by an instability study designed for such materials (Gruntfest, 1963). With respect to our numerical experiments, this critical parameter determines the timing when the entire amount of deformation energy translated into heat cannot be diffusively transported out of the system anymore. The resulting local temperature rise then induces strain localization. In contrast to classical shear heating scenarios with (catastrophic) thermal runaways, temperature variations of less than 1 K are sufficient for this localization mode to occur due to the balance between heat producing (e.g. dislocation creep) and consuming (grain growth) processes in the present setup. We demonstrate that this rise in latent heat is sufficient to provoke grain growth, operating as an endothermic reaction, stabilizing the simulated localized structure in turn. Various localized ductile structures, such as folded or boudinaged layers, can therefore be placed at the same material failure mode due to fundamental energy bifurcations triggered by dissipative work out of homogeneous state. Finally, we will discuss situations, in which structural heterogeneities are considered negligible and where the energy theory described here plays an underlying role by means of a comparison between numerical experiments and natural examples. REFERENCES Austin, N. and Evans, B. (2007). Paleowattmeters: A scaling relation for dynamically recrystallized grain size. Geology, 35. Gruntfest, I.J. (1963). Thermal feedback in liquid flow, plane shear at constant stress. Transactions of the Society of Rheology, 7. Hansen, L.N. and Zimmermann, M.E. and Dillman, A.M. and Kohlstedt, D.L (2012). Strain localization in olivine aggregates at high temperature: a laboratory comparison of constant-strain-rate and constant-stress boundary conditions. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 333-334. Herwegh, M., Poulet, T., Karrech, A. and

  18. A fundamental discussion of what triggers localized deformation in geological materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Max; Paesold, Martin; Poulet, Thomas; Herwegh, Marco; Regenauer-Lieb, Klaus; Veveakis, Manolis

    2015-04-01

    critical amount of dissipative work translated into heat over the diffusive capacity of the system by an instability study designed for such materials (Gruntfest, 1963). With respect to our numerical experiments, this critical parameter determines the timing when the entire amount of deformation energy translated into heat cannot be diffusively transported out of the system anymore. The resulting local temperature rise then induces strain localization. In contrast to classical shear heating scenarios with (catastrophic) thermal runaways, temperature variations of less than 1 K are sufficient for this localization mode to occur due to the balance between heat producing (e.g. dislocation creep) and consuming (grain growth) processes in the present setup. We demonstrate that this rise in latent heat is sufficient to provoke grain growth, operating as an endothermic reaction, stabilizing the simulated localized structure in turn. Various localized ductile structures, such as folded or boudinaged layers, can therefore be placed at the same material failure mode due to fundamental energy bifurcations triggered by dissipative work out of homogeneous state. Finally, we will discuss situations, in which structural heterogeneities are considered negligible and where the energy theory described here plays an underlying role by means of a comparison between numerical experiments and natural examples. REFERENCES Austin, N. and Evans, B. (2007). Paleowattmeters: A scaling relation for dynamically recrystallized grain size. Geology, 35. Gruntfest, I.J. (1963). Thermal feedback in liquid flow, plane shear at constant stress. Transactions of the Society of Rheology, 7. Hansen, L.N. and Zimmermann, M.E. and Dillman, A.M. and Kohlstedt, D.L (2012). Strain localization in olivine aggregates at high temperature: a laboratory comparison of constant-strain-rate and constant-stress boundary conditions. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 333-334. Herwegh, M., Poulet, T., Karrech, A. and

  19. Controlling upconversion nanocrystals for emerging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Bo; Shi, Bingyang; Jin, Dayong; Liu, Xiaogang

    2015-11-01

    Lanthanide-doped upconversion nanocrystals enable anti-Stokes emission with pump intensities several orders of magnitude lower than required by conventional nonlinear optical techniques. Their exceptional properties, namely large anti-Stokes shifts, sharp emission spectra and long excited-state lifetimes, have led to a diversity of applications. Here, we review upconversion nanocrystals from the perspective of fundamental concepts and examine the technical challenges in relation to emission colour tuning and luminescence enhancement. In particular, we highlight the advances in functionalization strategies that enable the broad utility of upconversion nanocrystals for multimodal imaging, cancer therapy, volumetric displays and photonics.

  20. Excited-State Dynamics in Colloidal Semiconductor Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Rabouw, Freddy T; de Mello Donega, Celso

    2016-10-01

    Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals have attracted continuous worldwide interest over the last three decades owing to their remarkable and unique size- and shape-, dependent properties. The colloidal nature of these nanomaterials allows one to take full advantage of nanoscale effects to tailor their optoelectronic and physical-chemical properties, yielding materials that combine size-, shape-, and composition-dependent properties with easy surface manipulation and solution processing. These features have turned the study of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals into a dynamic and multidisciplinary research field, with fascinating fundamental challenges and dazzling application prospects. This review focuses on the excited-state dynamics in these intriguing nanomaterials, covering a range of different relaxation mechanisms that span over 15 orders of magnitude, from a few femtoseconds to a few seconds after photoexcitation. In addition to reviewing the state of the art and highlighting the essential concepts in the field, we also discuss the relevance of the different relaxation processes to a number of potential applications, such as photovoltaics and LEDs. The fundamental physical and chemical principles needed to control and understand the properties of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals are also addressed. PMID:27573500

  1. Nanocrystals of Cesium Lead Halide Perovskites (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, and I): Novel Optoelectronic Materials Showing Bright Emission with Wide Color Gamut

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Metal halides perovskites, such as hybrid organic–inorganic CH3NH3PbI3, are newcomer optoelectronic materials that have attracted enormous attention as solution-deposited absorbing layers in solar cells with power conversion efficiencies reaching 20%. Herein we demonstrate a new avenue for halide perovskites by designing highly luminescent perovskite-based colloidal quantum dot materials. We have synthesized monodisperse colloidal nanocubes (4–15 nm edge lengths) of fully inorganic cesium lead halide perovskites (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, and I or mixed halide systems Cl/Br and Br/I) using inexpensive commercial precursors. Through compositional modulations and quantum size-effects, the bandgap energies and emission spectra are readily tunable over the entire visible spectral region of 410–700 nm. The photoluminescence of CsPbX3 nanocrystals is characterized by narrow emission line-widths of 12–42 nm, wide color gamut covering up to 140% of the NTSC color standard, high quantum yields of up to 90%, and radiative lifetimes in the range of 1–29 ns. The compelling combination of enhanced optical properties and chemical robustness makes CsPbX3 nanocrystals appealing for optoelectronic applications, particularly for blue and green spectral regions (410–530 nm), where typical metal chalcogenide-based quantum dots suffer from photodegradation. PMID:25633588

  2. Nanocrystals of Cesium Lead Halide Perovskites (CsPbX₃, X = Cl, Br, and I): Novel Optoelectronic Materials Showing Bright Emission with Wide Color Gamut.

    PubMed

    Protesescu, Loredana; Yakunin, Sergii; Bodnarchuk, Maryna I; Krieg, Franziska; Caputo, Riccarda; Hendon, Christopher H; Yang, Ruo Xi; Walsh, Aron; Kovalenko, Maksym V

    2015-06-10

    Metal halides perovskites, such as hybrid organic-inorganic CH3NH3PbI3, are newcomer optoelectronic materials that have attracted enormous attention as solution-deposited absorbing layers in solar cells with power conversion efficiencies reaching 20%. Herein we demonstrate a new avenue for halide perovskites by designing highly luminescent perovskite-based colloidal quantum dot materials. We have synthesized monodisperse colloidal nanocubes (4-15 nm edge lengths) of fully inorganic cesium lead halide perovskites (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, and I or mixed halide systems Cl/Br and Br/I) using inexpensive commercial precursors. Through compositional modulations and quantum size-effects, the bandgap energies and emission spectra are readily tunable over the entire visible spectral region of 410-700 nm. The photoluminescence of CsPbX3 nanocrystals is characterized by narrow emission line-widths of 12-42 nm, wide color gamut covering up to 140% of the NTSC color standard, high quantum yields of up to 90%, and radiative lifetimes in the range of 1-29 ns. The compelling combination of enhanced optical properties and chemical robustness makes CsPbX3 nanocrystals appealing for optoelectronic applications, particularly for blue and green spectral regions (410-530 nm), where typical metal chalcogenide-based quantum dots suffer from photodegradation.

  3. Advanced biomaterials from renewable resources: An investigation on cellulose nanocrystal composites and carbon dioxide extraction of rendered materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orellana, Jose Luis

    The annual global consumption of petroleum-based plastics is approximately 280 million tons and is impacting the sustainability of our planet and prosperity of future generations. One solution is the development of bio-based polymer materials with advanced properties for commercial applications. Therefore, the ultimate goal of this dissertation is to investigate the properties of new bio-based materials for broader applications. This dissertation includes two research areas: cellulose nanocomposites, and CO2 extractions of rendered fat. In the first half, cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), which exhibit excellent mechanical and optical properties, were investigated for the reinforcement of a biodegradable polymer. The properties of these nanocomposites were studied to intellectually contribute to the understanding of the reinforcement mechanisms of CNC nanocomposites. In the second half, a more efficient and greener extraction of fat from rendered materials (RMs) was explored to broaden their potential applications, which include protein-based polymers and biofuels. Since CNCs are hydrophilic, surface modification with various surfactants was first accomplished in this research, increasing the dispersion stability in non-polar solvents by at least a month. Only 1 wt.% of surfactant with respect to CNCs was needed to afford a significant increase in the CNC stability, representing a much lower percentage than the values reported in the literature. Moreover, these CNCs showed the ability to selfassemble into local liquid crystal structures, a potential advantage for polymer reinforcement. CNCs were subsequently investigated as an additive for polylactic acid (PLA), which is the most widely used synthetic biopolymer in the market. CNC addition yielded a 61% increase in toughness at 1 wt.% CNC load. The tensile strength and modulus were not affected by the CNC addition, addressing one of the most frequent issues in the toughening of polymers. In addition, polarized

  4. Synthesis and Doping of Silicon Nanocrystals for Versatile Nanocrystal Inks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Nicolaas Johannes

    materials which is very interesting for certain applications. Finally the boron atoms were used to form a Lewis acidic nanocrystal surface chemistry allowing for the creation of ligand-less silicon nanocrystal solutions. This represents an immense step towards an abundant, non-toxic alternative to Pb and Cd-based nanocrystal technologies. The lack of long ligand chains enables the production of dense films with excellent electrical conductivity. This was demonstrated by forming uniform nanocrystal thin-films using simple and inexpensive spray coating techniques.

  5. Femtosecond pulsed laser processing of electronic materials: Fundamentals and micro/nano-scale applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Tae-Youl

    Ultra-short pulsed laser radiation has been shown to be effective for precision materials processing and surface micro-modification. One of advantages is the substantial reduction of the heat penetration depth, which leads to minimal lateral damage. Other advantages include non-thermal nature of ablation process, controlled ablation and ideal characteristics for precision micro-structuring. Yet, fundamental questions remain unsolved regarding the nature of melting and ablation mechanisms in femtosecond laser processing of materials. In addition to micro engineering problems, nano-structuring and nano-fabrication are emerging fields that are of particular interest in conjunction with femtosecond laser processing. A comprehensive experimental study as well as theoretical development is presented to address these issues. Ultra-short pulsed laser irradiation was used to crystallize 100 nm amorphous silicon (a-Si) films. The crystallization process was observed by time-resolved pump-and-probe reflection imaging in the range of 0.2 ps to 100 ns. The in-situ images in conjunction with post-processed SEM and AFM mapping of the crystallized structure provide evidence for non-thermal ultra-fast phase transition and subsequent surface-initiated crystallization. Mechanisms of ultra-fast laser-induced ablation on crystalline silicon and copper are investigated by time-resolved pump-and-probe microscopy in normal imaging and shadowgraph arrangements. A one-dimensional model of the energy transport is utilized to predict the carrier temperature and lattice temperature as well as the electron and vapor flux emitted from the surface. The temporal delay between the pump and probe pulses was set by a precision translation stage up to about 500 ps and then extended to the nanosecond regime by an optical fiber assembly. The ejection of material was observed at several picoseconds to tens of nanoseconds after the main (pump) pulse by high-resolution, ultra-fast shadowgraphs. The

  6. Fundamental Studies of the Durability of Materials for Interconnects in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick S. Pettit; Gerald H. Meier

    2006-06-30

    Ferritic stainless steels are a leading candidate material for use as an SOFC interconnect, but have the problem of forming volatile chromia species that lead to cathode poisoning. This project has focused both on optimization of ferritic alloys for SOFC applications and evaluating the possibility of using alternative materials. The initial efforts involved studying the oxidation behavior of a variety of chromia-forming ferritic stainless steels in the temperature range 700-900 C in atmospheres relevant to solid oxide fuel cell operation. The alloys exhibited a wide variety of oxidation behavior based on composition. A method for reducing the vaporization is to add alloying elements that lead to the formation of a thermally grown oxide layer over the protective chromia. Several commercial steels form manganese chromate on the surface. This same approach, combined with observations of TiO{sub 2} overlayer formation on the chromia forming, Ni-based superalloy IN 738, has resulted in the development of a series of Fe-22 Cr-X Ti alloys (X=0-4 wt%). Oxidation testing has indicated that this approach results in significant reduction in chromia evaporation. Unfortunately, the Ti also results in accelerated chromia scale growth. Fundamental thermo-mechanical aspects of the durability of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) interconnect alloys have also been investigated. A key failure mechanism for interconnects is the spallation of the chromia scale that forms on the alloy, as it is exposed to fuel cell environments. Indentation testing methods to measure the critical energy release rate (Gc) associated with the spallation of chromia scale/alloy systems have been evaluated. This approach has been used to evaluate the thermomechanical stability of chromia films as a function of oxidation exposure. The oxidation of pure nickel in SOFC environments was evaluated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to determine the NiO scaling kinetics and a four-point probe was used to measure

  7. The Surface Chemistry of Metal Chalcogenide Nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Nicholas Charles

    The surface chemistry of metal chalcogenide nanocrystals is explored through several interrelated analytical investigations. After a brief discussion of the nanocrystal history and applications, molecular orbital theory is used to describe the electronic properties of semiconductors, and how these materials behave on the nanoscale. Quantum confinement plays a major role in dictating the optical properties of metal chalcogenide nanocrystals, however surface states also have an equally significant contribution to the electronic properties of nanocrystals due to the high surface area to volume ratio of nanoscale semiconductors. Controlling surface chemistry is essential to functionalizing these materials for biological imaging and photovoltaic device applications. To better understand the surface chemistry of semiconducting nanocrystals, three competing surface chemistry models are presented: 1.) The TOPO model, 2.) the Non-stoichiometric model, and 3.) the Neutral Fragment model. Both the non-stoichiometric and neutral fragment models accurately describe the behavior of metal chalcogenide nanocrystals. These models rely on the covalent bond classification system, which divides ligands into three classes: 1.) X-type, 1-electron donating ligands that balance charge with excess metal at the nanocrystal surface, 2.) L-type, 2-electron donors that bind metal sites, and 3.) Z-type, 2-electron acceptors that bind chalcogenide sites. Each of these ligand classes is explored in detail to better understand the surface chemistry of metal chalcogenide nanocrystals. First, chloride-terminated, tri-n-butylphosphine (Bu 3P) bound CdSe nanocrystals were prepared by cleaving carboxylate ligands from CdSe nanocrystals with chlorotrimethylsilane in Bu3P solution. 1H and 31P{1H} nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of the isolated nanocrystals allowed assignment of distinct signals from several free and bound species, including surface-bound Bu3P and [Bu3P-H]+[Cl]- ligands as well as a Bu

  8. Incorporation of Cu Acceptors in ZnO Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Oo, W.M.H.; Mccluskey, Matthew D.; Huso, Jesse; Morrison, J.; Bergman, Leah; Engelhard, Mark H.; Saraf, Laxmikant V.

    2010-09-16

    Doping of semiconductor nanocrystals is an important problem in nanomaterials research. Using infrared (IR) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), we have observed Cu acceptor dopants that were intentionally introduced into ZnO nanocrystals. The incorporation of Cu2+ dopants increased as the diameter of the nanocrystals was increased from ~3 to 5 nm. Etching the nanocrystals with acetic acid revealed a core-shell structure, where a 2-nm lightly doped core is surrounded by a heavily doped shell. These observations are consistent with the trapped dopant model, in which dopant atoms stick to the surface of the core and are overgrown by the nanocrystal material.

  9. Nanocrystal technology, drug delivery and clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    Junghanns, Jens-Uwe A H; Müller, Rainer H

    2008-01-01

    Nanotechnology will affect our lives tremendously over the next decade in very different fields, including medicine and pharmacy. Transfer of materials into the nanodimension changes their physical properties which were used in pharmaceutics to develop a new innovative formulation principle for poorly soluble drugs: the drug nanocrystals. The drug nanocrystals do not belong to the future; the first products are already on the market. The industrially relevant production technologies, pearl milling and high pressure homogenization, are reviewed. The physics behind the drug nanocrystals and changes of their physical properties are discussed. The marketed products are presented and the special physical effects of nanocrystals explained which are utilized in each market product. Examples of products in the development pipelines (clinical phases) are presented and the benefits for in vivo administration of drug nanocrystals are summarized in an overview. PMID:18990939

  10. Fundamentals of Management, 14-1. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This military-developed text consists of six lessons designed to give students an understanding of the fundamentals of management. Covered in the individual lessons are the following topics: the nature of management (leadership and the functions of management); principles and policies of management (management policies, characteristics of good…

  11. Pyrite (FeS2) nanocrystals as inexpensive high-performance lithium-ion cathode and sodium-ion anode materials.

    PubMed

    Walter, Marc; Zünd, Tanja; Kovalenko, Maksym V

    2015-05-28

    In light of the impeding depletion of fossil fuels and necessity to lower carbon dioxide emissions, economically viable high-performance batteries are urgently needed for numerous applications ranging from electric cars to stationary large-scale electricity storage. Due to its low raw material cost, non-toxicity and potentially high charge-storage capacity pyrite (FeS2) is a highly promising material for such next-generation batteries. In this work we present the electrochemical performance of FeS2 nanocrystals (NCs) as lithium-ion and sodium-ion storage materials. First, we show that nanoscopic FeS2 is a promising lithium-ion cathode material, delivering a capacity of 715 mA h g(-1) and average energy density of 1237 Wh kg(-1) for 100 cycles, twice higher than for commonly used LiCoO2 cathodes. Then we demonstrate, for the first time, that FeS2 NCs can serve as highly reversible sodium-ion anode material with long cycling life. As sodium-ion anode material, FeS2 NCs provide capacities above 500 mA h g(-1) for 400 cycles at a current rate of 1000 mA g(-1). In all our tests and control experiments, the performance of chemically synthesized nanoscale FeS2 clearly surpasses bulk FeS2 as well as large number of other nanostructured metal sulfides. PMID:25941034

  12. Semiconductor Nanocrystals for Biological Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Aihua; Gu, Weiwei; Larabell, Carolyn; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2005-06-28

    Conventional organic fluorophores suffer from poor photo stability, narrow absorption spectra and broad emission feature. Semiconductor nanocrystals, on the other hand, are highly photo-stable with broad absorption spectra and narrow size-tunable emission spectra. Recent advances in the synthesis of these materials have resulted in bright, sensitive, extremely photo-stable and biocompatible semiconductor fluorophores. Commercial availability facilitates their application in a variety of unprecedented biological experiments, including multiplexed cellular imaging, long-term in vitro and in vivo labeling, deep tissue structure mapping and single particle investigation of dynamic cellular processes. Semiconductor nanocrystals are one of the first examples of nanotechnology enabling a new class of biomedical applications.

  13. Encapsulation of MnO Nanocrystals in Electrospun Carbon Nanofibers as High-Performance Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bin; Hu, Xianluo; Xu, Henghui; Luo, Wei; Sun, Yongming; Huang, Yunhui

    2014-01-01

    A novel and controllable approach is developed for the synthesis of MnO nanocrystals embedded in carbon nanofibers (MnO/CNFs) through an electrospinning process. The as-formed MnO/CNFs have a porous structure with diameters of 100–200 nm and lengths up to several millimeters. When used as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, the resulting MnO/CNFs exhibit superior electrochemical performances with high specific capacity, good cyclability, and excellent rate capability. The unique porous carbon nanofibers (PCNFs) can not only improve the contact area between the electrode and the electrolyte, but also alleviate the impact of the large volume effect of MnO during the electrochemical cycling. It is expected that the present synthetic strategy can be extended to synthesize other nanostructured oxides encapsulated in carbon nanofibers for extensive energy transfer and storage applications. PMID:24598639

  14. Patterning nanocrystals using DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Shara Carol

    2003-09-01

    One of the goals of nanotechnology is to enable programmed self-assembly of patterns made of various materials with nanometer-sized control. This dissertation describes the results of experiments templating arrangements of gold and semiconductor nanocrystals using 2'-deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Previously, simple DNA-templated linear arrangements of two and three nanocrystals structures have been made.[1] Here, we have sought to assemble larger and more complex nanostructures. Gold-DNA conjugates with 50 to 100 bases self-assembled into planned arrangements using strands of DNA containing complementary base sequences. We used two methods to increase the complexity of the arrangements: using branched synthetic doublers within the DNA covalent backbone to create discrete nanocrystal groupings, and incorporating the nanocrystals into a previously developed DNA lattice structure [2][3] that self-assembles from tiles made of DNA double-crossover molecules to create ordered nanoparticle arrays. In the first project, the introduction of a covalently-branched synthetic doubler reagent into the backbone of DNA strands created a branched DNA ''trimer.'' This DNA trimer templated various structures that contained groupings of three and four gold nanoparticles, giving promising, but inconclusive transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results. Due to the presence of a variety of possible structures in the reaction mixtures, and due to the difficulty of isolating the desired structures, the TEM and gel electrophoresis results for larger structures having four particles, and for structures containing both 5 and 10 nm gold nanoparticles were inconclusive. Better results may come from using optical detection methods, or from improved sample preparation. In the second project, we worked toward making two-dimensional ordered arrays of nanocrystals. We replicated and improved upon previous results for making DNA lattices, increasing the size of the lattices to a length greater than

  15. Fundamentals of Composite Materials for Undergraduate Engineering--A Filmed Presentation. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busching, Herbert W.

    Curricula in undergraduate engineering have not adequately reflected present usage and knowledge of composite materials (types of rock and organic matter in which structurally dissimilar materials are combined). Wide usage of composites is expected to increase the importance of this class of materials and the need for more substantive exposure to…

  16. Plasmonic Properties of Silicon Nanocrystals Doped with Boron and Phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Nicolaas J; Schramke, Katelyn S; Kortshagen, Uwe R

    2015-08-12

    Degenerately doped silicon nanocrystals are appealing plasmonic materials due to silicon's low cost and low toxicity. While surface plasmonic resonances of boron-doped and phosphorus-doped silicon nanocrystals were recently observed, there currently is poor understanding of the effect of surface conditions on their plasmonic behavior. Here, we demonstrate that phosphorus-doped silicon nanocrystals exhibit a plasmon resonance immediately after their synthesis but may lose their plasmonic response with oxidation. In contrast, boron-doped nanocrystals initially do not exhibit plasmonic response but become plasmonically active through postsynthesis oxidation or annealing. We interpret these results in terms of substitutional doping being the dominant doping mechanism for phosphorus-doped silicon nanocrystals, with oxidation-induced defects trapping free electrons. The behavior of boron-doped silicon nanocrystals is more consistent with a strong contribution of surface doping. Importantly, boron-doped silicon nanocrystals exhibit air-stable plasmonic behavior over periods of more than a year.

  17. Tunable and responsive plasmonic properties of metal oxide nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milliron, Delia

    2015-03-01

    Degenerately doped metal oxide semiconductors, like ITO, exhibit plasmonic resonance at near and mid-infrared wavelengths tunable by varying their composition. Nanocrystals of many such materials have now been synthesized and applications are emerging that leverage the responsiveness of their localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) to electronic charging and discharging. For example, electrochromic glass that can dynamically control heat loads in buildings is under development. In biological systems, plasmonic oxide nanocrystals can act as remote sensors, where changes in their optical absorption indicates biochemical redox has occurred. Nonetheless, significant fundamental questions remain open regarding the nature of the infrared optical response in these doped oxides. Dopant impurities influence the optoelectronic properties beyond simply donating free carriers. For example, the distribution of Sn in ITO was found to dramatically influence the line shape of the LSPR and the effective electron mobility. In addition, by post-synthetically modifying carrier concentrations (through photodoping or electrochemical doping), we have observed that aliovalent doping and electronic doping each modify LSPR spectra, providing access to a broad range of tunable optical properties. Heterogeneous broadening, uncovered by single nanocrystal spectroscopy, also contributes to ensemble line shapes, complicating direct interpretation of LSPR spectra. Finally, the possibility of electric field enhancement by metal oxide LSPRs is critically examined to suggest what future applications might be on the horizon.

  18. Connecting the Particles in the Box - Controlled Fusion of Hexamer Nanocrystal Clusters within an AB6 Binary Nanocrystal Superlattice

    PubMed Central

    Treml, Benjamin E.; Lukose, Binit; Clancy, Paulette; Smilgies, Detlef-M; Hanrath, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Binary nanocrystal superlattices present unique opportunities to create novel interconnected nanostructures by partial fusion of specific components of the superlattice. Here, we demonstrate the binary AB6 superlattice of PbSe and Fe2O3 nanocrystals as a model system to transform the central hexamer of PbSe nanocrystals into a single fused particle. We present detailed structural analysis of the superlattices by combining high-resolution X-ray scattering and electron microscopy. Molecular dynamics simulations show optimum separation of nanocrystals in agreement with the experiment and provide insights into the molecular configuration of surface ligands. We describe the concept of nanocrystal superlattices as a versatile ‘nanoreactor' to create and study novel materials based on precisely defined size, composition and structure of nanocrystals into a mesostructured cluster. We demonstrate ‘controlled fusion' of nanocrystals in the clusters in reactions initiated by thermal treatment and pulsed laser annealing. PMID:25339169

  19. Mesoporous carbon-coated LiFePO4 nanocrystals co-modified with graphene and Mg2+ doping as superior cathode materials for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bo; Xu, Binghui; Liu, Tiefeng; Liu, Peng; Guo, Chenfeng; Wang, Shuo; Wang, Qiuming; Xiong, Zhigang; Wang, Dianlong; Zhao, X. S.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, mesoporous carbon-coated LiFePO4 nanocrystals further co-modified with graphene and Mg2+ doping (G/LFMP) were synthesized by a modified rheological phase method to improve the speed of lithium storage as well as cycling stability. The mesoporous structure of LiFePO4 nanocrystals was designed and realized by introducing the bead milling technique, which assisted in forming sucrose-pyrolytic carbon nanoparticles as the template for generating mesopores. For comparison purposes, samples modified only with graphene (G/LFP) or Mg2+ doping (LFMP) as well as pure LiFePO4 (LFP) were also prepared and investigated. Microscopic observation and nitrogen sorption analysis have revealed the mesoporous morphologies of the as-prepared composites. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Rietveld refinement data demonstrated that the Mg-doped LiFePO4 is a single olivine-type phase and well crystallized with shortened Fe-O and P-O bonds and a lengthened Li-O bond, resulting in an enhanced Li+ diffusion velocity. Electrochemical properties have also been investigated after assembling coin cells with the as-prepared composites as the cathode active materials. Remarkably, the G/LFMP composite has exhibited the best electrochemical properties, including fast lithium storage performance and excellent cycle stability. That is because the modification of graphene provided active sites for nuclei, restricted the in situ crystallite growth, increased the electronic conductivity and reduced the interface reaction current density, while, Mg2+ doping improved the intrinsically electronic and ionic transfer properties of LFP crystals. Moreover, in the G/LFMP composite, the graphene component plays the role of ``cushion'' as it could quickly realize capacity response, buffering the impact to LFMP under the conditions of high-rate charging or discharging, which results in a pre-eminent rate capability and cycling stability.In this work, mesoporous carbon-coated LiFePO4 nanocrystals further co

  20. Mesoporous carbon-coated LiFePO4 nanocrystals co-modified with graphene and Mg2+ doping as superior cathode materials for lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Xu, Binghui; Liu, Tiefeng; Liu, Peng; Guo, Chenfeng; Wang, Shuo; Wang, Qiuming; Xiong, Zhigang; Wang, Dianlong; Zhao, X S

    2014-01-21

    In this work, mesoporous carbon-coated LiFePO4 nanocrystals further co-modified with graphene and Mg(2+) doping (G/LFMP) were synthesized by a modified rheological phase method to improve the speed of lithium storage as well as cycling stability. The mesoporous structure of LiFePO4 nanocrystals was designed and realized by introducing the bead milling technique, which assisted in forming sucrose-pyrolytic carbon nanoparticles as the template for generating mesopores. For comparison purposes, samples modified only with graphene (G/LFP) or Mg(2+) doping (LFMP) as well as pure LiFePO4 (LFP) were also prepared and investigated. Microscopic observation and nitrogen sorption analysis have revealed the mesoporous morphologies of the as-prepared composites. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Rietveld refinement data demonstrated that the Mg-doped LiFePO4 is a single olivine-type phase and well crystallized with shortened Fe-O and P-O bonds and a lengthened Li-O bond, resulting in an enhanced Li(+) diffusion velocity. Electrochemical properties have also been investigated after assembling coin cells with the as-prepared composites as the cathode active materials. Remarkably, the G/LFMP composite has exhibited the best electrochemical properties, including fast lithium storage performance and excellent cycle stability. That is because the modification of graphene provided active sites for nuclei, restricted the in situ crystallite growth, increased the electronic conductivity and reduced the interface reaction current density, while, Mg(2+) doping improved the intrinsically electronic and ionic transfer properties of LFP crystals. Moreover, in the G/LFMP composite, the graphene component plays the role of "cushion" as it could quickly realize capacity response, buffering the impact to LFMP under the conditions of high-rate charging or discharging, which results in a pre-eminent rate capability and cycling stability.

  1. Growth of platinum nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    Movie showing the growth of platinum nanocrystals in a liquid cell observed in situ using the JEOL 3010 TEM at the National Center for Electron Microscopy. This is the first ever-real time movie showing nucleation and growth by monomer attachment or by smaller nanocrystals coalescing to form larger nanocrystals. All the nanocrystals end up being roughly the same shape and size. http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2009/08/04/growth-spurts/

  2. Aviation Maintenance Technology. General. G102 Fundamentals of Aircraft Maintenance. Instructor Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    These instructor materials for an aviation maintenance technology course contain four instructional modules. The modules cover the following topics: identifying basic components of aircraft, performing aircraft cleaning and corrosion control, interpreting blueprints and drawing sketches, identifying structural materials, and performing basic…

  3. FUNDAMENTAL STUDIES OF THE DURABILITY OF MATERIALS FOR INTERCONNECTS IN SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick S. Pettit; Gerald H. Meier

    2003-06-30

    This report describes the result of the first eight months of effort on a project directed at improving metallic interconnect materials for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The results include cyclic oxidation studies of a group of ferritic alloys, which are candidate interconnect materials. The exposures have been carried out in simulated fuel cell atmospheres. The oxidation morphologies have been characterized and the ASR has been measured for the oxide scales. The effect of fuel cell electric current density on chromia growth rates has been considered The thermomechanical behavior of the scales has been investigated by stress measurements using x-ray diffraction and interfacial fracture toughness measurements using indentation. The ultimate goal of this thrust is to use knowledge of changes in oxide thickness, stress and adhesion to develop accelerated testing methods for evaluating SOFC interconnect alloys. Finally a theoretical assessment of the potential for use of ''new'' metallic materials as interconnect materials has been conducted and is presented in this report. Alloys being considered include materials based on pure nickel, materials based on the ''Invar'' concept, and coated materials to optimize properties in both the anode and cathode gases.

  4. Shape control and associated magnetic properties of spinel cobalt ferrite nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Song, Qing; Zhang, Z John

    2004-05-19

    By combining nonhydrolytic reaction with seed-mediated growth, high-quality and monodisperse spinel cobalt ferrite, CoFe(2)O(4), nanocrystals can be synthesized with a highly controllable shape of nearly spherical or almost perfectly cubic. The shape of the nanocrystals can also be reversibly interchanged between spherical and cubic morphology through controlling nanocrystal growth rate. Furthermore, the magnetic studies show that the blocking temperature, saturation, and remanent magnetization of nanocrystals are solely determined by the size regardless the spherical or cubic shape. However, the shape of the nanocrystals is a dominating factor for the coercivity of nanocrystals due to the effect of surface anisotropy. Such magnetic nanocrystals with distinct shapes possess tremendous potentials in fundamental understanding of magnetism and in technological applications of magnetic nanocrystals for high-density information storage. PMID:15137781

  5. Tunable plasmonic lattices of silver nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Andrea; Sinsermsuksakul, Prasert; Yang, Peidong

    2007-07-01

    Silver nanocrystals are ideal building blocks for plasmonic materials that exhibit a wide range of unique and potentially useful optical phenomena. Individual nanocrystals display distinct optical scattering spectra and can be assembled into hierarchical structures that couple strongly to external electromagnetic fields. This coupling, which is mediated by surface plasmons, depends on the shape and arrangement of the nanocrystals. Here we demonstrate the bottom-up assembly of polyhedral silver nanocrystals into macroscopic two-dimensional superlattices using the Langmuir-Blodgett technique. Our ability to control interparticle spacing, density and packing symmetry allows for tunability of the optical response over the entire visible range. This assembly strategy offers a new, practical approach to making novel plasmonic materials for application in spectroscopic sensors, subwavelength optics and integrated devices that utilize field-enhancement effects.

  6. Tunable plasmonic lattices of silver nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Tao, Andrea; Sinsermsuksakul, Prasert; Yang, Peidong

    2007-07-01

    Silver nanocrystals are ideal building blocks for plasmonic materials that exhibit a wide range of unique and potentially useful optical phenomena. Individual nanocrystals display distinct optical scattering spectra and can be assembled into hierarchical structures that couple strongly to external electromagnetic fields. This coupling, which is mediated by surface plasmons, depends on the shape and arrangement of the nanocrystals. Here we demonstrate the bottom-up assembly of polyhedral silver nanocrystals into macroscopic two-dimensional superlattices using the Langmuir-Blodgett technique. Our ability to control interparticle spacing, density and packing symmetry allows for tunability of the optical response over the entire visible range. This assembly strategy offers a new, practical approach to making novel plasmonic materials for application in spectroscopic sensors, subwavelength optics and integrated devices that utilize field-enhancement effects.

  7. An evaluation of complementary approaches to elucidate fundamental interfacial phenomena driving adhesion of energetic materials.

    PubMed

    Hoss, Darby J; Knepper, Robert; Hotchkiss, Peter J; Tappan, Alexander S; Boudouris, Bryan W; Beaudoin, Stephen P

    2016-07-01

    Cohesive Hamaker constants of solid materials are measured via optical and dielectric properties (i.e., Lifshitz theory), inverse gas chromatography (IGC), and contact angle measurements. To date, however, a comparison across these measurement techniques for common energetic materials has not been reported. This has been due to the inability of the community to produce samples of energetic materials that are readily compatible with contact angle measurements. Here we overcome this limitation by using physical vapor deposition to produce thin films of five common energetic materials, and the contact angle measurement approach is applied to estimate the cohesive Hamaker constants and surface energy components of the materials. The cohesive Hamaker constants range from 85zJ to 135zJ across the different films. When these Hamaker constants are compared to prior work using Lifshitz theory and nonpolar probe IGC, the relative magnitudes can be ordered as follows: contact angle>Lifshitz>IGC. Furthermore, the dispersive surface energy components estimated here are in good agreement with those estimated by IGC. Due to these results, researchers and technologists will now have access to a comprehensive database of adhesion constants which describe the behavior of these energetic materials over a range of settings.

  8. An evaluation of complementary approaches to elucidate fundamental interfacial phenomena driving adhesion of energetic materials

    DOE PAGES

    Hoss, Darby J.; Knepper, Robert; Hotchkiss, Peter J.; Tappan, Alexander S.; Boudouris, Bryan W.; Beaudoin, Stephen P.

    2016-03-23

    In this study, cohesive Hamaker constants of solid materials are measured via optical and dielectric properties (i.e., Lifshitz theory), inverse gas chromatography (IGC), and contact angle measurements. To date, however, a comparison across these measurement techniques for common energetic materials has not been reported. This has been due to the inability of the community to produce samples of energetic materials that are readily compatible with contact angle measurements. Here we overcome this limitation by using physical vapor deposition to produce thin films of five common energetic materials, and the contact angle measurement approach is applied to estimate the cohesive Hamakermore » constants and surface energy components of the materials. The cohesive Hamaker constants range from 85 zJ to 135 zJ across the different films. When these Hamaker constants are compared to prior work using Lifshitz theory and nonpolar probe IGC, the relative magnitudes can be ordered as follows: contact angle > Lifshitz > IGC. Furthermore, the dispersive surface energy components estimated here are in good agreement with those estimated by IGC. Due to these results, researchers and technologists will now have access to a comprehensive database of adhesion constants which describe the behavior of these energetic materials over a range of settings.« less

  9. An evaluation of complementary approaches to elucidate fundamental interfacial phenomena driving adhesion of energetic materials.

    PubMed

    Hoss, Darby J; Knepper, Robert; Hotchkiss, Peter J; Tappan, Alexander S; Boudouris, Bryan W; Beaudoin, Stephen P

    2016-07-01

    Cohesive Hamaker constants of solid materials are measured via optical and dielectric properties (i.e., Lifshitz theory), inverse gas chromatography (IGC), and contact angle measurements. To date, however, a comparison across these measurement techniques for common energetic materials has not been reported. This has been due to the inability of the community to produce samples of energetic materials that are readily compatible with contact angle measurements. Here we overcome this limitation by using physical vapor deposition to produce thin films of five common energetic materials, and the contact angle measurement approach is applied to estimate the cohesive Hamaker constants and surface energy components of the materials. The cohesive Hamaker constants range from 85zJ to 135zJ across the different films. When these Hamaker constants are compared to prior work using Lifshitz theory and nonpolar probe IGC, the relative magnitudes can be ordered as follows: contact angle>Lifshitz>IGC. Furthermore, the dispersive surface energy components estimated here are in good agreement with those estimated by IGC. Due to these results, researchers and technologists will now have access to a comprehensive database of adhesion constants which describe the behavior of these energetic materials over a range of settings. PMID:27042822

  10. Pyrite (FeS2) nanocrystals as inexpensive high-performance lithium-ion cathode and sodium-ion anode materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Marc; Zünd, Tanja; Kovalenko, Maksym V.

    2015-05-01

    In light of the impeding depletion of fossil fuels and necessity to lower carbon dioxide emissions, economically viable high-performance batteries are urgently needed for numerous applications ranging from electric cars to stationary large-scale electricity storage. Due to its low raw material cost, non-toxicity and potentially high charge-storage capacity pyrite (FeS2) is a highly promising material for such next-generation batteries. In this work we present the electrochemical performance of FeS2 nanocrystals (NCs) as lithium-ion and sodium-ion storage materials. First, we show that nanoscopic FeS2 is a promising lithium-ion cathode material, delivering a capacity of 715 mA h g-1 and average energy density of 1237 Wh kg-1 for 100 cycles, twice higher than for commonly used LiCoO2 cathodes. Then we demonstrate, for the first time, that FeS2 NCs can serve as highly reversible sodium-ion anode material with long cycling life. As sodium-ion anode material, FeS2 NCs provide capacities above 500 mA h g-1 for 400 cycles at a current rate of 1000 mA g-1. In all our tests and control experiments, the performance of chemically synthesized nanoscale FeS2 clearly surpasses bulk FeS2 as well as large number of other nanostructured metal sulfides.In light of the impeding depletion of fossil fuels and necessity to lower carbon dioxide emissions, economically viable high-performance batteries are urgently needed for numerous applications ranging from electric cars to stationary large-scale electricity storage. Due to its low raw material cost, non-toxicity and potentially high charge-storage capacity pyrite (FeS2) is a highly promising material for such next-generation batteries. In this work we present the electrochemical performance of FeS2 nanocrystals (NCs) as lithium-ion and sodium-ion storage materials. First, we show that nanoscopic FeS2 is a promising lithium-ion cathode material, delivering a capacity of 715 mA h g-1 and average energy density of 1237 Wh kg-1 for 100

  11. Advanced Small Rocket Chambers. Basic Program and Option 2: Fundamental Processes and Material Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jassowski, Donald M.

    1993-01-01

    Propellants, chamber materials, and processes for fabrication of small high performance radiation cooled liquid rocket engines were evaluated to determine candidates for eventual demonstration in flight-type thrusters. Both storable and cryogenic propellant systems were considered. The storable propellant systems chosen for further study were nitrogen tetroxide oxidizer with either hydrazine or monomethylhydrazine as fuel. The cryogenic propellants chosen were oxygen with either hydrogen or methane as fuel. Chamber material candidates were chemical vapor deposition (CVD) rhenium protected from oxidation by CVD iridium for the chamber hot section, and film cooled wrought platinum-rhodium or regeneratively cooled stainless steel for the front end section exposed to partially reacted propellants. Laser diagnostics of the combustion products near the hot chamber surface and measurements at the surface layer were performed in a collaborative program at Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA. The Material Sample Test Apparatus, a laboratory system to simulate the combustion environment in terms of gas and material temperature, composition, and pressure up to 6 Atm, was developed for these studies. Rocket engine simulator studies were conducted to evaluate the materials under simulated combustor flow conditions, in the diagnostic test chamber. These tests used the exhaust species measurement system, a device developed to monitor optically species composition and concentration in the chamber and exhaust by emission and absorption measurements.

  12. Fundamental mass transfer modeling of emission of volatile organic compounds from building materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodalal, Awad Saad

    In this study, a mass transfer theory based model is presented for characterizing the VOC emissions from building materials. A 3-D diffusion model is developed to describe the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from individual sources. Then the formulation is extended to include the emissions from composite sources (system comprising an assemblage of individual sources). The key parameters for the model (The diffusion coefficient of the VOC in the source material D, and the equilibrium partition coefficient k e) were determined independently (model parameters are determined without the use of chamber emission data). This procedure eliminated to a large extent the need for emission testing using environmental chambers, which is costly, time consuming, and may be subject to confounding sink effects. An experimental method is developed and implemented to measure directly the internal diffusion (D) and partition coefficients ( ke). The use of the method is illustrated for three types of VOC's: (i) Aliphatic Hydrocarbons, (ii) Aromatic Hydrocarbons and ( iii) Aldehydes, through typical dry building materials (carpet, plywood, particleboard, vinyl floor tile, gypsum board, sub-floor tile and OSB). Then correlations for predicting D and ke based solely on commonly available properties such as molecular weight and vapour pressure were proposed for each product and type of VOC. These correlations can be used to estimate the D and ke when direct measurement data are not available, and thus facilitate the prediction of VOC emissions from the building materials using mass transfer theory. The VOC emissions from a sub-floor material (made of the recycled automobile tires), and a particleboard are measured and predicted. Finally, a mathematical model to predict the diffusion coefficient through complex sources (floor adhesive) as a function of time was developed. Then this model (for diffusion coefficient in complex sources) was used to predict the emission rate from

  13. Fundamental investigation of ultraviolet radiation effects in polymeric film-forming materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giori, C.; Yamauchi, T.; Llewellen, P.; Gilligan, J.

    1974-01-01

    A literature search from 1958 to present was conducted on the effect of ultraviolet radiation on polymeric materials, with particular emphasis on vacuum photolysis, mechanisms of degradation, and energy transfer phenomena. The literature from 1958 to 1968 was searched manually, while the literature from 1968 to present was searched by using a computerized keyword system. The primary objective was to provide the necessary background information for the design of new or modified materials with improved stability to the vacuum-radiation environment of space.

  14. Aerosol printing of colloidal nanocrystals by aerodynamic focusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Lejun

    Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals, or quantum dots, have shown promise as the active material in electronic and optoelectronic applications, because of their high quantum yield, narrow spectral emission band, size-tunable bandgap, chemical stability, and easy processibility. Meanwhile, it is still challenging to print patterns of nanocrystal films with desired linewidth and thickness, which is a critical step in fabrication of nanocrystal-based devices. In this thesis, a direct-write method of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals has been developed. Like other direct-write techniques, this aerosol based method simplifies printing process and reduces the manufacturing cost, as it avoids mask screening, lithography, and pre-patterning of the substrate. Moreover, the aerosol printing with aerodynamic lenses needs neither microscale nozzles nor sheath gases, and is able to incorporate into the vacuum systems currently used in microelectronic fabrication. This thesis research presents systematic efforts to develop an aerosol-based method to directly write patterns of semiconductor nanocrystals from colloidal dispersions by aerodynamic focusing. First, the synthesized colloidal nanocrystals in hexane were nebulized into compact and spherical agglomerates suspending in the carrier gas. The details about the impact dynamics of individual aerosolized nanocrystal agglomerates were investigated. As building blocks of printed nanocrystal films, the agglomerate exhibited cohesive and granular behaviors during impact deformation on the substrate. The strength of cohesion between nanocrystals in the agglomerates could be adjusted by tuning the number concentration of colloidal nanocrystal dispersion. Second, ultrathin films of nanocrystals were obtained by printing monodisperse nanocrystal agglomerates. As the result of the granular property of nanocrystal agglomerates, it was found that the thickness of deposited agglomerates strongly depended on the size of agglomerates. A

  15. Organo luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal probes for biological applications and process for making and using such probes

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Shimon; Bruchez, Jr., Marcel; Alivisatos, Paul

    2008-01-01

    A semiconductor nanocrystal compound is described capable of linking to an affinity molecule. The compound comprises (1) a semiconductor nanocrystal capable of emitting electromagnetic radiation and/or absorbing energy, and/or scattering or diffracting electromagnetic radiation--when excited by an electromagnetic radiation source or a particle beam; and (2) an affinity molecule linked to the semiconductor nanocrystal. The semiconductor nanocrystal is linked to an affinity molecule to form a semiconductor nanocrystal probe capable of bonding with a detectable substance. Exposure of the semiconductor nanocrystal to excitation energy will excite the semiconductor nanocrystal causing the emission of electromagnetic radiation. Further described are processes for respectively: making the luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal compound; making the semiconductor nanocrystal probe; and using the probe to determine the presence of a detectable substance in a material.

  16. Fundamentals of Digital Logic, 7-1. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps, Washington, DC.

    Targeted for grades 10 through adult, these military-developed curriculum materials consist of a student lesson book with text readings and review exercises designed to prepare electronic personnel for further training in digital techniques. Covered in the five lessons are binary arithmetic (number systems, decimal systems, the mathematical form…

  17. Aviation Maintenance Technology. General. G103 Fundamentals of Regulations, Publications, and Records. Instructor Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    These instructor materials for an aviation maintenance technology course contain three instructional modules. The modules cover the following topics: selecting and using regulations, publications, and records; documenting aircraft records; and exercising mechanic's privileges and limitations. Each module contains some or all of these nine basic…

  18. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education. Fundamentals of Electricity 3-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This independent self-study course on electricity was developed from military sources for use in vocational education. The course provides a source of study materials on the principles of electricity. The five lessons are divided into two parts, each of which contains criterion objectives and self-tests. The course provides basic coverage of…

  19. Fundamental analysis of piezocatalysis process on the surfaces of strained piezoelectric materials.

    PubMed

    Starr, Matthew B; Wang, Xudong

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the strain state of a piezoelectric electrode has been found to impact the electrochemical activity taking place between the piezoelectric material and its solution environment. This effect, dubbed piezocatalysis, is prominent in piezoelectric materials because the strain state and electronic state of these materials are strongly coupled. Herein we develop a general theoretical analysis of the piezocatalysis process utilizing well-established piezoelectric, semiconductor, molecular orbital and electrochemistry frameworks. The analysis shows good agreement with experimental results, reproducing the time-dependent voltage drop and H₂ production behaviors of an oscillating piezoelectric Pb(Mg₁/₃Nb₂/₃)O₃-32PbTiO₃ (PMN-PT) cantilever in deionized water environment. This study provides general guidance for future experiments utilizing different piezoelectric materials, such as ZnO, BaTiO₃, PbTiO₃, and PMN-PT. Our analysis indicates a high piezoelectric coupling coefficient and a low electrical conductivity are desired for enabling high electrochemical activity; whereas electrical permittivity must be optimized to balance piezoelectric and capacitive effects.

  20. Fundamental Analysis of Piezocatalysis Process on the Surfaces of Strained Piezoelectric Materials

    PubMed Central

    Starr, Matthew B.; Wang, Xudong

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the strain state of a piezoelectric electrode has been found to impact the electrochemical activity taking place between the piezoelectric material and its solution environment. This effect, dubbed piezocatalysis, is prominent in piezoelectric materials because the strain state and electronic state of these materials are strongly coupled. Herein we develop a general theoretical analysis of the piezocatalysis process utilizing well-established piezoelectric, semiconductor, molecular orbital and electrochemistry frameworks. The analysis shows good agreement with experimental results, reproducing the time-dependent voltage drop and H2 production behaviors of an oscillating piezoelectric Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-32PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) cantilever in deionized water environment. This study provides general guidance for future experiments utilizing different piezoelectric materials, such as ZnO, BaTiO3, PbTiO3, and PMN-PT. Our analysis indicates a high piezoelectric coupling coefficient and a low electrical conductivity are desired for enabling high electrochemical activity; whereas electrical permittivity must be optimized to balance piezoelectric and capacitive effects. PMID:23831736

  1. Fundamental analysis of piezocatalysis process on the surfaces of strained piezoelectric materials.

    PubMed

    Starr, Matthew B; Wang, Xudong

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the strain state of a piezoelectric electrode has been found to impact the electrochemical activity taking place between the piezoelectric material and its solution environment. This effect, dubbed piezocatalysis, is prominent in piezoelectric materials because the strain state and electronic state of these materials are strongly coupled. Herein we develop a general theoretical analysis of the piezocatalysis process utilizing well-established piezoelectric, semiconductor, molecular orbital and electrochemistry frameworks. The analysis shows good agreement with experimental results, reproducing the time-dependent voltage drop and H₂ production behaviors of an oscillating piezoelectric Pb(Mg₁/₃Nb₂/₃)O₃-32PbTiO₃ (PMN-PT) cantilever in deionized water environment. This study provides general guidance for future experiments utilizing different piezoelectric materials, such as ZnO, BaTiO₃, PbTiO₃, and PMN-PT. Our analysis indicates a high piezoelectric coupling coefficient and a low electrical conductivity are desired for enabling high electrochemical activity; whereas electrical permittivity must be optimized to balance piezoelectric and capacitive effects. PMID:23831736

  2. Electrochemical CO2 Reduction - A Critical View on Fundamentals, Materials and Applications.

    PubMed

    Durst, Julien; Rudnev, Alexander; Dutta, Abhijit; Fu, Yongchun; Herranz, Juan; Kaliginedi, Veerabhadrarao; Kuzume, Akiyoshi; Permyakova, Anastasia A; Paratcha, Yohan; Broekmann, Peter; Schmidt, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    The electrochemical reduction of CO(2) has been extensively studied over the past decades. Nevertheless, this topic has been tackled so far only by using a very fundamental approach and mostly by trying to improve kinetics and selectivities toward specific products in half-cell configurations and liquid-based electrolytes. The main drawback of this approach is that, due to the low solubility of CO(2) in water, the maximum CO(2) reduction current which could be drawn falls in the range of 0.01-0.02 A cm(-2). This is at least an order of magnitude lower current density than the requirement to make CO(2)-electrolysis a technically and economically feasible option for transformation of CO(2) into chemical feedstock or fuel thereby closing the CO(2) cycle. This work attempts to give a short overview on the status of electrochemical CO(2) reduction with respect to challenges at the electrolysis cell as well as at the catalyst level. We will critically discuss possible pathways to increase both operating current density and conversion efficiency in order to close the gap with established energy conversion technologies.

  3. Luminescent nanocrystal stress gauge

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Charina L.; Koski, Kristie J.; Olson, Andrew C. K.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2010-01-01

    Microscale mechanical forces can determine important outcomes ranging from the site of material fracture to stem cell fate. However, local stresses in a vast majority of systems cannot be measured due to the limitations of current techniques. In this work, we present the design and implementation of the CdSe-CdS core-shell tetrapod nanocrystal, a local stress sensor with bright luminescence readout. We calibrate the tetrapod luminescence response to stress and use the luminescence signal to report the spatial distribution of local stresses in single polyester fibers under uniaxial strain. The bright stress-dependent emission of the tetrapod, its nanoscale size, and its colloidal nature provide a unique tool that may be incorporated into a variety of micromechanical systems including materials and biological samples to quantify local stresses with high spatial resolution. PMID:21098301

  4. Self-assembly of water-soluble nanocrystals

    DOEpatents

    Fan, Hongyou; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Lopez, Gabriel P.

    2012-01-10

    A method for forming an ordered array of nanocrystals where a hydrophobic precursor solution with a hydrophobic core material in an organic solvent is added to a solution of a surfactant in water, followed by removal of a least a portion of the organic solvent to form a micellar solution of nanocrystals. A precursor co-assembling material, generally water-soluble, that can co-assemble with individual micelles formed in the micellar solution of nanocrystals can be added to this micellar solution under specified reaction conditions (for example, pH conditions) to form an ordered-array mesophase material. For example, basic conditions are used to precipitate an ordered nanocrystal/silica array material in bulk form and acidic conditions are used to form an ordered nanocrystal/silica array material as a thin film.

  5. Hydrogel microparticles from lithographic processes: novel materials for fundamental and applied colloid science

    PubMed Central

    Helgeson, Matthew E.; Chapin, Stephen C.; Doyle, Patrick S.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years there has been a surge in methods to synthesize geometrically and chemically complex microparticles. Analogous to atoms, the concept of a “periodic table” of particles has emerged and continues to be expanded upon. Complementing the natural intellectual curiosity that drives the creation of increasingly intricate particles is the pull from applications that take advantage of such high-value materials. Complex particles are now being used in fields ranging from diagnostics and catalysis to self-assembly and rheology, where material composition and microstructure are closely linked with particle function. This is especially true of polymer hydrogels, which offer an attractive and broad class of base materials for synthesis. Lithography affords the ability to engineer particle properties a priori and leads to the production of homogenous ensembles of particles. This review summarizes recent advances in synthesizing hydrogel microparticles using lithographic processes and highlight a number of emerging applications. We discuss advantages and limitations of current strategies, and conclude with an outlook on future trends in the field. PMID:21516212

  6. Fundamental ecology is fundamental.

    PubMed

    Courchamp, Franck; Dunne, Jennifer A; Le Maho, Yvon; May, Robert M; Thébaud, Christophe; Hochberg, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    The primary reasons for conducting fundamental research are satisfying curiosity, acquiring knowledge, and achieving understanding. Here we develop why we believe it is essential to promote basic ecological research, despite increased impetus for ecologists to conduct and present their research in the light of potential applications. This includes the understanding of our environment, for intellectual, economical, social, and political reasons, and as a major source of innovation. We contend that we should focus less on short-term, objective-driven research and more on creativity and exploratory analyses, quantitatively estimate the benefits of fundamental research for society, and better explain the nature and importance of fundamental ecology to students, politicians, decision makers, and the general public. Our perspective and underlying arguments should also apply to evolutionary biology and to many of the other biological and physical sciences.

  7. Multifunctional nanocrystals

    DOEpatents

    Klimov, Victor I.; Hollingsworth, Jennifer A.; Crooker, Scott A.; Kim, Hyungrak

    2010-06-22

    Multifunctional nanocomposites are provided including a core of either a magnetic material or an inorganic semiconductor, and, a shell of either a magnetic material or an inorganic semiconductor, wherein the core and the shell are of differing materials, such multifunctional nanocomposites having multifunctional properties including magnetic properties from the magnetic material and optical properties from the inorganic semiconductor material. Various applications of such multifunctional nanocomposites are also provided.

  8. Multifunctional nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Klimov, Victor I.; Hollingsworth, Jennifer A.; Crooker, Scott A.; Kim, Hyungrak

    2007-08-28

    Multifunctional nanocomposites are provided including a core of either a magnetic material or an inorganic semiconductor, and, a shell of either a magnetic material or an inorganic semiconductor, wherein the core and the shell are of differing materials, such multifunctional nanocomposites having multifunctional properties including magnetic properties from the magnetic material and optical properties from the inorganic semiconductor material. Various applications of such multifunctional nanocomposites are also provided.

  9. Lifetime blinking in nonblinking nanocrystal quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galland, Christophe; Ghosh, Yagnaseni; Steinbrück, Andrea; Hollingsworth, Jennifer A.; Htoon, Han; Klimov, Victor I.

    2012-06-01

    Nanocrystal quantum dots are attractive materials for applications as nanoscale light sources. One impediment to these applications is fluctuations of single-dot emission intensity, known as blinking. Recent progress in colloidal synthesis has produced nonblinking nanocrystals; however, the physics underlying blinking suppression remains unclear. Here we find that ultra-thick-shell CdSe/CdS nanocrystals can exhibit pronounced fluctuations in the emission lifetimes (lifetime blinking), despite stable nonblinking emission intensity. We demonstrate that lifetime variations are due to switching between the neutral and negatively charged state of the nanocrystal. Negative charging results in faster radiative decay but does not appreciably change the overall emission intensity because of suppressed nonradiative Auger recombination for negative trions. The Auger process involving excitation of a hole (positive trion pathway) remains efficient and is responsible for charging with excess electrons, which occurs via Auger-assisted ionization of biexcitons accompanied by ejection of holes.

  10. Lifetime blinking in nonblinking nanocrystal quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Galland, Christophe; Ghosh, Yagnaseni; Steinbrück, Andrea; Hollingsworth, Jennifer A; Htoon, Han; Klimov, Victor I

    2012-06-19

    Nanocrystal quantum dots are attractive materials for applications as nanoscale light sources. One impediment to these applications is fluctuations of single-dot emission intensity, known as blinking. Recent progress in colloidal synthesis has produced nonblinking nanocrystals; however, the physics underlying blinking suppression remains unclear. Here we find that ultra-thick-shell CdSe/CdS nanocrystals can exhibit pronounced fluctuations in the emission lifetimes (lifetime blinking), despite stable nonblinking emission intensity. We demonstrate that lifetime variations are due to switching between the neutral and negatively charged state of the nanocrystal. Negative charging results in faster radiative decay but does not appreciably change the overall emission intensity because of suppressed nonradiative Auger recombination for negative trions. The Auger process involving excitation of a hole (positive trion pathway) remains efficient and is responsible for charging with excess electrons, which occurs via Auger-assisted ionization of biexcitons accompanied by ejection of holes.

  11. FUNDAMENTAL ENVIRONMENTAL REACTIVITY TESTING AND ANALYSIS OF THE HYDROGEN STORAGE MATERIAL 2LIBH4 MGH2

    SciTech Connect

    James, C.; Anton, D.; Cortes-Concepcion, J.; Brinkman, K.; Gray, J.

    2012-01-10

    While the storage of hydrogen for portable and stationary applications is regarded as critical in bringing PEM fuel cells to commercial acceptance, little is known of the environmental exposure risks posed in utilizing condensed phase chemical storage options as in complex hydrides. It is thus important to understand the effect of environmental exposure of metal hydrides in the case of accident scenarios. Simulated tests were performed following the United Nations standards to test for flammability and water reactivity in air for a destabilized lithium borohydride and magnesium hydride system in a 2 to 1 molar ratio respectively. It was determined that the mixture acted similarly to the parent, lithium borohydride, but at slower rate of reaction seen in magnesium hydride. To quantify environmental exposure kinetics, isothermal calorimetry was utilized to measure the enthalpy of reaction as a function of exposure time to dry and humid air, and liquid water. The reaction with liquid water was found to increase the heat flow significantly during exposure compared to exposure in dry or humid air environments. Calorimetric results showed the maximum normalized heat flow the fully charged material was 6 mW/mg under liquid phase hydrolysis; and 14 mW/mg for the fully discharged material also occurring under liquid phase hydrolysis conditions.

  12. Silicon and germanium nanocrystals: properties and characterization

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Alexandra; Coutinho, José

    2014-01-01

    Summary Group-IV nanocrystals have emerged as a promising group of materials that extends the realm of application of bulk diamond, silicon, germanium and related materials beyond their traditional boundaries. Over the last two decades of research, their potential for application in areas such as optoelectronic applications and memory devices has been progressively unraveled. Nevertheless, new challenges with no parallel in the respective bulk material counterparts have arisen. In this review, we consider what has been achieved and what are the current limitations with regard to growth, characterization and modeling of silicon and germanium nanocrystals and related materials. PMID:25383290

  13. Inorganic Chemistry Solutions to Semiconductor Nanocrystal Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarado, Samuel R.; Guo, Yijun; Ruberu, T. Purnima A.; Tavasoli, Elham; Vela, Javier

    2014-03-15

    The optoelectronic and chemical properties of semiconductor nanocrystals heavily depend on their composition, size, shape and internal structure, surface functionality, etc. Available strategies to alter these properties through traditional colloidal syntheses and ligand exchange methods place a premium on specific reaction conditions and surfactant combinations. In this invited review, we apply a molecular-level understanding of chemical precursor reactivity to reliably control the morphology, composition and intimate architecture (core/shell vs. alloyed) of semiconductor nanocrystals. We also describe our work aimed at achieving highly selective, low-temperature photochemical methods for the synthesis of semiconductor–metal and semiconductor–metal oxide photocatalytic nanocomposites. In addition, we describe our work on surface modification of semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots using new approaches and methods that bypass ligand exchange, retaining the nanocrystal's native ligands and original optical properties, as well as on spectroscopic methods of characterization useful in determining surface ligand organization and chemistry. Using recent examples from our group and collaborators, we demonstrate how these efforts have lead to faster, wider and more systematic application of semiconductor nanocrystal-based materials to biological imaging and tracking, and to photocatalysis of unconventional substrates. We believe techniques and methods borrowed from inorganic chemistry (including coordination, organometallic and solid state chemistry) have much to offer in reaching a better understanding of the synthesis, functionalization and real-life application of such exciting materials as semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum dots, rods, tetrapods, etc.).

  14. Fundamentals of planar-type inductively coupled thermal plasmas on a substrate for large-area material processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tial, Mai Kai Suan; Irie, Hiromitsu; Maruyama, Yuji; Tanaka, Yasunori; Uesugi, Yoshihiko; Ishijima, Tatsuo

    2016-07-01

    In this work, the fundamentals of planar-type Ar inductively coupled thermal plasmas (ICTPs) with oxygen molecular gas on a substrate have been studied. Previously, aiming at large-area material processing, we developed a planar-type ICTP torch with a rectangular quartz vessel instead of a conventional cylindrical tube. For the adoption of such planar-type ICTP to material processing, it is necessary to sustain the ICTP with molecular gases on a substrate stably and uniformly. To determine the uniformity of the ICTP formed on the substrate, spectroscopic observation was carried out at 3 mm above the substrate. Results showed that the radiation intensities of specified O atomic lines were almost uniformly detected along the surface of the substrate. This means that excited O atoms, which are important radicals for thermal plasma oxidation, are present in the planar-type ICTP uniformly on the substrate.

  15. Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Interaction with Soft Materials as Fundamental Processes in Plasma Medicine.

    PubMed

    Takenaka, Kosuke; Miyazaki, Atsushi; Uchida, Giichiro; Setsuhara, Yuichi

    2015-03-01

    Molecular-structure variation of organic materials irradiated with atmospheric pressure He plasma jet have been investigated. Optical emission spectrum in the atmospheric-pressure He plasma jet has been measured. The spectrum shows considerable emissions of He lines, and the emission of O and N radicals attributed to air. Variation in molecular structure of Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film surface irradiated with the atmospheric-pressure He plasma jet has been observed via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). These results via XPS and FT-IR indicate that the PET surface irradiated with the atmospheric-pressure He plasma jet was oxidized by chemical and/or physical effect due to irradiation of active species.

  16. Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Interaction with Soft Materials as Fundamental Processes in Plasma Medicine.

    PubMed

    Takenaka, Kosuke; Miyazaki, Atsushi; Uchida, Giichiro; Setsuhara, Yuichi

    2015-03-01

    Molecular-structure variation of organic materials irradiated with atmospheric pressure He plasma jet have been investigated. Optical emission spectrum in the atmospheric-pressure He plasma jet has been measured. The spectrum shows considerable emissions of He lines, and the emission of O and N radicals attributed to air. Variation in molecular structure of Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film surface irradiated with the atmospheric-pressure He plasma jet has been observed via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). These results via XPS and FT-IR indicate that the PET surface irradiated with the atmospheric-pressure He plasma jet was oxidized by chemical and/or physical effect due to irradiation of active species. PMID:26413628

  17. Fundamental Understanding of Ambient and High-Temperature Plasticity Phenomena in Structural Materials in Advanced Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Deo, Chaitanya; Zhu, Ting; McDowell, David

    2013-11-17

    The goal of this research project is to develop the methods and tools necessary to link unit processes analyzed using atomistic simulations involving interaction of vacancies and interstitials with dislocations, as well as dislocation mediation at sessile junctions and interfaces as affected by radiation, with cooperative influence on higher-length scale behavior of polycrystals. These tools and methods are necessary to design and enhance radiation-induced damage-tolerant alloys. The project will achieve this goal by applying atomistic simulations to characterize unit processes of: 1. Dislocation nucleation, absorption, and desorption at interfaces 2. Vacancy production, radiation-induced segregation of substitutional Cr at defect clusters (point defect sinks) in BCC Fe-Cr ferritic/martensitic steels 3. Investigation of interaction of interstitials and vacancies with impurities (V, Nb, Ta, Mo, W, Al, Si, P, S) 4. Time evolution of swelling (cluster growth) phenomena of irradiated materials 5. Energetics and kinetics of dislocation bypass of defects formed by interstitial clustering and formation of prismatic loops, informing statistical models of continuum character with regard to processes of dislocation glide, vacancy agglomeration and swelling, climb and cross slip This project will consider the Fe, Fe-C, and Fe-Cr ferritic/martensitic material system, accounting for magnetism by choosing appropriate interatomic potentials and validating with first principles calculations. For these alloys, the rate of swelling and creep enhancement is considerably lower than that of face-centered cubic (FCC) alloys and of austenitic Fe-Cr-Mo alloys. The team will confirm mechanisms, validate simulations at various time and length scales, and improve the veracity of computational models. The proposed research?s feasibility is supported by recent modeling of radiation effects in metals and alloys, interfacial dislocation transfer reactions in nano-twinned copper, and dislocation

  18. Silicon nanocrystals dispersed in water: Photosensitizers for molecular oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goller, B.; Polisski, S.; Wiggers, H.; Kovalev, D.

    2010-05-01

    We report on the synthesis of freestanding silicon spheres having sizes in the range of 3-10 nm. As-prepared luminescent silicon nanocrystals have H-passivated surface. Therefore, energy transfer from excitons confined in Si nanocrystals to oxygen molecules is found to be efficient. It is demonstrated that a termination of silicon nanocrystal H-passivated hydrophobic surface by lipids provides their water solubility. We found that this procedure preserves photosensitizing ability of silicon nanocrystals. Therefore, this material system can potentially be employed for a variety of biomedical applications.

  19. Fundamental Processes of Coupled Radiation Damage and Mechanical Behavior in Nuclear Fuel Materials for High Temperature Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Phillpot, Simon; Tulenko, James

    2011-09-08

    The objective of this work has been to elucidate the relationship among microstructure, radiation damage and mechanical properties for nuclear fuel materials. As representative nuclear materials, we have taken an hcp metal (Mg as a generic metal, and Ti alloys for fast reactors) and UO2 (representing fuel). The degradation of the thermo-mechanical behavior of nuclear fuels under irradiation, both the fissionable material itself and its cladding, is a longstanding issue of critical importance to the nuclear industry. There are experimental indications that nanocrystalline metals and ceramics may be more resistant to radiation damage than their coarse-grained counterparts. The objective of this project look at the effect of microstructure on radiation damage and mechanical behavior in these materials. The approach to be taken was state-of-the-art, large-scale atomic-level simulation. This systematic simulation program of the effects of irradiation on the structure and mechanical properties of polycrystalline Ti and UO2 identified radiation damage mechanisms. Moreover, it will provided important insights into behavior that can be expected in nanocrystalline microstructures and, by extension, nanocomposites. The fundamental insights from this work can be expected to help in the design microstructures that are less susceptible to radiation damage and thermomechanical degradation.

  20. The 2013 Clusters, Nanocrystals & Nanostructures Gordon Research Conference/Gordon Research Seminar

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, Todd D.

    2014-11-25

    The fundamental properties of small particles and their potential for groundbreaking applications are among the most exciting areas of study in modern physics, chemistry, and materials science. The Clusters, Nanocrystals & Nanostructures Gordon ResearchConference and Gordon Research Seminar synthesize contributions from these inter-related fields that reflect the pivotal role of nano-particles at the interface between these disciplines. Size-dependent optical, electronic, magnetic and catalytic properties offer prospects for applications in many fields, and possible solutions for many of the grand challenges facing energy generation, consumption, delivery, and storage in the 21st century. The goal of the 2013 Clusters, Nanocrystals & Nanostructures Gordon Research Conference and Gordon Research Seminar is to continue the historical interdisciplinary tradition of this series and discuss the most recent advances, basic scientific questions, and emerging applications of clusters, nanocrystals, and nanostructures. The Clusters, Nanocrystals & Nanostructures GRC/GRS traditionally brings together the leading scientific groups that have made significant recent advances in one or more fundamental nanoscience or nanotechnology areas. Broad interests of the DOE BES and Solar Photochemistry Program addressed by this meeting include the areas of solar energy to fuels conversion, new photovoltaic systems, fundamental characterization of nanomaterials, magnetism, catalysis, and quantum physics. The vast majority of speakers and attendees will address either directly the topic of nanotechnology for photoinduced charge transfer, charge transport, and catalysis, or will have made significant contributions to related areas that will impact these fields indirectly. These topics have direct relevance to the mission of the DOE BES since it is this cutting-edge basic science that underpins our energy future.

  1. Polyester-inorganic nanocomposite materials via sol-gel reactions: Synthesis and characterization of fundamental properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, Alexander Adam, III

    A scheme was developed for producing poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET) ionomer)/silicate hybrid materials via polymer-in situ sol-gel reactions for tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) using different solvents. Scanning electron microscopy/EDAX studies revealed that silicate structures can be grown deep within PET ionomer films that were melt pressed from silicate-incorporated resin pellets. 29Si solid-state NMR spectroscopy revealed considerable, successful Si-O-Si bond formation, but also a significant fraction of uncondensed SiOH groups. 23Na solid-state NMR spectra suggested the presence of ionic aggregates within the unfilled PET ionomer and that these aggregates do not suffer major structural re-arrangements by silicate incorporation. For an ionomer treated with TEOS using MeCl2 solvent, Na + ions are less self-associated than in the unfilled control, suggesting silicate intrusion between PET-SO3- Na + ion pair associations. The ionomer treated with TEOS + tetrachloroethane had more poorly formed ionic aggregates, which illustrates the influence of solvent type on ionic aggregation. First-scan DSC thermograms for the ionomers demonstrate an increase in crystallinity after the incorporation of silicates, but solvent induced crystallization also appears to be operative. Second-scan DSC thermograms also suggest that the addition of silicate particles is not the only factor implicated in re-crystallization, and that solvent type is important even in second scan behavior. Silicate incorporation does not profoundly affect the second scan Tg vs. solvent type, i.e., chain mobility in the amorphous regions is not severely restricted by silicate incorporation. Re-crystallization and melting in these hybrids appears to be due to an interplay between a solvent induced crystallization that strongly depends on solvent type, and interactions between PET chains and in situ-grown, sol-gel-derived silicate particles. Isothermal studies confirmed that the crystallization rate and

  2. Collaborative Research. Fundamental Science of Low Temperature Plasma-Biological Material Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, David Barry; Oehrlein, Gottlieb

    2014-09-01

    atmospheric pressure using several types of low temperature plasma sources, for which radical induced interactions generally dominate due to short mean free paths of ions and VUV photons. For these conditions we demonstrated the importance of environmental interactions when atmospheric pressure plasma sources are used to modify biomolecules. This is evident from both gas phase characterization data and in-situ surface characterization of treated biomolecules. Environmental interactions can produce unexpected outcomes due to the complexity of reactions of reactive species with the atmosphere which determines the composition of reactive fluxes and atomistic changes of biomolecules. Overall, this work clarified a richer spectrum of scientific opportunities and challenges for the field of low temperature plasma-biomolecule surface interactions than initially anticipated, in particular for plasma sources operating at atmospheric pressure. The insights produced in this work, e.g. demonstration of the importance of environmental interactions, are generally important for applications of APP to materials modifications. Thus one major contributions of this research has been the establishment of methodologies to more systematically study the interaction of plasma with bio-molecules. In particular, our studies of atmospheric pressure plasma sources using very well-defined experimental conditions enabled to combine atomistic surface modifications of biomolecules with changes in their biological function. The clarification of the role of ions, VUV photons and radicals in deactivation of biomolecules during low pressure and atmospheric pressure plasma-biomolecule interaction has broad implications, e.g. for the emerging field of plasma medicine. The development of methods to detect the effects of plasma treatment on immune-active biomolecules will be helpful in many future studies.

  3. Mesoporous TiO2 Nanocrystals/Graphene as an Efficient Sulfur Host Material for High-Performance Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanyuan; Cai, Qifa; Wang, Lei; Li, Qingwei; Peng, Xiang; Gao, Biao; Huo, Kaifu; Chu, Paul K

    2016-09-14

    Rechargeable lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries are promising in high-energy storage due to the large specific energy density of about 2600 W h kg(-1). However, the low conductivity of sulfur and discharge products as well as polysulfide-shuttle effect between the cathode and anode hamper applications of Li-S batteries. Herein, we describe a novel and efficient S host material consisting of mesoporous TiO2 nanocrystals (NCs) fabricated in situ on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) for Li-S batteries. The TiO2@rGO hybrid can be loaded with 72 wt % sulfur. The strong chemisorption ability of the TiO2 NCs toward polysulfide combined with high electrical conductivity of rGO effectively localize the soluble polysulfide species within the cathode and facilitate electron and Li ions transport to/from the cathode materials. The sulfur-incorporated TiO2@rGO hybrid (S/TiO2@rGO) shows large capacities of 1116 and 917 mA h g(-1) at the current densities of 0.2 and 1 C (1 C = 1675 mA g(-1)) after 100 cycles, respectively. When the current density is increased 20 times from 0.2 to 4 C, 60% capacity is retained, thereby demonstrating good cycling stability and rate capability. The synergistic effects of TiO2 NCs toward effective chemisorption of polysulfides and conductive rGO with high electron mobility make a promising application of S/TiO2@rGO hybrid in high-performance Li-S batteries. PMID:27552961

  4. Mesoporous TiO2 Nanocrystals/Graphene as an Efficient Sulfur Host Material for High-Performance Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanyuan; Cai, Qifa; Wang, Lei; Li, Qingwei; Peng, Xiang; Gao, Biao; Huo, Kaifu; Chu, Paul K

    2016-09-14

    Rechargeable lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries are promising in high-energy storage due to the large specific energy density of about 2600 W h kg(-1). However, the low conductivity of sulfur and discharge products as well as polysulfide-shuttle effect between the cathode and anode hamper applications of Li-S batteries. Herein, we describe a novel and efficient S host material consisting of mesoporous TiO2 nanocrystals (NCs) fabricated in situ on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) for Li-S batteries. The TiO2@rGO hybrid can be loaded with 72 wt % sulfur. The strong chemisorption ability of the TiO2 NCs toward polysulfide combined with high electrical conductivity of rGO effectively localize the soluble polysulfide species within the cathode and facilitate electron and Li ions transport to/from the cathode materials. The sulfur-incorporated TiO2@rGO hybrid (S/TiO2@rGO) shows large capacities of 1116 and 917 mA h g(-1) at the current densities of 0.2 and 1 C (1 C = 1675 mA g(-1)) after 100 cycles, respectively. When the current density is increased 20 times from 0.2 to 4 C, 60% capacity is retained, thereby demonstrating good cycling stability and rate capability. The synergistic effects of TiO2 NCs toward effective chemisorption of polysulfides and conductive rGO with high electron mobility make a promising application of S/TiO2@rGO hybrid in high-performance Li-S batteries.

  5. Fundamentally updating fundamentals.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Gail; Barton, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Recent educational research indicates that the six competencies of the Quality and Safety Education for Nurses initiative are best introduced in early prelicensure clinical courses. Content specific to quality and safety has traditionally been covered in senior level courses. This article illustrates an effective approach to using quality and safety as an organizing framework for any prelicensure fundamentals of nursing course. Providing prelicensure students a strong foundation in quality and safety in an introductory clinical course facilitates early adoption of quality and safety competencies as core practice values.

  6. Electronic Structure of Germanium Nanocrystal Films Probed with Synchrotron Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Bostedt, C

    2002-05-01

    The fundamental structure--property relationship of semiconductor quantum dots has been investigated. For deposited germanium nanocrystals strong quantum confinement effects have been determined with synchrotron radiation based x-ray absorption and photoemission techniques. The nanocrystals are condensed out of the gas phase with a narrow size distribution and subsequently deposited in situ onto various substrates. The particles are crystalline in the cubic phase with a structurally disordered surface shell and the resulting film morphology depends strongly on the substrate material and condition. The disordered surface region has an impact on the overall electronic structure of the particles. In a size-dependent study, the conduction and valence band edge of germanium nanocrystals have been measured for the first time and compared to the bulk crystal. The band edges move to higher energies as the particle size is decreased, consistent with quantum confinement theory. To obtain a more accurate analysis of confinement effects in the empty states, a novel analysis method utilizing an effective particle size for the x-ray absorption experiment, which allows a deconvolution of absorption edge broadening effects, has been introduced. Comparison of the present study to earlier studies on silicon reveals that germanium exhibits stronger quantum confinement effects than silicon. Below a critical particle size of 2.3 {+-} 0.7 nm, the band gap of germanium becomes larger than that of silicon--even if it is the opposite for bulk materials. This result agrees phenomenologically with effective mass and tight binding theories but contradicts the findings of recent pseudopotential calculations. The discrepancy between theory and experiments is attributed to the differences in the theoretical models and experimental systems. The experimentally observed structural disorder of the particle surface has to be included in the theoretical models.

  7. Quantitative tunneling spectroscopy of nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    First, Phillip N; Whetten, Robert L; Schaaff, T Gregory

    2007-05-25

    The proposed goals of this collaborative work were to systematically characterize the electronic structure and dynamics of 3-dimensional metal and semiconducting nanocrystals using scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS) and ballistic electron emission spectroscopy (BEES). This report describes progress in the spectroscopic work and in the development of methods for creating and characterizing gold nanocrystals. During the grant period, substantial effort also was devoted to the development of epitaxial graphene (EG), a very promising materials system with outstanding potential for nanometer-scale ballistic and coherent devices ("graphene" refers to one atomic layer of graphitic, sp2 -bonded carbon atoms [or more loosely, few layers]). Funding from this DOE grant was critical for the initial development of epitaxial graphene for nanoelectronics

  8. Lead sulphide nanocrystal photodetector technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saran, Rinku; Curry, Richard J.

    2016-02-01

    Light detection is the underlying principle of many optoelectronic systems. For decades, semiconductors including silicon carbide, silicon, indium gallium arsenide and germanium have dominated the photodetector industry. They can show excellent photosensitivity but are limited by one or more aspects, such as high production cost, high-temperature processing, flexible substrate incompatibility, limited spectral range or a requirement for cryogenic cooling for efficient operation. Recently lead sulphide (PbS) nanocrystals have emerged as one of the most promising new materials for photodetector fabrication. They offer several advantages including low-cost manufacturing, solution processability, size-tunable spectral sensitivity and flexible substrate compatibility, and they have achieved figures of merit outperforming conventional photodetectors. We review the underlying concepts, breakthroughs and remaining challenges in photodetector technologies based on PbS nanocrystals.

  9. Functional assemblies of nanocrystal quantum dots on microtubule scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Sohee

    2005-11-01

    We assembled semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots (NQDs) using microtubule (MT) fibers as nanoscale scaffolds and characterized structure and function of the assemblies. MTs were chosen as the biotemplate as these biomolecules, in conjunction with kinesin motor proteins, offer the potential for dynamic transport of nanoscale cargo. Ultimately, the ability to control and direct the reconfigurable assembly of nanomaterials from the nano- to the macro-scales will likely depend on the degree to which the specific interactions between artificial inorganic/organic nano-components and natural, biological components are understood. Thus, the work here addressed two fundamental issues key to this understanding: (1) The extent to which NQD stability and photophysical properties are affected by being rendered "biocompatible" and (2) The impact on "biofunction" when biomolecules are coupled with artificial nanomaterials. These issues were addressed by first investigating several strategies for transforming hydrophobic nanocrystals into water-soluble, biocompatible materials. The resulting particles were compared in terms of their optical properties (e.g., retention of high emission quantum yields) and chemical stability (using a novel fluorescence resonance energy transfer, FRET, method to study particle aggregation). Second, a previously described strategy for rendering nanocrystals water soluble by exchanging as-prepared surface ligands with bifunctional thiol ligands was studied by investigating the effect of thiols on the optical properties of NQDs as a function of time, concentration, pH and moiety. Thiolate anions were found to both passivate existing electron traps (enhancing emission) and introduce new hole traps (decreasing emission). Third, NQDs were assembled onto MT supports by way of streptavidin-biotin and electrostatic interactions. Interdot "communication" through interparticle energy transfer was then used to determine the nanoscale structure of the

  10. Shaping metal nanocrystals through epitaxial seeded growth

    SciTech Connect

    Habas, Susan E.; Lee, Hyunjoo; Radmilovic, Velimir; Somorjai,Gabor A.; Yang, Peidong

    2008-02-17

    Morphological control of nanocrystals has becomeincreasingly important, as many of their physical and chemical propertiesare highly shape-dependent. Nanocrystal shape control for both single andmultiple material systems, however, remains fairly empirical andchallenging. New methods need to be explored for the rational syntheticdesign of heterostructures with controlled morphology. Overgrowth of adifferent material on well-faceted seeds, for example, allows for the useof the defined seed morphology to control nucleation and growth of thesecondary structure. Here, we have used highly faceted cubic Pt seeds todirect the epitaxial overgrowth of a secondary metal. We demonstrate thisconcept with lattice matched Pd to produce conformal shape-controlledcore-shell particles, and then extend it to lattice mismatched Au to giveanisotropic growth. Seeding with faceted nanocrystals may havesignificant potential towards the development of shape-controlledheterostructures with defined interfaces.

  11. Antioxidant properties of cerium oxide nanocrystals as a function of nanocrystal diameter and surface coating.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Soo; Song, Wensi; Cho, Minjung; Puppala, Hema L; Nguyen, Phuc; Zhu, Huiguang; Segatori, Laura; Colvin, Vicki L

    2013-11-26

    This work examines the effect of nanocrystal diameter and surface coating on the reactivity of cerium oxide nanocrystals with H2O2 both in chemical solutions and in cells. Monodisperse nanocrystals were formed in organic solvents from the decomposition of cerium precursors, and subsequently phase transferred into water using amphiphiles as nanoparticle coatings. Quantitative analysis of the antioxidant capacity of CeO2-x using gas chromatography and a luminol test revealed that 2 mol of H2O2 reacted with every mole of cerium(III), suggesting that the reaction proceeds via a Fenton-type mechanism. Smaller diameter nanocrystals containing more cerium(III) were found to be more reactive toward H2O2. Additionally, the presence of a surface coating did not preclude the reaction between the nanocrystal surface cerium(III) and hydrogen peroxide. Taken together, the most reactive nanoparticles were the smallest (e.g., 3.8 nm diameter) with the thinnest surface coating (e.g., oleic acid). Moreover, a benchmark test of their antioxidant capacity revealed these materials were 9 times more reactive than commercial antioxidants such as Trolox. A unique feature of these antioxidant nanocrystals is that they can be applied multiple times: over weeks, cerium(IV) rich particles slowly return to their starting cerium(III) content. In nearly all cases, the particles remain colloidally stable (e.g., nonaggregated) and could be applied multiple times as antioxidants. These chemical properties were also observed in cell culture, where the materials were able to reduce oxidative stress in human dermal fibroblasts exposed to H2O2 with efficiency comparable to their solution phase reactivity. These data suggest that organic coatings on cerium oxide nanocrystals do not limit the antioxidant behavior of the nanocrystals, and that their redox cycling behavior can be preserved even when stabilized. PMID:24079896

  12. Germanium nanocrystals: Synthesis, characterization, and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerung, Henry

    superlattice of Ge nanocrystals within a SiO2 matrix, the real-time monitoring of ordered mesoporous SiO 2 structure formation via evaporation induced self assembly was also conducted to understand the structural ordering inside the silica matrix. The mesoporous film was then used for in situ and real-time study of profile evolution during plasma etching using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. We envision that the patterned 3-D superlattice of Ge nanocrystals will lead to advanced materials applications, such as coherent phonon generator and high-sensitivity biosensor.

  13. Semiconductor nanocrystal probes for biological applications and process for making and using such probes

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Shimon; Bruchez, Marcel; Alivisatos, Paul

    2011-12-20

    A semiconductor nanocrystal compound and probe are described. The compound is capable of linking to one or more affinity molecules. The compound comprises (1) one or more semiconductor nanocrystals capable of, in response to exposure to a first energy, providing a second energy, and (2) one or more linking agents, having a first portion linked to the one or more semiconductor nanocrystals and a second portion capable of linking to one or more affinity molecules. One or more semiconductor nanocrystal compounds are linked to one or more affinity molecules to form a semiconductor nanocrystal probe capable of bonding with one or more detectable substances in a material being analyzed, and capable of, in response to exposure to a first energy, providing a second energy. Also described are processes for respectively: making the semiconductor nanocrystal compound; making the semiconductor nanocrystal probe; and treating materials with the probe.

  14. Semiconductor nanocrystal probes for biological applications and process for making and using such probes

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Shimon; Bruchez, Marcel; Alivisatos, Paul

    2012-10-16

    A semiconductor nanocrystal compound and probe are described. The compound is capable of linking to one or more affinity molecules. The compound comprises (1) one or more semiconductor nanocrystals capable of, in response to exposure to a first energy, providing a second energy, and (2) one or more linking agents, having a first portion linked to the one or more semiconductor nanocrystals and a second portion capable of linking to one or more affinity molecules. One or more semiconductor nanocrystal compounds are linked to one or more affinity molecules to form a semiconductor nanocrystal probe capable of bonding with one or more detectable substances in a material being analyzed, and capable of, in response to exposure to a first energy, providing a second energy. Also described are processes for respectively: making the semiconductor nanocrystal compound; making the semiconductor nanocrystal probe; and treating materials with the probe.

  15. Semiconductor nanocrystal probes for biological applications and process for making and using such probes

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Shimon; Bruchez, Marcel; Alivisatos, Paul

    2011-12-06

    A semiconductor nanocrystal compound and probe are described. The compound is capable of linking to one or more affinity molecules. The compound comprises (1) one or more semiconductor nanocrystals capable of, in response to exposure to a first energy, providing a second energy, and (2) one or more linking agents, having a first portion linked to the one or more semiconductor nanocrystals and a second portion capable of linking to one or more affinity molecules. One or more semiconductor nanocrystal compounds are linked to one or more affinity molecules to form a semiconductor nanocrystal probe capable of bonding with one or more detectable substances in a material being analyzed, and capable of, in response to exposure to a first energy, providing a second energy. Also described are processes for respectively: making the semiconductor nanocrystal compound; making the semiconductor nanocrystal probe; and treating materials with the probe.

  16. Semiconductor nanocrystal probes for biological applications and process for making and using such probes

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Shimon; Bruchez, Marcel; Alivisatos, Paul

    2014-01-28

    A semiconductor nanocrystal compound and probe are described. The compound is capable of linking to one or more affinity molecules. The compound comprises (1) one or more semiconductor nanocrystals capable of, in response to exposure to a first energy, providing a second energy, and (2) one or more linking agents, having a first portion linked to the one or more semiconductor nanocrystals and a second portion capable of linking to one or more affinity molecules. One or more semiconductor nanocrystal compounds are linked to one or more affinity molecules to form a semiconductor nanocrystal probe capable of bonding with one or more detectable substances in a material being analyzed, and capable of, in response to exposure to a first energy, providing a second energy. Also described are processes for respectively: making the semiconductor nanocrystal compound; making the semiconductor nanocrystal probe; and treating materials with the probe.

  17. Nanocrystal Bioassembly: Asymmetry, Proximity, and Enzymatic Manipulation

    SciTech Connect

    Claridge, Shelley A.

    2008-05-01

    Research at the interface between biomolecules and inorganic nanocrystals has resulted in a great number of new discoveries. In part this arises from the synergistic duality of the system: biomolecules may act as self-assembly agents for organizing inorganic nanocrystals into functional materials; alternatively, nanocrystals may act as microscopic or spectroscopic labels for elucidating the behavior of complex biomolecular systems. However, success in either of these functions relies heavily uponthe ability to control the conjugation and assembly processes.In the work presented here, we first design a branched DNA scaffold which allows hybridization of DNA-nanocrystal monoconjugates to form discrete assemblies. Importantly, the asymmetry of the branched scaffold allows the formation of asymmetric2assemblies of nanocrystals. In the context of a self-assembled device, this can be considered a step toward the ability to engineer functionally distinct inputs and outputs.Next we develop an anion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography purification method which allows large gold nanocrystals attached to single strands of very short DNA to be purified. When two such complementary conjugates are hybridized, the large nanocrystals are brought into close proximity, allowing their plasmon resonances to couple. Such plasmon-coupled constructs are of interest both as optical interconnects for nanoscale devices and as `plasmon ruler? biomolecular probes.We then present an enzymatic ligation strategy for creating multi-nanoparticle building blocks for self-assembly. In constructing a nanoscale device, such a strategy would allow pre-assembly and purification of components; these constructs can also act as multi-label probes of single-stranded DNA conformational dynamics. Finally we demonstrate a simple proof-of-concept of a nanoparticle analog of the polymerase chain reaction.

  18. Fabrication and electronic transport studies of single nanocrystal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, D L

    1997-05-01

    Semiconductor and metallic nanocrystals exhibit interesting electronic transport behavior as a result of electrostatic and quantum mechanical confinement effects. These effects can be studied to learn about the nature of electronic states in these systems. This thesis describes several techniques for the electronic study of nanocrystals. The primary focus is the development of novel methods to attach leads to prefabricated nanocrystals. This is because, while nanocrystals can be readily synthesized from a variety of materials with excellent size control, means to make electrical contact to these nanocrystals are limited. The first approach that will be described uses scanning probe microscopy to first image and then electrically probe surfaces. It is found that electronic investigations of nanocrystals by this technique are complicated by tip-sample interactions and environmental factors such as salvation and capillary forces. Next, an atomic force microscope technique for the catalytic patterning of the surface of a self assembled monolayer is described. In principle, this nano-fabrication technique can be used to create electronic devices which are based upon complex arrangements of nanocrystals. Finally, the fabrication and electrical characterization of a nanocrystal-based single electron transistor is presented. This device is fabricated using a hybrid scheme which combines electron beam lithography and wet chemistry to bind single nanocrystals in tunneling contact between closely spaced metallic leads. In these devices, both Au and CdSe nanocrystals show Coulomb blockade effects with characteristic energies of several tens of meV. Additional structure is seen the transport behavior of CdSe nanocrystals as a result of its electronic structure.

  19. Iron-oxide colloidal nanoclusters: from fundamental physical properties to diagnosis and therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostopoulou, Athanasia; Brintakis, Konstantinos; Lascialfari, Alessandro; Angelakeris, Mavroeidis; Vasilakaki, Marianna; Trohidou, Kalliopi; Douvalis, Alexios P.; Psycharakis, Stylianos; Ranella, Anthi; Manna, Liberato; Lappas, Alexandros

    2014-03-01

    Research on magnetic nanocrystals attracts wide-spread interest because of their challenging fundamental properties, but it is also driven by problems of practical importance to the society, ranging from electronics (e.g. magnetic recording) to biomedicine. In that respect, iron oxides are model functional materials as they adopt a variety of oxidation states and coordinations that facilitate their use. We show that a promising way to engineer further their technological potential in diagnosis and therapy is the assembly of primary nanocrystals into larger colloidal entities, possibly with increased structural complexity. In this context, elevated-temperature nanochemistry (c.f. based on a polyol approach) permitted us to develop size-tunable, low-cytotoxicity iron-oxide nanoclusters, entailing iso-oriented nanocrystals, with enhanced magnetization. Experimental (magnetometry, electron microscopy, Mössbauer and NMR spectroscopies) results supported by Monte Carlo simulations are reviewed to show that such assemblies of surface-functionalized iron oxide nanocrystals have a strong potential for innovation. The clusters' optimized magnetic anisotropy (including microscopic surface spin disorder) and weak ferrimagnetism at room temperature, while they do not undermine colloidal stability, endow them a profound advantage as efficient MRI contrast agents and hyperthermic mediators with important biomedical potential.

  20. Shape-anisotropy driven symmetry transformations in nanocrystal superlattice polymorphs.

    PubMed

    Bian, Kaifu; Choi, Joshua J; Kaushik, Ananth; Clancy, Paulette; Smilgies, Detlef-M; Hanrath, Tobias

    2011-04-26

    Despite intense research efforts by research groups worldwide, the potential of self-assembled nanocrystal superlattices (NCSLs) has not been realized due to an incomplete understanding of the fundamental molecular interactions governing the self-assembly process. Because NCSLs reside naturally at length-scales between atomic crystals and colloidal assemblies, synthetic control over the properties of constituent nanocrystal (NC) building blocks and their coupling in ordered assemblies is expected to yield a new class of materials with remarkable optical, electronic, and vibrational characteristics. Progress toward the formation of suitable test structures and subsequent development of NCSL-based technologies has been held back by the limited control over superlattice spacing and symmetry. Here we show that NCSL symmetry can be controlled by manipulating molecular interactions between ligands bound to the NC surface and the surrounding solvent. Specifically, we demonstrate solvent vapor-mediated NCSL symmetry transformations that are driven by the orientational ordering of NCs within the lattice. The assembly of various superlattice polymorphs, including face-centered cubic (fcc), body-centered cubic (bcc), and body-centered tetragonal (bct) structures, is studied in real time using in situ grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) under controlled solvent vapor exposure. This approach provides quantitative insights into the molecular level physics that controls solvent-ligand interactions and assembly of NCSLs. Computer simulations based on all-atom molecular dynamics techniques confirm several key insights gained from experiment.

  1. A facile strategy to decorate Cu9S5 nanocrystals on polyaniline nanowires and their synergetic catalytic properties

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiao-feng; Bian, Xiu-jie; Li, Zhi-cheng; Chao, Dan-ming; Wang, Ce

    2013-01-01

    Here, we demonstrated a novel method to decorate Cu9S5 nanocrystals on polyaniline (PANI) nanowires using the dopant of mercaptoacetic acid (MAA) in the PANI matrix as the sulfur source under a hydrothermal reaction. TEM images showed that Cu9S5 nanocrystals with a size in the range of 5–20 nm were uniformly formed on the surface of PANI nanowires. Significantly, the as-prepared PANI/Cu9S5 composite nanowires have been proven to be novel peroxidase mimics toward the oxidation of the peroxidase substrate 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) in the presence of H2O2. Due to the synergetic effects between polyaniline nanowires and Cu9S5 nanocrystals, the obtained PANI/Cu9S5 composite nanowires exhibit superior catalytic activity over the independent components. This work not only presents a simple and versatile method to decorate semiconductor nanocrystals on the surface of conducting polymer nanostructures, but also provides fundamental guidelines for further investigations into the synergetic effect between conducting polymers and other materials. PMID:24129741

  2. A facile strategy to decorate Cu9S5 nanocrystals on polyaniline nanowires and their synergetic catalytic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiao-Feng; Bian, Xiu-Jie; Li, Zhi-Cheng; Chao, Dan-Ming; Wang, Ce

    2013-10-01

    Here, we demonstrated a novel method to decorate Cu9S5 nanocrystals on polyaniline (PANI) nanowires using the dopant of mercaptoacetic acid (MAA) in the PANI matrix as the sulfur source under a hydrothermal reaction. TEM images showed that Cu9S5 nanocrystals with a size in the range of 5-20 nm were uniformly formed on the surface of PANI nanowires. Significantly, the as-prepared PANI/Cu9S5 composite nanowires have been proven to be novel peroxidase mimics toward the oxidation of the peroxidase substrate 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) in the presence of H2O2. Due to the synergetic effects between polyaniline nanowires and Cu9S5 nanocrystals, the obtained PANI/Cu9S5 composite nanowires exhibit superior catalytic activity over the independent components. This work not only presents a simple and versatile method to decorate semiconductor nanocrystals on the surface of conducting polymer nanostructures, but also provides fundamental guidelines for further investigations into the synergetic effect between conducting polymers and other materials.

  3. Biocomposites reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals derived from potato peel waste.

    PubMed

    Chen, D; Lawton, D; Thompson, M R; Liu, Q

    2012-09-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of cellulose nanocrystals derived from potato peel waste as a reinforcement and vapor barrier additive. The nanocrystals were derived from cellulosic material in the potato peel by alkali treatment and subsequently acid hydrolysis. TEM images revealed the average fiber length of the nanocrystals was 410 nm with an aspect ratio of 41; its aspect ratio being considerably larger than cotton-derived nanocrystals prepared using similar reaction conditions. Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC)-filled polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and thermoplastic starch (TPS) films were prepared by solution casting method to maintain uniform dispersion of the 1-2% (w/w) filler content. An increase of 19% and 33% (starch composite) and 38% and 49% (PVA composite) in tensile modulus was observed for the 1% and 2% CNC-reinforced composites, respectively. Water vapor transmission measurements showed a marginal reduction of water permeability for the PVA composite, whereas no effect was observed for the thermoplastic starch composite.

  4. Octahedral Tin Dioxide Nanocrystals Anchored on Vertically Aligned Carbon Aerogels as High Capacity Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Mingkai; Liu, Yuqing; Zhang, Yuting; Li, Yiliao; Zhang, Peng; Yan, Yan; Liu, Tianxi

    2016-08-01

    A novel binder-free graphene - carbon nanotubes - SnO2 (GCNT-SnO2) aerogel with vertically aligned pores was prepared via a simple and efficient directional freezing method. SnO2 octahedrons exposed of {221} high energy facets were uniformly distributed and tightly anchored on multidimensional graphene/carbon nanotube (GCNT) composites. Vertically aligned pores can effectively prevent the emersion of “closed” pores which cannot load the active SnO2 nanoparticles, further ensure quick immersion of electrolyte throughout the aerogel, and can largely shorten the transport distance between lithium ions and active sites of SnO2. Especially, excellent electrical conductivity of GCNT-SnO2 aerogel was achieved as a result of good interconnected networks of graphene and CNTs. Furthermore, meso- and macroporous structures with large surface area created by the vertically aligned pores can provide great benefit to the favorable transport kinetics for both lithium ion and electrons and afford sufficient space for volume expansion of SnO2. Due to the well-designed architecture of GCNT-SnO2 aerogel, a high specific capacity of 1190 mAh/g with good long-term cycling stability up to 1000 times was achieved. This work provides a promising strategy for preparing free-standing and binder-free active electrode materials with high performance for lithium ion batteries and other energy storage devices.

  5. Octahedral Tin Dioxide Nanocrystals Anchored on Vertically Aligned Carbon Aerogels as High Capacity Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mingkai; Liu, Yuqing; Zhang, Yuting; Li, Yiliao; Zhang, Peng; Yan, Yan; Liu, Tianxi

    2016-01-01

    A novel binder-free graphene - carbon nanotubes - SnO2 (GCNT-SnO2) aerogel with vertically aligned pores was prepared via a simple and efficient directional freezing method. SnO2 octahedrons exposed of {221} high energy facets were uniformly distributed and tightly anchored on multidimensional graphene/carbon nanotube (GCNT) composites. Vertically aligned pores can effectively prevent the emersion of “closed” pores which cannot load the active SnO2 nanoparticles, further ensure quick immersion of electrolyte throughout the aerogel, and can largely shorten the transport distance between lithium ions and active sites of SnO2. Especially, excellent electrical conductivity of GCNT-SnO2 aerogel was achieved as a result of good interconnected networks of graphene and CNTs. Furthermore, meso- and macroporous structures with large surface area created by the vertically aligned pores can provide great benefit to the favorable transport kinetics for both lithium ion and electrons and afford sufficient space for volume expansion of SnO2. Due to the well-designed architecture of GCNT-SnO2 aerogel, a high specific capacity of 1190 mAh/g with good long-term cycling stability up to 1000 times was achieved. This work provides a promising strategy for preparing free-standing and binder-free active electrode materials with high performance for lithium ion batteries and other energy storage devices. PMID:27510357

  6. Octahedral Tin Dioxide Nanocrystals Anchored on Vertically Aligned Carbon Aerogels as High Capacity Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingkai; Liu, Yuqing; Zhang, Yuting; Li, Yiliao; Zhang, Peng; Yan, Yan; Liu, Tianxi

    2016-01-01

    A novel binder-free graphene - carbon nanotubes - SnO2 (GCNT-SnO2) aerogel with vertically aligned pores was prepared via a simple and efficient directional freezing method. SnO2 octahedrons exposed of {221} high energy facets were uniformly distributed and tightly anchored on multidimensional graphene/carbon nanotube (GCNT) composites. Vertically aligned pores can effectively prevent the emersion of "closed" pores which cannot load the active SnO2 nanoparticles, further ensure quick immersion of electrolyte throughout the aerogel, and can largely shorten the transport distance between lithium ions and active sites of SnO2. Especially, excellent electrical conductivity of GCNT-SnO2 aerogel was achieved as a result of good interconnected networks of graphene and CNTs. Furthermore, meso- and macroporous structures with large surface area created by the vertically aligned pores can provide great benefit to the favorable transport kinetics for both lithium ion and electrons and afford sufficient space for volume expansion of SnO2. Due to the well-designed architecture of GCNT-SnO2 aerogel, a high specific capacity of 1190 mAh/g with good long-term cycling stability up to 1000 times was achieved. This work provides a promising strategy for preparing free-standing and binder-free active electrode materials with high performance for lithium ion batteries and other energy storage devices. PMID:27510357

  7. All-solid-state high performance asymmetric supercapacitors based on novel MnS nanocrystal and activated carbon materials.

    PubMed

    Chen, Teng; Tang, Yongfu; Qiao, Yuqing; Liu, Zhangyu; Guo, Wenfeng; Song, Jianzheng; Mu, Shichun; Yu, Shengxue; Zhao, Yufeng; Gao, Faming

    2016-01-01

    All-solid-state high-performance asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs) are fabricated using γ-MnS as positive electrode and porous eggplant derived activated carbon (EDAC) as negative electrode with saturated potassium hydroxide agar gel as the solid electrolyte. The laminar wurtzite nanostructure of γ-MnS facilitates the insertion of hydroxyl ions into the interlayer space, and the manganese sulfide nanowire offers electronic transportation channels. The size-uniform porous nanostructure of EDAC provides a continuous electron pathway as well as facilitates short ionic transportation pathways. Due to these special nanostructures of both the MnS and the EDAC, they exhibited a specific capacitance of 573.9 and 396 F g(-1) at 0.5 A g(-1), respectively. The optimized MnS//EDAC asymmetric supercapacitor shows a superior performance with specific capacitance of 110.4 F g(-1) and 89.87% capacitance retention after 5000 cycles, a high energy density of 37.6 Wh kg(-1) at a power density of 181.2 W kg(-1) and remains 24.9 Wh kg(-1) even at 5976 W kg(-1). Impressively, such two assembled all-solid-state cells in series can light up a red LED indicator for 15 minutes after fully charged. These impressive results make these pollution-free materials promising for practical applications in solid aqueous electrolyte-based ASCs. PMID:27021241

  8. All-solid-state high performance asymmetric supercapacitors based on novel MnS nanocrystal and activated carbon materials

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Teng; Tang, Yongfu; Qiao, Yuqing; Liu, Zhangyu; Guo, Wenfeng; Song, Jianzheng; Mu, Shichun; Yu, Shengxue; Zhao, Yufeng; Gao, Faming

    2016-01-01

    All-solid-state high-performance asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs) are fabricated using γ-MnS as positive electrode and porous eggplant derived activated carbon (EDAC) as negative electrode with saturated potassium hydroxide agar gel as the solid electrolyte. The laminar wurtzite nanostructure of γ-MnS facilitates the insertion of hydroxyl ions into the interlayer space, and the manganese sulfide nanowire offers electronic transportation channels. The size-uniform porous nanostructure of EDAC provides a continuous electron pathway as well as facilitates short ionic transportation pathways. Due to these special nanostructures of both the MnS and the EDAC, they exhibited a specific capacitance of 573.9 and 396 F g−1 at 0.5 A g−1, respectively. The optimized MnS//EDAC asymmetric supercapacitor shows a superior performance with specific capacitance of 110.4 F g−1 and 89.87% capacitance retention after 5000 cycles, a high energy density of 37.6 Wh kg−1 at a power density of 181.2 W kg−1 and remains 24.9 Wh kg−1 even at 5976 W kg−1. Impressively, such two assembled all-solid-state cells in series can light up a red LED indicator for 15 minutes after fully charged. These impressive results make these pollution-free materials promising for practical applications in solid aqueous electrolyte-based ASCs. PMID:27021241

  9. All-solid-state high performance asymmetric supercapacitors based on novel MnS nanocrystal and activated carbon materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Teng; Tang, Yongfu; Qiao, Yuqing; Liu, Zhangyu; Guo, Wenfeng; Song, Jianzheng; Mu, Shichun; Yu, Shengxue; Zhao, Yufeng; Gao, Faming

    2016-03-01

    All-solid-state high-performance asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs) are fabricated using γ-MnS as positive electrode and porous eggplant derived activated carbon (EDAC) as negative electrode with saturated potassium hydroxide agar gel as the solid electrolyte. The laminar wurtzite nanostructure of γ-MnS facilitates the insertion of hydroxyl ions into the interlayer space, and the manganese sulfide nanowire offers electronic transportation channels. The size-uniform porous nanostructure of EDAC provides a continuous electron pathway as well as facilitates short ionic transportation pathways. Due to these special nanostructures of both the MnS and the EDAC, they exhibited a specific capacitance of 573.9 and 396 F g‑1 at 0.5 A g‑1, respectively. The optimized MnS//EDAC asymmetric supercapacitor shows a superior performance with specific capacitance of 110.4 F g‑1 and 89.87% capacitance retention after 5000 cycles, a high energy density of 37.6 Wh kg‑1 at a power density of 181.2 W kg‑1 and remains 24.9 Wh kg‑1 even at 5976 W kg‑1. Impressively, such two assembled all-solid-state cells in series can light up a red LED indicator for 15 minutes after fully charged. These impressive results make these pollution-free materials promising for practical applications in solid aqueous electrolyte-based ASCs.

  10. Synthesis, Deposition, and Microstructure Development of Thin Films Formed by Sulfidation and Selenization of Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide Nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernomordik, Boris David

    Significant reduction in greenhouse gas emission and pollution associated with the global power demand can be accomplished by supplying tens-of-terawatts of power with solar cell technologies. No one solar cell material currently on the market is poised to meet this challenge due to issues such as manufacturing cost, material shortage, or material toxicity. For this reason, there is increasing interest in efficient light-absorbing materials that are comprised of abundant and non-toxic elements for thin film solar cell. Among these materials are copper zinc tin sulfide (Cu2ZnSnS4, or CZTS), copper zinc tin selenide (Cu2ZnSnSe4, or CZTSe), and copper zinc tin sulfoselenide alloys [Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1-x )4, or CZTSSe]. Laboratory power conversion efficiencies of CZTSSe-based solar cells have risen to almost 13% in less than three decades of research. Meeting the terawatt challenge will also require low cost fabrication. CZTSSe thin films from annealed colloidal nanocrystal coatings is an example of solution-based methods that can reduce manufacturing costs through advantages such as high throughput, high material utilization, and low capital expenses. The film microstructure and grain size affects the solar cell performance. To realize low cost commercial production and high efficiencies of CZTSSe-based solar cells, it is necessary to understand the fundamental factors that affect crystal growth and microstructure evolution during CZTSSe annealing. Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanocrystals were synthesized via thermolysis of single-source cation and sulfur precursors copper, zinc and tin diethyldithiocarbamates. The average nanocrystal size could be tuned between 2 nm and 40 nm, by varying the synthesis temperature between 150 °C and 340 °C. The synthesis is rapid and is completed in less than 10 minutes. Characterization by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirm that the nanocrystals are nominally

  11. Fundamentals of Marketing. Marketing Education Teacher's Resource Guide. Expected Student Learning Outcomes and Cross-Referenced Instructional Materials by Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Clifton L.

    This guide, developed by a project to revise the minimum core competencies for the Fundamentals of Marketing course in secondary marketing education in Missouri, contains four sections. The first section explains competency-based marketing education, including its mission, nature, curriculum, and the fundamentals of competency-based instruction.…

  12. Level Anticrossing of Impurity States in Semiconductor Nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    Baimuratov, Anvar S.; Rukhlenko, Ivan D.; Turkov, Vadim K.; Ponomareva, Irina O.; Leonov, Mikhail Yu.; Perova, Tatiana S.; Berwick, Kevin; Baranov, Alexander V.; Fedorov, Anatoly V.

    2014-01-01

    The size dependence of the quantized energies of elementary excitations is an essential feature of quantum nanostructures, underlying most of their applications in science and technology. Here we report on a fundamental property of impurity states in semiconductor nanocrystals that appears to have been overlooked—the anticrossing of energy levels exhibiting different size dependencies. We show that this property is inherent to the energy spectra of charge carriers whose spatial motion is simultaneously affected by the Coulomb potential of the impurity ion and the confining potential of the nanocrystal. The coupling of impurity states, which leads to the anticrossing, can be induced by interactions with elementary excitations residing inside the nanocrystal or an external electromagnetic field. We formulate physical conditions that allow a straightforward interpretation of level anticrossings in the nanocrystal energy spectrum and an accurate estimation of the states' coupling strength. PMID:25369911

  13. Atomic-scale modeling of cellulose nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiawa

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), the most abundant nanomaterials in nature, are recognized as one of the most promising candidates to meet the growing demand of green, bio-degradable and sustainable nanomaterials for future applications. CNCs draw significant interest due to their high axial elasticity and low density-elasticity ratio, both of which are extensively researched over the years. In spite of the great potential of CNCs as functional nanoparticles for nanocomposite materials, a fundamental understanding of CNC properties and their role in composite property enhancement is not available. In this work, CNCs are studied using molecular dynamics simulation method to predict their material' behaviors in the nanoscale. (a) Mechanical properties include tensile deformation in the elastic and plastic regions using molecular mechanics, molecular dynamics and nanoindentation methods. This allows comparisons between the methods and closer connectivity to experimental measurement techniques. The elastic moduli in the axial and transverse directions are obtained and the results are found to be in good agreement with previous research. The ultimate properties in plastic deformation are reported for the first time and failure mechanism are analyzed in details. (b) The thermal expansion of CNC crystals and films are studied. It is proposed that CNC film thermal expansion is due primarily to single crystal expansion and CNC-CNC interfacial motion. The relative contributions of inter- and intra-crystal responses to heating are explored. (c) Friction at cellulose-CNCs and diamond-CNCs interfaces is studied. The effects of sliding velocity, normal load, and relative angle between sliding surfaces are predicted. The Cellulose-CNC model is analyzed in terms of hydrogen bonding effect, and the diamond-CNC model compliments some of the discussion of the previous model. In summary, CNC's material properties and molecular models are both studied in this research, contributing to

  14. Nanocrystal-Powered Nanomotor

    SciTech Connect

    Regan, B.C.; Aloni, S.; Jensen, K.; Ritchie, R.O.; Zettl, A.

    2005-07-05

    We have constructed and operated a nanoscale linear motorpowered by a single metal nanocrystal ram sandwiched between mechanicallever arms. Low-level electrical voltages applied to the carbon nanotubelever arms cause the nanocrystal to grow or shrink in a controlledmanner. The length of the ram is adjustable from 0 to more than 150 nm,with extension speeds exceeding 1900 nm/s. The thermodynamic principlesgoverning motor operation resemble those driving frost heave, a naturalsolid-state linear motor.

  15. Coherent interfaces between crystals in nanocrystal composites.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongwei; Zheng, Zhanfeng; Yang, Dongjiang; Ke, Xuebin; Jaatinen, Esa; Zhao, Jin-Cai; Zhu, Huai Yong

    2010-10-26

    Numerous materials are polycrystalline or consist with crystals of different phases. However, materials consisting of crystals on the nanometer scale (nanocrystals) are not simply aggregates of randomly oriented crystals as is generally regarded. We found, that in four different materials that consist of nanocrystals of two different phases and were obtained by different approaches, the nanocrystals of different phases are combined coherently forming interfaces with a close crystallographic registry between adjacent crystals (coherent interfaces). The four materials were fabricated by (i) depositing Ag(2)O nanoparticles on titanate nanofibers, (ii) phase transition from TiO(2)(B) nanofibers to the nanofibers of mixed TiO(2)(B) and anatase phases, (iii) dehydration of the single crystal fibril titanate core coated with anatase nanocrystals, and (iv) attaching zeolite Y nanocrystals on the surface of titanate nanofibers. The finding suggests that preferred orientations and coherent interfaces generally exist in nanocrystal systems, and according to our results, they are largely unaffected by the fabrication process that was used. This is because the preferred orientations require that the engaged crystal planes from two connected crystals have the same basal spacing and that the crystals can interlock tightly at the atomic level to form thermodynamically stable interfaces. Hence it is rational that the preferred orientations and coherent interfaces dominant the nanostructures formed between the different nanocrystals and play a key role in assembling the composite nanostructures. The orientation and interfaces between crystals of different phases in mixed-phase materials are extremely difficult to determine. Nonetheless, the thermodynamic stability of the coherent interfaces allows us to apply phase-transformation invariant line strain theory to predict the preferred orientation (and thus the structure of the coherent interfaces). The theoretical predications agree

  16. Organo luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal probes for biological applications and process for making and using such probes

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Shimon; Bruchez, Jr., Marcel; Alivisatos, Paul

    2005-08-09

    A semiconductor nanocrystal compound is described capable of linking to an affinity molecule. The compound comprises (1) a semiconductor nanocrystal capable of emitting electromagnetic radiation and/or absorbing energy, and/or scattering or diffracting electromagnetic radiation--when excited by an electromagnetic radiation source or a particle beam; and (2) at least one linking agent, having a first portion linked to the semiconductor nanocrystal and a second portion capable of linking to an affinity molecule. The compound is linked to an affinity molecule to form a semiconductor nanocrystal probe capable of bonding with a detectable substance. Subsequent exposure to excitation energy will excite the semiconductor nanocrystal in the probe causing the emission of electromagnetic radiation. Further described are processes for respectively: making the luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal compound; making the semiconductor nanocrystal probe; and using the probe to determine the presence of a detectable substance in a material.

  17. Organo luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal probes for biological applications and process for making and using such probes

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Shimon; Bruchez, Jr., Marcel; Alivisatos, Paul

    2002-01-01

    A semiconductor nanocrystal compound is described capable of linking to an affinity molecule. The compound comprises (1) a semiconductor nanocrystal capable of emitting electromagnetic radiation and/or absorbing energy, and/or scattering or diffracting electromagnetic radiation--when excited by an electromagnetic radiation source or a particle beam; and (2) at least one linking agent, having a first portion linked to the semiconductor nanocrystal and a second portion capable of linking to an affity molecule. The compound is linked to an affinity molecule to form a semiconductor nanocrystal probe capable of bonding with a detectable substance. Subsequent exposure to excitation energy will excite the semiconductor nanocrystal in he probe, causing the emission of electromagnetic radiation. Further described are processes for respectively: making the semiconductor nanocrystal compound; making the semiconductor nanocrystal probe; and using the probe to determine the presence of a detectable substance in a material.

  18. Organo luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal probes for biological applications and process for making and using such probes

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Shimon; Bruchez, Jr., Marcel; Alivisatos, Paul

    2004-03-02

    A semiconductor nanocrystal compound is described capable of linking to an affinity molecule. The compound comprises (1) a semiconductor nanocrystal capable of emitting electromagnetic radiation and/or absorbing energy, and/or scattering or diffracting electromagnetic radiation--when excited by an electromagnetic radiation source or a particle beam; and (2) at least one linking agent, having a first portion linked to the semiconductor nanocrystal and a second portion capable of linking to an affinity molecule. The compound is linked to an affinity molecule to form a semiconductor nanocrystal probe capable of bonding with a detectable substance. Subsequent exposure to excitation energy will excite the semiconductor nanocrystal in the probe, causing the emission of electromagnetic radiation. Further described are processes for respectively: making the semiconductor nanocrystal compound; making the semiconductor nanocrystal probe; and using the probe to determine the presence of a detectable substance in a material.

  19. Organo luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal probes for biological applications and process for making and using such probes

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Shimon; Bruchez, Jr., Marcel; Alivisatos, Paul

    2006-09-05

    A semiconductor nanocrystal compound is described capable of linking to an affinity molecule. The compound comprises (1) a semiconductor nanocrystal capable of emitting electromagnetic radiation and/or absorbing energy, and/or scattering or diffracting electromagnetic radiation--when excited by an electromagnetic radiation source or a particle beam; and (2) at least one linking agent, having a first portion linked to the semiconductor nanocrystal and a second portion capable of linking to an affinity molecule. The compound is linked to an affinity molecule to form a semiconductor nanocrystal probe capable of bonding with a detectable substance. subsequent exposure to excitation energy will excite the semiconductor nanocrystal in the probe causing the emission of electromagnetic radiation. Further described are processes for respectively: making the luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal compound; making the semiconductor nanocrystal probe; and using the probe to determine the presence of a detectable substance in a material.

  20. Aqueous Based Semiconductor Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Jing, Lihong; Kershaw, Stephen V; Li, Yilin; Huang, Xiaodan; Li, Yingying; Rogach, Andrey L; Gao, Mingyuan

    2016-09-28

    This review summarizes traditional and recent nonconventional, bioinspired, methods for the aqueous synthesis of colloidal semiconductor quantum dots (QDs). The basic chemistry concepts are critically emphasized at the very beginning as these are strongly correlated with the selection of ligands and the optimal formation of aqueous QDs and their more sophisticated structures. The synergies of biomimetic and biosynthetic methods that can combine biospecific reactivity with the robust and strong optical responses of QDs have also resulted in new approaches to the synthesis of the nanoparticles themselves. A related new avenue is the recent extension of QD synthesis to form nanoparticles endowed with chiral optical properties. The optical characteristics of QD materials and their advanced forms such as core/shell heterostructures, alloys, and doped QDs are discussed: from the design considerations of optical band gap tuning, the control and reduction of the impact of surface traps, the consideration of charge carrier processes that affect emission and energy and charge transfer, to the impact and influence of lattice strain. We also describe the considerable progress in some selected QD applications such as in bioimaging and theranostics. The review concludes with future strategies and identification of key challenges that still need to be resolved in reaching very attractive, scalable, yet versatile aqueous syntheses that may widen the scope of commercial applications for semiconductor nanocrystals. PMID:27586892

  1. 25th anniversary article: Ion exchange in colloidal nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shuchi; Kershaw, Stephen V; Rogach, Andrey L

    2013-12-23

    We review the progress in ion exchange in a variety of nanocrystal structures from the earliest accounts dating back over two decades ago to the present day. In recent years the number of groups using this method to form otherwise difficult or inaccessible nanoparticle shapes and morphologies has increased considerably and the field has experienced a resurgence of interest. Whilst most of the early work on cation exchange centered on II-VI materials, the methodology has been expanded to cover a far broader range of semiconductor nanocrystals including low toxicity I-III-VI materials and the much less facile III-V materials. The extent of exchange can be controlled leading to lightly doped nanoparticles, alloys, core-shells, segmented rods and dots-in-rods. Progress has been driven by a better understanding of the underlying principles of the exchange process - from thermodynamic factors (differences in cation solubilities); the interactions between ions and transfer agents (solvents, ligands, anions, co-dopants); ionic in-diffusion mechanisms and kinetics. More recent availability of very detailed electron microscopy coupled with image reconstruction techniques has been a valuable tool to investigate the resulting heterostructures and internal interfaces. We start by surveying the range of synthetic approaches most often used to carry out ion exchange, mainly focusing on cation replacement strategies, and then describe the rich variety of nanostructures these techniques can bring forth. We also describe some of the principles that are used to establish the relative ease of exchange and to systematically improve the process where the basic energetics are less favorable. To help further the understanding of the underlying fundamentals we have gathered together useful data from the literature on solubilities, cation and anion hardness, ligand and solvent Lewis acid or base strengths for a wide range of chemical species generally used. We offer a perspective on the

  2. Solution synthesis of germanium nanocrystals

    DOEpatents

    Gerung, Henry; Boyle, Timothy J.; Bunge, Scott D.

    2009-09-22

    A method for providing a route for the synthesis of a Ge(0) nanometer-sized material from. A Ge(II) precursor is dissolved in a ligand heated to a temperature, generally between approximately 100.degree. C. and 400.degree. C., sufficient to thermally reduce the Ge(II) to Ge(0), where the ligand is a compound that can bond to the surface of the germanium nanomaterials to subsequently prevent agglomeration of the nanomaterials. The ligand encapsulates the surface of the Ge(0) material to prevent agglomeration. The resulting solution is cooled for handling, with the cooling characteristics useful in controlling the size and size distribution of the Ge(0) materials. The characteristics of the Ge(II) precursor determine whether the Ge(0) materials that result will be nanocrystals or nanowires.

  3. Colloidal chemical synthesis and formation kinetics of uniformly sized nanocrystals of metals, oxides, and chalcogenides.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soon Gu; Hyeon, Taeghwan

    2008-12-01

    Nanocrystals exhibit interesting electrical, optical, magnetic, and chemical properties not achieved by their bulk counterparts. Consequently, to fully exploit the potential of nanocrystals, the synthesis of nanocrystals must focus on producing materials with uniform size and shape. Top-down physical processes can produce large quantities of nanocrystals, but controlling the size is difficult with these methods. On the other hand, colloidal chemical synthetic methods can produce uniform nanocrystals with a controlled particle size. In this Account, we present our synthesis of uniform nanocrystals of various shapes and materials, and we discuss the kinetics of nanocrystal formation. We employed four different synthetic approaches including thermal decomposition, nonhydrolytic sol-gel reactions, thermal reduction, and use of reactive chalcogen reagents. We synthesized uniform oxide nanocrystals via heat-up methods. This method involved slowly heat-up reaction mixtures composed of metal precursors, surfactants, and solvents from room temperature to high temperature. We then held reaction mixtures at an aging temperature for a few minutes to a few hours. Kinetics studies revealed a three-step mechanism for the synthesis of nanocrystals through the heat-up method with size distribution control. First, as metal precursors thermally decompose, monomers accumulate. At the aging temperature, burst nucleation occurs rapidly; at the end of this second phase, nucleation stops, but continued diffusion-controlled growth leads to size focusing to produce uniform nanocrystals. We used nonhydrolytic sol-gel reactions to synthesize various transition metal oxide nanocrystals. We employed ester elimination reactions for the synthesis of ZnO and TiO(2) nanocrystals. Uniform Pd nanoparticles were synthesized via a thermal reduction reaction induced by heating up a mixture of Pd(acac)(2), tri-n-octylphosphine, and oleylamine to the aging temperature. Similarly, we synthesized

  4. Ion-irradiation-induced preferential amorphization of Ge nanocrystals in silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridgway, M. C.; Azevedo, G. De M.; Elliman, R. G.; Glover, C. J.; Llewellyn, D. J.; Miller, R.; Wesch, W.; Foran, G. J.; Hansen, J.; Nylandsted-Larsen, A.

    2005-03-01

    Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements have been used to characterize the ion-irradiation-induced crystalline-to-amorphous phase transformation in Ge nanocrystals. The atomic-scale structure of Ge nanocrystals in a silica matrix is first shown to deviate from that of bulk crystalline material with an increase in both Gaussian and non-Gaussian forms of structural disorder. The magnitude of the disorder in the bond-length distribution is comparable to that of relaxed amorphous Ge. The amorphization of such nanocrystals is then demonstrated at an ion dose ˜100 times less than that required for bulk crystalline material irradiated simultaneously. Specifically, Ge nanocrystals irradiated at -196°C are rendered amorphous at ˜0.01 displacements per atom. Finally, we show the atomic-scale structure of amorphized nanocrystals and bulk amorphous material is comparable. The rapid amorphization of Ge nanocrystals is potentially the result of several factors including (i) the preferential nucleation of the amorphous phase at the nanocrystal/matrix interface, (ii) the preirradiation, higher-energy structural state of the nanocrystals themselves, (iii) an enhanced vacancy concentration within the nanocrystals due to inhibited Frenkel pair recombination when Ge interstitials are recoiled into the matrix, and (iv) ion-beam mixing and the subsequent increase in nanocrystal impurity concentrations.

  5. Defect Engineering in Plasmonic Metal Oxide Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Runnerstrom, Evan L; Bergerud, Amy; Agrawal, Ankit; Johns, Robert W; Dahlman, Clayton J; Singh, Ajay; Selbach, Sverre M; Milliron, Delia J

    2016-05-11

    Defects may tend to make crystals interesting but they do not always improve performance. In doped metal oxide nanocrystals with localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), aliovalent dopants and oxygen vacancies act as centers for ionized impurity scattering of electrons. Such electronic damping leads to lossy, broadband LSPR with low quality factors, limiting applications that require near-field concentration of light. However, the appropriate dopant can mitigate ionized impurity scattering. Herein, we report the synthesis and characterization of a novel doped metal oxide nanocrystal material, cerium-doped indium oxide (Ce:In2O3). Ce:In2O3 nanocrystals display tunable mid-infrared LSPR with exceptionally narrow line widths and the highest quality factors observed for nanocrystals in this spectral region. Drude model fits to the spectra indicate that a drastic reduction in ionized impurity scattering is responsible for the enhanced quality factors, and high electronic mobilities reaching 33 cm(2)V(-1) s(-1) are measured optically, well above the optical mobility for tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) nanocrystals. We investigate the microscopic mechanisms underlying this enhanced mobility with density functional theory calculations, which suggest that scattering is reduced because cerium orbitals do not hybridize with the In orbitals that dominate the bottom of the conduction band. Ce doping may also reduce the equilibrium oxygen vacancy concentration, further enhancing mobility. From the absorption spectra of single Ce:In2O3 nanocrystals, we determine the dielectric function and by simulation predict strong near-field enhancement of mid-IR light, especially around the vertices of our synthesized nanocubes.

  6. Defect Engineering in Plasmonic Metal Oxide Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Runnerstrom, Evan L; Bergerud, Amy; Agrawal, Ankit; Johns, Robert W; Dahlman, Clayton J; Singh, Ajay; Selbach, Sverre M; Milliron, Delia J

    2016-05-11

    Defects may tend to make crystals interesting but they do not always improve performance. In doped metal oxide nanocrystals with localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), aliovalent dopants and oxygen vacancies act as centers for ionized impurity scattering of electrons. Such electronic damping leads to lossy, broadband LSPR with low quality factors, limiting applications that require near-field concentration of light. However, the appropriate dopant can mitigate ionized impurity scattering. Herein, we report the synthesis and characterization of a novel doped metal oxide nanocrystal material, cerium-doped indium oxide (Ce:In2O3). Ce:In2O3 nanocrystals display tunable mid-infrared LSPR with exceptionally narrow line widths and the highest quality factors observed for nanocrystals in this spectral region. Drude model fits to the spectra indicate that a drastic reduction in ionized impurity scattering is responsible for the enhanced quality factors, and high electronic mobilities reaching 33 cm(2)V(-1) s(-1) are measured optically, well above the optical mobility for tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) nanocrystals. We investigate the microscopic mechanisms underlying this enhanced mobility with density functional theory calculations, which suggest that scattering is reduced because cerium orbitals do not hybridize with the In orbitals that dominate the bottom of the conduction band. Ce doping may also reduce the equilibrium oxygen vacancy concentration, further enhancing mobility. From the absorption spectra of single Ce:In2O3 nanocrystals, we determine the dielectric function and by simulation predict strong near-field enhancement of mid-IR light, especially around the vertices of our synthesized nanocubes. PMID:27111427

  7. Self-Assembled Organic Nanocrystals with Strong Nonlinear Optical Response.

    PubMed

    Rosenne, Shaked; Grinvald, Eran; Shirman, Elijah; Neeman, Lior; Dutta, Sounak; Bar-Elli, Omri; Ben-Zvi, Regev; Oksenberg, Eitan; Milko, Petr; Kalchenko, Vyacheslav; Weissman, Haim; Oron, Dan; Rybtchinski, Boris

    2015-11-11

    Facile molecular self-assembly affords a new family of organic nanocrystals that, unintuitively, exhibit a significant nonlinear optical response (second harmonic generation, SHG) despite the relatively small molecular dipole moment of the constituent molecules. The nanocrystals are self-assembled in aqueous media from simple monosubstituted perylenediimide (PDI) molecular building blocks. Control over the crystal dimensions can be achieved via modification of the assembly conditions. The combination of a simple fabrication process with the ability to generate soluble SHG nanocrystals with tunable sizes may open new avenues in the area of organic SHG materials.

  8. Controlled Chemical Doping of Semiconductor Nanocrystals Using Redox Buffers

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, Jesse H.; Surendranath, Yogesh; Alivisatos, Paul

    2013-07-20

    Semiconductor nanocrystal solids are attractive materials for active layers in next-generation optoelectronic devices; however, their efficient implementation has been impeded by the lack of precise control over dopant concentrations. Herein we demonstrate a chemical strategy for the controlled doping of nanocrystal solids under equilibrium conditions. Exposing lead selenide nanocrystal thin films to solutions containing varying proportions of decamethylferrocene and decamethylferrocenium incrementally and reversibly increased the carrier concentration in the solid by 2 orders of magnitude from their native values. This application of redox buffers for controlled doping provides a new method for the precise control of the majority carrier concentration in porous semiconductor thin films.

  9. Colloidal nanocrystal synthesis and the organic-inorganicinterface

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Yadong; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2005-05-12

    Colloidal nanocrystals are nanometer-sized, solution-grown inorganic particles stabilized by a layer of surfactants attached to their surface. The inorganic cores exhibit useful properties controlled by composition as well as size and shape, while the surfactant coating ensures that these structures are easy to fabricate and process. It is this combination of features that makes colloidal nanocrystals attractive and promising building blocks for advanced materials and devices. But their full potential can only be exploited if we achieve exquisite control over their composition, size, shape, crystal structure and surface properties. Here we review what is known about nanocrystal growth and outline strategies for controlling it.

  10. Fundamental investigations related to the mitigation of volume changes in cement-based materials at early ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sant, Gaurav Niteen

    additional Sodium Hydroxide. Further, to quantify the influence of temperature on volume changes in SRA containing materials, deformation measurements are performed at different temperatures. The results indicate maturity transformations are incapable of simulating volume changes over any temperature regime due to the influence of temperature on salt solubility and pore solution composition, crystallization stresses and self-desiccation. The performance of a CaO-based expansive additive is evaluated over a range of additive concentrations and curing conditions to quantify the reduction in restrained and unrestrained volume changes effected in low w/c cement pastes. The results suggest, under unrestrained sealed conditions the additive generates an expansion and reduces the magnitude of total shrinkage experienced by the material. However, the extent of drying shrinkage developed is noted to be similar in all systems and independent of the additive dosage. Under restrained sealed conditions, the additive induces a significant compressive stress which delays tensile stress development in the system. However, a critical additive concentration (around four percent) needs to be exceeded to appreciably reduce the risk of cracking at early-ages. The influence of shrinkage reducing admixtures (SRAs) is quantified in terms of the effects of SRA addition on fluid transport in cement-based materials. The change in the cement paste's pore solution properties, i.e., the surface tension and fluid-viscosity, induced by the addition of a SRA is observed to depress the fluid-sorption and wetting moisture diffusion coefficients, with the depression being a function of the SRA concentration. The experimental results are compared to analytical descriptions of water sorption and a good correlation is observed. These results allow for the change in pore-solution and fluid-transport properties to be incorporated from a fundamental perspective in models which aim to describe the service-life of

  11. Fundamental considerations of water repellancy in soil, and related effects on other natural and man-made materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, G. Peter

    2010-05-01

    This presentation will concern the understanding of soil water repellancy and wettability at a fundamental level, and the difficulties of relating the very small, micron scale at which the repellancy and wettability characteristics are produced to the much larger, field scale at which they are normally observed. The presentation will not be a review of past work, but rather will concentrate on recent publications, publications in press, and speculative considerations which may lead to future work in this area. There are three fundamental components of water repellancy - the nature of the soil surfaces themselves, the effect of organic matter and microbiologically produced substances, and the topology of the resultant surfaces. The effects of hydrophobic surfaces will be illustrated by a consideration of the wettability of substances such as commercially produced talc grades. The faces of these platey mineral particles are hydrophobic, whereas their edges are hydrophilic, and the combination not only causes water repellency in itself, but also causes unusual adsorption effects from aqueous solution. The effect of organic matter on soil wettability has been widely studied, often by core-scale wettability experiments. It will be shown how a consideration of micro-wetting effects has led to a more robust data analysis method for such studies (Matthews, G. P. et al, European J.Soil Sci., 2008). Traditionally wetting fronts are assumed to advance in proportion to the square root of time (as predicted by the Washburn equation), but micro-modelling shows that, once inertial effects are taken into account, low-volume fingers of wetting fluid track through porous substances in advance of the observed Washburn wetting front (Bodurtha, P. et al, J.Colloid Interface Sci., 2005). The effects of micro-topology are also well known (Ridgway, C. J. et al, J.Colloid Interface Sci., 2001), but need to be integrated and upscaled, as described below. Soil water repellency is not only

  12. Radiative decay rates of impurity states in semiconductor nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Turkov, Vadim K.; Baranov, Alexander V.; Fedorov, Anatoly V.; Rukhlenko, Ivan D.

    2015-10-15

    Doped semiconductor nanocrystals is a versatile material base for contemporary photonics and optoelectronics devices. Here, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, we theoretically calculate the radiative decay rates of the lowest-energy states of donor impurity in spherical nanocrystals made of four widely used semiconductors: ZnS, CdSe, Ge, and GaAs. The decay rates were shown to vary significantly with the nanocrystal radius, increasing by almost three orders of magnitude when the radius is reduced from 15 to 5 nm. Our results suggest that spontaneous emission may dominate the decay of impurity states at low temperatures, and should be taken into account in the design of advanced materials and devices based on doped semiconductor nanocrystals.

  13. Tether fundamentals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    Some fundamental aspects of tethers are presented and briefly discussed. The effects of gravity gradients, dumbbell libration in circular orbits, tether control strategies and impact hazards for tethers are among those fundamentals. Also considered are aerodynamic drag, constraints in momentum transfer applications and constraints with permanently deployed tethers. The theoretical feasibility of these concepts are reviewed.

  14. Synthesis of Doped Semiconductor Nanocrystals and Conductive Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wills, Andrew Wilke

    Semiconductor nanocrystals are an intriguing class of materials because of their size-tunable properties. This makes them promising for future optoelectronic devices such as solar cells and light emitting diodes. Realization of these devices, however, requires precise control of the flow of electricity through the particles. In bulk semiconductors, this is achieved by using materials with few unintentional defects, then intentionally adding particular defects or dopants to alter the semiconductor's electronic properties. In contrast, the addition of electrically active dopants has scarcely been demonstrated in semiconductor nanocrystals, and charge transport is hindered by the barrier of electron hopping between particles. The goal of this thesis, therefore, is to discover new methods to control charge transport in nanocrystals. It divides into three major thrusts: 1) the investigation of the doping process in semiconductor nanocrystals, 2) the invention of new synthetic methods to incorporate electrically active dopants into semiconductor nanocrystals, and 3) the invention of a new nanocrystal surface coating that aids processing of nanocrystals into devices but can be removed to enhance charge transport between particles. The first objective is achieved by the comparison of four different precursors that have been used to dope Mn into nanocrystals. Experiments show that dimethylmanganese incorporates efficiently into ZnSe nanocrystals while other precursors are less efficient and sometimes lower the quality of the nanocrystals produced. The second goal is met by the application of a core-shell synthetic strategy to the incorporation of non-isovalent impurities (Al and In) into CdSe nanocrystals. By separating the three steps of nucleation, dopant binding, and growth, each step can be optimized so that doping is achieved and high quality particles are produced. Detailed characterization shows dopant incorporation and local environment, while transistor

  15. Self-Assembled Epitaxial Core-Shell Nanocrystals with Tunable Magnetic Anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Liao, Sheng-Chieh; Chen, Yong-Lun; Kuo, Wei-Cheng; Cheung, Jeffrey; Wang, Wei-Cheng; Cheng, Xuan; Chin, Yi-Ying; Chen, Yu-Ze; Liu, Heng-Jui; Lin, Hong-Ji; Chen, Chien-Te; Juang, Jeng-Yih; Chueh, Yu-Lun; Nagarajan, Valanoor; Chu, Ying-Hao; Lai, Chih-Huang

    2015-09-01

    Epitaxial core-shell CoO-CoFe2 O4 nanocrystals are fabricated by using pulsed laser deposition with the aid of melted material (Bi2 O3 ) addition and suitable lattice mismatch provided by substrates (SrTiO3 ). Well aligned orientations among nanocrystals and reversible core-shell sequence reveal tunable magnetic anisotropy. The interfacial coupling between core and shell further engineers the nanocrystal functionality. PMID:26034015

  16. Observations of x-ray radiation pressure force on individual gold nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Yuji C.; Okumura, Yasuaki; Miyazaki, Takuya; Higurashi, Takashi; Oishi, Noboru

    2006-07-31

    We report observations of x-ray radiation pressure force on individual single nanocrystals using an x-ray single molecular methodology. The observed gold nanocrystals are linked to the adsorbed protein molecules. We observed the directed Brownian motion of individual linked nanocrystals. The observed force is estimated at about 0.13-0.63 aN. We will be able to control and measure dynamics of micro- or nanocrystalline materials using x-ray radiation pressure force.

  17. Synthesis of well dispersed uniform sub-4 nm Y2O3:Eu3+ colloidal nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dan; Seo, Seokjun; Zhang, Haibo; Bae, Byeong-Soo; Qin, Weiping

    2010-03-01

    Well dispersed uniform sub-4 nm Y2O3:Eu colloidal nanocrystals have been synthesized through the non-hydrolytic high-temperature thermal decomposition technique. The as-synthesized nanocrystals can be stably dispersed in nonpolar solvents due to the capping organic ligands on their surface. Compared with bulk materials, the nanocrystals exhibited different luminescence features, including the intensity enhancement of the 5D0 --> 7F4 transition observed in the emission spectrum.

  18. A luminescent nanocrystal stress gauge

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Charina; Koski, Kristie; Olson, Andrew; Alivisatos, Paul

    2010-10-25

    Microscale mechanical forces can determine important outcomes ranging from the site of material fracture to stem cell fate. However, local stresses in a vast majority of systems cannot be measured due to the limitations of current techniques. In this work, we present the design and implementation of the CdSe/CdS core/shell tetrapod nanocrystal, a local stress sensor with bright luminescence readout. We calibrate the tetrapod luminescence response to stress, and use the luminescence signal to report the spatial distribution of local stresses in single polyester fibers under uniaxial strain. The bright stress-dependent emission of the tetrapod, its nanoscale size, and its colloidal nature provide a unique tool that may be incorporated into a variety of micromechanical systems including materials and biological samples to quantify local stresses with high spatial resolution.

  19. Giant Raman gain in silicon nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    Sirleto, Luigi; Antonietta Ferrara, Maria; Nikitin, Timur; Novikov, Sergei; Khriachtchev, Leonid

    2012-01-01

    Nanostructured silicon has generated a lot of interest in the past decades as a key material for silicon-based photonics. The low absorption coefficient makes silicon nanocrystals attractive as an active medium in waveguide structures, and their third-order nonlinear optical properties are crucial for the development of next generation nonlinear photonic devices. Here we report the first observation of stimulated Raman scattering in silicon nanocrystals embedded in a silica matrix under non-resonant excitation at infrared wavelengths (~1.5 μm). Raman gain is directly measured as a function of the silicon content. A giant Raman gain from the silicon nanocrystals is obtained that is up to four orders of magnitude greater than in crystalline silicon. These results demonstrate the first Raman amplifier based on silicon nanocrystals in a silica matrix, thus opening new perspectives for the realization of more efficient Raman lasers with ultra-small sizes, which would increase the synergy between electronic and photonic devices. PMID:23187620

  20. Plasmonic engineering of spontaneous emission from silicon nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    Goffard, Julie; Gérard, Davy; Miska, Patrice; Baudrion, Anne-Laure; Deturche, Régis; Plain, Jérôme

    2013-01-01

    Silicon nanocrystals offer huge advantages compared to other semi-conductor quantum dots as they are made from an abundant, non-toxic material and are compatible with silicon devices. Besides, among a wealth of extraordinary properties ranging from catalysis to nanomedicine, metal nanoparticles are known to increase the radiative emission rate of semiconductor quantum dots. Here, we use gold nanoparticles to accelerate the emission of silicon nanocrystals. The resulting integrated hybrid emitter is 5-fold brighter than bare silicon nanocrystals. We also propose an in-depth analysis highlighting the role of the different physical parameters in the photoluminescence enhancement phenomenon. This result has important implications for the practical use of silicon nanocrystals in optoelectronic devices, for instance for the design of efficient down-shifting devices that could be integrated within future silicon solar cells. PMID:24037020

  1. Plasmonic engineering of spontaneous emission from silicon nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Goffard, Julie; Gérard, Davy; Miska, Patrice; Baudrion, Anne-Laure; Deturche, Régis; Plain, Jérôme

    2013-01-01

    Silicon nanocrystals offer huge advantages compared to other semi-conductor quantum dots as they are made from an abundant, non-toxic material and are compatible with silicon devices. Besides, among a wealth of extraordinary properties ranging from catalysis to nanomedicine, metal nanoparticles are known to increase the radiative emission rate of semiconductor quantum dots. Here, we use gold nanoparticles to accelerate the emission of silicon nanocrystals. The resulting integrated hybrid emitter is 5-fold brighter than bare silicon nanocrystals. We also propose an in-depth analysis highlighting the role of the different physical parameters in the photoluminescence enhancement phenomenon. This result has important implications for the practical use of silicon nanocrystals in optoelectronic devices, for instance for the design of efficient down-shifting devices that could be integrated within future silicon solar cells.

  2. Shape-Controlled Metal Nanocrystals for Heterogeneous Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Ruditskiy, Aleksey; Peng, Hsin-Chieh; Xia, Younan

    2016-06-01

    The ability to control the shape of metal nanocrystals allows us to not only maneuver their physicochemical properties but also optimize their activity in a variety of applications. Heterogeneous catalysis, in particular, would benefit tremendously from the availability of metal nanocrystals with controlled shapes and well-defined facets or surface structures. The immediate benefits may include significant enhancements in catalytic activity and/or selectivity along with reductions in the materials cost. We provide a brief account of recent progress in the development of metal nanocrystals with controlled shapes and thereby enhanced catalytic performance for several reactions, including formic acid oxidation, oxygen reduction, and hydrogenation. In addition to monometallic nanocrystals, we also cover a bimetallic system, in which the two metals are formulated as alloyed, core-shell, or core-frame structures. We hope this article will provide further impetus for the development of next-generation heterogeneous catalysts essential to a broad range of applications. PMID:27023659

  3. Metal-insulator transition in films of doped semiconductor nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ting; Reich, K V; Kramer, Nicolaas J; Fu, Han; Kortshagen, Uwe R; Shklovskii, B I

    2016-03-01

    To fully deploy the potential of semiconductor nanocrystal films as low-cost electronic materials, a better understanding of the amount of dopants required to make their conductivity metallic is needed. In bulk semiconductors, the critical concentration of electrons at the metal-insulator transition is described by the Mott criterion. Here, we theoretically derive the critical concentration nc for films of heavily doped nanocrystals devoid of ligands at their surface and in direct contact with each other. In the accompanying experiments, we investigate the conduction mechanism in films of phosphorus-doped, ligand-free silicon nanocrystals. At the largest electron concentration achieved in our samples, which is half the predicted nc, we find that the localization length of hopping electrons is close to three times the nanocrystals diameter, indicating that the film approaches the metal-insulator transition.

  4. Synthesis, Deposition, and Microstructure Development of Thin Films Formed by Sulfidation and Selenization of Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide Nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernomordik, Boris David

    Significant reduction in greenhouse gas emission and pollution associated with the global power demand can be accomplished by supplying tens-of-terawatts of power with solar cell technologies. No one solar cell material currently on the market is poised to meet this challenge due to issues such as manufacturing cost, material shortage, or material toxicity. For this reason, there is increasing interest in efficient light-absorbing materials that are comprised of abundant and non-toxic elements for thin film solar cell. Among these materials are copper zinc tin sulfide (Cu2ZnSnS4, or CZTS), copper zinc tin selenide (Cu2ZnSnSe4, or CZTSe), and copper zinc tin sulfoselenide alloys [Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1-x )4, or CZTSSe]. Laboratory power conversion efficiencies of CZTSSe-based solar cells have risen to almost 13% in less than three decades of research. Meeting the terawatt challenge will also require low cost fabrication. CZTSSe thin films from annealed colloidal nanocrystal coatings is an example of solution-based methods that can reduce manufacturing costs through advantages such as high throughput, high material utilization, and low capital expenses. The film microstructure and grain size affects the solar cell performance. To realize low cost commercial production and high efficiencies of CZTSSe-based solar cells, it is necessary to understand the fundamental factors that affect crystal growth and microstructure evolution during CZTSSe annealing. Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanocrystals were synthesized via thermolysis of single-source cation and sulfur precursors copper, zinc and tin diethyldithiocarbamates. The average nanocrystal size could be tuned between 2 nm and 40 nm, by varying the synthesis temperature between 150 °C and 340 °C. The synthesis is rapid and is completed in less than 10 minutes. Characterization by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirm that the nanocrystals are nominally

  5. Structural Characterization of Bimetallic Nanocrystal Electrocatalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, David A

    2016-01-01

    Late transition metal nanocrystals find applications in heterogeneous catalysis such as plasmon-enhanced catalysis and as electrode materials for fuel cells, a zero-emission and sustainable energy technology. Their commercial viability for automotive transportation has steadily increased in recent years, almost exclusively due to the discovery of more efficient bimetallic nanocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the cathode. Despite improvements to catalyst design, achieving high activity while maintaining durability is essential to further enhance their performance for this and other important applications in catalysis. Electronic effects arising from the generation of metal-metal interfaces, from plasmonic metals, and from lattice distortions, can vastly improve sorption properties at catalytic surfaces, while increasing durability.[1] Multimetallic lattice-strained nanoparticles are thus an interesting opportunity for fundamental research.[2,3] A colloidal synthesis approach is demonstrated to produce AuPd alloy and Pd@Au core-shell nanoicosahedra as catalysts for electro-oxidations. The nanoparticles are characterized using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (ac-STEM) and large solid angle energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) on an FEI Talos 4-detector STEM/EDS system. Figure 1 shows bright-field (BF) and high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) ac-STEM images of the alloy and core-shell nanoicosahedra together with EDS line-scans and elemental maps. These structures are unique in that the presence of twin boundaries, alloying, and core-shell morphology could create highly strained surfaces and interfaces. The shell thickness of the core-shell structures observed in HAADF-STEM images is tuned by adjusting the ratio between metal precursors (Figure 2a-f) to produce shells ranging from a few to several monolayers. Specific activity was measured in ethanol electro-oxidation to examine the effect of shell thickness on

  6. Preparation, properties and applications of polysaccharide nanocrystals in advanced functional nanomaterials: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ning; Huang, Jin; Dufresne, Alain

    2012-05-01

    Intensive exploration and research in the past few decades on polysaccharide nanocrystals, the highly crystalline nanoscale materials derived from natural resources, mainly focused originally on their use as a reinforcing nanophase in nanocomposites. However, these investigations have led to the emergence of more diverse potential applications exploiting the functionality of these nanomaterials. Based on the construction strategies of functional nanomaterials, this article critically and comprehensively reviews the emerging polysaccharide nanocrystal-based functional nanomaterials with special applications, such as biomedical materials, biomimetic optical nanomaterials, bio-inspired mechanically adaptive nanomaterials, permselective nanostructured membranes, template for synthesizing inorganic nanoparticles, polymer electrolytes, emulsion nano-stabilizer and decontamination of organic pollutants. We focus on the preparation, unique properties and performances of the different polysaccharide nanocrystal materials. At the same time, the advantages, physicochemical properties and chemical modifications of polysaccharide nanocrystals are also comparatively discussed in view of materials development. Finally, the perspective and current challenges of polysaccharide nanocrystals in future functional nanomaterials are outlined.

  7. Preparation, properties and applications of polysaccharide nanocrystals in advanced functional nanomaterials: a review.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ning; Huang, Jin; Dufresne, Alain

    2012-06-01

    Intensive exploration and research in the past few decades on polysaccharide nanocrystals, the highly crystalline nanoscale materials derived from natural resources, mainly focused originally on their use as a reinforcing nanophase in nanocomposites. However, these investigations have led to the emergence of more diverse potential applications exploiting the functionality of these nanomaterials. Based on the construction strategies of functional nanomaterials, this article critically and comprehensively reviews the emerging polysaccharide nanocrystal-based functional nanomaterials with special applications, such as biomedical materials, biomimetic optical nanomaterials, bio-inspired mechanically adaptive nanomaterials, permselective nanostructured membranes, template for synthesizing inorganic nanoparticles, polymer electrolytes, emulsion nano-stabilizer and decontamination of organic pollutants. We focus on the preparation, unique properties and performances of the different polysaccharide nanocrystal materials. At the same time, the advantages, physicochemical properties and chemical modifications of polysaccharide nanocrystals are also comparatively discussed in view of materials development. Finally, the perspective and current challenges of polysaccharide nanocrystals in future functional nanomaterials are outlined.

  8. Recent Progress in Photocatalysis Mediated by Colloidal II-VI Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Wilker, Molly B; Schnitzenbaumer, Kyle J; Dukovic, Gordana

    2012-12-01

    The use of photoexcited electrons and holes in semiconductor nanocrystals as reduction and oxidation reagents is an intriguing way of harvesting photon energy to drive chemical reactions. This review focuses on recent research efforts to understand and control the photocatalytic processes mediated by colloidal II-VI nanocrystalline materials, such as cadmium and zinc chalcogenides. First, we highlight how nanocrystal properties govern the rates and efficiencies of charge-transfer processes relevant to photocatalysis. We then describe the use of nanocrystal catalyst heterostructures for fuel-forming reactions, most commonly H2 generation. Finally, we review the use of nanocrystal photocatalysis as a synthetic tool for metal-semiconductor nano-heterostructures.

  9. Efficient Carrier Multiplication in Colloidal CuInSe2 Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Stolle, C Jackson; Schaller, Richard D; Korgel, Brian A

    2014-09-18

    Transient absorption spectroscopy (TAS) was used to study carrier multiplication (CM) (also called multiexciton generation (MEG)) in solvent-dispersed colloidal CuInSe2 nanocrystals with diameters as small as 4.5 nm. Size-dependent carrier cooling rates, absorption cross sections, and Auger lifetimes were also determined. The energy threshold for CM in the CuInSe2 nanocrystals was found to be 2.4 ± 0.2 times the nanocrystal energy gap (Eg) and the CM efficiency was 36 ± 6% per unit Eg. This is similar to other types of nanocrystal quantum dot materials. PMID:26276328

  10. Systems and methods of detecting force and stress using tetrapod nanocrystal

    DOEpatents

    Choi, Charina L.; Koski, Kristie J.; Sivasankar, Sanjeevi; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2013-08-20

    Systems and methods of detecting force on the nanoscale including methods for detecting force using a tetrapod nanocrystal by exposing the tetrapod nanocrystal to light, which produces a luminescent response by the tetrapod nanocrystal. The method continues with detecting a difference in the luminescent response by the tetrapod nanocrystal relative to a base luminescent response that indicates a force between a first and second medium or stresses or strains experienced within a material. Such systems and methods find use with biological systems to measure forces in biological events or interactions.

  11. Grain boundary engineering and superstrength of nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glezer, A. M.; Stolyarov, V. L.; Tomchuk, A. A.; Shurygina, N. A.

    2016-01-01

    A new paradigm of hardening of nanocrystals is proposed based on the competing influence of various mechanisms of plastic deformation, i.e., dislocation sliding and grain-boundary slip. It has been confirmed using the results of computer modeling and the experimental data that the use of grain boundary engineering on the basis of the proposed ideas makes it possible to enhance substantially the strength of titaniumbased materials up to ultimate (theoretical) values.

  12. Sorting fluorescent nanocrystals with DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Gerion, Daniele; Parak, Wolfgang J.; Williams, Shara C.; Zanchet, Daniela; Micheel, Christine M.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2001-12-10

    Semiconductor nanocrystals with narrow and tunable fluorescence are covalently linked to oligonucleotides. These biocompounds retain the properties of both nanocrystals and DNA. Therefore, different sequences of DNA can be coded with nanocrystals and still preserve their ability to hybridize to their complements. We report the case where four different sequences of DNA are linked to four nanocrystal samples having different colors of emission in the range of 530-640 nm. When the DNA-nanocrystal conjugates are mixed together, it is possible to sort each type of nanoparticle using hybridization on a defined micrometer -size surface containing the complementary oligonucleotide. Detection of sorting requires only a single excitation source and an epifluorescence microscope. The possibility of directing fluorescent nanocrystals towards specific biological targets and detecting them, combined with their superior photo-stability compared to organic dyes, opens the way to improved biolabeling experiments, such as gene mapping on a nanometer scale or multicolor microarray analysis.

  13. A novel approach for the fabrication of all-inorganic nanocrystal solids: Semiconductor matrix encapsulated nanocrystal arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroz, Pavel

    Growing fossil fuels consumption compels researchers to find new alternative pathways to produce energy. Along with new materials for the conversion of different types of energy into electricity innovative methods for efficient processing of energy sources are also introduced. The main criteria for the success of such materials and methods are the low cost and compelling performance. Among different types of materials semiconductor nanocrystals are considered as promising candidates for the role of the efficient and cheap absorbers for solar energy applications. In addition to the anticipated cost reduction, the integration of nanocrystals (NC) into device architectures is inspired by the possibility of tuning the energy of electrical charges in NCs via nanoparticle size. However, the stability of nanocrystals in photovoltaic devices is limited by the stability of organic ligands which passivate the surface of semiconductors to preserve quantum confinement. The present work introduces a new strategy for low-temperature processing of colloidal nanocrystals into all-inorganic films: semiconductor matrix encapsulated nanocrystal arrays (SMENA). This methodology goes beyond the traditional ligand-interlinking scheme and relies on the encapsulation of morphologically-defined nanocrystal arrays into a matrix of a wide-band gap semiconductor, which preserves optoelectronic properties of individual nanoparticles. Fabricated solids exhibit excellent thermal stability, which is attributed to the heteroepitaxial structure of nanocrystal-matrix interfaces. The main characteristics and properties of these solids were investigated and compared with ones of traditionally fabricated nanocrystal films using standard spectroscopic, optoelectronic and electronic techniques. As a proof of concept, we. We also characterized electron transport phenomena in different types of nanocrystal films using all-optical approach. By measuring excited carrier lifetimes in either ligand-linked or

  14. 2D steady-state general solution and fundamental solution for fluid-saturated, orthotropic, poroelastic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Li-Hua; Hou, Peng-Fei; Chen, Jia-Yun

    2016-08-01

    The 2D steady-state solutions regarding the expressions of stress and strain for fluid-saturated, orthotropic, poroelastic plane are derived in this paper. For this object, the general solutions of the corresponding governing equation are first obtained and expressed in harmonic functions. Based on these compact general solutions, the suitable harmonic functions with undetermined constants for line fluid source in the interior of infinite poroelastic body and a line fluid source on the surface of semi-infinite poroelastic body are presented, respectively. The fundamental solutions can be obtained by substituting these functions into the general solution, and the undetermined constants can be obtained by the continuous conditions, equilibrium conditions and boundary conditions.

  15. Polyimide Cellulose Nanocrystal Composite Aerogels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Baochau N.; Meador, Mary Ann; Rowan, Stuart; Cudjoe, Elvis; Sandberg, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Polyimide (PI) aerogels are highly porous solids having low density, high porosity and low thermal conductivity with good mechanical properties. They are ideal for various applications including use in antenna and insulation such as inflatable decelerators used in entry, decent and landing operations. Recently, attention has been focused on stimuli responsive materials such as cellulose nano crystals (CNCs). CNCs are environmentally friendly, bio-renewable, commonly found in plants and the dermis of sea tunicates, and potentially low cost. This study is to examine the effects of CNC on the polyimide aerogels. The CNC used in this project are extracted from mantle of a sea creature called tunicates. A series of polyimide cellulose nanocrystal composite aerogels has been fabricated having 0-13 wt of CNC. Results will be discussed.

  16. An Accurate Quartic Force Field, Fundamental Frequencies, and Binding Energy for the High Energy Density Material T(d)N4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Timothy J.; Martin, Jan M. L.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The CCSD(T) method has been used to compute a highly accurate quartic force field and fundamental frequencies for all N-14 and N-15 isotopomers of the high energy density material T(sub d)N(sub 4). The computed fundamental frequencies show beyond doubt that the bands observed in a matrix isolation experiment by Radziszewski and coworkers are not due to different isotopomers of T(sub d)N(sub 4). The most sophisticated thermochemical calculations to date yield a N(sub 4) -> 2N(sub 2) heat of reaction of 182.22 +/- 0.5 kcal/mol at 0 K (180.64 +/- 0.5 at 298 K). It is hoped that the data reported herein will aid in the ultimate detection of T(sub d)N(sub 4).

  17. Surfactant-Assisted Hydrothermal Synthesis of Single Phase Pyrite FeS2 Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Wadia, Cyrus; Wu, Yue; Gul, Sheraz; Volkman, Steven; Guo, Jinghua; Alivisatos, Paul

    2009-03-27

    Iron pyrite nanocrystals with high purity have been synthesized through a surfactant-assisted hydrothermal reaction under optimum pH value. These pyrite nanocrystals represent a new group of well-defined nanoscale structures for high-performance photovoltaic solar cells based on non-toxic and earth abundant materials.

  18. Individual and collective electronic properties of Ag nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.H.; Medeiros-Ribeiro, G.; Ohlberg, D.A.A.; Williams, R.S.; Heath, J.R.

    1999-11-25

    The authors report on the electronic transport properties of individual alkanethiol-passivated Ag nanocrystals and their superlattices. Isolated Ag particles with diameters in the range of 2.7--4.8 nm supported by a metallic substrate passivated with an organic layer show a Coulomb gap. Monolayer films of Ag particles exhibit four distinct electronic signatures, two of which have not been previously reported, depending on their structures. In two-dimensional ordered superlattices of octanethiol-capped 4.8 nm diameter nanocrystals on graphite, the strong interparticle electronic coupling produces metallic films. A disordered monolayer of dodecanethiol-capped 6.6 nm diameter nanocrystals exhibits a temperature-dependent differential conductance, which is attributed to the localized states formed by the disorder in the lattice. For two-dimensional ordered superlattices of pentanethiol- and hexanethiol-capped 2.7 nm diameter Ag particles. It was shown that the films are insulating, and individual nanocrystals maintain their individual electronic identity. Two different types of insulating films have been observed: one with electronically homogeneous nanocrystals in a close-packed lattice and the other with sublattices of electronically distinct monocrystals within a square lattice. The relationship of the Coulomb blockade and nanocrystal ordering to the electronic behavior of this class of architectonic materials are discussed.

  19. Shape-memory materials and phenomena - Fundamental aspects and applications; Proceedings of the Symposium, Boston, MA, Dec. 3-5, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.T.; Kunsmann, H.; Otsuka, K.; Wuttig, M.

    1992-01-01

    The present volume on fundamental aspects and applications of shape-memory materials and phenomena discusses martensitic transformation and phase stability, shape memory effects, and materials processing, alloy design, and industrial applications. Attention is given to surface energy and microstructure, the interior of the pseudoelastic hysteresis, deformation of shape-memory materials, and transformation-induced ductility in polycrystalline nickel aluminide. Topics addressed include diffuse yield drop and snap action in an Ni-Ti alloy, the effect of cyclic transformation on the shape memory characteristic in an Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-Ni alloy, the theory of premartensitic effects in alloys with omega-transformation, and electric transport properties of an NiTi shape memory alloy under applied stress. Also discussed are Fe-Mn-Si based shape memory alloys, the fabrication of a Cu-Al-Ni-Mn shape memory alloy, mass production of thermomarkers, and cycling times of thin-film NiTi on Si.

  20. Controlled synthesis of thorium and uranium oxide nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Hudry, Damien; Apostolidis, Christos; Walter, Olaf; Gouder, Thomas; Courtois, Eglantine; Kübel, Christian; Meyer, Daniel

    2013-04-22

    Very little is known about the size and shape effects on the properties of actinide compounds. As a consequence, the controlled synthesis of well-defined actinide-based nanocrystals constitutes a fundamental step before studying their corresponding properties. In this paper, we report on the non-aqueous surfactant-assisted synthesis of thorium and uranium oxide nanocrystals. The final characteristics of thorium and uranium oxide nanocrystals can be easily tuned by controlling a few experimental parameters such as the nature of the actinide precursor and the composition of the organic system (e.g., the chemical nature of the surfactants and their relative concentrations). Additionally, the influence of these parameters on the outcome of the synthesis is highly dependent on the nature of the actinide element (thorium versus uranium). By using optimised experimental conditions, monodisperse isotropic uranium oxide nanocrystals with different sizes (4.5 and 10.7 nm) as well as branched nanocrystals (overall size ca. 5 nm), nanodots (ca. 4 nm) and nanorods (with ultra-small diameters of 1 nm) of thorium oxide were synthesised.

  1. Atomically precise gold nanocrystal molecules with surface plasmon resonance.

    PubMed

    Qian, Huifeng; Zhu, Yan; Jin, Rongchao

    2012-01-17

    Since Faraday's pioneering work on gold colloids, tremendous scientific research on plasmonic gold nanoparticles has been carried out, but no atomically precise Au nanocrystals have been achieved. This work reports the first example of gold nanocrystal molecules. Mass spectrometry analysis has determined its formula to be Au(333)(SR)(79) (R = CH(2)CH(2)Ph). This magic sized nanocrystal molecule exhibits fcc-crystallinity and surface plasmon resonance at approximately 520 nm, hence, a metallic nanomolecule. Simulations have revealed that atomic shell closing largely contributes to the particular robustness of Au(333)(SR)(79), albeit the number of free electrons (i.e., 333 - 79 = 254) is also consistent with electron shell closing based on calculations using a confined free electron model. Guided by the atomic shell closing growth mode, we have also found the next larger size of extraordinarily stability to be Au(~530)(SR)(~100) after a size-focusing selection--which selects the robust size available in the starting polydisperse nanoparticles. This work clearly demonstrates that atomically precise nanocrystal molecules are achievable and that the factor of atomic shell closing contributes to their extraordinary stability compared to other sizes. Overall, this work opens up new opportunities for investigating many fundamental issues of nanocrystals, such as the formation of metallic state, and will have potential impact on condensed matter physics, nanochemistry, and catalysis as well.

  2. Nanocrystal waveguide (NOW) laser

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, John T.; Simpson, Marcus L.; Withrow, Stephen P.; White, Clark W.; Jaiswal, Supriya L.

    2005-02-08

    A solid state laser includes an optical waveguide and a laser cavity including at least one subwavelength mirror disposed in or on the optical waveguide. A plurality of photoluminescent nanocrystals are disposed in the laser cavity. The reflective subwavelength mirror can be a pair of subwavelength resonant gratings (SWG), a pair of photonic crystal structures (PC), or a distributed feedback structure. In the case of a pair of mirrors, a PC which is substantially transmissive at an operating wavelength of the laser can be disposed in the laser cavity between the subwavelength mirrors to improve the mode structure, coherence and overall efficiency of the laser. A method for forming a solid state laser includes the steps of providing an optical waveguide, creating a laser cavity in the optical waveguide by disposing at least one subwavelength mirror on or in the waveguide, and positioning a plurality of photoluminescent nanocrystals in the laser cavity.

  3. Aircraft Environmental System Mechanic, 2-9. Block I--Fundamentals. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This publication contains a teaching guide and student instructional materials for conducting a high school or adult vocational education course to train persons to perform duties as an aircraft environmental systems mechanic. Course content has been adapted from a military course. The instructional design for this course is self-paced and/or…

  4. CaO-based CO2 sorbents: from fundamentals to the development of new, highly effective materials.

    PubMed

    Kierzkowska, Agnieszka M; Pacciani, Roberta; Müller, Christoph R

    2013-07-01

    The enormous anthropogenic emission of the greenhouse gas CO2 is most likely the main reason for climate change. Considering the continuing and indeed growing utilisation of fossil fuels for electricity generation and transportation purposes, development and implementation of processes that avoid the associated emissions of CO2 are urgently needed. CO2 capture and storage, commonly termed CCS, would be a possible mid-term solution to reduce the emissions of CO2 into the atmosphere. However, the costs associated with the currently available CO2 capture technology, that is, amine scrubbing, are prohibitively high, thus making the development of new CO2 sorbents a highly important research challenge. Indeed, CaO, readily obtained through the calcination of naturally occurring limestone, has been proposed as an alternative CO2 sorbent that could substantially reduce the costs of CO2 capture. However, one of the major drawbacks of using CaO derived from natural sources is its rapidly decreasing CO2 uptake capacity with repeated carbonation-calcination reactions. Here, we review the current understanding of fundamental aspects of the cyclic carbonation-calcination reactions of CaO such as its reversibility and kinetics. Subsequently, recent attempts to develop synthetic, CaO-based sorbents that possess high and cyclically stable CO2 uptakes are presented. PMID:23821467

  5. Damage analysis and fundamental studies for fusion reactor materials development for the period March 1, 1991--February 28, 1994. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Odette, G.R.; Lucas, G.E.

    1995-01-01

    The philosophy of the program at the University of California Santa Barbara has been to develop a fundamental understanding of both the basic damage processes and microstructural evolution that take place in a material during neutron irradiation and the consequent dimensional and mechanical property changes. This fundamental understanding can be used in conjunction with empirical data obtained from a variety of irradiation facilities to develop physically-based models of neutron irradiation effects in structural materials. The models in turn can be used to guide alloy development and to help extrapolate the irradiation data base to the fusion reactor regime. This philosophy is consistent with that of the national and international programs for developing structural materials for fusion reactors. During this period work has encompassed: (1) analysis of the degradation of the mechanical properties of austenitic stainless steels for the purpose of assessing the feasibility of using these steels in ITER; (2) examining helium effects on radiation damage in austenitic and ferritic stainless steels; (3) development and application of electropotential drop techniques to monitor the growth of cracks in steel specimens for a variety of specimen geometries (4) development of advanced methods of measuring fracture properties; (5) combining micromechanical modeling of fracture with finite element calculations of crack and notch-tip stress and strain fields to predict failure; (6) developing a data base on flow and fracture properties of ferritic steels. Each of these activities is described in more detail below and in greater detail in the attached publications.

  6. Photodoping of Colloidal Nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohn, Alicia W.

    This dissertation addresses various aspects of photodoping colloidal nanocrystals. Photodoped ZnO nanocrystals were found to be versatile tuneable reducers using both quantum confinement and band-gap engineering with Mg2+ doping to change the conduction band potential. Using photoluminescence of the visible trap and magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy of Mg2+ and Mn2+ co-doped ZnO, Mg2+ was shown to change the potential of both the conduction and valence band in a ratio of 0.68:0.32. The hole scavenging reaction using ethanol as the hole scavenger was investigated using continuous-wave and time resolved photoluminescence of the visible trap state of ZnO. The reaction was found to occur between the valence band hole and with a rate of > 15 ps-1. Quenching of the ZnO visible trap luminescence upon photodoping was shown to be due to trap/electron Auger process while the concomitant enhancement of the UV band-gap emission was hypothesized to be due to a reduction in non-radiative processes due to extra electrons in the conduction-band. The trap/electron Auger process in ZnO nanocrystals was further characterized by a size-dependence and shown to scale with R2. Another previously unknown Auger size dependence was measured in CdSe/ZnS trions and shown to scale with R4.3.

  7. Self-assembly of colloidal nanocrystals: Surface ligands promote the formation of unexpected superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boles, Michael Adam

    The advent and refinement of chemical techniques to produce uniform collections of colloidal nanocrystals in recent years has made accessible a wide range of nanocrystal materials, shapes, and sizes, offering a fertile testbed for developing an understanding of nanoscale crystallization. Elucidating the role of nanocrystal surfaces in promoting self-assembly of superlattice phases unanticipated by hard-shape packing models has been the focus of my graduate work. Chapter One provides a practical overview of the experimental approaches to prepare and characterize colloidal nanocrystals and self-assembled nanocrystal superlattices. Chapter Two discusses colloidal nanocrystal surfaces including atomic composition, chemical reactivity, and influence over electronic structure. Chapter Three provides an overview of nanocrystal self-assembly including interparticle potentials and predicted phase behavior for hard and soft shapes. Chapter Four describes the preparation of tetrahedrally-shaped CdSe nanocrystals and their self-assembly into an unexpected superlattice structure. Chapter Five presents a selection of electron microscopy images of superlattices comprised of nearly spherical nanocrystals. Chapter Six describes the application of image analysis techniques to elucidate ligand shell deformability of spherical nanocrystals and resulting implications for entropy-driven crystallization of soft objects. Chapter Seven analyzes the role of PbS surface ligand desorption in determining binary phase behavior with Au nanocrystals. Chapter Eight describes the implications of the ideas presented in this thesis, places them in the context of recent work by others in the field, and offers an outlook towards promising directions for future research. Together, the ideas contained herein aim to provide the conceptual foundation necessary to exploit nanocrystal self-assembly for the rational design of next-generation functional solids.

  8. Spectroscopy of carrier multiplication in nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Bruhn, Benjamin; Limpens, Rens; Chung, Nguyen Xuan; Schall, Peter; Gregorkiewicz, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Carrier multiplication in nanostructures promises great improvements in a number of widely used technologies, among others photodetectors and solar cells. The decade since its discovery was ridden with fierce discussions about its true existence, magnitude, and mechanism. Here, we introduce a novel, purely spectroscopic approach for investigation of carrier multiplication in nanocrystals. Applying this method to silicon nanocrystals in an oxide matrix, we obtain an unambiguous spectral signature of the carrier multiplication process and reveal details of its size-dependent characteristics-energy threshold and efficiency. The proposed method is generally applicable and suitable for both solid state and colloidal samples, as well as for a great variety of different materials. PMID:26852922

  9. Tunable plasmonic lattices of silver nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Andrea; Sinsermsuksakul, Prasert; Yang, Peidong

    2008-02-18

    Silver nanocrystals are ideal building blocks for plasmonicmaterials that exhibit a wide range of unique and potentially usefuloptical phenomena. Individual nanocrystals display distinct opticalscattering spectra and can be assembled into hierarchical structures thatcouple strongly to external electromagnetic fields. This coupling, whichis mediated by surface plasmons, depends on their shape and arrangement.Here we demonstrate the bottom-up assembly of polyhedral silvernanocrystals into macroscopic two-dimensional superlattices using theLangmuir-Blodgett technique. Our ability to control interparticlespacing, density, and packing symmetry allows for tunability of theoptical response over the entire visible range. This assembly strategyoffers a new, practical approach to making novel plasmonic materials forapplication in spectroscopic sensors, sub-wavelength optics, andintegrated devices that utilize field enhancement effects.

  10. Colloidal Synthesis of Hollow Cobalt Sulfide Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Yadong; Erdonmez, Can K.; Cabot, Andreu; Hughes, Steven; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2006-03-16

    Formation of cobalt sulfide hollow nanocrystals through amechanism similar to the Kirkendall Effect has been investigated indetail. It was found that performing the reaction at>120oC leads tofast formation of a single void ins ide each shell, whereas at roomtemperature multiple voids are formed within each shell, which can beattributed to strongly temperature-dependent diffusivities for vacancies.The void formation process is dominated by outward diffusion of cobaltcations; still, significant inward transport of sulfur anions can beinferred to occur as the final voids are smaller in diameter than theoriginal cobalt nanocrystals. Comparison of volume distributions forinitial and final nanostructures indicates excess apparent volume inshells implying significant porosity and/or a defective structure.Indirect evidence for shells to fracture during growth at lowertemperatures was observed in shell size statisticsand TEM of as-grownshells. An idealized model of the diffusional process imposes two minimalrequirements on material parameters for shell growth to be obtainablewithin a specific synthetic system.

  11. Characterization of fluoride nanocrystals for optical refrigeration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares de Lima Filho, Elton; Quintanilla, Marta; Vetrone, Fiorenzo; Nemova, Galina; Kummara, Venkata Krishaniah; Kashyap, Raman

    2015-03-01

    This paper reports on the characterization of nanocrystalline powders of ytterbium doped YLiF4 for applications in optical refrigeration. Here we used powders with nanocrystals of Yb 3+ concentrations of (10, 15, 20) mol % and lengths (70, 66, 96) nm. Our preliminary spectroscopic measurements did not show an enhancement in the absorption at the long-wavelength tail of the spectra of the nanocrystalline powder when compared with bulk Yb:YLiF4, indicating that the increase of the phonon-assisted excitation is not large enough to play a significant role in cooling in the present conditions. One advantage of nanocrystalline powders over bulk crystals is the possibility of enhancing the absorption by the realization of cavity-less pump recycling through photon localization [1]. While photon localization also increases the reabsorption of the fluorescence depending on the quantum efficiency of the material and can mitigate cooling, it allows the use of crystals of low enough concentrations to avoid deleterious effects such as ion-ion energy transfer followed by quenching. The pump intensity enhancement favors upconversion luminescence to visible wavelengths, which can be used for optical refrigeration and extends the scope of the application for the material. We observed both green and blue emission from the samples and investigate the processes which lead to it. We present the experimental investigation of the nanocrystals' absorption and emission spectra and the first excited state lifetime measurements, which are used to estimate the nanocrystal's photoluminescence quantum efficiency.

  12. Fundamental and exploratory studies of catalytic steam gasification of carbonaceous materials. Final report, fiscal years 1985--1994

    SciTech Connect

    Heinemann, H.; Somorjai, G.A.

    1994-03-01

    The major purpose of this project was to find catalysts which will permit steam gasification of carbonaceous material at reasonable rates and at lower temperatures than currently practiced. Rapid catalyst deactivation must be avoided. An understanding of the catalytic mechanism is necessary to provide leads towards this aim. This report describes the gasification of graphite studies and the gasification of coals, chars, and petroleum cokes.

  13. Fundamental studies of materials, designs, and models development for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell flow field distributors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikam, Vaibhav Vilas

    Fuel cells are becoming a popular source of energy due to their promising performance and availability. However, the high cost of fuel cell stack forbids its deployment to end user. Moreover, bipolar plate is one of the critical components in current polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) system, causing severe increase in manufacturing cost. The objective of this research work is to develop new materials, design and manufacturing process for bipolar plates. The materials proposed for use were tested for corrosion resistance in simulated fuel cell conditions. After corrosion studies copper alloy (C17200) and Low Temperature Carburized (LTC) SS 316 were selected as an alternative material for bipolar plate. It was observed that though the copper alloy offered good resistance in corrosive atmosphere, the major advantage of using the alloys was good conductivity even after formation of corrosion layer compared to SS 316. However, LTC SS 316 achieved the best corrosion resistance (ever reported in current open literature at relatively low cost) with decreased contact resistance, as compared to SS 316. Due to the expensive and tedious machining for bipolar plate manufacturing, the conventional machining process was not used. Bipolar plates were manufactured from thin corrugated sheets formed of the alloy. This research also proposed a novel single channel convoluted flow field design which was developed by increasing the tortuosity of conventional serpentine design. The CFD model for novel single channel convoluted design showed uniform distribution of velocity over the entire three dimensional domain. The novel design was further studied using pressure drop and permeability models. These modeling calculations showed substantial benefit in using corrugated sheet design and novel single channel convoluted flow field design. All the concepts of materials (except for LTC SS 316), manufacturing and design are validated using various tests like long term stability

  14. Nanocrystal/sol-gel nanocomposites

    DOEpatents

    Petruska, Melissa A.; Klimov, Victor L.

    2012-06-12

    The present invention is directed to solid composites including colloidal nanocrystals within a sol-gel host or matrix and to processes of forming such solid composites. The present invention is further directed to alcohol soluble colloidal nanocrystals useful in formation of sol-gel based solid composites

  15. Nanocrystal/sol-gel nanocomposites

    DOEpatents

    Petruska, Melissa A.; Klimov, Victor L.

    2007-06-05

    The present invention is directed to solid composites including colloidal nanocrystals within a sol-gel host or matrix and to processes of forming such solid composites. The present invention is further directed to alcohol soluble colloidal nanocrystals useful in formation of sol-gel based solid composites.

  16. Method of synthesizing pyrite nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Wadia, Cyrus; Wu, Yue

    2013-04-23

    A method of synthesizing pyrite nanocrystals is disclosed which in one embodiment includes forming a solution of iron (III) diethyl dithiophosphate and tetra-alkyl-ammonium halide in water. The solution is heated under pressure. Pyrite nanocrystal particles are then recovered from the solution.

  17. Electronic spectra of semiconductor nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Alivisatos, A.P.

    1993-12-31

    Semiconductor nanocrystals smaller than the bulk exciton show substantial quantum confinement effects. Recent experiments including Stark effect, resonance Raman, valence band photoemission, and near edge X-ray adsorption will be used to put together a picture of the nanocrystal electronic states.

  18. Photoemission studies of semiconductor nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Hamad, K. S.; Roth, R.; Alivisatos, A. P.

    1997-04-01

    Semiconductor nanocrystals have been the focus of much attention in the last ten years due predominantly to their size dependent optical properties. Namely, the band gap of nanocrystals exhibits a shift to higher energy with decreasing size due to quantum confinement effects. Research in this field has employed primarily optical techniques to study nanocrystals, and in this respect this system has been investigated extensively. In addition, one is able to synthesize monodisperse, crystalline particles of CdS, CdSe, Si, InP, InAs, as well as CdS/HgS/CdS and CdSe/CdS composites. However, optical spectroscopies have proven ambiguous in determining the degree to which electronic excitations are interior or surface admixtures or giving a complete picture of the density of states. Photoemission is a useful technique for understanding the electronic structure of nanocrystals and the effects of quantum confinement, chemical environments of the nanocrystals, and surface coverages. Of particular interest to the authors is the surface composition and structure of these particles, for they have found that much of the behavior of nanocrystals is governed by their surface. Previously, the authors had performed x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) on CdSe nanocrystals. XPS has proven to be a powerful tool in that it allows one to determine the composition of the nanocrystal surface.

  19. Fundamentals and application of materials integration for low-power piezoelectrically actuated ultra-nanocrystalline diamond MEMS/NEMS.

    SciTech Connect

    Auciello, O.; Srinivasan, S.; Hiller, J.; Kabius, B.

    2009-01-01

    Most current micro/nanoelectromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS) are based on silicon. However, silicon exhibits relatively poor mechanical/tribological properties, compromising applications to several projected MEMS/NEMS devices, particularly those that require materials with high Young's modulus for MEMS resonators or low surface adhesion forces for MEMS/NEMS working in conditions with extensive surface contact. Diamond films with superior mechanical/tribological properties provide an excellent alternative platform material. Ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD{cflx W}) in film form with 2-5 nm grains exhibits excellent properties for high-performance MEMS/NEMS devices. Concurrently, piezoelectric Pb(Zr{sub x}Ti{sub 1-x})O{sub 3} (PZT) films provide high sensitivity/low electrical noise for sensing/high-force actuation at relatively low voltages. Therefore, integration of PZT and UNCD films provides a high-performance platform for advanced MEMS/NEMS devices. This paper describes the bases of such integration and demonstration of low voltage piezoactuated hybrid PZT/UNCD cantilevers.

  20. Germanium Nanocrystals Embedded in Sapphire

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Q.; Sharp, I.D.; Liao, C.Y.; Yi, D.O.; Ager III, J.W.; Beeman, J.W.; Yu, K.M.; Chrzan, D.C.; Haller, E.E.

    2005-04-15

    {sup 74}Ge nanocrystals are formed in a sapphire matrix by ion implantation followed by damage. Embedded nanocrystals experience large compressive stress relative to bulk, as embedded in sapphire melt very close to the bulk melting point (Tm = 936 C) whereas experience considerably lower stresses. Also, in situ TEM reveals that nanocrystals ion-beam-synthesized nanocrystals embedded in silica are observed to be spherical and measured by Raman spectroscopy of the zone center optical phonon. In contrast, reveals that the nanocrystals are faceted and have a bi-modal size distribution. Notably, the matrix remains crystalline despite the large implantation dose and corresponding thermal annealing. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of as-grown samples those embedded in silica exhibit a significant melting point hysteresis around T{sub m}.

  1. Fundamental of a Planar Type of Inductively Coupled Thermal Plasma (ICTP) on a Substrate for a Large-area Materials Processings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suantial, Maikai; Akao, Mika; Irie, Hiromitsu; Maruyama, Yuji; Tanaka, Yasunori; Uesugi, Yoshihiko; Ishijima, Tatsuo; Kanazawa University Team

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, the fundamental of a planar type Ar inductively coupled thermal plasmas (ICTP) with oxygen molecular gas have been studied on a substrate. Previously, we have developed a planar-ICTP torch with a rectangular quartz vessel with an air core coil or a ferrite core coil instead of a cylindrical tube for a large-area materials processing. For adoption of such a planar-ICTP to material processings, it needs to sustain the ICTP with molecular gases on a substrate stably. To consider the uniformity of the ICTP formed on the substrate, spectroscopic observation was carried out at 3 mm above the substrate. Results showed that the radiation intensities of specified O atomic lines were almost uniformly detected along the surface of the substrate. This means that O excited atoms, which are important radicals for thermal plasma oxidation, are present in planar-ICTP uniformly on the substrate.

  2. Marketing fundamentals.

    PubMed

    Redmond, W H

    2001-01-01

    This chapter outlines current marketing practice from a managerial perspective. The role of marketing within an organization is discussed in relation to efficiency and adaptation to changing environments. Fundamental terms and concepts are presented in an applied context. The implementation of marketing plans is organized around the four P's of marketing: product (or service), promotion (including advertising), place of delivery, and pricing. These are the tools with which marketers seek to better serve their clients and form the basis for competing with other organizations. Basic concepts of strategic relationship management are outlined. Lastly, alternate viewpoints on the role of advertising in healthcare markets are examined. PMID:11401791

  3. Silicon nanocrystal inks, films, and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, Lance Michael; Kortshagen, Uwe Richard

    2015-09-01

    Silicon nanocrystal inks and films, and methods of making and using silicon nanocrystal inks and films, are disclosed herein. In certain embodiments the nanocrystal inks and films include halide-terminated (e.g., chloride-terminated) and/or halide and hydrogen-terminated nanocrystals of silicon or alloys thereof. Silicon nanocrystal inks and films can be used, for example, to prepare semiconductor devices.

  4. Semiconductor nanocrystals photosensitize C60 crystals.

    PubMed

    Biebersdorf, Andreas; Dietmüller, Roland; Susha, Andrei S; Rogach, Andrey L; Poznyak, Sergey K; Talapin, Dmitri V; Weller, Horst; Klar, Thomas A; Feldmann, Jochen

    2006-07-01

    Semiconductor nanocrystals (SCNCs) made of CdSe, CdTe, and InP are used to photosensitize needlelike C(60) crystals. The photocurrent is increased by up to 3 orders of magnitude as compared with C(60) crystals without SCNCs. The photocurrent spectrum can be tuned precisely by the SCNC size and material, rendering the SCNC-functionalized C(60) crystals an excellent material for spectrally tuneable photodetectors. We explain the increased photocurrent as a result of photoexcited electrons transferring from the SCNCs to the C(60) crystals and causing photoconductivity, while the complementary holes remain trapped in the SCNCs.

  5. Organo Luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal probes for biological applications and process for making and using such probes

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Shimon; Bruchez, Jr., Marcel; Alivisatos, Paul

    1999-01-01

    A luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal compound is described which is capable of linking to an affinity molecule. The compound comprises (1) a semiconductor nanocrystal capable of emitting electromagnetic radiation (luminescing) in a narrow wavelength band and/or absorbing energy, and/or scattering or diffracting electromagnetic radiation--when excited by an electromagnetic radiation source (of narrow or broad bandwidth) or a particle beam; and (2) at least one linking agent, having a first portion linked to the semiconductor nanocrystal and a second portion capable of linking to an affinity molecule. The luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal compound is linked to an affinity molecule to form an organo luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal probe capable of bonding with a detectable substance in a material being analyzed, and capable of emitting electromagnetic radiation in a narrow wavelength band and/or absorbing, scattering, or diffracting energy when excited by an electromagnetic radiation source (of narrow or broad bandwidth) or a particle beam. The probe is stable to repeated exposure to light in the presence of oxygen and/or other radicals. Further described is a process for making the luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal compound and for making the organo luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal probe comprising the luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal compound linked to an affinity molecule capable of bonding to a detectable substance. A process is also described for using the probe to determine the presence of a detectable substance in a material.

  6. Emission efficiency limit of Si nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    Limpens, Rens; Luxembourg, Stefan L.; Weeber, Arthur W.; Gregorkiewicz, Tom

    2016-01-01

    One of the important obstacles on the way to application of Si nanocrystals for development of practical devices is their typically low emissivity. In this study we explore the limits of external quantum yield of photoluminescence of solid-state dispersions of Si nanocrystals in SiO2. By making use of a low-temperature hydrogen passivation treatment we demonstrate a maximum emission quantum efficiency of approximately 35%. This is the highest value ever reported for this type of material. By cross-correlating PL lifetime with EQE values, we obtain a comprehensive understanding of the efficiency limiting processes induced by Pb-defects. We establish that the observed record efficiency corresponds to an interface density of Pb-centers of 1.3 × 1012 cm12, which is 2 orders of magnitude higher than for the best Si/SiO2 interface. This result implies that Si nanocrystals with up to 100% emission efficiency are feasible. PMID:26786062

  7. Synthesis of nanocrystals and nanocrystal self-assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhuoying

    Chapter 1. A general introduction is presented on nanomaterials and nanoscience. Nanoparticles are discussed with respect to their structure and properties. Ferroelectric materials and nanoparticles in particular are highlighted, especially in the case of the barium titanate, and their potential applications are discussed. Different nanocrystal synthetic techniques are discussed. Nanoparticle superlattices, the novel "meta-materials" built from self-assembly at the nanoscale, are introduced. The formation of nanoparticle superlattices and the importance and interest of synthesizing these nanostructures is discussed. Chapter 2. Advanced applications for high k dielectric and ferroelectric materials in the electronics industry continues to demand an understanding of the underlying physics in decreasing dimensions into the nanoscale. The first part of this chapter presents the synthesis, processing, and electrical characterization of nanostructured thin films (thickness ˜100 nm) of barium titanate BaTiO3 built from uniform nanoparticles (<20 nm in diameter) in diameter. Essential to our approach is an understanding of the nanoparticle as a building block, combined with an ability to integrate them into thin films that have uniform and characteristic electrical properties. We observe the BaTiO3 nanocrystals crystallize with evidence of tetragonality. Electric field dependent polarization measurements show spontaneous polarization and hysteresis, indicating ferroelectric behavior for the BaTiO 3 nanocrystalline films with grain sizes in the range of 10--30 nm. Dielectric measurements of the films show dielectic constants in the range of 85--90 over the 1 kHz--100 kHz, with low loss. We present nanocrystals as initial building blocks for the preparation of thin films which exhibit uniform nanostructured morphologies and grain sizes. In the second part of this chapter, a nonhydrolytic alcoholysis route to study the preparation of well-crystallized size-tunable BaTiO3

  8. Reaction chemistry and ligand exchange at cadmium selenide nanocrystal surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, Jonathan; Park, Jungwon; Trudeau, Paul-Emile; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2008-12-02

    Chemical modification of nanocrystal surfaces is fundamentally important to their assembly, their implementation in biology and medicine, and greatly impacts their electrical and optical properties. However, it remains a major challenge owing to a lack of analytical tools to directly determine nanoparticle surface structure. Early nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies of CdSe nanocrystals prepared in tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (1) and tri-n-octylphosphine (2), suggested these coordinating solvents are datively bound to the particle surface. However, assigning the broad NMR resonances of surface-bound ligands is complicated by significant concentrations of phosphorus-containing impurities in commercial sources of 1, and XPS provides only limited information about the nature of the phosphorus containing molecules in the sample. More recent reports have shown the surface ligands of CdSe nanocrystals prepared in technical grade 1, and in the presence of alkylphosphonic acids, include phosphonic and phosphinic acids. These studies do not, however, distinguish whether these ligands are bound datively, as neutral, L-type ligands, or by X-type interaction of an anionic phosphonate/phosphinate moiety with a surface Cd{sup 2+} ion. Answering this question would help clarify why ligand exchange with such particles does not proceed generally as expected based on a L-type ligand model. By using reagents with reactive silicon-chalcogen and silicon-chlorine bonds to cleave the ligands from the nanocrystal surface, we show that our CdSe and CdSe/ZnS core-shell nanocrystal surfaces are likely terminated by X-type binding of alkylphosphonate ligands to a layer of Cd{sup 2+}/Zn{sup 2+} ions, rather than by dative interactions. Further, we provide spectroscopic evidence that 1 and 2 are not coordinated to our purified nanocrystals.

  9. Cooling the motion of diamond nanocrystals in a magneto-gravitational trap in high vacuum

    DOE PAGES

    Hsu, Jen -Feng; Ji, Peng; Lewandowski, Charles W.; D’Urso, Brian

    2016-07-22

    Levitated diamond nanocrystals with nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centres in high vacuum have been proposed as a unique system for experiments in fundamental quantum mechanics, including the generation of large quantum superposition states and tests of quantum gravity. This system promises extreme isolation from its environment while providing quantum control and sensing through the NV centre spin. While optical trapping has been the most explored method of levitation, recent results indicate that excessive optical heating of the nanodiamonds under vacuum may make the method impractical with currently available materials. Here, we study an alternative magneto-gravitational trap for diamagnetic particles, such as diamondmore » nanocrystals, with stable levitation from atmospheric pressure to high vacuum. Magnetic field gradients from permanent magnets confine the particle in two dimensions, while confinement in the third dimension is gravitational. Furthermore, we demonstrate that feedback cooling of the centre-of-mass motion of a trapped nanodiamond cluster results in cooling of one degree of freedom to less than 1 K.« less

  10. Cooling the Motion of Diamond Nanocrystals in a Magneto-Gravitational Trap in High Vacuum.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jen-Feng; Ji, Peng; Lewandowski, Charles W; D'Urso, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Levitated diamond nanocrystals with nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centres in high vacuum have been proposed as a unique system for experiments in fundamental quantum mechanics, including the generation of large quantum superposition states and tests of quantum gravity. This system promises extreme isolation from its environment while providing quantum control and sensing through the NV centre spin. While optical trapping has been the most explored method of levitation, recent results indicate that excessive optical heating of the nanodiamonds under vacuum may make the method impractical with currently available materials. Here, we study an alternative magneto-gravitational trap for diamagnetic particles, such as diamond nanocrystals, with stable levitation from atmospheric pressure to high vacuum. Magnetic field gradients from permanent magnets confine the particle in two dimensions, while confinement in the third dimension is gravitational. We demonstrate that feedback cooling of the centre-of-mass motion of a trapped nanodiamond cluster results in cooling of one degree of freedom to less than 1 K. PMID:27444654

  11. Cooling the Motion of Diamond Nanocrystals in a Magneto-Gravitational Trap in High Vacuum

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Jen-Feng; Ji, Peng; Lewandowski, Charles W.; D’Urso, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Levitated diamond nanocrystals with nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centres in high vacuum have been proposed as a unique system for experiments in fundamental quantum mechanics, including the generation of large quantum superposition states and tests of quantum gravity. This system promises extreme isolation from its environment while providing quantum control and sensing through the NV centre spin. While optical trapping has been the most explored method of levitation, recent results indicate that excessive optical heating of the nanodiamonds under vacuum may make the method impractical with currently available materials. Here, we study an alternative magneto-gravitational trap for diamagnetic particles, such as diamond nanocrystals, with stable levitation from atmospheric pressure to high vacuum. Magnetic field gradients from permanent magnets confine the particle in two dimensions, while confinement in the third dimension is gravitational. We demonstrate that feedback cooling of the centre-of-mass motion of a trapped nanodiamond cluster results in cooling of one degree of freedom to less than 1 K. PMID:27444654

  12. Cooling the Motion of Diamond Nanocrystals in a Magneto-Gravitational Trap in High Vacuum.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jen-Feng; Ji, Peng; Lewandowski, Charles W; D'Urso, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Levitated diamond nanocrystals with nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centres in high vacuum have been proposed as a unique system for experiments in fundamental quantum mechanics, including the generation of large quantum superposition states and tests of quantum gravity. This system promises extreme isolation from its environment while providing quantum control and sensing through the NV centre spin. While optical trapping has been the most explored method of levitation, recent results indicate that excessive optical heating of the nanodiamonds under vacuum may make the method impractical with currently available materials. Here, we study an alternative magneto-gravitational trap for diamagnetic particles, such as diamond nanocrystals, with stable levitation from atmospheric pressure to high vacuum. Magnetic field gradients from permanent magnets confine the particle in two dimensions, while confinement in the third dimension is gravitational. We demonstrate that feedback cooling of the centre-of-mass motion of a trapped nanodiamond cluster results in cooling of one degree of freedom to less than 1 K.

  13. Coassembly of gold nanoparticles and cellulose nanocrystals in composite films.

    PubMed

    Lukach, Ariella; Thérien-Aubin, Héloïse; Querejeta-Fernández, Ana; Pitch, Natalie; Chauve, Grégory; Méthot, Myriam; Bouchard, Jean; Kumacheva, Eugenia

    2015-05-12

    Coassembly of nanoparticles with different size-, shape-, and composition-dependent properties is a promising approach to the design and fabrication of functional materials and devices. This paper reports the results of a detailed investigation of the formation and properties of free-stranding composite films formed by the coassembly of cellulose nanocrystals and shape-isotropic plasmonic gold nanoparticles. The effect of gold nanoparticle size, surface charge, and concentration on the structural and optical properties of the composite films has been studied. The composite films retained photonic crystal and chiroptical activity properties. The size and surface charge of gold nanoparticles had a minor effect on the structure and properties of the composite films, while the concentration of gold nanoparticles in the composite material played a more significant role and can be used to fine-tune the optical properties of materials derived from cellulose nanocrystals. These findings significantly broaden the range of nanoparticles that can be used for producing nanocomposite materials based on cellulose nanocrystals. The simplicity of film preparation, the abundance of cellulose nanocrystals, and the robust, free-standing nature of the composite films offer highly advantageous features and pave the way for the generation of functional materials with coupled optical properties.

  14. Uncovering the intrinsic size dependence of hydriding phase transformations in nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardhan, Rizia; Hedges, Lester O.; Pint, Cary L.; Javey, Ali; Whitelam, Stephen; Urban, Jeffrey J.

    2013-10-01

    A quantitative understanding of nanocrystal phase transformations would enable more efficient energy conversion and catalysis, but has been hindered by difficulties in directly monitoring well-characterized nanoscale systems in reactive environments. We present a new in situ luminescence-based probe enabling direct quantification of nanocrystal phase transformations, applied here to the hydriding transformation of palladium nanocrystals. Our approach reveals the intrinsic kinetics and thermodynamics of nanocrystal phase transformations, eliminating complications of substrate strain, ligand effects and external signal transducers. Clear size-dependent trends emerge in nanocrystals long accepted to be bulk-like in behaviour. Statistical mechanical simulations show these trends to be a consequence of nanoconfinement of a thermally driven, first-order phase transition: near the phase boundary, critical nuclei of the new phase are comparable in size to the nanocrystal itself. Transformation rates are then unavoidably governed by nanocrystal dimensions. Our results provide a general framework for understanding how nanoconfinement fundamentally impacts broad classes of thermally driven solid-state phase transformations relevant to hydrogen storage, catalysis, batteries and fuel cells.

  15. Shape-controlled synthesis of metal nanocrystals: simple chemistry meets complex physics?

    PubMed

    Xia, Younan; Xiong, Yujie; Lim, Byungkwon; Skrabalak, Sara E

    2009-01-01

    Nanocrystals are fundamental to modern science and technology. Mastery over the shape of a nanocrystal enables control of its properties and enhancement of its usefulness for a given application. Our aim is to present a comprehensive review of current research activities that center on the shape-controlled synthesis of metal nanocrystals. We begin with a brief introduction to nucleation and growth within the context of metal nanocrystal synthesis, followed by a discussion of the possible shapes that a metal nanocrystal might take under different conditions. We then focus on a variety of experimental parameters that have been explored to manipulate the nucleation and growth of metal nanocrystals in solution-phase syntheses in an effort to generate specific shapes. We then elaborate on these approaches by selecting examples in which there is already reasonable understanding for the observed shape control or at least the protocols have proven to be reproducible and controllable. Finally, we highlight a number of applications that have been enabled and/or enhanced by the shape-controlled synthesis of metal nanocrystals. We conclude this article with personal perspectives on the directions toward which future research in this field might take.

  16. Shape-Controlled Synthesis of Metal Nanocrystals: Simple Chemistry Meets Complex Physics?

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Younan; Xiong, Yujie; Lim, Byungkwon; Skrabalak, Sara E.

    2009-01-01

    Nanocrystals are fundamental to modern science and technology. Mastery over the shape of a nanocrystal enables control of its properties and enhancement of its usefulness for a given application. The aim of this article is to present a comprehensive review of current research activities that center on the shape-controlled synthesis of metal nanocrystals. We begin with a brief introduction to nucleation and growth within the context of metal nanocrystal synthesis, followed by a discussion of the possible shapes that a metal nanocrystal might take under different conditions. We then focus on a variety of experimental parameters that have been explored to manipulate the nucleation and growth of metal nanocrystals in solution-phase syntheses in an effort to generate specific shapes. We then elaborate on these approaches by selecting examples in which there is already reasonable understanding for the observed shape control or at least the protocols have proven to be reproducible and controllable. Toward the end of this article, we highlight a number of applications that have been enabled and/or enhanced by the shape-controlled synthesis of metal nanocrystals. We conclude this article with personal perspectives on the directions toward which future research in this field might take. PMID:19053095

  17. Spontaneous formation of high-index planes in gold single domain nanocrystal superlattices.

    PubMed

    Goubet, Nicolas; Yang, Jianhui; Albouy, Pierre-Antoine; Pileni, Marie-Paule

    2014-11-12

    Crystals of nanocrystals, also called supracrystals and nanocrystal superlattices, are expected to exhibit specific properties that differ from both the corresponding bulk material and nanosized elementary units. In particular, their surfaces have a great potential as nanoscale interaction plateforms. However, control of the symmetry, compacity, and roughness of their surfaces remains an open question. Here, we describe the spontaneous formation of upper vicinal surfaces for supracrystals of Au nanocrystals grown on a sublayer of ordered Co nanocrystals. Stepped or kinked surfaces vicinal to the {100}, {110}, and {111} planes are observed to be extended on the micrometer range. The formation of such high-index planes is explained by a heteroepitaxial relationship between both Co and Au nanocrystal superlattice.

  18. Red spectral shift and enhanced quantum efficiency in phonon-free photoluminescence from silicon nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    de Boer, W D A M; Timmerman, D; Dohnalová, K; Yassievich, I N; Zhang, H; Buma, W J; Gregorkiewicz, T

    2010-12-01

    Crystalline silicon is the most important semiconductor material in the electronics industry. However, silicon has poor optical properties because of its indirect bandgap, which prevents the efficient emission and absorption of light. The energy structure of silicon can be manipulated through quantum confinement effects, and the excitonic emission from silicon nanocrystals increases in intensity and shifts to shorter wavelengths (a blueshift) as the size of the nanocrystals is reduced. Here we report experimental evidence for a short-lived visible band in the photoluminescence spectrum of silicon nanocrystals that increases in intensity and shifts to longer wavelengths (a redshift) with smaller nanocrystal sizes. This higher intensity indicates an increased quantum efficiency, which for 2.5-nm-diameter nanocrystals is enhanced by three orders of magnitude compared to bulk silicon. We assign this band to the radiative recombination of non-equilibrium electron-hole pairs in a process that does not involve phonons.

  19. From Artificial Atoms to Nanocrystal Molecules: Preparation and Properties of More Complex Nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Charina L; Alivisatos, A Paul

    2009-10-20

    Quantum dots, which have found widespread use in fields such as biomedicine, photovoltaics, and electronics, are often called artificial atoms due to their size-dependent physical properties. Here this analogy is extended to consider artificial nanocrystal molecules, formed from well-defined groupings of plasmonically or electronically coupled single nanocrystals. Just as a hydrogen molecule has properties distinct from two uncoupled hydrogen atoms, a key feature of nanocrystal molecules is that they exhibit properties altered from those of the component nanoparticles due to coupling. The nature of the coupling between nanocrystal atoms and its response to vibrations and deformations of the nanocrystal molecule bonds are of particular interest. We discuss synthetic approaches, predicted and observed physical properties, and prospects and challenges toward this new class of materials.

  20. Food Service Fundamentals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on food service fundamentals is designed to provide a general background in the basic aspects of the food service program in the Marine Corps; it is adaptable for nonmilitary instruction. Introductory materials include specific information for MCI…

  1. Some modification of cellulose nanocrystals for functional Pickering emulsions.

    PubMed

    Saidane, Dorra; Perrin, Emilie; Cherhal, Fanch; Guellec, Florian; Capron, Isabelle

    2016-07-28

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are negatively charged colloidal particles well known to form highly stable surfactant-free Pickering emulsions. These particles can vary in surface charge density depending on their preparation by acid hydrolysis or applying post-treatments. CNCs with three different surface charge densities were prepared corresponding to 0.08, 0.16 and 0.64 e nm(-2), respectively. Post-treatment might also increase the surface charge density. The well-known TEMPO-mediated oxidation substitutes C6-hydroxyl groups by C6-carboxyl groups on the surface. We report that these different modified CNCs lead to stable oil-in-water emulsions. TEMPO-oxidized CNC might be the basis of further modifications. It is shown that they can, for example, lead to hydrophobic CNCs with a simple method using quaternary ammonium salts that allow producing inverse water-in-oil emulsions. Different from CNC modification before emulsification, modification can be carried out on the droplets after emulsification. This way allows preparing functional capsules according to the layer-by-layer process. As a result, it is demonstrated here the large range of use of these biobased rod-like nanoparticles, extending therefore their potential use to highly sophisticated formulations.This article is part of the themed issue 'Soft interfacial materials: from fundamentals to formulation'.

  2. Some modification of cellulose nanocrystals for functional Pickering emulsions.

    PubMed

    Saidane, Dorra; Perrin, Emilie; Cherhal, Fanch; Guellec, Florian; Capron, Isabelle

    2016-07-28

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are negatively charged colloidal particles well known to form highly stable surfactant-free Pickering emulsions. These particles can vary in surface charge density depending on their preparation by acid hydrolysis or applying post-treatments. CNCs with three different surface charge densities were prepared corresponding to 0.08, 0.16 and 0.64 e nm(-2), respectively. Post-treatment might also increase the surface charge density. The well-known TEMPO-mediated oxidation substitutes C6-hydroxyl groups by C6-carboxyl groups on the surface. We report that these different modified CNCs lead to stable oil-in-water emulsions. TEMPO-oxidized CNC might be the basis of further modifications. It is shown that they can, for example, lead to hydrophobic CNCs with a simple method using quaternary ammonium salts that allow producing inverse water-in-oil emulsions. Different from CNC modification before emulsification, modification can be carried out on the droplets after emulsification. This way allows preparing functional capsules according to the layer-by-layer process. As a result, it is demonstrated here the large range of use of these biobased rod-like nanoparticles, extending therefore their potential use to highly sophisticated formulations.This article is part of the themed issue 'Soft interfacial materials: from fundamentals to formulation'. PMID:27298429

  3. A quantitative model for charge carrier transport, trapping and recombination in nanocrystal-based solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Bozyigit, Deniz; Lin, Weyde M. M.; Yazdani, Nuri; Yarema, Olesya; Wood, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Improving devices incorporating solution-processed nanocrystal-based semiconductors requires a better understanding of charge transport in these complex, inorganic–organic materials. Here we perform a systematic study on PbS nanocrystal-based diodes using temperature-dependent current–voltage characterization and thermal admittance spectroscopy to develop a model for charge transport that is applicable to different nanocrystal-solids and device architectures. Our analysis confirms that charge transport occurs in states that derive from the quantum-confined electronic levels of the individual nanocrystals and is governed by diffusion-controlled trap-assisted recombination. The current is limited not by the Schottky effect, but by Fermi-level pinning because of trap states that is independent of the electrode–nanocrystal interface. Our model successfully explains the non-trivial trends in charge transport as a function of nanocrystal size and the origins of the trade-offs facing the optimization of nanocrystal-based solar cells. We use the insights from our charge transport model to formulate design guidelines for engineering higher-performance nanocrystal-based devices. PMID:25625647

  4. A quantitative model for charge carrier transport, trapping and recombination in nanocrystal-based solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozyigit, Deniz; Lin, Weyde M. M.; Yazdani, Nuri; Yarema, Olesya; Wood, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Improving devices incorporating solution-processed nanocrystal-based semiconductors requires a better understanding of charge transport in these complex, inorganic-organic materials. Here we perform a systematic study on PbS nanocrystal-based diodes using temperature-dependent current-voltage characterization and thermal admittance spectroscopy to develop a model for charge transport that is applicable to different nanocrystal-solids and device architectures. Our analysis confirms that charge transport occurs in states that derive from the quantum-confined electronic levels of the individual nanocrystals and is governed by diffusion-controlled trap-assisted recombination. The current is limited not by the Schottky effect, but by Fermi-level pinning because of trap states that is independent of the electrode-nanocrystal interface. Our model successfully explains the non-trivial trends in charge transport as a function of nanocrystal size and the origins of the trade-offs facing the optimization of nanocrystal-based solar cells. We use the insights from our charge transport model to formulate design guidelines for engineering higher-performance nanocrystal-based devices.

  5. Synthesis and preservation of graphene-supported uranium dioxide nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hanyu; Wang, Haitao; Burns, Peter C.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Buck, Edgar C.; Na, Chongzheng

    2016-07-01

    Graphene-supported uranium dioxide (UO2) nanocrystals are potentially important fuel materials. Here, we investigate the possibility of synthesizing graphene-supported UO2 nanocrystals in polar ethylene glycol compounds by the polyol reduction of uranyl acetylacetone under boiling reflux, thereby enabling the use of an inexpensive graphene precursor graphene oxide into a one-pot process. We show that triethylene glycol is the most suitable solvent with an appropriate reduction potential for producing nanometer-sized UO2 crystals compared to monoethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, and polyethylene glycol. Graphene-supported UO2 nanocrystals synthesized with triethylene glycol show evidence of heteroepitaxy, which can be beneficial for facilitating heat transfer in nuclear fuel particles. Furthermore, we show that graphene-supported UO2 nanocrystals synthesized by polyol reduction can be readily stored in alcohols, impeding oxidation from the prevalent oxygen in air. Together, these methods provide a facile approach for preparing and storing graphene-supported UO2 nanocrystals for further investigation and development under ambient conditions.

  6. Stabilizing Agents for Drug Nanocrystals: Effect on Bioavailability

    PubMed Central

    Tuomela, Annika; Hirvonen, Jouni; Peltonen, Leena

    2016-01-01

    Drug nanocrystals are a versatile option for drug delivery purposes, and while the number of poorly soluble drug materials is all the time increasing, more research in this area is performed. Drug nanocrystals have a simple structure—a solid drug core is surrounded by a layer of stabilizing agent. However, despite the considerably simple structure, the selection of an appropriate stabilizer for a certain drug can be challenging. Mostly, the stabilizer selection is based purely on the requirement of physical stability, e.g., maintaining the nanosized particle size as long as possible after the formation of drug nanocrystals. However, it is also worth taking into account that stabilizer can affect the bioavailability in the final formulation via interactions with cells and cell layers. In addition, formation of nanocrystals is only one process step, and for the final formulation, more excipients are often added to the composition. The role of the stabilizers in the final formulation can be more than only stabilizing the nanocrystal particle size. A good example is the stabilizer’s role as cryoprotectant during freeze drying. In this review, the stabilizing effect, role of stabilizers in final nanocrystalline formulations, challenges in reaching in vitro–in vivo correlation with nanocrystalline products, and stabilizers’ effect on higher bioavailability are discussed. PMID:27213435

  7. Starch nanocrystals based hydrogel: Construction, characterizations and transdermal application.

    PubMed

    Bakrudeen, Haja Bava; Sudarvizhi, C; Reddy, B S R

    2016-11-01

    Bio-based nanocomposites were prepared using starch nanocrystals obtained by acid hydrolysis of native starches using different acid sources. In recent times, focuses on starch nanocrystals (SNCs) have been increasing in number of research works dedicated to the development of bio-nanocomposites by blending with different biopolymeric matrices. The work mainly deals with the preparation of starch nanocrystals using different native starches by acid hydrolysis using hydrochloric acid and trifluroacetic acid. The as-prepared starch nanocrystals are having high crystallinity and more platelet morphologies, and used as a drug carrying filler material in the hydrogel formulations with the care of different polymer matrices. The condensed work also concentrates on the dispersion of antiviral drug in the hydrogels, which are applied onto biocompatible bio-membrane to be formulating a complete transdermal patch. The acid hydrolysed starch nanocrystals were thoroughly characterized using TEM, SEM, particle size analysis and zeta potential. Their thermal stability and the crystalline properties were also characterized using TG-DSC and XRD respectively. The physiochemical interaction and compatibility between the drug and the SNCs filler in the polymeric hydrogels were evaluated using FT-IR analysis. The formulated hydrogels were subjected to evaluation of in vitro permeation studies using Franz diffusion studies. The in vitro study was indicated substantial guarantee for the fabrication of drug dispersed in polymeric hydrogels using SNCs as filler matrices for a successful transdermal drug delivery. PMID:27524091

  8. Si nanocrystals and nanocrystal interfaces studied by positron annihilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kujala, J.; Slotte, J.; Tuomisto, F.; Hiller, D.; Zacharias, M.

    2016-10-01

    Si nanocrystals embedded in a SiO 2 matrix were studied with positron annihilation and photoluminescence spectroscopies. Analysis of the S- and W-parameters for the sample annealed at 800 °C reveals a positron trap at the interface between the amorphous nanodots and the surrounding matrix. Another trap state is observed in the 1150 °C heat treated samples where nanodots are in a crystalline form. Positrons are most likely trapped to defects related to dangling bonds at the surface of the nanocrystals. Passivation of the samples results on one hand in the decrease of the S-parameter implying a decrease in the open volume of the interface state and, on the other hand, in the strengthening of the positron annihilation signal from the interface. The intensity of the photoluminescence signal increases with the formation of the nanocrystals. Passivation of samples strengthens the photoluminescence signal, further indicating a successful deactivation of luminescence quenching at the nanocrystal surface. Strengthening of the positron annihilation signal and an increase in the photoluminescence intensity in passivated silicon nanocrystals suggests that the positron trap at the interface does not contribute to a significant extent to the exciton recombination in the nanocrystals.

  9. Electronic states of lead salt nanocrystal and nanocrystal assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jun

    With the development of new synthetic methods, semiconductor nanocrystals of various morphologies and dimensions have been created. This changes their electro-optical properties, and brings new questions in understanding. At the same time, more and more research is now focused on nanocrystal assemblies, in particular nanocrystal superlattices with atomically coherent lattices, with the potential for various optoelectronic device applications. This thesis examines, in both theory and experiment, a number of nanocrystal systems, with the stress on dimensionality and morphology. In particular, in 1D and 2D systems, due to the anisotropic quantum connenment, the electrons and holes will form a tightly bond excitons, even at room temperature, in contrast to 0D and 3D systems, where either quantum connenment or coulomb interaction completely dominates. We'll also look into nanocrystal assemblies, both amorphous and atomically coherent, and study the effect of the inherent disorder in the structure on their electronic properties, with the goal of charge transportation through delocalized states. Last, we'll examine the ne structure in these nanocrystals.

  10. Organic-Inorganic Composites of Semiconductor Nanocrystals for Efficient Excitonics.

    PubMed

    Guzelturk, Burak; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2015-06-18

    Nanocomposites of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals integrated into conjugated polymers are the key to soft-material hybrid optoelectronics, combining advantages of both plastics and particles. Synergic combination of the favorable properties in the hybrids of colloidal nanocrystals and conjugated polymers offers enhanced performance and new functionalities in light-generation and light-harvesting applications, where controlling and mastering the excitonic interactions at the nanoscale are essential. In this Perspective, we highlight and critically consider the excitonic interactions in the organic-inorganic nanocomposites to achieve highly efficient exciton transfer through rational design of the nanocomposites. The use of strong excitonic interactions in optoelectronic devices can trigger efficiency breakthroughs in hybrid optoelectronics.

  11. Healthcare fundamentals.

    PubMed

    Kauk, Justin; Hill, Austin D; Althausen, Peter L

    2014-07-01

    In order for a trauma surgeon to have an intelligent discussion with hospital administrators, healthcare plans, policymakers, or any other physicians, a basic understanding of the fundamentals of healthcare is paramount. It is truly shocking how many surgeons are unable to describe the difference between Medicare and Medicaid or describe how hospitals and physicians get paid. These topics may seem burdensome but they are vital to all business decision making in the healthcare field. The following chapter provides further insight about what we call "the basics" of providing medical care today. Most of the topics presented can be applied to all specialties of medicine. It is broken down into 5 sections. The first section is a brief overview of government programs, their influence on care delivery and reimbursement, and past and future legislation. Section 2 focuses on the compliance, care provision, and privacy statutes that regulate physicians who care for Medicare/Medicaid patient populations. With a better understanding of these obligations, section 3 discusses avenues by which physicians can stay informed of current and pending health policy and provides ways that they can become involved in shaping future legislation. The fourth section changes gears slightly by explaining how the concepts of trade restraint, libel, antitrust legislation, and indemnity relate to physician practice. The fifth, and final, section ties all of components together by describing how physician-hospital alignment can be mutually beneficial in providing patient care under current healthcare policy legislation.

  12. Preparation and Evaluation of Two Apatites with Spherical Nanocrystal Morphology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yali; Li, Qihong; Li, Xiaojie; Li, Yong; Wang, Chunhui; Zhao, Yantao; Song, Yingliang; Liu, Yanpu

    2016-03-01

    Spherical nanocrystal of apatite has been proved to be beneficial for osteoblast growth. Two apatites with spherical nanocrystal morphology were prepared in this study by chemical wet method and further sintering process. SEM exhibited that both apatites had spherical nanocrystal morphology. The crystal morphology and size was approaching to each other. XRD showed the apatites separately were hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate phases. The cellular biocompatibility was evaluated by osteoblasts for these two spherical nanocrstal apatites. The MTT result indicated a higher cell proliferation rate for spherical tricalcium phosphate group. The ALP activity assay also strongly favored the tricalcium phosphate group. RT-PCR results indicated that Collagen I had a higher transcription level on the spherical tricalcium phosphate group. SEM results showed robust cell growth on the materials. It was concluded that the spherical nanophase tricalcium phosphate was superior to the cellular biocompatibility of spherical nanophase hydroxyapatite and the results were helpful in the manufacture of more suitable tissue engineering scaffolds.

  13. Adsorption of vitamin E on mesoporous titania nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, C.J.; Lin, C.T.; Wu, S.M.

    2010-07-15

    Tri-block nonionic surfactant and titanium chloride were used as starting materials for the synthesis of mesoporous titania nanocrystallite powders. The main objective of the present study was to examine the synthesis of mesoporous titania nanocrystals and the adsorption of vitamin E on those nanocrystals using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy, and nitrogen adsorption and desorption isotherms. When the calcination temperature was increased to 300 {sup o}C, the reflection peaks in the XRD pattern indicated the presence of an anatase phase. The crystallinity of the nanocrystallites increased from 80% to 98.6% with increasing calcination temperature from 465 {sup o}C to 500 {sup o}C. The N{sub 2} adsorption data and XRD data taken after vitamin E adsorption revealed that the vitamin E molecules were adsorbed in the mesopores of the titania nanocrystals.

  14. Alexa Fluor-labeled Fluorescent Cellulose Nanocrystals for Bioimaging Solid Cellulose in Spatially Structured Microenvironments

    SciTech Connect

    Grate, Jay W.; Mo, Kai-For; Shin, Yongsoon; Vasdekis, Andreas; Warner, Marvin G.; Kelly, Ryan T.; Orr, Galya; Hu, Dehong; Dehoff, Karl J.; Brockman, Fred J.; Wilkins, Michael J.

    2015-03-18

    Cellulose nanocrystal materials have been labeled with modern Alexa Fluor dyes in a process that first links the dye to a cyanuric chloride molecule. Subsequent reaction with cellulose nanocrystals provides dyed solid microcrystalline cellulose material that can be used for bioimaging and suitable for deposition in films and spatially structured microenvironments. It is demonstrated with single molecular fluorescence microscopy that these films are subject to hydrolysis by cellulose enzymes.

  15. Early stage of nanocrystal growth

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    Berkeley Lab researchers at the Molecular Foundry have elucidated important mechanisms behind oriented attachment, the phenomenon that drives biomineralization and the growth of nanocrystals. This electron microscopy movie shows the early stage of nanocrystal growth. Nanoparticles make transient contact at many points and orientations until their lattices are perfectly matched. The particles then make a sudden jump-to-contact to form attached aggregates. (Movie courtesy of Jim DeYoreo)

  16. Fundamentals of fluid sealing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuk, J.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamentals of fluid sealing, including seal operating regimes, are discussed and the general fluid-flow equations for fluid sealing are developed. Seal performance parameters such as leakage and power loss are presented. Included in the discussion are the effects of geometry, surface deformations, rotation, and both laminar and turbulent flows. The concept of pressure balancing is presented, as are differences between liquid and gas sealing. Mechanisms of seal surface separation, fundamental friction and wear concepts applicable to seals, seal materials, and pressure-velocity (PV) criteria are discussed.

  17. Electromagnetic modeling of active silicon nanocrystal waveguides.

    PubMed

    Redding, Brandon; Shi, Shouyuan; Creazzo, Tim; Prather, Dennis W

    2008-06-01

    In this paper we propose an electromagnetic analysis of active silicon nano-crystal (Si-nc) waveguide devices. To account for the nonlinearity in the active medium we introduce a four level rate equation model whose parameters are based on experimentally reported material properties. The electromagnetic polarization serves to couple the quantum mechanical and electromagnetic behavior within the ADE-FDTD scheme. The developed modeling tool is used to simulate waveguide amplifiers, enhanced spontaneous emission microcavities, and the temporal lasing dynamics of active Si-nc based devices.

  18. Mixed semiconductor nanocrystal compositions

    DOEpatents

    Maskaly, Garry R.; Schaller, Richard D.; Klimov, Victor I.

    2011-02-15

    Composition comprising one or more energy donors and one or more energy acceptors, wherein energy is transferred from the energy donor to the energy acceptor and wherein: the energy acceptor is a colloidal nanocrystal having a lower band gap energy than the energy donor; the energy donor and the energy acceptor are separated by a distance of 40 nm or less; wherein the average peak absorption energy of the acceptor is at least 20 meV greater than the average peak emission energy of the energy donor; and wherein the ratio of the number of energy donors to the number of energy acceptors is from about 2:1 to about 1000:1.

  19. Assemblies of Cellulose Nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumacheva, Eugenia

    The entropically driven coassembly of nanorods (cellulose nanocrystals, CNCs) and different types of nanoparticles (NPs), including dye-labeled latex NPs, carbon dots and plasmonic NPs was experimentally studied in aqueous suspensions and in solid films. In mixed CNC-NP suspensions, phase separation into an isotropic NP-rich and a chiral nematic CNC-rich phase took place; the latter contained a significant amount of NPs. Drying the mixed suspension resulted in CNC-NP films with planar disordered layers of NPs, which alternated with chiral nematic CNC-rich regions. In addition, NPs were embedded in the chiral nematic domains. The stratified morphology of the films, together with a random distribution of NPs in the anisotropic phase, led to the films having close-to-uniform fluorescence, birefringence, and circular dichroism properties.

  20. Diffraction by nanocrystals II.

    PubMed

    Chen, Joe P J; Millane, Rick P

    2014-08-01

    Nanocrystals with more than one molecule in the unit cell will generally crystallize with incomplete unit cells on the crystal surface. Previous results show that the ensemble-averaged diffraction by such crystals consists of a usual Bragg component and two other Bragg-like components due to the incomplete unit cells. Using an intrinsic flexibility in the definition of the incomplete-unit-cell part of a crystal, the problem is formulated such that the magnitude of the Bragg-like components is minimized, which leads to a simpler and more useful interpretation of the diffraction. Simulations show the nature of the relative magnitudes of the diffraction components in different regions of reciprocal space and the effect of crystal faceting. PMID:25121528

  1. Tuning Equilibrium Compositions in Colloidal Cd1-xMnxSe Nanocrystals Using Diffusion Doping and Cation Exchange.

    PubMed

    Barrows, Charles J; Chakraborty, Pradip; Kornowske, Lindsey M; Gamelin, Daniel R

    2016-01-26

    The physical properties of semiconductor nanocrystals can be tuned dramatically via composition control. Here, we report a detailed investigation of the synthesis of high-quality colloidal Cd1-xMnxSe nanocrystals by diffusion doping of preformed CdSe nanocrystals. Until recently, Cd1-xMnxSe nanocrystals proved elusive because of kinetic incompatibilities between Mn(2+) and Cd(2+) chemistries. Diffusion doping allows Cd1-xMnxSe nanocrystals to be prepared under thermodynamic rather than kinetic control, allowing access to broader composition ranges. We now investigate this chemistry as a model system for understanding the characteristics of nanocrystal diffusion doping more deeply. From the present work, a Se(2-)-limited reaction regime is identified, in which Mn(2+) diffusion into CdSe nanocrystals is gated by added Se(2-), and equilibrium compositions are proportional to the amount of added Se(2-). At large added Se(2-) concentrations, a solubility-limited regime is also identified, in which x = xmax = ∼0.31, independent of the amount of added Se(2-). We further demonstrate that Mn(2+) in-diffusion can be reversed by cation exchange with Cd(2+) under exactly the same reaction conditions, purifying Cd1-xMnxSe nanocrystals back to CdSe nanocrystals with fine tunability. These chemistries offer exceptional composition control in Cd1-xMnxSe NCs, providing opportunities for fundamental studies of impurity diffusion in nanocrystals and for development of compositionally tuned nanocrystals with diverse applications ranging from solar energy conversion to spin-based photonics. PMID:26643033

  2. Direct observation of narrow mid-infrared plasmon linewidths of single metal oxide nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    Johns, Robert W.; Bechtel, Hans A.; Runnerstrom, Evan L.; Agrawal, Ankit; Lounis, Sebastien D.; Milliron, Delia J.

    2016-01-01

    Infrared-responsive doped metal oxide nanocrystals are an emerging class of plasmonic materials whose localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR) can be resonant with molecular vibrations. This presents a distinctive opportunity to manipulate light–matter interactions to redirect chemical or spectroscopic outcomes through the strong local electric fields they generate. Here we report a technique for measuring single nanocrystal absorption spectra of doped metal oxide nanocrystals, revealing significant spectral inhomogeneity in their mid-infrared LSPRs. Our analysis suggests dopant incorporation is heterogeneous beyond expectation based on a statistical distribution of dopants. The broad ensemble linewidths typically observed in these materials result primarily from sample heterogeneity and not from strong electronic damping associated with lossy plasmonic materials. In fact, single nanocrystal spectra reveal linewidths as narrow as 600 cm−1 in aluminium-doped zinc oxide, a value less than half the ensemble linewidth and markedly less than homogeneous linewidths of gold nanospheres. PMID:27174681

  3. Spectroscopic and Device Aspects of Nanocrystal Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Pietryga, Jeffrey M; Park, Young-Shin; Lim, Jaehoon; Fidler, Andrew F; Bae, Wan Ki; Brovelli, Sergio; Klimov, Victor I

    2016-09-28

    The field of nanocrystal quantum dots (QDs) is already more than 30 years old, and yet continuing interest in these structures is driven by both the fascinating physics emerging from strong quantum confinement of electronic excitations, as well as a large number of prospective applications that could benefit from the tunable properties and amenability toward solution-based processing of these materials. The focus of this review is on recent advances in nanocrystal research related to applications of QD materials in lasing, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), and solar energy conversion. A specific underlying theme is innovative concepts for tuning the properties of QDs beyond what is possible via traditional size manipulation, particularly through heterostructuring. Examples of such advanced control of nanocrystal functionalities include the following: interface engineering for suppressing Auger recombination in the context of QD LEDs and lasers; Stokes-shift engineering for applications in large-area luminescent solar concentrators; and control of intraband relaxation for enhanced carrier multiplication in advanced QD photovoltaics. We examine the considerable recent progress on these multiple fronts of nanocrystal research, which has resulted in the first commercialized QD technologies. These successes explain the continuing appeal of this field to a broad community of scientists and engineers, which in turn ensures even more exciting results to come from future exploration of this fascinating class of materials. PMID:27677521

  4. 2nd International Symposium on Fundamental Aspects of Rare-earth Elements Mining and Separation and Modern Materials Engineering (REES-2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavadyan, Levon, Prof; Sachkov, Viktor, Prof; Godymchuk, Anna, Dr.; Bogdan, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The 2nd International Symposium «Fundamental Aspects of Rare-earth Elements Mining and Separation and Modern Materials Engineering» (REES2015) was jointly organized by Tomsk State University (Russia), National Academy of Science (Armenia), Shenyang Polytechnic University (China), Moscow Institute of Physics and Engineering (Russia), Siberian Physical-technical Institute (Russia), and Tomsk Polytechnic University (Russia) in September, 7-15, 2015, Belokuriha, Russia. The Symposium provided a high quality of presentations and gathered engineers, scientists, academicians, and young researchers working in the field of rare and rare earth elements mining, modification, separation, elaboration and application, in order to facilitate aggregation and sharing interests and results for a better collaboration and activity visibility. The goal of the REES2015 was to bring researchers and practitioners together to share the latest knowledge on rare and rare earth elements technologies. The Symposium was aimed at presenting new trends in rare and rare earth elements mining, research and separation and recent achievements in advanced materials elaboration and developments for different purposes, as well as strengthening the already existing contacts between manufactures, highly-qualified specialists and young scientists. The topics of the REES2015 were: (1) Problems of extraction and separation of rare and rare earth elements; (2) Methods and approaches to the separation and isolation of rare and rare earth elements with ultra-high purity; (3) Industrial technologies of production and separation of rare and rare earth elements; (4) Economic aspects in technology of rare and rare earth elements; and (5) Rare and rare earth based materials (application in metallurgy, catalysis, medicine, optoelectronics, etc.). We want to thank the Organizing Committee, the Universities and Sponsors supporting the Symposium, and everyone who contributed to the organization of the event and to

  5. Controllable Synthesis of Monodisperse Er3+-Doped Lanthanide Oxyfluorides Nanocrystals with Intense Mid-Infrared Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Huilin; Liu, Qiang; Yang, Dandan; Pan, Qiwen; Qiu, Jianrong; Dong, Guoping

    2016-10-01

    Monodisperse lanthanide oxyfluorides LnOF (Ln = Gd, Y) with mid-infrared emissions were controllably synthesized via a mild co-precipitation route and a subsequent heat-treatment. The detailed composition and morphology were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The results showed that monodisperse GdOF:Er3+ were nano-riced shape with length about 350 nm and width about 120 nm, while the quasi-spherical YOF:Er3+ were uniform nanocrystals with an average size around 100 nm. The influence of calcination temperature on the size and phase transition of LnOF nanocrystals was also investigated. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra indicated that the 2.7 μm emission of Er3+ had achieved in both GdOF and YOF nanocrystals, which were calcined at different temperatures. In addition, the decay time of both 4I13/2 and 4I13/2 energy levels corresponding to Er3+ in YOF nanocrystals were also studied in detail. The results suggested that both rice-shaped GdOF nanocrystals and YOF nanocrystals could provide suitable candidate materials for nanocrystals-glass composites, which could be a step forward to the realization of mid-infrared laser materials.

  6. Controllable Synthesis of Monodisperse Er3+-Doped Lanthanide Oxyfluorides Nanocrystals with Intense Mid-Infrared Emission

    PubMed Central

    He, Huilin; Liu, Qiang; Yang, Dandan; Pan, Qiwen; Qiu, Jianrong; Dong, Guoping

    2016-01-01

    Monodisperse lanthanide oxyfluorides LnOF (Ln = Gd, Y) with mid-infrared emissions were controllably synthesized via a mild co-precipitation route and a subsequent heat-treatment. The detailed composition and morphology were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The results showed that monodisperse GdOF:Er3+ were nano-riced shape with length about 350 nm and width about 120 nm, while the quasi-spherical YOF:Er3+ were uniform nanocrystals with an average size around 100 nm. The influence of calcination temperature on the size and phase transition of LnOF nanocrystals was also investigated. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra indicated that the 2.7 μm emission of Er3+ had achieved in both GdOF and YOF nanocrystals, which were calcined at different temperatures. In addition, the decay time of both 4I13/2 and 4I13/2 energy levels corresponding to Er3+ in YOF nanocrystals were also studied in detail. The results suggested that both rice-shaped GdOF nanocrystals and YOF nanocrystals could provide suitable candidate materials for nanocrystals-glass composites, which could be a step forward to the realization of mid-infrared laser materials. PMID:27748411

  7. 2011 Clusters, Nanocrystals & Nanostructures Gordon Research Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Lai-Sheng Wang

    2011-07-29

    Small particles have been at the heart of nanoscience since the birth of the field and now stand ready to make significant contributions to the big challenges of energy, health and sustainability. Atomic clusters show exquisite size-dependent electronic and magnetic properties and offer a new level of control in catalyses, sensors and biochips; functionalised nanocrystals offer remarkable optical properties and diverse applications in electronic devices, solar energy, and therapy. Both areas are complemented by a raft of recent advances in fabrication, characterization, and performance of a diversity of nanomaterials from the single atom level to nanowires, nanodevices, and biologically-inspired nanosystems. The goal of the 2011 Gordon Conference is thus to continue and enhance the interdisciplinary tradition of this series and discuss the most recent advances, fundamental scientific questions, and emerging applications of clusters, nanocrystals, and nanostructures. A single conference covering all aspects of nanoscience from fundamental issues to applications has the potential to create new ideas and stimulate cross fertilization. The meeting will therefore provide a balance among the three sub-components of the conference, true to its title, with a selection of new topics added to reflect rapid advances in the field. The open atmosphere of a Gordon conference, emphasizing the presentation of unpublished results and extensive discussions, is an ideal home for this rapidly developing field and will allow all participants to enjoy a valuable and stimulating experience. Historically, this Gordon conference has been oversubscribed, so we encourage all interested researchers from academia, industry, and government institutions to apply as early as possible. We also encourage all attendees to submit their latest results for presentation at the poster sessions. We anticipate that several posters will be selected for 'hot topic' oral presentations. Given the important

  8. Facet effects of palladium nanocrystals for oxygen reduction in ionic liquids and for sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yongan; Chi, Xiaowei; Zou, Shouzhong; Zeng, Xiangqun

    2016-03-01

    Palladium nanocrystals enclosed by {100} and {110} crystal facets, were successfully synthesized through an aqueous one-pot synthesis method. A new thermal annealing approach was developed for fabricating these palladium nanocrystals as a working electrode on a gas permeable membrane to study the facet effects of the oxygen reduction process in an ionic liquid, 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Bmpy][NTf2]). Results were compared with the same processes at a conventional platinum electrode. Our study shows that the structural difference between the two facets of Pd nanocrystals has little effect on the oxygen reduction process but significantly affects the oxidation process of the superoxide. It is found that the Pd{110}/IL interface can better stabilize superoxide radicals revealed by a more positive oxidation potential compared to that of Pd{100}. In addition, the analytical characteristic of utilizing both palladium nanocrystals as electrodes for oxygen sensing is comparable with a polycrystal platinum oxygen sensor, in which Pd{110} presents the best sensitivity and lowest detection limit. Our results demonstrate the facet-dependence of oxygen reduction in an ionic liquid medium and provide the fundamental information needed to guide the applications of palladium nanocrystals in electrochemical gas sensor and fuel cell research.Palladium nanocrystals enclosed by {100} and {110} crystal facets, were successfully synthesized through an aqueous one-pot synthesis method. A new thermal annealing approach was developed for fabricating these palladium nanocrystals as a working electrode on a gas permeable membrane to study the facet effects of the oxygen reduction process in an ionic liquid, 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Bmpy][NTf2]). Results were compared with the same processes at a conventional platinum electrode. Our study shows that the structural difference between the two facets of Pd

  9. Semiconductor nanocrystal-based phagokinetic tracking

    DOEpatents

    Alivisatos, A Paul; Larabell, Carolyn A; Parak, Wolfgang J; Le Gros, Mark; Boudreau, Rosanne

    2014-11-18

    Methods for determining metabolic properties of living cells through the uptake of semiconductor nanocrystals by cells. Generally the methods require a layer of neutral or hydrophilic semiconductor nanocrystals and a layer of cells seeded onto a culture surface and changes in the layer of semiconductor nanocrystals are detected. The observed changes made to the layer of semiconductor nanocrystals can be correlated to such metabolic properties as metastatic potential, cell motility or migration.

  10. Enhanced photothermal effect of surface oxidized silicon nanocrystals anchored to reduced graphene oxide nanosheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afshani, Parichehr; Moussa, Sherif; Atkinson, Garrett; Kisurin, Vitaly Y.; Samy El-Shall, M.

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrate the coupling of the photothermal effects of silicon nanocrystals and graphene oxide (GO) dispersed in water. Using laser irradiation (532 nm or 355 nm) of suspended Si nanocrystals in an aqueous solution of GO, the synthesis of surface oxidized Si-reduced GO nanocomposites (SiOx/Si-RGO) is reported. The laser reduction of GO is accompanied by surface oxidation of the Si nanocrystals resulting in the formation of the SiOx/Si-RGO nanocomposites. The SiOx/Si-RGO nanocomposites are proposed as promising materials for photothermal therapy and for the efficient conversion of solar energy into usable heat for a variety of thermal and thermomechanical applications.

  11. Pressure-induced preferential growth of nanocrystals in amorphous Nd(9)Fe(85)B(6).

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Li, Wei; Sun, Hongyu; Li, Hui; Li, Xiaohong; Liu, Baoting; Zhang, Xiangyi

    2008-07-16

    Control over the growth and crystallographic orientation of nanocrystals in amorphous alloys is of particular importance for the development of advanced nanocrystalline materials. In the present study, Nd(2)Fe(14)B nanocrystals with a strong crystallographic texture along the [410] direction have been produced in Nd-lean amorphous Nd(9)Fe(85)B(6) under a high pressure of 6 GPa at 923 K. This is attributed to the high pressure inducing the preferential growth of Nd(2)Fe(14)B nanocrystals in the alloy. The present study demonstrates the potential application of high-pressure technology in controlling nanocrystalline orientation in amorphous alloys.

  12. Charge-controlled magnetism in colloidal doped semiconductor nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamelin, Daniel

    2010-03-01

    Electrical control over the magnetic states of doped semiconductor nanostructures could enable new spin-based information processing technologies, but the relatively weak interactions between dopants and charge carriers have so far suggested that such gated magnetism will be limited to cryogenic temperatures. This talk will describe the observation of a large, reversible, room-temperature magnetic response to charge injection in free-standing colloidal ZnO nanocrystals doped with Mn(II) ions. Injected electrons are found to delocalize throughout the entire nanocrystal, and to activate new ferromagnetic Mn(II)-Mn(II) exchange interactions that are strong enough to overcome antiferromagnetic coupling between nearest-neighbor Mn(II) ions, making the full magnetic moments of all dopants observable upon charging. Removal of the electron causes the system to revert to its original form, allowing reversible charge-controlled manipulation of room-temperature nanocrystal magnetism. The physical properties of these charged, doped nanocrystals are directly analogous to those of bound magnetic poltroons (BMPs) postulated to underlie high-temperature ferromagnetic ordering in the bulk forms of this and related diluted magnetic oxides. This discovery of charge-controlled magnetism in free-standing colloidal nanocrystals that is large, reversible, and stable at room temperature presents new opportunities for fundamental studies and raises interesting possibilities for the development of spin-based information processing technologies from solution-processable semiconductor nanostructures. Related references: Ochsenbein, S. T.; Feng, Y.; Whitaker, K. M.; Badaeva, E.; Liu, W. K.; Li, X.; Gamelin, D. R., Nature Nanotechnology, 4, 681 (2009); Liu, W. K.; Whitaker, K. M.; Kittilstved, K. R.; Gamelin, D. R., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 128, 3910 (2006).

  13. Periodic mesoporous hydridosilica--synthesis of an "impossible" material and its thermal transformation into brightly photoluminescent periodic mesoporous nanocrystal silicon-silica composite.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhuoying; Henderson, Eric J; Dag, Ömer; Wang, Wendong; Lofgreen, Jennifer E; Kübel, Christian; Scherer, Torsten; Brodersen, Peter M; Gu, Zhong-Ze; Ozin, Geoffrey A

    2011-04-01

    There has always been a fascination with "impossible" compounds, ones that do not break any rules of chemical bonding or valence but whose structures are unstable and do not exist. This instability can usually be rationalized in terms of chemical or physical restrictions associated with valence electron shells, multiple bonding, oxidation states, catenation, and the inert pair effect. In the pursuit of these "impossible" materials, appropriate conditions have sometimes been found to overcome these instabilities and synthesize missing compounds, yet for others these tricks have yet to be uncovered and the materials remain elusive. In the scientifically and technologically important field of periodic mesoporous silicas (PMS), one such "impossible" material is periodic mesoporous hydridosilica (meso-HSiO(1.5)). It is the archetype of a completely interrupted silica open framework material: its pore walls are comprised of a three-connected three-dimensional network that should be so thermodynamically unstable that any mesopores present would immediately collapse upon removal of the mesopore template. In this study we show that meso-HSiO(1.5) can be synthesized by template-directed self-assembly of HSi(OEt)(3) under aqueous acid-catalyzed conditions and after template extraction remains stable to 300 °C. Above this temperature, bond redistribution reactions initiate a metamorphic transformation which eventually yields periodic mesoporous nanocrystalline silicon-silica, meso-ncSi/SiO(2), a nanocomposite material in which brightly photoluminescent silicon nanocrystallites are embedded within a silica matrix throughout the mesostructure. The integration of the properties of silicon nanocrystallinity with silica mesoporosity provides a wealth of new opportunities for emerging nanotechnologies.

  14. Linearly arranged polytypic CZTSSe nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Feng-Jia; Wu, Liang; Gong, Ming; Chen, Shi You; Liu, Guang Yao; Yao, Hong-Bin; Liang, Hai-Wei; Wang, Yi-Xiu; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2012-01-01

    Even colloidal polytypic nanostructures show promising future in band-gap tuning and alignment, researches on them have been much less reported than the standard nano-heterostructures because of the difficulties involved in synthesis. Up to now, controlled synthesis of colloidal polytypic nanocrsytals has been only realized in II-VI tetrapod and octopod nanocrystals with branched configurations. Herein, we report a colloidal approach for synthesizing non-branched but linearly arranged polytypic I2-II-IV-VI4 nanocrystals, with a focus on polytypic non-stoichiometric Cu2ZnSnSxSe4−x nanocrystals. Each synthesized polytypic non-stoichiometric Cu2ZnSnSxSe4−x nanocrystal is consisted of two zinc blende-derived ends and one wurtzite-derived center part. The formation mechanism has been studied and the phase composition can be tuned through adjusting the reaction temperature, which brings a new band-gap tuning approach to Cu2ZnSnSxSe4-x nanocrystals. PMID:23233871

  15. Langmuir-Blodgettry of nanocrystals and nanowires.

    PubMed

    Tao, Andrea R; Huang, Jiaxing; Yang, Peidong

    2008-12-01

    Although nanocrystals and nanowires have proliferated new scientific avenues in the study of their physics and chemistries, the bottom-up assembly of these small-scale building blocks remains a formidable challenge for device fabrication and processing. An attractive nanoscale assembly strategy should be cheap, fast, defect tolerant, compatible with a variety of materials, and parallel in nature, ideally utilizing the self-assembly to generate the core of a device, such as a memory chip or optical display. Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) assembly is a good candidate for arranging vast numbers of nanostructures on solid surfaces. In the LB technique, uniaxial compression of a nanocrystal or nanowire monolayer floating on an aqueous subphase causes the nanostructures to assemble and pack over a large area. The ordered monolayer can then be transferred to a solid surface en masse and with fidelity. In this Account, we present the Langmuir-Blodgett technique as a low-cost method for the massively parallel, controlled organization of nanostructures. The isothermal compression of fluid-supported nanoparticles or nanowires is unique in its ability to achieve control over nanoscale assembly by tuning a macroscopic property such as surface pressure. Under optimized conditions (e.g., surface pressure, substrate hydrophobicity, and pulling speed), it allows continuous variation of particle density, spacing, and even arrangement. For practical application and device fabrication, LB compression is ideal for forming highly dense assemblies of nanowires and nanocrystals over unprecedented surface areas. In addition, the dewetting properties of LB monolayers can be used to further achieve patterning within the range of micrometers to tens of nanometers without a predefined template. The LB method should allow for easy integration of nanomaterials into current manufacturing schemes, in addition to fast device prototyping and multiplexing capability. PMID:18683954

  16. Semiconductor nanocrystals in photoconductive polymers: Charge generation and charge transport

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ying; Herron, Norman; Suna, A.

    1996-10-01

    A new class of photoconductive polymer composites, based on semiconductor nanocrystals (clusters) and carder-transporting polymers, have been developed. These materials are interesting for their potentials in laser printing, imaging, and photorefractives. We will describe material synthesis, charge transport and charge generation mechanisms. In particular, a model of field-dependent charge generation and separation in nonpolar media (e.g. polymers) will be discussed.

  17. Hydrogen-Bonded Organic Semiconductor Micro- And Nanocrystals: From Colloidal Syntheses to (Opto-)Electronic Devices

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Organic pigments such as indigos, quinacridones, and phthalocyanines are widely produced industrially as colorants for everyday products as various as cosmetics and printing inks. Herein we introduce a general procedure to transform commercially available insoluble microcrystalline pigment powders into colloidal solutions of variously sized and shaped semiconductor micro- and nanocrystals. The synthesis is based on the transformation of the pigments into soluble dyes by introducing transient protecting groups on the secondary amine moieties, followed by controlled deprotection in solution. Three deprotection methods are demonstrated: thermal cleavage, acid-catalyzed deprotection, and amine-induced deprotection. During these processes, ligands are introduced to afford colloidal stability and to provide dedicated surface functionality and for size and shape control. The resulting micro- and nanocrystals exhibit a wide range of optical absorption and photoluminescence over spectral regions from the visible to the near-infrared. Due to excellent colloidal solubility offered by the ligands, the achieved organic nanocrystals are suitable for solution processing of (opto)electronic devices. As examples, phthalocyanine nanowire transistors as well as quinacridone nanocrystal photodetectors, with photoresponsivity values by far outperforming those of vacuum deposited reference samples, are demonstrated. The high responsivity is enabled by photoinduced charge transfer between the nanocrystals and the directly attached electron-accepting vitamin B2 ligands. The semiconducting nanocrystals described here offer a cheap, nontoxic, and environmentally friendly alternative to inorganic nanocrystals as well as a new paradigm for obtaining organic semiconductor materials from commercial colorants. PMID:25253644

  18. Luminescence properties of II/VI semiconductor colloidal nanocrystals at collective and single scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vion, Céline; Barthou, Carlos; Coolen, Laurent; Bennaloul, Paul; Chinh, Vu Duc; Thuy Linh, Pham; Thi Bich, Vu; Thu Nga, Pham; Maître, Agnès

    2009-09-01

    Colloidal nanocrystals are crystalline spheres of semiconductors of a few nanometers, obtained by chemical synthesis. At this size scale, lower than Bohr radius of the exciton, emission properties are dominated by quantum confinement effects and depend crucially on the nanocrystal radius, which can be controlled by adjusting the synthesis parameters. Nanocrystals present high photostability and good quantum efficiency, even at room temperature. Their emission wavelength can be tuned over the whole visible range, making them very attractive solid state light sources which are already used in optoelectronic devices or for biological labeling. The luminescence properties of CdSe colloidal nanocrystals synthesized at the Institute of Materials Science in Hanoi are presented. At collective scale, the emission properties reveal the synthesis quality. Temperature effects from ambient to 4 K on spectra and decay rates will be presented and analyzed in terms of emitting level fine structure. The study of CdSe colloidal quantum dots at the single emitter scale is of great interest as it reveals properties which are hidden by collective studies, such as luminescence "blinking", a random switching from a fluorescent to a non fluorescent state, which is closely related to the crystalline defects of a nanocrystal and its interaction with its environment. We will present the blinking properties of the prepared nanocrystals, and relate them to the nanocrystals synthesis quality and shell quality.

  19. Photosensitivity enhancement with TiO2 in semitransparent light-sensitive skins of nanocrystal monolayers.

    PubMed

    Akhavan, Shahab; Yeltik, Aydan; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2014-06-25

    We propose and demonstrate light-sensitive nanocrystal skins that exhibit broadband sensitivity enhancement based on electron transfer to a thin TiO2 film grown by atomic layer deposition. In these photosensors, which operate with no external bias, photogenerated electrons remain trapped inside the nanocrystals. These electrons generally recombine with the photogenerated holes that accumulate at the top interfacing contact, which leads to lower photovoltage buildup. Because favorable conduction band offset aids in transferring photoelectrons from CdTe nanocrystals to the TiO2 layer, which decreases the exciton recombination probability, TiO2 has been utilized as the electron-accepting material in these light-sensitive nanocrystal skins. A controlled interface thickness between the TiO2 layer and the monolayer of CdTe nanocrystals enables a photovoltage buildup enhancement in the proposed nanostructure platform. With TiO2 serving as the electron acceptor, we observed broadband sensitivity improvement across 350-475 nm, with an approximately 22% enhancement. Furthermore, time-resolved fluorescence measurements verified the electron transfer from the CdTe nanocrystals to the TiO2 layer in light-sensitive skins. These results could pave the way for engineering nanocrystal-based light-sensing platforms, such as smart transparent windows, light-sensitive walls, and large-area optical detection systems. PMID:24821008

  20. Nanocrystal powered nanomotor

    DOEpatents

    Regan, Brian C.; Zettl, Alexander K.; Aloni, Shaul

    2011-01-04

    A nanoscale nanocrystal which may be used as a reciprocating motor is provided, comprising a substrate having an energy differential across it, e.g. an electrical connection to a voltage source at a proximal end; an atom reservoir on the substrate distal to the electrical connection; a nanoparticle ram on the substrate distal to the atom reservoir; a nanolever contacting the nanoparticle ram and having an electrical connection to a voltage source, whereby a voltage applied between the electrical connections on the substrate and the nanolever causes movement of atoms between the reservoir and the ram. Movement of the ram causes movement of the nanolever relative to the substrate. The substrate and nanolever preferably comprise multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and the atom reservoir and nanoparticle ram are preferably metal (e.g. indium) deposited as small particles on the MWNTs. The substrate may comprise a silicon chip that has been fabricated to provide the necessary electrodes and other electromechanical structures, and further supports an atomic track, which may comprise an MWNT.

  1. Building Structural Complexity in Semiconductor Nanocrystals through Chemical Transformations

    SciTech Connect

    Sadtler, Bryce F

    2009-05-01

    Methods are presented for synthesizing nanocrystal heterostructures comprised of two semiconductor materials epitaxially attached within individual nanostructures. The chemical transformation of cation exchange, where the cations within the lattice of an ionic nanocrystal are replaced with a different metal ion species, is used to alter the chemical composition at specific regions ofa nanocrystal. Partial cation exchange was performed in cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanorods of well-defined size and shape to examine the spatial organization of materials within the resulting nanocrystal heterostructures. The selectivity for cation exchange to take place at different facets of the nanocrystal plays an important role in determining the resulting morphology of the binary heterostructure. The exchange of copper (I) (Cu+) cations in CdS nanorods occurs preferentially at the ends of the nanorods. Theoretical modeling of epitaxial attachments between different facets of CdS and Cu2S indicate that the selectivity for cation exchange at the ends of the nanorods is a result of the low formation energy of the interfaces produced. During silver (I) (Ag+) cation exchange in CdS nanorods, non-selective nucleation of silver sulfide (Ag2S), followed by partial phase segregation leads to significant changes in the spatial arrangement of CdS and Ag2S regions at the exchange reaction proceeds through the nanocrystal. A well-ordered striped pattern of alternating CdS and Ag2S segments is found at intermediate fractions of exchange. The forces mediating this spontaneous process are a combination of Ostwald ripening to reduce the interfacial area along with a strain-induced repulsive interaction between Ag2S segments. To elucidate why Cu+ and Ag+ cation exchange with CdS nanorods produce different morphologies, models for epitaxial attachments between various facets of CdS with Cu2S or

  2. Pyramidal and Chiral Groupings of Gold Nanocrystals Assembled Using DNA Scaffolds

    SciTech Connect

    Mastroianni, Alexander; Claridge, Shelley; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2009-03-30

    Nanostructures constructed from metal and semiconductor nanocrystals conjugated to, and organized by DNA are an emerging class of material with collective optical properties. We created discrete pyramids of DNA with gold nanocrystals at the tips. By taking small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurments from solutions of these pyramids we confirmed that this pyramidal geometry creates structures which are more rigid in solution than linear DNA. We then took advantage of the tetrahedral symmetry to demonstrate construction of chiral nanostructures.

  3. Characterization of CdSe-nanocrystals used in semiconductors for aerospace applications: Production and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegazy, Maroof A.; Abd El-Hameed, Afaf M.

    2014-06-01

    Semiconductor nanocrystals (NC’s) are the materials with dimensions less than 10 nm. When the dimensions of nanocrystals are reduced the bulk bohr diameter, the photo generated electron-hole pair becomes confined and nanocrystal exhibits size dependent upon optical properties. This work is focused on the studying of CdSe semiconductor nanocrystals. These nanocrystals are considered as one of the most widely studies semiconductors because of their size - tunable optical properties from the visible spectrum. CdSe-nanocrystals are produced and obtained throughout the experimental setup initiated at Nano-NRIAG Unit (NNU), which has been constructed and assembled at NRIAG institute. This unit has a specific characterization for preparing chemical compositions, which may be used for solar cell fabrications and space science technology. The materials prepared included cadmium oxide and selinid have sizes ranging between 2.27 nm and 3.75 nm. CdSe-nanocrystals are synthesized in “TOP/TOPO (tri-octyl phosphine/tri-octyl phosphine oxide). Diagnostic tools, include UV analysis, TEM microscope, and X-ray diffraction, which are considered for the analytical studies of the obtained materials. The results show that, in this size regime, the generated particles have unique optical properties, which is achieved from the UV analysis. Also, the TEM image analysis shows the size and shape of the produced particles. These studies are carried out to optimize the photoluminescent efficiency of these nanoparticles. Moreover, the data revealed that, the grain size of nanocrystals is dependent upon the growth time in turn, it leads to a change in the energy gap. Some applications of this class of materials are outlined.

  4. Nanocrystal assembly for tandem catalysis

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Peidong; Somorjai, Gabor; Yamada, Yusuke; Tsung, Chia-Kuang; Huang, Wenyu

    2014-10-14

    The present invention provides a nanocrystal tandem catalyst comprising at least two metal-metal oxide interfaces for the catalysis of sequential reactions. One embodiment utilizes a nanocrystal bilayer structure formed by assembling sub-10 nm platinum and cerium oxide nanocube monolayers on a silica substrate. The two distinct metal-metal oxide interfaces, CeO.sub.2--Pt and Pt--SiO.sub.2, can be used to catalyze two distinct sequential reactions. The CeO.sub.2--Pt interface catalyzed methanol decomposition to produce CO and H.sub.2, which were then subsequently used for ethylene hydroformylation catalyzed by the nearby Pt--SiO.sub.2 interface. Consequently, propanal was selectively produced on this nanocrystal bilayer tandem catalyst.

  5. How many electrons make a semiconductor nanocrystal film metallic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reich, Konstantin; Chen, Ting; Kramer, Nicolaas; Fu, Han; Kortshagen, Uwe; Shklovskii, Boris

    For films of semiconductor nanocrystals to achieve their potential as novel, low-cost electronic materials, a better understanding of their doping to tune their conductivity is required. So far, it not known how many dopants will turn a nanocrystal film from semiconducting to metallic. In bulk semiconductors, the critical concentration nM of electrons at the metal-insulator transition is described by the famous Mott criterion: nMaB3 ~= 0 . 02 , where aB is the effective Bohr radius. We show theoretically that in a dense NC film, where NCs touch each other by small facets, the concentration of electrons nc >>nM at the metal-insulator transition satisfies the condition: ncρ3 ~= 0 . 3 , where ρ is a radius of contact facets. In the accompanying experiments, we investigate the conduction mechanism in films of phosphorus-doped, ligand-free silicon nanocrystals. At the largest electron concentration achieved in our samples, which is half the predicted nc, we find that the localization length of hopping electrons is close to three times the nanocrystals diameter, indicating that the film approaches the metal-insulator transition. This work was supported primarily by the National Science Foundation through the University of Minnesota MRSEC under Award No. DMR-1420013.

  6. Tailoring indium oxide nanocrystal synthesis conditions for air-stable high-performance solution-processed thin-film transistors.

    PubMed

    Swisher, Sarah L; Volkman, Steven K; Subramanian, Vivek

    2015-05-20

    Semiconducting metal oxides (ZnO, SnO2, In2O3, and combinations thereof) are a uniquely interesting family of materials because of their high carrier mobilities in the amorphous and generally disordered states, and solution-processed routes to these materials are of particular interest to the printed electronics community. Colloidal nanocrystal routes to these materials are particularly interesting, because nanocrystals may be formulated with tunable surface properties into stable inks, and printed to form devices in an additive manner. We report our investigation of an In2O3 nanocrystal synthesis for high-performance solution-deposited semiconductor layers for thin-film transistors (TFTs). We studied the effects of various synthesis parameters on the nanocrystals themselves, and how those changes ultimately impacted the performance of TFTs. Using a sintered film of solution-deposited In2O3 nanocrystals as the TFT channel material, we fabricated devices that exhibit field effect mobility of 10 cm(2)/(V s) and an on/off current ratio greater than 1 × 10(6). These results outperform previous air-stable nanocrystal TFTs, and demonstrate the suitability of colloidal nanocrystal inks for high-performance printed electronics.

  7. Tailoring indium oxide nanocrystal synthesis conditions for air-stable high-performance solution-processed thin-film transistors.

    PubMed

    Swisher, Sarah L; Volkman, Steven K; Subramanian, Vivek

    2015-05-20

    Semiconducting metal oxides (ZnO, SnO2, In2O3, and combinations thereof) are a uniquely interesting family of materials because of their high carrier mobilities in the amorphous and generally disordered states, and solution-processed routes to these materials are of particular interest to the printed electronics community. Colloidal nanocrystal routes to these materials are particularly interesting, because nanocrystals may be formulated with tunable surface properties into stable inks, and printed to form devices in an additive manner. We report our investigation of an In2O3 nanocrystal synthesis for high-performance solution-deposited semiconductor layers for thin-film transistors (TFTs). We studied the effects of various synthesis parameters on the nanocrystals themselves, and how those changes ultimately impacted the performance of TFTs. Using a sintered film of solution-deposited In2O3 nanocrystals as the TFT channel material, we fabricated devices that exhibit field effect mobility of 10 cm(2)/(V s) and an on/off current ratio greater than 1 × 10(6). These results outperform previous air-stable nanocrystal TFTs, and demonstrate the suitability of colloidal nanocrystal inks for high-performance printed electronics. PMID:25915094

  8. The dependence of lead-salt nanocrystal properties on morphology and dielectric environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartnik, Adam Christopher

    The IV-VI semiconductors, and specifically the lead-salts (PbS, PbSe, and PbTe), are a natural choice for nanocrystal science. In nanocrystals, because of their narrow band gap, small effective masses, and large dielectric constants, they offer a unique combination of both strong confinement and strong dielectric contrast with their environment. Studying how these two effects modify optical and electrical properties of nanocrystals will be the topic of this dissertation. We begin with a summary of the synthesis of high-quality PbS and PbSe nanocrystals. Special care is taken to explain the chemical procedures in detail to an audience not expected to have significant prior chemistry knowledge. The synthesized nanocrystals have bright and tunable emission that spans the edge of the visible to the near-IR spectrum (700--1800 nm), and they are capped with organic ligands making them easily adaptable to different substrates or hosts. This combination of high optical quality and flexible device engineering make them extremely desirable for application. Moving beyond single-material nanocrystals, we next explore nanocrystal heterostructures, specifically materials with a spherical core of one semiconductor and a shell of another. Core-shell structures are commonly used in nanocrystals as a method to separate the core material, where the electrons and holes are expected to stay, from interfering effects at the surface. This typically results in improvements in stability and fluorescence quantum efficiency. To that end, we develop a model to explain how confinement plays out across abrupt changes in material, focusing on the optical and electrical properties of recently synthesized PbSe/PbS core-shell quantum dots. We show that for typical sizes of these nanocrystals, a novel type of nanocrystal heterostructure is created, where electrons and holes extend uniformly across the abrupt material boundary, and the shell does not act as a protecting layer. For very large sizes

  9. Recent Progress in Photocatalysis Mediated by Colloidal II-VI Nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    Wilker, Molly B; Schnitzenbaumer, Kyle J; Dukovic, Gordana

    2012-01-01

    The use of photoexcited electrons and holes in semiconductor nanocrystals as reduction and oxidation reagents is an intriguing way of harvesting photon energy to drive chemical reactions. This review focuses on recent research efforts to understand and control the photocatalytic processes mediated by colloidal II-VI nanocrystalline materials, such as cadmium and zinc chalcogenides. First, we highlight how nanocrystal properties govern the rates and efficiencies of charge-transfer processes relevant to photocatalysis. We then describe the use of nanocrystal catalyst heterostructures for fuel-forming reactions, most commonly H2 generation. Finally, we review the use of nanocrystal photocatalysis as a synthetic tool for metal–semiconductor nano-heterostructures. PMID:24115781

  10. "Nanocrystal bilayer for tandem catalysis"

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Yusuke; Tsung, Chia Kuang; Huang, Wenyu; Huo, Ziyang; E.Habas, Susan E; Soejima, Tetsuro; Aliaga, Cesar E; Samorjai, Gabor A; Yang, Peidong

    2011-01-24

    Supported catalysts are widely used in industry and can be optimized by tuning the composition and interface of the metal nanoparticles and oxide supports. Rational design of metal-metal oxide interfaces in nanostructured catalysts is critical to achieve better reaction activities and selectivities. We introduce here a new class of nanocrystal tandem catalysts that have multiple metal-metal oxide interfaces for the catalysis of sequential reactions. We utilized a nanocrystal bilayer structure formed by assembling platinum and cerium oxide nanocube monolayers of less than 10 nm on a silica substrate. The two distinct metal-metal oxide interfaces, CeO2-Pt and Pt-SiO2, can be used to catalyse two distinct sequential reactions. The CeO2-Pt interface catalysed methanol decomposition to produce CO and H2, which were subsequently used for ethylene hydroformylation catalysed by the nearby Pt-SiO2 interface. Consequently, propanal was produced selectively from methanol and ethylene on the nanocrystal bilayer tandem catalyst. This new concept of nanocrystal tandem catalysis represents a powerful approach towards designing high-performance, multifunctional nanostructured catalysts

  11. Tailoring lanthanide nanocrystals for nanomedicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan; Tan, Timothy T. Y.

    2013-02-01

    Lanthanide nanocrystals have demonstrated strong potentials in nanomedicine due to its up-conversion and strong magnetic properties, and low toxicity. This talk will focus on strategies in lanthanide nanostructure tailoring to achieve up-conversion color emission tuning, MRI T1 and T2 contrast tuning, and the use of up-conversion fluorescence in drug delivery and cancer cells ablation.

  12. Development and characterisation of ursolic acid nanocrystals without stabiliser having improved dissolution rate and in vitro anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Song, Ju; Wang, Yancai; Song, Yuelin; Chan, Hokman; Bi, Chao; Yang, Xiao; Yan, Ru; Wang, Yitao; Zheng, Ying

    2014-02-01

    Ursolic acid (UA), which is a natural pentacyclic triterpenoid, has the potential to be developed as an anticancer drug, whereas its poor aqueous solubility and dissolution rate limit its clinical application. The aim of the present study was to develop UA nanocrystals to enhance its aqueous dispersibility, dissolution rate and anticancer activity. Following the investigation on the effects of stabiliser, the ratio of organic phase to aqueous solution and drug concentration, the UA nanocrystals without stabiliser were successfully prepared by anti-solvent precipitation approach. The nanocrystals maintained similar crystallinity with particle size, polydispersion index and zeta potential values of 188.0 ± 4.4 nm, 0.154 ± 0.022, and -25.0 ± 5.9 mV, respectively. Compared with the raw material, the UA nanocrystals showed good aqueous dispensability and a higher dissolution rate, and they could be completely dissolved in 0.5% SDS solution within 120 min. Moreover, the suspension of UA nanocrystals was physically stable after storage at 4°C for 7 weeks. By inducing G2/M phase cell cycle arrest, the UA nanocrystals significantly induced stronger cell growth inhibition activity against MCF-7 cells compared with free drug in vitro, although the uptake of free UA was approximately twice higher than that of the UA nanocrystals. The UA nanocrystals may be used as a potential delivery formulation for intravenous injection with enhanced dissolution velocity and anticancer activity. PMID:24022345

  13. Selective epitaxial growth of zinc blende-derivative on wurtzite-derivative: the case of polytypic Cu2CdSn(S1-xSex)4 nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Liang; Fan, Feng-Jia; Gong, Ming; Ge, Jin; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2014-02-01

    Polytypic nanocrystals with zinc blende (ZB) cores and wurtzite (WZ) arms, such as tetrapod and octopod nanocrystals, have been widely reported. However, polytypic nanocrystals with WZ cores and ZB arms or ends have been rarely reported. Here, we report a facile, solution-based approach to the synthesis of polytypic Cu2CdSn(S1-xSex)4 (CCTSSe) nanocrystals with ZB-derivative selectively engineered on (000+/-2)WZ facets of WZ-derived cores. Accordingly, two typical morphologies, i.e., bullet-like nanocrystals with a WZ-derivative core and one ZB-derivative end, and rugby ball-like nanocrystals with a WZ-derivative core and two ZB-derivative ends, can be selectively prepared. The epitaxial growth mechanism is confirmed by the time-dependent experiments. The ratio of rugby ball-like and bullet-like polytypic CCTSSe nanocrystals can be tuned through changing the amount of Cd precursor to adjust the reactivity difference between (0002)WZ and (000-2)WZ facets. These unique polytypic CCTSSe nanocrystals may find applications in energetic semiconducting materials for energy conversion in the future.Polytypic nanocrystals with zinc blende (ZB) cores and wurtzite (WZ) arms, such as tetrapod and octopod nanocrystals, have been widely reported. However, polytypic nanocrystals with WZ cores and ZB arms or ends have been rarely reported. Here, we report a facile, solution-based approach to the synthesis of polytypic Cu2CdSn(S1-xSex)4 (CCTSSe) nanocrystals with ZB-derivative selectively engineered on (000+/-2)WZ facets of WZ-derived cores. Accordingly, two typical morphologies, i.e., bullet-like nanocrystals with a WZ-derivative core and one ZB-derivative end, and rugby ball-like nanocrystals with a WZ-derivative core and two ZB-derivative ends, can be selectively prepared. The epitaxial growth mechanism is confirmed by the time-dependent experiments. The ratio of rugby ball-like and bullet-like polytypic CCTSSe nanocrystals can be tuned through changing the amount of Cd precursor

  14. Fundamentals of Welding. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortney, Clarence; And Others

    These instructional materials assist teachers in improving instruction on the fundamentals of welding. The following introductory information is included: use of this publication; competency profile; instructional/task analysis; related academic and workplace skills list; tools, materials, and equipment list; and 27 references. Seven units of…

  15. Synthesis and characterization of cellulose nanocrystal/graphene oxide blended films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafy, Abdullahil; Akther, Asma; Shishir, Md. I. R.; Jo, Eun Byul; Kim, Jaehwan

    2016-04-01

    Hybrid composites with organic and inorganic materials are drawing interest to researchers by adopting advantages of organic materials and inorganic materials. Cellulose is biocompatible, cheap, environmentally friendly, renewable and lightweight material. Nano crystalline form of cellulose (CNC) is a needle like rigid structure with a very high mechanical strength. Graphene, crystalline forms of carbon, provides basic platform for many electronic and optoelectronic devices. This paper introduces the fabrication process of cellulose nanocrystal/graphene oxide blended nanocomposite film. Cellulose nanocrystal/graphene oxide nanocomposite films are prepared by mixing graphene oxide (GO) into cellulose nanocrystal suspension using ultrasonic homogenizer. Scanning electron microscopy is used to study morphology. Optical properties of the composite was characterized to evaluate the change in transparency after addition of GO in CNC.

  16. Cellulose nanocrystals reinforced foamed nitrile rubber nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yukun; Zhang, Yuanbing; Xu, Chuanhui; Cao, Xiaodong

    2015-10-01

    Research on foamed nitrile rubber (NBR)/cellulose nanocrystals (CNs) nanocomposites is rarely found in the literatures. In this paper, CNs suspension and NBR latex was mixed to prepared the foamed NBR/CNs nanocomposites. We found that the CNs mainly located in the cell walls, effectively reinforcing the foamed NBR. The strong interaction between the CNs and NBR matrix restricted the mobility of NBR chains surrounding the CNs, hence increasing the crosslink density of the NBR matrix. CNs exhibited excellent reinforcement on the foamed NBR: a remarkable increase nearly 76% in the tensile strength of the foamed nanocomposites was achieved with a load of only 15 phr CNs. Enhanced mechanical properties make the foamed NBR/CNs nanocomposites a promising damping material for industrial applications with a potential to reduce the petroleum consumption.

  17. Silicon nanocrystal-noble metal hybrid nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, H; Fujii, M; Imakita, K

    2016-06-01

    We report a novel and facile self-limiting synthesis route of silicon nanocrystal (Si NC)-based colloidally stable semiconductor-metal (gold, silver and platinum) hybrid nanoparticles (NPs). For the formation of hybrid NPs, we employ ligand-free colloidal Si NCs with heavily boron (B) and phosphorus (P) doped shells. By simply mixing B and P codoped colloidal Si NCs with metal salts, hybrid NPs consisting of metal cores and Si NC shells are spontaneously formed. We demonstrate the synthesis of highly uniform and size controllable hybrid NPs. It is shown that codoped Si NCs act as a reducing agent for metal salts and also as a protecting layer to stop metal NP growth. The process is thus self-limiting. The development of a variety of Si NC-based hybrid NPs is a promising first step for the design of biocompatible multifunctional NPs with broad material choices for biosensing, bioimaging and solar energy conversion. PMID:27121127

  18. Terahertz Properties of Cellulose Nanocrystals and Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnio, B. N.; Ahvazi, B.; Elezzabi, A. Y.

    2016-03-01

    Terahertz (THz) radiation properties of cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) films, a CNC powder, and a dissolving pulp film are examined using THz time-domain spectroscopy. The relative permittivity (real component) of the CNC samples are found to vary between 1.78 and 3.81, over the frequency range of 0.2-1.5 THz, despite the fact that they are made from the same linear chain of glucose monomers. The results show that the permittivity is strongly dependent on the source from which the CNC glucose monomers are extracted, as well as on the drying process used. The THz loss tangent (0.043 < tan( δ) < 0.145), absorption coefficient (3.5 cm-1 < α < 63.7 cm-1), and growth-varying permittivity, combined with other appealing thermal and mechanical characteristic of CNC, make such material attractive for use in both passive and potential THz bandwidth electronic components.

  19. Cellulose nanocrystals reinforced foamed nitrile rubber nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yukun; Zhang, Yuanbing; Xu, Chuanhui; Cao, Xiaodong

    2015-10-01

    Research on foamed nitrile rubber (NBR)/cellulose nanocrystals (CNs) nanocomposites is rarely found in the literatures. In this paper, CNs suspension and NBR latex was mixed to prepared the foamed NBR/CNs nanocomposites. We found that the CNs mainly located in the cell walls, effectively reinforcing the foamed NBR. The strong interaction between the CNs and NBR matrix restricted the mobility of NBR chains surrounding the CNs, hence increasing the crosslink density of the NBR matrix. CNs exhibited excellent reinforcement on the foamed NBR: a remarkable increase nearly 76% in the tensile strength of the foamed nanocomposites was achieved with a load of only 15 phr CNs. Enhanced mechanical properties make the foamed NBR/CNs nanocomposites a promising damping material for industrial applications with a potential to reduce the petroleum consumption. PMID:26076611

  20. Hydrothermal Gelation of Aqueous Cellulose Nanocrystal Suspensions.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Lev; Derakhshandeh, Maziar; Hatzikiriakos, Savvas G; Hamad, Wadood Y; MacLachlan, Mark J

    2016-08-01

    We report the facile preparation of gels from the hydrothermal treatment of suspensions of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs). The properties of the hydrogels have been investigated by rheology, electron microscopy, and spectroscopy with respect to variation in the temperature, time, and CNC concentration used in preparation. Desulfation of the CNCs at high temperature appears to be responsible for the gelation of the CNCs, giving highly porous networks. The viscosity and storage modulus of the gels was shown to increase when samples were prepared at higher treatment temperature. Considering the wide natural abundance and biocompatibility of CNCs, this simple, green approach to CNC-based hydrogels is attractive for producing materials that can be used in drug delivery, insulation, and as tissue scaffolds. PMID:27467200

  1. Generalized large-scale synthesis of MTiO{sub 3} (M = Ba, Sr, Pb) nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    An Changhua Liu Chunying; Wang Shutao; Liu Yunqi

    2008-04-01

    A general hydrothermal synthesis technique has been developed for the large-scale preparation of perovskite oxide nanocrystals of BaTiO{sub 3} (BT), SrTiO{sub 3} (ST) and PbTiO{sub 3} (PT). X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD) and Raman spectrum revealed that tetragonal BT was successfully synthesized. The obtained ST and PT were in cubic and tetragonal phase, respectively. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) images showed that all of the products were on nanometer scale. These nanocrystals should provide an ideal candidate for fundamental studies of nanoscale ferroelectricity, piezoelectricity, and paraelectricity. Meanwhile, the synthetic strategy may be easily extended to prepare other nearly monodispersed nanocrystals of perovskite oxides or solid solutions. The relative studies are in progress and will be reported later.

  2. Unique Challenges Accompany Thick-Shell CdSe/nCdS (n > 10) Nanocrystal Synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Y; Marchuk, K; Abraham, R; Sampat, S; Abraham, R.; Fang, N; Malko, AV; Vela, J

    2011-12-23

    Thick-shell CdSe/nCdS (n {ge} 10) nanocrystals were recently reported that show remarkably suppressed fluorescence intermittency or 'blinking' at the single-particle level as well as slow rates of Auger decay. Unfortunately, whereas CdSe/nCdS nanocrystal synthesis is well-developed up to n {le} 6 CdS monolayers (MLs), reproducible syntheses for n {ge} 10 MLs are less understood. Known procedures sometimes result in homogeneous CdS nucleation instead of heterogeneous, epitaxial CdS nucleation on CdSe, leading to broad and multimodal particle size distributions. Critically, obtained core/shell sizes are often below those desired. This article describes synthetic conditions specific to thick-shell growth (n {ge} 10 and n {ge} 20 MLs) on both small (sub2 nm) and large (>4.5 nm) CdSe cores. We find added secondary amine and low concentration of CdSe cores and molecular precursors give desired core/shell sizes. Amine-induced, partial etching of CdSe cores results in apparent shell-thicknesses slightly beyond those desired, especially for very-thick shells (n {ge} 20 MLs). Thermal ripening and fast precursor injection lead to undesired homogeneous CdS nucleation and incomplete shell growth. Core/shells derived from small CdSe (1.9 nm) have longer PL lifetimes and more pronounced blinking at single-particle level compared with those derived from large CdSe (4.7 nm). We expect our new synthetic approach will lead to a larger throughput of these materials, increasing their availability for fundamental studies and applications.

  3. Design of metal/dielectric/nanocrystals core/shell/shell nano-structures for the fluorescence enhancement of cadmium-free semiconductor nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevallier, Théo.; Le Blevennec, Gilles; Chandezon, Frédéric

    2015-10-01

    AgInS2-ZnS (ZAIS) quaternary semiconductors nanocrystals are versatile cadmium-free luminescent nanomaterials. Their broad emission spectrum and strong absorption make them ideal for the development of new white-LED devices taking advantage of nano-optical phenomena. We recently found strategies to increase the photoluminescence quantum yield of ZAIS nanocrystals up to 80%. In a second step toward high efficiency luminescent materials, we aim at increasing the net conversion efficiency of ZAIS nanocrystals by coupling them with metallic nano-antennae. Indeed, by grafting ZAIS nanocrystals onto carefully chosen metal/dielectric core/shell nanoparticles, both the absorption and emission processes can be tuned and enhanced. A finite-element simulation based on the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) was used to predict the nano-optical behavior of silver@oxide@ZAIS nanostructures. Desirable combinations of materials and geometry for the antennae were identified. A chemical method for the synthesis of the simulated nanostructures was developed. The coupling of ZAIS nanocrystals emission with the plasmonic structure is experimentally observed and is in accordance with our predictions.

  4. Anisotropic Gold Nanocrystals:. Synthesis and Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiufiuc, R.; Toderas, F.; Iosin, M.; Stiufiuc, G.

    In this letter we report on successful preparation and characterization of anisotropic gold nanocrystals bio-synthesized by reduction of aqueous chloroaurate ions in pelargonium plant extract. The nanocrystals have been characterized by means of Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy and tapping mode atomic force microscopy (TM-AFM). Using these investigation techniques, the successful formation of anisotropic single nanocrystals with the preferential growth direction along the gold (111) plane has been confirmed. The high detail phase images could give us an explanation concerning the growth mechanism of the nanocrystals.

  5. Size distributions of chemically synthesized Ag nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thøgersen, Annett; Bonsak, Jack; Fosli, Carl Huseby; Muntingh, Georg

    2011-08-01

    Silver nanocrystals made by a chemical reduction of silver salts (AgNO3) by sodium borohydride (NaBH4) were studied using transmission electron microscopy and light scattering simulations. For various AgNO3/NaBH4 molar ratios, the size distributions of the nanocrystals were found to be approximately log-normal. In addition, a linear relation was found between the mean nanocrystal size and the molar ratio. In order to relate the size distribution of Ag nanocrystals of the various molar ratios to the scattering properties of Ag nanocrystals in solar cell devices, light scattering simulations of Ag nanocrystals in Si, SiO2, SiN, and Al2O3 matrices were carried out using MiePlot. These light scattering spectra for the individual nanocrystal sizes were combined into light scattering spectra for the fitted size distributions. The evolution of these scattering spectra with respect to an increasing mean nanocrystal size was then studied. From these findings, it is possible to find the molar ratio for which the corresponding nanocrystal size distribution has maximum scattering at a particular wavelength in the desired matrix.

  6. Incorporation of organic crystals into the interspace of oriented nanocrystals: morphologies and properties.

    PubMed

    Munekawa, Yurika; Oaki, Yuya; Sato, Kosuke; Imai, Hiroaki

    2015-02-28

    Oriented nanocrystals, as seen in biominerals, have both the macroscopic hierarchical morphologies and the nanoscale interspace among the unit crystals. Here we studied the incorporation effects of the specific interspace in the oriented nanocrystals on the morphologies, properties, and applications of organic crystals. Organic crystals, such as 9-vinylcarbazole (VCz), azobenzene (AB), and pyrene (PY), were introduced into the specific interspace of oriented nanocrystals from the melts. The morphologies and properties of the incorporated organic crystals were systematically studied in these model cases. The incorporation of the organic crystals provided the composites with the original oriented nanocrystals. The incorporated organic crystals formed the single-crystalline structures even in the nanoscale interspace. The melts of the organic compounds were crystallized and grown in the interspace of the original materials. The incorporated organic crystals showed the specific phase transition behavior. The freezing points of the organic crystals were raised by the incorporation into the nanospace while the melting points were not changed. The hierarchical morphologies of the organic crystals were obtained after the dissolution of the original materials. The hierarchical morphologies of the original materials were replicated to the organic crystals. The incorporated organic crystal was polymerized without deformation of the hierarchical morphologies. The hierarchical polymer can be applied to the donor material for the generation of a larger amount of the charge-transfer complex with the acceptor molecule than the commercial polymer microparticles. The present work shows the potential use of the nanoscale interspace generated in the oriented nanocrystals.

  7. Tuning the Magnetic Properties of Metal Oxide Nanocrystal Heterostructures by Cation Exchange

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    For three types of colloidal magnetic nanocrystals, we demonstrate that postsynthetic cation exchange enables tuning of the nanocrystal’s magnetic properties and achieving characteristics not obtainable by conventional synthetic routes. While the cation exchange procedure, performed in solution phase approach, was restricted so far to chalcogenide based semiconductor nanocrystals, here ferrite-based nanocrystals were subjected to a Fe2+ to Co2+ cation exchange procedure. This allows tracing of the compositional modifications by systematic and detailed magnetic characterization. In homogeneous magnetite nanocrystals and in gold/magnetite core shell nanocrystals the cation exchange increases the coercivity field, the remanence magnetization, as well as the superparamagnetic blocking temperature. For core/shell nanoheterostructures a selective doping of either the shell or predominantly of the core with Co2+ is demonstrated. By applying the cation exchange to FeO/CoFe2O4 core/shell nanocrystals the Neél temperature of the core material is increased and exchange-bias effects are enhanced so that vertical shifts of the hysteresis loops are obtained which are superior to those in any other system. PMID:23362940

  8. Shape-Controlled Synthesis of Isotopic Yttrium-90-Labeled Rare Earth Fluoride Nanocrystals for Multimodal Imaging.

    PubMed

    Paik, Taejong; Chacko, Ann-Marie; Mikitsh, John L; Friedberg, Joseph S; Pryma, Daniel A; Murray, Christopher B

    2015-09-22

    Isotopically labeled nanomaterials have recently attracted much attention in biomedical research, environmental health studies, and clinical medicine because radioactive probes allow the elucidation of in vitro and in vivo cellular transport mechanisms, as well as the unambiguous distribution and localization of nanomaterials in vivo. In addition, nanocrystal-based inorganic materials have a unique capability of customizing size, shape, and composition; with the potential to be designed as multimodal imaging probes. Size and shape of nanocrystals can directly influence interactions with biological systems, hence it is important to develop synthetic methods to design radiolabeled nanocrystals with precise control of size and shape. Here, we report size- and shape-controlled synthesis of rare earth fluoride nanocrystals doped with the β-emitting radioisotope yttrium-90 ((90)Y). Size and shape of nanocrystals are tailored via tight control of reaction parameters and the type of rare earth hosts (e.g., Gd or Y) employed. Radiolabeled nanocrystals are synthesized in high radiochemical yield and purity as well as excellent radiolabel stability in the face of surface modification with different polymeric ligands. We demonstrate the Cerenkov radioluminescence imaging and magnetic resonance imaging capabilities of (90)Y-doped GdF3 nanoplates, which offer unique opportunities as a promising platform for multimodal imaging and targeted therapy.

  9. Pronounced multiferroicity in oleic acid stabilized BiFeO3 nanocrystals at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Mahesh, Dabbugalla; Mandal, Swapan K; Mahato, Bipul K; Rana, Bivas; Barman, Anjan

    2013-06-01

    We report on the experimental observation of pronounced multiferroicity in BiFeO3 nanocrystals (size approximately 40 nm) at room temperature. Large scale BiFeO3 nanocrystals are synthesized using a low temperature chemical route and further stabilized with oleic acid. The nanocrystals exhibit a significant distortion in lattice parameter c compared to the bulk. Oleic acid plays an important role in reducing oxygen vacancies and Fe2+ ions at the nanocrystal surface giving rise to a high resistivity (approximately 10(10) omega-cm at 300 K) of the sample. The direct band gap of nanocrystals is measured to be approximately 4.2 eV (about 1.5 times the bulk value) suggesting a strong quantum confinement effect. The nanocrystals show a remarkably high spontaneous saturation magnetization approximately 4.39 emu/g along with a prominent ferroelectric hysteresis loop at room temperature. Particle size effect leading to the appearance of large number of uncompensated spins and suppression of modulated spin structure have resulted a strong spontaneous magnetization in such nanoscale multiferroic materials. PMID:23862453

  10. Final Report of “Collaborative research: Fundamental science of low temperature plasma-biological material interactions” (Award# DE-SC0005105)

    SciTech Connect

    Oehrlein, Gottlieb S.; Seog, Joonil; Graves, David; Chu, J. -W.

    2014-09-24

    temperature plasma sources with modified geometry where radical induced interactions generally dominate due to short mean free paths of ions and VUV photons. In these conditions we demonstrated the importance of environmental interactions of plasma species when APP sources are used to modify biomolecules. This is evident from both gas phase characterization data and in-situ surface characterization of treated biomolecules. Environmental interactions can produce unexpected outcomes due to the complex reactions of reactive species with the atmosphere which determine the composition of reactive fluxes and atomistic changes in biomolecules. Overall, this work elucidated a richer spectrum of scientific opportunities and challenges for the field of low temperature plasma-biomolecule surface interactions than initially anticipated, in particular, for plasma sources operating at atmospheric pressure. The insights produced in this work, e.g. demonstration of the importance of environmental interactions, are generally important for applications of APP to materials modifications. Thus one major contributions of this research has been the establishment of methodologies to study the interaction of plasma with bio-molecules in a systemic and rigorous manner. In particular, our studies of atmospheric pressure plasma sources using very well-defined experimental conditions enabled us to correlate atomistic surface modifications of biomolecules with changes in their biological function. The clarification of the role of ions, VUV photons and radicals in deactivation of biomolecules during low pressure and atmospheric pressure plasma-biomolecule interaction has broad implications, e.g. for the emerging field of plasma medicine. The development of methods to detect the effects of plasma treatment on immune-active biomolecules will lay a fundamental foundation to enhance our understanding of the effect of plasma on biological systems. be helpful in many future studies.

  11. Direct Observation of Room-Temperature Polar Ordering in Colloidal GeTe Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Polking, Mark J.; Zheng, Haimei; Urban, Jeffrey J.; Milliron, Delia J.; Chan, Emory; Caldwell, Marissa A.; Raoux, Simone; Kisielowski, Christian F.; Ager III, Joel W.; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Alivisatos, A.P.

    2009-12-07

    Ferroelectrics and other materials that exhibit spontaneous polar ordering have demonstrated immense promise for applications ranging from non-volatile memories to microelectromechanical systems. However, experimental evidence of polar ordering and effective synthetic strategies for accessing these materials are lacking for low-dimensional nanomaterials. Here, we demonstrate the synthesis of size-controlled nanocrystals of the polar material germanium telluride (GeTe) using colloidal chemistry and provide the first direct evidence of room-temperature polar ordering in nanocrystals less than 5 nm in size using aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy. Synchrotron x-ray diffraction and Raman studies demonstrate a sizeable polar distortion and a reversible size-dependent polar phase transition in these nanocrystals. The stability of polar ordering in solution-processible nanomaterials suggests an economical avenue to Tbit/in2-density non-volatile memory devices and other applications.

  12. Fabrication and properties of transparent polymethylmethacrylate/cellulose nanocrystals composites.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haiyun; Liu, Dagang; Yao, Fei; Wu, Qinglin

    2010-07-01

    Nano-sized cellulose crystals were fabricated from microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) using combined sulfuric acid hydrolysis and high-pressure homogenization techniques. The crystals were then utilized to prepare polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) nanocomposites by the solution casting method. The cellulose nanocrystals had diameters from about 8 to 10nm and lengths in the range of 60-120 nm. Wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WXRD) results on the freeze-dried crystals revealed a slight increase in the degree of crystallinity after acid treatment. The composite sheets retained good transparency due to the size effect and dispersion of the cellulose nanocrystals. The thermogravimetric analysis indicated retained thermal stability of the composites. The storage modulus of the nanocomposite sheets from dynamic mechanical analysis showed significantly enhanced property in comparison with that of the pure PMMA sheets. The glass transition of the nanocomposites was shifted to lower temperatures with respect to the pure PMMA material.

  13. Physical Character and Morphology of Platinum Nanocrystals on Strontium Titanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gild, Joshua; Pierce, Michael; Komanicky, Vladimir; Barbour, Andi; You, Hoydoo

    2015-03-01

    The physical characteristics of platinum nanocrystals on single crystal strontium titanate, SrTiO3 , can effect the chemical properties of this important model catalyst. The morphology, epitaxy, distribution, and size of the Pt nano-crystals can all be controlled through different growth and processing mechanisms. Nanometer scale platinum thin films are deposited on strontium titanate at ambient temperatures then annealed at range of temperatures and in various oxidizing environments. The process of how these conditions influence the formation of uniformly epitaxial platinum crystals on the sample surface has been investigated using basic materials characterization techniques. Single crystal x-ray diffraction is the primary tool for these experiments, coupled with atomic force microscopy for morphology and x-ray and electron spectroscopy to determine chemical bonding between the particles and gases introduced into the system. These substrate supported nanoparticle samples will then be utilized in experiments to test their catalytic activity compared to an amorphous platinum film.

  14. Advanced Branching Control and Characterization of Inorganic Semiconducting Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, Steven Michael

    2007-01-01

    The ability to finely tune the size and shape of inorganic semiconducting nanocrystals is an area of great interest, as the more control one has, the more applications will be possible for their use. The first two basic shapes develped in nanocrystals were the sphere and the anistropic nanorod. the II_VI materials being used such as Cadmium Selenide (CdSe) and Cadmium Telluride (CdTe), exhibit polytypism, which allows them to form in either the hexagonally packed wurtzite or cubically packed zinc blende crystalline phase. The nanorods are wurtzite with the length of the rod growing along the c-axis. As this grows, stacking faults may form, which are layers of zinc blende in the otherwise wurtzite crystal. Using this polytypism, though, the first generation of branched crystals were developed in the form of the CdTe tetrapod. This is a nanocrystal that nucleates in the zincblend form, creating a tetrahedral core, on which four wurtzite arms are grown. This structure opened up the possibility of even more complex shapes and applications. This disseration investigates the advancement of branching control and further understanding the materials polytypism in the form of the stacking faults in nanorods.

  15. Si-nanocrystal-based nanofluids for nanothermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardona-Castro, M. A.; Morales-Sánchez, A.; Licea-Jiménez, L.; Alvarez-Quintana, J.

    2016-06-01

    The measurement of local temperature in nanoscale volumes is becoming a technological frontier. Photoluminescent nanoparticles and nanocolloids are the natural choice for nanoscale temperature probes. However, the influence of a surrounding liquid on the cryogenic behavior of oxidized Si-nanocrystals (Si-NCs) has never been investigated. In this work, the photoluminescence (PL) of oxidized Si-NCs/alcohol based nanocolloids is measured as a function of the temperature and the molecule length of monohydric alcohols above their melting–freezing point. The results unveil a progressive blue shift on the emission peak which is dependent on the temperature as well as the dielectric properties of the surrounding liquid. Such an effect is analyzed in terms of thermal changes of the Si-NCs bandgap, quantum confinement and the polarization effects of the embedding medium; revealing an important role of the dielectric constant of the surrounding liquid. These results are relevant because they offer a general insight to the fundamental behavior of photoluminescent nanocolloids under a cooling process and moreover, enabling PL tuning based on the dielectric properties of the surrounding liquid. Hence, the variables required to engineer PL of nanofluids are properly identified for use as temperature sensors at the nanoscale.

  16. Si-nanocrystal-based nanofluids for nanothermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardona-Castro, M. A.; Morales-Sánchez, A.; Licea-Jiménez, L.; Alvarez-Quintana, J.

    2016-06-01

    The measurement of local temperature in nanoscale volumes is becoming a technological frontier. Photoluminescent nanoparticles and nanocolloids are the natural choice for nanoscale temperature probes. However, the influence of a surrounding liquid on the cryogenic behavior of oxidized Si-nanocrystals (Si-NCs) has never been investigated. In this work, the photoluminescence (PL) of oxidized Si-NCs/alcohol based nanocolloids is measured as a function of the temperature and the molecule length of monohydric alcohols above their melting-freezing point. The results unveil a progressive blue shift on the emission peak which is dependent on the temperature as well as the dielectric properties of the surrounding liquid. Such an effect is analyzed in terms of thermal changes of the Si-NCs bandgap, quantum confinement and the polarization effects of the embedding medium; revealing an important role of the dielectric constant of the surrounding liquid. These results are relevant because they offer a general insight to the fundamental behavior of photoluminescent nanocolloids under a cooling process and moreover, enabling PL tuning based on the dielectric properties of the surrounding liquid. Hence, the variables required to engineer PL of nanofluids are properly identified for use as temperature sensors at the nanoscale.

  17. Si-nanocrystal-based nanofluids for nanothermometry.

    PubMed

    Cardona-Castro, M A; Morales-Sánchez, A; Licea-Jiménez, L; Alvarez-Quintana, J

    2016-06-10

    The measurement of local temperature in nanoscale volumes is becoming a technological frontier. Photoluminescent nanoparticles and nanocolloids are the natural choice for nanoscale temperature probes. However, the influence of a surrounding liquid on the cryogenic behavior of oxidized Si-nanocrystals (Si-NCs) has never been investigated. In this work, the photoluminescence (PL) of oxidized Si-NCs/alcohol based nanocolloids is measured as a function of the temperature and the molecule length of monohydric alcohols above their melting-freezing point. The results unveil a progressive blue shift on the emission peak which is dependent on the temperature as well as the dielectric properties of the surrounding liquid. Such an effect is analyzed in terms of thermal changes of the Si-NCs bandgap, quantum confinement and the polarization effects of the embedding medium; revealing an important role of the dielectric constant of the surrounding liquid. These results are relevant because they offer a general insight to the fundamental behavior of photoluminescent nanocolloids under a cooling process and moreover, enabling PL tuning based on the dielectric properties of the surrounding liquid. Hence, the variables required to engineer PL of nanofluids are properly identified for use as temperature sensors at the nanoscale. PMID:27125568

  18. Hollow nanocrystals and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Yin, Yadong; Erdonmez, Can Kerem

    2011-07-05

    Described herein are hollow nanocrystals having various shapes that can be produced by a simple chemical process. The hollow nanocrystals described herein may have a shell as thin as 0.5 nm and outside diameters that can be controlled by the process of making.

  19. Structure Map for Embedded Binary Alloy Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, C.W.; Shin, S.J.; Liao, C.Y.; Guzman, J.; Stone, P.R.; Watanabe, M.; Ager III, J.W.; Haller, E.E.; Chrzan, D.C.

    2008-09-20

    The equilibrium structure of embedded nanocrystals formed from strongly segregating binary-alloys is considered within a simple thermodynamic model. The model identifies two dimensionlessinterface energies that dictate the structure, and allows prediction of the stable structure for anychoice of these parameters. The resulting structure map includes three distinct nanocrystal mor-phologies: core/shell, lobe/lobe, and completely separated spheres.

  20. Electronic displays using optically pumped luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Shimon; Schlamp, Michael C; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2014-02-11

    A multicolor electronic display is based on an array of luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals. Nanocrystals which emit light of different colors are grouped into pixels. The nanocrystals are optically pumped to produce a multicolor display. Different sized nanocrystals are used to produce the different colors. A variety of pixel addressing systems can be used.

  1. Electronic displays using optically pumped luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Shimon; Schlam, Michael C; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2014-03-25

    A multicolor electronic display is based on an array of luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals. Nanocrystals which emit tight of different colors are grouped into pixels. The nanocrystals are optically pumped to produce a multicolor display. Different sized nanocrystals are used to produce the different colors. A variety of pixel addressing systems can be used.

  2. Electronic displays using optically pumped luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Shimon; Schlamp, Michael C.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2010-04-13

    A multicolor electronic display is based on an array of luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals. Nanocrystals which emit light of different colors are grouped into pixels. The nanocrystals are optically pumped to produce a multicolor display. Different sized nanocrystals are used to produce the different colors. A variety of pixel addressing systems can be used.

  3. Electronic displays using optically pumped luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Shimon; Schlamp, Michael C.; Alivisatos, Paul A.

    2015-11-10

    A multicolor electronic display is based on an array of luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals. Nanocrystals which emit tight of different colors are grouped into pixels. The nanocrystals are optically pumped to produce a multicolor display. Different sized nanocrystals are used to produce the different colors. A variety of pixel addressing systems can be used.

  4. Electronic displays using optically pumped luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, Shimon; Schlamp, Michael C.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2015-06-23

    A multicolor electronic display is based on an array of luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals. Nanocrystals which emit light of different colors are grouped into pixels. The nanocrystals are optically pumped to produce a multicolor display. Different sized nanocrystals are used to produce the different colors. A variety of pixel addressing systems can be used.

  5. Electronic displays using optically pumped luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Shimon; Schlamp, Michael C.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2011-09-27

    A multicolor electronic display is based on an array of luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals. Nanocrystals which emit light of different colors are grouped into pixels. The nanocrystals are optically pumped to produce a multicolor display. Different sized nanocrystals are used to produce the different colors. A variety of pixel addressing systems can be used.

  6. Electronic displays using optically pumped luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, Shimon; Schlamp, Michael C.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2005-03-08

    A multicolor electronic display is based on an array of luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals. Nanocrystals which emit light of different colors are grouped into pixels. The nanocrystals are optically pumped to produce a multicolor display. Different sized nanocrystals are used to produce the different colors. A variety of pixel addressing systems can be used.

  7. Three-Dimensional Percolation and Performance of Nanocrystal Field-Effect Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aigner, Willi; Wiesinger, Markus; Wiggers, Hartmut; Stutzmann, Martin; Pereira, Rui N.

    2016-05-01

    The understanding of charge transport through films of semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) is fundamental for most applications envisaged for these materials, e.g., light-emitting diodes, solar cells, and thin-film field-effect transistors (FETs). In this work, we show that three-dimensional film-thickness-dependent percolation effects taking place above the percolation threshold strongly affect the charge transport in NC films and greatly determine the performance of NC devices such as NC FETs. We use thin films of Si NCs with a wide range of thicknesses controllable by spray coating of NC inks to thoroughly investigate the electronic properties and charge transport in thin NC films. We find a steep (superlinear) increase of the electrical conductivity with increasing film thickness, which is not observed in bulk semiconductor thin films with bandlike charge transport. We explain this increase by an exponentially increasing number of charge percolation paths in a system dominated by hopping charge transport. Thin-film NC FETs reveal thickness-independent field-effect mobilities and threshold voltages, whereas on:off current ratios decrease quickly with increasing film thickness. We show that the steep enhancement of electrical conductivity with increasing film thickness provided by three-dimensional percolation effects is, in fact, responsible for the dramatic degradation of NC FET performance observed with increasing film thickness. Our work demonstrates that the performance of NC FETs is much more critically sensitive to film thickness than in conventional FET-based bulk semiconductor materials.

  8. Shape Evolution and Single Particle Luminescence of Organometal Halide Perovskite Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Feng; Men, Long; Guo, Yijun; Zhu, Qiaochu; Bhattacharjee, Ujjal; Goodwin, Peter M.; Petrich, Jacob W.; Smith, Emily A.; Vela, Javier

    2015-02-09

    Organometallic halide perovskites CH3NH3PbX3 (X = I, Br, Cl) have quickly become one of the most promising semiconductors for solar cells, with photovoltaics made of these materials reaching power conversion efficiencies of near 20%. Improving our ability to harness the full potential of organometal halide perovskites will require more controllable syntheses that permit a detailed understanding of their fundamental chemistry and photophysics. In our manuscript, we systematically synthesize CH3NH3PbX3 (X = I, Br) nanocrystals with different morphologies (dots, rods, plates or sheets) by using different solvents and capping ligands. CH3NH3PbX3 nanowires and nanorods capped with octylammonium halides show relatively higher photoluminescence (PL) quantum yields and long PL lifetimes. CH3NH3PbI3 nanowires monitored at the single particle level show shape-correlated PL emission across whole particles, with little photobleaching observed and very few off periods. Our work highlights the potential of low-dimensional organometal halide perovskite semiconductors in constructing new porous and nanostructured solar cell architectures, as well as in applying these materials to other fields such as light-emitting devices and single particle imaging and tracking.

  9. Shape Evolution and Single Particle Luminescence of Organometal Halide Perovskite Nanocrystals

    DOE PAGES

    Zhu, Feng; Men, Long; Guo, Yijun; Zhu, Qiaochu; Bhattacharjee, Ujjal; Goodwin, Peter M.; Petrich, Jacob W.; Smith, Emily A.; Vela, Javier

    2015-02-09

    Organometallic halide perovskites CH3NH3PbX3 (X = I, Br, Cl) have quickly become one of the most promising semiconductors for solar cells, with photovoltaics made of these materials reaching power conversion efficiencies of near 20%. Improving our ability to harness the full potential of organometal halide perovskites will require more controllable syntheses that permit a detailed understanding of their fundamental chemistry and photophysics. In our manuscript, we systematically synthesize CH3NH3PbX3 (X = I, Br) nanocrystals with different morphologies (dots, rods, plates or sheets) by using different solvents and capping ligands. CH3NH3PbX3 nanowires and nanorods capped with octylammonium halides show relatively highermore » photoluminescence (PL) quantum yields and long PL lifetimes. CH3NH3PbI3 nanowires monitored at the single particle level show shape-correlated PL emission across whole particles, with little photobleaching observed and very few off periods. Our work highlights the potential of low-dimensional organometal halide perovskite semiconductors in constructing new porous and nanostructured solar cell architectures, as well as in applying these materials to other fields such as light-emitting devices and single particle imaging and tracking.« less

  10. Fabrication of Fully Solution Processed Inorganic Nanocrystal Photovoltaic Devices.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Troy K; Durastanti, Dario; Heuer, William B; Foos, Edward E; Yoon, Woojun; Tischler, Joseph G

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a method for the preparation of fully solution processed inorganic solar cells from a spin and spray coating deposition of nanocrystal inks. For the photoactive absorber layer, colloidal CdTe and CdSe nanocrystals (3-5 nm) are synthesized using an inert hot injection technique and cleaned with precipitations to remove excess starting reagents. Similarly, gold nanocrystals (3-5 nm) are synthesized under ambient conditions and dissolved in organic solvents. In addition, precursor solutions for transparent conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) films are prepared from solutions of indium and tin salts paired with a reactive oxidizer. Layer-by-layer, these solutions are deposited onto a glass substrate following annealing (200-400 °C) to build the nanocrystal solar cell (glass/ITO/CdSe/CdTe/Au). Pre-annealing ligand exchange is required for CdSe and CdTe nanocrystals where films are dipped in NH4Cl:methanol to replace long-chain native ligands with small inorganic Cl(-) anions. NH4Cl(s) was found to act as a catalyst for the sintering reaction (as a non-toxic alternative to the conventional CdCl2(s) treatment) leading to grain growth (136±39 nm) during heating. The thickness and roughness of the prepared films are characterized with SEM and optical profilometry. FTIR is used to determine the degree of ligand exchange prior to sintering, and XRD is used to verify the crystallinity and phase of each material. UV/Vis spectra show high visible light transmission through the ITO layer and a red shift in the absorbance of the cadmium chalcogenide nanocrystals after thermal annealing. Current-voltage curves of completed devices are measured under simulated one sun illumination. Small differences in deposition techniques and reagents employed during ligand exchange have been shown to have a profound influence on the device properties. Here, we examine the effects of chemical (sintering and ligand exchange agents) and physical treatments (solution concentration

  11. Faceting of Nanocrystals during Chemical Transformation: FromSolid Silver Spheres to Hollow Gold Octahedra

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Yadong; Erdonmez, Can; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2006-06-23

    Sustained progress in nanocrystal synthesis has enabled recent use of these materials as inorganic, macromolecular precursors that can be chemically transformed into new nanostructures. The literature now contains several cases with chemical transformations being accompanied by varying degrees of modification of properties, including crystal structure and particle shape. As a recent example, we demonstrated that as-synthesized metallic nanocrystals yield, upon oxidation, nanostructures with modified morphologies such as hollow particles. This morphological change derives from directional material flows due to differing diffusivities for the reacting atomic species, in a nanoscale version of the well-known Kirkendall Effect. This general methodology has since been extended by other groups to produce nanostructures with various compositions and shapes. We demonstrate that performing a replacement reaction on single crystalline Ag nanospheres of {approx}10 nm in diameter in an organic solvent produces hollow Au nanocrystals with an octahedral shape. Different from those Au shells made by starting with Ag particles about one order of magnitude larger, which largely reproduce that of the sacrificial Ag counterparts, the hollow nanocrystals obtained in this work show significant changes in the external morphology from the spherical Ag precursors. This evolution of a faceted external morphology during chemical transformation is made possible by the enhanced role of surface effects in our smaller nanocrystals. The competition between the Au atom deposition and Ag atom dissolution on various nanocrystal surfaces is believed to determine the final octahedral shape of the hollow Au nanocrystals. Simultaneous achievement of surface-mediated shape control and a hollow morphology in a one-pot, single-step synthetic procedure in this study promises an avenue to finer tuning of particle morphology, and thus physical properties such as surface plasmon resonance.

  12. Superheating and supercooling of Ge nanocrystals embedded inSiO2

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Q.; Sharp, I.D.; Yuan, C.W.; Yi, D.O.; Liao, C.Y.; Glaeser,A.M.; Minor, A.M.; Beeman, J.W.; Ridgway, M.C.; Kluth, P.; Ager III,J.W.; Chrzan, D.C.; Haller, E.E.

    2006-08-21

    Free-standing nanocrystals exhibit a size-dependant thermodynamic melting point reduction relative to the bulk melting point that is governed by the surface free energy. The presence of an encapsulating matrix, however, alters the interface free energy of nanocrystals and their thermodynamic melting point can either increase or decrease relative to bulk. Furthermore, kinetic contributions can significantly alter the melting behaviors of embedded nanoscale materials. To study the effect of an encapsulating matrix on the melting behavior of nanocrystals, we performed in situ electron diffraction measurements on Ge nanocrystals embedded in a silicon dioxide matrix. Ge nanocrystals were formed by multi-energy ion implantation into a 500 nm thick silica thin film on a silicon substrate followed by thermal annealing at 900 C for 1 h. We present results demonstrating that Ge nanocrystals embedded in SiO{sub 2} exhibit a 470 K melting/solidification hysteresis that is approximately symmetric about the bulk melting point. This unique behavior, which is thought to be impossible for bulk materials, is well described using a classical thermodynamic model that predicts both kinetic supercooling and kinetic superheating. The presence of the silica matrix suppresses surface pre-melting of nanocrystals. Therefore, heterogeneous nucleation of both the liquid phase and the solid phase are required during the heating and cooling cycle. The magnitude of melting hysteresis is governed primarily by the value of the liquid Ge/solid Ge interface free energy, whereas the relative values of the solid Ge/matrix and liquid Ge/matrix interface free energies govern the position of the hysteresis loop in absolute temperature.

  13. Colloidal CIGS and CZTS nanocrystals: A precursor route to printed photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Akhavan, Vahid A.; Goodfellow, Brian W.; Panthani, Matthew G.; Steinhagen, Chet; Harvey, Taylor B.; Stolle, C. Jackson; Korgel, Brian A.

    2012-05-15

    This review article summarizes our research focused on Cu(In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x})Se{sub 2} (CIGS) nanocrystals, including their synthesis and implementation as the active light absorbing material in photovoltaic devices (PVs). CIGS PV layers are typically made using a high temperature (>450 Degree-Sign C) process in which Cu, In and Ga are sequentially or co-evaporated and selenized. We have sought to use CIGS nanocrystals synthesized with the desired stoichiometry to deposit PV device layers without high temperature processing. This approach, using spray deposition of the CIGS light absorber layers, without high temperature selenization, has enabled up to 3.1% power conversion efficiency under AM 1.5 solar illumination. Although the device efficiency is too low for commercialization, these devices provide a proof-of-concept that solution-deposited CIGS nanocrystal films can function in PV devices, enabling unconventional device architectures and materials combinations, including the use of flexible, inexpensive and light-weight plastic substrates. - Graphical abstract: The semiconductor light-absorbing layers in photovoltaic devices can be deposited under ambient conditions using nanocrystal inks. Devices can be fabricated on glass or on mechanically flexible plastic substrates. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CIGS and CZTS nanocrystals are synthesized and formulated into inks. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanocrystal films are spray deposited and used as light absorbing layers in photovoltaic devices. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photovoltaic devices were constructed from nanowire mats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photovoltaic device efficiency is limited by electrical transport in the nanocrystal layers.

  14. Structural investigation of CdSSe-nanocrystals synthesized by ion-beam-implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, P.; Karl, H.; Lindner, J. K. N.; Stritzker, B.

    2006-01-01

    II-VI semiconductor nanoparticle systems can be prepared by keV high-dose ion implantation and subsequent thermal annealing. The ternay Cd-S-Se system offers an additional degree of freedom to adjust materials properties, as Se and S are completely miscible on the Se sublattice. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates, that hexagonal CdSxSe1-x nanocrystals are formed after rapid thermal annealing. Peak positions are evaluated using Vegard's law. Material loss is monitored quantitatively by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS). Cross-sectional TEM images are revealing strong influence of the composition on the nanocrystal structural evolution.

  15. Size-Dependent Photon Emission from Organometal Halide Perovskite Nanocrystals Embedded in an Organic Matrix

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, organometal halide perovskite materials have attracted significant research interest in the field of optoelectronics. Here, we introduce a simple and low-temperature route for the formation of self-assembled perovskite nanocrystals in a solid organic matrix. We demonstrate that the size and photoluminescence peak of the perovskite nanocrystals can be tuned by varying the concentration of perovskite in the matrix material. The physical origin of the blue shift of the perovskite nanocrystals’ emission compared to its bulk phase is also discussed. PMID:25949773

  16. Copper selenide nanocrystals for photothermal therapy.

    PubMed

    Hessel, Colin M; Pattani, Varun P; Rasch, Michael; Panthani, Matthew G; Koo, Bonil; Tunnell, James W; Korgel, Brian A

    2011-06-01

    Ligand-stabilized copper selenide (Cu(2-x)Se) nanocrystals, approximately 16 nm in diameter, were synthesized by a colloidal hot injection method and coated with amphiphilic polymer. The nanocrystals readily disperse in water and exhibit strong near-infrared (NIR) optical absorption with a high molar extinction coefficient of 7.7 × 10(7) cm(-1) M(-1) at 980 nm. When excited with 800 nm light, the Cu(2-x)Se nanocrystals produce significant photothermal heating with a photothermal transduction efficiency of 22%, comparable to nanorods and nanoshells of gold (Au). In vitro photothermal heating of Cu(2-x)Se nanocrystals in the presence of human colorectal cancer cell (HCT-116) led to cell destruction after 5 min of laser irradiation at 33 W/cm(2), demonstrating the viabilitiy of Cu(2-x)Se nanocrystals for photothermal therapy applications. PMID:21553924

  17. Copper Selenide Nanocrystals for Photothermal Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hessel, Colin M.; Pattani, Varun; Rasch, Michael; Panthani, Matthew G.; Koo, Bonil; Tunnell, James W.; Korgel, Brian A.

    2011-01-01

    Ligand-stabilized copper selenide (Cu2−xSe) nanocrystals, approximately 16 nm in diameter, were synthesized by a colloidal hot injection method and coated with amphiphilic polymer. The nanocrystals readily disperse in water and exhibit strong near infrared (NIR) optical absorption with a high molar extinction coefficient of 7.7 × 107 cm−1 M−1 at 980 nm. When excited with 800 nm light, the Cu2−xSe nanocrystals produce significant photothermal heating with a photothermal transduction efficiency of 22%, comparable to nanorods and nanoshells of gold (Au). In vitro photothermal heating of Cu2−xSe nanocrystals in the presence of human colorectal cancer cell (HCT-116) led to cell destruction after 5 minutes of laser irradiation at 33 W/cm2, demonstrating the viabilitiy of Cu2−xSe nanocrystals for photothermal therapy applications. PMID:21553924

  18. Dissolution study of nanocrystal powders of a poorly soluble drug by UV imaging and channel flow methods.

    PubMed

    Sarnes, Annika; Østergaard, Jesper; Jensen, Sabrine Smedegaard; Aaltonen, Jaakko; Rantanen, Jukka; Hirvonen, Jouni; Peltonen, Leena

    2013-11-20

    Application of drug nanocrystals provides advantageous options for the pharmaceutical formulation development of poorly soluble drugs. The objective of this study was to investigate the dissolution behavior improving effects of differently sized nanocrystals of a poorly soluble model drug, indomethacin. Nanocrystal suspensions were prepared using a top-down wet milling technique with three stabilizers: poloxamer F68, poloxamer F127 and polysorbate 80. The dissolution of the differently sized indomethacin nanocrystals were investigated using a channel flow dissolution method and by UV imaging. Unmilled bulk indomethacin and physical mixtures were used as references. According to both the dissolution methods, the dissolution properties of indomethacin were improved by the particle size reduction. UV imaging was used for the first time as a dissolution testing method for fast dissolving nanoscale material. The technique provided new information about the concentration of the dissolved drug next to the sample surface; with the smallest nanocrystals (580 nm) the indomethacin concentration next to the particle surface exceeded five-fold the thermodynamic saturated indomethacin solution concentration. Thus the solubility improvement itself, not only the increased surface area for dissolution, may have an important role in the higher dissolution rates of nanocrystal formulations. Poloxamer F68 was the most optimal stabilizer in the preparation of the indomethacin nanocrystal suspensions and in the solubility and dissolution enhancement as well.

  19. Cu₂Se and Cu Nanocrystals as Local Sources of Copper in Thermally Activated In Situ Cation Exchange.

    PubMed

    Casu, Alberto; Genovese, Alessandro; Manna, Liberato; Longo, Paolo; Buha, Joka; Botton, Gianluigi A; Lazar, Sorin; Kahaly, Mousumi Upadhyay; Schwingenschloegl, Udo; Prato, Mirko; Li, Hongbo; Ghosh, Sandeep; Palazon, Francisco; De Donato, Francesco; Mozo, Sergio Lentijo; Zuddas, Efisio; Falqui, Andrea

    2016-02-23

    Among the different synthesis approaches to colloidal nanocrystals, a recently developed toolkit is represented by cation exchange reactions, where the use of template nanocrystals gives access to materials that would be hardly attainable via direct synthesis. Besides, postsynthetic treatments, such as thermally activated solid-state reactions, represent a further flourishing route to promote finely controlled cation exchange. Here, we report that, upon in situ heating in a transmission electron microscope, Cu2Se or Cu nanocrystals deposited on an amorphous solid substrate undergo partial loss of Cu atoms, which are then engaged in local cation exchange reactions with Cu "acceptor" phases represented by rod- and wire-shaped CdSe nanocrystals. This thermal treatment slowly transforms the initial CdSe nanocrystals into Cu(2-x)Se nanocrystals, through the complete sublimation of Cd and the partial sublimation of Se atoms. Both Cu "donor" and "acceptor" particles were not always in direct contact with each other; hence, the gradual transfer of Cu species from Cu2Se or metallic Cu to CdSe nanocrystals was mediated by the substrate and depended on the distance between the donor and acceptor nanostructures. Differently from what happens in the comparably faster cation exchange reactions performed in liquid solution, this study shows that slow cation exchange reactions can be performed at the solid state and helps to shed light on the intermediate steps involved in such reactions. PMID:26816347

  20. Cu2Se and Cu Nanocrystals as Local Sources of Copper in Thermally Activated In Situ Cation Exchange

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Among the different synthesis approaches to colloidal nanocrystals, a recently developed toolkit is represented by cation exchange reactions, where the use of template nanocrystals gives access to materials that would be hardly attainable via direct synthesis. Besides, postsynthetic treatments, such as thermally activated solid-state reactions, represent a further flourishing route to promote finely controlled cation exchange. Here, we report that, upon in situ heating in a transmission electron microscope, Cu2Se or Cu nanocrystals deposited on an amorphous solid substrate undergo partial loss of Cu atoms, which are then engaged in local cation exchange reactions with Cu “acceptor” phases represented by rod- and wire-shaped CdSe nanocrystals. This thermal treatment slowly transforms the initial CdSe nanocrystals into Cu2–xSe nanocrystals, through the complete sublimation of Cd and the partial sublimation of Se atoms. Both Cu “donor” and “acceptor” particles were not always in direct contact with each other; hence, the gradual transfer of Cu species from Cu2Se or metallic Cu to CdSe nanocrystals was mediated by the substrate and depended on the distance between the donor and acceptor nanostructures. Differently from what happens in the comparably faster cation exchange reactions performed in liquid solution, this study shows that slow cation exchange reactions can be performed at the solid state and helps to shed light on the intermediate steps involved in such reactions. PMID:26816347

  1. Inorganic colloidal nanocrystals: Synthesis and bioapplications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Huimeng

    Nanocrystals (NCs) are very small particles, which contain from a few hundred to thousands of atoms depending on the size of NCs. Because of their special properties compared with the bulk materials, NCs have found many promising applications in areas, such as biomedical diagnosis, catalysis, plasmonics, high-density data storage and solar energy conversion. This dissertation presents studies on the syntheses of metal oxide NCs and hybrid NCs, the surface functionalization of NCs by dual-interaction ligands, and gold-NC-based assay for the detection of beta-galactosidase. Monodisperse colloidal uranium dioxide NCs (UO2 NCs) were synthesized by decomposition of uranyl acetylacetonate. By changing the amount of added surfactant, the sizes of the NCs could vary from 2 ˜ 8 nm. Mechanistic studies of the formation of UO2 NCs showed that the condensation product (amide) of oleic acid and oleylamine plays an important role in controlling the particle size. Normally, high-quality NCs are synthesized in organic phase, but most of NC-based bio-applications require water-soluble NCs. To convert these hydrophobic NCs to hydrophilic particles, surface modification is employed. Here dual interaction ligands based on the Tween-derivatives (TDs) were synthesized. Stability tests on TD-capped NCs showed that these dual interaction ligands can significantly increase the stability of NCs compared to single interaction ligands. Further, These TD-capped QDs were further tested as fluorescent labels to detect virusprotein expression in cells. To exploit bio-applications of nanocrystals, gold nanocrystal-based assay to detect enzyme activity was designed. The optical properties of Au-NCs are not only dependent on the particle sizes and shapes, but also the distances between the particles. Here, Lipoic acid-tyramine-beta-galactopyranosyl (LTbeta-gal) was synthesized, as ligands, to cap Au-NCs; and the resultant LTbeta-gal-capped Au-NCs could disperse in water. After the hydrolysis of the

  2. Cellulose nanocrystal-filled carboxymethyl cellulose nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Choi, YongJae; Simonsen, John

    2006-03-01

    Polymer nanocomposites are one of the important application areas for nanotechnology. Naturally derived organic nanophase materials are of special interest in the case of polymer nanocomposites. Carboxymethyl cellulose is a polyelectrolyte derived from natural materials. It has been extensively studied as a hydrogel polymer. Methods to modify the mechanical properties of gels and films made from CMC are of interest in our lab and in the commercial marketplace. The effect of nano-sized fillers on the properties of CMC-based composites is of interest in the development of novel or improved applications for hydrogel polymers in general and CMC in particular. This project investigated cellulose nanocrystals (CNXLs) as a filler in CMC and compared the effects to microcrystalline cellulose (MCC). The composite material was composed of CMC, MCC or CNXL, with glycerin as a plasticizer. CNXL and MCC concentrations ranged from 5% to 30%. Glycerin concentrations were kept constant at 10%. CNXLs improved the strength and stiffness of the resulting composite compared to MCC. In addition, a simple heat treatment was found to render the nanocomposite water resistant.

  3. Symmetry-defying iron pyrite (FeS₂) nanocrystals through oriented attachment.

    PubMed

    Gong, Maogang; Kirkeminde, Alec; Ren, Shenqiang

    2013-01-01

    Iron pyrite (fool's gold, FeS₂) is a promising earth abundant and environmentally benign semiconductor material that shows promise as a strong and broad absorber for photovoltaics and high energy density cathode material for batteries. However, controlling FeS₂ nanocrystal formation (composition, size, shape, stoichiometry, etc.) and defect mitigation still remains a challenge. These problems represent significant limitations in the ability to control electrical, optical and electrochemical properties to exploit pyrite's full potential for sustainable energy applications. Here, we report a symmetry-defying oriented attachment FeS₂ nanocrystal growth by examining the nanostructure evolution and recrystallization to uncover how the shape, size and defects of FeS₂ nanocrystals changes during growth. It is demonstrated that a well-controlled reaction temperature and annealing time results in polycrystal-to-monocrystal formation and defect annihilation, which correlates with the performance of photoresponse devices. This knowledge opens up a new tactic to address pyrite's known defect problems.

  4. Nontoxic and abundant copper zinc tin sulfide nanocrystals for potential high-temperature thermoelectric energy harvesting.

    PubMed

    Yang, Haoran; Jauregui, Luis A; Zhang, Genqiang; Chen, Yong P; Wu, Yue

    2012-02-01

    Improving energy/fuel efficiency by converting waste heat into electricity using thermoelectric materials is of great interest due to its simplicity and reliability. However, many thermoelectric materials are composed of either toxic or scarce elements. Here, we report the experimental realization of using nontoxic and abundant copper zinc tin sulfide (CZTS) nanocrystals for potential thermoelectric applications. The CZTS nanocrystals can be synthesized in large quantities from solution phase reaction and compressed into robust bulk pellets through spark plasma sintering and hot press while still maintaining nanoscale grain size inside. Electrical and thermal measurements have been performed from 300 to 700 K to understand the electron and phonon transports. Extra copper doping during the nanocrystal synthesis introduces a significant improvement in the performance.

  5. Photochemical Charge Separation in Nanocrystal Photocatalyst Films: Insights from Surface Photovoltage Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Osterloh, Frank E

    2014-03-01

    Photochemical charge generation, separation, and transport at nanocrystal interfaces are central to photoelectrochemical water splitting, a pathway to hydrogen from solar energy. Here, we use surface photovoltage spectroscopy to probe these processes in nanocrystal films of HCa2Nb3O10, a proven photocatalyst. Charge injection from the nanoparticles into the gold support can be observed, as well as oxidation and reduction of methanol and oxygen adsorbates on the nanosheet films. The measured photovoltage depends on the illumination intensity and substrate material, and it varies with illumination time and with film thickness. The proposed model predicts that the photovoltage is limited by the built-in potential of the nanosheet-metal junction, that is, the difference of Fermi energies in the two materials. The ability to measure and understand these light-induced charge separation processes in easy-to-fabricate films will promote the development of nanocrystal applications in photoelectrochemical cells, photovoltaics, and photocatalysts.

  6. Silicon quantum dot superlattice solar cell structure including silicon nanocrystals in a photogeneration layer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The solar cell structure of n-type poly-silicon/5-nm-diameter silicon nanocrystals embedded in an amorphous silicon oxycarbide matrix (30 layers)/p-type hydrogenated amorphous silicon/Al electrode was fabricated on a quartz substrate. An open-circuit voltage and a fill factor of 518 mV and 0.51 in the solar cell were obtained, respectively. The absorption edge of the solar cell was 1.49 eV, which corresponds to the optical bandgap of the silicon nanocrystal materials, suggesting that it is possible to fabricate the solar cells with silicon nanocrystal materials, whose bandgaps are wider than that of crystalline silicon. PACS 85.35.Be; 84.60.Jt; 78.67.Bf PMID:24936160

  7. Fundamentals of Environmental Education. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1976

    An outline of fundamental definitions, relationships, and human responsibilities related to environment provides a basis from which a variety of materials, programs, and activities can be developed. The outline can be used in elementary, secondary, higher education, or adult education programs. The framework is based on principles of the science…

  8. Structure-Dependent Spin Polarization in Polymorphic CdS:Y Semiconductor Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pan; Xiao, Bingxin; Zhao, Rui; Ma, Yanzhang; Zhang, Mingzhe

    2016-03-01

    Searching for the polymorphic semiconductor nanocrystals would provide precise and insightful structure-spin polarization correlations and meaningful guidance for designing and synthesizing high spin-polarized spintronic materials. Herein, the high spin polarization is achieved in polymorphic CdS:Y semiconductor nanocrystals. The high-pressure polymorph of rock-salt CdS:Y nanocrystals has been recovered at ambient conditions synthesized by the wurtzite CdS:Y nanocrystals as starting material under 5.2 GPa and 300 °C conditions. The rock-salt CdS:Y polymorph displays more robust room-temperature ferromagnetism than wurtzite sample, which can reach the ferromagnetic level of conventional semiconductors doped with magnetic transition-metal ions, mainly due to the significantly enhanced spin configuration and defect states. Therefore, crystal structure directly governs the spin configuration, which determines the degree of spin polarization. This work can provide experimental and theoretical methods for designing the high spin-polarized semiconductor nanocrystals, which is important for applications in semiconductor spintronics. PMID:26905093

  9. Structure-Dependent Spin Polarization in Polymorphic CdS:Y Semiconductor Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pan; Xiao, Bingxin; Zhao, Rui; Ma, Yanzhang; Zhang, Mingzhe

    2016-03-01

    Searching for the polymorphic semiconductor nanocrystals would provide precise and insightful structure-spin polarization correlations and meaningful guidance for designing and synthesizing high spin-polarized spintronic materials. Herein, the high spin polarization is achieved in polymorphic CdS:Y semiconductor nanocrystals. The high-pressure polymorph of rock-salt CdS:Y nanocrystals has been recovered at ambient conditions synthesized by the wurtzite CdS:Y nanocrystals as starting material under 5.2 GPa and 300 °C conditions. The rock-salt CdS:Y polymorph displays more robust room-temperature ferromagnetism than wurtzite sample, which can reach the ferromagnetic level of conventional semiconductors doped with magnetic transition-metal ions, mainly due to the significantly enhanced spin configuration and defect states. Therefore, crystal structure directly governs the spin configuration, which determines the degree of spin polarization. This work can provide experimental and theoretical methods for designing the high spin-polarized semiconductor nanocrystals, which is important for applications in semiconductor spintronics.

  10. Adsorption and spectroscopic characterization of lactoferrin on hydroxyapatite nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Iafisco, Michele; Di Foggia, Michele; Bonora, Sergio; Prat, Maria; Roveri, Norberto

    2011-01-28

    Lactoferrin (LF), a well-characterized protein of blood plasma and milk with antioxidant, cariostatic, anticarcinogenic and anti-inflammatory properties, has been adsorbed onto biomimetic hydroxyapatite (HA) nanocrystals at two different pH values (7.4 and 9.0). The interaction was herein investigated by spectroscopic, thermal and microscopic techniques. The positive electrostatic surface potential of LF at pH 7.4 allows a strong surface interaction with the slightly negative HA nanocrystals and avoids the protein-protein interaction, leading to the formation of a coating protein monolayer. In contrast, at pH 9.0 the surface potential of LF is a mix of negative and positive zones favouring the protein-protein interaction and reducing the interaction with HA nanocrystals; as a result a double layer of coating protein was formed. These experimental findings are supported by the good fittings of the adsorption isotherms by different theoretical models according to Langmuir, Freundlich and Langmuir-Freundlich models. The nanosized HA does not appreciably affect the conformation of the adsorbed protein. In fact, using FT-Raman and FT-IR, we found that after adsorption the protein was only slightly unfolded with a small fraction of the α-helix structure being converted into turn, while the β-sheet content remained almost unchanged. The bioactive surface of HA functionalized with LF could be utilized to improve the material performance towards the biological environment for biomedical applications.

  11. Mapping the exciton diffusion in semiconductor nanocrystal solids.

    PubMed

    Kholmicheva, Natalia; Moroz, Pavel; Bastola, Ebin; Razgoniaeva, Natalia; Bocanegra, Jesus; Shaughnessy, Martin; Porach, Zack; Khon, Dmitriy; Zamkov, Mikhail

    2015-03-24

    Colloidal nanocrystal solids represent an emerging class of functional materials that hold strong promise for device applications. The macroscopic properties of these disordered assemblies are determined by complex trajectories of exciton diffusion processes, which are still poorly understood. Owing to the lack of theoretical insight, experimental strategies for probing the exciton dynamics in quantum dot solids are in great demand. Here, we develop an experimental technique for mapping the motion of excitons in semiconductor nanocrystal films with a subdiffraction spatial sensitivity and a picosecond temporal resolution. This was accomplished by doping PbS nanocrystal solids with metal nanoparticles that force the exciton dissociation at known distances from their birth. The optical signature of the exciton motion was then inferred from the changes in the emission lifetime, which was mapped to the location of exciton quenching sites. By correlating the metal-metal interparticle distance in the film with corresponding changes in the emission lifetime, we could obtain important transport characteristics, including the exciton diffusion length, the number of predissociation hops, the rate of interparticle energy transfer, and the exciton diffusivity. The benefits of this approach to device applications were demonstrated through the use of two representative film morphologies featuring weak and strong interparticle coupling.

  12. The surface plasmon modes of self-assembled gold nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrow, Steven J.; Wei, Xingzhan; Baldauf, Julia S.; Funston, Alison M.; Mulvaney, Paul

    2012-12-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) self-assembly of nanocrystals constitutes one of the most important challenges in materials science. A key milestone is the synthesis of simple, regular structures, such as platonic solids, composed of nanocrystal building blocks. Such objects are predicted to have unique optical and electronic properties such as polarization-independent light-scattering and intense local fields. Here we present a two-stage process for fabricating well-defined and highly symmetric, 3D gold nanocrystal structures, including tetrahedra, 3D pentamers and 3D hexamers. Polarized scattering spectra are used to elucidate the plasmon modes present in each structure, and these are compared with computational models. We conclude that self-assembly of highly symmetric, polarization-independent structures with interparticle spacings of order 0.5 nm can now be fabricated. Drastically, enhanced local fields, 1000 times higher than the incident field strength, are produced within the interstices. Fano resonances are generated if the symmetry is broken.

  13. Nanocrystals-Related Synthesis, Assembly, and Energy Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, Bo; Yu, Williams; Seo, Jaetae; Zhu, Ting; Hu, Michael Z.

    2012-01-01

    During the past decades, nanocrystals have attracted broad attention due to their unique shape- and size-dependent physical and chemical properties that differ drastically from their bulk counterparts. Hitherto, much effort has been dedicated to achieving rational controlling over the morphology, assembly, and related energy applications of the nanomaterials. Therefore, the ability to manipulate the morphology, size, and size distribution of inorganic nanomaterials is still an important goal in modern materials physics and chemistry. Especially, the world s demand for energy supply is causing a dramatic escalation of social and political unrest. Likewise, the environmental impact of the global climate change due to the combustion of fossil fuel is becoming increasingly alarming. These problems compel us to search for effective routes to build devices that can supply sustainable energy, with not only high efficiency but also environmental friendship. One of ways to relieve the energy crisis is to exploit devices based on renewable energy sources, such as solar energy and water power. Aiming at this exploration, the primary stage requires the design of appropriate strategies for the synthesis of high-quality nanocrystals with respect to size uniformity and superior electrochemical performances. As a consequence, we organize the current special issue for Journal of Nanomaterials to provide the authors with a platform and readers with the latest achievements of nanocrystals-related synthesis, assembly, and energy applications.

  14. Combustion Fundamentals Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Increased emphasis is placed on fundamental and generic research at Lewis Research Center with less systems development efforts. This is especially true in combustion research, where the study of combustion fundamentals has grown significantly in order to better address the perceived long term technical needs of the aerospace industry. The main thrusts for this combustion fundamentals program area are as follows: analytical models of combustion processes, model verification experiments, fundamental combustion experiments, and advanced numeric techniques.

  15. Nanocrystal-based Optoelectronic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Kenneth; Herzog, Joseph; Ward, Daniel; Natelson, Douglas

    2012-02-01

    Optoelectronic devices capable of detecting and emitting light on a scale well below its wavelength could have a profound impact on basic and applied experimental research in light-based electronics, on-demand photon generation, and for studying poorly understood quantum phenomena such as blinking and spectral wandering. We present a fabrication procedure for ultrasmall, nanocrystal optoelectronic devices based on self-assembled layers of quantum dots in plasmonically-active gold nanogaps. We provide preliminary experimental results which examine the possibility for surfaced-enhanced fluorescence, subwavelength detection and emission of light as well as plasmon-based optical trapping in these systems.

  16. Exchange Rates and Fundamentals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Charles; West, Kenneth D.

    2005-01-01

    We show analytically that in a rational expectations present-value model, an asset price manifests near-random walk behavior if fundamentals are I (1) and the factor for discounting future fundamentals is near one. We argue that this result helps explain the well-known puzzle that fundamental variables such as relative money supplies, outputs,…

  17. N-Heterocyclic Carbene Ligands for Au Nanocrystal Stabilization and Three-Dimensional Self-Assembly.

    PubMed

    Roland, Sylvain; Ling, Xiang; Pileni, Marie-Paule

    2016-08-01

    N-Heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) have emerged as a new class of ligands for materials chemistry that appears particularly relevant for the stabilization and functionalization of metal nanoparticles (NPs). The particular properties and high synthetic flexibility of NHCs make them highly attractive tools for the development of new (nano)materials and the fundamental study of their properties. The relationships between the NHC structure and NP structure/properties, including physical, biological, and self-assembly properties, remain largely unknown. In the past decade, many efforts have been made to gain more fundamental understanding in this area. In this feature article, we present our contribution in this field focusing on the formation of NHC-coated Au nanocrystals (NCs), their stability, and their ability to self-assemble into 3D crystalline structures called supracrystals. First, the formation of NHC-stabilized Au NCs is discussed by comparing different NHC structures, NHC-based Au precursors, and synthesis methods. This study shows the major role of the NHC structure in obtaining both stable NHC-coated Au NCs and narrow size distributions. In a second part, a comparative study of the oxygen resistance of NHC- and thiol-coated NCs is presented, demonstrating the enhanced stability of NHC-coated Au NCs to oxygen-based treatments. Finally, the self-assembly of NHC-coated Au NCs into 3D Au superlattices is presented. The formation of large organized domains of several micrometers is described from the design of NHCs tailored with long alkyl chains. In these different contexts, efforts have been made to gain a more in-depth understanding of the behavior of NHC ligands at the surface of NCs. These results show that the NHC-based approach to nanomaterials has many assets for opening a new research area in the supracrystal world. PMID:27412075

  18. N-Heterocyclic Carbene Ligands for Au Nanocrystal Stabilization and Three-Dimensional Self-Assembly

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    N-Heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) have emerged as a new class of ligands for materials chemistry that appears particularly relevant for the stabilization and functionalization of metal nanoparticles (NPs). The particular properties and high synthetic flexibility of NHCs make them highly attractive tools for the development of new (nano)materials and the fundamental study of their properties. The relationships between the NHC structure and NP structure/properties, including physical, biological, and self-assembly properties, remain largely unknown. In the past decade, many efforts have been made to gain more fundamental understanding in this area. In this feature article, we present our contribution in this field focusing on the formation of NHC-coated Au nanocrystals (NCs), their stability, and their ability to self-assemble into 3D crystalline structures called supracrystals. First, the formation of NHC-stabilized Au NCs is discussed by comparing different NHC structures, NHC-based Au precursors, and synthesis methods. This study shows the major role of the NHC structure in obtaining both stable NHC-coated Au NCs and narrow size distributions. In a second part, a comparative study of the oxygen resistance of NHC- and thiol-coated NCs is presented, demonstrating the enhanced stability of NHC-coated Au NCs to oxygen-based treatments. Finally, the self-assembly of NHC-coated Au NCs into 3D Au superlattices is presented. The formation of large organized domains of several micrometers is described from the design of NHCs tailored with long alkyl chains. In these different contexts, efforts have been made to gain a more in-depth understanding of the behavior of NHC ligands at the surface of NCs. These results show that the NHC-based approach to nanomaterials has many assets for opening a new research area in the supracrystal world. PMID:27412075

  19. Fundamental study of cold heat-storage system of O/W-type emulsion having cold latent-heat-dispersion material. Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Inaba, Hideo; Morita, Shinichi; Nozu, Shigeru

    1995-02-01

    This paper deals with thermal properties of an oil (tetradecane, C{sub 14}H{sub 30}, melting point 278.9K)/water emulsion as a latent heat-storage material having a low melting point. The measured results of the physical properties of the test emulsion, that is, thermal conductivity, specific heat, latent heat, and density, are discussed for the temperature region of solid and liquid phases of the dispersion material (tetradecane). It is clarified that Eucken`s equation can be applied to the estimation of the thermal conductivity of the emulsion. Moreover, it is established that tetradecane as the dispersion material exhibits a supercooling phenomenon which influences the thermal properties. Useful correlation equations of the thermal properties for the emulsion were proposed in terms of temperature and concentration ratio of the emulsion constituents.

  20. Doping silicon nanocrystals and quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Oliva-Chatelain, Brittany L; Ticich, Thomas M; Barron, Andrew R

    2016-01-28

    The ability to incorporate a dopant element into silicon nanocrystals (NC) and quantum dots (QD) is one of the key technical challenges for the use of these materials in a number of optoelectronic applications. Unlike doping of traditional bulk semiconductor materials, the location of the doping element can be either within the crystal lattice (c-doping), on the surface (s-doping) or within the surrounding matrix (m-doping). A review of the various synthetic strategies for doping silicon NCs and QDs is presented, concentrating on the efficacy of the synthetic routes, both in situ and post synthesis, with regard to the structural location of the dopant and the doping level. Methods that have been applied to the characterization of doped NCs and QDs are summarized with regard to the information that is obtained, in particular to provide researchers with a guide to the suitable techniques for determining dopant concentration and location, as well as electronic and photonic effectiveness of the dopant.

  1. Nanocrystal-enabled solid state bonding.

    SciTech Connect

    San Diego State University, San Diego, CA; Puskar, Joseph David; Tikare, Veena; Garcia Cardona, Cristina; Reece, Mark; Brewer, Luke N.; Holm, Elizabeth Ann

    2010-10-01

    In this project, we performed a preliminary set of sintering experiments to examine nanocrystal-enabled diffusion bonding (NEDB) in Ag-on-Ag and Cu-on-Cu using Ag nanoparticles. The experimental test matrix included the effects of material system, temperature, pressure, and particle size. The nanoparticle compacts were bonded between plates using a customized hot press, tested in shear, and examined post mortem using microscopy techniques. NEDB was found to be a feasible mechanism for low-temperature, low-pressure, solid-state bonding of like materials, creating bonded interfaces that were able to support substantial loads. The maximum supported shear strength varied substantially within sample cohorts due to variation in bonded area; however, systematic variation with fabrication conditions was also observed. Mesoscale sintering simulations were performed in order to understand whether sintering models can aid in understanding the NEDB process. A pressure-assisted sintering model was incorporated into the SPPARKS kinetic Monte Carlo sintering code. Results reproduce most of the qualitative behavior observed in experiments, indicating that simulation can augment experiments during the development of the NEDB process. Because NEDB offers a promising route to low-temperature, low-pressure, solid-state bonding, we recommend further research and development with a goal of devising new NEDB bonding processes to support Sandia's customers.

  2. Doping silicon nanocrystals and quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliva-Chatelain, Brittany L.; Ticich, Thomas M.; Barron, Andrew R.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to incorporate a dopant element into silicon nanocrystals (NC) and quantum dots (QD) is one of the key technical challenges for the use of these materials in a number of optoelectronic applications. Unlike doping of traditional bulk semiconductor materials, the location of the doping element can be either within the crystal lattice (c-doping), on the surface (s-doping) or within the surrounding matrix (m-doping). A review of the various synthetic strategies for doping silicon NCs and QDs is presented, concentrating on the efficacy of the synthetic routes, both in situ and post synthesis, with regard to the structural location of the dopant and the doping level. Methods that have been applied to the characterization of doped NCs and QDs are summarized with regard to the information that is obtained, in particular to provide researchers with a guide to the suitable techniques for determining dopant concentration and location, as well as electronic and photonic effectiveness of the dopant.

  3. Quantum theory of electroabsorption in semiconductor nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Tepliakov, Nikita V; Leonov, Mikhail Yu; Baranov, Alexander V; Fedorov, Anatoly V; Rukhlenko, Ivan D

    2016-01-25

    We develop a simple quantum-mechanical theory of interband absorption by semiconductor nanocrystals exposed to a dc electric field. The theory is based on the model of noninteracting electrons and holes in an infinitely deep quantum well and describes all the major features of electroabsorption, including the Stark effect, the Franz-Keldysh effect, and the field-induced spectral broadening. It is applicable to nanocrystals of different shapes and dimensions (quantum dots, nanorods, and nanoplatelets), and will prove useful in modeling and design of electrooptical devices based on ensembles of semiconductor nanocrystals.

  4. Progress in the study of drug nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jing; Guo, Fei; Zheng, Aiping; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Sun, Jianxu

    2015-12-01

    The poor water solubility of many candidate drugs remains a major obstacle to their development and clinical use, especially for oral drug delivery. Nanocrystal technology can improve the solubility and dissolution rates of many poorly water-soluble drugs very effectively, significantly improving their oral bioavailability and decreasing the food effect. For this reason, this technology is becoming a key area of drug delivery research. This review presents much of the recent progress in nanocrystal drug pharmaceuticals, including the characteristics, composition, preparation technology, and clinical applications of these drugs. Finally, the effect of nanocrystal technology on insoluble drugs is quantified and described. PMID:26817271

  5. Highly efficient near-infrared emission in Er3+ doped silica films containing size-tunable SnO2 nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Lin, Tao; Zhang, Pei; Xu, Jun; Lin, Shaobing; Xu, Ling; Chen, Kunji

    2014-01-13

    Co-doping size-tunable SnO2 nanocrystals into Er(3+) ions embedded silica thin films produces an enhancement of Er-related near-infrared emission by three orders of magnitude. Selective PL and PLE measurements show that energy transfer process occurs between SnO2 nanocrystals and Er(3+) ions. Quantitative studies of PL decay lifetime and photoluminescence temperature-dependence demonstrate that both high energy transfer efficiency from SnO2 nanocrystals to Er(3+) ions and the partial incorporation of Er(3+) ions into SnO2 nanocrystals contribute to the near-infrared emission enhancement. All these results indicated that SnO2 nanocrystals with suitable size have great potentials in fabricating high-efficiency near-infrared luminous materials as sensitizers of Er(3+) ions. PMID:24514997

  6. Polyhedral magnetite nanocrystals with multiple facets: facile synthesis, structural modelling, magnetic properties and application for high capacity lithium storage.

    PubMed

    Su, Dawei; Horvat, Josip; Munroe, Paul; Ahn, Hyojun; Ranjbartoreh, Ali R; Wang, Guoxiu

    2012-01-01

    Polyhedral magnetite nanocrystals with multiple facets were synthesised by a low temperature hydrothermal method. Atomistic simulation and calculations on surface attachment energy successfully predicted the polyhedral structure of magnetite nanocrystals with multiple facets. X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and high resolution transmission microscopy confirmed the crystal structure of magnetite, which is consistent with the theoretical modelling. The magnetic property measurements show the superspin glass state of the polyhedral nanocrystals, which could originate from the nanometer size of individual single crystals. When applied as an anode material in lithium ion cells, magnetite nanocrystals demonstrated an outstanding electrochemical performance with a high lithium storage capacity, a satisfactory cyclability, and an excellent high rate capacity.

  7. Fundamental Materials Issues for Thermochemical H2O and CO2 Splitting: Final Report (FY08)

    SciTech Connect

    Coker, Eric Nicholas; Rodriguez, Mark A.; Ambrosini, Andrea; Stumpf, Roland Rudolph; Stechel, Ellen Beth; Wolverton, Chris; Meredig, Bryce

    2008-11-01

    Hydrogen and carbon monoxide may be produced using solar-thermal energy in two-stage reactions of water and carbon dioxide, respectively, over certain metal oxide materials. The most active materials observed experimentally for these processes are complex mixtures of ferrite and zirconia based solids, and it is not clear how far the ferrites, the zirconia, or a solid solution between the two participate in the change of oxidation state during the cycling. Identification of the key phases in the redox material that enable splitting is of paramount importance to developing a working model of the materials. A three-pronged approach was adopted here: computer modeling to determine thermodynamically favorable materials compositions, bench reactor testing to evaluate materials’ performance, and in-situ characterization of reactive materials to follow phase changes and identify the phases active for splitting. For the characterization and performance evaluation thrusts, cobalt ferrites were prepared by co-precipitation followed by annealing at 1400 °C. An in-situ X-ray diffraction capability was developed and tested, allowing phase monitoring in real time during thermochemical redox cycling. Key observations made for an un-supported cobalt ferrite include: 1) ferrite phases partially reduce to wustite upon heating to 1400 °C in helium; 2) exposing the material to air at 1100 °C causes immediate re-oxidation; 3) the re-oxidized material may be thermally reduced at 1400 °C under inert; 4) exposure of a reduced material to CO2 results in gradual re-oxidation at 1100 °C, but minimization of background O2-levels is essential; 5) even after several redox cycles, the lattice parameters of the ferrites remain constant, indicating that irreversible phase separation does not occur, at least over the first five cycles; 6) substituting chemical (hydrogen) reduction for thermal reduction resulted in formation of a CoFe metallic alloy. Materials were also

  8. Silicon nanocrystal-noble metal hybrid nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, H.; Fujii, M.; Imakita, K.

    2016-05-01

    We report a novel and facile self-limiting synthesis route of silicon nanocrystal (Si NC)-based colloidally stable semiconductor-metal (gold, silver and platinum) hybrid nanoparticles (NPs). For the formation of hybrid NPs, we employ ligand-free colloidal Si NCs with heavily boron (B) and phosphorus (P) doped shells. By simply mixing B and P codoped colloidal Si NCs with metal salts, hybrid NPs consisting of metal cores and Si NC shells are spontaneously formed. We demonstrate the synthesis of highly uniform and size controllable hybrid NPs. It is shown that codoped Si NCs act as a reducing agent for metal salts and also as a protecting layer to stop metal NP growth. The process is thus self-limiting. The development of a variety of Si NC-based hybrid NPs is a promising first step for the design of biocompatible multifunctional NPs with broad material choices for biosensing, bioimaging and solar energy conversion.We report a novel and facile self-limiting synthesis route of silicon nanocrystal (Si NC)-based colloidally stable semiconductor-metal (gold, silver and platinum) hybrid nanoparticles (NPs). For the formation of hybrid NPs, we employ ligand-free colloidal Si NCs with heavily boron (B) and phosphorus (P) doped shells. By simply mixing B and P codoped colloidal Si NCs with metal salts, hybrid NPs consisting of metal cores and Si NC shells are spontaneously formed. We demonstrate the synthesis of highly uniform and size controllable hybrid NPs. It is shown that codoped Si NCs act as a reducing agent for metal salts and also as a protecting layer to stop metal NP growth. The process is thus self-limiting. The development of a variety of Si NC-based hybrid NPs is a promising first step for the design of biocompatible multifunctional NPs with broad material choices for biosensing, bioimaging and solar energy conversion. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional TEM images and extinction spectra of Si-metal hybrid NPs are shown in Fig. S1

  9. Self-Assembly of One-Dimensional Nanocrystal Superlattice Chains Mediated by Molecular Clusters.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xianfeng; Lv, Longfei; Ji, Li; Guo, Guannan; Liu, Limin; Han, Dandan; Wang, Biwei; Tu, Yaqi; Hu, Jianhua; Yang, Dong; Dong, Angang

    2016-03-16

    Self-assembly of nanocrystal (NC) building blocks into mesoscopic superstructures with well-defined symmetry and geometry is essential for creating new materials with rationally designed properties. Despite the tremendous progress in colloidal assembly, it remains a fundamental challenge to assemble isotropic spherical NCs into one-dimensional (1D) ordered superstructures. Here, we report a new and general methodology that utilizes molecular clusters to induce the anisotropic assembly of NCs in solution, yielding polymer-like, single-NC-wide linear chains comprising as many as ∼1000 close-packed NCs. This cluster-assisted assembly process is applicable to various metallic, semiconductor, and magnetic NCs of different sizes and shapes. Mechanistic investigation reveals that the solvent-induced association of clusters plays a key role in driving the anisotropic assembly of NCs. Our work opens a solution-based route for linearly assembling NCs and represents an important step toward the bottom-up construction of 1D ordered NC superstructures. PMID:26936281

  10. One-step preparation of pharmaceutical nanocrystals using ultra cryo-milling technique in liquid nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Niwa, Toshiyuki; Nakanishi, Yasuo; Danjo, Kazumi

    2010-09-11

    A novel micronization technique for pharmaceutical powders has been established using liquid nitrogen (LN2). Different from the conventional dry milling while cooling the milling pot by LN2, the materials were directly suspended in LN2 together with hard small spherical balls, called beads, and broken down by agitating intensively. The present beads milling in LN2 was named "ultra cryo-milling" in this paper. The operational conditions including the size/amount of beads made of zirconia and agitation speed were optimized to obtain the finer particles. It was found that the original crystals were effectively broken down into submicron particles, and the ultra cryo-milled particles were much finer and more uniform in size and shape than the conventional jet-milled particles. Dried powder was recovered continuously after milling process because LN2 was spontaneously evaporated at ambient temperature/pressure. Further, it was shown that this technique is applicable to the drugs with wide range of physicochemical features including heat-sensitive and water-soluble drugs. However, the resultant fine particles intrinsically tended to form the agglomerated masses. The crystalline analysis indicated that the both crystal form and crystallinity of the original bulk drugs completely remained after ultra cryo-milling process. The results demonstrated that the ultra cryo-milling would be a fundamental technique to produce the pharmaceutical nanocrystals by one step. PMID:20621640

  11. Phase transfer of CdS nanocrystals mediated by heptamine β-cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Depalo, Nicoletta; Comparelli, Roberto; Huskens, Jurriaan; Ludden, Manon J W; Perl, Andras; Agostiano, Angela; Striccoli, Marinella; Curri, M Lucia

    2012-06-12

    A fundamental and systematic study on the fabrication of a supramolecularly assembled nanostructure of an organic ligand-capped CdS nanocrystal (NC) and multiple heptamine β-cyclodextrin ((NH(2))(7)βCD) molecules in aqueous solution has been here reported. The functionalization process of presynthesized hydrophobic CdS NCs by means of (NH(2))(7)βCD has been extensively investigated by using different spectroscopic and structural techniques, as a function of different experimental parameters, such as the composition and the concentration of CD, the concentration of CdS NCs, the nature of the NC surface capping ligand (oleic acid and octylamine), and the organic solvent. The formation of a complex based on the direct coordination of the (NH(2))(7)βCD amine groups at the NC surface has been demonstrated and found responsible for the CdS NC phase transfer process. The amine functional group in (NH(2))(7)βCD and the appropriate combination of pristine capping agent coordinating the NC surface and a suitable solvent have been found decisive for the success of the CdS NC phase transfer process. Furthermore, a layer-by-layer assembly experiment has indicated that the obtained (NH(2))(7)βCD functionalized CdS NCs are still able to perform the host-guest chemistry. Thus, they offer a model of a nanoparticle-based material with molecular receptors, useful for bio applications.

  12. Luminescence and photosensitization properties of ensembles of silicon nanocrystals in terms of an exciton migration model

    SciTech Connect

    Demin, V. A.; Konstantinova, E. A. Kashkarov, P. K.

    2010-11-15

    The relaxation processes that occur in ensembles of coupled silicon nanocrystals are described by a quantitative model that takes into account the energy transfer between them during exciton migration. This model is used to study the formation of singlet oxygen during the photoexcitation of silicon nanocrystals in porous silicon layers under various external conditions. It is experimentally found that, upon fine milling of as-deposited porous silicon films, the photoluminescence decay time increases despite an increase in the concentration of point defects. The photosensitized activity of ensembles of silicon nanocrystals degrades monotonically during their photostimulated oxidation. These experimental results agree completely with the conclusions of the model and are explained by a decrease in the number of exciton migration ways between nanocrystals when the granule size of a porous silicon powder decreases and by an increase in the efficiency of nonradiative recombination during the photostimulated oxidation of the nanocrystals. Our data indicate that nanocrystalline silicon is a promising material for the methods of nontoxic photodynamic therapy of oncological diseases.

  13. Shape and composition-controlled platinum alloy nanocrystals using carbon monoxide as reducing agent.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianbo; Gross, Adam; Yang, Hong

    2011-02-01

    The shape of metal alloy nanocrystals plays an important role in catalytic performances. Many methods developed so far in controlling the morphologies of nanocrystals are however limited by the synthesis that is often material and shape specific. Here we show using a gas reducing agent in liquid solution (GRAILS) method, different Pt alloy (Pt-M, M = Co, Fe, Ni, Pd) nanocrystals with cubic and octahedral morphologies can be prepared under the same kind of reducing reaction condition. A broad range of compositions can also be obtained for these Pt alloy nanocrystals. Thus, this GRAILS method is a general approach to the preparation of uniform shape and composition-controlled Pt alloy nanocrystals. The area-specific oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activities of Pt(3)Ni catalysts at 0.9 V are 0.85 mA/cm(2)(Pt) for the nanocubes, and 1.26 mA/cm(2)(Pt) for the nanooctahedra. The ORR mass activity of the octahedral Pt(3)Ni catalyst reaches 0.44 A/mg(Pt).

  14. Structural diversity in binary superlattices self-assembled from polymer-grafted nanocrystals

    DOE PAGES

    Ye, Xingchen; Zhu, Chenhui; Ercius, Peter; Raja, Shilpa N.; He, Bo; Jones, Matthew R.; Hauwiller, Matthew R.; Liu, Yi; Xu, Ting; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2015-12-02

    Multicomponent nanocrystal superlattices represent an interesting class of material that derives emergent properties from mesoscale structure, yet their programmability can be limited by the alkyl-chain-based ligands decorating the surfaces of the constituent nanocrystals. Polymeric ligands offer distinct advantages, as they allow for more precise tuning of the effective size and ‘interaction softness’ through changes to the polymer’s molecular weight, chemical nature, architecture, persistence length and surrounding solvent. Here we show the formation of 10 different binary nanocrystal superlattices (BNSLs) with both two- and three-dimensional order through independent adjustment of the core size of spherical nanocrystals and the molecular weight ofmore » densely grafted polystyrene ligands. These polymer-brush-based ligands introduce new energetic contributions to the interparticle potential that stabilizes various BNSL phases across a range of length scales and interparticle spacings. In conclusion, our study opens the door for nanocrystals to become modular elements in the design of functional particle brush solids with controlled nanoscale interfaces and mesostructures.« less

  15. Structural diversity in binary superlattices self-assembled from polymer-grafted nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Xingchen; Zhu, Chenhui; Ercius, Peter; Raja, Shilpa N.; He, Bo; Jones, Matthew R.; Hauwiller, Matthew R.; Liu, Yi; Xu, Ting; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2015-12-02

    Multicomponent nanocrystal superlattices represent an interesting class of material that derives emergent properties from mesoscale structure, yet their programmability can be limited by the alkyl-chain-based ligands decorating the surfaces of the constituent nanocrystals. Polymeric ligands offer distinct advantages, as they allow for more precise tuning of the effective size and ‘interaction softness’ through changes to the polymer’s molecular weight, chemical nature, architecture, persistence length and surrounding solvent. Here we show the formation of 10 different binary nanocrystal superlattices (BNSLs) with both two- and three-dimensional order through independent adjustment of the core size of spherical nanocrystals and the molecular weight of densely grafted polystyrene ligands. These polymer-brush-based ligands introduce new energetic contributions to the interparticle potential that stabilizes various BNSL phases across a range of length scales and interparticle spacings. In conclusion, our study opens the door for nanocrystals to become modular elements in the design of functional particle brush solids with controlled nanoscale interfaces and mesostructures.

  16. Structural diversity in binary superlattices self-assembled from polymer-grafted nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xingchen; Zhu, Chenhui; Ercius, Peter; Raja, Shilpa N.; He, Bo; Jones, Matthew R.; Hauwiller, Matthew R.; Liu, Yi; Xu, Ting; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2015-01-01

    Multicomponent nanocrystal superlattices represent an interesting class of material that derives emergent properties from mesoscale structure, yet their programmability can be limited by the alkyl-chain-based ligands decorating the surfaces of the constituent nanocrystals. Polymeric ligands offer distinct advantages, as they allow for more precise tuning of the effective size and ‘interaction softness' through changes to the polymer's molecular weight, chemical nature, architecture, persistence length and surrounding solvent. Here we show the formation of 10 different binary nanocrystal superlattices (BNSLs) with both two- and three-dimensional order through independent adjustment of the core size of spherical nanocrystals and the molecular weight of densely grafted polystyrene ligands. These polymer-brush-based ligands introduce new energetic contributions to the interparticle potential that stabilizes various BNSL phases across a range of length scales and interparticle spacings. Our study opens the door for nanocrystals to become modular elements in the design of functional particle brush solids with controlled nanoscale interfaces and mesostructures. PMID:26628256

  17. In situ microscopy of the self-assembly of branched nanocrystals in solution.

    PubMed

    Sutter, Eli; Sutter, Peter; Tkachenko, Alexei V; Krahne, Roman; de Graaf, Joost; Arciniegas, Milena; Manna, Liberato

    2016-01-01

    Solution-phase self-assembly of nanocrystals into mesoscale structures is a promising strategy for constructing functional materials from nanoscale components. Liquid environments are key to self-assembly since they allow suspended nanocrystals to diffuse and interact freely, but they also complicate experiments. Real-time observations with single-particle resolution could have transformative impact on our understanding of nanocrystal self-assembly. Here we use real-time in situ imaging by liquid-cell electron microscopy to elucidate the nucleation and growth mechanism and properties of linear chains of octapod-shaped nanocrystals in their native solution environment. Statistical mechanics modelling based on these observations and using the measured chain-length distribution clarifies the relative importance of dipolar and entropic forces in the assembly process and gives direct access to the interparticle interaction. Our results suggest that monomer-resolved in situ imaging combined with modelling can provide unprecedented quantitative insight into the microscopic processes and interactions that govern nanocrystal self-assembly in solution.

  18. In situ microscopy of the self-assembly of branched nanocrystals in solution.

    PubMed

    Sutter, Eli; Sutter, Peter; Tkachenko, Alexei V; Krahne, Roman; de Graaf, Joost; Arciniegas, Milena; Manna, Liberato

    2016-01-01

    Solution-phase self-assembly of nanocrystals into mesoscale structures is a promising strategy for constructing functional materials from nanoscale components. Liquid environments are key to self-assembly since they allow suspended nanocrystals to diffuse and interact freely, but they also complicate experiments. Real-time observations with single-particle resolution could have transformative impact on our understanding of nanocrystal self-assembly. Here we use real-time in situ imaging by liquid-cell electron microscopy to elucidate the nucleation and growth mechanism and properties of linear chains of octapod-shaped nanocrystals in their native solution environment. Statistical mechanics modelling based on these observations and using the measured chain-length distribution clarifies the relative importance of dipolar and entropic forces in the assembly process and gives direct access to the interparticle interaction. Our results suggest that monomer-resolved in situ imaging combined with modelling can provide unprecedented quantitative insight into the microscopic processes and interactions that govern nanocrystal self-assembly in solution. PMID:27040366

  19. Hybrid nanocomposites of CdSe nanocrystals distributed in complexing thiophene-based copolymers.

    PubMed

    Aldakov, Dmitry; Jiu, Tonggang; Zagorska, Malgorzata; de Bettignies, Rémi; Jouneau, Pierre-Henri; Pron, Adam; Chandezon, Frédéric

    2010-07-21

    Two types of conjugated polymers were prepared with the goal to blend them with rod-like CdSe nanocrystals. The polymers of the first type were synthesized through copolymerization of 3-octylthiophene and 3-methylene-ethylcarboxylate-thiophene to give polythiophene with solubilizing alkyl groups and methylene ester functional groups (PE series). Post-polymerization hydrolysis of the ester type polymers yielded acid-type ones (PA series). Photoluminescence (PL) quenching in these polymers induced by their titration with nanocrystals solution was chosen as a measure of the polymer-nanocrystal interactions. PL of polyacids turned out to be more efficiently quenched as compared to the case of polymers with ester groups which was interpreted as an indication of better electronic communication between the hybrid components. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy confirmed efficient coordination of the carboxylic groups to CdSe. Voltammetric studies combined with UV-vis spectroelectrochemistry enabled the determination of energy levels alignment of the molecular composite components which turned out to be of staggered type-appropriate for photovoltaic applications. The obtained blends of polyacids with CdSe nanocrystals, when studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), revealed the presence of an interpenetrating network in which nanorods were homogeneously distributed within the polymer matrix without any indication of agglomerates formation both on the film surface and in the cross-section. Blends with polymers containing ester groups were less homogeneous which could be explained by weaker polymer-nanocrystals interactions. Photovoltaic cells based on these hybrid materials are also discussed.

  20. In situ microscopy of the self-assembly of branched nanocrystals in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutter, Eli; Sutter, Peter; Tkachenko, Alexei V.; Krahne, Roman; de Graaf, Joost; Arciniegas, Milena; Manna, Liberato

    2016-04-01

    Solution-phase self-assembly of nanocrystals into mesoscale structures is a promising strategy for constructing functional materials from nanoscale components. Liquid environments are key to self-assembly since they allow suspended nanocrystals to diffuse and interact freely, but they also complicate experiments. Real-time observations with single-particle resolution could have transformative impact on our understanding of nanocrystal self-assembly. Here we use real-time in situ imaging by liquid-cell electron microscopy to elucidate the nucleation and growth mechanism and properties of linear chains of octapod-shaped nanocrystals in their native solution environment. Statistical mechanics modelling based on these observations and using the measured chain-length distribution clarifies the relative importance of dipolar and entropic forces in the assembly process and gives direct access to the interparticle interaction. Our results suggest that monomer-resolved in situ imaging combined with modelling can provide unprecedented quantitative insight into the microscopic processes and interactions that govern nanocrystal self-assembly in solution.

  1. In situ microscopy of the self-assembly of branched nanocrystals in solution

    DOE PAGES

    Sutter, Eli; Tkachenko, Alexei V.; Sutter, Peter; Roman Krahne; Arciniegas, Milena; Manna, Liberato; de Graaf, Joost

    2016-04-04

    Here, solution-phase self-assembly of nanocrystals into mesoscale structures is a promising strategy for constructing functional materials from nanoscale components. Liquid environments are key to self-assembly since they allow suspended nanocrystals to diffuse and interact freely, but they also complicate experiments. Real-time observations with single-particle resolution could have transformative impact on our understanding of nanocrystal self-assembly. Here we use real-time in situ imaging by liquid-cell electron microscopy to elucidate the nucleation and growth mechanism and properties of linear chains of octapod-shaped nanocrystals in their native solution environment. Statistical mechanics modelling based on these observations and using the measured chain-length distribution clarifiesmore » the relative importance of dipolar and entropic forces in the assembly process and gives direct access to the interparticle interaction. Our results suggest that monomer-resolved in situ imaging combined with modelling can provide unprecedented quantitative insight into the microscopic processes and interactions that govern nanocrystal self-assembly in solution.« less

  2. In situ microscopy of the self-assembly of branched nanocrystals in solution

    PubMed Central

    Sutter, Eli; Sutter, Peter; Tkachenko, Alexei V.; Krahne, Roman; de Graaf, Joost; Arciniegas, Milena; Manna, Liberato

    2016-01-01

    Solution-phase self-assembly of nanocrystals into mesoscale structures is a promising strategy for constructing functional materials from nanoscale components. Liquid environments are key to self-assembly since they allow suspended nanocrystals to diffuse and interact freely, but they also complicate experiments. Real-time observations with single-particle resolution could have transformative impact on our understanding of nanocrystal self-assembly. Here we use real-time in situ imaging by liquid-cell electron microscopy to elucidate the nucleation and growth mechanism and properties of linear chains of octapod-shaped nanocrystals in their native solution environment. Statistical mechanics modelling based on these observations and using the measured chain-length distribution clarifies the relative importance of dipolar and entropic forces in the assembly process and gives direct access to the interparticle interaction. Our results suggest that monomer-resolved in situ imaging combined with modelling can provide unprecedented quantitative insight into the microscopic processes and interactions that govern nanocrystal self-assembly in solution. PMID:27040366

  3. Non-wettable, oxidation-stable, brightly luminescent, perfluorodecyl-capped silicon nanocrystal film.

    PubMed

    Qian, Chenxi; Sun, Wei; Wang, Liwei; Chen, Changlong; Liao, Kristine; Wang, Wendong; Jia, Jia; Hatton, Benjamin D; Casillas, Gilberto; Kurylowicz, Marty; Yip, Christopher M; Mastronardi, Melanie L; Ozin, Geoffrey A

    2014-11-12

    Here we describe for the first time the synthesis of colloidally stable, brightly luminescent perfluorodecyl-capped silicon nanocrystals and compare the properties of solutions and films made from them with those of their perhydrodecyl-capped relatives. The perfluorodecyl capping group compared to the perhydrodecyl capping group yields superior hydrophobicity and much greater resistance to air oxidation, the enhanced electron-withdrawing character induces blue shifts in the wavelength of photoluminescence, and the lower-frequency carbon-fluorine stretching modes disfavor non-radiative relaxation pathways and boost the absolute photoluminescence quantum yield. Together these attributes bode well for advanced materials and biomedical applications founded upon perfluorodecyl-protected silicon nanocrystals.

  4. Tunable luminescence and energy transfer of TbPO4:Eu3+ nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Jiantao; Fan, Ting; Xie, Jianing; Chen, Guojie

    2013-01-01

    We report the synthesis of Tb(1-x)PO4:xEu3+ (x=0-1) nanophosphors directly by a simple hydrothermal method with citric acid (CA) as the organic additive and without further sintering treatment. The nanocrystals are well-faceted and show a highly symmetrical structure. The energy transfer between Tb3+ and Eu3+ in TbPO4 nanocrystal was investigated, and tunable emission wavelengths were realized in the materials by changing the doping concentration of Eu3+. The increase of Eu3+ concentration can lead to the interaction between neighboring Eu3+, which results in concentration quenching.

  5. Ptychographic Imaging of Branched Colloidal Nanocrystals Embedded in Free-Standing Thick Polystyrene Films

    PubMed Central

    De Caro, Liberato; Altamura, Davide; Arciniegas, Milena; Siliqi, Dritan; Kim, Mee R.; Sibillano, Teresa; Manna, Liberato; Giannini, Cinzia

    2016-01-01

    Research on composite materials is facing, among others, the challenging task of incorporating nanocrystals, and their superstructures, in polymer matrices. Electron microscopy can typically image nanometre-scale structures embedded in thin polymer films, but not in films that are micron size thick. Here, X-ray Ptychography was used to visualize, with a resolution of a few tens of nanometers, how CdSe/CdS octapod-shaped nanocrystals self-assemble in polystyrene films of 24 ± 4 μm, providing a unique means for non-destructive investigation of nanoparticles distribution and organization in thick polymer films. PMID:26775682

  6. Ptychographic Imaging of Branched Colloidal Nanocrystals Embedded in Free-Standing Thick Polystyrene Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Caro, Liberato; Altamura, Davide; Arciniegas, Milena; Siliqi, Dritan; Kim, Mee R.; Sibillano, Teresa; Manna, Liberato; Giannini, Cinzia

    2016-01-01

    Research on composite materials is facing, among others, the challenging task of incorporating nanocrystals, and their superstructures, in polymer matrices. Electron microscopy can typically image nanometre-scale structures embedded in thin polymer films, but not in films that are micron size thick. Here, X-ray Ptychography was used to visualize, with a resolution of a few tens of nanometers, how CdSe/CdS octapod-shaped nanocrystals self-assemble in polystyrene films of 24 ± 4 μm, providing a unique means for non-destructive investigation of nanoparticles distribution and organization in thick polymer films.

  7. Preparation and characterization of LaNiO{sub 3} nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Yanping; Zhu Junwu; Yang Xujie; Lu Lude; Wang Xin . E-mail: njwangyp@yahoo.com.cn

    2006-08-10

    Ten to twenty-three nanometers of LaNiO{sub 3} nanocrystals were prepared by glycine combustion method using nickel nitrate and lanthanum nitrate as raw materials, glycine as gelating agent and fuel. The preparation process was monitored by thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA); the final products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron diffraction (ED), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effect of thermal treatment temperature on crystal size of the nanocrystals was studied and the activation energy of LaNiO{sub 3} nanocrystals formation during calcinations was calculated to be 41.9 kJ/mol. Moreover, the interplanar distances of d {sub 110} and d {sub 101} measured from the TEM images were 0.272 and 0.363 nm, respectively, coinciding with the theoretical values.

  8. Shape and size controlled synthesis of uniform iron oxide nanocrystals through new non-hydrolytic routes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenlu; Lee, Seung Soo; Wu, Jiewei; Hinton, Carl H.; Fortner, John D.

    2016-08-01

    New, non-hydrolytic routes to synthesize highly crystalline iron oxide nanocrystals (8–40 nm, magnetite) are described in this report whereby particle size and morphology were precisely controlled through reactant (precursor, e.g. (FeO(OH)) ratios, co-surfactant and organic additive, and/or reaction time. Particle size, with high monodispersivity (<10%), is demonstrated to be a function of precursor concentrations and through the addition of different cosurfactants and/or additives, cubic, octahedral, potato-like, and flower-like iron oxide nanocrystals can be reproducibly synthesized through simple one-pot thermal decomposition methods. High resolution transmission electron microscope, x-ray diffraction, and superconducting quantum interference device were used to characterize the size, structure and magnetic properties of the resulting nanocrystals. For aqueous applications, materials synthesized/purified in organic solvents are broadly water dispersible through a variety of phase (aqueous) transfer method(s).

  9. Germanium and Silicon Nanocrystal Thin-Film Field-Effect Transistors from Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Holman, Zachary C.; Liu, Chin-Yi; Kortshagen, Uwe R.

    2010-07-09

    Germanium and silicon have lagged behind more popular II-VI and IV-VI semiconductor materials in the emerging field of semiconductor nanocrystal thin film devices. We report germanium and silicon nanocrystal field-effect transistors fabricated by synthesizing nanocrystals in a plasma, transferring them into solution, and casting thin films. Germanium devices show n-type, ambipolar, or p-type behavior depending on annealing temperature with electron and hole mobilities as large as 0.02 and 0.006 cm2 V-1 s-1, respectively. Silicon devices exhibit n-type behavior without any postdeposition treatment, but are plagued by poor film morphology.

  10. Chemically directing d-block heterometallics to nanocrystal surfaces as molecular beacons of surface structure

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, Evelyn L.; Gilmore, Keith; Sawvel, April M.; Hammack, Aaron T.; Doris, Sean E.; Aloni, Shaul; Altoe, Virginia; Nordlund, Dennis; Weng, Tsu -Chien; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Cohen, Bruce E.; Urban, Jeffrey J.; Ogletree, D. Frank; Milliron, Delia J.; Prendergast, David; Helms, Brett A.

    2015-07-28

    Our understanding of structure and bonding in nanoscale materials is incomplete without knowledge of their surface structure. Needed are better surveying capabilities responsive not only to different atoms at the surface, but also their respective coordination environments. We report here that d-block organometallics, when placed at nanocrystal surfaces through heterometallic bonds, serve as molecular beacons broadcasting local surface structure in atomic detail. This unique ability stems from their elemental specificity and the sensitivity of their d-orbital level alignment to local coordination environment, which can be assessed spectroscopically. Re-surfacing cadmium and lead chalcogenide nanocrystals with iron- or ruthenium-based molecular beacons is readily accomplished with trimethylsilylated cyclopentadienyl metal carbonyls. For PbSe nanocrystals with iron-based beacons, we show how core-level X-ray spectroscopies and DFT calculations enrich our understanding of both charge and atomic reorganization at the surface when beacons are bound.

  11. Chemically directing d-block heterometallics to nanocrystal surfaces as molecular beacons of surface structure

    DOE PAGES

    Rosen, Evelyn L.; Gilmore, Keith; Sawvel, April M.; Hammack, Aaron T.; Doris, Sean E.; Aloni, Shaul; Altoe, Virginia; Nordlund, Dennis; Weng, Tsu -Chien; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; et al

    2015-07-28

    Our understanding of structure and bonding in nanoscale materials is incomplete without knowledge of their surface structure. Needed are better surveying capabilities responsive not only to different atoms at the surface, but also their respective coordination environments. We report here that d-block organometallics, when placed at nanocrystal surfaces through heterometallic bonds, serve as molecular beacons broadcasting local surface structure in atomic detail. This unique ability stems from their elemental specificity and the sensitivity of their d-orbital level alignment to local coordination environment, which can be assessed spectroscopically. Re-surfacing cadmium and lead chalcogenide nanocrystals with iron- or ruthenium-based molecular beacons ismore » readily accomplished with trimethylsilylated cyclopentadienyl metal carbonyls. For PbSe nanocrystals with iron-based beacons, we show how core-level X-ray spectroscopies and DFT calculations enrich our understanding of both charge and atomic reorganization at the surface when beacons are bound.« less

  12. Maltodextrin fast dissolving films for quercetin nanocrystal delivery. A feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Lai, Francesco; Franceschini, Ilaria; Corrias, Francesco; Sala, Maria Chiara; Cilurzo, Francesco; Sinico, Chiara; Pini, Elena

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility to prepare fast dissolving films as quercetin nanocrystal delivery systems, using maltodextrins as film forming material and glycerin as plasticizer, with the goal of enhancing quercetin oral bioavailability. Quercetin nanosuspensions were prepared using a high-pressure homogenizer, and then directly used to prepare the films by a casting method. Spectroscopic and calorimetric analysis evidenced that reduction of quercetin size at nanoscale and incorporation in maltodextrin films do not affect the solid state of the active ingredient. The loading of quercetin nanocrystals into the film determined a slight variation of film elasticity and ductility. Indeed, the elastic modulus of the loaded films resulted about a half of the placebo ones, while the elongation at break increased four folds. Free and film loaded quercetin nanocrystals showed a comparable dissolution rate, much higher than that of bulk quercetin.

  13. Realizing up-conversion fluorescence tuning in lanthanide-doped nanocrystals by femtosecond pulse shaping method

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shian; Yao, Yunhua; Shuwu, Xu; Liu, Pei; Ding, Jingxin; Jia, Tianqing; Qiu, Jianrong; Sun, Zhenrong

    2015-01-01

    The ability to tune color output of nanomaterials is very important for their applications in laser, optoelectronic device, color display and multiplexed biolabeling. Here we first propose a femtosecond pulse shaping technique to realize the up-conversion fluorescence tuning in lanthanide-doped nanocrystals dispersed in the glass. The multiple subpulse formation by a square phase modulation can create different excitation pathways for various up-conversion fluorescence generations. By properly controlling these excitation pathways, the multicolor up-conversion fluorescence can be finely tuned. This color tuning by the femtosecond pulse shaping technique is realized in single material by single-color laser field, which is highly desirable for further applications of the lanthanide-doped nanocrystals. This femtosecond pulse shaping technique opens an opportunity to tune the color output in the lanthanide-doped nanocrystals, which may bring a new revolution in the control of luminescence properties of nanomaterials. PMID:26290391

  14. Shape and size controlled synthesis of uniform iron oxide nanocrystals through new non-hydrolytic routes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenlu; Lee, Seung Soo; Wu, Jiewei; Hinton, Carl H.; Fortner, John D.

    2016-08-01

    New, non-hydrolytic routes to synthesize highly crystalline iron oxide nanocrystals (8-40 nm, magnetite) are described in this report whereby particle size and morphology were precisely controlled through reactant (precursor, e.g. (FeO(OH)) ratios, co-surfactant and organic additive, and/or reaction time. Particle size, with high monodispersivity (<10%), is demonstrated to be a function of precursor concentrations and through the addition of different cosurfactants and/or additives, cubic, octahedral, potato-like, and flower-like iron oxide nanocrystals can be reproducibly synthesized through simple one-pot thermal decomposition methods. High resolution transmission electron microscope, x-ray diffraction, and superconducting quantum interference device were used to characterize the size, structure and magnetic properties of the resulting nanocrystals. For aqueous applications, materials synthesized/purified in organic solvents are broadly water dispersible through a variety of phase (aqueous) transfer method(s).

  15. Spectroelectrochemical Signatures of Capacitive Charging and Ion Insertion in Doped Anatase Titania Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Dahlman, Clayton J; Tan, Yizheng; Marcus, Matthew A; Milliron, Delia J

    2015-07-22

    Solution-processed films of colloidal aliovalent niobium-doped anatase TiO2 nanocrystals exhibit modulation of optical transmittance in two spectral regions-near-infrared (NIR) and visible light-as they undergo progressive and reversible charging in an electrochemical cell. The Nb-TiO2 nanocrystal film supports a localized surface plasmon resonance in the NIR, which can be dynamically modulated via capacitive charging. When the nanocrystals are charged by insertion of lithium ions, inducing a well-known structural phase transition of the anatase lattice, strong modulation of visible transmittance is observed. Based on X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy, the conduction electrons localize only upon lithium ion insertion, thus rationalizing the two modes of optical switching observed in a single material. These multimodal electrochromic properties show promise for application in dynamic optical filters or smart windows. PMID:26154107

  16. Semiconductor nanocrystals covalently bound to solid inorganic surfaces using self-assembled monolayers

    DOEpatents

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Colvin, Vicki L.

    1998-01-01

    Methods are described for attaching semiconductor nanocrystals to solid inorganic surfaces, using self-assembled bifunctional organic monolayers as bridge compounds. Two different techniques are presented. One relies on the formation of self-assembled monolayers on these surfaces. When exposed to solutions of nanocrystals, these bridge compounds bind the crystals and anchor them to the surface. The second technique attaches nanocrystals already coated with bridge compounds to the surfaces. Analyses indicate the presence of quantum confined clusters on the surfaces at the nanolayer level. These materials allow electron spectroscopies to be completed on condensed phase clusters, and represent a first step towards synthesis of an organized assembly of clusters. These new products are also disclosed.

  17. Semiconductor nanocrystals covalently bound to solid inorganic surfaces using self-assembled monolayers

    DOEpatents

    Alivisatos, A.P.; Colvin, V.L.

    1998-05-12

    Methods are described for attaching semiconductor nanocrystals to solid inorganic surfaces, using self-assembled bifunctional organic monolayers as bridge compounds. Two different techniques are presented. One relies on the formation of self-assembled monolayers on these surfaces. When exposed to solutions of nanocrystals, these bridge compounds bind the crystals and anchor them to the surface. The second technique attaches nanocrystals already coated with bridge compounds to the surfaces. Analyses indicate the presence of quantum confined clusters on the surfaces at the nanolayer level. These materials allow electron spectroscopies to be completed on condensed phase clusters, and represent a first step towards synthesis of an organized assembly of clusters. These new products are also disclosed. 10 figs.

  18. Semiconductor-nanocrystal/conjugated polymer thin films

    DOEpatents

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Dittmer, Janke J.; Huynh, Wendy U.; Milliron, Delia

    2010-08-17

    The invention described herein provides for thin films and methods of making comprising inorganic semiconductor-nanocrystals dispersed in semiconducting-polymers in high loading amounts. The invention also describes photovoltaic devices incorporating the thin films.

  19. Size-Dependent Raman Shifts for nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yukun; Zhao, Xinmei; Yin, Penggang; Gao, Faming

    2016-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a very sensitive tool for probing semiconductor nanocrystals. The underlying mechanism behind the size-dependent Raman shifts is still quite controversial. Here we offer a new theoretical method for the quantum confinement effects on the Raman spectra of semiconductor nanocrystals. We propose that the shift of Raman spectra in nanocrystals can result from two overlapping effects: the quantum effect shift and surface effect shift. The quantum effect shift is extracted from an extended Kubo formula, the surface effect shift is determined via the first principles calculations. Fairly good prediction of Raman shifts can be obtained without the use of any adjustable parameter. Closer analysis shows that the size-dependent Raman shifts in Si nanocrystals mainly result from the quantum effect shifts. For nanodiamond, the proportion of surface effect shift in Raman shift is up to about 40%. Such model can also provide a good baseline for using Raman spectroscopy as a tool to measure size. PMID:27102066

  20. Bonding pathways of gold nanocrystals in solution.

    PubMed

    Aabdin, Zainul; Lu, Jingyu; Zhu, Xi; Anand, Utkarsh; Loh, N Duane; Su, Haibin; Mirsaidov, Utkur

    2014-11-12

    Nanocrystal bonding is an important phenomenon in crystal growth and nanoscale welding. Here, we show that for gold nanocrystals bonding in solution can follow two distinct pathways: (1) coherent, defect-free bonding occurs when two nanocrystals attach with their lattices aligned to within a critical angle; and (2) beyond this critical angle, defects form at the interfaces where the nanocrystals merge. The critical misalignment angle for ∼10 nm crystals is ∼15° in both in situ experiments and full-atom molecular dynamics simulations. Understanding the origin of this critical angle during bonding may help us predict and manage strain profiles in nanoscale assemblies and inspire techniques toward reproducible and extensible architectures using only basic crystalline blocks.

  1. Semiconductor-nanocrystal/conjugated polymer thin films

    DOEpatents

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Dittmer, Janke J.; Huynh, Wendy U.; Milliron, Delia

    2014-06-17

    The invention described herein provides for thin films and methods of making comprising inorganic semiconductor-nanocrystals dispersed in semiconducting-polymers in high loading amounts. The invention also describes photovoltaic devices incorporating the thin films.

  2. Resonant tunneling of carriers in silicon nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derbenyova, N. V.; Konakov, A. A.; Burdov, V. A.

    2016-10-01

    The rates of resonant and nearly resonant tunnel transitions have been calculated within the envelope function approximation for electrons and holes in silicon nanocrystals embedded in a silicon dioxide matrix. It is shown that, if the nanocrystals are close enough, the rates of resonant tunneling reach the values of the order of 1012-1014 s-1, which considerably exceed the rates of radiative recombination and other basic non-radiative processes, such as the Auger recombination and capture on surface defects. The transition rate is found to be very sensitive to inter-crystallite distance, crystallite size, and effective mass of the carriers in the oxide matrix. Electron tunneling turns out to be faster than the hole one, especially, at greater distances between the nanocrystals. Thus, the tunnel migration in a dense ensemble of nanocrystals is mainly electronic.

  3. Colloidal nanocrystals and method of making

    SciTech Connect

    Kahen, Keith

    2015-10-06

    A tight confinement nanocrystal comprises a homogeneous center region having a first composition and a smoothly varying region having a second composition wherein a confining potential barrier monotonically increases and then monotonically decreases as the smoothly varying region extends from the surface of the homogeneous center region to an outer surface of the nanocrystal. A method of producing the nanocrystal comprises forming a first solution by combining a solvent and at most two nanocrystal precursors; heating the first solution to a nucleation temperature; adding to the first solution, a second solution having a solvent, at least one additional and different precursor to form the homogeneous center region and at most an initial portion of the smoothly varying region; and lowering the solution temperature to a growth temperature to complete growth of the smoothly varying region.

  4. Size-Dependent Raman Shifts for nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yukun; Zhao, Xinmei; Yin, Penggang; Gao, Faming

    2016-04-22

    Raman spectroscopy is a very sensitive tool for probing semiconductor nanocrystals. The underlying mechanism behind the size-dependent Raman shifts is still quite controversial. Here we offer a new theoretical method for the quantum confinement effects on the Raman spectra of semiconductor nanocrystals. We propose that the shift of Raman spectra in nanocrystals can result from two overlapping effects: the quantum effect shift and surface effect shift. The quantum effect shift is extracted from an extended Kubo formula, the surface effect shift is determined via the first principles calculations. Fairly good prediction of Raman shifts can be obtained without the use of any adjustable parameter. Closer analysis shows that the size-dependent Raman shifts in Si nanocrystals mainly result from the quantum effect shifts. For nanodiamond, the proportion of surface effect shift in Raman shift is up to about 40%. Such model can also provide a good baseline for using Raman spectroscopy as a tool to measure size.

  5. Zirconia nanocrystals as submicron level biological label

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smits, K.; Liepins, J.; Gavare, M.; Patmalnieks, A.; Gruduls, A.; Jankovica, D.

    2012-08-01

    Inorganic nanocrystals are of increasing interest for their usage in biology and pharmacology research. Our interest was to justify ZrO2 nanocrystal usage as submicron level biological label in baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisia culture. For the first time (to our knowledge) images with sub micro up-conversion luminescent particles in biologic media were made. A set of undoped as well as Er and Yb doped ZrO2 samples at different concentrations were prepared by sol-gel method. The up-conversion luminescence for free standing and for nanocrystals with baker's yeast cells was studied and the differences in up-conversion luminescence spectra were analyzed. In vivo toxic effects of ZrO2 nanocrystals were tested by co-cultivation with baker's yeast.

  6. Tunable mid IR plasmon in GZO nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Hamza, M K; Bluet, J-M; Masenelli-Varlot, K; Canut, B; Boisron, O; Melinon, P; Masenelli, B

    2015-07-28

    Degenerate metal oxide nanoparticles are promising systems to expand the significant achievements of plasmonics into the infrared (IR) range. Among the possible candidates, Ga-doped ZnO nanocrystals are particularly suited for mid IR, considering their wide range of possible doping levels and thus of plasmon tuning. In the present work, we report on the tunable mid IR plasmon induced in degenerate Ga-doped ZnO nanocrystals. The nanocrystals are produced by a plasma expansion and exhibit unprotected surfaces. Tuning the Ga concentration allows tuning the localized surface plasmon resonance. Moreover, the plasmon resonance is characterized by a large damping. By comparing the plasmon of nanocrystal assemblies to that of nanoparticles dispersed in an alumina matrix, we investigate the possible origins of such damping. We demonstrate that it partially results from the self-organization of the naked particles and also from intrinsic inhomogeneity of dopants.

  7. Gas phase grown silicon germanium nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, A.; Tichelaar, F. D.; Kaiser, M.; Verheijen, M. A.; Schropp, R. E. I.; Rath, J. K.

    2016-09-01

    We report on the gas phase synthesis of highly crystalline and homogeneously alloyed Si1-xGex nanocrystals in continuous and pulsed plasmas. Agglomerated nanocrystals have been produced with remarkable control over their composition by altering the precursor GeH4 gas flow in a continuous plasma. We specially highlight that in the pulsed plasma mode, we obtain quantum-sized free standing alloy nanocrystals with a mean size of 7.3 nm. The presence of Si1-xGex alloy particles is confirmed with multiple techniques, i.e. Raman spectroscopy, XRD (Xray diffraction) and HRTEM (high resolution transmission electron microscopy) studies, with each of these methods consistently yielding the same composition. The nanocrystals synthesized here have potential applications in band-gap engineering for multijunction solar cells.

  8. Tailorable, Visible Light Emission From Silicon Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Samara, G.A.; Wilcoxon, J.P.

    1999-07-20

    J. P. Wilcoxon and G. A. Samara Crystalline, size-selected Si nanocrystals in the size range 1.8-10 nm grown in inverse micellar cages exhibit highly structured optical absorption and photoluminescence (PL) across the visible range of the spectrum. The most intense PL for the smallest nanocrystals produced This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, make any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof. to induce a useful level of visible photoluminescence (PL) from silicon (Si). The approaches understood. Visible PL has been observed from Si nanocrystals, or quantum dots, produced by a variety of techniques including aerosols,2 colloids,3 and ion implantation.4 However, all of The optical absorption spectra of our nanocrystals are much richer in spectral features spectrum of bulk Si where the spectral features reflect the details of the band structure shown in nanocrystals estimated to have a Si core diameter of 1-2 nm. These measured quantum those in the spectrum of bulk Si in Fig. 1 are striking indicating that nanocrystals of this size 8-Room temperature PL results on an HPLC size-selected, purified 2 nm nanocrystals but blue shifted by -0.4 eV due to quantum confinement. Excitation at 245 nm yields

  9. Fundamentals of Atmospheric Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohren, Craig F.; Clothiaux, Eugene E.

    2006-02-01

    This textbook fills a gap in the literature for teaching material suitable for students of atmospheric science and courses on atmospheric radiation. It covers the fundamentals of emission, absorption, and scattering of electromagnetic radiation from ultraviolet to infrared and beyond. Much of the book applies to planetary atmosphere. The authors are physicists and teach at the largest meteorology department of the US at Penn State. Craig T. Bohren has taught the atmospheric radiation course there for the past 20 years with no book. Eugene Clothiaux has taken over and added to the course notes. Problems given in the text come from students, colleagues, and correspondents. The design of the figures especially for this book is meant to ease comprehension. Discussions have a graded approach with a thorough treatment of subjects, such as single scattering by particles, at different levels of complexity. The discussion of the multiple scattering theory begins with piles of plates. This simple theory introduces concepts in more advanced theories, i.e. optical thickness, single-scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter. The more complicated theory, the two-stream theory, then takes the reader beyond the pile-of-plates theory. Ideal for advanced undergraduate and graduate students of atmospheric science.

  10. Optical refrigeration of Yb3+:YAG nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemova, Galina; Kashyap, Raman

    2015-03-01

    We have theoretically investigated the laser cooling process in Yb3+:YAG nanocrystals. We have developed an approach, which permits not only estimate the cooling process in Yb3+:YAG nanocrystals but compare this process with the laser cooling of the Yb3+:YAG bulk samples. The temperature dependences of all parameters of the system are taken into account. The cooperative effects such as re-absorption, the energy migration and cooperative luminescence have been considered.

  11. Energy band diagram of device-grade silicon nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Macias-Montero, M; Askari, S; Mitra, S; Rocks, C; Ni, C; Svrcek, V; Connor, P A; Maguire, P; Irvine, J T S; Mariotti, D

    2016-03-28

    Device grade silicon nanocrystals (NCs) are synthesized using an atmospheric-pressure plasma technique. The Si NCs have a small and well defined size of about 2.3 nm. The synthesis system allows for the direct creation of thin films, enabling a range of measurements to be performed and easy implementation of this material in different devices. The chemical stability of the Si NCs is evaluated, showing relatively long-term durability thanks to hydrogen surface terminations. Optical and electrical characterization techniques, including Kelvin probe, ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy and Mott-Schottky analysis, are employed to determine the energy band diagram of the Si NCs. PMID:26939617

  12. Alexa fluor-labeled fluorescent cellulose nanocrystals for bioimaging solid cellulose in spatially structured microenvironments.

    PubMed

    Grate, Jay W; Mo, Kai-For; Shin, Yongsoon; Vasdekis, Andreas; Warner, Marvin G; Kelly, Ryan T; Orr, Galya; Hu, Dehong; Dehoff, Karl J; Brockman, Fred J; Wilkins, Michael J

    2015-03-18

    Methods to covalently conjugate Alexa Fluor dyes to cellulose nanocrystals, at limiting amounts that retain the overall structure of the nanocrystals as model cellulose materials, were developed using two approaches. In the first, aldehyde groups are created on the cellulose surfaces by reaction with limiting amounts of sodium periodate, a reaction well-known for oxidizing vicinal diols to create dialdehyde structures. Reductive amination reactions were then applied to bind Alexa Fluor dyes with terminal amino-groups on the linker section. In the absence of the reductive step, dye washes out of the nanocrystal suspension, whereas with the reductive step, a colored product is obtained with the characteristic spectral bands of the conjugated dye. In the second approach, Alexa Fluor dyes were modified to contain chloro-substituted triazine ring at the end of the linker section. These modified dyes then were reacted with cellulose nanocrystals in acetonitrile at elevated temperature, again isolating material with the characteristic spectral bands of the Alexa Fluor dye. Reactions with Alexa Fluor 546 are given as detailed examples, labeling on the order of 1% of the total glucopyranose rings of the cellulose nanocrystals at dye loadings of ca. 5 μg/mg cellulose. Fluorescent cellulose nanocrystals were deposited in pore network microfluidic structures (PDMS) and proof-of-principle bioimaging experiments showed that the spatial localization of the solid cellulose deposits could be determined, and their disappearance under the action of Celluclast enzymes or microbes could be observed over time. In addition, single molecule fluorescence microscopy was demonstrated as a method to follow the disappearance of solid cellulose deposits over time, following the decrease in the number of single blinking dye molecules with time instead of fluorescent intensity.

  13. Atomic-Scale Theoretical Studies of Fundamental Properties and Processes in CHNO Plastic-Bonded Explosive Constituent Materials under Static and Dynamic Compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sewell, Thomas

    2013-06-01

    The results of recent theoretical atomic-scale studies of CHNO plastic-bonded explosive constituent materials will be presented, emphasizing the effects of static and dynamic compression on structure, vibrational spectroscopy, energy redistribution, and dynamic deformation processes. Among the chemical compounds to be discussed are pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-s-triazine (RDX), nitromethane, and hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB). Specific topics to be discussed include pressure-dependent terahertz IR absorption spectra in crystalline PETN and RDX, microscopic material flow characteristics and energy localization during and after pore collapse in shocked (100)-oriented RDX, establishment of local thermodynamic temperature and the approach to thermal equilibrium in shocked (100)-oriented nitromethane, and structural changes and relaxation phenomena that occur in shocked amorphous cis-HTPB. In the case of shocked HTPB, comparisons will be made between results obtained using fully-atomic and coarse-grained (united atom) molecular dynamics force field models. Rather than attempting to discuss any given topic in extended detail, 3-4 vignettes will be presented that highlight outstanding scientific questions and the predictive methods and tools we are developing to answer them. The U.S. Defense Threat Reduction Agency and Office of Naval Research supported this research.

  14. Solvothermal synthesis and controlled self-assembly of monodisperse titanium-based perovskite colloidal nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caruntu, Daniela; Rostamzadeh, Taha; Costanzo, Tommaso; Salemizadeh Parizi, Saman; Caruntu, Gabriel

    2015-07-01

    The rational design of monodisperse ferroelectric nanocrystals with controlled size and shape and their organization into hierarchical structures has been a critical step for understanding the polar ordering in nanoscale ferroelectrics, as well as the design of nanocrystal-based functional materials which harness the properties of individual nanoparticles and the collective interactions between them. We report here on the synthesis and self-assembly of aggregate-free, single-crystalline titanium-based perovskite nanoparticles with controlled morphology and surface composition by using a simple, easily scalable and highly versatile colloidal route. Single-crystalline, non-aggregated BaTiO3 colloidal nanocrystals, used as a model system, have been prepared under solvothermal conditions at temperatures as low as 180 °C. The shape of the nanocrystals was tuned from spheroidal to cubic upon changing the polarity of the solvent, whereas their size was varied from 16 to 30 nm for spheres and 5 to 78 nm for cubes by changing the concentration of the precursors and the reaction time, respectively. The hydrophobic, oleic acid-passivated nanoparticles exhibit very good solubility in non-polar solvents and can be rendered dispersible in polar solvents by a simple process involving the oxidative cleavage of the double bond upon treating the nanopowders with the Lemieux-von Rudloff reagent. Lattice dynamic analysis indicated that regardless of their size, BaTiO3 nanocrystals present local disorder within the perovskite unit cell, associated with the existence of polar ordering. We also demonstrate for the first time that, in addition to being used for fabricating large area, crack-free, highly uniform films, BaTiO3 nanocubes can serve as building blocks for the design of 2D and 3D mesoscale structures, such as superlattices and superparticles. Interestingly, the type of superlattice structure (simple cubic or face centered cubic) appears to be determined by the type of solvent

  15. From Microstructures to Predict Properties of Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ke-Gang

    2010-03-01

    Understanding the precise and fundamental manner in which materials structures (nanostructures or microstructures) and their evolution influences properties and service lifetimes of advanced materials profoundly impacts material design and today materials design plays an increasingly important rôle in many engineering applications. Linking structures to properties and predicting properties of materials is fundamental step for materials design. First, a framework of applications of multiscale modeling to property prediction of advanced materials will be briefly presented. As an example, a methodology will be shown to link micro-scale to the continuum scale, integrating microstructure modeling with the large Thermo-Calc^ database. This paradigm was successfully applied to the case of Fe-12Ni-6Mn maraging steel. Next, methodology for integrating first-principle calculation into simulations of microstructure evolution will be reviewed. Our methods are sufficiently reliable to permit control and fabrication of quantum-dots structures, nanocrystals, and particle-reinforced nanocomposites, as well as assist in the predictive behavior of macro-scale colloids, aerosols, and other soft matter systems.

  16. Ion irradiation effects on metallic nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Kluth, P.; Johannessen, B.; Giulian, R.; Schnohr, C.S.; Foran, G.J.; Cookson, D.J.; Byrne, A.P.; Ridgway, M.C.

    2008-04-02

    We have investigated structural and morphological properties of metallic nanocrystals (NCs) exposed to ion irradiation. NCs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy in combination with advanced synchrotron-based analytical techniques, in particular X-ray absorption spectroscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering. A number of different effects were observed depending on the irradiation conditions. At energies where nuclear stopping is predominant, structural disorder/amorphization followed by inverse Ostwald ripening/dissolution due to ion beam mixing was observed for Au and Cu NCs embedded in SiO{sub 2}. The ion-irradiation-induced crystalline to amorphous transition in the NCs, which cannot be achieved in the corresponding bulk metals, was attributed to their initially higher structural energy as compared to bulk material and possibly preferential nucleation of the amorphous phase at the NC/SiO{sub 2} interface. At very high irradiation energies (swift heavy ion irradiation), where the energy loss is nearly entirely due to electronic stopping, a size-dependent shape transformation of the NCs from spheres to rod like shapes was apparent in Au NCs. Our preliminary results are in good agreement with considerations on melting of the NCs in the ion track as one mechanism involved in the shape transformation.

  17. Ion irradiation effects on metallic nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kluth, P.; Johannessen, B.; Giulian, R.; Schnohr, C. S.; Foran, G. J.; Cookson, D. J.; Byrne, A. P.; Ridgway, M. C.

    We have investigated structural and morphological properties of metallic nanocrystals (NCs) exposed to ion irradiation. NCs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy in combination with advanced synchrotron-based analytical techniques, in particular X-ray absorption spectroscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering. A number of different effects were observed depending on the irradiation conditions. At energies where nuclear stopping is predominant, structural disorder/amorphization followed by inverse Ostwald ripening/dissolution due to ion beam mixing was observed for Au and Cu NCs embedded in SiO2. The ion-irradiation-induced crystalline to amorphous transition in the NCs, which cannot be achieved in the corresponding bulk metals, was attributed to their initially higher structural energy as compared to bulk material and possibly preferential nucleation of the amorphous phase at the NC/SiO2 interface. At very high irradiation energies (swift heavy ion irradiation), where the energy loss is nearly entirely due to electronic stopping, a size-dependent shape transformation of the NCs from spheres to rod like shapes was apparent in Au NCs. Our preliminary results are in good agreement with considerations on melting of the NCs in the ion track as one mechanism involved in the shape transformation.

  18. X-Ray Absorption Studies of Vanadium-Containing Metal Oxide Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Hohn, Keith, L.

    2006-01-09

    Metal oxide nanocrystals offer significant potential for use as catalysts or catalyst supports due to their high surface areas and unique chemical properties that result from the high number of exposed corners and edges. However, little is known about the catalytic activity of these materials, especially as oxidation catalysts. This research focused on the preparation, characterization and use of vanadium-containing nanocrystals as selective oxidation catalysts. Three vanadium-containing nanocrystals were prepared using a modified sol-gel procedure: V/MgO, V/SiO2, and vanadium phosphate (VPO). These represent active oxidation catalysts for a number of industrially relevant reactions. The catalysts were characterized by x-ray diffraction and Raman, UV-VIS, infrared and x-ray absorption spectroscopies with the goal of determining the primary structural and chemical differences between nanocrystals and microcrystals. The catalytic activity of these catalysts was also studied in oxidative dehydrogenation of butane and methanol oxidation to formaldehyde. V/MgO nanocrystals were investigated for activity in oxidative dehydrogenation of butane and compared to conventional V/MgO catalysts. Characterization of V/MgO catalysts using Raman spectroscopy and x-ray absorption spectroscopy showed that both types of catalysts contained magnesium orthovanadate at vanadium loadings below 15 weight%, but above that loading, magnesium pyrovanadate may have been present. In general, MgO nanocrystals had roughly half the crystal size and double the surface area of the conventional MgO. In oxidative dehydrogenation of butane, nanocrystalline V/MgO gave higher selectivity to butene than conventional V/MgO at the same conversion. This difference was attributed to differences in vanadium domain size resulting from the higher surface areas of the nanocrystalline support, since characterization suggested that similar vanadium phases were present on both types of catalysts. Experiments in

  19. Fundamental Physical Constants

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 121 CODATA Fundamental Physical Constants (Web, free access)   This site, developed in the Physics Laboratory at NIST, addresses three topics: fundamental physical constants, the International System of Units (SI), which is the modern metric system, and expressing the uncertainty of measurement results.

  20. Fundamentals of Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl

    2003-01-01

    No other book on the market today can match the success of Halliday, Resnick and Walker's Fundamentals of Physics! In a breezy, easy-to-understand style the book offers a solid understanding of fundamental physics concepts, and helps readers apply this conceptual understanding to quantitative problem solving.