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Sample records for nanofabrication from ultralarge-scale integration

  1. Thin-Film Transistor and Ultra-Large Scale Integrated Circuit: Competition or Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Yue

    2008-03-01

    Thin-film transistor (TFT) and ultra-large scale integrated circuit (ULSIC) have been compared and discussed with respect to the development history, technology trends, and applications. Detailed issues on materials, processes, and devices in the large-area TFT array fabrication and nano-size metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) composed ULSIC on large wafers were also examined. The TFT fabrication processes were originally derived from ULSIC. However, there are many unique large-area processes and theories developed during the study of the TFT array fabrication, which can greatly benefit the future large wafer ULSIC production process. Although their future applications will be in different areas, there are opportunities that TFTs can be integrated into ULSIC products to enhance the functions and performance.

  2. Wafer-scale laser lithography. I. Pyrolytic deposition of metal microstructures. [For ultra-large scale integrated circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, I.P.; Hyde, R.A.; McWilliams, B.M.; Weisberg, A.H.; Wood, L.L.

    1982-01-01

    Mechanisms for laser-driven pyrolytic deposition of micron-scale metal structures on crystalline silicon have been studied. Models have been developed to predict temporal and spatial propeties of laser-induced pyrolytic deposition processes. An argon ion laser-based apparatus has been used to deposit metal by pyrolytic decomposition of metal alkyl and carbonyl compounds, in order to evaluate the models. These results of these studies are discussed, along with their implications for the high-speed creation of micron-scale metal structures in ultra-large scale integrated circuit systems. 4 figures.

  3. Inferring the choreography of parental genomes during fertilization from ultralarge-scale whole-transcriptome analysis.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung-Joon; Komata, Makiko; Inoue, Fukashi; Yamada, Kaori; Nakai, Kenta; Ohsugi, Miho; Shirahige, Katsuhiko

    2013-12-15

    Fertilization precisely choreographs parental genomes by using gamete-derived cellular factors and activating genome regulatory programs. However, the mechanism remains elusive owing to the technical difficulties of preparing large numbers of high-quality preimplantation cells. Here, we collected >14 × 10(4) high-quality mouse metaphase II oocytes and used these to establish detailed transcriptional profiles for four early embryo stages and parthenogenetic development. By combining these profiles with other public resources, we found evidence that gene silencing appeared to be mediated in part by noncoding RNAs and that this was a prerequisite for post-fertilization development. Notably, we identified 817 genes that were differentially expressed in embryos after fertilization compared with parthenotes. The regulation of these genes was distinctly different from those expressed in parthenotes, suggesting functional specialization of particular transcription factors prior to first cell cleavage. We identified five transcription factors that were potentially necessary for developmental progression: Foxd1, Nkx2-5, Sox18, Myod1, and Runx1. Our very large-scale whole-transcriptome profile of early mouse embryos yielded a novel and valuable resource for studies in developmental biology and stem cell research. The database is available at http://dbtmee.hgc.jp.

  4. Finite element model of surface acoustic wave method for mechanical characterization of patterned thin films of the ultra-large scaled integrated interconnect.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xia; Shan, Xingmeng; Tao, Ye; Sun, Yuan; Kikkawa, Takamaro

    2013-02-01

    Surface acoustic waves (SAWs) technique is a promising method to determine the mechanical properties of thin low dielectric constant (low-k) dielectrics by matching the experimental dispersion curve with the theoretical dispersion curves. However, it is difficult to calculate the dispersion curves when SAWs propagate along patterned structure. In this paper, finite element method (FEM) is applied to obtain the numerical dispersion results of SAWs propagating on patterned film. Periodic boundary condition and plane-strain model is used to improve the computation speed. Four structures of bulk silicon, single layered low-k film, two layered Cu and SiO2 film, and patterned film, are simulated in this paper. The dispersion curves of single low-k films derived from the FEM simulation agree very well with those calculated by traditional method, which verifies the correct employment of the FEM approach. Dispersion curves of two patterned film structure of Cu and SiO2 with difference metal wire width are obtained. Effective Young's moduli are achieved by fitting the FEM simulated results with those of traditional theoretical calculation through least square error method.

  5. Nonlinear modulation of the HI power spectrum on ultra-large scales. I

    SciTech Connect

    Umeh, Obinna; Maartens, Roy; Santos, Mario E-mail: roy.maartens@gmail.com

    2016-03-01

    Intensity mapping of the neutral hydrogen brightness temperature promises to provide a three-dimensional view of the universe on very large scales. Nonlinear effects are typically thought to alter only the small-scale power, but we show how they may bias the extraction of cosmological information contained in the power spectrum on ultra-large scales. For linear perturbations to remain valid on large scales, we need to renormalize perturbations at higher order. In the case of intensity mapping, the second-order contribution to clustering from weak lensing dominates the nonlinear contribution at high redshift. Renormalization modifies the mean brightness temperature and therefore the evolution bias. It also introduces a term that mimics white noise. These effects may influence forecasting analysis on ultra-large scales.

  6. Nanofabrication

    DOEpatents

    Tuominen, Mark; Bal, Mustafa; Russell, Thomas P.; Ursache, Andrei

    2007-03-13

    Pathways to rapid and reliable fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures are provided. Simple methods are described for the production of well-ordered, multilevel nanostructures. This is accomplished by patterning block copolymer templates with selective exposure to a radiation source. The resulting multi-scale lithographic template can be treated with post-fabrication steps to produce multilevel, three-dimensional, integrated nanoscale media, devices, and systems.

  7. Constraining cosmological ultralarge scale structure using numerical relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braden, Jonathan; Johnson, Matthew C.; Peiris, Hiranya V.; Aguirre, Anthony

    2017-07-01

    Cosmic inflation, a period of accelerated expansion in the early universe, can give rise to large amplitude ultralarge scale inhomogeneities on distance scales comparable to or larger than the observable universe. The cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy on the largest angular scales is sensitive to such inhomogeneities and can be used to constrain the presence of ultralarge scale structure (ULSS). We numerically evolve nonlinear inhomogeneities present at the beginning of inflation in full general relativity to assess the CMB quadrupole constraint on the amplitude of the initial fluctuations and the size of the observable universe relative to a length scale characterizing the ULSS. To obtain a statistically meaningful ensemble of simulations, we adopt a toy model in which inhomogeneities are injected along a preferred direction. We compute the likelihood function for the CMB quadrupole including both ULSS and the standard quantum fluctuations produced during inflation. We compute the posterior given the observed CMB quadrupole, finding that when including gravitational nonlinearities, ULSS curvature perturbations of order unity are allowed by the data, even on length scales not too much larger than the size of the observable universe. To demonstrate the robustness of our conclusions, we also explore a semianalytic model for the ULSS which reproduces our numerical results for the case of planar symmetry, and which can be extended to ULSS with a three-dimensional inhomogeneity structure. Our results illustrate the utility and importance of numerical relativity for constraining early universe cosmology.

  8. Cosmology on ultralarge scales with intensity mapping of the neutral hydrogen 21 cm emission: limits on primordial non-Gaussianity.

    PubMed

    Camera, Stefano; Santos, Mário G; Ferreira, Pedro G; Ferramacho, Luís

    2013-10-25

    The large-scale structure of the Universe supplies crucial information about the physical processes at play at early times. Unresolved maps of the intensity of 21 cm emission from neutral hydrogen HI at redshifts z=/~1-5 are the best hope of accessing the ultralarge-scale information, directly related to the early Universe. A purpose-built HI intensity experiment may be used to detect the large scale effects of primordial non-Gaussianity, placing stringent bounds on different models of inflation. We argue that it may be possible to place tight constraints on the non-Gaussianity parameter f(NL), with an error close to σ(f(NL))~1.

  9. Nanofabrication of Metallic Nanostructures and Integration with Light Detection Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Liang

    Metallic nanostructures have been investigated with various applications especially for integration with light detection devices. The incident light can be manipulated by those nanostructures to enhance light absorption therefor improve device performance. However, previous studies focused on optical design. The electrical properties of these integrated light detection devices have not been fully considered. The photon generated carriers transport and collection are critical for light detection devices as well. An optimized device platform considering from both the optical and electrical aspects to fully utilize these nanostructures is highly desired for future light detection devices. This dissertation targeted on three objectives, beginning with the fabrication process development of various nanostructures on different substrates. High quality nanostructures were achieved with minimum 20nm gap and 45nm line width. The second objective was developing the metallic fishnet nanostructures integrated Schottky contact a-Si solar cell to improve both light absorption and photon generated carrier collection. The fishnet was designed as the light trapping structure and 2D connected top contact to collect carriers. The third objective was developing metallic nanostructures integrated GeSn photodetectors. The H shape nano antennas were integrated on GeSn photodetectors. Multiple resonant absorption peaks at infrared range were observed using spectroscopic ellipsometry. However, there was no obvious photoresponse value improvement of developed solar cells and H shape antennas integrated GeSn photodetectors. For further investigation, interdigitated electrodes integrated GeSn photodetectors were designed. With less carrier transit time, the responsivity value of the integrated Ge0.991Sn0.009 photodetector was 72muA/W at 1.55mum at room temperature which was 6 times higher comparing to device without integration. Meanwhile, with the increased carrier life time by decreasing

  10. Nanofabrication beyond electronics.

    PubMed

    Wang, YuHuang; Mirkin, Chad A; Park, So-Jung

    2009-05-26

    This Nano Focus article reviews recent developments in nanofabrication based on invited talks given at the "Chemical Methods of Nanofabrication" symposium, which was organized by the authors and presented at the 237th ACS National Meeting and Exhibition as one of seven symposia within the meeting theme, "Nanoscience: Challenges for the Future". The three-day symposium included 25 experts from academia, national laboratories, and industry from around the world, to discuss current progress and future directions in nanofabrication. We highlight several of the key results discussed and future directions and challenges in this rapidly changing field.

  11. DNA nanostructure meets nanofabrication.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guomei; Surwade, Sumedh P; Zhou, Feng; Liu, Haitao

    2013-04-07

    Recent advances in DNA nanotechnology have made it possible to construct DNA nanostructures of almost arbitrary shapes with 2-3 nm of precision in their dimensions. These DNA nanostructures are ideal templates for bottom-up nanofabrication. This review highlights the challenges and recent advances in three areas that are directly related to DNA-based nanofabrication: (1) fabrication of large scale DNA nanostructures; (2) pattern transfer from DNA nanostructure to an inorganic substrate; and (3) directed assembly of DNA nanostructures.

  12. From Cleanroom to Desktop: Emerging Micro-Nanofabrication Technology for Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei

    2010-01-01

    This review is motivated by the growing demand for low-cost, easy-to-use, compact-size yet powerful micro-nanofabrication technology to address emerging challenges of fundamental biology and translational medicine in regular laboratory settings. Recent advancements in the field benefit considerably from rapidly expanding material selections, ranging from inorganics to organics and from nanoparticles to self-assembled molecules. Meanwhile a great number of novel methodologies, employing off-the-shelf consumer electronics, intriguing interfacial phenomena, bottom-up self-assembly principles, etc., have been implemented to transit micro-nanofabrication from a cleanroom environment to a desktop setup. Furthermore, the latest application of micro-nanofabrication to emerging biomedical research will be presented in detail, which includes point-of-care diagnostics, on-chip cell culture as well as bio-manipulation. While significant progresses have been made in the rapidly growing field, both apparent and unrevealed roadblocks will need to be addressed in the future. We conclude this review by offering our perspectives on the current technical challenges and future research opportunities. PMID:21161384

  13. From cleanroom to desktop: emerging micro-nanofabrication technology for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Pan, Tingrui; Wang, Wei

    2011-02-01

    This review is motivated by the growing demand for low-cost, easy-to-use, compact-size yet powerful micro-nanofabrication technology to address emerging challenges of fundamental biology and translational medicine in regular laboratory settings. Recent advancements in the field benefit considerably from rapidly expanding material selections, ranging from inorganics to organics and from nanoparticles to self-assembled molecules. Meanwhile a great number of novel methodologies, employing off-the-shelf consumer electronics, intriguing interfacial phenomena, bottom-up self-assembly principles, etc., have been implemented to transit micro-nanofabrication from a cleanroom environment to a desktop setup. Furthermore, the latest application of micro-nanofabrication to emerging biomedical research will be presented in detail, which includes point-of-care diagnostics, on-chip cell culture as well as bio-manipulation. While significant progresses have been made in the rapidly growing field, both apparent and unrevealed roadblocks will need to be addressed in the future. We conclude this review by offering our perspectives on the current technical challenges and future research opportunities.

  14. Programming reaction-diffusion: From theory to micro- and nanofabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Christopher James

    Nature often uses reaction-diffusion(RD) as a means of making structures and materials of unique properties or morphologies on scales from macro- (e.g., stripes in zebras, tigers, and seashells, and formations in trees, agates, and rocks) to microscopic (e.g., cellular growth, chemotaxis and biological waves). However, reaction-diffusion phenomena have not yet been applied in modern materials science and micro-/nanotechnology. In this context, RD systems are particularly promising for micropatterning of surfaces. Unlike conventional micropatterning techniques that modify the properties of the substrate only at the locations to which a modifying agent - be it a chemical or radiation - is delivered, RD can, in principle, evolve chemicals delivered onto a surface into structures of characteristic dimensions significantly smaller than those of the original pattern. In this Dissertation, I describe how reaction-diffusions are programmed and executed via a new micropatterning technique called Wet Stamping to (i) transform microscopic patterns of chemicals delivered onto thin films of dry gelatin into regular arrays of lines of submicrometer thicknesses, multicolor arrays on the micrometer scale, or three-dimensional microstructured surfaces; (ii) modify the properties of a surface by precisely delivering an oxidant to change hydrophilicity or deliver silanes or thiols to build a self-assembling monolayer; or (iii) cut into a metal, glass, or crystal surface by delivery of an etchant to form binary and curvilinear three-dimensional microstructures. This technique has allowed for a fundamental understanding and control of reaction-diffusion processes down to the nanoscale. In addition, this platform has allowed for the development of a range of applications on the micro- and nanoscale, including microlenses, microfluidic devices, and templates for studying cell motility and cancer metastasis.

  15. Stochastic inflation lattice simulations: Ultra-large scale structure of the universe

    SciTech Connect

    Salopek, D.S.

    1990-11-01

    Non-Gaussian fluctuations for structure formation may arise in inflation from the nonlinear interaction of long wavelength gravitational and scalar fields. Long wavelength fields have spatial gradients {alpha}{sup {minus}1} {triangledown} small compared to the Hubble radius, and they are described in terms of classical random fields that are fed by short wavelength quantum noise. Lattice Langevin calculations are given for a toy model'' with a scalar field interacting with an exponential potential where one can obtain exact analytic solutions of the Fokker-Planck equation. For single scalar field models that are consistent with current microwave background fluctuations, the fluctuations are Gaussian. However, for scales much larger than our observable Universe, one expects large metric fluctuations that are non-Guassian. This example illuminates non-Gaussian models involving multiple scalar fields which are consistent with current microwave background limits. 21 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Colloidal self-assembly meets nanofabrication: from two-dimensional colloidal crystals to nanostructure arrays.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junhu; Li, Yunfeng; Zhang, Xuemin; Yang, Bai

    2010-10-08

    Self-assembly of colloidal microspheres or nanospheres is an effective strategy for fabrication of ordered nanostructures. By combination of colloidal self-assembly with nanofabrication techniques, two-dimensional (2D) colloidal crystals have been employed as masks or templates for evaporation, deposition, etching, and imprinting, etc. These methods are defined as "colloidal lithography", which is now recognized as a facile, inexpensive, and repeatable nanofabrication technique. This paper presents an overview of 2D colloidal crystals and nanostructure arrays fabricated by colloidal lithography. First, different methods for fabricating self-assembled 2D colloidal crystals and complex 2D colloidal crystal structures are summarized. After that, according to the nanofabrication strategy employed in colloidal lithography, related works are reviewed as colloidal-crystal-assisted evaporation, deposition, etching, imprinting, and dewetting, respectively.

  17. An integrated portable Raman sensor with nanofabricated gold bowtie array substrates for energetics detection

    SciTech Connect

    Abu Hatab, Nahla A; Rouleau, Christopher; Retterer, Scott T; Eres, Gyula; Hatzinger, Paul B.; Gu, Baohua

    2011-01-01

    An integrated field-portable surface enhaned Raman scattering (SERS) sensing system has been developed and evaluated for quantitative analysis of energetics such as perchlorate (ClO4-) and trinitrotoluene (TNT) at environmentally-relevant concentrations and conditions. The detection system consists of a portable Raman spectrometer equipped with an optical fiber probe that is coupled with novel elevated gold bowtie nanostructural arrays as a sensitive and reproducible SERS substrate. Using the standard addition technique, we show that ClO4- and TNT can be quantified at concentrations as low as 0.66 mg/L (or ~6.6 M) and 0.20 mg/L (~0.9 M), respectively, in groundwater samples collected from selected military sites. This research represents the first step toward the development of a field SERS sensor which may permit rapid, in-situ screening and analysis for various applications including national security, chemical, biological and environmental detection.

  18. Controlling Magnetotactic Bacteria through an Integrated Nanofabricated Metallic Island and Optical Microscope Approach

    PubMed Central

    González, Lina M.; Ruder, Warren C.; Leduc, Philip R.; Messner, William C.

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we demonstrate the control of magnetotactic bacteria through the application of magnetic field gradients with real-time visualization. We accomplish this control by integrating a pair of macroscale Helmholtz coils and lithographically fabricated nanoscale islands composed of permalloy (Ni80Fe20). This system enabled us to guide and steer amphitrichous Magnetospirillum magneticum strain AMB-1 to specific location via magnetic islands. The geometries of the islands allowed us to have control over the specific magnetic field gradients on the bacteria. We estimate that magnetotactic bacteria located less than 1 μm from the edge of a diamond shaped island experience a maximum force of approximately 34 pN, which engages the bacteria without trapping them. Our system could be useful for a variety of applications including magnetic fabrication, self-assembly, and probing the sensing apparatus of magnetotactic bacteria. PMID:24553101

  19. Controlling Magnetotactic Bacteria through an Integrated Nanofabricated Metallic Island and Optical Microscope Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Lina M.; Ruder, Warren C.; Leduc, Philip R.; Messner, William C.

    2014-02-01

    Herein, we demonstrate the control of magnetotactic bacteria through the application of magnetic field gradients with real-time visualization. We accomplish this control by integrating a pair of macroscale Helmholtz coils and lithographically fabricated nanoscale islands composed of permalloy (Ni80Fe20). This system enabled us to guide and steer amphitrichous Magnetospirillum magneticum strain AMB-1 to specific location via magnetic islands. The geometries of the islands allowed us to have control over the specific magnetic field gradients on the bacteria. We estimate that magnetotactic bacteria located less than 1 μm from the edge of a diamond shaped island experience a maximum force of approximately 34 pN, which engages the bacteria without trapping them. Our system could be useful for a variety of applications including magnetic fabrication, self-assembly, and probing the sensing apparatus of magnetotactic bacteria.

  20. Micro/nanofabricated solid-state thermoelectric generator devices for integrated high voltage power sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleurial, J. P.; Snyder, G. J.; Patel, J.; Huang, C. K.; Ryan, M. A.; Averback, R.; Chen, G.; Hill, C.

    2002-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has been actively pursuing the development of thermoelectric micro/nanodevices that can be fabricated using a combination of electrochemical deposition and integrated circuit processing techniques.

  1. Femtosecond laser 3D nanofabrication in glass: enabling direct write of integrated micro/nanofluidic chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Ya; Liao, Yang; Sugioka, Koji

    2014-03-01

    The creation of complex three-dimensional (3D) fluidic systems composed of hollow micro- and nanostructures embedded in transparent substrates has attracted significant attention from both scientific and applied research communities. However, it is by now still a formidable challenge to build 3D micro- and nanofluidic structures with arbitrary configurations using conventional planar lithographic fabrication methods. As a direct and maskless fabrication technique, femtosecond laser micromachining provides a straightforward approach for high-precision spatial-selective modification inside transparent materials through nonlinear optical absorption. Here, we demonstrate rapid fabrication of high-aspect-ratio micro- and/or nanofluidic structures with various 3D configurations in glass substrates by femtosecond laser direct writing. Based on this approach, we demonstrate several functional micro- and nanofluidic devices including a 3D passive microfluidic mixer, a capillary electrophoresis (CE) analysis chip, and an integrated micro-nanofluidic system for single DNA analysis. This technology offers new opportunities to develop novel 3D micro-nanofluidic systems for a variety of lab-on-a-chip applications.

  2. Nanofabrication of SERS device by an integrated block-copolymer and nanoimprint lithography method.

    SciTech Connect

    Nealey, Paul; Liu, Charlie; Skinner, Jack L.; Yang, Elaine; Steinhaus, Charles A.; Yang, Chu-Yeu Peter

    2010-05-01

    The integration of block-copolymers (BCPs) and nanoimprint lithography (NIL) presents a novel and cost-effective approach to achieving nanoscale patterning capabilities. The authors demonstrate the fabrication of a surface-enhanced Raman scattering device using templates created by the BCP-NIL integrated method. The method utilizes a poly(styrene-block-methyl methacrylate) cylindrical-forming diblock-copolymer as a masking material to create a Si template, which is then used to perform a thermal imprint of a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) layer on a Si substrate. Au with a Cr adhesion layer was evaporated onto the patterned PMMA and the subsequent lift-off resulted in an array of nanodots. Raman spectra collected for samples of R6G on Si substrates with and without patterned nanodots showed enhancement of peak intensities due to the presence of the nanodot array. The demonstrated BCP-NIL fabrication method shows promise for cost-effective nanoscale fabrication of plasmonic and nanoelectronic devices.

  3. Hard and Soft Micro- and Nanofabrication: An Integrated Approach to Hydrogel Based Biosensing and Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Ronald A.; Gu, Yuandong; Lei, Ming; Baldi, Antonio; Nuxoll, Eric E.; Ziaie, Babak

    2010-01-01

    We review efforts to produce microfabricated glucose sensors and closed loop insulin delivery systems. These devices function due to the swelling and shrinking of glucose-sensitive microgels that are incorporated into silicon-based microdevices. The glucose response of the hydrogel is due to incorporated phenylboronic acid (PBA) side chains. It is shown that in the presence of glucose, these polymers alter their swelling properties, either by ionization or by formation of glucose-mediated reversible crosslinks. Swelling pressures impinge on microdevice structures, leading either to a change in resonant frequency of a microcircuit, or valving action. Potential areas for future development and improvement are described. Finally, an asymmetric nano-microporous membrane, which may be integrated with the glucose sensitive devices, is described. This membrane, formed using photolithography and block polymer assembly techniques, can be functionalized to enhance its biocompatibility and solute size selectivity. The work described here features the interplay of design considerations at the supramolecular, nano, and micro scales. PMID:20036310

  4. Nano-fabricated size exclusion chromatograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svehla, D.; Feldman, S.; Feldman, J.; Grunthaner, F.; Shakkottai, P.; Castillo, L. del; White, V.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a nano-fabricated size exclusion chromatograph (nSEC) based on the principle that molecules traveling through amicrocolumn containing nano-fabricated features will have characteristic elution times that directly correlate to molecular weight. Compared to conventional size exclusion chromatography, the nSEC offers greater control over the size exclusion process; mass fabrication; integration of the separation column with associated valves, pumps, and detectors; and dramatic reductions in instrument mass and power requirements.

  5. Nano-fabricated size exclusion chromatograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svehla, D.; Feldman, S.; Feldman, J.; Grunthaner, F.; Shakkottai, P.; Castillo, L. del; White, V.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a nano-fabricated size exclusion chromatograph (nSEC) based on the principle that molecules traveling through amicrocolumn containing nano-fabricated features will have characteristic elution times that directly correlate to molecular weight. Compared to conventional size exclusion chromatography, the nSEC offers greater control over the size exclusion process; mass fabrication; integration of the separation column with associated valves, pumps, and detectors; and dramatic reductions in instrument mass and power requirements.

  6. Plasma nanofabrication and nanomaterials safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Z. J.; Levchenko, I.; Kumar, S.; Yajadda, M. M. A.; Yick, S.; Seo, D. H.; Martin, P. J.; Peel, S.; Kuncic, Z.; Ostrikov, K.

    2011-05-01

    The fast advances in nanotechnology have raised increasing concerns related to the safety of nanomaterials when exposed to humans, animals and the environment. However, despite several years of research, the nanomaterials safety field is still in its infancy owing to the complexities of structural and surface properties of these nanomaterials and organism-specific responses to them. Recently, plasma-based technology has been demonstrated as a versatile and effective way for nanofabrication, yet its health and environment-benign nature has not been widely recognized. Here we address the environmental and occupational health and safety effects of various zero- and one-dimensional nanomaterials and elaborate the advantages of using plasmas as a safe nanofabrication tool. These advantages include but are not limited to the production of substrate-bound nanomaterials, the isolation of humans from harmful nanomaterials, and the effective reforming of toxic and flammable gases. It is concluded that plasma nanofabrication can minimize the hazards in the workplace and represents a safe way for future nanofabrication technologies.

  7. Laser-assisted methods for nanofabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabashin, Andrei V.; Meunier, Michel

    2004-07-01

    An overview of laser-assisted nanofabrication methods, which has been developed in the Laser Processing Laboratory, is presented. All methods imply the laser-related ablation of material from a solid target and the production of nanoparticles or nanostructures. We consider the nanofabrication process in both the gaseous and in the liquid ambience under different parameters of laser radiation. A particular attention is given on the absence or presence of the plasma-related absorption of the laser radiation, which make possible different nanofabrication regimes. The methods lead to a production of nanomaterials, which are of importance for photonics and biosensing applications.

  8. Gravity at the horizon: on relativistic effects, CMB-LSS correlations and ultra-large scales in Horndeski's theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renk, Janina; Zumalacárregui, Miguel; Montanari, Francesco

    2016-07-01

    We address the impact of consistent modifications of gravity on the largest observable scales, focusing on relativistic effects in galaxy number counts and the cross-correlation between the matter large scale structure (LSS) distribution and the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Our analysis applies to a very broad class of general scalar-tensor theories encoded in the Horndeski Lagrangian and is fully consistent on linear scales, retaining the full dynamics of the scalar field and not assuming quasi-static evolution. As particular examples we consider self-accelerating Covariant Galileons, Brans-Dicke theory and parameterizations based on the effective field theory of dark energy, using the hi class code to address the impact of these models on relativistic corrections to LSS observables. We find that especially effects which involve integrals along the line of sight (lensing convergence, time delay and the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect—ISW) can be considerably modified, and even lead to O(1000%) deviations from General Relativity in the case of the ISW effect for Galileon models, for which standard probes such as the growth function only vary by O(10%). These effects become dominant when correlating galaxy number counts at different redshifts and can lead to ~ 50% deviations in the total signal that might be observable by future LSS surveys. Because of their integrated nature, these deep-redshift cross-correlations are sensitive to modifications of gravity even when probing eras much before dark energy domination. We further isolate the ISW effect using the cross-correlation between LSS and CMB temperature anisotropies and use current data to further constrain Horndeski models. Forthcoming large-volume galaxy surveys using multiple-tracers will search for all these effects, opening a new window to probe gravity and cosmic acceleration at the largest scales available in our universe.

  9. Nanofabrication of Hybrid Optoelectronic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dibos, Alan Michael

    The material requirements for optoelectronic devices can vary dramatically depending on the application. Often disparate material systems need to be combined to allow for full device functionality. At the nanometer scale, this can often be challenging because of the inherent chemical and structural incompatibilities of nanofabrication. This dissertation concerns the integration of seemingly dissimilar materials into hybrid optoelectronic devices for photovoltaic, plasmonic, and photonic applications. First, we show that combining a single strip of conjugated polymer and inorganic nanowire can yield a nanoscale solar cell, and modeling of optical absorption and exciton diffusion in this device can provide insight into the efficiency of charge separation. Second, we use an on-chip nanowire light emitting diode to pump a colloidal quantum dot coupled to a silver waveguide. The resulting device is an electro-optic single plasmon source. Finally, we transfer diamond waveguides onto near-field avalanche photodiodes fabricated from GaAs. Embedded in the diamond waveguides are nitrogen vacancy color centers, and the mapping of emission from these single-photon sources is demonstrated using our on-chip detectors, eliminating the need for external photodetectors on an optical table. These studies show the promise of hybrid optoelectronic devices at the nanoscale with applications in alternative energy, optical communication, and quantum optics.

  10. Nanofabrication in cellulose acetate.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Hongjun; Lajos, Robert; Metlushko, Vitali; Elzy, Ed; An, Se Young; Sautner, Joshua

    2009-03-07

    We have demonstrated nanofabrication with commercialized cellulose acetate. Cellulose acetate is used for bulk nanofabrication and surface nanofabrication. In bulk nanofabrication, cellulose acetate reacts with an e-beam and permanent patterns are formed in it instead of being transferred to other substrates. We have studied the nano relief modulation performance of cellulose acetate before and after development. The depth of the nanopatterns is magnified after development, and is varied by exposing dosage and line width of the pattern. The thinnest 65 nm wide line is achieved in the bulk fabrication. We also demonstrate a binary phase Fresnel lens array which is directly patterned in a cellulose acetate sheet. Because of its unique mechanical and optical properties, cellulose is a good candidate for a template material for soft imprinting lithography. In the surface nanofabrication, cellulose acetate thin film spin-coated on silicon wafers is employed as a new resist for e-beam lithography. We achieved 50 nm lines with 100 nm pitches, dots 50 nm in diameter, and single lines with the smallest width of 20 nm. As a new resist of e-beam lithography, cellulose acetate has high resolution comparable with conventional resists, while having several advantages such as low cost, long stock time and less harmfulness to human health.

  11. Micro/nanofabricated environments for synthetic biology

    SciTech Connect

    Collier, Pat; Simpson, Michael L

    2011-01-01

    A better understanding of how confinement, crowding and reduced dimensionality modulate reactivity and reaction dynamics will aid in the rational and systematic discovery of functionality in complex biological systems. Artificial micro- and nanofabricated structures have helped elucidate the effects of nanoscale spatial confinement and segregation on biological behavior, particularly when integrated with microfluidics, through precise control in both space and time of diffusible signals and binding interactions. Examples of nanostructured interfaces for synthetic biology include the development of cell-like compartments for encapsulating biochemical reactions, nanostructured environments for fundamental studies of diffusion, molecular transport and biochemical reaction kinetics, and regulation of biomolecular interactions as functions of micro- and nanofabricated topological constraints.

  12. Zooming in to see the bigger picture: microfluidic and nanofabrication tools to study bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hol, Felix J H; Dekker, Cees

    2014-10-24

    The spatial structure of natural habitats strongly affects bacterial life, ranging from nanoscale structural features that individual cells exploit for surface attachment, to micro- and millimeter-scale chemical gradients that drive population-level processes. Nanofabrication and microfluidics are ideally suited to manipulate the environment at those scales and have emerged as powerful tools with which to study bacteria. Here, we review the new scientific insights gained by using a diverse set of nanofabrication and microfluidic techniques to study individual bacteria and multispecies communities. This toolbox is beginning to elucidate disparate bacterial phenomena-including aging, electron transport, and quorum sensing-and enables the dissection of environmental communities through single-cell genomics. A more intimate integration of microfluidics, nanofabrication, and microbiology will enable further exploration of bacterial life at the smallest scales. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. Ultra-large scale AFM of lipid droplet arrays: investigating the ink transfer volume in dip pen nanolithography.

    PubMed

    Förste, Alexander; Pfirrmann, Marco; Sachs, Johannes; Gröger, Roland; Walheim, Stefan; Brinkmann, Falko; Hirtz, Michael; Fuchs, Harald; Schimmel, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    There are only few quantitative studies commenting on the writing process in dip-pen nanolithography with lipids. Lipids are important carrier ink molecules for the delivery of bio-functional patters in bio-nanotechnology. In order to better understand and control the writing process, more information on the transfer of lipid material from the tip to the substrate is needed. The dependence of the transferred ink volume on the dwell time of the tip on the substrate was investigated by topography measurements with an atomic force microscope (AFM) that is characterized by an ultra-large scan range of 800 × 800 μm(2). For this purpose arrays of dots of the phospholipid1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine were written onto planar glass substrates and the resulting pattern was imaged by large scan area AFM. Two writing regimes were identified, characterized of either a steady decline or a constant ink volume transfer per dot feature. For the steady state ink transfer, a linear relationship between the dwell time and the dot volume was determined, which is characterized by a flow rate of about 16 femtoliters per second. A dependence of the ink transport from the length of pauses before and in between writing the structures was observed and should be taken into account during pattern design when aiming at best writing homogeneity. The ultra-large scan range of the utilized AFM allowed for a simultaneous study of the entire preparation area of almost 1 mm(2), yielding good statistic results.

  14. Ultra-large scale AFM of lipid droplet arrays: investigating the ink transfer volume in dip pen nanolithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Förste, Alexander; Pfirrmann, Marco; Sachs, Johannes; Gröger, Roland; Walheim, Stefan; Brinkmann, Falko; Hirtz, Michael; Fuchs, Harald; Schimmel, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    There are only few quantitative studies commenting on the writing process in dip-pen nanolithography with lipids. Lipids are important carrier ink molecules for the delivery of bio-functional patters in bio-nanotechnology. In order to better understand and control the writing process, more information on the transfer of lipid material from the tip to the substrate is needed. The dependence of the transferred ink volume on the dwell time of the tip on the substrate was investigated by topography measurements with an atomic force microscope (AFM) that is characterized by an ultra-large scan range of 800 × 800 μm2. For this purpose arrays of dots of the phospholipid1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine were written onto planar glass substrates and the resulting pattern was imaged by large scan area AFM. Two writing regimes were identified, characterized of either a steady decline or a constant ink volume transfer per dot feature. For the steady state ink transfer, a linear relationship between the dwell time and the dot volume was determined, which is characterized by a flow rate of about 16 femtoliters per second. A dependence of the ink transport from the length of pauses before and in between writing the structures was observed and should be taken into account during pattern design when aiming at best writing homogeneity. The ultra-large scan range of the utilized AFM allowed for a simultaneous study of the entire preparation area of almost 1 mm2, yielding good statistic results.

  15. Nano-Fabricated Gratings for Electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gronniger, Glen; Savas, Tim; Batelaan, Herman

    2005-05-01

    We explore the lower energy range for electron diffraction from a Au and Pd coated nano-fabricated transmission grating. This has the promise of providing a route to the lowest energy electron interferometer currently possible. Starting at 1000 eV we get well resolved diffraction peaks. As 60 eV electron energy is approached the diffraction peaks broaden to the extent that they are hard to resolve. We attribute this to an effective loss of transverse coherence length. We show that the broadening and coherence loss can be modeled with a path integral calculation where the essential ingredient is a random spatially varying potential with a typical length scale of 200 nm. The effect of other coatings, such as Ni, is investigated and indicates that lower electron energies can be reached. Work supported by NSF, DOD-EPSCoR.

  16. Progression in the Fountain Pen Approach: From 2D Writing to 3D Free-Form Micro/Nanofabrication.

    PubMed

    Je, Jung Ho; Kim, Jong-Man; Jaworski, Justyn

    2017-01-01

    The fountain pen approach, as a means for transferring materials to substrates, has shown numerous incarnations in recent years for creating 2D micro/nanopatterns and even generating 3D free-form nanostructures using a variety of material "inks". While the idea of filled reservoirs used to deliver material to a substrate via a capillary remains unchanged since antiquity, the advent of precise micromanipulation systems and functional material "inks" allows the extension of this mechanism to more high-tech applications. Herein, the recent growth in meniscus guided fountain pen approaches for benchtop micro/nanofabrication, which has occurred in the last decade, is discussed. Particular attention is given to the theory, equipment, and experimentation encompassing this unique direct writing approach. A detailed exploration of the diverse ink systems and functional device applications borne from this strategy is put forth to reveal its rapid expansion to a broad range of scientific and engineering disciplines. As such, this informative review is provided for researchers considering adoption of this recent advancement of a familiar technology.

  17. DNA-templated nanofabrication.

    PubMed

    Becerril, Héctor A; Woolley, Adam T

    2009-02-01

    Nanofabrication, or the organizational control over matter at the nanometre scale, is an intriguing scientific challenge requiring multidisciplinary tools for its solution. DNA is a biomolecule that can be combined with other nanometre-scale entities through chemical self-assembly to form a broad variety of nanomaterials. In this tutorial review we present the principles that allow DNA to interact with other chemical species, and describe the challenges and potential applications of DNA as a template for making both biological and inorganic features with nanometre resolution. As such, this report should be of interest to chemists, surface and materials scientists, biologists, and nanotechnologists, as well as others who seek to use DNA in nanofabrication.

  18. Nanofabrication with Pulsed Lasers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    An overview of pulsed laser-assisted methods for nanofabrication, which are currently developed in our Institute (LP3), is presented. The methods compass a variety of possibilities for material nanostructuring offered by laser–matter interactions and imply either the nanostructuring of the laser-illuminated surface itself, as in cases of direct laser ablation or laser plasma-assisted treatment of semiconductors to form light-absorbing and light-emitting nano-architectures, as well as periodic nanoarrays, or laser-assisted production of nanoclusters and their controlled growth in gaseous or liquid medium to form nanostructured films or colloidal nanoparticles. Nanomaterials synthesized by laser-assisted methods have a variety of unique properties, not reproducible by any other route, and are of importance for photovoltaics, optoelectronics, biological sensing, imaging and therapeutics. PMID:20672069

  19. Nanofabrication with pulsed lasers.

    PubMed

    Kabashin, Av; Delaporte, Ph; Pereira, A; Grojo, D; Torres, R; Sarnet, Th; Sentis, M

    2010-02-24

    An overview of pulsed laser-assisted methods for nanofabrication, which are currently developed in our Institute (LP3), is presented. The methods compass a variety of possibilities for material nanostructuring offered by laser-matter interactions and imply either the nanostructuring of the laser-illuminated surface itself, as in cases of direct laser ablation or laser plasma-assisted treatment of semiconductors to form light-absorbing and light-emitting nano-architectures, as well as periodic nanoarrays, or laser-assisted production of nanoclusters and their controlled growth in gaseous or liquid medium to form nanostructured films or colloidal nanoparticles. Nanomaterials synthesized by laser-assisted methods have a variety of unique properties, not reproducible by any other route, and are of importance for photovoltaics, optoelectronics, biological sensing, imaging and therapeutics.

  20. Utilizing Nanofabrication to Construct Strong, Luminescent Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wei; Huang, Gang; Lu, Hong B.; McCready, David E.; Joly, Alan G.; Bovin, Jan-Olov

    2006-05-28

    Luminescent materials have been utilized widely in applications from lighting to sensing. The new development of technologies based on luminescence properties requires the materials to have high luminescence efficiency and mechanical strength. In this article, we report the fabrication of luminescent materials possessing high mechanical strength by nanofabrication with polyvinyl alcohol used as a stabilizer or coupling agent. X-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission microscope observations reveal that the nanocomposite sample contains ZnS and ZnO nanoparticles as well as kozoite and sodium nitrate. The mechanical strength and hardness of these nanocomposite materials are higher than polycarbonate and some carbon nanotube reinforced nanocomposites. Strong luminescence is observed in the new nanocomposites and the luminescence intensity does not degrade following up to 30 minutes of X-ray irradiation. Our results indicate that nanofabrication may provide a good method to improve the mechanical strength of luminescent materials for some applications in which high strength luminescent materials are needed.

  1. A micro-spectroscopy study on the influence of chemical residues from nanofabrication on the nitridation chemistry of Al nanopatterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, B.; Ólafsson, S.; Zakharov, A. A.; Agnarsson, B.; Gislason, H. P.; Göthelid, M.

    2012-03-01

    We applied spatially resolved photoelectron spectroscopy implemented with an X-ray photoemission electron microscopy (XPEEM) using soft X-ray synchrotron radiation to identify the compositional and morphological inhomogeneities of a SiO2/Si substrate surface nanopatterned with Al before and after nitridation. The nanofabrication was conducted by a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)-based e-beam lithography and a fluorine-based reactive ion etching (RIE), followed by Al metalization and acetone lift-off. Three types of chemical residues were identified before nitridation: (1) fluorocarbons produced and accumulated mainly during RIE process on the sidewalls of the nanopatterns; (2) a thick Al-bearing PMMA layer and/or (3) a thin PMMA residue layer owing to unsuccessful or partial lift-off of the e-beam unexposed PMMA between the nanopatterns. The fluorocarbons actively influenced the surface chemical composition of the nanopatterns by forming Alsbnd F compounds. After nitridation, in the PMMA residue-free area, the Alsbnd F compounds on the sidewalls were decomposed and transformed to AlN. The PMMA residues between the nanopatterns had no obvious influence on the surface chemical composition and nitridation properties of the Al nanopatterns. They were only partially decomposed by the nitridation. The regional surface morphology of the nanopatterns revealed by the secondary electron XPEEM was consistent with the scanning electron microscopy results.

  2. Nano-fabricated size exclusion chromatograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svehla, D.; Feldman, S.; Feldman, J.; Grunthaner, F.; Shakkottai, P.; dle Castillo, L.; White, V.

    2002-01-01

    This poster describes the development of a nano-fabricated size exclusion chromatograph (nSEC) based on the principle that molecules traveling through a microcolumn containing nano-fabricated features will have characteristics elution times that directly correlate to molecular weight.

  3. Nano-fabricated size exclusion chromatograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svehla, D.; Feldman, S.; Feldman, J.; Grunthaner, F.; Shakkottai, P.; dle Castillo, L.; White, V.

    2002-01-01

    This poster describes the development of a nano-fabricated size exclusion chromatograph (nSEC) based on the principle that molecules traveling through a microcolumn containing nano-fabricated features will have characteristics elution times that directly correlate to molecular weight.

  4. Development of a Micro- and Nano-Fabrication Facility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-08

    The purpose of this project was to develop the first multiuser micro and nanofabrication facility at The City College of New York (CCNY). Four pieces...awards and applications from the PIs, has encouraged the development of undergraduate and graduate courses involving micro and nanotechnology at CCNY, and

  5. Introduction to Micro/Nanofabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziaie, Babak; Baldi, Antonio; Atashbar, Massood Z.

    In this chapter, we discuss various micro/nanofabrication techniques used to manufacture structures in a wide range of dimensions (mm-nm). Starting with some of the most common microfabrication techniques (lithography, deposition, and etching), we present an array of micromachining and MEMS technologies that can be used to fabricate microstructures down to ˜ 1 μm. These techniques have attained an adequate level of maturity to allow for a variety of MEMS-based commercial products (pressure sensors, accelerometers, gyroscopes, etc.). More recently, nanometer-sized structures have attracted an enormous amount of interest. This is mainly due to their unique electrical, magnetic, optical, thermal, and mechanical properties. These could lead to a variety of electronic, photonic, and sensing devices with a superior performance compared to their macro counterparts. Subsequent to our discussion on MEMS and micromachining, we present several important nanofabrication techniques currently under intense investigation. Although e-beam and other high resolution lithographies can be used to fabricate nanometer-sized structures, their serial nature and/or cost preclude their widespread application. This has forced investigators to explore alternative and potentially superior techniques such as strain engineering, self-assembly, and nano-imprint lithography. Among these, self-assembly is the most promising method, due to its low cost and the ability to produce nanostructures at different length scales.

  6. Harnessing Disorder in Compression Based Nanofabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, Clifford John

    The future of nanotechnologies depends on the successful development of versatile, low-cost techniques for patterning micro- and nanoarchitectures. While most approaches to nanofabrication have focused primarily on making periodic structures at ever smaller length scales with an ultimate goal of massively scaling their production, I have focused on introducing control into relatively disordered nanofabrication systems. Well-ordered patterns are increasingly unnecessary for a growing range of applications, from anti-biofouling coatings to light trapping to omniphobic surfaces. The ability to manipulate disorder, at will and over multiple length scales, starting with the nanoscale, can open new prospects for textured substrates and unconventional applications. Taking advantage of previously considered defects; I have been able to develop nanofabrication techniques with potential for massive scalability and the incorporation into a wide range of potential application. This thesis first describes the manipulation of the non-Newtonian properties of liquid Ga and Ga alloys to confine the metal and metal alloys in gratings with sub-wavelength periodicities. Through a solid to liquid phase change, I was able to access the superior plasmonic properties of liquid Ga for the generation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPP). The switching contract between solid and liquid Ga confine in the nanogratings allowed for reversible manipulation of SPP properties through heating and cooling around the relatively low melting temperature of Ga (29.8 °C). The remaining chapters focus on the development and characterization of an all polymer wrinkle material system. Wrinkles, spontaneous disordered features that are produced in response to compressive force, are an ideal for a growing number of applications where fine feature control is no longer the main motivation. However the mechanical limitations of many wrinkle systems have restricted the potential applications of wrinkled surfaces

  7. A Novel Nanofabrication Technique of Silicon-Based Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Lingkuan; He, Xiaobin; Gao, Jianfeng; Li, Junjie; Wei, Yayi; Yan, Jiang

    2016-11-01

    A novel nanofabrication technique which can produce highly controlled silicon-based nanostructures in wafer scale has been proposed using a simple amorphous silicon (α-Si) material as an etch mask. SiO2 nanostructures directly fabricated can serve as nanotemplates to transfer into the underlying substrates such as silicon, germanium, transistor gate, or other dielectric materials to form electrically functional nanostructures and devices. In this paper, two typical silicon-based nanostructures such as nanoline and nanofin have been successfully fabricated by this technique, demonstrating excellent etch performance. In addition, silicon nanostructures fabricated above can be further trimmed to less than 10 nm by combing with assisted post-treatment methods. The novel nanofabrication technique will be expected a new emerging technology with low process complexity and good compatibility with existing silicon integrated circuit and is an important step towards the easy fabrication of a wide variety of nanoelectronics, biosensors, and optoelectronic devices.

  8. A Novel Nanofabrication Technique of Silicon-Based Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Meng, Lingkuan; He, Xiaobin; Gao, Jianfeng; Li, Junjie; Wei, Yayi; Yan, Jiang

    2016-12-01

    A novel nanofabrication technique which can produce highly controlled silicon-based nanostructures in wafer scale has been proposed using a simple amorphous silicon (α-Si) material as an etch mask. SiO2 nanostructures directly fabricated can serve as nanotemplates to transfer into the underlying substrates such as silicon, germanium, transistor gate, or other dielectric materials to form electrically functional nanostructures and devices. In this paper, two typical silicon-based nanostructures such as nanoline and nanofin have been successfully fabricated by this technique, demonstrating excellent etch performance. In addition, silicon nanostructures fabricated above can be further trimmed to less than 10 nm by combing with assisted post-treatment methods. The novel nanofabrication technique will be expected a new emerging technology with low process complexity and good compatibility with existing silicon integrated circuit and is an important step towards the easy fabrication of a wide variety of nanoelectronics, biosensors, and optoelectronic devices.

  9. Model for biological communication in a nanofabricated cell-mimic driven by stochastic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Karig, David K; Siuti, Piro; Dar, Roy D.; Retterer, Scott T; Doktycz, Mitchel John; Simpson, Michael L

    2011-01-01

    Cells offer natural examples of highly efficient networks of nanomachines. Accordingly, both intracellular and intercellular communication mechanisms in nature are looked to as a source of inspiration and instruction for engineered nanocommunication. Harnessing biological functionality in this manner requires an interdisciplinary approach that integrates systems biology, synthetic biology, and nanofabrication. Recent years have seen the amassing of a tremendous wealth of data from the sequencing of new organisms and from high throughput expression experiments. At the same time, a deeper fundamental understanding of individual cell function has been developed, as exemplified by the growth of fields such as noise biology, which seeks to characterize the role of noise in gene expression. The availability of well characterized biological components coupled with a deeper understanding of cell function has led to efforts to engineer both living cells and to create bio-like functionality in non-living substrates in the field of synthetic biology. Here, we present a model system that exemplifies the synergism between these realms of research. We propose a synthetic gene network for operation in a nanofabricated cell mimic array that propagates a biomolecular signal over long distances using the phenomenon of stochastic resonance. Our system consists of a bacterial quorum sensing signal molecule, a bistable genetic switch triggered by this signal, and an array of nanofabricated cell mimic wells that contain the genetic system. An optimal level of noise in the system helps to propagate a time-varying AHL signal over long distances through the array of mimics. This noise level is determined both by the system volume and by the parameters of the genetic network. Our proposed genetically driven stochastic resonance system serves as a testbed for exploring the potential harnessing of gene expression noise to aid in the transmission of a time-varying molecular signal.

  10. Nanofabrication of Doped, Complex Oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, A.; Waller, G.H.; Abiade, J.T.

    2012-01-01

    Complex oxides have many promising attributes, including wide band gaps for high temperature semiconductors, ion conducting electrolytes in fuel cells, ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism. Bulk and thin film oxides can be readily manufactured and tested however these physically hard and chemically inert materials cannot be nanofabricated by direct application of conventional methods. In order to study these materials at the nanoscale there must first be a simple and effective means to achieve the desired structures. Here we discuss the use of pulsed laser deposition at room temperature onto electron beam lithography defined templates of poly methyl methacrylate photoresist. Following a resist liftoff in organic solvents, a heat treatment was used to crystallize the nanostructures. The morphology of these structures was studied using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Crystallinity and composition as determined by x ray diffraction and photo-electron spectroscopy respectively is reported for thin film analogues of the nanostructured oxide. The oxide studied in this report is Nb doped SrTiO{sub 3}, which has been investigated for use as a high temperature thermoelectric material; however the approach used is not materials-dependent.

  11. Bilayer membrane interactions with nanofabricated scaffolds

    SciTech Connect

    Collier, C. Patrick

    2015-07-29

    Membrane function is facilitated by lateral organization within the lipid bilayer, including phase-separation of lipids into more ordered domains (lipid rafts) and anchoring of the membrane to a cytoskeleton. These features have proven difficult to reproduce in model membrane systems such as black lipid membranes, unilamellar vesicles and supported bilayers. However, advances in micro/nanofabrication have resulted in more realistic synthetic models of membrane-cytoskeleton interactions that can help uncover the design rules responsible for biological membrane formation and organization. This review will focus on describing micro-/nanostructured scaffolds that can emulate the connections of a cellular membrane to an underlying “cytoskeleton”. This includes molecular-based scaffolds anchored to a solid substrate through surface chemistry, solid-state supports modified by material deposition, lithography and etching, the creation of micro/nanoporous arrays, integration with microfluidics, and droplet-based bilayers at interfaces. Lastly, model systems such as these are increasing our understanding of structure and organization in cell membranes, and how they result in the emergence of functionality at the nanoscale.

  12. Bilayer membrane interactions with nanofabricated scaffolds

    DOE PAGES

    Collier, C. Patrick

    2015-07-29

    Membrane function is facilitated by lateral organization within the lipid bilayer, including phase-separation of lipids into more ordered domains (lipid rafts) and anchoring of the membrane to a cytoskeleton. These features have proven difficult to reproduce in model membrane systems such as black lipid membranes, unilamellar vesicles and supported bilayers. However, advances in micro/nanofabrication have resulted in more realistic synthetic models of membrane-cytoskeleton interactions that can help uncover the design rules responsible for biological membrane formation and organization. This review will focus on describing micro-/nanostructured scaffolds that can emulate the connections of a cellular membrane to an underlying “cytoskeleton”. Thismore » includes molecular-based scaffolds anchored to a solid substrate through surface chemistry, solid-state supports modified by material deposition, lithography and etching, the creation of micro/nanoporous arrays, integration with microfluidics, and droplet-based bilayers at interfaces. Lastly, model systems such as these are increasing our understanding of structure and organization in cell membranes, and how they result in the emergence of functionality at the nanoscale.« less

  13. Micro and nanofabrication of molecularly imprinted polymers.

    PubMed

    Bompart, Marc; Haupt, Karsten; Ayela, Cédric

    2012-01-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are tailor-made receptors that possess the most important feature of biological antibodies and receptors - specific molecular recognition. They can thus be used in applications where selective binding events are of importance, such as chemical sensors, biosensors and biochips. For the development of microsensors, sensor arrays and microchips based on molecularly imprinted polymers, micro and nanofabrication methods are of great importance since they allow the patterning and structuring of MIPs on transducer surfaces. It has been shown that because of their stability, MIPs can be easily integrated in a number of standard microfabrication processes. Thereby, the possibility of photopolymerizing MIPs is a particular advantage. In addition to specific molecular recognition properties, nanostructured MIPs and MIP nanocomposites allow for additional interesting properties in such sensing materials, for example, amplification of electromagnetic waves by metal nanoparticles, magnetic susceptibility, structural colors in photonic crystals, or others. These materials will therefore find applications in particular for chemical and biochemical detection, monitoring and screening.

  14. Unconventional micro-/nanofabrication technologies for hybrid-scale lab-on-a-chip.

    PubMed

    Ha, Dogyeong; Hong, Jisoo; Shin, Heungjoo; Kim, Taesung

    2016-11-01

    Micro-/nanofabrication-based lab-on-a-chip (LOC) technologies have recently been substantially advanced and have become widely used in various inter-/multidisciplinary research fields, including biological, (bio-)chemical, and biomedical fields. However, such hybrid-scale LOC devices are typically fabricated using microfabrication and nanofabrication processes in series, resulting in increased cost and time and low throughput issues. In this review, after briefly introducing the conventional micro-/nanofabrication technologies, we focus on unconventional micro-/nanofabrication technologies that allow us to produce either in situ micro-/nanoscale structures or master molds for additional replication processes to easily and conveniently create novel LOC devices with micro- or nanofluidic channel networks. In particular, microfabrication methods based on crack-assisted photolithography and carbon-microelectromechanical systems (C-MEMS) are described in detail because of their superior features from the viewpoint of the throughput, batch fabrication process, and mixed-scale channels/structures. In parallel with previously reported articles on conventional micro-/nanofabrication technologies, our review of unconventional micro-/nanofabrication technologies will provide a useful and practical fabrication guideline for future hybrid-scale LOC devices.

  15. Energy Harvesting Using PVDF Piezoelectric Nanofabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafii, Chakameh Shafii

    Energy harvesting using piezoelectric nanomaterial provides an opportunity for advancement towards self-powered electronics. The fabrication complexities and limited power output of these nano/micro generators have hindered these advancements thus far. This thesis presents a fabrication technique with electrospinning using a grounded cylinder as the collector. This method addresses the difficulties with the production and scalability of the nanogenerators. The non-aligned nanofibers are woven into a textile form onto the cylindrical drum that can be easily removed. The electrical poling and mechanical stretching induced by the electric field and the drum rotation increase the concentration of the piezoelectric beta phase in the PVDF nanofabric. The nanofabric is placed between two layers of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) that have interdigitated electrodes painted on them with silver paint. Applying continuous load onto the flexible PVDF nanofabric at 35Hz produces a peak voltage of 320 mV and maximum power of 2200 pW/(cm2) .

  16. Plasmonic nanofabrication by long-range excitation transfer via DNA nanowire.

    PubMed

    Wirth, J; Garwe, F; Hähnel, G; Csáki, A; Jahr, N; Stranik, O; Paa, W; Fritzsche, W

    2011-04-13

    Driven by the demand for ongoing integration and increased complexity of today's microelectronic circuits, smaller and smaller structures need to be fabricated with a high throughput. In contrast to serial nanofabrication techniques, based, e.g., on electron beam or scanning probe methods, optical methods allow a parallel approach and thus a high throughput. However, they rarely reach the desired resolution. One example is plasmon lithography, which is limited by the utilized plasmonic metal structures. Here we show a new approach extending plasmonic lithography with the potential for a highly parallel nanofabrication with a higher level of complexity based on nanoantenna effects combined with molecular nanowires. Thereby femtosecond laser pulse light is converted by Ag nanoparticles into a high plasmonic excitation guided along attached DNA structures. An underlying poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) layer acting as an electron-sensitive resist is so structured along the former DNA position. This apparently DNA-guided effect leads to nanometer grooves reaching even micrometers away from the excited nanoparticle, representing a novel effect of long-range excitation transfer along DNA nanowires.

  17. Tip-Based Nanofabrication for Scalable Manufacturing

    DOE PAGES

    Hu, Huan; Kim, Hoe; Somnath, Suhas

    2017-03-16

    Tip-based nanofabrication (TBN) is a family of emerging nanofabrication techniques that use a nanometer scale tip to fabricate nanostructures. Here in this review, we first introduce the history of the TBN and the technology development. We then briefly review various TBN techniques that use different physical or chemical mechanisms to fabricate features and discuss some of the state-of-the-art techniques. Subsequently, we focus on those TBN methods that have demonstrated potential to scale up the manufacturing throughput. Finally, we discuss several research directions that are essential for making TBN a scalable nano-manufacturing technology.

  18. Single-molecule dynamics in nanofabricated traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Adam

    2009-03-01

    The Anti-Brownian Electrokinetic trap (ABEL trap) provides a means to immobilize a single fluorescent molecule in solution, without surface attachment chemistry. The ABEL trap works by tracking the Brownian motion of a single molecule, and applying feedback electric fields to induce an electrokinetic motion that approximately cancels the Brownian motion. We present a new design for the ABEL trap that allows smaller molecules to be trapped and more information to be extracted from the dynamics of a single molecule than was previously possible. In particular, we present strategies for extracting dynamically fluctuating mobilities and diffusion coefficients, as a means to probe dynamic changes in molecular charge and shape. If one trapped molecule is good, many trapped molecules are better. An array of single molecules in solution, each immobilized without surface attachment chemistry, provides an ideal test-bed for single-molecule analyses of intramolecular dynamics and intermolecular interactions. We present a technology for creating such an array, using a fused silica plate with nanofabricated dimples and a removable cover for sealing single molecules within the dimples. With this device one can watch the shape fluctuations of single molecules of DNA or study cooperative interactions in weakly associating protein complexes.

  19. Multiplexed, High Density Electrophysiology with Nanofabricated Neural Probes

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jiangang; Blanche, Timothy J.; Harrison, Reid R.; Lester, Henry A.; Masmanidis, Sotiris C.

    2011-01-01

    Extracellular electrode arrays can reveal the neuronal network correlates of behavior with single-cell, single-spike, and sub-millisecond resolution. However, implantable electrodes are inherently invasive, and efforts to scale up the number and density of recording sites must compromise on device size in order to connect the electrodes. Here, we report on silicon-based neural probes employing nanofabricated, high-density electrical leads. Furthermore, we address the challenge of reading out multichannel data with an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) performing signal amplification, band-pass filtering, and multiplexing functions. We demonstrate high spatial resolution extracellular measurements with a fully integrated, low noise 64-channel system weighing just 330 mg. The on-chip multiplexers make possible recordings with substantially fewer external wires than the number of input channels. By combining nanofabricated probes with ASICs we have implemented a system for performing large-scale, high-density electrophysiology in small, freely behaving animals that is both minimally invasive and highly scalable. PMID:22022568

  20. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) for optical nanofabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maula, Jarmo

    2010-02-01

    ALD is currently one of the most rapidly developing fields of thin film technology. Presentation gives an overview of ALD technology for optical film deposition, highlighting benefits, drawbacks and peculiarities of the ALD, especially compared to PVD. Viewpoint is practical, based on experience gained from tens of different applications over the last few decades. ALD is not competing, but enabling technology to provide coatings, which are difficult for traditional technologies. Examples of such cases are films inside of tubes; double side deposition on the substrate; large area accurate coatings; decorative coating for 3D parts; conformal coatings on high aspect ratio surfaces or inside porous structures. Novel materials can be easily engineered by making modifications on molecular level. ALD coats large surfaces effectively and fast. Opposite to common view, it actually provides high throughput (coated area/time), when used properly with a batch and/or in-line tools. It is possible to use ALD for many micrometers thick films or even produce thin parts with competitive cost. Besides optical films ALD provides large variety of features for nanofabrication. For example pin hole free films for passivation and barrier applications and best available films for conformal coatings like planarization or to improve surface smoothness. High deposition repeatability even with subnanometer film structures helps fabrication. ALD enters to production mostly through new products, not yet existing on the market and so the application IP field is reasonably open. ALD is an enabling, mature technology to fabricate novel optical materials and to open pathways for new applications.

  1. Nanoskiving: A new method for nanofabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qiaobing

    oxygen plasma generates free-standing metallic nanostructures. Chapter 1 is an overview of nanoskiving---a technique that combines thin-film deposition of metal on a topographically contoured substrate with sectioning using an ultramicrotome---as a method of fabricating nanostructures. Nanoskiving provides a simple and convenient procedure to produce arrays (over areas of mm2 to cm2) of structures with cross-sectional dimensions in the thirty-nanometer regime embedded in epoxy. The ability to control the dimensions of nanostructures, combined with the ability to manipulate and position them, enables the fabrication of nanostructures with geometries that are difficult to prepare by other methods. Two classes of applications--- in optics and in electronics---demonstrate the utility of nanostructures fabricated by nanoskiving. Chapter 2 shows the fabrication by nanoskiving of complex nanostructures that are difficult or impossible to achieve by other nanofabrication methods. These include multilayer structures, structures on curved surfaces, structures that span gaps, structures in less familiar materials, structures with high-aspect ratios, and large-area structures comprising two-dimensional periodic arrays. Chapter 3 demonstrates the Fabrication patterned arrays of gold structures (for example, rings) with wall thickness of 40 nm, and with high aspect ratios up to 25. Chapter 4 introduces the fabrication by nanoskiving of gold nanowires of uniform, controllable length, width, and height, and describes a systematic study of the dependence of the surface plasmon resonance on the geometry of these wires. Chapter 5 describes the fabrication of arrays of closed and open, loop-shaped nanostructures over mm2 area by nanoskiving. These arrays of metallic structures serve as frequency-selective surfaces at mid-infrared wavelengths. Chapter 6 describes a procedure to fabricate an array of nanoelectrodes that can be addressed from the back face of the slab of epoxy resin.

  2. Nanofabrication Of Quantum Coupled Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randall, J. N.; Reed, M. A.; Matyi, R. J.; Moore, T. M.; Aggarwal, R. J.; Wetsel, A. E.

    1988-08-01

    A new generation of integrated circuits is foreseen in which quantum dots with discrete electronic states are used to construct logic and memory elements. Successful implementation of this technology will require significant improvements in semiconductor processing technology.

  3. Imaging and nanofabrication with the helium ion microscope of the Van Leeuwenhoek Laboratory in Delft.

    PubMed

    Alkemade, Paul F A; Koster, Emma M; van Veldhoven, Emile; Maas, Diederik J

    2012-01-01

    Although helium ion microscopy (HIM) was introduced only a few years ago, many new application fields are emerging. The connecting factor between these novel applications is the unique interaction of the primary helium ion beam with the sample material at and just below its surface. In particular, the HIM secondary electron signal stems from an area that is extremely well localized around the point of incidence of the primary beam. This makes the HIM well suited for both high-resolution imaging and high-resolution nanofabrication. Another advantage in nanofabrication is the low ion backscattering fraction, which leads to a weak proximity effect. The subnanometer probe size and the unique beam-materials interactions have opened new areas of research. This review presents a selection of studies conducted on a single instrument. The selection encompasses applications ranging from imaging to nanofabrication and from fundamental academic research to applied industrial developments.

  4. Nanofabrication using near-field optical probes

    PubMed Central

    McLeod, Euan; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2012-01-01

    Nanofabrication using near-field optical probes is an established technique for rapid prototyping and automated maskless fabrication of nanostructured devices. In this review, we present the primary types of near-field probes and their physical processing mechanisms. Highlights of recent developments include improved resolution by optimizing the probe shape, incorporation of surface plasmonics in probe design, broader use in biological and magnetic storage applications, and increased throughput using probe arrays as well as high speed writing and patterning. PMID:22713756

  5. Safety Profile of TiO2-Based Photocatalytic Nanofabrics for Indoor Formaldehyde Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Guixin; Xin, Yan; Jiang, Xin; Dong, Mengqi; Li, Junling; Wang, Peng; Zhai, Shumei; Dong, Yongchun; Jia, Jianbo; Yan, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Anatase TiO2 nanoparticles (TNPs) are synthesized using the sol-gel method and loaded onto the surface of polyester-cotton (65/35) fabrics. The nanofabrics degrade formaldehyde at an efficiency of 77% in eight hours with visible light irradiation or 97% with UV light. The loaded TNPs display very little release from nanofabrics (~0.0%) during a standard fastness to rubbing test. Assuming TNPs may fall off nanofabrics during their life cycles, we also examine the possible toxicity of TNPs to human cells. We found that up to a concentration of 220 μg/mL, they do not affect viability of human acute monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1 macrophages and human liver and kidney cells. PMID:26610470

  6. Safety Profile of TiO₂-Based Photocatalytic Nanofabrics for Indoor Formaldehyde Degradation.

    PubMed

    Cui, Guixin; Xin, Yan; Jiang, Xin; Dong, Mengqi; Li, Junling; Wang, Peng; Zhai, Shumei; Dong, Yongchun; Jia, Jianbo; Yan, Bing

    2015-11-19

    Anatase TiO₂ nanoparticles (TNPs) are synthesized using the sol-gel method and loaded onto the surface of polyester-cotton (65/35) fabrics. The nanofabrics degrade formaldehyde at an efficiency of 77% in eight hours with visible light irradiation or 97% with UV light. The loaded TNPs display very little release from nanofabrics (~0.0%) during a standard fastness to rubbing test. Assuming TNPs may fall off nanofabrics during their life cycles, we also examine the possible toxicity of TNPs to human cells. We found that up to a concentration of 220 μg/mL, they do not affect viability of human acute monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1 macrophages and human liver and kidney cells.

  7. Nanomaterials and nanofabrication for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Chao-Min; Chia-Wen Wu, Kevin

    2013-08-01

    Traditional boundaries between materials science and engineering and life sciences are rapidly disintegrating as interdisciplinary research teams develop new materials-science-based tools for exploring fundamental issues in both medicine and biology. With recent technological advances in multiple research fields such as materials science, cell and molecular biology and micro-/nano-technology, much attention is shifting toward evaluating the functional advantages of nanomaterials and nanofabrication, at the cellular and molecular levels, for specific, biomedically relevant applications. The pursuit of this direction enhances the understanding of the mechanisms of, and therapeutic potentials for, some of the most lethal diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, organ fibrosis and cancers. This interdisciplinary approach has generated great interest among researchers working in a wide variety of communities including industry, universities and research laboratories. The purpose of this focus issue in Science and Technology of Advanced Materials is to bridge nanotechnology and biology with medicine, focusing more on the applications of nanomaterials and nanofabrication in biomedically relevant issues. This focus issue, we believe, will provide a more comprehensive understanding of (i) the preparation of nanomaterials and the underlying mechanisms of nanofabrication, and (ii) the linkage of nanomaterials and nanofabrication with biomedical applications. The multidisciplinary focus issue that we have attempted to organize is of interest to various research fields including biomaterials and tissue engineering, bioengineering, nanotechnology and nanomaterials, i.e. chemistry, physics and engineering. Nanomaterials and nanofabrication topics addressed in this focus issue include sensing and diagnosis (e.g. immunosensing and diagnostic devices for diseases), cellular and molecular biology (e.g. probing cellular behaviors and stem cell differentiation) and drug delivery

  8. Green chemistry and nanofabrication in a levitated Leidenfrost drop.

    PubMed

    Abdelaziz, Ramzy; Disci-Zayed, Duygu; Hedayati, Mehdi Keshavarz; Pöhls, Jan-Hendrik; Zillohu, Ahnaf Usman; Erkartal, Burak; Chakravadhanula, Venkata Sai Kiran; Duppel, Viola; Kienle, Lorenz; Elbahri, Mady

    2013-01-01

    Green nanotechnology focuses on the development of new and sustainable methods of creating nanoparticles, their localized assembly and integration into useful systems and devices in a cost-effective, simple and eco-friendly manner. Here we present our experimental findings on the use of the Leidenfrost drop as an overheated and charged green chemical reactor. Employing a droplet of aqueous solution on hot substrates, this method is capable of fabricating nanoparticles, creating nanoscale coatings on complex objects and designing porous metal in suspension and foam form, all in a levitated Leidenfrost drop. As examples of the potential applications of the Leidenfrost drop, fabrication of nanoporous black gold as a plasmonic wideband superabsorber, and synthesis of superhydrophilic and thermal resistive metal-polymer hybrid foams are demonstrated. We believe that the presented nanofabrication method may be a promising strategy towards the sustainable production of functional nanomaterials.

  9. Green chemistry and nanofabrication in a levitated Leidenfrost drop

    PubMed Central

    Abdelaziz, Ramzy; Disci-Zayed, Duygu; Hedayati, Mehdi Keshavarz; Pöhls, Jan-Hendrik; Zillohu, Ahnaf Usman; Erkartal, Burak; Chakravadhanula, Venkata Sai Kiran; Duppel, Viola; Kienle, Lorenz; Elbahri, Mady

    2013-01-01

    Green nanotechnology focuses on the development of new and sustainable methods of creating nanoparticles, their localized assembly and integration into useful systems and devices in a cost-effective, simple and eco-friendly manner. Here we present our experimental findings on the use of the Leidenfrost drop as an overheated and charged green chemical reactor. Employing a droplet of aqueous solution on hot substrates, this method is capable of fabricating nanoparticles, creating nanoscale coatings on complex objects and designing porous metal in suspension and foam form, all in a levitated Leidenfrost drop. As examples of the potential applications of the Leidenfrost drop, fabrication of nanoporous black gold as a plasmonic wideband superabsorber, and synthesis of superhydrophilic and thermal resistive metal–polymer hybrid foams are demonstrated. We believe that the presented nanofabrication method may be a promising strategy towards the sustainable production of functional nanomaterials. PMID:24169567

  10. Green chemistry and nanofabrication in a levitated Leidenfrost drop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelaziz, Ramzy; Disci-Zayed, Duygu; Hedayati, Mehdi Keshavarz; Pöhls, Jan-Hendrik; Zillohu, Ahnaf Usman; Erkartal, Burak; Chakravadhanula, Venkata Sai Kiran; Duppel, Viola; Kienle, Lorenz; Elbahri, Mady

    2013-10-01

    Green nanotechnology focuses on the development of new and sustainable methods of creating nanoparticles, their localized assembly and integration into useful systems and devices in a cost-effective, simple and eco-friendly manner. Here we present our experimental findings on the use of the Leidenfrost drop as an overheated and charged green chemical reactor. Employing a droplet of aqueous solution on hot substrates, this method is capable of fabricating nanoparticles, creating nanoscale coatings on complex objects and designing porous metal in suspension and foam form, all in a levitated Leidenfrost drop. As examples of the potential applications of the Leidenfrost drop, fabrication of nanoporous black gold as a plasmonic wideband superabsorber, and synthesis of superhydrophilic and thermal resistive metal-polymer hybrid foams are demonstrated. We believe that the presented nanofabrication method may be a promising strategy towards the sustainable production of functional nanomaterials.

  11. Applications of excimer laser in nanofabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Qiangfei; Chou, Stephen Y.

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses novel applications of an excimer laser (308 nm wavelength, 20 ns pulse duration) in nanofabrication. Specifically, laser assisted nanoimprint lithography (LAN), self-perfection by liquefaction (SPEL), fabrication of metal nanoparticle arrays, and the fabrication of sub-10-nm nanofluidic channels are covered. In LAN, a polymeric resist is melted by the laser pulse, and then imprinted with a fused silica mold within 200 ns. LAN has been demonstrated in patterning various polymer nanostructures on different substrates with high fidelity and uniformity, and negligible heat effect on both the mold and the substrate. SPEL is a novel technology that uses selective melting to remove fabrication defects in nanostructures post fabrication. Depending on the boundary conditions, SPEL is categorized into three basic types: Open-SPEL that takes place with surface open, Capped-SPEL where a cap plate holds the top surface of the nanostructures and Guided-SPEL where a plate held a distance above the structure guides the molten materials to rise and form a new structure with better profile. Using SPEL (in less than 200 ns), we have achieved a reduction of line edge roughness (LER) of Cr lines to 1.5 nm (3 σ) (560% improvement from the original), which is well below what the previous technologies permit, and a dramatic increase of the aspect ratio of a nanostructure. We have used SPEL to make sub-25-nm smooth cylindrical NIL pillar molds and smoothing Si waveguides. Excimer laser is also used to make metal nanoparticles. Monolayers of particles are fabricated on various substrates (silicon, fused silica and plastics) by exposing thin metal films to a single laser pulse. Periodic nanoparticle arrays have been fabricated by fragmentation of metal grating lines. The periodicity of these nanoparticles can be regulated by surface topography such as shallow trenches. Finally, an excimer laser pulse has been used to melt the top portion of 1D and 2D Si gratings to seal

  12. Femtosecond laser three-dimensional micro- and nanofabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugioka, Koji; Cheng, Ya

    2014-12-01

    The rapid development of the femtosecond laser has revolutionized materials processing due to its unique characteristics of ultrashort pulse width and extremely high peak intensity. The short pulse width suppresses the formation of a heat-affected zone, which is vital for ultrahigh precision fabrication, whereas the high peak intensity allows nonlinear interactions such as multiphoton absorption and tunneling ionization to be induced in transparent materials, which provides versatility in terms of the materials that can be processed. More interestingly, irradiation with tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses inside transparent materials makes three-dimensional (3D) micro- and nanofabrication available due to efficient confinement of the nonlinear interactions within the focal volume. Additive manufacturing (stereolithography) based on multiphoton absorption (two-photon polymerization) enables the fabrication of 3D polymer micro- and nanostructures for photonic devices, micro- and nanomachines, and microfluidic devices, and has applications for biomedical and tissue engineering. Subtractive manufacturing based on internal modification and fabrication can realize the direct fabrication of 3D microfluidics, micromechanics, microelectronics, and photonic microcomponents in glass. These microcomponents can be easily integrated in a single glass microchip by a simple procedure using a femtosecond laser to realize more functional microdevices, such as optofluidics and integrated photonic microdevices. The highly localized multiphoton absorption of a tightly focused femtosecond laser in glass can also induce strong absorption only at the interface of two closely stacked glass substrates. Consequently, glass bonding can be performed based on fusion welding with femtosecond laser irradiation, which provides the potential for applications in electronics, optics, microelectromechanical systems, medical devices, microfluidic devices, and small satellites. This review paper

  13. Femtosecond laser three-dimensional micro- and nanofabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Sugioka, Koji; Cheng, Ya

    2014-12-15

    The rapid development of the femtosecond laser has revolutionized materials processing due to its unique characteristics of ultrashort pulse width and extremely high peak intensity. The short pulse width suppresses the formation of a heat-affected zone, which is vital for ultrahigh precision fabrication, whereas the high peak intensity allows nonlinear interactions such as multiphoton absorption and tunneling ionization to be induced in transparent materials, which provides versatility in terms of the materials that can be processed. More interestingly, irradiation with tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses inside transparent materials makes three-dimensional (3D) micro- and nanofabrication available due to efficient confinement of the nonlinear interactions within the focal volume. Additive manufacturing (stereolithography) based on multiphoton absorption (two-photon polymerization) enables the fabrication of 3D polymer micro- and nanostructures for photonic devices, micro- and nanomachines, and microfluidic devices, and has applications for biomedical and tissue engineering. Subtractive manufacturing based on internal modification and fabrication can realize the direct fabrication of 3D microfluidics, micromechanics, microelectronics, and photonic microcomponents in glass. These microcomponents can be easily integrated in a single glass microchip by a simple procedure using a femtosecond laser to realize more functional microdevices, such as optofluidics and integrated photonic microdevices. The highly localized multiphoton absorption of a tightly focused femtosecond laser in glass can also induce strong absorption only at the interface of two closely stacked glass substrates. Consequently, glass bonding can be performed based on fusion welding with femtosecond laser irradiation, which provides the potential for applications in electronics, optics, microelectromechanical systems, medical devices, microfluidic devices, and small satellites. This review paper

  14. Silicon micro- and nanofabrication for medicine.

    PubMed

    Fine, Daniel; Grattoni, Alessandro; Goodall, Randy; Bansal, Shyam S; Chiappini, Ciro; Hosali, Sharath; van de Ven, Anne L; Srinivasan, Srimeenkashi; Liu, Xuewu; Godin, Biana; Brousseau, Louis; Yazdi, Iman K; Fernandez-Moure, Joseph; Tasciotti, Ennio; Wu, Hung-Jen; Hu, Ye; Klemm, Steve; Ferrari, Mauro

    2013-05-01

    This manuscript constitutes a review of several innovative biomedical technologies fabricated using the precision and accuracy of silicon micro- and nanofabrication. The technologies to be reviewed are subcutaneous nanochannel drug delivery implants for the continuous tunable zero-order release of therapeutics, multi-stage logic embedded vectors for the targeted systemic distribution of both therapeutic and imaging contrast agents, silicon and porous silicon nanowires for investigating cellular interactions and processes as well as for molecular and drug delivery applications, porous silicon (pSi) as inclusions into biocomposites for tissue engineering, especially as it applies to bone repair and regrowth, and porous silica chips for proteomic profiling. In the case of the biocomposites, the specifically designed pSi inclusions not only add to the structural robustness, but can also promote tissue and bone regrowth, fight infection, and reduce pain by releasing stimulating factors and other therapeutic agents stored within their porous network. The common material thread throughout all of these constructs, silicon and its associated dielectrics (silicon dioxide, silicon nitride, etc.), can be precisely and accurately machined using the same scalable micro- and nanofabrication protocols that are ubiquitous within the semiconductor industry. These techniques lend themselves to the high throughput production of exquisitely defined and monodispersed nanoscale features that should eliminate architectural randomness as a source of experimental variation thereby potentially leading to more rapid clinical translation.

  15. Silicon Micro- and Nanofabrication for Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Fine, Daniel; Goodall, Randy; Bansal, Shyam S.; Chiappini, Ciro; Hosali, Sharath; van de Ven, Anne L.; Srinivasan, Srimeenkashi; Liu, Xuewu; Godin, Biana; Brousseau, Louis; Yazdi, Iman K.; Fernandez-Moure, Joseph; Tasciotti, Ennio; Wu, Hung-Jen; Hu, Ye; Klemm, Steve; Ferrari, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    This manuscript constitutes a review of several innovative biomedical technologies fabricated using the precision and accuracy of silicon micro- and nanofabrication. The technologies to be reviewed are subcutaneous nanochannel drug delivery implants for the continuous tunable zero-order release of therapeutics, multi-stage logic embedded vectors for the targeted systemic distribution of both therapeutic and imaging contrast agents, silicon and porous silicon nanowires for investigating cellular interactions and processes as well as for molecular and drug delivery applications, porous silicon (pSi) as inclusions into biocomposites for tissue engineering, especially as it applies to bone repair and regrowth, and porous silica chips for proteomic profiling. In the case of the biocomposites, the specifically designed pSi inclusions not only add to the structural robustness, but can also promote tissue and bone regrowth, fight infection, and reduce pain by releasing stimulating factors and other therapeutic agents stored within their porous network. The common material thread throughout all of these constructs, silicon and its associated dielectrics (silicon dioxide, silicon nitride, etc.), can be precisely and accurately machined using the same scalable micro- and nanofabrication protocols that are ubiquitous within the semiconductor industry. These techniques lend themselves to the high throughput production of exquisitely defined and monodispersed nanoscale features that should eliminate architectural randomness as a source of experimental variation thereby potentially leading to more rapid clinical translation. PMID:23584841

  16. Quasiperiodic structures via atom-optical nanofabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurdik, E.; Myszkiewicz, G.; Hohlfeld, J.; Tsukamoto, A.; Toonen, A. J.; van Etteger, A. F.; Gerritsen, J.; Hermsen, J.; Goldbach-Aschemann, S.; Meerts, W. L.; van Kempen, H.; Rasing, Th.

    2004-05-01

    We deposit a laser-collimated chromium beam onto a substrate through a quasiperiodic laser standing-wave (SW) tuned above the atomic resonance at the 52Cr transition 7S3→7Po4 at 425.55 nm. This SW is created by interference of five laser beams crossing in one point at mutual angles of 72°. The resulting chromium pattern on the substrate surface mimics the geometry of the SW and it is thus itself quasiperiodic. On a surface area of 0.2×0.2 mm2 the spatial Fourier spectrum of the measured patterns is decagonal. Besides being of fundamental interest, this quasiperiodic nanofabrication via atom optics can find its applications in photonics.

  17. Nanofabrication by advanced electron microscopy using intense and focused beam∗

    PubMed Central

    Furuya, Kazuo

    2008-01-01

    The nanogrowth and nanofabrication of solid substances using an intense and focused electron beam are reviewed in terms of the application of scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM, TEM and STEM) to control the size, position and structure of nanomaterials. The first example discussed is the growth of freestanding nanotrees on insulator substrates by TEM. The growth process of the nanotrees was observed in situ and analyzed by high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) and was mainly controlled by the intensity of the electron beam. The second example is position- and size-controlled nanofabrication by STEM using a focused electron beam. The diameters of the nanostructures grown ranged from 4 to 20 nm depending on the size of the electron beam. Magnetic nanostructures were also obtained using an iron-containing precursor gas, Fe(CO)5. The freestanding iron nanoantennas were examined by electron holography. The magnetic field was observed to leak from the nanostructure body which appeared to act as a ‘nanomagnet’. The third example described is the effect of a vacuum on the size and growth process of fabricated nanodots containing W in an ultrahigh-vacuum field-emission TEM (UHV-FE-TEM). The size of the dots can be controlled by changing the dose of electrons and the partial pressure of the precursor. The smallest particle size obtained was about 1.5 nm in diameter, which is the smallest size reported using this method. Finally, the importance of a smaller probe and a higher electron-beam current with atomic resolution is emphasized and an attempt to develop an ultrahigh-vacuum spherical aberration corrected STEM (Cs-corrected STEM) at NIMS is reported. PMID:27877936

  18. Model for biological communication in a nanofabricated cell-mimic driven by stochastic resonance

    PubMed Central

    Karig, David K.; Siuti, Piro; Dar, Roy D.; Retterer, Scott. T.; Doktycz, Mitchel J.; Simpson, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Cells offer natural examples of highly efficient networks of nanomachines. Accordingly, both intracellular and intercellular communication mechanisms in nature are looked to as a source of inspiration and instruction for engineered nanocommunication. Harnessing biological functionality in this manner requires an interdisciplinary approach that integrates systems biology, synthetic biology, and nanofabrication. Here, we present a model system that exemplifies the synergism between these realms of research. We propose a synthetic gene network for operation in a nanofabricated cell mimic array that propagates a biomolecular signal over long distances using the phenomenon of stochastic resonance. Our system consists of a bacterial quorum sensing signal molecule, a bistable genetic switch triggered by this signal, and an array of nanofabricated cell mimic wells that contain the genetic system. An optimal level of noise in the system helps to propagate a time-varying AHL signal over long distances through the array of mimics. This noise level is determined both by the system volume and by the parameters of the genetic network. Our proposed genetically driven stochastic resonance system serves as a testbed for exploring the potential harnessing of gene expression noise to aid in the transmission of a time-varying molecular signal. PMID:21731597

  19. Industrial applications of micro/nanofabrication at Singapore Synchrotron Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, L. K.; Casse, B. D. F.; Heussler, S. P.; Kong, J. R.; Saw, B. T.; Mahmood, Shahrain bin; Moser, H. O.

    2006-04-01

    SSLS (Singapore Synchrotron Light Source) has set up a complete one-stop shop for micro/nanofabrication in the framework of the LIGA process. It is dubbed LiMiNT for Lithography for Micro and Nanotechnology and allows complete prototyping using the integral cycle of the LIGA process for producing micro/nanostructures from mask design/fabrication over X-ray lithography to electroplating in Ni, Cu, or Au, and, finally, hot embossing in a wide variety of plastics as one of the capabilities to cover a wide range of application fields and to go into higher volume production. The process chain also includes plasma cleaning and sputtering as well as substrate preparation processes including metal buffer layers, plating bases, and spin coating, polishing, and dicing. Furthermore, metrology using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical profilometry, and optical microscopy is available. LiMiNT is run as a research lab as well as a foundry. In this paper, several industrial applications will be presented, in which LiMiNT functions as a foundry to provide external customers the micro/nano fabrication services. These services include the fabrication of optical or X-ray masks, of micro/nano structures from polymers or from metals and of moulds for hot embossing or injection moulding.

  20. Maskless and low-destructive nanofabrication on quartz by friction-induced selective etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Chenfei; Li, Xiaoying; Cui, Shuxun; Dong, Hanshan; Yu, Bingjun; Qian, Linmao

    2013-03-01

    A low-destructive friction-induced nanofabrication method is proposed to produce three-dimensional nanostructures on a quartz surface. Without any template, nanofabrication can be achieved by low-destructive scanning on a target area and post-etching in a KOH solution. Various nanostructures, such as slopes, hierarchical stages and chessboard-like patterns, can be fabricated on the quartz surface. Although the rise of etching temperature can improve fabrication efficiency, fabrication depth is dependent only upon contact pressure and scanning cycles. With the increase of contact pressure during scanning, selective etching thickness of the scanned area increases from 0 to 2.9 nm before the yield of the quartz surface and then tends to stabilise after the appearance of a wear. Refabrication on existing nanostructures can be realised to produce deeper structures on the quartz surface. Based on Arrhenius fitting of the etching rate and transmission electron microscopy characterization of the nanostructure, fabrication mechanism could be attributed to the selective etching of the friction-induced amorphous layer on the quartz surface. As a maskless and low-destructive technique, the proposed friction-induced method will open up new possibilities for further nanofabrication.

  1. Maskless and low-destructive nanofabrication on quartz by friction-induced selective etching

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A low-destructive friction-induced nanofabrication method is proposed to produce three-dimensional nanostructures on a quartz surface. Without any template, nanofabrication can be achieved by low-destructive scanning on a target area and post-etching in a KOH solution. Various nanostructures, such as slopes, hierarchical stages and chessboard-like patterns, can be fabricated on the quartz surface. Although the rise of etching temperature can improve fabrication efficiency, fabrication depth is dependent only upon contact pressure and scanning cycles. With the increase of contact pressure during scanning, selective etching thickness of the scanned area increases from 0 to 2.9 nm before the yield of the quartz surface and then tends to stabilise after the appearance of a wear. Refabrication on existing nanostructures can be realised to produce deeper structures on the quartz surface. Based on Arrhenius fitting of the etching rate and transmission electron microscopy characterization of the nanostructure, fabrication mechanism could be attributed to the selective etching of the friction-induced amorphous layer on the quartz surface. As a maskless and low-destructive technique, the proposed friction-induced method will open up new possibilities for further nanofabrication. PMID:23531381

  2. Micro- and nanofabrication methods in nanotechnological medical and pharmaceutical devices

    PubMed Central

    Betancourt, Tania; Brannon-Peppas, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    Micro- and nanofabrication techniques have revolutionized the pharmaceutical and medical fields as they offer the possibility for highly reproducible mass-fabrication of systems with complex geometries and functionalities, including novel drug delivery systems and bionsensors. The principal micro- and nanofabrication techniques are described, including photolithography, soft lithography, film deposition, etching, bonding, molecular self assembly, electrically induced nanopatterning, rapid prototyping, and electron, X-ray, colloidal monolayer, and focused ion beam lithography. Application of these techniques for the fabrication of drug delivery and biosensing systems including injectable, implantable, transdermal, and mucoadhesive devices is described. PMID:17722281

  3. A flagellum based study of semiconductor nanofabrication through magnetotaxis.

    PubMed

    Macwan, Isaac; Zhao, Zihe; Sobh, Omar; Patra, Prabir

    2014-01-01

    Magnetospirillum magneticum (AMB-1), which belong to alpha-protobacterium are gram-negative, single-celled prokaryotic organisms consisting of a lash-like cellular appendage called flagella. These filamentous structures are made up of a protein called flagellin that in turn consist of four sub-domains, two inner domains (D0, D1) made up of alpha-helices and two outer domains (D2, D3) made up of beta sheets. It is wrapped in a helical fashion around the longitudinal filament with the outermost sub-domain (D3) exposed to the surrounding environment. This study focuses on the interaction of the D3 with semiconducting as well as metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes (m-SWNT) and in turn presents the interactive forces between the SWNT and D3 from the perspective of size and type of SWNT. It is found that the SWNT interacts the most with glycine and threonine residues of flagellin both electrostatically as well as through van der waals. Further, the viability of magnetotactic bacteria Magnetospirillum magneticum (AMB-1) in the presence of SWNT is experimentally investigated and it is found that magnetotaxis in AMB-1 is preserved without any toxic effects due to SWNT. It is proposed that AMB-1 can be used as an efficient carrier of carbon nanotubes through its flagellum for semiconductor nanofabrication tasks.

  4. Nanofabrication for the Analysis and Manipulation of Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Christopher V.; Craighead, Harold G.

    2015-01-01

    Recent advancements and applications of nanofabrication have enabled the characterization and control of biological membranes at submicron scales. This review focuses on the application of nanofabrication towards the nanoscale observing, patterning, sorting, and concentrating membrane components. Membranes on living cells are a necessary component of many fundamental cellular processes that naturally incorporate nanoscale rearrangement of the membrane lipids and proteins. Nanofabrication has advanced these understandings, for example, by providing 30 nm resolution of membrane proteins with metal-enhanced fluorescence at the tip of a scanning probe on fixed cells. Naturally diffusing single molecules at high concentrations on live cells have been observed at 60 nm resolution by confining the fluorescence excitation light through nanoscale metallic apertures. The lateral reorganization on the plasma membrane during membrane-mediated signaling processes has been examined in response to nanoscale variations in the patterning and mobility of the signal-triggering molecules. Further, membrane components have been separated, concentrated, and extracted through on-chip electrophoretic and microfluidic methods. Nanofabrication provides numerous methods for examining and manipulating membranes for both greater understandings of membrane processes as well as for the application of membranes to other biophysical methods. PMID:22143598

  5. Nanofabrication on unconventional substrates using transferred hard masks

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Luozhou; Bayn, Igal; Lu, Ming; ...

    2015-01-15

    Here, a major challenge in nanofabrication is to pattern unconventional substrates that cannot be processed for a variety of reasons, such as incompatibility with spin coating, electron beam lithography, optical lithography, or wet chemical steps. Here, we present a versatile nanofabrication method based on re-usable silicon membrane hard masks, patterned using standard lithography and mature silicon processing technology. These masks, transferred precisely onto targeted regions, can be in the millimetre scale. They allow for fabrication on a wide range of substrates, including rough, soft, and non-conductive materials, enabling feature linewidths down to 10 nm. Plasma etching, lift-off, and ion implantationmore » are realized without the need for scanning electron/ion beam processing, UV exposure, or wet etching on target substrates.« less

  6. Nanofabrication on unconventional substrates using transferred hard masks

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Luozhou; Bayn, Igal; Lu, Ming; Nam, Chang -Yong; Schroder, Tim; Stein, Aaron; Harris, Nicholas C.; Englund, Dirk

    2015-01-15

    Here, a major challenge in nanofabrication is to pattern unconventional substrates that cannot be processed for a variety of reasons, such as incompatibility with spin coating, electron beam lithography, optical lithography, or wet chemical steps. Here, we present a versatile nanofabrication method based on re-usable silicon membrane hard masks, patterned using standard lithography and mature silicon processing technology. These masks, transferred precisely onto targeted regions, can be in the millimetre scale. They allow for fabrication on a wide range of substrates, including rough, soft, and non-conductive materials, enabling feature linewidths down to 10 nm. Plasma etching, lift-off, and ion implantation are realized without the need for scanning electron/ion beam processing, UV exposure, or wet etching on target substrates.

  7. Very simple data processing system for deep submicron nanofabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shy, Shyi-Long; Lei, Tan F.; Chu, C. H.; Chang, Chun-Yen; Lee, Sia H.; Loong, Wen-An

    1994-05-01

    In this paper, a very simple data processing system for deep submicron nanofabrication was developed on a popular 80486 based personal computer using commercially available softwares: AutoCAD and ASM3500. Each personal computer can communicate with the control computer (Micro Vax 3900) in the JBX-5DII electron-beam system using the Telnet and FTP software. Deep submicron patterning on wafer and chromium photomask were done using well established electron-beam direct write technology and evaluated using AFM and SEM. Although most electron-beam systems supply text editing program, it is hard to use even for compact pattern data and cannot inspect the overlaying of the patterns. This system can be of great cost-effective value in researching applications for nanofabrication too.

  8. Micro- and nano-fabricated implantable drug-delivery systems

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Ellis; Hoang, Tuan

    2013-01-01

    Implantable drug-delivery systems provide new means for achieving therapeutic drug concentrations over entire treatment durations in order to optimize drug action. This article focuses on new drug administration modalities achieved using implantable drug-delivery systems that are enabled by micro- and nano-fabrication technologies, and microfluidics. Recent advances in drug administration technologies are discussed and remaining challenges are highlighted. PMID:23323562

  9. Reconstruction from cone integral transforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palamodov, Victor

    2017-10-01

    The paper contains new reconstruction formulas for a function on 3D space from data of its cone integrals with fixed opening and integrable weight. In the case of cone integrals with the (non integrable) weight modelling photometric law, a reconstruction is obtained for the non redundant data of cones with the apex running on a curve.

  10. Polarization Control via He-Ion Beam Induced Nanofabrication in Layered Ferroelectric Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Belianinov, Alex; Iberi, Vighter; Tselev, Alexander; Susner, Michael A.; McGuire, Michael A.; Joy, David; Jesse, Stephen; Rondinone, Adam J.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Ovchinnikova, Olga S.

    2016-02-23

    Rapid advanced in nanoscience rely on continuous improvements of matter manipulation at near atomic scales. Currently, well characterized, robust, resist-based lithography carries the brunt of the nanofabrication process. However, use of local electron, ion and physical probe methods is also expanding, driven largely by their ability to fabricate without the multi-step preparation processes that can result in contamination from resists and solvents. Furthermore, probe based methods extend beyond nanofabrication to nanomanipulation and imaging, vital ingredients to rapid transition to prototyping and testing of layered 2D heterostructured devices. In this work we demonstrate that helium ion interaction, in a Helium Ion Microscope (HIM), with the surface of bulk copper indium thiophosphate CuMIIIP2X6 (M = Cr, In; X= S, Se), (CITP) results in the control of ferroelectric domains, and growth of cylindrical nanostructures with enhanced conductivity; with material volumes scaling with the dosage of the beam. The nanostructures are oxygen rich, sulfur poor, and with the copper concentration virtually unchanged as confirmed by Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) imaging contrast as well as Scanning Microwave Microscopy (SMM) measurements suggest enhanced conductivity in the formed particle, whereas Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) measurements indicate that the produced structures have lower dissipation and a lower Young s modulus.

  11. Polarization Control via He-Ion Beam Induced Nanofabrication in Layered Ferroelectric Semiconductors

    DOE PAGES

    Belianinov, Alex; Iberi, Vighter; Tselev, Alexander; ...

    2016-02-23

    Rapid advanced in nanoscience rely on continuous improvements of matter manipulation at near atomic scales. Currently, well characterized, robust, resist-based lithography carries the brunt of the nanofabrication process. However, use of local electron, ion and physical probe methods is also expanding, driven largely by their ability to fabricate without the multi-step preparation processes that can result in contamination from resists and solvents. Furthermore, probe based methods extend beyond nanofabrication to nanomanipulation and imaging, vital ingredients to rapid transition to prototyping and testing of layered 2D heterostructured devices. In this work we demonstrate that helium ion interaction, in a Helium Ionmore » Microscope (HIM), with the surface of bulk copper indium thiophosphate CuMIIIP2X6 (M = Cr, In; X= S, Se), (CITP) results in the control of ferroelectric domains, and growth of cylindrical nanostructures with enhanced conductivity; with material volumes scaling with the dosage of the beam. The nanostructures are oxygen rich, sulfur poor, and with the copper concentration virtually unchanged as confirmed by Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) imaging contrast as well as Scanning Microwave Microscopy (SMM) measurements suggest enhanced conductivity in the formed particle, whereas Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) measurements indicate that the produced structures have lower dissipation and a lower Young s modulus.« less

  12. Maskless micro/nanofabrication on GaAs surface by friction-induced selective etching

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, a friction-induced selective etching method was developed to produce nanostructures on GaAs surface. Without any resist mask, the nanofabrication can be achieved by scratching and post-etching in sulfuric acid solution. The effects of the applied normal load and etching period on the formation of the nanostructure were studied. Results showed that the height of the nanostructure increased with the normal load or the etching period. XPS and Raman detection demonstrated that residual compressive stress and lattice densification were probably the main reason for selective etching, which eventually led to the protrusive nanostructures from the scratched area on the GaAs surface. Through a homemade multi-probe instrument, the capability of this fabrication method was demonstrated by producing various nanostructures on the GaAs surface, such as linear array, intersecting parallel, surface mesas, and special letters. In summary, the proposed method provided a straightforward and more maneuverable micro/nanofabrication method on the GaAs surface. PMID:24495647

  13. Quantum features in atomic nanofabrication using exactly resonant standing waves.

    PubMed

    Jürgens, Dirk; Greiner, Alexander; Stützle, Ralf; Habenicht, Anja; te Sligte, Edwin; Oberthaler, Markus K

    2004-12-03

    We report on the first fabrication of nanostructures with exactly resonant light revealing the quantum character of the atom-light interaction. Classically the formation of nanostructures is not expected; thus, the observed formation of complex periodic line patterns can be explained only by treating atom-light interaction and propagation of the atoms quantum mechanically. Our numerical quantum calculations are in quantitative agreement with this experimental finding. Moreover, the theory predicts that for small detunings nanostructures with lambda/4 period can be produced, which beats the standard nanofabrication limit of lambda/2. Our experiments confirm this prediction.

  14. Applications of sample nanofabrication in diamond-anvil cell experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pigott, J. S.; Fischer, R. A.; Hrubiak, R.; Scott, H. P.; Panero, W. R.

    2015-12-01

    We use electron gun evaporation, sputter deposition, and photolithography to fabricate samples for laser-heated diamond anvil cell experiments. With complimentary thermal modeling, the sample geometry can be optimized and tailored to the experimental application. Here we highlight equation of state studies using nanofabricated double-hot plate samples. The homogeneous samples produced by our methods lead to exceptionally even heating both spatially and temporally that produced high-quality equations of state for nickel and stishovite. The Fe and Pt mutual equations of state may be well characterized and we show recent progress in fabricating samples consisting of a layered stack of Pt/SiO2/Fe/SiO2 in which the SiO2 serves to prevent the alloying of Fe and Pt. Finally, by exploiting state-of-the art nanofabrication techniques, we explore a wider range of the potential applications of such samples including high-pressure, high-temperature diffusion, melting, and thermal conductivity. Using the TempDAC code, we investigate the ideal sizes and ratios of the sample, heating laser diameter, and x-ray spot size while quantifying the effect of x-ray misalignment.

  15. Nano-fabricated plasmonic optical transformer

    DOEpatents

    Choo, Hyuck; Cabrini, Stefano; Schuck, P. James; Liang, Xiaogan; Yablonovitch, Eli

    2015-06-09

    The present invention provides a plasmonic optical transformer to produce a highly focuses optical beam spot, where the transformer includes a first metal layer, a dielectric layer formed on the first metal layer, and a second metal layer formed on the dielectric layer, where the first metal layer, the dielectric layer, and the second layer are patterned to a shape including a first section having a first cross section, a second section following the first section having a cross-section tapering from the first section to a smaller cross-section, and a third section following the second section having a cross-section matching the tapered smaller cross-section of the second section.

  16. Nanofabrication with ultrafast lasers at critical intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Kevin; Hasselbrink, Ernest; Hunt, Alan J.

    2005-03-01

    A principal challenge facing nanotechnology is consistently producing well-defined features much smaller than the wavelength of visible light. We find that the remarkably sharp threshold for femtosecond laser-induced material damage enables nanomachining with unprecedented precision and versatility, allowing highly reproducible machining of structures with nanoscale features. Using this methodology, we demonstrate, in glass, surface trenches that are only tens of nanometers in width but micron in depth, sub-surface channels that are hundreds nanometers in diameter, tens of microns deep, and hundreds microns in length, and 3D microstructures such as cantilevers. Furthermore, we demonstrate reproducible nanometer scale features in mixed and amorphous materials that differ significantly from glass, such as gold and onion cells. This technique is versatile, not material specific, and has potentially broad applications for MEMS construction and design, high density microelectronics, nanofluidics, material science, and optical memory.

  17. Atomic layer deposition for nanofabrication and interface engineering.

    PubMed

    Liu, Monan; Li, Xianglin; Karuturi, Siva Krishna; Tok, Alfred Iing Yoong; Fan, Hong Jin

    2012-03-07

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) provides a tool for conformal coating on high aspect-ratio nanostructures with excellent uniformity. It has become a technique for both template-directed nanofabrications and engineering of surface properties. This Feature Article highlights the application of ALD in selected fields including photonics, SERS and energy materials. Specifically, the topics include fabrication of plasmonic nanostructures for the SERS applications, fabrication of 3-D nanoarchitectured photoanodes for solar energy conversions (dye-sensitized solar cells and photoelectrochemical cells), and coating of electrodes to enhance the cyclic stability and thus device life span of batteries. Dielectric coating for tailoring optical properties of semiconductor nanostructures is also discussed as exemplified by ZnO nanowires. Future direction of ALD in these applications is discussed at the end.

  18. Nanofabrication of polymer surfaces utilizing colloidal lithography and ion etching.

    PubMed

    Agheli, H; Sutherland, D S

    2006-03-01

    In this paper, we utilize colloidal lithography based on electrostatic self-assembly of polystyrene colloidal particles onto a polymer surface as a nanoscale mask. The pattern is then transferred to the surface by ion beam etching. Each particle acts as an individual mask, resulting in an array of identical structure. Ion beam exposure etches away the unmasked surface between the particles, so the particle mask pattern can be transferred into the polymer surface. This method allows to nanofabricate bulk polymeric surfaces with systematic variation in relief, structure sizes, and aspect ratios. It is a fast, simple, and reliable method to fabricated different polymeric surfaces even on large area samples (> 1 cm2). The structural variation is achieved by use of different conditions during the self-assembly of the mask (e.g., different particles sizes) or different ion etching conditions during the pattern transfer (e.g., ion energy, ion flux, ion incident angle, etching time, gas environment).

  19. Nanocharacterization and nanofabrication of a Nafion thin film in liquids by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Umemura, Kazuo; Wang, Tong; Hara, Masahiko; Kuroda, Reiko; Uchida, On; Nagai, Masayuki

    2006-03-28

    We demonstrated the nanocharacterization and nanofabrication of a Nafion thin film using atomic force microscopy (AFM). AFM images showed that the Nafion molecules form nanoclusters in water, in 5% methanol, and in acetic acid. Young's modulus E of a Nafion film was estimated by sequential force curve measurements in water and in 5% methanol on one sample surface. Ewater/E5% methanol was 1.75 +/- 0.40, so the film was much softer in 5% methanol than in water. Even when solvent was replaced from 5% methanol to water, Young's modulus was not recovered soon. We showed the first example of the mechanical properties of a Nafion film on the nanoscale. Furthermore, we succeeded in fabricating 3D nanostructures on a Nafion surface by AFM nanolithography in liquids. Our results showed the new potential of the AFM nanolithography of a polymer film by softening the molecules in liquids.

  20. Assembly of recombinant nucleosomes on nanofabricated DNA curtains for single-molecule imaging.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ja Yil; Greene, Eric C

    2011-01-01

    Eukaryotic chromosomes are highly packed into chromatin, the basic unit of which is the nucleosome. The presence of nucleosomes and the resulting organization of the genome into higher-order chromatin structures has profound consequences for virtually all aspects of DNA metabolism, including DNA transcription, repair, and chromosome segregation. We have developed novel approaches for nanofabricating "DNA curtains" for high-throughput single-molecule imaging, and we have begun adapting these new research tools in an effort to begin studying chromatin biology at the single-molecule level. In this protocol, we describe procedures for assembly and real-time single-molecule visualization of DNA curtains bound by reconstituted nucleosomes made from recombinant histones.

  1. Scalable nanofabrication of U-shaped nanowire resonators with tunable optical magnetism.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fan; Wang, Chen; Dong, Biqin; Chen, Xiangfan; Zhang, Zhen; Sun, Cheng

    2016-03-21

    Split ring resonators have been studied extensively in reconstituting the diminishing magnetism at high electromagnetic frequencies in nature. However, breakdown in the linear scaling of artificial magnetism is found to occur at the near-infrared frequency mainly due to the increasing contribution of self-inductance while reducing dimensions of the resonators. Although alternative designs have enabled artificial magnetism at optical frequencies, their sophisticated configurations and fabrication procedures do not lend themselves to easy implementation. Here, we report scalable nanofabrication of U-shaped nanowire resonators (UNWRs) using the high-throughput nanotransfer printing method. By providing ample area for conducting oscillating electric current, UNWRs overcome the saturation of the geometric scaling of the artificial magnetism. We experimentally demonstrated coarse and fine tuning of LC resonances over a wide wavelength range from 748 nm to 1600 nm. The added flexibility in transferring to other substrates makes UNWR a versatile building block for creating functional metamaterials in three dimensions.

  2. Chip-Scale Nanofabrication of Single Spins and Spin Arrays in Diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Toyli, David M.; Weis, Christoph D.; Fuchs, D.; Schenkel, Thomas; Awschalom, David D.

    2010-07-02

    We demonstrate a technique to nanofabricate nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers in diamond based on broad-beam nitrogen implantation through apertures in electron beam lithography resist. This method enables high-throughput nanofabrication of single NV centers on sub-100-nm length scales. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements facilitate depth profiling of the implanted nitrogen to provide three-dimensional characterization of the NV center spatial distribution. Measurements of NV center coherence with on-chip coplanar waveguides suggest a pathway for incorporating this scalable nanofabrication technique in future quantum applications.

  3. Fermionic correlators from integrability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caetano, João; Fleury, Thiago

    2016-09-01

    We study three-point functions of single-trace operators in the {s}{u}(1Big|1) sector of planar {N}=4 SYM borrowing several tools based on Integrability. In the most general configuration of operators in this sector, we have found a determinant expression for the tree-level structure constants. We then compare the predictions of the recently proposed hexagon program against all available data. We have obtained a match once additional sign factors are included when the two hexagon form-factors are assembled together to form the structure constants. In the particular case of one BPS and two non-BPS operators we managed to identify the relevant form-factors with a domain wall partition function of a certain six-vertex model. This partition function can be explicitly evaluated and factorizes at all loops. In addition, we use this result to compute the structure constants and show that at strong coupling in the so-called BMN regime, its leading order contribution has a determinant expression.

  4. Nanofabrication technique based on localized photocatalytic reactions using a TiO2-coated atomic force microscopy probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Takayuki; Iio, Naohiro; Furukawa, Hiromi; Nagai, Moeto

    2017-02-01

    We performed a fundamental study on the photocatalytic degradation of fluorescently labeled DNA molecules immobilized on titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films under ultraviolet irradiation. The films were prepared by the electrochemical anodization of Ti thin films sputtered on silicon substrates. We also confirmed that the photocurrent arising from the photocatalytic oxidation of DNA molecules can be detected during this process. We then demonstrated an atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based nanofabrication technique by employing TiO2-coated AFM probes to penetrate living cell membranes under near-physiological conditions for minimally invasive intracellular delivery.

  5. Analysis of structural changes in active site of luciferase adsorbed on nanofabricated hydrophilic Si surface by molecular-dynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Nishiyama, Katsuhiko; Hoshino, Tadatsugu

    2007-05-21

    Interactions between luciferase and a nanofabricated hydrophilic Si surface were explored by molecular-dynamics simulations. The structural changes in the active-site residues, the residues affecting the luciferin binding, and the residues affecting the bioluminescence color were smaller on the nanofabricated hydrophilic Si surface than on both a hydrophobic Si surface and a hydrophilic Si surface. The nanofabrication and wet-treatment techniques are expected to prevent the decrease in activity of luciferase on the Si surface.

  6. The synthesis of active biomaterials through nanofabrication and sol-gel encapsulation of liposomes and membrane proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soong, Ricky Kai

    The following dissertation reveals the latest advancements in developing self-sustaining hybrid nano-systems. Three areas of research were initiated: (1) Dielectrophoretic (DEP) mediation of hybrid assembly, (2) Solar powered proton pumping films, and (3) Silica materials with biochemical output for integration with nano-devices. The first topic of research was devoted to creating reliable hybridization platforms. This was achieved by implementing AC electric-field forces. One of the primary considerations in utilizing DEP is buffer conductivity. The initial medium used to preserve biomotor functionality was too conductive and AC field effects were significantly reduced. Subsequent testing with lower ionic strength indicated that the biomolecules were repelled from field intense regions. Hence, nano-electrode arrays were reconfigured to trap device components. Initial results showed promising potential but current lithographic limitations require new nanofabrication methodologies to obtain the desired electrode design. The second research project was focused on creating solar powered biomaterials. Liposomes containing bR proton pumping proteins and pyranine fluorescent dye into phospholipid vesicles were encapsulated within a silica matrix. The characteristic 402/456 nm pyranine peaks blue shifted upon acidification by bR. The proteoliposomes were mixed in a 3:1 ratio with tetramethyl orthosilicate (TMOS) sol respectively to provide a solar powered thin proteogel films. Ultimately, the ability to prepare these proteogels enabled the establishment of a proton gradient, and therefore opportunities to use these materials for biologically based power generation. The third research project involved engineering nanobiochemical reaction environments within a three-dimensional construct. The goal here was to recruit encapsulated enzymes to actively synthesize biochemical compounds. These compounds were subsequently collected and used as a fuel source for integrated nano

  7. A control approach to high-speed probe-based nanofabrication.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yan; Zou, Qingze; Lin, Zhiqun

    2009-04-29

    In this paper, an inversion-based feedforward control approach for achieving high-speed, large-range probe-based nanofabrication is proposed. Probe-based nanofabrication has attracted great interest recently. This technique, however, is still limited by its low throughput, due to the challenges in compensating for the existing adverse effects. These adverse effects include the nonlinear hysteresis as well as the vibrational dynamics of piezoactuators used to position the probe in 3D axes, and the dynamic coupling in multi-axis motion during high-speed nanofabrication. The main contribution of this paper is the utilization of the recently developed model-less inversion-based iterative control technique to overcome these challenges in scanning probe microscope-based nanofabrication. By using this advanced control technique, precision position control of the probe can be achieved during high-speed, large-range multi-axis nanofabrication. The proposed approach is demonstrated in experiments by implementing it to fabricate large-size ( approximately 50 microm) pentagram patterns via mechanical scratching on a gold-coated silicon sample surface at high speed ( approximately 4.5 mm s(-1)).

  8. A control approach to high-speed probe-based nanofabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yan; Zou, Qingze; Lin, Zhiqun

    2009-04-01

    In this paper, an inversion-based feedforward control approach for achieving high-speed, large-range probe-based nanofabrication is proposed. Probe-based nanofabrication has attracted great interest recently. This technique, however, is still limited by its low throughput, due to the challenges in compensating for the existing adverse effects. These adverse effects include the nonlinear hysteresis as well as the vibrational dynamics of piezoactuators used to position the probe in 3D axes, and the dynamic coupling in multi-axis motion during high-speed nanofabrication. The main contribution of this paper is the utilization of the recently developed model-less inversion-based iterative control technique to overcome these challenges in scanning probe microscope-based nanofabrication. By using this advanced control technique, precision position control of the probe can be achieved during high-speed, large-range multi-axis nanofabrication. The proposed approach is demonstrated in experiments by implementing it to fabricate large-size (~50 µm) pentagram patterns via mechanical scratching on a gold-coated silicon sample surface at high speed (~4.5 mm s-1).

  9. Development of metal-assisted chemical etching of silicon as a 3D nanofabrication platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildreth, Owen James

    The considerable interest in nanomaterials and nanotechnology over the last decade is attributed to Industry's desire for lower cost, more sophisticated devices and the opportunity that nanotechnology presents for scientists to explore the fundamental properties of nature at near atomic levels. In pursuit of these goals, researchers around the world have worked to both perfect existing technologies and also develop new nano-fabrication methods; however, no technique exists that is capable of producing complex, 2D and 3D nano-sized features of arbitrary shape, with smooth walls, and at low cost. This in part is due to two important limitations of current nanofabrication methods. First, 3D geometry is difficult if not impossible to fabricate, often requiring multiple lithography steps that are both expensive and do not scale well to industrial level fabrication requirements. Second, as feature sizes shrink into the nano-domain, it becomes increasingly difficult to accurately maintain those features over large depths and heights. The ability to produce these structures affordably and with high precision is critically important to a number of existing and emerging technologies such as metamaterials, nano-fluidics, nano-imprint lithography, and more. To overcome these limitations, this study developed a novel and efficient method to etch complex 2D and 3D geometry in silicon with controllable sub-micron to nano-sized features with aspect ratios in excess of 500:1. This study utilized Metal-assisted Chemical Etching (MaCE) of silicon in conjunction with shape-controlled catalysts to fabricate structures such as 3D cycloids, spirals, sloping channels, and out-of-plane rotational structures. This study focused on taking MaCE from a method to fabricate small pores and silicon nanowires using metal catalyst nanoparticles and discontinuous thin films, to a powerful etching technology that utilizes shaped catalysts to fabricate complex, 3D geometry using a single lithography

  10. Nuclear astrophysics lessons from INTEGRAL.

    PubMed

    Diehl, Roland

    2013-02-01

    Measurements of high-energy photons from cosmic sources of nuclear radiation through ESA's INTEGRAL mission have advanced our knowledge: new data with high spectral resolution showed that characteristic gamma-ray lines from radioactive decays occur throughout the Galaxy in its interstellar medium. Although the number of detected sources and often the significance of the astrophysical results remain modest, conclusions derived from this unique astronomical window of radiation originating from nuclear processes are important, complementing the widely-employed atomic-line based spectroscopy. We review the results and insights obtained in the past decade from gamma-ray line measurements of cosmic sources in the context of their astrophysical questions.

  11. Memory Device and Nanofabrication Techniques Using Electrically Configurable Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ascenso Simões, Bruno

    Development of novel nanofabrication techniques and single-walled carbon nanotubes field configurable transistor (SWCNT-FCT) memory devices using electrically configurable materials is presented. A novel lithographic technique, electric lithography (EL), that uses electric field for pattern generation has been demonstrated. It can be used for patterning of biomolecules on a polymer surface and patterning of resist as well. Using electrical resist composed of a polymer having Boc protected amine group and iodonium salt, Boc group on the surface of polymer was modified to free amine by applying an electric field. On the modified surface of the polymer, Streptavidin pattern was fabricated with a sub-micron scale. Also patterning of polymer resin composed of epoxy monomers and diaryl iodonium salt by EL has been demonstrated. Reaction mechanism for electric resist configuration is believed to be induced by an acid generation via electrochemical reduction in the resist. We show a novel field configurable transistor (FCT) based on single-walled carbon nanotube network field-effect transistors in which poly (ethylene glycol) crosslinked by electron-beam is incorporated into the gate. The device conductance can be configured to arbitrary states reversibly and repeatedly by applying external gate voltages. Raman spectroscopy revealed that evolution of the ratio of D- to G-band intensity in the SWCNTs of the FCT progressively increases as the device is configured to lower conductance states. Electron transport studies at low temperatures showed a strong temperature dependence of the resistance. Band gap widening of CNTs up to ˜ 4 eV has been observed by examining the differential conductance-gate voltage-bias voltage relationship. The switching mechanism of the FCT is attributed a structural transformation of CNTs via reversible hydrogenation and dehydrogenations induced by gate voltages, which tunes the CNT bandgap continuously and reversibly to non-volatile analog values

  12. Top-Down Nanofabrication and Characterization of 20 nm Silicon Nanowires for Biosensing Applications

    PubMed Central

    M. N, M. Nuzaihan; Hashim, U.; Md Arshad, M. K.; Ruslinda, A. Rahim; Rahman, S. F. A.; Fathil, M. F. M.; Ismail, Mohd. H.

    2016-01-01

    A top-down nanofabrication approach is used to develop silicon nanowires from silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers and involves direct-write electron beam lithography (EBL), inductively coupled plasma-reactive ion etching (ICP-RIE) and a size reduction process. To achieve nanometer scale size, the crucial factors contributing to the EBL and size reduction processes are highlighted. The resulting silicon nanowires, which are 20 nm in width and 30 nm in height (with a triangular shape) and have a straight structure over the length of 400 μm, are fabricated precisely at the designed location on the device. The device is applied in biomolecule detection based on the changes in drain current (Ids), electrical resistance and conductance of the silicon nanowires upon hybridization to complementary target deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). In this context, the scaled-down device exhibited superior performances in terms of good specificity and high sensitivity, with a limit of detection (LOD) of 10 fM, enables for efficient label-free, direct and higher-accuracy DNA molecules detection. Thus, this silicon nanowire can be used as an improved transducer and serves as novel biosensor for future biomedical diagnostic applications. PMID:27022732

  13. Nanofabrication and coloration study of artificial Morpho butterfly wings with aligned lamellae layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Sichao; Chen, Yifang

    2015-11-01

    The bright and iridescent blue color from Morpho butterfly wings has attracted worldwide attentions to explore its mysterious nature for long time. Although the physics of structural color by the nanophotonic structures built on the wing scales has been well established, replications of the wing structure by standard top-down lithography still remains a challenge. This paper reports a technical breakthrough to mimic the blue color of Morpho butterfly wings, by developing a novel nanofabrication process, based on electron beam lithography combined with alternate PMMA/LOR development/dissolution, for photonic structures with aligned lamellae multilayers in colorless polymers. The relationship between the coloration and geometric dimensions as well as shapes is systematically analyzed by solving Maxwell’s Equations with a finite domain time difference simulator. Careful characterization of the mimicked blue by spectral measurements under both normal and oblique angles are carried out. Structural color in blue reflected by the fabricated wing scales, is demonstrated and further extended to green as an application exercise of the new technique. The effects of the regularity in the replicas on coloration are analyzed. In principle, this approach establishes a starting point for mimicking structural colors beyond the blue in Morpho butterfly wings.

  14. Parallel computation with molecular-motor-propelled agents in nanofabricated networks

    PubMed Central

    Nicolau, Dan V.; Lard, Mercy; Korten, Till; van Delft, Falco C. M. J. M.; Persson, Malin; Bengtsson, Elina; Månsson, Alf; Diez, Stefan; Linke, Heiner; Nicolau, Dan V.

    2016-01-01

    The combinatorial nature of many important mathematical problems, including nondeterministic-polynomial-time (NP)-complete problems, places a severe limitation on the problem size that can be solved with conventional, sequentially operating electronic computers. There have been significant efforts in conceiving parallel-computation approaches in the past, for example: DNA computation, quantum computation, and microfluidics-based computation. However, these approaches have not proven, so far, to be scalable and practical from a fabrication and operational perspective. Here, we report the foundations of an alternative parallel-computation system in which a given combinatorial problem is encoded into a graphical, modular network that is embedded in a nanofabricated planar device. Exploring the network in a parallel fashion using a large number of independent, molecular-motor-propelled agents then solves the mathematical problem. This approach uses orders of magnitude less energy than conventional computers, thus addressing issues related to power consumption and heat dissipation. We provide a proof-of-concept demonstration of such a device by solving, in a parallel fashion, the small instance {2, 5, 9} of the subset sum problem, which is a benchmark NP-complete problem. Finally, we discuss the technical advances necessary to make our system scalable with presently available technology. PMID:26903637

  15. Top-Down Nanofabrication and Characterization of 20 nm Silicon Nanowires for Biosensing Applications.

    PubMed

    M Nuzaihan, M N; Hashim, U; Md Arshad, M K; Rahim Ruslinda, A; Rahman, S F A; Fathil, M F M; Ismail, Mohd H

    2016-01-01

    A top-down nanofabrication approach is used to develop silicon nanowires from silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers and involves direct-write electron beam lithography (EBL), inductively coupled plasma-reactive ion etching (ICP-RIE) and a size reduction process. To achieve nanometer scale size, the crucial factors contributing to the EBL and size reduction processes are highlighted. The resulting silicon nanowires, which are 20 nm in width and 30 nm in height (with a triangular shape) and have a straight structure over the length of 400 μm, are fabricated precisely at the designed location on the device. The device is applied in biomolecule detection based on the changes in drain current (Ids), electrical resistance and conductance of the silicon nanowires upon hybridization to complementary target deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). In this context, the scaled-down device exhibited superior performances in terms of good specificity and high sensitivity, with a limit of detection (LOD) of 10 fM, enables for efficient label-free, direct and higher-accuracy DNA molecules detection. Thus, this silicon nanowire can be used as an improved transducer and serves as novel biosensor for future biomedical diagnostic applications.

  16. Nanofabrication and coloration study of artificial Morpho butterfly wings with aligned lamellae layers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sichao; Chen, Yifang

    2015-11-18

    The bright and iridescent blue color from Morpho butterfly wings has attracted worldwide attentions to explore its mysterious nature for long time. Although the physics of structural color by the nanophotonic structures built on the wing scales has been well established, replications of the wing structure by standard top-down lithography still remains a challenge. This paper reports a technical breakthrough to mimic the blue color of Morpho butterfly wings, by developing a novel nanofabrication process, based on electron beam lithography combined with alternate PMMA/LOR development/dissolution, for photonic structures with aligned lamellae multilayers in colorless polymers. The relationship between the coloration and geometric dimensions as well as shapes is systematically analyzed by solving Maxwell's Equations with a finite domain time difference simulator. Careful characterization of the mimicked blue by spectral measurements under both normal and oblique angles are carried out. Structural color in blue reflected by the fabricated wing scales, is demonstrated and further extended to green as an application exercise of the new technique. The effects of the regularity in the replicas on coloration are analyzed. In principle, this approach establishes a starting point for mimicking structural colors beyond the blue in Morpho butterfly wings.

  17. Nanofabrication and coloration study of artificial Morpho butterfly wings with aligned lamellae layers

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Sichao; Chen, Yifang

    2015-01-01

    The bright and iridescent blue color from Morpho butterfly wings has attracted worldwide attentions to explore its mysterious nature for long time. Although the physics of structural color by the nanophotonic structures built on the wing scales has been well established, replications of the wing structure by standard top-down lithography still remains a challenge. This paper reports a technical breakthrough to mimic the blue color of Morpho butterfly wings, by developing a novel nanofabrication process, based on electron beam lithography combined with alternate PMMA/LOR development/dissolution, for photonic structures with aligned lamellae multilayers in colorless polymers. The relationship between the coloration and geometric dimensions as well as shapes is systematically analyzed by solving Maxwell’s Equations with a finite domain time difference simulator. Careful characterization of the mimicked blue by spectral measurements under both normal and oblique angles are carried out. Structural color in blue reflected by the fabricated wing scales, is demonstrated and further extended to green as an application exercise of the new technique. The effects of the regularity in the replicas on coloration are analyzed. In principle, this approach establishes a starting point for mimicking structural colors beyond the blue in Morpho butterfly wings. PMID:26577813

  18. MEMS-enabled Dip Pen Nanolithography for directed nanoscale deposition and high-throughput nanofabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haaheim, J. R.; Nafday, O. A.; Levesque, T.; Fragala, J.; Shile, R.

    2009-02-01

    Precision nanoscale deposition is a fundamental requirement for nanoscience research, development, and commercial implementation. Dip Pen Nanolithography(R) (DPN) is an inherently additive SPM-based technique which operates under ambient conditions, making it suitable to deposit a wide range of biological and inorganic materials. This technique is fundamentally enabled by a portfolio of MEMS devices tailored for microfluidic ink delivery, directed placement of nanoscale materials via actuated cantilevers, and cm2 tip arrays for high-throughput nanofabrication. Multiplexed deposition of nanoscale materials is a challenging problem, but we have implemented InkWells(TM) to enable selective delivery of ink materials to different tips in multiple probe arrays, while preventing cross-contamination. Active Pens(TM) can take advantage of this, directly place a variety of materials in nanoscale proximity, and do so in a "clean" fashion since the cantilevers can be manipulated in Z. Further, massively parallel two-dimensional nanopatterning with DPN is now commercially available via NanoInk's 2D nano PrintArray(TM), making DPN a highthroughput, flexible and versatile method for precision nanoscale pattern formation. By fabricating 55,000 tip-cantilevers across a 1 cm2 chip, we leverage the inherent versatility of DPN and demonstrate large area surface coverage, routinely achieving throughputs of 3×107 μm2 per hour. Further, we have engineered the device to be easy to use, wire-free, and fully integrated with the NSCRIPTOR's scanner, stage, and sophisticated lithography routines. In this talk we discuss the methods of operating this commercially available device, and subsequent results showing sub-100 nm feature sizes and excellent uniformity (standard deviation < 16%). Finally, we will discuss applications enabled by this MEMS portfolio including: 1) rapidly and flexibly generating nanostructures; 2) chemically directed assembly and 3) directly writing biological materials.

  19. From integrative bioethics to pseudoscience.

    PubMed

    Bracanović, Tomislav

    2012-12-01

    Integrative bioethics is a brand of bioethics conceived and propagated by a group of Croatian philosophers and other scholars. This article discusses and shows that the approach encounters several serious difficulties. In criticizing certain standard views on bioethics and in presenting their own, the advocates of integrative bioethics fall into various conceptual confusions and inconsistencies. Although presented as a project that promises to deal with moral dilemmas created by modern science and technology, integrative bioethics does not contain the slightest normativity or action-guiding capacity. Portrayed as a scientific and interdisciplinary enterprise, integrative bioethics displays a large number of pseudoscientific features that throw into doubt its overall credibility.

  20. Monolithic optofluidic ring resonator lasers created by femtosecond laser nanofabrication.

    PubMed

    Chandrahalim, Hengky; Chen, Qiushu; Said, Ali A; Dugan, Mark; Fan, Xudong

    2015-05-21

    We designed, fabricated, and characterized a monolithically integrated optofluidic ring resonator laser that is mechanically, thermally, and chemically robust. The entire device, including the ring resonator channel and sample delivery microfluidics, was created in a block of fused-silica glass using a 3-dimensional femtosecond laser writing process. The gain medium, composed of Rhodamine 6G (R6G) dissolved in quinoline, was flowed through the ring resonator. Lasing was achieved at a pump threshold of approximately 15 μJ mm(-2). Detailed analysis shows that the Q-factor of the optofluidic ring resonator is 3.3 × 10(4), which is limited by both solvent absorption and scattering loss. In particular, a Q-factor resulting from the scattering loss can be as high as 4.2 × 10(4), suggesting the feasibility of using a femtosecond laser to create high quality optical cavities.

  1. Soft X-Ray (1-7 nm) Solar Spectrometer based on novel Nanowriter Electron-Beam Nanofabrication Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didkovsky, L. V.; Wieman, S. R.; Chao, W.

    2015-12-01

    A new soft X-ray (SXR) spectrometer combines proven detector technology demonstrated on the SOHO Solar EUV Monitor (SOHO/SEM) and SDO EUV SpectroPhotometer (SDO/EVE/ESP) instruments with novel technology for X-ray optics nanofabrication developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The new spectrometer will provide solar SXR measurements of absolute irradiance in the 1.0 to 7.0 nm range spectrally resolved into bands narrower than 1 nm - measurements that are not available from existing solar-observing instruments but are important for studying and modeling coronal dynamics and the Sun-Earth's connection, e.g. the Earth's Ionosphere. For the proposed SXR spectrometer we will introduce a transmission grating based on novel Nanowriter Electron-Beam Nanofabrication technology developed at the Center for X-ray Optics (CXRO) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The CXRO technology has been used in the fabrication of X-ray zone plates with feature sizes as small as 25 nm in optical elements with overall sizes on the order of 1 cm. The CXRO technology has significant flexibility in terms of pattern geometry, and is thus capable of producing linear transmission gratings with aperture sizes similar to SEM and ESP but with four times the dispersion. With such dispersion, reasonable spectral resolution (< 1nm) can be obtained using commercial off-the shelf (COTS) X-ray sensitive AXUV type silicon photodiodes from the Optodiode Corp. in an instrument with overall size and mass similar to that of SEM or ESP.

  2. Nanofabrication using home-made RF plasma coupled chemical vapour deposition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, Si Ci; Ilyas, Usman; Rawat, Rajdeep Singh

    2014-08-01

    Zinc oxide, ZnO, a popular semiconductor material with a wide band gap (3.37 eV) and high binding energy of the exciton (60 meV), has numerous applications such as in optoelectronics, chemical/biological sensors, and drug delivery. This project aims to (i) optimize the operating conditions for growth of ZnO nanostructures using the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, and (ii) investigate the effects of coupling radiofrequency (RF) plasma to the CVD method on the quality of ZnO nanostructures. First, ZnO nanowires were synthesized using a home-made reaction setup on gold-coated and non-coated Si (100) substrates at 950 °C. XRD, SEM, EDX, and PL measurements were used for characterizations and it was found that a deposition duration of 10 minutes produced the most well-defined ZnO nanowires. SEM analysis revealed that the nanowires had diameters ranging from 30-100 mm and lengths ranging from 1-4 µm. In addition, PL analysis showed strong UV emission at 380 nm, making it suitable for UV lasing. Next, RF plasma was introduced for 30 minutes. Both remote and in situ RF plasma produced less satisfactory ZnO nanostructures with poorer crystalline structure, surface morphology, and optical properties due to etching effect of energetic ions produced from plasma. However, a reduction in plasma discharge duration to 10 minutes produced thicker and shorter ZnO nanostructures. Based on experimentation conducted, it is insufficient to conclude that RF plasma cannot aid in producing well-defined ZnO nanostructures. It can be deduced that the etching effect of energetic ions outweighed the increased oxygen radical production in RF plasma nanofabrication.

  3. Bergman Kernel from Path Integral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, Michael R.; Klevtsov, Semyon

    2010-01-01

    We rederive the expansion of the Bergman kernel on Kähler manifolds developed by Tian, Yau, Zelditch, Lu and Catlin, using path integral and perturbation theory, and generalize it to supersymmetric quantum mechanics. One physics interpretation of this result is as an expansion of the projector of wave functions on the lowest Landau level, in the special case that the magnetic field is proportional to the Kähler form. This is relevant for the quantum Hall effect in curved space, and for its higher dimensional generalizations. Other applications include the theory of coherent states, the study of balanced metrics, noncommutative field theory, and a conjecture on metrics in black hole backgrounds discussed in [24]. We give a short overview of these various topics. From a conceptual point of view, this expansion is noteworthy as it is a geometric expansion, somewhat similar to the DeWitt-Seeley-Gilkey et al short time expansion for the heat kernel, but in this case describing the long time limit, without depending on supersymmetry.

  4. Femtosecond laser nano-fabrication and its biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavangar, Amirhossein

    This dissertation aims to develop a new technique for fabrication of three-dimensional (3-D) interwoven nanofibrous platforms using femtosecond laser ablation of solids in ambient conditions. In the first part, the mechanism of ablation of solids by multiple femtosecond laser pulses in ambient air is described in an explicit analytical form. The formulas for evaporation rates and the number of ablated particles for laser ablation by multiple pulses as a function of laser parameters, background gas, and material properties are predicted and compared to experimental results. Later, the formation mechanism of the nanofibrous structures during laser ablation of targets in the presence of air is discussed. The results indicate that femtosecond laser ablation of solids at air background yields crystalline nanostructures. It's also shown that this technique allows synthesis of 3-D nanostructures on a wide range of materials including synthetic and natural materials. Later, potential practice of the proposed technique for integration of nanostructures on transparent platforms as well as inside microstructures toward device fabrication is investigated. Presented studies show that integrated nanostructure inside microchannels can be fabricated in one single step using this technique. Finally, to address the potential use of the nanostructures for biomedical application, several studies are performed to evaluate the bioactivity and biocompatibility of the nanostructures. The fabricated nanostructures incorporate the functions of 3-D nano-scaled topography and modified chemical properties to improve osseointegration, while at the same time leaving space for delivering other functional agents. In vitro experiments reveal that the titania nanofibrous platforms possess an excellent bioactivity and can induce rapid, uniform, and controllable bone-like apatite precipitation once immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF). Furthermore, the influence of synthesized titanium platforms on

  5. Multiscale modeling and experimental validation for nanochannel depth control in atomic force microscopy-based nanofabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Jiaqi; Liu, Pinkuan Zhu, Xiaobo; Zhang, Fan; Chen, Guozhen

    2014-08-21

    Nanochannels are essential features of many microelectronic and biomedical devices. To date, the most commonly employed method to fabricate these nanochannels is atomic force microscopy (AFM). However, there is presently a very poor understanding on the fundamental principles underlying this process, which limits its reliability and controllability. In this study, we present a comprehensive multiscale model by incorporating strain gradient plasticity and strain gradient elasticity theories, which can predict nanochannel depths during AFM-based nanofabrication. The modeling results are directly verified with experiments performed on Cu and Pt substrates. As this model can also be extended to include many additional conditions, it has broad applicability in a wide range of AFM-based nanofabrication applications.

  6. A beam flexure-based nanopositioning stage supporting laser direct-write nanofabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Peng; Yan, Peng; Guan, YingChun

    2016-08-01

    A nanopositioning system of both millimetric stroke and nanometric tracking accuracy is a key component for nanofabrication in many applications. In this paper, a novel bi-axial beam-flexure nano servo stage is proposed to support a direct writing system for femtosecond laser nanofabrication. The important features of the stage lie in: a mirror symmetric instead of rotational symmetric configuration is adopted to restrict cross axis coupling, and a novel Z-shaped guidance module is proposed to achieve relative large linear stiffness range, in addition a redundant constraints module is introduced to increase off-axis stiffness of the stage. Mechanical analysis and system identification are provided, with which a feedback control algorithm demonstrates the tracking capability for laser fabrication purposes. Based on the fabricated XY nano-stage, real time control and measurements are deployed, demonstrating the millimetric operating workspace and 77.8 nm (RMS) error of tracking a circular trajectory.

  7. Resourceful Computing in Unstructured Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-31

    solutions for ultra-large scale computing problems. "* Analogical and common sense reasoning for analysis and design. The remainder of this report...an analog VLSI chip embedding one of the earliest Vision Machine algorithms--edge detection-integrated with a CCD imager on the same chip. 4 Hardware...Behaviors from a Carefully Evolved Network." Neural Computation 1 (1989). Brooks, R.A. "AL: Great Expectations." Guest editorial, Manufacturing Engineering

  8. Long Coherence Length 193 nm Laser for High-Resolution Nano-Fabrication

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-27

    ns pulses, considering Kerr self phase modulation and perhaps Kramers- Kronig self phase modulation as well? What conversion efficiency to 193.4 nm is...Kramers- Kronig phase related to Actinix 31 6/27/2008 Long Coherence Length 193-nm Laser for High-Resolution Nano-Fabrication DARPA Phase I STTR Final...by. Usually the n 2 contribution is the larger of the two, and better characterized. I do not include a Kramers- Kronig contribution in the

  9. Manual, In situ, Real-Time Nanofabrication using Cracking through Indentation

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Koo Hyun; Suh, Young D.; Yeo, Junyeob; Woo, Deokha

    2016-01-01

    Nanofabrication has seen an increasing demand for applications in many fields of science and technology, but its production still requires relatively difficult, time-consuming, and expensive processes. Here we report a simple but very effective one dimensional (1D) nano-patterning technology that suggests a new nanofabrication method. This new technique involves the control of naturally propagating cracks initiated through simple, manually generated indentation, obviating the necessity of complicated equipment and elaborate experimental environments such as those that employ clean rooms, high vacuums, and the fastidious maintenance of processing temperatures. The channel fabricated with this technique can be as narrow as 10 nm with unlimited length and very high cross-sectional aspect ratio, an accomplishment difficult even for a state-of-the-art technology such as e-beam lithography. More interestingly, the fabrication speed can be controlled and achieved to as little as several hundred micrometers per second. Along with the simplicity and real-time fabrication capability of the technique, this tunable fabrication speed makes the method introduced here the authentic nanofabrication for in situ experiments. PMID:26725520

  10. Manual, In situ, Real-Time Nanofabrication using Cracking through Indentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Koo Hyun; Suh, Young D.; Yeo, Junyeob; Woo, Deokha

    2016-01-01

    Nanofabrication has seen an increasing demand for applications in many fields of science and technology, but its production still requires relatively difficult, time-consuming, and expensive processes. Here we report a simple but very effective one dimensional (1D) nano-patterning technology that suggests a new nanofabrication method. This new technique involves the control of naturally propagating cracks initiated through simple, manually generated indentation, obviating the necessity of complicated equipment and elaborate experimental environments such as those that employ clean rooms, high vacuums, and the fastidious maintenance of processing temperatures. The channel fabricated with this technique can be as narrow as 10 nm with unlimited length and very high cross-sectional aspect ratio, an accomplishment difficult even for a state-of-the-art technology such as e-beam lithography. More interestingly, the fabrication speed can be controlled and achieved to as little as several hundred micrometers per second. Along with the simplicity and real-time fabrication capability of the technique, this tunable fabrication speed makes the method introduced here the authentic nanofabrication for in situ experiments.

  11. Measuring Integrated Information from the Decoding Perspective.

    PubMed

    Oizumi, Masafumi; Amari, Shun-ichi; Yanagawa, Toru; Fujii, Naotaka; Tsuchiya, Naotsugu

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that the capacity to integrate information in the brain is a prerequisite for consciousness. Integrated Information Theory (IIT) of consciousness provides a mathematical approach to quantifying the information integrated in a system, called integrated information, Φ. Integrated information is defined theoretically as the amount of information a system generates as a whole, above and beyond the amount of information its parts independently generate. IIT predicts that the amount of integrated information in the brain should reflect levels of consciousness. Empirical evaluation of this theory requires computing integrated information from neural data acquired from experiments, although difficulties with using the original measure Φ precludes such computations. Although some practical measures have been previously proposed, we found that these measures fail to satisfy the theoretical requirements as a measure of integrated information. Measures of integrated information should satisfy the lower and upper bounds as follows: The lower bound of integrated information should be 0 and is equal to 0 when the system does not generate information (no information) or when the system comprises independent parts (no integration). The upper bound of integrated information is the amount of information generated by the whole system. Here we derive the novel practical measure Φ* by introducing a concept of mismatched decoding developed from information theory. We show that Φ* is properly bounded from below and above, as required, as a measure of integrated information. We derive the analytical expression of Φ* under the Gaussian assumption, which makes it readily applicable to experimental data. Our novel measure Φ* can generally be used as a measure of integrated information in research on consciousness, and also as a tool for network analysis on diverse areas of biology.

  12. Measuring Integrated Information from the Decoding Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Oizumi, Masafumi; Amari, Shun-ichi; Yanagawa, Toru; Fujii, Naotaka; Tsuchiya, Naotsugu

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that the capacity to integrate information in the brain is a prerequisite for consciousness. Integrated Information Theory (IIT) of consciousness provides a mathematical approach to quantifying the information integrated in a system, called integrated information, Φ. Integrated information is defined theoretically as the amount of information a system generates as a whole, above and beyond the amount of information its parts independently generate. IIT predicts that the amount of integrated information in the brain should reflect levels of consciousness. Empirical evaluation of this theory requires computing integrated information from neural data acquired from experiments, although difficulties with using the original measure Φ precludes such computations. Although some practical measures have been previously proposed, we found that these measures fail to satisfy the theoretical requirements as a measure of integrated information. Measures of integrated information should satisfy the lower and upper bounds as follows: The lower bound of integrated information should be 0 and is equal to 0 when the system does not generate information (no information) or when the system comprises independent parts (no integration). The upper bound of integrated information is the amount of information generated by the whole system. Here we derive the novel practical measure Φ* by introducing a concept of mismatched decoding developed from information theory. We show that Φ* is properly bounded from below and above, as required, as a measure of integrated information. We derive the analytical expression of Φ* under the Gaussian assumption, which makes it readily applicable to experimental data. Our novel measure Φ* can generally be used as a measure of integrated information in research on consciousness, and also as a tool for network analysis on diverse areas of biology. PMID:26796119

  13. Removing Bonded Integrated Circuits From Boards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, John T.

    1989-01-01

    Small resistance heater makes it easier, faster, and cheaper to remove integrated circuit from hybrid-circuit board, package, or other substrate for rework. Heater, located directly in polymeric bond interface or on substrate under integrated-circuit chip, energized when necessary to remove chip. Heat generated softens adhesive or solder that bonds chip to substrate. Chip then lifted easily from substrate.

  14. Cotranscriptionally folded RNA nanostructures pave the way to intracellular nanofabrication.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiang; Chao, Jie; Shi, Jiye; Fan, Chunhai

    2015-01-02

    A very attractive goal in nanotechnology is to manufacture smart nanodevices that integrate multiple biological/biomedical functions and autonomously function in vivo in a predefined and well-controlled manner. For decades, researchers have been developing many different ways toward this target, using bottom-up assembly of types of nanomaterials or top-down fabrication of devices with nanometer-scale precision. However, the practical application of these nanodevices remains challenging. One possible barrier lies in the spatiotemporal separation between fabrication and use, which poses a great challenge for the non-invasive delivery of fully functional nanodevice into live cells. Indeed, cells themselves are highly complex natural machines with membrane barriers and finely regulated pathways for intracellular delivery. However, there is plenty of evidence that nanomaterials or nanodevices are easily aggregated or trapped inside of the cells. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Large-area nanofabrication and applications in advanced nanoelectronic and nanophotonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Wei

    The research work presented in this dissertation includes novel large area nanofabrication techniques and their applications in advanced nanoelectronic and nanophotonic devices. The fabrications and applications include: 1) high performance transparent electrodes, 2) a novel plasmonic nanocavity and its applications in organic solar cells and light emitting diodes, and 3) a bipolar plasmonic nonlinear optical device to enhance and tune second harmonic generation. Based upon these topics, the thesis is divided into the following parts. First, a novel transparent electrode (TE), metallic deep subwavelength mesh electrode is developed and fabricated, showing better transmittance and conductance than previous TEs. Its performance dependence on nanostructure geometries and materials are investigated. The deep-subwavelength mesh electrode also has excellent antiglare properties. Such electrodes are fabricated on 4" wafer by nanoimprint, scalable to meter sizes. Second, a novel plasmonic nanocavity from the MESH is developed, named "plasmonic cavity with subwavelength hole-array (PlaCSH)", consisting of a thin MESH as a transparent front electrode, a thin metal back electrode, and in-between layer of active material. This structure is used to create high performance solar cells and LEDs. PlaCSH solar cell gives a solution to three central challenges in organic solar cells (light coupling into solar cell, light trapping in a sub-absorption-length-thick layer, and replacement of the indium-tin-oxide). Experimentally, the PlaCSH polymer SCs achieve high light coupling-efficiency/absorptance/power conversion efficiency, along with broad-band, Omni angle/polarization acceptance. In OLEDs, PlaCSH shows numerous benefits with both the small- molecule and polymer active materials. Enhanced light extraction, internal quantum efficiency, ambient light absorption, contrast, viewing angle, brightness, and decreased glare are all observed. The above experiments -- along with

  16. Electrospun assembly: a nondestructive nanofabrication for transparent photosensors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuting; Shahid, Muhammad; Cheng, Jing; Nishijima, Hiroki; Pan, Wei

    2017-04-18

    Transparent electrodes based on a metal nanotrough network show superior electrical and optical properties. However, most metal networks fabricated by electrospinning are formed as film electrodes and are hard to pattern for the geometry shape of the device without any loss. Herein, we fabricate a highly transparent and flexible photodetector (PD) via a simple controlled electrospinning method. Owing to the trough- and belt-like geometry of Pt network electrodes, up to 83% transmittance can be obtained when the sheet resistances is 16 Ω sq(-1), which may be the best performance for Pt-based transparent electrodes at present. The benefit of this advantage, is that a wearable UV PD could be obtained by a facile electrospun assembly. This all-transparent device achieves an extraordinary transparency of 90% at 550 nm and an even superior response sensitivity compared with that of a Pt film-based sensor (14 Ω sq(-1) at 50% transparency). More importantly, this assembly approach has the versatility to enable us to fabricate highly transparent and flexible electronics in wearable applications, especially for the integration of oxide semiconductors and adhesive photoelectric hybrids.

  17. Electrospun assembly: a nondestructive nanofabrication for transparent photosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuting; Shahid, Muhammad; Cheng, Jing; Nishijima, Hiroki; Pan, Wei

    2017-04-01

    Transparent electrodes based on a metal nanotrough network show superior electrical and optical properties. However, most metal networks fabricated by electrospinning are formed as film electrodes and are hard to pattern for the geometry shape of the device without any loss. Herein, we fabricate a highly transparent and flexible photodetector (PD) via a simple controlled electrospinning method. Owing to the trough- and belt-like geometry of Pt network electrodes, up to 83% transmittance can be obtained when the sheet resistances is 16 Ω sq‑1, which may be the best performance for Pt-based transparent electrodes at present. The benefit of this advantage, is that a wearable UV PD could be obtained by a facile electrospun assembly. This all-transparent device achieves an extraordinary transparency of 90% at 550 nm and an even superior response sensitivity compared with that of a Pt film-based sensor (14 Ω sq‑1 at 50% transparency). More importantly, this assembly approach has the versatility to enable us to fabricate highly transparent and flexible electronics in wearable applications, especially for the integration of oxide semiconductors and adhesive photoelectric hybrids.

  18. Tip-Based Nanofabrication of Arbitrary Shapes of Graphene Nanoribbons for Device Applications

    PubMed Central

    Estrada, David; Bashir, Rashid; King, William P.

    2015-01-01

    Graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) have promising applications in future nanoelectronics, chemical sensing and electrical interconnects. Although there are quite a few GNR nanofabrication methods reported, a rapid and low-cost fabrication method that is capable of fabricating arbitrary shapes of GNRs with good-quality is still in demand for using GNRs for device applications. In this paper, we present a tip-based nanofabrication method capable of fabricating arbitrary shapes of GNRs. A heated atomic force microscope (AFM) tip deposits polymer nanowires atop a CVD-grown graphene surface. The polymer nanowires serve as an etch mask to define GNRs through one step of oxygen plasma etching similar to a photoresist in conventional photolithography. Various shapes of GNRs with either linear or curvilinear features are demonstrated. The width of the GNR is around 270 nm and is determined by the width of the depositing polymer nanowire, which we estimate can be scaled down 15 nms. We characterize our TBN-fabricated GNRs using Raman spectroscopy and I-V measurements. The measured sheet resistances of our GNRs fall within the range of 1.65 kΩ/□−1 – 2.64 kΩ/□−1, in agreement with previously reported values. Furthermore, we determined the high-field breakdown current density of GNRs to be approximately 2.94×108 A/cm2. This TBN process is seamlessly compatible with existing nanofabrication processes, and is particularly suitable for fabricating GNR based electronic devices including next generation DNA sequencing technologies and beyond silicon field effect transistors. PMID:26257891

  19. Directing Matter: Toward Atomic-Scale 3D Nanofabrication

    DOE PAGES

    Jesse, Stephen; Borisevich, Albina Y.; Fowlkes, Jason D.; ...

    2016-05-16

    Here we report that enabling memristive, neuromorphic, and quantum based computing as well as efficient mainstream energy storage and conversion technologies requires next generation of materials customized at the atomic scale. This requires full control of atomic arrangement and bonding in three dimensions. The last two decades witnessed substantial industrial, academic, and government research efforts directed towards this goal through various lithographies and scanning probe based methods. These technologies emphasize 2D surface structures, with some limited 3D capability. Recently, a range of focused electron and ion based methods have demonstrated compelling alternative pathways to achieving atomically precise manufacturing of 3Dmore » structures in solids, liquids, and at interfaces. Electron and ion microscopies offer a platform that can simultaneously observe dynamic and static structures at the nano and atomic scales, and also induce structural rearrangements and chemical transformation. The addition of predictive modeling or rapid image analytics and feedback enables guiding these in a controlled manner. Here, we review the recent results that used focused electron and ion beams to create free-standing nanoscale 3D structures, radiolysis and the fabrication potential with liquid precursors, epitaxial crystallization of amorphous oxides with atomic layer precision, as well as visualization and control of individual dopant motion within a 3D crystal lattice. These works lay the foundation for new approaches to directing nanoscale level architectures and offer a potential roadmap to full 3D atomic control in materials. Lastly, in this perspective we lay out the gaps that currently constrain the processing range of these platforms, reflect on indirect requirements, such as the integration of large scale data analysis with theory, and discuss future prospects of these technologies.« less

  20. Directing Matter: Toward Atomic-Scale 3D Nanofabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Jesse, Stephen; Borisevich, Albina Y.; Fowlkes, Jason D.; Lupini, Andrew R.; Rack, Philip D.; Unocic, Raymond R.; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Belianinov, Alex; Ovchinnikova, Olga S.

    2016-05-16

    Here we report that enabling memristive, neuromorphic, and quantum based computing as well as efficient mainstream energy storage and conversion technologies requires next generation of materials customized at the atomic scale. This requires full control of atomic arrangement and bonding in three dimensions. The last two decades witnessed substantial industrial, academic, and government research efforts directed towards this goal through various lithographies and scanning probe based methods. These technologies emphasize 2D surface structures, with some limited 3D capability. Recently, a range of focused electron and ion based methods have demonstrated compelling alternative pathways to achieving atomically precise manufacturing of 3D structures in solids, liquids, and at interfaces. Electron and ion microscopies offer a platform that can simultaneously observe dynamic and static structures at the nano and atomic scales, and also induce structural rearrangements and chemical transformation. The addition of predictive modeling or rapid image analytics and feedback enables guiding these in a controlled manner. Here, we review the recent results that used focused electron and ion beams to create free-standing nanoscale 3D structures, radiolysis and the fabrication potential with liquid precursors, epitaxial crystallization of amorphous oxides with atomic layer precision, as well as visualization and control of individual dopant motion within a 3D crystal lattice. These works lay the foundation for new approaches to directing nanoscale level architectures and offer a potential roadmap to full 3D atomic control in materials. Lastly, in this perspective we lay out the gaps that currently constrain the processing range of these platforms, reflect on indirect requirements, such as the integration of large scale data analysis with theory, and discuss future prospects of these technologies.

  1. Directing Matter: Toward Atomic-Scale 3D Nanofabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Jesse, Stephen; Borisevich, Albina Y.; Fowlkes, Jason D.; Lupini, Andrew R.; Rack, Philip D.; Unocic, Raymond R.; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Belianinov, Alex; Ovchinnikova, Olga S.

    2016-05-16

    Here we report that enabling memristive, neuromorphic, and quantum based computing as well as efficient mainstream energy storage and conversion technologies requires next generation of materials customized at the atomic scale. This requires full control of atomic arrangement and bonding in three dimensions. The last two decades witnessed substantial industrial, academic, and government research efforts directed towards this goal through various lithographies and scanning probe based methods. These technologies emphasize 2D surface structures, with some limited 3D capability. Recently, a range of focused electron and ion based methods have demonstrated compelling alternative pathways to achieving atomically precise manufacturing of 3D structures in solids, liquids, and at interfaces. Electron and ion microscopies offer a platform that can simultaneously observe dynamic and static structures at the nano and atomic scales, and also induce structural rearrangements and chemical transformation. The addition of predictive modeling or rapid image analytics and feedback enables guiding these in a controlled manner. Here, we review the recent results that used focused electron and ion beams to create free-standing nanoscale 3D structures, radiolysis and the fabrication potential with liquid precursors, epitaxial crystallization of amorphous oxides with atomic layer precision, as well as visualization and control of individual dopant motion within a 3D crystal lattice. These works lay the foundation for new approaches to directing nanoscale level architectures and offer a potential roadmap to full 3D atomic control in materials. Lastly, in this perspective we lay out the gaps that currently constrain the processing range of these platforms, reflect on indirect requirements, such as the integration of large scale data analysis with theory, and discuss future prospects of these technologies.

  2. Directing Matter: Toward Atomic-Scale 3D Nanofabrication.

    PubMed

    Jesse, Stephen; Borisevich, Albina Y; Fowlkes, Jason D; Lupini, Andrew R; Rack, Philip D; Unocic, Raymond R; Sumpter, Bobby G; Kalinin, Sergei V; Belianinov, Alex; Ovchinnikova, Olga S

    2016-06-28

    Enabling memristive, neuromorphic, and quantum-based computing as well as efficient mainstream energy storage and conversion technologies requires the next generation of materials customized at the atomic scale. This requires full control of atomic arrangement and bonding in three dimensions. The last two decades witnessed substantial industrial, academic, and government research efforts directed toward this goal through various lithographies and scanning-probe-based methods. These technologies emphasize 2D surface structures, with some limited 3D capability. Recently, a range of focused electron- and ion-based methods have demonstrated compelling alternative pathways to achieving atomically precise manufacturing of 3D structures in solids, liquids, and at interfaces. Electron and ion microscopies offer a platform that can simultaneously observe dynamic and static structures at the nano- and atomic scales and also induce structural rearrangements and chemical transformation. The addition of predictive modeling or rapid image analytics and feedback enables guiding these in a controlled manner. Here, we review the recent results that used focused electron and ion beams to create free-standing nanoscale 3D structures, radiolysis, and the fabrication potential with liquid precursors, epitaxial crystallization of amorphous oxides with atomic layer precision, as well as visualization and control of individual dopant motion within a 3D crystal lattice. These works lay the foundation for approaches to directing nanoscale level architectures and offer a potential roadmap to full 3D atomic control in materials. In this paper, we lay out the gaps that currently constrain the processing range of these platforms, reflect on indirect requirements, such as the integration of large-scale data analysis with theory, and discuss future prospects of these technologies.

  3. Sugar nanowires based on cyclodextrin prepared by single particle nanofabrication technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Shogo; Asano, Atsushi; Seki, Shu; Sugimoto, Masaki; Yoshikawa, Masahito; Seiichi, Tagawa; Tsukuda, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shun-Ichiro

    2009-12-01

    The direct formation of nanowires consisting of cyclodextrins by single particle nanofabrication technique (SPNT) is investigated in the present paper. Substittuted cyclodextrin (CD) derivatives and their composite with poly(4-bromostyrene) caused efficient cross-linking reaction upon irradiation, and gave nanostructures by SPNT. Successful visualization of the nanostructures by atomic force microscopy suggested drastic increase in the surface area of the materials based on CDs, leading to considerable increase in the selective adsorption efficiency of the molecules fit to the size of the hydrophobic holes of CDs.

  4. Compact Submillimeter-Wave Receivers Made with Semiconductor Nano-Fabrication Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, C.; Thomas, B.; Lee, C.; Peralta, A.; Chattopadhyay, G.; Gill, J.; Cooper, K.; Mehdi, I.

    2011-01-01

    Advanced semiconductor nanofabrication techniques are utilized to design, fabricate and demonstrate a super-compact, low-mass (<10 grams) submillimeter-wave heterodyne front-end. RF elements such as waveguides and channels are fabricated in a silicon wafer substrate using deep-reactive ion etching (DRIE). Etched patterns with sidewalls angles controlled with 1 deg precision are reported, while maintaining a surface roughness of better than 20 nm rms for the etched structures. This approach is being developed to build compact 2-D imaging arrays in the THz frequency range.

  5. Full-field hard x-ray microscopy below 30 nm : a challenging nanofabrication achievement.

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y.; Lo, T.; Chu, Y.; Yi, J.; Liu, C.; Wang, J.; Wang, C.; Chiu, C.; Hua, T.; Hwu, Y.; Shen, Q.; Yin, G.; Liang, K.; Lin, H.; Je, J.; Margaritondo, G.; X-Ray Science Division; Academia Sinica; Tatung Univ.; National Tsing Hua Univ.; National Taiwan Ocean Univ.; National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center; Pohang Univ. of Science and Technology; Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne

    2008-01-01

    The fabrication of devices to focus hard x-rays is one of the most difficult--and important--challenges in nanotechnology. Here we show that Fresnel zone plates combining 30 nm external zones and a high aspect ratio finally bring hard x-ray microscopy beyond the 30 nm Rayleigh spatial resolution level and measurable spatial frequencies down to 20-23 nm feature size. After presenting the overall nanofabrication process and the characterization test results, we discuss the potential research impact of these resolution levels.

  6. Photoluminescence of individual doped GaAs /AlGaAs nanofabricated quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalliakos, Sokratis; García, César Pascual; Pellegrini, Vittorio; Zamfirescu, Marian; Cavigli, Lucia; Gurioli, Massimo; Vinattieri, Anna; Pinczuk, Aron; Dennis, Brian S.; Pfeiffer, Loren N.; West, Ken W.

    2007-04-01

    Dilute arrays of GaAs /AlGaAs modulation-doped quantum dots with same sizes fabricated by electron beam lithography and low impact reactive ion etching exhibit highly uniform luminescence lines. Single quantum dots display spectral emission with peak energies and linewidths linked largely to the geometrical diameter of the dot and to the built-in electron population. Multicharged excitonic and biexcitonic emission intensities have activation energy of about 2meV. These results highlight the potential of high quality nanofabricated quantum dots for applications in areas that require fine control of optical emission.

  7. Compact Submillimeter-Wave Receivers Made with Semiconductor Nano-Fabrication Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, C.; Thomas, B.; Lee, C.; Peralta, A.; Chattopadhyay, G.; Gill, J.; Cooper, K.; Mehdi, I.

    2011-01-01

    Advanced semiconductor nanofabrication techniques are utilized to design, fabricate and demonstrate a super-compact, low-mass (<10 grams) submillimeter-wave heterodyne front-end. RF elements such as waveguides and channels are fabricated in a silicon wafer substrate using deep-reactive ion etching (DRIE). Etched patterns with sidewalls angles controlled with 1 deg precision are reported, while maintaining a surface roughness of better than 20 nm rms for the etched structures. This approach is being developed to build compact 2-D imaging arrays in the THz frequency range.

  8. Micro and nano-fabrication of biodegradable polymers for drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Lu, Y; Chen, S C

    2004-09-22

    This paper presents state-of-the-art micro and nano-fabrication techniques for biodegradable polymers. Replication molding, using a rigid or elastic master, can pattern structures on a polymer surface in a submicron resolution at a low cost. Layer-by-layer rapid prototyping methods are promising in producing controlled release units with complicated geometries, release mechanisms and the ability to control microstructure and composition. Special attention is paid to the fast, flexible, and non-invasive laser fabrication techniques that have great potential in the fabrication of biodegradable polymer drug delivery devices in both a laboratory and industry scale.

  9. Development of yttrium alloy ion source and its application in nanofabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukharchyk, Nadezhda; Neumann, Ronna; Mazarov, Swetlana; Bushev, Pavel; Wieck, Andreas D.; Mazarov, Paul

    2016-12-01

    We present a new YAuSi Liquid Metal Alloy Ion Source (LMAIS) generating focused ion beams of yttrium ions, and its prospective applications for nanofabrication, sample preparation, lithographic and implantation processes. Working parameters of the AuSiY LMAIS are similar to other gold-silicon based LMAIS. We found anomalously high emission current of triple charged yttrium ions. Influence of yttrium implantation on optical qualities of the implanted ion-ensembles is shown in luminescence of co-implanted Erbium ions.

  10. From Fourier optics to integrative engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jannson, Tomasz; Kostrzewski, Andrew

    2011-10-01

    In this paper we present technical evolution at Physical Optics Corporation (POC), from Fourier Optics, inspired by Professor Joseph Goodman's classic book: Introduction to Fourier Optics, to recent directions at POC, related to socalled "Integrative Engineering."

  11. Nano-fabricated pixelated micropolarizer array for visible imaging polarimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Zhigang; Cheng, Teng; Qiu, Kang; Zhang, Qingchuan E-mail: wgchu@nanoctr.cn; Wu, Xiaoping; Dong, Fengliang; Chu, Weiguo E-mail: wgchu@nanoctr.cn

    2014-10-15

    Pixelated micropolarizer array (PMA) is a novel concept for real-time visible imaging polarimetry. A 320 × 240 aluminum PMA fabricated by electron beam lithography is described in this paper. The period, duty ratio, and depth of the grating are 140 nm, 0.5, and 100 nm, respectively. The units are standard square structures and the metal nanowires of the grating are collimating and uniformly thick. The extinction ratio of 75 and the maximum polarization transmittance of 78.8% demonstrate that the PMA is suitable for polarization imaging. When the PMA is applied to real-time polarization imaging, the degree of linear polarization image and the angle of linear polarization image are calculated from a single frame image. The polarized target object is highlighted from the unpolarized background, and the surface contour of the target object can be reflected by the polarization angle.

  12. Nano-fabricated pixelated micropolarizer array for visible imaging polarimetry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhigang; Dong, Fengliang; Cheng, Teng; Qiu, Kang; Zhang, Qingchuan; Chu, Weiguo; Wu, Xiaoping

    2014-10-01

    Pixelated micropolarizer array (PMA) is a novel concept for real-time visible imaging polarimetry. A 320 × 240 aluminum PMA fabricated by electron beam lithography is described in this paper. The period, duty ratio, and depth of the grating are 140 nm, 0.5, and 100 nm, respectively. The units are standard square structures and the metal nanowires of the grating are collimating and uniformly thick. The extinction ratio of 75 and the maximum polarization transmittance of 78.8% demonstrate that the PMA is suitable for polarization imaging. When the PMA is applied to real-time polarization imaging, the degree of linear polarization image and the angle of linear polarization image are calculated from a single frame image. The polarized target object is highlighted from the unpolarized background, and the surface contour of the target object can be reflected by the polarization angle.

  13. Tipping solutions: emerging 3D nano-fabrication/ -imaging technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seniutinas, Gediminas; Balčytis, Armandas; Reklaitis, Ignas; Chen, Feng; Davis, Jeffrey; David, Christian; Juodkazis, Saulius

    2017-06-01

    The evolution of optical microscopy from an imaging technique into a tool for materials modification and fabrication is now being repeated with other characterization techniques, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), focused ion beam (FIB) milling/imaging, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Fabrication and in situ imaging of materials undergoing a three-dimensional (3D) nano-structuring within a 1-100 nm resolution window is required for future manufacturing of devices. This level of precision is critically in enabling the cross-over between different device platforms (e.g. from electronics to micro-/nano-fluidics and/or photonics) within future devices that will be interfacing with biological and molecular systems in a 3D fashion. Prospective trends in electron, ion, and nano-tip based fabrication techniques are presented.

  14. Nanofabrication of structures for the study of nanowire doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichfeld, Chad

    A variety of techniques were developed for the characterization of nanowires and applied to the study of nanowire growth and dopant incorporation. A technique to selectively plate gold on the n-type regions of modulation-doped silicon nanowires for junction delineation was developed. The ability to electrolessly deposit metal on segments of nanowires could also facilitate electrical contact formation. More complicated structures such as controlled placement of forks along the nanowire could be made by placement of the gold catalyst at predetermined locations along a nanowire followed by a second growth. Additionally, a process was developed that focuses on using this plating ability to grow silicon nanowires horizontally from pre-determined locations. The processing was worked out and nanowires were grown horizontally from plated gold, but the selectivity of gold limited the ability to grow wires in only the desired locations. A silicon nanowire local electrode atom probe test structure is discussed from the initial design steps to successfully using the test structure to analyze silicon nanowires. Initial results using laser pulsed assisted local electrode atom probe indicated that the thermal properties of the nanowire prevent the tip from cooling fast enough and resulted in large thermal tails in the mass spectra. Thermal modeling was used to identify what nanowire diameters and metal coatings would allow the nanowire tip to cool sufficiently fast. A silver catalyzed silicon nanowire with a diameter large enough to allow for sufficient cooling was analyzed, and the concentration of silver in the silicon nanowire was below the detection limit of 10 ppm or 5 x 10 17 cm-3. The growth and characterization of Al catalyzed silicon nanowires is also discussed. Nanowires were grown at higher pressures and using H 2 as a carrier gas resulting in much higher growth rates than previously observed for Al catalyzed nanowires in the literature. The nanowires were

  15. Plasmonic-heating-induced nanofabrication on glass substrates.

    PubMed

    Osaka, Yuki; Sugano, Satoshi; Hashimoto, Shuichi

    2016-10-27

    Fabricating nano-sized through-holes on a coverslip approximately 100 μm thick is challenging but rewarding when applied to ultrafine filters that separate proteins and DNA of various sizes and isolate viruses from cells. Toward this end, we developed an in situ etching-assisted laser processing technique exploiting gold nanoparticles. Plasmonic heating of a single gold nanoparticle through focused illumination of a continuous-wave laser beam enables structural modifications to be localized to the contact area on the glass surface. This results in the embedding of the particle forming nanocavities caused by chemical etching with aqueous tetrabutylammonium hydroxide. Depending on the shape of the nanoparticle, a highly flexible face geometry design such as a disk and triangle was achieved. The etching was monitored in situ through measurements of spectral red shifts in single-particle scattering, indicating an increasing medium refractive index consistent with embedding. The embedding process is unexpectedly fast, at 0.8 μm with 5 minutes of illumination. Besides nanoholes, we fabricated nanodomes around a single gold nanoparticle supported on a glass substrate through laser-heating-induced encapsulation. Overall, we were able to demonstrate true nano-laser processing free from diffraction-limited optics, with potential benefits of simple low-cost fabrication.

  16. The applications of in situ electron energy loss spectroscopy to the study of electron beam nanofabrication.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shiahn J; Howitt, David G; Gierhart, Brian C; Smith, Rosemary L; Collins, Scott D

    2009-06-01

    An in situ electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) technique has been developed to investigate the dynamic processes associated with electron-beam nanofabrication on thin membranes. In this article, practical applications germane to e-beam nanofabrication are illustrated with a case study of the drilling of nanometer-sized pores in silicon nitride membranes. This technique involves successive acquisitions of the plasmon-loss and the core-level ionization-loss spectra in real time, both of which provide the information regarding the hole-drilling kinetics, including two respective rates for total mass loss, individual nitrogen and silicon element depletion, and the change of the atomic bonding environment. In addition, the in situ EELS also provides an alternative method for endpoint detection with a potentially higher time resolution than by imaging. On the basis of the time evolution of in situ EELS spectra, a qualitative working model combining knock-on sputtering, irradiation-induced mass transport, and phase separation can be proposed.

  17. Dense Plasma Focus-Based Nanofabrication of III–V Semiconductors: Unique Features and Recent Advances

    PubMed Central

    Mangla, Onkar; Roy, Savita; Ostrikov, Kostya (Ken)

    2015-01-01

    The hot and dense plasma formed in modified dense plasma focus (DPF) device has been used worldwide for the nanofabrication of several materials. In this paper, we summarize the fabrication of III–V semiconductor nanostructures using the high fluence material ions produced by hot, dense and extremely non-equilibrium plasma generated in a modified DPF device. In addition, we present the recent results on the fabrication of porous nano-gallium arsenide (GaAs). The details of morphological, structural and optical properties of the fabricated nano-GaAs are provided. The effect of rapid thermal annealing on the above properties of porous nano-GaAs is studied. The study reveals that it is possible to tailor the size of pores with annealing temperature. The optical properties of these porous nano-GaAs also confirm the possibility to tailor the pore sizes upon annealing. Possible applications of the fabricated and subsequently annealed porous nano-GaAs in transmission-type photo-cathodes and visible optoelectronic devices are discussed. These results suggest that the modified DPF is an effective tool for nanofabrication of continuous and porous III–V semiconductor nanomaterials. Further opportunities for using the modified DPF device for the fabrication of novel nanostructures are discussed as well. PMID:28344261

  18. X-ray lithography for micro- and nano-fabrication at ELETTRA for interdisciplinary applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Fabrizio, E.; Fillipo, R.; Cabrini, S.; Kumar, R.; Perennes, F.; Altissimo, M.; Businaro, L.; Cojac, D.; Vaccari, L.; Prasciolu, M.; Candeloro, P.

    2004-08-01

    ELETTRA (http://www.elettra.trieste.it/index.html) is a third generation synchrotron radiation source facility operating at Trieste, Italy, and hosts a wide range of research activities in advanced materials analysis and processing, biology and nano-science at several various beam lines. The energy spectrum of ELETTRA allows x-ray nano-lithography using soft (1.5 keV) and hard x-ray (10 keV) wavelengths. The Laboratory for Interdisciplinary Lithography (LIILIT) was established in 1998 as part of an Italian national initiative on micro- and nano-technology project of INFM and is funded and supported by the Italian National Research Council (CNR), INFM and ELETTRA. LILIT had developed two dedicated lithographic beam lines for soft (1.5 keV) and hard x-ray (10 keV) for micro- and nano-fabrication activities for their applications in engineering, science and bio-medical applications. In this paper, we present a summary of our research activities in micro- and nano-fabrication involving x-ray nanolithography at LILIT's soft and hard x-ray beam lines.

  19. From Integration of Curricula to the Pedagogy of Integrity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levisohn, Jon A.

    2008-01-01

    The literature on curricular integration in Jewish education has tended to focus on two basic paradigms. In the first paradigm, the integration of Jewish and general studies curricula represents the aspiration that the graduates of the institution will likewise integrate Jewish and general studies (or "Americanism" or "modernity") in their lives.…

  20. Enabling nanomaterial, nanofabrication and cellular technologies for nanoneuromedicines.

    PubMed

    Mallapragada, Surya K; Brenza, Timothy M; McMillan, JoEllyn M; Narasimhan, Balaji; Sakaguchi, Donald S; Sharma, Anup D; Zbarska, Svitlana; Gendelman, Howard E

    2015-04-01

    Nanoparticulate delivery systems represent an area of particular promise for nanoneuromedicines. They possess significant potential for desperately needed therapies designed to combat a range of disorders associated with aging. As such, the field was selected as the focus for the 2014 meeting of the American Society for Nanomedicine. Regenerative, protective, immune modulatory, anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory products, or imaging agents are readily encapsulated in or conjugated to nanoparticles and as such facilitate the delivery of drug payloads to specific action sites across the blood-brain barrier. Diagnostic imaging serves to precisely monitor disease onset and progression while neural stem cell replacement can regenerate damaged tissue through control of stem cell fates. These, taken together, can improve disease burden and limit systemic toxicities. Such enabling technologies serve to protect the nervous system against a broad range of degenerative, traumatic, metabolic, infectious and immune disorders. From the clinical editor: Nanoneuromedicine is a branch of nanomedicine that specifically looks at the nervous system. In the clinical setting, a fundamental hurdle in nervous system disorders is due to an inherent inability of nerve cells to regenerate after damage. Nanotechnology can offer new approaches to overcome these challenges. This review describes recent developments in nanomedicine delivery systems that would affect stem cell repair and regeneration in the nervous system. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Nanowicking: Multi-Scale Flow Interaction with Nanofabric Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jijie

    Dense arrays of aligned carbon nanotubes are designed into strips --- nanowicks --- as a miniature wicking element for liquid delivery and potential microfluidic chemical analysis devices. The delivery function of nanowicks enables novel fluid transport devices to run without any power input, moving parts or external pump. The intrinsically nanofibrous structure of nanowicks provides a sieving matrix for molecular separations, and a high surface-to-volume ratio porous bed to carry catalysts or reactive agents. This work also experimentally studies the spontaneous fluid transport along nanowicks. Liquid is conveyed through corner flow, surface flow, and interstitial flow through capillary force and the Marangoni effect. The main course for corner flow and surface flow follows Washburn behavior, and can deliver liquid centimeters away from the input blob with a speed on the order of millimeters per second depending on the nanowick configuration and the amount of input liquid. Corner flow can be minimized and even eliminated through proper nanowick and input design. Otherwise, corner flow interacts with surface flow in the first 2mm of the pathway closest to the input point. Interstitial flow dominates the late stage. It is driven by both capillary force and concentration-gradient-induced Marangoni force. The concentration gradient is determined by two competing rates: surfactant diffusion in solution and adsorption onto nanotube surfaces. The flow inside nanowicks may wick hundreds of microns in seconds or tens of seconds. A non-conventional advancing front may develop in the flow around nanowicks. They are seen as (i) Rayleigh instability-induced fingering in surface flow on millimeter-wide nanowicks, (ii) viscous instability-induced branching near almost-stagnant surface film at low surfactant concentration, and (iii) disjointed wetting domains at very low concentration.

  2. Enabling Desktop Nanofabrication with the Targeted Use of Soft Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichelsdoerfer, Daniel James

    with a simple chemical change to the composition of the elastomer. In particular, the extent of cross-linking within the elastomer is found to dictate the k the backing layer, and arrays with spring constants tuned from 7 to 150 N/m are described. Furthermore, a simple geometric model is developed that explains the low variation of k within each cantilever-free array; this stands in contrast to arrays of cantilevers, which typically show large variations of k within an array. Chapter 4 addresses the problem of individual actuation in SPL by embedding resistive heaters directly beneath the elastomeric backing layer. This actuation scheme was chosen because the elastomer used in the cantilever-free tip arrays has extraordinary thermal expansion properties, and thorough exploration of their actuation behavior shows that the heater arrays are fast (> 100 microm/s) and powerful (> 4 microm) enough for actuation. After implementing several corrections for the tip height -- a problem that is intractable without the heaters, and has never been addressed before -- printing of alkanethiols onto Au is demonstrated with a 2D array of individually actuated probes. Chapter 5 examines the hypothesis that elastomeric tips can absorb solvent and be used to transport materials in the absence of environmental solvent. This is evaluated by first using tip arrays soaked in a nonpolar solvent to pattern a hydrophobic block copolymer that cannot be patterned by traditional DPN, and is subsequently explored for the case of water uptake into the pen arrays. Surprisingly, despite their poor water retention ability, the tip arrays can store enough water to pattern hydrophilic polymers in dry environments for over 2 hours. The dynamics of the solvent absorption are captured by a simple calculation that accounts for the dynamical behavior of water retention and the backing layer thickness, thereby allowing these results to be generalized to other solvents. This exploration of the subtle and

  3. EMBA Integration: From Rhetoric to Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Charles; Derrick, Frederick; Hoadley, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    For the modern business world, business education needs to molt from the cocoon of discipline silos to the integrated business education model to train the next generation of managers. Upper management problems are rarely silo specific. Managers do things right, but leaders do the right things; and executive programs exist to build business…

  4. Science Education: From Separation to Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linn, Marcia C.; Gerard, Libby; Matuk, Camillia; McElhaney, Kevin W.

    2016-01-01

    Advances in technology, science, and learning sciences research over the past 100 years have reshaped science education. This chapter focuses on how investigators from varied fields of inquiry who initially worked separately began to interact, eventually formed partnerships, and recently integrated their perspectives to strengthen science…

  5. Science Education: From Separation to Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linn, Marcia C.; Gerard, Libby; Matuk, Camillia; McElhaney, Kevin W.

    2016-01-01

    Advances in technology, science, and learning sciences research over the past 100 years have reshaped science education. This chapter focuses on how investigators from varied fields of inquiry who initially worked separately began to interact, eventually formed partnerships, and recently integrated their perspectives to strengthen science…

  6. Scaling laws of nanorods in two-photon polymerization nanofabrication using a continuous scanning method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jieqiong; Jing, Xian; Zhou, Xiaoqin; Zheng, Xu; Gao, Rui; Wang, Yibo

    2016-10-01

    We report on the scaling laws of nanorods in two photon polymerization nanofabrication using a continuous scanning method. We focus on a cross-sectional plane of a nanorod to investigate how a moving laser focal spot effects on the photoresist. Under a hypothetical polymerizing threshold of free radicals concentration, lateral and vertical size models were established by transforming the continuously changing photon intensity to an equivalent constant value. A transformational relationship of voxels and nanorods with a same lateral size is deduced to validate the proposed models. In the experiment, voxels were obtained by an ascending scan method while nanorods were fabricated by a cantilever method. The experimental data shows a good agreement with predicted data.

  7. Colloidal Inorganic Nanocrystal Based Nanocomposites: Functional Materials for Micro and Nanofabrication

    PubMed Central

    Ingrosso, Chiara; Panniello, AnnaMaria; Comparelli, Roberto; Curri, Maria Lucia; Striccoli, Marinella

    2010-01-01

    The unique size- and shape-dependent electronic properties of nanocrystals (NCs) make them extremely attractive as novel structural building blocks for constructing a new generation of innovative materials and solid-state devices. Recent advances in material chemistry has allowed the synthesis of colloidal NCs with a wide range of compositions, with a precise control on size, shape and uniformity as well as specific surface chemistry. By incorporating such nanostructures in polymers, mesoscopic materials can be achieved and their properties engineered by choosing NCs differing in size and/or composition, properly tuning the interaction between NCs and surrounding environment. In this contribution, different approaches will be presented as effective opportunities for conveying colloidal NC properties to nanocomposite materials for micro and nanofabrication. Patterning of such nanocomposites either by conventional lithographic techniques and emerging patterning tools, such as ink jet printing and nanoimprint lithography, will be illustrated, pointing out their technological impact on developing new optoelectronic and sensing devices.

  8. The possibility of multi-layer nanofabrication via atomic force microscope-based pulse electrochemical nanopatterning.

    PubMed

    Kim, Uksu; Morita, Noboru; Lee, Deug; Jun, Martin; Park, Jeong Woo

    2017-03-27

    Pulse electrochemical nanopatterning (PECN), a non-contact scanning probe lithography (NC-SPL) process using ultrashort voltage pulses, is based primarily on an electrochemical machining (ECM) process using localized electrochemical oxidation between a sharp tool tip and the sample surface. In this study, nanoscale oxide patterns were formed on silicon Si (100) wafer surfaces via electrochemical surface nanopatterning, by supplying external pulsed currents through non-contact atomic force microscopy. Nanoscale oxide width and height were controlled by modulating the applied pulse duration. Additionally, protruding nanoscale oxides were removed completely by simple chemical etching, showing a depressed pattern on the sample substrate surface. Nanoscale two-dimensional oxides, prepared by a localized electrochemical reaction, can be defined easily by controlling physical and electrical variables, before proceeding further to a layer-by-layer nanofabrication process.

  9. Micro/nanofabrication of poly(L-lactic acid) using focused ion beam direct etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyama, Tomoko Gowa; Hinata, Toru; Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Oshima, Akihiro; Washio, Masakazu; Tagawa, Seiichi; Taguchi, Mitsumasa

    2013-10-01

    Micro/nanofabrication of biocompatible and biodegradable poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) using focused Ga ion beam direct etching was evaluated for future bio-device applications. The fabrication performance was determined with different ion fluences and fluxes (beam currents), and it was found that the etching speed and fabrication accuracy were affected by irradiation-induced heat. Focused ion beam (FIB)-irradiated surfaces were analyzed using micro-area X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Owing to reactions such as the physical sputtering of atoms and radiation-induced decomposition, PLLA was gradually carbonized with increasing C=C bonds. Controlled micro/nanostructures of PLLA were fabricated with C=C bond-rich surfaces expected to have good cell attachment properties.

  10. The possibility of multi-layer nanofabrication via atomic force microscope-based pulse electrochemical nanopatterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Uk Su; Morita, Noboru; Lee, Deug Woo; Jun, Martin; Park, Jeong Woo

    2017-05-01

    Pulse electrochemical nanopatterning, a non-contact scanning probe lithography process using ultrashort voltage pulses, is based primarily on an electrochemical machining process using localized electrochemical oxidation between a sharp tool tip and the sample surface. In this study, nanoscale oxide patterns were formed on silicon Si (100) wafer surfaces via electrochemical surface nanopatterning, by supplying external pulsed currents through non-contact atomic force microscopy. Nanoscale oxide width and height were controlled by modulating the applied pulse duration. Additionally, protruding nanoscale oxides were removed completely by simple chemical etching, showing a depressed pattern on the sample substrate surface. Nanoscale two-dimensional oxides, prepared by a localized electrochemical reaction, can be defined easily by controlling physical and electrical variables, before proceeding further to a layer-by-layer nanofabrication process.

  11. Micro/nanofabrication for a realistic beetle wing with a superhydrophobic surface.

    PubMed

    Ko, Jin Hwan; Kim, Jihoon; Hong, Jongin; Yoo, Yonghoon; Lee, Youngjong; Jin, Tai Lie; Park, Hoon Cheol; Goo, Nam Seo; Byun, Doyoung

    2012-03-01

    In keeping with the high interest in micro air vehicles, microfabrication technologies have been developed in an attempt to mimic insect wings via a membrane-vein structure. In this work, we present microfabrication techniques that mimic a beetle wing to construct a realistic vein-membrane structure. Full microfabrication processes as well as sophisticated manipulations are introduced for constructing a realistic artificial wing whose key morphological and mechanical parameters can be achieved close to those of the real wing. Secondly, for wing loading reduction whenever moist air is present, we successfully fabricated superhydrophobic nanopillar forests by conventional nanofabrication techniques, such as ion beam and heat treatments. The creation of the nanopillar forests, which exist on the surface of leaves and insect wings, allowed lowering the dispersive component in a hydrophobic material, and the clustered nanopillars enhanced water repellency.

  12. Nanowall pinning for enhanced pinning force in YBCO films with nanofabricated structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palau, A.; Rouco, V.; Luccas, R. F.; Obradors, X.; Puig, T.

    2014-11-01

    High resolution nanofabrication tools (Focused Ion Beam and Electron Beam Lithography) have been used to fabricate nano-metric milled structures in high critical current YBCO thin films able to further increase their vortex pinning capabilities. We have demonstrated that pinning forces at 77 K and 3 T are increased by a 70-80% by proper nanostructure designs. Model systems with linear trenches and triangular blind antidots of different sizes, distribution and density have been generated and studied. We demonstrate that specific milled nanostructures can increase the total current through the system at expenses of a limited decrease of cross section. We have identified the length of fabricated nano-walls as the main parameter controlling the pinning potential of nanostructures and thus defined the optimised milling conditions and nanostructure morphology to maximise pinning efficiency.

  13. Determination of the number of atoms present in nano contact based on shot noise measurements with highly stable nano-fabricated electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Ryoji; Kaneko, Satoshi; Marqués-González, Santiago; Fujii, Shintaro; Nishino, Tomoaki; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito; Kiguchi, Manabu

    2016-07-01

    A highly stable experimental setup was developed for the measurement of shot noise in atomic contacts and molecular junctions to determine the number of atoms or molecules present. The use of a nano-fabricated mechanically controllable break junction (MCBJ) electrode improved the overall stability of the experimental setup. The improved stability of the system and optimization of measurement system enabled us to comprehensively investigate the shot noise as well as charge transport properties in Au atomic contacts and molecular junctions. We present a solid proof that the number of atoms (cross sectional atom) in the Au atomic contacts was exactly one. In the atomic contacts, contribution from the additional channels was under the detection limit. Furthermore, the effect of molecular adsorption on the charge transport in the Au atomic contact was investigated. Additional transport channels were opened by exposing pyrazine molecules to the Au contacts, which gave rise to an increase in the Fano factor in the shot noise.

  14. Layer-by-layer assembly as a versatile bottom-up nanofabrication technique for exploratory research and realistic application.

    PubMed

    Ariga, Katsuhiko; Hill, Jonathan P; Ji, Qingmin

    2007-05-21

    The layer-by-layer (LbL) adsorption technique offers an easy and inexpensive process for multilayer formation and allows a variety of materials to be incorporated within the film structures. Therefore, the LbL assembly method can be regarded as a versatile bottom-up nanofabrication technique. Research fields concerned with LbL assembly have developed rapidly but some important physicochemical aspects remain uninvestigated. In this review, we will introduce several examples from physicochemical investigations regarding the basics of this method to advanced research aimed at practical applications. These are selected mostly from recent reports and should stimulate many physical chemists and chemical physicists in the further development of LbL assembly. In order to further understand the mechanism of the LbL assembly process, theoretical work, including thermodynamics calculations, has been conducted. Additionally, the use of molecular dynamics simulation has been proposed. Recently, many kinds of physicochemical molecular interactions, including hydrogen bonding, charge transfer interactions, and stereo-complex formation, have been used. The combination of the LbL method with other fabrication techniques such as spin-coating, spraying, and photolithography has also been extensively researched. These improvements have enabled preparation of LbL films composed of various materials contained in well-designed nanostructures. The resulting structures can be used to investigate basic physicochemical phenomena where relative distances between interacting groups is of great importance. Similarly, LbL structures prepared by such advanced techniques are used widely for development of functional systems for physical applications from photovoltaic devices and field effect transistors to biochemical applications including nano-sized reactors and drug delivery systems.

  15. Scientific expectations from the INTEGRAL spectrometer SPI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenfelder, Volker

    2003-03-01

    The spectrometer SPI - one of the two main instruments aboard ESA's INTEGRAL - is dedicated to high resolution gamma-ray line spectroscopy with modest imaging. SPI will mainly concentrate on the study of lines from radioactive isotopes. A wealth of new information is expected from interstellar line emission with narrow line profiles. But existing results are also expected from profile measurements of individual line emitting objects such as supernovae, supernova remnants, novae or stellar black hole systems. In addition, sensitive measurements of continuum emission from compact sources and from interstellar space are expected, especially in the sub-MeV region.

  16. Massive-Star Nucleosynthesis: Lessons from INTEGRAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diehl, Roland; Lang, Michael; Kretschmer, Karsten; Martin, Pierrick; Ohlendorf, Henrike; Voss, Rasmus

    2010-08-01

    Gamma-ray line observations with INTEGRAL measure decay of unstable isotopes which are ejected from sites of nucleosynthesis. Massive stars are believed to be producers of gamma-ray emitting isotopes 44Ti, 26Al, 60Fe. Measurements with the Ge spectrometer have shown that (1) inner core-collapse supernova ejecta from the Cas A supernova remnant appear to still travel at velocities beyond a few hundred km/sec (2) 26Al synthesis occurs throughout the Galaxy corresponds to a supernova rate from core collapses of about one every 50 years; (3) 60Fe synthesis expected from massive stars is above the constraints from gamma-ray observations; 26Al synthesis in the Cygnus region appears on the high side of predictions from models; 26Al emission from the nearby Sco-Cen group of stars has been identified demonstrates massive-star activity close to the Sun. 26Al gamma-rays have been used to determine a longitude-velocity distribution of the presumably hot tenuous ISM which carries 26Al, which can be compared to molecular-gas star motions to help understand the Galaxy's bar spiral-arm structure. Implications of the above nucleosynthesis constraints suggest that INTEGRAL's observed positron annihilation gamma-rays need a contribution from another source located in the central regions of our Galaxy, and/or positrons may propagate kpc-distances away from their sources before annihilating.

  17. Asymmetrical Integration: Lessons from a Railway Empire.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Kate

    2015-01-01

    This article reexamines railway imperialism in Manchuria from the perspective of global network building. Through a case study of the Japanese-owned South Manchuria Railway Company (SMR), I trace how one railway empire used through traffic agreements to integrate Northeast Asian railways into a global network while at the same time installing itself as the necessary intermediary between European and Asian overland traffic. I argue that the SMR's pursuit of global reach and local dominance compels us to reconsider the traditional division of border-crossing railways into international and imperialist types, and instead to examine how border-crossing railways contributed to the uneven or "asymmetrical" integration of the global transportation infrastructure.

  18. Large-Scale Nanofabrication of Designed Nanostructures Using Angled Nanospherical-Lens Lithography for Surface Enhanced Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chien, Yi-Hsin; Wang, Chang-Han; Liu, Chi-Ching; Chang, Shih-Hui; Kong, Kien Voon; Chang, Yun-Chorng

    2017-07-26

    Nanophotonics has been a focused research discipline for the past decade and has resulted in many novel concepts that promise to change human life. However, the actual penetration of this research into real products is severely limited mostly due to the slow development of economic nanofabrication. In this study, we have demonstrated a versatile and low-cost nanofabrication method referred to as "angled nanospherical-lens lithography (A-NLL)", which is able to produce large-scale and periodic nanopatterns. The nanopatterns designed within a two-dimensional polar chart can be carefully fabricated on the substrate. The fabricated patterns easily cover an area larger than 1 cm(2), which is beneficial as platforms for surface enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) where an expensive and bulky IR microscope is not required. We believe that the proposed A-NLL method is ideal for industrialization of future nanophotonic applications.

  19. Thermodynamic integration from classical to quantum mechanics.

    PubMed

    Habershon, Scott; Manolopoulos, David E

    2011-12-14

    We present a new method for calculating quantum mechanical corrections to classical free energies, based on thermodynamic integration from classical to quantum mechanics. In contrast to previous methods, our method is numerically stable even in the presence of strong quantum delocalization. We first illustrate the method and its relationship to a well-established method with an analysis of a one-dimensional harmonic oscillator. We then show that our method can be used to calculate the quantum mechanical contributions to the free energies of ice and water for a flexible water model, a problem for which the established method is unstable. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  20. Nondestructive nanofabrication on Si(100) surface by tribochemistry-induced selective etching

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jian; Yu, Bingjun; Chen, Lei; Qian, Linmao

    2015-01-01

    A tribochemistry-induced selective etching approach is proposed for the first time to produce silicon nanostructures without lattice damage. With a ~1 nm thick SiOx film as etching mask grown on Si(100) surface (Si(100)/SiOx) by wet-oxidation technique, nano-trenches can be produced through the removal of local SiOx mask by a SiO2 tip in humid air and the post-etching of the exposed Si in potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution. The material removal of SiOx mask and Si under low load is dominated by the tribochemical reaction at the interface between SiO2 tip and Si/SiOx sample, where the contact pressure is much lower than the critical pressure for initial yield of Si. High resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) observation indicates that neither the material removal induced by tribochemical reaction nor the wet etching in KOH solution leads to lattice damage of the fabricated nanostructures. The proposed approach points out a new route in nondestructive nanofabrication. PMID:26559014

  1. Shrinking-hole colloidal lithography: self-aligned nanofabrication of complex plasmonic nanoantennas.

    PubMed

    Syrenova, Svetlana; Wadell, Carl; Langhammer, Christoph

    2014-05-14

    Plasmonic nanoantennas create locally strongly enhanced electric fields in so-called hot spots. To place a relevant nanoobject with high accuracy in such a hot spot is crucial to fully capitalize on the potential of nanoantennas to control, detect, and enhance processes at the nanoscale. With state-of-the-art nanofabrication, in particular when several materials are to be used, small gaps between antenna elements are sought, and large surface areas are to be patterned, this is a grand challenge. Here we introduce self-aligned, bottom-up and self-assembly based Shrinking-Hole Colloidal Lithography, which provides (i) unique control of the size and position of subsequently deposited particles forming the nanoantenna itself, and (ii) allows delivery of nanoobjects consisting of a material of choice to the antenna hot spot, all in a single lithography step and, if desired, uniformly covering several square centimeters of surface. We illustrate the functionality of SHCL nanoantenna arrangements by (i) an optical hydrogen sensor exploiting the polarization dependent sensitivity of an Au-Pd nanoantenna ensemble; and (ii) single particle hydrogen sensing with an Au dimer nanoantenna with a small Pd nanoparticle in the hot spot.

  2. Investigation of a nanofabrication process to achieve high aspect-ratio nanostructures on a quartz substrate.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, K; Alkaisi, M M

    2013-01-11

    This work investigates the development of a nanofabrication process to achieve high aspect-ratio nanostructures on quartz substrates using electron beam lithography (EBL) patterning and fluorinated plasma etching processes. An imaging layer of a poly(methyl methacrylate) bi-layer resist was spun coated on quartz substrate and exposed by an e-beam with the designed patterns of sub-100 nm feature sizes using a Raith-150 EBL patterning tool. Additive pattern transfer was employed by depositing a 40 nm thick Nichrome layer on the resist pattern using a metal evaporator which was later lifted off by soaking in acetone. Nichrome was employed as an etch mask and an Oxford Plasmalab 80Plus reactive ion etcher was used for the etching process. The etching process was carried out in a gas mixture of CHF(3)/Ar with a flow rate ratio of 50/30 sccm, pressure of 20 mTorr, radiofrequency power of 200 W and at room temperature. These etching process parameters were found to achieve a 10 nm min(-1) etch rate and tall vertical side walls profile. An aspect-ratio of 10:1 was achieved on 60 nm feature size structures.

  3. Investigation of a nanofabrication process to achieve high aspect-ratio nanostructures on a quartz substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, K.; Alkaisi, M. M.

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates the development of a nanofabrication process to achieve high aspect-ratio nanostructures on quartz substrates using electron beam lithography (EBL) patterning and fluorinated plasma etching processes. An imaging layer of a poly(methyl methacrylate) bi-layer resist was spun coated on quartz substrate and exposed by an e-beam with the designed patterns of sub-100 nm feature sizes using a Raith-150 EBL patterning tool. Additive pattern transfer was employed by depositing a 40 nm thick Nichrome layer on the resist pattern using a metal evaporator which was later lifted off by soaking in acetone. Nichrome was employed as an etch mask and an Oxford Plasmalab 80Plus reactive ion etcher was used for the etching process. The etching process was carried out in a gas mixture of CHF3/Ar with a flow rate ratio of 50/30 sccm, pressure of 20 mTorr, radiofrequency power of 200 W and at room temperature. These etching process parameters were found to achieve a 10 nm min-1 etch rate and tall vertical side walls profile. An aspect-ratio of 10:1 was achieved on 60 nm feature size structures.

  4. Development of An Automatic Approaching System for Electrochemical Nanofabrication Using Visual and Force-Displacement Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Lei-Jie; Zhou, Shi-Yu; Gu, Guo-Ying; Zhu, Li-Min

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a fast automatic precision approaching system is developed for electrochemical nanofabrication using visual and force-displacement sensing. Before the substrate is fabricated, the template should approach the substrate accurately to establish the initial gap between the template and substrate. During the approaching process, the template is first quickly moved towards the substrate by the stepping motor until a specified gap is detected by the visual feedback. Then, the successive approach using the switch of macro-micro motion with a force-displacement sensing module is triggered to make the template contact with the substrate to nanometre accuracy. The contact force is measured by the force-displacement sensing module which employs the high-resolution capacitive displacement sensor and flexure compliant mechanism. The high sensitivity of this capacitive displacement sensor ensures high accuracy of the template-substrate contact. The experimental results show that the template can reach the substrate accurately and smoothly, which verifies the effectiveness of the proposed approaching system with the visual and the force-displacement sensing modules. PMID:23012500

  5. Ultra-high aspect ratio high-resolution nanofabrication for hard X-ray diffractive optics.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chieh; Sakdinawat, Anne

    2014-06-27

    Although diffractive optics have played a major role in nanoscale soft X-ray imaging, high-resolution and high-efficiency diffractive optics have largely been unavailable for hard X-rays where many scientific, technological and biomedical applications exist. This is owing to the long-standing challenge of fabricating ultra-high aspect ratio high-resolution dense nanostructures. Here we report significant progress in ultra-high aspect ratio nanofabrication of high-resolution, dense silicon nanostructures using vertical directionality controlled metal-assisted chemical etching. The resulting structures have very smooth sidewalls and can be used to pattern arbitrary features, not limited to linear or circular. We focus on the application of X-ray zone plate fabrication for high-efficiency, high-resolution diffractive optics, and demonstrate the process with linear, circular, and spiral zone plates. X-ray measurements demonstrate high efficiency in the critical outer layers. This method has broad applications including patterning for thermoelectric materials, battery anodes and sensors among others.

  6. Nanofabrication of high aspect ratio structures using an evaporated resist containing metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Con, Celal; Zhang, Jian; Cui, Bo

    2014-05-01

    Organic electron beam resists are typically not resistant to the plasma etching employed to transfer the pattern into the underlying layer. Here, the authors present the incorporation of a metal hard mask material into negative resist polystyrene by co-evaporation of the polystyrene and the metal onto a substrate. With a volume ratio of 1:15 between Cr and polystyrene, this nanocomposite resist showed an etching selectivity to silicon one order higher than pure polystyrene resist. Silicon structures of 100 nm width and 3.5 μm height (aspect ratio 1:35) were obtained using a non-switching deep silicon etching recipe with SF6 and C4F8 gas. Moreover, unlike the common spin coating method, evaporated nanocomposite resist can be coated onto irregular and non-flat surfaces such as optical fibers and AFM cantilevers. As a proof of concept, we fabricated high aspect ratio structures on top of an AFM cantilever. Nanofabrication on non-flat surfaces may find applications in the fields of (AFM) tip enhanced Raman spectroscopy for chemical analysis and lab-on-fiber technology.

  7. Laser-Micro/Nanofabricated 3D Polymers for Tissue Engineering Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilevičius, P.; Žukauskas, A.; Bičkauskaitė, G.; Purlys, V.; Rutkauskas, M.; Gertus, T.; Paipulas, D.; Matukaitė, J.; Baltriukienė, D.; Malinauskas, M.

    2011-01-01

    A multi-photon polymerization system has been designed based on a pulsed irradiation light source (diode-pumped solid state femtosecond laser Yb:KGW, 300 fs, 1030 nm, 1-200 kHz) in combination with large working area and high precision linear motor driven stages (100×100×50 mm3). The system is intended for high resolution and throughput 3D micro- and nanofabrication and enables manufacturing the polymeric templates up to 1 cm2 areas with sub-micrometer resolution. These can be used for producing 3D artificial polymeric scaffolds to be applied for growing cells, specifically, in the tissue engineering. The bio-compatibility of different acrylate, hybrid organic-inorganic and biodegradable polymeric materials is evaluated experimentally in vitro. Variously sized and shaped polymeric scaffolds of biocompatible photopolymers with intricate 3D geometry were successfully fabricated. Proliferation tests for adult rabbit myogenic stem cells have shown the applicability of artificial scaffolds in biomedicine practice.

  8. Nondestructive nanofabrication on Si(100) surface by tribochemistry-induced selective etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jian; Yu, Bingjun; Chen, Lei; Qian, Linmao

    2015-11-01

    A tribochemistry-induced selective etching approach is proposed for the first time to produce silicon nanostructures without lattice damage. With a ~1 nm thick SiOx film as etching mask grown on Si(100) surface (Si(100)/SiOx) by wet-oxidation technique, nano-trenches can be produced through the removal of local SiOx mask by a SiO2 tip in humid air and the post-etching of the exposed Si in potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution. The material removal of SiOx mask and Si under low load is dominated by the tribochemical reaction at the interface between SiO2 tip and Si/SiOx sample, where the contact pressure is much lower than the critical pressure for initial yield of Si. High resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) observation indicates that neither the material removal induced by tribochemical reaction nor the wet etching in KOH solution leads to lattice damage of the fabricated nanostructures. The proposed approach points out a new route in nondestructive nanofabrication.

  9. Nanofabrication on monocrystalline silicon through friction-induced selective etching of Si3N4 mask.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jian; Yu, Bingjun; Wang, Xiaodong; Qian, Linmao

    2014-01-01

    A new fabrication method is proposed to produce nanostructures on monocrystalline silicon based on the friction-induced selective etching of its Si3N4 mask. With low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) Si3N4 film as etching mask on Si(100) surface, the fabrication can be realized by nanoscratching on the Si3N4 mask and post-etching in hydrofluoric acid (HF) and potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution in sequence. Scanning Auger nanoprobe analysis indicated that the HF solution could selectively etch the scratched Si3N4 mask and then provide the gap for post-etching of silicon substrate in KOH solution. Experimental results suggested that the fabrication depth increased with the increase of the scratching load or KOH etching period. Because of the excellent masking ability of the Si3N4 film, the maximum fabrication depth of nanostructure on silicon can reach several microns. Compared to the traditional friction-induced selective etching technique, the present method can fabricate structures with lesser damage and deeper depths. Since the proposed method has been demonstrated to be a less destructive and flexible way to fabricate a large-area texture structure, it will provide new opportunities for Si-based nanofabrication.

  10. Nanofabrication on monocrystalline silicon through friction-induced selective etching of Si3N4 mask

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A new fabrication method is proposed to produce nanostructures on monocrystalline silicon based on the friction-induced selective etching of its Si3N4 mask. With low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) Si3N4 film as etching mask on Si(100) surface, the fabrication can be realized by nanoscratching on the Si3N4 mask and post-etching in hydrofluoric acid (HF) and potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution in sequence. Scanning Auger nanoprobe analysis indicated that the HF solution could selectively etch the scratched Si3N4 mask and then provide the gap for post-etching of silicon substrate in KOH solution. Experimental results suggested that the fabrication depth increased with the increase of the scratching load or KOH etching period. Because of the excellent masking ability of the Si3N4 film, the maximum fabrication depth of nanostructure on silicon can reach several microns. Compared to the traditional friction-induced selective etching technique, the present method can fabricate structures with lesser damage and deeper depths. Since the proposed method has been demonstrated to be a less destructive and flexible way to fabricate a large-area texture structure, it will provide new opportunities for Si-based nanofabrication. PMID:24940174

  11. Measuring Abundance Ratios from Integrated Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worthey, G.

    2010-06-01

    Age, overall abundance, and detailed, element-by-element abundances can be extracted from the integrated light of distant galaxies. The method, at its most basic, is merely the comparison of observed spectra with appropriate models. The relative ratios of elements C, N, O, Na, Mg, Ca, Sc, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Sr, and Ba can be determined to scientifically useful precision. Cases of interest that are borderline because they suffer internal degeneracies (although plenty of signal is present) are Al and the trio C, N, and O. The elements S, K, Cu, Eu, and the noble gases are too difficult to measure, and V is borderline. Changing the relative abundance ratios, even at fixed heavy-element content, changes the temperatures, luminosities, and number densities of the underlying stellar evolution, as well as more direct changes in the spectra of the stars present. The latter effects dominate the spectral shape, while the former effects render age estimation quite difficult.

  12. Sustainable NREL: From Integration to Innovation

    SciTech Connect

    2015-09-01

    NREL's sustainability practices are integrated throughout the laboratory and are essential to our mission to develop clean energy and energy efficiency technologies and practices, advance related science and engineering, and provide knowledge and innovations to integrate energy systems at all scales. Sustainability initiatives are integrated through our campus, our staff, and our environment allowing NREL to provide leadership in modeling a sustainability energy future for companies, organizations, governments, and communities.

  13. Preschool Integration from Teacher and Parent Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Debra L.

    A study was undertaken to examine the attitudes of parents and teachers toward the integration of young children with special needs and typically developing children into the same early childhood settings, and to determine any significant differences between the teachers' and parents' attitudes. An integration questionnaire was administered to 30…

  14. Studying Teacher Selection of Resources in an Ultra-Large Scale Interactive System: Does Metadata Guide the Way?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramovich, Samuel; Schunn, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Ultra-large-scale interactive systems on the Internet have begun to change how teachers prepare for instruction, particularly in regards to resource selection. Consequently, it is important to look at how teachers are currently selecting resources beyond content or keyword search. We conducted a two-part observational study of an existing popular…

  15. Studying Teacher Selection of Resources in an Ultra-Large Scale Interactive System: Does Metadata Guide the Way?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramovich, Samuel; Schunn, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Ultra-large-scale interactive systems on the Internet have begun to change how teachers prepare for instruction, particularly in regards to resource selection. Consequently, it is important to look at how teachers are currently selecting resources beyond content or keyword search. We conducted a two-part observational study of an existing popular…

  16. Technology Evolution for Silicon Nanoelectronics: Postscaling Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaima, Shigeaki

    2013-03-01

    Si ultralarge-scale integration (ULSI) circuits have been developed by downscaling device dimensions on the basis of the concept of scaling, following Moore's law. However, continued downscaling in future ULSI devices will become more difficult because of an increase in the number of technological and economic problems. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a new direction of technological development different from that based on downscaling. In this review, a technology that realizes devices with high performance, integration, and functionality independently of downscaling, is referred to as a postscaling technology, and the current status and future perspectives of postscaling technology are briefly summarized and discussed.

  17. Certain Integrals Arising from Ramanujan's Notebooks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berndt, Bruce C.; Straub, Armin

    2015-10-01

    In his third notebook, Ramanujan claims that int_0^∞ {cos(nx)}/{x^2+1} log x dx + {π}/{2} int_0^∞ {sin(nx)}/{x^2+1} d x = 0. In a following cryptic line, which only became visible in a recent reproduction of Ramanujan's notebooks, Ramanujan indicates that a similar relation exists if log x were replaced by log^2x in the first integral and log x were inserted in the integrand of the second integral. One of the goals of the present paper is to prove this claim by contour integration. We further establish general theorems similarly relating large classes of infinite integrals and illustrate these by several examples.

  18. Understanding Care Integration from the Ground Up: Five Organizing Constructs that Shape Integrated Practices.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Deborah J; Balasubramanian, Bijal A; Davis, Melinda; Hall, Jennifer; Gunn, Rose; Stange, Kurt C; Green, Larry A; Miller, William L; Crabtree, Benjamin F; England, Mary Jane; Clark, Khaya; Miller, Benjamin F

    2015-01-01

    To provide empirical evidence on key organizing constructs shaping practical, real-world integration of behavior health and primary care to comprehensively address patients' medical, emotional, and behavioral health needs. In a comparative case study using an immersion-crystallization approach, a multidisciplinary team analyzed data from observations of practice operations, interviews, and surveys of practice members, and implementation diaries. Practices were drawn from 2 studies of practices attempting to integrate behavioral health and primary care: Advancing Care Together, a demonstration project of 11 practices located in Colorado, and the Integration Workforce Study, a study of 8 practices across the United States. We identified 5 key organizing constructs influencing integration of primary care and behavioral health: 1) Integration REACH (the extent to which the integration program was delivered to the identified target population), 2) establishment of continuum of care pathways addressing the location of care across the range of patient's severity of illness, 3) approach to patient transitions: referrals or warm handoffs, 4) location of the integration workforce, and 5) participants' mental model for integration. These constructs intertwine within an organization's historic and social context to produce locally adapted approaches to integrating care. Contextual factors, particularly practice type, influenced whether specialty mental health and substance use services were colocated within an organization. Interaction among 5 organizing constructs and practice context produces diverse expressions of integrated care. These constructs provide a framework for understanding how primary care and behavioral health services can be integrated in routine practice. © Copyright 2015 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  19. Academic Information Systems: From Segregation to Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernbom, Gerald; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Through integration of administrative information systems across diverse technology platforms and opening access to institutional data, Indiana University has begun to expand the concept of academic information systems. The university's experience has resulted in conclusions and guidelines for other institutions to use in AIS planning and…

  20. Academic Integrity from a Student's Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tankersley, Karen Cole

    1997-01-01

    A dental student defines professional integrity within the context of dental education, examines the problem of academic cheating and its ramifications for patient care, places the burden of responsibility on individual students, and argues that dental schools should provide a dental ethics course early in the curriculum and establish a strong…

  1. Extracting Data From Integrated Student Information Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, Michael

    An integrated student information system (ISIS) at Trinity University (Texas) is described with attention to how data are entered and how data are extracted for purposes of institutional research. The structure of the original ISIS files, the extract files, and the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) files is examined. An outline is…

  2. Li3V2(PO4)3 encapsulated flexible free-standing nanofabric cathodes for fast charging and long life-cycle lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Pingping; Zhao, Xueying; Chen, Renpeng; Chen, Tao; Ma, Lianbo; Fan, Qi; Lu, Hongling; Hu, Yi; Tie, Zuoxiu; Jin, Zhong; Xu, Qingyu; Liu, Jie

    2016-03-01

    Lithiated transition metal phosphates with large theoretical capacities have emerged as promising cathode materials for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. However, the poor kinetic properties caused by their low intrinsic electronic and ionic conductivity greatly hinder their practical applications. In this work, we demonstrate a novel strategy to prepare monoclinic lithium vanadium phosphate nanoparticles implanted in carbon nanofibers as the cathodes of Li-ion cells with high capacity, flexibility, long cycle stability and significantly improved high-rate performance. The composite nanofibers were obtained by electrospinning using polyacrylonitrile and Li3V2(PO4)3 nanoparticles, followed by annealing and coating with a thin layer of carbon by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The Li3V2(PO4)3 nanocrystals with the monoclinic phase were uniformly distributed in the composite nanofibers. The electrochemical performances of the as-prepared binder-free fibrous cathodes were characterized by potentiostatic and galvanostatic tests. At the rate of 0.5 C in the range of 3.0-4.3 V, the composite displayed an initial discharge capacity of 128 mA h g-1 (96.2% of the theoretical capacity). A discharge capacity of 120 mA h g-1 was observed even at a high rate of 10 C, and a capacity retention of 98.9% was maintained after 500 cycles at 5 C, indicating excellent high-rate capability and capacity retention. Compared to the control samples without a carbon outer-layer, the composite nanofibers with carbon coating demonstrated much better electrochemical performances. It indicates that the carbon coating can further protect the structural integrity of nanofabric electrodes during the charge/discharge processes without hindering the Li-ion mobility and also can prevent undesired side reactions with an electrolyte, thus greatly improving the rate performance and cyclic stability of the cathode.Lithiated transition metal phosphates with large theoretical capacities have

  3. Integration and Task Allocation: Evidence from Patient Care*

    PubMed Central

    David, Guy; Rawley, Evan; Polsky, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Using the universe of patient transitions from inpatient hospital care to skilled nursing facilities and home health care in 2005, we show how integration eliminates task misallocation problems between organizations. We find that vertical integration allows hospitals to shift patient recovery tasks downstream to lower-cost organizations by discharging patients earlier (and in poorer health) and increasing post-hospitalization service intensity. While integration facilitates a shift in the allocation of tasks and resources, health outcomes either improved or were unaffected by integration on average. The evidence suggests that integration solves coordination problems that arise in market exchange through improvements in the allocation of tasks across care settings. PMID:24415893

  4. Multidisciplinary integration in the context of integrated care - results from the North West London Integrated Care Pilot

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Matthew; Greaves, Felix; Gunn, Laura; Patterson, Sue; Greenfield, Geva; Car, Josip; Majeed, Azeem; Pappas, Yannis

    2013-01-01

    Background In the context of integrated care, Multidisciplinary Group meetings involve participants from diverse professional groups and organisations and are potential vehicles to advance efficiency improvements within the local health economy. We advance a novel method to characterise the communication within Multidisciplinary Group meetings measuring the extent to which participants integrate and whether this integration leads to improved working. Methods We purposively selected four Multidisciplinary Group meetings and conducted a content analysis of audio-recorded and transcribed Case Discussions. Two coders independently coded utterances according to their ‘integrative intensity’ which was defined against three a-priori independent domains - the Level (i.e. Individual, Collective and Systems); the Valence (Problem, Information and Solution); the Focus (Concrete and Abstract). Inter- and intra-rater reliability was tested with Kappa scores on one randomly selected Case Discussion. Standardised weighted mean integration scores were calculated for Case Discussions across utterance deciles, indicating how integrative intensity changed during the conversations. Results Twenty-three Case Discussions in four different Multidisciplinary Groups were transcribed and coded. Inter- and intra-rater reliability was good as shown by the Prevalence and Bias-Adjusted Kappa Scores for one randomly selected Case Discussion. There were differences in the proportion of utterances per participant type (Consultant 14.6%; presenting general practitioner 38.75%; Chair 7.8%; non-presenting general practitioner 2.25%; Allied Health Professional 4.8%). Utterances were predominantly coded at low levels of integrative intensity; however, there was a gradual increase (R 2 = 0.71) in integrative intensity during the Case Discussions. Based on the analysis of the minutes and action points arising from the Case Discussions, this improved integration did not translate into actions moving

  5. Li3V2(PO4)3 encapsulated flexible free-standing nanofabric cathodes for fast charging and long life-cycle lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Sun, Pingping; Zhao, Xueying; Chen, Renpeng; Chen, Tao; Ma, Lianbo; Fan, Qi; Lu, Hongling; Hu, Yi; Tie, Zuoxiu; Jin, Zhong; Xu, Qingyu; Liu, Jie

    2016-04-14

    Lithiated transition metal phosphates with large theoretical capacities have emerged as promising cathode materials for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. However, the poor kinetic properties caused by their low intrinsic electronic and ionic conductivity greatly hinder their practical applications. In this work, we demonstrate a novel strategy to prepare monoclinic lithium vanadium phosphate nanoparticles implanted in carbon nanofibers as the cathodes of Li-ion cells with high capacity, flexibility, long cycle stability and significantly improved high-rate performance. The composite nanofibers were obtained by electrospinning using polyacrylonitrile and Li3V2(PO4)3 nanoparticles, followed by annealing and coating with a thin layer of carbon by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The Li3V2(PO4)3 nanocrystals with the monoclinic phase were uniformly distributed in the composite nanofibers. The electrochemical performances of the as-prepared binder-free fibrous cathodes were characterized by potentiostatic and galvanostatic tests. At the rate of 0.5 C in the range of 3.0-4.3 V, the composite displayed an initial discharge capacity of 128 mA h g(-1) (96.2% of the theoretical capacity). A discharge capacity of 120 mA h g(-1) was observed even at a high rate of 10 C, and a capacity retention of 98.9% was maintained after 500 cycles at 5 C, indicating excellent high-rate capability and capacity retention. Compared to the control samples without a carbon outer-layer, the composite nanofibers with carbon coating demonstrated much better electrochemical performances. It indicates that the carbon coating can further protect the structural integrity of nanofabric electrodes during the charge/discharge processes without hindering the Li-ion mobility and also can prevent undesired side reactions with an electrolyte, thus greatly improving the rate performance and cyclic stability of the cathode.

  6. Free power dissipation from functional line integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brader, Joseph M.; Schmidt, Matthias

    2015-09-01

    Power functional theory provides an exact generalisation of equilibrium density functional theory to non-equilibrium systems undergoing Brownian many-body dynamics. Practical implementation of this variational approach demands knowledge of an excess (over ideal gas) dissipation functional. Using functional line integration (i.e. the operation inverse to functional differentiation), we obtain an exact expression for the excess free power dissipation, which involves the pair interaction potential and the two-body, equal-time density correlator. This provides a basis for the development of approximation schemes.

  7. Integrating perioperative information from divergent sources.

    PubMed

    Frost, Elizabeth A M

    2012-01-01

    The enormous diversity of physician practices, including specialists, and patient requirements and comorbidities make integration of appropriate perioperative information difficult. Lack of communicating computer systems adds to the difficulty of assembling data. Meta analysis and evidence-based studies indicate that far too many tests are performed perioperatively. Guidelines for appropriate perioperative management have been formulated by several specialties. Education as to current findings and requirements should be better communicated to surgeons, consultants, and patients to improve healthcare needs and at the same time decrease costs. Means to better communication by interpersonal collaboration are outlined.

  8. Phosphorus removal from secondary effluents through integrated constructed treatment system.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jibing; Qin, Yong; Mahmood, Qaisar; Liu, Hanhu; Yang, Dejun

    2011-01-01

    The treatment capacity of an integrated constructed treatment system (CTS) was explored which was designed to reduce phosphorus (P) from secondary effluents. The integrated CTS was combined with vertical-flow constructed wetland, floating bed and sand filter. The vertical wetland was filled from the bottom to the top with gravels, steel slag and peat. Vetiverzizanioides (L.) Nash was selected to grow in the vertical constructed wetland while Coixlacrymajobi L. was grown in floating bed. The results suggested that integrated CTS displayed excellent removal efficiency for chemical oxygen demand (COD), dissolved phosphorus (DP), and total phosphorus (TP). The average COD removal efficiency of the integrated CTS was 90.45% after 40 days of operation, the average DP and TP removal efficiencies of the integrated CTS were 97.43% and 96.40%, respectively. The integrated CTS has good potential in removing COD as well as P from secondary effluents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Nanofabrication de boites quantiques laterales pour l'optimisation de qubits de spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camirand Lemyre, Julien

    On présente dans ce travail un nouveau type de qubit de spin dont les performances reposent sur les propriétés d'un seul électron dans une double boîte quantique. Le fort moment dipolaire de la double boite combiné à une large variation du champ magnétique entre les deux boîtes permettrait de réaliser des opérations logiques plus rapidement que dans une seule boîte quantique. Pour maximiser les variations du champ magnétique, on utilisera un micro-aimant placé le plus près possible d'une des deux boîtes. À cette fin, une hétérostructure de GaAs/A1GaAs sur laquelle sont déposées des grilles d'aluminium a été utilisée pour former une double boite quantique latérale. L'occupation par un seul électron de la double boîte est confirmée par des mesures de transport électrique à basse température ainsi que par l'observation du blocage de spin. De plus, un procédé d'oxydation des grilles par plasma d'oxygène a été développé. Une étude des propriétés de l'oxyde formé par cette méthode montre qu'il est possible de placer un micro-aimant directement sur la surface de l'hétérostructure sans affecter l'isolation électrique entre les grilles. Cette nouvelle approche permet de produire des champs magnétiques encore plus intenses que dans les expériences antérieures, pour lesquelles le micro-aimant est placé beaucoup plus loin de la surface. L'ensemble du procédé de fabrication, de la photolithographie à l'électrolithographie, a été développé au cours de ce travail dans les salles blanches du département de génie électrique et dans les salles propres du département de physique de l'Université de Sherbrooke. Ce travail est une étape importante dans la réalisation de qubits de spin plus performants dans les boîtes quantiques latérales. Mots-clés: Information quantique, Spin, Rotations ultra-rapides, Boîtes quantiques latérales, Micro-aimants, Oxydation plasma, Nanofabrication.

  10. Psychiatry and neurology: from dualism to integration.

    PubMed

    Sobański, Jerzy A; Dudek, Dominika

    2013-01-01

    The two objectives of the following paper are: to make few remarks on the topic absorbing neurologists, psychiatrists, and neuropsychiatrists - integration and division of their specialties; and to describe the situation in Poland, reflected in the latest literature. The authors describe the former and present processes of approaches and divisions in psychiatry and neurology. They indicate dissemination of mutual methods of structural and action brain neuroimaging, neurophysiology, neurogenetics, and advanced neurophysiology diagnostics. As it seems, even the effectiveness of psychotherapy, has recently been associated with changes in brain in functional and even structural markers. The authors indicate the value of the strive to join the still divided specialties, reflected worldwide in attempts of common education and clinical cooperation of physicians. It can be expected that subsequent years will bring further triumphs of neuropsychiatry - a field that combines psychiatry and neurology.

  11. Data integration for plant genomics--exemplars from the integration of Arabidopsis thaliana databases.

    PubMed

    Lysenko, Artem; Lysenko, Atem; Hindle, Matthew Morritt; Taubert, Jan; Saqi, Mansoor; Rawlings, Christopher John

    2009-11-01

    The development of a systems based approach to problems in plant sciences requires integration of existing information resources. However, the available information is currently often incomplete and dispersed across many sources and the syntactic and semantic heterogeneity of the data is a challenge for integration. In this article, we discuss strategies for data integration and we use a graph based integration method (Ondex) to illustrate some of these challenges with reference to two example problems concerning integration of (i) metabolic pathway and (ii) protein interaction data for Arabidopsis thaliana. We quantify the degree of overlap for three commonly used pathway and protein interaction information sources. For pathways, we find that the AraCyc database contains the widest coverage of enzyme reactions and for protein interactions we find that the IntAct database provides the largest unique contribution to the integrated dataset. For both examples, however, we observe a relatively small amount of data common to all three sources. Analysis and visual exploration of the integrated networks was used to identify a number of practical issues relating to the interpretation of these datasets. We demonstrate the utility of these approaches to the analysis of groups of coexpressed genes from an individual microarray experiment, in the context of pathway information and for the combination of coexpression data with an integrated protein interaction network.

  12. Symbols of one-loop integrals from mixed Tate motives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spradlin, Marcus; Volovich, Anastasia

    2011-11-01

    We use a result on mixed Tate motives due to Goncharov [1] to show that the symbol of an arbitrary one-loop 2 m-gon integral in 2 m dimensions may be read off directly from its Feynman parameterization. The algorithm proceeds via recursion in m seeded by the well-known box integrals in four dimensions. As a simple application of this method we write down the symbol of a three-mass hexagon integral in six dimensions.

  13. Micro/nanofabrication of poly({sub L}-lactic acid) using focused ion beam direct etching

    SciTech Connect

    Oyama, Tomoko Gowa; Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Taguchi, Mitsumasa; Hinata, Toru; Washio, Masakazu; Oshima, Akihiro; Tagawa, Seiichi

    2013-10-14

    Micro/nanofabrication of biocompatible and biodegradable poly({sub L}-lactic acid) (PLLA) using focused Ga ion beam direct etching was evaluated for future bio-device applications. The fabrication performance was determined with different ion fluences and fluxes (beam currents), and it was found that the etching speed and fabrication accuracy were affected by irradiation-induced heat. Focused ion beam (FIB)-irradiated surfaces were analyzed using micro-area X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Owing to reactions such as the physical sputtering of atoms and radiation-induced decomposition, PLLA was gradually carbonized with increasing C=C bonds. Controlled micro/nanostructures of PLLA were fabricated with C=C bond-rich surfaces expected to have good cell attachment properties.

  14. Thermoresponsive Nanofabricated Substratum for the Engineering of Three-Dimensional Tissues with Layer-by-Layer Architectural Control

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Current tissue engineering methods lack the ability to properly recreate scaffold-free, cell-dense tissues with physiological structures. Recent studies have shown that the use of nanoscale cues allows for precise control over large-area 2D tissue structures without restricting cell growth or cell density. In this study, we developed a simple and versatile platform combining a thermoresponsive nanofabricated substratum (TNFS) incorporating nanotopographical cues and the gel casting method for the fabrication of scaffold-free 3D tissues. Our TNFS allows for the structural control of aligned cell monolayers which can be spontaneously detached via a change in culture temperature. Utilizing our gel casting method, viable, aligned cell sheets can be transferred without loss of anisotropy or stacked with control over individual layer orientations. Transferred cell sheets and individual cell layers within multilayered tissues robustly retain structural anisotropy, allowing for the fabrication of scaffold-free, 3D tissues with hierarchical control of overall tissue structure. PMID:24628277

  15. High throughput nanofabrication of silicon nanowire and carbon nanotube tips on AFM probes by stencil-deposited catalysts.

    PubMed

    Engstrom, Daniel S; Savu, Veronica; Zhu, Xueni; Bu, Ian Y Y; Milne, William I; Brugger, Juergen; Boggild, Peter

    2011-04-13

    A new and versatile technique for the wafer scale nanofabrication of silicon nanowire (SiNW) and multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT) tips on atomic force microscope (AFM) probes is presented. Catalyst material for the SiNW and MWNT growth was deposited on prefabricated AFM probes using aligned wafer scale nanostencil lithography. Individual vertical SiNWs were grown epitaxially by a catalytic vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) process and MWNTs were grown by a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor (PECVD) process on the AFM probes. The AFM probes were tested for imaging micrometers-deep trenches, where they demonstrated a significantly better performance than commercial high aspect ratio tips. Our method demonstrates a reliable and cost-efficient route toward wafer scale manufacturing of SiNW and MWNT AFM probes.

  16. Thermoresponsive nanofabricated substratum for the engineering of three-dimensional tissues with layer-by-layer architectural control.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Alex; Trosper, Nicole E; Yang, Hee Seok; Kim, Jinsung; Tsui, Jonathan H; Frankel, Samuel D; Murry, Charles E; Kim, Deok-Ho

    2014-05-27

    Current tissue engineering methods lack the ability to properly recreate scaffold-free, cell-dense tissues with physiological structures. Recent studies have shown that the use of nanoscale cues allows for precise control over large-area 2D tissue structures without restricting cell growth or cell density. In this study, we developed a simple and versatile platform combining a thermoresponsive nanofabricated substratum (TNFS) incorporating nanotopographical cues and the gel casting method for the fabrication of scaffold-free 3D tissues. Our TNFS allows for the structural control of aligned cell monolayers which can be spontaneously detached via a change in culture temperature. Utilizing our gel casting method, viable, aligned cell sheets can be transferred without loss of anisotropy or stacked with control over individual layer orientations. Transferred cell sheets and individual cell layers within multilayered tissues robustly retain structural anisotropy, allowing for the fabrication of scaffold-free, 3D tissues with hierarchical control of overall tissue structure.

  17. Multifunctional integration: from biological to bio-inspired materials.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kesong; Jiang, Lei

    2011-09-27

    Nature is a school for human beings. Learning from nature has long been a source of bioinspiration for scientists and engineers. Multiscale structures are characteristic for biological materials, exhibiting inherent multifunctional integration. Optimized biological solutions provide inspiration for scientists and engineers to design and to fabricate multiscale structured materials for multifunctional integration. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  18. Toward Integration: From Quantitative Biology to Mathbio-Biomath?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsteller, Pat; de Pillis, Lisette; Findley, Ann; Joplin, Karl; Pelesko, John; Nelson, Karen; Thompson, Katerina; Usher, David; Watkins, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    In response to the call of "BIO2010" for integrating quantitative skills into undergraduate biology education, 30 Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) Program Directors at the 2006 HHMI Program Directors Meeting established a consortium to investigate, implement, develop, and disseminate best practices resulting from the integration of math and…

  19. Toward Integration: From Quantitative Biology to Mathbio-Biomath?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsteller, Pat; de Pillis, Lisette; Findley, Ann; Joplin, Karl; Pelesko, John; Nelson, Karen; Thompson, Katerina; Usher, David; Watkins, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    In response to the call of "BIO2010" for integrating quantitative skills into undergraduate biology education, 30 Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) Program Directors at the 2006 HHMI Program Directors Meeting established a consortium to investigate, implement, develop, and disseminate best practices resulting from the integration of math and…

  20. Medical Group Structural Integration May Not Ensure That Care Is Integrated, From The Patient's Perspective.

    PubMed

    Kerrissey, Michaela J; Clark, Jonathan R; Friedberg, Mark W; Jiang, Wei; Fryer, Ashley K; Frean, Molly; Shortell, Stephen M; Ramsay, Patricia P; Casalino, Lawrence P; Singer, Sara J

    2017-05-01

    Structural integration is increasing among medical groups, but whether these changes yield care that is more integrated remains unclear. We explored the relationships between structural integration characteristics of 144 medical groups and perceptions of integrated care among their patients. Patients' perceptions were measured by a validated national survey of 3,067 Medicare beneficiaries with multiple chronic conditions across six domains that reflect knowledge and support of, and communication with, the patient. Medical groups' structural characteristics were taken from the National Study of Physician Organizations and included practice size, specialty mix, technological capabilities, and care management processes. Patients' survey responses were most favorable for the domain of test result communication and least favorable for the domain of provider support for medication and home health management. Medical groups' characteristics were not consistently associated with patients' perceptions of integrated care. However, compared to patients of primary care groups, patients of multispecialty groups had strong favorable perceptions of medical group staff knowledge of patients' medical histories. Opportunities exist to improve patient care, but structural integration of medical groups might not be sufficient for delivering care that patients perceive as integrated. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  1. Integrating and Amplifying Signal from Riboswitch Biosensors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    we describe the design, building, and testing of a riboswitch-based Boolean logic AND gate in bacteria , where an output requires the activation of...transformed bacteria . 9  Distribution A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 88ABW-2014-1997; Cleared 30 April 2014 3.0 RIBOSWITCH...pSB3K3 and pSB4A3 (generous gifts from Dr. Christopher Voigt, MIT, MA).  Primers to amplify LasI and RhlI from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01 ( ATCC 47085

  2. Nanofabricated SiO{sub 2}-Si-SiO{sub 2} Resonant Tunneling Diodes

    SciTech Connect

    FLEMING,JAMES G.; CHOW,KAI-CHEUNG; LIN,SHAWN-YU

    2000-04-06

    Resonance Tunneling Diodes (RTDs) are devices that can demonstrate very high-speed operation. Typically they have been fabricated using epitaxial techniques and materials not consistent with standard commercial integrated circuits. The authors report here the first demonstration of SiO{sub 2}-Si-SiO{sub 2} RTDs. These new structures were fabricated using novel combinations of silicon integrated circuit processes.

  3. ELEVATION FROM EAST, SHOWING INTEGRAL RETAINING WALL EXTENDING TO NORTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ELEVATION FROM EAST, SHOWING INTEGRAL RETAINING WALL EXTENDING TO NORTH. - Brick Arch Culvert over Master Street, Spanning dirt slope of Master Street at Thirty-third Street (U.S. Route 13), Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. The shift from vertical to networked integration, Part 1.

    PubMed

    Lynch, R P; Somerville, I

    1996-05-01

    Lessons, dangers, and difficulties for health care integrators from the world of mergers, acquisitions, and alliances. The authors examine why there needs to be a shift from vertical integration, with its command and control hierarchical structure, to the more fluid and flexible networked enterprise in health care. By sharing the integration experiences of other industries, the authors make a compelling case for rethinking the integrated delivery system that so many have embraced and explain why the emergence of the extended health care enterprise will be the next stage in the progression. Making the journey into networked enterprises--how to start, what to do, and case studies from St. Vincent's, Cascade Healthcare Alliance, and Mullikin Medical Centers--will be presented in the second article in the June 1996 issue of Physician Executive.

  5. [Integrity].

    PubMed

    Gómez Rodríguez, Rafael Ángel

    2014-01-01

    To say that someone possesses integrity is to claim that that person is almost predictable about responses to specific situations, that he or she can prudentially judge and to act correctly. There is a closed interrelationship between integrity and autonomy, and the autonomy rests on the deeper moral claim of all humans to integrity of the person. Integrity has two senses of significance for medical ethic: one sense refers to the integrity of the person in the bodily, psychosocial and intellectual elements; and in the second sense, the integrity is the virtue. Another facet of integrity of the person is la integrity of values we cherish and espouse. The physician must be a person of integrity if the integrity of the patient is to be safeguarded. The autonomy has reduced the violations in the past, but the character and virtues of the physician are the ultimate safeguard of autonomy of patient. A field very important in medicine is the scientific research. It is the character of the investigator that determines the moral quality of research. The problem arises when legitimate self-interests are replaced by selfish, particularly when human subjects are involved. The final safeguard of moral quality of research is the character and conscience of the investigator. Teaching must be relevant in the scientific field, but the most effective way to teach virtue ethics is through the example of the a respected scientist.

  6. Nanofabrication for On-Chip Optical Levitation, Atom-Trapping, and Superconducting Quantum Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norte, Richard Alexander

    Researchers have spent decades refining and improving their methods for fabricating smaller, finer-tuned, higher-quality nanoscale optical elements with the goal of making more sensitive and accurate measurements of the world around them using optics. Quantum optics has been a well-established tool of choice in making these increasingly sensitive measurements which have repeatedly pushed the limits on the accuracy of measurement set forth by quantum mechanics. A recent development in quantum optics has been a creative integration of robust, high-quality, and well-established macroscopic experimental systems with highly-engineerable on-chip nanoscale oscillators fabricated in cleanrooms. However, merging large systems with nanoscale oscillators often require them to have extremely high aspect-ratios, which make them extremely delicate and difficult to fabricate with an experimentally reasonable repeatability, yield and high quality. In this work we give an overview of our research, which focused on microscopic oscillators which are coupled with macroscopic optical cavities towards the goal of cooling them to their motional ground state in room temperature environments. The quality factor of a mechanical resonator is an important figure of merit for various sensing applications and observing quantum behavior. We demonstrated a technique for pushing the quality factor of a micromechanical resonator beyond conventional material and fabrication limits by using an optical field to stiffen and trap a particular motional mode of a nanoscale oscillator. Optical forces increase the oscillation frequency by storing most of the mechanical energy in a nearly loss-less optical potential, thereby strongly diluting the effects of material dissipation. By placing a 130 nm thick SiO2 pendulum in an optical standing wave, we achieve an increase in the pendulum center-of-mass frequency from 6.2 to 145 kHz. The corresponding quality factor increases 50-fold from its intrinsic value to

  7. GDH Integral on the Proton from Asymmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Prok, Yelena

    2004-05-01

    Inclusive double spin electron asymmetries have been measured by scattering polarized electrons off the solid polarized 15NH3 target in Hall B of Jefferson Lab in 2000-2001. The virtual photon asymmetry A1 (x), the longitudinal spin structure function, g1 (x, Q2), and the first moment, γ1p, have been evaluated for a kinematic range of 0.05 ≥ Q2 ≥ 4.5 GeV2. The extracted results complement the existing data in the resonance region, extending it to lower and higher Q2 regions. The results are important in the study of Q2 evolution of nucleon structure from the hadronic to partonic degrees of freedom.

  8. The Integration Paradox: Empiric Evidence From the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Verkuyten, Maykel

    2016-05-01

    The integration paradox refers to the phenomenon of the more highly educated and structurally integrated immigrants turning away from the host society, rather than becoming more oriented toward it. This article provides an overview of the empirical evidence documenting this paradox in the Netherlands. In addition, the theoretical arguments and the available findings about the social psychological processes involved in this paradox are considered. The existing evidence for the integration paradox and what might explain it form the basis for making suggestion for future theoretical work and empirical research, and for discussing possible policy implications.

  9. Barriers and facilitators to integrating care: experiences from the English Integrated Care Pilots.

    PubMed

    Ling, Tom; Brereton, Laura; Conklin, Annalijn; Newbould, Jennifer; Roland, Martin

    2012-01-01

    In 2008, the English Department of Health appointed 16 'Integrated Care Pilots' which used a range of approaches to provide better integrated care. We report qualitative analyses from a three-year multi-method evaluation to identify barriers and facilitators to successful integration of care. Data were analysed from transcripts of 213 in-depth staff interviews, and from semi-structured questionnaires (the 'Living Document') completed by staff in pilot sites at six points over a two-year period. Emerging findings were therefore built from 'bottom up' and grounded in the data. However, we were then interested in how these findings compared and contrasted with more generic analyses. Therefore after our analyses were complete we then systematically compared and contrasted the findings with the analysis of barriers and facilitators to quality improvement identified in a systematic review by Kaplan et al. (2010) and the analysis of more micro-level shapers of behaviour found in Normalisation Process Theory (May et al. 2007). Neither of these approaches claims to be full blown theories but both claim to provide mid-range theoretical arguments which may be used to structure existing data and which can be undercut or reinforced by new data. Many barriers and facilitators to integrating care are those of any large-scale organisational change. These include issues relating to leadership, organisational culture, information technology, physician involvement, and availability of resources. However, activities which appear particularly important for delivering integrated care include personal relationships between leaders in different organisations, the scale of planned activities, governance and finance arrangements, support for staff in new roles, and organisational and staff stability. We illustrate our analyses with a 'routemap' which identifies questions that providers may wish to consider when planning interventions to improve the integration of care.

  10. Barriers and facilitators to integrating care: experiences from the English Integrated Care Pilots

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Tom; Brereton, Laura; Conklin, Annalijn; Newbould, Jennifer; Roland, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Background: In 2008, the English Department of Health appointed 16 ‘Integrated Care Pilots’ which used a range of approaches to provide better integrated care. We report qualitative analyses from a three-year multi-method evaluation to identify barriers and facilitators to successful integration of care. Theory and methods: Data were analysed from transcripts of 213 in-depth staff interviews, and from semi-structured questionnaires (the ‘Living Document’) completed by staff in pilot sites at six points over a two-year period. Emerging findings were therefore built from ‘bottom up’ and grounded in the data. However, we were then interested in how these findings compared and contrasted with more generic analyses. Therefore after our analyses were complete we then systematically compared and contrasted the findings with the analysis of barriers and facilitators to quality improvement identified in a systematic review by Kaplan et al. (2010) and the analysis of more micro-level shapers of behaviour found in Normalisation Process Theory (May et al. 2007). Neither of these approaches claims to be full blown theories but both claim to provide mid-range theoretical arguments which may be used to structure existing data and which can be undercut or reinforced by new data. Results and discussion: Many barriers and facilitators to integrating care are those of any large-scale organisational change. These include issues relating to leadership, organisational culture, information technology, physician involvement, and availability of resources. However, activities which appear particularly important for delivering integrated care include personal relationships between leaders in different organisations, the scale of planned activities, governance and finance arrangements, support for staff in new roles, and organisational and staff stability. We illustrate our analyses with a ‘routemap’ which identifies questions that providers may wish to consider when planning

  11. Search for new superfluid states of 3He confined in coherence length sized nanofabricated structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhelev, Nikolay Zhelev

    Microcavity exciton-polaritons, semiconductor quasiparticles that are a unique mixture of light and matter, are routinely used to study quantum many-body phenomena. Due to the light mass of the polariton, 10 -4 times the bare electron mass, polaritons manifest noticeable quantum effects even at room temperature. As solid state systems, microcavity polaritons are generally robust and compatible with current semiconductor technology. Microcavity chips could be integrated into electronic or optical circuits. I present a demonstration of microcavity polaritons as an all-optical transistor, where the strong nonlinearity of the system leads to a change in the re ectivity for a signal light-ray from high to low. I also discuss the promise of using strongly coupled microcavities as low-threshold polariton lasers, which could replace traditional lasers in some cases. The last two decades have seen great strides in the material systems used in microcavities, even demonstrating strong coupling at room temperature. GaN, CdZnSe, organic semiconductors and more recently, MoS2 have supported strong coupling at ambient conditions. This makes technological applications more promising. I present our current progress in this field. Also, the general quality of microcavities has advanced steadily over this time. I demonstrate that our long-lifetime polaritons persist for an order of magnitude longer than in similar samples. This opens up new regimes of study and technological application as these particles thermalize better and carry quantum coherence over macroscopic distances.

  12. Does integrated governance lead to integrated patient care? Findings from the innovation forum.

    PubMed

    Beech, Roger; Henderson, Catherine; Ashby, Sue; Dickinson, Angela; Sheaff, Rod; Windle, Karen; Wistow, Gerald; Knapp, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Good integration of services that aim to reduce avoidable acute hospital bed use by older people requires frontline staff to be aware of service options and access them in a timely manner. In three localities where closer inter-organisational integration was taking place, this research sought patients' perceptions of the care received across and within organisational boundaries. Between February and July 2008, qualitative methods were used to map the care journeys of 18 patients (six from each site). Patient interviews (46) covered care received before, at the time of and following a health crisis. Additional interviews (66) were undertaken with carers and frontline staff. Grounded theory-based approaches showed examples of well-integrated care against a background of underuse of services for preventing health crises and a reliance on 'traditional' referral patterns and services at the time of a health crisis. There was scope to raise both practitioner and patient awareness of alternative care options and to expand the availability and visibility of care 'closer to home' services such as rapid response teams. Concerns voiced by patients centred on the adequacy of arrangements for organising ongoing care, while family members reported being excluded from discussions about care arrangements and the roles they were expected to play. The coordination of care was also affected by communication difficulties between practitioners (particularly across organisational boundaries) and a lack of compatible technologies to facilitate information sharing. Finally, closer organisational integration seemed to have limited impact on care at the patient/practitioner interface. To improve care experienced by patients, organisational integration needs to be coupled with vertical integration within organisations to ensure that strategic goals influence the actions of frontline staff. As they experience the complete care journey, feedback from patients can play an important role in the

  13. Integrals of motion from TBA and lattice-conformal dictionary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feverati, Giovanni; Grinza, Paolo

    2004-12-01

    The integrals of motion of the tricritical Ising model are obtained by thermodynamic Bethe ansatz (TBA) equations derived from the A integrable lattice model. They are compared with those given by the conformal field theory leading to a unique one-to-one lattice-conformal correspondence. They can also be followed along the renormalization group flows generated by the action of the boundary field φ on conformal boundary conditions in close analogy to the usual TBA description of energies.

  14. Quantum tunneling splittings from path-integral molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mátyus, Edit; Wales, David J.; Althorpe, Stuart C.

    2016-03-01

    We illustrate how path-integral molecular dynamics can be used to calculate ground-state tunnelling splittings in molecules or clusters. The method obtains the splittings from ratios of density matrix elements between the degenerate wells connected by the tunnelling. We propose a simple thermodynamic integration scheme for evaluating these elements. Numerical tests on fully dimensional malonaldehyde yield tunnelling splittings in good overall agreement with the results of diffusion Monte Carlo calculations.

  15. Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalyn, Brenda

    2006-01-01

    Integrated learning is an exciting adventure for both teachers and students. It is not uncommon to observe the integration of academic subjects such as math, science, and language arts. However, educators need to recognize that movement experiences in physical education also can be linked to academic curricula and, may even lead the…

  16. National Call for Organizational Change from Sheltered to Integrated Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogan, Patricia; Rinne, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Our purpose in this article is to contend that organizational change from sheltered to integrated employment is not only possible but necessary, and a federal Employment First agenda must be advanced. Findings are reported from interviews with senior managers from 10 organizations that have shifted their service delivery to community employment,…

  17. National Call for Organizational Change from Sheltered to Integrated Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogan, Patricia; Rinne, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Our purpose in this article is to contend that organizational change from sheltered to integrated employment is not only possible but necessary, and a federal Employment First agenda must be advanced. Findings are reported from interviews with senior managers from 10 organizations that have shifted their service delivery to community employment,…

  18. KA-SB: from data integration to large scale reasoning

    PubMed Central

    Roldán-García, María del Mar; Navas-Delgado, Ismael; Kerzazi, Amine; Chniber, Othmane; Molina-Castro, Joaquín; Aldana-Montes, José F

    2009-01-01

    Background The analysis of information in the biological domain is usually focused on the analysis of data from single on-line data sources. Unfortunately, studying a biological process requires having access to disperse, heterogeneous, autonomous data sources. In this context, an analysis of the information is not possible without the integration of such data. Methods KA-SB is a querying and analysis system for final users based on combining a data integration solution with a reasoner. Thus, the tool has been created with a process divided into two steps: 1) KOMF, the Khaos Ontology-based Mediator Framework, is used to retrieve information from heterogeneous and distributed databases; 2) the integrated information is crystallized in a (persistent and high performance) reasoner (DBOWL). This information could be further analyzed later (by means of querying and reasoning). Results In this paper we present a novel system that combines the use of a mediation system with the reasoning capabilities of a large scale reasoner to provide a way of finding new knowledge and of analyzing the integrated information from different databases, which is retrieved as a set of ontology instances. This tool uses a graphical query interface to build user queries easily, which shows a graphical representation of the ontology and allows users o build queries by clicking on the ontology concepts. Conclusion These kinds of systems (based on KOMF) will provide users with very large amounts of information (interpreted as ontology instances once retrieved), which cannot be managed using traditional main memory-based reasoners. We propose a process for creating persistent and scalable knowledgebases from sets of OWL instances obtained by integrating heterogeneous data sources with KOMF. This process has been applied to develop a demo tool , which uses the BioPax Level 3 ontology as the integration schema, and integrates UNIPROT, KEGG, CHEBI, BRENDA and SABIORK databases. PMID:19796402

  19. Integration of Point Clouds Dataset from Different Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, C. K. A. F. Che Ku; Baharuddin, N. Z. S.; Ariff, M. F. M.; Majid, Z.; Lau, C. L.; Yusoff, A. R.; Idris, K. M.; Aspuri, A.

    2017-02-01

    Laser Scanner technology become an option in the process of collecting data nowadays. It is composed of Airborne Laser Scanner (ALS) and Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS). ALS like Phoenix AL3-32 can provide accurate information from the viewpoint of rooftop while TLS as Leica C10 can provide complete data for building facade. However if both are integrated, it is able to produce more accurate data. The focus of this study is to integrate both types of data acquisition of ALS and TLS and determine the accuracy of the data obtained. The final results acquired will be used to generate models of three-dimensional (3D) buildings. The scope of this study is focusing on data acquisition of UTM Eco-home through laser scanning methods such as ALS which scanning on the roof and the TLS which scanning on building façade. Both device is used to ensure that no part of the building that are not scanned. In data integration process, both are registered by the selected points among the manmade features which are clearly visible in Cyclone 7.3 software. The accuracy of integrated data is determined based on the accuracy assessment which is carried out using man-made registration methods. The result of integration process can achieve below 0.04m. This integrated data then are used to generate a 3D model of UTM Eco-home building using SketchUp software. In conclusion, the combination of the data acquisition integration between ALS and TLS would produce the accurate integrated data and able to use for generate a 3D model of UTM eco-home. For visualization purposes, the 3D building model which generated is prepared in Level of Detail 3 (LOD3) which recommended by City Geographic Mark-Up Language (CityGML).

  20. Integrating models to predict regional haze from wildland fire.

    Treesearch

    D. McKenzie; S.M. O' Neill; N. Larkin; R.A. Norheim

    2006-01-01

    Visibility impairment from regional haze is a significant problem throughout the continental United States. A substantial portion of regional haze is produced by smoke from prescribed and wildland fires. Here we describe the integration of four simulation models, an array of GIS raster layers, and a set of algorithms for fire-danger calculations into a modeling...

  1. Professional Integration: A Guide for Students from the Developing World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood, Mary Ann G., Ed.; Schieffer, Kevin J., Ed.

    This book is designed to help foreign students from developing countries make the transition from academic training in the United States to a professional career in the home country. The process of professional integration includes both cultural reentry and professional dimensions of reentry. Attention is directed to specific skills and knowledge…

  2. Predator-prey quasicycles from a path-integral formalism.

    PubMed

    Butler, Thomas; Reynolds, David

    2009-03-01

    The existence of beyond mean-field quasicycle oscillations in a simple spatial model of predator-prey interactions is derived from a path-integral formalism. The results agree substantially with those obtained from analysis of similar models using system size expansions of the master equation. In all of these analyses, the discrete nature of predator-prey populations and finite-size effects lead to persistent oscillations in time, but spatial patterns fail to form. The path-integral formalism goes beyond mean-field theory and provides a focus on individual realizations of the stochastic time evolution of population not captured in the standard master-equation approach.

  3. From Classical Nonlinear Integrable Systems to Quantum Shortcuts to Adiabaticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuyama, Manaka; Takahashi, Kazutaka

    2016-08-01

    Using shortcuts to adiabaticity, we solve the time-dependent Schrödinger equation that is reduced to a classical nonlinear integrable equation. For a given time-dependent Hamiltonian, the counterdiabatic term is introduced to prevent nonadiabatic transitions. Using the fact that the equation for the dynamical invariant is equivalent to the Lax equation in nonlinear integrable systems, we obtain the counterdiabatic term exactly. The counterdiabatic term is available when the corresponding Lax pair exists and the solvable systems are classified in a unified and systematic way. Multisoliton potentials obtained from the Korteweg-de Vries equation and isotropic X Y spin chains from the Toda equations are studied in detail.

  4. Integrated information theory: from consciousness to its physical substrate.

    PubMed

    Tononi, Giulio; Boly, Melanie; Massimini, Marcello; Koch, Christof

    2016-07-01

    In this Opinion article, we discuss how integrated information theory accounts for several aspects of the relationship between consciousness and the brain. Integrated information theory starts from the essential properties of phenomenal experience, from which it derives the requirements for the physical substrate of consciousness. It argues that the physical substrate of consciousness must be a maximum of intrinsic cause-effect power and provides a means to determine, in principle, the quality and quantity of experience. The theory leads to some counterintuitive predictions and can be used to develop new tools for assessing consciousness in non-communicative patients.

  5. Travel distance estimation from visual motion by leaky path integration.

    PubMed

    Lappe, Markus; Jenkin, Michael; Harris, Laurence R

    2007-06-01

    Visual motion can be a cue to travel distance when the motion signals are integrated. Distance estimates from visually simulated self-motion are imprecise, however. Previous work in our labs has given conflicting results on the imprecision: experiments by Frenz and Lappe had suggested a general underestimation of travel distance, while results from Redlick, Jenkin and Harris had shown an overestimation of travel distance. Here we describe a collaborative study that resolves the conflict by tracing it to differences in the tasks given to the subjects. With an identical set of subjects and identical visual motion simulation we show that underestimation of travel distance occurs when the task involves a judgment of distance from the starting position, and that overestimation of travel distance occurs when the task requires a judgment of the remaining distance to a particular target position. We present a leaky integrator model that explains both effects with a single mechanism. In this leaky integrator model we introduce the idea that, depending on the task, either the distance from start, or the distance to target is used as a state variable. The state variable is updated during the movement by integration over the space covered by the movement, rather than over time. In this model, travel distance mis-estimation occurs because the integration leaks and because the transformation of visual motion to travel distance involves a gain factor. Mis-estimates in both tasks can be explained with the same leak rate and gain in both conditions. Our results thus suggest that observers do not simply integrate traveled distance and then relate it to the task. Instead, the internally represented variable is either distance from the origin or distance to the goal, whichever is relevant.

  6. Large-scale nanofabrication of periodic nanostructures using nanosphere-related techniques for green technology applications (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Chen-Chung; Wu, Jyun-De; Chien, Yi-Hsin; Wang, Chang-Han; Liu, Chi-Ching; Ku, Chen-Ta; Chen, Yen-Jon; Chou, Meng-Cheng; Chang, Yun-Chorng

    2016-09-01

    Nanotechnology has been developed for decades and many interesting optical properties have been demonstrated. However, the major hurdle for the further development of nanotechnology depends on finding economic ways to fabricate such nanostructures in large-scale. Here, we demonstrate how to achieve low-cost fabrication using nanosphere-related techniques, such as Nanosphere Lithography (NSL) and Nanospherical-Lens Lithography (NLL). NSL is a low-cost nano-fabrication technique that has the ability to fabricate nano-triangle arrays that cover a very large area. NLL is a very similar technique that uses polystyrene nanospheres to focus the incoming ultraviolet light and exposure the underlying photoresist (PR) layer. PR hole arrays form after developing. Metal nanodisk arrays can be fabricated following metal evaporation and lifting-off processes. Nanodisk or nano-ellipse arrays with various sizes and aspect ratios are routinely fabricated in our research group. We also demonstrate we can fabricate more complicated nanostructures, such as nanodisk oligomers, by combining several other key technologies such as angled exposure and deposition, we can modify these methods to obtain various metallic nanostructures. The metallic structures are of high fidelity and in large scale. The metallic nanostructures can be transformed into semiconductor nanostructures and be used in several green technology applications.

  7. Size-controlled conformal nanofabrication of biotemplated three-dimensional TiO2 and ZnO nanonetworks

    PubMed Central

    Ceylan, Hakan; Ozgit-Akgun, Cagla; Erkal, Turan S.; Donmez, Inci; Garifullin, Ruslan; Tekinay, Ayse B.; Usta, Hakan; Biyikli, Necmi; Guler, Mustafa O.

    2013-01-01

    A solvent-free fabrication of TiO2 and ZnO nanonetworks is demonstrated by using supramolecular nanotemplates with high coating conformity, uniformity, and atomic scale size control. Deposition of TiO2 and ZnO on three-dimensional nanofibrous network template is accomplished. Ultrafine control over nanotube diameter allows robust and systematic evaluation of the electrochemical properties of TiO2 and ZnO nanonetworks in terms of size-function relationship. We observe hypsochromic shift in UV absorbance maxima correlated with decrease in wall thickness of the nanotubes. Photocatalytic activities of anatase TiO2 and hexagonal wurtzite ZnO nanonetworks are found to be dependent on both the wall thickness and total surface area per unit of mass. Wall thickness has effect on photoexcitation properties of both TiO2 and ZnO due to band gap energies and total surface area per unit of mass. The present work is a successful example that concentrates on nanofabrication of intact three-dimensional semiconductor nanonetworks with controlled band gap energies. PMID:23892593

  8. Solution of quantum integrable systems from quiver gauge theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorey, Nick; Zhao, Peng

    2017-02-01

    We construct new integrable systems describing particles with internal spin from four-dimensional N = 2 quiver gauge theories. The models can be quantized and solved exactly using the quantum inverse scattering method and also using the Bethe/Gauge correspondence.

  9. From ICT Coordination to ICT Integration: A Longitudinal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tondeur, J.; Cooper, M.; Newhouse, C. P.

    2010-01-01

    This study utilizes a school-improvement perspective to examine the role of curriculum coordination in the integration of information and communication technologies (ICT) into primary schools. The nature and impact of this role is examined in seven primary schools in Australia. These seven schools were drawn from a longitudinal intervention that…

  10. Method and system of integrating information from multiple sources

    DOEpatents

    Alford, Francine A.; Brinkerhoff, David L.

    2006-08-15

    A system and method of integrating information from multiple sources in a document centric application system. A plurality of application systems are connected through an object request broker to a central repository. The information may then be posted on a webpage. An example of an implementation of the method and system is an online procurement system.

  11. Learning SQL Programming with Interactive Tools: From Integration to Personalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brusilovsky, Pete; Sosnovsky, Sergey; Yudelson, Michael V.; Lee, Danielle H.; Zadorozhny, Vladimir; Zhou, Xin

    2010-01-01

    Rich, interactive eLearning tools receive a lot of attention nowadays from both practitioners and researchers. However, broader dissemination of these tools is hindered by the technical difficulties of their integration into existing platforms. This article explores the technical and conceptual problems of using several interactive educational…

  12. When Can Information from Ordinal Scale Variables Be Integrated?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Simon; Grace, Randolph C.

    2010-01-01

    Many theoretical constructs of interest to psychologists are multidimensional and derive from the integration of several input variables. We show that input variables that are measured on ordinal scales cannot be combined to produce a stable weakly ordered output variable that allows trading off the input variables. Instead a partial order is…

  13. When Can Information from Ordinal Scale Variables Be Integrated?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Simon; Grace, Randolph C.

    2010-01-01

    Many theoretical constructs of interest to psychologists are multidimensional and derive from the integration of several input variables. We show that input variables that are measured on ordinal scales cannot be combined to produce a stable weakly ordered output variable that allows trading off the input variables. Instead a partial order is…

  14. Serotyping of Salmonella Isolates from Broiler Vertical Integrations in Colombia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study analyzed 106 Salmonella isolates from different points in broiler vertical integrations of two important poultry areas of Colombia. It was possible to identify the presence of Salmonella in five categories: breeder farm (17.9%), hatchery (6.6 %), broiler farm (38.7 %), processing plant (9...

  15. Integrative Medicine Selects Best Practice from Public Health and Biomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Terence J

    2013-01-01

    The meaning of terms Integrated and Integrative are described variously by an amalgam of latest scientific advances with ancient healing systems, of complementary medicine and biomedicine, and sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS. It means seamless good quality care between hospital and primary care. They provoke approval mostly from patients and disapproval mostly from advocates of science and evidence-based medicine. The Institute of Applied Dermatology in Kasaragod, Kerala, India has championed a mix of Biomedicine, Yoga and herbals from Ayurvedic medicine, partly based on publications from the Department of Dermatology of the University of Oxford. In Oxford dermatology, acceptance of value of integrative medicine (IM) is demonstrated, especially in wound healing and the skin's blood supply. This has long featured in the university's research program. A variety of approaches to the practice of medicine are illustrated with reference to Osler, Garrod, and Doll. IM is believed to underlie contemporarily best practice. Particular emphasis is given to the control of heat, pain, redness, and swelling, all manifestations of inflammation, and the importance of emotion as a stimulus or inhibitor carried by neural pathways. These may explain some unbelievable Asian practices and one of the many roles of Yoga. The concept of Integrative is expanded to include care of the earth and nutrition, the hazards of climate change, Gardens for Health, do (k) no (w) harm as a key to good practice. PMID:23716803

  16. Integrative medicine selects best practice from public health and biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Terence J

    2013-03-01

    The meaning of terms Integrated and Integrative are described variously by an amalgam of latest scientific advances with ancient healing systems, of complementary medicine and biomedicine, and sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS. It means seamless good quality care between hospital and primary care. They provoke approval mostly from patients and disapproval mostly from advocates of science and evidence-based medicine. The Institute of Applied Dermatology in Kasaragod, Kerala, India has championed a mix of Biomedicine, Yoga and herbals from Ayurvedic medicine, partly based on publications from the Department of Dermatology of the University of Oxford. In Oxford dermatology, acceptance of value of integrative medicine (IM) is demonstrated, especially in wound healing and the skin's blood supply. This has long featured in the university's research program. A variety of approaches to the practice of medicine are illustrated with reference to Osler, Garrod, and Doll. IM is believed to underlie contemporarily best practice. Particular emphasis is given to the control of heat, pain, redness, and swelling, all manifestations of inflammation, and the importance of emotion as a stimulus or inhibitor carried by neural pathways. These may explain some unbelievable Asian practices and one of the many roles of Yoga. The concept of Integrative is expanded to include care of the earth and nutrition, the hazards of climate change, Gardens for Health, do (k) no (w) harm as a key to good practice.

  17. Transforming Academic Nursing: From Balance through Integration to Coherence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langston, Nancy F.; Cowling, W. Richard, III; McCain, Nancy L.

    1999-01-01

    The academic mission should move from teaching-research-service to a holistic model with a single, integrative focus on knowledge work. The unity of knowledge development, dissemination, and application by a community of scholars promotes coherence at the university, unit, and scholar level. (SK)

  18. Integrative change model in psychotherapy: Perspectives from Indian thought

    PubMed Central

    Manickam, L. S. S

    2013-01-01

    Different psychotherapeutic approaches claim positive changes in patients as a result of therapy. Explanations related to the change process led to different change models. Some of the change models are experimentally oriented whereas some are theoretical. Apart from the core models of behavioral, psychodynamic, humanistic, cognitive and spiritually oriented models there are specific models, within psychotherapy that explains the change process. Integrative theory of a person as depicted in Indian thought provides a common ground for the integration of various therapies. Integrative model of change based on Indian thought, with specific reference to psychological concepts in Upanishads, Ayurveda, Bhagavad Gita and Yoga are presented. Appropriate psychological tools may be developed in order to help the clinicians to choose the techniques that match the problem and the origin of the dimension. Explorations have to be conducted to develop more techniques that are culturally appropriate and clinically useful. Research has to be initiated to validate the identified concepts. PMID:23858275

  19. [Healthcare Services for Older People: From Fragmentation to Integration].

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang-Kung

    2015-10-01

    The percentage of people aged 65 years and older is estimated to exceed 20% of the total population in Taiwan, which makes Taiwan a "super-aged" country. This rapid demographic transition, unprecedented in human history, presents unique challenges. The health characteristics of older people differ fundamentally from their younger adult peers, especially in terms of the critical impact of disability on health. Therefore, special attention to the interrelationship between multimorbidity and disability is required in order to provide healthcare services that are appropriate and effective. The integrated care approach of Europe, which concurrently addresses the needs of health and social care, has become the important foundation of social security in the European Union. The healthcare services available to older people in Taiwan, including outpatient, inpatient and intermediate care, are far from satisfactory and extensively fragmented. For older people with multimorbidities and / or disabilities, these fragmented healthcare services result in inconvenient access to healthcare and impaired quality of care and quality of life. At present, Taiwan has developed various healthcare models such as integrated outpatient services, age-friendly healthcare facilities, post-acute care, and a 10-year long-term care program. However, the development of these healthcare models clearly demonstrates the need for service integration. Integrated care promotes seamless case management, which aims to provide smooth access for older people with multiple, complex care needs to essential services and comprehensive healthcare benefits. During the process, the integration of services per se should be prioritized over the prompt merging of departments or facilities. The development and success of integrated care depend on the complete understanding of and promotion by the frontline working staff.

  20. Mining and integration of pathway diagrams from imaging data.

    PubMed

    Kozhenkov, Sergey; Baitaluk, Michael

    2012-03-01

    Pathway diagrams from PubMed and World Wide Web (WWW) contain valuable highly curated information difficult to reach without tools specifically designed and customized for the biological semantics and high-content density of the images. There is currently no search engine or tool that can analyze pathway images, extract their pathway components (molecules, genes, proteins, organelles, cells, organs, etc.) and indicate their relationships. Here, we describe a resource of pathway diagrams retrieved from article and web-page images through optical character recognition, in conjunction with data mining and data integration methods. The recognized pathways are integrated into the BiologicalNetworks research environment linking them to a wealth of data available in the BiologicalNetworks' knowledgebase, which integrates data from >100 public data sources and the biomedical literature. Multiple search and analytical tools are available that allow the recognized cellular pathways, molecular networks and cell/tissue/organ diagrams to be studied in the context of integrated knowledge, experimental data and the literature. BiologicalNetworks software and the pathway repository are freely available at www.biologicalnetworks.org. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  1. Mining and integration of pathway diagrams from imaging data

    PubMed Central

    Kozhenkov, Sergey; Baitaluk, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: Pathway diagrams from PubMed and World Wide Web (WWW) contain valuable highly curated information difficult to reach without tools specifically designed and customized for the biological semantics and high-content density of the images. There is currently no search engine or tool that can analyze pathway images, extract their pathway components (molecules, genes, proteins, organelles, cells, organs, etc.) and indicate their relationships. Results: Here, we describe a resource of pathway diagrams retrieved from article and web-page images through optical character recognition, in conjunction with data mining and data integration methods. The recognized pathways are integrated into the BiologicalNetworks research environment linking them to a wealth of data available in the BiologicalNetworks' knowledgebase, which integrates data from >100 public data sources and the biomedical literature. Multiple search and analytical tools are available that allow the recognized cellular pathways, molecular networks and cell/tissue/organ diagrams to be studied in the context of integrated knowledge, experimental data and the literature. Availability: BiologicalNetworks software and the pathway repository are freely available at www.biologicalnetworks.org. Contact: baitaluk@sdsc.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:22267504

  2. Bottom-Up Nanofabrication of Supported Noble Metal Alloy Nanoparticle Arrays for Plasmonics.

    PubMed

    Nugroho, Ferry A A; Iandolo, Beniamino; Wagner, Jakob B; Langhammer, Christoph

    2016-02-23

    Mixing different elements at the nanoscale to obtain alloy nanostructures with fine-tuned physical and chemical properties offers appealing opportunities for nanotechnology and nanoscience. However, despite widespread successful application of alloy nanoparticles made by colloidal synthesis in heterogeneous catalysis, nanoalloy systems have been used very rarely in solid-state devices and nanoplasmonics-related applications. One reason is that such applications require integration in arrays on a surface with compelling demands on nanoparticle arrangement, uniformity in surface coverage, and optimization of the surface density. These cannot be fulfilled even using state-of-the-art self-assembly strategies of colloids. As a solution, we present here a generic bottom-up nanolithography-compatible fabrication approach for large-area arrays of alloy nanoparticles on surfaces. To illustrate the concept, we focus on Au-based binary and ternary alloy systems with Ag, Cu, and Pd, due to their high relevance for nanoplasmonics and complete miscibility, and characterize their optical properties. Moreover, as an example for the relevance of the obtained materials for integration in devices, we demonstrate the superior and hysteresis-free plasmonic hydrogen-sensing performance of the AuPd alloy nanoparticle system.

  3. Integrated process for preparing a carboxylic acid from an alkane

    SciTech Connect

    Benderly, Abraham; Chadda, Nitin; Sevon, Douglass

    2011-12-20

    The present invention relates to an integrated process for producing unsaturated carboxylic acids from the corresponding C.sub.2-C.sub.4 alkane. The process begins with performance of thermally integrated dehydrogenation reactions which convert a C.sub.2-C.sub.4 alkane to its corresponding C.sub.2-C.sub.4 alkene, and which involve exothermically converting a portion of an alkane to its corresponding alkene by oxidative dehydrogenation in an exothermic reaction zone, in the presence of oxygen and a suitable catalyst, and then feeding the products of the exothermic reaction zone to an endothermic reaction zone wherein at least a portion of the remaining unconverted alkane is endothermically dehydrogenated to form an additional quantity of the same corresponding alkene, in the presence of carbon dioxide and an other suitable catalyst. The alkene products of the thermally integrated dehydrogenation reactions are then provided to a catalytic vapor phase partial oxidation process for conversion of the alkene to the corresponding unsaturated carboxylic acid or nitrile. Unreacted alkene and carbon dioxide are recovered from the oxidation product stream and recycled back to the thermally integrated dehydrogenation reactions.

  4. Wind Integration Datasets from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Wind Integration Datasets provide time-series wind data for 2004, 2005, and 2006. They are intended to be used by energy professionals such as transmission planners, utility planners, project developers, and university researchers, helping them to perform comparisons of sites and estimate power production from hypothetical wind plants. NREL cautions that the information from modeled data may not match wind resource information shown on NREL;s state wind maps as they were created for different purposes and using different methodologies.

  5. Nano-fabrication with metallic glass-an exotic material for nano-electromechanical systems.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Parmanand; Kaushik, Neelam; Kimura, Hisamichi; Saotome, Yasunori; Inoue, Akihisa

    2007-01-24

    Completely glassy thin films of Zr-Al-Cu-Ni exhibiting a large supercooled liquid region (DeltaT(x) = 95 K), very smooth surface (R(a) = 0.2 nm) and high value of Vickers hardness (H(v) = 940) were deposited by sputtering. The micro/nano-patterning ability of these films is demonstrated by focused ion beam etching (smallest pattern approximately 12 nm), as well as by the imprint lithography technique (smallest feature approximately 34 nm). These glassy films having very good mechanical and chemical properties, combined with superb nano-patterning ability, integrateable with silicon integrated circuit technology, are promising for fabrication of a wide range of two- or three-dimensional components for future nano-electromechanical systems.

  6. Diffuse continuum emission from the inner Galaxy: First results from INTEGRAL/SPI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strong, A. W.; Bouchet, L.; Diehl, R.; Mandrou, P.; Schönfelder, V.; Teegarden, B. J.

    2003-11-01

    We present a preliminary analysis of the diffuse hard X- and soft gamma -ray continuum emission from the inner Galactic ridge using INTEGRAL/SPI data from the first Galactic Plane Deep Exposure and Galactic Plane Scans. The spectrum is consistent with results from previous experiments. These early results demonstrate the potential of the INTEGRAL mission for improving our understanding of this emission.

  7. Assessing the environmental sustainability of ethanol from integrated biorefineries.

    PubMed

    Falano, Temitope; Jeswani, Harish K; Azapagic, Adisa

    2014-06-01

    This paper considers the life cycle environmental sustainability of ethanol produced in integrated biorefineries together with chemicals and energy. Four types of second-generation feedstocks are considered: wheat straw, forest residue, poplar, and miscanthus. Seven out of 11 environmental impacts from ethanol are negative, including greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, when the system is credited for the co-products, indicating environmental savings. Ethanol from poplar is the best and straw the worst option for most impacts. Land use change from forest to miscanthus increases the GHG emissions several-fold. For poplar, the effect is opposite: converting grassland to forest reduces the emissions by three-fold. Compared to fossil and first-generation ethanol, ethanol from integrated biorefineries is more sustainable for most impacts, with the exception of wheat straw. Pure ethanol saves up to 87% of GHG emissions compared to petrol per MJ of fuel. However, for the current 5% ethanol-petrol blends, the savings are much smaller (<3%). Therefore, unless much higher blends become widespread, the contribution of ethanol from integrated biorefineries to the reduction of GHG emissions will be insignificant. Yet, higher ethanol blends would lead to an increase in some impacts, notably terrestrial and freshwater toxicity as well as eutrophication for some feedstocks.

  8. Assessing the environmental sustainability of ethanol from integrated biorefineries

    PubMed Central

    Falano, Temitope; Jeswani, Harish K; Azapagic, Adisa

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the life cycle environmental sustainability of ethanol produced in integrated biorefineries together with chemicals and energy. Four types of second-generation feedstocks are considered: wheat straw, forest residue, poplar, and miscanthus. Seven out of 11 environmental impacts from ethanol are negative, including greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, when the system is credited for the co-products, indicating environmental savings. Ethanol from poplar is the best and straw the worst option for most impacts. Land use change from forest to miscanthus increases the GHG emissions several-fold. For poplar, the effect is opposite: converting grassland to forest reduces the emissions by three-fold. Compared to fossil and first-generation ethanol, ethanol from integrated biorefineries is more sustainable for most impacts, with the exception of wheat straw. Pure ethanol saves up to 87% of GHG emissions compared to petrol per MJ of fuel. However, for the current 5% ethanol–petrol blends, the savings are much smaller (<3%). Therefore, unless much higher blends become widespread, the contribution of ethanol from integrated biorefineries to the reduction of GHG emissions will be insignificant. Yet, higher ethanol blends would lead to an increase in some impacts, notably terrestrial and freshwater toxicity as well as eutrophication for some feedstocks. PMID:24478110

  9. Power and Integrated Health Care: Shifting from Governance to Governmentality

    PubMed Central

    Rau, Asta; Fourie, Pieter; Bracke, Piet

    2016-01-01

    Integrated care occurs within micro, meso and macro levels of governance structures, which are shaped by complex power dynamics. Yet theoretically-led notions of power, and scrutiny of its meanings and its functioning, are neglected in the literature on integrated care. We explore an alternative approach. Following a discussion on governance, two streams of theorising power are presented: mainstream and second-stream. Mainstream concepts are based on the notion of power-as-capacity, of one agent having the capacity to influence another—so the overall idea is ‘power over?’. Studies on integrated care typically employ mainstream ideas, which yield rather limited analyses. Second-stream concepts focus on strategies and relations of power—how it is channelled, negotiated and (re)produced. These notions align well with the contemporary shift away from the idea that power is centralised, towards more fluid ideas of power as dispersed and (re)negotiated throughout a range of societal structures, networks and actors. Accompanying this shift, the notion of governance is slowly being eclipsed by that of governmentality. We propose governmentality as a valuable perspective for analysing and understanding power in integrated care. Our contribution aims to address the need for more finely tuned theoretical frameworks that can be used to guide empirical work. PMID:28435425

  10. Electromechanical integration of cardiomyocytes derived from human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kehat, Izhak; Khimovich, Leonid; Caspi, Oren; Gepstein, Amira; Shofti, Rona; Arbel, Gil; Huber, Irit; Satin, Jonathan; Itskovitz-Eldor, Joseph; Gepstein, Lior

    2004-10-01

    Cell therapy is emerging as a promising strategy for myocardial repair. This approach is hampered, however, by the lack of sources for human cardiac tissue and by the absence of direct evidence for functional integration of donor cells into host tissues. Here we investigate whether cells derived from human embryonic stem (hES) cells can restore myocardial electromechanical properties. Cardiomyocyte cell grafts were generated from hES cells in vitro using the embryoid body differentiating system. This tissue formed structural and electromechanical connections with cultured rat cardiomyocytes. In vivo integration was shown in a large-animal model of slow heart rate. The transplanted hES cell-derived cardiomyocytes paced the hearts of swine with complete atrioventricular block, as assessed by detailed three-dimensional electrophysiological mapping and histopathological examination. These results demonstrate the potential of hES-cell cardiomyocytes to act as a rate-responsive biological pacemaker and for future myocardial regeneration strategies.

  11. Spin foam models for quantum gravity from lattice path integrals

    SciTech Connect

    Bonzom, Valentin

    2009-09-15

    Spin foam models for quantum gravity are derived from lattice path integrals. The setting involves variables from both lattice BF theory and Regge calculus. The action consists in a Regge action, which depends on areas, dihedral angles and includes the Immirzi parameter. In addition, a measure is inserted to ensure a consistent gluing of simplices, so that the amplitude is dominated by configurations that satisfy the parallel transport relations. We explicitly compute the path integral as a sum over spin foams for a generic measure. The Freidel-Krasnov and Engle-Pereira-Rovelli models correspond to a special choice of gluing. In this case, the equations of motion describe genuine geometries, where the constraints of area-angle Regge calculus are satisfied. Furthermore, the Immirzi parameter drops out of the on-shell action, and stationarity with respect to area variations requires spacetime geometry to be flat.

  12. An overview of the model integration process: From pre-integration assessment to testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    Integration of models requires linking models which can be developed using different tools, methodologies, and assumptions. We performed a literature review with the aim of improving our understanding of model integration process, and also presenting better strategies for buildin...

  13. An overview of the model integration process: From pre-integration assessment to testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    Integration of models requires linking models which can be developed using different tools, methodologies, and assumptions. We performed a literature review with the aim of improving our understanding of model integration process, and also presenting better strategies for buildin...

  14. Integrated pest management: theoretical insights from a threshold policy.

    PubMed

    Costa, Michel I da Silveira; Faria, Lucas Del B

    2010-01-01

    An Integrated Pest Management is formulated as a threshold policy. It is shown that when this strategy is applied to a food web consisting of generalist, specialist predators and endemic and pest prey, the dynamics can be stable and useful from the pest control point of view, despite the dynamical complexities inherent to the application of biocontrol only. In addition, pesticide toxicity depends rather on the species intrinsic parameters than on the chemical agent concentration.

  15. Soap from Nutmeg: An Integrated Introductory Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mattos, Marcio C. S.; Nicodem, David E.

    2002-01-01

    The extraction of trimyristin from nutmeg, its purification, and its conversion to a soap (sodium myristate) are described. Concepts such as the isolation of a natural product, recrystallization, identification of a solid, solubility, acidity and basicity, and organic reaction can be presented to students using integrated experiments in an introductory experimental chemistry laboratory. These experiments can easily be done in three class periods of four hours.

    See Letter re: this article.

  16. An Integrated Nursing Management Information System: From Concept to Reality

    PubMed Central

    Pinkley, Connie L.; Sommer, Patricia K.

    1988-01-01

    This paper addresses the transition from the conceptualization of a Nursing Management Information System (NMIS) integrated and interdependent with the Hospital Information System (HIS) to its realization. Concepts of input, throughout, and output are presented to illustrate developmental strategies used to achieve nursing information products. Essential processing capabilities include: 1) ability to interact with multiple data sources; 2) database management, statistical, and graphics software packages; 3) online, batch and reporting; and 4) interactive data analysis. Challenges encountered in system construction are examined.

  17. Integration of plastids with their hosts: Lessons learned from dinoflagellates

    PubMed Central

    Dorrell, Richard G.; Howe, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    After their endosymbiotic acquisition, plastids become intimately connected with the biology of their host. For example, genes essential for plastid function may be relocated from the genomes of plastids to the host nucleus, and pathways may evolve within the host to support the plastid. In this review, we consider the different degrees of integration observed in dinoflagellates and their associated plastids, which have been acquired through multiple different endosymbiotic events. Most dinoflagellate species possess plastids that contain the pigment peridinin and show extreme reduction and integration with the host biology. In some species, these plastids have been replaced through serial endosymbiosis with plastids derived from a different phylogenetic derivation, of which some have become intimately connected with the biology of the host whereas others have not. We discuss in particular the evolution of the fucoxanthin-containing dinoflagellates, which have adapted pathways retained from the ancestral peridinin plastid symbiosis for transcript processing in their current, serially acquired plastids. Finally, we consider why such a diversity of different degrees of integration between host and plastid is observed in different dinoflagellates and how dinoflagellates may thus inform our broader understanding of plastid evolution and function. PMID:25995366

  18. Ensemble-type numerical uncertainty information from single model integrations

    SciTech Connect

    Rauser, Florian Marotzke, Jochem; Korn, Peter

    2015-07-01

    We suggest an algorithm that quantifies the discretization error of time-dependent physical quantities of interest (goals) for numerical models of geophysical fluid dynamics. The goal discretization error is estimated using a sum of weighted local discretization errors. The key feature of our algorithm is that these local discretization errors are interpreted as realizations of a random process. The random process is determined by the model and the flow state. From a class of local error random processes we select a suitable specific random process by integrating the model over a short time interval at different resolutions. The weights of the influences of the local discretization errors on the goal are modeled as goal sensitivities, which are calculated via automatic differentiation. The integration of the weighted realizations of local error random processes yields a posterior ensemble of goal approximations from a single run of the numerical model. From the posterior ensemble we derive the uncertainty information of the goal discretization error. This algorithm bypasses the requirement of detailed knowledge about the models discretization to generate numerical error estimates. The algorithm is evaluated for the spherical shallow-water equations. For two standard test cases we successfully estimate the error of regional potential energy, track its evolution, and compare it to standard ensemble techniques. The posterior ensemble shares linear-error-growth properties with ensembles of multiple model integrations when comparably perturbed. The posterior ensemble numerical error estimates are of comparable size as those of a stochastic physics ensemble.

  19. National call for organizational change from sheltered to integrated employment.

    PubMed

    Rogan, Patricia; Rinne, Susan

    2011-08-01

    Our purpose in this article is to contend that organizational change from sheltered to integrated employment is not only possible but necessary, and a federal Employment First agenda must be advanced. Findings are reported from interviews with senior managers from 10 organizations that have shifted their service delivery to community employment, and recommendations are provided based on these findings. Results reveal the commonalities among a diverse group of agencies, suggesting the viability of transformation of our current systems with the support and leadership of state and federal agencies and programs.

  20. Software for systems biology: from tools to integrated platforms.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Samik; Matsuoka, Yukiko; Asai, Yoshiyuki; Hsin, Kun-Yi; Kitano, Hiroaki

    2011-11-03

    Understanding complex biological systems requires extensive support from software tools. Such tools are needed at each step of a systems biology computational workflow, which typically consists of data handling, network inference, deep curation, dynamical simulation and model analysis. In addition, there are now efforts to develop integrated software platforms, so that tools that are used at different stages of the workflow and by different researchers can easily be used together. This Review describes the types of software tools that are required at different stages of systems biology research and the current options that are available for systems biology researchers. We also discuss the challenges and prospects for modelling the effects of genetic changes on physiology and the concept of an integrated platform.

  1. Dissociating conflict adaptation from feature integration: a multiple regression approach.

    PubMed

    Notebaert, Wim; Verguts, Tom

    2007-10-01

    Congruency effects are typically smaller after incongruent than after congruent trials. One explanation is in terms of higher levels of cognitive control after detection of conflict (conflict adaptation; e.g., M. M. Botvinick, T. S. Braver, D. M. Barch, C. S. Carter, & J. D. Cohen, 2001). An alternative explanation for these results is based on feature repetition and/or integration effects (e.g., B. Hommel, R. W. Proctor, & K.-P. Vu, 2004; U. Mayr, E. Awh, & P. Laurey, 2003). Previous attempts to dissociate feature integration from conflict adaptation focused on a particular subset of the data in which feature transitions were held constant (J. G. Kerns et al., 2004) or in which congruency transitions were held constant (C. Akcay & E. Hazeltine, in press), but this has a number of disadvantages. In this article, the authors present a multiple regression solution for this problem and discuss its possibilities and pitfalls.

  2. First results from the INTEGRAL galactic plane scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, C.; Gehrels, N.; Schönfelder, V.; Roques, J.-P.; Strong, A. W.; Wunderer, C.; Ubertini, P.; Lebrun, F.; Bazzano, A.; Del Santo, M.; Lund, N.; Westergaard, N. J.; Beckmann, V.; Kretschmar, P.; Mereghetti, S.

    2003-11-01

    Scans of the Galactic plane performed at regular intervals constitute a key element of the guaranteed time observations of the INTEGRAL observing programme. These scans are done for two reasons: frequent monitoring of the Galactic plane in order to detect transient sources, and time resolved mapping of the Galactic plane in continuum and diffuse line emission. This paper describes first results obtained from the Galactic plane scans executed so far during the early phase (Dec. 2002-May 2003) of the nominal mission. Based on observations with INTEGRAL, an ESA project with instruments and science data centre funded by ESA member states (especially the PI countries: Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, Spain), Czech Republic and Poland, and with the participation of Russia and the USA.

  3. Integrative Analysis of Metabolic Models – from Structure to Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Anja; Schreiber, Falk

    2015-01-01

    The characterization of biological systems with respect to their behavior and functionality based on versatile biochemical interactions is a major challenge. To understand these complex mechanisms at systems level modeling approaches are investigated. Different modeling formalisms allow metabolic models to be analyzed depending on the question to be solved, the biochemical knowledge and the availability of experimental data. Here, we describe a method for an integrative analysis of the structure and dynamics represented by qualitative and quantitative metabolic models. Using various formalisms, the metabolic model is analyzed from different perspectives. Determined structural and dynamic properties are visualized in the context of the metabolic model. Interaction techniques allow the exploration and visual analysis thereby leading to a broader understanding of the behavior and functionality of the underlying biological system. The System Biology Metabolic Model Framework (SBM2 – Framework) implements the developed method and, as an example, is applied for the integrative analysis of the crop plant potato. PMID:25674560

  4. Integrated superconducting detectors on semiconductors for quantum optics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaniber, M.; Flassig, F.; Reithmaier, G.; Gross, R.; Finley, J. J.

    2016-05-01

    Semiconductor quantum photonic circuits can be used to efficiently generate, manipulate, route and exploit nonclassical states of light for distributed photon-based quantum information technologies. In this article, we review our recent achievements on the growth, nanofabrication and integration of high-quality, superconducting niobium nitride thin films on optically active, semiconducting GaAs substrates and their patterning to realize highly efficient and ultra-fast superconducting detectors on semiconductor nanomaterials containing quantum dots. Our state-of-the-art detectors reach external detection quantum efficiencies up to 20 % for ~4 nm thin films and single-photon timing resolutions <72 ps. We discuss the integration of such detectors into quantum dot-loaded, semiconductor ridge waveguides, resulting in the on-chip, time-resolved detection of quantum dot luminescence. Furthermore, a prototype quantum optical circuit is demonstrated that enabled the on-chip generation of resonance fluorescence from an individual InGaAs quantum dot, with a linewidth <15 μeV displaced by 1 mm from the superconducting detector on the very same semiconductor chip. Thus, all key components required for prototype quantum photonic circuits with sources, optical components and detectors on the same chip are reported.

  5. CTXφ contains a hybrid genome derived from tandemly integrated elements

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Brigid M.; Waldor, Matthew K.

    2000-01-01

    CTXφ is a filamentous, temperate bacteriophage whose genome includes ctxAB, the genes that encode cholera toxin. In toxigenic isolates of Vibrio cholerae, tandem arrays of prophage DNA, usually interspersed with the related genetic element RS1, are integrated site-specifically within the chromosome. We have discovered that these arrays routinely yield hybrid virions, composed of DNA from two adjacent prophages or from a prophage and a downstream RS1. Coding sequences are always derived from the 5′ prophage whereas most of an intergenic sequence, intergenic region 1, is always derived from the 3′ element. The presence of tandem elements is required for production of virions: V. cholerae strains that contain a solitary prophage rarely yield CTX virions, and the few virions detected result from imprecise excision of prophage DNA. Thus, generation of the replicative form of CTXφ, pCTX, a step that precedes production of virions, does not depend on reversal of the process for site-specific integration of CTXφ DNA into the V. cholerae chromosome. Production of pCTX also does not depend on RecA-mediated homologous recombination between adjacent prophages. We hypothesize that the CTXφ-specific proteins required for replication of pCTX can also function on a chromosomal substrate, and that, unlike the processes used by other integrating phages, production of pCTX and CTXφ does not require excision of the prophage from the chromosome. Use of this replication strategy maximizes vertical transmission of prophage DNA while still enabling dissemination of CTXφ to new hosts. PMID:10880564

  6. Optoelectronic Components and Integration Devices: From Concepts to Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-01

    The fourth part addresses optoelectronic integration techniques such as monolithic integration of different functions but also fiber chip coupling...voltage operation, large bandwidth and monolithic integration with other components such as laser diodes. In Fig. 4 an EAM is sketched which has been...achieved simultaneously. A novel multifunctional device has recently been presented, the electroabsorption modulator integrated into the structure of a

  7. ESA's Integral satellite ready for lift-off from Baikonur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-10-01

    ESA's INTEGRAL (International Gamma Ray Astrophysics Laboratory) satellite, will be launched by a Proton launcher from Baikonur, Kazakhstan on 17 October at 06:41 CEST (Central European Summer Time). The most sensitive gamma-ray observatory ever launched, INTEGRAL is a truly international mission involving all ESA member states plus the USA and Russia. It carries four instruments from teams led by scientists in Italy, France, Germany, Denmark and Spain to gather and analyse gamma-rays, X-rays and visible light from celestial objects. INTEGRAL will give astronomers across the world their clearest views yet of the most extreme environments in the Universe. It will detect radiation from the most violent events far away and from processes that made the Universe inhabitable. Media representatives in Europe can follow the videotransmission of the launch at ESA/Darmstadt (ESOC) in Germany, which will be acting as the main European press centre, ESA/Noordwijk (ESTEC) in the Netherlands, ESA/Frascati (ESRIN) in Italy or ESA/Villafranca (VILSPA) in Spain. At each site ESA specialists will be available for interviews. Media representatives wishing to attend are requested to complete the attached reply form and fax it to the Communication Office at the establishment of their choice. The ESA TV Service will provide video news releases and live coverage of the launch between 06:15-07:00 and 08:00-08:30 CEST. Details of the transmission schedule for the various Video News Releases can be found on http://television.esa.int The launch can also be followed live on the internet at www.esa.int/integrallaunch starting at 06:15 hrs.

  8. Integrated modeling of insect flight: From morphology, kinematics to aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hao

    2009-02-01

    An integrated and rigorous model for the simulation of insect flapping flight is addressed. The method is very versatile, easily integrating the modeling of realistic wing-body morphology, realistic flapping-wing and body kinematics, and unsteady aerodynamics in insect flight. A morphological model is built based on an effective differential geometric method for reconstructing geometry of and a specific grid generator for the wings and body; and a kinematic model is constructed capable to mimic the realistic wing-body kinematics of flapping flight. A fortified FVM-based NS solver for dynamically moving multi-blocked, overset-grid systems is developed and verified to be self-consistent by a variety of benchmark tests; and evaluation of flapping energetics is established on inertial and aerodynamic forces, torques and powers. Validation of this integrated insect dynamic flight simulator is achieved by comparisons of aerodynamic force-production with measurements in terms of the time-varying and mean lift and drag forces. Results for three typical insect hovering flights (hawkmoth, honeybee and fruitfly) over a wide rang of Reynolds numbers from O(10 2) to O(10 4) demonstrate its feasibility in accurately modeling and quantitatively evaluating the unsteady aerodynamic mechanisms in insect flapping flight.

  9. Wearable smart systems: from technologies to integrated systems.

    PubMed

    Lymberis, A

    2011-01-01

    Wearable technology and integrated systems, so called Smart Wearable Systems (SWS) have demonstrated during the last 10-15 years significant advances in terms of, miniaturisation, seamless integration, data processing & communication, functionalisation and comfort. This is mainly due to the huge progress in sciences and technologies e.g. biomedical and micro & nano technologies, but also to a strong demand for new applications such as continuous personal health monitoring, healthy lifestyle support, human performance monitoring and support of professionals at risk. Development of wearable systems based of smart textile have, in addition, benefited from the eagerness of textile industry to develop new value-added apparel products like functionalized garments and smart clothing. Research and development in these areas has been strongly promoted worldwide. In Europe the major R&D activities were supported through the Information & Communication Technologies (ICT) priority of the R&D EU programs. The paper presents and discusses the main achievements towards integrated systems as well as future challenges to be met in order to reach a market with reliable and high value-added products.

  10. Integrating information from different senses in the auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    King, Andrew J; Walker, Kerry M M

    2012-12-01

    Multisensory integration was once thought to be the domain of brain areas high in the cortical hierarchy, with early sensory cortical fields devoted to unisensory processing of inputs from their given set of sensory receptors. More recently, a wealth of evidence documenting visual and somatosensory responses in auditory cortex, even as early as the primary fields, has changed this view of cortical processing. These multisensory inputs may serve to enhance responses to sounds that are accompanied by other sensory cues, effectively making them easier to hear, but may also act more selectively to shape the receptive field properties of auditory cortical neurons to the location or identity of these events. We discuss the new, converging evidence that multiplexing of neural signals may play a key role in informatively encoding and integrating signals in auditory cortex across multiple sensory modalities. We highlight some of the many open research questions that exist about the neural mechanisms that give rise to multisensory integration in auditory cortex, which should be addressed in future experimental and theoretical studies.

  11. From social integration to health: Durkheim in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Berkman, L F; Glass, T; Brissette, I; Seeman, T E

    2000-09-01

    It is widely recognized that social relationships and affiliation have powerful effects on physical and mental health. When investigators write about the impact of social relationships on health, many terms are used loosely and interchangeably including social networks, social ties and social integration. The aim of this paper is to clarify these terms using a single framework. We discuss: (1) theoretical orientations from diverse disciplines which we believe are fundamental to advancing research in this area; (2) a set of definitions accompanied by major assessment tools; and (3) an overarching model which integrates multilevel phenomena. Theoretical orientations that we draw upon were developed by Durkheim whose work on social integration and suicide are seminal and John Bowlby, a psychiatrist who developed attachment theory in relation to child development and contemporary social network theorists. We present a conceptual model of how social networks impact health. We envision a cascading causal process beginning with the macro-social to psychobiological processes that are dynamically linked together to form the processes by which social integration effects health. We start by embedding social networks in a larger social and cultural context in which upstream forces are seen to condition network structure. Serious consideration of the larger macro-social context in which networks form and are sustained has been lacking in all but a small number of studies and is almost completely absent in studies of social network influences on health. We then move downstream to understand the influences network structure and function have on social and interpersonal behavior. We argue that networks operate at the behavioral level through four primary pathways: (1) provision of social support; (2) social influence; (3) on social engagement and attachment; and (4) access to resources and material goods.

  12. Insights and Challenges to Integrating Data from Diverse Ecological Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, D. P. C.

    2014-12-01

    Many of the most dramatic and surprising effects of global change occur across large spatial extents, from regions to continents, that impact multiple ecosystem types across a range of interacting spatial and temporal scales. The ability of ecologists and inter-disciplinary scientists to understand and predict these dynamics depend, in large part, on existing site-based research infrastructures that developed in response to historic events. Integrating these diverse sources of data is critical to addressing these broad-scale questions. A conceptual approach is presented to synthesize and integrate diverse sources and types of data from different networks of research sites. This approach focuses on developing derived data products through spatial and temporal aggregation that allow datasets collected with different methods to be compared. The approach is illustrated through the integration, analysis, and comparison of hundreds of long-term datasets from 50 ecological sites in the US that represent ecosystem types commonly found globally. New insights were found by comparing multiple sites using common derived data. In addition to "bringing to light" many dark data in a standardized, open access, easy-to-use format, a suite of lessons were learned that can be applied to up and coming research networks in the US and internationally. These lessons will be described along with the challenges, including cyber-infrastructure, cultural, and behavioral constraints associated with the use of big and little data, that may keep ecologists and inter-disciplinary scientists from taking full advantage of the vast amounts of existing and yet-to-be exposed data.

  13. Atomic-Level Sculpting of Crystalline Oxides: Toward Bulk Nanofabrication with Single Atomic Plane Precision

    DOE PAGES

    Jesse, Stephen; He, Qian; Lupini, Andrew R.; ...

    2015-10-19

    We demonstrate atomic-level sculpting of 3D crystalline oxide nanostructures from metastable amorphous layer in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). Strontium titanate nanostructures grow epitaxially from the crystalline substrate following the beam path. This method can be used for fabricating crystalline structures as small as 1-2 nm and the process can be observed in situ with atomic resolution. We further demonstrate fabrication of arbitrary shape structures via control of the position and scan speed of the electron beam. Combined with broad availability of the atomic resolved electron microscopy platforms, these observations suggest the feasibility of large scale implementation of bulkmore » atomic-level fabrication as a new enabling tool of nanoscience and technology, providing a bottom-up, atomic-level complement to 3D printing.« less

  14. Atomic-Level Sculpting of Crystalline Oxides: Toward Bulk Nanofabrication with Single Atomic Plane Precision

    SciTech Connect

    Jesse, Stephen; He, Qian; Lupini, Andrew R.; Leonard, Donovan N.; Oxley, Mark P.; Ovchinnikov, Oleg; Unocic, Raymond R.; Tselev, Alexander; Fuentes-Cabrera, Miguel; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Borisevich, Albina Y.

    2015-10-19

    We demonstrate atomic-level sculpting of 3D crystalline oxide nanostructures from metastable amorphous layer in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). Strontium titanate nanostructures grow epitaxially from the crystalline substrate following the beam path. This method can be used for fabricating crystalline structures as small as 1-2 nm and the process can be observed in situ with atomic resolution. We further demonstrate fabrication of arbitrary shape structures via control of the position and scan speed of the electron beam. Combined with broad availability of the atomic resolved electron microscopy platforms, these observations suggest the feasibility of large scale implementation of bulk atomic-level fabrication as a new enabling tool of nanoscience and technology, providing a bottom-up, atomic-level complement to 3D printing.

  15. Atomic-Level Sculpting of Crystalline Oxides: Toward Bulk Nanofabrication with Single Atomic Plane Precision.

    PubMed

    Jesse, Stephen; He, Qian; Lupini, Andrew R; Leonard, Donovan N; Oxley, Mark P; Ovchinnikov, Oleg; Unocic, Raymond R; Tselev, Alexander; Fuentes-Cabrera, Miguel; Sumpter, Bobby G; Pennycook, Stephen J; Kalinin, Sergei V; Borisevich, Albina Y

    2015-11-25

    The atomic-level sculpting of 3D crystalline oxide nanostructures from metastable amorphous films in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) is demonstrated. Strontium titanate nanostructures grow epitaxially from the crystalline substrate following the beam path. This method can be used for fabricating crystalline structures as small as 1-2 nm and the process can be observed in situ with atomic resolution. The fabrication of arbitrary shape structures via control of the position and scan speed of the electron beam is further demonstrated. Combined with broad availability of the atomic resolved electron microscopy platforms, these observations suggest the feasibility of large scale implementation of bulk atomic-level fabrication as a new enabling tool of nanoscience and technology, providing a bottom-up, atomic-level complement to 3D printing.

  16. An Electron Beam Nanolithography System and its Application to Si Nanofabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurihara, Kenji; Iwadate, Kazumi; Namatsu, Hideo; Nagase, Masao; Takenaka, Hisataka; Murase, Katsumi

    1995-12-01

    We present an electron beam nanolithography system which features sub-10-nm beam size over a large 480×480 µ m2 field and a high 70 kV acceleration voltage with a Zr/O/W thermal field emitter tip. A beam can be deflected at 100 MHz in 2-nm steps, which allows the use of highly sensitive resist. The system is equipped with a highly sensitive YAG detector for electrons backscattered from a registration mark as well as a C/W multilayer knife edge for beam size measurement and focusing. These techniques achieve a beam size of about 6 nm. A 10-nm-scale resist pattern was obtained using ZEP520 resist with this system. Furthermore, Si nanostructures have been obtained by using an image reversal process with ECR plasma oxidation. Photoluminescence was observed from the Si nanowires fabricated with this system.

  17. Billiard simulation and FFT analysis of AAS oscillations in nanofabricated InGaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koga, Takaaki; Faniel, Sebastien; Mineshige, Shunsuke; Matsuura, Toru; Sekine, Yoshiaki

    2010-03-01

    Gate-voltage-dependent amplitude of magneto-conductance oscillation was analyzed using FFT method. The obtained FFT spectrum was compared with the areal dependence of the occurrence and spin interferece amplitude, calculated for Altshuler-Aronov-Spivak (AAS) type time-reversal pairs of the interference paths on all possible classical trajectroies that were obtained by extensive billiard simulations within the given structures. We have calcuated generic spin interference (SI) curves as a function of the Rashba parameter α, for various values of the Dresselhaus parameter b41^6c6c [eVå^3]. The comparison between theory and experiment suggested that the value of b41^6c6c should be considerably reduced from 27 eVå^3, the generally known value from the k.p theory.

  18. Development of Novel Preparative Mass Spectrometry Instrumentation for the Advancement of New Materials and Nanofabrication

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-24

    research and development about these complexes from diamond like coatings for wear resistant materials to semiconductor type material seen with...the surface Raman spectra showed that this deposition corresponded to an amorphous sp3 type deposition similar to ta-C ( diamond like carbon... lubrication in MEMS fabricated devices (Figure 3). Soft-landing deposition of C+ at1 Torr for 1hour and 10 mJ laser energy leads to the formation of an sp3

  19. Free energies from integral equation theories: enforcing path independence.

    PubMed

    Kast, Stefan M

    2003-04-01

    A variational formalism is constructed for deriving the chemical potential and the Helmholtz free energy in various statistical-mechanical integral equation theories of fluids. Nonzero bridge functions extending the scope of the theories beyond the hypernetted chain approximation can be classified as to whether or not they imply path dependence of the free energy. Classes of bridge functions free of the path dependence problem are derived, based on which a route is devised toward direct computation of free energies from the simulation of a single state.

  20. Cockpit integration from a pilot's point of view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    Extensive experience in both operational and engineering test flight was used to suggest straightforward changes to helicopter cockpit and control system design that would improve pilot performance in marginal and instrument flight conditions. Needed control system improvements considered include: (1) separation of yaw from cyclic force trim; (2) pedal force proportional to displacement rate; and (3) integration of engine controls in collective stick. Display improvements needed include: (1) natural cuing of yaw rate in attitude indicator; (2) collective position indication and radar altimeter placed within primary scan; and (3) omnidirectional display of full range airspeed data.

  1. Theoretical Application of Irreversible (Nonequilibrium) Thermodynamic Principles to Enhance Solute Fluxes across Nanofabricated Hemodialysis Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Hedayat, Assem; Elmoselhi, Hamdi; Shoker, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Nanotechnology has the potential to improve hemodialysis membrane technology. Thus, a major objective is to understand how to enhance toxic solute fluxes across these membranes. The aim of this concept building study is to review the application of irreversible thermodynamic (IT) to solute fluxes. Methods. We expanded the application of the Nernst-Planck equation to include the Kedem-Katchalsky equation, pH, membrane thickness, pore size, and electric potential as variables. Results. (1) Reducing the membrane's thickness from 25 μm to 25 nm increased the flux of creatinine, β2-microglobulin, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) by a thousand times but prevented completely albumin flux, (2) applying an electric potential of 50–400 mV across the membrane enhanced the flux of the respective molecules by 71.167 × 10−3, 38.7905 × 10−8, and 0.595 × 10−13 mol/s, and (3) changing the pH from 7.35 to 7.42 altered the fluxes minimally. Conclusions. The results supported an argument to investigate the application of IT to study forces of fluxes across membranes. Reducing the membrane's thickness—together with the application of an electrical potential—qualities achievable by nanotechnology, can enhance the removal of uremic toxins by many folds. However, changing the pH at a specific membrane thickness does not affect the flux significantly. PMID:23209903

  2. Low-pressure planar magnetron discharge for surface deposition and nanofabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Baranov, Oleg; Romanov, Maxim; Wolter, Matthias; Kumar, Shailesh; Zhong Xiaoxia; Ostrikov, Kostya

    2010-05-15

    Current-voltage characteristics of the planar magnetron are studied experimentally and by numerical simulation. Based on the measured current-voltage characteristics, a model of the planar magnetron discharge is developed with the background gas pressure and magnetic field used as parameters. The discharge pressure was varied in a range of 0.7-1.7 Pa, the magnetic field of the magnetron was of 0.033-0.12 T near the cathode surface, the discharge current was from 1 to 25 A, and the magnetic field lines were tangential to the substrate surface in the region of the magnetron discharge ignition. The discharge model describes the motion of energetic secondary electrons that gain energy by passing the cathode sheath across the magnetic field, and the power required to sustain the plasma generation in the bulk. The plasma electrons, in turn, are accelerated in the electric field and ionize effectively the background gas species. The model is based on the assumption about the prevailing Bohm mechanism of electron conductivity across the magnetic field. A criterion of the self-sustained discharge ignition is used to establish the dependence of the discharge voltage on the discharge current. The dependence of the background gas density on the current is also observed from the experiment. The model is consistent with the experimental results.

  3. Facing Challenges in Real-Life Application of Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS): Design and Nanofabrication of SERS Substrates for Rapid Field Test of Food Contaminants.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ruyi; Liu, Xiangjiang; Ying, Yibin

    2017-09-18

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is capable of detecting single molecule with high specificity and has become a promising technique for rapid chemical analysis of agricultural products and foods. With a deeper understanding of the SERS effect and advances in nanofabrication technology, SERS is now on the edge of going out of the laboratory and becoming a sophisticated analytical tool to fulfill various real-world tasks. This review focuses on the challenges that SERS has met in this progress, such as how to obtain a reliable SERS signal, improve the sensitivity and specificity in a complex sample matrix, develop simple and user-friendly practical sensing approach, reduce the running cost, etc. This review highlights the new thoughts on design and nanofabrication of SERS-active substrates for solving these challenges and introduces the recent advances of SERS applications in this area. We hope that our discussion will encourage more researches to address these challenges and eventually help to bring SERS technology out of the laboratory.

  4. Investigation of local registration performance of IMS Nanofabrication's Multi-Beam Mask Writer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalom, Daniel; Klikovits, Jan; Geist, David; Hudek, Peter; Eder-Kapl, Stefan; Daneshpanah, Mehdi; Laske, Frank; Eyring, Stefan; Roeth, Klaus-Dieter

    2015-07-01

    Reticles for manufacturing upcoming 10nm and 7nm Logic devices will become very complex, no matter whether 193nm water immersion lithography will continue as main stream production path or EUV lithography will be able to take over volume production of critical layers for the 7nm node. The economic manufacturing of future masks for 193i, EUV and imprint lithography with further increasing complexity drives the need for multi-beam mask writing as this technology can overcome the influence of complexity on write time of today's common variable shape beam writers. Local registration of the multi-beam array is a critical component which greatly differs from variable shape beam systems. In this paper we would like to present the local registration performance of the IMS Multi-Beam Mask Writer system and the metrology tools that enable the characterization optimization.

  5. Multiple display of catalytic modules on a protein scaffold: nano-fabrication of enzyme particles.

    PubMed

    Heyman, Arnon; Barak, Yoav; Caspi, Jonathan; Wilson, David B; Altman, Arie; Bayer, Edward A; Shoseyov, Oded

    2007-09-30

    Self assembly is a prerequisite for fabricating nanoscale structures. Here we present a new fusion protein based on the stress-responsive homo-oligomeric protein, SP1. This ring-shaped protein is a highly stable homododecamer, which can be potentially utilized to self-assemble different modules and enzymes in a predicted and oriented manner. For that purpose, a cohesin module (a component of the bacterial cellulosome) was selected, its gene fused in-frame to SP1, and the fusion protein was expressed in Escherichia coli. The cohesin module, specialized to incorporate different enzymes through specific recognition of a dockerin modular counterpart, is used to display new moieties on the SP1 scaffold. The SP1 scaffold displayed 12 active cohesin modules and specific binding to a dockerin-fused cellulase enzyme from Thermobifida fusca. Moreover, we found a significant increase in specific activity of the scaffold-displayed enzymes.

  6. Reinforcement of osteogenesis with nanofabricated hydroxyapatite and GelMA nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Zhaokai; Chitrakar, Chandani; Gaharwar, Akhilesh K.; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.

    2015-02-01

    Every year in the United States approximately 1.5 million people are suffering from bone fractures. Current treatment solutions include surgeries and grafting process; however, it does not show any osteoconductive action, which is an essential character for biomaterials. The main objective of the reported studies is to develop a novel nanocomposite comprising of hydroxyapatite nanospheres (~40nm) and gelatin methacrylate to promote bone regeneration without any osteoinductive factors. To validate our hypothesis that chemical and mechanical properties of nanocomposite get enhanced, we employed various characterization techniques including Brillouin and Raman spectroscopies. The results imply that hydroxyaoatite nanoparticles are capable of enhancing the macroscopic stiffness at the structural level. To the contrary, Brillouin spectroscopy suggests that the microscopic elasticity of the nanocomposite was weakened.

  7. Surface patterning for brittle amorphous material using nanoindenter-based mechanochemical nanofabrication.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong Woo; Lee, Chae Moon; Choi, Soo Chang; Kim, Yong Woo; Lee, Deug Woo

    2008-02-27

    This paper demonstrates a micro/nanoscale surface patterning technology for brittle material using mechanical and chemical processes. Fused silica was scratched with a Berkovich tip under various normal loads from several mN to several tens of mN with various tip rotations. The scratched substrate was then chemically etched in hydrofluoric solution to evaluate the chemical properties of the different deformed layers produced under various mechanical scratching conditions. Our results showed that either protruding or depressed patterns could be generated on the scratched surface after chemical etching by controlling the tip rotation, the normal load and the etching condition. In addition, the mask effect of amorphous material after mechanical scratching was controlled by conventional mechanical machining conditions such as contact area, chip formation, plastic flow and material removal.

  8. Information Systems Integration and Enterprise Application Integration (EAI) Adoption: A Case from Financial Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Wing

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, organizations find that they need to integrate large number of information systems in order to support enterprise-wide business initiatives such as e-business, supply chain management and customer relationship management. To date, organizations have largely tended to address information systems (IS) integration in an ad-hoc manner.…

  9. Information Systems Integration and Enterprise Application Integration (EAI) Adoption: A Case from Financial Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Wing

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, organizations find that they need to integrate large number of information systems in order to support enterprise-wide business initiatives such as e-business, supply chain management and customer relationship management. To date, organizations have largely tended to address information systems (IS) integration in an ad-hoc manner.…

  10. From Integrative to Game-Based Integrative Peer Response: High Ability versus Low Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, J. H.; Chen, S. Y.; Chang, B.; Chan, T. W.

    2016-01-01

    Peer response is useful to improve student writing. However, traditional peer response takes a single mode, which has some problems, such as effort for preparation of documents or ambiguous feedback. To address these problems, this study presents two peer response approaches, that is, an integrative approach and a game-based integrative approach.…

  11. From Integrative to Game-Based Integrative Peer Response: High Ability versus Low Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, J. H.; Chen, S. Y.; Chang, B.; Chan, T. W.

    2016-01-01

    Peer response is useful to improve student writing. However, traditional peer response takes a single mode, which has some problems, such as effort for preparation of documents or ambiguous feedback. To address these problems, this study presents two peer response approaches, that is, an integrative approach and a game-based integrative approach.…

  12. Knowledge exchange and integrated services: experiences from an integrated community intellectual (learning) disability service for adults.

    PubMed

    Farrington, C; Clare, I C H; Holland, A J; Barrett, M; Oborn, E

    2015-03-01

    This paper examines knowledge exchange dynamics in a specialist integrated intellectual (learning) disability service, comprising specialist healthcare provision with social care commissioning and management, and considers their significance in terms of integrated service delivery. A qualitative study focusing on knowledge exchange and integrated services. Semi-structured interviews (n = 25) were conducted with members of an integrated intellectual disability service in England regarding their perceptions of knowledge exchange within the service and the way in which knowledge exchange impinges on the operation of the integrated service. Exchange of 'explicit' (codifiable) knowledge between health and care management components of the service is problematic because of a lack of integrated clinical governance and related factors such as IT and care record systems and office arrangements. Team meetings and workplace interactions allowed for informal exchange of explicit and 'tacit' (non-codifiable) knowledge, but presented challenges in terms of knowledge exchange completeness and sustainability. Knowledge exchange processes play an important role in the functioning of integrated services incorporating health and care management components. Managers need to ensure that knowledge exchange processes facilitate both explicit and tacit knowledge exchange and do not rely excessively on informal, 'ad hoc' interactions. Research on integrated services should take account of micro-scale knowledge exchange dynamics and relationships between social dynamics and physical factors. © 2014 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Nanofabricated particles for engineered drug therapies: A preliminary biodistribution study of PRINT™ nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Gratton, Stephanie E. A.; Pohlhaus, Patrick D.; Lee, Jin; Guo, Ji; Cho, Moo J.; DeSimone, Joseph M.

    2007-01-01

    A novel method for the fabrication of polymeric particles on the order of tens of nanometers to several microns is described. This imprint lithographic technique called PRINT™ (Particle Replication In Non-wetting Templates), takes advantage of the unique properties of elastomeric molds comprised of a low surface energy perfluoropolyether network, allowing the production of monodisperse, shape-specific nanoparticles from an extensive array of organic precursors. This engineered nature of particle production has a number of advantages over the construction of traditional nanoparticles such as liposomes, dendrimers, and colloidal precipitates. The gentle “top down” approach of PRINT enables the simultaneous and independent control over particle size and shape, composition, and surface functionality, and permits the loading of delicate cargos such as small organic therapeutics and biological macromolecules. Thus, this single tool serves as a comprehensive platform for the rational design and investigation of new nanocarriers in medicine, having applications ranging from therapeutics to advanced diagnostics. Preliminary in vitro and in vivo studies were conducted, demonstrating the future utility of PRINT particles as delivery vectors in nanomedicine. Monodisperse 200 nm poly(ethylene glycol)-based (PEG) particles were fabricated using PRINT methodology and characterized via scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Incubation with HeLa cells showed very little cytotoxicity, even at high concentrations. The biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of [125I]-labeled particles were studied in healthy mice following bolus tail vein administration. The particles were distributed mainly to the liver and the spleen with an apparent distribution t1/2 of approximately 17 min followed by slow redistribution with a t1/2 of 3.3 h. The volume of distribution for the central and peripheral compartments was found to be approximately 3 mL and 5 mL, respectively

  14. An integrated workflow for characterizing intact phosphoproteins from complex mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Si; Yang, Feng; Zhao, Rui; Tolić, Nikola; Robinson, Errol W.; Camp, David; Smith, Richard D.; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana

    2014-01-01

    The phosphorylation of any site on a given protein can affect its activity, degradation rate, ability to dock with other proteins or bind divalent cations, and/or its localization. These effects can operate within the same protein; in fact, multisite phosphorylation is a key mechanism for achieving signal integration in cells. Hence, knowing the overall phosphorylation signature of a protein is essential for understanding the "state" of a cell. However, current technologies to monitor the phosphorylation status of proteins are inefficient at determining the relative stoichiometries of phosphorylation at multiple sites. Here we report a new capability for comprehensive liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis of intact phosphoproteins. The technology platform built upon integrated bottom-up and top-down approach that is facilitated by intact protein reversed-phase (RP)LC concurrently coupled with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) MS and fraction collection. As the use of conventional RPLC systems for phosphopeptide identification has proven challenging due to the formation of metal ion complexes at various metal surfaces during LC/MS and ESI-MS analysis, we have developed a “metal-free” RPLC-ESI-MS platform for phosphoprotein characterization. This platform demonstrated a significant sensitivity enhancement for phosphorylated casein proteins enriched from a standard protein mixture and revealed the presence of over 20 casein isoforms arising from genetic variants with varying numbers of phosphorylation sites. The integrated workflow was also applied to an enriched yeast phosphoproteome to evaluate the feasibility of this strategy for characterizing complex biological systems, and revealed ~16% of the detected yeast proteins to have multiple phosphorylation isoforms. Intact protein LC/MS platform for characterization of combinatorial posttranslational modifications (PTMs), with special emphasis on multisite phosphorylation, holds

  15. Integrated Genomic Map from Uropathogenic Escherichia coli J96

    PubMed Central

    Melkerson-Watson, Lyla J.; Rode, Christopher K.; Zhang, Lixin; Foxman, Betsy; Bloch, Craig A.

    2000-01-01

    Escherichia coli J96 is a uropathogen having both broad similarities to and striking differences from nonpathogenic, laboratory E. coli K-12. Strain J96 contains three large (>100-kb) unique genomic segments integrated on the chromosome; two are recognized as pathogenicity islands containing urovirulence genes. Additionally, the strain possesses a fourth smaller accessory segment of 28 kb and two deletions relative to strain K-12. We report an integrated physical and genetic map of the 5,120-kb J96 genome. The chromosome contains 26 NotI, 13 BlnI, and 7 I-CeuI macrorestriction sites. Macrorestriction mapping was rapidly accomplished by a novel transposon-based procedure: analysis of modified minitransposon insertions served to align the overlapping macrorestriction fragments generated by three different enzymes (each sharing a common cleavage site within the insert), thus integrating the three different digestion patterns and ordering the fragments. The resulting map, generated from a total of 54 mini-Tn10 insertions, was supplemented with auxanography and Southern analysis to indicate the positions of insertionally disrupted aminosynthetic genes and cloned virulence genes, respectively. Thus, it contains not only physical, macrorestriction landmarks but also the loci for eight housekeeping genes shared with strain K-12 and eight acknowledged urovirulence genes; the latter confirmed clustering of virulence genes at the large unique accessory chromosomal segments. The 115-kb J96 plasmid was resolved by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis in NotI digests. However, because the plasmid lacks restriction sites for the enzymes BlnI and I-CeuI, it was visualized in BlnI and I-CeuI digests only of derivatives carrying plasmid inserts artificially introducing these sites. Owing to an I-SceI site on the transposon, the plasmid could also be visualized and sized from plasmid insertion mutants after digestion with this enzyme. The insertional strains generated in construction of

  16. Nanofabrication and ion milling introduced effects on magnetic properties in magnetic recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhenzhong

    Perpendicular magnetic nanostructures have played an important role in magnetic recording technologies. In this dissertation, a systematic study on the CoPt magnetic nanostructures from fabrication, characterization to computer simulation has been performed. During the fabrication process, ion irradiation/bombardment in ion mill can cause physical damage to the magnetic nanostructures and degrade their magnetic properties. To study the effect of ion damage on CoPt nanostructures, different degrees of ion damage are introduced into CoPt nanopillars by varying the accelerating voltage in ion mill. The results demonstrate that the ion damage can reduce the coercivity by softening circumferential edge, and therefore changes the switching mechanism from coherent rotation to nucleation followed by rapid domain wall propagation. The SFD of CoPt nanostructures is independent of ion damage and is mainly determined by the intrinsic anisotropy distribution of the film rather than the nanostructure size distribution. Anisotropy-graded bit-patterned media are fabricated and studied based on high anisotropy L10-FePt material system. L10-FePt thin films with linearly and quadratically distributed anisotropy are achieved by varying substrate temperature during film growth. After patterning, the anisotropy-graded L10-FePt nanopillars display a reduced switching field and maintain a good thermal stability compared to the non-graded one. Experimental investigation and comparison further prove the concept of "anisotropy-graded" bit-patterned media and their potential application in the future magnetic recording. During magnetic write head fabrication, ion-beam damage may degrade the performance of the magnetic write pole. A surface sensitive MOKE is used to characterize the magnetic properties of these etched FeCo films. MOKE measurement shows a hard axis hysteresis loop with a high Mr in the high power etched film due to the ion beam introduced defects. The high power etched film

  17. NanoLiterBioReactor: long-term mammalian cell culture at nanofabricated scale.

    PubMed

    Prokop, Ales; Prokop, Zdenka; Schaffer, David; Kozlov, Eugene; Wikswo, John; Cliffel, David; Baudenbacher, Franz

    2004-12-01

    There is a need for microminiaturized cell-culture environments, i.e. NanoLiter BioReactors (NBRs), for growing and maintaining populations of up to several hundred cultured mammalian cells in volumes three orders of magnitude smaller than those contained in standard multi-well screening plates. These devices would enable the development of a new class of miniature, automated cell-based bioanalysis arrays for monitoring the immediate environment of multiple cell lines and assessing the effects of drug or toxin exposure. We fabricated NBR prototypes, each of which incorporates a culture chamber, inlet and outlet ports, and connecting microfluidic conduits. The fluidic components were molded in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) using soft-lithography techniques, and sealed via plasma activation against a glass slide, which served as the primary culture substrate in the NBR. The input and outlet ports were punched into the PDMS block, and enabled the supply and withdrawal of culture medium into/from the culture chamber (10-100 nL volume), as well as cell seeding. Because of the intrinsically high oxygen permeability of the PDMS material, no additional CO(2)/air supply was necessary. The developmental process for the NBR typically employed several iterations of the following steps: Conceptual design, mask generation, photolithography, soft lithography, and proof-of-concept culture assay. We have arrived at several intermediate designs. One is termed "circular NBR with a central post (CP-NBR)," another, "perfusion (grid) NBR (PG-NBR)," and a third version, "multitrap (cage) NBR (MT-NBR)," the last two providing total cell retention. Three cells lines were tested in detail: a fibroblast cell line, CHO cells, and hepatocytes. Prior to the culturing trials, extensive biocompatibility tests were performed on all materials to be employed in the NBR design. To delineate the effect of cell seeding density on cell viability and survival, we conducted separate plating experiments

  18. NASICs: A 'fabric-centric' approach towards integrated nanosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Pritish

    This dissertation addresses the fundamental problem of how to build computing systems for the nanoscale. With CMOS reaching fundamental limits, emerging nanomaterials such as semiconductor nanowires, carbon nanotubes, graphene etc. have been proposed as promising alternatives. However, nanoelectronics research has largely focused on a 'device-first' mindset without adequately addressing system-level capabilities, challenges for integration and scalable assembly. In this dissertation, we propose to develop an integrated nano-fabric, (broadly defined as nanostructures/devices in conjunction with paradigms for assembly, interconnection and circuit styles), as opposed to approaches that focus on MOSFET replacement devices as the ultimate goal. In the 'fabric-centric' mindset, design choices at individual levels are made compatible with the fabric as a whole and minimize challenges for nanomanufacturing while achieving system-level benefits vs. scaled CMOS. We present semiconductor nanowire based nano-fabrics incorporating these fabric-centric principles called NASICs and N3ASICs and discuss how we have taken them from initial design to experimental prototype. Manufacturing challenges are mitigated through careful design choices at multiple levels of abstraction. Regular fabrics with limited customization mitigate overlay alignment requirements. Cross-nanowire FET devices and interconnect are assembled together as part of the uniform regular fabric without the need for arbitrary fine-grain interconnection at the nanoscale, routing or device sizing. Unconventional circuit styles are devised that are compatible with regular fabric layouts and eliminate the requirement for using complementary devices. Core fabric concepts are introduced and validated. Detailed analyses on device-circuit co-design and optimization, cascading, noise and parameter variation are presented. Benchmarking of nanowire processor designs vs. equivalent scaled 16nm CMOS shows up to 22X area, 30X

  19. Nanofabrication and characterization of PVA-organofiller/Ag nanocoatings on pMAD plasmids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdonmez, D.; Mosayyebi, S.; Erkan, K.; Salimi, K.; Nagizade, N.; Saglam, N.; Rzayev, Z. M. O.

    2014-11-01

    Nowadays, the most important problem in microbial researches is bacterial resistance which is carried out by DNA plasmids against antibacterial agents. The effect of antibacterial nanoparticles on bacteria is remarkable, but studies on the interactions of these particles with plasmids do not search or there are no adequate studies. We proposed that the nanoparticles, which are disrupted the self-assembled structure of plasmids, may decrease the resistance of bacteria, and therefore, increase the activity of utilized antibacterial agents. In this work, we synthesized polymer nanofiber webs samples by electrospinning technique from pure water solution of nanocomposites with different contents of silver nanoparticles, and surface morphology of nanofibers composites were characterized by SEM microscopy. Their interactions with pMAD DNA plasmids were investigated. It was demonstrated that the synthesized Ag-carrying nanohybrid composites with higher surface contacted areas were significantly inhibited the activity of plasmid DNA against bacterial resistance. Agreeing with obtained results, synthesized nanofiber coatings can be recommended for the widely applications in nanobiotechnology, nanomedicine, and bioengineering processing.

  20. Nanofabrication of gate-defined GaAs/AlGaAs lateral quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Bureau-Oxton, Chloé; Camirand Lemyre, Julien; Pioro-Ladrière, Michel

    2013-11-01

    A quantum computer is a computer composed of quantum bits (qubits) that takes advantage of quantum effects, such as superposition of states and entanglement, to solve certain problems exponentially faster than with the best known algorithms on a classical computer. Gate-defined lateral quantum dots on GaAs/AlGaAs are one of many avenues explored for the implementation of a qubit. When properly fabricated, such a device is able to trap a small number of electrons in a certain region of space. The spin states of these electrons can then be used to implement the logical 0 and 1 of the quantum bit. Given the nanometer scale of these quantum dots, cleanroom facilities offering specialized equipment- such as scanning electron microscopes and e-beam evaporators- are required for their fabrication. Great care must be taken throughout the fabrication process to maintain cleanliness of the sample surface and to avoid damaging the fragile gates of the structure. This paper presents the detailed fabrication protocol of gate-defined lateral quantum dots from the wafer to a working device. Characterization methods and representative results are also briefly discussed. Although this paper concentrates on double quantum dots, the fabrication process remains the same for single or triple dots or even arrays of quantum dots. Moreover, the protocol can be adapted to fabricate lateral quantum dots on other substrates, such as Si/SiGe.

  1. Nanofabrication at 1nm resolution by quantum optical lithography (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavel, Eugen

    2015-08-01

    A major problem in the optical lithography was the diffraction limit. Here, we report and demonstrate a lithography method, Quantum Optical Lithography [1,2], able to attain 1 nm resolution by optical means using new materials (fluorescent photosensitive glass-ceramics and QMC-5 resist). The performance is several times better than that described for any optical or Electron Beam Lithography (EBL) methods. In Fig. 1 we present TEM images of 1 nm lines recorded at 9.6 m/s. a) b) Fig. 1 TEM images of: a) multiple 1 nm lines written in a fluorescent photosensitive glass-ceramics sample; b) single 1 nm line written in QMC-5 resist. References [1] E. Pavel, S. Jinga, B.S. Vasile, A. Dinescu, V. Marinescu, R. Trusca and N. Tosa, "Quantum Optical Lithography from 1 nm resolution to pattern transfer on silicon wafer", Optics and Laser Technology, 60 (2014) 80-84. [2] E. Pavel, S. Jinga, E. Andronescu, B.S. Vasile, G. Kada, A. Sasahara, N. Tosa, A. Matei, M. Dinescu, A. Dinescu and O.R. Vasile, "2 nm Quantum Optical Lithography", Optics Communications,291 (2013) 259-263

  2. Nanofabrication of methylglyoxal with chitosan biopolymer: a potential tool for enhancement of its anticancer effect

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Aparajita; Talukdar, Dipa; Roy, Anirban; Ray, Subhankar; Mallick, Asish; Mandal, Chitra; Ray, Manju

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The normal metabolite methylglyoxal (MG) specifically kills cancer cells by inhibiting glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration without much adverse effect upon normal cells. Though the anticancer property of MG is well documented, its gradual enzymatic degradation in vivo has prompted interest in developing a nanoparticulate drug delivery system to protect it and also to enhance its efficacy. Materials and methods MG-conjugated chitosan nanoparticles (Nano-MG) were prepared by conjugating the carbonyl group of MG with the amino group of chitosan polymer (Schiff’s base formation). Nano-MG were characterized in detail using the dynamic light scattering method, zeta potential measurement, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopic analysis. Amount of MG anchored to Nano-MG, stability of Nano-MG, and in vitro release of MG from Nano-MG were estimated spectrophotometrically. Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells, human breast cancer cell line HBL-100, and lung epithelial adenocarcinoma cell line A549 were used as test systems to compare Nano-MG with bare MG in vitro. Cytotoxicity to EAC cells was evaluated by the trypan blue dye exclusion test, and cell viability of HBL-100 and A549 cells were studied using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl) 2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Apoptosis of HBL-100 cells was assessed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. In vivo studies were performed on both EAC cells inoculated and also in sarcoma-180-induced solid tumor-bearing Swiss albino mice to assess the anticancer activity of Nano-MG in comparison to bare MG with varying doses, times, and administrative routes. Results Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the presence of imine groups in Nano-MG due to conjugation of the amino group of chitosan and carbonyl group of MG with diameters of nanoparticles ranging from 50–100 nm. The zeta potential of Nano-MG was +21 mV and they contained approximately 100 μg of MG

  3. Quantifying chaotic dynamics from integrate-and-fire processes

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlov, A. N.; Pavlova, O. N.; Mohammad, Y. K.; Kurths, J.

    2015-01-15

    Characterizing chaotic dynamics from integrate-and-fire (IF) interspike intervals (ISIs) is relatively easy performed at high firing rates. When the firing rate is low, a correct estimation of Lyapunov exponents (LEs) describing dynamical features of complex oscillations reflected in the IF ISI sequences becomes more complicated. In this work we discuss peculiarities and limitations of quantifying chaotic dynamics from IF point processes. We consider main factors leading to underestimated LEs and demonstrate a way of improving numerical determining of LEs from IF ISI sequences. We show that estimations of the two largest LEs can be performed using around 400 mean periods of chaotic oscillations in the regime of phase-coherent chaos. Application to real data is discussed.

  4. [From virtue bioethics to bioethics personalistic: is integration possible?].

    PubMed

    Pastor, Luis Miguel

    2013-01-01

    In this article we analyze how the idea of virtue as an important element of human ethical action is slowly being lost. There are proposals both in ethics and in bioethics to rehabilitate virtue and to consider it as a very important element of human morality. In particular, in the health sector the rehabilitation of virtue, would imply greater focus on the ethical character of professionals and personal improvement rather than on training for the resolution of ethical cases. Such guidance would also improve the health professional-patient relationship with an increase not only in the technical quality but also in human dimension of health sciences. However, this orientation or tendency in bioethics suffers from a deficit in reasoning due to lack of a complete theory of human action that covers the good and also norms. The second part of the article looks at the relation between of virtue and personalistic bioethics. Virtue is considered as an important element of human action and is integrated with the good and norms. After analyzing and distinguishing between what is today considered personalistic bioethics and the contributions of personalism to bioethics, the paper concludes that the integration of virtue in personalistic bioethics is not only possible but desirable to overcome the ethical minimalism that has resulted from modern day principlism driven bioethics.

  5. Integrated results from the COPERNICUS and GALILEO studies

    PubMed Central

    Pielen, Amelie; Clark, W Lloyd; Boyer, David S; Ogura, Yuichiro; Holz, Frank G; Korobelnik, Jean-Francois; Stemper, Brigitte; Asmus, Friedrich; Rittenhouse, Kay D; Ahlers, Christiane; Vitti, Robert; Saroj, Namrata; Zeitz, Oliver; Haller, Julia A

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To report on the efficacy and safety of intravitreal aflibercept in patients with macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) in an integrated analysis of COPERNICUS and GALILEO. Patients and methods Patients were randomized to receive intravitreal aflibercept 2 mg every 4 weeks or sham injections until week 24. From week 24 to week 52, all intravitreal aflibercept-treated patients in both studies and sham-treated patients in COPERNICUS were eligible to receive intravitreal aflibercept based on prespecified criteria. In GALILEO, sham-treated patients continued to receive sham treatment through week 52. Results At week 24, mean gain in best-corrected visual acuity and mean reduction in central retinal thickness were greater for intravitreal aflibercept-treated patients compared with sham, consistent with individual trial results. At week 52, after 6 months of intravitreal aflibercept as-needed treatment in COPERNICUS, patients originally randomized to sham group experienced visual and anatomic improvements but did not improve to the extent of those initially treated with intravitreal aflibercept, while the sham group in GALILEO did not improve over week 24 mean best-corrected visual acuity scores. Ocular serious adverse events occurred in <10% of patients. Conclusion This analysis of integrated data from COPERNICUS and GALILEO confirmed that intravitreal aflibercept is an effective treatment for macular edema following CRVO. PMID:28883712

  6. Integrated results from the COPERNICUS and GALILEO studies.

    PubMed

    Pielen, Amelie; Clark, W Lloyd; Boyer, David S; Ogura, Yuichiro; Holz, Frank G; Korobelnik, Jean-Francois; Stemper, Brigitte; Asmus, Friedrich; Rittenhouse, Kay D; Ahlers, Christiane; Vitti, Robert; Saroj, Namrata; Zeitz, Oliver; Haller, Julia A

    2017-01-01

    To report on the efficacy and safety of intravitreal aflibercept in patients with macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) in an integrated analysis of COPERNICUS and GALILEO. Patients were randomized to receive intravitreal aflibercept 2 mg every 4 weeks or sham injections until week 24. From week 24 to week 52, all intravitreal aflibercept-treated patients in both studies and sham-treated patients in COPERNICUS were eligible to receive intravitreal aflibercept based on prespecified criteria. In GALILEO, sham-treated patients continued to receive sham treatment through week 52. At week 24, mean gain in best-corrected visual acuity and mean reduction in central retinal thickness were greater for intravitreal aflibercept-treated patients compared with sham, consistent with individual trial results. At week 52, after 6 months of intravitreal aflibercept as-needed treatment in COPERNICUS, patients originally randomized to sham group experienced visual and anatomic improvements but did not improve to the extent of those initially treated with intravitreal aflibercept, while the sham group in GALILEO did not improve over week 24 mean best-corrected visual acuity scores. Ocular serious adverse events occurred in <10% of patients. This analysis of integrated data from COPERNICUS and GALILEO confirmed that intravitreal aflibercept is an effective treatment for macular edema following CRVO.

  7. Structure of an integral membrane sterol reductase from Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaochun; Roberti, Rita; Blobel, Günter

    2014-01-01

    Sterols are essential biological molecules in the majority of life forms. Sterol reductases1 including Delta-14 sterol reductase (C14SR), 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR7) and 24-dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR24) reduce specific carbon-carbon double bonds of the sterol moiety using a reducing cofactor during sterol biosynthesis. Lamin B Receptor2 (LBR), an integral inner nuclear membrane protein, also contains a functional C14SR domain. Here we report the crystal structure of a Delta-14 sterol reductase (maSR1) from the methanotrophic bacterium Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum 20Z, a homolog of human C14SR, LBR, and DHCR7, with the cofactor NADPH. The enzyme contains 10 transmembrane segments (TM). Its catalytic domain comprises the C-terminal half (containing TM6-10) and envelops two interconnected pockets, one of which faces the cytoplasm and houses NADPH, while the other one is accessible from the lipid bilayer. Comparison with a soluble steroid 5β-reductase structure3 suggests that the reducing end of NADPH meets the sterol substrate at the juncture of the two pockets. A sterol reductase activity assay proves maSR1 can reduce the double bond of a cholesterol biosynthetic intermediate demonstrating functional conservation to human C14SR. Therefore, our structure as a prototype of integral membrane sterol reductases provides molecular insight into mutations in DHCR7 and LBR for inborn human diseases. PMID:25307054

  8. A Strategy for Integrated Water Cycle Observations from Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, E. F.; Houser, P. R.

    2005-12-01

    cycle variables from a single satellite platform with sensors for multiple frequencies, combining passive and active sensors, and perhaps lidar. By consistency between observations and models, we mean the satellite observations be processed and utilized in an integrated manner with water cycle models. By recognizing that there are fast and slow components to the hydrosphere, an observational strategy can be developed that combines sensors in either Geostationary Earth Obit (GEO) for the fast components or Low Earth (polar) Orbit (LEO) for the slow components. The talk will present the challenges that need to be addressed and a roadmap for this vision. The challenges in developing an integrated observation strategy include innovative sensor and antennae technology, including the identification and selection of frequencies and sensors to meet the needs of water cycle research. For the modeling component, the challenge is in developing computational solutions that extract the maximum information from the integrated observations. This includes both retrieval algorithms that better relate model variables to satellite measurements and land models that more effectively reflect and describe the retrieved variables.

  9. The Evolution from Integration to Inclusion: The Hong Kong Tale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon-McBrayer, Kim Fong

    2014-01-01

    As a worldwide movement, some forms or stages of inclusive education have been experimented and/or mandated in various countries since the mid-1970s. Integration was piloted in Hong Kong in 1997 and remains the official rhetoric and policy. Three developmental phases of inclusive education, namely, integration, integration in transition to…

  10. The Evolution from Integration to Inclusion: The Hong Kong Tale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon-McBrayer, Kim Fong

    2014-01-01

    As a worldwide movement, some forms or stages of inclusive education have been experimented and/or mandated in various countries since the mid-1970s. Integration was piloted in Hong Kong in 1997 and remains the official rhetoric and policy. Three developmental phases of inclusive education, namely, integration, integration in transition to…

  11. Integrating heterogeneous drug sensitivity data from cancer pharmacogenomic studies

    PubMed Central

    Pozdeyev, Nikita; Yoo, Minjae; Mackie, Ryan; Schweppe, Rebecca E.; Tan, Aik Choon; Haugen, Bryan R.

    2016-01-01

    The consistency of in vitro drug sensitivity data is of key importance for cancer pharmacogenomics. Previous attempts to correlate drug sensitivities from the large pharmacogenomics databases, such as the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE) and the Genomics of Drug Sensitivity in Cancer (GDSC), have produced discordant results. We developed a new drug sensitivity metric, the area under the dose response curve adjusted for the range of tested drug concentrations, which allows integration of heterogeneous drug sensitivity data from the CCLE, the GDSC, and the Cancer Therapeutics Response Portal (CTRP). We show that there is moderate to good agreement of drug sensitivity data for many targeted therapies, particularly kinase inhibitors. The results of this largest cancer cell line drug sensitivity data analysis to date are accessible through the online portal, which serves as a platform for high power pharmacogenomics analysis. PMID:27322211

  12. Lessons learned from CIRFT testing on SNF vibration integrity study

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jy-An John; Wang, Hong; Jiang, Hao; Bevard, Bruce Balkcom; Howard, Rob L.; Scaglione, John M.

    2015-01-01

    A cyclic integrated reversible-bending fatigue tester (CIRFT) was developed to support U.S. NRC and DOE Used Fuel Disposition Campaign studies on high burn-up (HBU) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) transportation during normal conditions of transport (NCT). Two devices were developed; the first CIRFT was successfully installed and operated in the ORNL hot-cells in September 2013. Since hot cell testing commenced several HBU SNF samples from both Zr-4 and M5 clads were investigated. The second CIRFT device was developed in February 2014, and has been used to test clad/fuel surrogate rods (stainless steel with alumina pellet inserts). The second CIRFT machine has also been used for sensor development and test sensitivity analyses, as well as loading boundary condition parameter studies. The lessons learned from CIRFT testing will be presented in this paper.

  13. Discrete Integrable Systems and Poisson Algebras From Cluster Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fordy, Allan P.; Hone, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    We consider nonlinear recurrences generated from cluster mutations applied to quivers that have the property of being cluster mutation-periodic with period 1. Such quivers were completely classified by Fordy and Marsh, who characterised them in terms of the skew-symmetric matrix that defines the quiver. The associated nonlinear recurrences are equivalent to birational maps, and we explain how these maps can be endowed with an invariant Poisson bracket and/or presymplectic structure. Upon applying the algebraic entropy test, we are led to a series of conjectures which imply that the entropy of the cluster maps can be determined from their tropical analogues, which leads to a sharp classification result. Only four special families of these maps should have zero entropy. These families are examined in detail, with many explicit examples given, and we show how they lead to discrete dynamics that is integrable in the Liouville-Arnold sense.

  14. LSST mirror system status: from design to fabrication and integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araujo-Hauck, Constanza; Sebag, Jacques; Liang, Ming; Neill, Douglas; Muller, Gary; Thomas, Sandrine J.; Vucina, Tomislav; Gressler, William J.

    2016-07-01

    In the construction phase since 2014, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is an 8.4 meter diameter wide-field (3.5 degrees) survey telescope located on the summit of Cerro Pachón in Chile. The reflective telescope uses an 8.4 m f/1.06 concave primary, an annular 3.4 m meniscus convex aspheric secondary and a 5.2 m concave tertiary. The primary and tertiary mirrors are aspheric surfaces figured from a monolithic substrate and referred to as the M1M3 mirror. This unique design offers significant advantages in the reduction of degrees of freedom, improved structural stiffness for the otherwise annular surfaces, and enables a very compact design. The three-mirror system feeds a threeelement refractive corrector to produce a 3.5 degree diameter field of view on a 64 cm diameter flat focal surface. This paper describes the current status of the mirror system components and provides an overview of the upcoming milestones including the mirror coating and the mirror system integrated tests prior to summit integration.

  15. From conformal blocks to path integrals in the Vaidya geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anous, Tarek; Hartman, Thomas; Rovai, Antonin; Sonner, Julian

    2017-09-01

    Correlators in conformal field theory are naturally organized as a sum over conformal blocks. In holographic theories, this sum must reorganize into a path integral over bulk fields and geometries. We explore how these two sums are related in the case of a point particle moving in the background of a 3d collapsing black hole. The conformal block expansion is recast as a sum over paths of the first-quantized particle moving in the bulk geometry. Off-shell worldlines of the particle correspond to subdominant contributions in the Euclidean conformal block expansion, but these same operators must be included in order to correctly reproduce complex saddles in the Lorentzian theory. During thermalization, a complex saddle dominates under certain circumstances; in this case, the CFT correlator is not given by the Virasoro identity block in any channel, but can be recovered by summing heavy operators. This effectively converts the conformal block expansion in CFT from a sum over intermediate states to a sum over channels that mimics the bulk path integral.

  16. MALDI tissue profiling of integral membrane proteins from ocular tissues.

    PubMed

    Thibault, Danielle B; Gillam, Christopher J; Grey, Angus C; Han, Jun; Schey, Kevin L

    2008-06-01

    MALDI tissue profiling and imaging have become valuable tools for rapid, direct analysis of tissues to investigate spatial distributions of proteins, potentially leading to an enhanced understanding of the molecular basis of disease. Sample preparation methods developed to date for these techniques produce protein expression profiles from predominantly hydrophilic, soluble proteins. The ability to obtain information about the spatial distribution of integral membrane proteins is critical to more fully understand their role in physiological processes, including transport, adhesion, and signaling. In this article, a sample preparation method for direct tissue profiling of integral membrane proteins is presented. Spatially resolved profiles for the abundant lens membrane proteins aquaporin 0 (AQP0) and MP20, and the retinal membrane protein opsin, were obtained using this method. MALDI tissue profiling results were validated by analysis of dissected tissue prepared by traditional membrane protein processing methods. Furthermore, direct tissue profiling of lens membrane proteins revealed age related post-translational modifications, as well as a novel modification that had not been detected using conventional tissue homogenization methods.

  17. 45 CFR 61.12 - Requesting information from the Healthcare Integrity and Protection Data Bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Integrity and Protection Data Bank. 61.12 Section 61.12 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION HEALTHCARE INTEGRITY AND PROTECTION DATA BANK FOR FINAL ADVERSE INFORMATION... Integrity and Protection Data Bank § 61.12 Requesting information from the Healthcare Integrity and...

  18. From anticipation to integration: the role of integrated action-effects in building sensorimotor contingencies.

    PubMed

    Camus, Thomas; Hommel, Bernhard; Brunel, Lionel; Brouillet, Thibaut

    2017-05-23

    Ideomotor approaches to action control have provided evidence that the activation of an anticipatory image of previously learned action-effects plays a decisive role in action selection. This study sought for converging evidence by combining three previous experimental paradigms: the response-effect compatibility protocol introduced by Kunde (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 27(2), 387-394, 2001), the acquisition-test paradigm developed by Elsner and Hommel (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 27(1), 229, 2001), and the object-action compatibility manipulation of Tucker and Ellis (Visual Cognition, 8(6), 769-800, 2001). Three groups of participants first performed a response-effect compatibility task, in which they carried out power and precision grasps that produced either grasp-compatible or grasp-incompatible pictures, or no action effects. Performance was better in the compatible than in the incompatible group, which replicates previous observations and extends them to relationships between grasps and objects. Then, participants were to categorize object pictures by carrying out grasp responses. Apart from replicating previous findings of better performance in trials in which object size and grasp type was compatible, we found that this stimulus-response compatibility effect depended on previous response-effect learning. Taken together, these findings support the assumption that the experience of action-effect contingencies establishes durable event files that integrate representations of actions and their effects.

  19. The Glory Program: Global Science from a Unique Spacecraft Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bajpayee Jaya; Durham, Darcie; Ichkawich, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The Glory program is an Earth and Solar science mission designed to broaden science community knowledge of the environment. The causes and effects of global warming have become a concern in recent years and Glory aims to contribute to the knowledge base of the science community. Glory is designed for two functions: one is solar viewing to monitor the total solar irradiance and the other is observing the Earth s atmosphere for aerosol composition. The former is done with an active cavity radiometer, while the latter is accomplished with an aerosol polarimeter sensor to discern atmospheric particles. The Glory program is managed by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) with Orbital Sciences in Dulles, VA as the prime contractor for the spacecraft bus, mission operations, and ground system. This paper will describe some of the more unique features of the Glory program including the integration and testing of the satellite and instruments as well as the science data processing. The spacecraft integration and test approach requires extensive analysis and additional planning to ensure existing components are successfully functioning with the new Glory components. The science mission data analysis requires development of mission unique processing systems and algorithms. Science data analysis and distribution will utilize our national assets at the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) and the University of Colorado's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP). The Satellite was originally designed and built for the Vegetation Canopy Lidar (VCL) mission, which was terminated in the middle of integration and testing due to payload development issues. The bus was then placed in secure storage in 2001 and removed from an environmentally controlled container in late 2003 to be refurbished to meet the Glory program requirements. Functional testing of all the components was done as a system at the start of the program, very different from a traditional program

  20. Crossover from BCS to Bose superconductivity: A functional integral approach

    SciTech Connect

    Randeria, M.; Sa de Melo, C.A.R.; Engelbrecht, J.R.

    1993-04-01

    We use a functional integral formulation to study the crossover from cooperative Cooper pairing to the formation and condensation of tightly bound pairs in a 3D continuum model of fermions with attractive interactions. The inadequacy of a saddle point approximation with increasing coupling is pointed out, and the importance of temporal (quantum) fluctuations for normal state properties at intermediate and strong coupling is emphasized. In addition to recovering the Nozieres-Schmitt-Pink interpolation scheme for T{sub c}, and the Leggett variational results for T = 0, we also present results for evolution of the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation and collective mode spectrum as a function of the coupling.

  1. Spectral duality in integrable systems from AGT conjecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, A.; Morozov, A.; Zenkevich, Y.; Zotov, A.

    2013-03-01

    We describe relationships between integrable systems with N degrees of freedom arising from the Alday-Gaiotto-Tachikawa conjecture. Namely, we prove the equivalence (spectral duality) between the N-cite Heisenberg spin chain and a reduced gl N Gaudin model both at classical and quantum level. The former one appears on the gauge theory side of the Alday-Gaiotto-Tachikawa relation in the Nekrasov-Shatashvili (and further the Seiberg-Witten) limit while the latter one is natural on the CFT side. At the classical level, the duality transformation relates the Seiberg-Witten differentials and spectral curves via a bispectral involution. The quantum duality extends this to the equivalence of the corresponding Baxter-Schrödinger equations (quantum spectral curves). This equivalence generalizes both the spectral self-duality between the 2 × 2 and N × N representations of the Toda chain and the famous Adams-Harnad-Hurtubise duality.

  2. Spin diffusion from an inhomogeneous quench in an integrable system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ljubotina, Marko; Žnidarič, Marko; Prosen, Tomaž

    2017-07-01

    Generalized hydrodynamics predicts universal ballistic transport in integrable lattice systems when prepared in generic inhomogeneous initial states. However, the ballistic contribution to transport can vanish in systems with additional discrete symmetries. Here we perform large scale numerical simulations of spin dynamics in the anisotropic Heisenberg XXZ spin 1/2 chain starting from an inhomogeneous mixed initial state which is symmetric with respect to a combination of spin reversal and spatial reflection. In the isotropic and easy-axis regimes we find non-ballistic spin transport which we analyse in detail in terms of scaling exponents of the transported magnetization and scaling profiles of the spin density. While in the easy-axis regime we find accurate evidence of normal diffusion, the spin transport in the isotropic case is clearly super-diffusive, with the scaling exponent very close to 2/3, but with universal scaling dynamics which obeys the diffusion equation in nonlinearly scaled time.

  3. Integrating mental health into general health care: lessons from HIV.

    PubMed

    Joska, J A; Sorsdahl, K R

    2012-11-01

    Mental disorders are highly prevalent across all health settings. Where they are co-morbid with other chronic physical disorders, a complex bidirectional relationship exists between them. While mental disorders may result in an increase in adverse healthrelated outcomes, they are amenable to cost-effective treatments. In resource-limited settings, many barriers to the detection and treatment of mental disorders exist. One approach to the effective targeting of the available resources is to utilize a "risk-flag" approach, wherein individuals at-risk of treatment failure are identified and routed into more intensive mental health screening and intervention. This paper discusses how lessons from HIV services may inform how to improve mental health care and integration in HIV settings, as well as in other chronic diseases.

  4. Enhancers as information integration hubs in development: lessons from genomics

    PubMed Central

    Buecker, Christa; Wysocka, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional enhancers are the primary determinants of tissue-specific gene expression. Although the majority of our current knowledge of enhancer elements comes from detailed analyses of individual loci, recent progress in epigenomics has led to the development of methods for comprehensive and conservation-independent annotation of cell type-specific enhancers. Here, we discuss the advantages and limitations of different genomic approaches to enhancer mapping and summarize observations that have been afforded by the genome-wide views of enhancer landscapes, with a focus on development. We propose that enhancers serve as information integration hubs, at which instructions encoded by the genome are read in the context of a specific cellular state, signaling milieu and chromatin environment, allowing for exquisitely precise spatiotemporal control of gene expression during embryogenesis. PMID:22487374

  5. An integrative intervention for promoting recovery from extramarital affairs.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Kristina Coop; Baucom, Donald H; Snyder, Douglas K

    2004-04-01

    The discovery or disclosure of an extramarital affair can have a devastating impact on partners, both individually and on the relationships. Research suggests that affairs occur relatively frequently in relationships and are a common presenting problem in couple therapy. However, despite their prevalence, there is little empirical treatment research in this area, and most therapists describe this problem as one of the more difficult to treat. In this study, we used a replicated case-study design to explore the efficacy of an integrative treatment designed to help couples recover from an affair. Six couples entered and completed treatment. The majority of these couples were less emotionally or maritally distressed at the end of treatment, and the injured partners reported greater forgiveness regarding the affair. Details of the intervention, suggested adaptations of the treatment, and areas for future research are discussed.

  6. INTEGRAL detects renewed activity from IGR J19294+1816

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiocchi, M.; Drave, S. P.; Chenevez, J.; Sidoli, L.; Sguera; Bird, A. J.; Kuulkers, E.; Natalucci, L.; Tarana, A.

    2012-05-01

    During recent INTEGRAL Galactic Plane Scanning observation (PI: A. Bazzano), starting 2012 may 26 at 10:38 UTC (total exposure time ~36.3 ks), IBIS/ISGRI detected renewed activity from the transient binary system IGR J19294+1816 (Atel #1997). This hard X-ray transient was detected at about 9 sigma in the IBIS map 18-40 keV, with a flux of 18+/-2 mCrab (uncertainties at 90% c.l.). Its 18-60 keV spectrum is well fitted by a power law model with photon index of 3.6(+0.8,-0.7) and reduced chi-squared of 0.97 (15 d.o.f.).

  7. Meat science: From proteomics to integrated omics towards system biology.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, Angelo; Zolla, Lello

    2013-01-14

    Since the main ultimate goal of farm animal raising is the production of proteins for human consumption, research tools to investigate proteins play a major role in farm animal and meat science. Indeed, proteomics has been applied to the field of farm animal science to monitor in vivo performances of livestock animals (growth performances, fertility, milk quality etc.), but also to further our understanding of the molecular processes at the basis of meat quality, which are largely dependent on the post mortem biochemistry of the muscle, often in a species-specific way. Post mortem alterations to the muscle proteome reflect the biological complexity of the process of "muscle to meat conversion," a process that, despite decades of advancements, is all but fully understood. This is mainly due to the enormous amounts of variables affecting meat tenderness per se, including biological factors, such as animal species, breed specific-characteristic, muscle under investigation. However, it is rapidly emerging that the tender meat phenotype is not only tied to genetics (livestock breeding selection), but also to extrinsic factors, such as the rearing environment, feeding conditions, physical activity, administration of hormonal growth promotants, pre-slaughter handling and stress, post mortem handling. From this intricate scenario, biochemical approaches and systems-wide integrated investigations (metabolomics, transcriptomics, interactomics, phosphoproteomics, mathematical modeling), which have emerged as complementary tools to proteomics, have helped establishing a few milestones in our understanding of the events leading from muscle to meat conversion. The growing integration of omics disciplines in the field of systems biology will soon contribute to take further steps forward. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Integrated flash flood vulnerability assessment: Insights from East Attica, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karagiorgos, Konstantinos; Thaler, Thomas; Heiser, Micha; Hübl, Johannes; Fuchs, Sven

    2016-10-01

    In the framework of flood risk assessment, vulnerability is a key concept to assess the susceptibility of elements at risk. Besides the increasing amount of studies on flash floods available, in-depth information on vulnerability in Mediterranean countries was missing so far. Moreover, current approaches in vulnerability research are driven by a divide between social scientists who tend to view vulnerability as representing a set of socio-economic factors, and natural scientists who view vulnerability in terms of the degree of loss to an element at risk. Further, vulnerability studies in response to flash flood processes are rarely answered in the literature. In order to close this gap, this paper implemented an integrated vulnerability approach focusing on residential buildings exposed to flash floods in Greece. In general, both physical and social vulnerability was comparable low, which is interpreted as a result from (a) specific building regulations in Greece as well as general design principles leading to less structural susceptibility of elements at risk exposed, and (b) relatively low economic losses leading to less social vulnerability of citizens exposed. The population show high risk awareness and coping capacity to response to natural hazards event and in the same time the impact of the events are quite low, because of the already high use of local protection measures. The low vulnerability score for East Attica can be attributed especially to the low physical vulnerability and the moderate socio-economic well-being of the area. The consequence is to focus risk management strategies mainly in the reduction of the social vulnerability. By analysing both physical and social vulnerability an attempt was made to bridge the gap between scholars from sciences and humanities, and to integrate the results of the analysis into the broader vulnerability context.

  9. Genic insights from integrated human proteomics in GeneCards.

    PubMed

    Fishilevich, Simon; Zimmerman, Shahar; Kohn, Asher; Iny Stein, Tsippi; Olender, Tsviya; Kolker, Eugene; Safran, Marilyn; Lancet, Doron

    2016-01-01

    GeneCards is a one-stop shop for searchable human gene annotations (http://www.genecards.org/). Data are automatically mined from ∼120 sources and presented in an integrated web card for every human gene. We report the application of recent advances in proteomics to enhance gene annotation and classification in GeneCards. First, we constructed the Human Integrated Protein Expression Database (HIPED), a unified database of protein abundance in human tissues, based on the publically available mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics sources ProteomicsDB, Multi-Omics Profiling Expression Database, Protein Abundance Across Organisms and The MaxQuant DataBase. The integrated database, residing within GeneCards, compares favourably with its individual sources, covering nearly 90% of human protein-coding genes. For gene annotation and comparisons, we first defined a protein expression vector for each gene, based on normalized abundances in 69 normal human tissues. This vector is portrayed in the GeneCards expression section as a bar graph, allowing visual inspection and comparison. These data are juxtaposed with transcriptome bar graphs. Using the protein expression vectors, we further defined a pairwise metric that helps assess expression-based pairwise proximity. This new metric for finding functional partners complements eight others, including sharing of pathways, gene ontology (GO) terms and domains, implemented in the GeneCards Suite. In parallel, we calculated proteome-based differential expression, highlighting a subset of tissues that overexpress a gene and subserving gene classification. This textual annotation allows users of VarElect, the suite's next-generation phenotyper, to more effectively discover causative disease variants. Finally, we define the protein-RNA expression ratio and correlation as yet another attribute of every gene in each tissue, adding further annotative information. The results constitute a significant enhancement of several Gene

  10. Genic insights from integrated human proteomics in GeneCards

    PubMed Central

    Fishilevich, Simon; Zimmerman, Shahar; Kohn, Asher; Iny Stein, Tsippi; Olender, Tsviya; Kolker, Eugene; Safran, Marilyn; Lancet, Doron

    2016-01-01

    GeneCards is a one-stop shop for searchable human gene annotations (http://www.genecards.org/). Data are automatically mined from ∼120 sources and presented in an integrated web card for every human gene. We report the application of recent advances in proteomics to enhance gene annotation and classification in GeneCards. First, we constructed the Human Integrated Protein Expression Database (HIPED), a unified database of protein abundance in human tissues, based on the publically available mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics sources ProteomicsDB, Multi-Omics Profiling Expression Database, Protein Abundance Across Organisms and The MaxQuant DataBase. The integrated database, residing within GeneCards, compares favourably with its individual sources, covering nearly 90% of human protein-coding genes. For gene annotation and comparisons, we first defined a protein expression vector for each gene, based on normalized abundances in 69 normal human tissues. This vector is portrayed in the GeneCards expression section as a bar graph, allowing visual inspection and comparison. These data are juxtaposed with transcriptome bar graphs. Using the protein expression vectors, we further defined a pairwise metric that helps assess expression-based pairwise proximity. This new metric for finding functional partners complements eight others, including sharing of pathways, gene ontology (GO) terms and domains, implemented in the GeneCards Suite. In parallel, we calculated proteome-based differential expression, highlighting a subset of tissues that overexpress a gene and subserving gene classification. This textual annotation allows users of VarElect, the suite’s next-generation phenotyper, to more effectively discover causative disease variants. Finally, we define the protein–RNA expression ratio and correlation as yet another attribute of every gene in each tissue, adding further annotative information. The results constitute a significant enhancement of several Gene

  11. Integration time for the perception of depth from motion parallax.

    PubMed

    Nawrot, Mark; Stroyan, Keith

    2012-04-15

    The perception of depth from relative motion is believed to be a slow process that "builds-up" over a period of observation. However, in the case of motion parallax, the potential accuracy of the depth estimate suffers as the observer translates during the viewing period. Our recent quantitative model for the perception of depth from motion parallax proposes that relative object depth (d) can be determined from retinal image motion (dθ/dt), pursuit eye movement (dα/dt), and fixation distance (f) by the formula: d/f≈dθ/dα. Given the model's dynamics, it is important to know the integration time required by the visual system to recover dα and dθ, and then estimate d. Knowing the minimum integration time reveals the incumbent error in this process. A depth-phase discrimination task was used to determine the time necessary to perceive depth-sign from motion parallax. Observers remained stationary and viewed a briefly translating random-dot motion parallax stimulus. Stimulus duration varied between trials. Fixation on the translating stimulus was monitored and enforced with an eye-tracker. The study found that relative depth discrimination can be performed with presentations as brief as 16.6 ms, with only two stimulus frames providing both retinal image motion and the stimulus window motion for pursuit (mean range=16.6-33.2 ms). This was found for conditions in which, prior to stimulus presentation, the eye was engaged in ongoing pursuit or the eye was stationary. A large high-contrast masking stimulus disrupted depth-discrimination for stimulus presentations less than 70-75 ms in both pursuit and stationary conditions. This interval might be linked to ocular-following response eye-movement latencies. We conclude that neural mechanisms serving depth from motion parallax generate a depth estimate much more quickly than previously believed. We propose that additional sluggishness might be due to the visual system's attempt to determine the maximum dθ/dα ratio

  12. Integration time for the perception of depth from motion parallax

    PubMed Central

    Nawrot, Mark; Stroyan, Keith

    2012-01-01

    The perception of depth from relative motion is believed to be a slow process that “builds-up” over a period of observation. However, in the case of motion parallax, the potential accuracy of the depth estimate suffers as the observer translates during the viewing period. Our recent quantitative model for the perception of depth from motion parallax proposes that relative object depth (d) can be determined from retinal image motion (dθ/dt), pursuit eye movement (dα/dt), and fixation distance (f) by the formula: d/f ≈ dθ/dα. Given the model’s dynamics, it is important to know the integration time required by the visual system to recover dα and dθ, and then estimate d. Knowing the minimum integration time reveals the incumbent error in this process. A depth-phase discrimination task was used to determine the time necessary to perceive depth-sign from motion parallax. Observers remained stationary and viewed a briefly translating random-dot motion parallax stimulus. Stimulus duration varied between trials. Fixation on the translating stimulus was monitored and enforced with an eye-tracker. The study found that relative depth discrimination can be performed with presentations as brief as 16.6 msec, with only two stimulus frames providing both retinal image motion and the stimulus window motion for pursuit (mean range = 16.6–33.2 msec). This was found for conditions in which, prior to stimulus presentation, the eye was engaged in ongoing pursuit or the eye was stationary. A large high-contrast masking stimulus disrupted depth-discrimination for stimulus presentations less than 70-75 msec in both pursuit and stationary conditions. This interval might be linked to ocular-following response eye-movement latencies. We conclude that neural mechanisms serving depth from motion parallax generate a depth estimate much more quickly than previously believed. We propose that additional sluggishness might be due to the visual system’s attempt to determine the

  13. Integrable turbulence generated from modulational instability of cnoidal waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agafontsev, D. S.; Zakharov, V. E.

    2016-11-01

    We study numerically the nonlinear stage of the modulational instability (MI) of cnoidal waves in the framework of the focusing one-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation. Cnoidal waves are exact periodic solutions of the NLS equation which can be represented as the lattices of overlapping solitons. The MI of these lattices leads to the development of ‘integrable turbulence’ (Zakharov 2009 Stud. Appl. Math. 122 219-34). We study the major characteristics of turbulence for the dn-branch of cnoidal waves and demonstrate how these characteristics depend on the degree of ‘overlapping’ between the solitons within the cnoidal wave. Integrable turbulence, which develops from the MI of the dn-branch of cnoidal waves, asymptotically approaches its stationary state in an oscillatory way. During this process, kinetic and potential energies oscillate around their asymptotic values. The amplitudes of these oscillations decay with time as {{t}-α} , 1<α <1.5 , the phases contain nonlinear phase shift decaying as t -1/2, and the frequency of the oscillations is equal to the double maximal growth rate of the MI, s=2{γ\\max} . In the asymptotic stationary state, the ratio of potential to kinetic energy is equal to  -2. The asymptotic PDF of the wave intensity is close to the exponential distribution for cnoidal waves with strong overlapping, and is significantly non-exponential for cnoidal waves with weak overlapping of the solitons. In the latter case, the dynamics of the system reduces to two-soliton collisions, which occur at an exponentially small rate and provide an up to two-fold increase in amplitude compared with the original cnoidal wave. For all cnoidal waves of the dn-branch, the rogue waves at the time of their maximal elevation have a quasi-rational profile similar to that of the Peregrine solution.

  14. Flow units from integrated WFT and NMR data

    SciTech Connect

    Kasap, E.; Altunbay, M.; Georgi, D.

    1997-08-01

    Reliable and continuous permeability profiles are vital as both hard and soft data required for delineating reservoir architecture. They can improve the vertical resolution of seismic data, well-to-well stratigraphic correlations, and kriging between the well locations. In conditional simulations, permeability profiles are imposed as the conditioning data. Variograms, covariance functions and other geostatistical indicators are more reliable when based on good quality permeability data. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) logging and Wireline Formation Tests (WFT) separately generate a wealth of information, and their synthesis extends the value of this information further by providing continuous and accurate permeability profiles without increasing the cost. NMR and WFT data present a unique combination because WFTs provide discrete, in situ permeability based on fluid-flow, whilst NMR responds to the fluids in the pore space and yields effective porosity, pore-size distribution, bound and moveable fluid saturations, and permeability. The NMR permeability is derived from the T{sub 2}-distribution data. Several equations have been proposed to transform T{sub 2} data to permeability. Regardless of the transform model used, the NMR-derived permeabilities depend on interpretation parameters that may be rock specific. The objective of this study is to integrate WFT permeabilities with NMR-derived, T{sub 2} distribution-based permeabilities and thereby arrive at core quality, continuously measured permeability profiles. We outlined the procedures to integrate NMR and WFT data and applied the procedure to a field case. Finally, this study advocates the use of hydraulic unit concepts to extend the WFT-NMR derived, core quality permeabilities to uncored intervals or uncored wells.

  15. An overview of the model integration process: From pre ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Integration of models requires linking models which can be developed using different tools, methodologies, and assumptions. We performed a literature review with the aim of improving our understanding of model integration process, and also presenting better strategies for building integrated modeling systems. We identified five different phases to characterize integration process: pre-integration assessment, preparation of models for integration, orchestration of models during simulation, data interoperability, and testing. Commonly, there is little reuse of existing frameworks beyond the development teams and not much sharing of science components across frameworks. We believe this must change to enable researchers and assessors to form complex workflows that leverage the current environmental science available. In this paper, we characterize the model integration process and compare integration practices of different groups. We highlight key strategies, features, standards, and practices that can be employed by developers to increase reuse and interoperability of science software components and systems. The paper provides a review of the literature regarding techniques and methods employed by various modeling system developers to facilitate science software interoperability. The intent of the paper is to illustrate the wide variation in methods and the limiting effect the variation has on inter-framework reuse and interoperability. A series of recommendation

  16. An overview of the model integration process: From pre ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Integration of models requires linking models which can be developed using different tools, methodologies, and assumptions. We performed a literature review with the aim of improving our understanding of model integration process, and also presenting better strategies for building integrated modeling systems. We identified five different phases to characterize integration process: pre-integration assessment, preparation of models for integration, orchestration of models during simulation, data interoperability, and testing. Commonly, there is little reuse of existing frameworks beyond the development teams and not much sharing of science components across frameworks. We believe this must change to enable researchers and assessors to form complex workflows that leverage the current environmental science available. In this paper, we characterize the model integration process and compare integration practices of different groups. We highlight key strategies, features, standards, and practices that can be employed by developers to increase reuse and interoperability of science software components and systems. The paper provides a review of the literature regarding techniques and methods employed by various modeling system developers to facilitate science software interoperability. The intent of the paper is to illustrate the wide variation in methods and the limiting effect the variation has on inter-framework reuse and interoperability. A series of recommendation

  17. Five Ways to Integrate: Using Strategies from Contemporary Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Julia

    2010-01-01

    This article is for art teachers of all levels who want to teach through art and about art. The purpose of this article is twofold. It provides evidence that integration is a significant, lively and authentic art practice today and, therefore, studying about art and integrating it are compatible. It also offers teachers and students in elementary,…

  18. From All Walks of Life: New Hope for School Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahlenberg, Richard D.

    2013-01-01

    Integrating our schools is a goal that many of us share. But some seem to have given up on the idea, as plans to boost racial diversity have come under attack, and as the fixation on test scores has narrowed some people's concept of a good education. There is, however, new hope: integration by socioeconomic status. It's a cost-effective, legally…

  19. Monolithic Integrated Radiation Sensor Using Stimulated Luminescence From Alumina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKeever, S. W. S.; Yukihara, E. G.; Stoebe, T. G.; Chen, T.-C.

    2005-01-01

    The project goal was to design and test a monolithic integrated device for radiation sensing, using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) from Al2O3:C. The device would consist of GaN/InGaN-based components epitaxially grown on each side of a A12O3:C substrate. Radiation energy stored in the substrate would be stimulated by visible emission from a GaN light-emitting diode (LED) grown on one side of the device, and the OSL emission from the substrate (in the blue region of the spectrum) would be detected by the InGaN pi-n diode grown on the other side of the substrate. The primary application of the device would be in space radiation environments. Thus, two major research thrusts were launched during this project. Firstly, research at Oklahoma State University (Dr. Stephen W.S. McKeever and Dr. E.G. Yukihara) concentrated on characterization of the OSL properties of Al2O3:C in radiation fields typical of those experienced in low-Earth orbit. Secondly, research at the University of Washington (Co-Is, Dr. T.G. Stoebe and Dr. T. Chen) focused of device development and GaN/InGaN epitaxial growth. While progress in each line of research has been substantial, the ultimate goal (that of producing a working prototype device) has not yet been reached. We detail the research progress and identify outstanding issues in this paper.

  20. Multisensory integration in complete unawareness: evidence from audiovisual congruency priming.

    PubMed

    Faivre, Nathan; Mudrik, Liad; Schwartz, Naama; Koch, Christof

    2014-11-01

    Multisensory integration is thought to require conscious perception. Although previous studies have shown that an invisible stimulus could be integrated with an audible one, none have demonstrated integration of two subliminal stimuli of different modalities. Here, pairs of identical or different audiovisual target letters (the sound /b/ with the written letter "b" or "m," respectively) were preceded by pairs of masked identical or different audiovisual prime digits (the sound /6/ with the written digit "6" or "8," respectively). In three experiments, awareness of the audiovisual digit primes was manipulated, such that participants were either unaware of the visual digit, the auditory digit, or both. Priming of the semantic relations between the auditory and visual digits was found in all experiments. Moreover, a further experiment showed that unconscious multisensory integration was not obtained when participants did not undergo prior conscious training of the task. This suggests that following conscious learning, unconscious processing suffices for multisensory integration.

  1. Nanopipette combined with quartz tuning fork-atomic force microscope for force spectroscopy/microscopy and liquid delivery-based nanofabrication

    SciTech Connect

    An, Sangmin; Lee, Kunyoung; Kim, Bongsu; Noh, Haneol; Kim, Jongwoo; Kwon, Soyoung; Lee, Manhee; Hong, Mun-Heon; Jhe, Wonho

    2014-03-15

    This paper introduces a nanopipette combined with a quartz tuning fork-atomic force microscope system (nanopipette/QTF-AFM), and describes experimental and theoretical investigations of the nanoscale materials used. The system offers several advantages over conventional cantilever-based AFM and QTF-AFM systems, including simple control of the quality factor based on the contact position of the QTF, easy variation of the effective tip diameter, electrical detection, on-demand delivery and patterning of various solutions, and in situ surface characterization after patterning. This tool enables nanoscale liquid delivery and nanofabrication processes without damaging the apex of the tip in various environments, and also offers force spectroscopy and microscopy capabilities.

  2. Alkane production from biomass: chemo-, bio- and integrated catalytic approaches.

    PubMed

    Deneyer, Aron; Renders, Tom; Van Aelst, Joost; Van den Bosch, Sander; Gabriëls, Dries; Sels, Bert F

    2015-12-01

    Linear, branched and cyclic alkanes are important intermediates and end products of the chemical industry and are nowadays mainly obtained from fossil resources. In search for alternatives, biomass feedstocks are often presented as a renewable carbon source for the production of fuels, chemicals and materials. However, providing a complete market for all these applications seems unrealistic due to both financial and logistic issues. Despite the very large scale of current alkane-based fuel applications, biomass definitely has the potential to offer a partial solution to the fuel business. For the smaller market of chemicals and materials, a transition to biomass as main carbon source is more realistic and even probably unavoidable in the long term. The appropriate use and further development of integrated chemo- and biotechnological (catalytic) process strategies will be crucial to successfully accomplish this petro-to-bio feedstock transition. Furthermore, a selection of the most promising technologies from the available chemo- and biocatalytic tool box is presented. New opportunities will certainly arise when multidisciplinary approaches are further explored in the future. In an attempt to select the most appropriate biomass sources for each specific alkane-based application, a diagram inspired by van Krevelen is applied, taking into account both the C-number and the relative functionality of the product molecules. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Consumer motivation towards purchasing fruit from integrated production in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Vannoppen, J; Verbeke, W; Van Huylenbroeck, G

    2001-01-01

    Consumer concerns about food safety have been steadily growing during the last decade. Along with the recognition of the increasing power from the consumer side of food chains, this has forced agricultural producers to innovate and adapt their production methods. One of those developments is integrated production of pip fruit (IFP). This research analyses and presents motivational structures of consumers towards purchasing IP fruit in Belgium. The research methodology builds on means-end-chain (MEC) theory, with data collected through personal laddering interviews with consumers. A hierarchical value map, indicating motivational structures for farm shop purchase of IP-labelled apples, is presented. IP-apple buyers pursue typical values, with health being paramount. The findings reveal interactions between market channel characteristics and product attributes, including characteristics that refer to production methods. Also, the study shows how outlet choice influences the perception and the motivation structure of the respondents for the specific product, fresh fruit in this case. From the findings, two sets of implications are set forth. First, marketing implications pertaining to advertising through the application of the "Means-End Conceptualization of the Components of Advertising Strategy" or MECCAS model. Second, implications to producers with respect to adapting their production methods to the needs and wants of the present end consumers.

  4. MASSCLEANage—Stellar Cluster Ages from Integrated Colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, Bogdan; Hanson, M. M.

    2010-11-01

    We present the recently updated and expanded MASSCLEANcolors, a database of 70 million Monte Carlo models selected to match the properties (metallicity, ages, and masses) of stellar clusters found in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). This database shows the rather extreme and non-Gaussian distribution of integrated colors and magnitudes expected with different cluster age and mass and the enormous age degeneracy of integrated colors when mass is unknown. This degeneracy could lead to catastrophic failures in estimating age with standard simple stellar population models, particularly if most of the clusters are of intermediate or low mass, like in the LMC. Utilizing the MASSCLEANcolors database, we have developed MASSCLEANage, a statistical inference package which assigns the most likely age and mass (solved simultaneously) to a cluster based only on its integrated broadband photometric properties. Finally, we use MASSCLEANage to derive the age and mass of LMC clusters based on integrated photometry alone. First, we compare our cluster ages against those obtained for the same seven clusters using more accurate integrated spectroscopy. We find improved agreement with the integrated spectroscopy ages over the original photometric ages. A close examination of our results demonstrates the necessity of solving simultaneously for mass and age to reduce degeneracies in the cluster ages derived via integrated colors. We then selected an additional subset of 30 photometric clusters with previously well-constrained ages and independently derive their age using the MASSCLEANage with the same photometry with very good agreement. The MASSCLEANage program is freely available under GNU General Public License.

  5. Selecta from a Life-Long Obsession with Path Integrals

    SciTech Connect

    Klauder, John R.

    2008-06-18

    The definition and interpretation of canonical, phase space path integrals has evolved over many years to achieve a form that now admits a correct and rigorous formulation, which is also covariant under canonical coordinate transformations. Such formulations involve coherent state representations, which, in their modern version, were originally introduced as an alternative tool to construct phase space path integrals. Moreover, coherent state representations lead to physical interpretations that are more natural than those afforded by more traditional representations. Suitable continuous time regularization procedures lead to a covariant phase space path integral formulation that greatly clarifies the vague phrase that canonical quantization requires Cartesian coordinates.

  6. Master integrals for splitting functions from differential equations in QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gituliar, Oleksandr

    2016-02-01

    A method for calculating phase-space master integrals for the decay process 1 → n masslesspartonsinQCDusingintegration-by-partsanddifferentialequationstechniques is discussed. The method is based on the appropriate choice of the basis for master integrals which leads to significant simplification of differential equations. We describe an algorithm how to construct the desirable basis, so that the resulting system of differential equations can be recursively solved in terms of (G) HPLs as a series in the dimensional regulator ɛ to any order. We demonstrate its power by calculating master integrals for the NLO time-like splitting functions and discuss future applications of the proposed method at the NNLO precision.

  7. The Integration of Information from an Analog-Visual Display: The Role of Dimensional Integrality.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    CHART NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANOARDS 1963-A I E I I * .. 1 I. . . . . .. ENGINEERING- PSYCHOLOGY RESEARCH LABORATORY University of Illinois at Urbana...Engineering- Psychology Research Lab, University of Illinois, Urbana. Casey, E.J., Kramer, A.F., & Wickens, C.D. (1984). Representing multidimensional...integration in optimal display _0 formatting. Tech. Report EPL-83-5/ONR-83-5, Engineering- Psychology Research Lab, University of Illinois, Urbana

  8. ATLAS from Data Research Associates: A Fully Integrated Automation System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellinger, Michael J.

    1987-01-01

    This detailed description of a fully integrated, turnkey library system includes a complete profile of the system (functions, operational characteristics, hardware, operating system, minimum memory and pricing); history of the technologies involved; and descriptions of customer services and availability. (CLB)

  9. Ozone (O3) Standards - Integrated Science Assessments from Current Review

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The integrated science assessment (ISA) is a comprehensive review, synthesis, and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science, including key science judgments that are important to inform the development of the risk and exposure assessments, and more.

  10. INTEGRATED RISK ASSESSMENT - RESULTS FROM AN INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP

    EPA Science Inventory

    The WHO International Programme on Chemical Safety and international partners have developed a framework for integrated assessment of human health and ecological risks and four case studies. An international workshop was convened to consider how ecological and health risk assess...

  11. INTEGRATED RISK ASSESSMENT - RESULTS FROM AN INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP

    EPA Science Inventory

    The WHO International Programme on Chemical Safety and international partners have developed a framework for integrated assessment of human health and ecological risks and four case studies. An international workshop was convened to consider how ecological and health risk assess...

  12. ATLAS from Data Research Associates: A Fully Integrated Automation System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellinger, Michael J.

    1987-01-01

    This detailed description of a fully integrated, turnkey library system includes a complete profile of the system (functions, operational characteristics, hardware, operating system, minimum memory and pricing); history of the technologies involved; and descriptions of customer services and availability. (CLB)

  13. Retrieving and Integrating Data from Multiple Information Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-30

    part of the report that provides the most NASA - See Handbook NHB 2200.2. meaningful and complete Information. When a NTIS - Leave blank. report is...axioms, but after the axioms.are built _ the domain model is no longer used or needed. In contrast, the domain model in SIMS is an integral part of the...intelligent information systems where, like SIMS, an explicit knowledge model is an integral part of an intelligent information agent. Some additional

  14. Modelling cyanobacteria: from metabolism to integrative models of phototrophic growth.

    PubMed

    Steuer, Ralf; Knoop, Henning; Machné, Rainer

    2012-03-01

    Cyanobacteria are phototrophic microorganisms of global importance and have recently attracted increasing attention due to their capability to convert sunlight and atmospheric CO(2) directly into organic compounds, including carbon-based biofuels. The utilization of cyanobacteria as a biological chassis to generate third-generation biofuels would greatly benefit from an increased understanding of cyanobacterial metabolism and its interplay with other cellular processes. In this respect, metabolic modelling has been proposed as a way to overcome the traditional trial and error methodology that is often employed to introduce novel pathways. In particular, flux balance analysis and related methods have proved to be powerful tools to investigate the organization of large-scale metabolic networks-with the prospect of predicting modifications that are likely to increase the yield of a desired product and thereby to streamline the experimental progress and avoid futile avenues. This contribution seeks to describe the utilization of metabolic modelling as a research tool to understand the metabolism and phototrophic growth of cyanobacteria. The focus of the contribution is on a mathematical description of the metabolic network of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and its analysis using constraint-based methods. A particular challenge is to integrate the description of the metabolic network with other cellular processes, such as the circadian clock, the photosynthetic light reactions, carbon concentration mechanism, and transcriptional regulation-aiming at a predictive model of a cyanobacterium in silico.

  15. Integrated bioethanol and protein production from brown seaweed Laminaria digitata.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xiaoru; Hansen, Jonas Høeg; Bjerre, Anne-Belinda

    2015-12-01

    A wild-growing glucose-rich (i.e. 56.7% glucose content) brown seaweed species Laminaria digitata, collected from the North Coast of Denmark in August 2012, was used as the feedstock for an integrated bioethanol and protein production. Glutamic acid and aspartic acid are the two most abundant amino acids in the algal protein, both with proportional content of 10% in crude protein. Only minor pretreatment of milling was used on the biomass to facilitate the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. The Separate Hydrolysis and Fermentation (SHF) resulted in obviously higher ethanol yield than the Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF). High conversion rate at maximum of 84.1% glucose recovery by enzymatic hydrolysis and overall ethanol yield at maximum of 77.7% theoretical were achieved. Protein content in the solid residues after fermentation was enriched by 2.7 fold, with similar distributions of amino acids, due to the hydrolysis of polymers in the seaweed cell wall matrix.

  16. Phenotypic integration emerges from aposematism and scale in poison frogs

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Juan C.; Cannatella, David C.

    2011-01-01

    Complex phenotypes can be modeled as networks of component traits connected by genetic, developmental, or functional interactions. Aposematism, which has evolved multiple times in poison frogs (Dendrobatidae), links a warning signal to a chemical defense against predators. Other traits are involved in this complex phenotype. Most aposematic poison frogs are ant specialists, from which they sequester defensive alkaloids. We found that aposematic species have greater aerobic capacity, also related to diet specialization. To characterize the aposematic trait network more fully, we analyzed phylogenetic correlations among its hypothesized components: conspicuousness, chemical defense, diet specialization, body mass, active and resting metabolic rates, and aerobic scope. Conspicuous coloration was correlated with all components except resting metabolism. Structural equation modeling on the basis of trait correlations recovered “aposematism” as one of two latent variables in an integrated phenotypic network, the other being scaling with body mass and physiology (“scale”). Chemical defense and diet specialization were uniquely tied to aposematism whereas conspicuousness was related to scale. The phylogenetic distribution of the aposematic syndrome suggests two scenarios for its evolution: (i) chemical defense and conspicuousness preceded greater aerobic capacity, which supports the increased resource-gathering abilities required of ant–mite diet specialization; and (ii) assuming that prey are patchy, diet specialization and greater aerobic capacity evolved in tandem, and both traits subsequently facilitated the evolution of aposematism. PMID:21444790

  17. Texas refiner optimizes by integrating units from idle plant

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1995-03-20

    In 1993, Phibro Energy USA Inc. purchased Dow Chemical Co.`s idle 200,000 b/d refinery at Freeport, TX. The Dow facility, known as the Oyster Creek refinery, was incapable of producing gasoline, and therefore was somewhat incomplete as a stand-alone refinery. By relocating and integrating units from the Dow plant with Phibro`s 130,700 b/d refinery at Texas City, TX, and adding a new residual oil solvent extraction (ROSE) unit, Phibro will optimize its Texas refinery operations. The dismantling, movement, and re-erection phases of the project are all but finished, and installation of piping and new instrumentation for the major relocated units is well under way. When the project is complete, Phibro will drastically reduce fuel oil production at Texas City and increase output of middle distillate. Resid, which the company now produces in excess, will be converted to a heavy fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) feedstock. Most of this stream will be fed to the oversized FCC unit at Phibro`s 71,000 b/d Houston refinery, thus eliminating Phibro`s reliance on purchased FCC feed. The paper discusses the Oyster Creek refinery, the decision to reduce residual fuel oil production company-wide, building versus moving equipment, dismantling and transport, construction, products, operational changes, utilities, process wastes, regulations, preparations, and future prospects. The remaining equipment at Oyster Creek was sold to a South Korean refinery.

  18. Audiovisual integration of emotional signals from others' social interactions

    PubMed Central

    Piwek, Lukasz; Pollick, Frank; Petrini, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Audiovisual perception of emotions has been typically examined using displays of a solitary character (e.g., the face-voice and/or body-sound of one actor). However, in real life humans often face more complex multisensory social situations, involving more than one person. Here we ask if the audiovisual facilitation in emotion recognition previously found in simpler social situations extends to more complex and ecological situations. Stimuli consisting of the biological motion and voice of two interacting agents were used in two experiments. In Experiment 1, participants were presented with visual, auditory, auditory filtered/noisy, and audiovisual congruent and incongruent clips. We asked participants to judge whether the two agents were interacting happily or angrily. In Experiment 2, another group of participants repeated the same task, as in Experiment 1, while trying to ignore either the visual or the auditory information. The findings from both experiments indicate that when the reliability of the auditory cue was decreased participants weighted more the visual cue in their emotional judgments. This in turn translated in increased emotion recognition accuracy for the multisensory condition. Our findings thus point to a common mechanism of multisensory integration of emotional signals irrespective of social stimulus complexity. PMID:26005430

  19. The integrated Sachs-Wolfe signal from BOSS superstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granett, B. R.; Kovács, A.; Hawken, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Cosmic structures leave an imprint on the microwave background radiation through the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect. We construct a template map of the linear signal using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-III Baryon Acoustic Oscillation Survey at redshift 0.43 < z < 0.65. We verify the imprint of this map on the Planck cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature map at the 97 per cent confidence level and show consistency with the density-temperature cross-correlation measurement. Using this ISW reconstruction as a template, we investigate the presence of ISW sources and further examine the properties of the Granett-Neyrinck-Szapudi supervoid and supercluster catalogue. We characterize the three-dimensional density profiles of these structures for the first time and demonstrate that they are significant structures. Model fits demonstrate that the supervoids are elongated along the line of sight and we suggest that this special orientation may be picked out by the void-finding algorithm in photometric redshift space. We measure the mean temperature profiles in Planck maps from public void and cluster catalogues. In an attempt to maximize the stacked ISW signal, we construct a new catalogue of superstructures based upon local peaks and troughs of the gravitational potential. However, we do not find a significant correlation between these structures and the CMB temperature.

  20. From The Lab to The Fab: Transistors to Integrated Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huff, Howard R.

    2003-09-01

    Transistor action was experimentally observed by John Bardeen and Walter Brattain in n-type polycrystalline germanium on December 16, 1947 (and subsequently polycrystalline silicon) as a result of the judicious placement of gold-plated probe tips in nearby single crystal grains of the polycrystalline material (i.e., the point-contact semiconductor amplifier, often referred to as the point-contact transistor).The device configuration exploited the inversion layer as the channel through which most of the emitted (minority) carriers were transported from the emitter to the collector. The point-contact transistor was manufactured for ten years starting in 1951 by the Western Electric Division of AT&T. The a priori tuning of the point-contact transistor parameters, however, was not simple inasmuch as the device was dependent on the detailed surface structure and, therefore, very sensitive to humidity and temperature as well as exhibiting high noise levels. Accordingly, the devices differed significantly in their characteristics and electrical instabilities leading to "burnout" were not uncommon. With the implementation of crystalline semiconductor materials in the early 1950s, however, p-n junction (bulk) transistors began replacing the point-contact transistor, silicon began replacing germanium and the transfer of transistor technology from the lab to the lab accelerated. We shall review the historical route by which single crystalline materials were developed and the accompanying methodologies of transistor fabrication, leading to the onset of the Integrated Circuit (IC) era. Finally, highlights of the early years of the IC era will be reviewed from the 256 bit through the 4M DRAM. Elements of IC scaling and the role of Moore's Law in setting the parameters by which the IC industry's growth was monitored will be discussed.

  1. Comparative Effectiveness Topics from a Large, Integrated Delivery System

    PubMed Central

    Danforth, Kim N; Patnode, Carrie D; Kapka, Tanya J; Butler, Melissa G; Collins, Bernadette; Compton-Phillips, Amy; Baxter, Raymond J; Weissberg, Jed; McGlynn, Elizabeth A; Whitlock, Evelyn P

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To identify high-priority comparative effectiveness questions directly relevant to care delivery in a large, US integrated health care system. Methods: In 2010, a total of 792 clinical and operational leaders in Kaiser Permanente were sent an electronic survey requesting nominations of comparative effectiveness research questions; most recipients (83%) had direct clinical roles. Nominated questions were divided into 18 surveys of related topics that included 9 to 23 questions for prioritization. The next year, 648 recipients were electronically sent 1 of the 18 surveys to prioritize nominated questions. Surveys were assigned to recipients on the basis of their nominations or specialty. High-priority questions were identified by comparing the frequency a question was selected to an “expected” frequency, calculated to account for the varying number of questions and respondents across prioritization surveys. High-priority questions were those selected more frequently than expected. Results: More than 320 research questions were nominated from 181 individuals. Questions most frequently addressed cardiovascular and peripheral vascular disease; obesity, diabetes, endocrinology, and metabolic disorders; or service delivery and systems-level questions. Ninety-five high-priority research questions were identified, encompassing a wide range of health questions that ranged from prevention and screening to treatment and quality of life. Many were complex questions from a systems perspective regarding how to deliver the best care. Conclusions: The 95 questions identified and prioritized by leaders on the front lines of health care delivery may inform the national discussion regarding comparative effectiveness research. Additionally, our experience provides insight in engaging real-world stakeholders in setting a health care research agenda. PMID:24361013

  2. Integrated Analysis of Data from Impending Thermosphere-Ionosphere Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, S. C.

    2013-12-01

    goals? What is missing from the observational scheme, and what could be done to fill these gaps? How will we integrate these diverse data sources into a cohesive framework? And, crucially, who will support the research necessary to exploit this observational renaissance? In this paper, I will suggest answers to some of these questions, and speculate on what might be observed, using the device of simulations from numerical models of the coupled atmosphere-ionosphere-magnetosphere system.

  3. Overlapping ontologies and Indigenous knowledge. From integration to ontological self-determination.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, David

    2016-10-01

    Current controversies about knowledge integration reflect conflicting ideas of what it means to "take Indigenous knowledge seriously". While there is increased interest in integrating Indigenous and Western scientific knowledge in various disciplines such as anthropology and ethnobiology, integration projects are often accused of recognizing Indigenous knowledge only insofar as it is useful for Western scientists. The aim of this article is to use tools from philosophy of science to develop a model of both successful integration and integration failures. On the one hand, I argue that cross-cultural recognition of property clusters leads to an ontological overlap that makes knowledge integration often epistemically productive and socially useful. On the other hand, I argue that knowledge integration is limited by ontological divergence. Adequate models of Indigenous knowledge will therefore have to take integration failures seriously and I argue that integration efforts need to be complemented by a political notion of ontological self-determination.

  4. Integration models in health information systems: experiences from the PlugIT project.

    PubMed

    Mykkänen, Juha; Porrasmaa, Jari; Korpela, Mikko; Häkkinen, Heidi; Toivanen, Marika; Tuomainen, Mika; Häyrinen, Kristiina; Rannanheimo, Juha

    2004-01-01

    Different approaches are available for the integration of existing health information systems (HIS) in integration projects. Within the PlugIT project in Finland, we have found it necessary to design and implement integration in a collaborative, multidisciplinary and open way. In this paper, we use some generic integration models and relate them to the methods, solutions and experiences of the project. We summarize the results from nine integration teams, methods development and supporting surveys and studies, and discuss these experiences to provide some guidelines for the HIS integration projects in general.

  5. The Integrated Medical Model: Outcomes from Independent Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, J.; Garcia, Y.; Griffin, D.; Arellano, J.; Boley, L.; Goodenow, D. A.; Kerstman, E.; Reyes, D.; Saile, L.; Walton, M.; hide

    2017-01-01

    In 2016, the Integrated Medical Model (IMM) v4.0 underwent an extensive external review in preparation for transition to an operational status. In order to insure impartiality of the review process, the Exploration Medical Capabilities Element of NASA's Human Research Program convened the review through the Systems Review Office at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The review board convened by GSFC consisted of persons from both NASA and academia with expertise in the fields of statistics, epidemiology, modeling, software development, aerospace medicine, and project management (see Figure 1). The board reviewed software and code standards, as well as evidence pedigree associated with both the input and outcomes information. The board also assesses the models verification, validation, sensitivity to parameters and ability to answer operational questions. This talk will discuss the processes for designing the review, how the review progressed and the findings from the board, as well as summarize the IMM project responses to those findings. Overall, the board found that the IMM is scientifically sound, represents a necessary, comprehensive approach to identifying medical and environmental risks facing astronauts in long duration missions and is an excellent tool for communication between engineers and physicians. The board also found IMM and its customer(s) should convene an additional review of the IMM data sources and to develop a sustainable approach to augment, peer review, and maintain the information utilized in the IMM. The board found this is critically important because medical knowledge continues to evolve. Delivery of IMM v4.0 to the Crew Health and Safety (CHS) Program will occur in the 2017. Once delivered for operational decision support, IMM v4.0 will provide CHS with additional quantitative capability in to assess astronaut medical risks and required medical capabilities to help drive down overall mission risks.

  6. Do integrated care structures foster processes of integration? A quasi-experimental study in frail elderly care from the professional perspective.

    PubMed

    Janse, Benjamin; Huijsman, Robbert; de Kuyper, Ruben Dennis Maurice; Fabbricotti, Isabelle Natalina

    2016-06-01

    This study explores the processes of integration that are assumed to underlie integrated care delivery. A quasi-experimental design with a control group was used; a new instrument was developed to measure integration from the professional perspective. Professionals from primary care practices and home-care organizations delivering care to the frail elderly in the Walcheren region of the Netherlands. An integrated care intervention specifically targeting frail elderly patients was implemented. Structural, cultural, social and strategic integration and satisfaction with integration. The intervention significantly improved structural, cultural and social integration, agreement on goals, interests, power and resources and satisfaction with integration. This study confirms that integrated care structures foster processes of integration among professionals. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN05748494. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care.

  7. Do integrated care structures foster processes of integration? A quasi-experimental study in frail elderly care from the professional perspective

    PubMed Central

    Janse, Benjamin; Huijsman, Robbert; de Kuyper, Ruben Dennis Maurice; Fabbricotti, Isabelle Natalina

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study explores the processes of integration that are assumed to underlie integrated care delivery. Design A quasi-experimental design with a control group was used; a new instrument was developed to measure integration from the professional perspective. Setting and participants Professionals from primary care practices and home-care organizations delivering care to the frail elderly in the Walcheren region of the Netherlands. Intervention An integrated care intervention specifically targeting frail elderly patients was implemented. Main Outcome Measures Structural, cultural, social and strategic integration and satisfaction with integration. Results The intervention significantly improved structural, cultural and social integration, agreement on goals, interests, power and resources and satisfaction with integration. Conclusions This study confirms that integrated care structures foster processes of integration among professionals. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN05748494. PMID:27174858

  8. Integrated bioethanol and biomanure production from potato waste.

    PubMed

    Chintagunta, Anjani Devi; Jacob, Samuel; Banerjee, Rintu

    2016-03-01

    Disposal of potato processing waste and the problem of pollution associated with it is a vital issue that is being faced by the potato processing plants. The conventional peeling methods presently followed in the processing plants for removing the potato peel, also result in the loss of some portion of the mash which is rich in starch. Indiscriminate discharge of the waste causes detrimental effects in the environment, so this problem can be resolved by successful utilization of the waste for the generation of value added products. Hence, the present work focuses on integrated production of bioethanol and biomanure to utilize the waste completely leading to zero waste generation. The first part of the work describes a comparative study of ethanol production from potato peel and mash wastes by employing co-culture of Aspergillus niger and Saccharomyces cerevisiae at various incubation time (24-120 h) instead of application of enzymes. The solid state fermentation of potato peel and mash inoculated with co-culture, resulted in bioethanol production of 6.18% (v/v) and 9.30% (v/v) respectively. In the second part of the work, the residue obtained after ethanol production was inoculated with seven different microorganisms (Nostoc muscorum, Fischerella muscicola, Anabaena variabilis, Aulosira fertilissima, Cylindrospermum muscicola, Azospirillium lipoferum, Azotobacter chroococcum) and mixture of all the organisms in equal ratio for nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P) and potassium (K) enrichment. Among them, A. variabilis was found to enrich N, P and K content of the residue by nearly 7.66, 21.66 and 15 fold than that of the initial content, ultimately leading to improved N:P:K ratio of approximately 2:1:1. The application of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) for the conversion of potato waste to ethanol and enrichment of residue obtained after ethanol production with microorganisms to be used as manure envisages environmental sustainability.

  9. OzFlux data: network integration from collection to curation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaac, Peter; Cleverly, James; McHugh, Ian; van Gorsel, Eva; Ewenz, Cacilia; Beringer, Jason

    2017-06-01

    Measurement of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer by the eddy covariance technique has undergone great change in the last 2 decades. Early studies of these exchanges were confined to brief field campaigns in carefully controlled conditions followed by months of data analysis. Current practice is to run tower-based eddy covariance systems continuously over several years due to the need for continuous monitoring as part of a global effort to develop local-, regional-, continental- and global-scale budgets of carbon, water and energy. Efficient methods of processing the increased quantities of data are needed to maximise the time available for analysis and interpretation. Standardised methods are needed to remove differences in data processing as possible contributors to observed spatial variability. Furthermore, public availability of these data sets assists with undertaking global research efforts. The OzFlux data path has been developed (i) to provide a standard set of quality control and post-processing tools across the network, thereby facilitating inter-site integration and spatial comparisons; (ii) to increase the time available to researchers for analysis and interpretation by reducing the time spent collecting and processing data; (iii) to propagate both data and metadata to the final product; and (iv) to facilitate the use of the OzFlux data by adopting a standard file format and making the data available from web-based portals. Discovery of the OzFlux data set is facilitated through incorporation in FLUXNET data syntheses and the publication of collection metadata via the RIF-CS format. This paper serves two purposes. The first is to describe the data sets, along with their quality control and post-processing, for the other papers of this Special Issue. The second is to provide an example of one solution to the data collection and curation challenges that are encountered by similar flux tower networks

  10. Lessons learned from Khartoum flash flood impacts: An integrated assessment.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Mohamad Ibrahim; Elagib, Nadir Ahmed; Horn, Finlay; Saad, Suhair A G

    2017-12-01

    This study aims at enabling the compilation of key lessons for decision makers and urban planners in rapidly urbanizing cities regarding the identification of representative, chief causal natural and human factors for the increased level of flash flood risk. To achieve this, the impacts of flash flood events of 2013 and 2014 in the capital of Sudan, Khartoum, were assessed using seven integrated approaches, i.e. rainfall data analysis, document analysis of affected people and houses, observational fieldwork in the worst flood affected areas, people's perception of causes and mitigation measures through household interviews, reported drinking water quality, reported water-related diseases and social risk assessment. Several lessons have been developed as follows. Urban planners must recognize the devastating risks of building within natural pathways of ephemeral watercourses. They must also ensure effective drainage infrastructures and physio-geographical investigations prior to developing urban areas. The existing urban drainage systems become ineffective due to blockage by urban waste. Building of unauthorized drainage and embankment structures by locals often cause greater flood problems than normal. The urban runoff is especially problematic for residential areas built within low-lying areas having naturally low infiltration capacity, as surface water can rapidly collect within hollows and depressions, or beside elevated roads that preclude the free flow of floodwater. Weak housing and infrastructure quality are especially vulnerable to flash flooding and even to rainfall directly. Establishment of services infrastructure is imperative for flash flood disaster risk reduction. Water supply should be from lower aquifers to avoid contaminant groundwater. Regular monitoring of water quality and archiving of its indicators help identify water-related diseases and sources of water contamination in the event of environmental disasters such as floods. Though the

  11. Integrating Data from Geological Investigations into Urban Watershed Restoration Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, M.; Rogers, D.; Murray, K.

    2012-04-01

    To improve urban watershed restoration efforts, a framework for integrating the outputs from subsurface geological investigations into land use planning is developed. This framework synthesizes the data generated at the individual parcel scale, including a full inventory of water flows on the surface and within the subsurface, and the synergy between contaminant properties and the geological environment. Using a case study approach, over 3000 sites of environmental contamination were investigated in the heavily urbanized Rouge River watershed of southeastern Michigan, USA. Analysis of the remediation costs at these contaminated sites and the patterns of groundwater contamination strongly suggest that land use planning in this region has not incorporated the basic sciences of geology and geomorphology. At a broad geographical scale, the siting of cities near flowing water and their industries above vulnerable geology resulted in large extents of contamination that are costly to remediate. This historical process was complicated by the unplanned nature of urban sprawl, as industrial sites were located in areas of high groundwater vulnerability, and their spatial juxtaposition created unintended consequences by expanding the pathways for contamination transport. To help remedy this situation, it is recommended that urban watershed restoration efforts include groundwater vulnerability studies, and these studies should become a basic component of the land use planning process, much as environmental site assessments are for the real estate industry. Moreover, through source control, the parcel scale is where science-based landscape planning can most effectively aid in urban watershed restoration efforts and prevent further environmental damage to land being considered for new development or redevelopment.

  12. From intricate to integrated: Biofabrication of articulating joints.

    PubMed

    Groen, Wilhelmina Margaretha; Diloksumpan, Paweena; van Weeren, Paul René; Levato, Riccardo; Malda, Jos

    2017-10-01

    Articulating joints owe their function to the specialized architecture and the complex interplay between multiple tissues including cartilage, bone and synovium. Especially the cartilage component has limited self-healing capacity and damage often leads to the onset of osteoarthritis, eventually resulting in failure of the joint as an organ. Although in its infancy, biofabrication has emerged as a promising technology to reproduce the intricate organization of the joint, thus enabling the introduction of novel surgical treatments, regenerative therapies, and new sets of tools to enhance our understanding of joint physiology and pathology. Herein, we address the current challenges to recapitulate the complexity of articulating joints and how biofabrication could overcome them. The combination of multiple materials, biological cues and cells in a layer-by-layer fashion, can assist in reproducing both the zonal organization of cartilage and the gradual transition from resilient cartilage toward the subchondral bone in biofabricated osteochondral grafts. In this way, optimal integration of engineered constructs with the natural surrounding tissues can be obtained. Mechanical characteristics, including the smoothness and low friction that are hallmarks of the articular surface, can be tuned with multi-head or hybrid printers by controlling the spatial patterning of printed structures. Moreover, biofabrication can use digital medical images as blueprints for printing patient-specific implants. Finally, the current rapid advances in biofabrication hold significant potential for developing joint-on-a-chip models for personalized medicine and drug testing or even for the creation of implants that may be used to treat larger parts of the articulating joint. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Orthopaedic Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the Orthopaedic Research Society. J Orthop Res 35:2089-2097, 2017. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Orthopaedic

  13. Integrated Radial Probe Transition From MMIC to Waveguide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samoska, Lorene; Chattopadhyay, Goutam

    2007-01-01

    A radial probe transition between a monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) and a waveguide has been designed for operation at frequency of 340 GHz and to be fabricated as part of a monolithic unit that includes the MMIC. Integrated radial probe transitions like this one are expected to be essential components of future MMIC amplifiers operating at frequencies above 200 GHz. While MMIC amplifiers for this frequency range have not yet been widely used because they have only recently been developed, there are numerous potential applications for them-- especially in scientific instruments, test equipment, radar, and millimeter-wave imaging systems for detecting hidden weapons.

  14. Microsystem integration from RF to millimeter wave applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vähä-Heikkilä, T.; Lahti, M.

    2015-05-01

    Radio frequency systems have been applied successfully to consumer products. Typically these radios operate up to 6 GHz. During recent years, interest towards microwave (up to 30 GHz) and millimeter wave frequencies (30 ... 300 GHz) has increased significantly. Technologies have been developed to have high performance microwave and millimeter wave components. On the other hand, integration and packaging technologies have not developed as fast while their importance is crucial especially in consumer applications. This presentation focuses to latest trends in wireless microsystem component integration and packaging trends backed up with demonstrators and measured results based on VTT's demonstrations.

  15. Integrating Wind and Solar Energy in the U.S. Bulk Power System: Lessons from Regional Integration Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, L.; Lew, D.

    2012-09-01

    Two recent studies sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have examined the impacts of integrating high penetrations of wind and solar energy on the Eastern and Western electric grids. The Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study (EWITS), initiated in 2007, examined the impact on power system operations of reaching 20% to 30% wind energy penetration in the Eastern Interconnection. The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) examined the operational implications of adding up to 35% wind and solar energy penetration to the Western Interconnect. Both studies examined the costs of integrating variable renewable energy generation into the grid and transmission and operational changes that might be necessary to address higher penetrations of wind or solar generation. This paper identifies key insights from these regional studies for integrating high penetrations of renewables in the U.S. electric grid. The studies share a number of key findings, although in some instances the results vary due to differences in grid operations and markets, the geographic location of the renewables, and the need for transmission.

  16. Recent advances in nanoplasmonic biosensors: applications and lab-on-a-chip integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Gerardo A.; Estevez, M.-Carmen; Soler, Maria; Lechuga, Laura M.

    2016-08-01

    Motivated by the recent progress in the nanofabrication field and the increasing demand for cost-effective, portable, and easy-to-use point-of-care platforms, localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) biosensors have been subjected to a great scientific interest in the last few years. The progress observed in the research of this nanoplasmonic technology is remarkable not only from a nanostructure fabrication point of view but also in the complete development and integration of operative devices and their application. The potential benefits that LSPR biosensors can offer, such as sensor miniaturization, multiplexing opportunities, and enhanced performances, have quickly positioned them as an interesting candidate in the design of lab-on-a-chip (LOC) optical biosensor platforms. This review covers specifically the most significant achievements that occurred in recent years towards the integration of this technology in compact devices, with views of obtaining LOC devices. We also discuss the most relevant examples of the use of the nanoplasmonic biosensors for real bioanalytical and clinical applications from assay development and validation to the identification of the implications, requirements, and challenges to be surpassed to achieve fully operative devices.

  17. Recent advances in nanoplasmonic biosensors: applications and lab-on-a-chip integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Gerardo A.; Estevez, M.-Carmen; Soler, Maria; Lechuga, Laura M.

    2017-01-01

    Motivated by the recent progress in the nanofabrication field and the increasing demand for cost-effective, portable, and easy-to-use point-of-care platforms, localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) biosensors have been subjected to a great scientific interest in the last few years. The progress observed in the research of this nanoplasmonic technology is remarkable not only from a nanostructure fabrication point of view but also in the complete development and integration of operative devices and their application. The potential benefits that LSPR biosensors can offer, such as sensor miniaturization, multiplexing opportunities, and enhanced performances, have quickly positioned them as an interesting candidate in the design of lab-on-a-chip (LOC) optical biosensor platforms. This review covers specifically the most significant achievements that occurred in recent years towards the integration of this technology in compact devices, with views of obtaining LOC devices. We also discuss the most relevant examples of the use of the nanoplasmonic biosensors for real bioanalytical and clinical applications from assay development and validation to the identification of the implications, requirements, and challenges to be surpassed to achieve fully operative devices.

  18. Powering up Technology from Passive Access to Active Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Shay

    2015-01-01

    For many educators, working with students who were deaf or hard of hearing was the need to have "access." Access to technology was the tool of choice for providing integration that has come to be so much more than gadgets. It is intercurricular--math software incorporates reading, science websites support language skills. It is…

  19. The Value of ERP Curriculum Integration: Perspectives from the Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepner, Michelle; Dickson, Warren

    2013-01-01

    In the current economic conditions, many institutions face dwindling budgets and an increased focus on proving the value of the education provided. The effort and costs required to integrate Enterprise Resource Planning systems into course curricula are a significant investment of resources for any university. This paper examines the expense of…

  20. Evaluation of the Integrated Services Pilot Program from Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Peter; Cooper, Trudi; Bahn, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    Independent evaluation of refugee-focused programs in developed nations is increasingly a mandatory requirement of funding bodies and government agencies. This paper presents an evaluation of the Integrated Services Centre (ISC) Pilot Project that was conducted in Australia in 2007 and early 2008. The purpose of the ISC program was to provide…

  1. Lessons from Large-Scale Renewable Energy Integration Studies: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, L.; Milligan, M.

    2012-06-01

    In general, large-scale integration studies in Europe and the United States find that high penetrations of renewable generation are technically feasible with operational changes and increased access to transmission. This paper describes other key findings such as the need for fast markets, large balancing areas, system flexibility, and the use of advanced forecasting.

  2. Evaluation of the Integrated Services Pilot Program from Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Peter; Cooper, Trudi; Bahn, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    Independent evaluation of refugee-focused programs in developed nations is increasingly a mandatory requirement of funding bodies and government agencies. This paper presents an evaluation of the Integrated Services Centre (ISC) Pilot Project that was conducted in Australia in 2007 and early 2008. The purpose of the ISC program was to provide…

  3. The Value of ERP Curriculum Integration: Perspectives from the Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepner, Michelle; Dickson, Warren

    2013-01-01

    In the current economic conditions, many institutions face dwindling budgets and an increased focus on proving the value of the education provided. The effort and costs required to integrate Enterprise Resource Planning systems into course curricula are a significant investment of resources for any university. This paper examines the expense of…

  4. From Knowledge Theory to Management Practice: Towards an Integrated Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Minsoo; Holden, Tony; Schmidt, Ruth A.

    2001-01-01

    Critically contrasts the three main schools of thought on knowledge and assesses the resulting implications for knowledge management. Presents a conceptual model to integrate theoretical and practical themes to serve as a framework for developing a future research agenda for the development of knowledge management business tools and applications.…

  5. LS/2000--The Integrated Library System from OCLC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Susan

    1984-01-01

    Discusses design features of the Online Catalog of LS/2000, OCLC's enhanced version of Integrated Library System. This minicomputer-based system provides bibliographic file maintenance, circulation control, and online catalog searching. Examples of available displays--holdings, full MARC, work forms, keyword entry, index selection, brief citation,…

  6. Organic printed photonics: From microring lasers to integrated circuits.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chuang; Zou, Chang-Ling; Zhao, Yan; Dong, Chun-Hua; Wei, Cong; Wang, Hanlin; Liu, Yunqi; Guo, Guang-Can; Yao, Jiannian; Zhao, Yong Sheng

    2015-09-01

    A photonic integrated circuit (PIC) is the optical analogy of an electronic loop in which photons are signal carriers with high transport speed and parallel processing capability. Besides the most frequently demonstrated silicon-based circuits, PICs require a variety of materials for light generation, processing, modulation, and detection. With their diversity and flexibility, organic molecular materials provide an alternative platform for photonics; however, the versatile fabrication of organic integrated circuits with the desired photonic performance remains a big challenge. The rapid development of flexible electronics has shown that a solution printing technique has considerable potential for the large-scale fabrication and integration of microsized/nanosized devices. We propose the idea of soft photonics and demonstrate the function-directed fabrication of high-quality organic photonic devices and circuits. We prepared size-tunable and reproducible polymer microring resonators on a wafer-scale transparent and flexible chip using a solution printing technique. The printed optical resonator showed a quality (Q) factor higher than 4 × 10(5), which is comparable to that of silicon-based resonators. The high material compatibility of this printed photonic chip enabled us to realize low-threshold microlasers by doping organic functional molecules into a typical photonic device. On an identical chip, this construction strategy allowed us to design a complex assembly of one-dimensional waveguide and resonator components for light signal filtering and optical storage toward the large-scale on-chip integration of microscopic photonic units. Thus, we have developed a scheme for soft photonic integration that may motivate further studies on organic photonic materials and devices.

  7. Organic printed photonics: From microring lasers to integrated circuits

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chuang; Zou, Chang-Ling; Zhao, Yan; Dong, Chun-Hua; Wei, Cong; Wang, Hanlin; Liu, Yunqi; Guo, Guang-Can; Yao, Jiannian; Zhao, Yong Sheng

    2015-01-01

    A photonic integrated circuit (PIC) is the optical analogy of an electronic loop in which photons are signal carriers with high transport speed and parallel processing capability. Besides the most frequently demonstrated silicon-based circuits, PICs require a variety of materials for light generation, processing, modulation, and detection. With their diversity and flexibility, organic molecular materials provide an alternative platform for photonics; however, the versatile fabrication of organic integrated circuits with the desired photonic performance remains a big challenge. The rapid development of flexible electronics has shown that a solution printing technique has considerable potential for the large-scale fabrication and integration of microsized/nanosized devices. We propose the idea of soft photonics and demonstrate the function-directed fabrication of high-quality organic photonic devices and circuits. We prepared size-tunable and reproducible polymer microring resonators on a wafer-scale transparent and flexible chip using a solution printing technique. The printed optical resonator showed a quality (Q) factor higher than 4 × 105, which is comparable to that of silicon-based resonators. The high material compatibility of this printed photonic chip enabled us to realize low-threshold microlasers by doping organic functional molecules into a typical photonic device. On an identical chip, this construction strategy allowed us to design a complex assembly of one-dimensional waveguide and resonator components for light signal filtering and optical storage toward the large-scale on-chip integration of microscopic photonic units. Thus, we have developed a scheme for soft photonic integration that may motivate further studies on organic photonic materials and devices. PMID:26601256

  8. Participation and integration from the perspective of persons with spinal cord injury from five European countries.

    PubMed

    Ruoranen, Kaisa; Post, Marcel W M; Juvalta, Sibylle; Reinhardt, Jan D

    2015-03-01

    To examine the subjective understanding of participation and integration of persons with spinal cord injuries from 5 European countries and to compare these findings with the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF)'s conceptualization of participation. Semi-structured interviews with 54 persons with acquired spinal cord injuries and 3 with spina bifida from 5 countries were examined using qualitative content analysis. Integration was most often associated with social acceptance and, furthermore, with ordinary performance, equality and freedom of choice. Participation was most often described as ordinary performance, with less emphasis on social acceptance and equality. However, participation and integration overlapped in people's narratives and were difficult to separate. The perception of participation and integration was largely similar across countries. In contrast to others, however, Finnish interviewees were more likely to associate participation with contributing to society. A variety of life domains was identified, of which recreation and leisure, work life, sports and going out were the most prevalent. While participation domains are well covered by the ICF, as is the notion of ordinary performance, interviewees also referred to a rights (e.g. acceptance) and duties (e.g. contribution) perspective.

  9. Learning from nature: constructing integrated graphene-based artificial nacre.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Qunfeng; Duan, Jianli; Zhang, Qi; Jiang, Lei

    2015-03-24

    Natural nacre supplies a number of properties that can be used in designing high-performance bioinspired materials. Likewise, due to the extraordinary properties of graphene, a series of bioinspired graphene-based materials have recently been demonstrated. Compared to other approaches for constructing graphene-based materials, bioinspired concepts result in high-loading graphene, and the resultant high-performance graphene-based artificial nacres demonstrate isotropic mechanical and electrical properties. In this Perspective, we describe how to construct integrated graphene-based artificial nacre through the synergistic relationship between interface interactions and building blocks. These integrated graphene-based artificial nacres show promising applications in many fields, such as aerospace, flexible supercapacitor electrodes, artificial muscle, and tissue engineering.

  10. Flux tube spectra from approximate integrability at low energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubovsky, S.; Flauger, R.; Gorbenko, V.

    2015-03-01

    We provide a detailed introduction to a method we recently proposed for calculating the spectrum of excitations of effective strings such as QCD flux tubes. The method relies on the approximate integrability of the low-energy effective theory describing the flux tube excitations and is based on the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz. The approximate integrability is a consequence of the Lorentz symmetry of QCD. For excited states, the convergence of the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz technique is significantly better than that of the traditional perturbative approach. We apply the new technique to the lattice spectra for fundamental flux tubes in gluodynamics in D = 3 + 1 and D = 2 + 1, and to k-strings in gluodynamics in D = 2 + 1. We identify a massive pseudoscalar resonance on the worldsheet of the confining strings in SU(3) gluodynamics in D = 3 + 1, and massive scalar resonances on the worldsheet of k = 2.3 strings in SU(6) gluodynamics in D = 2 + 1.

  11. From NHS Choices to the integrated customer service platform.

    PubMed

    Gann, Bob; Grant, Maria J

    2013-03-01

    In 2013 the NHS Commissioning Board launches its new integrated customer service platform. The new service utilises the full range of channels (web, telephone, apps etc) to provide access to information to support transparency, participation and transactions. Digital health services have proven benefits in informed choice, shared decision making and patient participation. © 2013 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2013 Health Libraries Group.

  12. The BIG Data Center: from deposition to integration to translation

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Biological data are generated at unprecedentedly exponential rates, posing considerable challenges in big data deposition, integration and translation. The BIG Data Center, established at Beijing Institute of Genomics (BIG), Chinese Academy of Sciences, provides a suite of database resources, including (i) Genome Sequence Archive, a data repository specialized for archiving raw sequence reads, (ii) Gene Expression Nebulas, a data portal of gene expression profiles based entirely on RNA-Seq data, (iii) Genome Variation Map, a comprehensive collection of genome variations for featured species, (iv) Genome Warehouse, a centralized resource housing genome-scale data with particular focus on economically important animals and plants, (v) Methylation Bank, an integrated database of whole-genome single-base resolution methylomes and (vi) Science Wikis, a central access point for biological wikis developed for community annotations. The BIG Data Center is dedicated to constructing and maintaining biological databases through big data integration and value-added curation, conducting basic research to translate big data into big knowledge and providing freely open access to a variety of data resources in support of worldwide research activities in both academia and industry. All of these resources are publicly available and can be found at http://bigd.big.ac.cn. PMID:27899658

  13. The BIG Data Center: from deposition to integration to translation.

    PubMed

    2017-01-04

    Biological data are generated at unprecedentedly exponential rates, posing considerable challenges in big data deposition, integration and translation. The BIG Data Center, established at Beijing Institute of Genomics (BIG), Chinese Academy of Sciences, provides a suite of database resources, including (i) Genome Sequence Archive, a data repository specialized for archiving raw sequence reads, (ii) Gene Expression Nebulas, a data portal of gene expression profiles based entirely on RNA-Seq data, (iii) Genome Variation Map, a comprehensive collection of genome variations for featured species, (iv) Genome Warehouse, a centralized resource housing genome-scale data with particular focus on economically important animals and plants, (v) Methylation Bank, an integrated database of whole-genome single-base resolution methylomes and (vi) Science Wikis, a central access point for biological wikis developed for community annotations. The BIG Data Center is dedicated to constructing and maintaining biological databases through big data integration and value-added curation, conducting basic research to translate big data into big knowledge and providing freely open access to a variety of data resources in support of worldwide research activities in both academia and industry. All of these resources are publicly available and can be found at http://bigd.big.ac.cn. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  14. Leading Integrated Health and Social Care Systems: Perspectives from Research and Practice.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jenna M; Daub, Stacey; Goldhar, Jodeme; Wojtak, Anne; Purbhoo, Dipti

    2016-01-01

    As the research evidence on integrated care has evolved over the past two decades, so too has the critical role leaders have for the implementation, effectiveness and sustainability of integrated care. This paper explores what it means to be an effective leader of integrated care initiatives by drawing from the experiences of a leadership team in implementing an award-winning integrated care program in Toronto, Canada. Lessons learned are described and assessed against existing theory and research to identify which skills and behaviours facilitate effective leadership of integrated care initiatives.

  15. Construction of classical superintegrable systems with higher order integrals of motion from ladder operators

    SciTech Connect

    Marquette, Ian

    2010-07-15

    We construct integrals of motion for multidimensional classical systems from ladder operators of one-dimensional systems. This method can be used to obtain new systems with higher order integrals. We show how these integrals generate a polynomial Poisson algebra. We consider a one-dimensional system with third order ladder operators and found a family of superintegrable systems with higher order integrals of motion. We obtain also the polynomial algebra generated by these integrals. We calculate numerically the trajectories and show that all bounded trajectories are closed.

  16. Code System to Calculate Integral Parameters with Reaction Rates from WIMS Output.

    SciTech Connect

    LESZCZYNSKI, FRANCISCO

    1994-10-25

    Version 00 REACTION calculates different integral parameters related to neutron reactions on reactor lattices, from reaction rates calculated with WIMSD4 code, and comparisons with experimental values.

  17. Electrochemical micro/nano-machining: principles and practices.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Dongping; Han, Lianhuan; Zhang, Jie; He, Quanfeng; Tian, Zhao-Wu; Tian, Zhong-Qun

    2017-03-06

    Micro/nano-machining (MNM) is becoming the cutting-edge of high-tech manufacturing because of the increasing industrial demand for supersmooth surfaces and functional three-dimensional micro/nano-structures (3D-MNS) in ultra-large scale integrated circuits, microelectromechanical systems, miniaturized total analysis systems, precision optics, and so on. Taking advantage of no tool wear, no surface stress, environmental friendliness, simple operation, and low cost, electrochemical micro/nano-machining (EC-MNM) has an irreplaceable role in MNM. This comprehensive review presents the state-of-art of EC-MNM techniques for direct writing, surface planarization and polishing, and 3D-MNS fabrications. The key point of EC-MNM is to confine electrochemical reactions at the micro/nano-meter scale. This review will bring together various solutions to "confined reaction" ranging from electrochemical principles through technical characteristics to relevant applications.

  18. Functional integrity in children with anoxic brain injury from drowning.

    PubMed

    Ishaque, Mariam; Manning, Janessa H; Woolsey, Mary D; Franklin, Crystal G; Tullis, Elizabeth W; Beckmann, Christian F; Fox, Peter T

    2017-10-01

    Drowning is a leading cause of accidental injury and death in young children. Anoxic brain injury (ABI) is a common consequence of drowning and can cause severe neurological morbidity in survivors. Assessment of functional status and prognostication in drowning victims can be extremely challenging, both acutely and chronically. Structural neuroimaging modalities (CT and MRI) have been of limited clinical value. Here, we tested the utility of resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) for assessing brain functional integrity in this population. Eleven children with chronic, spastic quadriplegia due to drowning-induced ABI were investigated. All were comatose immediately after the injury and gradually regained consciousness, but with varying ability to communicate their cognitive state. Eleven neurotypical children matched for age and gender formed the control group. Resting-state fMRI and co-registered T1-weighted anatomical MRI were acquired at night during drug-aided sleep. Network integrity was quantified by independent components analysis (ICA), at both group- and per-subject levels. Functional-status assessments based on in-home observations were provided by families and caregivers. Motor ICNs were grossly compromised in ABI patients both group-wise and individually, concordant with their prominent motor deficits. Striking preservations of perceptual and cognitive ICNs were observed, and the degree of network preservation correlated (ρ = 0.74) with the per-subject functional status assessments. Collectively, our findings indicate that rs-fMRI has promise for assessing brain functional integrity in ABI and, potentially, in other disorders. Furthermore, our observations suggest that the severe motor deficits observed in this population can mask relatively intact perceptual and cognitive capabilities. Hum Brain Mapp 38:4813-4831, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Quantum corrections from a path integral over reparametrizations

    SciTech Connect

    Makeenko, Yuri; Olesen, Poul

    2010-08-15

    We study the path integral over reparametrizations that has been proposed as an ansatz for the Wilson loops in the large-N QCD and reproduces the area law in the classical limit of large loops. We show that a semiclassical expansion for a rectangular loop captures the Luescher term associated with d=26 dimensions and propose a modification of the ansatz that reproduces the Luescher term in other dimensions, which is observed in lattice QCD. We repeat the calculation for an outstretched ellipse advocating the emergence of an analog of the Luescher term and verify this result by a direct computation of the determinant of the Laplace operator and the conformal anomaly.

  20. Preliminary Outcomes from an Integrated Pediatric Mental Health Outpatient Clinic.

    PubMed

    Maslow, Gary R; Banny, Adrienne; Pollock, McLean; Stefureac, Kristen; Rosa, Kendra; Walter, Barbara Keith; Hobbs Knutson, Katherine; Lucas, Joseph; Heilbron, Nicole

    2017-10-01

    An estimated 1 in 5 children in the United States meet criteria for a diagnosable mental disorder, yet fewer than 20% receive mental health services. Unmet need for psychiatric treatment may contribute to patterns of increasing use of the emergency department. This article describes an integrated pediatric evaluation center designed to prevent the need for treatment in emergency settings by increasing access to timely and appropriate care for emergent and critical mental health needs. Preliminary results showed that the center provided rapid access to assessment and treatment services for children and adolescents presenting with a wide range of psychiatric concerns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Uranus satellites - Hapke parameters from Voyager disk-integrated photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helfenstein, P.; Ververka, J.; Thomas, P. C.

    1988-05-01

    An attempt is presently made to obtain improved determinations of the geometric albedos and phase integrals of Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel, Titania, and Oberon, by fitting Hapke's (1981, 1984, 1986) photometric theory to Voyager whole-disk observations of these satellites. It is analytically established that while Umbriel, Titania and Oberon have large-scale roughness comparable to that of the earth's moon, Ariel is significantly rougher. While the particle single scattering albedo is strikingly different among the satellites, the degrees of regolith particle backscattering are very similar.

  2. Uranus satellites - Hapke parameters from Voyager disk-integrated photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfenstein, Paul; Veverka, Joseph; Thomas, Peter C.

    1988-01-01

    An attempt is presently made to obtain improved determinations of the geometric albedos and phase integrals of Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel, Titania, and Oberon, by fitting Hapke's (1981, 1984, 1986) photometric theory to Voyager whole-disk observations of these satellites. It is analytically established that while Umbriel, Titania and Oberon have large-scale roughness comparable to that of the earth's moon, Ariel is significantly rougher. While the particle single scattering albedo is strikingly different among the satellites, the degrees of regolith particle backscattering are very similar.

  3. From behavior to neural dynamics: An integrated theory of attention

    PubMed Central

    Buschman, Timothy J.; Kastner, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    The brain has a limited capacity and therefore needs mechanisms to selectively enhance the information most relevant to one’s current behavior. We refer to these mechanisms as ‘attention’. Attention acts by increasing the strength of selected neural representations and preferentially routing them through the brain’s large-scale network. This is a critical component of cognition and therefore has been a central topic in cognitive neuroscience. Here we review a diverse literature that has studied attention at the level of behavior, networks, circuits and neurons. We then integrate these disparate results into a unified theory of attention. PMID:26447577

  4. From Behavior to Neural Dynamics: An Integrated Theory of Attention.

    PubMed

    Buschman, Timothy J; Kastner, Sabine

    2015-10-07

    The brain has a limited capacity and therefore needs mechanisms to selectively enhance the information most relevant to one's current behavior. We refer to these mechanisms as "attention." Attention acts by increasing the strength of selected neural representations and preferentially routing them through the brain's large-scale network. This is a critical component of cognition and therefore has been a central topic in cognitive neuroscience. Here we review a diverse literature that has studied attention at the level of behavior, networks, circuits, and neurons. We then integrate these disparate results into a unified theory of attention.

  5. Metabolomics in epidemiology: from metabolite concentrations to integrative reaction networks

    PubMed Central

    Fearnley, Liam G; Inouye, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Metabolomics is becoming feasible for population-scale studies of human disease. In this review, we survey epidemiological studies that leverage metabolomics and multi-omics to gain insight into disease mechanisms. We outline key practical, technological and analytical limitations while also highlighting recent successes in integrating these data. The use of multi-omics to infer reaction rates is discussed as a potential future direction for metabolomics research, as a means of identifying biomarkers as well as inferring causality. Furthermore, we highlight established analysis approaches as well as simulation-based methods currently used in single- and multi-cell levels in systems biology. PMID:27118561

  6. Treating couples recovering from infidelity: an integrative approach.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Kristina Coop; Baucom, Donald H; Snyder, Douglas K

    2005-11-01

    Infidelity is one of the most difficult problems to address in couple therapy, most likely because it involves a traumatic relationship event that alters the ways in which couples process information about each other and established behavioral patterns. We present a three-stage treatment designed to address the cognitive, behavioral, and emotional sequelae of affairs that integrates cognitive-behavioral and insight-oriented strategies with the literatures on traumatic response and forgiveness. A case study with pretreatment, posttreatment, and 6-month follow-up data is presented to illustrate the treatment methods.

  7. From Biloxi to Cape Town: curricular integration of service learning.

    PubMed

    Richards, Elizabeth A Libby; Novak, Julie Cowan

    2010-01-01

    Team Reach Out started as a student-initiated service-learning project with the goal of providing on-going assistance to the victims of Hurricane Katrina. Four years after Hurricane Katrina, Team Reach Out refocused efforts to Cape Town, South Africa, where 4 senior nursing students and 1 science student integrated their leadership skills with the application of public health knowledge, compassion, and concern to work in partnership with several international health agencies. This article reviews the service-learning framework, course planning, and implementation of a recent service-learning project.

  8. Integrable cosmological models from higher dimensional Einstein equations

    SciTech Connect

    Sano, Masakazu; Suzuki, Hisao

    2007-09-15

    We consider the cosmological models for the higher dimensional space-time which includes the curvatures of our space as well as the curvatures of the internal space. We find that the condition for the integrability of the cosmological equations is that the total space-time dimensions are D=10 or D=11 which is exactly the conditions for superstrings or M theory. We obtain analytic solutions with generic initial conditions in the four-dimensional Einstein frame and study the accelerating universe when both our space and the internal space have negative curvatures.

  9. Action and language integration: from humans to cognitive robots.

    PubMed

    Borghi, Anna M; Cangelosi, Angelo

    2014-07-01

    The topic is characterized by a highly interdisciplinary approach to the issue of action and language integration. Such an approach, combining computational models and cognitive robotics experiments with neuroscience, psychology, philosophy, and linguistic approaches, can be a powerful means that can help researchers disentangle ambiguous issues, provide better and clearer definitions, and formulate clearer predictions on the links between action and language. In the introduction we briefly describe the papers and discuss the challenges they pose to future research. We identify four important phenomena the papers address and discuss in light of empirical and computational evidence: (a) the role played not only by sensorimotor and emotional information but also of natural language in conceptual representation; (b) the contextual dependency and high flexibility of the interaction between action, concepts, and language; (c) the involvement of the mirror neuron system in action and language processing; (d) the way in which the integration between action and language can be addressed by developmental robotics and Human-Robot Interaction.

  10. Integrated presentation of ecological risk from multiple stressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goussen, Benoit; Price, Oliver R.; Rendal, Cecilie; Ashauer, Roman

    2016-10-01

    Current environmental risk assessments (ERA) do not account explicitly for ecological factors (e.g. species composition, temperature or food availability) and multiple stressors. Assessing mixtures of chemical and ecological stressors is needed as well as accounting for variability in environmental conditions and uncertainty of data and models. Here we propose a novel probabilistic ERA framework to overcome these limitations, which focusses on visualising assessment outcomes by construct-ing and interpreting prevalence plots as a quantitative prediction of risk. Key components include environmental scenarios that integrate exposure and ecology, and ecological modelling of relevant endpoints to assess the effect of a combination of stressors. Our illustrative results demonstrate the importance of regional differences in environmental conditions and the confounding interactions of stressors. Using this framework and prevalence plots provides a risk-based approach that combines risk assessment and risk management in a meaningful way and presents a truly mechanistic alternative to the threshold approach. Even whilst research continues to improve the underlying models and data, regulators and decision makers can already use the framework and prevalence plots. The integration of multiple stressors, environmental conditions and variability makes ERA more relevant and realistic.

  11. Cerebral mechanisms of prosodic integration: evidence from connected speech.

    PubMed

    Hesling, Isabelle; Clément, Sylvain; Bordessoules, Martine; Allard, Michèle

    2005-02-15

    Using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and long connected speech stimuli, we addressed the question of neuronal networks involved in prosodic integration by comparing (1) differences in brain activity when hearing connected speech stimuli with high and low degrees of prosodic expression; (2) differences in brain activity in two different diotic listening conditions (normal speech delivery to both ears, i.e., NN; and low-pass-filtered speech delivery to both ears, i.e., FF); and (3) effects of high and low degrees of prosodic information in the NN and FF conditions. Twelve right-handed French men listened passively to the stimuli. Each stimulus induced a specific cerebral network, the flat one weakening activations, which were mainly reduced to the bilateral STG for both listening conditions. High degrees of prosodic information were found to trigger right specific activations in a wider neuronal network involved in speech integration (such as BA44, BA21-22 and BA39-40) than low degrees of prosodic information did. More precisely, the right BA44 was found to be specifically involved in the process of F(0) modulations, which are the main acoustic correlate of prosody. Not only do the results achieved in the present experiment using 30-s-long connected speech stimuli show the involvement of a bilateral neuronal network but they also strongly suggest that high degrees of prosodic information elicit activations in a wider neuronal network involved in speech perception than low degrees of prosodic information do.

  12. Kolmogorov Pathways from Integrability to Chaos and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livi, Roberto; Ruffo, Stefano; Shepelyansky, Dima

    Two limits of Newtonian mechanics were worked out by Kolmogorov. On one side it was shown that in a generic integrable Hamiltonian system, regular quasi-periodic motion persists when a small perturbation is applied. This result, known as Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser (KAM) theorem, gives mathematical bounds for integrability and perturbations. On the other side it was proven that almost all numbers on the interval between zero and one are uncomputable, have positive Kolmogorov complexity and, therefore, can be considered as random. In the case of nonlinear dynamics with exponential (i.e. Lyapunov) instability this randomnesss, hidden in the initial conditions, rapidly explodes with time, leading to unpredictable chaotic dynamics in a perfectly deterministic system. Fundamental mathematical theorems were obtained in these two limits, but the generic situation corresponds to the intermediate regime between them. This intermediate regime, which still lacks a rigorous description, has been mainly investigated by physicists with the help of theoretical estimates and numerical simulations. In this contribution we outline the main achievements in this area with reference to speci.c examples of both lowdimensional and high-dimensional dynamical systems. We shall also discuss the successes and limitations of numerical methods and the modern trends in physical applications, including quantum computations.

  13. Progress in governance of converging technologies integrated from the nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Roco, Mihail C

    2006-12-01

    It is expected that convergence of nanotechnology, modern biology, the digital revolution, and cognitive sciences will bring about tremendous improvements in transformative tools, generate new products and services, enable human personal abilities and social achievements, and in time reshape societal relationships. This article focuses on the progress made in governance of such converging, emerging technologies that are integrated with more traditional technologies. The proposed framework for governance calls for several key functions: supporting the transformative impact; advancing responsible development that includes health, safety, and ethical concerns; encouraging national and global partnerships; and commitment to long-term planning with effects on human development. Principles of good governance include participation of all those involved or affected by the new technologies, transparency, participant responsibility, and effective strategic planning. Introduction and management of converging technologies must be done with respect for immediate concerns (such as information technology privacy, access to medical advancements, and addressing toxicity of new nanomaterials) and longer-term concerns (such as human development and concern for human integrity, dignity, and welfare). Four levels of governance of converging technologies have been identified: (a) adapting existing regulations and organizations; (b) establishing new programs, regulations, and organizations specifically to handle converging technologies; (c) national policies and institutional capacity building; and (d) international agreements and partnerships.

  14. Experimental Data from the Proteomics Research Center for Integrative Biology

    DOE Data Explorer

    Smith, Richard D.

    The possible roles and importance of proteomics are rapidly growing across essentially all areas of biological research. The precise and comprehensive measurement of levels of expressed proteins and their modified forms can provide new insights into the molecular nature of cell-signaling pathways and networks, the cell cycle, cellular differentiation, and other processes relevant to understanding human health and the progression of various disease states. The ability to characterize protein complexes complements this capability, allowing hypotheses to be tested and the biological system operation to be defined. The Proteomics Research Center for Integrative Biology is a national user facility established and funded by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences component of the National Institutes of Health. This Center has been established to serve the biomedical research community by developing and integrating new proteomic technologies for collaborative and service studies, disseminating the new technologies, and training scientists in their use. The Center is housed in DOE’s William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  15. Integrated presentation of ecological risk from multiple stressors.

    PubMed

    Goussen, Benoit; Price, Oliver R; Rendal, Cecilie; Ashauer, Roman

    2016-10-26

    Current environmental risk assessments (ERA) do not account explicitly for ecological factors (e.g. species composition, temperature or food availability) and multiple stressors. Assessing mixtures of chemical and ecological stressors is needed as well as accounting for variability in environmental conditions and uncertainty of data and models. Here we propose a novel probabilistic ERA framework to overcome these limitations, which focusses on visualising assessment outcomes by construct-ing and interpreting prevalence plots as a quantitative prediction of risk. Key components include environmental scenarios that integrate exposure and ecology, and ecological modelling of relevant endpoints to assess the effect of a combination of stressors. Our illustrative results demonstrate the importance of regional differences in environmental conditions and the confounding interactions of stressors. Using this framework and prevalence plots provides a risk-based approach that combines risk assessment and risk management in a meaningful way and presents a truly mechanistic alternative to the threshold approach. Even whilst research continues to improve the underlying models and data, regulators and decision makers can already use the framework and prevalence plots. The integration of multiple stressors, environmental conditions and variability makes ERA more relevant and realistic.

  16. Nutritional phenotype databases and integrated nutrition: from molecules to populations.

    PubMed

    Gibney, Michael J; McNulty, Breige A; Ryan, Miriam F; Walsh, Marianne C

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, there has been a great expansion in the nature of new technologies for the study of all biologic subjects at the molecular and genomic level and these have been applied to the field of human nutrition. The latter has traditionally relied on a mix of epidemiologic studies to generate hypotheses, dietary intervention studies to test these hypotheses, and a variety of experimental approaches to understand the underlying explanatory mechanisms. Both the novel and traditional approaches have begun to carve out separate identities vís-a-vís their own journals, their own international societies, and their own national and international symposia. The present review draws on the advent of large national nutritional phenotype databases and related technological developments to argue the case that there needs to be far more integration of molecular and public health nutrition. This is required to address new joint approaches to such areas as the measurement of food intake, biomarker discovery, and the genetic determinants of nutrient-sensitive genotypes and other areas such as personalized nutrition and the use of new technologies with mass application, such as in dried blood spots to replace venipuncture or portable electronic devices to monitor food intake and phenotype. Future development requires the full integration of these 2 disciplines, which will provide a challenge to both funding agencies and to university training of nutritionists.

  17. Integrated presentation of ecological risk from multiple stressors

    PubMed Central

    Goussen, Benoit; Price, Oliver R.; Rendal, Cecilie; Ashauer, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Current environmental risk assessments (ERA) do not account explicitly for ecological factors (e.g. species composition, temperature or food availability) and multiple stressors. Assessing mixtures of chemical and ecological stressors is needed as well as accounting for variability in environmental conditions and uncertainty of data and models. Here we propose a novel probabilistic ERA framework to overcome these limitations, which focusses on visualising assessment outcomes by construct-ing and interpreting prevalence plots as a quantitative prediction of risk. Key components include environmental scenarios that integrate exposure and ecology, and ecological modelling of relevant endpoints to assess the effect of a combination of stressors. Our illustrative results demonstrate the importance of regional differences in environmental conditions and the confounding interactions of stressors. Using this framework and prevalence plots provides a risk-based approach that combines risk assessment and risk management in a meaningful way and presents a truly mechanistic alternative to the threshold approach. Even whilst research continues to improve the underlying models and data, regulators and decision makers can already use the framework and prevalence plots. The integration of multiple stressors, environmental conditions and variability makes ERA more relevant and realistic. PMID:27782171

  18. Measuring multisensory integration: from reaction times to spike counts.

    PubMed

    Colonius, Hans; Diederich, Adele

    2017-06-08

    A neuron is categorized as "multisensory" if there is a statistically significant difference between the response evoked, e.g., by a crossmodal stimulus combination and that evoked by the most effective of its components separately. Being responsive to multiple sensory modalities does not guarantee that a neuron has actually engaged in integrating its multiple sensory inputs: it could simply respond to the stimulus component eliciting the strongest response in a given trial. Crossmodal enhancement is commonly expressed as a proportion of the strongest mean unisensory response. This traditional index does not take into account any statistical dependency between the sensory channels under crossmodal stimulation. We propose an alternative index measuring by how much the multisensory response surpasses the level obtainable by optimally combining the unisensory responses, with optimality defined as probability summation under maximal negative stochastic dependence. The new index is analogous to measuring crossmodal enhancement in reaction time studies by the strength of violation of the "race model inequality', a numerical measure of multisensory integration. Since the new index tends to be smaller than the traditional one, neurons previously labeled as "multisensory' may lose that property. The index is easy to compute and it is sensitive to variability in data.

  19. Integrated SFM Techniques Using Data Set from Google Earth 3d Model and from Street Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inzerillo, L.

    2017-08-01

    Structure from motion (SfM) represents a widespread photogrammetric method that uses the photogrammetric rules to carry out a 3D model from a photo data set collection. Some complex ancient buildings, such as Cathedrals, or Theatres, or Castles, etc. need to implement the data set (realized from street level) with the UAV one in order to have the 3D roof reconstruction. Nevertheless, the use of UAV is strong limited from the government rules. In these last years, Google Earth (GE) has been enriched with the 3D models of the earth sites. For this reason, it seemed convenient to start to test the potentiality offered by GE in order to extract from it a data set that replace the UAV function, to close the aerial building data set, using screen images of high resolution 3D models. Users can take unlimited "aerial photos" of a scene while flying around in GE at any viewing angle and altitude. The challenge is to verify the metric reliability of the SfM model carried out with an integrated data set (the one from street level and the one from GE) aimed at replace the UAV use in urban contest. This model is called integrated GE SfM model (i-GESfM). In this paper will be present a case study: the Cathedral of Palermo.

  20. An Integrated Linkage Map for Cultivated Peanut Derived from Two RILs Populations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A comparable integrated map for cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) was constructed from the integration of two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations in which two runner type cultivars, one Spanish type cultivar and one breeding line derived from a cross of Virginia type and hirsuta type wer...

  1. Trigonometric potentials arising from the spheroidal equation: Supersymmetric partners and integral formulas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze-Halberg, Axel

    2016-06-01

    We construct supersymmetric partners of a quantum system featuring a class of trigonometric potentials that emerge from the spheroidal equation. Examples of both standard and confluent supersymmetric transformations are presented. Furthermore, we use integral formulas arising from the confluent supersymmetric formalism to derive new representations for single and multiple integrals of spheroidal functions.

  2. Integrating acute malnutrition interventions into national health systems: lessons from Niger.

    PubMed

    Deconinck, Hedwig; Hallarou, Mahaman; Criel, Bart; Donnen, Philippe; Macq, Jean

    2016-03-10

    Since 2007, integrated care of acute malnutrition has been promoted in Niger, a country affected by high burden of disease. This policy change aimed at strengthening capacity and ownership to manage the condition. Integration was neither defined nor planned but assumed to have been achieved. This paper studied the level and progress of integration of acute malnutrition interventions into key health system functions. The qualitative study method involved literature searches on acute malnutrition interventions for children under 5 in low-income countries to develop a matrix of integration. Integration indicators defined three levels of integration of acute malnutrition interventions into health system functions-full, partial or none. Indicators of health services and health status were added to describe health system improvements. Data from qualitative and quantitative studies conducted in Niger between 2007 and 2013 were used to measure the indicators for the years under study. Results showed a mosaic of integration levels across key health system functions. Four indicators showed full integration, 22 showed partial integration and three showed no integration. Two-thirds of system functions showed progress in assimilating acute malnutrition interventions, while six persistently stagnated over time. There was variation within and across health system domains, with governance and health information functions scoring highest and financing lowest. Steady improvements were noted in geographic coverage, access and under-5 mortality risk. This study provided useful information to inform policy makers and guide strategic planning to improve integration of acute malnutrition interventions in Niger. The proposed method of assessing the extent of integration and monitoring progress may be adapted and used in Niger and other low-income countries that are integrating or intending to integrate acute malnutrition interventions.

  3. Coherent emission from integrated Talbot-cavity quantum cascade lasers.

    PubMed

    Meng, Bo; Qiang, Bo; Rodriguez, Etienne; Hu, Xiao Nan; Liang, Guozhen; Wang, Qi Jie

    2017-02-20

    We report experimental realization of phase-locked quantum cascade laser (QCL) array using a monolithically integrated Talbot cavity. An array with six laser elements at a wavelength of ~4.8 μm shows a maximum peak power of ~4 W which is more than 5 times higher than that of a single ridge laser element and a slope efficiency of 1 W/A at room temperature. Operation of in-phase coherent supermode has been achieved over the whole dynamic range of the Talbot-cavity QCL. The structure was analysed using a straightforward theoretical model, showing quantitatively good agreement with the experimental results. The reduced thermal resistance makes the structure an attractive approach to achieve high beam quality continuous wave QCLs.

  4. Integrating social science and genetics: news from the political front.

    PubMed

    Hatemi, Peter K; Dawes, Christopher T; Frost-Keller, Amanda; Settle, Jaime E; Verhulst, Brad

    2011-01-01

    There has been growing interest in the use of genetic models to expand the understanding of political preferences, attitudes, and behaviors. Researchers in the social sciences have begun incorporating these models and have revealed that genetic differences account for individual differences in political beliefs, behaviors, and responses to the political environment. The first Integrating Genetics and the Social Sciences Conference, held at Boulder, Colorado in May of 2010, brought together these researchers. As a result, we jointly review the last 5 years of research in this area. In doing so, we explicate the methods, findings, and limitations of behavior genetic approaches, including twin designs, association studies, and genome-wide analyses, in their application toward exploring political preferences.

  5. Thermal Momentum Distribution from Path Integrals with Shifted Boundary Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giusti, Leonardo; Meyer, Harvey B.

    2011-04-01

    For a thermal field theory formulated in the grand canonical ensemble, the distribution of the total momentum is an observable characterizing the thermal state. We show that its cumulants are related to thermodynamic potentials. In a relativistic system, for instance, the thermal variance of the total momentum is a direct measure of the enthalpy. We relate the generating function of the cumulants to the ratio of (a) a partition function expressed as a Matsubara path integral with shifted boundary conditions in the compact direction and (b) the ordinary partition function. In this form the generating function is well suited for Monte Carlo evaluation, and the cumulants can be extracted straightforwardly. We test the method in the SU(3) Yang-Mills theory and obtain the entropy density at three different temperatures.

  6. Integrated circuit for processing a low-frequency signal from a seismic detector

    SciTech Connect

    Malashevich, N. I.; Roslyakov, A. S.; Polomoshnov, S. A. Fedorov, R. A.

    2011-12-15

    Specific features for the detection and processing of a low-frequency signal from a seismic detector are considered in terms of an integrated circuit based on a large matrix crystal of the 5507 series. This integrated circuit is designed for the detection of human movements. The specific features of the information signal, obtained at the output of the seismic detector, and the main characteristics of the integrated circuit and its structure are reported.

  7. Sites of retroviral DNA integration: From basic research to clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Serrao, Erik; Engelman, Alan N

    2016-01-01

    One of the most crucial steps in the life cycle of a retrovirus is the integration of the viral DNA (vDNA) copy of the RNA genome into the genome of an infected host cell. Integration provides for efficient viral gene expression as well as for the segregation of viral genomes to daughter cells upon cell division. Some integrated viruses are not well expressed, and cells latently infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) can resist the action of potent antiretroviral drugs and remain dormant for decades. Intensive research has been dedicated to understanding the catalytic mechanism of integration, as well as the viral and cellular determinants that influence integration site distribution throughout the host genome. In this review, we summarize the evolution of techniques that have been used to recover and map retroviral integration sites, from the early days that first indicated that integration could occur in multiple cellular DNA locations, to current technologies that map upwards of millions of unique integration sites from single in vitro integration reactions or cell culture infections. We further review important insights gained from the use of such mapping techniques, including the monitoring of cell clonal expansion in patients treated with retrovirus-based gene therapy vectors, or patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) on suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART). These insights span from integrase (IN) enzyme sequence preferences within target DNA (tDNA) at the sites of integration, to the roles of host cellular proteins in mediating global integration distribution, to the potential relationship between genomic location of vDNA integration site and retroviral latency.

  8. Sites of Retroviral DNA Integration: From Basic Research to Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Serrao, Erik; Engelman, Alan N.

    2016-01-01

    One of the most crucial steps in the life cycle of a retrovirus is the integration of the viral DNA (vDNA) copy of the RNA genome into the genome of an infected host cell. Integration provides for efficient viral gene expression as well as for the segregation of the viral genomes to daughter cells upon cell division. Some integrated viruses are not well expressed, and cells latently infected with HIV-1 can resist the action of potent antiretroviral drugs and remain dormant for decades. Intensive research has been dedicated to understanding the catalytic mechanism of integration, as well as the viral and cellular determinants that influence integration site distribution throughout the host genome. In this review we summarize the evolution of techniques that have been used to recover and map retroviral integration sites, from the early days that first indicated that integration could occur in multiple cellular DNA locations, to current technologies that map upwards of millions of unique integration sites from single in vitro integration reactions or cell culture infections. We further review important insights gained from the use of such mapping techniques, including the monitoring of cell clonal expansion in patients treated with retrovirus-based gene therapy vectors, or AIDS patients on suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART). These insights span from integrase (IN) enzyme sequence preferences within target DNA (tDNA) at the sites of integration, to the roles of host cellular proteins in mediating global integration distribution, to the potential relationship between genomic location of vDNA integration site and retroviral latency. PMID:26508664

  9. Communication: Kirkwood-Buff integrals in the thermodynamic limit from small-sized molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortes-Huerto, R.; Kremer, K.; Potestio, R.

    2016-10-01

    We present an accurate and efficient method to obtain Kirkwood-Buff (KB) integrals in the thermodynamic limit from small-sized molecular dynamics simulations. By introducing finite size effects into integral equations of statistical mechanics, we derive an analytical expression connecting the KB integrals of the bulk system with the fluctuations of the number of molecules in the corresponding closed system. We validate the method by calculating the activity coefficients of aqueous urea mixtures and the KB integrals of Lennard-Jones fluids. Moreover, our results demonstrate how to identify simulation conditions under which computer simulations reach the thermodynamic limit.

  10. Integrative repair of the meniscus: lessons from in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    McNulty, Amy L; Guilak, Farshid

    2008-01-01

    Current therapies for meniscal injury seek to preserve and repair damaged tissue since loss of meniscal tissue is associated with degenerative changes in the joint, ultimately leading to osteoarthritis (OA). After a meniscal tear, the difficulty of integrating juxtaposed meniscal surfaces continues to be an obstacle. In order to determine the local factors that are necessary for successful tissue repair, previous studies have developed in vitro model systems that allow both biological and quantitative biomechanical measures of meniscus repair. Many studies have shown the importance of individual factors in meniscus metabolism, but there is a complex interplay among a variety of factors that influence meniscal healing, including inflammatory cytokines, growth factors, mechanical loading, and zonal differences in cell and tissue properties. In particular, the upregulation of inflammatory cytokines following joint injury appears to have significant catabolic influences on meniscal cell metabolic activity that must be overcome in order to promote repair. In the presence of inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1 (IL-1) or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), intrinsic meniscal repair in vitro is significantly inhibited. While anabolic growth factors, such as transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1), enhance meniscal repair, they cannot completely overcome the IL-1-mediated inhibition of repair. The mechanisms by which these mediators influence meniscal repair, and their interactions with other factors in the microenvironment, such as mechanical loading, remain to be determined. Future studies must address these complex interactions during meniscal healing to ultimately enhance meniscal repair.

  11. Minimizing dioxin emissions from integrated MSW thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Wai Hung; Lee, Vinci K C; McKay, Gordon

    2007-03-15

    The combustion of wastes has very significant benefits in reducing the volume of waste materials and producing energy. However, combustion processes produce emissions, which must be below the Best Practical Means (BPM) specified legislative limits. Several wastes, such as tires and meat meal, have been successfully combusted in cement kilns, up to 20% w/w, while retaining emission standards well below legislative limits. In the case of municipal solid waste (MSW) the introduction of large amounts of MSW into cement kilns is not practical because the additional kiln volume required is too great, the large amounts of ash generated will affect the cement clinker quality, and it would be difficult to sustain the required very high clinkering temperature of 1500 degrees C with large quantities of low calorific value MSW. A completely novel process, termed the Co-Co process, has been developed, integrating MSW combustion in a synergistic fashion with the cement production. This process is based on combining the cement "front-end" calcination reaction and incorporating it with a high temperature, at 1200 degrees C, combustion process, providing a giant acid gas scrubber. A pilot plant was designed, constructed, and operated to demonstrate the benefits of the Co-Co process. The pilot plant achieved emissions minimization: dioxins were typically 0.5-1% of the European BPM limits, HCl, SOx, NOx, and particulates were 15, 10, 20, and 25% of BPM limits, respectively. Heavy metals were typically below 25% of BPM limit values.

  12. A Bayesian framework for knowledge attribution: evidence from semantic integration.

    PubMed

    Powell, Derek; Horne, Zachary; Pinillos, N Ángel; Holyoak, Keith J

    2015-06-01

    We propose a Bayesian framework for the attribution of knowledge, and apply this framework to generate novel predictions about knowledge attribution for different types of "Gettier cases", in which an agent is led to a justified true belief yet has made erroneous assumptions. We tested these predictions using a paradigm based on semantic integration. We coded the frequencies with which participants falsely recalled the word "thought" as "knew" (or a near synonym), yielding an implicit measure of conceptual activation. Our experiments confirmed the predictions of our Bayesian account of knowledge attribution across three experiments. We found that Gettier cases due to counterfeit objects were not treated as knowledge (Experiment 1), but those due to intentionally-replaced evidence were (Experiment 2). Our findings are not well explained by an alternative account focused only on luck, because accidentally-replaced evidence activated the knowledge concept more strongly than did similar false belief cases (Experiment 3). We observed a consistent pattern of results across a number of different vignettes that varied the quality and type of evidence available to agents, the relative stakes involved, and surface details of content. Accordingly, the present findings establish basic phenomena surrounding people's knowledge attributions in Gettier cases, and provide explanations of these phenomena within a Bayesian framework.

  13. Integrative and comparative reproductive biology: From alligators to xenobiotics.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Krista A; Roark, Alison M; Boggs, Ashley S P; Bowden, John A; Cruze, Lori; Edwards, Thea M; Hamlin, Heather J; Cantu, Theresa M; McCoy, Jessica A; McNabb, Nicole A; Wenzel, Abby G; Williams, Cameron E; Kohno, Satomi

    2016-11-01

    Dr. Louis J. Guillette Jr. thought of himself as a reproductive biologist. However, his interest in reproductive biology transcended organ systems, life history stages, species, and environmental contexts. His integrative and collaborative nature led to diverse and fascinating research projects conducted all over the world. He doesn't leave us with a single legacy. Instead, he entrusts us with several. The purpose of this review is to highlight those legacies, in both breadth and diversity, and to illustrate Dr. Guillette's grand contributions to the field of reproductive biology. He has challenged the field to reconsider how we think about our data, championed development of novel and innovative techniques to measure endocrine function, helped define the field of endocrine disruption, and lead projects to characterize new endocrine disrupting chemicals. He significantly influenced our understanding of evolution, and took bold and important steps to translate all that he has learned into advances in human reproductive health. We hope that after reading this manuscript our audience will appreciate and continue Dr. Guillette's practice of open-minded and passionate collaboration to understand the basic mechanisms driving reproductive physiology and to ultimately apply those findings to protect and improve wildlife and human health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Interaction and representational integration: Evidence from speech errors

    PubMed Central

    Goldrick, Matthew; Baker, H. Ross; Murphy, Amanda; Baese-Berk, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    We examine the mechanisms that support interaction between lexical, phonological and phonetic processes during language production. Studies of the phonetics of speech errors have provided evidence that partially activated lexical and phonological representations influence phonetic processing. We examine how these interactive effects are modulated by lexical frequency. Previous research has demonstrated that during lexical access, the processing of high frequency words is facilitated; in contrast, during phonetic encoding, the properties of low frequency words are enhanced. These contrasting effects provide the opportunity to distinguish two theoretical perspectives on how interaction between processing levels can be increased. A theory in which cascading activation is used to increase interaction predicts that the facilitation of high frequency words will enhance their influence on the phonetic properties of speech errors. Alternatively, if interaction is increased by integrating levels of representation, the phonetics of speech errors will reflect the retrieval of enhanced phonetic properties for low frequency words. Utilizing a novel statistical analysis method, we show that in experimentally induced speech errors low lexical frequency targets and outcomes exhibit enhanced phonetic processing. We sketch an interactive model of lexical, phonological and phonetic processing that accounts for the conflicting effects of lexical frequency on lexical access and phonetic processing. PMID:21669409

  15. Rotating parallel ray omni-directional integration for instantaneous pressure reconstruction from measured pressure gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaofeng; Siddle-Mitchell, Seth

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a novel pressure reconstruction method featuring rotating parallel ray omni-directional integration, as an improvement over the circular virtual boundary integration method introduced by Liu and Katz (2003, 2006, 2008 and 2013) for non-intrusive instantaneous pressure measurement in incompressible flow field. Unlike the virtual boundary omni-directional integration, where the integration path is originated from a virtual circular boundary at a finite distance from the real boundary of the integration domain, the new method utilizes parallel rays, which can be viewed as being originated from a distance of infinity, as guidance for integration paths. By rotating the parallel rays, omni-directional paths with equal weights coming from all directions toward the point of interest at any location within the computation domain will be generated. In this way, the location dependence of the integration weight inherent in the old algorithm will be eliminated. By implementing this new algorithm, the accuracy of the reconstructed pressure for a synthetic rotational flow in terms of r.m.s. error from theoretical values is reduced from 1.03% to 0.30%. Improvement is further demonstrated from the comparison of the reconstructed pressure with that from the Johns Hopkins University isotropic turbulence database (JHTDB). This project is funded by the San Diego State University.

  16. A framework of integrating gene relations from heterogeneous data sources: an experiment on Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiexun; Li, Xin; Su, Hua; Chen, Hsinchun; Galbraith, David W

    2006-08-15

    One of the most important goals of biological investigation is to uncover gene functional relations. In this study we propose a framework for extraction and integration of gene functional relations from diverse biological data sources, including gene expression data, biological literature and genomic sequence information. We introduce a two-layered Bayesian network approach to integrate relations from multiple sources into a genome-wide functional network. An experimental study was conducted on a test-bed of Arabidopsis thaliana. Evaluation of the integrated network demonstrated that relation integration could improve the reliability of relations by combining evidence from different data sources. Domain expert judgments on the gene functional clusters in the network confirmed the validity of our approach for relation integration and network inference.

  17. Path-integral approach to 't Hooft's derivation of quantum physics from classical physics

    SciTech Connect

    Blasone, Massimo; Jizba, Petr; Kleinert, Hagen

    2005-05-15

    We present a path-integral formulation of 't Hooft's derivation of quantum physics from classical physics. The crucial ingredient of this formulation is Gozzi et al.'s supersymmetric path integral of classical mechanics. We quantize explicitly two simple classical systems: the planar mathematical pendulum and the Roessler dynamical system.

  18. Entropy in Postmerger and Acquisition Integration from an Information Technology Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Gloria S.

    2012-01-01

    Mergers and acquisitions have historically experienced failure rates from 50% to more than 80%. Successful integration of information technology (IT) systems can be the difference between postmerger success or failure. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the entropy phenomenon during postmerger IT integration. To that end, a…

  19. Entropy in Postmerger and Acquisition Integration from an Information Technology Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Gloria S.

    2012-01-01

    Mergers and acquisitions have historically experienced failure rates from 50% to more than 80%. Successful integration of information technology (IT) systems can be the difference between postmerger success or failure. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the entropy phenomenon during postmerger IT integration. To that end, a…

  20. Audiovisual Speech Integration in Pervasive Developmental Disorder: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnee, Maurice J. C. M.; de Gelder, Beatrice; van Engeland, Herman; Kemner, Chantal

    2008-01-01

    Background: Integration of information from multiple sensory sources is an important prerequisite for successful social behavior, especially during face-to-face conversation. It has been suggested that communicative impairments among individuals with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) might be caused by an inability to integrate synchronously…

  1. Meeting the Challenge of Preparing Social Workers for Integrated Health Practice: Evidence from Two MSW Cohorts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rishel, Carrie W.; Hartnett, Helen P.

    2017-01-01

    Changes in health care policy have led to an expansion of integrated care models that rely on collaboration among interprofessional health teams. Recent federal funding has encouraged the development of innovative training models to prepare social workers for integrated health practice. This article presents evidence from the first two MSW cohorts…

  2. Audiovisual Speech Integration in Pervasive Developmental Disorder: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnee, Maurice J. C. M.; de Gelder, Beatrice; van Engeland, Herman; Kemner, Chantal

    2008-01-01

    Background: Integration of information from multiple sensory sources is an important prerequisite for successful social behavior, especially during face-to-face conversation. It has been suggested that communicative impairments among individuals with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) might be caused by an inability to integrate synchronously…

  3. Uranium removal from soils: An overview from the Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration program

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, C.W.; Brainard, J.R.; York, D.A.; Chaiko, D.J.; Matthern, G.

    1994-09-01

    An integrated approach to remove uranium from uranium-contaminated soils is being conducted by four of the US Department of Energy national laboratories. In this approach, managed through the Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration program at the Fernald Environmental Management Project, Fernald, Ohio, these laboratories are developing processes that selectively remove uranium from soil without seriously degrading the soil`s physicochemical characteristics or generating waste that is difficult to manage or dispose of. These processes include traditional uranium extractions that use carbonate as well as some nontraditional extraction techniques that use citric acid and complex organic chelating agents such as naturally occurring microbial siderophores. A bench-scale engineering design for heap leaching; a process that uses carbonate leaching media shows that >90% of the uranium can be removed from the Fernald soils. Other work involves amending soils with cultures of sulfur and ferrous oxidizing microbes or cultures of fungi whose role is to generate mycorrhiza that excrete strong complexers for uranium. Aqueous biphasic extraction, a physical separation technology, is also being evaluated because of its ability to segregate fine particulate, a fundamental requirement for soils containing high levels of silt and clay. Interactions among participating scientists have produced some significant progress not only in evaluating the feasibility of uranium removal but also in understanding some important technical aspects of the task.

  4. Integrated INS/GPS Navigation from a Popular Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omerbashich, Mensur

    2002-01-01

    Inertial navigation, blended with other navigation aids, Global Positioning System (GPS) in particular, has gained significance due to enhanced navigation and inertial reference performance and dissimilarity for fault tolerance and anti-jamming. Relatively new concepts based upon using Differential GPS (DGPS) blended with Inertial (and visual) Navigation Sensors (INS) offer the possibility of low cost, autonomous aircraft landing. The FAA has decided to implement the system in a sophisticated form as a new standard navigation tool during this decade. There have been a number of new inertial sensor concepts in the recent past that emphasize increased accuracy of INS/GPS versus INS and reliability of navigation, as well as lower size and weight, and higher power, fault tolerance, and long life. The principles of GPS are not discussed; rather the attention is directed towards general concepts and comparative advantages. A short introduction to the problems faced in kinematics is presented. The intention is to relate the basic principles of kinematics to probably the most used navigation method in the future-INS/GPS. An example of the airborne INS is presented, with emphasis on how it works. The discussion of the error types and sources in navigation, and of the role of filters in optimal estimation of the errors then follows. The main question this paper is trying to answer is 'What are the benefits of the integration of INS and GPS and how is this, navigation concept of the future achieved in reality?' The main goal is to communicate the idea about what stands behind a modern navigation method.

  5. Integrated healthy workplace model: An experience from North Indian industry

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Jarnail Singh; Bains, Puneet; Kar, Sitanshu Sekhar; Wadhwa, Sanjay; Moirangthem, Prabha; Kumar, Rajesh; Wadwalker, Sanjay; Sharma, Yashpal

    2012-01-01

    Background: Keeping in view of rapid industrialization and growing Indian economy, there has been a substantial increase in the workforce in India. Currently there is no organized workplace model for promoting health of industrial workers in India. Objective: To develop and implement a healthy workplace model in three industrial settings of North India. Materials and Methods: An operations research was conducted for 12 months in purposively selected three industries of Chandigarh. In phase I, a multi-stakeholder workshop was conducted to finalize the components and tools for the healthy workplace model. NCD risk factors were assessed in 947 employees in these three industries. In phase II, the healthy workplace model was implemented on pilot basis for a period of 12 months in these three industries to finalize the model. Findings: Healthy workplace committee with involvement of representatives of management, labor union and research organization was formed in three industries. Various tools like comprehensive and rapid healthy workplace assessment forms, NCD work-lite format for risk factors surveillance and monitoring and evaluation format were developed. The prevalence of tobacco use, ever alcoholics was found to be 17.8% and 47%, respectively. Around one-third (28%) of employees complained of back pain in the past 12 months. Healthy workplace model with focus on three key components (physical environment, psychosocial work environment, and promoting healthy habits) was developed, implemented on pilot basis, and finalized based on experience in participating industries. A stepwise approach for model with a core, expanded, and optional components were also suggested. An accreditation system is also required for promoting healthy workplace program. Conclusion: Integrated healthy workplace model is feasible, could be implemented in industrial setting in northern India and needs to be pilot tested in other parts of the country. PMID:23776318

  6. Integrative vs. Traditional Learning from the Student Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kadmon, Guni; Schmidt, Jan; De Cono, Nicola; Kadmon, Martina

    2011-01-01

    Background: The interdisciplinary surgery block of the reformed undergraduate curriculum HeiCuMed includes daily cycles of interactive case-based seminars, problem-based tutorials, case presentation by students, skills and communication training, and bedside teaching. The teaching doctors receive didactic training. In contrast, the previous traditional course was based on lectures with only two weekly hours of bedside teaching. Didactic training was not available. Objective: The present work aims at analysing the importance of active participation of students and the didactic components of the reformed and traditional curricula, which contribute to successful learning as evaluated by the students. Method: Differentiated student evaluations of the undergraduate surgical courses between 1999 and 2008 were examined by correlation and regression analyses. Results: The evaluation scores for organisation, dedication of the teaching staff, their ability to make lessons interesting and complex topics easily understandable, and the subjective gain of knowledge were significantly better in HeiCuMed than in the traditional curriculum. However, the dependence of knowledge gain on the didactic quality was the same in both curricula. The quality of discussions and the ability of the teaching doctors to promote active student participation were important to the subjective gain of knowledge in both seminars and practical courses of the reformed curriculum as well as for the overall evaluation of the practical courses but not the gain of knowledge in the traditional curriculum. Conclusion: The findings confirm psychological-educational perceptions, that competent implementation of integrative didactical methods is more important to successful teaching and the subjective gain of knowledge than knowledge transfer by traditional classroom teaching. PMID:21818238

  7. Benchmark values for molecular two-electron integrals arising from the Dirac equation.

    PubMed

    Bağcı, A; Hoggan, P E

    2015-02-01

    The two-center two-electron Coulomb and hybrid integrals arising in relativistic and nonrelativistic ab initio calculations on molecules are evaluated. Compact, arbitrarily accurate expressions are obtained. They are expressed through molecular auxiliary functions and evaluated with the numerical Global-adaptive method for arbitrary values of parameters in the noninteger Slater-type orbitals. Highly accurate benchmark values are presented for these integrals. The convergence properties of new molecular auxiliary functions are investigated. The comparison for two-center two-electron integrals is made with results obtained from single center expansions by translation of the wave function to a single center with integer principal quantum numbers and results obtained from the Cuba numerical integration algorithm, respectively. The procedures discussed in this work are capable of yielding highly accurate two-center two-electron integrals for all ranges of orbital parameters.

  8. Benchmark values for molecular two-electron integrals arising from the Dirac equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baǧcı, A.; Hoggan, P. E.

    2015-02-01

    The two-center two-electron Coulomb and hybrid integrals arising in relativistic and nonrelativistic ab initio calculations on molecules are evaluated. Compact, arbitrarily accurate expressions are obtained. They are expressed through molecular auxiliary functions and evaluated with the numerical Global-adaptive method for arbitrary values of parameters in the noninteger Slater-type orbitals. Highly accurate benchmark values are presented for these integrals. The convergence properties of new molecular auxiliary functions are investigated. The comparison for two-center two-electron integrals is made with results obtained from single center expansions by translation of the wave function to a single center with integer principal quantum numbers and results obtained from the Cuba numerical integration algorithm, respectively. The procedures discussed in this work are capable of yielding highly accurate two-center two-electron integrals for all ranges of orbital parameters.

  9. Fully Implicit Temporal Integration of Index One Differential-Algebraic Equations from Nonlinear Porous Media Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, C. T.; Kees, C. E.

    2002-12-01

    Time integration methods that adapt in both the order of approximation and time step have been shown to provide efficient solutions for Richards' equation. In this work, we extend the same method of lines approach to solve a set of two-phase flow formulations and address some mass conservation issues from the previous work. We analyze these formulations and the nonlinear systems that result from applying the integration methods, placing particular emphasis on their index, range of applicability, and mass conservation characteristics. We conduct numerical experiments to study the behavior of the numerical models for three test problems. We demonstrate that higher order integration in time is more efficient than standard low-order methods for a variety of practical grids and integration tolerances, that the adaptive scheme successfully varies the step size in response to changing conditions, and that mass balance can be maintained efficiently using variable-order integration and an appropriately chosen numerical model formulation.

  10. Process integration possibilities for biodiesel production from palm oil using ethanol obtained from lignocellulosic residues of oil palm industry.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Luis F; Sánchez, Oscar J; Cardona, Carlos A

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, integration possibilities for production of biodiesel and bioethanol using a single source of biomass as a feedstock (oil palm) were explored through process simulation. The oil extracted from Fresh Fruit Bunches was considered as the feedstock for biodiesel production. An extractive reaction process is proposed for transesterification reaction using in situ produced ethanol, which is obtained from two types of lignocellulosic residues of palm industry (Empty Fruit Bunches and Palm Press Fiber). Several ways of integration were analyzed. The integration of material flows between ethanol and biodiesel production lines allowed a reduction in unit energy costs down to 3.4%, whereas the material and energy integration leaded to 39.8% decrease of those costs. The proposed integrated configuration is an important option when the technology for ethanol production from biomass reaches such a degree of maturity that its production costs be comparable with those of grain or cane ethanol.

  11. Findings from the Harvard Medical School Cambridge Integrated Clerkship, a Year-Long Longitudinal Psychiatry Experience.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Elisa; Hirsh, David; Gaufberg, Elizabeth; Griswold, Todd; Wesley Boyd, J

    2017-06-23

    The Harvard Medical School Cambridge Integrated Clerkship is a longitudinal integrated clerkship that has provided an alternative clinical model for medical education in psychiatry since its inception in 2004. This study was undertaken in an effort to better understand the student experience of the Cambridge Integrated Clerkship and how it may have impacted students' perceptions of and interest in psychiatry, as well as performance. Qualitative surveys were sent via e-mail to the first 11 student cohorts who had completed the Cambridge Integrated Clerkship (from 2004 to 2014) and for whom we had e-mail addresses (N = 100), and the free-text responses were coded thematically. All available standardized scoring data and residency match data for Cambridge Integrated Clerkship graduates were obtained. From 2006 to 2014, 12 out of 73 Cambridge Integrated Clerkship students who entered the match chose a psychiatry residency (16.4%), four times more than students in traditional clerkships at Harvard Medical School (3.8% of 1355 students) or the national average (4.1% of 146,066 US applicants). Thirty of the 100 surveyed Cambridge Integrated Clerkship graduates (30%) responded to the qualitative survey with free-text remarks on a number of themes. Cambridge Integrated Clerkship students compared positively to their classmates in terms of standardized test performance. Their fourfold higher match rate into psychiatry compared to other students raises intriguing questions as to what role a longitudinal clerkship might have played in developing interest in psychiatry as a career.

  12. Fuels from Biomass: Integration with Food and Materials Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipinsky, E. S.

    1978-01-01

    The development of fuels from biomass can lead naturally to dispersed facilities that incorporate food or materials production (or both) with fuel production. The author analyzes possible systems based on sugarcane, corn, and guayule. (Author/MA)

  13. Fuels from Biomass: Integration with Food and Materials Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipinsky, E. S.

    1978-01-01

    The development of fuels from biomass can lead naturally to dispersed facilities that incorporate food or materials production (or both) with fuel production. The author analyzes possible systems based on sugarcane, corn, and guayule. (Author/MA)

  14. Remedial Instruction in Reading: Guidelines from Information Integration Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Greg; Kirby, John

    1987-01-01

    Offers an alternative to current beliefs about holistic learning and teaching. Describes task hierarchies that are closely based on children's information processing skills and that proceed in a systematic fashion from lower to higher levels. (AEW)

  15. Integrating Informative Priors from Experimental Research with Bayesian Methods

    PubMed Central

    Hamra, Ghassan; Richardson, David; MacLehose, Richard; Wing, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Informative priors can be a useful tool for epidemiologists to handle problems of sparse data in regression modeling. It is sometimes the case that an investigator is studying a population exposed to two agents, X and Y, where Y is the agent of primary interest. Previous research may suggest that the exposures have different effects on the health outcome of interest, one being more harmful than the other. Such information may be derived from epidemiologic analyses; however, in the case where such evidence is unavailable, knowledge can be drawn from toxicologic studies or other experimental research. Unfortunately, using toxicologic findings to develop informative priors in epidemiologic analyses requires strong assumptions, with no established method for its utilization. We present a method to help bridge the gap between animal and cellular studies and epidemiologic research by specification of an order-constrained prior. We illustrate this approach using an example from radiation epidemiology. PMID:23222512

  16. Methane from an integrated hyacinth treatment anaerobic digestion facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, T.D.; Chynoweth, D.P.; Reddy, K.R.; Schwegler, B.

    1985-08-01

    Results to date indicate that the Hyacinth Project could lead to the production of cost-competitive methane from a hyacinth wastewater treatment system. An information base from the project will be available by the end of 1985 to support a decision on whether methane generation from a hyacinth facility is sufficiently attractive for communities and gas companies to pursue at a commercial scale. If the economics are promising, construction of a full-scale plant could begin in the late 1980s. The project could ultimately provide a low-cost supplemental source of pipeline-quality gas while offering a cost-effective wastewater treatment alternative. 9 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  17. WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Tsang

    2003-03-14

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC), a company of Global Energy Inc., and supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation. Three project phases are planned for execution over several years, including: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility, and for fence-line commercial embodiment plants (CEP) operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations (2) Research, development, and testing to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues (3) Engineering design and financing plan to install an integrated commercial demonstration facility at the existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana.

  18. Structural and electrical characterization of organic monolayers by Atomic Force Microscopy and through the nano-fabrication of a coplanar electrode-dielectric platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Florent

    Correlating structural and electrical properties of organic thin films is a key requirement to understand charge transport in these materials. The electrical conductivity of organic films should be strongly dependent on how the molecules arrange to form films and crystals. Here we report on the structural and electrical characterization of organic monolayers by Atomic Force Microscopy and through the nano-fabrication of a coplanar electrode-dielectric platform. Organic monolayers were prepared using the solution-based Langmuir-Blodgett technique and transferred to a variety of substrates. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was used to analyze the morphology and the microstructure of ultra-thin films at high resolution while electron diffraction measurements were instrumental in determining the lattice and orientation of crystalline domains within monolayers. A novel Conducting probe AFM method based on the presence of an insulating oxide layer between an organic film and a conductive silicon substrate made it possible to probe the in-plane electrical conductivity in the film. With this technique, we were able to investigate the correlation between conduction properties of oligothiophene monolayers and structural factors such as their molecular order and their lattice orientation. In order to make electrical contacts with monolayer films and study them in a Field Effect Transistor (FET) configuration, we developed coplanar electrode-dielectric substrates with roughness and surface topography in the sub-nanometer range. We present the first results on the electrical characterization of monolayers with this device which demonstrate that the coplanar geometry leads to a contact resistance by orders of magnitude lower than that found in conventional 20nm thick electrodes.

  19. Response of human dental pulp cells to a silver-containing PLGA/TCP-nanofabric as a potential antibacterial regenerative pulp-capping material.

    PubMed

    Cvikl, Barbara; Hess, Samuel C; Miron, Richard J; Agis, Hermann; Bosshardt, Dieter; Attin, Thomas; Schmidlin, Patrick R; Lussi, Adrian

    2017-02-27

    Damage or exposure of the dental pulp requires immediate therapeutic intervention. This study assessed the biocompatibility of a silver-containing PLGA/TCP-nanofabric scaffold (PLGA/Ag-TCP) in two in vitro models, i.e. the material adapted on pre-cultured cells and cells directly cultured on the material, respectively. Collagen saffolds with and without hyaluronan acid (Coll-HA; Coll) using both cell culturing methods and cells growing on culture plates served as reference. Cell viability and proliferation were assessed after 24, 48, and 72 h based on formazan formation and BrdU incorporation. Scaffolds were harvested. Gene expression of interleukin(IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and alkaline phosphatase (AP) was assessed 24 h after stimulation. In both models formazan formation and BrdU incorporation was reduced by PLGA/Ag-TCP on dental pulp cells, while no significant reduction was found in cells with Coll and Coll-HA. Cells with PLGA/Ag-TCP for 72 h showed similar relative BrdU incorporation than cells stimulated with Coll and Coll-HA. A prominent increase in the pro-inflammatory genes IL-6 and TNF-α was observed when cells were cultured with PLGA/Ag-TCP compared to the other groups. This increase was parallel with a slight increase in AP expression. Overall, no differences between the two culture methods were observed. PLGA/Ag-TCP decreased viability and proliferation rate of human dental pulp cells and increased the pro-inflammatory capacity and alkaline phosphatase expression. Whether these cellular responses observed in vitro translate into pulp regeneration in vivo will be assessed in further studies.

  20. Efficient ethanol recovery from yeast fermentation broth with integrated distillation-membrane process

    EPA Science Inventory

    A hybrid process integrating vapor stripping with vapor compression and vapor permeation membrane separation, termed Membrane Assisted Vapor Stripping (MAVS), was evaluated for recovery and dehydration of ethanol from aqueous solution as an alternative to conventional distillatio...

  1. Efficient ethanol recovery from yeast fermentation broth with integrated distillation-membrane process

    EPA Science Inventory

    A hybrid process integrating vapor stripping with vapor compression and vapor permeation membrane separation, termed Membrane Assisted Vapor Stripping (MAVS), was evaluated for recovery and dehydration of ethanol from aqueous solution as an alternative to conventional distillatio...

  2. The Scholarship of Teaching and Learning: From Idea to Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchings, Pat

    2010-01-01

    This chapter looks at the scholarship of teaching and learning as one development among many over the last 25 years, arguing that it is best understood not as a discrete new model or approach but as a habit of mind and set of practices that contribute to a culture in which other changes and developments can thrive. By engaging faculty from a wide…

  3. Integration in Academic Reference Departments: From Print to Digital Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levrault, Bethany R.

    2005-01-01

    Reference services are in the midst of evolutionary changes. At a time when budgets are shrinking, traditional models of service and print reference formats are being questioned. This article discusses future directions of academic reference collections in terms of the apparent shift from print to electronic reference sources. Questions addressed…

  4. Closing the Shop: Conversion from Sheltered to Integrated Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Stephen T.; Rogan, Patricia M.

    Designed as a hands-on guide for job development specialists, vocational rehabilitation professionals, and agency leaders and staff, this book provides an indepth analysis of the conversion process of Pioneer, a sheltered workshop in Syracuse, New York. The book moves from an examination of the historical roots of sheltered workshops in chapter 1…

  5. Closing the Shop: Conversion from Sheltered to Integrated Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Stephen T.; Rogan, Patricia M.

    Designed as a hands-on guide for job development specialists, vocational rehabilitation professionals, and agency leaders and staff, this book provides an indepth analysis of the conversion process of Pioneer, a sheltered workshop in Syracuse, New York. The book moves from an examination of the historical roots of sheltered workshops in chapter 1…

  6. Deviations from Prescribed Prompting Procedures: Implications for Treatment Integrity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grow, Laura L.; Carr, James E.; Gunby, Kristin V.; Charania, Shaireen M.; Gonsalves, Lucita; Ktaech, Inas A.; Kisamore, April N.

    2009-01-01

    The acquisition of new skills may be hindered when teaching procedures vary from previously validated approaches or contain errors. In the present study, we compared the acquisition and maintenance of response chains taught using a perfectly implemented system of least prompts and a multiple verbal prompts procedure (i.e., addition of multiple…

  7. [The integration of spatial frequency-based information in scene perception: evidence from spatially incongruent images].

    PubMed

    Kihara, Ken; Takeda, Yuji

    2011-10-01

    Humans can recognize a complex natural scene even when it appears only briefly. The rapid recognition of natural scenes is accomplished by parallel processing of information based on multiple spatial frequencies and integration of this information. Previous studies have revealed the time course of integration of frequency-based information. However, it is still unclear how frequency-based information is integrated. There are two possible levels for the integration: One involves spatial integration of images and constructs a unified image, and the other entails semantic integration associated with the scene context level irrespective of spatial arrangements. We investigated the categorization accuracy of the low + high-pass images, in which a left-right mirror reversed low-pass image was superimposed on a nonreversed high-pass image or vice versa. In this context, the low+high-pass images were semantically integrable but spatially incongruent. The results indicated that accuracy of the low+high-pass images did not exceed the expected accuracy level estimated from separate presentations. This finding suggests that frequency-based information can be integrated spatially.

  8. Keeping track of the distance from home by leaky integration along veering paths.

    PubMed

    Lappe, Markus; Stiels, Maren; Frenz, Harald; Loomis, Jack M

    2011-07-01

    When humans use vision to gauge the travel distance of an extended forward movement, they often underestimate the movement's extent. This underestimation can be explained by leaky path integration, an integration of the movement to obtain distance. Distance underestimation occurs because this integration is imperfect and contains a leak that increases with distance traveled. We asked human observers to estimate the distance from a starting location for visually simulated movements in a virtual environment. The movements occurred along curved paths that veered left and right around a central forward direction. In this case, the distance that has to be integrated (i.e., the beeline distance between origin and endpoint) and the distance that is traversed (the path length along the curve) are distinct. We then tested whether the leak accumulated with distance from the origin or with traversed distance along the curved path. Leaky integration along the path makes the seemingly counterintuitive prediction that the estimated origin-to-endpoint distance should decrease with increasing veering, because the length of the path over which the integration occurs increases, leading to a larger leak effect. The results matched the prediction: movements of identical origin-to-endpoint distance were judged as shorter when the path became longer. We conclude that leaky path integration from visual motion is performed along the traversed path even when a straight beeline distance is calculated.

  9. Biofilm formation on nanostructured titanium oxide surfaces and a micro/nanofabrication-based preventive strategy using colloidal lithography.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajay Vikram; Vyas, Varun; Salve, Tushar S; Cortelli, Daniele; Dellasega, David; Podestà, Alessandro; Milani, Paolo; Gade, W N

    2012-06-01

    The contamination of implant devices as a result of biofilm formation through bacterial infection has instigated major research in this area, particularly to understand the mechanism of bacterial cell/implant surface interactions and their preventions. In this paper, we demonstrate a controlled method of nanostructured titanium oxide surface synthesis using supersonic cluster beam depositions. The nanoscale surface characterization using atomic force microscopy and a profilometer display a regulated evolution in nanomorphology and physical properties. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses display a stoichiometric nanostructured TiO(2) film. Measurement of the water contact angle shows a nominal increase in the hydrophilic nature of ns-TiO(2) films, whereas the surface energy increases with decreasing contact angle. Bacterial species Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli interaction with nanostructured surfaces shows an increase in adhesion and biofilm formation with increasing nanoscale morphological properties. Conversely, limiting ns-TiO(2) film distribution to micro/nanopatterned designed substrates integrated with bovine serum albumin functionalization leads to a reduction in biofilm formations due to a globally decreased bacterial cell-surface interaction area. The results have potential implications in inhibiting bacterial colonization and promoting mammalian cell-implant interactions.

  10. Integrating uranium from weapons into the civil fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Neff, T.L. )

    1993-01-01

    Under a recently-approved agreement, Russia will sell perhaps 500 tonnes of highly enriched uranium (HEU) recovered from its dismantled nuclear weapons to the US Department of Energy over the next twenty years. Blended with natural or depleted uranium to produce low-enriched uranium for reactor fuel, this HEU could displace power consumption in the electricity-intensive gaseous diffusion plants of the US. The sale of the HEU could be done in a way that minimizes uranium market disruptions and benefits both the US and Russia. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Integrating feedback from a clinical data warehouse into practice organisation.

    PubMed

    Grant, Andrew; Moshyk, Andriy; Diab, Hassan; Caron, Philippe; de Lorenzi, Fabien; Bisson, Guy; Menard, Line; Lefebvre, Richard; Gauthier, Patricia; Grondin, Richard; Desautels, Michel

    2006-01-01

    A patient oriented hospital information system (ARIANE) was inaugurated at the Sherbrooke University hospital (CHUS) in 1990 and a clinical data warehouse (CDW) completed 2004. The CDW is updated from ARIANE every 24h and includes ICD discharge diagnosis data, visit DRG and SNOMED encoding. The data is encrypted on storage. Data is accessed according to institutional approval. To facilitate data access two levels of tool have been made accessible using a web-browser. The first level consists of a 'dashboard' that has a defined design and enables a set of pre-determined dynamic queries about a patient population. This level can be operated with minimal training. The second level uses a convivial database query tool, which requires some prior training. Two prototype dashboards have been designed and evaluated for acceptability. The first for the emergency department enables analysis of patient occupancy. The second for the biochemistry department enables quality assurance evaluation. In most cases worldwide the clinical data warehouse is only beginning to be exploited, often impeded by lack of connection between different enterprise databases. Our CDW is expected rapidly to create a culture change so that clinical practice can be continuously evaluated using compiled data readily available from the electronic health record/hospital information system.

  12. Super-resolution for imagery from integrated microgrid polarimeters.

    PubMed

    Hardie, Russell C; LeMaster, Daniel A; Ratliff, Bradley M

    2011-07-04

    Imagery from microgrid polarimeters is obtained by using a mosaic of pixel-wise micropolarizers on a focal plane array (FPA). Each distinct polarization image is obtained by subsampling the full FPA image. Thus, the effective pixel pitch for each polarization channel is increased and the sampling frequency is decreased. As a result, aliasing artifacts from such undersampling can corrupt the true polarization content of the scene. Here we present the first multi-channel multi-frame super-resolution (SR) algorithms designed specifically for the problem of image restoration in microgrid polarization imagers. These SR algorithms can be used to address aliasing and other degradations, without sacrificing field of view or compromising optical resolution with an anti-aliasing filter. The new SR methods are designed to exploit correlation between the polarimetric channels. One of the new SR algorithms uses a form of regularized least squares and has an iterative solution. The other is based on the faster adaptive Wiener filter SR method. We demonstrate that the new multi-channel SR algorithms are capable of providing significant enhancement of polarimetric imagery and that they outperform their independent channel counterparts.

  13. Poliovirus vaccination during the endgame: insights from integrated modeling.

    PubMed

    Duintjer Tebbens, Radboud J; Thompson, Kimberly M

    2017-06-01

    Managing the polio endgame requires access to sufficient quantities of poliovirus vaccines. After oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) cessation, outbreaks may occur that require outbreak response using monovalent OPV (mOPV) and/or inactivated poliovirus vaccine. Areas covered: We review the experience and challenges with managing vaccine supplies in the context of the polio endgame. Building on models that explored polio endgame risks and the potential mOPV needs to stop outbreaks from live poliovirus reintroductions, we conceptually explore the potential demands for finished and bulk mOPV doses from a stockpile in the context of limited shelf-life of finished vaccine and time delays to convert bulk to finished vaccine. Our analysis suggests that the required size of the mOPV stockpile varies by serotype, with the highest expected needs for serotype 1 mOPV. Based on realizations of poliovirus risks after OPV cessation, the stockpile required to eliminate the chance of a stock-out appears considerably larger than the currently planned mOPV stockpiles. Expert commentary: The total required stockpile size depends on the acceptable probability of a stock-out, and increases with longer times to finish bulk doses and shorter shelf-lives of finished doses. Successful polio endgame management will require careful attention to poliovirus vaccine supplies.

  14. From mechanisms to function: an integrated framework of animal innovation

    PubMed Central

    Tebbich, Sabine; Griffin, Andrea S.; Peschl, Markus F.; Sterelny, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Animal innovations range from the discovery of novel food types to the invention of completely novel behaviours. Innovations can give access to new opportunities, and thus enable innovating agents to invade and create novel niches. This in turn can pave the way for morphological adaptation and adaptive radiation. The mechanisms that make innovations possible are probably as diverse as the innovations themselves. So too are their evolutionary consequences. Perhaps because of this diversity, we lack a unifying framework that links mechanism to function. We propose a framework for animal innovation that describes the interactions between mechanism, fitness benefit and evolutionary significance, and which suggests an expanded range of experimental approaches. In doing so, we split innovation into factors (components and phases) that can be manipulated systematically, and which can be investigated both experimentally and with correlational studies. We apply this framework to a selection of cases, showing how it helps us ask more precise questions and design more revealing experiments. PMID:26926285

  15. [Care and difference: from integration to fragmentation of being].

    PubMed

    Meyer, D E

    2001-07-01

    With this paper I intend to join to theorists who have discussed issues of difference and identity, with the aim of problematising some of the knowing/doing dimensions of nursing in contemporaneity. I am using as an analytical-theoretical background the Cultural Studies and Gender theories that develop a critical approach to post-structuralism. In the light of such a background I analyse some elements or constitutive aspects of the current theories on Care. I argue that to think care from the perspective of difference is to accept the challenge of not thinking about it as an action underpinned by scientific, philosophical and universal humanitarian assumptions, and start its theorisation and exercise as an action that is fundamentally political.

  16. Immune Modulation From Five Major Mushrooms: Application to Integrative Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Guggenheim, Alena G.; Wright, Kirsten M.; Zwickey, Heather L.

    2014-01-01

    This review discusses the immunological roles of 5 major mushrooms in oncology: Agaricus blazei, Cordyceps sinensis, Grifola frondosa, Ganoderma lucidum, and Trametes versicolor. These mushrooms were selected based on the body of research performed on mushroom immunology in an oncology model. First, this article focuses on how mushrooms modify cytokines within specific cancer models and on how those cytokines affect the disease process. Second, this article examines the direct effect of mushrooms on cancer. Finally, this article presents an analysis of how mushrooms interact with chemotherapeutic agents, including their effects on its efficacy and on the myelosuppression that results from it. For these 5 mushrooms, an abundance of in vitro evidence exists that elucidates the anticancer immunological mechanisms. Preliminary research in humans is also available and is promising for treatment. PMID:26770080

  17. With a little help from our friends: couple social integration in marriage.

    PubMed

    Barton, Allen W; Futris, Ted G; Nielsen, Robert B

    2014-12-01

    The benefits of social integration (i.e., structural or affective connectedness with others and with social institutions) have been frequently noted for individuals' personal well-being. In a similar fashion, recent marital research has highlighted how the social integration of a couple also appears to positively affect marital well-being. However, beyond main effects, little research to date has considered whether couples' social integration possesses moderating effects for spouses' marital quality as well. Among a sample of 492 married individuals, the present study explored whether spouses' reports of the social integration of their marriage moderated the associations between (a) financial distress and marital happiness, and (b) residing in more urban areas and marital happiness. Results from latent interaction structural equation modeling revealed a significant interaction between couple social integration and each contextual factor. Specifically, higher levels of couple social integration buffered marital happiness from lower levels associated with greater financial distress and with residing in more urban areas. These results, along with cultural shifts that have led to lower levels of communal ties and involvement throughout society, suggest couple social integration to be a pertinent construct for marital research and enrichment efforts.

  18. Evaluating the impact of moving from discipline-based to integrated assessment.

    PubMed

    Hudson, J N; Tonkin, A L

    2004-08-01

    The move from discipline-based to problem-based learning (PBL) at Adelaide University in 2000 offered exciting opportunities to integrate the teaching and learning of the basic and clinical sciences for medical undergraduates. However, several cohorts of students still needed to progress through the first 3 years of the more traditional curriculum. Paradoxically, their readiness to function in the integrated learning and assessment environment of the last 3 years was assessed in 7 separate discipline-based examinations at the end of third year. When considerable examination-related stress was noted in the 1997 cohort and students petitioned formally for a reduced examination load, it was considered to be time for assessment to lead the way in integrating the disciplines. After introducing third year integrated written assessments in 1998, we aimed to develop an integrated practical examination (IPE) linking theory to practice, and evaluate its impact on staff and students. After extensive staff collaboration, a structured objective multistation IPE was developed and administered in 1999 and 2000. Its utility was evaluated using a model proposed earlier. Assessment validity was maximised by an extensive item review process. Reliability, as measured by Cronbach's alpha, was 0.79 and 0.80 in 1999 and 2000, respectively. An independent evaluation yielded qualitative data on the examination's educational impact, cost and acceptability. Investing time in changing from discipline-based to integrated assessment, integrating theory and practice, resulted in gains in assessment reliability, validity and educational impact on both staff and students.

  19. Directed Self-Assembly of Triblock Copolymer on Chemical Patterns for Sub-10-nm Nanofabrication via Solvent Annealing.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Shisheng; Wan, Lei; Ishida, Yoshihito; Chapuis, Yves-Andre; Craig, Gordon S W; Ruiz, Ricardo; Nealey, Paul F

    2016-08-23

    Directed self-assembly (DSA) of block copolymers (BCPs) is a leading strategy to pattern at sublithographic resolution in the technology roadmap for semiconductors and is the only known solution to fabricate nanoimprint templates for the production of bit pattern media. While great progress has been made to implement block copolymer lithography with features in the range of 10-20 nm, patterning solutions below 10 nm are still not mature. Many BCP systems self-assemble at this length scale, but challenges remain in simultaneously tuning the interfacial energy atop the film to control the orientation of BCP domains, designing materials, templates, and processes for ultra-high-density DSA, and establishing a robust pattern transfer strategy. Among the various solutions to achieve domains that are perpendicular to the substrate, solvent annealing is advantageous because it is a versatile method that can be applied to a diversity of materials. Here we report a DSA process based on chemical contrast templates and solvent annealing to fabricate 8 nm features on a 16 nm pitch. To make this possible, a number of innovations were brought in concert with a common platform: (1) assembling the BCP in the phase-separated, solvated state, (2) identifying a larger process window for solvated triblock vs diblock BCPs as a function of solvent volume fraction, (3) employing templates for sub-10-nm BCP systems accessible by lithography, and (4) integrating a robust pattern transfer strategy by vapor infiltration of organometallic precursors for selective metal oxide synthesis to prepare an inorganic hard mask.

  20. Top-down nanofabrication of silicon nanoribbon field effect transistor (Si-NR FET) for carcinoembryonic antigen detection.

    PubMed

    Bao, Zengtao; Sun, Jialin; Zhao, Xiaoqian; Li, Zengyao; Cui, Songkui; Meng, Qingyang; Zhang, Ye; Wang, Tong; Jiang, Yanfeng

    2017-01-01

    Sensitive and quantitative detection of tumor markers is highly required in the clinic for cancer diagnosis and consequent treatment. A field-effect transistor-based (FET-based) nanobiosensor emerges with characteristics of being label-free, real-time, having high sensitivity, and providing direct electrical readout for detection of biomarkers. In this paper, a top-down approach is proposed and implemented to fulfill a novel silicon nano-ribbon FET, which acts as biomarker sensor for future clinical application. Compared with the bottom-up approach, a top-down fabrication approach can confine width and length of the silicon FET precisely to control its electrical properties. The silicon nanoribbon (Si-NR) transistor is fabricated on a Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) substrate by a top-down approach with complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible technology. After the preparation, the surface of Si-NR is functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES). Glutaraldehyde is utilized to bind the amino terminals of APTES and antibody on the surface. Finally, a microfluidic channel is integrated on the top of the device, acting as a flowing channel for the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) solution. The Si-NR FET is 120 nm in width and 25 nm in height, with ambipolar electrical characteristics. A logarithmic relationship between the changing ratio of the current and the CEA concentration is measured in the range of 0.1-100 ng/mL. The sensitivity of detection is measured as 10 pg/mL. The top-down fabricated biochip shows feasibility in direct detecting of CEA with the benefits of real-time, low cost, and high sensitivity as a promising biosensor for tumor early diagnosis.