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Sample records for nanoparticle embedded silicon

  1. Control of silicon nanoparticle size embedded in silicon oxynitride dielectric matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrhardt, F.; Ferblantier, G.; Muller, D.; Slaoui, A.; Ulhaq-Bouillet, C.; Rinnert, H.

    2013-07-21

    In this study, silicon rich silicon oxynitride layers containing more than 15% nitrogen were deposited by electron cyclotron resonance assisted plasma enhanced vapor deposition in order to form silicon nanoparticles after a high temperature thermal annealing. The effect of the flows of the precursor gases on the composition and the structural properties of the layers was assessed by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, elastic recoil detection analysis, and infrared spectroscopic measurements. The morphological and crystallinity properties were investigated by energy filtered transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. We show that the excess of silicon in the silicon oxynitride layer controls the silicon nanoparticles size. On the other hand, the crystalline fraction of particles is found to be strongly correlated to the nanoparticle size. Finally, the photoluminescence measurements show that it is also possible to tune the photoluminescence peak position between 400 and 800 nm and its intensity by changing the silicon excess in the silicon rich silicon oxynitride matrix.

  2. Study of the relative performance of silicon and germanium nanoparticles embedded gate oxide in metal-oxide-semiconductor memory devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, G.; Sengupta, A.; Requejo, F. G.; Sarkar, C. K.

    2011-03-01

    In the present work, we have investigated a comparative performance of the silicon (Si) and germanium (Ge) nanoparticles embedded SiO2 floating gate MOS memory devices. In such devices for low applied fields, the tunneling current is dominated by the direct tunneling mechanism, whereas for higher electric fields, the Fowler-Nordheim tunneling mechanism dominates. As the device dimensions get smaller, problem arises in the conventional MOS memory devices due to the leakage through the thin tunnel oxide. This leakage can be reduced via charge trapping by embedding nanoparticles in the gate dielectric of such devices. Here one objective is to prevent the leakage due to the direct tunneling mechanism and the other objective is to reduce the write voltage, by lowering the onset voltage of the Fowler-Nordheim tunneling mechanism. Our simulations for the current voltage characteristics covered both the low and the high applied field regions. Simulations showed that both the Si and the Ge nanoparticles embedded gate dielectrics offer reduction of the leakage current and a significant lowering of the writing or programming onset voltage, compared to the pure SiO2 gate dielectric. In terms of the comparative performance, the Germanium nanoparticles embedded gate dielectric showed better results compared to the silicon nanoparticles embedded one. The results of the simulations are discussed in the light of recent experimental results.

  3. Enhanced magnetic resonance contrast of iron oxide nanoparticles embedded in a porous silicon nanoparticle host

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinsella, Joseph; Ananda, Shalini; Andrew, Jennifer; Grondek, Joel; Chien, Miao-Ping; Scandeng, Miriam; Gianneschi, Nathan; Ruoslahti, Erkki; Sailor, Michael

    2013-02-01

    In this report, we prepared a porous Si nanoparticle with a pore morphology that facilitates the proximal loading and alignment of magnetite nanoparticles. We characterized the composite materials using superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry, dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and MRI. The in vitro cytotoxicity of the composite materials was tested using cell viability assays on human liver cancer cells and rat hepatocytes. An in vivo analysis using a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) Sprague Dawley rat model was used to determine the biodistribution properties of the material, while naïve Sprague Dawley rats were used to determine the pharmocokinetic properties of the nanomaterials. The composite material reported here demonstrates an injectable nanomaterial that exploits the dipolar coupling of superparamagnetic nanoparticles trapped within a secondary inorganic matrix to yield significantly enhanced MRI contrast. This preparation successfully avoids agglomeration issues that plague larger ferromagnetic systems. A Fe3O4:pSi composite formulation consisting of 25% by mass Fe3O4 yields an maximal T2* value of 556 mM Fe-1 s-1. No cellular (HepG2 or rat hepatocyte cells) or in vivo (rat) toxicity was observed with the formulation, which degrades and is eliminated after 4-8 h in vivo. The ability to tailor the magnetic properties of such materials may be useful for in vivo imaging, magnetic hyperthermia, or drug-delivery applications.

  4. Low power zinc-oxide based charge trapping memory with embedded silicon nanoparticles via poole-frenkel hole emission

    SciTech Connect

    El-Atab, Nazek; Nayfeh, Ammar; Ozcan, Ayse; Alkis, Sabri; Okyay, Ali K.

    2014-01-06

    A low power zinc-oxide (ZnO) charge trapping memory with embedded silicon (Si) nanoparticles is demonstrated. The charge trapping layer is formed by spin coating 2 nm silicon nanoparticles between Atomic Layer Deposited ZnO steps. The threshold voltage shift (ΔV{sub t}) vs. programming voltage is studied with and without the silicon nanoparticles. Applying −1 V for 5 s at the gate of the memory with nanoparticles results in a ΔV{sub t} of 3.4 V, and the memory window can be up to 8 V with an excellent retention characteristic (>10 yr). Without nanoparticles, at −1 V programming voltage, the ΔV{sub t} is negligible. In order to get ΔV{sub t} of 3.4 V without nanoparticles, programming voltage in excess of 10 V is required. The negative voltage on the gate programs the memory indicating that holes are being trapped in the charge trapping layer. In addition, at 1 V the electric field across the 3.6 nm tunnel oxide is calculated to be 0.36 MV/cm, which is too small for significant tunneling. Moreover, the ΔV{sub t} vs. electric field across the tunnel oxide shows square root dependence at low fields (E < 1 MV/cm) and a square dependence at higher fields (E > 2.7 MV/cm). This indicates that Poole-Frenkel Effect is the main mechanism for holes emission at low fields and Phonon Assisted Tunneling at higher fields.

  5. DNA-embedded Au-Ag core-shell nanoparticles assembled on silicon slides as a reliable SERS substrate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhong; Zhang, Sha; Lin, Mengshi

    2014-05-07

    This study aimed at developing a sensitive and reliable SERS substrate by assembling DNA-embedded Au-Ag core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) on silicon slides. First, a monolayer of well separated DNA-functionalized Au NPs (40 nm) was decorated on (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane modified silicon slides. The DNA-embedded Au-Ag core-shell NPs were assembled on the 40 nm Au-DNA NPs to form a core-satellite structure through DNA hybridization. Using 4-MBA as a Raman dye, the SERS performance of the substrates was evaluated after being cleaned by low oxygen and argon plasma. The Raman intensity of the assembly using DNA-embedded Au-Ag core-shell NPs was 8-10 times higher than the intensity of the assembly using Au NPs as satellites. In addition, the signal-to-noise ratio of the assembly was 2.6 times higher than that of a commercial substrate (Klarite™) when a 785 nm laser was used. The SERS enhancements of the assembled substrates were 2.2 to 2.8 times higher than the Klarite when an acquisition time of 5 s was used at an excitation wavelength of 633 nm. The assembled substrates also show a good spot-to-spot and substrate-to-substrate reproducibility at the excitation wavelengths of 633 and 785 nm. These results demonstrate that the fabrication process is simple and cost-effective for assembling DNA-embedded Au-Ag core-shell NPs on silicon slides that can be used as a reliable SERS substrate.

  6. Gold nanoparticles deposited on linker-free silicon substrate and embedded in aluminum Schottky contact.

    PubMed

    Gorji, Mohammad Saleh; Razak, Khairunisak Abdul; Cheong, Kuan Yew

    2013-10-15

    Given the enormous importance of Au nanoparticles (NPs) deposition on Si substrates as the precursor for various applications, we present an alternative approach to deposit Au NPs on linker-free n- and p-type Si substrates. It is demonstrated that, all conditions being similar, there is a significant difference between densities of the deposited NPs on both substrates. The Zeta-potential and polarity of charges surrounding the hydroxylamine reduced seeded growth Au NPs, are determined by a Zetasizer. To investigate the surface properties of Si substrates, contact angle measurement is performed. Field-emission scanning electron microscope is then utilized to distinguish the NPs density on the substrates. Finally, Al/Si Schottky barrier diodes with embedded Au NPs are fabricated, and their structural and electrical characteristics are further evaluated using an energy-filtered transmission electron microscope and current-voltage measurements, respectively. The results reveal that the density of NPs is significantly higher on n-type Si substrate and consequently has more pronounced effects on the electrical characteristics of the diode. It is concluded that protonation of Si-OH group on Si surface in low pH is responsible for the immobilization of Au NPs, which eventually contributes to the lowering of barrier height and enhances the electrical characteristics.

  7. Modeling Pulsed Laser Melting of Embedded Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawyer, Carolyn Anne

    A model of pulsed laser melting of embedded nanoparticles is introduced. Pulsed laser melting (PLM) is commonly used to achieve a fast quench rate in nanoparticles; this model enables a better understanding of the influence of PLM on the size distribution of nanoparticles, which is crucial for studying or using their size-dependent properties. The model includes laser absorption according to the Mie theory, a full heat transport model, and rate equations for nucleation, growth, coarsening, and melting and freezing of nanoparticles embedded in a transparent matrix. The effects of varying the laser parameters and sample properties are studied, as well as combining PLM and rapid thermal annealing (RTA) processing steps on the same sample. A general theory for achieving narrow size distributions of nanoparticles is presented, and widths as narrow as 12% are achieved using PLM and RTA.

  8. Enhanced crystallization of amorphous silicon thin films using embedded silicon nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Curtis Michael

    This thesis is concerned with the production of silicon thin films for photovoltaic applications. Much research has been carried out to find a stable, more efficient alternative to amorphous silicon, resulting in a number of various amorphous/crystalline mixed-phase film structures with properties superior to amorphous silicon. This thesis work details a completely new approach to mixed-phase film deposition, focusing on the fast crystallization of these films. The deposition of amorphous silicon films with embedded nanocrystals was carried out via a dual-plasma system. It is known that plasma conditions to produce high quality films are much different from those to produce particles. Hence the experimental system used here involved two separate plasmas to allow the optimum production of the crystalline nanoparticles and the amorphous film. Both plasmas use 13.56 MHz excitation voltage with diluted silane as the silicon precursor. The nanoparticle production reactor is a flow-through device that can be altered to control the size of the particles from around 5--30 nm average diameter. The film production reactor is a parallel-plate capacitively-coupled plasma system, into which the aerosol-suspended nanoparticles were injected. The nanocrystals could either be "co-deposited" simultaneously with the amorphous film, or be deposited separately in a layer-by-layer technique; both approaches are discussed in detail. Measurements of the film conductivity provide for the first time unambiguous evidence that the presence of nanocrystallites above 5 nm in the amorphous film have a direct impact on the electronic properties of co-deposited films. Further measurements of the film structure by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy demonstrate clearly the effect of embedded nanocrystals on the annealed crystallization process; the immediate growth of the crystal seeds has been observed. Additionally, a newly discovered mechanism of film crystallization

  9. Collective optical Kerr effect exhibited by an integrated configuration of silicon quantum dots and gold nanoparticles embedded in ion-implanted silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Torres, C.; López-Suárez, A.; Can-Uc, B.; Rangel-Rojo, R.; Tamayo-Rivera, L.; Oliver, A.

    2015-07-01

    The study of the third-order optical nonlinear response exhibited by a composite containing gold nanoparticles and silicon quantum dots nucleated by ion implantation in a high-purity silica matrix is presented. The nanocomposites were explored as an integrated configuration containing two different ion-implanted distributions. The time-resolved optical Kerr gate and z-scan techniques were conducted using 80 fs pulses at a 825 nm wavelength; while the nanosecond response was investigated by a vectorial two-wave mixing method at 532 nm with 1 ns pulses. An ultrafast purely electronic nonlinearity was associated to the optical Kerr effect for the femtosecond experiments, while a thermal effect was identified as the main mechanism responsible for the nonlinear optical refraction induced by nanosecond pulses. Comparative experimental tests for examining the contribution of the Au and Si distributions to the total third-order optical response were carried out. We consider that the additional defects generated by consecutive ion irradiations in the preparation of ion-implanted samples do not notably modify the off-resonance electronic optical nonlinearities; but they do result in an important change for near-resonant nanosecond third-order optical phenomena exhibited by the closely spaced nanoparticle distributions.

  10. Tailoring the optical constants in single-crystal silicon with embedded silver nanostructures for advanced silicon photonics applications

    SciTech Connect

    Akhter, Perveen; Huang, Mengbing Spratt, William; Kadakia, Nirag; Amir, Faisal

    2015-03-28

    Plasmonic effects associated with metal nanostructures are expected to hold the key to tailoring light emission/propagation and harvesting solar energy in materials including single crystal silicon which remains the backbone in the microelectronics and photovoltaics industries but unfortunately, lacks many functionalities needed for construction of advanced photonic and optoelectronics devices. Currently, silicon plasmonic structures are practically possible only in the configuration with metal nanoparticles or thin film arrays on a silicon surface. This does not enable one to exploit the full potential of plasmonics for optical engineering in silicon, because the plasmonic effects are dominant over a length of ∼50 nm, and the active device region typically lies below the surface much beyond this range. Here, we report on a novel method for the formation of silver nanoparticles embedded within a silicon crystal through metal gettering from a silver thin film deposited at the surface to nanocavities within the Si created by hydrogen ion implantation. The refractive index of the Ag-nanostructured layer is found to be 3–10% lower or higher than that of silicon for wavelengths below or beyond ∼815–900 nm, respectively. Around this wavelength range, the optical extinction values increase by a factor of 10–100 as opposed to the pure silicon case. Increasing the amount of gettered silver leads to an increased extinction as well as a redshift in wavelength position for the resonance. This resonance is attributed to the surface plasmon excitation of the resultant silver nanoparticles in silicon. Additionally, we show that the profiles for optical constants in silicon can be tailored by varying the position and number of nanocavity layers. Such silicon crystals with embedded metal nanostructures would offer novel functional base structures for applications in silicon photonics, optoelectronics, photovoltaics, and plasmonics.

  11. Tailoring the optical constants in single-crystal silicon with embedded silver nanostructures for advanced silicon photonics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhter, Perveen; Huang, Mengbing; Spratt, William; Kadakia, Nirag; Amir, Faisal

    2015-03-01

    Plasmonic effects associated with metal nanostructures are expected to hold the key to tailoring light emission/propagation and harvesting solar energy in materials including single crystal silicon which remains the backbone in the microelectronics and photovoltaics industries but unfortunately, lacks many functionalities needed for construction of advanced photonic and optoelectronics devices. Currently, silicon plasmonic structures are practically possible only in the configuration with metal nanoparticles or thin film arrays on a silicon surface. This does not enable one to exploit the full potential of plasmonics for optical engineering in silicon, because the plasmonic effects are dominant over a length of ˜50 nm, and the active device region typically lies below the surface much beyond this range. Here, we report on a novel method for the formation of silver nanoparticles embedded within a silicon crystal through metal gettering from a silver thin film deposited at the surface to nanocavities within the Si created by hydrogen ion implantation. The refractive index of the Ag-nanostructured layer is found to be 3-10% lower or higher than that of silicon for wavelengths below or beyond ˜815-900 nm, respectively. Around this wavelength range, the optical extinction values increase by a factor of 10-100 as opposed to the pure silicon case. Increasing the amount of gettered silver leads to an increased extinction as well as a redshift in wavelength position for the resonance. This resonance is attributed to the surface plasmon excitation of the resultant silver nanoparticles in silicon. Additionally, we show that the profiles for optical constants in silicon can be tailored by varying the position and number of nanocavity layers. Such silicon crystals with embedded metal nanostructures would offer novel functional base structures for applications in silicon photonics, optoelectronics, photovoltaics, and plasmonics.

  12. Enhancement of light harvesting efficiency of silicon solar cell utilizing arrays of poly(methyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) nano-spheres and nano-spheres with embedded silver nano-particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chee-Leong; Goh, Wee-Sheng; Chee, Swee-Yong; Yik, Lai-Kuan

    2017-02-01

    An array of uniformly distributed monolayer of poly(methyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) nano-spheres were deposited onto an amorphous silicon photovoltaic cell utilizing dip coating technique. The electrical characteristics of the coated photovoltaic cell reveal that the nano-spheres with an average diameter size of 101 nm exhibits excellent light harvesting characteristics if compared to the nano-spheres of other sizes. The power conversion efficiency from such integration of the nano-structures (i.e. 3.14% per PV cell) indicates that at least 1.6 times of improvement (or relative enhancement of 57%) can be achieved comparatively to the uncoated photovoltaic cell (i.e. 2% per PV cell). Further increment of the power conversion efficiency of the solar cell has been attained with the incorporation of the silver nano-particles into the nano-spheres of similar average size. With the inclusion of the silver nano-particles into such nano-spheres, the power conversion efficiency of the solar cell has attained 5.57% per PV cell, which is about 2.8 times (or relative enhancement of 179%) if compared to the uncoated samples. Hence, this novel and controllable technique of fabricating omnidirectional light-harvesting nano-spheres with embedded silver nano-particles will indubitably be beneficial to various types of optoelectronic devices.

  13. Organic memory device with polyaniline nanoparticles embedded as charging elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yo-Han; Kim, Minkeun; Oh, Sewook; Jung, Hunsang; Kim, Yejin; Yoon, Tae-Sik; Kim, Yong-Sang; Ho Lee, Hyun

    2012-04-01

    Polyaniline nanoparticles (PANI NPs) were synthesized and fabricated as charging elements for organic memory devices. The PANI NPs charging layer was self-assembled by epoxy-amine bonds between 3-glycidylpropyl trimethoxysilane functionalized dielectrics and PANI NPs. A memory window of 5.8 V (ΔVFB) represented by capacitance-voltage hysteresis was obtained for metal-pentacene-insulator-silicon capacitor. In addition, program/erase operations controlled by gate bias (-/+90 V) were demonstrated in the PANI NPs embedded pentacene thin film transistor device with polyvinylalcohol dielectric on flexible polyimide substrate. These results can be extended to development of fully organic-based electronic device.

  14. Fabricating solar cells with silicon nanoparticles

    DOEpatents

    Loscutoff, Paul; Molesa, Steve; Kim, Taeseok

    2014-09-02

    A laser contact process is employed to form contact holes to emitters of a solar cell. Doped silicon nanoparticles are formed over a substrate of the solar cell. The surface of individual or clusters of silicon nanoparticles is coated with a nanoparticle passivation film. Contact holes to emitters of the solar cell are formed by impinging a laser beam on the passivated silicon nanoparticles. For example, the laser contact process may be a laser ablation process. In that case, the emitters may be formed by diffusing dopants from the silicon nanoparticles prior to forming the contact holes to the emitters. As another example, the laser contact process may be a laser melting process whereby portions of the silicon nanoparticles are melted to form the emitters and contact holes to the emitters.

  15. Ag doped silicon nitride nanocomposites for embedded plasmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayle, M.; Bonafos, C.; Benzo, P.; Benassayag, G.; Pécassou, B.; Khomenkova, L.; Gourbilleau, F.; Carles, R.

    2015-09-01

    The localized surface plasmon-polariton resonance (LSPR) of noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) is widely exploited for enhanced optical spectroscopies of molecules, nonlinear optics, photothermal therapy, photovoltaics, or more recently in plasmoelectronics and photocatalysis. The LSPR frequency depends not only of the noble metal NP material, shape, and size but also of its environment, i.e., of the embedding matrix. In this paper, Ag-NPs have been fabricated by low energy ion beam synthesis in silicon nitride (SiNx) matrices. By coupling the high refractive index of SiNx to the relevant choice of dielectric thickness in a SiNx/Si bilayer for an optimum antireflective effect, a very sharp plasmonic optical interference is obtained in mid-range of the visible spectrum (2.6 eV). The diffusion barrier property of the host SiNx matrix allows for the introduction of a high amount of Ag and the formation of a high density of Ag-NPs that nucleate during the implantation process. Under specific implantation conditions, in-plane self-organization effects are obtained in this matrix that could be the result of a metastable coarsening regime.

  16. Ag doped silicon nitride nanocomposites for embedded plasmonics

    SciTech Connect

    Bayle, M.; Bonafos, C. Benzo, P.; Benassayag, G.; Pécassou, B.; Carles, R.; Khomenkova, L.; Gourbilleau, F.

    2015-09-07

    The localized surface plasmon-polariton resonance (LSPR) of noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) is widely exploited for enhanced optical spectroscopies of molecules, nonlinear optics, photothermal therapy, photovoltaics, or more recently in plasmoelectronics and photocatalysis. The LSPR frequency depends not only of the noble metal NP material, shape, and size but also of its environment, i.e., of the embedding matrix. In this paper, Ag-NPs have been fabricated by low energy ion beam synthesis in silicon nitride (SiN{sub x}) matrices. By coupling the high refractive index of SiN{sub x} to the relevant choice of dielectric thickness in a SiN{sub x}/Si bilayer for an optimum antireflective effect, a very sharp plasmonic optical interference is obtained in mid-range of the visible spectrum (2.6 eV). The diffusion barrier property of the host SiN{sub x} matrix allows for the introduction of a high amount of Ag and the formation of a high density of Ag-NPs that nucleate during the implantation process. Under specific implantation conditions, in-plane self-organization effects are obtained in this matrix that could be the result of a metastable coarsening regime.

  17. Silicon-Embedding Approaches to 3-D Toroidal Inductor Fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, XH; Kim, M; Herrault, F; Ji, CH; Kim, J; Allen, MG

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor-compatible silicon-embedding techniques for on-chip integration of microelectromechanical-system devices with 3-D complex structures. By taking advantage of the "dead volume" within the bulk of the silicon wafer, functional devices with large profile can be embedded into the substrate without consuming valuable die area on the wafer surface or increasing the packaging complexity. Furthermore, through-wafer interconnects can be implemented to connect the device to the circuitry on the wafer surface. The key challenge of embedding structures within the wafer volume is processing inside deep trenches. To achieve this goal in an area-efficient manner, straight-sidewall trenches are desired, adding additional difficulty to the embedding process. Two approaches to achieve this goal are presented in this paper, i.e., a lithography-based process and a shadow-mask-based process. The lithography-based process utilizes a spray-coating technique and proximity lithography in combination with thick epoxy processing and laminated dry-film lithography. The shadow-mask-based process employs a specially designed 3-D silicon shadow mask to enable simultaneous metal patterning on both the vertical sidewall and the bottom surface of the trench during deposition, eliminating multiple lithography steps and reducing the process time. Both techniques have been demonstrated through the embedding of the topologically complex 3-D toroidal inductors into the silicon substrate for power supply on-chip (PwrSoC) applications. Embedded 3-D inductors that possess 25 turns and a diameter of 6 mm in a silicon trench of 300-mu m depth achieve overall inductances of 45-60 nH, dc resistances of 290-400 m Omega, and quality factors of 16-17.5 at 40-70 MHz.

  18. Spectroscopic enhancement in nanoparticles embedded glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Sahar, M. R. Ghoshal, S. K.

    2014-09-25

    This presentation provides an overview of the recent progress in the enhancement of the spectroscopic characteristics of the glass embedded with nanoparticles (NPs). Some of our research activities with few significantly new results are highlighted and facilely analyzed. The science and technology dealing with the manipulation of the physical properties of rare earth doped inorganic glasses by embedding metallic NPs or nanoclusters produce the so-called 'nanoglass'. Meanwhile, the spectroscopic enhancement relates the intensity of the luminescence measured at certain transition. The enhancement which expectedly due to the 'plasmonics wave' (referring to the coherent coupling of photons to free electron oscillations called plasmon) occurs at the interface between a conductor and a dielectric. Plasmonics being an emerging concept in advanced optical material of nanophotonics has given this material the ability to exploit the optical response at nanoscale and opened up a new avenue in metal-based glass optics. There is a vast array of plasmonic NPs concepts yet to be explored, with applications spanning solar cells, (bio) sensing, communications, lasers, solid-state lighting, waveguides, imaging, optical data transfer, display and even bio-medicine. Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) can enhance the optical response of nanoglass by orders of magnitude as observed. The luminescence enhancement and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) are new paradigm of research. The enhancement of luminescence due to the influence of metallic NPs is the recurring theme of this paper.

  19. Spectroscopic enhancement in nanoparticles embedded glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahar, M. R.; Ghoshal, S. K.

    2014-09-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the recent progress in the enhancement of the spectroscopic characteristics of the glass embedded with nanoparticles (NPs). Some of our research activities with few significantly new results are highlighted and facilely analyzed. The science and technology dealing with the manipulation of the physical properties of rare earth doped inorganic glasses by embedding metallic NPs or nanoclusters produce the so-called 'nanoglass'. Meanwhile, the spectroscopic enhancement relates the intensity of the luminescence measured at certain transition. The enhancement which expectedly due to the 'plasmonics wave' (referring to the coherent coupling of photons to free electron oscillations called plasmon) occurs at the interface between a conductor and a dielectric. Plasmonics being an emerging concept in advanced optical material of nanophotonics has given this material the ability to exploit the optical response at nanoscale and opened up a new avenue in metal-based glass optics. There is a vast array of plasmonic NPs concepts yet to be explored, with applications spanning solar cells, (bio) sensing, communications, lasers, solid-state lighting, waveguides, imaging, optical data transfer, display and even bio-medicine. Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) can enhance the optical response of nanoglass by orders of magnitude as observed. The luminescence enhancement and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) are new paradigm of research. The enhancement of luminescence due to the influence of metallic NPs is the recurring theme of this paper.

  20. Plasmonic and silicon spherical nanoparticle antireflective coatings

    PubMed Central

    Baryshnikova, K. V.; Petrov, M. I.; Babicheva, V. E.; Belov, P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, plasmonic antireflecting nanostructures have been extensively studied to be utilized in various optical and optoelectronic systems such as lenses, solar cells, photodetectors, and others. The growing interest to all-dielectric photonics as an alternative optical technology along with plasmonics motivates us to compare antireflective properties of plasmonic and all-dielectric nanoparticle coatings based on silver and crystalline silicon respectively. Our simulation results for spherical nanoparticles array on top of amorphous silicon show that both silicon and silver coatings demonstrate strong antireflective properties in the visible spectral range. For the first time, we show that zero reflectance from the structure with silicon coatings originates from the destructive interference of electric- and magnetic-dipole responses of nanoparticle array with the wave reflected from the substrate, and we refer to this reflection suppression as substrate-mediated Kerker effect. We theoretically compare the silicon and silver coating effectiveness for the thin-film photovoltaic applications. Silver nanoparticles can be more efficient, enabling up to 30% increase of the overall absorbance in semiconductor layer. Nevertheless, silicon coatings allow up to 64% absorbance increase in the narrow band spectral range because of the substrate-mediated Kerker effect, and band position can be effectively tuned by varying the nanoparticles sizes. PMID:26926602

  1. Plasmonic and silicon spherical nanoparticle antireflective coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baryshnikova, K. V.; Petrov, M. I.; Babicheva, V. E.; Belov, P. A.

    2016-03-01

    Over the last decade, plasmonic antireflecting nanostructures have been extensively studied to be utilized in various optical and optoelectronic systems such as lenses, solar cells, photodetectors, and others. The growing interest to all-dielectric photonics as an alternative optical technology along with plasmonics motivates us to compare antireflective properties of plasmonic and all-dielectric nanoparticle coatings based on silver and crystalline silicon respectively. Our simulation results for spherical nanoparticles array on top of amorphous silicon show that both silicon and silver coatings demonstrate strong antireflective properties in the visible spectral range. For the first time, we show that zero reflectance from the structure with silicon coatings originates from the destructive interference of electric- and magnetic-dipole responses of nanoparticle array with the wave reflected from the substrate, and we refer to this reflection suppression as substrate-mediated Kerker effect. We theoretically compare the silicon and silver coating effectiveness for the thin-film photovoltaic applications. Silver nanoparticles can be more efficient, enabling up to 30% increase of the overall absorbance in semiconductor layer. Nevertheless, silicon coatings allow up to 64% absorbance increase in the narrow band spectral range because of the substrate-mediated Kerker effect, and band position can be effectively tuned by varying the nanoparticles sizes.

  2. Plasmonic and silicon spherical nanoparticle antireflective coatings.

    PubMed

    Baryshnikova, K V; Petrov, M I; Babicheva, V E; Belov, P A

    2016-03-01

    Over the last decade, plasmonic antireflecting nanostructures have been extensively studied to be utilized in various optical and optoelectronic systems such as lenses, solar cells, photodetectors, and others. The growing interest to all-dielectric photonics as an alternative optical technology along with plasmonics motivates us to compare antireflective properties of plasmonic and all-dielectric nanoparticle coatings based on silver and crystalline silicon respectively. Our simulation results for spherical nanoparticles array on top of amorphous silicon show that both silicon and silver coatings demonstrate strong antireflective properties in the visible spectral range. For the first time, we show that zero reflectance from the structure with silicon coatings originates from the destructive interference of electric- and magnetic-dipole responses of nanoparticle array with the wave reflected from the substrate, and we refer to this reflection suppression as substrate-mediated Kerker effect. We theoretically compare the silicon and silver coating effectiveness for the thin-film photovoltaic applications. Silver nanoparticles can be more efficient, enabling up to 30% increase of the overall absorbance in semiconductor layer. Nevertheless, silicon coatings allow up to 64% absorbance increase in the narrow band spectral range because of the substrate-mediated Kerker effect, and band position can be effectively tuned by varying the nanoparticles sizes.

  3. Shaping of Au nanoparticles embedded in various layered structures by swift heavy ion beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawi, E. A.; ArnoldBik, W. M.; Ackermann, R.; Habraken, F. H. P. M.

    2016-10-01

    We present a novel method to extend the ion-beam induced shaping of metallic nanoparticles in various layered structures. Monodisperse Au nanoparticles having mean diameter of 30 nm and their ion-shaping process is investigated for a limited number of experimental conditions. Au nanoparticles were embedded within a single plane in various layered structures of silicon nitride films (Si3N4), combinations of oxide-nitride films (SiO2-Si3N4) and amorphous silicon films (a-Si) and have been sequentially irradiated at 300 K at normal incidence with 50 and 25 MeV Ag ions, respectively. Under irradiation with heavy Ag ions and with sequential increase of the irradiation fluence, the evolution of the Au peak derived from the Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry show broadening in Au peak, which indicates that the Au becomes distributed over a larger depth region, indicative of the elongation of the nanoparticles. The latter is observed almost for every layer structure investigated except for Au nanoparticles embedded in pure a-Si matrix. The largest elongation rate at all fluences is found for the Au nanoparticles encapsulated in pure Si3N4 films. For all irradiation energy applied, we again demonstrate the existence of both threshold and saturation fluences for the elongation effects mentioned.

  4. Silicon-embedded copper nanostructure network for high energy storage

    DOEpatents

    Yu, Tianyue

    2016-03-15

    Provided herein are nanostructure networks having high energy storage, electrochemically active electrode materials including nanostructure networks having high energy storage, as well as electrodes and batteries including the nanostructure networks having high energy storage. According to various implementations, the nanostructure networks have high energy density as well as long cycle life. In some implementations, the nanostructure networks include a conductive network embedded with electrochemically active material. In some implementations, silicon is used as the electrochemically active material. The conductive network may be a metal network such as a copper nanostructure network. Methods of manufacturing the nanostructure networks and electrodes are provided. In some implementations, metal nanostructures can be synthesized in a solution that contains silicon powder to make a composite network structure that contains both. The metal nanostructure growth can nucleate in solution and on silicon nanostructure surfaces.

  5. Embedded graphene for large-area silicon-based devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gluba, M. A.; Amkreutz, D.; Troppenz, G. V.; Rappich, J.; Nickel, N. H.

    2013-08-01

    Macroscopic graphene films buried below amorphous and crystalline silicon capping layers are studied by Raman backscattering spectroscopy and Hall-effect measurements. The graphene films are grown by chemical vapor deposition on copper foil and transferred to glass substrates. Uncapped films possess charge-carrier mobilities of 2030 cm2/Vs at hole concentrations of 3.6 × 1012 cm-2. Graphene withstands the deposition and subsequent crystallization of silicon capping layers. However, the crystallinity of the silicon cap has large influence on the field-induced doping of graphene. Temperature dependent Hall-effect measurements reveal that the mobility of embedded graphene is limited by charged-impurity and phonon-assisted scattering.

  6. Silicon nanoparticles as Raman scattering enhancers.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, I; Shi, L; Lu, X; Korgel, B A; Alvarez-Puebla, R A; Meseguer, F

    2014-06-07

    In this communication we demonstrate the large amplification values of the Raman signal of organic molecules attached to silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs). Light induced Mie resonances of high refractive index particles generate strong evanescent electromagnetic (EM) fields, thus boosting the Raman signal of species attached to the nanoparticles. The interest of this process is justified by the wide range of experimental configurations that can be implemented including photonic crystals, the sharp spectral resonances easily tuneable with the particle size, the biocompatibility and biodegradability of silicon, and the possibility of direct analysis of molecules that do not contain functional groups with high affinity for gold and silver. Additionally, silicon nanoparticles present stronger field enhancement due to Mie resonances at larger sizes than gold.

  7. Silicon nanoparticles as Raman scattering enhancers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, I.; Shi, L.; Lu, X.; Korgel, B. A.; Alvarez-Puebla, R. A.; Meseguer, F.

    2014-05-01

    In this communication we demonstrate the large amplification values of the Raman signal of organic molecules attached to silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs). Light induced Mie resonances of high refractive index particles generate strong evanescent electromagnetic (EM) fields, thus boosting the Raman signal of species attached to the nanoparticles. The interest of this process is justified by the wide range of experimental configurations that can be implemented including photonic crystals, the sharp spectral resonances easily tuneable with the particle size, the biocompatibility and biodegradability of silicon, and the possibility of direct analysis of molecules that do not contain functional groups with high affinity for gold and silver. Additionally, silicon nanoparticles present stronger field enhancement due to Mie resonances at larger sizes than gold.In this communication we demonstrate the large amplification values of the Raman signal of organic molecules attached to silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs). Light induced Mie resonances of high refractive index particles generate strong evanescent electromagnetic (EM) fields, thus boosting the Raman signal of species attached to the nanoparticles. The interest of this process is justified by the wide range of experimental configurations that can be implemented including photonic crystals, the sharp spectral resonances easily tuneable with the particle size, the biocompatibility and biodegradability of silicon, and the possibility of direct analysis of molecules that do not contain functional groups with high affinity for gold and silver. Additionally, silicon nanoparticles present stronger field enhancement due to Mie resonances at larger sizes than gold. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00593g

  8. Enhanced Photoresponse of Conductive Polymer Nanowires Embedded with Au Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junchang; Zhong, Liubiao; Sun, Yinghui; Li, Anran; Huang, Jing; Meng, Fanben; Chandran, Bevita K; Li, Shuzhou; Jiang, Lin; Chen, Xiaodong

    2016-04-20

    A conductive polymer nanowire embedded with a 1D Au nanoparticle chain with defined size, shape, and interparticle distance is fabricated which demonstrates enhanced photoresponse behavior. The precise and controllable positioning of 1D Au nanoparticle chain in the conductive polymer nanowire plays a critical role in modulating the photoresponse behavior by excitation light wavelength or power due to the coupled-plasmon effect of 1D Au nanoparticle chain.

  9. Thermal conductivity of silicon nanowires embedded on thermoelectric platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, JinYong; Cho, Kyoungah; Yoon, Dae Sung; Kim, Sangsig

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we propose a simple method for obtaining the thermal conductivity of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) embedded on a thermoelectric platform. The approximation of the heat flux in SiNWs with temperature differences enables the determination of thermal conductivity. Using this method, the thermal conductivities of our n- and p-type SiNWs are found to be 18.06  ±  0.12 and 20.29  ±  0.77 W m-1 · K-1, respectively. The atomic weight of arsenic ions in the n-type SiNWs is responsible for a lower thermal conductivity than that of boron ions in the p-type SiNWs. Our results demonstrate that this simple method is capable of measuring the thermal conductivity of thermoelectric nanomaterials embedded on thermoelectric devices.

  10. Gated Luminescence Imaging of Silicon Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Joo, Jinmyoung; Liu, Xiangyou; Kotamraju, Venkata Ramana; Ruoslahti, Erkki; Nam, Yoonkey; Sailor, Michael J

    2015-06-23

    The luminescence lifetime of nanocrystalline silicon is typically on the order of microseconds, significantly longer than the nanosecond lifetimes exhibited by fluorescent molecules naturally present in cells and tissues. Time-gated imaging, where the image is acquired at a time after termination of an excitation pulse, allows discrimination of a silicon nanoparticle probe from these endogenous signals. Because of the microsecond time scale for silicon emission, time-gated imaging is relatively simple to implement for this biocompatible and nontoxic probe. Here a time-gated system with ∼10 ns resolution is described, using an intensified CCD camera and pulsed LED or laser excitation sources. The method is demonstrated by tracking the fate of mesoporous silicon nanoparticles containing the tumor-targeting peptide iRGD, administered by retro-orbital injection into live mice. Imaging of such systemically administered nanoparticles in vivo is particularly challenging because of the low concentration of probe in the targeted tissues and relatively high background signals from tissue autofluorescence. Contrast improvements of >100-fold (relative to steady-state imaging) is demonstrated in the targeted tissues.

  11. Gated Luminescence Imaging of Silicon Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Jinmyoung; Liu, Xiangyou; Kotamraju, Venkata Ramana; Ruoslahti, Erkki; Nam, Yoonkey; Sailor, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The luminescence lifetime of nanocrystalline silicon is typically on the order of microseconds, significantly longer than the nanosecond lifetimes exhibited by fluorescent molecules naturally present in cells and tissues. Time-gated imaging, where the image is acquired at a time after termination of an excitation pulse, allows discrimination of a silicon nanoparticle probe from these endogenous signals. Because of the microsecond time scale for silicon emission, time-gated imaging is relatively simple to implement for this biocompatible and nontoxic probe. Here a time-gated system with ~10 ns resolution is described, using an intensified CCD camera and pulsed LED or laser excitation sources. The method is demonstrated by tracking the fate of mesoporous silicon nanoparticles containing the tumor-targeting peptide iRGD, administered by retro-orbital injection into live mice. Imaging of such systemically administered nanoparticles in vivo is particularly challenging because of the low concentration of probe in the targeted tissues and relatively high background signals from tissue autofluorescence. Contrast improvements of >100-fold (relative to steady-state imaging) is demonstrated in the targeted tissues. PMID:26034817

  12. Structural characterization of copolymer embedded magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedelcu, G. G.; Nastro, A.; Filippelli, L.; Cazacu, M.; Iacob, M.; Rossi, C. Oliviero; Popa, A.; Toloman, D.; Dobromir, M.; Iacomi, F.

    2015-10-01

    Small magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4) were synthesized by co-precipitation and coated by emulsion polymerization with poly(methyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) (PMMA-co-AAc) to create surface functional groups that can attach drug molecules and other biomolecules. The coated and uncoated magnetite nanoparticles were stored for two years in normal closed ships and than characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometry, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The solid phase transformation of magnetite to maghemite, as well as an increase in particle size were evidenced for the uncoated nanoparticles. The coated nanoparticles preserved their magnetite structure and magnetic properties. The influences of monomers and surfactant layers on interactions between the magnetic nanoparticles evidenced that the thickness of the polymer has a significant effect on magnetic properties.

  13. Embedded Strain Gauges for Condition Monitoring of Silicone Gaskets

    PubMed Central

    Schotzko, Timo; Lang, Walter

    2014-01-01

    A miniaturized strain gauge with a thickness of 5 µm is molded into a silicone O-ring. This is a first step toward embedding sensors in gaskets for structural health monitoring. The signal of the integrated sensor exhibits a linear correlation with the contact pressure of the O-ring. This affords the opportunity to monitor the gasket condition during installation. Thus, damages caused by faulty assembly can be detected instantly, and early failures, with their associated consequences, can be prevented. Through the embedded strain gauge, the contact pressure applied to the gasket can be directly measured. Excessive pressure and incorrect positioning of the gasket can cause structural damage to the material of the gasket, which can lead to an early outage. A platinum strain gauge is fabricated on a thin polyimide layer and is contacted through gold connections. The measured resistance pressure response exhibits hysteresis for the first few strain cycles, followed by a linear behavior. The short-term impact of the embedded sensor on the stability of the gasket is investigated. Pull-tests with O-rings and test specimens have indicated that the integration of the miniaturized sensors has no negative impact on the stability in the short term. PMID:25014099

  14. Embedded strain gauges for condition monitoring of silicone gaskets.

    PubMed

    Schotzko, Timo; Lang, Walter

    2014-07-10

    A miniaturized strain gauge with a thickness of 5 µm is molded into a silicone O-ring. This is a first step toward embedding sensors in gaskets for structural health monitoring. The signal of the integrated sensor exhibits a linear correlation with the contact pressure of the O-ring. This affords the opportunity to monitor the gasket condition during installation. Thus, damages caused by faulty assembly can be detected instantly, and early failures, with their associated consequences, can be prevented. Through the embedded strain gauge, the contact pressure applied to the gasket can be directly measured. Excessive pressure and incorrect positioning of the gasket can cause structural damage to the material of the gasket, which can lead to an early outage. A platinum strain gauge is fabricated on a thin polyimide layer and is contacted through gold connections. The measured resistance pressure response exhibits hysteresis for the first few strain cycles, followed by a linear behavior. The short-term impact of the embedded sensor on the stability of the gasket is investigated. Pull-tests with O-rings and test specimens have indicated that the integration of the miniaturized sensors has no negative impact on the stability in the short term.

  15. Bridging silicon nanoparticles and thermoelectrics: phenylacetylene functionalization.

    PubMed

    Ashby, Shane P; Thomas, Jason A; García-Cañadas, Jorge; Min, Gao; Corps, Jack; Powell, Anthony V; Xu, Hualong; Shen, Wei; Chao, Yimin

    2014-01-01

    Silicon is a promising alternative to current thermoelectric materials (Bi(2)Te(3)). Silicon nanoparticle based materials show especially low thermal conductivities due to their high number of interfaces, which increases the observed phonon scattering. The major obstacle with these materials is maintaining high electrical conductivity. Surface functionalization with phenylacetylene shows an electrical conductivity of 18.1 S m(-1) and Seebeck coefficient of 3228.8 μV K(-1) as well as maintaining a thermal conductivity of 0.1 W K(-1) m(-1). This gives a ZT of 0.6 at 300 K which is significant for a bulk silicon based material and is similar to that of other thermoelectric materials such as Mg(2)Si, PbTe and SiGe alloys.

  16. Nanoparticle-based etching of silicon surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Branz, Howard [Boulder, CO; Duda, Anna [Denver, CO; Ginley, David S [Evergreen, CO; Yost, Vernon [Littleton, CO; Meier, Daniel [Atlanta, GA; Ward, James S [Golden, CO

    2011-12-13

    A method (300) of texturing silicon surfaces (116) such to reduce reflectivity of a silicon wafer (110) for use in solar cells. The method (300) includes filling (330, 340) a vessel (122) with a volume of an etching solution (124) so as to cover the silicon surface 116) of a wafer or substrate (112). The etching solution (124) is made up of a catalytic nanomaterial (140) and an oxidant-etchant solution (146). The catalytic nanomaterial (140) may include gold or silver nanoparticles or noble metal nanoparticles, each of which may be a colloidal solution. The oxidant-etchant solution (146) includes an etching agent (142), such as hydrofluoric acid, and an oxidizing agent (144), such as hydrogen peroxide. Etching (350) is performed for a period of time including agitating or stirring the etching solution (124). The etch time may be selected such that the etched silicon surface (116) has a reflectivity of less than about 15 percent such as 1 to 10 percent in a 350 to 1000 nanometer wavelength range.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of carboxylic acid functionalized silicon nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaner, Ted V.

    Silicon nanoparticles are of great interest in a great number of fields. Silicon nanoparticles show great promise particularly in the field of bioimaging. Carboxylic acid functionalized silicon nanoparticles have the ability to covalently bond to biomolecules through the conjugation of the carboxylic acid to an amine functionalized biomolecule. This thesis explores the synthesis of silicon nanoparticles functionalized by both carboxylic acids and alkenes and their carboxylic acid functionality. Also discussed is the characterization of the silicon nanoparticles by the use of x-ray spectroscopy. Finally, the nature of the Si-H bond that is observed on the surface of the silicon nanoparticles will be investigated using photoassisted exciton mediated hydrosilation reactions. The silicon nanoparticles are synthesized from both carboxylic acids and alkenes. However, the lack of solubility of diacids is a significant barrier to carboxylic acid functionalization by a mixture of monoacids and diacids. A synthesis route to overcome this obstacle is to synthesize silicon nanoparticles with terminal vinyl group. This terminal vinyl group is distal to the surface of the silicon nanoparticle. The conversion of the vinyl group to a carboxylic acid is accomplished by oxidative cleavage using ozonolysis. The carboxylic acid functionalized silicon nanoparticles were then successfully conjugated to amine functionalized DNA strand through an n-hydroxy succinimide ester activation step, which promotes the formation of the amide bond. Conjugation was characterized by TEM and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). The PAGE results show that the silicon nanoparticle conjugates move slower through the polyacrylamide gel, resulting in a significant separation from the nonconjugated DNA. The silicon nanoparticles were then characterized by the use of x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (Xanes) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to investigate the bonding and chemical

  18. Growth and optical properties of embedded silicon nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo, Luciano

    2009-03-01

    The optoelectronic properties of nanostructured silicon (nc-Si) are governed by the interplay between the local chemical bonding features and the complex overall atomic structure. Interesting enough, a-Si has a larger optical absorption than the c-Si and, therefore, biphasic a-c silicon systems (i.e. nanocrystallites embedded into an amorphous matrix) are currently under investigation for next-generation photovoltaics. Biphasic systems undergo crystallization upon thermal annealing and, therefore, it is quite difficult to predict theoretically their finite-temperature optoelectronic properties. In this talk I will present our ongoing research on the growth and the optoelectronic properties of textured nanocrystalline silicon, here modeled as a distribution of cylindrical grains embedded into an amorphous matrix. As for the growth, I argue that by large-scale atomistic simulations it is possible to infer a continuum model for the crystallinity evolution upon thermal annealing.[1] In particular, at low crystallinity, it is proved that--consistently with the standard Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (KJMA) theory--the a-c phase transformation is dominated by the isolated grain evolution; conversely, at later stages deviations from the KJMA theory are observed, mainly due to atomic-scale features. I also prove that such effects can be included by using an improved phenomenological version of the KJMA theory.[2] As for the finite-temperature optoelectronic properties, I present a divide-and-conquer computational procedure, based on a combination of empirical tight-binding and model-potential molecular dynamics. This procedure is applied to investigate local and average optoelectronic properties of very large nanostructured silicon systems and to predict the variation of the optical absorption upon crystallinity.[3] I show that the optical absorption of a nc-Si sample corresponds to a simple linear combination between c-Si and a-Si phases and it is not affected by electron

  19. Structure and magnetism in Cr-embedded Co nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Baker, S H; Kurt, M S; Roy, M; Lees, M R; Binns, C

    2016-02-03

    We present the results of an investigation into the atomic structure and magnetism of 2 nm diameter Co nanoparticles embedded in an antiferromagnetic Cr matrix. The nanocomposite films used in this study were prepared by co-deposition directly from the gas phase, using a gas aggregation source for the Co nanoparticles and a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) source for the Cr matrix material. Co K and Cr K edge extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) experiments were performed in order to investigate atomic structure in the embedded nanoparticles and matrix respectively, while magnetism was investigated by means of a vibrating sample magnetometer. The atomic structure type of the Co nanoparticles is the same as that of the Cr matrix (bcc) although with a degree of disorder. The net Co moment per atom in the Co/Cr nanocomposite films is significantly reduced from the value for bulk Co, and decreases as the proportion of Co nanoparticles in the film is decreased; for the sample with the most dilute concentration of Co nanoparticles (4.9% by volume), the net Co moment was 0.25 μ B/atom. After field cooling to below 30 K all samples showed an exchange bias, which was largest for the most dilute sample. Both the structural and magnetic results point towards a degree of alloying at the nanoparticle/matrix interface, leading to a core/shell structure in the embedded nanoparticles consisting of an antiferromagnetic CoCr alloy shell surrounding a reduced ferromagnetic Co core.

  20. Silicon photonic structures with embedded polymers for novel sensing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipov, E. V.; Martynov, I. L.; Dovzhenko, D. S.; Ananev, P. S.; Kotkovskii, G. E.; Chistyakov, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    At present time research and development of a new generation of optical sensors using conjugated polymers, in particular sensors of explosives are actively underway. Nevertheless, the problems of the sensitivity, selectivity, and stability of such sensors are still of great interest. One of the ways to solve the problem is the creation of luminescence sensors based on photonic crystals with a high specific surface area, which have significant sorption ability and allow to effective modulate emission properties of luminophores. In this paper, porous silicon microcavities with embeded organic polyphenylenevinylene- (PPV) and polyfluorene- (PF) type polymers were created. It was shown that polymer infiltration in porous silicon microcavities leads to modification of their luminescence properties, which is expressed in narrowing of the emission spectrum and changing of its directional pattern. It was demonstrated that such structures exhibit sensitivity to saturated vapors of trinitrotoluene. The structures proposed can be treated as a basis for development of new type of sensors used for detection of vapors of nitroaromatic compounds.

  1. Fluorescent Nanocomposite of Embedded Ceria Nanoparticles in Electrospun Chitosan Nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Shehata, Nader; Samir, Effat; Gaballah, Soha; Hamed, Aya; Saad, Marwa; Salah, Mohammed

    2017-03-01

    This paper introduces a detailed optical characterization for a novel fluorescent biodegradable nanocomposite of electro-spun chitosan nanofibers with in-situ embedded cerium oxide (ceria) nanoparticles as the nanocomposite optical fluorescent material. Under near ultra-violet excitation, this synthesized nanocomposite emits a visible green wavelength at nearly 520nmwith different intensities according to the concentration of the embedded fluorescent material; i.e. ceria nanoparticles. This emission is due to the synthesized ceria nanoparticles optical tri-valiant cerium ions ce(3+), associated with formed oxygen vacancies with a direct allowed bandgap around 3.5 eV. Optical characteristics such as fluorescence emission intensity, absorbance dispersion, and direct bandgap are presented besides structural characteristics such as FTIR spectroscopy, and SEM analysis. The synthesized optical nanocomposite could be helpful in many further applications such as bio-imaging, biomedical engineering, and environmental optical sensors.

  2. The effect of nanocrystalline silicon host on magnetic properties of encapsulated iron oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Granitzer, P; Rumpf, K; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, R; Coffer, J L; Reissner, M

    2015-12-21

    The purpose of this work is a detailed comparison of the fundamental magnetic properties of nanocomposite systems consisting of Fe3O4 nanoparticle-loaded porous silicon as well as silicon nanotubes. Such composite structures are of potential merit in the area of magnetically guided drug delivery. For magnetic systems to be utilized in biomedical applications, there are certain magnetic properties that must be fulfilled. Therefore magnetic properties of embedded Fe3O4-nanoparticles in these nanostructured silicon host matrices, porous silicon and silicon nanotubes, are investigated. Temperature-dependent magnetic investigations have been carried out for four types of iron oxide particle sizes (4, 5, 8 and 10 nm). The silicon host, in interplay with the iron oxide nanoparticle size, plays a sensitive role. It is shown that Fe3O4 loaded porous silicon and SiNTs differ significantly in their magnetic behavior, especially the transition between superparamagnetic behavior and blocked state, due to host morphology-dependent magnetic interactions. Importantly, it is found that all investigated samples meet the magnetic precondition of possible biomedical applications of exhibiting a negligible magnetic remanence at room temperature.

  3. Thermo-optical properties of embedded silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashidi Huyeh, M.; Shirdel Havar, M.; Palpant, B.

    2012-11-01

    Thermo-optical properties of nanocomposite materials consisting of noble metal nanoparticles dispersed in a dielectric medium are appropriate for many applications as imaging, nonlinear optics, or optical monitoring of local thermal exchanges. Here, we analyze the thermo-optical response of silver nanoparticles. The contribution of inter- and intraband transitions to the thermo-optical index of bulk silver is first extracted using experimental results reported earlier in the literature. The influence of these two contributions on the thermo-optical properties of silver nanoparticles embedded in glass is then investigated. The results show that these properties are essentially due to the intraband thermo-optical contribution in the vicinity of the surface plasmon resonance of the nanoparticles, while they are dominated by the interband contribution close to the interband transition threshold.

  4. Nitric oxide-releasing porous silicon nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafshgari, Morteza Hasanzadeh; Cavallaro, Alex; Delalat, Bahman; Harding, Frances J.; McInnes, Steven JP; Mäkilä, Ermei; Salonen, Jarno; Vasilev, Krasimir; Voelcker, Nicolas H.

    2014-07-01

    In this study, the ability of porous silicon nanoparticles (PSi NPs) to entrap and deliver nitric oxide (NO) as an effective antibacterial agent is tested against different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. NO was entrapped inside PSi NPs functionalized by means of the thermal hydrocarbonization (THC) process. Subsequent reduction of nitrite in the presence of d-glucose led to the production of large NO payloads without reducing the biocompatibility of the PSi NPs with mammalian cells. The resulting PSi NPs demonstrated sustained release of NO and showed remarkable antibacterial efficiency and anti-biofilm-forming properties. These results will set the stage to develop antimicrobial nanoparticle formulations for applications in chronic wound treatment.

  5. Nitric oxide-releasing porous silicon nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the ability of porous silicon nanoparticles (PSi NPs) to entrap and deliver nitric oxide (NO) as an effective antibacterial agent is tested against different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. NO was entrapped inside PSi NPs functionalized by means of the thermal hydrocarbonization (THC) process. Subsequent reduction of nitrite in the presence of d-glucose led to the production of large NO payloads without reducing the biocompatibility of the PSi NPs with mammalian cells. The resulting PSi NPs demonstrated sustained release of NO and showed remarkable antibacterial efficiency and anti-biofilm-forming properties. These results will set the stage to develop antimicrobial nanoparticle formulations for applications in chronic wound treatment. PMID:25114633

  6. Design principle for absorption enhancement with nanoparticles in thin-film silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yuanpei; Xuan, Yimin

    2015-07-01

    The use of nanoparticles in solar cells has created many controversies. In this paper, different mechanisms of nanoparticles with different materials with diameters varying from 50 to 200 nm, surface coverage at 5, 20, and 60 %, and different locations are analyzed systematically for efficient light trapping in a thin-film c-Si solar cell. Mie theory and the finite difference time domain method are used for analysis to give a design principle with nanoparticles for the solar cell application. Metals exhibit plasmonic resonances and angular scattering, while dielectrics show anti-reflection and scattering in the incident direction. A table is given to summarize the advantages and disadvantages in different conditions. The silicon absorption enhancement with nanoparticles on top is mainly in the shorter wavelengths below 700 nm, and both Al and SiO2 nanoparticles with diameter around 100 nm show the most significant enhancement. The silicon absorption enhancement with embedded nanoparticles takes place in the longer wavelengths over 700 nm, and Ag and SiO2 nanoparticles with larger diameter around 200 nm perform better. However, the light absorbed by Ag nanoparticles will be converted to heat and will lead to decrease in cell efficiency; hence, the choice of metallic nanoparticles in applications to solar cells should be carefully considered. The design principle proposed in this work gives a guideline by choosing reasonable parameters for the different requirements in the application of thin-film solar cells.

  7. Charging/discharging behavior and mechanism of silicon quantum dots embedded in amorphous silicon carbide films

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Xixing; Zeng, Xiangbin Zheng, Wenjun; Liao, Wugang; Feng, Feng

    2015-01-14

    The charging/discharging behavior of Si quantum dots (QDs) embedded in amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC{sub x}) was investigated based on the Al/insulating layer/Si QDs embedded in a-SiC{sub x}/SiO{sub 2}/p-Si (metal-insulator-quantum dots-oxide-silicon) multilayer structure by capacitance-voltage (C-V) and conductance-voltage (G-V) measurements. Transmission electron microscopy and Raman scattering spectroscopy measurements reveal the microstructure and distribution of Si QDs. The occurrence and shift of conductance peaks indicate the carrier transfer and the charging/discharging behavior of Si QDs. The multilayer structure shows a large memory window of 5.2 eV at ±8 V sweeping voltage. Analysis of the C-V and G-V results allows a quantification of the Coulomb charging energy and the trapped charge density associated with the charging/discharging behavior. It is found that the memory window is related to the size effect, and Si QDs with large size or low Coulomb charging energy can trap two or more electrons by changing the charging voltage. Meanwhile, the estimated lower potential barrier height between Si QD and a-SiC{sub x}, and the lower Coulomb charging energy of Si QDs could enhance the charging and discharging effect of Si QDs and lead to an enlarged memory window. Further studies of the charging/discharging mechanism of Si QDs embedded in a-SiC{sub x} can promote the application of Si QDs in low-power consumption semiconductor memory devices.

  8. Silicon nanoparticle optimization and integration into amorphous silicon via PECVD for use in photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klafehn, Grant W.

    An alternative approach to traditional growth methods of nanocrystalline material is co-deposition by injection of separately synthesized silicon nanoparticles into amorphous silicon. Current methods of co-deposition of silicon nanoparticles and amorphous silicon via plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition allow the two reactors' pressures to affect each other, leading to either poor amorphous silicon quality or uncontrollable nanoparticle size and deposition rate. In this thesis, a technique for greater control of stand-alone silicon nanoparticle size and quality grown was achieved by using a slit nozzle. The nozzle was used to separate the nanoparticle and amorphous reactors, allowing for the ability to control nanoparticle size, crystallinity, and deposition rate during co-deposition, while still allowing for high quality amorphous silicon growth. Changing the width of the nozzle allowed for control of the size of the nanoparticles from 10 to 4.5 nm in diameter, and allowed for the precursor gas flow rate, and thus deposition rate, to be changed with only a 6 % change in size estimated from luminescence emission wavelength. Co-deposited samples were grown within a broad range of flow rates for the silicon nanoparticle precursor gas, resulting in each sample having a different crystal fraction. FTIR, PL, Raman, and XRD were used to analyze their composition. The silicon nanoparticle synthesis was separately optimized to control size and crystallinity, and the influence of the nanoparticle process gases on amorphous silicon growth was also explored. Finally, COMSOL simulations were performed to support and possibly predict Si-NP growth variables that pertain to Si-NP size.

  9. Modeling pulsed-laser melting of embedded semiconductor nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, C.A.; Guzman, J.; Boswell-Koller, C.N.; Sherburne, M.P.; Mastandrea, J.P.; Bustillo, K.C.; Ager III, J.W.; Haller, E.E.; Chrzan, D.C.

    2011-05-18

    Pulsed-laser melting (PLM) is commonly used to achieve a fast quench rate in both thin films and nanoparticles. A model for the size evolution during PLM of nanoparticles confined in a transparent matrix, such as those created by ion-beam synthesis, is presented. A self-consistent mean-field rate equations approach that has been used successfully to model ion beam synthesis of germanium nanoparticles in silica is extended to include the PLM process. The PLM model includes classical optical absorption, multiscale heat transport by both analytical and finite difference methods, and melting kinetics for confined nanoparticles. The treatment of nucleation and coarsening behavior developed for the ion beam synthesis model is modified to allow for a non-uniform temperature gradient and for interacting liquid and solid particles with different properties. The model allows prediction of the particle size distribution after PLM under various laser fluences, starting from any particle size distribution including as-implanted or annealed simulated samples. A route for narrowing the size distribution of embedded nanoparticles is suggested, with simulated distribution widths as low as 15% of the average size.

  10. Modeling pulsed-laser melting of embedded semiconductor nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawyer, C. A.; Guzman, J.; Boswell-Koller, C. N.; Sherburne, M. P.; Mastandrea, J. P.; Bustillo, K. C.; Ager, J. W.; Haller, E. E.; Chrzan, D. C.

    2011-11-01

    Pulsed-laser melting (PLM) is commonly used to achieve a fast quench rate in both thin films and nanoparticles. A model for the size evolution during PLM of nanoparticles confined in a transparent matrix, such as those created by ion-beam synthesis, is presented. A self-consistent mean-field rate equations approach that has been used successfully to model ion beam synthesis of germanium nanoparticles in silica is extended to include the PLM process. The PLM model includes classical optical absorption, multiscale heat transport by both analytical and finite difference methods, and melting kinetics for confined nanoparticles. The treatment of nucleation and coarsening behavior developed for the ion beam synthesis model is modified to allow for a nonuniform temperature gradient and for interacting liquid and solid particles with different properties. The model allows prediction of the particle size distribution after PLM under various laser fluences, starting from any particle size distribution including as-implanted or annealed simulated samples. A route for narrowing the size distribution of embedded nanoparticles is suggested, with simulated distribution widths as low as 15% of the average size.

  11. Supported Membranes Embedded with Fixed Arrays of Gold Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We present a supported membrane platform consisting of a fluid lipid bilayer membrane embedded with a fixed array of gold nanoparticles. The system is realized by preforming a hexagonal array of gold nanoparticles (∼5–7 nm) with controlled spacing (∼50–150 nm) fixed to a silica or glass substrate by block copolymer lithography. Subsequently, a supported membrane is assembled over the intervening bare substrate. Proteins or other ligands can be associated with the fluid lipid component, the fixed nanoparticle component, or both, providing a hybrid interface consisting of mobile and immobile components with controlled geometry. We test different biochemical coupling strategies to bind individual proteins to the particles surrounded by a fluid lipid membrane. The coupling efficiency to nanoparticles and the influence of nanoparticle arrays on the surrounding membrane integrity are characterized by fluorescence imaging, correlation spectroscopy, and super-resolution fluorescence microscopy. Finally, the functionality of this system for live cell experiments is tested using the ephrin-A1–EphA2 juxtacrine signaling interaction in human breast epithelial cells. PMID:21967595

  12. The thermal conductivity of carbon coated silicon carbide fibers embedded in a silicon carbide matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Beecher, S.C.; Dinwiddie, R.B.; Lowden, R.A.

    1993-12-31

    The room temperature thermal conductivity has been measured for a series of composite materials composed of carbon coated silicon carbide (SiC) fibers embedded in a SiC matrix. The composite samples consisted of 0/30{degree} bi-directional plain weave Nicalon fibers coated with varying thicknesses of pyrolitic carbon and infiltrated with SiC by the forced flow chemical vapor infiltration process to form the matrix. The fiber volume fraction was held constant at 0.423 {plus_minus} 0.012 and the from 0.03 {mu}m to 0.983 {mu}m, with the fibers of one sample left uncoated. Results transverse to fiber direction show significant differences with the introduction and subsequent increase in the carbon coating thickness. The thermal conductivity decreased for all the coated samples compared to the uncoated sample coating thickness compared to the sample with the thinnest carbon coating.

  13. Growth of silicon quantum dots by oxidation of the silicon nanocrystals embedded within silicon carbide matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Kole, Arindam; Chaudhuri, Partha

    2014-10-15

    A moderately low temperature (≤800 °C) thermal processing technique has been described for the growth of the silicon quantum dots (Si-QD) within microcrystalline silicon carbide (μc-SiC:H) dielectric thin films deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) process. The nanocrystalline silicon grains (nc-Si) present in the as deposited films were initially enhanced by aluminium induced crystallization (AIC) method in vacuum at a temperature of T{sub v} = 525 °C. The samples were then stepwise annealed at different temperatures T{sub a} in air ambient. Analysis of the films by FTIR and XPS reveal a rearrangement of the μc-SiC:H network has taken place with a significant surface oxidation of the nc-Si domains upon annealing in air. The nc-Si grain size (D{sub XRD}) as calculated from the XRD peak widths using Scherrer formula was found to decrease from 7 nm to 4 nm with increase in T{sub a} from 250 °C to 800 °C. A core shell like structure with the nc-Si as the core and the surface oxide layer as the shell can clearly describe the situation. The results indicate that with the increase of the annealing temperature in air the oxide shell layer becomes thicker and the nc-Si cores become smaller until their size reduced to the order of the Si-QDs. Quantum confinement effect due to the SiO covered nc-Si grains of size about 4 nm resulted in a photoluminescence peak due to the Si QDs with peak energy at 1.8 eV.

  14. Antimicrobial activity of bone cements embedded with organic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Perni, Stefano; Thenault, Victorien; Abdo, Pauline; Margulis, Katrin; Magdassi, Shlomo; Prokopovich, Polina

    2015-01-01

    Infections after orthopedic surgery are a very unwelcome outcome; despite the widespread use of antibiotics, their incidence can be as high as 10%. This risk is likely to increase as antibiotics are gradually losing efficacy as a result of bacterial resistance; therefore, novel antimicrobial approaches are required. Parabens are a class of compounds whose antimicrobial activity is employed in many cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. We developed propylparaben nanoparticles that are hydrophilic, thus expanding the applicability of parabens to aqueous systems. In this paper we assess the possibility of employing paraben nanoparticles as antimicrobial compound in bone cements. The nanoparticles were embedded in various types of bone cement (poly(methyl methacrylate) [PMMA], hydroxyapatite, and brushite) and the antimicrobial activity was determined against common causes of postorthopedic surgery infections such as: Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Acinetobacter baumannii. Nanoparticles at concentrations as low as 1% w/w in brushite bone cement were capable of preventing pathogens growth, 5% w/w was needed for hydroxyapatite bone cement, while 7% w/w was required for PMMA bone cement. No detrimental effect was determined by the addition of paraben nanoparticles on bone cement compression strength and cytocompatibility. Our results demonstrate that paraben nanoparticles can be encapsulated in bone cement, providing concentration-dependent antimicrobial activity; furthermore, lower concentrations are needed in calcium phosphate (brushite and hydroxyapatite) than in acrylic (PMMA) bone cements. These nanoparticles are effective against a wide spectrum of bacteria, including those already resistant to the antibiotics routinely employed in orthopedic applications, such as gentamicin.

  15. Antimicrobial activity of bone cements embedded with organic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Perni, Stefano; Thenault, Victorien; Abdo, Pauline; Margulis, Katrin; Magdassi, Shlomo; Prokopovich, Polina

    2015-01-01

    Infections after orthopedic surgery are a very unwelcome outcome; despite the widespread use of antibiotics, their incidence can be as high as 10%. This risk is likely to increase as antibiotics are gradually losing efficacy as a result of bacterial resistance; therefore, novel antimicrobial approaches are required. Parabens are a class of compounds whose antimicrobial activity is employed in many cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. We developed propylparaben nanoparticles that are hydrophilic, thus expanding the applicability of parabens to aqueous systems. In this paper we assess the possibility of employing paraben nanoparticles as antimicrobial compound in bone cements. The nanoparticles were embedded in various types of bone cement (poly(methyl methacrylate) [PMMA], hydroxyapatite, and brushite) and the antimicrobial activity was determined against common causes of postorthopedic surgery infections such as: Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Acinetobacter baumannii. Nanoparticles at concentrations as low as 1% w/w in brushite bone cement were capable of preventing pathogens growth, 5% w/w was needed for hydroxyapatite bone cement, while 7% w/w was required for PMMA bone cement. No detrimental effect was determined by the addition of paraben nanoparticles on bone cement compression strength and cytocompatibility. Our results demonstrate that paraben nanoparticles can be encapsulated in bone cement, providing concentration-dependent antimicrobial activity; furthermore, lower concentrations are needed in calcium phosphate (brushite and hydroxyapatite) than in acrylic (PMMA) bone cements. These nanoparticles are effective against a wide spectrum of bacteria, including those already resistant to the antibiotics routinely employed in orthopedic applications, such as gentamicin. PMID:26487803

  16. Membrane deformation controlled by monolayer composition of embedded amphiphilic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Lehn, Reid; Alexander-Katz, Alfredo

    2014-03-01

    In recent work, we have shown that charged, amphiphilic nanoparticles (NPs) can spontaneously insert into lipid bilayers, embedding the NP in a conformation resembling a transmembrane protein. Many embedded membrane proteins exert an influence on surrounding lipids that lead to deformation and membrane-mediated interactions that may be essential for function. Similarly, embedded NPs will also induce membrane deformations related to the same physicochemical forces. Unlike many transmembrane proteins, however, the highly charged NPs may exert preferential interactions on surrounding lipid head groups. In this work, we use atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to show that the membrane around embedded particles may experience local thinning, head group reorientation, and an increase in lipid density depending on the size and surface composition of the NP. We quantify the extent of these deformations and illustrate the complex interplay between lipid tail group and head group interactions that go beyond pure thickness deformations that may be expected from coarse-grained or continuum models. This work thus suggests guidelines for the design of particles that spontaneously partition into lipid bilayers and influence local membrane mechanical properties in a targeted manner.

  17. In Situ Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticle Embedded Hybrid Soft Nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Divya, Kizhmuri P; Miroshnikov, Mikhail; Dutta, Debjit; Vemula, Praveen Kumar; Ajayan, Pulickel M; John, George

    2016-09-20

    The allure of integrating the tunable properties of soft nanomaterials with the unique optical and electronic properties of metal nanoparticles has led to the development of organic-inorganic hybrid nanomaterials. A promising method for the synthesis of such organic-inorganic hybrid nanomaterials is afforded by the in situ generation of metal nanoparticles within a host organic template. Due to their tunable surface morphology and porosity, soft organic materials such as gels, liquid crystals, and polymers that are derived from various synthetic or natural compounds can act as templates for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles of different shapes and sizes. This method provides stabilization to the metal nanoparticles by the organic soft material and advantageously precludes the use of external reducing or capping agents in many instances. In this Account, we exemplify the green chemistry approach for synthesizing these materials, both in the choice of gelators as soft material frameworks and in the reduction mechanisms that generate the metal nanoparticles. Established herein is the core design principle centered on conceiving multifaceted amphiphilic soft materials that possess the ability to self-assemble and reduce metal ions into nanoparticles. Furthermore, these soft materials stabilize the in situ generated metal nanoparticles and retain their self-assembly ability to generate metal nanoparticle embedded homogeneous organic-inorganic hybrid materials. We discuss a remarkable example of vegetable-based drying oils as host templates for metal ions, resulting in the synthesis of novel hybrid nanomaterials. The synthesis of metal nanoparticles via polymers and self-assembled materials fabricated via cardanol (a bioorganic monomer derived from cashew nut shell liquid) are also explored in this Account. The organic-inorganic hybrid structures were characterized by several techniques such as UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and

  18. Cytotoxicity of titanium and silicon dioxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Stefanie; Münzer, Simon; Behrens, Peter; Scheper, Thomas; Bahnemann, Detlef; Kasper, Cornelia

    2009-05-01

    Different TiO2 and SiO2 nanoparticles have been tested concerning their toxicity on selected mammalian cell lines. Various powders and suspensions, all of which consist of titanium or silicon dioxide nanoparticles have been examined. These particles differ in the crystal structure, the size and the BET-surface area. There was also a classification in fixed particles and in particles easily accessible in solution. With focus on the possible adsorption of the nanoparticles into the human organism, via skin and via respiratory tract, the effects on fibroblasts (NIH-3T3) and on a human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line were examined. Additionally, the particles were tested with HEP-G2 cells, which are often used as model cell line for biocompatibility tests, and PC-12 cells, a rat adrenal pheochromocytoma cell line. The viability of the cells was examined by the MTT-test. The viability results were found to partly depend on the type of cells used. The experimental results show that the adhesion of the cells on the different powders strongly depends on the type of cell lines as well as on the type of powder. It was found that the lower viability of some cells on the powder coatings is not only caused by a cytotoxicity effect of the powders, but is also due to a lower adhesion of the cells on the particle surfaces. Furthermore, it could be shown that the physical properties of the powders cannot be easily correlated to any observed biological effect. While some powders show a significant suppression of the cell growth, others with similar physical properties indicate no toxic effect.

  19. The effect of nanocrystalline silicon host on magnetic properties of encapsulated iron oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granitzer, P.; Rumpf, K.; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, R.; Coffer, J. L.; Reissner, M.

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this work is a detailed comparison of the fundamental magnetic properties of nanocomposite systems consisting of Fe3O4 nanoparticle-loaded porous silicon as well as silicon nanotubes. Such composite structures are of potential merit in the area of magnetically guided drug delivery. For magnetic systems to be utilized in biomedical applications, there are certain magnetic properties that must be fulfilled. Therefore magnetic properties of embedded Fe3O4-nanoparticles in these nanostructured silicon host matrices, porous silicon and silicon nanotubes, are investigated. Temperature-dependent magnetic investigations have been carried out for four types of iron oxide particle sizes (4, 5, 8 and 10 nm). The silicon host, in interplay with the iron oxide nanoparticle size, plays a sensitive role. It is shown that Fe3O4 loaded porous silicon and SiNTs differ significantly in their magnetic behavior, especially the transition between superparamagnetic behavior and blocked state, due to host morphology-dependent magnetic interactions. Importantly, it is found that all investigated samples meet the magnetic precondition of possible biomedical applications of exhibiting a negligible magnetic remanence at room temperature.The purpose of this work is a detailed comparison of the fundamental magnetic properties of nanocomposite systems consisting of Fe3O4 nanoparticle-loaded porous silicon as well as silicon nanotubes. Such composite structures are of potential merit in the area of magnetically guided drug delivery. For magnetic systems to be utilized in biomedical applications, there are certain magnetic properties that must be fulfilled. Therefore magnetic properties of embedded Fe3O4-nanoparticles in these nanostructured silicon host matrices, porous silicon and silicon nanotubes, are investigated. Temperature-dependent magnetic investigations have been carried out for four types of iron oxide particle sizes (4, 5, 8 and 10 nm). The silicon host, in interplay

  20. Silicon nanoparticles: applications in cell biology and medicine

    PubMed Central

    O’Farrell, Norah; Houlton, Andrew; Horrocks, Benjamin R

    2006-01-01

    In this review, we describe the synthesis, physical properties, surface functionalization, and biological applications of silicon nanoparticles (also known as quantum dots). We compare them against current technologies, such as fluorescent organic dyes and heavy metal chalcogenide-based quantum dots. In particular, we examine the many different methods that can be used to both create and modify these nanoparticles and the advantages they may have over current technologies that have stimulated research into designing silicon nanoparticles for in vitro and in vivo applications. PMID:17722279

  1. Silicon nanocrystal-noble metal hybrid nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, H.; Fujii, M.; Imakita, K.

    2016-05-01

    We report a novel and facile self-limiting synthesis route of silicon nanocrystal (Si NC)-based colloidally stable semiconductor-metal (gold, silver and platinum) hybrid nanoparticles (NPs). For the formation of hybrid NPs, we employ ligand-free colloidal Si NCs with heavily boron (B) and phosphorus (P) doped shells. By simply mixing B and P codoped colloidal Si NCs with metal salts, hybrid NPs consisting of metal cores and Si NC shells are spontaneously formed. We demonstrate the synthesis of highly uniform and size controllable hybrid NPs. It is shown that codoped Si NCs act as a reducing agent for metal salts and also as a protecting layer to stop metal NP growth. The process is thus self-limiting. The development of a variety of Si NC-based hybrid NPs is a promising first step for the design of biocompatible multifunctional NPs with broad material choices for biosensing, bioimaging and solar energy conversion.We report a novel and facile self-limiting synthesis route of silicon nanocrystal (Si NC)-based colloidally stable semiconductor-metal (gold, silver and platinum) hybrid nanoparticles (NPs). For the formation of hybrid NPs, we employ ligand-free colloidal Si NCs with heavily boron (B) and phosphorus (P) doped shells. By simply mixing B and P codoped colloidal Si NCs with metal salts, hybrid NPs consisting of metal cores and Si NC shells are spontaneously formed. We demonstrate the synthesis of highly uniform and size controllable hybrid NPs. It is shown that codoped Si NCs act as a reducing agent for metal salts and also as a protecting layer to stop metal NP growth. The process is thus self-limiting. The development of a variety of Si NC-based hybrid NPs is a promising first step for the design of biocompatible multifunctional NPs with broad material choices for biosensing, bioimaging and solar energy conversion. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional TEM images and extinction spectra of Si-metal hybrid NPs are shown in Fig. S1

  2. Water-soluble PEGylated silicon nanoparticles and their assembly into swellable nanoparticle aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zejing; Li, Yejia; Zhang, Boyu; Purkait, Tapas; Alb, Alina; Mitchell, Brian S.; Grayson, Scott M.; Fink, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    Water-soluble silicon nanoparticles were synthesized by grafting PEG polymers onto functionalized silicon nanoparticles with distal alkyne or azide moieties. The surface-functionalized silicon nanoparticles were produced in one step from the reactive high-energy ball milling (RHEBM) of silicon wafers with a mixture of either 5-chloro-1-pentyne in 1-pentyne or 1,7 octadiyne in 1-hexyne to afford air and water-stable chloroalkyl or alkynyl-terminated nanoparticles, respectively. Nanoparticles with the ω-chloroalkyl substituents were easily converted to ω-azidoalkyl groups through the reaction of the Si nanoparticles with sodium azide in DMF. The azido-terminated nanoparticles were then grafted with mono-alkynyl-PEG polymers using a copper-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction to afford core-shell silicon nanoparticles with a covalently attached PEG shell. Covalently linked Si nanoparticle clusters were synthesized via the CuAAC "click" reaction of functional Si NPs with α,ω-functional PEG polymers of various lengths. Dynamic light scattering studies show that the flexible globular nanoparticle aggregates undergo a solvent-dependent change in volume (ethanol > dichloromethane > toluene) similar in behavior to hydrogel nanocomposites.

  3. Thermoelectrics from silicon nanoparticles: the influence of native oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petermann, Nils; Stötzel, Julia; Stein, Niklas; Kessler, Victor; Wiggers, Hartmut; Theissmann, Ralf; Schierning, Gabi; Schmechel, Roland

    2015-06-01

    Thermoelectric materials were synthesized by current-assisted sintering of doped silicon nanoparticles produced in a microwave-plasma reactor. Due to their affinity to oxygen, the nanoparticles start to oxidize when handled in air and even a thin surface layer of native silicon oxide leads to a significant increase in the oxide volume ratio. This results in a considerable incorporation of oxygen into the sintered pellets, thus affecting the thermoelectric performance. To investigate the necessity of inert handling of the raw materials, the thermoelectric transport properties of sintered nanocrystalline silicon samples were characterized with respect to their oxygen content. An innovative method allowing a quantitative silicon oxide analysis by means of electron microscopy was applied: the contrast between areas of high and low electrical conductivity was attributed to the silicon matrix and silicon oxide precipitates, respectively. Thermoelectric characterization revealed that both, electron mobility and thermal conductivity decrease with increasing silicon oxide content. A maximum figure of merit with zT = 0.45 at 950 °C was achieved for samples with a silicon oxide mass fraction of 9.5 and 21.4% while the sample with more than 25% of oxygen clearly indicates a negative impact of the oxygen on the electron mobility. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Silicon and Silicon-related Materials for Thermoelectricity", edited by Dario Narducci.

  4. Optical absorption enhancement of hybrid-plasmonic-based metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector incorporating metal nanogratings and embedded metal nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chee Leong; Karar, Ayman; Alameh, Kamal; Lee, Yong Tak

    2013-01-28

    We propose and numerically demonstrate a high absorption hybrid-plasmonic-based metal semiconductor metal photodetector (MSM-PD) comprising metal nanogratings, a subwavelength slit and amorphous silicon or germanium embedded metal nanoparticles (NPs). Simulation results show that by optimizing the metal nanograting parameters, the subwavelength slit and the embedded metal NPs, a 1.3 order of magnitude increase in electric field is attained, leading to 28-fold absorption enhancement, in comparison with conventional MSM-PD structures. This is 3.5 times better than the absorption of surface plasmon polariton (SPP) based MSM-PD structures employing metal nanogratings and a subwavelength slit. This absorption enhancement is due to the ability of the embedded metal NPs to enhance their optical absorption and scattering properties through light-stimulated resonance aided by the conduction electrons of the NPs.

  5. Three-dimensional lattice matching of epitaxially embedded nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, Brelon J.; Anderson, Peter M.; Myers, Roberto C.

    2017-02-01

    For a given degree of in-plane lattice mismatch between a two-dimensional (2D) epitaxial layer and a substrate (εIP*), there is a critical thickness above which interfacial defects form to relax the elastic strain energy. Here, we extend the 2D lattice-matching conditions to three-dimensions in order to predict the critical size beyond which epitaxially encased nanoparticles, characterized by both εIP* and out-of-plane lattice mismatch (εOP*), relax by dislocation formation. The critical particle length (Lc) at which defect formation proceeds is determined by balancing the reduction in elastic energy associated with dislocation introduction with the corresponding increase in defect energy. Our results, which use a modified Eshelby inclusion technique for an embedded, arbitrarily-faceted nanoparticle, provide new insight to the nanoepitaxy of low dimensional structures, especially quantum dots and nanoprecipitates. By engineering εIP* and εOP*, the predicted Lc for nanoparticles can be increased to well beyond the case of encapsulation in a homogenous matrix. For the case of truncated pyramidal shaped InAs, Lc 10.8 nm when fully embedded in GaAs (εIP* = εOP* = - 0.072); 16.4 nm when the particle is grown on GaAs, but capped with InSb (εIP* = - 0.072 and εOP* =+0.065); and a maximum of 18.4 nm if capped with an alloy corresponding to εOP* =+0.037. The effect, which we term "3D Poisson-stabilization" provides a means to increase the epitaxial strain tolerance in epitaxial heterostructures by tailoring εOP*.

  6. Absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon thin films via plasmonic resonances in nickel silicide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachtel, Jordan; Shen, Xiao; Pantelides, Sokrates; Sachan, Ritesh; Gonzalez, Carlos; Dyck, Ondrej; Fu, Shaofang; Kalnayaraman, Ramki; Rack, Phillip; Duscher, Gerd

    2013-03-01

    Silicon is a near ideal material for photovoltaics due to its low cost, abundance, and well documented optical properties. The sole detriment of Si in photovoltaics is poor absorption in the infrared. Nanoparticle surface plasmon resonances are predicted to increase absorption by scattering to angles greater than the critical angle for total internal reflection (16° for a Si/air interface), trapping the light in the film. Experiments confirm that nickel silicide nanoparticles embedded in amorphous silicon increases absorption significantly in the infrared. However, it remains to be seen if electron-hole pair generation is increased in the solar cell, or whether the light is absorbed by the nanoparticles themselves. The nature of the absorption is explored by a study of the surface plasmon resonances through electron energy loss spectrometry and scanning transmission electron microscopy experiments, as well as first principles density functional theory calculations. Initial experimental results do not show strong plasmon resonances on the nanoparticle surfaces. Calculations of the optical properties of the nickel silicide particles in amorphous silicon are performed to understand why this resonance is suppressed. Work supported by NSF EPS 1004083 (TN-SCORE).

  7. Multifunctional porous silicon nanoparticles for cancer theranostics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chang-Fang; Sarparanta, Mirkka P; Mäkilä, Ermei M; Hyvönen, Maija L K; Laakkonen, Pirjo M; Salonen, Jarno J; Hirvonen, Jouni T; Airaksinen, Anu J; Santos, Hélder A

    2015-04-01

    Nanomaterials provide a unique platform for the development of theranostic systems that combine diagnostic imaging modalities with a therapeutic payload in a single probe. In this work, dual-labeled iRGD-modified multifunctional porous silicon nanoparticles (PSi NPs) were prepared from dibenzocyclooctyl (DBCO) modified PSi NPs by strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition (SPAAC) click chemistry. Hydrophobic antiangiogenic drug, sorafenib, was loaded into the modified PSi NPs to enhance the drug dissolution rate and improve cancer therapy. Radiolabeling of the developed system with (111)In enabled the monitoring of the in vivo biodistribution of the nanocarrier by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in an ectopic PC3-MM2 mouse xenograft model. Fluorescent labeling with Alexa Fluor 488 was used to determine the long-term biodistribution of the nanocarrier by immunofluorescence at the tissue level ex vivo. Modification of the PSi NPs with an iRGD peptide enhanced the tumor uptake of the NPs when administered intravenously. After intratumoral delivery the NPs were retained in the tumor, resulting in efficient tumor growth suppression with particle-loaded sorafenib compared to the free drug. The presented multifunctional PSi NPs highlight the utility of constructing a theranostic nanosystems for simultaneous investigations of the in vivo behavior of the nanocarriers and their drug delivery efficiency, facilitating the selection of the most promising materials for further NP development.

  8. Strong visible electroluminescence from silicon nanocrystals embedded in a silicon carbide film

    SciTech Connect

    Huh, Chul Kim, Tae-Youb; Ahn, Chang-Geun; Kim, Bong Kyu

    2015-05-25

    We report the strong visible light emission from silicon (Si) nanocrystals (NCs) embedded in a Si carbide (SiC) film. Compared to Si NC light-emitting diode (LED) by employing the Si nitride (SiN{sub x}) film as a surrounding matrix, the turn-on voltage of the Si NC LED with the SiC film was significantly decreased by 4 V. This was attributed to a smaller barrier height for injecting the electrons into the Si NCs due to a smaller band gap of SiC film than a SiN{sub x} film. The electroluminescence spectra increases with increasing forward voltage, indicating that the electrons are efficiently injected into the Si NCs in the SiC film. The light output power shows a linear increase with increasing forward voltage. The light emission originated from the Si NCs in a SiC film was quite uniform. The power efficiency of the Si NC LED with the SiC film was 1.56 times larger than that of the Si NC LED with the SiN{sub x} film. The Si NCs in a SiC film show unique advantages and are a promising candidate for application in optical devices.

  9. Photophysical properties of luminescent silicon nanoparticles surface-modified with organic molecules via hydrosilylation.

    PubMed

    Miyano, Mari; Kitagawa, Yuichi; Wada, Satoshi; Kawashima, Akira; Nakajima, Ayako; Nakanishi, Takayuki; Ishioka, Junya; Shibayama, Tamaki; Watanabe, Seiichi; Hasegawa, Yasuchika

    2016-01-01

    Luminescent silicon nanoparticles have attracted considerable attention for their potential uses in various applications. Many approaches have been reported to protect the surface of silicon nanoparticles and prevent their easy oxidation. Various air-stable luminescent silicon nanoparticles have been successfully prepared. However, the effect of interactions of the π-electron system with the silicon surface on the excited state properties of silicon nanoparticles is unclear. In this study, we have successfully prepared silicon nanoparticles protected with three organic compounds (styrene, 1-decene, and 1-vinyl naphthalene) and have examined their photophysical properties. The ligand π-electron systems on the silicon surface promoted the light harvesting ability for the luminescence through a charge transfer transition between the protective molecules and silicon nanoparticles and also enhanced the radiative rate of the silicon nanoparticles.

  10. Plasmonic multilayer nanoparticles enhanced photocurrent in thin film hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Chung-I.; Yeh, Dan-Ju; Su, Vin-Cent; Yang, Chieh-Hung; Yang, Po-Chuan; Pu, Ming-Yi; Kuan, Chieh-Hsiung; Cheng, I.-Chun; Lee, Si-Chen

    2012-07-01

    A plasmonic-structure incorporated double layer of Au nanoparticles embedded in the transparent conducting oxide at the back-reflector of the hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cells is demonstrated. These devices exhibit an increase of energy conversion efficiency of 18.4% and short-circuit current density of 9.8% while improving fill-factor and without sacrificing open-circuit voltage. The increase in photocurrent is correlated with the enhanced optical absorption in the cell, with improved optical-path-length by a factor of 7 at the wavelength of 800 nm, due to enhanced diffuse scattering of light through resonant plasmon excitations within Au nanoparticles. In addition to enhanced scattering, applying high-work-function Au nanoparticles can improve the work function match at TCO/a-Si:H interface.

  11. Monolithic cryopolymers with embedded nanoparticles. I. Capillary liquid chromatography of proteins using neutral embedded nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Dario Arrua, R; Nordborg, Anna; Haddad, Paul R; Hilder, Emily F

    2013-01-18

    Rigid monolithic cryostructures were prepared in capillary format at sub-zero temperatures and used successfully in the separation of proteins by hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC). The polymerization mixture consisted of poly(ethyleneglycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) M(n)∼258 as the single monomer, a mixture of dioxane and water as the porogen and N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine (TEMED) and ammonium persulfate (APS) as the initiator system. At sub-zero temperatures, the solvent mixture used as the porogen is frozen, leading to the formation of a polymeric structure templated by the solvent crystals that are formed. The optimization of the polymerization reaction was carried out by studying the influence of different reaction parameters including the temperature of the reaction, monomer concentration and solvent, on the porous characteristics of the polymers obtained. Separations were performed in HIC mode using 3 M ammonium sulfate in 0.1 M phosphate buffer, pH 6.9 to 0.1 M phosphate buffer, pH 6.9 over a 15 min gradient. The addition of neutral nanoparticles synthesized by mini-emulsion polymerization greatly improved the separation of the protein mixture, doubling the peak capacity of the control column without nanoparticles (from 7 to 17). Although the peak capacities and resolution values achieved were lower than those reported for conventional methacrylate monolithic columns, the use of this polymerization approach allows the preparation of polymeric structures which presented a more open porous structure and consequently exhibited significantly higher permeability than conventional polymer monoliths.

  12. Cobalt magnetic nanoparticles embedded in carbon matrix: biofunctional validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krolow, Matheus Z.; Monte, Leonardo G.; Remião, Mariana H.; Hartleben, Cláudia P.; Moreira, Ângela N.; Dellagostin, Odir A.; Piva, Evandro; Conceição, Fabricio R.; Carreño, Neftalí L. V.

    2012-09-01

    Carbon nanostructures and nanocomposites display versatile allotropic morphologies, physico-chemical properties and have a wide range of applications in mechanics, electronics, biotechnology, structural material, chemical processing, and energy management. In this study we report the synthesis, characterization, and biotechnological application of cobalt magnetic nanoparticles, with diameter approximately 15-40 nm, embedded in carbon structure (Co/C-MN). A single-step chemical process was used in the synthesis of the Co/C-MN. The Co/C-MN has presented superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature an essential property for immunoseparation assays carried out here. To stimulate interactions between proteins and Co/C-MN, this nanocomposite was functionalized with acrylic acid (AA). We have showed the bonding of different proteins onto Co/C-AA surface using immunofluorescence assay. A Co/C-AA coated with monoclonal antibody anti-pathogenic Leptospira spp. was able to capture leptospires, suggesting that it could be useful in immunoseparation assays.

  13. Silver nanoparticles-coated glass frits for silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yingfen; Gan, Weiping; Li, Biyuan

    2016-04-01

    Silver nanoparticles-coated glass frit composite powders for silicon solar cells were prepared by electroless plating. Silver colloids were used as the activating agent of glass frits. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. The characterization results indicated that silver nanoparticles with the melting temperature of 838 °C were uniformly deposited on glass frit surface. The particle size of silver nanoparticles could be controlled by adjusting the [Ag(NH3)2]NO3 concentration. The as-prepared composite powders were applied in the front side metallization of silicon solar cells. Compared with those based on pure glass frits, the solar cells containing the composite powders had the denser silver electrodes and the better silver-silicon ohmic contacts. Furthermore, the photovoltaic performances of solar cells were improved after the electroless plating.

  14. Are Silicon Nanoparticles an Interstellar Dust Component?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Aigen; Draine, B. T.

    2002-01-01

    Silicon nanoparticles (SNPs) with oxide coatings have been proposed as the source of the observed ``extended red emission'' (ERE) from interstellar dust. We calculate the thermal emission expected from such particles, both in a reflection nebula such as NGC 2023 and in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM). It is shown that Si/SiO2 SNPs (both neutral and charged) would produce a strong emission feature at 20 μm. The observational upper limit on the 20 μm feature in NGC 2023 imposes an upper limit of less than 0.2 parts per million in Si/SiO2 SNPs. The observed ERE intensity from NGC 2023 then gives a lower bound on the product ηPLf0, where ηPL<1 is the photoluminescence efficiency for a neutral SNP and f0<=1 is the fraction of SNPs that are uncharged. For foreground extinction A0.68μm=1.2mag, we find ηPLf0>0.24 for Si/SiO2 SNPs in NGC 2023. Measurement of the R-band extinction toward the ERE-emitting region could strengthen this lower limit. The ERE emissivity of the diffuse interstellar medium appears to require >~42% of solar Si abundance in Si/SiO2 SNPs even with ηPLf0=1. We predict IR emission spectra and show that DIRBE photometry appears to rule out such high abundances of free-flying SNPs in the diffuse ISM. We conclude that if the ERE is due to SNPs, they must be either in clusters or attached to larger grains.

  15. Toxicity of nanoparticles embedded in paints compared with pristine nanoparticles in mice.

    PubMed

    Smulders, Stijn; Luyts, Katrien; Brabants, Gert; Landuyt, Kirsten Van; Kirschhock, Christine; Smolders, Erik; Golanski, Luana; Vanoirbeek, Jeroen; Hoet, Peter H M

    2014-09-01

    The unique physical and chemical properties of nanomaterials have led to their increased use in many industrial applications, including as a paint additive. For example, titanium dioxide (TiO2) engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) have well-established anti-UV, self-cleaning, and air purification effects. Silver (Ag) ENPs are renowned for their anti-microbial capabilities and silicon dioxide (SiO2) ENPs are used as fire retardants and anti-scratch coatings. In this study, the toxic effects and biodistribution of three pristine ENPs (TiO2, Ag, and SiO2), three aged paints containing ENPs (TiO2, Ag, and SiO2) along with control paints without ENPs were compared. BALB/c mice were oropharyngeally aspirated with ENPs or paint particles (20 μg/aspiration) once a week for 5 weeks and sacrificed either 2 or 28 days post final aspiration treatment. A bronchoalveolar lavage was performed and systemic blood toxicity was evaluated to ascertain cell counts, induction of inflammatory cytokines, and key blood parameters. In addition, the lung, liver, kidney, spleen, and heart were harvested and metal concentrations were determined. Exposure to pristine ENPs caused subtle effects in the lungs and negligible alterations in the blood. The most pronounced toxic effects were observed after Ag ENPs exposure; an increased neutrophil count and a twofold increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion (keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC) and interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß)) were identified. The paint containing TiO2 ENPs did not modify macrophage and neutrophil counts, but mildly induced KC and IL-1ß. The paints containing Ag or SiO2 did not show significant toxicity. Biodistribution experiments showed distribution of Ag and Si outside the lung after aspiration to respectively pristine Ag or SiO2 ENPs. In conclusion, we demonstrated that even though direct exposure to ENPs induced some toxic effects, once they were embedded in a complex paint matrix little to no adverse toxicological effects were

  16. Toxicity of Nanoparticles Embedded in Paints Compared with Pristine Nanoparticles in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Smulders, Stijn; Luyts, Katrien; Brabants, Gert; Landuyt, Kirsten Van; Kirschhock, Christine; Smolders, Erik; Golanski, Luana; Vanoirbeek, Jeroen; Hoet, Peter HM

    2014-01-01

    The unique physical and chemical properties of nanomaterials have led to their increased use in many industrial applications, including as a paint additive. For example, titanium dioxide (TiO2) engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) have well-established anti-UV, self-cleaning, and air purification effects. Silver (Ag) ENPs are renowned for their anti-microbial capabilities and silicon dioxide (SiO2) ENPs are used as fire retardants and anti-scratch coatings. In this study, the toxic effects and biodistribution of three pristine ENPs (TiO2, Ag, and SiO2), three aged paints containing ENPs (TiO2, Ag, and SiO2) along with control paints without ENPs were compared. BALB/c mice were oropharyngeally aspirated with ENPs or paint particles (20 μg/aspiration) once a week for 5 weeks and sacrificed either 2 or 28 days post final aspiration treatment. A bronchoalveolar lavage was performed and systemic blood toxicity was evaluated to ascertain cell counts, induction of inflammatory cytokines, and key blood parameters. In addition, the lung, liver, kidney, spleen, and heart were harvested and metal concentrations were determined. Exposure to pristine ENPs caused subtle effects in the lungs and negligible alterations in the blood. The most pronounced toxic effects were observed after Ag ENPs exposure; an increased neutrophil count and a twofold increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion (keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC) and interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß)) were identified. The paint containing TiO2 ENPs did not modify macrophage and neutrophil counts, but mildly induced KC and IL-1ß. The paints containing Ag or SiO2 did not show significant toxicity. Biodistribution experiments showed distribution of Ag and Si outside the lung after aspiration to respectively pristine Ag or SiO2 ENPs. In conclusion, we demonstrated that even though direct exposure to ENPs induced some toxic effects, once they were embedded in a complex paint matrix little to no adverse toxicological effects were

  17. Ultrathin fiber poly-3-hydroxybutyrate, modified by silicon carbide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olkhov, A. A.; Krutikova, A. A.; Goldshtrakh, M. A.; Staroverova, O. V.; Iordanskii, A. L.; Ischenko, A. A.

    2016-11-01

    The article presents the results of studies the composite fibrous material based on poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) and nano-size silicon carbide obtained by the electrospinning method. Size distribution of the silicon carbide nanoparticles in the fiber was estimated by X-ray diffraction technique. It is shown that immobilization of the SiC nanoparticles to the PHB fibers contributes to obtaining essentially smaller diameter of fibers, high physical-mechanical characteristics and increasing resistance to degradation in comparison with the fibers of PHB.

  18. Laser-induced incandescence from laser-heated silicon nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menser, Jan; Daun, Kyle; Dreier, Thomas; Schulz, Christof

    2016-11-01

    This work describes the application of temporally and spectrally resolved laser-induced incandescence to silicon nanoparticles synthesized in a microwave plasma reactor. Optical properties for bulk silicon presented in the literature were extended for nanostructured particles analyzed in this paper. Uncertainties of parameters in the evaporation submodel, as well as measurement noise, are incorporated into the inference process by Bayesian statistics. The inferred nanoparticle sizes agree with results from transmission electron microscopy, and the determined accommodation coefficient matches the values of the preceding study.

  19. Room temperature quantum emission from cubic silicon carbide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Castelletto, Stefania; Johnson, Brett C; Zachreson, Cameron; Beke, David; Balogh, István; Ohshima, Takeshi; Aharonovich, Igor; Gali, Adam

    2014-08-26

    The photoluminescence (PL) arising from silicon carbide nanoparticles has so far been associated with the quantum confinement effect or to radiative transitions between electronically active surface states. In this work we show that cubic phase silicon carbide nanoparticles with diameters in the range 45-500 nm can host other point defects responsible for photoinduced intrabandgap PL. We demonstrate that these nanoparticles exhibit single photon emission at room temperature with record saturation count rates of 7 × 10(6) counts/s. The realization of nonclassical emission from SiC nanoparticles extends their potential use from fluorescence biomarker beads to optically active quantum elements for next generation quantum sensing and nanophotonics. The single photon emission is related to single isolated SiC defects that give rise to states within the bandgap.

  20. Multifunctional graphene sheets embedded in silicone encapsulant for superior performance of light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seungae; Hong, Jin-Yong; Jang, Jyongsik

    2013-07-23

    Graphene nanosheets with uniform shape are successfully incorporated into a silicone encapsulant of a light-emitting diode (LED) using a solvent-exchange approach which is a facile and straightforward method. The graphene nanosheets embedded in the silicone encapsulant have a multifunctional role which improves the performance of light-emitting diodes. The presence of graphene gives rise to effective heat dissipation, improvement of protection ability from external stimuli, such as moisture and hazardous gas, and enhancement of mechanical properties such as elastic modulus and fracture toughness. Consequently, the LEDs composed of a graphene-embedded silicone encapsulant exhibit long-term stability without loss of luminous efficiency by addition of relatively small amounts of graphene. This novel strategy offers a feasible candidate for their practical or industrial applications.

  1. Silicon Nanoparticles as Hyperpolarized Magnetic Resonance Imaging Agents

    PubMed Central

    Aptekar, Jacob W.; Cassidy, Maja C.; Johnson, Alexander C.; Barton, Robert A.; Lee, Menyoung; Ogier, Alexander C.; Vo, Chinh; Anahtar, Melis N.; Ren, Yin; Bhatia, Sangeeta N.; Ramanathan, Chandrasekhar; Cory, David G.; Hill, Alison L.; Mair, Ross W.; Rosen, Matthew S.; Walsworth, Ronald L.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging of hyperpolarized nuclei provides high image contrast with little or no background signal. To date, in-vivo applications of pre-hyperpolarized materials have been limited by relatively short nuclear spin relaxation times. Here, we investigate silicon nanoparticles as a new type of hyperpolarized magnetic resonance imaging agent. Nuclear spin relaxation times for a variety of Si nanoparticles are found to be remarkably long, ranging from many minutes to hours at room temperature, allowing hyperpolarized nanoparticles to be transported, administered, and imaged on practical time scales. Additionally, we demonstrate that Si nanoparticles can be surface functionalized using techniques common to other biologically targeted nanoparticle systems. These results suggest that Si nanoparticles can be used as a targetable, hyperpolarized magnetic resonance imaging agent with a large range of potential applications. PMID:19950973

  2. Three dimensional design of silver nanoparticle assemblies embedded in dielectrics for Raman spectroscopy enhancement and dark-field imaging.

    PubMed

    Carles, Robert; Farcau, Cosmin; Bonafos, Caroline; Benassayag, Gérard; Bayle, Maxime; Benzo, Patrizio; Groenen, Jesse; Zwick, Antoine

    2011-11-22

    A strategy to design and fabricate hybrid metallic-dielectric substrates for optical spectroscopy and imaging is proposed. Different architectures consisting of three-dimensional patterns of metallic nanoparticles embedded in dielectric layers are conceived to simultaneously exploit the optical interference phenomenon in stratified media and localized surface plasmon resonances on metal nanoparticles. These structures are based on a simultaneous control of opto-electronic properties at three scales (3S) (~2/20/200 nm) and along three directions (3D). By ultralow energy ion implantation through a microfabricated stencil we precisely control the size, density, and location of silver nanoparticles embedded in silica/silicon thin films. Elastic (Rayleigh) and inelastic (Raman) scattering imaging assisted by simulations were used to analyze the optical response of these "3S-3D" patterned layers. The reflectance contrast is strongly enhanced when resonance conditions between the stationary electromagnetic field in the dielectric matrix and the localized plasmon resonance in the silver nanoparticles are realized. The potential of these 3S-3D metal-dielectric structures as surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates is demonstrated. These novel kinds of plasmonic-photonic architectures are reproducible and stable; they preserve flat and chemically uniform surfaces, offering opportunities for the development of efficient and reusable substrates for optical spectroscopy and imaging enhancement.

  3. Retrieving the electronic properties of silicon nanocrystals embedded in a dielectric matrix by low-loss EELS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eljarrat, Alberto; López-Conesa, Lluís; López-Vidrier, Julian; Hernández, Sergi; Garrido, Blas; Magén, César; Peiró, Francesca; Estradé, Sònia

    2014-11-01

    In this work we apply low-loss electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) to probe the structural and electronic properties of single silicon nanocrystals (NCs) embedded in three different dielectric matrices (SiO2, SiC and Si3N4). A monochromated and aberration corrected transmission electron microscope has been operated at 80 kV to avoid sample damage and to reduce the impact of radiative losses. We present a novel approach to disentangle the electronic features corresponding to pure Si-NCs from the surrounding dielectric material contribution through an appropriate computational treatment of hyperspectral datasets. First, the different material phases have been identified by measuring the plasmon energy. Due to the overlapping of Si-NCs and dielectric matrix information, the variable shape and position of mixed plasmonic features increases the difficulty of non-linear fitting methods to identify and separate the components in the EELS signal. We have managed to solve this problem for silicon oxide and nitride systems by applying multivariate analysis methods that can factorize the hyperspectral datacubes in selected regions. By doing so, the EELS spectra are re-expressed as a function of abundance of Si-NC-like and dielectric-like factors. EELS contributions from the embedded nanoparticles as well as their dielectric surroundings are thus studied in a new light, and compared with the dielectric material and crystalline silicon from the substrate. Electronic properties such as band gaps and plasmon shifts can be obtained by a straightforward examination. Finally, we have calculated the complex dielectric functions and the related electron effective mass and density of valence electrons.

  4. A Study of Heterogeneous Catalysis by Nanoparticle-Embedded Paper-Spray Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Shibdas; Basheer, Chanbasha; Zare, Richard N

    2016-10-04

    We have developed nanoparticle-embedded paper-spray mass spectrometry for studying three types of heterogeneously catalyzed reactions: 1) Palladium-nanoparticle-catalyzed Suzuki cross-coupling reactions, 2) palladium- or silver-nanoparticle-catalyzed 4-nitrophenol reduction, and 3) gold-nanoparticle-catalyzed glucose oxidation. These reactions were almost instantaneous on the nanocatalyst-embedded paper, which subsequently transferred the transient intermediates and products to a mass spectrometer for their detection. This in situ method of capturing transient intermediates and products from heterogeneous catalysis is highly promising for investigating the mechanism of catalysis and rapidly screening catalytic activity under ambient conditions.

  5. Magnetic properties of superparamagnetic nanoparticles loaded into silicon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granitzer, Petra; Rumpf, Klemens; Gonzalez, Roberto; Coffer, Jeffery; Reissner, Michael

    2014-08-01

    In this work, the magnetic properties of silicon nanotubes (SiNTs) filled with Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) are investigated. SiNTs with different wall thicknesses of 10 and 70 nm and an inner diameter of approximately 50 nm are prepared and filled with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles of 4 and 10 nm in diameter. The infiltration process of the NPs into the tubes and dependence on the wall-thickness is described. Furthermore, data from magnetization measurements of the nanocomposite systems are analyzed in terms of iron oxide nanoparticle size dependence. Such biocompatible nanocomposites have potential merit in the field of magnetically guided drug delivery vehicles.

  6. Fatigue degradation and electric recovery in Silicon solar cells embedded in photovoltaic modules

    PubMed Central

    Paggi, Marco; Berardone, Irene; Infuso, Andrea; Corrado, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Cracking in Silicon solar cells is an important factor for the electrical power-loss of photovoltaic modules. Simple geometrical criteria identifying the amount of inactive cell areas depending on the position of cracks with respect to the main electric conductors have been proposed in the literature to predict worst case scenarios. Here we present an experimental study based on the electroluminescence (EL) technique showing that crack propagation in monocrystalline Silicon cells embedded in photovoltaic (PV) modules is a much more complex phenomenon. In spite of the very brittle nature of Silicon, due to the action of the encapsulating polymer and residual thermo-elastic stresses, cracked regions can recover the electric conductivity during mechanical unloading due to crack closure. During cyclic bending, fatigue degradation is reported. This pinpoints the importance of reducing cyclic stresses caused by vibrations due to transportation and use, in order to limit the effect of cracking in Silicon cells. PMID:24675974

  7. Fabrication and temperature-dependent photoluminescence of silicon-silicon oxide core-shell nanoparticle thin film.

    PubMed

    Lin, Sheng-Wei; Chen, Dong-Hwang

    2010-04-01

    A novel Si nanocrystals embedded SiO2 thin film has been fabricated by the synthesis of Si-SiO2 core-shell (Si@SiO2) nanoparticles via the surface SiO2 coating of Si nanocrystals and the followed drop-coating on a silicon wafer. The resultant Si@SiO2 nanoparticles had a mean diameter of 30.43 +/- 2.63 nm and a mean shell thickness of 13.16 nm. They exhibited a stronger peak around 360 nm and a weaker green-yellow emission around 530 nm. The 360 nm peak could be attributed to the electron-hole recombination in the Si cores and that via the oxide-related defects originally present on the surface of oxide-passivated Si cores, while the green-yellow emission might be attributed to the transfer of the electron-hole pairs generated in the Si cores across the core-shell interface and the followed recombination in the SiO2 shells. The resultant Si@SiO2 nanoparticle thin film had a mean grain size of about 100 nm. It showed not only blue emission and green-yellow emission but also red emission which might be due to the transfer of the electron-hole pairs generated in the Si cores across the core-shell interface and the followed recombination via the Si==O double bonds at the particle surface. Because blue emission was significant relatively, both the Si@SiO2 nanoparticles and Si@SiO2 nanoparticle thin film still exhibited bright blue fluorescence under UV excitation. In addition, by investigating the temperature dependence of photoluminescence in the temperature range of 77 to 297 K, the nature of photoluminescence from the Si@SiO2 nanoparticle thin film was also clarified.

  8. Effect of Surface Treated Silicon Dioxide Nanoparticles on Some Mechanical Properties of Maxillofacial Silicone Elastomer

    PubMed Central

    Zayed, Sara M.; Alshimy, Ahmad M.; Fahmy, Amal E.

    2014-01-01

    Current materials used for maxillofacial prostheses are far from ideal and there is a need for novel improved materials which mimic as close as possible the natural behavior of facial soft tissues. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of adding different concentrations of surface treated silicon dioxide nanoparticles (SiO2) on clinically important mechanical properties of a maxillofacial silicone elastomer. 147 specimens of the silicone elastomer were prepared and divided into seven groups (n = 21). One control group was prepared without nanoparticles and six study groups with different concentrations of nanoparticles, from 0.5% to 3% by weight. Specimens were tested for tear strength (ASTM D624), tensile strength (ASTM D412), percent elongation, and shore A hardness. SEM was used to assess the dispersion of nano-SiO2 within the elastomer matrix. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Scheffe test (α = 0.05). Results revealed significant improvement in all mechanical properties tested, as the concentration of the nanoparticles increased. This was supported by the results of the SEM. Hence, it can be concluded that the incorporation of surface treated SiO2 nanoparticles at concentration of 3% enhanced the overall mechanical properties of A-2186 silicone elastomer. PMID:25574170

  9. Porous silicon nanoparticle as a stabilizing support for chondroitinase.

    PubMed

    Daneshjou, Sara; Dabirmanesh, Bahareh; Rahimi, Fereshteh; Khajeh, Khosro

    2017-01-01

    Chondroitinase ABCI (cABCI) from Proteus vulgaris is a drug enzyme that can be used to treat spinal cord injuries. One of the main problems of chondroitinase ABC1 is its low thermal stability. The objective of the current study was to stabilize the enzyme through entrapment within porous silicon (pSi) nanoparticles. pSi was prepared by an electrochemical etch of p-type silicon using hydrofluoric acid/ethanol. The size of nanoparticles were determined 180nm by dynamic light scattering and the mean pore diameter was in the range of 40-60nm obtained by scanning electron microscopy. Enzymes were immobilized on porouse silicon nanoparticles by entrapment. The capacity of matrix was 35μg enzyme per 1mg of silicon. The immobilized enzyme displayed lower Vmax values compared to the free enzyme, but Km values were the same for both enzymes. Immobilization significantly increased the enzyme stability at various temperatures (-20, 4, 25 and 37°C). For example, at 4°C, the free enzyme (in 10mM imidazole) retained 20% of its activity after 100min, while the immobilized one retained 50% of its initial activity. Nanoparticles loading capacity and the enzyme release rate showed that the selected particles could be a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier for chondroitinase.

  10. A Digitalized Silicon Microgyroscope Based on Embedded FPGA

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Dunzhu; Yu, Cheng; Wang, Yuliang

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel digital miniaturization method for a prototype silicon micro-gyroscope (SMG) with the symmetrical and decoupled structure. The schematic blocks of the overall system consist of high precision analog front-end interface, high-speed 18-bit analog to digital convertor, a high-performance core Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) chip and other peripherals such as high-speed serial ports for transmitting data. In drive mode, the closed-loop drive circuit are implemented by automatic gain control (AGC) loop and software phase-locked loop (SPLL) based on the Coordinated Rotation Digital Computer (CORDIC) algorithm. Meanwhile, the sense demodulation module based on varying step least mean square demodulation (LMSD) are addressed in detail. All kinds of algorithms are simulated by Simulink and DSPbuilder tools, which is in good agreement with the theoretical design. The experimental results have fully demonstrated the stability and flexibility of the system. PMID:23201990

  11. Tin nanoparticles as an effective conductive additive in silicon anodes

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, L.; Beaudette, C.; Guo, J.; Bozhilov, K.; Mangolini, L.

    2016-01-01

    We have found that the addition of tin nanoparticles to a silicon-based anode provides dramatic improvements in performance in terms of both charge capacity and cycling stability. Using a simple procedure and off-the-shelf additives and precursors, we developed a structure in which the tin nanoparticles are segregated at the interface between the silicon-containing active layer and the solid electrolyte interface. Even a minor addition of tin, as small as ∼2% by weight, results in a significant decrease in the anode resistance, as confirmed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. This leads to a decrease in charge transfer resistance, which prevents the formation of electrically inactive “dead spots” in the anode structure and enables the effective participation of silicon in the lithiation reaction. PMID:27484849

  12. Iron nanoparticles embedded in carbon films: structural and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashayekhi, Fatemeh; Shafiekhani, Azizollah; Sebt, Seyed Ali

    2016-06-01

    In the present work amorphous hydrogenated carbon films with sputtered iron nanoparticles (Fe NPs @ a-C:H) were deposited by co-deposition of RF-sputtering and RF-plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition methods using acetylene gas and iron target on quartz and silicon substrates. Samples were prepared in different initial pressures and during constant deposition time. The crystalline structure of Fe NPs @ a-C:H was studied using X-ray diffraction and selected area electron diffraction patterns. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis presents that increasing the initial pressure decreases the atomic ratio of Fe/C and the sp3-hybridized carbon content in prepared samples. The transmission electron microscope image shows the encapsulated Fe NPs in carbon films. The optical properties and localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of samples were studied using UV-visible spectrophotometry, which is shown that increasing of Fe content decreases the intensity of LSPR peak and increases the optical band gap.

  13. Nickel nanoparticles embedded in carbon foam for improving electromagnetic shielding effectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rajeev; Kumari, Saroj; Dhakate, Sanjay R.

    2015-06-01

    To improve electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of light weight carbon foam (CF), magnetic nanoparticles were embedded in it during processing. The CF was developed from the coal tar pitch and mixture of coal tar pitch-Nickel (Ni) nanoparticles by sacrificial template technique and heat treated to up 1,000 °C. To ascertain the effect of Ni nanoparticles embedded in CF, it was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, vector network analyzer and vibration sample magnetometer. It is observed that Ni nanoparticles embedded in the carbon material play an important role for improving the structure and electrical conductivity of CF-Ni by catalytic carbonization. The structural investigation suggests that the Ni nanoparticles embedded in the carbon material in bulk as well on the surface of CF. The CF demonstrates excellent shielding response in the frequency range 8.2-12.4 GHz in which total shielding effectiveness (SE) dominated by absorption losses. The total SE is -25 and -61 dB of CF and CF-Ni, it is governed by absorption losses -48.5 dB in CF-Ni. This increase is due to the increase in dielectric and magnetic losses of ferromagnetic Ni nanoparticles with high surface area. Thus, light weight CF embedded with small amount of magnetic nanoparticles can be useful material for stealth technology.

  14. Enhancement of R6G fluorescence by N-type porous silicon deposited with gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Jia-qing; Jiang, Jing; Zhai, Zhen-gang; Shi, Fu-gui; Jia, Zhen-hong

    2017-01-01

    By the electrochemical anodization method, we achieve the single-layer macroporous silicon on the N-type silicon, and prepare gold nanoparticles with sodium citrate reduction method. Through injecting the gold nanoparticles into the porous silicon by immersion, the fluorescence quenching mechanism of porous silicon influenced by gold nanoparticles is analyzed. Then the macroporous silicon deposited with gold nanoparticles is utilized to enhance the fluorescence of rhodamine 6G (R6G). It is found that when the macroporous silicon is deposited with gold nanoparticles for 6 h, the maximum fluorescence enhancement of R6G (about ten times) can be realized. The N-type porous silicon deposited with gold nanoparticles can be an excellent substrate for fluorescence detection.

  15. Agglomeration of Luminescent Porous Silicon Nanoparticles in Colloidal Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herynková, Kateřina; Šlechta, Miroslav; Šimáková, Petra; Fučíková, Anna; Cibulka, Ondřej

    2016-08-01

    We have prepared colloidal solutions of clusters composed from porous silicon nanoparticles in methanol, water and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Even if the size of the nanoclusters is between 60 and 500 nm, due to their highly porous "cauliflower"-like structure, the porous silicon nanoparticles are composed of interconnected nanocrystals having around 2.5 nm in size and showing strong visible luminescence in the orange-red spectral region (centred at 600-700 nm). Hydrophilic behaviour and good solubility of the nanoclusters in water and water-based solutions were obtained by adding hydrogen peroxide into the etching solution during preparation and 16 min long after-bath in hydrogen peroxide. By simple filtration of the solutions with syringe filters, we have extracted smaller nanoclusters with sizes of approx. 60-70 nm; however, these nanoclusters in water and PBS solution (pH neutral) are prone to agglomeration, as was confirmed by zeta potential measurements. When the samples were left at ambient conditions for several weeks, the typical nanocluster size increased to approx. 330-400 nm and then remained stable. However, both freshly filtered and aged samples (with agglomerated porous silicon nanoparticles) of porous silicon in water and PBS solutions can be further used for biological studies or as luminescent markers in living cells.

  16. Epoxy and Silicone Optical Nanocomposites Filled with Grafted Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Peng

    Polymer nanocomposites, as a technologically important class of materials, exhibit diverse functional properties, and are used for applications ranging from structural and biomedical to electronic and optical. The properties of polymer nanocomposites are determined, in part, by the chemical composition of the polymer matrix and the nanofillers. Their properties are also sensitive to the geometry and size of the nanofillers, and to spatial distribution of the fillers. Control of the nanoparticle size and dispersion within a given polymer provides opportunities to tailor and optimize the properties of nanocomposites for specific application. For optical applications such as encapsulation of light emitting diodes (LEDs), polymer nanocomposites filled with homogeneously dispersed nanoparticles would endow the polymer encapsulant with new functionality without sacrificing optical transparency. To this end, this thesis focuses on developing a simple and versatile approach towards the fabrication of epoxy and silicone transparent nanocomposites using matrix compatible chain-grafted nanoparticles as fillers, and studying the optical properties of the nanocomposites. The surface chemistry and grafted polymer chain design have been shown to play an important role in determining the dispersion state of the grafted nanoparticles and hence the final optical properties of the nanocomposites. To prepare transparent epoxy nanocomposites, poly (glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) chains were grafted onto the optical nanoparticle surfaces via a combined phosphate ligand exchange process and azide-alkyne "click" chemistry. The dispersion behavior of PGMA-grafted nanoparticles within the epoxy matrix was investigated by systematically varying the grafting density and grafted chain length. It was found that within the small molecular weight epoxy resins, the dispersion states are more sensitive to the grafting density than the molecular weight of grafted chains. With high grafting densities

  17. Surface enhanced fluorescence of anti-tumoral drug emodin adsorbed on silver nanoparticles and loaded on porous silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Margarita; Recio, Gonzalo; Martin-Palma, Raul J.; Garcia-Ramos, Jose V.; Domingo, Concepcion; Sevilla, Paz

    2012-07-01

    Fluorescence spectra of anti-tumoral drug emodin loaded on nanostructured porous silicon have been recorded. The use of colloidal nanoparticles allowed embedding of the drug without previous porous silicon functionalization and leads to the observation of an enhancement of fluorescence of the drug. Mean pore size of porous silicon matrices was 60 nm, while silver nanoparticles mean diameter was 50 nm. Atmospheric and vacuum conditions at room temperature were used to infiltrate emodin-silver nanoparticles complexes into porous silicon matrices. The drug was loaded after adsorption on metal surface, alone, and bound to bovine serum albumin. Methanol and water were used as solvents. Spectra with 1 μm spatial resolution of cross-section of porous silicon layers were recorded to observe the penetration of the drug. A maximum fluorescence enhancement factor of 24 was obtained when protein was loaded bound to albumin, and atmospheric conditions of inclusion were used. A better penetration was obtained using methanol as solvent when comparing with water. Complexes of emodin remain loaded for 30 days after preparation without an apparent degradation of the drug, although a decrease in the enhancement factor is observed. The study reported here constitutes the basis for designing a new drug delivery system with future applications in medicine and pharmacy.

  18. Heat-Induced Agglomeration of Amorphous Silicon Nanoparticles Toward the Formation of Silicon Thin Film.

    PubMed

    Jang, Bo Yun; Kim, Ja Young; Seo, Gyeongju; Shin, Chae-Ho; Ko, Chang Hyun

    2016-01-01

    The thermal behavior of silicon nanoparticles (Si NPs) was investigated for the preparation of silicon thin film using a solution process. TEM analysis of Si NPs, synthesized by inductively coupled plasma, revealed that the micro-structure of the Si NPs was amorphous and that the Si NPs had melted and merged at a comparatively low temperature (~750 °C) considering bulk melting temperature of silicon (1414 °C). A silicon ink solution was prepared by dispersing amorphous Si NPs in propylene glycol (PG). It was then coated onto a silicon wafer and a quartz plate to form a thin film. These films were annealed in a vacuum or in an N₂ environment to increase their film density. N2 annealing at 800 °C and 1000 °C induced the crystallization of the amorphous thin film. An elemental analysis by the SIMS depth profile showed that N₂annealing at 1000 °C for 180 min drastically reduced the concentrations of carbon and oxygen inside the silicon thin film. These results indicate that silicon ink prepared using amorphous Si NPs in PG can serve as a proper means of preparing silicon thin film via solution process.

  19. In-situ formation of nanoparticles within a silicon-based matrix

    DOEpatents

    Thoma, Steven G.; Wilcoxon, Jess P.; Abrams, Billie L.

    2008-06-10

    A method for encapsulating nanoparticles with an encapsulating matrix that minimizes aggregation and maintains favorable properties of the nanoparticles. The matrix comprises silicon-based network-forming compounds such as ormosils and polysiloxanes. The nanoparticles are synthesized from precursors directly within the silicon-based matrix.

  20. Preparation and characterization of Ag nanoparticle-embedded blank and ligand-anchored silica gels.

    PubMed

    Im, Hee-Jung; Lee, Byung Cheol; Yeon, Jei-Won

    2013-11-01

    Ag nanoparticles, used for halogen (especially iodine) adsorption and an evaluation of halogen behavior, were embedded in synthesized inorganic-organic hybrid gels. In particular, an irradiation method using an electron beam plays a part in introducing Ag nanoparticles to the organofunctionalized silica gels from AgNO3 solutions in a simple way at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. For preparation of the Ag nanoparticle-embedded inorganic-organic hybrid gels, ligands of ethylenediamine (NH2CH2CH2NH-, TMSen) and mercapto (HS-) functionalized three-dimensional porous SiO2 sol-gels were first synthesized through hydrolysis and condensation reactions, and Ag nanoparticles were then embedded into the ethylenediamine- and mercapto-anchored silica gels each, through electron-beam irradiation. The addition of ligands yielded larger average pore sizes than the absence of any ligand. Moreover, the ethylenediamine ligand led to looser structures and better access of the Ag nanoparticles to the ethylenediamine-anchored gel. As a result, more Ag nanoparticles were introduced into the ethylenediamine-anchored gel. The preparation and characterization of Ag nanoparticle-embedded blank and ligand-anchored silica gels are discussed in detail.

  1. Effects of dispersion solvent on the formation of silicon nanoparticles synthesized via microemulsion route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liong, W. L.; Sreekantan, S.; Hutagalung, S. D.

    2010-05-01

    Silicon nanoparticles are synthesized by microemulsion route. Silicon tetrachloride (SiCl4) is used as a silicon source. Meanwhile, hydrazine (N2H5OH), sodium hydroxide (NaOH), and polyethylene glycol (PEG) are used as reduction agent, stabilizer, and capping agent, respectively. In this study, the effects of different solvents (methanol, 1-butanol, 2-propanol, ethanol, acetone, and toluene) on the dispersion and the stabilization of silicon nanoparticles are studied intensively. The results in this study show that ethanol solvent has given smaller particle size, better size distribution, stable suspension and well dispersion of silicon nanoparticles. The diameter of synthesized silicon nanoparticles is in the range of 30-100 nm. Moreover, the absorption edge of silicon nanoparticles in ethanol is observed at a shorter wavelength compared to the others solvent.

  2. Fluorescence of silicon nanoparticles prepared by nanosecond pulsed laser

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chunyang Sui, Xin; Yang, Fang; Ma, Wei; Li, Jishun; Xue, Yujun; Fu, Xing

    2014-03-15

    A pulsed laser fabrication method is used to prepare fluorescent microstructures on silicon substrates in this paper. A 355 nm nanosecond pulsed laser micromachining system was designed, and the performance was verified and optimized. Fluorescence microscopy was used to analyze the photoluminescence of the microstructures which were formed using the pulsed laser processing technique. Photoluminescence spectra of the microstructure reveal a peak emission around 500 nm, from 370 nm laser irradiation. The light intensity also shows an exponential decay with irradiation time, which is similar to attenuation processes seen in porous silicon. The surface morphology and chemical composition of the microstructure in the fabricated region was also analyzed with multifunction scanning electron microscopy. Spherical particles are produced with diameters around 100 nm. The structure is compared with porous silicon. It is likely that these nanoparticles act as luminescence recombination centers on the silicon surface. The small diameter of the particles modifies the band gap of silicon by quantum confinement effects. Electron-hole pairs recombine and the fluorescence emission shifts into the visible range. The chemical elements of the processed region are also changed during the interaction between laser and silicon. Oxidation and carbonization play an important role in the enhancement of fluorescence emission.

  3. Silicon Nanoparticle Mass by Milliken Oil Drop Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stafford, Austin; Craig, Alan

    2009-05-01

    Silicon nanoparticles created through electrochemical etching have been found to have five unique sizes by using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). By creating an apparatus similar to the Millikan experiment an alternative method has been designed to confirm the TEM results. The particles will be suspended between two capacitor plates to allow balancing of the gravitational and electric forces as a means to calculate the mass to charge ratio. This poster will detail the designs for the experimental apparatus.

  4. Photoconductivity of organic polymer films doped with porous silicon nanoparticles and ionic polymethine dyes

    SciTech Connect

    Davidenko, N. A. Skrichevsky, V. A.; Ishchenko, A. A.; Karlash, A. Yu.; Mokrinskaya, E. V.

    2009-05-15

    Features of electrical conductivity and photoconductivity of polyvinylbutyral films containing porous silicon nanoparticles and similar films doped with cationic and anionic polymethine dyes are studied. Sensitization of the photoelectric effect by dyes with different ionicities in films is explained by the possible photogeneration of holes and electrons from dye molecules and the intrinsic bipolar conductivity of porous silicon nanoparticles. It is assumed that the electronic conductivity in porous silicon nanoparticles is higher in comparison with p-type conductivity.

  5. Scalable synthesis of silicon-nanolayer-embedded graphite for high-energy lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Minseong; Chae, Sujong; Ma, Jiyoung; Kim, Namhyung; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Cui, Yi; Cho, Jaephil

    2016-09-01

    Existing anode technologies are approaching their limits, and silicon is recognized as a potential alternative due to its high specific capacity and abundance. However, to date the commercial use of silicon has not satisfied electrode calendering with limited binder content comparable to commercial graphite anodes for high energy density. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of a next-generation hybrid anode using silicon-nanolayer-embedded graphite/carbon. This architecture allows compatibility between silicon and natural graphite and addresses the issues of severe side reactions caused by structural failure of crumbled graphite dust and uncombined residue of silicon particles by conventional mechanical milling. This structure shows a high first-cycle Coulombic efficiency (92%) and a rapid increase of the Coulombic efficiency to 99.5% after only 6 cycles with a capacity retention of 96% after 100 cycles, with an industrial electrode density of >1.6 g cm-3, areal capacity loading of >3.3 mAh cm-2, and <4 wt% binding materials in a slurry. As a result, a full cell using LiCoO2 has demonstrated a higher energy density (1,043 Wh l-1) than with standard commercial graphite electrodes.

  6. pH-Operated mechanized porous silicon nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Xue, Min; Zhong, Xing; Shaposhnik, Zory; Qu, Yongquan; Tamanoi, Fuyuhiko; Duan, Xiangfeng; Zink, Jeffrey I

    2011-06-15

    Porous silicon nanoparticles (PSiNPs) were synthesized by silver-assisted electroless chemical etching of silicon nanowires generated on a silicon wafer. The rod-shaped particles (200-400 nm long and 100-200 nm in diameter) were derivatized with a cyclodextrin-based nanovalve that was closed at the physiological pH of 7.4 but open at pH <6. Release profiles in water and tissue culture media showed that no cargo leaked when the valves were closed and that release occurred immediately after acidification. In vitro studies using human pancreatic carcinoma PANC-1 cells proved that these PSiNPs were endocytosed and carried cargo molecules into the cells and released them in response to lysosomal acidity. These studies show that PSiNPs can serve as an autonomously functioning delivery platform in biological systems and open new possibilities for drug delivery.

  7. Size Fractionation of Mechanochemical Synthesized Alkyl-Passivated Silicon Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdoni, Luigi; Mitchell, Brian

    2010-03-01

    A novel top-down procedure was employed for the synthesis of stable alkyl-passivated silicon nanoparticles using reactive high energy ball milling (HEBM) as described in Heintz et al., (Adv. Mater. 2007, 19). The method provides for the simultaneous production of photo luminescent silicon nanoparticles and the passivation of the particle surface with alkyl groups covalently linked through Si-C bonds. As fresh silicon surface is formed during HEBM by particle fracture, the surface Si atoms react in-situ with liquid alkyls, such as 1-octyne and 1-hexyne. We present a multistage size selective fractionation process to isolate and purify initial sample polydispersities ranging from microns down to single nanometers (1 um - 1 nm). This process employs centrifugation, inline nano-filtration, both normal phase gel permission (GPC) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC), followed by recursive size selective precipitation (SSP). Size evolutions of fractions are monitored via UV/VIS absorbance, photoluminescence (PL), and electron microscopy (SEM/TEM). Elemental impurities are quantified through atomic absorption (AAS) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Stages are performed in series to isolate and investigate the influence of initial alkyl and silicon reactants on product yields, size dispersity, and optical behavior.

  8. Experimental investigations of quantum confined silicon nanoparticle light emitting devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ligman, Rebekah Kristine

    2007-12-01

    As the demands on our world's energy resources continue to grow, alternative high efficiency materials such as quantum confined silicon nanoparticles (Si nps) are desirable for their potential low cost application in white light illumination, in optical displays, and in on-chip optical interconnects. Many fabrication and passivation techniques exist that produce Si nps with high photogenerated quantum yield. However, high electrically generated Si np quantum efficiency has eluded our society. Predominantly due to the lack of a stable surface passivation and a device fabrication technique that preserves the Si np optical properties. To amend these deficiencies, the passivation of nonthermal plasma fabricated Si nps with a surface oxide grown under UV exposure was first investigated. Control over the surface oxidized Si np (Si/SiO2) passivation growth was demonstrated and the optical stability of Si/SiO2 nps was suitable for demonstrating Si np electroluminescence (EL). Two approaches for constructing hybrid organic light emitting diode (OLED) devices around nonthermal plasma fabricated Si nps were then investigated. Multilayer devices, composed of a nonthermal plasma fabricated Si np layer embedded within an OLED, were first studied. However, no EL from Si nps was obtained using the multilayer device architecture due to poor control over the Si np film thickness. Single layer polymer(Si/SiO2) hybrid devices, composed of nps randomly dispersed within an extrinsic conductive polymer, were then studied and EL from Si/SiO2 nps was obtained. The hybrid device optical and electrical response was enhanced over the control devices, possibly due to morphology changes induced by the Si/SiO2 nps. The energy transfer (ET) processes in single layer polymer(Si/SiO 2) hybrid devices were then investigated by imposing known spatial separations between the intrinsic conductive polymers and Si/SiO2 nps. No measurable Si/SiO2 np emission was observed from the intrinsic hybrid devices

  9. Antireflection TiO x Coating with Plasmonic Metal Nanoparticles for Silicon Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Starowicz, Z; Lipiński, M; Berent, K; Socha, R; Szczepanowicz, K; Kruk, T

    2013-03-01

    It is known that the light scattering from the metal particles deposited on the surfaces of cells can be used for increasing light trapping in the solar cells. In this work, plasmonic structures are composite materials that consisted of silver nanoparticles embedded in dielectric films of TiO x -used as cell antireflection coating. The films are deposited by sol-gel method using spin-on technique. Microstructure of prepared samples is analyzed by SEM observation. Good homogenity and particles density was obtained by this simple, cheap, and short time-demanding method. We demonstrate that due to light scattering by metal particles, the plasmonic-ARC layer is more effective than TiO x layer without Ag nanoparticles. Implementation of nanoparticles on bare cell surface was carried out too. The influence of the plasmonic structures on the silicon solar cells parameters is presented as well. We announce about 5 % additional growth in short circuit current for cells with nanoparticles.

  10. The calculations of electromagnetic fields around nanoparticles embedded in biological media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prytkova, Vera D.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2010-08-01

    The goal of our project is to use computational methods, such as discrete dipole approximation (DDA) to study nanoparticles in biomedical photonics problems. Nanoparticle absorption and scattering are strongly affected by their shape, size, composition and dielectric environment. We focus on light scattering from nanoparticles embedded in biological or biocompatible media, such as water, glycerin and hemoglobin at erythrocyte hemoglobin concentration at concentration characteristic to intrinsic erythrocyte concentration. This method lets us consider complex refractive index of the nanoparticle and the surrounding medium as a function on the wavelength of light. We are interested in strong absorption and scattering around 800 nm that makes such nanoparticles potentially useful in biomedical applications, such as detection and curing cancer. Considering nanoparticles in living cells containing nanoparticles lets us understand light scattering from normal and pathological structures within biological tissue.

  11. Preparation and Structural Analysis of CdS Nanoparticle Embedded Polyurethane Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indolia, Ajay Pal; Kumar, Purushottam; Gaur, M. S.

    2011-07-01

    Polymer nanocomposite samples of different weight ratio of CdS were developed by solution embedding of nanoparticles in polyurethane. XRD and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were used to understand the structural properties of polymer nanocomposite samples. SEM micrograph demonstrates the dispersion of CdS nanoparticles in polymer matrix. It has been observed that crystallinity of PU decreases with increase in concentration of CdS nanoparticles. The XRD data show the characteristic peaks of nanoparticles (i.e.CdS) in nanocomposite samples, which confirm the nanostructure formation in polymer matrix.

  12. Oxidized silicon nanoparticles for radiosensitization of cancer and tissue cells.

    PubMed

    Klein, Stefanie; Dell'Arciprete, Maria L; Wegmann, Marc; Distel, Luitpold V R; Neuhuber, Winfried; Gonzalez, Mónica C; Kryschi, Carola

    2013-05-03

    The applicability of ultrasmall uncapped and aminosilanized oxidized silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs and NH2-SiNPs) as radiosensitizer was studied by internalizing these nanoparticles into human breast cancer (MCF-7) and mouse fibroblast cells (3T3) that were exposed to X-rays at a single dose of 3 Gy. While SiNPs did not increase the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in X-ray treated cells, the NH2-SiNPs significantly enhanced the ROS formation. This is due to the amino functionality as providing positive surface charges in aqueous environment. The NH2-SiNPs were observed to penetrate into the mitochondrial membrane, wherein these nanoparticles provoked oxidative stress. The NH2-SiNPs induced mitochondrial ROS production was confirmed by the determination of an increased malondialdehyde level as representing a gauge for the extent of membrane lipid peroxidation. X-ray exposure of NH2-SiNPs incubated MCF-7 and 3T3 cells increased the ROS concentration for 180%, and 120%, respectively. Complementary cytotoxicity studies demonstrate that these silicon nanoparticles are more cytotoxic for MCF-7 than for 3T3 cells.

  13. In situ inclusion of Au nanoparticles in porous silicon structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severiano, F.; Gayou, V. L.; García, G.; Macuil, R. Delgado; Gutiérrez, H. Martínez; Nieto, G.; Diaz, T.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the structural modification in the porous silicon layer (PSL), when they are obtained from electrodeposition using a metal salt of Au (HAuCl4) in the electrolyte. The deposition of Au nanoparticles and the formation of the PSL were performed simultaneously. The structural and optical properties of the gold/porous-Si were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), photoluminescence (PL) and Raman scattering. Through the methodology implemented, it was obtained gold/porous-Si nanocomposites. The size of the gold nanoparticles was above 15 nm, and the pore size was 18 nm. The PL intensity showed an increase with the incorporation of gold nanoparticles due to the enhancement of a surface plasmon effect. The size of Si nanocrystals in the PSL structure was estimated through PL and Raman measures and it was 3 nm.

  14. Controlled delivery of acyclovir from porous silicon micro- and nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maniya, Nalin H.; Patel, Sanjaykumar R.; Murthy, Z. V. P.

    2015-03-01

    In this work, micro- and nanoparticles of porous silicon (PSi) are demonstrated to act as effective carrier for the controlled delivery of acyclovir (ACV). PSi films prepared by electrochemical etching were fractured by ultrasonication to prepare micro- and nanoparticles. PSi native particles were thermally oxidized (TOPSi) and thermally hydrosilylated using undecylenic acid (UnPSi). PSi particles with three different surface chemistries were then loaded with ACV by physical adsorption and covalent attachment. Such particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In vitro ACV release experiments in phosphate buffered saline showed sustained release behaviour from both micro- and nanoparticles and order of release was found to be native PSi > TOPSi > UnPSi. Drug release kinetics study using Korsmeyer-Peppas model suggested a combination of both drug diffusion and Si scaffold erosion based drug release mechanisms.

  15. Electron photoemission in plasmonic nanoparticle arrays: analysis of collective resonances and embedding effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukovsky, Sergei V.; Babicheva, Viktoriia E.; Uskov, Alexander V.; Protsenko, Igor E.; Lavrinenko, Andrei V.

    2014-09-01

    We theoretically study the characteristics of photoelectron emission in plasmonic nanoparticle arrays. Nanoparticles are partially embedded in a semiconductor, forming Schottky barriers at metal/semiconductor interfaces through which photoelectrons can tunnel from the nanoparticle into the semiconductor; photodetection in the infrared range, where photon energies are below the semiconductor band gap (insufficient for band-to-band absorption in semiconductor), is therefore possible. The nanoparticles are arranged in a sparse rectangular lattice so that the wavelength of the lattice-induced Rayleigh anomalies can overlap the wavelength of the localized surface plasmon resonance of the individual particles, bringing about collective effects from the nanoparticle array. Using full-wave numerical simulations, we analyze the effects of lattice constant, embedding depth, and refractive index step between the semiconductor layer and an adjacent transparent conductive oxide layer. We show that the presence of refractive index mismatch between media surrounding the nanoparticles disrupts the formation of a narrow absorption peak associated with the Rayleigh anomaly, so the role of collective lattice effects in the formation of plasmonic resonance is diminished. We also show that 5-20 times increase of photoemission can be achieved on embedding of nanoparticles without taking into account dynamics of ballistic electrons. The results obtained can be used to increase efficiency of plasmon-based photodetectors and photovoltaic devices. The results may provide clues to designing an experiment where the contributions of surface and volume photoelectric effects to the overall photocurrent would be defined.

  16. Thermally activated tunneling in porous silicon nanowires with embedded Si quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezvani, S. J.; Pinto, N.; Enrico, E.; D'Ortenzi, L.; Chiodoni, A.; Boarino, L.

    2016-03-01

    Electronic transport properties of porous Si nanowires either with embedded Si quantum dots or with a percolative crystalline path are studied as a function of the temperature for the first time. We show that unlike bulk porous Si, the predesigned structure of the wires results in a single distinct conduction mechanism such as tunneling in the former case and variable range hopping in the latter case. We demonstrate that the geometry of the systems with a large internal surface area and high density of the Si quantum dots have a significant conduction enhancement compared to bulk porous silicon. These results can also improve the understanding of the basis of the different electronic transport mechanisms reported in bulk porous silicon.

  17. Ultra-compact TE-pass polarizer with graphene multilayer embedded in a silicon slot waveguide.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiang; Zhang, Tian; Chen, Lin; Li, Xun

    2015-04-15

    A novel silicon slot waveguide TE-pass polarizer with graphene multilayer embedded in the slot is proposed and demonstrated by utilization of the fact that the variation of the modal characteristics for the TM mode is more than that for the TE mode. The designed polarizer is shown to have the ability to significantly suppress the transmission of the TM mode, while well guiding the TE mode. We numerically demonstrate a 7-μm-long polarizer has an ultra-high insertion loss of 31.5 dB for the TM mode and as little insertion loss as 0.2 dB for the TE mode at 1.55 μm. The presented polarizer offers the performance merits including high extinction ratio, ultra-low insertion loss, ultra-compactness, and easy integration with silicon slot waveguides without using any taper.

  18. Broadband light absorption of silicon nanowires embedded in Ag nano-hole arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Lei; Ji, Chun-Lei; Li, Ming

    2016-09-01

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) embedded in Ag nano-hole arrays with broadband light absorption is proposed in this paper. Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) simulations were utilized to obtain absorptivity and band diagrams for both SiNWs and SiNWs embedded in Ag nano-hole arrays. A direct relationship between waveguide modes and extraordinary absorptivity is established qualitatively, which helps to optimal design the structure parameters to achieve broadband absorptivity. After introducing Ag nano-hole arrays at the rear side of SiNWs, the band modes are extended into leaky regions and light energy can be fully absorbed, resulting in high absorptivity at long wavelength. Severe reflection is also suppressed by light trapping capability of SiNWs at short wavelength. Over 70% average absorptivity from 400 nm to 1100 nm is realized finally. This kinds of design give promising route for high efficiency solar cells and optical absorbers.

  19. Thermodynamics of a phase transition of silicon nanoparticles at the annealing and carbonization of porous silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Nagornov, Yu. S.

    2015-12-15

    The formation of SiC nanocrystals of the cubic modification in the process of high-temperature carbonization of porous silicon has been analyzed. A thermodynamic model has been proposed to describe the experimental data obtained by atomic-force microscopy, Raman scattering, spectral analysis, Auger spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy. It has been shown that the surface energy of silicon nanoparticles and quantum filaments is released in the process of annealing and carbonization. The Monte Carlo simulation has shown that the released energy makes it possible to overcome the nucleation barrier and to form SiC nanocrystals. The processes of laser annealing and electron irradiation of carbonized porous silicon have been analyzed.

  20. Dielectric silicone elastomers with mixed ceramic nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Stiubianu, George; Bele, Adrian; Cazacu, Maria; Racles, Carmen; Vlad, Stelian; Ignat, Mircea

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Composite ceramics nanoparticles (MCN) with zirconium dioxide and lead zirconate. • Dielectric elastomer films wDith PDMS matrix and MCN as dielectric filler. • Hydrophobic character—water resistant and good flexibility specific to siloxanes. • Increased value of dielectric constant with the content of MCN in dielectric films. • Increased energy output from uniaxial deformation of the dielectric elastomer films. - Abstract: A ceramic material consisting in a zirconium dioxide-lead zirconate mixture has been obtained by precipitation method, its composition being proved by wide angle X-ray powder diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The average diameter of the ceramic particles ranged between 50 and 100 nm, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy images. These were surface treated and used as filler for a high molecular mass polydimethylsiloxane-α,ω-diol (Mn = 450,000) prepared in laboratory, the resulted composites being further processed as films and crosslinked. A condensation procedure, unusual for polydimethylsiloxane having such high molecular mass, with a trifunctional silane was approached for the crosslinking. The effect of filler content on electrical and mechanical properties of the resulted materials was studied and it was found that the dielectric permittivity of nanocomposites increased in line with the concentration of ceramic nanoparticles.

  1. Fabrication of parylene channels embedded in silicon using a single parylene deposition step

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstosheeva, Elena; Pimentel, João. V.; Schander, Andreas; Kempen, Ludger; Vellekoop, Michael; Lang, Walter

    2015-06-01

    In-situ integration of microfluidic channels into the microfabrication process flow of implantable microsystems is desirable, for example to enable efficient drug delivery. We propose a fabrication method for such microfluidic channels using parylene C, a biocompatible material whose inert nature favours water flow. A single deposition of parylene C enabled monolithical integration of fully-sealed micro-channels in a silicon substrate. The channel geometry was predefined by etching 100 μm-deep grooves into a silicon substrate. A PVC foil was fixed manually on the wafer and served as a top-cover for the grooves. The wafers were coated with the adhesion promoter AdPro Poly® and a 15 μm-thick parylene C film was deposited conformally into the grooves-foil enclosed space. The outgasing nature of the PVC foil hindered the adhesion of parylene C, allowing the foil to be peeled off easily from the parylene surface. The functionality of the fully-sealed parylene channels, embedded in the silicon wafer, was verified by injecting DI water with dispersed polystyrene microbeads (diameter 6 μm): the polystyrene beads were successfully transported along the channel. Further, a fully-sealed parylene chamber remained leak-tight throughout a stepwise application of hydrostatic pressures from 0.2 to 3.0 bar (15 s step-interval). In short, our parylene channels are: (1) suitable for microsystem drug-delivery; (2) in-situ enclosed hollow spaces embedded in the silicon substrate, realized with a single parylene deposition; (3) intact at hydrostatic pressures up to 3 bar.

  2. New approach for structural characterization of planar sets of nanoparticles embedded into a solid matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, Dario F.; Marmitt, Gabriel; Marin, Cristiane; Baptista, Daniel L.; de M. Azevedo, Gustavo; Grande, Pedro L.; Fichtner, Paulo F. P.

    2013-12-01

    In this work we demonstrate that Medium Energy Ion Scattering (MEIS) measurements in combination with Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) or Grazing Incidence Small Angle X-Ray Scattering (GISAXS) can provide a complete characterization of nanoparticle (NP) systems embedded into dielectric films. This includes the determination of the nanoparticle characteristics (location, size distribution and number concentration) as well as the depth distribution and concentration of the NP atomic components dispersed in the matrix. Our studies are performed considering a model case system consisting of planar arrangements of Au NPs (size range from 1 to 10 nm) containing three distinct Au concentrations embedded in a SiO2 film.

  3. Fluorescent Nanocomposite of Embedded Ceria Nanoparticles in Crosslinked PVA Electrospun Nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Shehata, Nader; Gaballah, Soha; Samir, Effat; Hamed, Aya; Saad, Marwa

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a new fluorescent nanocomposite of electrospun biodegradable nanofibers embedded with optical nanoparticles. In detail, this work introduces the fluorescence properties of PVA nanofibers generated by the electrospinning technique with embedded cerium oxide (ceria) nanoparticles. Under near-ultra violet excitation, the synthesized nanocomposite generates a visible fluorescent emission at 520 nm, varying its intensity peak according to the concentration of in situ embedded ceria nanoparticles. This is due to the fact that the embedded ceria nanoparticles have optical tri-valiant cerium ions, associated with formed oxygen vacancies, with a direct allowed bandgap around 3.5 eV. In addition, the impact of chemical crosslinking of the PVA on the fluorescence emission is studied in both cases of adding ceria nanoparticles in situ or of a post-synthesis addition via a spin-coating mechanism. Other optical and structural characteristics such as absorbance dispersion, direct bandgap, FTIR spectroscopy, and SEM analysis are presented. The synthesized optical nanocomposite could be helpful in different applications such as environmental monitoring and bioimaging.

  4. Fluorescent Nanocomposite of Embedded Ceria Nanoparticles in Crosslinked PVA Electrospun Nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Shehata, Nader; Gaballah, Soha; Samir, Effat; Hamed, Aya; Saad, Marwa

    2016-06-01

    This paper introduces a new fluorescent nanocomposite of electrospun biodegradable nanofibers embedded with optical nanoparticles. In detail, this work introduces the fluorescence properties of PVA nanofibers generated by the electrospinning technique with embedded cerium oxide (ceria) nanoparticles. Under near-ultra violet excitation, the synthesized nanocomposite generates a visible fluorescent emission at 520 nm, varying its intensity peak according to the concentration of in situ embedded ceria nanoparticles. This is due to the fact that the embedded ceria nanoparticles have optical tri-valiant cerium ions, associated with formed oxygen vacancies, with a direct allowed bandgap around 3.5 eV. In addition, the impact of chemical crosslinking of the PVA on the fluorescence emission is studied in both cases of adding ceria nanoparticles in situ or of a post-synthesis addition via a spin-coating mechanism. Other optical and structural characteristics such as absorbance dispersion, direct bandgap, FTIR spectroscopy, and SEM analysis are presented. The synthesized optical nanocomposite could be helpful in different applications such as environmental monitoring and bioimaging.

  5. Characterizing structural and vibrational properties of nanoparticles embedded in silica with XAS, SAXS and auxiliary techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Araujo, Leandro L.; Kluth, Patrick; Giulian, Raquel; Sprouster, David J.; Ridgway, Mark C.; Johannessen, Bernt; Foran, Garry J.; Cookson, David J.

    2009-01-29

    Synchrotron-based techniques were combined with conventional analysis methods to probe in detail the structural and vibrational properties of nanoparticles grown in a silica matrix by ion implantation and thermal annealing, as well as the evolution of such properties as a function of nanoparticle size. This original approach was successfully applied for several elemental nanoparticles (Au, Co, Cu, Ge, Pt) and the outcomes for Ge are reported here, illustrating the power of this combined methodology. The thorough analysis of XANES, EXAFS, SAXS, TEM and Raman data for Ge nanoparticles with mean diameters between 4 and 9 nm revealed that the peculiar properties of embedded Ge nanoparticles, like the existence of amorphous Ge layers between the silica matrix and the crystalline nanoparticle core, are strongly dependent on particle size and mainly governed by the variation in the surface area-to-volume ratio. Such detailed information provides valuable input for the efficient planning of technological applications.

  6. Localized, plasmon-mediated heating from embedded nanoparticles in nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maity, Somsubhra; Downen, Lori; Bochinski, Jason; Clarke, Laura

    2010-03-01

    Metallic nanoparticles exhibit a surface plasmon resonance which, when excited with visible light, results in a dramatic increase in the nanoparticle temperature. Previously such localized heating has been primarily employed in biomedical research and other experiments involving aqueous environments. In this work, we investigated use of the nanoparticles in solid phase to re-shape, bond, melt, and otherwise process nanofibrous mats of ˜200 nm diameter nanofibers doped with ˜80 nm spherical gold nanoparticles. Under low light intensities (100 mW/cm^2 @ 532 nm) and dilute nanoparticle loading (˜0.15% volume fraction), irradiation of a few minutes melted nanofibrous mats of poly (ethylene oxide) (Tm = 65 degree C). Control samples without gold nanoparticles displayed no melting. Because the heat is generated from within the material and only at the nanoparticle locations, this technique enables true nanoprocessing -- the non-contact, controlled application of heat at specific nano-sized locations within a material to effect desired local changes. Funded by CMMI-0829379.

  7. Formation of high conductive nano-crystalline silicon embedded in amorphous silicon-carbide films with large optical band gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Yang; Shan, Dan; Qian, Mingqing; Xu, Jun; Li, Wei; Chen, Kunji

    2016-10-01

    High conductive phosphorus-doped nano-crystalline Si embedded in Silicon-Carbide (SiC) host matrix (nc-Si:SiC) films were obtained by thermally annealing doped amorphous Si-rich SiC materials. It was found that the room conductivity is increased significantly accompanying with the increase of doping concentrations as well as the enhanced crystallizations. The conductivity can be as high as 630 S/cm for samples with the optical band gap around 2.7 eV, while the carrier mobility is about 17.9 cm2/ V.s. Temperature-dependent conductivity and mobility measurements were performed which suggested that the carrier transport process is strongly affected by both the grain boundaries and the doping concentrations.

  8. Nonlinear optical response of silver nanoparticles and silicon quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamayo-Rivera, L.; Fernández-Hernández, R. C.; Bornacelli, J.; Rodríguez-Fernández, L.; Oliver, A.; Reyes-Esqueda, J. A.

    2011-09-01

    We present a nonlinear optical study using standard Z-scan technique at the picosecond regime, in a nanostructured material containing both quasi-spherical silver nanoparticles and silicon quantum dots, and comparing its response to those from similar systems, one with only silicon quantum dots, and another with only silver nanoparticles. The study was done using different wavelengths, 355 nm and 532 nm, which are localized at both sides of the surface plasmon resonance of the Ag nanoparticles, and 1064 nm, which is localized well far away of it. In general, we have observed that the larger optical nonlinear response came from the sample with silver NPs. However, the combined system showed a positive nonlinear refraction below the plasmon resonance (355 nm), changing to a negative value for wavelengths above resonance (532 nm and 1064 nm). We observed also, for the combined system and for the three wavelengths used, a saturation of the nonlinear refraction index as a function of the incident irradiance.

  9. Porous silicon nanoparticles for cancer photothermotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Chanseok; Lee, Jungkeun; Zheng, Hongmei; Hong, Soon-Sun; Lee, Chongmu

    2011-12-01

    The in vitro cell tests and in vivo animal tests were performed to investigate the feasibility of the photothermal therapy based on porous silicon (PSi) in combination with near-infrared (NIR) laser. According to the Annexin V- fluorescein isothiocyanate Apoptosis assay test results, the untreated cells and the cells exposed to NIR laser without PSi treatment had a cell viability of 95.6 and 91.3%, respectively. Likewise, the cells treated with PSi but not with NIR irradiation also had a cell viability of 74.4%. Combination of these two techniques, however, showed a cell viability of 6.7%. Also, the cell deaths were mostly due to necrosis but partly due to late apoptosis. The in vivo animal test results showed that the Murine colon carcinoma (CT-26) tumors were completely resorbed without nearly giving damage to surrounding healthy tissue within 5 days of PSi and NIR laser treatment. Tumors have not recurred at all in the PSi/NIR treatment groups thereafter. Both the in vitro cell test and in vivo animal test results suggest that thermotherapy based on PSi in combination with NIR laser irradiation is an efficient technique to selectively destroy cancer cells without damaging the surrounding healthy cells.

  10. Enhancement of the optical transmission by mixing the metallic and dielectric nanoparticles atop the silicon substrate.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Yung-Ming; Wang, Yu-Sheng; Li, Jia-Han

    2011-03-14

    We propose a structure with the metallic and dielectric nanoparticles on the surface of the silicon material and study its optical transmission properties. The structure with the radiuses of the silver and silica nanoparticles as 50 nm and 100 nm, respectively, with the gap as 8 nm between silver and silica nanoparticles is found to have the largest optical transmission into the silicon material in our simulations. The largest field intensities are on the bottom of the silver nanoparticles and these can result strong field scattering into the silicon material. From the plotting of the average power densities around the gaps and the air regions between the silver and silica nanoparticles, the light power can go thorough these regions and flow downward to the silicon material. It is also found that the light energy rotates around the bottom of the silver nanoparticles due to the strong localized surface plasmons. The rectangular arrangement of the nanoparticle structures with mixing metallic and dielectric nanoparticles are studied, and the cases for the structures with only the metallic nanoparticles or only the dielectric nanoparticles are also simulated and compared. The rectangular or hexagonal structures with mixing metallic and dielectric nanoparticles on the surface of the silicon substrate can have better optical transmission than the cases of the rectangular arrangement with only metallic or dielectric nanoparticles.

  11. Porous silicon nanoparticles as scavengers of hazardous viruses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osminkina, L. A.; Timoshenko, V. Yu; Shilovsky, I. P.; Kornilaeva, G. V.; Shevchenko, S. N.; Gongalsky, M. B.; Tamarov, K. P.; Abramchuk, S. S.; Nikiforov, V. N.; Khaitov, M. R.; Karamov, E. V.

    2014-06-01

    We report that silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs) with typical sizes from 5 to 50 nm prepared by grinding of porous silicon can act as efficient scavengers of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). In vitro studies have revealed a strong suppression of the viral activity in the presence of SiNPs with concentration above 0.1 and 0.01 mg/mL for HIV and RSV, respectively. The observed effect is explained by binding of the virions with SiNPs that is supposed to be universal for different enveloped viruses. Because of the cytotoxic concentration of SiNPs is of the order of 1 mg/mL, SiNPs can be proposed for applications in new harmless methods of antiviral treatment.

  12. Silver Nanoparticle Generators: Silicon Dioxide Microspheres.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Li, Yingdi; Kang, Yanlei; Shen, Qihui; Liu, Xiaoyang; Zhou, Jianguang

    2017-02-24

    A green and simple approach has been developed to synthesize un-coated Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) in situ on the surface of thiol-group-functionalized silica dioxide microspheres (TSMs) in the aqueous solution. As soon as the Ag(+) ions attach onto the surface of TSMs, nucleation and growth of AgNPs can spontaneously complete within one minute without other reducing agents or capping agents. The main reason is that the self-assembled silane-layer formed by mercaptosilane molecules could reduce the Ag(0) formation energy, transport electrons efficiently, improve the nucleation density, and protect AgNPs against oxidation. Thus, the supported AgNPs show excellent chemical/photochemical stability in air and solution. Meanwhile, the size of as-prepared AgNPs could be controlled by tuning the concentration of Ag(+) ions. This process provides a general route to generate bare AgNPs on the surface of silica dioxide in situ, which might be extended to other materials and is promising in developing novel methodologies for making supported noble metal NPs with desired structure and properties.

  13. Morphology and aspect ratio of bismuth nanoparticles embedded in a zinc matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Tae Eun; Wilde, Gerhard; Peterlechner, Martin

    2014-12-15

    Nanoscale Bi particles embedded in a Zn matrix were obtained by casting and melt-spinning, resulting in quenching rate-dependent sizes and shapes. With decreasing Bi particle size, an increasing aspect ratio was observed. Due to high resolution transmission electron microscopy performed for different orientations of the nanoparticles and the matrix, the three-dimensional shape and the respective crystallographic orientations of the Bi nanoparticles as well as the orientation relationship with the matrix have been evaluated. It is suggested that the size-dependence of the nanoparticle morphologies has a strong impact on their thermal stabilities thus affecting the size dependence of the melting temperature.

  14. Assembly and magnetic properties of nickel nanoparticles on silicon nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Picraux, Samuel T; Manandhar, Pradeep; Nazaretski, E; Thompson, J

    2009-01-01

    The directed assembly of magnetic Ni nanoparticles at the tips of silicon nanowires is reported. Using electrodeposition Ni shells of thickness from 10 to 100 nm were selectively deposited on Au catalytic seeds at the ends of nanowires. Magnetic characterization confirms a low coercivity ({approx}115 Oe) ferromagnetic behavior at 300 K. This approach to multifunctional magnetic-semiconducting nanostructure assembly could be extended to electrodeposition of other materials on the nanowire ends, opening up novel ways of device integration. Such magnetically functionalized nanowires offer a new approach to developing novel highly localized magnetic probes for high resolution magnetic resonance force microscopy.

  15. Porous silicon nanoparticles as sensitizers for ultrasonic hyperthermia

    SciTech Connect

    Sviridov, A. P. Andreev, V. G.; Ivanova, E. M.; Osminkina, L. A.; Tamarov, K. P.; Timoshenko, V. Yu.

    2013-11-04

    Aqueous suspensions of porous silicon nanoparticles (NPs) with average size ∼100 nm and concentration ∼1 g/L undergo significant heating as compared with pure water under therapeutic ultrasonic (US) irradiation with frequencies of 1–2.5 MHz and intensities of 1–20 W/cm{sup 2}. This effect is explained by taking into account the efficient absorption of US energy by NPs. The observed US-induced heating of biodegradable NPs is promising for applications in ultrasonic hyperthermia of tumors.

  16. Probing magnetic and electric optical responses of silicon nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Permyakov, Dmitry; Sinev, Ivan; Markovich, Dmitry; Samusev, Anton; Belov, Pavel; Ginzburg, Pavel; Valuckas, Vytautas; Kuznetsov, Arseniy I.; Luk'yanchuk, Boris S.; Miroshnichenko, Andrey E.; Neshev, Dragomir N.; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2015-04-27

    We study experimentally both magnetic and electric optically induced resonances of silicon nanoparticles by combining polarization-resolved dark-field spectroscopy and near-field scanning optical microscopy measurements. We reveal that the scattering spectra exhibit strong sensitivity of electric dipole response to the probing beam polarization and attribute the characteristic asymmetry of measured near-field patterns to the excitation of a magnetic dipole mode. The proposed experimental approach can serve as a powerful tool for the study of photonic nanostructures possessing both electric and magnetic optical responses.

  17. Cobalt ferrite nanoparticles in a mesoporous silicon dioxide matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komogortsev, S. V.; Patrusheva, T. N.; Balaev, D. A.; Denisova, E. A.; Ponomarenko, I. V.

    2009-10-01

    We have studied magnetic nanoparticles of cobalt ferrite obtained by the extraction-pyrolysis method in a mesoporous silicon dioxide (MSM-41) molecular sieve matrix. The X-ray diffraction data show evidence for the formation of CoFe2O4 particles with a coherent scattering domain size of ˜40 nm. Measurements of the magnetization curves showed that powders consisting of these nanoparticles are magnetically hard materials with a coercive field of H c(4.2 K) = 9.0 kOe and H c(300 K) = 1.8 kOe and a reduced remanent magnetization of M r/ M s(4.2 K) = 0.83 and M r/ M s(300 K) = 0.49. The shape of the low-temperature (4.2 K) magnetization curves is adequately described in terms of the Stoner-Wohlfarth model for randomly oriented single-domain particles with a cubic magnetic anisotropy.

  18. Porous silicon nanoparticles for nanomedicine: preparation and biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Santos, Hélder A; Mäkilä, Ermei; Airaksinen, Anu J; Bimbo, Luis M; Hirvonen, Jouni

    2014-04-01

    The research on porous silicon (PSi) materials for biomedical applications has expanded greatly since the early studies of Leigh Canham more than 25 years ago. Currently, PSi nanoparticles are receiving growing attention from the scientific biomedical community. These nanostructured materials have emerged as promising multifunctional and versatile platforms for nanomedicine in drug delivery, diagnostics and therapy. The outstanding properties of PSi, including excellent in vivo biocompatibility and biodegradability, have led to many applications of PSi for delivery of therapeutic agents. In this review, we highlight current advances and recent efforts on PSi nanoparticles regarding the production properties, efficient drug delivery, multidrug delivery, permeation across biological barriers, biosafety and in vivo tracking for biomedical applications. The constant boost on successful preclinical in vivo data reported so far makes this the 'golden age' for PSi, which is expected to finally be translated into the clinic in the near future.

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of Luminescent Amorphous Porous Silicon (ap-Si) Nanoparticles via unconventional Stain Etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchalala, M. R.; El-Demellawi, J. K.; Mughal, A. J.; Chaieb, S.

    2016-10-01

    Starting from crystalline silicon we synthesised bright suspensions of amorphous porous silicon nanoparticles through unconventional stain etching. Upon excitation with UV light, this novel nanostructured material gives rise to an intense red photoluminescence (PL) which resembles that of some silicon nanostructures. We studied the properties of the prepared nanoparticles using a number of cutting-edge characterization techniques such as TEM, SEM and EDX. The complete crystalline-to-amorphous phase transition, confirmed by the morphological studies, seems fortuitous.

  20. Silver Nanoparticle Enhanced Freestanding Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winans, Joshua David

    As the supply of fossil fuels diminishes in quantity the demand for alternative energy sources will consistently increase. Solar cells are an environmentally friendly and proven technology that suffer in sales due to a large upfront cost. In order to help facilitate the transition from fossil fuels to photovoltaics, module costs must be reduced to prices well below $1/Watt. Thin-film solar cells are more affordable because of the reduced materials costs, but lower in efficiency because less light is absorbed before passing through the cell. Silver nanoparticles placed at the front surface of the solar cell absorb and reradiate the energy of the light in ways such that more of the light ends being captured by the silicon. Silver nanoparticles can do this because they have free electron clouds that can take on the energy of an incident photon through collective action. This bulk action of the electrons is called a plasmon. This work begins by discussing the economics driving the need for reduced material use, and the pros and cons of taking this step. Next, the fundamental theory of light-matter interaction is briefly described followed by an introduction to the study of plasmonics. Following that we discuss a traditional method of silver nanoparticle formation and the initial experimental studies of their effects on the ability of thin-film silicon to absorb light. Then, Finite-Difference Time-Domain simulation software is used to simulate the effects of nanoparticle morphology and size on the scattering of light at the surface of the thin-film.

  1. Driving degradation within biodegradable polymers with embedded nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorga, Russell; Firestone, Gabriel; Fontecha, Daniela; Bochinski, Jason; Clarke, Laura

    The ability to controllably trigger breaking of chemical bonds enables a substance that has robust material properties during use but can be re-worked or deteriorated upon command. Photothermal heating creates intense local heat at isolated nanoparticle locations within a sample and can result in very different material responses than those achievable with conventional (uniform) heating. In this process, irradiation with visible light resonant with the nanoparticle's surface plasmon resonance results in dramatic local heating of the particles and the surrounding material. This work studies intentional thermal degradation of poly ethyl cyanoacrylate-starch composites doped with metal nanoparticles, and explores differences in degradation speed, efficiency, and resultant mechanical properties when heated via the photothermal effect. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation, Grant #: CMMI-1462966.

  2. Enhanced cellular uptake of size-separated lipophilic silicon nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Kusi-Appiah, Aubrey E.; Mastronardi, Melanie L.; Qian, Chenxi; Chen, Kenneth K.; Ghazanfari, Lida; Prommapan, Plengchart; Kübel, Christian; Ozin, Geoffrey A.; Lenhert, Steven

    2017-01-01

    Specific size, shape and surface chemistry influence the biological activity of nanoparticles. In the case of lipophilic nanoparticles, which are widely used in consumer products, there is evidence that particle size and formulation influences skin permeability and that lipophilic particles smaller than 6 nm can embed in lipid bilayers. Since most nanoparticle synthetic procedures result in mixtures of different particles, post-synthetic purification promises to provide insights into nanostructure-function relationships. Here we used size-selective precipitation to separate lipophilic allyl-benzyl-capped silicon nanoparticles into monodisperse fractions within the range of 1 nm to 5 nm. We measured liposomal encapsulation and cellular uptake of the monodisperse particles and found them to have generally low cytotoxicities in Hela cells. However, specific fractions showed reproducibly higher cytotoxicity than other fractions as well as the unseparated ensemble. Measurements indicate that the cytotoxicity mechanism involves oxidative stress and the differential cytotoxicity is due to enhanced cellular uptake by specific fractions. The results indicate that specific particles, with enhanced suitability for incorporation into lipophilic regions of liposomes and subsequent in vitro delivery to cells, are enriched in certain fractions. PMID:28272505

  3. Enhanced cellular uptake of size-separated lipophilic silicon nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusi-Appiah, Aubrey E.; Mastronardi, Melanie L.; Qian, Chenxi; Chen, Kenneth K.; Ghazanfari, Lida; Prommapan, Plengchart; Kübel, Christian; Ozin, Geoffrey A.; Lenhert, Steven

    2017-03-01

    Specific size, shape and surface chemistry influence the biological activity of nanoparticles. In the case of lipophilic nanoparticles, which are widely used in consumer products, there is evidence that particle size and formulation influences skin permeability and that lipophilic particles smaller than 6 nm can embed in lipid bilayers. Since most nanoparticle synthetic procedures result in mixtures of different particles, post-synthetic purification promises to provide insights into nanostructure-function relationships. Here we used size-selective precipitation to separate lipophilic allyl-benzyl-capped silicon nanoparticles into monodisperse fractions within the range of 1 nm to 5 nm. We measured liposomal encapsulation and cellular uptake of the monodisperse particles and found them to have generally low cytotoxicities in Hela cells. However, specific fractions showed reproducibly higher cytotoxicity than other fractions as well as the unseparated ensemble. Measurements indicate that the cytotoxicity mechanism involves oxidative stress and the differential cytotoxicity is due to enhanced cellular uptake by specific fractions. The results indicate that specific particles, with enhanced suitability for incorporation into lipophilic regions of liposomes and subsequent in vitro delivery to cells, are enriched in certain fractions.

  4. Liquid-phase plasma synthesis of silicon quantum dots embedded in carbon matrix for lithium battery anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Ying; Yu, Hang; Li, Haitao; Ming, Hai; Pan, Keming; Huang, Hui; Liu, Yang; Kang, Zhenhui

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Silicon quantum dots embedded in carbon matrix (SiQDs/C) were fabricated. • SiQDs/C exhibits excellent battery performance as anode materials with high specific capacity. • The good performance was attributed to the marriage of small sized SiQDs and carbon. - Abstract: Silicon quantum dots embedded in carbon matrix (SiQDs/C) nanocomposites were prepared by a novel liquid-phase plasma assisted synthetic process. The SiQDs/C nanocomposites were demonstrated to show high specific capacity, good cycling life and high coulmbic efficiency as anode materials for lithium-ion battery.

  5. Electromagnetic resonances of solar-selective absorbers with nanoparticle arrays embedded in a dielectric layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Atsushi; Kawamata, Tomoaki

    2016-11-01

    We numerically investigate a solar-selective absorber with tungsten core-shell nanoparticle arrays embedded in an SiO2 layer. The 3D full-wave finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations are performed to investigate the geometric effects of different types of solar-selective absorbers. Consequently, broadband light absorption was achieved with either a tungsten nanoparticle array or a tungsten core-shell nanoparticle array because of the strong electric field enhancement in the gap between the core nanoparticles. The solar performance of the proposed structure is shown for high-efficiency solar light absorption. This study enhances understanding of the light absorption mechanism of metallic nanoparticle/dielectric composite and facilitates the design of high-efficiency solar-selective absorbers.

  6. Optical bistability in plasmonic nanoparticles: Effect of size, shape and embedding medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daneshfar, Nader; Foroughi, Hamidreza

    2016-09-01

    We theoretically investigate the optical bistability, which one input signal allows two possible outputs, from single spherical/cylindrical nanoparticles and also nanoshells in the frame work of quasi-static formalism. It is shown that the bistability behavior greatly depends on several parameters such as the nanoparticle size, material and the surrounding dielectric environment. We demonstrated the width of the bistability region and also the bistable threshold depends on the geometrical parameters, and can be tuned by adjusting the size of nanoparticle, the shell thickness and the dielectric constant of the embedding medium. It is also shown that the optical bistable behavior depends strongly on the shape of plasmonic nanoparticles and nanoshells. However, these dependences of optical bistability of spherical/cylindrical nanoparticles and nanoshells on changing of their geometrical parameters can be used for realize optical switching and sensing purposes.

  7. Targeting of albumin-embedded paclitaxel nanoparticles to tumors

    PubMed Central

    Karmali, Priya Prakash; Kotamraju, Venkata Ramana; Kastantin, Mark; Black, Matthew; Missirlis, Dimitris; Tirrell, Matthew; Ruoslahti, Erkki

    2010-01-01

    We have used tumor-homing peptides to target abraxane, a clinically approved paclitaxel-albumin nanoparticle, to tumors in mice. The targeting was accomplished with two peptides, CREKA, and LyP-1 (CGQKRTRGC). Fluorescein (FAM)-labeled CREKA-abraxane, when injected intravenously into mice bearing MDA-MB-435 human cancer xenografts, accumulated in tumor blood vessels, forming aggregates that contained red blood cells and fibrin. FAM-LyP-1-abraxane co-localized with extravascular islands expressing its receptor, p32. Self-assembled mixed micelles carrying the homing peptide and the label on different subunits accumulated in the same areas of tumors as LyP-1-abraxane, showing that Lyp-1 can deliver intact nanoparticles into extravascular sites. Untargeted, FAM-abraxane was detected in the form of a faint meshwork in tumor interstitium. LyP-1-abraxane produced a statistically highly significant inhibition of tumor growth compared to untargeted abraxane. These results show that nanoparticles can be effectively targeted into extravascular tumor tissue and that targeting can enhance the activity of a therapeutic nanoparticle. PMID:18829396

  8. Synergistically Enhanced Performance of Ultrathin Nanostructured Silicon Solar Cells Embedded in Plasmonically Assisted, Multispectral Luminescent Waveguides.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Min; Dhar, Purnim; Chen, Huandong; Montenegro, Angelo; Liaw, Lauren; Kang, Dongseok; Gai, Boju; Benderskii, Alexander V; Yoon, Jongseung

    2017-04-12

    Ultrathin silicon solar cells fabricated by anisotropic wet chemical etching of single-crystalline wafer materials represent an attractive materials platform that could provide many advantages for realizing high-performance, low-cost photovoltaics. However, their intrinsically limited photovoltaic performance arising from insufficient absorption of low-energy photons demands careful design of light management to maximize the efficiency and preserve the cost-effectiveness of solar cells. Herein we present an integrated flexible solar module of ultrathin, nanostructured silicon solar cells capable of simultaneously exploiting spectral upconversion and downshifting in conjunction with multispectral luminescent waveguides and a nanostructured plasmonic reflector to compensate for their weak optical absorption and enhance their performance. The 8 μm-thick silicon solar cells incorporating a hexagonally periodic nanostructured surface relief are surface-embedded in layered multispectral luminescent media containing organic dyes and NaYF4:Yb(3+),Er(3+) nanocrystals as downshifting and upconverting luminophores, respectively, via printing-enabled deterministic materials assembly. The ultrathin nanostructured silicon microcells in the composite luminescent waveguide exhibit strongly augmented photocurrent (∼40.1 mA/cm(2)) and energy conversion efficiency (∼12.8%) than devices with only a single type of luminescent species, owing to the synergistic contributions from optical downshifting, plasmonically enhanced upconversion, and waveguided photon flux for optical concentration, where the short-circuit current density increased by ∼13.6 mA/cm(2) compared with microcells in a nonluminescent medium on a plain silver reflector under a confined illumination.

  9. Ultraviolet Plasmonic Aluminium Nanoparticles for Highly Efficient Light Incoupling on Silicon Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yinan; Cai, Boyuan; Jia, Baohua

    2016-01-01

    Plasmonic metal nanoparticles supporting localized surface plasmon resonances have attracted a great deal of interest in boosting the light absorption in solar cells. Among the various plasmonic materials, the aluminium nanoparticles recently have become a rising star due to their unique ultraviolet plasmonic resonances, low cost, earth-abundance and high compatibility with the complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) manufacturing process. Here, we report some key factors that determine the light incoupling of aluminium nanoparticles located on the front side of silicon solar cells. We first numerically study the scattering and absorption properties of the aluminium nanoparticles and the influence of the nanoparticle shape, size, surface coverage and the spacing layer on the light incoupling using the finite difference time domain method. Then, we experimentally integrate 100-nm aluminium nanoparticles on the front side of silicon solar cells with varying silicon nitride thicknesses. This study provides the fundamental insights for designing aluminium nanoparticle-based light trapping on solar cells. PMID:28335223

  10. Ultraviolet Plasmonic Aluminium Nanoparticles for Highly Efficient Light Incoupling on Silicon Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yinan; Cai, Boyuan; Jia, Baohua

    2016-05-24

    Plasmonic metal nanoparticles supporting localized surface plasmon resonances have attracted a great deal of interest in boosting the light absorption in solar cells. Among the various plasmonic materials, the aluminium nanoparticles recently have become a rising star due to their unique ultraviolet plasmonic resonances, low cost, earth-abundance and high compatibility with the complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) manufacturing process. Here, we report some key factors that determine the light incoupling of aluminium nanoparticles located on the front side of silicon solar cells. We first numerically study the scattering and absorption properties of the aluminium nanoparticles and the influence of the nanoparticle shape, size, surface coverage and the spacing layer on the light incoupling using the finite difference time domain method. Then, we experimentally integrate 100-nm aluminium nanoparticles on the front side of silicon solar cells with varying silicon nitride thicknesses. This study provides the fundamental insights for designing aluminium nanoparticle-based light trapping on solar cells.

  11. Hydrogen production using metal nanoparticle modified silicon thin film photoelectrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yae, Shinji; Onaka, Ayumi; Abe, Makoto; Fukumuro, Naoki; Ogawa, Shunsuke; Yoshida, Norimitsu; Nonomura, Shuichi; Nakato, Yoshihiro; Matsuda, Hitoshi

    2007-09-01

    Hydrogen production using water splitting by photoelectrochemical solar cells equipped with a TiO II photoelectrode has been attracting much attention. However, TiO II encounters serious difficulty in achieving hydrogen evolution. One solution to this difficulty is using a hydrogen-producing semiconductor, such as silicon, and an oxidation reaction other than oxygen evolution, such as oxidation of iodide ions into iodine (triiodide ion). In this study, microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H) thin films are used as photoelectrodes in the photodecomposition of HI for low-cost and efficient production of solar hydrogen. An n-μc-3C-SiC:H and an i-μc-Si:H layer are deposited on glassy carbon substrates using the hot-wire cat-CVD method. The μc-Si:H electrodes are modified with platinum nanoparticles through electroless displacement deposition. The platinum nanoparticles improve the electrode's stability and catalytic activity. The electrodes produce hydrogen gas and iodine via photoelectrochemical decomposition of HI with no external bias under simulated solar illumination. We also attempt solar water splitting using a multi-photon system equipped with the μc-Si:H thin film and TiO II photoelectrodes in series.

  12. Enhanced electron field emission from ZnO nanoparticles-embedded DLC films prepared by electrochemical deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peizeng; Li, Ruishan; Yang, Hua; Feng, Youcai; Xie, Erqing

    2012-06-01

    ZnO nanoparticles-embedded diamond-like amorphous (DLC) carbon films have been prepared by electrochemical deposition. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) results confirm that the embedded ZnO nanoparticles are in the wurtzite structure with diameters of around 4 nm. Based on Raman measurements and atomic force microscope (AFM) results, it has been found that ZnO nanoparticles embedding could enhance both graphitization and surface roughness of DLC matrix. Also, the field electron emission (FEE) properties of the ZnO nanoparticles-embedded DLC film were improved by both lowering the turn-on field and increasing the current density. The enhancement of the FEE properties of the ZnO-embedded DLC film has been analyzed in the context of microstructure and chemical composition.

  13. Bendable solid-state supercapacitors with Au nanoparticle-embedded graphene hydrogel films

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kyungwhan; Cho, Kyoungah; Yoon, Dae Sung; Kim, Sangsig

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we fabricate bendable solid-state supercapacitors with Au nanoparticle (NP)-embedded graphene hydrogel (GH) electrodes and investigate the influence of the Au NP embedment on the internal resistance and capacitive performance. Embedding the Au NPs into the GH electrodes results in a decrease of the internal resistance from 35 to 21 Ω, and a threefold reduction of the IR drop at a current density of 5 A/g when compared with GH electrodes without Au NPs. The Au NP-embedded GH supercapacitors (NP-GH SCs) exhibit excellent capacitive performances, with large specific capacitance (135 F/g) and high energy density (15.2 W·h/kg). Moreover, the NP-GH SCs exhibit comparable areal capacitance (168 mF/cm2) and operate under tensile/compressive bending. PMID:28074865

  14. Bendable solid-state supercapacitors with Au nanoparticle-embedded graphene hydrogel films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kyungwhan; Cho, Kyoungah; Yoon, Dae Sung; Kim, Sangsig

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we fabricate bendable solid-state supercapacitors with Au nanoparticle (NP)-embedded graphene hydrogel (GH) electrodes and investigate the influence of the Au NP embedment on the internal resistance and capacitive performance. Embedding the Au NPs into the GH electrodes results in a decrease of the internal resistance from 35 to 21 Ω, and a threefold reduction of the IR drop at a current density of 5 A/g when compared with GH electrodes without Au NPs. The Au NP-embedded GH supercapacitors (NP-GH SCs) exhibit excellent capacitive performances, with large specific capacitance (135 F/g) and high energy density (15.2 W·h/kg). Moreover, the NP-GH SCs exhibit comparable areal capacitance (168 mF/cm2) and operate under tensile/compressive bending.

  15. Photophysical properties of blue – emitting silicon nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Portolés, Manuel J. Llansola; Nieto, Felipe Rodriguez; Soria, Delia B.; Amalvy, Javier I.; Peruzzo, Pablo J.; Mártire, Daniel O.; Kotler, Mónica; Holub, Oliver; Gonzalez, Mónica C.

    2012-01-01

    Silicon nanoparticles with strong blue photoluminescence were synthesized by electrochemical etching of silicon wafers and ultrasonically removed under N2 atmosphere in organic solvents to produce colloids. Thermal treatment leads to the formation of colloidal Si particles of 3 ± 1 nm diameter, which upon excitation with 340 – 380 nm light exhibited room temperature luminescence in the range from 400 to 500 nm. The emission and the one- and two-photon excitation spectra of the particles are not sensitive to surface functionalization with methyl 2-methylprop-2-enoate. However, the derivatized particles show higher emission quantum yields in air-saturated suspensions (44%) than the underivatized particles (27%), as well as higher stability of its dispersions. FTIR and XPS spectra indicate a significant surface oxidation of the particles. The Si:O:C ratio at the surface of the derivatized particles estimated from XPS is Si3O6(C5O2Hy)1, with y = 7 - 8. Vibronic spacing is observed in both the emission and excitation spectra. The information obtained from one-photon excitation experiments (emission and excitation spectra, photoluminescence quantum yields, luminescence decay lifetimes and anisotropy correlation lifetimes), as well as from two-photon excitation fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (brightness and diffusion coefficients) and TEM indicate that the blue-emitting particles are monodisperse and ball-shaped. Particle size clearly determines the emission and excitation spectral region, as expected from quantum confinement, but the presence and extent of Si-O species on the silicon networks seem crucial for determining the spectrum features and intensity of emission. The nanoparticles could hold great potential as quantum dots for applications as luminescence sensors in biology and environmental science. PMID:22866180

  16. Optoelectronic device with nanoparticle embedded hole injection/transport layer

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Qingwu [Chelmsford, MA; Li, Wenguang [Andover, MA; Jiang, Hua [Methuen, MA

    2012-01-03

    An optoelectronic device is disclosed that can function as an emitter of optical radiation, such as a light-emitting diode (LED), or as a photovoltaic (PV) device that can be used to convert optical radiation into electrical current, such as a photovoltaic solar cell. The optoelectronic device comprises an anode, a hole injection/transport layer, an active layer, and a cathode, where the hole injection/transport layer includes transparent conductive nanoparticles in a hole transport material.

  17. Development of drug delivery systems based on nanostructured porous silicon loaded with the anti-tumoral drug emodin adsorbed on silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, Margarita; Recio, Gonzalo; Sevilla, Paz; Torres-Costa, Vicente; García-Ramos, José V.; Domingo, Concepción; Martín-Palma, Raúl J. J.

    2012-10-01

    A study of the fluorescence and Raman spectra of a new and complex drug delivery system formed by emodin adsorbed on silver nanoparticles embedded into a matrix of porous silicon is here reported. Several experimental methods of inclusion of the drug-silver set inside the pores, without previous functionalization of porous silicon, have been tested in order to optimize the conditions for the fluorescence detection of emodin. In this sense, we have also added bovine serum albumin to the system, finding that the presence of the protein enhances the fluores-cence signal from emodin.

  18. Silicon nanoparticle-functionalized fiberglass pads for sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Mantey, Kevin; Nayfeh, Munir H.; Al-Hreish, Bahjat; Boparai, Jack; Kumar, Ashok; Stephenson, Larry D.; Nelson, Andrew J.; Alrokayan, Salman A.; Abu-Salah, Khalid M.

    2011-03-15

    We used wet treatment to immobilize luminescent silicon nanoparticles on industrial glass fibers to impart optical and chemical functions to the fiber. Carpets or pads consisting of thousands of fibers are processed in parallel, enhancing the sensitivity of detection and the sampled volume. Treated pads exhibit strong luminescence, characteristic of the luminescence of the particles; showing no shift, broadening, or reduction of quantum efficiency. We demonstrate that drawing material by the pad due to physical adsorption can be reversed. We also demonstrate that allylamine can be covalently attached by photoinduced irradiation reactions, which results in imprinting the amine emission spectrum, providing spectral recognition. The imprint accompanied with a blue-shifting of the luminescence spectrum of the probe, allowing examination of the effect of termination on the nanoparticle structure. The shift is found to be consistent with an increase in the bandgap of the Si nanoparticle and is consistent with Quantum Monte Carlo calculations. In addition to sampling, the nano probe pad has the potential to enable a variety of biomedical applications through subsequent attachment.

  19. Matrix and interaction effects on the magnetic properties of Co nanoparticles embedded in gold and vanadium.

    PubMed

    Ruano, M; Díaz, M; Martínez, L; Navarro, E; Román, E; García-Hernandez, M; Espinosa, A; Ballesteros, C; Fermento, R; Huttel, Y

    2013-01-07

    The study of the magnetic properties of Co nanoparticles (with an average diameter of 10.3 nm) grown using a gas-phase aggregation source and embedded in Au and V matrices is presented. We investigate how the matrix, the number of embedded nanoparticles (counted by coverage percentage), the interparticle interactions and the complex nanoparticles/matrix interface structure define the magnetic properties of the studied systems. A threshold coverage of 3.5% of a monolayer was found in both studied systems: below this coverage, nanoparticles behave as an assembly of independent single-domain magnetic entities with uniaxial anisotropy. Above the threshold it is found that the magnetic behavior of the systems is more matrix dependent. While magnetic relaxation and Henkel plots measurements stress the importance of the dipolar interactions and the formation of coherent clusters in the case of the Au matrix, the magnetic behavior of cobalt clusters embedded in the vanadium matrix is explained through the formation of a spin glass-like state at the V-Co interface that screens the magnetic interactions between NPs.

  20. Three-dimensional chemical imaging of embedded nanoparticles using atom probe tomography.

    PubMed

    Kuchibhatla, Satyanarayana V N T; Shutthanandan, V; Prosa, T J; Adusumilli, P; Arey, B; Buxbaum, A; Wang, Y C; Tessner, T; Ulfig, R; Wang, C M; Thevuthasan, S

    2012-06-01

    Analysis of nanoparticles is often challenging especially when they are embedded in a matrix. Hence, we have used laser-assisted atom probe tomography (APT) to analyze the Au nanoclusters synthesized in situ using ion-beam implantation in a single crystal MgO matrix. APT analysis along with scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy (STEM-EDX) indicated that the nanoparticles have an average size ~8-12 nm. While it is difficult to analyze the composition of individual nanoparticles using STEM, APT analysis can give three-dimensional compositions of the same. It was shown that the maximum Au concentration in the nanoparticles increases with increasing particle size, with a maximum Au concentration of up to 50%.

  1. Nanofibrillated Cellulose and Copper Nanoparticles Embedded in Polyvinyl Alcohol Films for Antimicrobial Applications

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Tuhua; Oporto, Gloria S.; Jaczynski, Jacek; Jiang, Changle

    2015-01-01

    Our long-term goal is to develop a hybrid cellulose-copper nanoparticle material as a functional nanofiller to be incorporated in thermoplastic resins for efficiently improving their antimicrobial properties. In this study, copper nanoparticles were first synthesized through chemical reduction of cupric ions on TEMPO nanofibrillated cellulose (TNFC) template using borohydride as a copper reducing agent. The resulting hybrid material was embedded into a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix using a solvent casting method. The morphology of TNFC-copper nanoparticles was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM); spherical copper nanoparticles with average size of 9.2 ± 2.0 nm were determined. Thermogravimetric analysis and antimicrobial performance of the films were evaluated. Slight variations in thermal properties between the nanocomposite films and PVA resin were observed. Antimicrobial analysis demonstrated that one-week exposure of nonpathogenic Escherichia coli DH5α to the nanocomposite films results in up to 5-log microbial reduction. PMID:26137482

  2. Shape manipulation of ion irradiated Ag nanoparticles embedded in lithium niobate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Steffen; Rensberg, Jura; Johannes, Andreas; Thomae, Rainer; Smit, Frederick; Neveling, Retief; Moodley, Mathew; Bierschenk, Thomas; Rodriguez, Matias; Afra, Boshra; Hasan, Shakeeb Bin; Rockstuhl, Carsten; Ridgway, Mark; Bharuth-Ram, Krish; Ronning, Carsten

    2016-04-01

    Spherical silver nanoparticles were prepared by means of ion beam synthesis in lithium niobate. The embedded nanoparticles were then irradiated with energetic 84Kr and 197Au ions, resulting in different electronic energy losses between 8.1 and 27.5 keV nm-1 in the top layer of the samples. Due to the high electronic energy losses of the irradiating ions, molten ion tracks are formed inside the lithium niobate in which the elongated Ag nanoparticles are formed. This process is strongly dependent on the initial particle size and leads to a broad aspect ratio distribution. Extinction spectra of the samples feature the extinction maximum with shoulders on either side. While the maximum is caused by numerous remaining spherical nanoparticles, the shoulders can be attributed to elongated particles. The latter could be verified by COMSOL simulations. The extinction spectra are thus a superposition of the spectra of all individual particles.

  3. Subsurface Synthesis and Characterization of Ag Nanoparticles Embedded in MgO

    SciTech Connect

    Vilayur Ganapathy, Subramanian; Devaraj, Arun; Colby, Robert J.; Pandey, Archana; Varga, Tamas; Shutthanandan, V.; Manandhar, Sandeep; El-Khoury, Patrick Z.; Kayani, Asghar N.; Hess, Wayne P.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

    2013-03-08

    Metal nanoparticles exhibit localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) which is very sensitive to the size and shape of the nanoparticle and the dielectric medium surrounding it. LSPR causes field enhancement near the surface of the nanoparticle making them interesting candidates for plasmonic applications. In particular, partially exposed metallic nanoparticles distributed in a dielectric matrix form hotspots which are prime locations for LSPR spectroscopy and sensing. This study involves synthesizing partially buried Ag nanoparticles in MgO and investigating the characteristics of this material system. Ag nanoparticles of different shapes and size distributions were synthesized below the surface of MgO by implanting 200 keV Ag+ ions followed by annealing at 10000C for 10 and 30 hours. A detailed optical and structural characterization was carried out to understand the evolution of Ag nanoparticle microstructure and size distribution inside the MgO matrix. Micro x-ray diffraction (MicroXRD) was employed to investigate the structural properties and estimate the crystallite size. The nanoparticles evolved from a spherical to faceted morphology with annealing time, assuming an octahedral shape truncated at the (001) planes as seen from aberration corrected transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. The nanoparticles embedded in MgO were shown to be pure metallic Ag using atom probe tomography (APT). The nanoparticles were partially exposed to the surface employing plasma etch techniques to remove the overlaying MgO. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were employed to study the surface morphology and obtain a height distribution for the partially exposed nanoparticles.

  4. Magnetic properties of embedded ferromagnetic contacts to silicon for spin injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimopoulos, T.; Schwarz, D.; Uhrmann, T.; Kirk, D.; Kohn, A.; Weyers, S.; Paschen, U.; Brückl, H.

    2009-04-01

    We investigate the magnetic properties of arrays of sputter-deposited, Co70Fe30/Ni80Fe20 and Co40Fe40B20 contacts to silicon, embedded into 42 nm thick SiO2 dielectric. The contacts have rectangular shapes with blunt edges, sub-micrometre width and different aspect ratios. They are deposited either directly on silicon, forming Schottky junctions or on top of an MgO tunnel barriers with varying thickness. The MgO and CoFeB electrode are amorphous while the CoFe/NiFe bilayer is polycrystalline. The magnetization switching characteristics are studied by means of the magneto-optical Kerr effect and magnetic force microscopy. The switching field and its distribution within the array are found to depend on the thickness of the MgO and the ferromagnet (FM). Switching is mostly determined by the contact's width by means of end domains formed at the blunt edges. An influence of the length for wider contacts is also demonstrated. Despite a small angle magnetization misalignment along the contact, the remanence is high in all cases. The switching characteristics are shown to deteriorate after high temperature annealing, especially for the amorphous CoFeB FM due to the onset of crystallization.

  5. Electronic properties of embedded graphene: doped amorphous silicon/CVD graphene heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arezki, Hakim; Boutchich, Mohamed; Alamarguy, David; Madouri, Ali; Alvarez, José; Cabarrocas, Pere Roca i.; Kleider, Jean-Paul; Yao, Fei; Lee, Young Hee

    2016-10-01

    Large-area graphene film is of great interest for a wide spectrum of electronic applications, such as field effect devices, displays, and solar cells, among many others. Here, we fabricated heterostructures composed of graphene (Gr) grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on copper substrate and transferred to SiO2/Si substrates, capped by n- or p-type doped amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Using Raman scattering we show that despite the mechanical strain induced by the a-Si:H deposition, the structural integrity of the graphene is preserved. Moreover, Hall effect measurements directly on the embedded graphene show that the electronic properties of CVD graphene can be modulated according to the doping type of the a-Si:H as well as its phase i.e. amorphous or nanocrystalline. The sheet resistance varies from 360 Ω sq-1 to 1260 Ω sq-1 for the (p)-a-Si:H/Gr (n)-a-Si:H/Gr, respectively. We observed a temperature independent hole mobility of up to 1400 cm2 V-1 s-1 indicating that charge impurity is the principal mechanism limiting the transport in this heterostructure. We have demonstrated that embedding CVD graphene under a-Si:H is a viable route for large scale graphene based solar cells or display applications.

  6. Electronic properties of embedded graphene: doped amorphous silicon/CVD graphene heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Arezki, Hakim; Boutchich, Mohamed; Alamarguy, David; Madouri, Ali; Alvarez, José; Cabarrocas, Pere Roca I; Kleider, Jean-Paul; Yao, Fei; Hee Lee, Young

    2016-10-12

    Large-area graphene film is of great interest for a wide spectrum of electronic applications, such as field effect devices, displays, and solar cells, among many others. Here, we fabricated heterostructures composed of graphene (Gr) grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on copper substrate and transferred to SiO2/Si substrates, capped by n‑ or p-type doped amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Using Raman scattering we show that despite the mechanical strain induced by the a-Si:H deposition, the structural integrity of the graphene is preserved. Moreover, Hall effect measurements directly on the embedded graphene show that the electronic properties of CVD graphene can be modulated according to the doping type of the a-Si:H as well as its phase i.e. amorphous or nanocrystalline. The sheet resistance varies from 360 Ω sq(-1) to 1260 Ω sq(-1) for the (p)-a-Si:H/Gr (n)-a-Si:H/Gr, respectively. We observed a temperature independent hole mobility of up to 1400 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) indicating that charge impurity is the principal mechanism limiting the transport in this heterostructure. We have demonstrated that embedding CVD graphene under a-Si:H is a viable route for large scale graphene based solar cells or display applications.

  7. Synthesis, characterization and functionalization of silicon nanoparticle based hybrid nanomaterials for photovoltaic and biological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zejing

    Silicon nanoparticles are attractive candidates for biological, photovoltaic and energy storage applications due to their size dependent optoelectronic properties. These include tunable light emission, high brightness, and stability against photo-bleaching relative to organic dyes (see Chapter 1). The preparation and characterization of silicon nanoparticle based hybrid nanomaterials and their relevance to photovoltaic and biological applications are described. The surface-passivated silicon nanoparticles were produced in one step from the reactive high-energy ball milling (RHEBM) of silicon wafers with various organic ligands. The surface structure and optical properties of the passivated silicon nanoparticles were systematically characterized. Fast approaches for purifying and at the same time size separating the silicon nanoparticles using a gravity GPC column were developed. The hydrodynamic diameter and size distribution of these size-separated silicon nanoparticles were determined using GPC and Diffusion Ordered NMR Spectroscopy (DOSY) as fast, reliable alternative approaches to TEM. Water soluble silicon nanoparticles were synthesized by grafting PEG polymers onto functionalized silicon nanoparticles with distal alkyne or azide moieties. The surface-functionalized silicon nanoparticles were produced from the reactive high-energy ball milling (RHEBM) of silicon wafers with a mixture of either 5-chloro-1-pentyne in 1-pentyne or 1,7 octadiyne in 1-hexyne to afford air and water stable chloroalkyl or alkynyl terminated nanoparticles, respectively. Nanoparticles with the ω-chloroalkyl substituents were easily converted to ω-azidoalkyl groups through the reaction of the silicon nanoparticles with sodium azide in DMF. The azido terminated nanoparticles were then grafted with monoalkynyl-PEG polymers using a copper catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction to afford core-shell silicon nanoparticles with a covalently attached PEG shell. Covalently

  8. Highly colloidally stable hyperbranched polyglycerol grafted red fluorescent silicon nanoparticle as bioimaging probe.

    PubMed

    Das, Pradip; Jana, Nikhil R

    2014-03-26

    Here we report a surface modification approach for fluorescent silicon nanoparticle that transforms hydrophobic nanoparticle into water-soluble nanoparticle of high colloidal stability. The approach involves ring-opening polymerization of glycidol at the hydroxyl-terminated nanoparticle surface that results in a hyperbranched polyglycerol grafted silicon nanoparticle (Si-HPG). The resultant Si-HPG has 25 nm hydrodynamic diameter, low surface charge, and broad emission in the range of 450-700 nm with a fluorescence quantum yield of 6-9%. The Si-HPG has been transformed into cyclic RGD peptide functionalized nanoprobe using the conventional bioconjugation chemistry and used for specific targeting to αvβ3 integrin overexpressed cervical cancer cells and glioblastoma cells. Result shows that a silicon nanoparticle-based red fluorescent nanoprobe can be developed for in vitro/in vivo bioimaging applications.

  9. [Research progress about the relationship between nanoparticles silicon dioxide and lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Dai, Chun; Huang, Yunchao; Zhou, Yongchun

    2014-10-20

    Nano-silicon dioxide widely distributed in plastic, rubber, ceramics, paint, adhesives, and many other fields, and it is the product of coal combustion. A growing evidence shows that nano-silicon dioxide has certain correlation with respiratory system disease. In this paper, we synthesized existing researches of domestic and abroad, summarized the lung toxicity of nanoparticles. This article are reviewed from the physical and chemical properties of nanoparticles silicon dioxide, exposure conditions and environment, and the pathogenic mechanism of nano-silicon dioxide.

  10. Diffuse scattering from hemispherical nanoparticles at the air-silicon interface.

    PubMed

    Centeno, Anthony; Ahmed, Badar; Reehal, Haricharan; Xie, Fang

    2013-10-18

    There has been much recent interest in the application of plasmonics to improve the efficiency of silicon solar cells. In this paper we use finite difference time domain calculations to investigate the placement of hemispherical gold nanoparticles on the rear surface of a silicon solar cell. The results indicate that nanoparticles protruding into the silicon, rather than into air, have a larger scattering efficiency and diffuse scattering into the semiconductor. This finding could lead to improved light trapping within a thin silicon solar cell device.

  11. Diffuse scattering from hemispherical nanoparticles at the air-silicon interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Centeno, Anthony; Ahmed, Badar; Reehal, Haricharan; Xie, Fang

    2013-10-01

    There has been much recent interest in the application of plasmonics to improve the efficiency of silicon solar cells. In this paper we use finite difference time domain calculations to investigate the placement of hemispherical gold nanoparticles on the rear surface of a silicon solar cell. The results indicate that nanoparticles protruding into the silicon, rather than into air, have a larger scattering efficiency and diffuse scattering into the semiconductor. This finding could lead to improved light trapping within a thin silicon solar cell device.

  12. Green synthetic, multifunctional hybrid micelles with shell embedded magnetic nanoparticles for theranostic applications.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongyong; Ma, Junping; Zhu, Haiyan; Gao, Xiaolong; Dong, Haiqing; Shi, Donglu

    2013-08-14

    The objective of this study is to design and develop a green-synthetic, multifunctional hybrid micelles with shell embedded magnetic nanoparticles for theranostic applications. The hybrid micelles were engineered based on complex micelles self-assembled from amphiphilic block copolymers Pluronic F127 and peptide-amphiphile (PA) pal-AAAAHHHD. The reason to choose PA is due to its amphiphilic character and the coordination capability for Fe(3+) and Fe(2+). The PA incorporation allows the in situ growth of the magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles onto the complex micelles, to yield the nanostructures with shell embedded magnetic nanoparticles at an ambient condition without any organic solvents. The anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) can be efficiently loaded into the hybrid micelles. Interestingly, the magnetic nanoparticles anchored on the shell were found to significantly retard the DOX release behavior of the drug loaded hybrid micelles. It was proposed that a cross-linking effect of the shell by magnetic nanoparticles is a key to underlie the above intriguing phenomenon, which could enhance the stability and control the drug diffusion of the hybrid micelles. Importantly, in vitro and in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed the potential of these hybrid micelles to be served as a T2-weighted MR imaging contrast enhancer for clinical diagnosis.

  13. Metal work-function-dependent barrier height of Ni contacts with metal-embedded nanoparticles to 4H-SiC

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Metal, typically gold [Au], nanoparticles [NPs] embedded in a capping metal contact layer onto silicon carbide [SiC] are considered to have practical applications in changing the barrier height of the original contacts. Here, we demonstrate the use of silver [Ag] NPs to effectively lower the barrier height of the electrical contacts to 4H-SiC. It has been shown that the barrier height of the fabricated SiC diode structures (Ni with embedded Ag-NPs) has significantly reduced by 0.11 eV and 0.18 eV with respect to the samples with Au-NPs and the reference samples, respectively. The experimental results have also been compared with both an analytic model based on Tung's theory and physics-based two-dimensional numerical simulations. PMID:22244310

  14. Metal work-function-dependent barrier height of Ni contacts with metal-embedded nanoparticles to 4H-SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Min-Seok; Ahn, Jung-Joon; Moon, Kyoung-Sook; Koo, Sang-Mo

    2012-01-01

    Metal, typically gold [Au], nanoparticles [NPs] embedded in a capping metal contact layer onto silicon carbide [SiC] are considered to have practical applications in changing the barrier height of the original contacts. Here, we demonstrate the use of silver [Ag] NPs to effectively lower the barrier height of the electrical contacts to 4H-SiC. It has been shown that the barrier height of the fabricated SiC diode structures (Ni with embedded Ag-NPs) has significantly reduced by 0.11 eV and 0.18 eV with respect to the samples with Au-NPs and the reference samples, respectively. The experimental results have also been compared with both an analytic model based on Tung's theory and physics-based two-dimensional numerical simulations.

  15. Magnetic properties of nanocomposites formed by magnetic nanoparticles embedded in a non-magnetic matrix: a simulation approach.

    PubMed

    Serna, J Ceballos; Restrepo-Parra, E; Rojas, J C Riaño

    2012-06-01

    In this work, simulations of magnetic properties of nanocomposites formed by magnetic nanoparticles embedded in a non magnetic matrix are presented. These simulations were carried by means of the Monte Carlo Method and Heisenberg model. Properties as magnetization and Hysteresis loops were obtained varying different parameters as the nanoparticle size, distance between nanoparticles and temperature. The model employed includes interaction between ions belonging to each nanoparticle and also the interaction between nanoparticles. Results show that the magnetization and the coercive force decrease as a function of the nanoparticles distance.

  16. Evaluation of optical and electronic properties of silicon nano-agglomerates embedded in SRO: applying density functional theory

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In systems in atomic scale and nanoscale such as clusters or agglomerates constituted by particles from a few to less than 100 atoms, quantum confinement effects are very important. Their optical and electronic properties are often dependent on the size of the systems and the way in which the atoms in these clusters are bonded. Generally, these nanostructures display optical and electronic properties significantly different to those found in corresponding bulk materials. Silicon agglomerates embedded in silicon rich oxide (SRO) films have optical properties, which have been reported to be directly dependent on silicon nanocrystal size. Furthermore, the room temperature photoluminescence (PL) of SRO has repeatedly generated a huge interest due to its possible applications in optoelectronic devices. However, a plausible emission mechanism has not been widely accepted in the scientific community. In this work, we present a short review about the experimental results on silicon nanoclusters in SRO considering different techniques of growth. We focus mainly on their size, Raman spectra, and photoluminescence spectra. With this as background, we employed the density functional theory with a functional B3LYP and a basis set 6-31G* to calculate the optical and electronic properties of clusters of silicon (constituted by 15 to 20 silicon atoms). With the theoretical calculation of the structural and optical properties of silicon clusters, it is possible to evaluate the contribution of silicon agglomerates in the luminescent emission mechanism, experimentally found in thin SRO films. PMID:25276105

  17. Evaluation of optical and electronic properties of silicon nano-agglomerates embedded in SRO: applying density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Torres, Néstor D; la Luz, David Hernández-de; Flores-Gracia, José Francisco J; Luna-López, José A; Martínez-Juárez, Javier; Vázquez-Valerdi, Diana E

    2014-01-01

    In systems in atomic scale and nanoscale such as clusters or agglomerates constituted by particles from a few to less than 100 atoms, quantum confinement effects are very important. Their optical and electronic properties are often dependent on the size of the systems and the way in which the atoms in these clusters are bonded. Generally, these nanostructures display optical and electronic properties significantly different to those found in corresponding bulk materials. Silicon agglomerates embedded in silicon rich oxide (SRO) films have optical properties, which have been reported to be directly dependent on silicon nanocrystal size. Furthermore, the room temperature photoluminescence (PL) of SRO has repeatedly generated a huge interest due to its possible applications in optoelectronic devices. However, a plausible emission mechanism has not been widely accepted in the scientific community. In this work, we present a short review about the experimental results on silicon nanoclusters in SRO considering different techniques of growth. We focus mainly on their size, Raman spectra, and photoluminescence spectra. With this as background, we employed the density functional theory with a functional B3LYP and a basis set 6-31G* to calculate the optical and electronic properties of clusters of silicon (constituted by 15 to 20 silicon atoms). With the theoretical calculation of the structural and optical properties of silicon clusters, it is possible to evaluate the contribution of silicon agglomerates in the luminescent emission mechanism, experimentally found in thin SRO films.

  18. Size effects in the magnetic anisotropy of embedded cobalt nanoparticles: from shape to surface

    PubMed Central

    Oyarzún, Simón; Tamion, Alexandre; Tournus, Florent; Dupuis, Véronique; Hillenkamp, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Strong size-dependent variations of the magnetic anisotropy of embedded cobalt clusters are evidenced quantitatively by combining magnetic experiments and advanced data treatment. The obtained values are discussed in the frame of two theoretical models that demonstrate the decisive role of the shape in larger nanoparticles and the predominant role of the surface anisotropy in clusters below 3 nm diameter. PMID:26439626

  19. Magnetic properties of nanocomposites based on opal matrices with embedded ferrite-spinel nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinkevich, A. B.; Korolev, A. V.; Samoylovich, M. I.; Klescheva, S. M.; Perov, D. V.

    2016-02-01

    Magnetic properties of nanocomposites based on opal matrices with ferrite-spinel nanoparticles embedded have been investigated in temperature range from 2 to 300 K. The magnetization curves and hysteresis loops as well as the temperature dependence of magnetic moment and the temperature and frequency dependences of AC susceptibility have been measured. The results of magnetic measurements are compared to X-ray analysis and electron microscopy investigations.

  20. Fluorescent cadmium telluride quantum dots embedded chitosan nanoparticles: a stable, biocompatible preparation for bio-imaging.

    PubMed

    Ghormade, Vandana; Gholap, Haribhau; Kale, Sonia; Kulkarni, Vaishnavi; Bhat, Suresh; Paknikar, Kishore

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescent cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe QDs) are an optically attractive option for bioimaging, but are known to display high cytotoxicity. Nanoparticles synthesized from chitosan, a natural biopolymer of β 1-4 linked glucosamine, display good biocompatibility and cellular uptake. A facile, green synthetic strategy has been developed to embed green fluorescent cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe QDs) in biocompatible CNPs to obtain a safer preparation than 'as is' QDs. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy showed the crystal lattice corresponding to CdTe QDs embedded in CNPs while thermogravimetry confirmed their polymeric composition. Electrostatic interactions between thiol-capped QDs (4 nm, -57 mV) and CNPs (~300 nm, +38 mV) generated CdTe QDs-embedded CNPs that were stable up to three months. Further, viability of NIH3T3 mouse fibroblast cells in vitro increased in presence of QDs-embedded CNPs as compared to bare QDs. At the highest concentration (10 μg/ml), the former shows 34 and 39% increase in viability at 24 and 48 h, respectively, as compared to the latter. This shows that chitosan nanoparticles do not release the QDs up to 48 h and do not cause extended toxicity. Furthermore, hydrolytic enzymes such as lysozyme and chitinase did not degrade chitosan nanoparticles. Moreover, QDs-embedded CNPs show enhanced internalization in NIH3T3 cells as compared to bare QDs. This method offers ease of synthesis and handling of stable, luminescent, biocompatible CdTe QDs-embedded CNPs with a favorable toxicity profile and better cellular uptake with potential for bioimaging and targeted detection of cellular components.

  1. Cavity cooling of free silicon nanoparticles in high vacuum.

    PubMed

    Asenbaum, Peter; Kuhn, Stefan; Nimmrichter, Stefan; Sezer, Ugur; Arndt, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Laser cooling has given a boost to atomic physics throughout the last 30 years, as it allows one to prepare atoms in motional states, which can only be described by quantum mechanics. Most methods rely, however, on a near-resonant and cyclic coupling between laser light and well-defined internal states, which has remained a challenge for mesoscopic particles. An external cavity may compensate for the lack of internal cycling transitions in dielectric objects and it may provide assistance in the cooling of their centre-of-mass state. Here we demonstrate cavity cooling of the transverse kinetic energy of silicon nanoparticles freely propagating in high vacuum (<10(-8) mbar). We create and launch them with longitudinal velocities down to v≤1 m s(-1) using laser-induced ablation of a pristine silicon wafer. Their interaction with the light of a high-finesse infrared cavity reduces their transverse kinetic energy by up to a factor of 30.

  2. Cavity cooling of free silicon nanoparticles in high vacuum

    PubMed Central

    Asenbaum, Peter; Kuhn, Stefan; Nimmrichter, Stefan; Sezer, Ugur; Arndt, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Laser cooling has given a boost to atomic physics throughout the last 30 years, as it allows one to prepare atoms in motional states, which can only be described by quantum mechanics. Most methods rely, however, on a near-resonant and cyclic coupling between laser light and well-defined internal states, which has remained a challenge for mesoscopic particles. An external cavity may compensate for the lack of internal cycling transitions in dielectric objects and it may provide assistance in the cooling of their centre-of-mass state. Here we demonstrate cavity cooling of the transverse kinetic energy of silicon nanoparticles freely propagating in high vacuum (<10−8 mbar). We create and launch them with longitudinal velocities down to v≤1 m s−1 using laser-induced ablation of a pristine silicon wafer. Their interaction with the light of a high-finesse infrared cavity reduces their transverse kinetic energy by up to a factor of 30. PMID:24193438

  3. Magnetic properties of Ni nanoparticles embedded in silica matrix (KIT-6) synthesized via novel chemical route

    SciTech Connect

    Dalavi, Shankar B.; Panda, Rabi N.; Raja, M. Manivel

    2015-06-24

    Thermally stable Ni nanoparticles have been embedded in mesoporous silica matrix (KIT-6) via novel chemical reduction method by using superhydride as reducing agent. X-ray diffraction (XRD) study confirms that pure and embedded Ni nanoparticles crystallize in face centered cubic (fcc) structure. Crystallite sizes of pure Ni, 4 wt% and 8 wt% Ni in silica were estimated to be 6.0 nm, 10.4 nm and 10.5 nm, respectively. Morphology and dispersion of Ni in silica matrix were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Magnetic study shows enhancement of magnetic moments of Ni nanoparticles embedded in silica matrix compared with that of pure Ni. The result has been interpreted on the basis of size reduction and magnetic exchange effects. Saturation magnetization values for pure Ni, 4 wt% and 8 wt% Ni in silica were found to be 15.77 emu/g, 5.08 emu/g and 2.00 emu/g whereas coercivity values were 33.72 Oe, 92.47 Oe and 64.70 Oe, respectively. We anticipate that the observed magnetic properties may find application as soft magnetic materials.

  4. Magnetic properties of Ni nanoparticles embedded in silica matrix (KIT-6) synthesized via novel chemical route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalavi, Shankar B.; Raja, M. Manivel; Panda, Rabi. N.

    2015-06-01

    Thermally stable Ni nanoparticles have been embedded in mesoporous silica matrix (KIT-6) via novel chemical reduction method by using superhydride as reducing agent. X-ray diffraction (XRD) study confirms that pure and embedded Ni nanoparticles crystallize in face centered cubic (fcc) structure. Crystallite sizes of pure Ni, 4 wt% and 8 wt% Ni in silica were estimated to be 6.0 nm, 10.4 nm and 10.5 nm, respectively. Morphology and dispersion of Ni in silica matrix were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Magnetic study shows enhancement of magnetic moments of Ni nanoparticles embedded in silica matrix compared with that of pure Ni. The result has been interpreted on the basis of size reduction and magnetic exchange effects. Saturation magnetization values for pure Ni, 4 wt% and 8 wt% Ni in silica were found to be 15.77 emu/g, 5.08 emu/g and 2.00 emu/g whereas coercivity values were 33.72 Oe, 92.47 Oe and 64.70 Oe, respectively. We anticipate that the observed magnetic properties may find application as soft magnetic materials.

  5. Enhanced antioxidant activity of gold nanoparticle embedded 3,6-dihydroxyflavone: a combinational study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medhe, Sharad; Bansal, Prachi; Srivastava, Man Mohan

    2012-12-01

    The antioxidative effect of selected dietary compounds (3,6-dihydroxyflavone, lutein and selenium methyl selenocysteine) was determined in single and combination using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl), OH (hydroxyl), H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide) and NO (nitric oxide) radical scavenging assays. Radical scavenging effect of the dietary phytochemicals individually are found to be in the order: ascorbic acid (standard) > lutein > 3,6-dihydroxyflavone > selenium methyl selenocysteine, at concentration 100 μg/ml, confirmed by all the four bioassays (p < 0.05). Among the various combinations studied, the triplet combination of 3,6-dihydroxyflavone, lutein and selenium methyl selenocysteine (1:1:1), exhibited enhancement in the target activity at same concentration level. Synthesized gold nanoparticle embedded 3,6-dihydroxyflavone further enhanced the target antioxidant activity. The combinational study including gold nanoparticle embedded 3,6-dihydroxyflavone with other native dietary nutrients showed remarkable increase in antioxidant activity at the same concentration level. The present in vitro study on combinational and nanotech enforcement of dietary phytochemicals shows the utility in the architecture of nanoparticle embedded phytoproducts having a wide range of applications in medical science.

  6. Broadband and wide-angle light harvesting by ultra-thin silicon solar cells with partially embedded dielectric spheres.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhenhai; Shang, Aixue; Qin, Linling; Zhan, Yaohui; Zhang, Cheng; Gao, Pingqi; Ye, Jichun; Li, Xiaofeng

    2016-04-01

    We propose a design of crystalline silicon thin-film solar cells (c-Si TFSCs, 2 μm-thick) configured with partially embedded dielectric spheres on the light-injecting side. The intrinsic light trapping and photoconversion are simulated by the complete optoelectronic simulation. It shows that the embedding depth of the spheres provides an effective way to modulate and significantly enhance the optical absorption. Compared to the conventional planar and front sphere systems, the optimized partially embedded sphere design enables a broadband, wide-angle, and strong optical absorption and efficient carrier transportation. Optoelectronic simulation predicts that a 2 μm-thick c-Si TFSC with half-embedded spheres shows an increment of more than 10  mA/cm2 in short-circuit current density and an enhancement ratio of more than 56% in light-conversion efficiency, compared to the conventional planar counterparts.

  7. PECVD Environmental Effects on Silicon Nanoparticle Size and Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klafehn, Grant; Kendrick, Chito; Guan, Tianyuan; Theingi, San; Riskey, Kory; Vitti, Lauren; Bagolini, Luigi; Lusk, Mark; Gorman, Brian; Taylor, Craig; Collins, Reuben; Fields, Jeremy; Stradins, Paul

    2014-03-01

    Silicon based nanoparticles (SiNPs) have recently been of great interest to the PV community because of their unique properties compared to their bulk constituents. By decreasing a nanoparticle's (NP) size below its exciton Bohr radius, its band gap can be increased relative to the bulk. This talk will discuss fundamental variables involved in defining and controlling plasma-grown SiNP size and quality. A quartz tube with a RF electrode ring is used to create a plasma in an argon-silane mixture to grow the SiNPs. Their quality and size can be changed by varying the reactor pressure, gas flow, and thus the resulting residence time. They are then characterized by Raman, PL, ESR, XRD, and TEM, and then mapped to a phase diagram with respect to pressure and flow. Higher residence times of 10 ms resulted in highly crystalline, 7 nm SiNPs. Residence times of 2 ms create 4 nm particles, while below 2 ms will result in highly defective material, even though the PL exhibits peaks at 1.6 eV. These parameters will be discussed, including how each variable affects the resultant SiNP size, quality. Also included will be a discussion about additive gasses and their additional effects on SiNP characteristics. We acknowledge support given by the DOE (DE-EE0005326) and NSF REMRSEC (DMR 0820518).

  8. Silver nanoparticle-embedded polymersome nanocarriers for the treatment of antibiotic-resistant infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geilich, Benjamin M.; van de Ven, Anne L.; Singleton, Gloria L.; Sepúlveda, Liuda J.; Sridhar, Srinivas; Webster, Thomas J.

    2015-02-01

    The rapidly diminishing number of effective antibiotics that can be used to treat infectious diseases and associated complications in a physician's arsenal is having a drastic impact on human health today. This study explored the development and optimization of a polymersome nanocarrier formed from a biodegradable diblock copolymer to overcome bacterial antibiotic resistance. Here, polymersomes were synthesized containing silver nanoparticles embedded in the hydrophobic compartment, and ampicillin in the hydrophilic compartment. Results showed for the first time that these silver nanoparticle-embedded polymersomes (AgPs) inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli transformed with a gene for ampicillin resistance (bla) in a dose-dependent fashion. Free ampicillin, AgPs without ampicillin, and ampicillin polymersomes without silver nanoparticles had no effect on bacterial growth. The relationship between the silver nanoparticles and ampicillin was determined to be synergistic and produced complete growth inhibition at a silver-to-ampicillin ratio of 1 : 0.64. In this manner, this study introduces a novel nanomaterial that can effectively treat problematic, antibiotic-resistant infections in an improved capacity which should be further examined for a wide range of medical applications.

  9. Transport properties of β-Ga2O3 nanoparticles embedded in Nb thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaidhyanathan, L. S.; Srinivasan, M. P.; Chandra Mohan, P.; Baisnab, D. K.; Mythili, R.; Janawadkar, M. P.

    2015-01-01

    The origin of ferromagnetism in nanoparticles of nonmagnetic oxides is an interesting area of research. In the present work, transport properties of niobium thin films, with β-Ga2O3 nanoparticles embedded within them, are presented. Nanoparticles of β-Ga2O3 embedded in a Nb matrix were prepared at room temperature by radio frequency co-sputtering technique on Si (100) and glass substrates held at room temperature. The thin films deposited on Si substrates were subjected to Ar annealing at a temperature range of 600-650 C for 1 hour. Films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Micro-Raman and elemental identification was performed with an Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). Transport measurements were performed down to liquid helium temperatures by four-probe contact technique, showed characteristics analogous to those observed in the context of a Kondo system. A comparison of the experimental data with the theoretical formalism of Kondo and Hamann is presented. It is suggested that this behavior arises from the existence of magnetic moments associated with the oxygen vacancy defects in the nanoparticles of the nonmagnetic oxide Ga2O3.

  10. Embedded Ceria Nanoparticles in Crosslinked PVA Electrospun Nanofibers as Optical Sensors for Radicals.

    PubMed

    Shehata, Nader; Samir, Effat; Gaballah, Soha; Hamed, Aya; Elrasheedy, Asmaa

    2016-08-26

    This work presents a new nanocomposite of cerium oxide (ceria) nanoparticles embedded in electrospun PVA nanofibers for optical sensing of radicals in solutions. Our ceria nanoparticles are synthesized to have O-vacancies which are the receptors for the radicals extracted from peroxide in water solution. Ceria nanoparticles are embedded insitu in PVA solution and then formed as nanofibers using an electrospinning technique. The formed nanocomposite emits visible fluorescent emissions under 430 nm excitation, due to the active ceria nanoparticles with fluorescent Ce(3+) ionization states. When the formed nanocomposite is in contact with peroxide solution, the fluorescence emission intensity peak has been found to be reduced with increasing concentration of peroxide or the corresponding radicals through a fluorescence quenching mechanism. The fluorescence intensity peak is found to be reduced to more than 30% of its original value at a peroxide weight concentration up to 27%. This work could be helpful in further applications of radicals sensing using a solid mat through biomedical and environmental monitoring applications.

  11. MIL-100 derived nitrogen-embodied carbon shells embedded with iron nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Chengyu; Kong, Aiguo; Wang, Yuan; Bu, Xianhui; Feng, Pingyun

    2015-06-01

    The use of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as templates and precursors to synthesize new carbon materials with controllable morphology and pre-selected heteroatom doping holds promise for applications as efficient non-precious metal catalysts. Here, we report a facile pyrolysis pathway to convert MIL-100 into nitrogen-doped carbon shells encapsulating Fe nanoparticles in a comparative study involving multiple selected nitrogen sources. The hierarchical porous architecture, embedded Fe nanoparticles, and nitrogen decoration endow this composite with a superior oxygen reduction activity. Furthermore, the excellent durability and high methanol tolerance even outperform the commercial Pt-C catalyst.The use of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as templates and precursors to synthesize new carbon materials with controllable morphology and pre-selected heteroatom doping holds promise for applications as efficient non-precious metal catalysts. Here, we report a facile pyrolysis pathway to convert MIL-100 into nitrogen-doped carbon shells encapsulating Fe nanoparticles in a comparative study involving multiple selected nitrogen sources. The hierarchical porous architecture, embedded Fe nanoparticles, and nitrogen decoration endow this composite with a superior oxygen reduction activity. Furthermore, the excellent durability and high methanol tolerance even outperform the commercial Pt-C catalyst. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Material synthesis and elemental analysis, electrochemistry measurements, and additional figures. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr02346g

  12. Embedded Ceria Nanoparticles in Crosslinked PVA Electrospun Nanofibers as Optical Sensors for Radicals

    PubMed Central

    Shehata, Nader; Samir, Effat; Gaballah, Soha; Hamed, Aya; Elrasheedy, Asmaa

    2016-01-01

    This work presents a new nanocomposite of cerium oxide (ceria) nanoparticles embedded in electrospun PVA nanofibers for optical sensing of radicals in solutions. Our ceria nanoparticles are synthesized to have O-vacancies which are the receptors for the radicals extracted from peroxide in water solution. Ceria nanoparticles are embedded insitu in PVA solution and then formed as nanofibers using an electrospinning technique. The formed nanocomposite emits visible fluorescent emissions under 430 nm excitation, due to the active ceria nanoparticles with fluorescent Ce3+ ionization states. When the formed nanocomposite is in contact with peroxide solution, the fluorescence emission intensity peak has been found to be reduced with increasing concentration of peroxide or the corresponding radicals through a fluorescence quenching mechanism. The fluorescence intensity peak is found to be reduced to more than 30% of its original value at a peroxide weight concentration up to 27%. This work could be helpful in further applications of radicals sensing using a solid mat through biomedical and environmental monitoring applications. PMID:27571083

  13. Thermooptical properties of gold nanoparticles embedded in ice: characterization of heat generation and melting.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Hugh H; Hickman, Zackary N; Govorov, Alexander O; Thomas, Alyssa C; Zhang, Wei; Kordesch, Martin E

    2006-04-01

    We investigate the system of optically excited gold NPs in an ice matrix aiming to understand heat generation and melting processes at the nanoscale level. Along with the traditional fluorescence method, we introduce thermooptical spectroscopy based on phase transformation of a matrix. With this, we can not only measure optical response but also thermal response, that is, heat generation. After several recrystallization cycles, the nanoparticles are embedded into the ice film where the optical and thermal properties of the nanoparticles are probed. Spatial fluorescence mapping shows the locations of Au nanoparticles, whereas the time-resolved Raman signal of ice reveals the melting process. From the time-dependent Raman signals, we determine the critical light intensities at which the laser beam is able to melt ice around the nanoparticles. The melting intensity depends strongly on temperature and position. The position-dependence is especially strong and reflects a mesoscopic character of heat generation. We think that it comes from the fact that nanoparticles form small complexes of different geometry and each complex has a unique thermal response. Theoretical calculations and experimental data are combined to make a quantitative measure of the amount of heat generated by optically excited Au nanoparticles and agglomerates. The information obtained in this study can be used to design nanoscale heaters and actuators.

  14. Pt nanoparticles embedded on reduced graphite oxide with excellent electrocatalytic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saravanan, Gengan; Mohan, Subramanian

    2016-11-01

    Economically viable electrochemical approach has been developed for the synthesis of Pt nanoparticles through electrodeposition technique on the surface of Reduced Graphite Oxide (RGO). Pt nanoparticles embedded Reduced Graphite Oxide on Glassy Carbon Electrode are employed (Pt-rGO/GCE) for electrooxidation of formic acid. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) image and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) image shows that reduced graphite oxide act as an excellent support to anchor the Pt nanoparticles. Cyclic voltammetry results confirmed that Pt-rGO/GCE enhanced current density as many folds than that of bare platinum electrode for electrooxidation of formic acid. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns for Pt-graphene composites illustrate that peaks at 69.15 and 23° for Pt (220) and graphene carbon (002) respectively. 13C NMR spectrum of the electrochemically reduced graphite oxide resonance contains only one peak at 133 ppm which retains graphitic sp2 carbon and does not contain any oxygenated carbon and the carbonyl carbons.

  15. Magneto-optical Faraday rotation of semiconductor nanoparticles embedded in dielectric matrices.

    PubMed

    Savchuk, Andriy I; Stolyarchuk, Ihor D; Makoviy, Vitaliy V; Savchuk, Oleksandr A

    2014-04-01

    Faraday rotation has been studied for CdS, CdTe, and CdS:Mn semiconductor nanoparticles synthesized by colloidal chemistry methods. Additionally these materials were prepared in a form of semiconductor nanoparticles embedded in polyvinyl alcohol films. Transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy analyses served as confirmation of nanocrystallinity and estimation of the average size of the nanoparticles. Spectral dependence of the Faraday rotation for the studied nanocrystals and nanocomposites is correlated with a blueshift of the absorption edge due to the confinement effect in zero-dimensional structures. Faraday rotation spectra and their temperature behavior in Mn-doped nanocrystals demonstrates peculiarities, which are associated with s, p-d exchange interaction between Mn²⁺ ions and band carriers in diluted magnetic semiconductor nanostructures.

  16. Surface-plasmon-enhanced emissions of phosphors with Au nanoparticles embedded in ITO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ja-Yeon; Oh, Seung Jong; Park, Hyun-Sun; Kim, Min-Woo; Cho, Yoo-Hyun; Kwon, Min-Ki

    2017-03-01

    Au nanoparticles were embedded in a transparent conducting layer of indium tin oxide in order to evaluate the feasibility of applying a surface-plasmon (SP)-enhanced phosphor to light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The efficiency of the phosphor was improved by energy matching between the phosphor and the SP of the Au nanoparticles. After the density of the Au nanoparticles and the thickness of the spacer layer had been optimized, the efficiency of a green phosphor was improved by 64% compared to that of an isolated green phosphor. This work provides a way to fabricate high-efficiency LEDs with high color-rendering indices and wide color gamuts in white LEDs.

  17. Microwave-assisted synthesis of biofunctional and fluorescent silicon nanoparticles using proteins as hydrophilic ligands.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yiling; Peng, Fei; Wei, Xinpan; Zhou, Yanfeng; Wang, Jie; Jiang, Xiangxu; Su, Yuanyuan; Su, Shao; Lee, Shuit-Tong; He, Yao

    2012-08-20

    Protective shell: A microwave-assisted method allows rapid production of biofunctional and fluorescent silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs), which can be used for cell labeling. Such SiNPs feature excellent aqueous dispersibility, are strongly fluorescent, storable, photostable, stable at different pH values, and biocompatible. The method opens new avenues for designing multifunctional SiNPs and related silicon nanostructures.

  18. Investigations of segregation phenomena in highly strained Mn-doped Ge wetting layers and Ge quantum dots embedded in silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Prestat, E. Porret, C.; Favre-Nicolin, V.; Tainoff, D.; Boukhari, M.; Bayle-Guillemaud, P.; Jamet, M.; Barski, A.

    2014-03-10

    In this Letter, we investigate manganese diffusion and the formation of Mn precipitates in highly strained, few monolayer thick, Mn-doped Ge wetting layers and nanometric size Ge quantum dot heterostructures embedded in silicon. We show that in this Ge(Mn)/Si system manganese always precipitates and that the size and the position of Mn clusters (precipitates) depend on the growth temperature. At high growth temperature, manganese strongly diffuses from germanium to silicon, whereas decreasing the growth temperature reduces the manganese diffusion. In the germanium quantum dots layers, Mn precipitates are detected, not only in partially relaxed quantum dots but also in fully strained germanium wetting layers between the dots.

  19. Glass-embedded two-dimensional silicon photonic crystal devices with a broad bandwidth waveguide and a high quality nanocavity.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Seung-Woo; Han, Jin-Kyu; Song, Bong-Shik; Noda, Susumu

    2010-08-30

    To enhance the mechanical stability of a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab structure and maintain its excellent performance, we designed a glass-embedded silicon photonic crystal device consisting of a broad bandwidth waveguide and a nanocavity with a high quality (Q) factor, and then fabricated the structure using spin-on glass (SOG). Furthermore, we showed that the refractive index of the SOG could be tuned from 1.37 to 1.57 by varying the curing temperature of the SOG. Finally, we demonstrated a glass-embedded heterostructured cavity with an ultrahigh Q factor of 160,000 by adjusting the refractive index of the SOG.

  20. Exchange bias of Ni nanoparticles embedded in an antiferromagnetic IrMn matrix.

    PubMed

    Kuerbanjiang, Balati; Wiedwald, Ulf; Haering, Felix; Biskupek, Johannes; Kaiser, Ute; Ziemann, Paul; Herr, Ulrich

    2013-11-15

    The magnetic properties of Ni nanoparticles (Ni-NPs) embedded in an antiferromagnetic IrMn matrix were investigated. The Ni-NPs of 8.4 nm mean diameter were synthesized by inert gas aggregation. In a second processing step, the Ni-NPs were in situ embedded in IrMn films or SiOx films under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions. Findings showed that Ni-NPs embedded in IrMn have an exchange bias field HEB = 821 Oe at 10 K, and 50 Oe at 300 K. The extracted value of the exchange energy density is 0.06 mJ m(-2) at 10 K, which is in good accordance with the results from multilayered thin film systems. The Ni-NPs embedded in SiOx did not show exchange bias. As expected for this particle size, they are superparamagnetic at T = 300 K. A direct comparison of the Ni-NPs embedded in IrMn or SiOx reveals an increase of the blocking temperature from 210 K to around 400 K. The coercivity of the Ni-NPs exchange coupled to the IrMn matrix at 10 K is 8 times larger than the value for Ni-NPs embedded in SiOx. We studied time-dependent remanent magnetization at different temperatures. The relaxation behavior is described by a magnetic viscosity model which reflects a rather flat distribution of energy barriers. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of different field cooling processes on the magnetic properties of the embedded Ni-NPs. Exchange bias values fit to model calculations which correlate the contribution of the antiferromagnetic IrMn matrix to its grain size.

  1. Optimal Design of Silicon-based Chips for Piezo-induced Ultrasound Resonances in Embedded Microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garofalo, F.; Laurell, T.; Bruus, H.

    We present a variational formulation of the governing equations and introduce global indicators to describe the behavior of acoustofluidic devices driven at resonance frequencies by means of a piezoelectric transducer. The individuation of the correct Lagrangian densities for the different parts constituting the device (the piezo transducer, the silicon walls, the fluid-filled microchannel, and the glass lid) allows for the introduction of the weak formulation used in the finite element discretization of the equations describing the system in its oscillatory regime. Additionally, the knowledge of the Lagrangian density leads to the derivation of the correct structure of the Hamiltonian density, i.e. the energy density, which is important for the quantification of the energy content of the whole system and its individual parts. Specifically, the energy content of the embedded microchannel is quantified by means of the acoustofluidic yield η defined as the ratio between the energy in the channel and the total energy. From the standpoint of acoustophoretic application, the introduction of the acoustophoretic mean orientation allows us to identify the frequencies for which an acoustophoretic effect, i.e. the lateral motion of particle dragged by the axial main flow, is particularly strong. Finally, the connection between the mechanical and electrical degrees of freedom of the system is addressed. This is important for proper determination of the dissipated power, and it may lead to the detection of resonance states by means of purely electrical measurements. Numerical simulations and preliminary experimental results show some features of the model introduced.

  2. A dimensional comparison between embedded 3D-printed and silicon microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, J.; Punch, J.; Jeffers, N.; Stafford, J.

    2014-07-01

    The subject of this paper is the dimensional characterization of embedded microchannel arrays created using contemporary 3D-printing fabrication techniques. Conventional microchannel arrays, fabricated using deep reactive ion etching techniques (DRIE) and wet-etching (KOH), are used as a benchmark for comparison. Rectangular and trapezoidal cross-sectional shapes were investigated. The channel arrays were 3D-printed in vertical and horizontal directions, to examine the influence of print orientation on channel characteristics. The 3D-printed channels were benchmarked against Silicon channels in terms of the following dimensional characteristics: cross-sectional area (CSA), perimeter, and surface profiles. The 3D-printed microchannel arrays demonstrated variances in CSA of 6.6-20% with the vertical printing approach yielding greater dimensional conformity than the horizontal approach. The measured CSA and perimeter of the vertical channels were smaller than the nominal dimensions, while the horizontal channels were larger in both CSA and perimeter due to additional side-wall roughness present throughout the channel length. This side-wall roughness caused significant shape distortion. Surface profile measurements revealed that the base wall roughness was approximately the resolution of current 3D-printers. A spatial periodicity was found along the channel length which appeared at different frequencies for each channel array. This paper concludes that vertical 3D-printing is superior to the horizontal printing approach, in terms of both dimensional fidelity and shape conformity and can be applied in microfluidic device applications.

  3. Photocatalytic Applications of Electrospun TiO2 Nanofibres Embedded with Bimodal Sized and Prismatic Gold Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Gopika, G; Asha, A M; Sivakumar, N; Balakrishnan, A; Nair, S V; Subramanian, K R V

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we have synthesized electrospun TiO2 nanofibers embedded with bimodal sized and prismatic gold nanoparticles. The surface plasmons generated in the gold nanoparticles were used to enhance the performance of photocatalysis. The photocatalytic conversion efficiencies of these bimodal sized/prismatic gold nanoparticles when embedded in electrospun TiO2 fibres showed an enhancement of upto 60% over bare fiber systems and also show higher efficiencies than electrospun fibrous systems embedded with unimodal sized gold nanoparticles. Anisotropic bimodal gold nanoparticles show the highest degree of photocatalytic activity. This may be attributed to greater density/concentration of nanoparticles with higher effective surface area and formation of a junction between the smaller and larger nanoparticles. Such a bimodally distributed range of nanoparticles could also lead to greater trapping of charge carriers at the TiO2 conduction band edge and promoting catalytic reactions on account of these trapped charges. This enhanced photocatalytic activity is explained by invoking different operating mechanisms such as improved surface area, greater trapping, coarse plasmon resonance and band effects. Thus, a useful applicability of the gold nanoparticles is shown in the area of photocatalysis.

  4. Nano sand filter with functionalized nanoparticles embedded in anodic aluminum oxide templates

    PubMed Central

    Phuong, NguyenThi; Andisetiawan, Anugrah; Van Lam, Do; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Choi, Doo-Sun; Whang, Kyung-Hyun; Nham, Jeasun; Lee, Yun Jung; Yoo, Yeong-Eun; Yoon, Jae Sung

    2016-01-01

    Since the ancient Egyptians had used sand as filter media for water purification, its principle has been inherited through generations and it is still being used now in industries. The sand filter consists of sand literally, and the voids within the sand bed are the pores for filtration. Here we present a filtration principle using nanoparticles, so that the voids between the nanoparticles can be considered as effective pores in nanoscale dimension. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane has been used as the working template, and the nanoparticles have been injected and embedded within the pores of the AAO template. Nanoparticles with multiple sizes have been used in order to obtain smaller voids. Moreover, the nanoparticles have been functionalized, or electrically charged, with arginine/phenylalanine (RF) peptide group. In this way, filtration performance for charged particles or molecules, such as methylene blue, has been enhanced. Consequently, this study is expected to provide a new principle for fabrication of nano voids, or nano pores, and for filtration in nanoscale dimension. PMID:27876886

  5. Nano sand filter with functionalized nanoparticles embedded in anodic aluminum oxide templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phuong, Nguyenthi; Andisetiawan, Anugrah; van Lam, Do; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Choi, Doo-Sun; Whang, Kyung-Hyun; Nham, Jeasun; Lee, Yun Jung; Yoo, Yeong-Eun; Yoon, Jae Sung

    2016-11-01

    Since the ancient Egyptians had used sand as filter media for water purification, its principle has been inherited through generations and it is still being used now in industries. The sand filter consists of sand literally, and the voids within the sand bed are the pores for filtration. Here we present a filtration principle using nanoparticles, so that the voids between the nanoparticles can be considered as effective pores in nanoscale dimension. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane has been used as the working template, and the nanoparticles have been injected and embedded within the pores of the AAO template. Nanoparticles with multiple sizes have been used in order to obtain smaller voids. Moreover, the nanoparticles have been functionalized, or electrically charged, with arginine/phenylalanine (RF) peptide group. In this way, filtration performance for charged particles or molecules, such as methylene blue, has been enhanced. Consequently, this study is expected to provide a new principle for fabrication of nano voids, or nano pores, and for filtration in nanoscale dimension.

  6. Nanocomposites of silver nanoparticles embedded in glass nanofibres obtained by laser spinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabal, Belén; Quintero, Félix; Díaz, Luís Antonio; Rojo, Fernando; Dieste, Oliver; Pou, Juan; Torrecillas, Ramón; Moya, José Serafín

    2013-04-01

    Nanocomposites made of non-woven glass fibres with diameters ranging from tens of nanometers up to several micrometers, containing silver nanoparticles, were successfully fabricated by the laser spinning technique. Pellets of a soda-lime silicate glass containing silver nanoparticles with varying concentrations (5 and 10 wt%) were used as a precursor. The process followed to obtain the silver nanofibres did not agglomerate significantly the metallic nanoparticles, and the average particle size is still lower than 50 nm. This is the first time that glass nanofibres containing silver nanoparticles have been obtained following a process different from electrospinning of a sol-gel, thus avoiding the limitations of this method and opening a new route to composite nanomaterials. Antibacterial efficiency of the nanosilver glass fibres, tested against one of the most common Gram negative bacteria, was greater than 99.99% compared to the glass fibres free of silver. The silver nanoparticles are well-dispersed not only on the surface but are also embedded into the uniform nanofibres, which leads to a long lasting durable antimicrobial effect. All these novel characteristics will potentially open up a whole new range of applications.

  7. Physio-chemical and antibacterial characteristics of pressure spun nylon nanofibres embedded with functional silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Xu, Z; Mahalingam, S; Rohn, J L; Ren, G; Edirisinghe, M

    2015-11-01

    A novel and facile approach to prepare hybrid nanoparticle embedded polymer nanofibers using pressurised gyration is presented. Silver nanoparticles and nylon polymer were used in this work. The polymer solution's physical properties, rotating speed and the working pressure had a significant influence on the fibre diameter and the morphology. Fibres in the range of 60-500nm were spun using 10wt.%, 15wt.% and 20wt.% nylon solutions and these bead-free fibres were processed under 0.2MPa and 0.3MPa working pressure and a rotational speed of 36,000rpm. 1-4wt.% of Ag was added to these nylon solutions and in the case of wt.% fibres in the range 50-150nm were prepared using the same conditions of pressurised gyration. Successful incorporation of the Ag nanoparticles in nylon nanofibres was confirmed by using a combination of advanced microscopical techniques and Raman spectrometry was used to study the bonding characteristics of nylon and the Ag nanoparticles. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy showed a substantial concentration of Ag ions in the nylon fibre matrix which is essential for producing effective antibacterial properties. Antibacterial activity of the Ag-loaded nanofibres shows higher efficacy than nylon nanofibres for Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa microorganisms, and both Ag nanoparticles and the Ag ions were found to be the reason for enhanced cell death in the bacterial solutions.

  8. Enhanced localized plasmonic detections using partially-embedded gold nanoparticles and ellipsometric measurements

    PubMed Central

    Moirangthem, Rakesh Singh; Yaseen, Mohammad Tariq; Wei, Pei-Kuen; Cheng, Ji-Yen; Chang, Yia-Chung

    2012-01-01

    A cost-effective, stable and ultrasensitive localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) sensor based on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) partially embedded in transparent substrate is presented. Partially embedded AuNPs were prepared by thermal annealing of gold thin films deposited on glass at a temperature close to the glass transition temperature of the substrate. Annealed samples were optically characterized by using spectroscopic ellipsometry and compare with theoretical modeling to understand the optical responses from the samples. By combining the partially-embedded AuNPs substrate with a microfluidic flow cell and dove prism in an ellipsometry setup, an ultrasensitive change in the LSPR signal can be detected. The refractive index sensitivity obtained from the phase measurement is up to 1938 degrees/RIU which is several times higher than that of synthesized colloidal gold nanoparticles. The sample is further used to investigate the interactions between primary and secondary antibodies. The bio-molecular detection limit of the LSPR signal is down to 20 pM. Our proposed sensor is label free, non-destructive, with high sensitivity, low cost, and easy to fabricate. These features make it feasible for commercialization in biomedical applications. PMID:22567583

  9. Laser-ablated silicon nanoparticles: optical properties and perspectives in optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillin, M. Yu; Sergeeva, E. A.; Agrba, P. D.; Krainov, A. D.; Ezhov, A. A.; Shuleiko, D. V.; Kashkarov, P. K.; Zabotnov, S. V.

    2015-07-01

    Due to their biocompatibility silicon nanoparticles have high potential in biomedical applications, especially in optical diagnostics. In this paper we analyze properties of the silicon nanoparticles formed via laser ablation in water and study the possibility of their application as contrasting agents in optical coherence tomography (OCT). The nanoparticles suspension was produced by picosecond laser irradiation of monocrystalline silicon wafers in water. According to transmission electron microcopy analysis the silicon nanoparticles in the obtained suspension vary in size from 2 to 200 nm while concentration of the particles is estimated as 1013cm-3. The optical properties of the suspension in the range from 400 to 1000 nm were studied by spectrophotometry measurements revealing a scattering coefficient of about 0.1 mm-1 and a scattering anisotropy factor in the range of 0.2-0.4. In OCT study a system with a central wavelength of 910 nm was employed. Potential of the silicon nanoparticles as a contrasting agent for OCT is studied in experiments with agarose gel phantoms. Topical application of the nanoparticles suspension allowed the obtaining of the contrast of structural features of phantom up to 14 dB in the OCT image.

  10. In vitro study of interactions between silicon-containing nanoparticles and human peripheral blood leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Andreeva, E R; Rudimov, E G; Gornostaeva, A N; Beklemyshev, V I; Makhonin, I I; Maugeri, U O G; Buravkova, L B

    2013-07-01

    The effects of silicon dioxide-based nanoparticles on the viability and proliferative activity of human peripheral blood cultured lymphocytes were studied. All nanoparticles in a concentration of 100 μg/ml produced a significant cytotoxic effect, its intensity depending on particles' structure: SiO2 nanoparticles were least toxic, while Ce3(+)-intercaled montmorillonite nanoparticles were most toxic. The cells died mainly by apoptosis and postapoptotic necrosis. Incubation with nanoparticles in a concentration of 100 μg/ml for 72 h caused death of all phytohemagglutinin-activated lymphocytes, while in concentrations of 1 and 10 μg/ml the nanoparticles had no effect of proliferative activity of cells. The results suggest that the effects of nanoparticles on cells are determined by the nanoparticle concentration and size, as well as by their structure.

  11. Role of oxygen in wetting of copper nanoparticles on silicon surfaces at elevated temperature

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Tapas

    2017-01-01

    Copper nanoparticles have been deposited on silicon surfaces by a simple galvanic displacement reaction, and rapid thermal annealing has been performed under various atmospheric conditions. In spite of the general tendency of the agglomeration of nanoparticles to lower the surface energy at elevated temperatures, our plan-view and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis shows that the thermal oxidation of the copper nanoparticles and formation of cupric oxide (CuO) on silicon surfaces leads to wetting rather than agglomeration. In contrast, agglomeration has been observed when copper nanoparticles were annealed in a nitrogen environment. The lattice transformation from cubic Cu to monoclinic CuO, and hence the change in surface energy of the particles, assists the wetting process. The occurrence of wetting during the oxidation step implies a strong interaction between the oxidized film and the silicon surface. PMID:28326232

  12. Anomalous Tunnel Magnetoresistance and Spin Transfer Torque in Magnetic Tunnel Junctions with Embedded Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Useinov, Arthur; Ye, Lin-Xiu; Useinov, Niazbeck; Wu, Te-Ho; Lai, Chih-Huang

    2015-01-01

    The tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) in the magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) with embedded nanoparticles (NPs) was calculated in range of the quantum-ballistic model. The simulation was performed for electron tunneling through the insulating layer with embedded magnetic and non-magnetic NPs within the approach of the double barrier subsystem connected in parallel to the single barrier one. This model can be applied for both MTJs with in-plane magnetization and perpendicular one. We also calculated the in-plane component of the spin transfer torque (STT) versus the applied voltage in MTJs with magnetic NPs and determined that its value can be much larger than in single barrier system (SBS) for the same tunneling thickness. The reported simulation reproduces experimental data of the TMR suppression and peak-like TMR anomalies at low voltages available in leterature. PMID:26681336

  13. Formation of silicon nanoparticles by a pressure induced nucleation mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Myung-Koo; Kim, Si Joon; Kim, Hyun Jae

    2013-03-01

    Formation of silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs) was achieved using excimer laser crystallization of an amorphous Si (a-Si) thin film using a SiO2 capping layer (C/L) with improved thin-film transistor (TFT) performance due to the enlarged grain size of polycrystalline Si (poly-Si). After laser irradiation of an a-Si thin film covered with C/L, fluctuation in the surface morphology of the C/L was observed above the critical laser energy density (Ecr) with the formation of SiNPs. The grain size of the poly-Si layer after crystallization increased abruptly at the same time. A non-uniform pressure distribution beneath the SiO2 C/L was proposed for the initiation of nucleation, which is named pressure induced nucleation (PIN) mechanism. Following nucleation, the release of latent heat made it difficult for the remnant liquid Si to solidify and the volume increased due to the density difference between the liquid and solid Si. Consequently, the pressure on the liquid Si caused SiNPs to sprout through the SiO2 C/L as grains grew from the low temperature to high temperature point. This study offers not only a simple method to fabricate SiNPs with controllable size/density but also larger grain size with lower laser energy density, which leads to higher TFT performance.

  14. Synthesis of Silicon Nanoparticles in Inductively Coupled Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markosyan, Aram H.; Le Picard, Romain; Girshick, Steven L.; Kushner, Mark J.

    2016-09-01

    The synthesis of silicon nanoparticles (Si-NPs) is being investigated for their use in photo-emitting electronics, photovoltaics, and biotechnology. The ability to control the size and mono-disperse nature of Si-NPs is important to optimizing these applications. In this paper we discuss results from a computational investigation of Si-NP formation and growth in an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) reactor with the goal of achieving this control. We use a two dimensional numerical model where the algorithms for the kinetics of NP formation are self-consistently coupled with a plasma hydrodynamics simulation. The reactor modeled here resembles a GEC reference cell through which, for the base case, a mixture of Ar/SiH4 = 70/30 flows at 150 sccm at a pressure of 100 mTorr. In continuous wave mode, three coils located on top of the reactor deliver 150 W. The electric plasma potential confines negatively charged particles at the center of the discharge, increasing the residence time of negative NPs, which enables the NPs to potentially grow to large and controllable sizes of many to 100s nm. We discuss methods of controlling NP growth rates by varying the mole fraction and flow rate of SiH4, and using a pulsed plasma by varying the pulse period and duty cycle. Work supported by DOE Office of Fusion Energy Science and National Science Foundation.

  15. Insignificant influence of the matrix on the melting of incoherently embedded tin and zinc nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, L. M.; Hou, H. F.; Yao, C. Y.; Wang, L. W.

    2017-01-01

    For studying the melting point depression of metals, isolated metallic nanoparticles embedded in a matrix are usually prepared by mechanical milling. Al is the main available matrix material. In this work, to explore possible alternative matrices for further investigation of melting, mechanically milled metal-nonmetal systems are developed, namely Sn-LiF, Zn-LiF and Zn-Al2O3. The outcome indicates that different matrices do not have a significantly different influence on the melting of Sn and Zn. Theoretical analyses of both the thermodynamics and kinetics of surface-induced melting may support this experimental finding.

  16. Enhanced resistive switching effect in Ag nanoparticle embedded BaTiO{sub 3} thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Au, K.; Wang, Juan; Bao, Z. Y.; Dai, J. Y.; Gao, X. S.; Liu, J. M.

    2013-07-14

    Ag nanoparticle (NP) embedded BaTiO{sub 3} (BTO) thin films on SrRuO{sub 3}-coated SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) substrates are prepared by the integrated nanocluster beam deposition and laser-molecular beam epitaxy. Enhanced resistive switching, up to an ON/OFF ration of 10{sup 4}, has been achieved at low switching voltage (less than 1 V) without a forming voltage. These characteristics make such nanocomposite film very promising for application of low voltage non-volatile random access memory. The enhanced resistive switching effect may be attributed to the charge storage effect of the Ag nanoparticles and easy formation of Ag filament inside the BTO film.

  17. Laser-material interaction during atom probe tomography of oxides with embedded metal nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinde, D.; Arnoldi, L.; Devaraj, A.; Vella, A.

    2016-10-01

    Oxide-supported metal nano-particles are of great interest in catalysis but also in the development of new large-spectrum-absorption materials. The design of such nano materials requires three-dimensional characterization with a high spatial resolution and elemental selectivity. The laser assisted Atom Probe Tomography (La-APT) presents both these capacities if an accurate understanding of laser-material interaction is developed. In this paper, we focus on the fundamental physics of field evaporation as a function of sample geometry, laser power, and DC electric field for Au nanoparticles embedded in MgO. By understanding the laser-material interaction through experiments and a theoretical model of heat diffusion inside the sample after the interaction with laser pulse, we point out the physical origin of the noise and determine the conditions to reduce it by more than one order of magnitude, improving the sensitivity of the La-APT for metal-dielectric composites.

  18. Aerosol-Assisted Extraction of Silicon Nanoparticles from Wafer Slicing Waste for Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Hee Dong; Kim, Hyekyoung; Chang, Hankwon; Kim, Jiwoong; Roh, Kee Min; Choi, Ji-Hyuk; Cho, Bong-Gyoo; Park, Eunjun; Kim, Hansu; Luo, Jiayan; Huang, Jiaxing

    2015-03-01

    A large amount of silicon debris particles are generated during the slicing of silicon ingots into thin wafers for the fabrication of integrated-circuit chips and solar cells. This results in a significant loss of valuable materials at about 40% of the mass of ingots. In addition, a hazardous silicon sludge waste is produced containing largely debris of silicon, and silicon carbide, which is a common cutting material on the slicing saw. Efforts in material recovery from the sludge and recycling have been largely directed towards converting silicon or silicon carbide into other chemicals. Here, we report an aerosol-assisted method to extract silicon nanoparticles from such sludge wastes and their use in lithium ion battery applications. Using an ultrasonic spray-drying method, silicon nanoparticles can be directly recovered from the mixture with high efficiency and high purity for making lithium ion battery anode. The work here demonstrated a relatively low cost approach to turn wafer slicing wastes into much higher value-added materials for energy applications, which also helps to increase the sustainability of semiconductor material and device manufacturing.

  19. Aerosol-Assisted Extraction of Silicon Nanoparticles from Wafer Slicing Waste for Lithium Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Hee Dong; Kim, Hyekyoung; Chang, Hankwon; Kim, Jiwoong; Roh, Kee Min; Choi, Ji-Hyuk; Cho, Bong-Gyoo; Park, Eunjun; Kim, Hansu; Luo, Jiayan; Huang, Jiaxing

    2015-01-01

    A large amount of silicon debris particles are generated during the slicing of silicon ingots into thin wafers for the fabrication of integrated-circuit chips and solar cells. This results in a significant loss of valuable materials at about 40% of the mass of ingots. In addition, a hazardous silicon sludge waste is produced containing largely debris of silicon, and silicon carbide, which is a common cutting material on the slicing saw. Efforts in material recovery from the sludge and recycling have been largely directed towards converting silicon or silicon carbide into other chemicals. Here, we report an aerosol-assisted method to extract silicon nanoparticles from such sludge wastes and their use in lithium ion battery applications. Using an ultrasonic spray-drying method, silicon nanoparticles can be directly recovered from the mixture with high efficiency and high purity for making lithium ion battery anode. The work here demonstrated a relatively low cost approach to turn wafer slicing wastes into much higher value-added materials for energy applications, which also helps to increase the sustainability of semiconductor material and device manufacturing. PMID:25819285

  20. Efficient synthesis and structural characterization of silver nanoparticle/ bis(o-phenolpropyl)silicone composites.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myoung-Hee; Woo, Hee-Gweon; Lee, Byeong-Gweon; Kim, Do-Heyoung; Yang, Kap-Seung; Kim, Bo-Hye; Park, Yeong-Joon; Ko, Young Chun; Roh, Sung-Hee; Sohn, Honglae

    2011-02-01

    Silver nanoparticle/bis(o-phenolpropyl)silicone composites have been synthesized by the reduction of silver nitrate with bis(o-phenolpropyl)silicone BPPS [(o-phenolpropyl)2(SiMe2O)n, n = 2, 3, 8, 236]. TEM and FE-SEM data clearly show that the silver nanoparticles with the size of < 20 nm are well dispersed throughout the BPPS matrix in the composites. XRD patterns are consistent with those for multicrystalline silver. The size of silver nanoparticles increased with increasing the relative molar concentration of silver salts added. It was found that in the absence of BPPS, most of the silver nanoparticles undergo macroscopic precipitation by agglomeration, indicating that BPPS is essential to stabilize the silver nanoparticles.

  1. Silicon nanoparticles more effectively alleviated UV-B stress than silicon in wheat (Triticum aestivum) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Durgesh Kumar; Singh, Swati; Singh, Vijay Pratap; Prasad, Sheo Mohan; Dubey, Nawal Kishore; Chauhan, Devendra Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The role of silicon (Si) in alleviating biotic as well as abiotic stresses is well known. However, the potential of silicon nanoparticle (SiNP) in regulating abiotic stress and associated mechanisms have not yet been explored. Therefore, in the present study hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate whether Si or SiNp are more effective in the regulation of UV-B stress. UV-B (ambient and enhanced) radiation caused adverse effect on growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum) seedlings, which was accompanied by declined photosynthetic performance and altered vital leaf structures. Levels of superoxide radical and H2O2 were enhanced by UV-B as also evident from their histochemical stainings, which was accompanied by increased lipid peroxidation (LPO) and electrolyte leakage. Activities of superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase were inhibited by UV-B while catalase and guaiacol peroxidase, and all non-enzymatic antioxidants were stimulated by UV-B. Although, nitric oxide (NO) content was increased at all tested combinations, but its maximum content was observed under SiNps together with UV-B enhanced treatment. Pre-additions of SiNp as well as Si protected wheat seedlings against UV-B by regulating oxidative stress through enhanced antioxidants. Data indicate that SiNp might have protected wheat seedlings through NO-mediated triggering of antioxidant defense system, which subsequently counterbalance reactive oxygen species-induced damage to photosynthesis. Further, SiNp appear to be more effective in reducing UV-B stress than Si, which is related to its greater availability to wheat seedlings.

  2. Hydrothermal Synthesis and Processing of Barium Titanate Nanoparticles Embedded in Polymer Films.

    PubMed

    Toomey, Michael D; Gao, Kai; Mendis, Gamini P; Slamovich, Elliott B; Howarter, John A

    2015-12-30

    Barium titanate nanoparticles embedded in flexible polymer films were synthesized using hydrothermal processing methods. The resulting films were characterized with respect to material composition, size distribution of nanoparticles, and spatial location of particles within the polymer film. Synthesis conditions were varied based on the mechanical properties of the polymer films, ratio of polymer to barium titanate precursors, and length of aging time between initial formulations of the solution to final processing of nanoparticles. Block copolymers of poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride) (SMAh) were used to spatially separate titanium precursors based on specific chemical interactions with the maleic anhydride moiety. However, the glassy nature of this copolymer restricted mobility of the titanium precursors during hydrothermal processing. The addition of rubbery butadiene moieties, through mixing of the SMAh with poly(styrene-butadiene-styrene) (SBS) copolymer, increased the nanoparticle dispersion as a result of greater diffusivity of the titanium precursor via higher mobility of the polymer matrix. Additionally, an aminosilane was used as a means to retard cross-linking in polymer-metalorganic solutions, as the titanium precursor molecules were shown to react and form networks prior to hydrothermal processing. By adding small amounts of competing aminosilane, excessive cross-linking was prevented without significantly impacting the quality and composition of the final barium titanate nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to verify nanoparticle compositions. Particle sizes within the polymer films were measured to be 108 ± 5 nm, 100 ± 6 nm, and 60 ± 5 nm under different synthetic conditions using electron microscopy. Flexibility of the films was assessed through measurement of the glass transition temperature using dynamic mechanical analysis. Dielectric permittivity was measured using an impedance analyzer.

  3. Porous silicon with embedded tritium as a stand-alone prime power source for optoelectronic applications

    DOEpatents

    Tam, Shiu-Wing

    1998-01-01

    An illumination source comprising a porous silicon having a source of electrons on the surface and/or interticies thereof having a total porosity in the range of from about 50 v/o to about 90 v/o. Also disclosed are a tritiated porous silicon and a photovoltaic device and an illumination source of tritiated porous silicon.

  4. Porous silicon with embedded tritium as a stand-alone prime power source for optoelectronic applications

    DOEpatents

    Tam, Shiu-Wing

    1997-01-01

    An illumination source comprising a porous silicon having a source of electrons on the surface and/or interticies thereof having a total porosity in the range of from about 50 v/o to about 90 v/o. Also disclosed are a tritiated porous silicon and a photovoltaic device and an illumination source of tritiated porous silicon.

  5. Porous silicon with embedded tritium as a stand-alone prime power source for optoelectronic applications

    DOEpatents

    Tam, S.W.

    1998-06-16

    An illumination source is disclosed comprising a porous silicon having a source of electrons on the surface and/or interstices thereof having a total porosity in the range of from about 50 v/o to about 90 v/o. Also disclosed are a tritiated porous silicon and a photovoltaic device and an illumination source of tritiated porous silicon. 1 fig.

  6. Porous silicon with embedded tritium as a stand-alone prime power source for optoelectronic applications

    DOEpatents

    Tam, S.W.

    1997-02-25

    Disclosed is an illumination source comprising a porous silicon having a source of electrons on the surface and/or interstices thereof having a total porosity in the range of from about 50 v/o to about 90 v/o. Also disclosed are a tritiated porous silicon and a photovoltaic device and an illumination source of tritiated porous silicon. 1 fig.

  7. Complete magnesiothermic reduction reaction of vertically aligned mesoporous silica channels to form pure silicon nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung Hwan; Lee, Dong Jin; Cho, Kyeong Min; Kim, Seon Joon; Park, Jung-Ki; Jung, Hee-Tae

    2015-01-01

    Owing to its simplicity and low temperature conditions, magnesiothermic reduction of silica is one of the most powerful methods for producing silicon nanostructures. However, incomplete reduction takes place in this process leaving unconverted silica under the silicon layer. This phenomenon limits the use of this method for the rational design of silicon structures. In this effort, a technique that enables complete magnesiothermic reduction of silica to form silicon has been developed. The procedure involves magnesium promoted reduction of vertically oriented mesoporous silica channels on reduced graphene oxides (rGO) sheets. The mesopores play a significant role in effectively enabling magnesium gas to interact with silica through a large number of reaction sites. Utilizing this approach, highly uniform, ca. 10 nm sized silicon nanoparticles are generated without contamination by unreacted silica. The new method for complete magnesiothermic reduction of mesoporous silica approach provides a foundation for the rational design of silicon structures. PMID:25757800

  8. Modulation of the propagation speed of mechanical waves in silicon quantum dots embedded in a silicon-nitride film.

    PubMed

    Torres-Torres, C; López-Suárez, A; Torres-Martínez, R; Rodriguez, A; Reyes-Esqueda, J A; Castañeda, L; Alonso, J C; Oliver, A

    2012-02-13

    Using a vectorial picosecond self-diffraction method, we evaluate the modification of the speed of the sound in a silicon-nitride film containing silicon quantum dots prepared by remote plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Our non-contact technique is based on the stimulation of the electrostriction contribution to the nonlinearity of index exhibited by the sample in a multiwave mixing laser experiment. We identified the electronic birefringence using two of the incident beams to generate a self-diffraction signal, then, we modified the third order nonlinear response by means of the optical Kerr effect given by a phase-mismatched third beam which induced electrostriction. Our results indicated that the speed of the sound in a silicon-nitride film can be simultaneously tailored by an electronic nonlinear refractive index, and by an electrostriction effect, both resulting from silicon quantum dots doping.

  9. Zinc-embedded silica nanoparticle layer in a multilayer coating on a glass substrate achieves broadband antireflection and high transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang Woo; Bae, Dong-Sik; Shin, Hyunho

    2004-12-01

    A zinc-embedded silica (Zn-SiO2) nanoparticle layer has been applied as the outermost layer over the three-layer coating system, Zn-SiO2/SiO2/ITO (indium tin oxide), coated on a soda-lime glass substrate. The additional coating of the zinc-embedded nanoparticle layer over the 2-layer/glass, i.e., SiO2/ITO /glass system, yielded a significant diminution in reflectance, as well as an improved transmittance as compared to the 2-layer/glass system. Plausible mechanisms responsible for such phenomena are discussed. The application of the zinc-embedded silica nanoparticle layer to the multilayer coating system is shown to provide a flexible way to achieve a broadband antireflection and a high transmission.

  10. Electrospun aligned PLGA and PLGA/gelatin nanofibers embedded with silica nanoparticles for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Mehrasa, Mohammad; Asadollahi, Mohammad Ali; Ghaedi, Kamran; Salehi, Hossein; Arpanaei, Ayyoob

    2015-08-01

    Aligned poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) and PLGA/gelatin nanofibrous scaffolds embedded with mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNPs) were fabricated using electrospinning method. The mean diameters of nanofibers were 641±24 nm for the pure PLGA scaffolds vs 418±85 nm and 267±58 nm for the PLGA/10 wt% MSNPs and the PLGA/gelatin/10 wt% MSNPs scaffolds, respectively. The contact angle measurement results (102°±6.7 for the pure PLGA scaffold vs 81°±6.8 and 18°±8.7 for the PLGA/10 wt% MSNPs and the PLGA/gelatin/10 wt% MSNPs scaffolds, respectively) revealed enhanced hydrophilicity of scaffolds upon incorporation of gelatin and MSNPs. Besides, embedding the scaffolds with MSNPs resulted in improved tensile mechanical properties. Cultivation of PC12 cells on the scaffolds demonstrated that introduction of MSNPs into PLGA and PLGA/gelatin matrices leads to the improved cell attachment and proliferation as well as long cellular processes. DAPI staining results indicated that cell proliferations on the PLGA/10 wt% MSNPs and the PLGA/gelatin/10 wt% MSNPs scaffolds were strikingly (nearly 2.5 and 3 folds, respectively) higher than that on the aligned pure PLGA scaffolds. These results suggest superior properties of silica nanoparticles-incorporated PLGA/gelatin eletrospun nanofibrous scaffolds for the stem cell culture and tissue engineering applications.

  11. Ultraviolet to near infrared response of optically sensitive nonvolatile memories based on platinum nano-particles and high-k dielectrics on a silicon on insulator substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhelashvili, V.; Meyler, B.; Shneider, Y.; Yofis, S.; Salzman, J.; Atiya, G.; Cohen-Hyams, T.; Ankonina, G.; Kaplan, W. D.; Lisiansky, M.; Roizin, Y.; Eisenstein, G.

    2013-02-01

    An optically triggered nonvolatile memory based on platinum nano-particles embedded within a SiO2 and HfO2 dielectric stack on a silicon on insulator (SOI) substrate is presented. The memory cell exhibits a very wide spectral response, from 220 nm to 950 nm; much wider than common photo-detectors fabricated on SOI. It offers several functionalities including a low programming voltage and wide hysteresis of the capacitance-voltage characteristics, an illumination and voltage sweep amplitude dependent hysteresis of the current-voltage characteristics, and plasmonic enhanced, efficient broad-band photo detection.

  12. Size Control of Porous Silicon-Based Nanoparticles via Pore-Wall Thinning.

    PubMed

    Secret, Emilie; Leonard, Camille; Kelly, Stefan J; Uhl, Amanda; Cozzan, Clayton; Andrew, Jennifer S

    2016-02-02

    Photoluminescent silicon nanocrystals are very attractive for biomedical and electronic applications. Here a new process is presented to synthesize photoluminescent silicon nanocrystals with diameters smaller than 6 nm from a porous silicon template. These nanoparticles are formed using a pore-wall thinning approach, where the as-etched porous silicon layer is partially oxidized to silica, which is dissolved by a hydrofluoric acid solution, decreasing the pore-wall thickness. This decrease in pore-wall thickness leads to a corresponding decrease in the size of the nanocrystals that make up the pore walls, resulting in the formation of smaller nanoparticles during sonication of the porous silicon. Particle diameters were measured using dynamic light scattering, and these values were compared with the nanocrystallite size within the pore wall as determined from X-ray diffraction. Additionally, an increase in the quantum confinement effect is observed for these particles through an increase in the photoluminescence intensity of the nanoparticles compared with the as-etched nanoparticles, without the need for a further activation step by oxidation after synthesis.

  13. Silanization effect on the photoluminescence characteristics of crystalline and amorphous silicon nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Caregnato, Paula; Dell'Arciprete, Maria Laura; Gonzalez, Mónica Cristina

    2013-09-01

    Silicon nanoparticles synthesized by two different methods were surface modified with 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane. The particles of ~2 nm size exhibit photoluminescence (PL) in the UV-Vis range of the spectrum. The most intense PL band at 430 nm with an emission lifetime of 1-2 ns is attributed to the presence of the surface defects Si-O-Si, generated after anchoring the organic molecule onto the interface. The excitation-emission matrix of this band is essentially independent of the technique of synthesis, crystalline structure, and size of the silicon nanoparticles.

  14. Low-temperature deposition of crystalline silicon nitride nanoparticles by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chan-Soo; Youn, Woong-Kyu; Lee, Dong-Kwon; Seol, Kwang-Soo; Hwang, Nong-Moon

    2009-07-01

    The nanocrystalline alpha silicon nitride (α-Si 3N 4) was deposited on a silicon substrate by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition at the substrate temperature of 700 °C under 4 and 40 Torr at the wire temperatures of 1430 and 1730 °C, with a gas mixture of SiH 4 and NH 3. The size and density of crystalline nanoparticles on the substrate increased with increasing wire temperature. With increasing reactor pressure, the crystallinity of α-Si 3N 4 nanoparticles increased, but the deposition rate decreased.

  15. Enhanced UV light detection using wavelength-shifting properties of Silicon nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magill, S.; Nayfeh, M.; Fizari, M.; Malloy, J.; Maximenko, Y.; Xie, J.; Yu, H.

    2015-05-01

    Detection of UV photons is becoming increasingly necessary with the use of noble gases and liquids in elementary particle experiments. Cerenkov light in crystals and glasses, scintillation light in neutrino, dark matter, and rare decay experiments all require sensitivity to UV photons. New sensor materials are needed that can directly detect UV photons and/or absorb UV photons and re-emit light in the visible range measurable by existing photosensors. It has been shown that silicon nanoparticles are sensitive to UV light in a wavelength range around ~ 200 nm. UV light is absorbed and re-emitted at wavelengths in the visible range depending on the size of the nanoparticles. Initial tests of the wavelength-shifting properties of silicon nanoparticles are presented here that indicate by placing a film of nanoparticles in front of a standard visible-wavelength detecting photosensor, the response of the sensor is significantly enhanced at wavelengths < 320 nm.

  16. Manufacturing carbon nanofiber electrodes with embedded metallic nanoparticles using block copolymers templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazinejad, Maziar; Holmberg, Sunshine; Madou, Marc

    2016-09-01

    Owing to its superb thermal and electrical attributes, as well as electrochemical stability, carbon is emerging as an attractive material for fabrication of many bioelectrochemical devices such as biosensors and biofuel cells. However, carbon's inert nature makes it difficult to functionalize with biocatalysts; often requiring harsh chemical treatment, such as nitric acid oxidation, to attach reactive amines and carboxylic acids to its surface. Recent studies, however, points toward a self-assembly approach for fabricating well organized layers of carbon loaded with arrays of metallic nanoparticles patterned by block-copolymers (BCP) templates. Herein, we demonstrate an effective method for developing carbon nanofibers meshes embedded with metal nanoparticles, by incorporating a BCP self-assembly approach into our C-MEMS fabrication technique. The main phase of this hybrid method includes electrospinning metal salt-loaded BCP into nanofiber meshes, and subsequently reducing the metal salts into metal nanoparticles prior to pyrolysis. This cost-effective process will pave the way for fabricating scalable advanced 3-D carbon electrodes that can be applied to biosensors and biofuel cells devices.

  17. High efficiency removal of dissolved As(III) using iron nanoparticle-embedded macroporous polymer composites.

    PubMed

    Savina, Irina N; English, Christopher J; Whitby, Raymond L D; Zheng, Yishan; Leistner, Andre; Mikhalovsky, Sergey V; Cundy, Andrew B

    2011-09-15

    Novel nanocomposite materials where iron nanoparticles are embedded into the walls of a macroporous polymer were produced and their efficiency for the removal of As(III) from aqueous media was studied. Nanocomposite gels containing α-Fe(2)O(3) and Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles were prepared by cryopolymerisation resulting in a monolithic structure with large interconnected pores up to 100 μm in diameter and possessing a high permeability (ca. 3 × 10(-3) ms(-1)). The nanocomposite devices showed excellent capability for the removal of trace concentrations of As(III) from solution, with a total capacity of up to 3mg As/g of nanoparticles. The leaching of iron was minimal and the device could operate in a pH range 3-9 without diminishing removal efficiency. The effect of competing ions such as SO(4)(2-) and PO(4)(3-) was negligible. The macroporous composites can be easily configured into a variety of shapes and structures and the polymer matrix can be selected from a variety of monomers, offering high potential as flexible metal cation remediation devices.

  18. Neuro-fuzzy estimation of passive robotic joint safe velocity with embedded sensors of conductive silicone rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Shammari, Eiman Tamah; Petković, Dalibor; Danesh, Amir Seyed; Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Issa, Mirna; Zentner, Lena

    2016-05-01

    Robotic operations need to be safe for unpredictable contacts. Joints with passive compliance with springs can be used for soft robotic contacts. However the joints cannot measure external collision forces. In this investigation was developed one passive compliant joint which have soft contacts with external objects and measurement capabilities. To ensure it, conductive silicone rubber was used as material for modeling of the compliant segments of the robotic joint. These compliant segments represent embedded sensors. The conductive silicone rubber is electrically conductive by deformations. The main task was to obtain elastic absorbers for the external collision forces. These absorbers can be used for measurement in the same time. In other words, the joint has an internal measurement system. Adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) was used to estimate the safety level of the robotic joint by head injury criteria (HIC).

  19. Comparative study of CNT, silicon nanowire and fullerene embedded multilayer high-k gate dielectric MOS memory devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Amretashis; Sarkar, Chandan Kumar; Requejo, Felix G.

    2011-10-01

    Here, we present a comparative theoretical study on stacked (multilayer) gate dielectric MOS memory devices, having a metallic/semiconducting carbon nanotube (CNT), silicon nanowire (Si NW) and fullerene (C60) embedded nitride layer acting as a floating gate. Two types of devices, one with HfO2-SiO2 stack (stack-1) and the other with La2O3-SiO2 stack (stack-2) as the tunnel oxide were compared. We evaluated the effective barrier height, the dielectric constant and the effective electron mobility in the composite gate dielectric with the Maxwell-Garnett effective medium theory. Thereafter applying the WKB approximation, we simulated the Fowler-Nordheim (F-N) tunnelling/writing current and the direct tunnelling/leakage current in these devices. We evaluated the I-V characteristics, the charge decay and also the impact of CNT/Si NW aspect ratio and the volume fraction on the effective barrier height and the write voltage, respectively. We also simulated the write time, retention time and the erase time of these MOS devices. Based on the simulation results, it was concluded that the metallic CNT embedded stack-1 device offered the best performance in terms of higher F-N tunnelling current, lower direct tunnelling current and lesser write voltage and write time compared with the other devices. In case of direct tunnelling leakage and retention time it was found that the met CNT embedded stack-2 device showed better characteristics. For erasing, however, the C60 embedded stack-1 device showed the smallest erase time. When compared with earlier reports, it was seen that CNT, C60 and Si NW embedded devices all performed better than nanocrystalline Si embedded MOS non-volatile memories.

  20. Hollow core-shell structured silicon@carbon nanoparticles embed in carbon nanofibers as binder-free anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yanli; Hu, Yi; Shen, Zhen; Chen, Renzhong; He, Xia; Zhang, Xiangwu; Li, Yongqiang; Wu, Keshi

    2017-02-01

    Silicon is regarded as one of the most promising candidates for lithium-ion battery anodes owing to its large theoretical energy density (about 4200 mAh g-1) and low working potential (vs. Li/Li+). However, its practical application is limited by structure degradation and a comparatively poor capacity retention caused by large volume changes during cycling. In this study, we have prepared a novel nanofiber form of silicon/carbon with hollow core-shell structured silicon@carbon (Si@C) nanoparticles embedded in carbon nanofibers. Voids between the silicon nanoparticle (SiNP) core and carbon shell help to accommodate the volume expansion associated with the lithiation/delithiation process in a working electrode and allow formation of a stable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) film. The obtained electrodes exhibited good cycle performance with a high reversible capacity of 1020.7 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles at a current density of 0.2 A g-1, and also delivered excellent cycling performance at a high current density of 3.2 A g-1. The design of this new structure provides a potential method for developing other functional composite anode materials with high reversible capacities and long-term cycle stabilities.

  1. Palladium nanoparticle deposition via precipitation: a new method to functionalize macroporous silicon

    PubMed Central

    Scheen, Gilles; Bassu, Margherita; Douchamps, Antoine; Zhang, Chao; Debliquy, Marc; Francis, Laurent A

    2014-01-01

    We present an original two-step method for the deposition via precipitation of Pd nanoparticles into macroporous silicon. The method consists in immersing a macroporous silicon sample in a PdCl2/DMSO solution and then in annealing the sample at a high temperature. The impact of composition and concentration of the solution and annealing time on the nanoparticle characteristics is investigated. This method is compared to electroless plating, which is a standard method for the deposition of Pd nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscopy and computerized image processing are used to evaluate size, shape, surface density and deposition homogeneity of the Pd nanoparticles on the pore walls. Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses are used to evaluate the composition of the deposited nanoparticles. In contrast to electroless plating, the proposed method leads to homogeneously distributed Pd nanoparticles along the macropores depth with a surface density that increases proportionally with the PdCl2 concentration. Moreover EDX and XPS analysis showed that the nanoparticles are composed of Pd in its metallic state, while nanoparticles deposited by electroless plating are composed of both metallic Pd and PdOx. PMID:27877732

  2. Structure and magnetism in Fe/FexPd1-x core/shell nanoparticles formed by alloying in Pd-embedded Fe nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Baker, S H; Lees, M; Roy, M; Binns, C

    2013-09-25

    We have investigated atomic structure and magnetism in Fe nanoparticles with a diameter of 2 nm embedded in a Pd matrix. The samples for these studies were prepared directly from the gas phase by co-deposition, using a gas aggregation source and an MBE-type source for the Fe nanoparticles and Pd matrix respectively. Extended absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements indicate that there is an appreciable degree of alloying at the nanoparticle/matrix interface; at dilute nanoparticle concentrations, more than half of the Fe atoms are alloyed with Pd. This leads to a core/shell structure in the embedded nanoparticles, with an FexPd1-x shell surrounding a reduced pure Fe core. Magnetism in the nanocomposite samples was probed by means of magnetometry measurements, which were interpreted in the light of their atomic structure. These point to a magnetized cloud of Pd atoms surrounding the embedded nanoparticles which is significantly larger than around single Fe atoms in Pd. The coercivities in the Fe/Pd nanocomposite samples are larger than in FexPd1-x atomic alloys of corresponding composition, which is consistent with exchange coupling between the magnetically harder and softer regions in the nanocomposite samples.

  3. Role of metal and dielectric nanoparticles in the performance enhancement of silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Sonali; Kundu, Avra; Saha, Hiranmay; Datta, Swapan K.

    2012-08-01

    The suitability of using spherical metal and dielectric nanoparticles on the top of a silicon solar cell has been investigated. An enhancement index factor (EIF) for each wavelength of light and an averaged EIF for the AM 1.5 solar spectrum, weighted by the photon flux, has been introduced. These factors estimate the effect of the nanoparticles in improving the performance of the solar cells, considering the absorption loss due to joule heating, fraction of radiation scattered into the substrate and the front scattered radiation pattern. A systematic comparison between silver and dielectric nanoparticles (silica, silicon nitride, titanium dioxide) shows that titanium dioxide and silicon nitride nano particles of sizes ≥100 nm exhibit larger enhancements compared to that of silver nanoparticles of similar sizes. Further, as the dielectric constant of the dielectric nanoparticles increases, the optimal particle size corresponding to maximal enhancement shifts towards lower value. At optimal particle sizes, the enhancement is 1.5-2 times greater than that due to silver nanoparticles.

  4. One-pot laser-assisted synthesis of porous carbon with embedded magnetic cobalt nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghimbeu, Camélia Matei; Sopronyi, Mihai; Sima, Felix; Delmotte, Luc; Vaulot, Cyril; Zlotea, Claudia; Paul-Boncour, Valérie; Le Meins, Jean-Marc

    2015-05-01

    A novel one-pot laser-assisted approach is reported herein for the synthesis of ordered carbons with embedded cobalt nanoparticles. The process is based on a UV pulsed laser exposure of an ethanolic solution consisting of green carbon precursors, a structure directing agent and a cobalt salt. Very short irradiation times (5 to 30 min) are only required to polymerize and cross-link carbon precursors (i.e. phloroglucinol and glyoxylic acid) independent of a catalyst presence. The influence of three metallic salts (acetate, nitrate and chloride) on the phenolic resin and carbon characteristics (structure, texture and particle size/distribution) was systematically studied. When exposed to UV laser, the metallic salt exhibited a strong influence on the particle size and distribution in the carbon matrix rather than on the textural carbon properties. Using cobalt acetate, very small (3.5 nm) and uniformly dispersed particles were obtained by this simple, fast and green one-pot synthesis approach. An original combined 13C CP-MAS and DP-DEC solid state NMR spectroscopy analysis allowed to determine the structure of phenolic resins as well as the location of the cobalt salt in the resin. Complementarily, the 1H solid-state and relaxation NMR provided unique insights into the rigidity (cross-linking) of the phenolic resin and dispersion of the cobalt salt. The magnetic properties of cobalt nanoparticles were found to be size-dependent: large Co nanoparticles (~50 nm) behave as bulk Co whereas small Co nanoparticles are superparamagnetic.A novel one-pot laser-assisted approach is reported herein for the synthesis of ordered carbons with embedded cobalt nanoparticles. The process is based on a UV pulsed laser exposure of an ethanolic solution consisting of green carbon precursors, a structure directing agent and a cobalt salt. Very short irradiation times (5 to 30 min) are only required to polymerize and cross-link carbon precursors (i.e. phloroglucinol and glyoxylic acid

  5. Biphasic peptide amphiphile nanomatrix embedded with hydroxyapatite nanoparticles for stimulated osteoinductive response.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Joel M; Patterson, Jessica L; Vines, Jeremy B; Javed, Amjad; Gilbert, Shawn R; Jun, Ho-Wook

    2011-12-27

    Formation of the native bone extracellular matrix (ECM) provides an attractive template for bone tissue engineering. The structural support and biological complexity of bone ECM are provided within a composite microenvironment that consists of an organic fibrous network reinforced by inorganic hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles. Recreating this biphasic assembly, a bone ECM analogous scaffold comprising self-assembling peptide amphiphile (PA) nanofibers and interspersed HA nanoparticles was investigated. PAs were endowed with biomolecular ligand signaling using a synthetically inscribed peptide sequence (i.e., RGDS) and integrated with HA nanoparticles to form a biphasic nanomatrix hydrogel. It was hypothesized the biphasic hydrogel would induce osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and improve bone healing as mediated by RGDS ligand signaling within PA nanofibers and embedded HA mineralization source. Viscoelastic stability of the biphasic PA hydrogels was evaluated with different weight concentrations of HA for improved gelation. After demonstrating initial viability, long-term cellularity and osteoinduction of encapsulated hMSCs in different PA hydrogels were studied in vitro. Temporal progression of osteogenic maturation was assessed by gene expression of key markers. A preliminary animal study demonstrated bone healing capacity of the biphasic PA nanomatrix under physiological conditions using a critical size femoral defect rat model. The combination of RGDS ligand signaling and HA nanoparticles within the biphasic PA nanomatrix hydrogel demonstrated the most effective osteoinduction and comparative bone healing response. Therefore, the biphasic PA nanomatrix establishes a well-organized scaffold with increased similarity to natural bone ECM with the prospect for improved bone tissue regeneration.

  6. Tuning the SERS Response with Ag-Au Nanoparticle-Embedded Polymer Thin Film Substrates.

    PubMed

    Rao, V Kesava; Radhakrishnan, T P

    2015-06-17

    Development of facile routes to the fabrication of thin film substrates with tunable surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) efficiency and identification of the optimal conditions for maximizing the enhancement factor (EF) are significant in terms of both fundamental and application aspects of SERS. In the present work, polymer thin films with embedded bimetallic nanoparticles of Ag-Au are fabricated by a simple two-stage protocol. Ag nanoparticles are formed in the first stage, by the in situ reduction of silver nitrate by the poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) film through mild thermal annealing, without any additional reducing agent. In the second stage, aqueous solutions of chloroauric acid spread on the Ag-PVA thin film under ambient conditions, lead to the galvanic displacement of Ag by Au in situ inside the film, and the formation of Ag-Au particles. Evolution of the morphology of the bimetallic nanoparticles into hollow cage structures and the distribution of Au on the nanoparticles are revealed through electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) extinction of the nanocomposite thin film evolves with the Ag-Au composition; theoretical simulation of the extinction spectra provides insight into the observed trends. The Ag-Au-PVA thin films are found to be efficient substrates for SERS. The EF follows the variation of the LSPR extinction vis-à-vis the excitation laser wavelength, but with an offset, and the maximum SERS effect is obtained at very low Au content; experiments with Rhodamine 6G showed EFs on the order of 10(8) and a limit of detection of 0.6 pmol. The present study describes a facile and simple fabrication of a nanocomposite thin film that can be conveniently deployed in SERS investigations, and the utility of the bimetallic system to tune and maximize the EF.

  7. Solid-state synthesis of embedded single-crystal metal oxide and phosphate nanoparticles and in situ crystallization.

    PubMed

    Díaz, C; Valenzuela, M L; Bravo, D; Dickinson, C; O'Dwyer, C

    2011-10-01

    A new solid state organometallic route to embedded nanoparticle-containing inorganic materials is shown, through pyrolysis of metal-containing derivatives of cyclotriphosphazenes. Pyrolysis in air and at 800 °C of new molecular precursors gives individual single-crystal nanoparticles of SiP(2)O(7), TiO(2), P(4)O(7,) WP(2)O(7) and SiO(2), depending on the precursor used. High resolution transmission electron microscopy investigations reveal, in most cases, perfect single crystals of metal oxides and the first nanostructures of negative thermal expansion metal phosphates with diameters in the range 2-6 nm for all products. While all nanoparticles are new by this method, WP(2)O(7) and SiP(2)O(7) nanoparticles are reported for the first time. In situ recrystallization formation of nanocrystals of SiP(2)O(7) was also observed due to electron beam induced reactions during measurements of the nanoparticulate pyrolytic products SiO(2) and P(4)O(7). The possible mechanism for the formation of the nanoparticles at much lower temperatures than their bulk counterparts in both cases is discussed. Degrees of stabilization from the formation of P(4)O(7) affects the nanocrystalline products: nanoparticles are observed for WP(2)O(7), with coalescing crystallization occurring for the amorphous host in which SiP(2)O(7) crystals form as a solid within a solid. The approach allows the simple formation of multimetallic, monometallic, metal-oxide and metal phosphate nanocrystals embedded in an amorphous dielectric. The method and can be extended to nearly any metal capable of successful coordination as an organometallic to allow embedded nanoparticle layers and features to be deposited or written on surfaces for application as high mobility pyrophosphate lithium-ion cathode materials, catalysis and nanocrystal embedded dielectric layers.

  8. Enhanced magneto-optical effects in composite coaxial nanowires embedded with Ag nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qianwen; Zheng, Xuanli; He, Jialun; Wang, Weiping; Fu, Mingming; Cao, Yiyan; Li, Heng; Wu, Yaping; Chen, Ting; Zhang, Chunmiao; Chen, Xiaohong; Yu, Binbin; Li, Shuping; Kang, Junyong; Wu, Zhiming

    2016-01-01

    Nanostructures decorated with noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) exhibit potential for use in highly sensitive optoelectronic devices through the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effect. In this study, Faraday rotation was significantly enhanced through the structural optimization of ferromagnetic (FM)/semiconductor composite nanostructures. Experimental and theoretical results revealed that the position of noble metal NPs significantly influenced the coupling of the LSPR-enhanced electromagnetic field with FM materials. Furthermore, nanostructures embedded with noble metals demonstrated an improved capability to efficiently use the electromagnetic field compared to other structures. The Faraday rotation of ZnO/Ag(NPs)/Fe was enhanced 58 fold compared to that of the ZnO(film)/Fe. This work provides a basis for the design of nanoarchitectures for miniaturized high-performance magneto-optical devices. PMID:27403716

  9. Organic bistable memory devices based on MoO3 nanoparticle embedded Alq3 structures.

    PubMed

    Abhijith, T; Kumar, T V Arun; Reddy, V S

    2017-03-03

    Organic bistable memory devices were fabricated by embedding a thin layer of molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) between two tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3) layers. The device exhibited excellent switching characteristics with an ON/OFF current ratio of 1.15 × 10(3) at a read voltage of 1 V. The device showed repeatable write-erase capability and good stability in both the conductance states. These conductance states are non-volatile in nature and can be obtained by applying appropriate voltage pulses. The effect of MoO3 layer thickness and its location in the Alq3 matrix on characteristics of the memory device was investigated. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) images of the MoO3 layer revealed the presence of isolated nanoparticles. Based on the experimental results, a mechanism has been proposed for explaining the conductance switching of fabricated devices.

  10. Tailoring the surface plasmon resonance of embedded silver nanoparticles by combining nano- and femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doster, J.; Baraldi, G.; Gonzalo, J.; Solis, J.; Hernandez-Rueda, J.; Siegel, J.

    2014-04-01

    We demonstrate that the broad surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of a single layer of near-coalescence silver nanoparticles (NPs), embedded in a dielectric matrix can be tailored by irradiation with a single nanosecond laser pulse into a distribution featuring a sharp resonance at 435 nm. Scanning electron microscopy studies reveal the underlying mechanism to be a transformation into a distribution of well-separated spherical particles. Additional exposure to multiple femtosecond laser pulses at 400 nm or 800 nm wavelength induces polarization anisotropy of the SPR, with a peak shift that increases with laser wavelength. The spectral changes are measured in-situ, employing reflection and transmission micro-spectroscopy with a lateral resolution of 4 μm. Spectral maps as a continuous function of local fluence can be readily produced from a single spot. The results open exciting perspectives for dynamically tuning and switching the optical response of NP systems, paving the way for next-generation applications.

  11. Cobalt diselenide nanoparticles embedded within porous carbon polyhedra as advanced electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Renbing; Xue, Yanhong; Liu, Bo; Zhou, Kun; Wei, Jun; Chan, Siew Hwa

    2016-10-01

    Highly efficient and cost-effective electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is crucial for a variety of renewable energy applications. Herein, strongly coupled hybrid composites composed of cobalt diselenide (CoSe2) nanoparticles embedded within graphitic carbon polyhedra (GCP) as high-performance ORR catalyst have been rationally designed and synthesized. The catalyst is fabricated by a convenient method, which involves the simultaneous pyrolysis and selenization of preformed Co-based zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-67). Benefiting from the unique structural features, the resulting CoSe2/GCP hybrid catalyst shows high stability and excellent electrocatalytic activity towards ORR (the onset and half-wave potentials are 0.935 and 0.806 V vs. RHE, respectively), which is superior to the state-of-the-art commercial Pt/C catalyst (0.912 and 0.781 V vs. RHE, respectively).

  12. Iron oxide nanoparticles embedded in activated carbons prepared from hydrothermally treated waste biomass.

    PubMed

    Hao, Wenming; Björkman, Eva; Yun, Yifeng; Lilliestråle, Malte; Hedin, Niklas

    2014-03-01

    Particles of iron oxide (Fe3O4 ; 20–40 nm) were embedded within activated carbons during the activation of hydrothermally carbonized (HTC) biomasses in a flow of CO2. Four different HTC biomass samples (horse manure, grass cuttings, beer production waste, and biosludge) were used as precursors for the activated carbons. Nanoparticles of iron oxide formed from iron catalyst included in the HTC biomasses. After systematic optimization, the activated carbons had specific surface areas of about 800 m2g1. The pore size distributions of the activated carbons depended strongly on the degree of carbonization of the precursors. Activated carbons prepared from highly carbonized precursors had mainly micropores, whereas those prepared from less carbonized precursors contained mainly mesopores. Given the strong magnetism of the activated carbon–nano-Fe3O4 composites, they could be particularly useful for water purification.

  13. Absorption Enhancement in Organic–Inorganic Halide Perovskite Films with Embedded Plasmonic Gold Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report on the numerical analysis of solar absorption enhancement in organic–inorganic halide perovskite films embedding plasmonic gold nanoparticles. The effect of particle size and concentration is analyzed in realistic systems in which random particle location within the perovskite film and the eventual formation of dimers are also taken into account. We find a maximum integrated solar absorption enhancement of ∼10% in perovskite films of 200 nm thickness and ∼6% in 300 nm films, with spheres of radii 60 and 90 nm, respectively, in volume concentrations of around 10% in both cases. We show that the presence of dimers boosts the absorption enhancement up to ∼12% in the thinnest films considered. Absorption reinforcement arises from a double contribution of plasmonic near-field and scattering effects, whose respective weight can be discriminated and evaluated from the simulations. PMID:26500712

  14. Silver Nanoparticle-Embedded Thin Silica-Coated Graphene Oxide as an SERS Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Xuan-Hung; Hahm, Eunil; Kim, Hyung-Mo; Shim, Seongbo; Kim, Tae Han; Jeong, Dae Hong; Lee, Yoon-Sik; Jun, Bong-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid of Ag nanoparticle (NP)-embedded thin silica-coated graphene oxide (GO@SiO2@Ag NPs) was prepared as a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate. A 6 nm layer of silica was successfully coated on the surface of GO by the physical adsorption of sodium silicate, followed by the hydrolysis of 3-mercaptopropyl trimethoxysilane. Ag NPs were introduced onto the thin silica-coated graphene oxide by the reduction of Ag+ to prepare GO@SiO2@Ag NPs. The GO@SiO2@Ag NPs exhibited a 1.8-fold enhanced Raman signal compared to GO without a silica coating. The GO@SiO2@Ag NPs showed a detection limit of 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4-MBA) at 0.74 μM. PMID:28335304

  15. Organic bistable memory devices based on MoO3 nanoparticle embedded Alq3 structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abhijith, T.; Kumar, T. V. Arun; Reddy, V. S.

    2017-03-01

    Organic bistable memory devices were fabricated by embedding a thin layer of molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) between two tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3) layers. The device exhibited excellent switching characteristics with an ON/OFF current ratio of 1.15 × 103 at a read voltage of 1 V. The device showed repeatable write–erase capability and good stability in both the conductance states. These conductance states are non-volatile in nature and can be obtained by applying appropriate voltage pulses. The effect of MoO3 layer thickness and its location in the Alq3 matrix on characteristics of the memory device was investigated. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) images of the MoO3 layer revealed the presence of isolated nanoparticles. Based on the experimental results, a mechanism has been proposed for explaining the conductance switching of fabricated devices.

  16. Reliable Quantitative SERS Analysis Facilitated by Core-Shell Nanoparticles with Embedded Internal Standards.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wei; Lin, Xuan; Jiang, Chaoyang; Li, Chaoyu; Lin, Haixin; Huang, Jingtao; Wang, Shuo; Liu, Guokun; Yan, Xiaomei; Zhong, Qiling; Ren, Bin

    2015-06-15

    Quantitative analysis is a great challenge in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Core-molecule-shell nanoparticles with two components in the molecular layer, a framework molecule to form the shell, and a probe molecule as a Raman internal standard, were rationally designed for quantitative SERS analysis. The signal of the embedded Raman probe provides effective feedback to correct the fluctuation of samples and measuring conditions. Meanwhile, target molecules with different affinities can be adsorbed onto the shell. The quantitative analysis of target molecules over a large concentration range has been demonstrated with a linear response of the relative SERS intensity versus the surface coverage, which has not been achieved by conventional SERS methods.

  17. Few-layer graphene sheets with embedded gold nanoparticles for electrochemical analysis of adenine

    PubMed Central

    Biris, Alexandru R; Pruneanu, Stela; Pogacean, Florina; Lazar, Mihaela D; Borodi, Gheorghe; Ardelean, Stefania; Dervishi, Enkeleda; Watanabe, Fumiya; Biris, Alexandru S

    2013-01-01

    This work describes the synthesis of few-layer graphene sheets embedded with various amounts of gold nanoparticles (Gr-Au-x) over an Aux/MgO catalytic system (where × = 1, 2, or 3 wt%). The sheet-like morphology of the Gr-Au-x nanostructures was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy, which also demonstrated that the number of layers within the sheets varied from two to seven. The sample with the highest percentage of gold nanoparticles embedded within the graphitic layers (Gr-Au-3) showed the highest degree of crystallinity. This distinct feature, along with the large number of edge-planes seen in high resolution transmission electron microscopic images, has a crucial effect on the electrocatalytic properties of this material. The reaction yields (40%–50%) and the final purity (96%–98%) of the Gr-Au-x composites were obtained by thermogravimetric analysis. The Gr-Au-x composites were used to modify platinum substrates and subsequently to detect adenine, one of the DNA bases. For the bare electrode, no oxidation signal was recorded. In contrast, all of the modified electrodes showed a strong electrocatalytic effect, and a clear peak for adenine oxidation was recorded at approximately +1.05 V. The highest increase in the electrochemical signal was obtained using a platinum/Gr-Au-3-modified electrode. In addition, this modified electrode had an exchange current density (I0, obtained from the Tafel plot) one order of magnitude higher than that of the bare platinum electrode, which also confirmed that the transfer of electrons took place more readily at the Gr-Au-3-modified electrode. PMID:23610521

  18. High performance silicon nanoparticle anode in fluoroethylene carbonate-based electrolyte for Li-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yong-Mao; Klavetter, Kyle C; Abel, Paul R; Davy, Nicholas C; Snider, Jonathan L; Heller, Adam; Mullins, C Buddie

    2012-07-25

    Electrodes composed of silicon nanoparticles (SiNP) were prepared by slurry casting and then electrochemically tested in a fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC)-based electrolyte. The capacity retention after cycling was significantly improved compared to electrodes cycled in a traditional ethylene carbonate (EC)-based electrolyte.

  19. Hollow silicon carbide nanoparticles from a non-thermal plasma process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Devin; Lopez, Thomas; Yasar-Inceoglu, Ozgul; Mangolini, Lorenzo

    2015-05-01

    We demonstrate the synthesis of hollow silicon carbide nanoparticles via a two-step process involving the non-thermal plasma synthesis of silicon nanoparticles, followed by their in-flight carbonization, also initiated by a non-thermal plasma. Simple geometric considerations associated with the expansion of the silicon lattice upon carbonization, in combination of the spherical geometry of the system, explain the formation of hollow nanostructures. This is in contrast with previous reports that justify the formation of hollow particles by means of out-diffusion of the core element, i.e., by the Kirkendall nanoscale effect. A theoretical analysis of the diffusion kinetics indicates that interaction with the ionized gas induces significant nanoparticle heating, allowing for the fast transport of carbon into the silicon particle and for the subsequent nucleation of the beta-silicon carbide phase. This work confirms the potential of non-thermal plasma processes for the synthesis of nanostructures composed of high-melting point materials, and suggests that such processes can be tuned to achieve morphological control.

  20. Active systems based on silver-montmorillonite nanoparticles embedded into bio-based polymer matrices for packaging applications.

    PubMed

    Incoronato, A L; Buonocore, G G; Conte, A; Lavorgna, M; Nobile, M A Del

    2010-12-01

    Silver-montmorillonite (Ag-MMT) antimicrobial nanoparticles were obtained by allowing silver ions from nitrate solutions to replace the Na(+) of natural montmorillonite and to be reduced by thermal treatment. The Ag-MMT nanoparticles were embedded in agar, zein, and poly(ε-caprolactone) polymer matrices. These nanocomposites were tested in vitro with a three-strain cocktail of Pseudomonas spp. to assess antimicrobial effectiveness. The results indicate that Ag-MMT nanoparticles embedded into agar may have antimicrobial activity against selected spoilage microorganisms. No antimicrobial effects were recorded with active zein and poly(ε-caprolactone). The water content of the polymeric matrix was the key parameter associated with antimicrobial effectiveness of this active system intended for food packaging applications.

  1. Luminescent amorphous silicon carbide ultrafine nanoparticles fabricated by pulsed-laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jun; Hu, Shan; Wang, Wei; Xia, Wei-wei; Chen, Hai-tao; Chen, Xiao-bing

    2017-04-01

    Bulk quantities of amorphous silicon carbide(SiC) ultrafine nanoparticles have been prepared via pulsed-laser ablation on a polished 3C-SiC polycrystalline target immersed in de-ionized water. The diameter of the nanoparticles is 10 ± 2.0 nm. The surface of the nanoparticles binds to the -H and -OH groups in water, suggesting that the ultrafine nanoparticles are hydrophilic. A direct band gap energy of 5.3 eV and an indirect band gap energy of 2.4 eV were determined via the ultraviolet-visible absorption characterization, which implies that the nanoparticles are of SiC. As excited at 320 nm, the suspension exhibited strong and stable violet emissions centered at 430 nm.

  2. Scattering of long wavelengths into thin silicon photovoltaic films by plasmonic silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osgood, R. M.; Bullion, K. M.; Giardini, S. A.; Carlson, J. B.; Stenhouse, P.; Kingsborough, R.; Liberman, V.; Parameswaran, L.; Rothschild, M.; Miller, O.; Kooi, S.; Joannopoulos, J.; Jeffrey, F.; Braymen, S.; Gill, H. Singh; Kumar, J.

    2014-10-01

    Nanoparticles and nanostructures with plasmonic resonances are currently being employed to enhance the efficiency of solar cells. 1-3 Ag stripe arrays have been shown theoretically to enhance the short-circuit current of thin silicon layers. 4 Monolayers of Ag nanoparticles with diameter d < 300 nm have shown strong plasmonic resonances when coated in thin polymer layers with thicknesses < d.5 We study experimentally the diffuse vs. specular scattering from monolayer arrays of Ag nanoparticles (spheres and prisms with diameters in the range 50 - 300 nm) coated onto the front side of thin (100 nm < t < 500 nm) silicon films deposited on glass and flexible polymer substrates, the latter originating in a roll-to-roll manufacturing process. Ag nanoparticles are held in place and aggregation is prevented with a polymer overcoat. We observe interesting wavelength shifts between maxima in specular and diffuse scattering that depend on particle size and shape, indicating that the nanoparticles substantially modify the scattering into the thin silicon film.

  3. Embedding MnO nanoparticles in robust carbon microsheets for excellent lithium storage properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junlei; Chen, Ning; Pan, Qinmin

    2015-12-01

    MnO is a promising anode material for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), but a big challenge remains in impeding its structural and kinetic deterioration in the lithiation/delithiation process. In this study, we report that the structural integrity and electrochemical kinetics of MnO electrodes can be significantly enhanced by homogenously embedding MnO nanoparticles in robust carbon microsheets. The MnO/C microsheets were synthesized by sintering polyurethane (PU) sponge grafted with manganese polyacrylate at 800 °C. At a current density of 100 mA g-1, the resulting microsheets delivered a high reversible capacity of 797.6 mAh g-1 after 50 cycles. They also exhibited good cycling stability and rate capability of 323.2 mAh g-1 at 2000 mA g-1, showing one of the best lithium storage properties among the reported MnO anodes. The excellent electrochemical performance is attributed to the buffering, confining and conducting effects of robust carbon microsheets on MnO nanoparticles. These synergistic effects allow the hybrid microsheets to keep good structural integrity, high electronic conduction, and fast electrochemical kinetics in the cycling process. Our findings offer an alternative strategy to address the structural and kinetic issues of a MnO anode in the lithiation/delithiation process, which might be extendable to other electrode materials of LIBs.

  4. Silver nanoparticle-embedded graphene oxide-methotrexate for targeted cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Raj Kumar; Kim, Jae Hee; Jeong, Jee-Heon; Shin, Beom Soo; Choi, Han-Gon; Yong, Chul Soon; Kim, Jong Oh

    2017-05-01

    Combination therapies are widely investigated cancer treatment modalities. Carbon based systems such as graphene oxide (GO), plasmonic nanoparticles such as silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), and the folate analog, methotrexate (MTX), have been separately studied for their potential anticancer effects. In this study, we combined these systems to develop AgNPs-embedded GO with conjugated MTX (MTX-GO/AgNPs) and studied their folate receptor-targeted anticancer effects. Results revealed successful formation of AgNPs on GO along with MTX conjugation as suggested by UV/visible, TEM, AFM, FTIR, and XRD analysis. Folate receptor-positive MCF-7 cells were more prone to cytotoxic effects of MTX-GO/AgNPs compared to folate receptor-negative HepG2 cells. Folic acid analog MTX interacts with folate receptors expressed in MCF-7 cells, improving cellular uptake and subsequent anticancer effects of the system. Importantly, AgNPs enhanced the total ROS production within the treated cells leading to improve cellular apoptosis, as evidenced by western blot. Moreover, near infrared (NIR)-induced photothermal effects of GO improved the anticancer activity of the system. Therefore, the combinational therapy system MTX-GO/AgNPs can be potentially applied for effective folate receptor-targeted treatment of cancers.

  5. Polymeric nanoparticles-embedded organogel for roxithromycin delivery to hair follicles.

    PubMed

    Główka, Eliza; Wosicka-Frąckowiak, Hanna; Hyla, Kinga; Stefanowska, Justyna; Jastrzębska, Katarzyna; Klapiszewski, Łukasz; Jesionowski, Teofil; Cal, Krzysztof

    2014-09-01

    Drug delivery into hair follicles with the use of nanoparticles (NPs) is gaining more importance as drug-loaded NPs may accumulate in hair follicle openings. The aim was to develop and evaluate a pluronic lecithin organogel (PLO) with roxithromycin (ROX)-loaded NPs for follicular targeting. Polymeric NPs were evaluated in terms of particle shape, size, zeta potential, suspension stability, encapsulation efficiency and in vitro drug release. Lyophilized NPs were incorporated into the PLO and rheological measurements of the nanoparticles-embedded organogels were done. The fate of the NPs in the skin was traced by incorporation of a fluorescent dye into the NPs. As a result, ROX was efficiently incorporated into polymeric NPs characterized by the appropriate size (approximately 300 nm) allowing drug delivery to hair follicles. In ex vivo human skin penetration studies, horizontal skin sections revealed fluorescence deep in the hair follicles. Although the organogel has higher affinity to the lipidic follicular area than an aqueous suspension of NPs, it did not seem to improve penetration of the NPs along the hair shaft. The results proved that it was possible to achieve preferential targeting to the pilosebaceous unit using polymeric NPs formulated either into the aqueous suspension or semisolid topical formulation.

  6. Room-temperature embedment of anatase titania nanoparticles into porous cellulose aerogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Yue; Wan, Caichao; Li, Jian

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, a facile easy method for room-temperature embedment of anatase titania (TiO2) nanoparticles into porous cellulose aerogels was reported. The obtained anatase TiO2/cellulose (ATC) aerogels were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption measurements, and thermogravimetric analysis. The results showed that high-purity anatase TiO2 nanoparticles with sizes of 3.69 ± 0.77 nm were evenly dispersed in the cellulose aerogels, which leaded to the significant improvement in specific surface area and pore volume of ATC aerogels. Meanwhile, the hybrid ATC aerogels also had a high loading content of TiO2 (ca. 17.7 %). Furthermore, through a simple photocatalytic degradation test of indigo carmine dye under UV light, ATC aerogels exhibited superior photocatalytic activity and shape stability, which might be useful in some fields like governance of water pollution, and chemical leaks.

  7. ZnO nanoparticles embedded in UVM-7-like mesoporous silica materials: Synthesis and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haskouri, Jamal El; Dallali, Lobna; Fernández, Lorenzo; Garro, Nuría; Jaziri, Sihem; Latorre, Julio; Guillem, Carmen; Beltrán, Aurelio; Beltrán, Daniel; Amorós, Pedro

    2009-11-01

    ZnO nanodomains embedded in bimodal mesoporous silica (UVM-7) materials with high Zn content (4≤Si/Zn≤30) have been synthesized by an one-pot surfactant-assisted procedure from a hydro alcoholic medium using a cationic surfactant (CTMABr=cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) as structural directing agent, and starting from molecular atrane complexes of Zn and Si as hydrolytic inorganic precursors. This chemical procedure allows optimizing the dispersion of the ZnO particles in the silica walls. The bimodal mesoporous nature of the final high surface area nano-sized materials is confirmed by XRD, TEM, and N 2 adsorption-desorption isotherms. The small intra-particle mesopore system is due to the supramolecular templating effect of the surfactant, while the large pores have their origin in the packing voids generated by aggregation of the primary nanometric mesoporous particles. A limited pore blocking and a high accessibility to the ZnO active nanoparticles have been achieved. The effects induced by the progressive incorporation of ZnO nanoparticles into the mesostructure have been examined, including a careful optical spectroscopic study (PL and UV-visible).

  8. Laser-material interaction during atom probe tomography of oxides with embedded metal nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Shinde, D.; Arnoldi, L.; Devaraj, A.; Vella, A.

    2016-10-28

    Oxide-supported metal nano-particles are of great interest in catalysis but also in the development of new large-spectrum-absorption materials. The design of such nano materials requires three-dimensional characterization with a high spatial resolution and elemental selectivity. The laser assisted Atom Probe Tomography (La-APT) presents both these capacities if an accurate understanding of laser-material interaction is developed. In this paper, we focus on the fundamental physics of field evaporation as a function of sample geometry, laser power, and DC electric field for Au nanoparticles embedded in MgO. By understanding the laser-material interaction through experiments and a theoretical model of heat diffusion inside the sample after the interaction with laser pulse, we point out the physical origin of the noise and determine the conditions to reduce it by more than one order of magnitude, improving the sensitivity of the La-APT for metal-dielectric composites. Published by AIP Publishing.

  9. Core-shell amorphous silicon-carbon nanoparticles for high performance anodes in lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sourice, Julien; Bordes, Arnaud; Boulineau, Adrien; Alper, John P.; Franger, Sylvain; Quinsac, Axelle; Habert, Aurélie; Leconte, Yann; De Vito, Eric; Porcher, Willy; Reynaud, Cécile; Herlin-Boime, Nathalie; Haon, Cédric

    2016-10-01

    Core-shell silicon-carbon nanoparticles are attractive candidates as active material to increase the capacity of Li-ion batteries while mitigating the detrimental effects of volume expansion upon lithiation. However crystalline silicon suffers from amorphization upon the first charge/discharge cycle and improved stability is expected in starting with amorphous silicon. Here we report the synthesis, in a single-step process, of amorphous silicon nanoparticles coated with a carbon shell (a-Si@C), via a two-stage laser pyrolysis where decomposition of silane and ethylene are conducted in two successive reaction zones. Control of experimental conditions mitigates silicon core crystallization as well as formation of silicon carbide. Auger electron spectroscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy show a carbon shell about 1 nm in thickness, which prevents detrimental oxidation of the a-Si cores. Cyclic voltammetry demonstrates that the core-shell composite reaches its maximal lithiation during the first sweep, thanks to its amorphous core. After 500 charge/discharge cycles, it retains a capacity of 1250 mAh.g-1 at a C/5 rate and 800 mAh.g-1 at 2C, with an outstanding coulombic efficiency of 99.95%. Moreover, post-mortem observations show an electrode volume expansion of less than 20% and preservation of the nanostructuration.

  10. Hydrogen generation using silicon nanoparticles and their mixtures with alkali metal hydrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patki, Gauri Dilip

    Hydrogen is a promising energy carrier, for use in fuel cells, engines, and turbines for transportation or mobile applications. Hydrogen is desirable as an energy carrier, because its oxidation by air releases substantial energy (thermally or electrochemically) and produces only water as a product. In contrast, hydrocarbon energy carriers inevitably produce CO2, contributing to global warming. While CO2 capture may prove feasible in large stationary applications, implementing it in transportation and mobile applications is a daunting challenge. Thus a zero-emission energy carrier like hydrogen is especially needed in these cases. Use of H2 as an energy carrier also brings new challenges such as safe handling of compressed hydrogen and implementation of new transport, storage, and delivery processes and infrastructure. With current storage technologies, hydrogen's energy per volume is very low compared to other automobile fuels. High density storage of compressed hydrogen requires combinations of high pressure and/or low temperature that are not very practical. An alternative for storage is use of solid light weight hydrogenous material systems which have long durability, good adsorption properties and high activity. Substantial research has been conducted on carbon materials like activated carbon, carbon nanofibers, and carbon nanotubes due to their high theoretical hydrogen capacities. However, the theoretical values have not been achieved, and hydrogen uptake capacities in these materials are below 10 wt. %. In this thesis we investigated the use of silicon for hydrogen generation. Hydrogen generation via water oxidation of silicon had been ignored due to slow reaction kinetics. We hypothesized that the hydrogen generation rate could be improved by using high surface area silicon nanoparticles. Our laser-pyrolysis-produced nanoparticles showed surprisingly rapid hydrogen generation and high hydrogen yield, exceeding the theoretical maximum of two moles of H2 per

  11. A molecular method to assess bioburden embedded within silicon-based resins used on modern spacecraft materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stam, Christina N.; Bruckner, James; Spry, J. Andy; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; La Duc, Myron T.

    2012-07-01

    Current assessments of bioburden embedded in spacecraft materials are based on work performed in the Viking era (1970s), and the ability to culture organisms extracted from such materials. To circumvent the limitations of such approaches, DNA-based techniques were evaluated alongside established culturing techniques to determine the recovery and survival of bacterial spores encapsulated in spacecraft-qualified polymer materials. Varying concentrations of Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 spores were completely embedded in silicone epoxy. An organic dimethylacetamide-based solvent was used to digest the epoxy and spore recovery was evaluated via gyrB-targeted qPCR, direct agar plating, most probably number analysis, and microscopy. Although full-strength solvent was shown to inhibit the germination and/or outgrowth of spores, dilution in excess of 100-fold allowed recovery with no significant decrease in cultivability. Similarly, qPCR (quantitative PCR) detection sensitivities as low as ~103 CFU ml-1 were achieved upon removal of inhibitory substances associated with the epoxy and/or solvent. These detection and enumeration methods show promise for use in assessing the embedded bioburden of spacecraft hardware.

  12. Comparative toxicity of silicon dioxide, silver and iron oxide nanoparticles after repeated oral administration to rats.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jun-Won; Kim, Seung-Hyun; You, Ji-Ran; Kim, Woo Ho; Jang, Ja-June; Min, Seung-Kee; Kim, Hee Chan; Chung, Doo Hyun; Jeong, Jayoung; Kang, Byeong-Cheol; Che, Jeong-Hwan

    2015-06-01

    Although silicon dioxide (SiO2), silver (Ag) and iron oxide (Fe2O3) nanoparticles are widely used in diverse applications from food to biomedicine, in vivo toxicities of these nanoparticles exposed via the oral route remain highly controversial. To examine the systemic toxicity of these nanoparticles, well-dispersed nanoparticles were orally administered to Sprague-Dawley rats daily over a 13-week period. Based on the results of an acute toxicity and a 14-day repeated toxicity study, 975.9, 1030.5 and 1000 mg kg(-1) were selected as the highest dose of the SiO2 , Ag and Fe2O3 nanoparticles, respectively, for the 13-week repeated oral toxicity study. The SiO2 and Fe2O3 nanoparticles did not induce dose-related changes in a number of parameters associated with the systemic toxicity up to 975.9 and 1000 mg kg(-1) , respectively, whereas the Ag nanoparticles resulted in increases in serum alkaline phosphatase and calcium as well as lymphocyte infiltration in liver and kidney, raising the possibility of liver and kidney toxicity induced by the Ag nanoparticles. Compared with the SiO2 and Fe2O3 nanoparticles showing no systemic distribution in all tissues tested, the Ag concentration in sampled blood and organs in the Ag nanoparticle-treated group significantly increased with a positive and/or dose-related trend, meaning that the systemic toxicity of the Ag nanoparticles, including liver and kidney toxicity, might be explained by extensive systemic distribution of Ag originating from the Ag nanoparticles. Our current results suggest that further study is required to identify that Ag detected outside the gastrointestinal tract were indeed a nanoparticle form or ionized form.

  13. Potential of bismuth nanoparticles embedded in a glass matrix for spectral-selective thermo-optical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez de Castro, M.; Cabello, F.; Toudert, J.; Serna, R.; Haro-Poniatowski, E.

    2014-09-01

    The optical transmission at a fixed visible wavelength of Bi nanoparticles embedded in a dielectric is known to show a sharp hysteretic evolution as a function of the temperature due to the reversible melting-solidification of the nanoparticles. In this work, we explore the temperature-dependent optical response of Bi nanoparticles embedded in a doped germanate glass (GeO2-Al2O3-Na2O) in a broad range from the visible to the near infrared. The transmission contrast induced by melting of the nanoparticles is shown to be strongly wavelength-dependent and evolves from positive to negative as the wavelength increases. This behaviour is well modelled using effective medium calculations, assuming that the nanoparticles size, shape, and distribution are unmodified upon melting, while their dielectric function turns from that of solid Bi to that of liquid Bi thus modifying markedly their optical response. These results open a route to the spectral tailoring of the thermo-optical response of Bi nanoparticles-based materials, which can be profitable for the engineering of wavelength-selective thermo-optical modulators and filters with optimized amplitude of modulation and wavelength dependence.

  14. Nanoparticles prepared from porous silicon nanowires for bio-imaging and sonodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osminkina, Liubov A.; Sivakov, Vladimir A.; Mysov, Grigory A.; Georgobiani, Veronika A.; Natashina, Ulyana A.; Talkenberg, Florian; Solovyev, Valery V.; Kudryavtsev, Andrew A.; Timoshenko, Victor Yu

    2014-09-01

    Evaluation of cytotoxicity, photoluminescence, bio-imaging, and sonosensitizing properties of silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs) prepared by ultrasound grinding of porous silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have been investigated. SiNWs were formed by metal (silver)-assisted wet chemical etching of heavily boron-doped (100)-oriented single crystalline silicon wafers. The prepared SiNWs and aqueous suspensions of SiNPs exhibit efficient room temperature photoluminescence (PL) in the spectral region of 600 to 1,000 nm that is explained by the radiative recombination of excitons confined in small silicon nanocrystals, from which SiNWs and SiNPs consist of. On the one hand, in vitro studies have demonstrated low cytotoxicity of SiNPs and possibilities of their bio-imaging applications. On the other hand, it has been found that SiNPs can act as efficient sensitizers of ultrasound-induced suppression of the viability of Hep-2 cancer cells.

  15. Nanoparticles prepared from porous silicon nanowires for bio-imaging and sonodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Osminkina, Liubov A; Sivakov, Vladimir A; Mysov, Grigory A; Georgobiani, Veronika A; Natashina, Ulyana А; Talkenberg, Florian; Solovyev, Valery V; Kudryavtsev, Andrew A; Timoshenko, Victor Yu

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of cytotoxicity, photoluminescence, bio-imaging, and sonosensitizing properties of silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs) prepared by ultrasound grinding of porous silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have been investigated. SiNWs were formed by metal (silver)-assisted wet chemical etching of heavily boron-doped (100)-oriented single crystalline silicon wafers. The prepared SiNWs and aqueous suspensions of SiNPs exhibit efficient room temperature photoluminescence (PL) in the spectral region of 600 to 1,000 nm that is explained by the radiative recombination of excitons confined in small silicon nanocrystals, from which SiNWs and SiNPs consist of. On the one hand, in vitro studies have demonstrated low cytotoxicity of SiNPs and possibilities of their bio-imaging applications. On the other hand, it has been found that SiNPs can act as efficient sensitizers of ultrasound-induced suppression of the viability of Hep-2 cancer cells.

  16. Rapid synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticle/bis(o-phenolpropyl)silicone composites by platinum.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myoung-Hee; Kim, Do-Heyoung; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Woo, Hee-Gweon; Lee, Byeong-Gweon; Yang, Kap-Seung; Kim, Bo-Hye; Park, Yeong-Joon; Sohn, Honglae

    2011-08-01

    The formation of silver nanoparticle/bis(o-phenolpropyl)silicone composites have been promoted by the addition of chloroplatinic acid (<2 wt%) to the reaction of silver nitrate with bis(o-phenolpropyl)silicone BPPS [(o-phenolpropyl)2(SiMe2O)n, = 2, 3, 8, 236]. TEM and FE-SEM data exhibit that the silver nanoparticles having the size of <20 nm are well dispersed throughout the BPPS matrix in the composites. XRD patterns are consistent with those for polycrystalline silver. The addition of small amount of platinum to the silver accelerated the rate of composite formation by forming a Ag-Pt bimetallic alloy. The size of silver nanoparticles increased with increasing the relative molar concentration of silver salts added with respect to BPPS. However, the addition of platinum (1-5 wt%) to the AgNO3-BPPS mixture did not affect the size distribution of silver nanoparticles appreciably. It was found that in the absence of BPPS, most of the silver nanoparticles undergo macroscopic precipitation by agglomeration, indicating that BPPS is essential to stabilize the silver nanoparticles by coordination.

  17. High-performance liquid chromatography separation of unsaturated organic compounds by a monolithic silica column embedded with silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yang; Morisato, Kei; Hasegawa, George; Moitra, Nirmalya; Kiyomura, Tsutomu; Kurata, Hiroki; Kanamori, Kazuyoshi; Nakanishi, Kazuki

    2015-08-01

    The optimization of a porous structure to ensure good separation performances is always a significant issue in high-performance liquid chromatography column design. Recently we reported the homogeneous embedment of Ag nanoparticles in periodic mesoporous silica monolith and the application of such Ag nanoparticles embedded silica monolith for the high-performance liquid chromatography separation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. However, the separation performance remains to be improved and the retention mechanism as compared with the Ag ion high-performance liquid chromatography technique still needs to be clarified. In this research, Ag nanoparticles were introduced into a macro/mesoporous silica monolith with optimized pore parameters for high-performance liquid chromatography separations. Baseline separation of benzene, naphthalene, anthracene, and pyrene was achieved with the theoretical plate number for analyte naphthalene as 36,000 m(-1). Its separation function was further extended to cis/trans isomers of aromatic compounds where cis/trans stilbenes were chosen as a benchmark. Good separation of cis/trans-stilbene with separation factor as 7 and theoretical plate number as 76,000 m(-1) for cis-stilbene was obtained. The trans isomer, however, is retained more strongly, which contradicts the long- established retention rule of Ag ion chromatography. Such behavior of Ag nanoparticles embedded in a silica column can be attributed to the differences in the molecular geometric configuration of cis/trans stilbenes.

  18. Analytical modeling of the lattice and thermo-elastic coefficient mismatch-induced stress into silicon nanowires horizontally embedded on insulator-on-silicon substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Sulagna; Chattopadhyay, Sanatan

    2017-01-01

    In the current work, an analytical model has been developed to estimate the amount of induced stress in nanowires which are horizontally embedded with different fractions within an Insulator-on-Silicon substrate. For estimating such stress, different crystallographic orientations of substrates and embedded nanowires have been considered. The induced stress for both the difference in thermo-elastic constants and lattice-mismatch is included and accuracy of the analytical model has been verified with the similar results obtained from ANSYS Multiphysics. Induced stress is observed to be insensitive of the nanowire size, however, depends significantly on the fractional insertion of the nanowires. A tensile stress of 1.95 GPa and a compressive stress of -1.0719 GPa have been obtained for the <100> oriented Si-nanowires. Hole mobility of 850 cm2/Vs can be achieved for the 3/4th insertion of the nanowires which is comparable to electron mobility and therefore can be utilized for the design of symmetric nano-electronic devices.

  19. Effect of substrate bias on deposition behaviour of charged silicon nanoparticles in ICP-CVD process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Seung-Wan; You, Shin-Jae; Kim, Jung-Hyung; Seong, Dae-Jin; Seo, Byong-Hoon; Hwang, Nong-Moon

    2017-01-01

    The effect of a substrate bias on the deposition behaviour of crystalline silicon films during inductively coupled plasma chemical vapour deposition (ICP-CVD) was analysed by consideration of non-classical crystallization, in which the building block is a nanoparticle rather than an individual atom or molecule. The coexistence of positively and negatively charged nanoparticles in the plasma and their role in Si film deposition are confirmed by applying bias voltages to the substrate, which is sufficiently small as not to affect the plasma potential. The sizes of positively and negatively charged nanoparticles captured on a carbon membrane and imaged using TEM are, respectively, 2.7-5.5 nm and 6-13 nm. The film deposited by positively charged nanoparticles has a typical columnar structure. In contrast, the film deposited by negatively charged nanoparticles has a structure like a powdery compact with the deposition rate about three times higher than that for positively charged nanoparticles. All the films exhibit crystallinity even though the substrate is at room temperature, which is attributed to the deposition of crystalline nanoparticles formed in the plasma. The film deposited by negatively charged nanoparticles has the highest crystalline fraction of 0.84.

  20. Photophysical property of the pyridyl and pyrimidinyloxy silicon (IV) phthalocyanines and their morphology of polymeric nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Sujuan; Chen, Zhe; Wu, Shijun; Jiang, Yufeng; Zeng, Di; Wang, Yuhua; Yang, Hongqin; Peng, Yiru

    2016-10-01

    Phthalocyanines (Pcs) are extensively studied by many scientists because of their interesting optical, electrical properties, and good thermal stability. The unsubstituted Pcs can present solubility and aggregation behaviour problems for their limiting applications. In our study two pyridyl and pyrimidinyloxy silicon (IV) phthalocyanines were synthesized. Their photophysical properties were examined by UV-Vis, steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopic methods. The positions of Q band were observed at 670 nm for two phthalocyanines. Compared with silicon phthalocyanine dichloride (SiPcCl2), the fluorescence intensities and lifetimes of pyridyl and pyrimidinyloxy silicon (IV) phthalocyanines increased. In order to improve biocompatibility and tumor-targeted delivery, the hydrophobic dendritic phthalocyanine were encapsulated by diblock amphiphilic copolymer poly (N'-benzyl oxygen carbonyl lysine)-poly (ethylene glycol)-poly (N'-benzyl oxygen carbonyl lysine) (PLL(Z)-PEG-PLL(Z)) to form the polymeric nanoparticles. The morphology of two nanoparticles were investigated by using atomic force microscope. The polymeric nanoparticles were spherical with the diameter at about 35 nm. The polymeric nanoparticle SiPc(OR2)2@PLL(Z)-PEG-PLL(Z) would be the promising third-generation photosensitizer (PS) for photodynamic therapy (PDT).

  1. Biocompatibility of cerium dioxide and silicon dioxide nanoparticles with endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Strobel, Claudia; Förster, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Summary Cerium dioxide (CeO2) and silicon dioxide (SiO2) nanoparticles are of widespread use in modern life. This means that human beings are markedly exposed to them in their everyday life. Once passing biological barriers, these nanoparticles are expected to interact with endothelial cells, leading to systemic alterations with distinct influences on human health. In the present study we observed the metabolic impact of differently sized CeO2 (8 nm; 35 nm) and SiO2 nanoparticles (117 nm; 315 nm) on immortalized human microvascular (HMEC-1) and primary macrovascular endothelial cells (HUVEC), with particular focus on the CeO2 nanoparticles. The characterization of the CeO2 nanoparticles in cell culture media with varying serum content indicated a steric stabilization of nanoparticles due to interaction with proteins. After cellular uptake, the CeO2 nanoparticles were localized around the nucleus in a ring-shaped manner. The nanoparticles revealed concentration and time, but no size-dependent effects on the cellular adenosine triphosphate levels. HUVEC reacted more sensitively to CeO2 nanoparticle exposure than HMEC-1. This effect was also observed in relation to cytokine release after nanoparticle treatment. The CeO2 nanoparticles exhibited a specific impact on the release of diverse proteins. Namely, a slight trend towards pro-inflammatory effects, a slight pro-thrombotic impact, and an increase of reactive oxygen species after nanoparticle exposure were observed with increasing incubation time. For SiO2 nanoparticles, concentration- and time-dependent effects on the metabolic activity as well as pro-inflammatory reactions were detectable. In general, the effects of the investigated nanoparticles on endothelial cells were rather insignificant, since the alterations on the metabolic cell activity became visible at a nanoparticle concentration that is by far higher than those expected to occur in the in vivo situation (CeO2 nanoparticles: 100 µg/mL; SiO2

  2. Biocompatibility of cerium dioxide and silicon dioxide nanoparticles with endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Strobel, Claudia; Förster, Martin; Hilger, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Cerium dioxide (CeO2) and silicon dioxide (SiO2) nanoparticles are of widespread use in modern life. This means that human beings are markedly exposed to them in their everyday life. Once passing biological barriers, these nanoparticles are expected to interact with endothelial cells, leading to systemic alterations with distinct influences on human health. In the present study we observed the metabolic impact of differently sized CeO2 (8 nm; 35 nm) and SiO2 nanoparticles (117 nm; 315 nm) on immortalized human microvascular (HMEC-1) and primary macrovascular endothelial cells (HUVEC), with particular focus on the CeO2 nanoparticles. The characterization of the CeO2 nanoparticles in cell culture media with varying serum content indicated a steric stabilization of nanoparticles due to interaction with proteins. After cellular uptake, the CeO2 nanoparticles were localized around the nucleus in a ring-shaped manner. The nanoparticles revealed concentration and time, but no size-dependent effects on the cellular adenosine triphosphate levels. HUVEC reacted more sensitively to CeO2 nanoparticle exposure than HMEC-1. This effect was also observed in relation to cytokine release after nanoparticle treatment. The CeO2 nanoparticles exhibited a specific impact on the release of diverse proteins. Namely, a slight trend towards pro-inflammatory effects, a slight pro-thrombotic impact, and an increase of reactive oxygen species after nanoparticle exposure were observed with increasing incubation time. For SiO2 nanoparticles, concentration- and time-dependent effects on the metabolic activity as well as pro-inflammatory reactions were detectable. In general, the effects of the investigated nanoparticles on endothelial cells were rather insignificant, since the alterations on the metabolic cell activity became visible at a nanoparticle concentration that is by far higher than those expected to occur in the in vivo situation (CeO2 nanoparticles: 100 µg/mL; SiO2 nanoparticles: 10

  3. Synthesis of Long-T1 Silicon Nanoparticles for Hyperpolarized 29Si Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, Tonya M.; Cassidy, Maja C.; Lee, Menyoung; Ganguly, Shreyashi; Marcus, Charles M.; Kauzlarich, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the synthesis, materials characterization and dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) of amorphous and crystalline silicon nanoparticles for use as hyperpolarized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) agents. The particles were synthesized by means of a metathesis reaction between sodium silicide (Na4Si4) and silicon tetrachloride (SiCl4) and were surface functionalized with a variety of passivating ligands. The synthesis scheme results in particles of diameter ~10 nm with long size-adjusted 29Si spin lattice relaxation (T1) times (> 600 s), which are retained after hyperpolarization by low temperature DNP. PMID:23350651

  4. Development of Iron Doped Silicon Nanoparticles as Bimodal Imaging Agents

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Mani P.; Atkins, Tonya M.; Muthuswamy, Elayaraja; Kamali, Saeed; Tu, Chuqiao; Louie, Angelique Y.; Kauzlarich, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate the synthesis of water-soluble allylamine terminated Fe doped Si (SixFe) nanoparticles as bimodal agents for optical and magnetic imaging. The preparation involves the synthesis of a single source iron containing precursor, Na4Si4 with x% Fe (x = 1, 5, 10), and its subsequent reaction with NH4Br to produce hydrogen terminated SixFe nanoparticles. The hydrogen-capped nanoparticles are further terminated with allylamine via thermal hydrosilylation. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicates that the average particle diameter is ~3.0±1.0 nm. The Si5Fe nanoparticles show strong photoluminescence quantum yield in water (~ 10 %) with significant T2 contrast (r2/r1value of 4.31). Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and Mössbauer spectroscopies indicate that iron in the nanoparticles is in the +3 oxidation state. Analysis of cytotoxicity using the resazurin assay on HepG2 liver cells indicates that the particles have minimal toxicity. PMID:22616623

  5. Silicon Oxycarbide/Carbon Nanohybrids with Tiny Silicon Oxycarbide Particles Embedded in Free Carbon Matrix Based on Photoactive Dental Methacrylates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meimei; Xia, Yonggao; Wang, Xiaoyan; Xiao, Ying; Liu, Rui; Wu, Qiang; Qiu, Bao; Metwalli, Ezzeldin; Xia, Senlin; Yao, Yuan; Chen, Guoxin; Liu, Yan; Liu, Zhaoping; Meng, Jian-Qiang; Yang, Zhaohui; Sun, Ling-Dong; Yan, Chun-Hua; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter; Pan, Jing; Cheng, Ya-Jun

    2016-06-08

    A new facile scalable method has been developed to synthesize silicon oxycarbide (SiOC)/carbon nanohybrids using difunctional dental methacrylate monomers as solvent and carbon source and the silane coupling agent as the precursor for SiOC. The content (from 100% to 40% by mass) and structure (ratio of disordered carbon over ordered carbon) of the free carbon matrix have been systematically tuned by varying the mass ratio of methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS) over the total mass of the resin monomers from 0.0 to 6.0. Compared to the bare carbon anode, the introduction of MPTMS significantly improves the electrochemical performance as a lithium-ion battery anode. The initial and cycled discharge/charge capacities of the SiOC/C nanohybrid anodes reach maximum with the MPTMS ratio of 0.50, which displays very good rate performance as well. Detailed structures and electrochemical performance as lithium-ion battery anodes have been systematically investigated. The structure-property correlation and corresponding mechanism have been discussed.

  6. Alkyl-functionalized oxide-free silicon nanoparticles: synthesis and optical properties.

    PubMed

    Rosso-Vasic, Milena; Spruijt, Evan; van Lagen, Barend; De Cola, Luisa; Zuilhof, Han

    2008-10-01

    Highly monodisperse silicon nanoparticles (1.57 +/- 0.21 nm) are synthesized with a covalently attached alkyl monolayer on a gram scale. Infrared spectroscopy shows that these silicon nanoparticles contain only a few oxygen atoms per nanoparticle. XPS spectra clearly show the presence of unoxidized Si and attached alkyl chains. Owing to the relatively efficient synthesis (yields approximately 100-fold higher than of those previously reported) the molar extinction coefficient epsilon can be measured: epsilon(max) = 1.7 x 10(-4) M(-1)cm(-1), only a factor of 4 lower than that of CdS and CdSe nanoparticles of that size. The quantum yield of emission ranges from 0.12 (C(10)H(21)-capping) to 0.23 (C(16)H(33)-capping). UV/Vis absorption and emission spectroscopy show clear vibrational progressions (974 +/- 14 cm(-1); up to five vibrational bands visible at room temperature), resembling bulk SiC phonons, which support the monodispersity observed by TEM. This was also confirmed by time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy measurements, which display a strictly monoexponential decay that can only be indicative of monodisperse, ball-shaped nanoparticles.

  7. Fabrication of a Carbon Nanotube-Embedded Silicon Nitride Membrane for Studies of Nanometer-Scale Mass Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, J K; Noy, A; Huser, T; Eaglesham, D; Bakajin, O

    2004-08-25

    A membrane consisting of multiwall carbon nanotubes embedded in a silicon nitride matrix was fabricated for fluid mechanics studies on the nanometer scale. Characterization by tracer diffusion and scanning electron microscopy suggests that the membrane is free of large voids. An upper limit to the diffusive flux of D{sub 2}O of 2.4x10-{sup 8} mole/m{sup 2}-s was determined, indicating extremely slow transport. By contrast, hydrodynamic calculations of water flow across a nanotube membrane of similar specifications predict a much higher molar flux of 1.91 mole/m{sup 2}-s, suggesting that the nanotubes produced possess a 'bamboo' morphology. The carbon nanotube membranes were used to make nanoporous silicon nitride membranes, fabricated by sacrificial removal of the carbon. Nitrogen flow measurements on these structures give a membrane permeance of 4.7x10{sup -4} mole/m{sup 2}-s-Pa at a pore density of 4x10{sup 10} cm{sup -2}. Using a Knudsen diffusion model, the average pore size of this membrane is estimated to be 66 nm, which agrees well with TEM observations of the multiwall carbon nanotube outer diameter. These membranes are a robust platform for the study of confined molecular transport, with applications inseparations and chemical sensing.

  8. Amine-modified hyaluronic acid-functionalized porous silicon nanoparticles for targeting breast cancer tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Patrick V.; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Mäkilä, Ermei; Kaasalainen, Martti; Salonen, Jarno; Hirvonen, Jouni; Santos, Hélder A.

    2014-08-01

    Active targeting of nanoparticles to receptor-overexpressing cancer cells has great potential for enhancing the cellular uptake of nanoparticles and for reducing fast clearance of the nanoparticles from the body. Herein, we present a preparation method of a porous silicon (PSi)-based nanodelivery system for breast cancer targeting, by covalently conjugating a synthesized amide-modified hyaluronic acid (HA+) derived polymer on the surface of undecylenic acid-modified thermally hydrocarbonized PSi (UnTHCPSi) nanoparticles. The resulting UnTHCPSi-HA+ nanoparticles showed relatively small size, reduced polydispersibility, high biocompatibility, improved colloidal and human plasma stability, as well as enhanced cellular interactions and internalization. Moreover, we demonstrated that the enhanced cellular association of UnTHCPSi-HA+ relies on the capability of the conjugated HA+ to bind and consequently target CD44 receptors expressed on the surface of breast cancer cells, thus making the HA+-functionalized UnTHCPSi nanoparticles a suitable and promising nanoplatform for the targeting of CD44-overexpressing breast tumors and for drug delivery.Active targeting of nanoparticles to receptor-overexpressing cancer cells has great potential for enhancing the cellular uptake of nanoparticles and for reducing fast clearance of the nanoparticles from the body. Herein, we present a preparation method of a porous silicon (PSi)-based nanodelivery system for breast cancer targeting, by covalently conjugating a synthesized amide-modified hyaluronic acid (HA+) derived polymer on the surface of undecylenic acid-modified thermally hydrocarbonized PSi (UnTHCPSi) nanoparticles. The resulting UnTHCPSi-HA+ nanoparticles showed relatively small size, reduced polydispersibility, high biocompatibility, improved colloidal and human plasma stability, as well as enhanced cellular interactions and internalization. Moreover, we demonstrated that the enhanced cellular association of Un

  9. Multiband Hot Photoluminescence from Nanocavity-Embedded Silicon Nanowire Arrays with Tunable Wavelength.

    PubMed

    Mu, Zhiqiang; Yu, Haochi; Zhang, Miao; Wu, Aimin; Qi, Gongmin; Chu, Paul K; An, Zhenghua; Di, Zengfeng; Wang, Xi

    2017-03-08

    Besides the well-known quantum confinement effect, hot luminescence from indirect bandgap Si provides a new and promising approach to realize monolithically integrated silicon optoelectronics due to phonon-assisted light emission. In this work, multiband hot photoluminescence is generated from Si nanowire arrays by introducing trapezoid-shaped nanocavities that support hybrid photonic-plasmonic modes. By continuously adjusting the geometric parameters of the Si nanowires with trapezoidal nanocavities, the multiband hot photoluminescence can be tuned in the range from visible to near-infrared independent of the excitation laser wavelength. The highly tunable wavelength bands and concomitant compatibility with Si-integrated electronics enable tailoring of silicon-based light sources suitable for next-generation optoelectronics devices.

  10. Flexible concentrator photovoltaics based on microscale silicon solar cells embedded in luminescent waveguides.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jongseung; Li, Lanfang; Semichaevsky, Andrey V; Ryu, Jae Ha; Johnson, Harley T; Nuzzo, Ralph G; Rogers, John A

    2011-06-14

    Unconventional methods to exploit monocrystalline silicon and other established materials in photovoltaic (PV) systems can create new engineering opportunities, device capabilities and cost structures. Here we show a type of composite luminescent concentrator PV system that embeds large scale, interconnected arrays of microscale silicon solar cells in thin matrix layers doped with luminophores. Photons that strike cells directly generate power in the usual manner; those incident on the matrix launch wavelength-downconverted photons that reflect and waveguide into the sides and bottom surfaces of the cells to increase further their power output, by more than 300% in examples reported here. Unlike conventional luminescent photovoltaics, this unusual design can be implemented in ultrathin, mechanically bendable formats. Detailed studies of design considerations and fabrication aspects for such devices, using both experimental and computational approaches, provide quantitative descriptions of the underlying materials science and optics.

  11. Embedded ultrasound sensor in a silicon-on-insulator photonic platform

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, Amir; Omar, Murad; Estrada, Héctor; Kellnberger, Stephan; Razansky, Daniel; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2014-01-13

    A miniaturized ultrasound sensor is demonstrated in a silicon-on-insulator platform. The sensor is based on a π-phase-shifted Bragg grating formed by waveguide corrugation. Ultrasound detection is performed by monitoring shifts in the resonance frequency of the grating using pulse interferometry. The device is characterized by measuring its response to a wideband acoustic point source generated using the optoacoustic effect. Experimental results show that the sensor's response is dominated by the formation of surface acoustic waves.

  12. Surface-plasmon enhanced ultrafast third-order optical nonlinearities in ellipsoidal gold nanoparticles embedded bismuthate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Feifei; Dai, Shixun; Xu, Tiefeng; Shen, Xiang; Lin, Changgui; Nie, Qiuhua; Liu, Chao; Heo, Jong

    2011-09-01

    Ellipsoidal gold nanoparticles embedded bismuthate glasses have been prepared via a facile melt-annealing approach. Femtosecond Z-scan measurement shows that the nanocomposites exhibit a maximum third-order nonlinear susceptibility χ(3) of 4.88 × 10-10 esu at 800 nm, which is two orders higher than that of the host glass. Optical Kerr shutter measurement demonstrates ultrafast response time (in scale of sub-picosecond) of the intraband transition enhanced third-order nonlinearities.

  13. Reduction of thermal conductivity of bulk nanostructured bismuth telluride composites embedded with silicon nano-inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satyala, Nikhil; Tahmasbi Rad, Armin; Zamanipour, Zahra; Norouzzadeh, Payam; Krasinski, Jerzy S.; Tayebi, Lobat; Vashaee, Daryoosh

    2014-01-01

    Bulk nanostructured bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) composite with silicon nano-crystallite inclusions was synthesized via sintering approach. The effect of the composite structure formed by the addition of miniscule quantity (5 at. %) of silicon on the thermoelectric properties of bulk nanostructured Bi2Te3 is shown via a 50% drop in thermal conductivity accompanied with a simultaneous enhancement in the Seebeck coefficient. We demonstrate that the addition of silicon nano-inclusions to the nanostructured compound combined with a systematic thermal treatment beneficially reduces the thermal conductivity to less than 1.0 W/mK over the entire temperature range of 300 K to 525 K. It is shown that the combinatorial techniques of nanostructuring, nano-inclusions, and annealing are effective in reducing thermal conductivity by a significant magnitude. This low thermal conductivity is comparable to that of Bi2Te3 based superlattices and significantly lower than that of bulk Bi2Te3. The technique is extendable to (Bi,Se)2(Sb,Te)3 based thermoelectric alloys for enhancing the figure-of-merit.

  14. A study of SU-8 photoresist in deep trenches for silicon-embedded microinductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laforge, Elias; Rabot, Caroline; Wang, Ningning; Pavlovic, Zoran; McCloskey, Paul; O'Mathúna, Cian

    2016-10-01

    Epoxy-based resist SU-8 is widely used in the development and fabrication of high-aspect-ratio (HAR) MEMS structures. It has proven to be a suitable photoresist combining thick layer coating and good adhesion on silicon substrates as well as possessing good mechanical and chemical stability. However, the trend towards minia- turization and increasing packaging density has pushed the demand for challenging micro-machining processes. As an example, a novel design of a MEMS microinductor requires a dielectric permanent layer coated in deep silicon trenches in order to insulate copper windings from the magnetic material deposited in these trenches. This requires the development of a photolithography process which enables the coating of a void-free layer filling the trenches. In this paper, the use of thick SU-8 photoresist for filling deep silicon trenches is investigated. Different SU-8 formulations are analyzed, processed and results are compared. As a result, an optimized process is developed to achieve void-free filled trenches and a uniform planar layer above them, with near vertical sidewall patterns.

  15. Enhanced cooling in mono-crystalline ultra-thin silicon by embedded micro-air channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Fahad, Hossain M.; Hussain, Aftab M.; Rojas, Jhonathan P.; Torres Sevilla, Galo A.; Alfaraj, Nasir; Lizardo, Ernesto B.; Hussain, Muhammad M.

    2015-12-01

    In today's digital world, complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology enabled scaling of bulk mono-crystalline silicon (100) based electronics has resulted in their higher performance but with increased dynamic and off-state power consumption. Such trade-off has caused excessive heat generation which eventually drains the charge of battery in portable devices. The traditional solution utilizing off-chip fans and heat sinks used for heat management make the whole system bulky and less mobile. Here we show, an enhanced cooling phenomenon in ultra-thin (>10 μm) mono-crystalline (100) silicon (detached from bulk substrate) by utilizing deterministic pattern of porous network of vertical "through silicon" micro-air channels that offer remarkable heat and weight management for ultra-mobile electronics, in a cost effective way with 20× reduction in substrate weight and a 12% lower maximum temperature at sustained loads. We also show the effectiveness of this event in functional MOS field effect transistors (MOSFETs) with high-κ/metal gate stacks.

  16. Aerosol emission monitoring in the production of silicon carbide nanoparticles by induction plasma synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Drew; Leparoux, Marc; Jaeggi, Christian; Buha, Jelena; Pui, David Y. H.; Wang, Jing

    2013-12-01

    In this study, the synthesis of silicon carbide (SiC) nanoparticles in a prototype inductively coupled thermal plasma reactor and other supporting processes, such as the handling of precursor material, the collection of nanoparticles, and the cleaning of equipment, were monitored for particle emissions and potential worker exposure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of engineering controls and best practice guidelines developed for the production and handling of nanoparticles, identify processes which result in a nanoparticle release, characterize these releases, and suggest possible administrative or engineering controls which may eliminate or control the exposure source. No particle release was detected during the synthesis and collection of SiC nanoparticles and the cleaning of the reactor. This was attributed to most of these processes occurring in closed systems operated at slight underpressure. Other tasks occurring in more open spaces, such as the disconnection of a filter assembly from the reactor system and the use of compressed air for the cleaning of filters where synthesized SiC nanoparticles were collected, resulted in releases of submicrometer particles with a mode size of 170-180 nm. Observation of filter samples under scanning electron microscope confirmed that the particles were agglomerates of SiC nanoparticles.

  17. Photophysical property of a polymeric nanoparticle loaded with an aryl benzyl ester silicon (IV) phthalocyanine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Sujuan; Ma, Dongdong; Chen, Xiuqin; Wang, Yuhua; Yang, Hongqin; Peng, Yiru

    2014-09-01

    Because of their excellent near-infrared (NIR) optical properties, phthalocyanines (Pcs) have been regarded as promising therapy agents for fluorescence image-guided drug delivery and noninvasive treatment of tumors by photodynamic therapy (PDT). Nevertheless, phthalocyanines are substantially limited in clinical applications owing to their poor solubility, aggregation and insufficient selectivity for cancer cells. To address these issues, we have developed a novel dendrimer-based theranostic nanoparticle for tumor-targeted delivery of phthalocyanine. The preparation procedure involved the modification of the silicon (IV) phthalocyanine molecule with a dendritic axially substitution, which significantly enhances their photophysical property. In order to improve biocompatibility and tumor-targeted delivery, the hydrophobic dendritic phthalocyanine was encapsulated by diblock amphiphilic copolymer poly (ethylene glycol)-poly (Epsilon-caprolactone) (MPEG-PCL) to form a polymeric nanoparticle. The polymeric nanoparticle is spherical with a diameter at about 90 nm. The photophysical property of the polymeric nanoparticle was studied by UV/Vis and fluorescence spectroscopic methods. Compared with the free dendritic phthalocyanine, the Q band of the polymeric nanoparticle was red-shifted, and the fluorescence intensity decreased. Furthermore, the polymeric nanoparticle has a relatively high loading amount and encapsulation rate. Therefore, the polymeric nanoparticle would be a promising third-generation photosensitizer (PS) for PDT.

  18. Direct surface engineering of silicon nanoparticles prepared by collinear double-pulse ns laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdieh, M. H.; Momeni, A.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we study the photoluminescence properties of colloidal silicon nanoparticles (Si NPs) in distilled water, with the aim of clarifying the role of surface characteristics on the emission properties. We will show that double-pulse ns laser ablation (DPLA) of a silicon target in water with different inter-pulse delay times of i.e. 5 and 10 ns can result in production of colloidal Si NPs with different PL emission intensities at the visible spectral range of 550-650 nm. The results reveal that DPLA process at the different delay times can induce different oxide related surface characteristics on the Si NPs through the direct surface engineering of the nanoparticles. A detailed analysis of the PL emissions using the stochastic quantum confinement model explained that the different emission behaviors of the colloids are associated with the oxide-related surface states which are contributed as radiative centers in the PL process.

  19. Preparation and biological evaluation of ethionamide-mesoporous silicon nanoparticles against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Vale, Nuno; Correia, Alexandra; Silva, Sara; Figueiredo, Patrícia; Mäkilä, Ermei; Salonen, Jarno; Hirvonen, Jouni; Pedrosa, Jorge; Santos, Hélder A; Fraga, Alexandra

    2017-02-01

    Ethionamide (ETH) is an important second-line antituberculosis drug used for the treatment of patients infected with multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Recently, we reported that the loading of ETH into thermally carbonized-porous silicon (TCPSi) nanoparticles enhanced the solubility and permeability of ETH at different pH-values and also increased its metabolization process. Based on these results, we synthesized carboxylic acid functionalized thermally hydrocarbonized porous silicon nanoparticles (UnTHCPSi NPs) conjugated with ETH and its antimicrobial effect was evaluated against Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Rv. The activity of the conjugate was increased when compared to free-ETH, which suggests that the nature of the synergy between the NPs and ETH is likely due to the weakening of the bacterial cell wall that improves conjugate-penetration. These ETH-conjugated NPs have great potential in reducing dosing frequency of ETH in the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB).

  20. Cobalt nanoparticles-embedded magnetic ordered mesoporous carbon for highly effective adsorption of rhodamine B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Lin; Cai, Ye; Yang, Guide; Liu, Yuanyuan; Zeng, Guangming; Zhou, Yaoyu; Li, Sisi; Wang, Jiajia; Zhang, Sheng; Fang, Yan; He, Yibin

    2014-09-01

    Cobalt nanoparticles-embedded magnetic ordered mesoporous carbon (Co/OMC), prepared through a simple method involving infusing and calcination, was used as a highly effective adsorbent for rhodamine B (Rh B) removal. Several techniques, including SEM, HRTEM, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, XRD, Raman spectra, EDX, zeta potential and VSM measurement, were applied to characterize the adsorbent. Batch tests were conducted to investigate the adsorption performance. The adsorption capacity of the resultant adsorbent was relatively high compared with raw ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) and reached an equilibrium value of 468 mg/g at 200 mg/L initial Rh B concentration. Removal efficiency even reached 96% within 25 min at 100 mg/L initial Rh B concentration. Besides, the adsorption amount increased with the increase of solution pH, adsorbent dose and initial Rh B concentration. Kinetics study showed that the adsorption agreed well with pseudo-second-order model (R2 = 0.999) and had a significant correlation with intra-particle diffusion model in the both two adsorption periods. Furthermore, thermodynamics research indicated that the adsorption process was endothermic and spontaneous in nature. The adsorption isotherms fitted well with Langmuir model, demonstrating the formation of mono-molecular layer on the surface of Co/OMC during adsorption process. The results confirmed that Co/OMC has the potential superiority in removal of Rh B from aqueous solution.

  1. Tailoring the surface plasmon resonance of embedded silver nanoparticles by combining nano- and femtosecond laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Doster, J.; Baraldi, G.; Gonzalo, J.; Solis, J.; Hernandez-Rueda, J.; Siegel, J.

    2014-04-14

    We demonstrate that the broad surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of a single layer of near-coalescence silver nanoparticles (NPs), embedded in a dielectric matrix can be tailored by irradiation with a single nanosecond laser pulse into a distribution featuring a sharp resonance at 435 nm. Scanning electron microscopy studies reveal the underlying mechanism to be a transformation into a distribution of well-separated spherical particles. Additional exposure to multiple femtosecond laser pulses at 400 nm or 800 nm wavelength induces polarization anisotropy of the SPR, with a peak shift that increases with laser wavelength. The spectral changes are measured in-situ, employing reflection and transmission micro-spectroscopy with a lateral resolution of 4 μm. Spectral maps as a continuous function of local fluence can be readily produced from a single spot. The results open exciting perspectives for dynamically tuning and switching the optical response of NP systems, paving the way for next-generation applications.

  2. Strong nonlinear electron multiplication without impact ionization in dielectric nanoparticles embedded in optical materials

    SciTech Connect

    Duchateau, Guillaume

    2013-02-15

    The interaction of a dielectric nano-particle or nano-defect, embedded in the bulk of an optical material, with an intense and short laser pulse is addressed. Due to the finite size of the target and the possible large production of electrons in the conduction band, large electric field enhancement or surintensity may be induced inside the particle. Since ionization rates also depend on the instantaneous electric field, a strong time-dependent connection between electron production and surintensity may take place. Such a connection is shown to possibly lead to a nonlinear temporal increase in the free electron density relevant from an avalanche process, called optical avalanche, similar to the one induced by electron impact ionization. However, the present build-up in the electron density clearly exhibits more nonlinear features than traditional collisional avalanche, which is shown to induce an exponential growth of the density: when the optical avalanche is engaged, the temporal electron evolution exhibits an explosive behavior. That leads to a nanometric plasma at solid density whose subsequent laser heating may lead locally to matter under extreme conditions. Furthermore, we show that the defect induces a change in the ionization mechanism in the course of interaction: a transition from multiphoton to tunnel ionization may take place.

  3. Optical behavior of silver nanoparticles embedded in polymer thin film layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlberg, M.; Pourcin, F.; Margeat, O.; Le Rouzo, J.; Berginc, G.; Sauvage, R.-M.; Ackermann, J.; Escoubas, L.

    2016-09-01

    The study of metal nanoparticles (NPs) is challenging for the control of the light matter interaction phenomena. In this context, our work is focused on optical characterization and modeling of polymer thin films layers with inclusions of previously chemically synthesized NPs. Through the presence of metallic NPs in polymer thin films, the optical properties are assumed to become tunable. Thin film layers with inclusions of differently shaped and sized silver NPs, such as nanospheres and nanoprisms, are optically characterized to get the scattering, the reflection and the absorption of the layers. One step and two step seed based methods of silver ions reduction are used for the chemical synthesis of nanospheres and nanoprisms. The plasmonic resonance peaks of these colloidal solutions range from 360 to 1300 nm. A poly vinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) polymer matrix is chosen for its light non-absorbing and NP-stabilizing properties. Knowledge on the shape and size of the NPs embedded in the spin coated layers is obtained by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging. The optical properties include spectrophotometry and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) measurements to get the reflectance, the transmittance, the absorptance and the optical indices n and k of the heterogeneous layers. A redshift in absorption is measured between deposited nanospheres and other shaped NPs. FDTD simulations allow calculation of far and near field properties. The visualization of the NP interactions and the electric field enhancement, on and around the NPs, are studied to improve the understanding of the far field properties.

  4. Embedded ceria nanoparticles in gel improve electrophoretic separation: a preliminary demonstration.

    PubMed

    Zarei, Mohammad; Ahmadzadeh, Hossein; Goharshadi, Elaheh K

    2015-07-07

    Slab gel electrophoresis is still the gold standard method for the separation of biomolecules such as proteins and DNA with advantages such as simplicity, affordability, and high throughput, but it suffers from inadequate separation speed and resolution. Single capillary gel electrophoresis, on the other hand, offers faster separation time and improved resolution at the expense of higher cost and loss of high throughput capability. The high surface to volume ratio of the capillary causes improved heat dissipation leading to a reduced Joule heating and a higher resolution. Here, for the first time, we show the use of dispersed ceria nanoparticles (NPs) to improve the resolution and speed of protein separation in slab gel electrophoresis. We measured the rheological parameters of separation medium in order to find a meaningful relationship between viscosity changes, Joule heating, and band broadening. The results showed that ceria NPs decrease the viscosity of polyacrylamide gel. By loading 0.03% (w/v) ceria NPs into polyacrylamide gel at 25 °C, the viscosity decreased 22% and the thermal conductivity increased to 81%, which resulted in 35% reduction in Joule heating and 47% increase in resolution. This work is a cross disciplinary of theoretical physical chemistry for thermal conductivity and rheological measurements of PA and ceria suspensions and application in slab gel electrophoresis. We report here, for the first time, that embedded NPs in PA gel could potentially interface high throughput capability of slab gel electrophoresis with high separation speed of single capillary electrophoresis.

  5. Preferable uptake of phosphate by hydrous zirconium oxide nanoparticles embedded in quaternary-ammonium Chinese reed.

    PubMed

    Shang, Yanan; Xu, Xing; Qi, Shuto; Zhao, Yanxia; Ren, Zhongfei; Gao, Baoyu

    2017-02-12

    Phosphate capture from aqueous was conducted using hydrous zirconium oxide (HZO) embedded in quaternary-ammonium Chinese reed (CR-N(+)-HZO), and the characteristics of adsorbent was determined. HZO was dispersed as nanoparticles or nano-clusters on the external or inside the networking pores of CR-N(+)-HZO. The surface of CR-N(+)-HZO was heterogeneous with multiple adsorption sites, HZO nanocomposite and N(+)(CH2CH3)3Cl(-), which both contributed to the adsorption process. The phosphate uptake by CR-N(+)-HZO was optimal at pH 3.0 and phosphate uptake by HZO nanocomposite was greatly inhibited at alkaline pH. Kinetics studies suggested that both the intra-particle mass-transfer and external resistances were likely to be the rate controlling steps. The Qmax (maximum adsorption capacity) of phosphate uptake by CR-N(+)-HZO and CR-N(+) (30°C) calculated based on Langmuir model was about 59.2mg(P)/g(CR-N(+)-HZO) and 30.4mg(P)/g(CR-N(+)). A high usage efficiency of Zr in CR-N(+)-HZO was observed with calculated molar ratio of P/Zr to be 3.07.

  6. Silver nanoparticles embedded in zeolite membranes: release of silver ions and mechanism of antibacterial action

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Amber; Harrison, Alistair; Sabbani, Supriya; Munson, Robert S; Dutta, Prabir K; Waldman, W James

    2011-01-01

    Background The focus of this study is on the antibacterial properties of silver nanoparticles embedded within a zeolite membrane (AgNP-ZM). Methods and Results These membranes were effective in killing Escherichia coli and were bacteriostatic against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. E. coli suspended in Luria Bertani (LB) broth and isolated from physical contact with the membrane were also killed. Elemental analysis indicated slow release of Ag+ from the AgNP-ZM into the LB broth. The E. coli killing efficiency of AgNP-ZM was found to decrease with repeated use, and this was correlated with decreased release of silver ions with each use of the support. Gene expression microarrays revealed upregulation of several antioxidant genes as well as genes coding for metal transport, metal reduction, and ATPase pumps in response to silver ions released from AgNP-ZM. Gene expression of iron transporters was reduced, and increased expression of ferrochelatase was observed. In addition, upregulation of multiple antibiotic resistance genes was demonstrated. The expression levels of multicopper oxidase, glutaredoxin, and thioredoxin decreased with each support use, reflecting the lower amounts of Ag+ released from the membrane. The antibacterial mechanism of AgNP-ZM is proposed to be related to the exhaustion of antioxidant capacity. Conclusion These results indicate that AgNP-ZM provide a novel matrix for gradual release of Ag+. PMID:21931480

  7. On second harmonic generation and multiphoton-absorption induced luminescence from laser-reshaped silver nanoparticles embedded in glass.

    PubMed

    Zolotovskaya, S A; Tyrk, M A; Stalmashonak, A; Gillespie, W A; Abdolvand, A

    2016-10-28

    Spherical silver nanoparticles (NPs) of 30 nm diameter embedded in soda-lime glass were uniformly reshaped (elongated) after irradiation by a linearly polarised 250 fs pulsed laser operating within the NPs' surface plasmon resonance band. We observed second harmonic generation (SHG) and multiphoton-absorption-induced luminescence (MAIL) in the embedded laser-reshaped NPs upon picosecond (10 ps) pulsed laser excitation at 1064 nm. A complementary study of SHG and MAIL was conducted in soda-lime glass containing embedded, mechanically-reshaped silver NPs of a similar elongation ratio (aspect ratio) to the laser-reshaped NPs. This supports the notion that the observed difference in SHG and MAIL in the studied nanocomposite systems is due to the shape modification mechanism. The discrete dipole approximation method was used to assess the absorption and scattering cross-sections of the reshaped NPs with different elongation ratios.

  8. On second harmonic generation and multiphoton-absorption induced luminescence from laser-reshaped silver nanoparticles embedded in glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolotovskaya, S. A.; Tyrk, M. A.; Stalmashonak, A.; Gillespie, W. A.; Abdolvand, A.

    2016-10-01

    Spherical silver nanoparticles (NPs) of 30 nm diameter embedded in soda-lime glass were uniformly reshaped (elongated) after irradiation by a linearly polarised 250 fs pulsed laser operating within the NPs’ surface plasmon resonance band. We observed second harmonic generation (SHG) and multiphoton-absorption-induced luminescence (MAIL) in the embedded laser-reshaped NPs upon picosecond (10 ps) pulsed laser excitation at 1064 nm. A complementary study of SHG and MAIL was conducted in soda-lime glass containing embedded, mechanically-reshaped silver NPs of a similar elongation ratio (aspect ratio) to the laser-reshaped NPs. This supports the notion that the observed difference in SHG and MAIL in the studied nanocomposite systems is due to the shape modification mechanism. The discrete dipole approximation method was used to assess the absorption and scattering cross-sections of the reshaped NPs with different elongation ratios.

  9. Gold nanoparticles embedded in silica hollow nanospheres induced by compressed CO2 as an efficient catalyst for selective oxidation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Li; Zhang, Ran; Chen, Chen; Chen, Jizhong; Zhao, Xiuge; Chen, Angjun; Liu, Xuerui; Xiu, Yuhe; Hou, Zhenshan

    2015-03-07

    Metal nanoparticles embedded in hollow materials are important due to their wide applications in catalysis. In this work, we disclosed a nontraditional synthetic pathway to prepare silica hollow nanospheres by hydrothermal treatment in the presence of compressed CO2. Especially, the silica hollow nanospheres with an outer diameter of about 16 nm and an inner pore size of 7 nm were obtained using 1.0 MPa CO2. The formation mechanism of silica hollow nanospheres induced by CO2 was investigated by high-pressured UV/Vis spectroscopy. Moreover, gold nanoparticles (2.5 nm) embedded in the silica hollow nanospheres were prepared by a one-pot synthesis using HAuCl4 as a precursor. The current synthetic route of nano-catalysts was simple and facile, in which no etching agent was needed in the process of the hollow material preparation. Besides, this nano-catalyst showed an excellent catalytic performance in epoxidation of styrene with high conversion (82.2%) and selectivity (90.2%) toward styrene oxide, as well as in the selective oxidation of ethylbenzene with good conversion (26.6%) and selectivity (87.8%) toward acetophenone. Moreover, the Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) embedded in silica hollow nanospheres exhibited an excellent recyclability in both the oxidation reactions.

  10. Formation of silicon carbide and diamond nanoparticles in the surface layer of a silicon target during short-pulse carbon ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remnev, G. E.; Ivanov, Yu. F.; Naiden, E. P.; Saltymakov, M. S.; Stepanov, A. V.; Shtan'ko, V. F.

    2009-04-01

    Synthesis of silicon carbide and diamond nanoparticles is studied during short-pulse implantation of carbon ions and protons into a silicon target. The experiments are carried out using a TEMP source of pulsed powerful ion beams based on a magnetically insulated diode with radial magnetic field B r . The beam parameters are as follows: the ion energy is 300 keV, the pulse duration is 80 ns, the beam consists of carbon ions and protons, and the ion current density is 30 A/cm2. Single-crystal silicon wafers serve as a target. SiC nanoparticles and nanodiamonds form in the surface layer of silicon subjected to more than 100 pulses. The average coherent domain sizes in the SiC particles and nanodiamonds are 12-16 and 8-9 nm, respectively.

  11. Two-photon excitation of porphyrin-functionalized porous silicon nanoparticles for photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Secret, Emilie; Maynadier, Marie; Gallud, Audrey; Chaix, Arnaud; Bouffard, Elise; Gary-Bobo, Magali; Marcotte, Nathalie; Mongin, Olivier; El Cheikh, Khaled; Hugues, Vincent; Auffan, Mélanie; Frochot, Céline; Morère, Alain; Maillard, Philippe; Blanchard-Desce, Mireille; Sailor, Michael J; Garcia, Marcel; Durand, Jean-Olivier; Cunin, Frédérique

    2014-12-03

    Porous silicon nanoparticles (pSiNPs) act as a sensitizer for the 2-photon excitation of a pendant porphyrin using NIR laser light, for imaging and photodynamic therapy. Mannose-functionalized pSiNPs can be vectorized to MCF-7 human breast cancer cells through a mannose receptor-mediated endocytosis mechanism to provide a 3-fold enhancement of the 2-photon PDT effect.

  12. Fabrication of disposable topographic silicon oxide from sawtoothed patterns: control of arrays of gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Cho, Heesook; Yoo, Hana; Park, Soojin

    2010-05-18

    Disposable topographic silicon oxide patterns were fabricated from polymeric replicas of sawtoothed glass surfaces, spin-coating of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) thin films, and thermal annealing at certain temperature and followed by oxygen plasma treatment of the thin PDMS layer. A simple imprinting process was used to fabricate the replicated PDMS and PS patterns from sawtoothed glass surfaces. Next, thin layers of PDMS films having different thicknesses were spin-coated onto the sawtoothed PS surfaces and annealed at 60 degrees C to be drawn the PDMS into the valley of the sawtoothed PS surfaces, followed by oxygen plasma treatment to fabricate topographic silicon oxide patterns. By control of the thickness of PDMS layers, silicon oxide patterns having various line widths were fabricated. The silicon oxide topographic patterns were used to direct the self-assembly of polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) block copolymer thin films via solvent annealing process. A highly ordered PS-b-P2VP micellar structure was used to let gold precursor complex with P2VP chains, and followed by oxygen plasma treatment. When the PS-b-P2VP thin films containing gold salts were exposed to oxygen plasma environments, gold salts were reduced to pure gold nanoparticles without changing high degree of lateral order, while polymers were completely degraded. As the width of trough and crest in topographic patterns increases, the number of gold arrays and size of gold nanoparticles are tuned. In the final step, the silicon oxide topographic patterns were selectively removed by wet etching process without changing the arrays of gold nanoparticles.

  13. Biomimetic Preparation and Dual-Color Bioimaging of Fluorescent Silicon Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sicong; Zhong, Yiling; Zhou, Yanfeng; Song, Bin; Chu, Binbin; Ji, Xiaoyuan; Wu, Yanyan; Su, Yuanyuan; He, Yao

    2015-11-25

    Fluorescent silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs), as the most important zero-dimensional silicon nanostructures, hold high promise for long-awaited silicon-based optic applications. There currently remain major challenges for the green, inexpensive, and mass production of fluorescent SiNPs, resulting in difficulties in sufficiently exploiting the properties of these remarkable materials. Here, we show that fluorescent small-sized (∼3.8 nm) SiNPs can be produced through biomimetic synthesis in rapid (10 min), low-cost, and environmentally benign manners. The as-prepared SiNPs simultaneously feature bright fluorescence (quantum yield (QY), ∼15-20%), narrow emission spectral width (full width at half-maximum (fwhm), ∼30 nm), and nontoxicity, making them as high-quality fluorescent probes for biological imaging in vitro and in vivo.

  14. Nanostructures formed by displacement of porous silicon with copper: from nanoparticles to porous membranes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The application of porous silicon as a template for the fabrication of nanosized copper objects is reported. Three different types of nanostructures were formed by displacement deposition of copper on porous silicon from hydrofluoric acid-based solutions of copper sulphate: (1) copper nanoparticles, (2) quasi-continuous copper films, and (3) free porous copper membranes. Managing the parameters of porous silicon (pore sizes, porosity), deposition time, and wettability of the copper sulphate solution has allowed to achieve such variety of the copper structures. Elemental and structural analyses of the obtained structures are presented. Young modulus measurements of the porous copper membrane have been carried out and its modest activity in surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy is declared. PMID:22916840

  15. Silica cross-linked micelles loading with silicon nanoparticles: preparation and characterization.

    PubMed

    Pan, Guo-Hui; Barras, Alexandre; Boussekey, Luc; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2013-08-14

    A new family of luminescent and stable silicon-based nanoparticles (NPs), silica cross-linked pluronic F127 (PF127) micelles loaded with decyl capped silicon nanoparticles (decyl-SiNPs), were synthesized in aqueous media. The decyl-SiNPs were prepared by first liberating hydride terminated SiNPs (H-SiNPs) from a porous silicon matrix followed by their functionalization via hydrosilylation with 1-decene under photochemical activation. The silicon-based NPs exhibit bright photoluminescence (PL) with a quantum yield of ∼3.8% and peaking at ∼2.0 eV, which lies within the transmission window that is useful for biological imaging. They display a hydrodynamic size of ∼25 nm with exterior polyethylene oxide (PEO) blocks stretching out in aqueous media. Chloroform was found to quench the excitation at energy above 4.9 eV by shielding the incident light or relaxing the charge carriers, which highlights that caution against solvent interference should be taken when performing the studies on PL origin and luminescence efficiency of SiNPs. For PF127, the blocks of hydrophilic PEO participate in the PL quenching, while poly(propylene oxide) (PPO) does not. The colloidal solution displays excellent PL stability against salt (NaCl) and temperature but is susceptible to basic solution at pH above 9.

  16. Enhancement of the memory effects for nonvolatile memory devices fabricated utilizing ZnO nanoparticles embedded in a Si3N4 layer.

    PubMed

    Oh, Do-Hyun; Cho, Woon-Jo; Son, Dong Ick; Kim, Tae Whan

    2010-05-01

    ZnO nanoparticles embedded in a Si3N4 layer by using spin-coating and thermal treatment were fabricated to investigate the feasible applications in charge trapping regions of the metal/oxide/nitride/oxide/p-Si memory devices. The magnitude of the flatband voltage shift of the capacitance-voltage (C-V) curve for the Al/SiO2/ZnO nanoparticles embedded in Si3N4 layer/SiO2/p-Si memory device was larger than that of Al/ZnO nanoparticles embedded in SiO2 layer/p-Si and Al/SiO2/Si3N4/SiO2/p-Si devices. The increase in the flatband voltage shift of the C-V curve for the Al/SiO2/ZnO nanoparticles embedded in Si3N4 layer/SiO2/p-Si memory device in comparison with other devices was attributed to the existence of the ZnO nanoparticles or the interface trap states between the ZnO nanoparticles and the Si3N4 layer resulting from existence of ZnO nanoparticles embedded in the Si3N4 layer.

  17. Transport properties of β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles embedded in Nb thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Vaidhyanathan, L.S. Baisnab, D.K.; Janawadkar, M.P.; Srinivasan, M.P.; Chandra Mohan, P.; Mythili, R.

    2015-01-15

    The origin of ferromagnetism in nanoparticles of nonmagnetic oxides is an interesting area of research. In the present work, transport properties of niobium thin films, with β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles embedded within them, are presented. Nanoparticles of β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} embedded in a Nb matrix were prepared at room temperature by radio frequency co-sputtering technique on Si (100) and glass substrates held at room temperature. The thin films deposited on Si substrates were subjected to Ar annealing at a temperature range of 600-650 C for 1 hour. Films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Micro-Raman and elemental identification was performed with an Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). Transport measurements were performed down to liquid helium temperatures by four-probe contact technique, showed characteristics analogous to those observed in the context of a Kondo system. A comparison of the experimental data with the theoretical formalism of Kondo and Hamann is presented. It is suggested that this behavior arises from the existence of magnetic moments associated with the oxygen vacancy defects in the nanoparticles of the nonmagnetic oxide Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  18. Tailoring the surface density of silicon nanocrystals embedded in SiO{sub x} single layers

    SciTech Connect

    Hernández, S.; Peiró, F.; Garrido, B.; Pellegrino, P.; Miska, P.; Grün, M.; Vergnat, M.; Estradé, S.

    2013-12-21

    In this article, we explore the possibility of modifying the silicon nanocrystal areal density in SiO{sub x} single layers, while keeping constant their size. For this purpose, a set of SiO{sub x} monolayers with controlled thickness between two thick SiO{sub 2} layers has been fabricated, for four different compositions (x = 1, 1.25, 1.5, or 1.75). The structural properties of the SiO{sub x} single layers have been analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in planar view geometry. Energy-filtered TEM images revealed an almost constant Si-cluster size and a slight increase in the cluster areal density as the silicon content increases in the layers, while high resolution TEM images show that the size of the Si crystalline precipitates largely decreases as the SiO{sub x} stoichiometry approaches that of SiO{sub 2}. The crystalline fraction was evaluated by combining the results from both techniques, finding a crystallinity reduction from 75% to 40%, for x = 1 and 1.75, respectively. Complementary photoluminescence measurements corroborate the precipitation of Si-nanocrystals with excellent emission properties for layers with the largest amount of excess silicon. The integrated emission from the nanoaggregates perfectly scales with their crystalline state, with no detectable emission for crystalline fractions below 40%. The combination of the structural and luminescence observations suggests that small Si precipitates are submitted to a higher compressive local stress applied by the SiO{sub 2} matrix that could inhibit the phase separation and, in turn, promotes the creation of nonradiative paths.

  19. Comparison of Ag and SiO2 Nanoparticles for Light Trapping Applications in Silicon Thin Film Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Theuring, Martin; Wang, Peng Hui; Vehse, Martin; Steenhoff, Volker; von Maydell, Karsten; Agert, Carsten; Brolo, Alexandre G

    2014-10-02

    Plasmonic and photonic light trapping structures can significantly improve the efficiency of solar cells. This work presents an experimental and computational comparison of identically shaped metallic (Ag) and nonmetallic (SiO2) nanoparticles integrated to the back contact of amorphous silicon solar cells. Our results show comparable performance for both samples, suggesting that minor influence arises from the nanoparticle material. Particularly, no additional beneficial effect of the plasmonic features due to metallic nanoparticles could be observed.

  20. Stimulated blue emission in reconstituted films of ultrasmall silicon nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Nayfeh, M. H.; Barry, N.; Therrien, J.; Akcakir, O.; Gratton, E.; Belomoin, G.

    2001-02-19

    We dispersed electrochemical etched Si into a colloid of ultrabright blue luminescent nanoparticles (1 nm in diameter) and reconstituted it into films or microcrystallites. When the film is excited by a near-infrared two-photon process at 780 nm, the emission exhibits a sharp threshold near 10{sup 6}W/cm{sup 2}, rising by many orders of magnitude, beyond which a low power dependence sets in. Under some conditions, spontaneous recrystallization forms crystals of smooth shape from which we observe collimated beam emission, pointing to very large gain coefficients. The results are discussed in terms of population inversion, produced by quantum tunneling or/and thermal activation, and stimulated emission in the quantum confinement-engineered Si--Si phase found only on ultrasmall Si nanoparticles. The Si--Si phase model provides gain coefficients as large as 10{sup 3}--10{sup 5}cm{sup -1}.

  1. Preparation and tribological properties of fluorosilane surface-modified lanthanum trifluoride nanoparticles as additive of fluoro silicone oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Xiao; He, Jie; Yu, Laigui; Li, Zhiwei; Zhang, Zhijun; Zhang, Pingyu

    2014-10-01

    LaF3 nanoparticles surface-modified with fluorosilane were synthesized by surface modification technology. The size, morphology and phase structure of as-prepared surface-modified LaF3 nanoparticles were analyzed by means of X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The tribological properties of surface-modified LaF3 nanoparticles as additive of fluoro silicone oil were evaluated with a four-ball machine, and the morphology and elemental composition of worn steel surfaces were examined with a scanning electron microscope and an X-ray photoelectron spectroscope. Results show that 3-(heptafluoroisopropoxy)propyltriethoxysilane as the modifier is able to improve the dispersibility of LaF3 nanoparticles in fluoro silicone oil. Moreover, when the optimum concentration, 0.08 wt.% of fluorosilane surface-modified LaF3 is added into fluoro silicone oil, as-synthesized fluorosilane surface-modified LaF3 nanoparticles exhibit excellent anti-wear as additive in fluoro silicone oil. The wear scar diameter under the optimum concentration is always smaller than that under the lubrication of fluoro silicone oil alone. Especially, when the load is 500 N, 600 N and 700 N, the wear scar diameter is reduced by 17%, 43% and 42%, respectively. In addition, during the friction process, LaF3 nanoparticles are deposited on the rubbed steel surface to form LaF3 deposition layer which functions jointly with the boundary lubricating film thereby resulting in improved tribological properties.

  2. Charging behavior of silicon nitride based non-volatile memory structures with embedded semiconductor nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horváth, Zs. J.; Basa, P.; Jászi, T.; Molnár, K. Z.; Pap, A. E.; Molnár, Gy.

    2013-03-01

    The charging behavior of MNS (metal-nitride-silicon) and MNOS (metal-nitride-oxide-silicon) structures containing Si or Ge nanocrystals were studied by capacitance-voltage (C-V) and memory window measurements and by simulation. Both the width of hysteresis of C-V characteristics and the injected charge exhibited exponential dependence on the charging voltage at moderate voltage values, while at high voltages the width of hysteresis of C-V characteristics and the injected charge exhibited saturation. The memory window for reference MNS structure without nanocrystals was wider than that for reference MNOS structures. The presence of nanocrystals enhanced the charging behavior of MNOS structures, but in MNS structures nanocrystals exhibited the opposite effect. The main conclusion is that the presence of nanocrystals or other deep levels close to the Si surface enhances the charge injection properties due to the increased tunneling probability, but nanocrystals or other deep levels located far from the Si surface in the nitride layer do not enhance, but even can degrade the charging behavior by the capture of charge carriers.

  3. Light-induced covalent immobilization of monolayers of magnetic nanoparticles on hydrogen-terminated silicon.

    PubMed

    Leem, Gyu; Zhang, Shishan; Jamison, Andrew C; Galstyan, Eduard; Rusakova, Irene; Lorenz, Bernd; Litvinov, Dmitri; Lee, T Randall

    2010-10-01

    Specifically tailored ω-alkenyl-1-carboxylic acids were synthesized for use as surfactants in the single-step preparation of manganese ferrite (MnFe2O4) nanoparticles (NPs). Monodisperse manganese ferrite NPs terminated with ω-alkenyl moieties were prepared via a one-pot reaction at high temperature without the need of ligand exchange. Using this approach, simple adjustment of the rate of heating allowed precise tuning of the size of the nanoparticles, which were characterized in bulk form by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). These surfactant-coated magnetic nanoparticles were then deposited onto hydrogen-terminated silicon(111) wafers and covalently anchored to the surface by UV-initiated covalent bonding. Analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed that the UV treatment led to covalent immobilization of the NPs on the silicon surface with a consistent packing density across the surface. The magnetic properties of the stable, surface-bound nanoparticle arrays were characterized using a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer. The materials and methods described here are being developed for use in bit-patterned ultrahigh density magnetic recording media and nanoscale biomagnetic sensing.

  4. Amine-modified hyaluronic acid-functionalized porous silicon nanoparticles for targeting breast cancer tumors

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Patrick V.; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Mäkilä, Ermei; Kaasalainen, Martti; Salonen, Jarno; Hirvonen, Jouni; Santos, Hélder A.

    2014-01-01

    Active targeting of nanoparticles to receptor-overexpressing cancer cells has great potential for enhancing the cellular uptake of nanoparticles and for reducing fast clearance of the nanoparticles from the body. Herein, we present a preparation method of a porous silicon (PSi)-based nanodelivery system for breast cancer targeting, by covalently conjugating a synthesized amide-modified hyaluronic acid (HA+) derived polymer on the surface of undecylenic acid-modified thermally hydrocarbonized PSi (UnTHCPSi) nanoparticles. The resulting UnTHCPSi–HA+ nanoparticles showed relatively small size, reduced polydispersibility, high biocompatibility, improved colloidal and human plasma stability, as well as enhanced cellular interactions and internalization. Moreover, we demonstrated that the enhanced cellular association of UnTHCPSi–HA+ relies on the capability of the conjugated HA+ to bind and consequently target CD44 receptors expressed on the surface of breast cancer cells, thus making the HA+-functionalized UnTHCPSi nanoparticles a suitable and promising nanoplatform for the targeting of CD44-overexpressing breast tumors and for drug delivery. PMID:25074521

  5. Effect of model biological media of stability of complex of silver nanoparticles applied onto silicon nitride substrate.

    PubMed

    Afanasiev, S A; Tsapko, L P; Kurzina, I A; Chuhlomina, L N; Babokin, V E

    2010-12-01

    We studied stability of complexes of silver nanoparticles and silicon nitride before and after their interaction with liquid media and after passing through bacterial filters. According to scanning electron microscopy data, contact with fluids and passage through bacterial filters reduced the content of silver nanoparticles in complexes compared to that in initial complexes. It was shown that these differences depended on both initial characteristics of the examined samples and the used liquid media. The complex Ag/Si3N4 obtained after 5 silver reduction cycles and containing 15% α- and 85% β-modifications of silicon nitride (sample No. 2) was characterized by maximum stability. Culture medium produced more aggressive effect on stability of the studied complexes. We concluded that the effect of culture media on stability of silver nanoparticles-silicon nitride complexes depends on phase composition of the substrate and method of application of silver nanoparticles.

  6. Silicon and germanium nanoparticles with tailored surface chemistry as novel inorganic fiber brightening agents.

    PubMed

    Deb-Choudhury, Santanu; Prabakar, Sujay; Krsinic, Gail; Dyer, Jolon M; Tilley, Richard D

    2013-07-31

    Low-molecular-weight organic molecules, such as coumarins and stilbenes, are used commercially as fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) to mask photoyellowing and to brighten colors in fabrics. FWAs achieve this by radiating extra blue light, thus changing the hue and also adding to the brightness. However, organic FWAs can rapidly photodegrade in the presence of ultraviolet (UV) radiation, exacerbating the yellowing process through a reaction involving singlet oxygen species. Inorganic nanoparticles, on the other hand, can provide a similar brightening effect with the added advantage of photostability. We report a targeted approach in designing new inorganic silicon- and germanium-based nanoparticles, functionalized with hydrophilic (amine) surface terminations as novel inorganic FWAs. When applied on wool, by incorporation in a sol-gel Si matrix, the inorganic FWAs improved brightness properties, demonstrated enhanced photostability toward UV radiation, especially the germanium nanoparticles, and also generated considerably lower levels of reactive oxygen species compared to a commercial stilbene-based organic FWA, Uvitex NFW.

  7. The Developmental Toxicity of Complex Silica-Embedded Nickel Nanoparticles Is Determined by Their Physicochemical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Mahoney, Sharlee; Najera, Michelle; Bai, Qing; Burton, Edward A.; Veser, Götz

    2016-01-01

    Complex engineered nanomaterials (CENs) are a rapidly developing class of structurally and compositionally complex materials that are expected to dominate the next generation of functional nanomaterials. The development of methods enabling rapid assessment of the toxicity risk associated with this type of nanomaterial is therefore critically important. We evaluated the toxicity of three differently structured nickel-silica nanomaterials as prototypical CENs: simple, surface-deposited Ni-SiO2 and hollow and non-hollow core-shell Ni@SiO2 materials (i.e., ~1–2 nm Ni nanoparticles embedded into porous silica shells with and without a central cavity, respectively). Zebrafish embryos were exposed to these CENs, and morphological (survival and malformations) and physiological (larval motility) endpoints were coupled with thorough characterization of physiochemical characteristics (including agglomeration, settling and nickel ion dissolution) to determine how toxicity differed between these CENs and equivalent quantities of Ni2+ salt (based on total Ni). Exposure to Ni2+ ions strongly compromised zebrafish larva viability, and surviving larvae showed severe malformations. In contrast, exposure to the equivalent amount of Ni CEN did not result in these abnormalities. Interestingly, exposure to Ni-SiO2 and hollow Ni@SiO2 provoked abnormalities of zebrafish larval motor function, indicating developmental toxicity, while non-hollow Ni@SiO2 showed no toxicity. Correlating these observations with physicochemical characterization of the CENs suggests that the toxicity of the Ni-SiO2 and hollow Ni@SiO2 material may result partly from an increased effective exposure at the bottom of the well due to rapid settling. Overall, our data suggest that embedding nickel NPs in a porous silica matrix may be a straightforward way to mitigate their toxicity without compromising their functional properties. At the same time, our results also indicate that it is critical to consider

  8. Fabrication of High Efficiency Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on TiO2 Nanoparticles Embedded in Ti Substrate.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kang-Pil; Lee, Sang-Ju; Hwang, Dae-Kue; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Heo, Young-Woo

    2015-01-01

    We have embedded a TiO2 nanoparticle (NP) photoelectrode in a Ti substrate to improve the cell efficiency of conventional TiO2 NP based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) using Ti substrate. Compared to the conventional standing-type (TiO2 NPs on Ti substrate) DSSCs, the embedded-type (TiO2 NPs embedded in Ti substrate) DSSCs have shown an approximately 35% improvement in power conversion efficiency due to the improvement of J(sc). The embedded-type DSSCs have more charge transport paths than do standing-type DSSCs due to the increase of contact area between the TiO2 NP sidewall and the Ti substrate. This increased contact area decreases the electrical resistance and increases the charge collection efficiency, which leads to the improvement of J(sc). The embedded-type NP-DSSCs are very effective DSSC structures for enhancing the power conversion efficiency of Ti substrate based DSSCs.

  9. Plasmonic-Based High Temperature Chemical Sensing Using Gold Nanoparticles Embedded in Metal Oxide Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joy, Nicholas

    Thin metal oxide films embedded with Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been investigated as high temperature localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) based sensing materials to monitor H2, CO, and NO2 at a temperature of 500°C. Applications for this technology include turbine engines as well as other combustion environments where it is important to monitor emission gases for both regulatory purposes as well as combustion control. These high temperature applications, which may be oxidizing or reducing in nature, present challenges to sensor reliability and selectivity, and have therefore necessitated the development of novel sensing devices. While there has been work on developing semiconductor-based electrical sensing methods, this work examines the optical response of AuNPs in yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), TiO2, and CeO2. The main challenge with this technique is to achieve a selective response to the target gases. As a means of addressing this issue, both materials and data analysis techniques have been investigated. From the materials aspect, a sensor array was developed for a direct comparison of Au-YSZ, Au-TiO2, and Au-CeO2. In order to analyze the data, the multivariate method of principle component analysis was applied. The result of this analysis showed that a unique response was seen for each of the three target gases during separate exposures, which is an initial step towards selective detection in a gas mixture. Additional material control has also been achieved with the use of electron beam lithography to pattern Au nanoparticles for size and shape control. A particular emphasis has been placed on the nanorod geometry due to its tunable longitudinal LSPR peak; however, thermal stability of this geometry has been a challenge. Encapsulating the Au nanorods with YSZ was shown to help stabilize the nanorods for sensing tests performed at 500°C. Apart from material control, a kinetics analysis has also been performed for H2 reactions with Au-YSZ in an

  10. Application of microplasma to synthesis of silicon nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Kenji; Ogino, Tomohisa; Asahi, Daisuke; Nozaki, Tomohiro; Okazaki, Ken

    2006-10-01

    We developed microplasma to synthesize nanocrystalline silicon particles (nc-Si). Gas residence time in micro plasma reactor is of the order of μs, while time required for particle nucleation by three-body collision? is about ms. Thus it is possible to separate crystal nucleation and growth in a single reactor. This process is very important for synthesis nc-Si. Microplasma was formed in a capillary tube of diameter 470 μm which is connected to the VHF power source. We used Ar/SiCl4 mixtures for nc-Si source for safety. H2 was added to convert exhausted Cl to HCl. Electron density of micro plasma (Ne) was estimated by Stark broadening of Hβ, and found that Ne is 1-3*10^15 cm-3. Rotation temperature was measured to be approximately 1500 K. Intensity ratio of Si(288 nm)/Ar(750 nm) increased linearly with increasing initial concentration of SiCl4. If the residence time was 30 μs, particle nucleation seemed to start in the discharge region, and particles keep growing involving impurity elements such as N or Cl. On the other hand, when residence time was set to shorter than 10 μs, the amount of impurities can be minimized. Under this condition, Raman spectra showed crystalline silicon peak around 520 cm-1. TEM image also indicated the size of synthesized nc-Si to be in the range of 4-20 nm.

  11. Nondestructive X-ray diffraction measurement of warpage in silicon dies embedded in integrated circuit packages.

    PubMed

    Tanner, B K; Danilewsky, A N; Vijayaraghavan, R K; Cowley, A; McNally, P J

    2017-04-01

    Transmission X-ray diffraction imaging in both monochromatic and white beam section mode has been used to measure quantitatively the displacement and warpage stress in encapsulated silicon devices. The displacement dependence with position on the die was found to agree well with that predicted from a simple model of warpage stress. For uQFN microcontrollers, glued only at the corners, the measured misorientation contours are consistent with those predicted using finite element analysis. The absolute displacement, measured along a line through the die centre, was comparable to that reported independently by high-resolution X-ray diffraction and optical interferometry of similar samples. It is demonstrated that the precision is greater than the spread of values found in randomly selected batches of commercial devices, making the techniques viable for industrial inspection purposes.

  12. On the mobility of iron particles embedded in elastomeric silicone matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabindranath, R.; Böse, H.

    2013-02-01

    In this contribution the rheological and magnetorheological properties of different polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) based magnetorheological elastomers (MRE) are presented and discussed. In order to investigate the mobility of the iron particles with respect to the rheological characteristics, the iron particles were silanized with vinyltrimethoxysilane to enable a reaction between the modified particle and the cross-linking agent of the silicone elastomer. In addition, the vinyl-functionalized particles were further modified by the coupling of the superficial vinyl groups with a long-chain hydride terminated PDMS, which enables a reaction pathway with the vinyl terminated PDMS. On the other hand, the iron particles were treated with surfactants such as fatty acids, calcium and aluminum soaps, respectively, prior to vulcanization in order to increase the mobility of the iron particles in the elastomeric matrix. It was found, that both, the modification with the long-chain hydride terminated PDMS as well as the treatment with surfactants lead to an increase of the storage modulus G', the loss modulus G" and the loss factor tan δ in the magnetic field. It is concluded that both modifications, the coupling with long-chain hydride terminated PDMS as well as the treatment with surfactants, provide a greater mobility of the iron particles and hence a greater friction represented by the increase of the loss factor tan δ. Consequently it is assumed that untreated iron particles are less mobile in the rubber matrix due to covalent bonding with the silicone components, most likely due to the reaction of the hydroxyl groups on the metal surface with the silane groups of the cross-linking agent.

  13. Deterministic embedding of a single gold nanoparticle into polymeric microstructures by direct laser writing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Dam Thuy Trang; Pelissier, Aurélien; Montes, Kevin; Tong, Quang Cong; Ngo, Hoang Minh; Ledoux-Rak, Isabelle; Lai, Ngoc Diep

    2016-04-01

    We have precisely positioned and embedded a single gold nanoparticle (Au NP) into a desired polymeric photonic structure (PS) using a simple and low-cost technique called low one-photon absorption direct laser writing (LOPA DLW), with a two-step process: identification and fabrication. First, the position of the Au NP was identified with a precision of 20 nm by using DLW technique with ultralow excitation laser power (μW). This power did not induce the polymerization of the photoresist (SU8) due to its low absorption at the excitation wavelength (532 nm). Then, the structure containing the NP was fabricated by using the same DLW system with high excitation power (mW). Different 2D photonic structures have been fabricated, which contain a single Au NP at desired position. In particular, we obtained a microsphere instead of a micropillar at the position of the Au NP. The formation of such microsphere was explained by the thermal effect of the Au NP at the wavelength of 532 nm, which induced thermal polymerization of surrounding photoresist. The effect of the post-exposure bake on the quality of structures was taken into account, revealing a more efficient fabrication way by exploiting the local thermal effect of the laser. We studied further the influence of the NP size on the NP/PS coupling by investigating the fabrication and fluorescence measurement of Au NPs of different sizes: 10, 30, 50, 80, and 100 nm. The photon collection enhancements in each case were 12.9 +/- 2.5, 12.6 +/- 5.6, 3.9 +/- 2.7, 5.9 +/- 4.4, and 6.6 +/- 5.1 times, respectively. The gain in fluorescence could reach up to 36.6 times for 10-nm gold NPs.

  14. Absorption and emission of silicon nanocrystals embedded in SiC: Eliminating Fabry-Pérot interference

    SciTech Connect

    Schnabel, M.; Summonte, C.; Canino, M.; Dyakov, S. A.; López-Conesa, L.; Löper, P.; Janz, S.; Wilshaw, P. R.

    2015-01-28

    Silicon nanocrystals embedded in SiC are studied by spectrophotometry and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Absorptivities are found to be affected by residual Fabry-Pérot interference arising from measurements of reflection and transmission at locations of different film thickness. Multiple computational and experimental methods to avoid these errors in thin film measurements, in general, are discussed. Corrected absorptivity depends on the quantity of Si embedded in the SiC but is independent of the Si crystallinity, indicating a relaxation of the k-conservation criterion for optical transitions in the nanocrystals. Tauc gaps of 1.8–2.0 and 2.12 eV are determined for Si nanoclusters and SiC, respectively. PL spectra exhibit a red-shift of ∼100 nm per nm nominal Si nanocluster diameter, which is in agreement with quantum confinement but revealed to be an artifact entirely due to Fabry-Pérot interference. Several simple experimental methods to diagnose or avoid interference in PL measurements are developed that are applicable to all thin films. Corrected PL is rather weak and invariant with passivation, indicating that non-paramagnetic defects are responsible for rapid non-radiative recombination. They are also responsible for the broad, sub-gap PL of the SiC, and can wholly account for the form of the PL of samples with Si nanoclusters. The PL intensity of samples with Si nanoclusters, however, can only be explained with an increased density of luminescent defects in the SiC due to Si nanoclusters, efficient tunneling of photogenerated carriers from Si nanoclusters to SiC defects, or with emission from a-Si nanoclusters. Films prepared on Si exhibit much weaker PL than the same films prepared on quartz substrates.

  15. Analysis and Application of Silicon Nano-Particles Produced via Continuous Flow Non-Thermal Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Thomas David

    Continuous flow non-thermal plasma reactors are being investigated for their ability to efficiently produce high quality nanoparticles. While many nanomaterials can be produced via continuous flow non-thermal plasma reactors, silicon is of particular interest, due to its abundance and relevance in many energy related fields. Significant gaps still exist in the understanding of the kinetics responsible for particle growth, structural evolution, and surface termination of continuous flow non-thermal plasma reactor produced particles. Particle interaction with plasma radicals results in the heating of the particles, which in turn affects the kinetics of particle growth, structural evolution, and surface termination during synthesis and processing. We have investigated the details of plasma-nanoparticle interaction by using in-flight and in-situ characterization techniques. For the first time, we have measured the temperature of a free-standing particle immersed in a non-equilibrium processing plasma. In parallel, we have utilized continuous flow non-thermal plasma reactor-produced nanoparticles to create bulk nanostructured materials. The ability to tune size, structure, and surface termination of the continuous flow non-thermal plasma reactor produced nanoparticles allows for significant control of the precursor powders used in the densification processes. Hot pressing processes allow for the production of samples with bulk-like densities while limiting grain growth, allowing for the creation of nanostructured bulk systems. Nanostructured bulk silicon represents an ideal system to study the role of nano-structuring on transport of charge carriers and phonons in bulk materials. Initial results show that small particle and narrow particle size distributions allows for the creation of bulk nanostructured silicon with high ZT values. This system has shown to be relevant for direct conversion of heat into electrical power, but is also a model for the optimization of

  16. Laser desorption/ionization from nanostructured surfaces: nanowires, nanoparticle films and silicon microcolumn arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yong; Luo, Guanghong; Diao, Jiajie; Chornoguz, Olesya; Reeves, Mark; Vertes, Akos

    2007-04-01

    Due to their optical properties and morphology, thin films formed of nanoparticles are potentially new platforms for soft laser desorption/ionization (SLDI) mass spectrometry. Thin films of gold nanoparticles (with 12±1 nm particle size) were prepared by evaporation-driven vertical colloidal deposition and used to analyze a series of directly deposited polypeptide samples. In this new SLDI method, the required laser fluence for ion detection was equal or less than what was needed for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) but the resulting spectra were free of matrix interferences. A silicon microcolumn array-based substrate (a.k.a. black silicon) was developed as a new matrix-free laser desorption ionization surface. When low-resistivity silicon wafers were processed with a 22 ps pulse length 3×ω Nd:YAG laser in air, SF6 or water environment, regularly arranged conical spikes emerged. The radii of the spike tips varied with the processing environment, ranging from approximately 500 nm in water, to ~2 µm in SF6 gas and to ~5 µm in air. Peptide mass spectra directly induced by a nitrogen laser showed the formation of protonated ions of angiotensin I and II, substance P, bradykinin fragment 1-7, synthetic peptide, pro14-arg, and insulin from the processed silicon surfaces but not from the unprocessed areas. Threshold fluences for desorption/ionization were similar to those used in MALDI. Although compared to silicon nanowires the threshold laser pulse energy for ionization is significantly (~10×) higher, the ease of production and robustness of microcolumn arrays offer complementary benefits.

  17. Remotely Controlled Micromanipulation by Buckling Instabilities in Fe3O4 Nanoparticle Embedded Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) Surface Arrays.

    PubMed

    Carias, Vinicio; Nemati Porshokouh, Zohreh; Stojak Repa, Kristen; Alonso, Javier; Srikanth, Hariharan; Rühe, Jürgen; Toomey, Ryan; Wang, Jing

    2016-10-05

    The micromanipulation of biological samples is important for microbiology, pharmaceutical science, and related bioengineering fields. In this work, we report the fabrication and characterization of surface-attached microbeam arrays of 20 μm width and 25 μm height made of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), a thermoresponsive polymer, with embedded spherical or octopod Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Below 32 °C, the microbeams imbibe water and buckle with an amplitude of approximately 20 μm. Turning on an AC-magnetic field induces the microbeam array to expel water due to the heating effect of the nanoparticles (magnetic hyperthermia), leading to a reversible transition from a buckled to nonbuckled state. It is observed that the octopod nanoparticles have a heating rate 30% greater (specific absorption rate, SAR) than that of the spherical nanoparticles, which shortens the time scale of the transition from the buckled and nonbuckled state. The return of the microbeams to the buckled state is accomplished by turning off the AC magnetic field, the rate of which is dictated by dissipation of heat and is independent of the type of nanoparticle. It is further demonstrated that this transition can be used to propel 50 μm spherical objects along a surface. While the motion is random, this study shows the promise of harnessing shape-shifting patterns in microfluidics for object manipulation.

  18. Solid state synthesis of water-dispersible silicon nanoparticles from silica nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Kravitz, Keren; Kamyshny, Alexander; Gedanken, Aharon; Magdassi, Shlomo

    2010-06-15

    A solid state synthesis for obtaining nanocrystalline silicon was performed by high temperature reduction of commercial amorphous nanosilica with magnesium powder. The obtained silicon powder contains crystalline silicon phase with lattice spacings characteristic of diamond cubic structure (according to high resolution TEM), and an amorphous phase. In {sup 29}Si CP MAS NMR a broad multicomponent peak corresponding to silicon is located at -61.28 to -69.45 ppm, i.e. between the peaks characteristic of amorphous and crystalline Si. The powder has displayed red luminescence while excited under UV illumination, due to quantum confinement within the nanocrystals. The silicon nanopowder was successfully dispersed in water containing poly(vinyl alcohol) as a stabilizing agent. The obtained dispersion was also characterized by red photoluminescence with a band maximum at 710 nm, thus enabling future functional coating applications. - Graphical abstract: High temperature reduction of amorphous nanosilica with magnesium powder results in the formation of powder containing crystalline silicon phase The powder displays red luminescence while excited under UV illumination, due to quantum confinement within the Si nanocrystals, and can be successfully dispersed in water containing poly(vinyl alcohol) as a stabilizing agent. The obtained dispersion was also characterized by red photoluminescence, thus enabling future functional coating applications.

  19. Expanded graphite embedded with aluminum nanoparticles as superior thermal conductivity anodes for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Tingkai; She, Shengfei; Ji, Xianglin; Guo, Xinai; Jin, Wenbo; Zhu, Ruoxing; Dang, Alei; Li, Hao; Li, Tiehu; Wei, Bingqing

    2016-09-27

    The development of high capacity and long-life lithium-ion batteries is a long-term pursuing and under a close scrutiny. Most of the researches have been focused on exploring electrode materials and structures with high store capability of lithium ions and at the same time with a good electrical conductivity. Thermal conductivity of an electrode material will also have significant impacts on boosting battery capacity and prolonging battery lifetime, which is, however, underestimated. Here, we present the development of an expanded graphite embedded with Al metal nanoparticles (EG-MNPs-Al) synthesized by an oxidation-expansion process. The synthesized EG-MNPs-Al material exhibited a typical hierarchical structure with embedded Al metal nanoparticles into the interspaces of expanded graphite. The parallel thermal conductivity was up to 11.6 W·m(-1)·K(-1) with a bulk density of 453 kg·m(-3) at room temperature, a 150% improvement compared to expanded graphite (4.6 W·m(-1)·K(-1)) owing to the existence of Al metal nanoparticles. The first reversible capacity of EG-MNPs-Al as anode material for lithium ion battery was 480 mAh·g(-1) at a current density of 100 mA·g(-1), and retained 84% capacity after 300 cycles. The improved cycling stability and system security of lithium ion batteries is attributed to the excellent thermal conductivity of the EG-MNPs-Al anodes.

  20. Expanded graphite embedded with aluminum nanoparticles as superior thermal conductivity anodes for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Tingkai; She, Shengfei; Ji, Xianglin; Guo, Xinai; Jin, Wenbo; Zhu, Ruoxing; Dang, Alei; Li, Hao; Li, Tiehu; Wei, Bingqing

    2016-09-01

    The development of high capacity and long-life lithium-ion batteries is a long-term pursuing and under a close scrutiny. Most of the researches have been focused on exploring electrode materials and structures with high store capability of lithium ions and at the same time with a good electrical conductivity. Thermal conductivity of an electrode material will also have significant impacts on boosting battery capacity and prolonging battery lifetime, which is, however, underestimated. Here, we present the development of an expanded graphite embedded with Al metal nanoparticles (EG-MNPs-Al) synthesized by an oxidation-expansion process. The synthesized EG-MNPs-Al material exhibited a typical hierarchical structure with embedded Al metal nanoparticles into the interspaces of expanded graphite. The parallel thermal conductivity was up to 11.6 W·m‑1·K‑1 with a bulk density of 453 kg·m‑3 at room temperature, a 150% improvement compared to expanded graphite (4.6 W·m‑1·K‑1) owing to the existence of Al metal nanoparticles. The first reversible capacity of EG-MNPs-Al as anode material for lithium ion battery was 480 mAh·g‑1 at a current density of 100 mA·g‑1, and retained 84% capacity after 300 cycles. The improved cycling stability and system security of lithium ion batteries is attributed to the excellent thermal conductivity of the EG-MNPs-Al anodes.

  1. Plasmonic properties of gold nanoparticles on silicon substrates: Understanding Fano-like spectra observed in reflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossard-Giannesini, Léo; Cruguel, Hervé; Lacaze, Emmanuelle; Pluchery, Olivier

    2016-09-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are known for their localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) that can be measured with UV-visible spectroscopy. AuNPs are often deposited on silicon substrates for various applications, and the LSPR is measured in reflection. In this case, optical spectra are measured by surface differential reflectance spectroscopy (SDRS) and the absorbance exhibits a negative peak. This article studies both experimentally and theoretically on the single layers of 16 nm diameter spherical gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) grafted on silicon. The morphology and surface density of AuNPs were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The plasmon response in transmission on the glass substrate and in reflection on the silicon substrate is described by an analytical model based on the Fresnel equations and the Maxwell-Garnett effective medium theory (FMG). The FMG model shows a strong dependence to the incidence angle of the light. At low incident angles, the peak appears negatively with a shallow intensity, and at angles above 30°, the usual positive shape of the plasmon is retrieved. The relevance of the FMG model is compared to the Mie theory within the dipolar approximation. We conclude that no Fano effect is responsible for this derivative shape. An easy-to-use formula is derived that agrees with our experimental data.

  2. Characterization of the Electronic Structure of Silicon Nanoparticles Using X-ray Absorption and Emission

    SciTech Connect

    Vaverka, April Susan Montoya

    2008-01-01

    Resolving open questions regarding transport in nanostructures can have a huge impact on a broad range of future technologies such as light harvesting for energy. Silicon has potential to be used in many of these applications. Understanding how the band edges of nanostructures move as a function of size, surface termination and assembly is of fundamental importance in understanding the transport properties of these materials. In this thesis work I have investigated the change in the electronic structure of silicon nanoparticle assemblies as the surface termination is changed. Nanoparticles are synthesized using a thermal evaporation technique and sizes are determined using atomic force microscopy (AFM). By passivating the particles with molecules containing alcohol groups we are able to modify the size dependent band edge shifts. Both the valence and conduction bands are measured using synchrotron based x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and soft x-ray fluorescence (SXF) techniques. Particles synthesized via recrystallization of amorphous silicon/SiO2 multilayers of thicknesses below 10 nm are also investigated using the synchrotron techniques. These samples also show quantum confinement effects but the electronic structure is different from those synthesized via evaporation methods. The total bandgap is determined for all samples measured. The origins of these differences in the electronic structures are discussed.

  3. Development and characterization of silicone embedded distributed piezoelectric sensors for contact detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acer, Merve; Salerno, Marco; Agbeviade, Kossi; Paik, Jamie

    2015-07-01

    Tactile sensing transfers complex interactive information in a most intuitive sense. Such a populated set of data from the environment and human interactions necessitates various degrees of information from both modular and distributed areas. A sensor design that could provide such types of feedback becomes challenging when the target component has a nonuniform, agile, high resolution, and soft surface. This paper presents an innovative methodology for the manufacture of novel soft sensors that have a high resolution sensing array due to the sensitivity of ceramic piezoelectric (PZT) elements, while uncommonly matched with the high stretchability of the soft substrate and electrode design. Further, they have a low profile and their transfer function is easy to tune by changing the material and thickness of the soft substrate in which the PZTs are embedded. In this manuscript, we present experimental results of the soft sensor prototypes: PZTs arranged in a four by two array form, measuring 1.5-2.3 mm in thickness, with the sensitivity in the range of 0.07-0.12 of the normalized signal change per unit force. We have conducted extensive tests under dynamic loading conditions that include impact, step and cyclic. The presented prototype's mechanical and functional capacities are promising for applications in biomedical systems where soft, wearable and high precision sensors are needed.

  4. Evaluation of cellular effects of silicon dioxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Horie, Masanori; Nishio, Keiko; Kato, Haruhisa; Endoh, Shigehisa; Fujita, Katsuhide; Nakamura, Ayako; Hagihara, Yoshihisa; Yoshida, Yasukazu; Iwahashi, Hitoshi

    2014-03-01

    Silica nanoparticles (nSiO2s) are an important type of manufactured nanoparticles. Although there are some reports about the cytotoxicity of nSiO2, the association between physical and chemical properties of nSiO2s and their cellular effects is still unclear. In this study, we examined the correlation between the physiochemical properties and cellular effects of three kinds of amorphous nSiO2s; sub-micro-scale amorphous SiO2, and micro-scale amorphous and crystalline SiO2 particles. The SiO2 particles were dispersed in culture medium and applied to HaCaT human keratinocytes and A549 human lung carcinoma cells. nSiO2s showed stronger protein adsorption than larger SiO2 particles. Moreover, the cellular effects of SiO2 particles were independent of the particle size and crystalline phase. The extent of cell membrane damage and intracellular ROS levels were different among nSiO2s. Upon exposure to nSiO2s, some cells released lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), whereas another nSiO2 did not induce LDH release. nSiO2s caused a slight increase in intracellular ROS levels. These cellular effects were independent of the specific surface area and primary particle size of the nSiO2s. Additionally, association of solubility and protein adsorption ability of nSiO2 to its cellular effects seemed to be small. Taken together, our data suggest that nSiO2s do not exert potent cytotoxic effects on cells in culture, especially compared to the effects of micro-scale SiO2 particles. Further studies are needed to address the role of surface properties of nSiO2s on cellular processes and cytotoxicity.

  5. Catalytic activity of silicon nanowires decorated with silver and copper nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amdouni, Sonia; Coffinier, Yannick; Szunerits, Sabine; Zaïbi, Mohammed Ali; Oueslati, Meherzi; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2016-01-01

    The paper reports on the elaboration of silicon nanowires decorated with silver (SiNWs-Ag NPs) or copper (SiNWs-Cu NPs) nanoparticles and the investigation of their catalytic properties for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol. The SiNW arrays were produced through chemical etching of crystalline silicon in HF/AgNO3 aqueous solution. The metal nanoparticles were deposited on the SiNW substrates through chemical bath immersion in a metal salt/hydrofluoric acid aqueous solution. The SiNWs decorated with Ag NPs and Cu NPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The catalytic activity of the SiNWs loaded with metal nanoparticles was evaluated for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in the presence of sodium borohydride (NaBH4). The substrates exhibited good catalytic performance toward nitrophenol with a full reduction in less than 30 s for the SiNWs-Cu NPs.

  6. Structural and optical properties of silicon nanoparticles prepared by pulsed laser ablation in hydrogen background gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makino, T.; Inada, M.; Yoshida, K.; Umezu, I.; Sugimura, A.

    We studied the structural and optical properties of silicon (Si) nanoparticles (np-Si) prepared by pulsed laser ablation (PLA) in hydrogen (H2) background gas. The mean diameter of the np-Si was estimated to be approximately 5 nm. The infrared absorption corresponding to Si-Hn (n=1,2,3) bonds was observed at around 2100 cm-1, and a Raman scattering peak corresponding to crystalline Si was observed at around 520 cm-1. These results indicate that nanoparticles are not an alloy of Si and hydrogen but Si nanocrystal covered by hydrogen or hydrogenated silicon. This means that surface passivated Si nanoparticles can be prepared by PLA in H2 gas. The band-gap energy of np-Si prepared in H2 gas (1.9 eV) was larger than that of np-Si prepared in He gas (1.6 eV) even though they are almost the same diameter. After decreasing the hydrogen content in np-Si by thermal annealing, the band-gap energy decreased, and reached the same energy level as np-Si prepared in He gas. Thus, the optical properties of np-Si were affected by the hydrogenation of the surface of np-Si.

  7. The Measurement of Surface Rheological and Surface Adhesive Properties of a PDMS Rubber using Micro- and Nano-Particle Embedment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutcheson, Stephen; McKenna, Gregory

    2009-03-01

    In previous work, we used particle embedment data to determine the rheological response of the surfaces of a polystyrene film, a phase separated copolymer and a commercially available polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) rubber through the application of a viscoelastic contact mechanics model. The goal of the current research is to build off this analysis and use micro- and nano-sphere embedment experiments to probe the surface rheological behavior of PDMS in the rubbery state. The work includes measurements made with different particle diameters and chemistries. An atomic force microscope (AFM) is used to measure the embedment depth as nanoparticles are pulled into the surface by the thermodynamic work of adhesion. Present results show that silica probes of different sizes (500 nm and 300 nm) give different results for the surface adhesion properties and the surface rheological properties determined from the particle embedment data and at scales much larger than the nanometer size scale where one might expect such deviations. Possible water entrapment and effects of particle surface composition on the results will be discussed.

  8. Carrier transport in flexible organic bistable devices of ZnO nanoparticles embedded in an insulating poly(methyl methacrylate) polymer layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Dong-Ick; Park, Dong-Hee; Choi, Won Kook; Cho, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Won-Tae; Kim, Tae Whan

    2009-05-01

    The bistable effects of ZnO nanoparticles embedded in an insulating poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) polymer single layer by using flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates were investigated. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images revealed that ZnO nanoparticles were formed inside the PMMA polymer layer. Current-voltage (I-V) measurement on the Al/ZnO nanoparticles embedded in an insulating PMMA polymer layer/ITO/PET structures at 300 K showed a nonvolatile electrical bistability behavior with a flat-band voltage shift due to the existence of the ZnO nanoparticles, indicative of trapping, storing, and emission of charges in the electronic states of the ZnO nanoparticles. The carrier transport mechanism of the bistable behavior for the fabricated organic bistable device (OBD) structures is described on the basis of the I-V results by analyzing the effect of space charge.

  9. Effects of polymer-based, silver nanoparticle-coated silicone splints on the nasal mucosa of rats.

    PubMed

    Şevik Eliçora, Sultan; Erdem, Duygu; Dinç, Aykut Erdem; Altunordu Kalaycı, Özlem; Hazer, Baki; Yurdakan, Gamze; Külah, Canan

    2017-03-01

    Infection is a serious complication after nasal packing that otolaryngologists seek to avoid. The aim of this study is to investigate the use of silver (Ag) nanoparticle, which serves as antimicrobial agents, with nasal tampons. The study design is an experimental animal model and the setting is tertiary referral center. Twenty-four rats were randomized into the following four groups: (1) control group (n = 6); (2) silicone nasal splint (SNS) group (n  =  6); (3) polypropylene-grafted polyethylene glycol (PP-g-PEG) amphiphilic graft copolymer-coated SNS group (n  =  6); and (4) Ag nanoparticle-embedded PP-g-PEG (Ag-PP-g-PEG) amphiphilic graft copolymer-coated SNS group (n  =  6). These tampons were applied to rats for 48 h, after which they were removed in a sterile manner, and the rats were sacrificed. The nasal septa of the rats were excised, and assessments of tissue changes in the nasal mucosa were compared among the groups. The removed tampons were microbiologically examined, and quantitative analyses were made. When the groups were compared microbiologically, there were no significant differences in bacterial colonization rates of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. among the three groups (p = 0.519), but there was a statistically significant difference among bacterial colonization rates of Heamophilus parainfluenzae and Corynebacterium spp. (p = 0.018, p = 0.004). We found that H. parainfluenzae grew less robustly in the Ag-PP-g-PEG than the PP-g-PEG group (p = 0.017). However, we found no significant difference between the Ag-PP-g-PEG and SNS groups, or between the SNS and PP-g-PEG groups. The growth of Corynebacterium spp. did not differ significantly between the Ag-PP-g-PEG and SNS groups (p = 1.000). When Group 4 was compared with Group 2, the former showed less inflammation. Compared with other tampons, Ag-PP-g-PEG amphiphilic graft copolymer-coated silicone nasal tampons caused less microbiological colonization and

  10. Swift heavy ion irradiation of ZnO nanoparticles embedded in silica: Radiation-induced deoxidation and shape elongation

    SciTech Connect

    Amekura, H.; Tsuya, D.; Mitsuishi, K.; Nakayama, Y.; Okubo, N.; Ishikawa, N.; Singh, U. B.; Khan, S. A.; Avasthi, D. K.; Mohapatra, S.

    2013-11-11

    ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in amorphous SiO{sub 2} were irradiated with 200 MeV Xe{sup 14+} swift heavy ions (SHIs) to a fluence of 5.0 × 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}. Optical linear dichroism was induced in the samples by the irradiation, indicating shape transformation of the NPs from spheres to anisotropic ones. Transmission electron microscopy observations revealed that some NPs were elongated to prolate shapes; the elongated NPs consisted not of ZnO but of Zn metal. The SHI irradiation induced deoxidation of small ZnO NPs and successive shape elongation of the deoxidized metal NPs.

  11. A simple facile approach to large scale synthesis of high specific surface area silicon nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Epur, Rigved; Minardi, Luke; Datta, Moni K.; Chung, Sung Jae; Kumta, Prashant N.

    2013-12-15

    An inexpensive, facile, and high throughput synthesis of silicon nanoparticles was achieved by the mechano-chemical reduction reaction of magnesium silicide (Mg{sub 2}Si) and silicon monoxide (SiO) using a high energy mechanical milling (HEMM) technique followed by acid leaching. Characterization of the resultant product using X-Ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and surface area analyses was performed at various stages of the synthesis process. XRD patterns show that the final product formed is single phase silicon and the nanocrystalline nature was confirmed by the shifted transverse optical (TO) band, characteristic of nc-Si determined by Raman analysis. SEM and TEM shows the presence of particles of different sizes in the range of few nanometers to agglomerates of few microns which is consistent with products obtained from mechanical milling. BET measurements show a very high specific surface area (SSA) of ∼190 m{sup 2}/g obtained due to acid leaching which is also validated by the porous nature of the particles confirmed by the SEM images. - Graphical abstract: Schematic showing the large scale production of nanosized silicon and BET surface area of the product formed at various stages.

  12. Measurement of the photostability of silicon nanoparticles under UVA and near infrared irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Mantey, Kevin; Kwit, Matthew; Nayfeh, M. H.; Kumar, Ashok; Stephenson, Larry D.; Nelson, Andrew J.

    2010-03-15

    We examine the photostability of silicon nanoparticles when they are dispersed in liquid or immobilized in gels or on surfaces. We show that the photoluminescence in static solution develops, under UV irradiation, a long-term stability at the 50% level. Under the same conditions, common dye molecules such as coumarin and stilbene quench with time at rates 8 and 50 fold faster, and exhibit no long-term stability. For the case of immobilized particles in agarose gel as well as on a quartz substrate we used two-photon near infrared femtosecond excitation at 780 nm to induce the blue luminescence. ''Parking'' the excitation beam, focused on such stationery particles shows that they, unlike similarly immobilized dye molecules, are highly photostable at more than 80%-90% level and do not bleach. The photostability is discussed in terms of excited state interactions and structuring of the silicon outer shell.

  13. Significant light absorption enhancement in silicon thin film tandem solar cells with metallic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Cai, Boyuan; Li, Xiangping; Zhang, Yinan; Jia, Baohua

    2016-05-13

    Enhancing the light absorption in microcrystalline silicon bottom cell of a silicon-based tandem solar cell for photocurrent matching holds the key to achieving the overall solar cell performance breakthroughs. Here, we present a concept for significantly improving the absorption of both subcells simultaneously by simply applying tailored metallic nanoparticles both on the top and at the rear surfaces of the solar cells. Significant light absorption enhancement as large as 56% has been achieved in the bottom subcells. More importantly the thickness of the microcrystalline layer can be reduced by 57% without compromising the optical performance of the tandem solar cell, providing a cost-effective strategy for high performance tandem solar cells.

  14. Modeling of the refractive index and composition of luminescent nanometric chlorinated-silicon nitride films with embedded Si-quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Gómez, A.; Escobar-Alarcón, L.; Serna, R.; Cabello, F.; Haro-Poniatowski, E.; García-Valenzuela, A.; Alonso, J. C.

    2016-10-01

    The refractive index of nanometric (<100 nm) chlorinated-silicon nitride films with embedded silicon quantum dots, prepared by remote plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition was investigated by spectroscopic ellipsometry. The complex refractive indexes and thicknesses of the films were obtained from the ellipsometric measurements using the Cauchy model. The chemical composition of the bulk of the films, including the hydrogen, chlorine, and oxygen content, was measured by elastic forward analysis (EFA) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The EFA and XPS results indicate that the films are composed of nearly stoichiometric silicon nitride (Si3N4) with different amounts of hydrogen, chlorine, and oxygen, and that their top surface is oxidized. Based on the composition results the refractive index of the films was fitted using the effective medium approximation considering the system: Si substrate + Si3N4 + Si + voids + top ultrathin oxidized surface layer.

  15. Gold nanoparticle-embedded silk protein-ZnO nanorod hybrids for flexible bio-photonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogurla, Narendar; Kundu, Subhas C.; Ray, Samit K.

    2017-04-01

    Silk protein has been used as a biopolymer substrate for flexible photonic devices. Here, we demonstrate ZnO nanorod array hybrid photodetectors on Au nanoparticle-embedded silk protein for flexible optoelectronics. Hybrid samples exhibit optical absorption at the band edge of ZnO as well as plasmonic energy due to Au nanoparticles, making them attractive for selective UV and visible wavelength detection. The device prepared on Au-silk protein shows a much lower dark current and a higher photo to dark-current ratio of ∼105 as compared to the control sample without Au nanoparticles. The hybrid device also exhibits a higher specific detectivity due to higher responsivity arising from the photo-generated hole trapping by Au nanoparticles. Sharp pulses in the transient photocurrent have been observed in devices prepared on glass and Au-silk protein substrates due to the light induced pyroelectric effect of ZnO, enabling the demonstration of self-powered photodetectors at zero bias. Flexible hybrid detectors have been demonstrated on Au-silk/polyethylene terephthalate substrates, exhibiting characteristics similar to those fabricated on rigid glass substrates. A study of the performance of photodetectors with different bending angles indicates very good mechanical stability of silk protein based flexible devices. This novel concept of ZnO nanorod array photodetectors on a natural silk protein platform provides an opportunity to realize integrated flexible and self-powered bio-photonic devices for medical applications in near future.

  16. Gold nanoparticle-embedded silk protein-ZnO nanorod hybrids for flexible bio-photonic devices.

    PubMed

    Gogurla, Narendar; Kundu, Subhas C; Ray, Samit K

    2017-04-07

    Silk protein has been used as a biopolymer substrate for flexible photonic devices. Here, we demonstrate ZnO nanorod array hybrid photodetectors on Au nanoparticle-embedded silk protein for flexible optoelectronics. Hybrid samples exhibit optical absorption at the band edge of ZnO as well as plasmonic energy due to Au nanoparticles, making them attractive for selective UV and visible wavelength detection. The device prepared on Au-silk protein shows a much lower dark current and a higher photo to dark-current ratio of ∼10(5) as compared to the control sample without Au nanoparticles. The hybrid device also exhibits a higher specific detectivity due to higher responsivity arising from the photo-generated hole trapping by Au nanoparticles. Sharp pulses in the transient photocurrent have been observed in devices prepared on glass and Au-silk protein substrates due to the light induced pyroelectric effect of ZnO, enabling the demonstration of self-powered photodetectors at zero bias. Flexible hybrid detectors have been demonstrated on Au-silk/polyethylene terephthalate substrates, exhibiting characteristics similar to those fabricated on rigid glass substrates. A study of the performance of photodetectors with different bending angles indicates very good mechanical stability of silk protein based flexible devices. This novel concept of ZnO nanorod array photodetectors on a natural silk protein platform provides an opportunity to realize integrated flexible and self-powered bio-photonic devices for medical applications in near future.

  17. A palladium-nanoparticle and silicon-nanowire-array hybrid: a platform for catalytic heterogeneous reactions.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yoichi M A; Yuyama, Yoshinari; Sato, Takuma; Fujikawa, Shigenori; Uozumi, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-03

    We report the development of a silicon nanowire array-stabilized palladium nanoparticle catalyst, SiNA-Pd. Its use in the palladium-catalyzed Mizoroki-Heck reaction, the hydrogenation of an alkene, the hydrogenolysis of nitrobenzene, the hydrosilylation of an α,β-unsaturated ketone, and the C-H bond functionalization reactions of thiophenes and indoles achieved a quantitative production with high reusability. The catalytic activity reached several hundred-mol ppb of palladium, reaching a TON of 2 000 000.

  18. Alignment of nanoparticles, nanorods, and nanowires during chemical vapor deposition of silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swain, Bhabani Sankar; Park, Jin-Woo; Yang, Seung-Min; Mahmood, Khalid; Swain, Bibhu Prasad; Lee, Jae-Gab; Hwang, Nong-Moon

    2015-09-01

    We fabricated silicon nanostructures (Si-NSs) on SiO x /Si substrate in chemical vapor deposition. During the synthesis of Si-NSs, Si sunflower-shaped structures of one to hundred microns were observed, therein the nanoparticles (NPs), nanowires, and nanorods were aligned in an ordered manner. We suggest that the NSs reported here are evolved by the electrostatic force exerted by charged NPs in gas phase. This NS would help in understanding the role of spontaneous charging of NPs in the gas phase and the role of charged NPs in the gas phase for NSs growth.

  19. Interaction of silicon nanoparticles with the molecules of bovine serum albumin in aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Anenkova, K A; Sergeeva, I A; Petrova, G P; Fedorova, K V; Osminkina, L A; Timoshenko, Viktor Yu

    2011-05-31

    Using the method of photon-correlation spectroscopy, the coefficient of translational diffusion D{sub t} and the hydrodynamic radius R of the particles in aqueous solutions of the bovine serum albumin, containing silicon nanoparticles, are determined. The character of the dependence of these parameters on the concentration of the protein indicates the absence of interaction between the studied particles in the chosen range of albumin concentrations 0.2 - 1.0 mg mL{sup -1}. (optical technologies in biophysics and medicine)

  20. Luminescence nanothermometry with alkyl-capped silicon nanoparticles dispersed in nonpolar liquids

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Silicon nanoparticles (Si NPs) with a diameter size ranging from 4 to 8 nm were successfully fabricated. They exhibit a visible photoluminescence (PL) due to the quantum confinement effect. Chemical functionalization of these Si NPs with alkyl groups allowed to homogeneously disperse them in nonpolar liquids (NPLs). In comparison to most of literature results for Si NPs, an important PL peak position variation with temperature (almost 1 meV/K) was obtained from 303 to 390 K. The influence of the liquid viscosity on the peak positions is also presented. These variations are discussed considering energy transfer between nanoparticles. The high PL thermal sensitivity of the alkyl-capped Si NPs paves the way for their future application as nanothermometers. PMID:24565261

  1. Nanoparticles and nanorods of silicon carbide from the residues of corn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qadri, S. B.; Gorzkowski, E.; Rath, B. B.; Feng, J.; Qadri, S. N.; Kim, H.; Caldwell, J. D.; Imam, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated the thermally induced transformation of various residues of the corn plant into nanoparticles and nanorods of different silicon carbide (SiC) polytypes. This has been accomplished by both microwave-induced and conventional furnace pyrolysis in excess of 1450 °C in an inert atmosphere. This simple process of producing nanoparticles of different polytypes of SiC from the corn plant opens a new method of utilizing agricultural waste to produce viable industrial products that are technologically important for nanoelectronics, molecular sensors, nanophotonics, biotechnology, and other mechanical applications. Using x-ray and Raman scattering characterization, we have demonstrated that the processed samples of corn husk, leaves, stalks, and cob consist of SiC nanostructures of the 2H, 3C, 4H, and 6H polytypes.

  2. Tribological properties of self-assembled gold nanoparticles on silicon with polydopamine as the adhesion layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    E, Songfeng; Shi, Lei; Guo, Zhiguang

    2014-02-01

    Adhesion, friction, and wear are the three key problems in moving parts of nano/microelectromechanical system devices. Self-assembly technique has become an important route to solve these problems for its construction of lubricants in micro/nano scales. The present work fabricated a composite dual-layer film of polydopamine/gold nanoparticles on silicon. The morphologies, structures, and chemical constitute of the synthesized nanoparticles and the self-assembled films were confirmed by ultraviolet absorption spectrum, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. To evaluate their micro adhesion forces and macro tribological behaviors of the films, atomic force microscopy and UMT-2M tribometer were employed. The worn surface morphologies of the films and the counterpart steel balls were observed by scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the film has favorable friction reduction and wear resistance ability, which is expected to be applied in nano/microelectromechanical systems.

  3. Immunosensing platform based on gallium nanoparticle arrays on silicon substrates.

    PubMed

    García Marín, Antonio; Hernández, María Jesús; Ruiz, Eduardo; Abad, Jose María; Lorenzo, Encarnación; Piqueras, Juan; Pau, Jose Luis

    2015-12-15

    Gallium nanoparticles (GaNPs) of different sizes are deposited on Si(100) substrates by thermal evaporation. Through ellipsometric analysis, it is possible to investigate the plasmonic effects in the GaNPs and exploit them to develop biosensors. The excitation of the resonant modes for certain incidence angles leads to negative values of the imaginary part of the pseudodielectric function (<εi>) obtained in ellipsometry. Furthermore, there is an abrupt sign change when the difference between the phase shifts of p- and s-polarization components reaches 180° at an energy of around 3.15 eV. At that energy, reversal of the polarization handedness (RPH) occurs for an elliptically-polarized input beam. The energy of the RPH condition reduces as the evaporation time increases. The slope of <εi> at the RPH condition is extremely sensitive to changes in the surrounding medium of the NP surface and prompts the use of the GaNP/Si system as sensor platform. Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) is used before and after functionalization with 3,3'-dithiodipropionic acid di(N-succinimidyl ester) and a glutathione-specific antibody to confirm the chemical modification of the sample surface. The developed immunosensor is exposed to different concentrations of glutathione (GSH) showing a linear relationship between the slope of the pseudodielectric function at the RPH condition and the GSH concentration. The immunosensor shows a limit of detection of 10nM enabling its use for the detection of low GSH levels in different medical conditions.

  4. 3D numerical modeling for ultra-sensitive noninvasive size-dependent nanoparticle detection technique using subwavelength silicon microcavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dionne, Jeffrey P.; Kuznetsova, Lyuba

    2015-08-01

    Three-dimensional finite-element-method simulations are used to investigate a system consisting of a subwavelength silicon microdisk cavity for the detection of different viruses of the same type. This is done by observing the effects that a spherical nanoparticle had on the frequency resonances of WGMs of the silicon microdisk. Results show that the observed spectral shift vary for the TM15 mode with an attached nanoparticle of radiuses between 100-300 nm. This frequency shift size-dependence makes it possible the for mature and immature HIV-1 viruses to be identified by the resonant frequency change in the transmission spectrum.

  5. Cobalt nanoparticles embedded in N-doped carbon as an efficient bifunctional electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction and evolution reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yunhe; Zhu, Yihua; Jiang, Hongliang; Shen, Jianhua; Yang, Xiaoling; Zou, Wenjian; Chen, Jianding; Li, Chunzhong

    2014-11-01

    Cobalt based catalysts are promising bifunctional electrocatalysts for both oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution reactions (ORR and OER) in unitized regenerative fuel cells (URFCs) operating with alkaline electrolytes. Here we report a hybrid composite of cobalt nanoparticles embedded in nitrogen-doped carbon (Co/N-C) via a solvothermal carbonization strategy. With the synergistic effect arising from the N-doped carbon and cobalt nanoparticles in the composite, the Co/N-C hybrid catalyst exhibits highly efficient bifunctional catalytic activity and excellent stability toward both ORR and OER. The ΔE (oxygen electrode activity parameter for judging the overall electrocatalytic activity of a bifunctional electrocatalyst) value for Co/N-C is 0.859 V, which is smaller than those of Pt/C and most of the non-precious metal catalysts in previous studies. Furthermore, the Co/N-C composite also shows better bifunctional catalytic activity than its oxidative counterparts, which could be attributed to the high specific surface area and the efficient charge transfer ability of the composite, as well as the good synergistic effect between N-doped carbon and the Co nanoparticles in the Co/N-C composite.Cobalt based catalysts are promising bifunctional electrocatalysts for both oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution reactions (ORR and OER) in unitized regenerative fuel cells (URFCs) operating with alkaline electrolytes. Here we report a hybrid composite of cobalt nanoparticles embedded in nitrogen-doped carbon (Co/N-C) via a solvothermal carbonization strategy. With the synergistic effect arising from the N-doped carbon and cobalt nanoparticles in the composite, the Co/N-C hybrid catalyst exhibits highly efficient bifunctional catalytic activity and excellent stability toward both ORR and OER. The ΔE (oxygen electrode activity parameter for judging the overall electrocatalytic activity of a bifunctional electrocatalyst) value for Co/N-C is 0.859 V, which is smaller than those

  6. Solution phase synthesis of aluminum-doped silicon nanoparticles via room-temperature, solvent based chemical reduction of silicon tetrachloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mowbray, Andrew James

    We present a method of wet chemical synthesis of aluminum-doped silicon nanoparticles (Al-doped Si NPs), encompassing the solution-phase co-reduction of silicon tetrachloride (SiCl4) and aluminum chloride (AlCl 3) by sodium naphthalide (Na[NAP]) in 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME). The development of this method was inspired by the work of Baldwin et al. at the University of California, Davis, and was adapted for our research through some noteworthy procedural modifications. Centrifugation and solvent-based extraction techniques were used throughout various stages of the synthesis procedure to achieve efficient and well-controlled separation of the Si NP product from the reaction media. In addition, the development of a non-aqueous, formamide-based wash solution facilitated simultaneous removal of the NaCl byproduct and Si NP surface passivation via attachment of 1-octanol to the particle surface. As synthesized, the Si NPs were typically 3-15 nm in diameter, and were mainly amorphous, as opposed to crystalline, as concluded from SAED and XRD diffraction pattern analysis. Aluminum doping at various concentrations was accomplished via the inclusion of aluminum chloride (AlCl3); which was in small quantities dissolved into the synthesis solution to be reduced alongside the SiCl4 precursor. The introduction of Al into the chemically-reduced Si NP precipitate was not found to adversely affect the formation of the Si NPs, but was found to influence aspects such as particle stability and dispersibility throughout various stages of the procedure. Analytical techniques including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), FTIR spectroscopy, and ICP-optical emission spectroscopy were used to comprehensively characterize the product NPs. These methods confirm both the presence of Al and surface-bound 1-octanol in the newly formed Si NPs.

  7. An electron backscatter diffraction investigation of crystallographic orientations of embedded nanoparticles within melt-textured YBCO high temperature superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koblischka-Veneva, A.; Koblischka, M. R.; Babu, N. Hari; Cardwell, D. A.; Shlyk, L.; Krabbes, G.

    2006-07-01

    Microstructures of melt-textured YBCO samples with embedded nanosized particles of Y2BaCuO5 (Y-211) and Y2Ba4CuMOx (M-2411 with M = U,Zr) are analysed by means of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). With the recent developments of the EBSD technique, we can directly measure the crystallographic orientation of the embedded nanoparticles, employing a spatial resolution of about 40 nm. The high image quality of the Kikuchi patterns allows true three-phase (YBCO, Y-211 and M-2411) scans to be performed. The Y-211 particles do not exhibit any preferred orientation, even if their size is considerably reduced, to the 100 nm range. The size reduction reduces the negative influence of the Y-211 particles on the YBCO matrix, however. U-2411 particles, which are formed during the processing stage, do not show any orientation, and with increasing concentration, some texture develops. In contrast to this, embedded Zr-2411 particles are fully oriented in the (001) orientation according to the surrounding superconducting matrix.

  8. Thermal stability of gold nanoparticles embedded within metal oxide frameworks fabricated by hybrid modifications onto sacrificial textile templates.

    PubMed

    Padbury, Richard P; Halbur, Jonathan C; Krommenhoek, Peter J; Tracy, Joseph B; Jur, Jesse S

    2015-01-27

    The stability and spatial separation of nanoparticles (NP's) is essential for employing their advantageous nanoscale properties. This work demonstrates the entrapment of gold NP's embedded in a porous inorganic matrix. Initially, gold NP's are decorated on fibrous nylon-6, which is used as an inexpensive sacrificial template. This is followed by inorganic modification using a novel single exposure cycle vapor phase technique resulting in distributed NP's embedded within a hybrid organic-inorganic matrix. The processing is extended to the synthesis of porous nanoflakes after calcination of the modified nylon-6 yielding a porous metal oxide framework surrounding the disconnected NP's with a surface area of 250 m(2)/g. A unique feature of this work is the use of a transmission electron microscope (TEM) equipped with an in situ annealing sample holder. The apparatus affords the opportunity to explore the underlying nanoscopic stability of NP's embedded in these frameworks in a single step. TEM analysis indicates thermal stability up to 670 °C and agglomeration characteristics thereafter. The vapor phase processes developed in this work will facilitate new complex NP/oxide materials useful for catalytic platforms.

  9. Linear and Non-Linear Optical Imaging of Cancer Cells with Silicon Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Tolstik, Elen; Osminkina, Liubov A.; Akimov, Denis; Gongalsky, Maksim B.; Kudryavtsev, Andrew A.; Timoshenko, Victor Yu.; Heintzmann, Rainer; Sivakov, Vladimir; Popp, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    New approaches for visualisation of silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs) in cancer cells are realised by means of the linear and nonlinear optics in vitro. Aqueous colloidal solutions of SiNPs with sizes of about 10–40 nm obtained by ultrasound grinding of silicon nanowires were introduced into breast cancer cells (MCF-7 cell line). Further, the time-varying nanoparticles enclosed in cell structures were visualised by high-resolution structured illumination microscopy (HR-SIM) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Additionally, the nonlinear optical methods of two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) with infrared laser excitation were applied to study the localisation of SiNPs in cells. Advantages of the nonlinear methods, such as rapid imaging, which prevents cells from overheating and larger penetration depth compared to the single-photon excited HR-SIM, are discussed. The obtained results reveal new perspectives of the multimodal visualisation and precise detection of the uptake of biodegradable non-toxic SiNPs by cancer cells and they are discussed in view of future applications for the optical diagnostics of cancer tumours. PMID:27626408

  10. A silicon dioxide modified magnetic nanoparticles-labeled lateral flow strips for HBs antigen.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xueqing; Jiang, Lin; Zhang, Chunlei; Li, Ding; Wang, Can; Gao, Feng; Cui, Daxiang

    2011-12-01

    Herein we reported a new type of silicon dioxide wrapped magnetic nanoparticles-labeled lateral flow strip for detection of HBs antigen in sera. The SiO2 wrapped Fe3O4 nanocomposites were prepared and characterized by HR-TEM, FTIR and magnetometer. As-prepared nanocomposites were used to label anti-HBV surface monoclonal antibody, the lateral flow strips were constructed, and 100 specimens of sera were collected and tested. Results showed that the prepared SiO2 wrapped Fe3O4 nanocomposites were shell/core structure, well dispersed, with the size of 25 nm in diameter, the thickness of the shell was about 3 nm, their magnetic saturation intensity was 44.3 meu g(-1). Clinical sera specimens test results showed that the prepared lateral flow strips were with the detection limitation of 5 pg/mL by naked eye observation, and 0.1 pg/mL by CCD reader or MAR Analyzer, specificity was 100%. In conclusion, one kind of silicon dioxide wrapped magnetic nanoparticles-labeled lateral flow strip for ultrasensitive detection of HBs antigen was successfully developed, its ease of use, sensitiveness and low-cost make it well-suited for population-based on-the-site hepatitis B screening.

  11. Dual-Functionalized Double Carbon Shells Coated Silicon Nanoparticles for High Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuangqiang; Shen, Laifa; van Aken, Peter A; Maier, Joachim; Yu, Yan

    2017-03-15

    To address the challenge of huge volume change and unstable solid electrolyte interface (SEI) of silicon in cycles, causing severe pulverization, this paper proposes a "double-shell" concept. This concept is designed to perform dual functions on encapsulating volume change of silicon and stabilizing SEI layer in cycles using double carbon shells. Double carbon shells coated Si nanoparticles (DCS-Si) are prepared. Inner carbon shell provides finite inner voids to allow large volume changes of Si nanoparticles inside of inner carbon shell, while static outer shell facilitates the formation of stable SEI. Most importantly, intershell spaces are preserved to buffer volume changes and alleviate mechanical stress from inner carbon shell. DCS-Si electrodes display a high rechargeable specific capacity of 1802 mAh g(-1) at a current rate of 0.2 C, superior rate capability and good cycling performance up to 1000 cycles. A full cell of DCS-Si//LiNi0.45 Co0.1 Mn1.45 O4 exhibits an average discharge voltage of 4.2 V, a high energy density of 473.6 Wh kg(-1) , and good cycling performance. Such double-shell concept can be applied to synthesize other electrode materials with large volume changes in cycles by simultaneously enhancing electronic conductivity and controlling SEI growth.

  12. Sensitive detection of copper ions via ion-responsive fluorescence quenching of engineered porous silicon nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jangsun; Hwang, Mintai P.; Choi, Moonhyun; Seo, Youngmin; Jo, Yeonho; Son, Jaewoo; Hong, Jinkee; Choi, Jonghoon

    2016-10-01

    Heavy metal pollution has been a problem since the advent of modern transportation, which despite efforts to curb emissions, continues to play a critical role in environmental pollution. Copper ions (Cu2+), in particular, are one of the more prevalent metals that have widespread detrimental ramifications. From this perspective, a simple and inexpensive method of detecting Cu2+ at the micromolar level would be highly desirable. In this study, we use porous silicon nanoparticles (NPs), obtained via anodic etching of Si wafers, as a basis for undecylenic acid (UDA)- or acrylic acid (AA)-mediated hydrosilylation. The resulting alkyl-terminated porous silicon nanoparticles (APS NPs) have enhanced fluorescence stability and intensity, and importantly, exhibit [Cu2+]-dependent quenching of fluorescence. After determining various aqueous sensing conditions for Cu2+, we demonstrate the use of APS NPs in two separate applications – a standard well-based paper kit and a portable layer-by-layer stick kit. Collectively, we demonstrate the potential of APS NPs in sensors for the effective detection of Cu2+.

  13. Sensitive detection of copper ions via ion-responsive fluorescence quenching of engineered porous silicon nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jangsun; Hwang, Mintai P.; Choi, Moonhyun; Seo, Youngmin; Jo, Yeonho; Son, Jaewoo; Hong, Jinkee; Choi, Jonghoon

    2016-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution has been a problem since the advent of modern transportation, which despite efforts to curb emissions, continues to play a critical role in environmental pollution. Copper ions (Cu2+), in particular, are one of the more prevalent metals that have widespread detrimental ramifications. From this perspective, a simple and inexpensive method of detecting Cu2+ at the micromolar level would be highly desirable. In this study, we use porous silicon nanoparticles (NPs), obtained via anodic etching of Si wafers, as a basis for undecylenic acid (UDA)- or acrylic acid (AA)-mediated hydrosilylation. The resulting alkyl-terminated porous silicon nanoparticles (APS NPs) have enhanced fluorescence stability and intensity, and importantly, exhibit [Cu2+]-dependent quenching of fluorescence. After determining various aqueous sensing conditions for Cu2+, we demonstrate the use of APS NPs in two separate applications – a standard well-based paper kit and a portable layer-by-layer stick kit. Collectively, we demonstrate the potential of APS NPs in sensors for the effective detection of Cu2+. PMID:27752120

  14. Linear and Non-Linear Optical Imaging of Cancer Cells with Silicon Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Tolstik, Elen; Osminkina, Liubov A; Akimov, Denis; Gongalsky, Maksim B; Kudryavtsev, Andrew A; Timoshenko, Victor Yu; Heintzmann, Rainer; Sivakov, Vladimir; Popp, Jürgen

    2016-09-12

    New approaches for visualisation of silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs) in cancer cells are realised by means of the linear and nonlinear optics in vitro. Aqueous colloidal solutions of SiNPs with sizes of about 10-40 nm obtained by ultrasound grinding of silicon nanowires were introduced into breast cancer cells (MCF-7 cell line). Further, the time-varying nanoparticles enclosed in cell structures were visualised by high-resolution structured illumination microscopy (HR-SIM) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Additionally, the nonlinear optical methods of two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) with infrared laser excitation were applied to study the localisation of SiNPs in cells. Advantages of the nonlinear methods, such as rapid imaging, which prevents cells from overheating and larger penetration depth compared to the single-photon excited HR-SIM, are discussed. The obtained results reveal new perspectives of the multimodal visualisation and precise detection of the uptake of biodegradable non-toxic SiNPs by cancer cells and they are discussed in view of future applications for the optical diagnostics of cancer tumours.

  15. Size Dependence of the Bandgap of Plasma Synthesized Silicon Nanoparticles Through Direct Introduction of Sulfur Hexafluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Theingi, S.; Guan, T. Y.; Kendrick, C.; Klafehn, G.; Gorman, B. P.; Taylor, P. C.; Lusk, M. T.; Stradins, Pauls; Collins, R. T.

    2015-10-19

    Developing silicon nanoparticle (SiNP) synthesis techniques that allow for straightforward control of nanoparticle size and associated optical properties is critical to potential applications of these materials. In addition, it is, in general, hard to probe the absorption threshold in these materials due to silicon's low absorption coefficient. In this study, size is controlled through direct introduction of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) into the dilute silane precursor of plasma synthesized SiNPs. Size reduction by nearly a factor of two with high crystallinity independent of size is demonstrated. Optical absorption spectra of the SiNPs in the vicinity of the bandgap are measured using photothermal deflection spectroscopy. Bandgap as a function of size is extracted taking into account the polydispersity of the samples. A systematic blue shift inabsorption edge due to quantum confinement in the SiNPs is observed with increasing flow of SF6. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra show a similar blue shift with size. However, a ~300 meV difference in energy between emission and absorption for all sizes suggests that PL emission involves a defect related process. While PL may allow size-induced shifts in the bandgap of SiNPs to be monitored, it cannot be relied on to give an accurate value for the bandgap as a function of size.

  16. Size dependence of the bandgap of plasma synthesized silicon nanoparticles through direct introduction of sulfur hexafluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Theingi, S.; Guan, T. Y.; Klafehn, G.; Taylor, P. C.; Lusk, M. T.; Collins, R. T.; Kendrick, C.; Gorman, B. P.; Stradins, P.

    2015-10-19

    Developing silicon nanoparticle (SiNP) synthesis techniques that allow for straightforward control of nanoparticle size and associated optical properties is critical to potential applications of these materials. In addition, it is, in general, hard to probe the absorption threshold in these materials due to silicon's low absorption coefficient. In this study, size is controlled through direct introduction of sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) into the dilute silane precursor of plasma synthesized SiNPs. Size reduction by nearly a factor of two with high crystallinity independent of size is demonstrated. The optical absorption spectra of the SiNPs in the vicinity of the bandgap are measured using photothermal deflection spectroscopy. Bandgap as a function of size is extracted taking into account the polydispersity of the samples. A systematic blue shift in absorption edge due to quantum confinement in the SiNPs is observed with increasing flow of SF{sub 6}. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra show a similar blue shift with size. However, a ∼300 meV difference in energy between emission and absorption for all sizes suggests that PL emission involves a defect related process. This shows that, while PL may allow size-induced shifts in the bandgap of SiNPs to be monitored, it cannot be relied on to give an accurate value for the bandgap as a function of size.

  17. Expanded graphite embedded with aluminum nanoparticles as superior thermal conductivity anodes for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Tingkai; She, Shengfei; Ji, Xianglin; Guo, Xinai; Jin, Wenbo; Zhu, Ruoxing; Dang, Alei; Li, Hao; Li, Tiehu; Wei, Bingqing

    2016-01-01

    The development of high capacity and long-life lithium-ion batteries is a long-term pursuing and under a close scrutiny. Most of the researches have been focused on exploring electrode materials and structures with high store capability of lithium ions and at the same time with a good electrical conductivity. Thermal conductivity of an electrode material will also have significant impacts on boosting battery capacity and prolonging battery lifetime, which is, however, underestimated. Here, we present the development of an expanded graphite embedded with Al metal nanoparticles (EG-MNPs-Al) synthesized by an oxidation-expansion process. The synthesized EG-MNPs-Al material exhibited a typical hierarchical structure with embedded Al metal nanoparticles into the interspaces of expanded graphite. The parallel thermal conductivity was up to 11.6 W·m−1·K−1 with a bulk density of 453 kg·m−3 at room temperature, a 150% improvement compared to expanded graphite (4.6 W·m−1·K−1) owing to the existence of Al metal nanoparticles. The first reversible capacity of EG-MNPs-Al as anode material for lithium ion battery was 480 mAh·g−1 at a current density of 100 mA·g−1, and retained 84% capacity after 300 cycles. The improved cycling stability and system security of lithium ion batteries is attributed to the excellent thermal conductivity of the EG-MNPs-Al anodes. PMID:27671848

  18. Plasmonic Au nanoparticles embedding enhances the activity and stability of CdS for photocatalytic hydrogen evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Guiyang; Wang, Xiang; Cao, Jungang; Wu, Shujie; Yan, Wenfu; Liu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    A composite photocatalyst of embedding plasmonic Au nanoparticle into CdS (Au@CdS) was prepared with a cysteine-assisted hydrothermal approach. This structure could take fully advantage of electromagnetic fields at the surface of the Au nanoparticles under visible light illumination. The photocatalytic hydrogen evolution activity of CdS could be significantly improved. Without the use of any other metal or metal oxide as cocatalysts, the quantum efficiency can reach 12.1 % over 0.5%Au@CdS at 420 nm. When using 0.1%Pt as a cocatalyst, the quantum efficiency of 0.5%Au@CdS can be further improved to 45.6%. This efficiency can be maintained more than 100 h in the test 12 days, exhibiting a relatively high stability. Photoluminescence (PL) characterization shows that the formation rate of photoexcited e-/h+ was dramatically increased when Au nanoparticles were embedded into CdS. Time-resolved PL measurement shows that Au@CdS also has a longer luminescence lifetime than that of CdS, reflecting that the photoexcited electrons in Au@CdS be with much longer lifetime to reduce H+ forming H2. All these enhancements can be attributed to the effective energy transfer between the Au surface and CdS due to the well matched composite nanostructure. Dr. Xiang Wang gratefully acknowledges the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences Division for the support of this work.

  19. Carbon Materials Embedded with Metal Nanoparticles as Anode in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, Ching-cheh

    2002-01-01

    Carbon materials containing metal nanoparticles that can form an alloy with lithium were tested for their capacity and cycle life to store and release lithium electrochemically. Metal nanoparticles may provide the additional lithium storage capacity as well as additional channels to conduct lithium in carbon. The cycle life of this carbon-metal composite can be long because the solid-electrolyte interface (SEI) on the carbon surface may protect both lithium and the metal particles in the carbon interior. In addition, the voids in the carbon interior may accommodate the nanoparticle's volume change, and such volume change may not cause much internal stress due to small sizes of the nanoparticles. This concept of improving carbon's performance to store and release lithium was demonstrated using experimental cells of C(Pd)/0.5M Lil-50/50 (vol.%) EC and DMC/Li, where C(Pd) was graphitized carbon fibers containing palladium nanoparticles, EC was ethylene carbonate, and DMC was dimethyl carbonate. However, such improvement was not observed if the Pd nanoparticles are replaced by aluminum, possibly because the aluminum nanoparticles were oxidized in air during storage, resulting in an inert oxide of aluminum. Further studies are needed to use this concept for practical applications.

  20. Cytotoxicity control of silicon nanoparticles by biopolymer coating and ultrasound irradiation for cancer theranostic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sviridov, A. P.; Osminkina, L. A.; Kharin, A. Yu; Gongalsky, M. B.; Kargina, J. V.; Kudryavtsev, A. A.; Bezsudnova, Yu I.; Perova, T. S.; Geloen, A.; Lysenko, V.; Timoshenko, V. Yu

    2017-03-01

    Silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs) prepared by mechanical grinding of luminescent porous silicon were coated with a biopolymer (dextran) and investigated as a potential theranostic agent for bioimaging and sonodynamic therapy. Transmission electron microscopy, photoluminescence and Raman scattering measurements of dextran-coated SiNPs gave evidence of their enhanced stability in water. In vitro experiments confirmed the lower cytotoxicity of the dextran-coated NPs in comparison with uncoated ones, especially for high concentrations of about 2 mg ml‑1. Efficient uptake of the NPs by cancer cells was found using bioimaging in the optical transmittance and photoluminescence modes. Treatment of the cells with uptaken SiNPs by therapeutic ultrasound for 5–20 min resulted in a strong decrease in the number of living cells, while the total number of cells remained nearly unchanged. The obtained data indicate a ‘mild’ effect of the combined action of ultrasonic irradiation and SiNPs on cancer cells. The observed results reveal new opportunities for controlling the photoluminescent and sonosensitizing properties of silicon-based NPs for applications in the diagnostics and mild therapy of cancer.

  1. An Efficient, Versatile, and Safe Access to Supported Metallic Nanoparticles on Porous Silicon with Ionic Liquids

    PubMed Central

    Darwich, Walid; Haumesser, Paul-Henri; Santini, Catherine C.; Gaillard, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    The metallization of porous silicon (PSi) is generally realized through physical vapor deposition (PVD) or electrochemical processes using aqueous solutions. The former uses a strong vacuum and does not allow for a conformal deposition into the pores. In the latter, the water used as solvent causes oxidation of the silicon during the reduction of the salt precursors. Moreover, as PSi is hydrophobic, the metal penetration into the pores is restricted to the near-surface region. Using a solution of organometallic (OM) precursors in ionic liquid (IL), we have developed an easy and efficient way to fully metallize the pores throughout the several-µm-thick porous Si. This process affords supported metallic nanoparticles characterized by a narrow size distribution. This process is demonstrated for different metals (Pt, Pd, Cu, and Ru) and can probably be extended to other metals. Moreover, as no reducing agent is necessary (the decomposition in an argon atmosphere at 50 °C is fostered by surface silicon hydride groups borne by PSi), the safety and the cost of the process are improved. PMID:27271608

  2. Surface passivation of silicon nanowires based metal nano-particle assisted chemical etching for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Rabha, Mohamed; Khezami, Lotfi; Jemai, Abdelbasset Bessadok; Alhathlool, Raed; Ajbar, Abdelhamid

    2017-03-01

    Metal Nano-particle Assisted Chemical Etching (MNpACE) is an extraordinary developed wet etching method for producing uniform semiconductor nanostructure (silicon nanowires) from patterned metallic film on crystalline silicon surface. The metal films facilitate the etching in HF and H2O2 solution and produce silicon nanowires (SiNWs).The creation of different SiNWs morphologies by changing the etching time and its effects on optical and optoelectronic properties was investigated. The combination effect of formed SiNWs and stain etching treatment in acid (HF/HNO3/H2O) solution on the surface morphology of Si wafers as well as on the optical and optoelectronic properties especially a PL response at 640 nm are presented. As a results, the effective lifetime (τeff) and surface recombination velocity (Seff) evolution of SiNWs after stain etching treatment showed significant improvements and less than 1% reflectance was achieved over the wavelength range of 400-800 nm and more than 36% reduction was observed compared to untreated surface. It has, thus, been demonstrated that all these factors may lead to improved energy efficiency from 8% to nearly 14.2% for a cell with SiNWs treated in acid (HF/HNO3/H2O) solution.

  3. An Efficient, Versatile, and Safe Access to Supported Metallic Nanoparticles on Porous Silicon with Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Darwich, Walid; Haumesser, Paul-Henri; Santini, Catherine C; Gaillard, Frédéric

    2016-06-03

    The metallization of porous silicon (PSi) is generally realized through physical vapor deposition (PVD) or electrochemical processes using aqueous solutions. The former uses a strong vacuum and does not allow for a conformal deposition into the pores. In the latter, the water used as solvent causes oxidation of the silicon during the reduction of the salt precursors. Moreover, as PSi is hydrophobic, the metal penetration into the pores is restricted to the near-surface region. Using a solution of organometallic (OM) precursors in ionic liquid (IL), we have developed an easy and efficient way to fully metallize the pores throughout the several-µm-thick porous Si. This process affords supported metallic nanoparticles characterized by a narrow size distribution. This process is demonstrated for different metals (Pt, Pd, Cu, and Ru) and can probably be extended to other metals. Moreover, as no reducing agent is necessary (the decomposition in an argon atmosphere at 50 °C is fostered by surface silicon hydride groups borne by PSi), the safety and the cost of the process are improved.

  4. Structural characterization of electric-field assisted dip-coating of gold nanoparticles on silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Dushaq, Ghada H.; Alkhatib, Amro; Rasras, Mahmoud S.; Nayfeh, Ammar M.

    2015-09-15

    We report the effect of applying an electric field on the surface coverage of 40nm gold colloidal nanoparticles on silicon wafer using dip-coating and electrochemical cell set up. By applying electric field during the dip-coating of silicon wafer in a solution of gold nano particles (GNP) the surface coverage increased by 10% when the electric field varied from 5V/cm to 25V/cm at fixed deposition time of 90s. Ultra High Resolution Scanning Electron Microscopy (HRSEM) images shows that the particle agglomeration becomes more noticeable at higher electric field and as the deposition time increases from 90 s to 20 min a thin film of gold is achieved. Moreover, the results are discussed in terms of chemical bonding, electrostatic force and electrophoretic mobility of Au nano particles during the electric field enhanced deposition on the Si surface. Applied voltage, time of dipping, concentration of the aqueous solution, and particles zeta potential are all can be controlled to enhance the uniformity and particles profile on the silicon surface.

  5. Cytotoxicity control of silicon nanoparticles by biopolymer coating and ultrasound irradiation for cancer theranostic applications.

    PubMed

    Sviridov, A P; Osminkina, L A; Kharin, A Yu; Gongansky, M B; Kargina, J V; Kudryavtsev, A A; Bezsudnova, Yu I; Perova, T S; Geloen, A; Lysenko, V; Timoshenko, V Yu

    2017-03-10

    Silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs) prepared by mechanical grinding of luminescent porous silicon were coated with a biopolymer (dextran) and investigated as a potential theranostic agent for bioimaging and sonodynamic therapy. Transmission electron microscopy, photoluminescence and Raman scattering measurements of dextran-coated SiNPs gave evidence of their enhanced stability in water. In vitro experiments confirmed the lower cytotoxicity of the dextran-coated NPs in comparison with uncoated ones, especially for high concentrations of about 2 mg ml(-1). Efficient uptake of the NPs by cancer cells was found using bioimaging in the optical transmittance and photoluminescence modes. Treatment of the cells with uptaken SiNPs by therapeutic ultrasound for 5-20 min resulted in a strong decrease in the number of living cells, while the total number of cells remained nearly unchanged. The obtained data indicate a 'mild' effect of the combined action of ultrasonic irradiation and SiNPs on cancer cells. The observed results reveal new opportunities for controlling the photoluminescent and sonosensitizing properties of silicon-based NPs for applications in the diagnostics and mild therapy of cancer.

  6. Cobalt nanoparticles embedded in N-doped carbon as an efficient bifunctional electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction and evolution reactions.

    PubMed

    Su, Yunhe; Zhu, Yihua; Jiang, Hongliang; Shen, Jianhua; Yang, Xiaoling; Zou, Wenjian; Chen, Jianding; Li, Chunzhong

    2014-12-21

    Cobalt based catalysts are promising bifunctional electrocatalysts for both oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution reactions (ORR and OER) in unitized regenerative fuel cells (URFCs) operating with alkaline electrolytes. Here we report a hybrid composite of cobalt nanoparticles embedded in nitrogen-doped carbon (Co/N-C) via a solvothermal carbonization strategy. With the synergistic effect arising from the N-doped carbon and cobalt nanoparticles in the composite, the Co/N-C hybrid catalyst exhibits highly efficient bifunctional catalytic activity and excellent stability toward both ORR and OER. The ΔE (oxygen electrode activity parameter for judging the overall electrocatalytic activity of a bifunctional electrocatalyst) value for Co/N-C is 0.859 V, which is smaller than those of Pt/C and most of the non-precious metal catalysts in previous studies. Furthermore, the Co/N-C composite also shows better bifunctional catalytic activity than its oxidative counterparts, which could be attributed to the high specific surface area and the efficient charge transfer ability of the composite, as well as the good synergistic effect between N-doped carbon and the Co nanoparticles in the Co/N-C composite.

  7. Reorganizing and shaping of embedded near-coalescence silver nanoparticles with off-resonance femtosecond laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Baraldi, G; Gonzalo, J; Solis, J; Siegel, J

    2013-06-28

    We demonstrate that 2D distributions of non-spherical near-coalescence silver nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in an ultrathin dielectric film can be reorganized, shaped and aligned by exposure to ultrashort laser pulses. As-grown samples prepared by pulsed laser deposition show a broad absorption band with a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) at 650 nm, which can be blue-shifted down to 440 nm and transformed to show polarization anisotropy. In situ white light probing of the spectral sample transmission allows control during irradiation of the position and polarization anisotropy of the SPR, effectively controlling particle reorganization and shaping. Using the high spatial resolution of the optical probe technique (better than 10 μm), the dependence of the nanoparticle shape and distribution on the local fluence can be studied in a single irradiated region. The results inferred from the spectral measurements have been confirmed by TEM studies, showing the formation of nanoparticles with prolate shape, preferential alignment along the polarization axis of the laser and a narrow size distribution. This simple and efficient approach for NP shaping and the straightforward extension to multilayer systems offer excellent perspectives for optical encoding, multidimensional data storage and fabrication of complex, polarization-sensitive spectral masks starting from thin films with near-coalescence distributions of NPs.

  8. Two-Solvent Method Synthesis of NiO/ZnO Nanoparticles Embedded in Mesoporous SBA-15: Photocatalytic Properties Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Peng; Yan, Tao-tao; Yu, Xin-xin; Bai, Zhi-man; Wu, Ming-zai

    2016-04-01

    Different loadings of NiO/ZnO nanoparticles embedded in mesoporous silica (SBA-15) were prepared via a two-solvent method with the ordered hexagonal mesoporous structure of SBA-15 kept. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, diffusive reflective UV-vis spectroscopy, and N2 adsorption porosimetry were employed to characterize the nanocomposites. The results indicate that the ordered hexagonal mesoporous structure of SBA-15 is kept and the absorption band edges of the nanocomposites shift into the ultraviolet light regime. The photocatalytic activity of our samples for degradation of methylene orange was investigated under UV light irradiation, and the results show that the nanocomposites have higher photodegradation ability toward methylene orange than commercial pure P-25. The photocatalytic activity of the nanocomposites was found to be dependent on both the adsorption ability of the SBA-15 and the photocatalytic activity of NiO-ZnO nanoparticles encapsulated in SBA-15. In addition, there is an optimal loading of NiO-ZnO nanoparticles. Too high or low loading will lower the photodegradation ability of the nanocomposites.

  9. Drug release from nanoparticles embedded in four different nanofibrillar cellulose aerogels.

    PubMed

    Valo, Hanna; Arola, Suvi; Laaksonen, Päivi; Torkkeli, Mika; Peltonen, Leena; Linder, Markus B; Serimaa, Ritva; Kuga, Shigenori; Hirvonen, Jouni; Laaksonen, Timo

    2013-09-27

    Highly porous nanocellulose aerogels prepared by freeze-drying from various nanofibrillar cellulose (NFC) hydrogels are introduced as nanoparticle reservoirs for oral drug delivery systems. Here we show that beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) nanoparticles coated with amphiphilic hydrophobin proteins can be well integrated into the NFC aerogels. NFCs from four different origins are introduced and compared to microcrystalline cellulose (MCC). The nanocellulose aerogel scaffolds made from red pepper (RC) and MCC release the drug immediately, while bacterial cellulose (BC), quince seed (QC) and TEMPO-oxidized birch cellulose-based (TC) aerogels show sustained drug release. Since the release of the drug is controlled by the structure and interactions between the nanoparticles and the cellulose matrix, modulation of the matrix formers enable a control of the drug release rate. These nanocomposite structures can be very useful in many pharmaceutical nanoparticle applications and open up new possibilities as carriers for controlled drug delivery.

  10. In situ transmission electron microscopy probing of native oxide and artificial layers on silicon nanoparticles for lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    He, Yang; Piper, Daniela Molina; Gu, Meng; Travis, Jonathan J; George, Steven M; Lee, Se-Hee; Genc, Arda; Pullan, Lee; Liu, Jun; Mao, Scott X; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Ban, Chunmei; Wang, Chongmin

    2014-11-25

    Surface modification of silicon nanoparticles via molecular layer deposition (MLD) has been recently proved to be an effective way for dramatically enhancing the cyclic performance in lithium ion batteries. However, the fundamental mechanism of how this thin layer of coating functions is not known, which is complicated by the inevitable presence of native oxide of several nanometers on the silicon nanoparticle. Using in situ TEM, we probed in detail the structural and chemical evolution of both uncoated and coated silicon particles upon cyclic lithiation/delithation. We discovered that upon initial lithiation, the native oxide layer converts to crystalline Li2O islands, which essentially increases the impedance on the particle, resulting in ineffective lithiation/delithiation and therefore low Coulombic efficiency. In contrast, the alucone MLD-coated particles show extremely fast, thorough, and highly reversible lithiation behaviors, which are clarified to be associated with the mechanical flexibility and fast Li(+)/e(-) conductivity of the alucone coating. Surprisingly, the alucone MLD coating process chemically changes the silicon surface, essentially removing the native oxide layer, and therefore mitigates side reactions and detrimental effects of the native oxide. This study provides a vivid picture of how the MLD coating works to enhance the Coulombic efficiency, preserves capacity, and clarifies the role of the native oxide on silicon nanoparticles during cyclic lithiation and delithiation. More broadly, this work also demonstrates that the effect of the subtle chemical modification of the surface during the coating process may be of equal importance to the coating layer itself.

  11. In-Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy Probing of Native Oxide and Artificial Layers on Silicon Nanoparticles for Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    He, Yang; Piper, Daniela M.; Gu, Meng; Travis, Jonathan J.; George, Steven M.; Lee, Se-Hee; Genc, Arda; Pullan, Lee; Liu, Jun; Mao, Scott X.; Zhang, Jiguang; Ban, Chunmei; Wang, Chong M.

    2014-11-25

    Surface modification of silicon nanoparticle via molecular layer deposition (MLD) has been recently proved to be an effective way for dramatically enhancing the cyclic performance in lithium ion batteries. However, the fundamental mechanism as how this thin layer of coating function is not known, which is even complicated by the inevitable presence of native oxide of several nanometers on the silicon nanoparticle. Using in-situ TEM, we probed in detail the structural and chemical evolution of both uncoated and coated silicon particles upon cyclic lithiation/delithation. We discovered that upon initial lithiation, the native oxide layer converts to crystalline Li2O islands, which essentially increases the impedance on the particle, resulting in ineffective lithiation/delithiation, and therefore low coulombic efficiency. In contrast, the alucone MLD coated particles show extremely fast, thorough and highly reversible lithiation behaviors, which are clarified to be associated with the mechanical flexibility and fast Li+/e- conductivity of the alucone coating. Surprisingly, the alucone MLD coating process chemically changes the silicon surface, essentially removing the native oxide layer and therefore mitigates side reaction and detrimental effects of the native oxide. This study provides a vivid picture of how the MLD coating works to enhance the coulombic efficiency and preserve capacity and clarifies the role of the native oxide on silicon nanoparticles during cyclic lithiation and delithiation. More broadly, this work also demonstrated that the effect of the subtle chemical modification of the surface during the coating process may be of equal importance as the coating layer itself.

  12. SiO(x) nanoparticles synthesized by an evaporation and condensation process using induction melting of silicon and gas injection.

    PubMed

    Jang, Bo Yun; Lee, Jin Seok; Kim, Joon Soo

    2013-05-01

    SiO(x) nanoparticles were synthesized using a specially designed induction melting system equipped with a segmented graphite crucible. The graphite crucible with the segmented wall was the key to enhancing the evaporation rate due to the increase of the evaporation area and convection of the silicon melt. Injection of the gas mixture of oxygen (O2) and argon (Ar) on silicon (Si) melt caused the formation of SiO(x) nanoparticles. The evaporated SiO(x) nanoparticles were then cooled and condensed in a process chamber. The effects of the O2/Ar ratio in the injection gas on the microstructures of the SiO(x) nanoparticles were then investigated. Synthesized SiO(x) nanoparticles were proven to be of a homogeneous amorphous phase with average diameters of 30-35 nm. The microstructures were independent from the O2/Ar ratio of the injected gas. However, x increased from 1.36 to 1.84 as the O2/Ar ratio increased. The purity of the synthesized nanoparticles was about 99.9%. SiO(x) nanoparticles could be applied as the active anode material in a lithium (Li) ion secondary battery.

  13. Optical second harmonic generation of single metallic nanoparticles embedded in a homogeneous medium.

    PubMed

    Butet, Jérémy; Duboisset, Julien; Bachelier, Guillaume; Russier-Antoine, Isabelle; Benichou, Emmanuel; Jonin, Christian; Brevet, Pierre-François

    2010-05-12

    We report the optical second harmonic generation from individual 150 nm diameter gold nanoparticles dispersed in gelatin. The quadratic hyperpolarizability of the particles is determined and the input polarization dependence of the second harmonic intensity obtained. These results are found in excellent agreement with ensemble measurements and finite element simulations. These results open up new perspectives for the investigation of the nonlinear optical properties of noble metal nanoparticles.

  14. Iron-oxide embedded solid lipid nanoparticles for magnetically controlled heating and drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ming-Huang; Su, Yu-Chuan

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents the development of magnetic lipid nanoparticles that could serve as controlled delivery vehicles for releasing encapsulated drugs in a desired manner. The nanoparticles are composed of multiple drugs in lipid matrices, which are solid at body temperature and melt around 45 degrees C to 55 degrees C. In addition, super-paramagnetic gamma-Fe2O3 particles with sizes ranging from 5 to 25 nm are surface modified and dispersed uniformly in the lipid nanoparticles. In the prototype demonstration, lipid nanoparticles with average sizes between 100 and 180 nm were fabricated by high-pressure homogenization at elevated temperatures. When exposed to an alternating magnetic field of 60 kA/m at 25 kHz, a solution containing 2 g/L encapsulated gamma-Fe2O3 particles showed a temperature increase from 37 degrees C to 50 degrees C in 20 min. Meanwhile, the dissipated heat melted the surrounding lipid matrices and resulted in an accelerated release of the encapsulated drugs. Within 20 min, approximately 35% of the encapsulated drug molecules were released from the lipid nanoparticles through diffusion. As such, the presented lipid nanoparticles enable a new scheme that combines magnetic control of heating and drug delivery, which could greatly enhance the performance of encapsulated drugs.

  15. Magneto-reactance based detection of MnO nanoparticle-embedded Lewis lung carcinoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devkota, J.; Howell, M.; Mukherjee, P.; Srikanth, H.; Mohapatra, S.; Phan, M. H.

    2015-05-01

    We demonstrate the capacity of detecting magnetically weak manganese oxide (MnO) nanoparticles and the Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cancer cells that have taken up these nanoparticles using a novel biosensor based on the magneto-reactance (MX) effect of a soft ferromagnetic amorphous ribbon with a microhole-patterned surface. While the magnetic moment of the MnO nanoparticles is relatively small, and a magneto-impedance based sensor fails to detect them in solution (0.05 mg/ml manganese oxide lipid micellar nanoparticles) and inside cells at low concentrations (8.25 × 104 cells/ml), the detection of these nanoparticles and the LLC cells containing them is achieved with the MX-based sensor, which, respectively, reaches the detection sensitivity of ˜3.6% and 2.8% as compared to the blank cells. Since the MnO nanoparticles are a promising contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of lung cells, the MX-based biosensing technique can be developed as a pre-detection method for MRI of lung cancer cells.

  16. Drug embedded PVP coated magnetic nanoparticles for targeted killing of breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Rose, P Arsula; Praseetha, P K; Bhagat, Madhulika; Alexander, Princy; Abdeen, Sunitha; Chavali, Murthy

    2013-10-01

    Magnetic drug targeting is a drug delivery system that can be used in loco-regional cancer treatment. Coated magnetic particles, called carriers, are very useful for delivering chemotherapeutic drugs. Magnetic carriers were synthesized by co-precipitation of iron oxide followed by coating with polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP). Characterization was performed using X-ray diffraction, TEM, TGA, FTIR and UV-Vis Spectroscopy. Magnetite (Fe3O4) remained as the core of the carrier. The amount of PVP bound to the iron oxide nanoparticles was estimated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and the attachment of PVP to the iron oxide nanoparticles confirmed by FTIR analysis. The loading efficiency of Epirubicin hydrochloride onto the PVP coated and uncoated iron oxide nanoparticles was measured at intervals such as 1 hr and 24 hrs by UV-Vis Spectroscopy. The binding of Epirubicin hydrochloride to the PVP coated and uncoated iron oxide nanoparticles were confirmed by FTIR analysis. The present findings showed that Epirubicin hydrochloride loaded PVP coated iron oxide nanoparticles are promising for magnetically targeted drug delivery. The drug displayed increased cell cytotoxicity at lower concentrations when conjugated with the nanoparticles than being administered conventionally as individual drugs.

  17. Characterization of cellulose membranes modified with luminescent silicon quantum dots nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Campos, B B; Gelde, L; Algarra, M; Esteves da Silva, J C G; Vázquez, M I; Benavente, J

    2016-10-20

    A highly hydrophilic planar membrane fabricated with regenerated cellulose (RC-4 membrane), a biocompatible polymer, was modified by inclusion of water-soluble silicon quantum dot nanoparticles (SiQDs). Both bare SiQDs and SiQDs coated with a PAMAM-OH dendrimer were employed in order to obtain luminescent and thermally stable membrane systems (RC-4/SiQDs and RC-4/SiQDs-PAMAM-OH membranes). Original and SiQDs-modified membranes were characterized by fluorescence spectroscopy (steady and confocal), derivative thermogravimetric analysis and impedance spectroscopy measurements. According to these results, both SiQDs-regenerated cellulose composite membranes present luminescent character as well as higher thermal resistance and conductivity than the original sample, although the dendrimer coverage of the SiQDs might partially shield such effects. Moreover, the permanence of SiQDs nanoparticles in the structure of the cellulosic support in aqueous environments and their effect on diffusive transport were determined by water uptake as well as by membrane potential measurements at different concentrations of a model electrolyte (KCl). These results demonstrate the possible use of these stable nano-engineered membranes, which are based on SiQDs nanoparticles, in electrochemical devices under flow conditions.

  18. 3D Woven-Like Carbon Micropattern Decorated with Silicon Nanoparticles for Use in Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Kang, Da-Young; Kim, Cheolho; Gueon, Donghee; Park, Gyulim; Kim, Jung Sub; Lee, Joong Kee; Moon, Jun Hyuk

    2015-10-26

    Carbon/silicon composite materials are a promising anode substrate for use in lithium-ion batteries. In this study, we suggest a new architecture for a composite electrode made of a woven-like carbon material decorated with silicon nanoparticles. The 3D woven-like carbon (WLC) structure was fabricated using direct carbonization of multi-beam interference lithography polymer patterns. Subsequent solution coating was applied to decorate the WLC with silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs). The SiNP/WLC electrode exhibited a specific capacity of 930 mAh g(-1) , which is three times higher than the specific capacity of the bare electrode. Specifically, the SiNP/WLC electrode exhibited an outstanding retention capacity of 81 % after 50 cycles and a Coulombic efficiency of more than 98 %. This rate capability performance was attributed to the WLC structure and the uniform decoration of the SiNPs.

  19. Facile synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticle/bis(o-phenolpropyl)silicone composites using a gold catalyst.

    PubMed

    Roh, Sung-Hee; Cheong, Hyeonsook; Kim, Do-Heyoung; Woo, Hee-Gweon; Lee, Byeong-Gweon; Yang, Kap-Seung; Kim, Bo-Hye; Sohn, Honglae

    2013-01-01

    The generation of silver nanoparticle/bis(o-phenolpropyl)silicone composites have been facilitated by the addition of sodium tetrachloroaurate or gold(Ill) chloride (< 1 wt% of NaAuCl4 or AuCl3) to the reaction of silver nitrate (AgNO3) with bis(o-phenolpropyl)silicone [BPPS, (o-phenolpropyl)2(SiMe2O)n, n = 2,3,8,236]. TEM and FE-SEM data showed that the silver nanoparticles having the size of < 20 nm are well dispersed throughout the BPPS silicone matrix in the composites. XRD patterns are consistent with those for polycrystalline silver. The size of silver nanoparticles augmented with increasing the relative molar concentration of AgNO3 added with respect to BPPS. The addition of gold complexes (1-3 wt%) did not affect the size distribution of silver nanoparticles appreciably. In the absence of BPPS, the macroscopic precipitation of silver by agglomeration, indicating that BPPS is necessary to stabilize the silver nanoparticles surrounded by coordination.

  20. Development of uniform density control with self-assembled colloidal gold nanoparticles on a modified silicon substrate.

    PubMed

    Kang, ChanKyu; Ashurst, Robert W; Shim, Jae-Jin; Huh, Yun Suk; Roh, Changhyun

    2014-10-01

    Here, we present a simple method for controlling the density of Au nanoparticles (Au NPs) on a modified silicon substrate, by destabilizing the colloidal Au NPs with 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxylsilane (3-MPTMS) for microelectromechanical-system-based applications to reduce tribological issues. A silicon surface was pretreated with a 3-MPTMS solution, immediately after which thiolated Au NPs were added to it, resulting in their uniform deposition on the silicon substrate. Without any material property change of the colloidal Au NPs, we observed the formation of large clusters Au NPs on the modified silicon surface. Analysis by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy indicated that the addition of 3-MPTMS resulted in an alternation of the chemical characteristics of the solution. Atomic force microscopy imaging supported the notion that silicon surface modification is the most important factor on tribological properties of materials along with ligand-modified Au NPs. The density of Au NPs on a silicon surface was significantly dependent on several factors, including the concentration of colloidal Au NPs, deposition time, and concentration of 3-MPTMS solution, while temperature range which was used throughout experiment was determined to have no significant effect. A relatively high density of Au NPs forms on the silicon surface as the concentrations of Au NPs and 3-MPTMS are increased. In addition, the maximum deposition of Au NPs on silicon wafer was observed at 3 h, while the effects of temperature variation were minimal.

  1. Self-Templating Construction of 3D Hierarchical Macro-/Mesoporous Silicon from 0D Silica Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Xiuxia; Xia, Yonggao; Ji, Qing; Gao, Xiang; Yin, Shanshan; Wang, Meimei; Wang, Xiaoyan; Qiu, Bao; Wei, Anxiang; Sun, Zaicheng; Liu, Zhaoping; Zhu, Jin; Cheng, Ya-Jun

    2017-01-24

    Porous silicon has found wide applications in many different fields including catalysis and lithium-ion batteries. Three-dimensional hierarchical macro-/mesoporous silicon is synthesized from zero-dimensional Stöber silica particles through a facile and scalable magnesiothermic reduction process. By systematic structure characterization of the macro-/mesoporous silicon, a self-templating mechanism governing the formation of the porous silicon is proposed. Applications as lithium-ion battery anode and photocatalytic hydrogen evolution catalyst are demonstrated. It is found that the macro-/mesoporous silicon shows significantly improved cyclic and rate performance over the commercial nanosized and micrometer-sized silicon particles. After 300 cycles at 0.2 A g(-1), the reversible specific capacity is still retained as much as 959 mAh g(-1) with a high mass loading density of 1.4 mg cm(-2). With the large current density of 2 A g(-1), a reversible capacity of 632 mAh g(-1) is exhibited. The coexistence of both macro- and mesoporous structures is responsible for the enhanced performance. The macro-/mesoporous silicon also shows superior catalytic performance for photocatalytic hydrogen evolution compared to the silicon nanoparticles.

  2. Comparison of cytotoxic and inflammatory responses of photoluminescent silicon nanoparticles with silicon micron-sized particles in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jonghoon; Zhang, Qin; Reipa, Vytas; Wang, Nam Sun; Stratmeyer, Melvin E; Hitchins, Victoria M; Goering, Peter L

    2009-01-01

    Photoluminescent silicon nanoparticles have a bright and stable fluorescence and are promising candidates for bio-imaging, cell staining and drug delivery. With increasing development of nanotechnology applications for biomedicine, an understanding of the potential toxicity of nanoparticles is needed to assess safety concerns for clinical applications. The objective of this study was to compare biological responses of silicon nanoparticles (SNs, 3 nm diameter) with silicon microparticles (SMs, approximately 100-3000 nm diameter) in cultured murine macrophages (RAW 264.7) using standard protocols for assessing cytotoxicity/cell viability and inflammatory responses developed for micron-sized particles. SNs and SMs were exposed to macrophages with and without addition of endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a positive inducer of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and nitric oxide (NO). Cytotoxicity was assayed using the dye exclusion and MTT assays. Cell supernatants were assayed for production TNF-alpha, IL-6 and NO. SNs at concentrations < or = 20 microg ml(-1) exhibited no cytotoxicity or inflammatory responses; however, SNs and SMs >20 and 200 microg ml(-1), respectively, increased cytotoxicity compared with controls. SMs induced concentration-related increases in TNF-alpha and IL-6 production; in contrast, the production of these cytokines was shown to decrease with increasing concentrations of SNs. NO production was not induced by SNs or SMs alone. Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated that SNs were associated with the macrophages, either internalized or attached to cell membranes. In conclusion, evaluating differences in biological responses for nanoparticles compared with microparticles of the same material may help improve tests to assess biological responses of nanoparticles that may be used in biomedical applications.

  3. Silver nanoparticles embedded mesoporous SiO2 nanosphere: an effective anticandidal agent against Candida albicans 077

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qasim, M.; Singh, Braj R.; Naqvi, A. H.; Paik, P.; Das, D.

    2015-07-01

    Candida albicans is a diploid fungus that causes common infections such as denture stomatitis, thrush, urinary tract infections, etc. Immunocompromised patients can become severely infected by this fungus. Development of an effective anticandidal agent against this pathogenic fungus, therefore, will be very useful for practical application. In this work, Ag-embedded mesoporous silica nanoparticles (mSiO2@AgNPs) have successfully been synthesized and their anticandidal activities against C. albicans have been studied. The mSiO2@AgNPs nanoparticles (d ˜ 400 nm) were designed using pre-synthesized Ag nanoparticles and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as a precursor for SiO2 in the presence of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as an easily removable soft template. A simple, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly approach has been adopted to synthesize silver (Ag) nanoparticles using silver nitrate and leaf extract of Azadirachta indica. The mesopores, with size-equivalent diameter of the micelles (d = 4-6 nm), were generated on the SiO2 surface by calcination after removal of the CTAB template. The morphology and surface structure of mSiO2@AgNPs were characterized through x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), particle size analysis (PSA), atomic force microscopy (AFM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The HRTEM micrograph reveals the well-ordered mesoporous structure of the SiO2 sphere. The antifungal activities of mSiO2@AgNPs on the C. albicans cell have been studied through microscopy and are seen to increase with increasing dose of mSiO2@AgNPs, suggesting mSiO2@AgNPs to be a potential antifungal agent for C. albicans 077.

  4. Selective hydrogenation of 2-methyl-3-butyn-2-ol catalyzed by embedded polymer-protected PdZn nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okhlopkova, Lyudmila B.; Matus, Ekaterina V.; Prosvirin, Igor P.; Kerzhentsev, Michail A.; Ismagilov, Zinfer R.

    2015-12-01

    PdZn/TiO2 catalysts were synthesized by sol-gel method using a template Pluronic F127. PdZn nanoparticles with the size ranging from 1.7 to 2 nm were prepared by ethylene glycol reduction of ZnCl2 and Pd(CH3COO)2 in the presence of stabilizer and introduced into the matrix by addition into TiO2 sol, followed by different activation procedures. The structure, particles size, and chemical composition of nanoparticles and catalysts were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The prepared catalysts have been tested in the selective hydrogenation of 2-methyl-3-butyn-2-ol, and the results have been compared with catalysts prepared by conventional impregnation. The results indicate that bimetallic PdZn nanoparticles-based catalysts show higher selectivity than corresponding monometallic Pd/TiO2. Embedded on titania, bimetallic nanoparticles stabilized with polyvinylpyrrolidone exhibit good activity (1.1-1.8 mol MBY/mol Pd/s-1) and high selectivity to 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (81.5-88.9 % at 95 % conversion). The influence of the nature of the stabilizer, the stabilizer/metal molar ratio, and activation conditions on the catalytic behavior of the samples was analyzed. It is shown that the particle size does not significantly affect the catalytic properties in the range of 4.4-6.5 nm. The nature and amount of stabilizer seem to be crucial to prepare efficient catalyst.

  5. Co-Rich ZnCoO Nanoparticles Embedded in Wurtzite Zn1-xCoxO Thin Films: Possible Origin of Superconductivity.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yu-Jia; Gauquelin, Nicolas; Li, Dan-Ying; Ruan, Shuang-Chen; He, Hai-Ping; Egoavil, Ricardo; Ye, Zhi-Zhen; Verbeeck, Johan; Hadermann, Joke; Van Bael, Margriet J; Van Haesendonck, Chris

    2015-10-14

    Co-rich ZnCoO nanoparticles embedded in wurtzite Zn0.7Co0.3O thin films are grown by pulsed laser deposition on a Si substrate. Local superconductivity with an onset Tc at 5.9 K is demonstrated in the hybrid system. The unexpected superconductivity probably results from Co3+ in the Co-rich ZnCoO nanoparticles or from the interface between the Co-rich nanoparticles and the Zn0.7Co0.3O matrix.

  6. Large broadband visible to infrared plasmonic absorption from Ag nanoparticles with a fractal structure embedded in a Teflon AFxAE matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, A.; Eilers, H.; Hidden, F.; Aktas, O. C.; Kiran, C. V. S.

    2006-01-01

    An unusual almost flat broadband plasmonic absorption, ranging from 400nm to well beyond 2500nm, was observed in a 150nm thin film of Ag nanoparticles embedded in a Teflon AF® matrix. The nanocomposites were synthesized by a simple single-step vapor-phase codeposition method. The Ag nanoparticles of various sizes and shapes, and thus various resonance frequencies, form a fractal percolating network. The broadband absorption, attributed to plasmon excitations within the nanoparticles, could be useful for multicolor applications in the visible and infrared wavelengths region.

  7. Silicon-based current-injected light emitting diodes with Ge self-assembled quantum dots embedded in photonic crystal nanocavities.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xuejun; Tsuboi, Toshiki; Chiba, Taichi; Usami, Noritaka; Maruizumi, Takuya; Shiraki, Yasuhiro

    2012-06-18

    Room temperature light emission from Ge self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) embedded in L3-type photonic crystal (PhC) nanocavity is successfully demonstrated under current injection through a lateral PIN diode structure. The Ge QDs are grown on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer by solid-source molecular beam epitaxy (SS-MBE), and the PIN diode is fabricated by selective ion implantation around the PhC cavity. Under an injected current larger than 0.5 mA, strong resonant electroluminescence (EL) around 1.3-1.5 μm wavelength corresponding to the PhC cavity modes is observed. A sharp peak with a quality factor up to 260 is obtained in the EL spectrum. These results show a possible way to realize practical silicon-based light emitting devices.

  8. Controllability of self-aligned four-terminal planar embedded metal double-gate low-temperature polycrystalline-silicon thin-film transistors on a glass substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohsawa, Hiroki; Sasaki, Shun; Hara, Akito

    2016-03-01

    Self-aligned four-terminal n-channel (n-ch) and p-channel (p-ch) planar embedded metal double-gate polycrystalline-silicon (poly-Si) thin-film transistors (TFTs) were fabricated on a glass substrate at a low temperature of 550 °C. This device includes a metal top gate (TG) and a metal bottom gate (BG), which are used as the drive and control gates or vice versa. The BG was embedded in a glass substrate, and a poly-Si channel with large lateral grains was fabricated by continuous-wave laser lateral crystallization. The threshold voltage modulation factors under various control gate voltages (γ = ΔVth/ΔVCG) were nearly equal to the theoretical predictions in both the n- and p-ch TFTs. By exploiting this high controllability, an enhancement depletion (ED) inverter was fabricated, and successful operation at 2.0 V was confirmed.

  9. Antibacterial wound dressing from chitosan/polyethylene oxide nanofibers mats embedded with silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoli; Cheng, Feng; Gao, Jing; Wang, Lu

    2015-03-01

    Novel antibacterial nanomaterials have been developed for biomedical applications. The present study involves the preparation and properties of antibacterial nanofibers from chitosan/polyethylene oxide electrospun nanofibers incorporated with silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles were efficiently synthesized in situ after ultra violet (UV) with AgNO3 as precursor and chitosan/polyethylene oxide as reducing agent and protecting agent, respectively. Then the resultant solutions were electrospun into nanofibers. The formation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed with ultraviolet visible (UV-vis) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the electrospun nanofibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray. The resultant fibers exhibited uniform morphology with silver nanoparticles distributed throughout the fiber. Also, the fibers showed certain tensile strength and excellent antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria. Sustained release of silver nanoparticles from fibers could last for over 72 h. The silver-containing chitosan/polyethylene oxide nanofibers showed excellent cytocompatibility.

  10. Nonvolatile flexible organic bistable devices fabricated utilizing CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles embedded in a conducting poly N-vinylcarbazole polymer layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Dong-Ick; Kim, Ji-Hwan; Park, Dong-Hee; Choi, Won Kook; Li, Fushan; Ham, Jung Hun; Kim, Tae Whan

    2008-02-01

    The bistable effects of CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles embedded in a conducting poly N-vinylcarbazole (PVK) polymer layer by using flexible poly-vinylidene difluoride (PVDF) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates were investigated. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images revealed that CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles were formed inside the PVK polymer layer. Current-voltage (I-V) measurement on the Al/[CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles+ PVK]/ITO/PVDF and Al/[CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles+ PVK ]/ITO/PET structures at 300 K showed a nonvolatile electrical bistability behavior with a flat-band voltage shift due to the existence of the CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles, indicative of trapping, storing and emission of charges in the electronic states of the CdSe nanoparticles. A bistable behavior for the fabricated organic bistable device (OBD) structures is described on the basis of the I-V results. These results indicate that OBDs fabricated by embedding inorganic CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles in a conducting polymer matrix on flexible substrates are prospects for potential applications in flexible nonvolatile flash memory devices.

  11. Characterization of two dimensional self-organized Au nanoparticles embedded in Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Cespedes, Eva; Sanchez-Marcos, Jorge; Prieto, Carlos; Babonneau, David; Lyon, Olivier; Rouziere, Stephan; Olivi, Luca; Traverse, Agnes

    2010-05-15

    Au/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} films have been prepared by gold and silicon nitride sequential sputtering with different Au thicknesses. The goal is to investigate the Au growth mode and to identify the regime where Au nanoparticles (NPs) can be prepared. The number of Au atoms, the bilayer thickness, the Au environment, the size, and the organization of the particles have been determined. Gold appears in metallic form. The thickest Au layer (8 nm) is continuous whereas the thinnest ones (with average values of 1-3 nm) are formed by nearly spherical Au NPs with diameters in the 5-7 nm range. Au NPs spatial self-organization is observed for average thickness of t{sub Au}=2.9 nm. These growth modes are discussed and compared with those observed for other metal/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} systems prepared in similar conditions.

  12. Searching for high-k RE2O3 nanoparticles embedded in SiO2 glass matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, S.; Lin, Y. H.; Kao, T. H.; Chou, C. C.; Yang, H. D.

    2012-03-01

    Significant experimental effort has been explored to search and characterize high-k materials with magnetodielectric effect (MDE) of series of rare earth (RE) oxide (RE2O3) nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in SiO2 glass matrix by a sol-gel route. Properly annealed sol-gel glass (in which RE = Sm, Gd, and Er) shows colossal response of dielectric constant along with diffuse phase transition and MDE around room temperature. The radial distribution functions, reconstructed from extended x-ray absorption fine structure, show the shortening of RE3 + -O depending on the RE2O3 NP size, which is consistent with oxygen vacancy induced dielectric anomaly. The magnetoresistive MDE is very much conditioned by magnetic property of RE2O3 NP grain, the degree of deformation of the lattice and constituent host.

  13. Synthesis of Plant-Mediated Gold Nanoparticles And Catalytic Role of Biomatrix-Embedded Nanomaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, N.C.; Sahi, S.V.; Nath, S.; Parsons, J.G.; Gardea-Torresdey, J.L.; Pal, T.

    2009-06-04

    Growth of Sesbania seedlings in chloroaurate solution resulted in the accumulation of gold with the formation of stable gold nanoparticles in plant tissues. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the intracellular distribution of monodisperse nanospheres, possibly due to reduction of the metal ions by secondary metabolites present in cells. X-ray absorption near-edge structure and extended X-ray absorption fine structure demonstrated a high degree of efficiency for the biotransformation of Au(III) into Au(0) by plant tissues. The catalytic function of the nanoparticle-rich biomass was substantiated by the reduction of aqueous 4-nitrophenol (4-NP). This is the first report of gold nanoparticle-bearing biomatrix directly reducing a toxic pollutant, 4-NP.

  14. Laser interactions with embedded Ca metal nanoparticles in single crystal CaF{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Cramer, L.P.; Schubert, B.E.; Petite, P.S.; Langford, S.C.; Dickinson, J.T.

    2005-04-01

    Single crystal calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}) is an important material for vacuum-ultraviolet optics. Nevertheless, prolonged exposure to energetic radiation can color the material by producing calcium metal nanoparticles. We compare the effectiveness of laser conditioning treatments at wavelengths ranging from the near infrared to the deep ultraviolet in removing this coloration. Treatments at 157, 532, and 1064 nm can significantly reduce the visible coloration due to nanoparticles. In contrast, irradiation at 248 nm has little effect at fluences below the damage threshold for the material employed in this work. We present evidence that the effect of laser irradiation on coloration is principally thermal and is largely confined to the first 50 ns after each laser pulse. We attribute the wavelength dependence of the bleaching process to the wavelength dependence associated with Mie absorption by metal nanoparticles. The consequences of these observations with regard to laser conditioning processes in bulk optical materials are discussed.

  15. Double-Layer Magnetic Nanoparticle-Embedded Silica Particles for Efficient Bio-Separation

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Homan; Cho, Hong-Jun; Park, Sung-Jun; Yang, Jin-Kyoung; Kim, Sehoon; Kim, Hyung-Mo; Jun, Bong-Hyun; Lee, Yoon-Sik

    2015-01-01

    Superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) based nanomaterials have been exploited in various biotechnology fields including biomolecule separation. However, slow accumulation of Fe3O4 NPs by magnets may limit broad applications of Fe3O4 NP-based nanomaterials. In this study, we report fabrication of Fe3O4 NPs double-layered silica nanoparticles (DL MNPs) with a silica core and highly packed Fe3O4 NPs layers. The DL MNPs had a superparamagnetic property and efficient accumulation kinetics under an external magnetic field. Moreover, the magnetic field-exposed DL MNPs show quantitative accumulation, whereas Fe3O4 NPs single-layered silica nanoparticles (SL MNPs) and silica-coated Fe3O4 NPs produced a saturated plateau under full recovery of the NPs. DL MNPs are promising nanomaterials with great potential to separate and analyze biomolecules. PMID:26599084

  16. Double-Layer Magnetic Nanoparticle-Embedded Silica Particles for Efficient Bio-Separation.

    PubMed

    Kyeong, San; Jeong, Cheolhwan; Kang, Homan; Cho, Hong-Jun; Park, Sung-Jun; Yang, Jin-Kyoung; Kim, Sehoon; Kim, Hyung-Mo; Jun, Bong-Hyun; Lee, Yoon-Sik

    2015-01-01

    Superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) based nanomaterials have been exploited in various biotechnology fields including biomolecule separation. However, slow accumulation of Fe3O4 NPs by magnets may limit broad applications of Fe3O4 NP-based nanomaterials. In this study, we report fabrication of Fe3O4 NPs double-layered silica nanoparticles (DL MNPs) with a silica core and highly packed Fe3O4 NPs layers. The DL MNPs had a superparamagnetic property and efficient accumulation kinetics under an external magnetic field. Moreover, the magnetic field-exposed DL MNPs show quantitative accumulation, whereas Fe3O4 NPs single-layered silica nanoparticles (SL MNPs) and silica-coated Fe3O4 NPs produced a saturated plateau under full recovery of the NPs. DL MNPs are promising nanomaterials with great potential to separate and analyze biomolecules.

  17. P(TA) macro-, micro-, nanoparticle-embedded super porous p(HEMA) cryogels as wound dressing material.

    PubMed

    Sahiner, Nurettin; Sagbas, Selin; Sahiner, Mehtap; Silan, Coskun

    2017-01-01

    Super porous poly(2-hydroxy ethyl methacrylate) (p(HEMA)) cryogel was successfully synthesized by using polyethylene glycol diacrylate (p(EGDA)) crosslinker under cryogenic conditions. Poly(Tannic acid) (p(TA)) macro-, micro-, and nanoparticles prepared from a natural polyphenol, tannic acid (TA), were embedded into p(HEMA) cryogel networks to obtain composite p(TA) particle-embedded p(HEMA) cryogel. Different size ranges of spherical p(TA) particles, 2000-500μm, 500-200μm, 200-20μm, and 20-0.5μm size, were included in the cryogel network and illustrated by digital camera, optic microscope, and SEM images of the microgel-cryogel network. The swelling properties and moisture content of p(TA) microgel-embedded p(HEMA) cryogel were investigated at wound healing pH conditions such as pH5.4, 7.4, and 9 at 37.5°C, and the highest swelling capacity was found at pH9 with 972±2% swelling in 30s. Higher amounts of DI water were quickly absorbed by p(HEMA)-based cryogel, and moisture retention within the cryogel structure for a longer time period at room temperature is due to existence of p(TA) particles. Degradation profiles of p(TA) particle-embedded p(HEMA) cryogel were shown to be controlled by different pH conditions, and a linear release profile was found with total cumulative release of 5.8±0.8mg/g TA up to 12days at pH7.4 and 37.5°C. The antioxidant behavior of degraded p(TA) particles from p(HEMA) cryogel were found as 46±1μgmL(-1) gallic acid equivalent and 165±18mMtroloxequivalentg(-1). The p(TA) particle-embedded p(HEMA) cryogel has high hemocompatibility with 0.0158±0.0126% hemolysis ratio, and effective hemostatic properties with 8.1±0.9 blood clotting index.

  18. β-CD Dimer-immobilized Ag Assembly Embedded Silica Nanoparticles for Sensitive Detection of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahm, Eunil; Jeong, Daham; Cha, Myeong Geun; Choi, Jae Min; Pham, Xuan-Hung; Kim, Hyung-Mo; Kim, Hwanhee; Lee, Yoon-Sik; Jeong, Dae Hong; Jung, Seunho; Jun, Bong-Hyun

    2016-05-01

    We designed a β-CD dimer on silver nanoparticles embedded with silica nanoparticles (Ag@SiO2 NPs) structure to detect polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Silica NPs were utilized as a template for embedding silver NPs to create hot spot structures and enhance the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signal, and a thioether-bridged dimeric β-CD was immobilized on Ag NPs to capture PAHs. The assembled Ag NPs on silica NPs were confirmed by TEM and the presence of β-CD dimer on Ag@SiO2 was confirmed by UV-vis and attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The β-CD dimer@Ag@SiO2 NPs were used as SERS substrate for detecting perylene, a PAH, directly and in a wide linearity range of 10‑7 M to 10‑2 M with a low detection limit of 10‑8 M. Also, the β-CD dimer@Ag@SiO2 NPs exhibited 1000-fold greater sensitivity than Ag@SiO2 NPs in terms of their perylene detection limit. Furthermore, we demonstrated the possibility of detecting various PAH compounds using the β-CD dimer@Ag@SiO2 NPs as a multiplex detection tool. Various PAH compounds with the NPs exhibited their distinct SERS bands by the ratio of each PAHs. This approach of utilizing the assembled structure and the ligands to recognize target has potential for use in sensitive analytical sensors.

  19. Macroscale cobalt-MOFs derived metallic Co nanoparticles embedded in N-doped porous carbon layers as efficient oxygen electrocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Hai-Sheng; Zhang, Haimin; Liu, Rongrong; Zhang, Xian; Zhao, Huijun; Wang, Guozhong

    2017-01-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) materials have aroused great research interest in different areas owing to their unique properties, such as high surface area, various composition, well-organized framework and controllable porous structure. Controllable fabrication of MOFs materials at macro-scale may be more promising for their large-scale practical applications. Here we report the synthesis of macro-scale Co-MOFs crystals using 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid (H3BTC) linker in the presence of Co2+, triethylamine (TEA) and nonanoic acid by a facile solvothermal reaction. Further, the as-fabricated Co-MOFs as precursor was pyrolytically treated at different temperatures in N2 atmosphere to obtain metallic Co nanoparticles embedded in N-doped porous carbon layers (denoted as Co@NPC). The results demonstrate that the Co-MOFs derived sample obtained at 900 °C (Co@NPC-900) shows a porous structure (including micropore and mesopore) with a surface area of 110.8 m2 g-1 and an N doping level of 1.62 at.% resulted from TEA in the pyrolysis process. As electrocatalyst, the Co@NPC-900 exhibits bifunctional electrocatalytic activities toward the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in alkaline media which are key reactions in some renewable energy technologies such as fuel cells and rechargeable metal-air batteries. The results indicate that the Co@NPC-900 can afford an onset potential of 1.50 V (vs. RHE) and a potential value of 1.61 V (vs. RHE) at a current density of 10 mA cm-2 for ORR and OER with high applicable stability, respectively. The efficient catalytic activity of Co@NPC-900 as bifunctional oxygen electrocatalyst can be ascribed to N doping and embedded metallic Co nanoparticles in carbon structure providing catalytic active sites and porous structure favourable for electrocatalysis-related mass transport.

  20. β-CD Dimer-immobilized Ag Assembly Embedded Silica Nanoparticles for Sensitive Detection of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Hahm, Eunil; Jeong, Daham; Cha, Myeong Geun; Choi, Jae Min; Pham, Xuan-Hung; Kim, Hyung-Mo; Kim, Hwanhee; Lee, Yoon-Sik; Jeong, Dae Hong; Jung, Seunho; Jun, Bong-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    We designed a β-CD dimer on silver nanoparticles embedded with silica nanoparticles (Ag@SiO2 NPs) structure to detect polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Silica NPs were utilized as a template for embedding silver NPs to create hot spot structures and enhance the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signal, and a thioether-bridged dimeric β-CD was immobilized on Ag NPs to capture PAHs. The assembled Ag NPs on silica NPs were confirmed by TEM and the presence of β-CD dimer on Ag@SiO2 was confirmed by UV-vis and attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The β-CD dimer@Ag@SiO2 NPs were used as SERS substrate for detecting perylene, a PAH, directly and in a wide linearity range of 10−7 M to 10−2 M with a low detection limit of 10−8 M. Also, the β-CD dimer@Ag@SiO2 NPs exhibited 1000-fold greater sensitivity than Ag@SiO2 NPs in terms of their perylene detection limit. Furthermore, we demonstrated the possibility of detecting various PAH compounds using the β-CD dimer@Ag@SiO2 NPs as a multiplex detection tool. Various PAH compounds with the NPs exhibited their distinct SERS bands by the ratio of each PAHs. This approach of utilizing the assembled structure and the ligands to recognize target has potential for use in sensitive analytical sensors. PMID:27184729

  1. Preparation and characteristics study of nano-porous silicon UV photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Raid A.; Alwan, Alwan M.; Ahmed, Ahmed S.

    2017-02-01

    In this study, influence of rapid thermal oxidation RTO and embedding of gold nanoparticles on the performance of porous silicon photodetector synthesised by anodization technique were investigated. Anodization technique was used to fabricate porous silicon photodetector at 10 mA/cm2 for 10 min. The structural, morphological, and photoluminescence properties of porous silicon and gold nanoparticles were investigated. Dark and illuminated current-voltage I-V characteristics, linearity, spectral responsivity, detectivity, and pulsed responsivity of photodetector were investigated before and after RTO and after incorporation of gold nanoparticles. The photosensitivity of nano-porous silicon photodetector at 365 nm was increased from 44 to 154 mA/W and to 200 mA/W at 10 V bias after RTO process and incorporating the gold nanoparticles into the silicon matrix, respectively.

  2. Two-solvent method synthesis of SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles embedded in SBA-15: Gas-sensing and photocatalytic properties study

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Peng; Zhang, Lili; Li, Guang; Sun, Zhaoqi; Liu, Xiansong; Wu, Mingzai

    2014-02-01

    Graphical abstract: Different loadings of SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles embedded in mesoporous silica (sample S1, S2 and S3) show higher response to H{sub 2} at lower operating temperature than pure SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Two-solvent method is firstly used to synthesize SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles embedded in mesoporous silica (SBA-15). • The SnO{sub 2}/SBA-15 nanocomposites show higher response to H{sub 2} at lower operating temperature than pure SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles. • The SnO{sub 2}/SBA-15 nanocomposites have higher photodegradation ability toward methylene blue than pure SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles. - Abstract: Different loadings of SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles embedded in mesoporous silica (SBA-15) were prepared via a two-solvent method with the ordered hexagonal mesoporous structure of SBA-15 kept. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and N{sub 2} adsorption porosimetry were employed to characterize the nanocomposites. Compared with pure SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles, the SnO{sub 2}/SBA-15 nanocomposites show higher response to H{sub 2} at lower operating temperature. The photocatalytic activity of as-prepared SnO{sub 2}/SBA-15 for degradation of methylene blue was investigated under UV light irradiation and the results show that the SnO{sub 2}/SBA-15 nanocomposites have higher photodegradation ability toward methylene blue than pure SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles.

  3. Role of metal nanoparticles on porosification of silicon by metal induced etching (MIE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, Shailendra K.; Yogi, Priyanka; Yadav, Pooja; Mishra, Suryakant; Pandey, Haardik; Rai, Hari Mohan; Kumar, Vivek; Sagdeo, Pankaj R.; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-06-01

    Porosification of silicon (Si) by metal induced etching (MIE) process has been studied here to understand the etching mechanism. The etching mechanism has been discussed on the basis of electron transfer from Si to metal ion (Ag+) and metal to H2O2. Role of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in the etching process has been investigated by studying the effect of AgNPs coverage on surface porosity. A quantitative analysis of SEM images, done using Image J, shows a direct correlation between AgNPs coverage and surface porosity after the porosification. Density of Si nanowires (NWs) also varies as a function of AgNPs fractional coverage which reasserts the fact that AgNPs governs the porosification process during MIE. The Raman and PL spectrum show the presence of Si NSs in the samples.

  4. Porous silicon nanoparticles as biocompatible contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gongalsky, M. B.; Kargina, Yu. V.; Osminkina, L. A.; Perepukhov, A. M.; Gulyaev, M. V.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Pirogov, Yu. A.; Maximychev, A. V.; Timoshenko, V. Yu.

    2015-12-01

    We propose porous silicon nanoparticles (PSi NPs) with natural oxide coating as biocompatible and bioresorbable contrast agents for magnetic resonant imaging (MRI). A strong shortening of the transversal proton relaxation time (T2) was observed for aqueous suspensions of PSi NPs, whereas the longitudinal relaxation time (T1) changed moderately. The longitudinal and transversal relaxivities are estimated to be 0.03 and 0.4 l/(g.s), respectively, which are promising for biomedical studies. The proton relaxation is suggested to undergo via the magnetic dipole-dipole interaction with Si dangling bonds on surfaces of PSi NPs. MRI experiments with phantoms have revealed the remarkable contrasting properties of PSi NPs for medical diagnostics.

  5. Synthesis of magnetite-silica core-shell nanoparticles via direct silicon oxidation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuxian; Tang, Jing; Zhao, Hongfu; Wan, Jiaqi; Chen, Kezheng

    2014-10-15

    Magnetite-silica core-shell nanoparticles (Fe3O4@SiO2 NPs) were prepared from silicon powder by direct oxidation without using any expensive precursors (such as TEOS) and organic solvents. The as-prepared Fe3O4@SiO2 NPs were characterized by TEM, DLS, XRD, FT-IR, zeta potential and NMR Analyzer. The results show that the Fe3O4@SiO2 NPs are monodispersed core-shell nanostructures with single cores that were uniformly coated by silica shells. The relaxation property indicates that Fe3O4@SiO2 NPs have desirable characteristics for T2 MRI contrast agents. This facile and green method is promising for large-scale production, which would open new opportunities for preparing core-shell nanostructures for biomedical applications.

  6. SERS detection of low-concentration adenosine by silver nanoparticles on silicon nanoporous pyramid arrays structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C.; Man, B. Y.; Jiang, S. Z.; Yang, C.; Liu, M.; Chen, C. S.; Xu, S. C.; Qiu, H. W.; Li, Z.

    2015-08-01

    A novel surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrate based on uniform silver nanoparticles/silicon nanoporous pyramid arrays (Ag/PS) is prepared and SERS behaviors to adenosine are discussed and compared. With a low concentration of 10-7 M, the characteristic Raman bands of adenosine demonstrate the significantly high SERS sensitivity of the prepared Ag/PS substrate. A reasonable linear correlation is obtained between the intensity of SERS signal and the adenosine concentration from 10-2 to 10-7M in log scale. These results imply that the Ag/PS with regular pyramids array might be an effective substrate for performing label-free sensitive SERS detections of biomolecule.

  7. Porous silicon nanoparticles as biocompatible contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Gongalsky, M. B. Kargina, Yu. V.; Osminkina, L. A.; Perepukhov, A. M.; Maximychev, A. V.; Gulyaev, M. V.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Pirogov, Yu. A.; Timoshenko, V. Yu.

    2015-12-07

    We propose porous silicon nanoparticles (PSi NPs) with natural oxide coating as biocompatible and bioresorbable contrast agents for magnetic resonant imaging (MRI). A strong shortening of the transversal proton relaxation time (T{sub 2}) was observed for aqueous suspensions of PSi NPs, whereas the longitudinal relaxation time (T{sub 1}) changed moderately. The longitudinal and transversal relaxivities are estimated to be 0.03 and 0.4 l/(g·s), respectively, which are promising for biomedical studies. The proton relaxation is suggested to undergo via the magnetic dipole-dipole interaction with Si dangling bonds on surfaces of PSi NPs. MRI experiments with phantoms have revealed the remarkable contrasting properties of PSi NPs for medical diagnostics.

  8. Risk assessment of amorphous silicon dioxide nanoparticles in a glass cleaner formulation

    PubMed Central

    Scheel, Julia; Karsten, Stefan; Stelter, Norbert; Wind, Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    Since nanomaterials are a heterogeneous group of substances used in various applications, risk assessment needs to be done on a case-by-case basis. Here the authors assess the risk (hazard and exposure) of a glass cleaner with synthetic amorphous silicon dioxide (SAS) nanoparticles during production and consumer use (spray application). As the colloidal material used is similar to previously investigated SAS, the hazard profile was considered to be comparable. Overall, SAS has a low toxicity. Worker exposure was analysed to be well controlled. The particle size distribution indicated that the aerosol droplets were in a size range not expected to reach the alveoli. Predictive modelling was used to approximate external exposure concentrations. Consumer and environmental exposure were estimated conservatively and were not of concern. It was concluded based on the available weight-of-evidence that the production and application of the glass cleaner is safe for humans and the environment under intended use conditions. PMID:22548260

  9. Risk assessment of amorphous silicon dioxide nanoparticles in a glass cleaner formulation.

    PubMed

    Michel, Karin; Scheel, Julia; Karsten, Stefan; Stelter, Norbert; Wind, Thorsten

    2013-08-01

    Since nanomaterials are a heterogeneous group of substances used in various applications, risk assessment needs to be done on a case-by-case basis. Here the authors assess the risk (hazard and exposure) of a glass cleaner with synthetic amorphous silicon dioxide (SAS) nanoparticles during production and consumer use (spray application). As the colloidal material used is similar to previously investigated SAS, the hazard profile was considered to be comparable. Overall, SAS has a low toxicity. Worker exposure was analysed to be well controlled. The particle size distribution indicated that the aerosol droplets were in a size range not expected to reach the alveoli. Predictive modelling was used to approximate external exposure concentrations. Consumer and environmental exposure were estimated conservatively and were not of concern. It was concluded based on the available weight-of-evidence that the production and application of the glass cleaner is safe for humans and the environment under intended use conditions.

  10. Lowering of the cavitation threshold in aqueous suspensions of porous silicon nanoparticles for sonodynamic therapy applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sviridov, A. P. Osminkina, L. A.; Nikolaev, A. L.; Kudryavtsev, A. A.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Timoshenko, V. Yu.

    2015-09-21

    A significant decrease of the cavitation threshold in aqueous suspensions of porous silicon nanoparticles (PSi NPs) with sizes about 100 nm as compared with pure water was observed for ultrasound irradiation (USI) with therapeutic frequency (0.88 MHz) and intensities (about 1 W/cm{sup 2}). This effect is explained by porous morphology of PSi NPs, which promotes the nucleation of cavitation bubbles. In vitro experiments revealed a suppression of the proliferation of cancer cells with the introduced PSi NPs after exposure to USI related to the enhanced cavitation processes, which led to the cell destruction. The obtained results demonstrate that PSi NPs are prospective for applications as sonosensitizers in mild cancer therapy.

  11. Silicon oxide nanoparticles doped PQ-PMMA for volume holographic imaging filters.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yuan; Russo, Juan M; Kostuk, Raymond K; Barbastathis, George

    2010-04-15

    Holographic imaging filters are required to have high Bragg selectivity, namely, narrow angular and spectral bandwidth, to obtain spatial-spectral information within a three-dimensional object. In this Letter, we present the design of holographic imaging filters formed using silicon oxide nanoparticles (nano-SiO(2)) in phenanthrenquinone-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PQ-PMMA) polymer recording material. This combination offers greater Bragg selectivity and increases the diffraction efficiency of holographic filters. The holographic filters with optimized ratio of nano-SiO(2) in PQ-PMMA can significantly improve the performance of Bragg selectivity and diffraction efficiency by 53% and 16%, respectively. We present experimental results and data analysis demonstrating this technique in use for holographic spatial-spectral imaging filters.

  12. Plasma-assisted catalytic dry reforming of methane: Highly catalytic performance of nickel ferrite nanoparticles embedded in silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiaogang; Tan, Shiyu; Dong, Lichun; Li, Shaobo; Chen, Hongmei

    2015-01-01

    Spinel nickel ferrite nanoparticles (NiFe2O4 NPs) embedded in silica (NiFe2O4#SiO2) was prepared to enhance the reaction performance of the dry reforming of methane in a coaxial dielectric barrier discharge reactor. NiFe2O4 NPs of around 10 nm were effectively embedded in porous SiO2 NPs (∼100 nm in diameter). Compared to the supported Ni-based catalysts (Ni/γ-Al2O3, Ni-Fe/γ-Al2O3, Ni-Fe/SiO2, and NiFe2O4), the NiFe2O4#SiO2 catalyst placed at the discharge zone exhibited excellent catalytic performance and high resistance to carbon formation during dry reforming under ambient conditions without the involvement of extra heat. The synergetic effect between the non-thermal plasma and the NiFe2O4#SiO2 catalyst favored the conversion of CH4 and CO2 into syngas. The results indicated that the special structure of the as-synthesized NiFe2O4#SiO2 catalyst was capable of restraining the aggregation of Ni-Fe alloy and suppressing the carbon formation in the reforming process.

  13. Effect of disinfection and accelerated ageing on dimensional stability and detail reproduction of a facial silicone with nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pesqueira, A A; Goiato, M C; Dos Santos, D M; Haddad, M F; Moreno, A

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of disinfection and accelerated ageing on the dimensional stability and detail reproduction of a facial silicone with different types of nanoparticle. A total of 60 specimens were fabricated with Silastic MDX 4-4210 silicone and they were divided into three groups: colourless and pigmented with nanoparticles (make-up powder and ceramic powder). Half of the specimens of each group were disinfected with Efferdent tablets and half with neutral soap for 60 days. Afterwards, all specimens were subjected to accelerated ageing. Both dimensional stability and detail reproduction tests were performed after specimen fabrication (initial period), after chemical disinfection, and after accelerated ageing periods (252, 504 and 1008 hours). The dimensional stability test was conducted using AutoCAD software, while detail reproduction was analysed using a stereoscope magnifying glass. Dimensional stability values were statistically evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's test (p < 0.01). Detail reproduction results were compared using a score. Chemical disinfection and also accelerated ageing affected the dimensional stability of the facial silicone with statistically significant results. The silicone's detail reproduction was not affected by these two factors regardless of nanoparticle type, disinfection and accelerated ageing.

  14. Nanotubes-Embedded Indocyanine Green-Hyaluronic Acid Nanoparticles for Photoacoustic-Imaging-Guided Phototherapy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guohao; Zhang, Fan; Tian, Rui; Zhang, Liwen; Fu, Guifeng; Yang, Lily; Zhu, Lei

    2016-03-02

    Phototherapy is a light-triggered treatment for tumor ablation and growth inhibition via photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photothermal therapy (PTT). Despite extensive studies in this area, a major challenge is the lack of selective and effective phototherapy agents that can specifically accumulate in tumors to reach a therapeutic concentration. Although recent attempts have produced photosensitizers complexed with photothermal nanomaterials, the tedious preparation steps and poor tumor efficiency of therapy still hampers the broad utilization of these nanocarriers. Herein, we developed a CD44 targeted photoacoustic (PA) nanophototherapy agent by conjugating Indocyanine Green (ICG) to hyaluronic acid nanoparticles (HANPs) encapsulated with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), resulting in a theranostic nanocomplex of ICG-HANP/SWCNTs (IHANPT). We fully characterized its physical features as well as PA imaging and photothermal and photodynamic therapy properties in vitro and in vivo. Systemic delivery of IHANPT theranostic nanoparticles led to the accumulation of the targeted nanoparticles in tumors in a human cancer xenograft model in nude mice. PA imaging confirmed targeted delivery of the IHANPT nanoparticles into tumors (T/M ratio = 5.19 ± 0.3). The effect of phototherapy was demonstrated by low-power laser irradiation (808 nm, 0.8 W/cm(2)) to induce efficient photodynamic effect from ICG dye. The photothermal effect from the ICG and SWCNTs rapidly raised the tumor temperature to 55.4 ± 1.8 °C. As the result, significant tumor growth inhibition and marked induction of tumor cell death and necrosis were observed in the tumors in the tumors. There were no apparent systemic and local toxic effects found in the mice. The dynamic thermal stability of IHANPT was studied to ensure that PTT does not affect ICG-dependent PDT in phototherapy. Therefore, our results highlight imaging property and therapeutic effect of the novel IHANPT theranostic nanoparticle for CD44

  15. Surface modification of titanium substrates with silver nanoparticles embedded sulfhydrylated chitosan/gelatin polyelectrolyte multilayer films for antibacterial application.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen; Xu, Dawei; Hu, Yan; Cai, Kaiyong; Lin, Yingcheng

    2014-06-01

    To develop Ti implants with potent antibacterial activity, a novel "sandwich-type" structure of sulfhydrylated chitosan (Chi-SH)/gelatin (Gel) polyelectrolyte multilayer films embedding silver (Ag) nanoparticles was coated onto titanium substrate using a spin-assisted layer-by-layer assembly technique. Ag ions would be enriched in the polyelectrolyte multilayer films via the specific interactions between Ag ions and -HS groups in Chi-HS, thus leading to the formation of Ag nanoparticles in situ by photo-catalytic reaction (ultraviolet irradiation). Contact angle measurement and field emission scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were employed to monitor the construction of Ag-containing multilayer on titanium surface, respectively. The functional multilayered films on titanium substrate [Ti/PEI/(Gel/Chi-SH/Ag) n /Gel] could efficiently inhibit the growth and activity of Bacillus subtitles and Escherichia coli onto titanium surface. Moreover, studies in vitro confirmed that Ti substrates coating with functional multilayer films remained the biological functions of osteoblasts, which was reflected by cell morphology, cell viability and ALP activity measurements. This study provides a simple, versatile and generalized methodology to design functional titanium implants with good cyto-compatibility and antibacterial activity for potential clinical applications.

  16. Enhancement of photo-response via surface plasmon resonance induced by Ag nano-particles embedded in ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gaoming; Zhang, Jingwen; Chen, Guangde; Ye, Honggang; Duan, Xiangyang; Hou, Xun

    2016-09-01

    Surface plasmon resonance can be exploited to improve the performance of the photodetectors. However, it may cause the increase of dark current as a side effect. The enhancement of responsivity is highly dependent on the device structure involving SPR and the situations of the metal nano-particles. In this paper, we reported the responsivity enhancement of the ZnO UV detectors with SPR based on a structure in which Ag nano-particles are embedded in ZnO film, without the apparent increase of dark current. We found that the characteristic wavelength for SPR absorption is 380 nm, well predicted by Mie theory. And the spectral responsivity peak value increases from 472 mA/W to 10.522 A/W, by 22.3 times. The good matching between enhancement spectra and SPR absorption spectra confirms that the responsivity enhancement is resulted from SPR. Our results are of great importance in improving the photodetectors based on SPR effects, which may be widely used in light detection.

  17. Green in-situ synthesized silver nanoparticles embedded in bacterial cellulose nanopaper as a bionanocomposite plasmonic sensor.

    PubMed

    Pourreza, Nahid; Golmohammadi, Hamed; Naghdi, Tina; Yousefi, Hossein

    2015-12-15

    Herein, we introduce a new strategy for green, in-situ generation of silver nanoparticles using flexible and transparent bacterial cellulose nanopapers. In this method, adsorbed silver ions on bacterial cellulose nanopaper are reduced by the hydroxyl groups of cellulose nanofibers, acting as the reducing agent producing a bionanocomposite "embedded silver nanoparticles in transparent nanopaper" (ESNPs). The fabricated ESNPs were investigated and characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The important parameters affecting the ESNPs were optimized during the fabrication of specimens. The resulting ESNPs were used as a novel and sensitive probe for the optical sensing of cyanide ion (CN(-)) and 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) in water samples with satisfactory results. The change in surface plasmon resonance absorption intensity of ESNPs was linearly proportional to the concentration in the range of 0.2-2.5 µg mL(-1) and 2-110 µg mL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.012 µg mL(-1) and 1.37 µg mL(-1) for CN(-) and MBT, respectively.

  18. Modification of Shape Memory Polymer Foams Using Tungsten, Aluminum Oxide, and Silicon Dioxide Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hasan, S M; Thompson, R S; Emery, H; Nathan, A L; Weems, A C; Zhou, F; Monroe, M B B; Maitland, D J

    Shape memory polymer (SMP) foams were synthesized with three different nanoparticles (tungsten, silicon dioxide, and aluminum oxide) for embolization of cerebral aneurysms. Ultra-low density SMP foams have previously been utilized for aneurysm occlusion, resulting in a rapid, stable thrombus. However, the small cross section of foam struts can potentially lead to fracture and particulate generation, which would be a serious adverse event for an embolic device. The goal of this study was to improve the mechanical properties of the system by physically incorporating fillers into the SMP matrix. Thermal and mechanical characterization suggested minimal changes in thermal transition of the SMP nanocomposites and improved mechanical strength and toughness for systems with low filler content. Actuation profiles of the three polymer systems were tuned with filler type and content, resulting in faster SMP foam actuation for nanocomposites containing higher filler content. Additionally, thermal stability of the SMP nanocomposites improved with increasing filler concentration, and particulate count remained well below accepted standard limits for all systems. Extraction studies demonstrated little release of silicon dioxide and aluminum oxide from the bulk over 16 days. Tungstun release increased over the 16 day examination period, with a maximum measured concentration of approxiately 2.87 μg/mL. The SMP nanocomposites developed through this research have the potential for use in medical devices due to their tailorable mechanical properties, thermal resisitivity, and actuation profiles.

  19. A parametric study of non-thermal plasma synthesis of silicon nanoparticles from a chlorinated precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yi; Yamada, Riku; Gresback, Ryan; Zhou, Shu; Pi, Xiaodong; Nozaki, Tomohiro

    2014-12-01

    Silicon nanoparticles (Si NPs) synthesized in non-thermal plasma with silicon tetrachloride (SiCl4) are anticipated as a non-toxic and inexpensive Si source for important applications. This study examines the crystallinity, yield, and size distribution of Si NPs in terms of specific energy input (SEI) for 2.5-65 J cm‒3 and the H2/SiCl4 ratio (1-10). The particle growth mechanism is discussed comprehensively. Atomic hydrogen (H) production using non-thermal plasma is the primary important step for SiCl4 dechlorination at low temperatures. The Si NP yield increases with SEI (plasma power divided by total gas flow) because SiCl4 conversion increases with energy fed into the unit volume of the feed gas. At low SEI, Si NPs were mostly in amorphous material because of insufficient plasma heating. A maximum yield of 50 wt% was obtained when SEI = 10 J cm‒3 (H2/SiCl4 = 10) with a crystal fraction of about 1%. Increased SEI is necessary to improve crystal fraction, but excessive SEI decreases the NP yield remarkably. The NP yield losses correspond to increasing NP-free thin film growth on the reactor wall. Mass spectrometry shows that SiCl4 is highly decomposed with greater SEI. Hydrogen chloride (HCl) increases as a by-product. At higher SEI, particle nucleation and subsequent growth are suppressed.

  20. The antimicrobial effect of silicon nanowires decorated with silver and copper nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Fellahi, Ouarda; Sarma, Rupak K; Das, Manash R; Saikia, Ratul; Marcon, Lionel; Coffinier, Yannick; Hadjersi, Toufik; Maamache, Mustapha; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2013-12-13

    The paper reports on the preparation and antibacterial activity of silicon nanowire (SiNW) substrates coated with Ag or Cu nanoparticles (NPs) against Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria. The substrates are easily prepared using the metal-assisted chemical etching of crystalline silicon in hydrofluoric acid/silver nitrate (HF/AgNO3) aqueous solution. Decoration of the SiNWs with metal NPs is achieved by simple immersion in HF aqueous solutions containing silver or copper salts. The SiNWs coated with Ag NPs are biocompatible with human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line A549 while possessing strong antibacterial properties to E. coli. In contrast, the SiNWs decorated with Cu NPs showed higher cytotoxicity and slightly lower antibacterial activity. Moreover, it was also observed that leakage of sugars and proteins from the cell wall of E. coli in interaction with SiNWs decorated with Ag NPs is higher compared to SiNWs modified with Cu NPs.

  1. Asymmetric resonance frequency analysis of in-plane electrothermal silicon cantilevers for nanoparticle sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertke, Maik; Hamdana, Gerry; Wu, Wenze; Marks, Markus; Suryo Wasisto, Hutomo; Peiner, Erwin

    2016-10-01

    The asymmetric resonance frequency analysis of silicon cantilevers for a low-cost wearable airborne nanoparticle detector (Cantor) is described in this paper. The cantilevers, which are operated in the fundamental in-plane resonance mode, are used as a mass-sensitive microbalance. They are manufactured out of bulk silicon, containing a full piezoresistive Wheatstone bridge and an integrated thermal heater for reading the measurement output signal and stimulating the in-plane excitation, respectively. To optimize the sensor performance, cantilevers with different cantilever geometries are designed, fabricated and characterized. Besides the resonance frequency, the quality factor (Q) of the resonance curve has a high influence concerning the sensor sensitivity. Because of an asymmetric resonance behaviour, a novel fitting function and method to extract the Q is created, different from that of the simple harmonic oscillator (SHO). For testing the sensor in a long-term frequency analysis, a phase- locked loop (PLL) circuit is employed, yielding a frequency stability of up to 0.753 Hz at an Allan variance of 3.77 × 10-6. This proposed asymmetric resonance frequency analysis method is expected to be further used in the process development of the next-generation Cantor.

  2. Silica nanoparticles on front glass for efficiency enhancement in superstrate-type amorphous silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Sonali; Banerjee, Chandan; Kundu, Avra; Dey, Prasenjit; Saha, Hiranmay; Datta, Swapan K.

    2013-10-01

    Antireflective coating on front glass of superstrate-type single junction amorphous silicon solar cells (SCs) has been applied using highly monodispersed and stable silica nanoparticles (NPs). The silica NPs having 300 nm diameter were synthesized by Stober technique where the size of the NPs was controlled by varying the alcohol medium. The synthesized silica NPs were analysed by dynamic light scattering technique and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The NPs were spin coated on glass side of fluorinated tin oxide (SnO2: F) coated glass superstrate and optimization of the concentration of the colloidal solution, spin speed and number of coated layers was done to achieve minimum reflection characteristics. An estimation of the distribution of the NPs for different optimization parameters has been done using field-emission scanning electron microscopy. Subsequently, the transparent conducting oxide coated glass with the layer having the minimum reflectance is used for fabrication of amorphous silicon SC. Electrical analysis of the fabricated cell indicates an improvement of 6.5% in short-circuit current density from a reference of 12.40 mA cm-2 while the open circuit voltage and the fill factor remains unaltered. A realistic optical model has also been proposed to gain an insight into the system.

  3. Energy transfer mechanism and Auger effect in Er{sup 3+} coupled silicon nanoparticle samples

    SciTech Connect

    Pitanti, A.; Navarro-Urrios, D.; Garrido, B.; Prtljaga, N.; Daldosso, N.; Pavesi, L.; Gourbilleau, F.; Rizk, R.

    2010-09-15

    We report a spectroscopic study about the energy transfer mechanism among silicon nanoparticles (Si-np), both amorphous and crystalline, and Er ions in a silicon dioxide matrix. From infrared spectroscopic analysis, we have determined that the physics of the transfer mechanism does not depend on the Si-np nature, finding a fast (<200 ns) energy transfer in both cases, while the amorphous nanoclusters reveal a larger transfer efficiency than the nanocrystals. Moreover, the detailed spectroscopic results in the visible range here reported are essential to understand the physics behind the sensitization effect, whose knowledge assumes a crucial role to enhance the transfer rate and possibly employing the material in optical amplifier devices. Joining the experimental data, performed with pulsed and continuous-wave excitation, we develop a model in which the internal intraband recombination within Si-np is competitive with the transfer process via an Auger electron-''recycling'' effect. Posing a different light on some detrimental mechanism such as Auger processes, our findings clearly recast the role of Si-np in the sensitization scheme, where they are able to excite very efficiently ions in close proximity to their surface.

  4. The antimicrobial effect of silicon nanowires decorated with silver and copper nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellahi, Ouarda; Sarma, Rupak K.; Das, Manash R.; Saikia, Ratul; Marcon, Lionel; Coffinier, Yannick; Hadjersi, Toufik; Maamache, Mustapha; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2013-12-01

    The paper reports on the preparation and antibacterial activity of silicon nanowire (SiNW) substrates coated with Ag or Cu nanoparticles (NPs) against Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria. The substrates are easily prepared using the metal-assisted chemical etching of crystalline silicon in hydrofluoric acid/silver nitrate (HF/AgNO3) aqueous solution. Decoration of the SiNWs with metal NPs is achieved by simple immersion in HF aqueous solutions containing silver or copper salts. The SiNWs coated with Ag NPs are biocompatible with human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line A549 while possessing strong antibacterial properties to E. coli. In contrast, the SiNWs decorated with Cu NPs showed higher cytotoxicity and slightly lower antibacterial activity. Moreover, it was also observed that leakage of sugars and proteins from the cell wall of E. coli in interaction with SiNWs decorated with Ag NPs is higher compared to SiNWs modified with Cu NPs.

  5. Photoluminescence from silicon nano-particles synthesized by laser-induced decomposition of silane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botti, S.; Coppola, R.; Gourbilleau, F.; Rizk, R.

    2000-09-01

    This work deals with photoluminescence study of silicon nanoparticles produced by CO2-laser-induced decomposition of SiH4 mixed to helium in a controlled atmosphere reactor. By adjusting the pressure of both reactor and precursor gas and its dilution rate in helium, we were able to control, to a certain extent, the silicon growth rate and hence the particle diameter. This latter was determined by both small angle neutron scattering techniques and high resolution transmission electron microscopy observations. Particles with mean diameter ranging between 3 and 10 nm were submitted to photoluminescence and infrared absorption spectroscopy measurements. The photoluminescence spectra revealed two main peaks at about 1.7 and 2.1 eV. The peak position of the former was insensitive to the change of particle size, while its intensity increased after oxidation. The latter showed, however, a slight size dependence but had undergone a drastic decrease after oxidation. These features enabled us to ascribe the red peak (1.7 eV) to some radiative surface defect, while the yellow peak (2.1 eV) appeared consistent with an emission from an oxygen-related defect such as the nonbridging oxygen hole center.

  6. Conditions for laser-induced plasma to effectively remove nano-particles on silicon surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jinghua; Luo, Li; Zhang, Yubo; Hu, Ruifeng; Feng, Guoying

    2016-09-01

    Particles can be removed from a silicon surface by means of irradiation and a laser plasma shock wave. The particles and silicon are heated by the irradiation and they will expand differently due to their different expansion coefficients, making the particles easier to be removed. Laser plasma can ionize and even vaporize particles more significantly than an incident laser and, therefore, it can remove the particles more efficiently. The laser plasma shock wave plays a dominant role in removing particles, which is attributed to its strong burst force. The pressure of the laser plasma shock wave is determined by the laser pulse energy and the gap between the focus of laser and substrate surface. In order to obtain the working conditions for particle removal, the removal mechanism, as well as the temporal and spatial characteristics of velocity, propagation distance and pressure of shock wave have been researched. On the basis of our results, the conditions for nano-particle removal are achieved. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11574221).

  7. Electroless plating of silver nanoparticles on porous silicon for laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Hong; Xu, Ning; Huang, Wen-Yi; Han, Huan-Mei; Xiao, Shou-Jun

    2009-03-01

    An improved DIOS (desorption ionization on porous silicon) method for laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI MS) by electroless plating of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on porous silicon (PSi) was developed. By addition of 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP) into the AgNO3 plating solution, the plating speed can be slowed down and simultaneously 4-ATP self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on AgNPs (4-ATP/AgNPs) were formed. Both AgNPs and 4-ATP/AgNPs coated PSi substrates present much higher stability, sensitivity and reproducibility for LDI MS than the un-treated porous silicon ones. Their shelf life in air was tested for several weeks to a month and their mass spectra still displayed the same high quality and sensitivity as the freshly prepared ones. And more 4-ATP SAMs partly play a role of matrix to increase the ionization efficiency. A small organic molecule of tetrapyridinporphyrin (TPyP), oligomers of polyethylene glycol (PEG 400 and 2300), and a peptide of oxytocin were used as examples to demonstrate the feasibility of the silver-plated PSi as a matrix-free-like method for LDI MS. This approach can obtain limits of detection to femtomoles for TPyP, subpicomoles for oxytocin, and picomoles for PEG 400 and 2300, comparable to the traditional matrix method and much better than the DIOS method. It simplifies the sample preparation as a matrix-free-like method without addition of matrix molecules and homogenizes the sample spread over the spot for better and more even mass signals.

  8. Porous Silicon Covered with Silver Nanoparticles as Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) Substrate for Ultra-Low Concentration Detection.

    PubMed

    Kosović, Marin; Balarin, Maja; Ivanda, Mile; Đerek, Vedran; Marciuš, Marijan; Ristić, Mira; Gamulin, Ozren

    2015-12-01

    Microporous and macro-mesoporous silicon templates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates were produced by anodization of low doped p-type silicon wafers. By immersion plating in AgNO3, the templates were covered with silver metallic film consisting of different silver nanostructures. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs of these SERS substrates showed diverse morphology with significant difference in an average size and size distribution of silver nanoparticles. Ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared (UV-Vis-NIR) reflection spectroscopy showed plasmonic absorption at 398 and 469 nm, which is in accordance with the SEM findings. The activity of the SERS substrates was tested using rhodamine 6G (R6G) dye molecules and 514.5 nm laser excitation. Contrary to the microporous silicon template, the SERS substrate prepared from macro-mesoporous silicon template showed significantly broader size distribution of irregular silver nanoparticles as well as localized surface plasmon resonance closer to excitation laser wavelength. Such silver morphology has high SERS sensitivity that enables ultralow concentration detection of R6G dye molecules up to 10(-15) M. To our knowledge, this is the lowest concentration detected of R6G dye molecules on porous silicon-based SERS substrates, which might even indicate possible single molecule detection.

  9. Processing and characterization of diatom nanoparticles and microparticles as potential source of silicon for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Le, Thi Duy Hanh; Bonani, Walter; Speranza, Giorgio; Sglavo, Vincenzo; Ceccato, Riccardo; Maniglio, Devid; Motta, Antonella; Migliaresi, Claudio

    2016-02-01

    Silicon plays an important role in bone formation and maintenance, improving osteoblast cell function and inducing mineralization. Often, bone deformation and long bone abnormalities have been associated with silica/silicon deficiency. Diatomite, a natural deposit of diatom skeleton, is a cheap and abundant source of biogenic silica. The aim of the present study is to validate the potential of diatom particles derived from diatom skeletons as silicon-donor materials for bone tissue engineering applications. Raw diatomite (RD) and calcined diatomite (CD) powders were purified by acid treatments, and diatom microparticles (MPs) and nanoparticles (NPs) were produced by fragmentation of purified diatoms under alkaline conditions. The influence of processing on the surface chemical composition of purified diatomites was evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Diatoms NPs were also characterized in terms of morphology and size distribution by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Dynamic light scattering (DLS), while diatom MPs morphology was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Surface area and microporosity of the diatom particles were evaluated by nitrogen physisorption methods. Release of silicon ions from diatom-derived particles was demonstrated using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP/OES); furthermore, silicon release kinetic was found to be influenced by diatomite purification method and particle size. Diatom-derived microparticles (MPs) and nanoparticles (NPs) showed limited or no cytotoxic effect in vitro depending on the administration conditions.

  10. Decoration of silicon nanowires with silver nanoparticles for ultrasensitive surface enhanced Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Andrea, Cristiano; Lo Faro, Maria J.; Bertino, Giulia; Ossi, Paolo M.; Neri, Fortunato; Trusso, Sebastiano; Musumeci, Paolo; Galli, Matteo; Cioffi, Nicola; Irrera, Alessia; Priolo, Francesco; Fazio, Barbara

    2016-09-01

    Silicon nanowires (Si NWs), produced by the chemical etching technique, were decorated with silver nanoparticles (NPs) produced at room temperature by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. Silver NPs were obtained by means of nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of a target in the presence of a controlled Ar atmosphere. Two different laser pulse numbers and Si NWs having different lengths were used to change the NP number density on the Si NW surface. The resulting Ag NP morphologies were studied by scanning electron microscopy imaging. The results show that this industrially compatible technological approach allows the coverage of the Si NW walls with Ag NPs with a strong control of the NP size distribution and spatial arrangement. The obtained Ag NP decorated Si NWs are free from chemicals contamination and there is no need of post deposition high temperature processes. The optical properties of Si NW arrays were investigated by reflectance spectroscopy that showed the presence of a plasmon related absorption peak, whose position and width is dependent on the Ag NP surface morphology. Coupling the huge surface-to-volume ratio of Si NW arrays with the plasmonic properties of silver nanoparticles resulted in a 3D structure suitable for very sensitive surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) applications, as demonstrated by the detection of Rhodamine 6G in aqueous solution at a concentration level of 10-8 M.

  11. Quercetin-Based Modified Porous Silicon Nanoparticles for Enhanced Inhibition of Doxorubicin-Resistant Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zehua; Balasubramanian, Vimalkumar; Bhat, Chinmay; Vahermo, Mikko; Mäkilä, Ermei; Kemell, Marianna; Fontana, Flavia; Janoniene, Agne; Petrikaite, Vilma; Salonen, Jarno; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari; Hirvonen, Jouni; Zhang, Hongbo; Santos, Hélder A

    2017-02-01

    One of the most challenging obstacles in nanoparticle's surface modification is to achieve the concept that one ligand can accomplish multiple purposes. Upon such consideration, 3-aminopropoxy-linked quercetin (AmQu), a derivative of a natural flavonoid inspired by the structure of dopamine, is designed and subsequently used to modify the surface of thermally hydrocarbonized porous silicon (PSi) nanoparticles. This nanosystem inherits several advanced properties in a single carrier, including promoted anticancer efficiency, multiple drug resistance (MDR) reversing, stimuli-responsive drug release, drug release monitoring, and enhanced particle-cell interactions. The anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) is efficiently loaded into this nanosystem and released in a pH-dependent manner. AmQu also effectively quenches the fluorescence of the loaded DOX, thereby allowing the use of the nanosystem for monitoring the intracellular drug release. Furthermore, a synergistic effect with the presence of AmQu is observed in both normal MCF-7 and DOX-resistant MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Due to the similar structure as dopamine, AmQu may facilitate both the interaction and internalization of PSi into the cells. Overall, this PSi-based platform exhibits remarkable superiority in both multifunctionality and anticancer efficiency, making this nanovector a promising system for anti-MDR cancer treatment.

  12. [Changes in proteome profiles of rat liver microsomes induced by silicon dioxide nanoparticles].

    PubMed

    Tananova, O N; Arianova, E A; Gmoshinskii, I V; Toropygin, I Yu; Khryapova, E V; Trusov, N V; Khotimchenko, S A; Tutel'yan, V A

    2015-01-01

    The effect of daily intragastric administration of an aqueous dispersion of silicon nanoparticles (NPs) (the dose range from 1.0 mg/kg to 100 mg/kg body weight for 28 days) to rats on the proteomic profile of liver microsomes has been investigated by 2D-electrophoresis followed by subsequent mass spectrometry identification. The liver microsomal fraction was isolated by differential centrifugation and its protein composition was analyzed by 2D-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Identification of protein spots was carried out using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric analysis. The mass spectrometry analysis revealed the protein GRP78 (78 kD glucose-regulated protein precursor), belonging to the family of heat shock proteins. This protein present in animals of the control group was not detected in NP-treated rats of group 2 (1 mg/kg body weight/day) and group 3 (10 mg/kg body weight/day). This protein predominantly localized in the liver cell endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membrane has the chaperone biological activity. Possible mechanisms of the effects of engineered nanoparticles on biosynthetic processes in the body are discussed.

  13. Silicon dioxide nanoparticles increase macrophage atherogenicity: Stimulation of cellular cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, and triglycerides accumulation.

    PubMed

    Petrick, Lauren; Rosenblat, Mira; Paland, Nicole; Aviram, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Nanoparticle research has focused on their toxicity in general, while increasing evidence points to additional specific adverse effects on atherosclerosis development. Arterial macrophage cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) accumulation and foam cell formation are the hallmark of early atherogenesis, leading to cardiovascular events. To investigate the in vitro atherogenic effects of silicon dioxide (SiO2 ), J774.1 cultured macrophages (murine cell line) were incubated with SiO2 nanoparticle (SP, d = 12 nm, 0-20 µg/mL), followed by cellular cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, TG and cholesterol metabolism analyses. A significant dose-dependent increase in oxidative stress (up to 164%), in cytotoxicity (up to 390% measured by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release), and in TG content (up to 63%) was observed in SiO2 exposed macrophages compared with control cells. A smaller increase in macrophage cholesterol mass (up to 22%) was noted. TG accumulation in macrophages was not due to a decrease in TG cell secretion or to an increased TG biosynthesis rate, but was the result of attenuated TG hydrolysis secondary to decreased lipase activity and both adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) protein expression (by 42 and 25%, respectively). Overall, SPs showed pro-atherogenic effects on macrophages as observed by cytotoxicity, increased oxidative stress and TG accumulation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 713-723, 2016.

  14. High integrity interconnection of silver submicron/nanoparticles on silicon wafer by femtosecond laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, H.; Sivayoganathan, M.; Duley, W. W.; Zhou, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Welding of nanomaterials is a promising technique for constructing nanodevices with robust mechanical properties. To date, fabrication of these devices is limited because of difficulties in restricting damage to the nanomaterials during the welding process. In this work, by utilizing very low fluence (˜900 μJ cm-2) femtosecond (fs) laser irradiation, we have produced a metallic interconnection between two adjacent silver (Ag) submicron/nanoparticles which were fixed on a silicon (Si) wafer after fs laser deposition. No additional filler material was used, and the connected particles remain almost damage free. Observation of the morphology before and after joining and finite difference time domain simulations indicate that the interconnection can be attributed to plasmonic excitation in the Ag submicron/nanoparticles. Concentration of energy between the particles leads to local ablation followed by re-deposition of the ablated material to form a bridging link that joins the two particles. This welding technique shows potential applications in the fabrication of nanodevices.

  15. High integrity interconnection of silver submicron/nanoparticles on silicon wafer by femtosecond laser irradiation.

    PubMed

    Huang, H; Sivayoganathan, M; Duley, W W; Zhou, Y

    2015-01-16

    Welding of nanomaterials is a promising technique for constructing nanodevices with robust mechanical properties. To date, fabrication of these devices is limited because of difficulties in restricting damage to the nanomaterials during the welding process. In this work, by utilizing very low fluence (∼900 μJ cm(-2)) femtosecond (fs) laser irradiation, we have produced a metallic interconnection between two adjacent silver (Ag) submicron/nanoparticles which were fixed on a silicon (Si) wafer after fs laser deposition. No additional filler material was used, and the connected particles remain almost damage free. Observation of the morphology before and after joining and finite difference time domain simulations indicate that the interconnection can be attributed to plasmonic excitation in the Ag submicron/nanoparticles. Concentration of energy between the particles leads to local ablation followed by re-deposition of the ablated material to form a bridging link that joins the two particles. This welding technique shows potential applications in the fabrication of nanodevices.

  16. Glaucoma therapy by extended release of timolol from nanoparticle loaded silicone-hydrogel contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyun Jung; Abou-Jaoude, Michelle; Carbia, Blanca E; Plummer, Caryn; Chauhan, Anuj

    2013-01-10

    Glaucoma is the second major cause of blindness in the world after cataract. Glaucoma management through eye drops that reduce the intraocular pressure (IOP) has major deficiencies including low patient compliance and low bioavailability. Extended wear contact lenses that deliver glaucoma drugs for extended periods could increase patient compliance, while also increasing the bioavailability. To develop extended wear contact lenses that can also provide extended glaucoma therapy, we disperse nanoparticles of PGT (propoxylated glyceryl triacylate) that contain a glaucoma drug timolol. The particles can also be loaded into prefabricated lenses by soaking the lenses in a solution of particles in ethanol. The particle loaded gels can release timolol in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) for about a month at room temperature. The most likely rate controlling mechanism is hydrolysis of the ester bond that links timolol to the PGT matrix, but other mechanisms such as water and drug diffusion, drug dissolution, drug-polymer chain cleavage, time-dependent drug permeability within the polymeric matrix, etc. may also be important. Nanoparticle incorporation in the silicone hydrogels results in reduction in ion and oxygen permeabilities, and an increase in modulus, and the impact on each of these properties is proportional to the particle loading. A gel with 5% particle loading can deliver timolol at therapeutic doses for about a month at room temperature, with a minimal impact on critical lens properties. Preliminary animal studies in Beagle dogs conducted with lenses in which particles are loaded by soaking the lenses in ethanol show a reduction in IOP.

  17. Parallel fabrication of sub-50-nm uniformly sized nanoparticles by deposition through a patterned silicon nitride nanostencil.

    PubMed

    Yan, X-M; Contreras, A M; Koebel, M M; Liddle, J A; Somorjai, G A

    2005-06-01

    Using low-pressure chemical vapor deposition of silicon dioxide, we have reduced the size of 56-nm features in a silicon nitride membrane, called a stencil, down to 36 nm. Sub-50-nm uniformly sized nanoparticles are fabricated by electron-beam deposition of Pt through the stencil mask. A self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of tridecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetrahydrooctyl-1-trichlorosilane was used to reduce Pt clogging of the nanosize holes during deposition as well as to protect the stencil during the postdeposition Pt removal. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that the SAM protects the stencil efficiently during this postdeposition removal of Pt.

  18. Coiled fiber scaffolds embedded with gold nanoparticles improve the performance of engineered cardiac tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleischer, Sharon; Shevach, Michal; Feiner, Ron; Dvir, Tal

    2014-07-01

    Coiled perimysial fibers within the heart muscle provide it with the ability to contract and relax efficiently. Here, we report on a new nanocomposite scaffold for cardiac tissue engineering, integrating coiled electrospun fibers with gold nanoparticles. Cultivation of cardiac cells within the hybrid scaffolds promoted cell organization into elongated and aligned tissues generating a strong contraction force, high contraction rate and low excitation threshold.Coiled perimysial fibers within the heart muscle provide it with the ability to contract and relax efficiently. Here, we report on a new nanocomposite scaffold for cardiac tissue engineering, integrating coiled electrospun fibers with gold nanoparticles. Cultivation of cardiac cells within the hybrid scaffolds promoted cell organization into elongated and aligned tissues generating a strong contraction force, high contraction rate and low excitation threshold. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00300d

  19. Electrically controlled plasmonic lasing resonances with silver nanoparticles embedded in amplifying nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chin; Deng, Luogen

    2014-11-01

    We demonstrated an electrical control of coherent plasmonic random lasing with very diluted Ag nanoparticles dispersed in a dye-doped nematic liquid crystal (NLC), in which the external electric field dependent emission intensity and frequency-splitting were recorded. A modified rate equation model is proposed to interpret the observed coherent lasing, which is a manifestation of the double enhancements caused by the plasmon-polariton near-fields of Ag particles on the population inversion of laser dye molecules and on the optical energy density of lasing modes. The featured laser quenching as weakening the applied field indicates that the present lasing resonances are very sensitive to the fluctuant dielectric perturbations in the NLC host, and are thus most likely associated with some coupled plasmonic oscillations among the metal nanoparticles.

  20. Treatment of human astrocytoma U87 cells with silicon dioxide nanoparticles lowers their survival and alters their expression of mitochondrial and cell signaling proteins.

    PubMed

    Lai, James C K; Ananthakrishnan, Gayathri; Jandhyam, Sirisha; Dukhande, Vikas V; Bhushan, Alok; Gokhale, Mugdha; Daniels, Christopher K; Leung, Solomon W

    2010-10-05

    Recent evidence suggests silicon dioxide micro- and nanoparticles induce cytotoxic effects on lung cells. Thus, there is an increasing concern regarding their potential health hazard. Nevertheless, the putative toxicity of nanoparticles in mammalian cells has not yet been systematically investigated. We previously noted that several metallic oxide nanoparticles exert differential cytotoxic effects on human neural and nonneural cells. Therefore, we hypothesized that silicon dioxide nanoparticles induce cytotoxicity in U87 cells by lowering their survival by decreasing cell survival signaling and disturbing mitochondrial function. To investigate this hypothesis, we determined the activities of the key mitochondrial enzymes, citrate synthase and malate dehydrogenase, in astrocytoma U87 cells treated with silicon dioxide nanoparticles. In addition, we studied the expression of the mitochondrial DNA-encoded proteins, cytochrome C oxidase II and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADPH) dehydrogenase subunit 6, and cell signaling pathway protein extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and phosphorylated ERK in treated U87 cells. The activated form of ERK controls cell growth, differentiation, and proliferation. In parallel, we determined survival of U87 cells after treating them with various concentrations of silicon dioxide nanoparticles. Our results indicated that treatment with silicon dioxide nanoparticles induced decreases in U87 cell survival in a dose-related manner. The activities of citrate synthase and malate dehydrogenase in treated U87 cells were increased, possibly due to an energetic compensation in surviving cells. However, the expression of mitochondrial DNA-encoded cytochrome C oxidase subunit II and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 and the cell signaling protein ERK and phosphorylated ERK were altered in the treated U87 cells, suggesting that silicon dioxide nanoparticles induced disruption of mitochondrial DNA-encoded protein expression, leading to

  1. Ultrafine ferroferric oxide nanoparticles embedded into mesoporous carbon nanotubes for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Guo; Zhang, Qiang; Cheng, Xin-Bing; Shapter, Joseph G.; Yin, Ting; Sun, Rongjin; Cui, Daxiang

    2015-12-01

    An effective one-pot hydrothermal method for in situ filling of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (CNT, diameter of 20-40 nm, length of 30-100 μm) with ultrafine ferroferric oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles (8-10 nm) has been demonstrated. The synthesized Fe3O4@CNT exhibited a mesoporous texture with a specific surface area of 109.4 m2 g-1. The loading of CNT, in terms of the weight ratio of Fe3O4 nanoparticles, can reach as high as 66.5 wt%. Compared to the conventional method of using a Al2O3 membrane as template to fill CNT with iron oxides nanoparticles, our strategy is facile, effective, low cost and easy to scale up to large scale production (~1.42 g per one-pot). When evaluated for lithium storage at 1.0 C (1 C = 928 mA g-1), the mesoporous Fe3O4@CNT can retain at 358.9 mAh g-1 after 60 cycles. Even when cycled at high rate of 20 C, high capacity of 275.2 mAh g-1 could still be achieved. At high rate (10 C) and long life cycling (500 cycles), the cells still exhibit a good capacity of 137.5 mAhg-1.

  2. Soil microbial community responses to contamination with silver, aluminium oxide and silicon dioxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    McGee, C F; Storey, S; Clipson, N; Doyle, E

    2017-02-14

    Soil microorganisms are key contributors to nutrient cycling and are essential for the maintenance of healthy soils and sustainable agriculture. Although the antimicrobial effects of a broad range of nanoparticulate substances have been characterised in vitro, little is known about the impact of these compounds on microbial communities in environments such as soil. In this study, the effect of three widely used nanoparticulates (silver, silicon dioxide and aluminium oxide) on bacterial and fungal communities in an agricultural pastureland soil was examined in a microcosm-based experiment using a combination of enzyme analysis, molecular fingerprinting and amplicon sequencing. A relatively low concentration of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) significantly reduced total soil dehydrogenase and urease activity, while Al2O3 and SiO2 nanoparticles had no effect. Amplicon sequencing revealed substantial shifts in bacterial community composition in soils amended with AgNPs, with significant decreases in the relative abundance of Acidobacteria and Verrucomicrobia and an increase in Proteobacteria. In particular, the relative abundance of the Proteobacterial genus Dyella significantly increased in AgNP amended soil. The effects of Al2O3 and SiO2 NPs on bacterial community composition were less pronounced. AgNPs significantly reduced bacterial and archaeal amoA gene abundance in soil, with the archaea more susceptible than bacteria. AgNPs also significantly impacted soil fungal community structure, while Al2O3 and SiO2 NPs had no effect. Several fungal ribotypes increased in soil amended with AgNPs, compared to control soil. This study highlights the need to consider the effects of individual nanoparticles on soil microbial communities when assessing their environmental impact.

  3. Origin of Photovoltage Enhancement via Interfacial Modification with Silver Nanoparticles Embedded in an a-SiC:H p-Type Layer in a-Si:H Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Tiantian; Zhang, Qixing; Ni, Jian; Huang, Qian; Zhang, Dekun; Li, Baozhang; Wei, Changchun; Yan, Baojie; Zhao, Ying; Zhang, Xiaodan

    2017-03-29

    We used silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) embedded in the p-type semiconductor layer of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cells in the Schottky barrier contact design to modify the interface between aluminum-doped ZnO (ZnO:Al, AZO) and p-type hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbide (p-a-SiC:H) without plasmonic absorption. The high work function of the Ag-NPs provided a good channel for the transport of photogenerated holes. A p-type nanocrystalline SiC:H layer was used to compensate for the real surface defects and voids on the surface of Ag-NPs to reduce recombination at the AZO/p-type layer interface, which then enhanced the photovoltage of single-junction a-Si:H solar cells to values as high as 1.01 V. The Ag-NPs were around 10 nm in diameter and thermally stable in the p-type a-SiC:H film at the solar-cell process temperature. We will also show that a wide range of photovoltages between 1.01 and 2.89 V could be obtained with single-, double-, and triple-junction solar cells based on the single-junction a-Si:H solar cells with tunable high photovoltage. These solar cells are suitable photocathodes for solar water-splitting applications.

  4. High performance liquid level monitoring system based on polymer fiber Bragg gratings embedded in silicone rubber diaphragms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Carlos A. F.; Peng, Gang-Ding; Webb, David J.

    2015-05-01

    Liquid-level sensing technologies have attracted great prominence, because such measurements are essential to industrial applications, such as fuel storage, flood warning and in the biochemical industry. Traditional liquid level sensors are based on electromechanical techniques; however they suffer from intrinsic safety concerns in explosive environments. In recent years, given that optical fiber sensors have lots of well-established advantages such as high accuracy, costeffectiveness, compact size, and ease of multiplexing, several optical fiber liquid level sensors have been investigated which are based on different operating principles such as side-polishing the cladding and a portion of core, using a spiral side-emitting optical fiber or using silica fiber gratings. The present work proposes a novel and highly sensitive liquid level sensor making use of polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings (POFBGs). The key elements of the system are a set of POFBGs embedded in silicone rubber diaphragms. This is a new development building on the idea of determining liquid level by measuring the pressure at the bottom of a liquid container, however it has a number of critical advantages. The system features several FBG-based pressure sensors as described above placed at different depths. Any sensor above the surface of the liquid will read the same ambient pressure. Sensors below the surface of the liquid will read pressures that increase linearly with depth. The position of the liquid surface can therefore be approximately identified as lying between the first sensor to read an above-ambient pressure and the next higher sensor. This level of precision would not in general be sufficient for most liquid level monitoring applications; however a much more precise determination of liquid level can be made by linear regression to the pressure readings from the sub-surface sensors. There are numerous advantages to this multi-sensor approach. First, the use of linear regression using

  5. Scalable fracture-free SiOC glass coating for robust silicon nanoparticle anodes in lithium secondary batteries.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sunghun; Jung, Dae Soo; Choi, Jang Wook

    2014-12-10

    A variety of silicon (Si) nanostructures and their complex composites have been lately introduced in the lithium ion battery community to address the large volume changes of Si anodes during their repeated charge-discharge cycles. Nevertheless, for large-scale manufacturing it is more desirable to use commercial Si nanoparticles with simple surface coating. Most conductive coating materials, however, do not accommodate the volume expansion of the inner Si active phases and resultantly fracture during cycling. To overcome this chronic limitation, herein, we report silicon oxycarbide (SiOC) glass as a new coating material for Si nanoparticle anodes. The SiOC glass phase can expand to some extent due to its active nature in reacting with Li ions and can therefore accommodate the volume changes of the inner Si nanoparticles without disintegration or fracture. The SiOC glass also grows in the form of nanocluster to bridge Si nanoparticles, thereby contributing to the structural integrity of secondary particles during cycling. On the basis of these combined effects, the SiOC-coated Si nanoparticles reach a high reversible capacity of 2093 mAh g(-1) with 92% capacity retention after 200 cycles. Furthermore, the coating and subsequent secondary particle formation were produced by high-speed spray pyrolysis based on a single precursor solution.

  6. Optical properties of silicon nanocrystals embedded in Si3N4 matrix measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry and UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbé, J.; Despax, B.; Perraud, S.; Makasheva, K.

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we report a spectroscopic ellipsometry study of the optical properties of silicon nanocrystals (Si-ncs) embedded in silicon nitride matrix. The nanocomposite thin-films were elaborated by radiofrequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition from ammonia and silane precursors, followed by high temperature annealing. Bruggeman effective medium approximation combined with the Tauc-Lorentz dispersion law was found to be an appropriate model in describing the ellipsometric data, and provided a fine determination of the dielectric functions or complex permittivity of Si-ncs embedded in silicon nitride. It is shown that the dielectric functions of Si-ncs undergo a large reduction in amplitude and broadening compared to the dielectric function of the bulk crystalline Si. Consequently to the disappearance of direct transition energy E 1 and E 2, the imaginary part ɛ 2 of the dielectric function of Si-ncs exhibits a single line shape centered between E 1 and E 2. With decreasing Si-ncs size, we observe a red-shift of ɛ 2 which cannot be attributed to bandgap expansion, but is better explained by electron-phonon interactions in the case of a Si3N4 matrix with high Young modulus. According to Tauc-Lorentz dispersion law, the obtained bandgap values of Si-ncs are between 1.58 eV and 1.67 eV for Si-ncs with diameters from 4.6 nm to 3.8 nm, which is in good agreement with measurements from UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy.

  7. Synthesis of silicon-based nanoparticles by 10.6 μm nanosecond CO2 laser ablation in liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popovic, D. M.; Chai, J. S.; Zekic, A. A.; Trtica, M.; Momcilovic, M.; Maletic, S.

    2013-02-01

    Silicon-based nanoparticles were produced by irradiating a single-crystal silicon target with 10.6 μm nanosecond transverse excited atmospheric (TEA) pulsed CO2 laser in de-ionized water. The effects of the laser pulse energies and repetition rate were studied. To reveal the role of thermal effects, a low laser repetition rate has been applied, excluding the interaction of the laser beam with the previously generated cavitation bubble. The analysis of the influence of the laser pulse energies and the laser repetition rate showed that the increase of the laser pulse energies leads to an increase of the nanoparticle size. An explanation of such results was proposed and the importance of the role of the target surface temperature in the ablation process is discussed.

  8. Production rate enhancement of size-tunable silicon nanoparticles by temporally shaping femtosecond laser pulses in ethanol.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Zhang, Guangming; Jiang, Lan; Shi, Xuesong; Zhang, Kaihu; Rong, Wenlong; Duan, Ji'an; Lu, Yongfeng

    2015-02-23

    This paper proposes an efficient approach for production-rate enhancement and size reduction of silicon nanoparticles produced by femtosecond (fs) double-pulse ablation of silicon in ethanol. Compared with a single pulse, the production rate is ~2.6 times higher and the mean size of the NPs is reduced by ~1/5 with a delay of 2 ps. The abnormal enhancement in the production rate is obtained at pulse delays Δt > 200 fs. The production-rate enhancement is mainly attributed to high photon absorption efficiency. It is caused by an increase in localized transient electron density, which results from the first sub-pulse ionization of ethanol molecules before the second sub-pulse arrives. The phase-change mechanism at a critical point might reduce nanoparticle size.

  9. Ultrafine ferroferric oxide nanoparticles embedded into mesoporous carbon nanotubes for lithium ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Guo; Zhang, Qiang; Cheng, Xin-Bing; Shapter, Joseph G.; Yin, Ting; Sun, Rongjin; Cui, Daxiang

    2015-01-01

    An effective one-pot hydrothermal method for in situ filling of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (CNT, diameter of 20–40 nm, length of 30–100 μm) with ultrafine ferroferric oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles (8–10 nm) has been demonstrated. The synthesized Fe3O4@CNT exhibited a mesoporous texture with a specific surface area of 109.4 m2 g−1. The loading of CNT, in terms of the weight ratio of Fe3O4 nanoparticles, can reach as high as 66.5 wt%. Compared to the conventional method of using a Al2O3 membrane as template to fill CNT with iron oxides nanoparticles, our strategy is facile, effective, low cost and easy to scale up to large scale production (~1.42 g per one-pot). When evaluated for lithium storage at 1.0 C (1 C = 928 mA g−1), the mesoporous Fe3O4@CNT can retain at 358.9 mAh g−1 after 60 cycles. Even when cycled at high rate of 20 C, high capacity of 275.2 mAh g−1 could still be achieved. At high rate (10 C) and long life cycling (500 cycles), the cells still exhibit a good capacity of 137.5 mAhg−1. PMID:26631536

  10. Ultrasensitive diagnostic analysis of Au nanoparticles optically trapped in silicon photonic circuits at sub-milliwatt powers.

    PubMed

    Mirsadeghi, S Hamed; Young, Jeff F

    2014-09-10

    Silicon microcavity-based optical trapping of Au nanoparticles with diameters as small as ≈24 nm is achieved using optical powers <1 mW. By comparing measured and modeled histograms of transmission time series data obtained when a particle is trapped in the cavity, it is shown that the influence of backaction on the transmitted light dynamics alone can be used to determine the size of trapped particles with nanometer precision.

  11. Electric-field controlled liposome formation with embedded superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Eleršič, Kristina; Pavlič, Janez I; Iglič, Aleš; Vesel, Alenka; Mozetič, Miran

    2012-01-01

    Liposomes are one of the most promising biomaterial carriers to deliver DNA,(1) proteins, drugs and medicine in human bodies. However, artificially formed liposomes have to satisfy some crucial functions such as: (i) to efficiently carry drugs to targeted systems, (ii) to be biologically stable until they are removed from human body, (iii) to be biodegradable, and (iv) to be sufficiently small in size for effective drug delivery. Here, we report an efficient and novel method to simultaneously manufacture and incorporate super-paramagnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles (efficient target finder in the presence of external magnetic field) into the liposome's interior and its bilayer. In this technique, we use electric field to control the formation of liposomes and the incorporation of iron oxide nanoparticles. Our preparation procedure does not require any chemical or ultrasound treatments. Apart from that, we also provide further experimental investigations on the role of electric fields on the formation of liposomes using XPS(2) and the magnetic-optical microscope.

  12. Preparation and evaluation of micro and meso porous silica monoliths with embedded carbon nanoparticles for the extraction of non-polar compounds from waters.

    PubMed

    Fresco-Cala, Beatriz; Cárdenas, Soledad; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2016-10-14

    A novel hybrid micro and meso porous silica monolith with embedded carbon nanoparticles (Si-CNPs monolith) was prepared inside a fused silica capillary (3cm in length) and used as a sorbent for solid-phase microextraction. The hybrid monolithic capillary was synthetized by hydrolysis and polycondensation of a mixture of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), ethanol, and three different carbon nanoparticles such as carboxylated single-walled carbon nanotubes (c-SWCNTs), carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (c-MWCNTs), and oxidized single-walled carbon nanohorns (o-SWNHs) via a two-step catalytic sol-gel process. Compared with silica monolith without carbon nanoparticles, the developed monolithic capillary column exhibited a higher extraction efficiency towards the analytes which can be ascribed to the presence of the carbon nanoparticles. In this regard, the best performance was achieved for silica monolith with embedded c-MWCNTs. The resulted monolithic capillaries were also characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), elemental analysis and nitrogen intrusion porosimetry. Variables affecting to the preparation of the sorbent phase including three different carbon nanoparticles and extraction parameters were studied in depth using polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as target analytes. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was selected as instrumental technique. Detection limits range from 0.1 to 0.3μgL(-1), and the inter-extraction units precision (expressed as relative standard deviation) is between 5.9 and 14.4%.

  13. High Sensitivity and High Detection Specificity of Gold-Nanoparticle-Grafted Nanostructured Silicon Mass Spectrometry for Glucose Analysis.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Chia-Wen; Yang, Zhi-Jie

    2015-10-14

    Desorption/ionization on silicon (DIOS) is a high-performance matrix-free mass spectrometry (MS) analysis method that involves using silicon nanostructures as a matrix for MS desorption/ionization. In this study, gold nanoparticles grafted onto a nanostructured silicon (AuNPs-nSi) surface were demonstrated as a DIOS-MS analysis approach with high sensitivity and high detection specificity for glucose detection. A glucose sample deposited on the AuNPs-nSi surface was directly catalyzed to negatively charged gluconic acid molecules on a single AuNPs-nSi chip for MS analysis. The AuNPs-nSi surface was fabricated using two electroless deposition steps and one electroless etching step. The effects of the electroless fabrication parameters on the glucose detection efficiency were evaluated. Practical application of AuNPs-nSi MS glucose analysis in urine samples was also demonstrated in this study.

  14. Synthesis and properties of ferromagnetic nanostructures embedded within a high-quality crystalline silicon matrix via ion implantation and nanocavity assisted gettering processes

    SciTech Connect

    Malladi, Girish; Huang, Mengbing Murray, Thomas; Novak, Steven; Matsubayashi, Akitomo; LaBella, Vincent; Bakhru, Hassaram

    2014-08-07

    Integrating magnetic functionalities with silicon holds the promise of developing, in the most dominant semiconductor, a paradigm-shift information technology based on the manipulation and control of electron spin and charge. Here, we demonstrate an ion implantation approach enabling the synthesis of a ferromagnetic layer within a defect free Si environment by exploiting an additional implant of hydrogen in a region deep below the metal implanted layer. Upon post-implantation annealing, nanocavities created within the H-implanted region act as trapping sites for gettering the implanted metal species, resulting in the formation of metal nanoparticles in a Si region of excellent crystal quality. This is exemplified by the synthesis of magnetic nickel nanoparticles in Si implanted with H{sup +} (range: ∼850 nm; dose: 1.5 × 10{sup 16 }cm{sup −2}) and Ni{sup +} (range: ∼60 nm; dose: 2 × 10{sup 15 }cm{sup −2}). Following annealing, the H implanted regions populated with Ni nanoparticles of size (∼10–25 nm) and density (∼10{sup 11}/cm{sup 2}) typical of those achievable via conventional thin film deposition and growth techniques. In particular, a maximum amount of gettered Ni atoms occurs after annealing at 900 °C, yielding strong ferromagnetism persisting even at room temperature, as well as fully recovered crystalline Si environments adjacent to these Ni nanoparticles. Furthermore, Ni nanoparticles capsulated within a high-quality crystalline Si layer exhibit a very high magnetic switching energy barrier of ∼0.86 eV, an increase by about one order of magnitude as compared to their counterparts on a Si surface or in a highly defective Si environment.

  15. Synthesis and properties of ferromagnetic nanostructures embedded within a high-quality crystalline silicon matrix via ion implantation and nanocavity assisted gettering processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malladi, Girish; Huang, Mengbing; Murray, Thomas; Novak, Steven; Matsubayashi, Akitomo; LaBella, Vincent; Bakhru, Hassaram

    2014-08-01

    Integrating magnetic functionalities with silicon holds the promise of developing, in the most dominant semiconductor, a paradigm-shift information technology based on the manipulation and control of electron spin and charge. Here, we demonstrate an ion implantation approach enabling the synthesis of a ferromagnetic layer within a defect free Si environment by exploiting an additional implant of hydrogen in a region deep below the metal implanted layer. Upon post-implantation annealing, nanocavities created within the H-implanted region act as trapping sites for gettering the implanted metal species, resulting in the formation of metal nanoparticles in a Si region of excellent crystal quality. This is exemplified by the synthesis of magnetic nickel nanoparticles in Si implanted with H+ (range: ˜850 nm; dose: 1.5 × 1016 cm-2) and Ni+ (range: ˜60 nm; dose: 2 × 1015 cm-2). Following annealing, the H implanted regions populated with Ni nanoparticles of size (˜10-25 nm) and density (˜1011/cm2) typical of those achievable via conventional thin film deposition and growth techniques. In particular, a maximum amount of gettered Ni atoms occurs after annealing at 900 °C, yielding strong ferromagnetism persisting even at room temperature, as well as fully recovered crystalline Si environments adjacent to these Ni nanoparticles. Furthermore, Ni nanoparticles capsulated within a high-quality crystalline Si layer exhibit a very high magnetic switching energy barrier of ˜0.86 eV, an increase by about one order of magnitude as compared to their counterparts on a Si surface or in a highly defective Si environment.

  16. Rational synthesis of Pd nanoparticle-embedded reduced graphene oxide frameworks with enhanced selective catalysis in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian; Hu, Guowen; Yang, Yanmei; Zhang, Haoli; Zuo, Wei; Liu, Weisheng; Wang, Baodui

    2016-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) Pd-reduced graphene oxide framework (Pd-rGOF) with hierarchical macro- and mesoporous structures has been developed via covalence- and coordination-assisted self-assembly approach. In this facile fabrication process, GO was first cross-linked with triethylene tetramine (TETA) to form 3D GOF, in which well-dispersed and ultrasmall Pd nanoparticles (NPs) in situ grew and embedded the framework. The obtained nanopores, 3D Pd-rGOF, can act as nanoreactors to help the reaction substrates thoroughly contact with the surface of Pd NPs, thereby exhibiting high activity and selectivity toward the Tsuji-Trost reaction in water, with 99% conversion and selectivity for most substrates. Moreover, the 3D Pd-rGOF catalyst can be reused more than ten times without significant loss of activity, rendering this catalyst long-term stability. The abovementioned observations make the rGOF a universal platform to coordinate other noble metal ions (NM) to construct desired NM-rGOF nanocatalysts with improved activity, selectivity, and durability that can be used in a broad range of practical applications.A three-dimensional (3D) Pd-reduced graphene oxide framework (Pd-rGOF) with hierarchical macro- and mesoporous structures has been developed via covalence- and coordination-assisted self-assembly approach. In this facile fabrication process, GO was first cross-linked with triethylene tetramine (TETA) to form 3D GOF, in which well-dispersed and ultrasmall Pd nanoparticles (NPs) in situ grew and embedded the framework. The obtained nanopores, 3D Pd-rGOF, can act as nanoreactors to help the reaction substrates thoroughly contact with the surface of Pd NPs, thereby exhibiting high activity and selectivity toward the Tsuji-Trost reaction in water, with 99% conversion and selectivity for most substrates. Moreover, the 3D Pd-rGOF catalyst can be reused more than ten times without significant loss of activity, rendering this catalyst long-term stability. The

  17. Investigation of bi-enzymatic reactor based on hybrid monolith with nanoparticles embedded and its proteolytic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Shangguan, Lulu; Zhang, Lingyi; Xiong, Zhichao; Ren, Jun; Zhang, Runsheng; Gao, Fangyuan; Zhang, Weibing

    2015-04-03

    The bottom-up strategy of proteomic profiling study based on mass spectrometer (MS) has drawn high attention. However, conventional solution-based digestion could not satisfy the demands of highly efficient and complete high throughput proteolysis of complex samples. We proposed a novel bi-enzymatic reactor by immobilizing two different enzymes (trypsin/chymotrypsin) onto a mixed support of hybrid organic-inorganic monolith with SBA-15 nanoparticles embedded. Typsin and chymotrypsin were crossly immobilized onto the mixed support by covalent bonding onto the monolith with glutaraldehyde as bridge reagent and chelation via copper ion onto the nanoparticles, respectively. Compared with single enzymatic reactors, the bi-enzymatic reactor improved the overall functional analysis of membrane proteins of rat liver by doubling the number of identified peptides (from 1184/1010 with trypsin/chymotrypsin enzymatic reactors to 2891 with bi-enzymatic reactor), which led to more proteins identified with deep coverage (from 452/336 to 620); the efficiency of the bi-enzymatic reactor is also better than that of solution-based tandem digestion, greatly shorting the digestion time from 24h to 50s. Moreover, more transmembrane proteins were identified by bi-enzymatic reactor (106) compared with solution-based tandem digestion (95) with the same two enzymes and enzymatic reactors with single enzyme immobilized (75 with trypsin and 66 with chymotrypsin). The proteolytic characteristics of the bi-enzymatic reactors were evaluated by applying them to digestion of rat liver proteins. The reactors showed good digestion capability for proteins with different hydrophobicity and molecular weight.

  18. Low power and fast electro-optic silicon modulator with lateral p-i-n embedded photonic crystal nanocavity.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Takasumi; Nishiguchi, Katsuhiko; Kuramochi, Eiichi; Notomi, Masaya

    2009-12-07

    We have fabricated high-Q photonic crystal nanocavities with a lateral p-i-n structure to demonstrate low-power and high-speed electro-optic modulation in a silicon chip. GHz operation is demonstrated at a very low (microW level) operating power, which is about 4.6 times lower than that reported for other cavities in silicon. This low-power operation is due to the small size and high-Q of the photonic crystal nanocavity.

  19. Enhanced photocurrent from generated photothermal heat in indium nanoparticles embedded TiO2 film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhuri, B.; Mondal, A.; Dhar, J. C.; Singh, N. K.; Goswami, T.; Chattopadhyay, K. K.

    2013-06-01

    We have demonstrated the synthesis of indium (In) nanoparticle (NP) arrays on TiO2 thin film (TF) using glancing angle deposition technique. The deposited In NPs are of the order of 4-10 nm in size. Optical absorption measurements depict 2.5 times enhanced absorption for In-NPs/TiO2-TF compared to TiO2 TF. The plasmonic device shows a turn on voltage at ˜3.0 and ˜1.0 V under dark and 30 min illumination, respectively. The device current increases from 1.6 to 6.5 mA/cm2 (+5 V) with enhanced temperature for 1-30 min continuous light exposures. The plasmonic device shows eight-fold enlarged photoresponsivity (+2.3 V) compared to the TiO2 TF based device.

  20. Plasmonic enhancement in hybrid organic/Si heterojunction solar cells enabled by embedded gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Zhouhui; Song, Tao; Sun, Jun; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Sun, Baoquan

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the incorporation of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) into poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/polystyrenesulfonate for organic/Si heterojunction hybrid solar cells. The incorporation of Au NPs can enhance the short-circuit current density (Jsc), consequently, leading to a higher power conversion efficiency (PCE). The hybrid devices incorporating Au NPs with optimized size achieve a PCE of over 12.9% with about 10% enhancement of the Jsc compared with that of reference ones. Au NPs with different sizes are incorporated to explore the mechanism for the enhanced device performance. According to the detailed experimental characterization and numerical simulation results, the increased PCE is attributed to the light scattering and the local electromagnetic field enhancement, which is originated from the excitation of the localized surface plasmon resonance of Au NPs.

  1. Magneto-photonic crystal microcavities based on magnetic nanoparticles embedded in Silica matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hocini, Abdesselam; Moukhtari, Riad; Khedrouche, Djamel; Kahlouche, Ahmed; Zamani, Mehdi

    2017-02-01

    Using the three-dimensional finite difference time domain method (3D FDTD) with perfectly matched layers (PML), optical and magneto-optical properties of two-dimensional magneto-photonic crystals micro-cavity is studied. This micro-cavity is fabricated by SiO2/ZrO2 or SiO2/TiO2 matrix doped with magnetic nanoparticles, in which the refractive index varied in the range of 1.51-1.58. We demonstrate that the Q factor for the designed cavity increases as the refractive index increases, and we find that the Q factor decreases as the volume fraction VF% due to off-diagonal elements increases. These magnetic microcavities may serve as a fundamental structure in a variety of ultra compact magneto photonic devices such as optical isolators, circulators and modulators in the future.

  2. Supramolecular regulation of bioorthogonal catalysis in cells using nanoparticle-embedded transition metal catalysts.

    PubMed

    Tonga, Gulen Yesilbag; Jeong, Youngdo; Duncan, Bradley; Mizuhara, Tsukasa; Mout, Rubul; Das, Riddha; Kim, Sung Tae; Yeh, Yi-Cheun; Yan, Bo; Hou, Singyuk; Rotello, Vincent M

    2015-07-01

    Bioorthogonal catalysis broadens the functional possibilities of intracellular chemistry. Effective delivery and regulation of synthetic catalytic systems in cells are challenging due to the complex intracellular environment and catalyst instability. Here, we report the fabrication of protein-sized bioorthogonal nanozymes through the encapsulation of hydrophobic transition metal catalysts into the monolayer of water-soluble gold nanoparticles. The activity of these catalysts can be reversibly controlled by binding a supramolecular cucurbit[7]uril 'gate-keeper' onto the monolayer surface, providing a biomimetic control mechanism that mimics the allosteric regulation of enzymes. The potential of this gated nanozyme for use in imaging and therapeutic applications was demonstrated through triggered cleavage of allylcarbamates for pro-fluorophore activation and propargyl groups for prodrug activation inside living cells.

  3. Supramolecular regulation of bioorthogonal catalysis in cells using nanoparticle-embedded transition metal catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonga, Gulen Yesilbag; Jeong, Youngdo; Duncan, Bradley; Mizuhara, Tsukasa; Mout, Rubul; Das, Riddha; Kim, Sung Tae; Yeh, Yi-Cheun; Yan, Bo; Hou, Singyuk; Rotello, Vincent M.

    2015-07-01

    Bioorthogonal catalysis broadens the functional possibilities of intracellular chemistry. Effective delivery and regulation of synthetic catalytic systems in cells are challenging due to the complex intracellular environment and catalyst instability. Here, we report the fabrication of protein-sized bioorthogonal nanozymes through the encapsulation of hydrophobic transition metal catalysts into the monolayer of water-soluble gold nanoparticles. The activity of these catalysts can be reversibly controlled by binding a supramolecular cucurbit[7]uril ‘gate-keeper’ onto the monolayer surface, providing a biomimetic control mechanism that mimics the allosteric regulation of enzymes. The potential of this gated nanozyme for use in imaging and therapeutic applications was demonstrated through triggered cleavage of allylcarbamates for pro-fluorophore activation and propargyl groups for prodrug activation inside living cells.

  4. Green digital signage using nanoparticle embedded narrow-gap field sequential TN-LCDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Shunsuke; Shiraishi, Yukihide; Sawai, Hiroya; Toshima, Naoki; Okita, Masaya; Takeuchi, Kiyofumi; Takatsu, Haruyoshi

    2012-03-01

    We have fabricated field sequential color (FSC)-LCDs using cells and modules of narrow-gap TN-LCDs with and without doping the nanoparticles of PCyD-ZrO2 and AF-SiO2. It is shown that the FSC-LCD exhibits a high optical efficiency of OE=4.5 that is defined as OE=[Luminance]/[W/m2]=(cd/W). This figure may provide us a good reference or to clear the Energy Star Program Version 5-3 that issues a guideline: LCD with 50 inch on the diagonal consumes the energy of 108W. Through this research it is claimed that our FSC=LCD may be a novel green digital signage.

  5. Evaluation of humidity sensing properties of TMBHPET thin film embedded with spinel cobalt ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zafar, Qayyum; Azmer, Mohamad Izzat; Al-Sehemi, Abdullah G.; Al-Assiri, Mohammad S.; Kalam, Abul; Sulaiman, Khaulah

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we report the enhanced sensing parameters of previously reported TMBHPET-based humidity sensor. Significant improved sensing performance has been demonstrated by coupling of TMBHPET moisture sensing thin film with cobalt ferrite nanoparticles (synthesized by eco-benign ultrasonic method). The mean size of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles has been estimated to be 6.5 nm. It is assumed that the thin film of organic-ceramic hybrid matrix (TMBHPET:CoFe2O4) is a potential candidate for humidity sensing utility by virtue of its high specific surface area and porous surface morphology (as evident from TEM, FESEM, and AFM images). The hybrid suspension has been drop-cast onto the glass substrate with preliminary deposited coplanar aluminum electrodes separated by 40 µm distance. The influence of humidity on the capacitance of the hybrid humidity sensor (Al/TMBHPET:CoFe2O4/Al) has been investigated at three different frequencies of the AC applied voltage ( V rms 1 V): 100 Hz, 1 kHz, and 10 kHz. It has been observed that at 100 Hz, under a humidity of 99 % RH, the capacitance of the sensor increased by 2.61 times, with respect to 30 % RH condition. The proposed sensor exhibits significantly improved sensitivity 560 fF/ % RH at 100 Hz, which is nearly 7.5 times as high as that of pristine TMBHPET-based humidity sensor. Further, the capacitive sensor exhibits improved dynamic range (30-99 % RH), small hysteresis ( 2.3 %), and relatively quicker response and recovery times ( 12 s, 14 s, respectively). It is assumed that the humidity response of the sensor is associated with the diffusion kinetics of water vapors and doping of the semiconductor nanocomposite by water molecules.

  6. Structural transition of kidney cystatin induced by silicon dioxide nanoparticles: An implication for renal diseases.

    PubMed

    Shamsi, Anas; Ahmed, Azaj; Bano, Bilqees

    2017-01-01

    Nanotechnology is one of the fastest growing fields of science owing to use of nanomaterials in industries and medicine across the globe. Currently silicon dioxide nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs) are one of the most popular nanomaterials owing to their inert toxicity profile and hence exposure to SiO2 nanoparticles is on the increase. Cystatins are thiol proteinase inhibitors (TPIs) ubiquitously distributed in plants and animals and they are now at the heed of a number of normal and pathological conditions and shouldn't be regarded solely as TPIs. Up till now many studies have targeted the potential toxicity of NPs on pulmonary target; although little focus is given to kidney which is a secondary target organ. The objective of this work is to study the structural changes in buffalo kidney cystatin (BKC) induced by SiO2 NPs. UV and Fluorescence spectroscopy shows BKC transformation from native to non-native form evident by decreased absorbance and increased fluorescence. FTIR and CD spectroscopy further confirmed secondary structure disruption of BKC. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and microscopy were resorted to visualize interaction between SiO2 NPs and BKC. Comet assay and MTT assay were utilized to perceive the toxicity of SiO2 NPs incubated BKC; decreased cell viability clearly suggesting toxicity of SiO2 NPs incubated BKC. Our work suggests that SiO2 NPs have a deteriorating effect on BKC thereby causing a decrease in its ability to inhibit papain and hence less functionality. This study also shows that BKC transforms to a toxic non-native form in presence of SiO2 NPs.

  7. Highly Reversible and Ultrafast Sodium Storage in NaTi2(PO4)3 Nanoparticles Embedded in Nanocarbon Networks.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yu; Shi, Jinan; Wang, Min; Zeng, Linchao; Gu, Lin; Yu, Yan

    2016-01-13

    Sodium ion batteries (NIBs) have been considered as an alternative for Li ion batteries (LIBs). NaTi2(PO4)3 (denoted as NTP) is a superior anode material for NIBs. However, the poor electrochemical performance of NTP resulting from the low electronic conductivity prevents its application. Here, NTP nanoparticles embedded in carbon network (denoted as NTP/C) were fabricated using a simple soft-template method. This anode material exhibits superior electrochemical performance when used as anode electrodes for NIBs, including highly reversible capacity (108 mAh g(-1) at 100 C) for excellent rate performance and long cycle life (83 mAh g(-1) at 50 C after 6000 cycles). The excellent sodium storage property can be resulted from the synergistic effects of nanosized NTP, thinner carbon shell and the interconnected carbon network, leading to the low charge transfer resistance, the large surface area for electrolyte to soak in and enough void to buffer the volume variation during the repeated cycle.

  8. MOF-Derived Hollow Co9 S8 Nanoparticles Embedded in Graphitic Carbon Nanocages with Superior Li-Ion Storage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Wu, Chao; Xiao, Dongdong; Kopold, Peter; Gu, Lin; van Aken, Peter A; Maier, Joachim; Yu, Yan

    2016-05-01

    Novel electrode materials consisting of hollow cobalt sulfide nanoparticles embedded in graphitic carbon nanocages (HCSP⊂GCC) are facilely synthesized by a top-down route applying room-temperature synthesized Co-based zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-67) as the template. Owing to the good mechanical flexibility and pronounced structure stability of carbon nanocages-encapsulated Co9 S8 , the as-obtained HCSP⊂GCC exhibit superior Li-ion storage. Working in the voltage of 1.0-3.0 V, they display a very high energy density (707 Wh kg(-1) ), superior rate capability (reversible capabilities of 536, 489, 438, 393, 345, and 278 mA h g(-1) at 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, and 10C, respectively), and stable cycling performance (≈26% capacity loss after long 150 cycles at 1C with a capacity retention of 365 mA h g(-1) ). When the work voltage is extended into 0.01-3.0 V, a higher stable capacity of 1600 mA h g(-1) at a current density of 100 mA g(-1) is still achieved.

  9. Carbon films embedded by nickel nanoparticles: The effect of deposition time on Berthelot-type hopping conduction parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalouji, Vali; Asareh, Nastaran; Hashemizadeh, Seyed Ali; Solaymani, Shahram

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, the electrical conductivity of carbon films embedded by nickel nanoparticles at different deposition times 50, 90, 180 and 600 s over a temperature range from 50 to 500 K was studied. The conductivity data in the temperature range T > 300 K shows the extended state conduction mechanism. The tunneling through a thermally vibrating barrier in the temperature range 50-150 K is described by the Berthelot-type conduction mechanism. It can be seen that the films deposited at 180 s have maximum conductivity and the Berthelot temperature is about 53.5 K. Due to the vibrations of Ni ions in the tetrahedral, sites the extents of the carrier wave function are lower than in the octahedral complexes sites which have maximum values of about 2.16 × 10^{-7} cm and 1.85 × 10^{-7} cm in the octahedral-metal stretching vibrations and intrinsic stretching vibrations of the metal ions at the tetrahedral site, respectively. On the other hand, the average distance between the sites in both vibrations at 180 s deposition modes have minimum values of 2.02 × 10^{-7} cm and 1.72 × 10^{-7} cm.

  10. NMR-based metabonomic analysis of MnO-embedded iron oxide nanoparticles as potential dual-modal contrast agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jinquan; Zhou, Zijian; Feng, Jianghua; Cai, Shuhui; Gao, Jinhao; Chen, Zhong

    2014-05-01

    MnO-embedded iron oxide nanoparticles (MnIO-NPs) can be treated as potential dual-modal contrast agents. However, their overall bio-effects and potential toxicity remain unknown. In this study, the metabolic effects of MnIO-NPs (dosed at 1 and 5 mg Fe/kg) on Sprague-Dawley rats were investigated using metabonomic analysis, histopathological examination, and conventional biochemical analysis. The histological changes included a focal inflammation in the liver at high-dose and a slightly enlarged area of splenic white pulp after 48 h post-dose. Blood biochemical analysis showed that albumin, globulins, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, blood urea nitrogen, and glucose changed distinctly compared to the control. The metabonomic analysis of body fluids (serum and urine) and tissues (liver, kidney, and spleen) indicated that MnIO-NPs induced metabolic perturbation in rats including energy, nucleotides, amino acids and phospholipid metabolisms. Besides, the variations of supportive nutrients: valine, leucine, isoleucine, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate), and nicotinamide, and the conjugation substrates: glycine, taurine, glutamine, glutathione, and methyl donors (formate, sarcosine, dimethylglycine, choline, and betaine) were involved in detoxification reaction of MnIO-NPs. The obtained information would provide identifiable ground for the candidate selection and optimization.

  11. Temperature Dependent Capacitance-Voltage And Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy Study Of Self-Assembled Ge Quantum Dots Embedded In P-type Silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Rangel-Kuoppa, Victor-Tapio; Chen Gang; Jantsch, Wolfgang

    2011-12-23

    Temperature dependent Capacitance-Voltage (TCV) and Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) techniques were used to study how Ge Quantum Dots (QDs) embedded in Silicon trap charge. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is used to obtain the density of QDs, which is in the order of 3x10{sup 11} cm{sup -2}. Three shallow levels, with activation energies of 40, 65 and 90 meV, and densities around 10{sup 16} cm{sup -3}, are found and are related to Boron. Four deep levels, with activation energies of 110, 150, 330 and 380 meV, and densities between 2x10{sup 15} cm{sup -3} and 5x10{sup 15} cm{sup -3}, are also found. TCV results suggest they are related to the Ge QDs.

  12. Glycated hemoglobin detection with electrochemical sensing amplified by gold nanoparticles embedded N-doped graphene nanosheet.

    PubMed

    Jain, Utkarsh; Chauhan, Nidhi

    2017-03-15

    In the diabetic patients the level of glucose must be determined without any short term fluctuations. The level of Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is accordingly examined for checking diabetes mellitus. HbA1c is considered one of the primarily factor to discern the concentration of average plasma glucose over a long-drawn-out period. In our work, we describe a construction of biosensor which is based on fructosyl amino-acid oxidase (FAO) immobilized nitrogen-doped graphene/gold nanoparticles (AuNPs)/fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass electrode. This constructed biosensor exhibits a wide linear range of 0.3 to 2000μM in response to HbA1c at +0.2V. Consequently, the detection limit of 0.2μM and good stability (4 months) were achieved. The electrocatalytic activity of this sensor was good as a result of synergistic effect of graphene and AuNPs (2D and 0D nanomaterials). The charge transfer resistance was decreased which was observed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) study. The graphene/AuNPs composites film reveals a distinguished electrochemical response to fructosyl valine (FV) which demonstrates a promising application for electrochemical detection of HbA1c in human blood samples.

  13. Influence of ion bombardment on the photoluminescence response of embedded CdS nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanta, Dambarudhar; Singh, Fouran; Avasthi, D.; Choudhury, Amarjyoti

    2006-06-01

    Semiconductor nanoparticles (CdS) were fabricated by an inexpensive chemical route using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as the dielectric host matrix. Nano-CdS in PVA were subjected to ion irradiation (using oxygen, chlorine and gold) in the medium energy range (80-100 MeV) and under fluence variation of 1011-1013 ions/cm2. The nature of light emission was found to be drastically different in each of the three cases.