Sample records for nanoparticle-based dna biosensor

  1. Label-free DNA biosensor based on resistance change of platinum nanoparticles assemblies.

    PubMed

    Skotadis, Evangelos; Voutyras, Konstantinos; Chatzipetrou, Marianneza; Tsekenis, Georgios; Patsiouras, Lampros; Madianos, Leonidas; Chatzandroulis, Stavros; Zergioti, Ioanna; Tsoukalas, Dimitris

    2016-07-15

    A novel nanoparticle based biosensor for the fast and simple detection of DNA hybridization events is presented. The sensor utilizes hybridized DNA's charge transport properties, combining them with metallic nanoparticle networks that act as nano-gapped electrodes. The DNA hybridization events can be detected by a significant reduction in the sensor's resistance due to the conductive bridging offered by hybridized DNA. By modifying the nanoparticle surface coverage, which can be controlled experimentally being a function of deposition time, and the structural properties of the electrodes, an optimized biosensor for the in situ detection of DNA hybridization events is ultimately fabricated. The fabricated biosensor exhibits a wide response range, covering four orders of magnitude, a limit of detection of 1nM and can detect a single base pair mismatch between probe and complementary DNA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Fluorescent carbon nanoparticle-based lateral flow biosensor for ultrasensitive detection of DNA.

    PubMed

    Takalkar, Sunitha; Baryeh, Kwaku; Liu, Guodong

    2017-12-15

    We report a fluorescent carbon nanoparticle (FCN)-based lateral flow biosensor for ultrasensitive detection of DNA. Fluorescent carbon nanoparticle with a diameter of around 15nm was used as a tag to label a detection DNA probe, which was complementary with the part of target DNA. A capture DNA probe was immobilized on the test zone of the lateral flow biosensor. Sandwich-type hybridization reactions among the FCN-labeled DNA probe, target DNA and capture DNA probe were performed on the lateral flow biosensor. In the presence of target DNA, FCNs were captured on the test zone of the biosensor and the fluorescent intensity of the captured FCNs was measured with a portable fluorescent reader. After systematic optimizations of experimental parameters (the components of running buffers, the concentration of detection DNA probe used in the preparation of FCN-DNA conjugates, the amount of FCN-DNA dispensed on the conjugate pad and the dispensing cycles of the capture DNA probes on the test-zone), the biosensor could detect a minimum concentration of 0.4 fM DNA. This study provides a rapid and low-cost approach for DNA detection with high sensitivity, showing great promise for clinical application and biomedical diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Modified surface of titanium dioxide nanoparticles-based biosensor for DNA detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadzirah, Sh.; Hashim, U.; Rusop, M.

    2018-05-01

    A new technique was used to develop a simple and selective picoammeter DNA biosensor for identification of E. coli O157:H7. This biosensor was fabricated from titanium dioxide nanoparticles that was synthesized by sol-gel method and spin-coated on silicon dioxide substrate via spinner. 3-Aminopropyl triethoxy silane (APTES) was used to modify the surface of TiO2. Simple surface modification approach has been applied; which is single dropping of APTES onto the TiO2 nanoparticles surface. Carboxyl modified probe DNA has been bind onto the surface of APTES/TiO2 without any amplifier element. Electrical signal has been used as the indicator to differentiate each step (surface modification of TiO2 and probe DNA immobilization). The I-V measurements indicate extremely low current (pico-ampere) flow through the device which is 2.8138E-10 A for pure TiO2 nanoparticles, 2.8124E-10 A after APTES modification and 3.5949E-10 A after probe DNA immobilization.

  4. Multianalyte, dipstick-type, nanoparticle-based DNA biosensor for visual genotyping of single-nucleotide polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Litos, Ioannis K; Ioannou, Penelope C; Christopoulos, Theodore K; Traeger-Synodinos, Jan; Kanavakis, Emmanuel

    2009-06-15

    DNA biosensors involve molecular recognition of the target sequence by hybridization with specific probes and detection by electrochemical, optical or gravimetric transduction. Disposable, dipstick-type biosensors have been developed recently, which enable visual detection of DNA without using instruments. In this context, we report a multianalyte DNA biosensor for visual genotyping of two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). As a model, the biosensor was applied to the simultaneous genotyping of two SNPs, entailing the detection of four alleles. A PCR product that flanks both polymorphic sites is subjected to a single primer extension (PEXT) reaction employing four allele-specific primers, each containing a region complementary to an allele and a characteristic segment that enables subsequent capture on a test zone of the biosensor. The primers are extended with dNTPs and biotin-dUTP only if there is perfect complementarity with the interrogated sequence. The PEXT mixture is applied to the biosensor. As the developing buffer migrates along the strip, all the allele-specific primers are captured by immobilized oligonucleotides at the four test zones of the biosensor and detected by antibiotin-functionalized gold nanoparticles. As a result, the test zones are colored red if extension has occurred denoting the presence of the corresponding allele in the original sample. The excess nanoparticles are captured by immobilized biotinylated albumin at the control zone of the sensor forming another red zone that indicates the proper performance of the system. The assay was applied successfully to the genotyping of twenty clinical samples for two common SNPs of MBL2 gene.

  5. Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle-Based Interdigitated Electrodes: A Novel Current to Voltage DNA Biosensor Recognizes E. coli O157:H7.

    PubMed

    Nadzirah, Sh; Azizah, N; Hashim, Uda; Gopinath, Subash C B; Kashif, Mohd

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticle-mediated bio-sensing promoted the development of novel sensors in the front of medical diagnosis. In the present study, we have generated and examined the potential of titanium dioxide (TiO2) crystalline nanoparticles with aluminium interdigitated electrode biosensor to specifically detect single-stranded E.coli O157:H7 DNA. The performance of this novel DNA biosensor was measured the electrical current response using a picoammeter. The sensor surface was chemically functionalized with (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTES) to provide contact between the organic and inorganic surfaces of a single-stranded DNA probe and TiO2 nanoparticles while maintaining the sensing system's physical characteristics. The complement of the target DNA of E. coli O157:H7 to the carboxylate-probe DNA could be translated into electrical signals and confirmed by the increased conductivity in the current-to-voltage curves. The specificity experiments indicate that the biosensor can discriminate between the complementary sequences from the base-mismatched and the non-complementary sequences. After duplex formation, the complementary target sequence can be quantified over a wide range with a detection limit of 1.0 x 10(-13)M. With target DNA from the lysed E. coli O157:H7, we could attain similar sensitivity. Stability of DNA immobilized surface was calculated with the relative standard deviation (4.6%), displayed the retaining with 99% of its original response current until 6 months. This high-performance interdigitated DNA biosensor with high sensitivity, stability and non-fouling on a novel sensing platform is suitable for a wide range of biomolecular interactive analyses.

  6. A DNA biosensor based on gold nanoparticle decorated on carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes for gender determination of Arowana fish.

    PubMed

    Saeedfar, Kasra; Heng, Lee Yook; Chiang, Chew Poh

    2017-12-01

    Multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were modified to design a new DNA biosensor. Functionalized MWCNTs were equipped with gold nanoparticles (GNPs) (~15nm) (GNP-MWCNTCOOH) to construct DNA biosensors based on carbon-paste screen-printed (SPE) electrodes. GNP attachment onto functionalized MWCNTs was carried out by microwave irradiation and was confirmed by spectroscopic studies and surface analysis. DNA biosensors based on differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) were constructed by immobilizing thiolated single-stranded DNA probes onto GNP-MWCNTCOOH. Ruthenium (III) chloride hexaammoniate [Ru(NH 3 ) 6 ,2Cl - ] (RuHex) was used as hybridization redox indicator. RuHex and MWCNT interaction was low in compared to other organic redox hybridization indicators. The linear response range for DNA determination was 1×10 -21 to 1×10 -9 M with a lower detection limit of 1.55×10 -21 M. Thus, the attachment of GNPs onto functionalized MWCNTs yielded sensitive DNA biosensor with low detection limit and stability more than 30days. Constructed electrode was used to determine gender of arowana fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. An ultra-sensitive Au nanoparticles functionalized DNA biosensor for electrochemical sensing of mercury ions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanyan; Zhang, Cong; Ma, Rui; Du, Xin; Dong, Wenhao; Chen, Yuan; Chen, Qiang

    2017-06-01

    The present work describes an effective strategy to fabricate a highly sensitive and selective DNA-biosensor for the determination of mercury ions (Hg 2+ ). The DNA 1 was modified onto the surface of Au electrode by the interaction between sulfydryl group and Au electrode. DNA probe is complementary with DNA 1. In the presence of Hg 2+ , the electrochemical signal increases owing to that Hg 2+ -mediated thymine bases induce the conformation of DNA probe to change from line to hairpin and less DNA probes adsorb into DNA 1. Taking advantage of its reduction property, methylene blue is considered as the signal indicating molecule. For improving the sensitivity of the biosensor, Au nanoparticles (Au NPs) modified reporter DNA 3 is used to adsorb DNA 1. Electrochemical behaviors of the biosensor were evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Several important parameters which could affect the property of the biosensor were studied and optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the biosensor exhibits wide linear range, high sensitivity and low detection limit. Besides, it displays superior selectivity and excellent stability. The biosensor was also applied for water sample detection with satisfactory result. The novel strategy of fabricating biosensor provides a potential platform for fabricating a variety of metal ions biosensors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle-Based Interdigitated Electrodes: A Novel Current to Voltage DNA Biosensor Recognizes E. coli O157:H7

    PubMed Central

    Nadzirah, Sh.; Azizah, N.; Hashim, Uda; Gopinath, Subash C. B.; Kashif, Mohd

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticle-mediated bio-sensing promoted the development of novel sensors in the front of medical diagnosis. In the present study, we have generated and examined the potential of titanium dioxide (TiO2) crystalline nanoparticles with aluminium interdigitated electrode biosensor to specifically detect single-stranded E.coli O157:H7 DNA. The performance of this novel DNA biosensor was measured the electrical current response using a picoammeter. The sensor surface was chemically functionalized with (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTES) to provide contact between the organic and inorganic surfaces of a single-stranded DNA probe and TiO2 nanoparticles while maintaining the sensing system’s physical characteristics. The complement of the target DNA of E. coli O157:H7 to the carboxylate-probe DNA could be translated into electrical signals and confirmed by the increased conductivity in the current-to-voltage curves. The specificity experiments indicate that the biosensor can discriminate between the complementary sequences from the base-mismatched and the non-complementary sequences. After duplex formation, the complementary target sequence can be quantified over a wide range with a detection limit of 1.0 x 10-13M. With target DNA from the lysed E. coli O157:H7, we could attain similar sensitivity. Stability of DNA immobilized surface was calculated with the relative standard deviation (4.6%), displayed the retaining with 99% of its original response current until 6 months. This high-performance interdigitated DNA biosensor with high sensitivity, stability and non-fouling on a novel sensing platform is suitable for a wide range of biomolecular interactive analyses. PMID:26445455

  9. The amplification effect of functionalized gold nanoparticles on the binding of anticancer drug dacarbazine to DNA and DNA bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Qin; Wang, Xuemei; Fu, Degang

    2008-11-01

    The promising application of functionalized gold nanoparticles to amplify the performance of biosensors and relevant biomolecular recognition processes has been explored in this paper. Our observations illustrate the apparent enhancement effect of the gold nanoparticles on the electrochemical response of the anticancer drug dacarbazine (DTIC) binding to DNA and DNA bases, indicating that these functionalized gold nanoparticles could readily facilitate the specific interactions between DTIC and DNA/DNA bases. This raises the potential valuable applications of these biocompatible nanoparticles in the promising biosensors and biomedical engineering.

  10. Development of a multilayered polymeric DNA biosensor using radio frequency technology with gold and magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cheng-Hao; Kuo, Long-Sheng; Chen, Ping-Hei; Yang, Chii-Rong; Tsai, Zuo-Min

    2012-01-15

    This study utilized the radio frequency (RF) technology to develop a multilayered polymeric DNA sensor with the help of gold and magnetic nanoparticles. The flexible polymeric materials, poly (p-xylylene) (Parylene) and polyethylene naphtholate (PEN), were used as substrates to replace the conventional rigid substrates such as glass and silicon wafers. The multilayered polymeric RF biosensor, including the two polymer layers and two copper transmission structure layers, was developed to reduce the total sensor size and further enhance the sensitivity of the biochip in the RF DNA detection. Thioglycolic acid (TGA) was used on the surface of the proposed biochip to form a thiolate-modified sensing surface for DNA hybridization. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were used to immobilize on the surface of the biosensor to enhance overall detection sensitivity. In addition to gold nanoparticles, the magnetic nanoparticles has been demonstrated the applicability for RF DNA detection. The performance of the proposed biosensor was evaluated by the shift of the center frequency of the RF biosensor because the electromagnetic characteristic of the biosensors can be altered by the immobilized multilayer nanoparticles on the biosensor. The experimental results show that the detection limit of the DNA concentration can reach as low as 10 pM, and the largest shift of the center frequency with triple-layer AuNPs and MNPs can approach 0.9 and 0.7 GHz, respectively. Such the achievement implies that the developed biosensor can offer an alternative inexpensive, disposable, and highly sensitive option for application in biomedicine diagnostic systems because the price and size of each biochip can be effectively reduced by using fully polymeric materials and multilayer-detecting structures. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Fabrication of an electrochemical DNA-based biosensor for Bacillus cereus detection in milk and infant formula.

    PubMed

    Izadi, Zahra; Sheikh-Zeinoddin, Mahmoud; Ensafi, Ali A; Soleimanian-Zad, Sabihe

    2016-06-15

    This paper describes fabrication of a DNA-based Au-nanoparticle modified pencil graphite electrode (PGE) biosensor for detection of Bacillus cereus, causative agent of two types of food-borne disease, i.e., emetic and diarrheal syndrome. The sensing element of the biosensor was comprised of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) self-assembled with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) of nheA gene immobilized with thiol linker on the GNPs modified PGE. The size, shape and dispersion of the GNPs were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). Detection of B. cereus was carried out based on an increase in the charge transfer resistance (Rct) of the biosensor due to hybridization of the ss-DNA with target DNA. An Atomic force microscope (AFM) was used to confirm the hybridization. The biosensor sensitivity in pure cultures of B. cereus was found to be 10(0) colony forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL) with a detection limit of 9.4 × 10(-12) mol L(-1). The biosensor could distinguish complementary from mismatch DNA sequence. The proposed biosensor exhibited a rapid detection, low cost, high sensitivity to bacterial contamination and could exclusively and specifically detect the target DNA sequence of B. cereus from other bacteria that can be found in dairy products. Moreover, the DNA biosensor exhibited high reproducibility and stability, thus it may be used as a suitable biosensor to detect B. cereus and to become a portable system for food quality control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Electrochemical DNA biosensor based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with gold nanoparticles and graphene for sensitive determination of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hong-zhi; Yu, Hong-wei; Wang, Na; Zhang, Ze; Wan, Guang-cai; Liu, Hao; Guan, Xue; Chang, Dong

    2015-11-20

    We describe the fabrication of a sensitive electrochemical DNA biosensor for determination of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC). The highly sensitive and selective electrochemical biosensor for DNA detection was constructed based on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) and graphene (Gr). Then Au-NPs/Gr/GCE was characterized by scanning electro microscope (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The hybridization detection was measured by diffierential pulse voltammetry (DPV) using methylene blue (MB) as the hybridization indicator. The dynamic range of detection of the sensor for the target DNA sequences was from 1 × 10(-12) to 1 × 10(-7)mol/L, with a detection limit of 2 × 10(-13)mol/L. The DNA biosensor had excellent specificity for distinguishing complementary DNA sequence in the presence of non-complementary and mismatched DNA sequence. The results demonstrated that the Au-NPs/Gr nanocomposite was a promising substrate for the development of high-performance electrocatalysts for determination of KPC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. DNA nanotechnology-enabled biosensors.

    PubMed

    Chao, Jie; Zhu, Dan; Zhang, Yinan; Wang, Lianhui; Fan, Chunhai

    2016-02-15

    Biosensors employ biological molecules to recognize the target and utilize output elements which can translate the biorecognition event into electrical, optical or mass-sensitive signals to determine the quantities of the target. DNA-based biosensors, as a sub-field to biosensor, utilize DNA strands with short oligonucleotides as probes for target recognition. Although DNA-based biosensors have offered a promising alternative for fast, simple and cheap detection of target molecules, there still exist key challenges including poor stability and reproducibility that hinder their competition with the current gold standard for DNA assays. By exploiting the self-recognition properties of DNA molecules, researchers have dedicated to make versatile DNA nanostructures in a highly rigid, controllable and functionalized manner, which offers unprecedented opportunities for developing DNA-based biosensors. In this review, we will briefly introduce the recent advances on design and fabrication of static and dynamic DNA nanostructures, and summarize their applications for fabrication and functionalization of DNA-based biosensors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. An evolution based biosensor receptor DNA sequence generation algorithm.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eungyeong; Lee, Malrey; Gatton, Thomas M; Lee, Jaewan; Zang, Yupeng

    2010-01-01

    A biosensor is composed of a bioreceptor, an associated recognition molecule, and a signal transducer that can selectively detect target substances for analysis. DNA based biosensors utilize receptor molecules that allow hybridization with the target analyte. However, most DNA biosensor research uses oligonucleotides as the target analytes and does not address the potential problems of real samples. The identification of recognition molecules suitable for real target analyte samples is an important step towards further development of DNA biosensors. This study examines the characteristics of DNA used as bioreceptors and proposes a hybrid evolution-based DNA sequence generating algorithm, based on DNA computing, to identify suitable DNA bioreceptor recognition molecules for stable hybridization with real target substances. The Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP) approach is applied in the proposed algorithm to evaluate the safety and fitness of the generated DNA sequences. This approach improves efficiency and stability for enhanced and variable-length DNA sequence generation and allows extension to generation of variable-length DNA sequences with diverse receptor recognition requirements.

  15. An ultrasensitive hollow-silica-based biosensor for pathogenic Escherichia coli DNA detection.

    PubMed

    Ariffin, Eda Yuhana; Lee, Yook Heng; Futra, Dedi; Tan, Ling Ling; Karim, Nurul Huda Abd; Ibrahim, Nik Nuraznida Nik; Ahmad, Asmat

    2018-03-01

    A novel electrochemical DNA biosensor for ultrasensitive and selective quantitation of Escherichia coli DNA based on aminated hollow silica spheres (HSiSs) has been successfully developed. The HSiSs were synthesized with facile sonication and heating techniques. The HSiSs have an inner and an outer surface for DNA immobilization sites after they have been functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane. From field emission scanning electron microscopy images, the presence of pores was confirmed in the functionalized HSiSs. Furthermore, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis indicated that the HSiSs have four times more surface area than silica spheres that have no pores. These aminated HSiSs were deposited onto a screen-printed carbon paste electrode containing a layer of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to form a AuNP/HSiS hybrid sensor membrane matrix. Aminated DNA probes were grafted onto the AuNP/HSiS-modified screen-printed electrode via imine covalent bonds with use of glutaraldehyde cross-linker. The DNA hybridization reaction was studied by differential pulse voltammetry using an anthraquinone redox intercalator as the electroactive DNA hybridization label. The DNA biosensor demonstrated a linear response over a wide target sequence concentration range of 1.0×10 -12 -1.0×10 -2 μM, with a low detection limit of 8.17×10 -14 μM (R 2 = 0.99). The improved performance of the DNA biosensor appeared to be due to the hollow structure and rough surface morphology of the hollow silica particles, which greatly increased the total binding surface area for high DNA loading capacity. The HSiSs also facilitated molecule diffusion through the silica hollow structure, and substantially improved the overall DNA hybridization assay. Graphical abstract Step-by-step DNA biosensor fabrication based on aminated hollow silica spheres.

  16. Gold nanoparticles modified electrode via simple electrografting of in situ generated mercaptophenyl diazonium cations for development of DNA electrochemical biosensor.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Feng, Yan; Dong, Pingjun; Yang, Limin; Tang, Bo

    2011-01-15

    A novel protocol for development of DNA electrochemical biosensor based on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was proposed, which was carried out by the self-assembly of AuNPs on the mercaptophenyl film (MPF) via simple electrografting of in situ generated mercaptophenyl diazonium cations. The resulting MPF was covalently immobilized on GCE surface via C-C bond with high stability, which was desirable in fabrication of excellent performance biosensors. Probe DNA was self-assembled on AuNPs through the well-known Au-thiol binding. The recognition of fabricated DNA electrochemical biosensor toward complementary single-stranded DNA was determined by differential pulse voltammetry with the use of Co(phen)(3)(3+) as the electrochemical indicator. Taking advantage of amplification effects of AuNPs and stability of MPF, the developed biosensor could detect target DNA with the detection limit of 7.2×10(-11) M, which also exhibits good selectivity, stability and regeneration ability for DNA detection. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Sex determination based on amelogenin DNA by modified electrode with gold nanoparticle.

    PubMed

    Mazloum-Ardakani, Mohammad; Rajabzadeh, Nooshin; Benvidi, Ali; Heidari, Mohammad Mehdi

    2013-12-15

    We have developed a simple and renewable electrochemical biosensor based on carbon paste electrode (CPE) for the detection of DNA synthesis and hybridization. CPE was modified with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), which are helpful for immobilization of thiolated bioreceptors. AuNPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of thiolated single-stranded DNA (SH-ssDNA) of the amelogenin gene was formed on CPE. The immobilization of the probe and its hybridization with the target DNA was optimized using different experimental conditions. The modified electrode was characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The electrochemical response of ssDNA hybridization and DNA synthesis was measured using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) with methylene blue (MB) as an electroactive indicator. The new biosensor can distinguish between complementary and non-complementary strands of amelogenin ssDNA. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood and was detected based on changes in the MB reduction signal. These results demonstrated that the new biosensor could be used for sex determination. The proposed biosensor in this study could be used for detection and discrimination of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products of amelogenin DNA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Utilization of nanoparticle labels for signal amplification in ultrasensitive electrochemical affinity biosensors: a review.

    PubMed

    Ding, Liang; Bond, Alan M; Zhai, Jianping; Zhang, Jie

    2013-10-03

    Nanoparticles with desirable properties not exhibited by the bulk material can be readily synthesized because of rapid technological developments in the fields of materials science and nanotechnology. In particular their highly attractive electrochemical properties and electrocatalytic activity have facilitated achievement of the high level of signal amplification needed for the development of ultrasensitive electrochemical affinity biosensors for the detection of proteins and DNA. This review article explains the basic principles of nanoparticle based electrochemical biosensors, highlights the recent advances in the development of nanoparticle based signal amplification strategies, and provides a critical assessment of the likely drawbacks associated with each strategy. Finally, future perspectives for achieving advanced signal simplification in nanoparticles based biosensors are considered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A novel DNA nanosensor based on CdSe/ZnS quantum dots and synthesized Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hushiarian, Roozbeh; Yusof, Nor Azah; Abdullah, Abdul Halim; Ahmad, Shahrul Ainliah Alang; Dutse, Sabo Wada

    2014-04-09

    Although nanoparticle-enhanced biosensors have been extensively researched, few studies have systematically characterized the roles of nanoparticles in enhancing biosensor functionality. This paper describes a successful new method in which DNA binds directly to iron oxide nanoparticles for use in an optical biosensor. A wide variety of nanoparticles with different properties have found broad application in biosensors because their small physical size presents unique chemical, physical, and electronic properties that are different from those of bulk materials. Of all nanoparticles, magnetic nanoparticles are proving to be a versatile tool, an excellent case in point being in DNA bioassays, where magnetic nanoparticles are often used for optimization of the hybridization and separation of target DNA. A critical step in the successful construction of a DNA biosensor is the efficient attachment of biomolecules to the surface of magnetic nanoparticles. To date, most methods of synthesizing these nanoparticles have led to the formation of hydrophobic particles that require additional surface modifications. As a result, the surface to volume ratio decreases and nonspecific bindings may occur so that the sensitivity and efficiency of the device deteriorates. A new method of large-scale synthesis of iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles which results in the magnetite particles being in aqueous phase, was employed in this study. Small modifications were applied to design an optical DNA nanosensor based on sandwich hybridization. Characterization of the synthesized particles was carried out using a variety of techniques and CdSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dots were used as the reporter markers in a spectrofluorophotometer. We showed conclusively that DNA binds to the surface of ironoxide nanoparticles without further surface modifications and that these magnetic nanoparticles can be efficiently utilized as biomolecule carriers in biosensing devices.

  20. Ultrasensitive Biosensor for the Detection of Vibrio cholerae DNA with Polystyrene-co-acrylic Acid Composite Nanospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Mahbubur; Heng, Lee Yook; Futra, Dedi; Ling, Tan Ling

    2017-08-01

    An ultrasensitive electrochemical biosensor for the determination of pathogenic Vibrio cholerae ( V. cholerae) DNA was developed based on polystyrene-co-acrylic acid (PSA) latex nanospheres-gold nanoparticles composite (PSA-AuNPs) DNA carrier matrix. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) using an electroactive anthraquninone oligonucleotide label was used for measuring the biosensor response. Loading of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on the DNA-latex particle electrode has significantly amplified the faradaic current of DNA hybridisation. Together with the use of a reported probe, the biosensor has demonstrated high sensitivity. The DNA biosensor yielded a reproducible and wide linear response range to target DNA from 1.0 × 10-21 to 1.0 × 10-8 M (relative standard deviation, RSD = 4.5%, n = 5) with a limit of detection (LOD) of 1.0 × 10-21 M ( R 2 = 0.99). The biosensor obtained satisfactory recovery values between 91 and 109% ( n = 3) for the detection of V. cholerae DNA in spiked samples and could be reused for six consecutive DNA assays with a repeatability RSD value of 5% ( n = 5). The electrochemical biosensor response was stable and maintainable at 95% of its original response up to 58 days of storage period.

  1. Development of swine-specific DNA markers for biosensor-based halal authentication.

    PubMed

    Ali, M E; Hashim, U; Kashif, M; Mustafa, S; Che Man, Y B; Abd Hamid, S B

    2012-06-29

    The pig (Sus scrofa) mitochondrial genome was targeted to design short (15-30 nucleotides) DNA markers that would be suitable for biosensor-based hybridization detection of target DNA. Short DNA markers are reported to survive harsh conditions in which longer ones are degraded into smaller fragments. The whole swine mitochondrial-genome was in silico digested with AluI restriction enzyme. Among 66 AluI fragments, five were selected as potential markers because of their convenient lengths, high degree of interspecies polymorphism and intraspecies conservatism. These were confirmed by NCBI blast analysis and ClustalW alignment analysis with 11 different meat-providing animal and fish species. Finally, we integrated a tetramethyl rhodamine-labeled 18-nucleotide AluI fragment into a 3-nm diameter citrate-tannate coated gold nanoparticle to develop a swine-specific hybrid nanobioprobe for the determination of pork adulteration in 2.5-h autoclaved pork-beef binary mixtures. This hybrid probe detected as low as 1% pork in deliberately contaminated autoclaved pork-beef binary mixtures and no cross-species detection was recorded, demonstrating the feasibility of this type of probe for biosensor-based detection of pork adulteration of halal and kosher foods.

  2. Specific and Sensitive Isothermal Electrochemical Biosensor for Plant Pathogen DNA Detection with Colloidal Gold Nanoparticles as Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Han Yih; Wu, Haoqi; Wee, Eugene J. H.; Trau, Matt; Wang, Yuling; Botella, Jose R.

    2017-01-01

    Developing quick and sensitive molecular diagnostics for plant pathogen detection is challenging. Herein, a nanoparticle based electrochemical biosensor was developed for rapid and sensitive detection of plant pathogen DNA on disposable screen-printed carbon electrodes. This 60 min assay relied on the rapid isothermal amplification of target pathogen DNA sequences by recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) followed by gold nanoparticle-based electrochemical assessment with differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Our method was 10,000 times more sensitive than conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/gel electrophoresis and could readily identify P. syringae infected plant samples even before the disease symptoms were visible. On the basis of the speed, sensitivity, simplicity and portability of the approach, we believe the method has potential as a rapid disease management solution for applications in agriculture diagnostics.

  3. Specific and Sensitive Isothermal Electrochemical Biosensor for Plant Pathogen DNA Detection with Colloidal Gold Nanoparticles as Probes.

    PubMed

    Lau, Han Yih; Wu, Haoqi; Wee, Eugene J H; Trau, Matt; Wang, Yuling; Botella, Jose R

    2017-01-17

    Developing quick and sensitive molecular diagnostics for plant pathogen detection is challenging. Herein, a nanoparticle based electrochemical biosensor was developed for rapid and sensitive detection of plant pathogen DNA on disposable screen-printed carbon electrodes. This 60 min assay relied on the rapid isothermal amplification of target pathogen DNA sequences by recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) followed by gold nanoparticle-based electrochemical assessment with differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Our method was 10,000 times more sensitive than conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/gel electrophoresis and could readily identify P. syringae infected plant samples even before the disease symptoms were visible. On the basis of the speed, sensitivity, simplicity and portability of the approach, we believe the method has potential as a rapid disease management solution for applications in agriculture diagnostics.

  4. Development of DNA biosensor based on TiO2 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadzirah, Sh.; Hashim, U.; Rusop, M.

    2018-05-01

    A novel technique of DNA hybridization on the TiO2 nanoparticles film was developed by dropping a single droplet of target DNA onto the surface of TiO2 for the study of various concentrations of target DNA. The surface of TiO2 nanoparticle film was functionalized with APTES and covalently immobilized with 1 µM probe DNA on the silanized TiO2 nanoparticles surface. The effect of silanization, immobilization and hybridization were quantitatively measured by the output current signal obtained using a picoammeter. The 1 µM target DNA was found to be the most effective target towards the 1 µM probe DNA as the output current signal was within range; while the output current signal of the 10 µM target DNA was observed to beyond the range of the probe DNA control due to the excessive concentration as compared to the probe DNA. This approach has several advantages such as rapid, simple, low cost, and sensitive current signal during detection of different target DNA concentrations.

  5. DNA-templated synthesis of PtAu bimetallic nanoparticle/graphene nanocomposites and their application in glucose biosensor

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, single-stranded DNA (ss-DNA) is demonstrated to functionalize graphene (GR) and to further guide the growth of PtAu bimetallic nanoparticles (PtAuNPs) on GR with high densities and dispersion. The obtained nanocomposites (PtAuNPs/ss-DNA/GR) were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), and electrochemical techniques. Then, an enzyme nanoassembly was prepared by self-assembling glucose oxidase (GOD) on PtAuNP/ss-DNA/GR nanocomposites (GOD/PtAuNPs/ss-DNA/GR). The nanocomposites provided a suitable microenvironment for GOD to retain its biological activity. The direct and reversible electron transfer process between the active site of GOD and the modified electrode was realized without any extra electron mediator. Thus, the prepared GOD/PtAuNP/ss-DNA/GR electrode was proposed as a biosensor for the quantification of glucose. The effects of pH, applied potential, and temperature on the performance of the biosensor were discussed in detail and were optimized. Under optimal conditions, the biosensor showed a linearity with glucose concentration in the range of 1.0 to 1,800 μM with a detection limit of 0.3 μM (S/N = 3). The results demonstrate that the developed approach provides a promising strategy to improve the sensitivity and enzyme activity of electrochemical biosensors. PMID:24572068

  6. Electrochemical DNA biosensor based on grafting-to mode of terminal deoxynucleoside transferase-mediated extension.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinyuan; Liu, Zhoujie; Peng, Huaping; Zheng, Yanjie; Lin, Zhen; Liu, Ailin; Chen, Wei; Lin, Xinhua

    2017-12-15

    Previously reported electrochemical DNA biosensors based on in-situ polymerization approach reveal that terminal deoxynucleoside transferase (TdTase) has good amplifying performance and promising application in the design of electrochemical DNA biosensor. However, this method, in which the background is significantly affected by the amount of TdTase, suffers from being easy to produce false positive result and poor stability. Herein, we firstly present a novel electrochemical DNA biosensor based on grafting-to mode of TdTase-mediated extension, in which DNA targets are polymerized in homogeneous solution and then hybridized with DNA probes on BSA-based DNA carrier platform. It is surprising to find that the background in the grafting-to mode of TdTase-based electrochemical DNA biosensor have little interference from the employed TdTase. Most importantly, the proposed electrochemical DNA biosensor shows greatly improved detection performance over the in-situ polymerization approach-based electrochemical DNA biosensor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. DNA impedance biosensor for detection of cancer, TP53 gene mutation, based on gold nanoparticles/aligned carbon nanotubes modified electrode.

    PubMed

    Fayazfar, H; Afshar, A; Dolati, M; Dolati, A

    2014-07-11

    For the first time, a new platform based on electrochemical growth of Au nanoparticles on aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (A-MWCNT) was developed for sensitive lable-free DNA detection of the TP53 gene mutation, one of the most popular genes in cancer research. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to monitor the sequence-specific DNA hybridization events related to TP53 gene. Compared to the bare Ta or MWCNT/Ta electrodes, the synergistic interactions of vertically aligned MWCNT array and gold nanoparticles at modified electrode could improve the density of the probe DNA attachment and resulting the sensitivity of the DNA sensor greatly. Using EIS, over the extended DNA concentration range, the change of charge transfer resistance was found to have a linear relationship in respect to the logarithm of the complementary oligonucleotides sequence concentrations in the wide range of 1.0×10(-15)-1.0×10(-7)M, with a detection limit of 1.0×10(-17)M (S/N=3). The prepared sensor also showed good stability (14 days), reproducibility (RSD=2.1%) and could be conveniently regenerated via dehybridization in hot water. The significant improvement in sensitivity illustrates that combining gold nanoparticles with the on-site fabricated aligned MWCNT array represents a promising platform for achieving sensitive biosensor for fast mutation screening related to most human cancer types. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Ultrasensitive signal-on DNA biosensor based on nicking endonuclease assisted electrochemistry signal amplification.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhongyuan; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Shuyun; Zhang, Ling; Hu, Lianzhe; Parveen, Saima; Xu, Guobao

    2011-11-15

    Combining the advantages of signal-on strategy and nicking endonuclease assisted electrochemistry signal amplification (NEAESA), a new sensitive and signal-on electrochemical DNA biosensor for the sequence specific DNA detection based on NEAESA has been developed for the first time. A Hairpin-shape probe (HP), containing the target DNA recognition sequence, is thiol-modified at 5' end and immobilized on gold electrode via Au-S bonding. Subsequently, the HP modified electrode is hybridized with target DNA to form a duplex. Then the nicking endonuclease is added and nicks the HP strand in the duplex. After nicking, 3'-ferrocene (Fc)-labeled part complementary probe (Fc-PCP) is introduced on the electrode surface by hybridizing with the thiol-modified HP fragment, which results in the generation of electrochemical signal. Hence, the DNA biosensor is constructed successfully. The present DNA biosensor shows a wide linear range of 5.0×10(-13)-5.0×10(-8)M for detecting target DNA, with a low detection limit of 0.167pM. The proposed strategy does not require any amplifying labels (enzymes, DNAzymes, nanoparticles, etc.) for biorecognition events, which avoids false-positive results to occur frequently. Moreover, the strategy has the benefits of simple preparation, convenient operation, good selectivity, and high sensitivity. With the advantages mentioned above, this simple and sensitive strategy has the potential to be integrated in portable, low cost and simplified devices for diagnostic applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Recent Developments in Enzyme, DNA and Immuno-Based Biosensors.

    PubMed

    Asal, Melis; Özen, Özlem; Şahinler, Mert; Polatoğlu, İlker

    2018-06-13

    Novel sensitive, rapid and economical biosensors are being developed in a wide range of medical environmental and food applications. In this paper, we review some of the main advances in the field over the past few years by discussing recent studies from literature. A biosensor, which is defined as an analytical device consisting of a biomolecule, a transducer and an output system, can be categorized according to the type of the incorporated biomolecule. The biomolecules can be enzymes, antibodies, ssDNA, organelles, cells etc. The main biosensor categories classified according to the biomolecules are enzymatic biosensors, immunosensors and DNA-based biosensors. These sensors can measure analytes produced or reduced during reactions at lower costs compared to the conventional detection techniques. Numerous types of biosensor studies conducted over the last decade have been explored here to reveal their key applications in medical, environmental and food industries which provide comprehensive perspective to the readers. Overviews of the working principles and applications of the reviewed sensors are also summarized.

  10. UV-Visible Spectroscopy-Based Quantification of Unlabeled DNA Bound to Gold Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Baldock, Brandi L; Hutchison, James E

    2016-12-20

    DNA-functionalized gold nanoparticles have been increasingly applied as sensitive and selective analytical probes and biosensors. The DNA ligands bound to a nanoparticle dictate its reactivity, making it essential to know the type and number of DNA strands bound to the nanoparticle surface. Existing methods used to determine the number of DNA strands per gold nanoparticle (AuNP) require that the sequences be fluorophore-labeled, which may affect the DNA surface coverage and reactivity of the nanoparticle and/or require specialized equipment and other fluorophore-containing reagents. We report a UV-visible-based method to conveniently and inexpensively determine the number of DNA strands attached to AuNPs of different core sizes. When this method is used in tandem with a fluorescence dye assay, it is possible to determine the ratio of two unlabeled sequences of different lengths bound to AuNPs. Two sizes of citrate-stabilized AuNPs (5 and 12 nm) were functionalized with mixtures of short (5 base) and long (32 base) disulfide-terminated DNA sequences, and the ratios of sequences bound to the AuNPs were determined using the new method. The long DNA sequence was present as a lower proportion of the ligand shell than in the ligand exchange mixture, suggesting it had a lower propensity to bind the AuNPs than the short DNA sequence. The ratio of DNA sequences bound to the AuNPs was not the same for the large and small AuNPs, which suggests that the radius of curvature had a significant influence on the assembly of DNA strands onto the AuNPs.

  11. Highly Sensitive DNA Sensor Based on Upconversion Nanoparticles and Graphene Oxide.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Cristobal, P; Vilela, P; El-Sagheer, A; Lopez-Cabarcos, E; Brown, T; Muskens, O L; Rubio-Retama, J; Kanaras, A G

    2015-06-17

    In this work we demonstrate a DNA biosensor based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between NaYF4:Yb,Er nanoparticles and graphene oxide (GO). Monodisperse NaYF4:Yb,Er nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 29.1 ± 2.2 nm were synthesized and coated with a SiO2 shell of 11 nm, which allowed the attachment of single strands of DNA. When these DNA-functionalized NaYF4:Yb,Er@SiO2 nanoparticles were in the proximity of the GO surface, the π-π stacking interaction between the nucleobases of the DNA and the sp(2) carbons of the GO induced a FRET fluorescence quenching due to the overlap of the fluorescence emission of the NaYF4:Yb,Er@SiO2 and the absorption spectrum of GO. By contrast, in the presence of the complementary DNA strands, the hybridization leads to double-stranded DNA that does not interact with the GO surface, and thus the NaYF4:Yb,Er@SiO2 nanoparticles remain unquenched and fluorescent. The high sensitivity and specificity of this sensor introduces a new method for the detection of DNA with a detection limit of 5 pM.

  12. A Graphene-Based Biosensing Platform Based on Regulated Release of an Aptameric DNA Biosensor

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Yu; Chen, Yongli; Li, Song; Lin, Shuo; Jiang, Yuyang

    2015-01-01

    A novel biosensing platform was developed by integrating an aptamer-based DNA biosensor with graphene oxide (GO) for rapid and facile detection of adenosine triphosphate (ATP, as a model target). The DNA biosensor, which is locked by GO, is designed to contain two sensing modules that include recognition site for ATP and self-replication track that yields the nicking domain for Nt.BbvCI. By taking advantage of the different binding affinity of single-stranded DNA, double-stranded DNA and aptamer-target complex toward GO, the DNA biosensor could be efficiently released from GO in the presence of target with the help of a complementary DNA strand (CPDNA) that partially hybridizes to the DNA biosensor. Then, the polymerization/nicking enzyme synergetic isothermal amplification could be triggered, leading to the synthesis of massive DNA amplicons, thus achieving an enhanced sensitivity with a wide linear dynamic response range of four orders of magnitude and good selectivity. This biosensing strategy expands the applications of GO-DNA nanobiointerfaces in biological sensing, showing great potential in fundamental research and biomedical diagnosis. PMID:26569239

  13. A Graphene-Based Biosensing Platform Based on Regulated Release of an Aptameric DNA Biosensor.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yu; Chen, Yongli; Li, Song; Lin, Shuo; Jiang, Yuyang

    2015-11-09

    A novel biosensing platform was developed by integrating an aptamer-based DNA biosensor with graphene oxide (GO) for rapid and facile detection of adenosine triphosphate (ATP, as a model target). The DNA biosensor, which is locked by GO, is designed to contain two sensing modules that include recognition site for ATP and self-replication track that yields the nicking domain for Nt.BbvCI. By taking advantage of the different binding affinity of single-stranded DNA, double-stranded DNA and aptamer-target complex toward GO, the DNA biosensor could be efficiently released from GO in the presence of target with the help of a complementary DNA strand (CPDNA) that partially hybridizes to the DNA biosensor. Then, the polymerization/nicking enzyme synergetic isothermal amplification could be triggered, leading to the synthesis of massive DNA amplicons, thus achieving an enhanced sensitivity with a wide linear dynamic response range of four orders of magnitude and good selectivity. This biosensing strategy expands the applications of GO-DNA nanobiointerfaces in biological sensing, showing great potential in fundamental research and biomedical diagnosis.

  14. Enhanced response of a proteinase K-based conductometric biosensor using nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Nouira, Wided; Maaref, Abderrazak; Elaissari, Hamid; Vocanson, Francis; Siadat, Maryam; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole

    2014-07-23

    Proteinases are involved in a multitude of important physiological processes, such as protein metabolism. For this reason, a conductometric enzyme biosensor based on proteinase K was developed using two types of nanoparticles (gold and magnetic). The enzyme was directly adsorbed on negatively charged nanoparticles and then deposited and cross-linked on a planar interdigitated electrode (IDE). The biosensor was characterized with bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a standard protein. Higher sensitivity was obtained using gold nanoparticles. The linear range for BSA determination was then from 0.5 to 10 mg/L with a maximum response of 154 µs. These results are greater than that found without any nanoparticles (maximum response of 10 µs). The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.3 mg/L. An inter-sensor reproducibility of 3.5% was obtained.

  15. A biosensor for cholesterol based on gold nanoparticles-catalyzed luminol electrogenerated chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meihe; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Yaqin; Chen, Shihong; Zhong, Huaan; Wang, Cun; Cheng, Yinfeng

    2012-02-15

    A novel cholesterol biosensor was prepared based on gold nanoparticles-catalyzed luminol electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL). Firstly, l-cysteine-reduced graphene oxide composites were modified on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode. Then, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were self-assembled on it. Subsequently, cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) was adsorbed on the surface of AuNPs to construct a cholesterol biosensor. The stepwise fabrication processes were characterized with cyclic voltammetry and atomic force microscopy. The ECL behaviors of the biosensor were also investigated. It was found that AuNPs not only provided larger surface area for higher ChOx loading but also formed the nano-structured interface on the electrode surface to improve the analytical performance of the ECL biosensor for cholesterol. Besides, based on the efficient catalytic ability of AuNPs to luminol ECL, the response of the biosensor to cholesterol was linear range from 3.3 μM to 1.0 mM with a detection limit of 1.1 μM (S/N=3). In addition, the prepared ECL biosensor exhibited satisfying reproducibility, stability and selectivity. Taking into account the advantages of ECL, we confidently expect that ECL would have potential applications in biotechnology and clinical diagnosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Interactions of DNA coated upconversion nanoparticles with 2D materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giust, Davide; Lucío, María. Isabel; Muskens, Otto L.; Kanaras, Antonios G.

    2018-02-01

    In this work we investigated the nature of quenching between different types of 2D materials (WS2, MoS2 and graphene oxide) and oligonucleotide coated-upconversion nanoparticles. This study contributes towards the efficient design of biosensors based on 2D materials and DNA-coated upconversion nanoparticles.

  17. A chemiluminescence biosensor based on the adsorption recognition function between Fe3O4@SiO2@GO polymers and DNA for ultrasensitive detection of DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yuanling; Li, Jianbo; Wang, Yanhui; Ding, Chaofan; Lin, Yanna; Sun, Weiyan; Luo, Chuannan

    2017-05-01

    In this work, a chemiluminescence (CL) biosensor was prepared for ultrasensitive determination of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) based on the adsorption recognition function between core-shell Fe3O4@SiO2 - graphene oxide (Fe3O4@SiO2@GO) polymers and DNA. The Fe3O4@SiO2@GO polymers were composed by GO and magnetite nanoparticles. And the core-shell polymers were confirmed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), X-Ray Powder Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR). Then Fe3O4@SiO2@GO was modified by DNA. Based on the principle of complementary base, Fe3O4@SiO2@GO-DNA was introduced to the CL system and the selectivity, sensitivity of DNA detection was significantly improved. The adsorption properties of Fe3O4@SiO2@GO to DNA were researched through the adsorption equilibrium, adsorption kinetic and thermodynamics. Under optimized CL conditions, DNA could be assayed with the linear concentration range of 5.0 × 10- 12-2.5 × 10- 11 mol/L. The detection limit was 1.7 × 10- 12 mol/L (3δ) and the relative standard deviation (RSD) was 3.1%. The biosensor was finally used for the determination of DNA in laboratory samples and recoveries ranged from 99% to 103%. The satisfactory results revealed the potential application of Fe3O4@SiO2@GO-DNA-CL biosensor in the diagnosis and the treatment of human genetic diseases.

  18. A chemiluminescence biosensor based on the adsorption recognition function between Fe3O4@SiO2@GO polymers and DNA for ultrasensitive detection of DNA.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuanling; Li, Jianbo; Wang, Yanhui; Ding, Chaofan; Lin, Yanna; Sun, Weiyan; Luo, Chuannan

    2017-05-05

    In this work, a chemiluminescence (CL) biosensor was prepared for ultrasensitive determination of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) based on the adsorption recognition function between core-shell Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 - graphene oxide (Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 @GO) polymers and DNA. The Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 @GO polymers were composed by GO and magnetite nanoparticles. And the core-shell polymers were confirmed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), X-Ray Powder Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR). Then Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 @GO was modified by DNA. Based on the principle of complementary base, Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 @GO-DNA was introduced to the CL system and the selectivity, sensitivity of DNA detection was significantly improved. The adsorption properties of Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 @GO to DNA were researched through the adsorption equilibrium, adsorption kinetic and thermodynamics. Under optimized CL conditions, DNA could be assayed with the linear concentration range of 5.0×10 -12 -2.5×10 -11 mol/L. The detection limit was 1.7×10 -12 mol/L (3δ) and the relative standard deviation (RSD) was 3.1%. The biosensor was finally used for the determination of DNA in laboratory samples and recoveries ranged from 99% to 103%. The satisfactory results revealed the potential application of Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 @GO-DNA-CL biosensor in the diagnosis and the treatment of human genetic diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Detection of triglyceride using an iridium nano-particle catalyst based amperometric biosensor.

    PubMed

    Liao, Wei-Yin; Liu, Chung-Chiun; Chou, Tse-Chuan

    2008-12-01

    The detection and quantification of triglyceride (TG) using an iridium nano-particle modified carbon based biosensor was successfully carried out in this study. The detection procedures were based on the electrochemical detection of enzymatically produced NADH. TG was hydrolyzed by lipase and the glycerol produced was catalytically oxidized by NAD-dependent glycerol dehydrogenase producing NADH in a solution containing NAD(+). Glyceryl tributyrate, a short chain triglyceride, was chosen as the substrate for the evaluation of this TG biosensor in bovine serum and human serum. A linear response to glyceryl tributyrate in the concentration range of 0 to 10 mM and a sensitivity of 7.5 nA mM(-1) in bovine serum and 7.0 nA mM(-1) in human serum were observed experimentally. The potential interference of species such as uric acid (UA) and ascorbic acid (AA) was assessed. The incorporation of a selected surfactant and an increase in the incubation temperature appeared to enhance the performance of this biosensor. The conditions for the determination of TG levels in bovine serum using this biosensor were optimized, with sunflower seed oil being used as an analyte to simulate the detection of TG in blood. The experimental results demonstrated that this iridium nano-particle modified working electrode based biosensor provided a relatively simple means for the accurate determination of TG in serum.

  20. Fluorescent Biosensor for Phosphate Determination Based on Immobilized Polyfluorene-Liposomal Nanoparticles Coupled with Alkaline Phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Kahveci, Zehra; Martínez-Tomé, Maria José; Mallavia, Ricardo; Mateo, C Reyes

    2017-01-11

    This work describes the development of a novel fluorescent biosensor based on the inhibition of alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The biosensor is composed of the enzyme ALP and the conjugated cationic polyfluorene HTMA-PFP. The working principle of the biosensor is based on the fluorescence quenching of this polyelectrolyte by p-nitrophenol (PNP), a product of the hydrolysis reaction of p-nitrophenyl phosphate (PNPP) catalyzed by ALP. Because HTMA-PFP forms unstable aggregates in buffer, with low fluorescence efficiency, previous stabilization of the polyelectrolyte was required before the development of the biosensor. HTMA-PFP was stabilized through its interaction with lipid vesicles to obtain stable blue-emitting nanoparticles (NPs). Fluorescent NPs were characterized, and the ability to be quenched by PNP was evaluated. These nanoparticles were coupled to ALP and entrapped in a sol-gel matrix to produce a biosensor that can serve as a screening platform to identify ALP inhibitors. The components of the biosensor were examined before and after sol-gel entrapment, and the biosensor was optimized to allow the determination of phosphate ion in aqueous medium.

  1. Specific detection of Mycobacterium sp. genomic DNA using dual labeled gold nanoparticle based electrochemical biosensor.

    PubMed

    Thiruppathiraja, Chinnasamy; Kamatchiammal, Senthilkumar; Adaikkappan, Periyakaruppan; Santhosh, Devakirubakaran Jayakar; Alagar, Muthukaruppan

    2011-10-01

    The present study was aimed at the development and evaluation of a DNA electrochemical biosensor for Mycobacterium sp. genomic DNA detection in a clinical specimen using a signal amplifier as dual-labeled AuNPs. The DNA electrochemical biosensors were fabricated using a sandwich detection strategy involving two kinds of DNA probes specific to Mycobacterium sp. genomic DNA. The probes of enzyme ALP and the detector probe both conjugated on the AuNPs and subsequently hybridized with target DNA immobilized in a SAM/ITO electrode followed by characterization with CV, EIS, and DPV analysis using the electroactive species para-nitrophenol generated by ALP through hydrolysis of para-nitrophenol phosphate. The effect of enhanced sensitivity was obtained due to the AuNPs carrying numerous ALPs per hybridization and a detection limit of 1.25 ng/ml genomic DNA was determined under optimized conditions. The dual-labeled AuNP-facilitated electrochemical sensor was also evaluated by clinical sputum samples, showing a higher sensitivity and specificity and the outcome was in agreement with the PCR analysis. In conclusion, the developed electrochemical sensor demonstrated unique sensitivity and specificity for both genomic DNA and sputum samples and can be employed as a regular diagnostics tool for Mycobacterium sp. monitoring in clinical samples. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Electrochemical glucose biosensor based on nickel oxide nanoparticle-modified carbon paste electrode.

    PubMed

    Erdem, Ceren; Zeybek, Derya Koyuncu; Aydoğdu, Gözde; Zeybek, Bülent; Pekyardımcı, Sule; Kılıç, Esma

    2014-08-01

    In the present work, we designed an amperometric glucose biosensor based on nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiONPs)-modified carbon paste electrode. The biosensor was prepared by incorporation of glucose oxidase and NiONPs into a carbon paste matrix. It showed good analytical performances such as high sensitivity (367 μA mmolL(-1)) and a wide linear response from 1.9×10(-3) mmolL(-1) to 15.0 mmolL(-1) with a limit of detection (0.11 μmolL(-1)). The biosensor was used for the determination of glucose in human serum samples. The results illustrate that NiONPs have enormous potential in the construction of biosensor for determination of glucose.

  3. A novel self-powered and sensitive label-free DNA biosensor in microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Asghary, Maryam; Raoof, Jahan Bakhsh; Rahimnejad, Mostafa; Ojani, Reza

    2016-08-15

    In this work, a novel self-powered, sensitive, low-cost, and label-free DNA biosensor is reported by applying a two-chambered microbial fuel cell (MFC) as a power supply. A graphite electrode and an Au nanoparticles modified graphite electrode (AuNP/graphite electrode) were used as anode and cathode in the MFC system, respectively. The active biocatalyst in the anodic chamber was a mixed culture of microorganisms. The sensing element of the biosensor was fabricated by the well-known Au-thiol binding the ssDNA probe on the surface of an AuNP/graphite cathode. Electrons produced by microorganisms were transported from the anode to the cathode through an external circuit, which could be detected by the terminal multi-meter detector. The difference between power densities of the ssDNA probe modified cathode in the absence and presence of complementary sequence served as the detection signal of the DNA hybridization with detection limit of 3.1nM. Thereafter, this biosensor was employed for diagnosis and determination of complementary sequence in a human serum sample. The hybridization specificity studies further revealed that the developed DNA biosensor could distinguish fully complementary sequences from one-base mismatched and non-complementary sequences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Nanoparticle-based biosensor for the detection of emerging pandemic influenza strains.

    PubMed

    Kamikawa, Tracy L; Mikolajczyk, Malgorzata G; Kennedy, Michael; Zhang, Pei; Wang, Wei; Scott, Dorothy E; Alocilja, Evangelyn C

    2010-12-15

    Electrically active magnetic (EAM) nanoparticles, consisting of aniline monomer polymerized around gamma iron(III) oxide (γ-Fe(2)O(3)) cores, serve as the basis of a direct-charge transfer biosensor developed for detection of surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA) from the Influenza A virus (FLUAV) H5N1 (A/Vietnam/1203/04). H5N1 preferentially binds α2,3-linked host glycan receptors. EAM nanoparticles were immunofunctionalized with antibodies against target HA. Glycans preincubated with HA in 10% mouse serum were incubated with anti-HA-EAM complexes. The anti-HA-EAM complexes effectively acted as immunomagnetic separator of HA from mouse serum matrix. EAM nanoparticles served as the biosensor transducer for cyclic voltammetry measurements. The polyaniline was made electrically active by hydrochloric acid doping. Experimental results indicate that the biosensor is able to detect recombinant H5 HA at 1.4 μM in 10% mouse serum, with high specificity for H5 as compared to H1 (H1N1 A/South Carolina/1/18). This novel design applies EAM nanoparticles in a sensitive, specific, affordable, and easy-to-use biosensor with applications in disease monitoring and biosecurity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Efficient Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer between Quantum Dots and Gold Nanoparticles Based on Porous Silicon Photonic Crystal for DNA Detection

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongyan; Lv, Jie; Jia, Zhenhong

    2017-01-01

    A novel assembled biosensor was prepared for detecting 16S rRNA, a small-size persistent specific for Actinobacteria. The mechanism of the porous silicon (PS) photonic crystal biosensor is based on the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between quantum dots (QDs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) through DNA hybridization, where QDs act as an emission donor and AuNPs serve as a fluorescence quencher. Results showed that the photoluminescence (PL) intensity of PS photonic crystal was drastically increased when the QDs-conjugated probe DNA was adhered to the PS layer by surface modification using a standard cross-link chemistry method. The PL intensity of QDs was decreased when the addition of AuNPs-conjugated complementary 16S rRNA was dropped onto QDs-conjugated PS. Based on the analysis of different target DNA concentration, it was found that the decrease of the PL intensity showed a good linear relationship with complementary DNA concentration in a range from 0.25 to 10 μM, and the detection limit was 328.7 nM. Such an optical FRET biosensor functions on PS-based photonic crystal for DNA detection that differs from the traditional FRET, which is used only in liquid. This method will benefit the development of a new optical FRET label-free biosensor on Si substrate and has great potential in biochips based on integrated optical devices. PMID:28489033

  6. Efficient Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer between Quantum Dots and Gold Nanoparticles Based on Porous Silicon Photonic Crystal for DNA Detection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongyan; Lv, Jie; Jia, Zhenhong

    2017-05-10

    A novel assembled biosensor was prepared for detecting 16S rRNA, a small-size persistent specific for Actinobacteria. The mechanism of the porous silicon (PS) photonic crystal biosensor is based on the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between quantum dots (QDs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) through DNA hybridization, where QDs act as an emission donor and AuNPs serve as a fluorescence quencher. Results showed that the photoluminescence (PL) intensity of PS photonic crystal was drastically increased when the QDs-conjugated probe DNA was adhered to the PS layer by surface modification using a standard cross-link chemistry method. The PL intensity of QDs was decreased when the addition of AuNPs-conjugated complementary 16S rRNA was dropped onto QDs-conjugated PS. Based on the analysis of different target DNA concentration, it was found that the decrease of the PL intensity showed a good linear relationship with complementary DNA concentration in a range from 0.25 to 10 μM, and the detection limit was 328.7 nM. Such an optical FRET biosensor functions on PS-based photonic crystal for DNA detection that differs from the traditional FRET, which is used only in liquid. This method will benefit the development of a new optical FRET label-free biosensor on Si substrate and has great potential in biochips based on integrated optical devices.

  7. A Sensitive DNA Capacitive Biosensor Using Interdigitated Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Veselinovic, Milena; Yang, Lang; Geiss, Brian J.; Dandy, David S.; Chen, Tom

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a label-free affinity-based capacitive biosensor using interdigitated electrodes. Using an optimized process of DNA probe preparation to minimize the effect of contaminants in commercial thiolated DNA probe, the electrode surface was functionalized with the 24-nucleotide DNA probes based on the West Nile virus sequence (Kunjin strain). The biosensor has the ability to detect complementary DNA fragments with a detection limit down to 20 DNA target molecules (1.5 aM range), making it suitable for a practical point-of-care (POC) platform for low target count clinical applications without the need for amplification. The reproducibility of the biosensor detection was improved with efficient covalent immobilization of purified single-stranded DNA probe oligomers on cleaned gold microelectrodes. In addition to the low detection limit, the biosensor showed a dynamic range of detection from 1 μL−1 to 105 μL−1 target molecules (20 to 2 million targets), making it suitable for sample analysis in a typical clinical application environment. The binding results presented in this paper were validated using fluorescent oligomers. PMID:27619528

  8. Recent development of nano-materials used in DNA biosensors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kai; Huang, Junran; Ye, Zunzhong; Ying, Yibin; Li, Yanbin

    2009-01-01

    As knowledge of the structure and function of nucleic acid molecules has increased, sequence-specific DNA detection has gained increased importance. DNA biosensors based on nucleic acid hybridization have been actively developed because of their specificity, speed, portability, and low cost. Recently, there has been considerable interest in using nano-materials for DNA biosensors. Because of their high surface-to-volume ratios and excellent biological compatibilities, nano-materials could be used to increase the amount of DNA immobilization; moreover, DNA bound to nano-materials can maintain its biological activity. Alternatively, signal amplification by labeling a targeted analyte with nano-materials has also been reported for DNA biosensors in many papers. This review summarizes the applications of various nano-materials for DNA biosensors during past five years. We found that nano-materials of small sizes were advantageous as substrates for DNA attachment or as labels for signal amplification; and use of two or more types of nano-materials in the biosensors could improve their overall quality and to overcome the deficiencies of the individual nano-components. Most current DNA biosensors require the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in their protocols. However, further development of nano-materials with smaller size and/or with improved biological and chemical properties would substantially enhance the accuracy, selectivity and sensitivity of DNA biosensors. Thus, DNA biosensors without PCR amplification may become a reality in the foreseeable future.

  9. Recent Development of Nano-Materials Used in DNA Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kai; Huang, Junran; Ye, Zunzhong; Ying, Yibin; Li, Yanbin

    2009-01-01

    As knowledge of the structure and function of nucleic acid molecules has increased, sequence-specific DNA detection has gained increased importance. DNA biosensors based on nucleic acid hybridization have been actively developed because of their specificity, speed, portability, and low cost. Recently, there has been considerable interest in using nano-materials for DNA biosensors. Because of their high surface-to-volume ratios and excellent biological compatibilities, nano-materials could be used to increase the amount of DNA immobilization; moreover, DNA bound to nano-materials can maintain its biological activity. Alternatively, signal amplification by labeling a targeted analyte with nano-materials has also been reported for DNA biosensors in many papers. This review summarizes the applications of various nano-materials for DNA biosensors during past five years. We found that nano-materials of small sizes were advantageous as substrates for DNA attachment or as labels for signal amplification; and use of two or more types of nano-materials in the biosensors could improve their overall quality and to overcome the deficiencies of the individual nano-components. Most current DNA biosensors require the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in their protocols. However, further development of nano-materials with smaller size and/or with improved biological and chemical properties would substantially enhance the accuracy, selectivity and sensitivity of DNA biosensors. Thus, DNA biosensors without PCR amplification may become a reality in the foreseeable future. PMID:22346713

  10. Construction of DNA sandwich electrochemical biosensor with nanoPbS and nanoAu tags on magnetic microbeads.

    PubMed

    Du, Ping; Li, Hongxia; Cao, Wei

    2009-07-15

    A novel and sensitive sandwich electrochemical biosensor based on the amplification of magnetic microbeads and Au nanoparticles (NPs) modified with bio bar code and PbS nanoparticles was constructed in the present work. In this method, the magnetic microspheres were coated with 4 layers polyelectrolytes in order to increase carboxyl groups on the surface of the magnetic microbeads, which enhanced the amount of the capture DNA. The amino-functionalized capture DNA on the surface of magnetic microbeads hybridized with one end of target DNA, the other end of which was hybridized with signal DNA probe labelled with Au NPs on the terminus. The Au NPs were modified with bio bar code and the PbS NPs were used as a marker for identifying the target oligoncleotide. The modification of magnetic microbeads could immobilize more amino-group terminal capture DNA, and the bio bar code could increase the amount of Au NPs that combined with the target DNA. The detection of lead ions performed by anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) technology further improved the sensitivity of the biosensor. As a result, the present DNA biosensor showed good selectivity and sensitivity by the combined amplification. Under the optimum conditions, the linear relationship with the concentration of the target DNA was ranging from 2.0 x 10(-14) M to 1.0 x 10(-12)M and a detection limit as low as 5.0 x 10(-15)M was obtained.

  11. A Bioanalytical Chemistry Experiment for Undergraduate Students: Biosensors Based on Metal Nanoparticles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niagi, John; Warner, John; Andreesco, Silvana

    2007-01-01

    The study describes the development of new biosensors based on metal nanoparticles because of its high surface area and large binding ability. The adopted procedure is extremely simple and versatile and can be used in various applications of electrochemistry.

  12. Graphene-based field-effect transistor biosensors

    DOEpatents

    Chen; , Junhong; Mao, Shun; Lu, Ganhua

    2017-06-14

    The disclosure provides a field-effect transistor (FET)-based biosensor and uses thereof. In particular, to FET-based biosensors using thermally reduced graphene-based sheets as a conducting channel decorated with nanoparticle-biomolecule conjugates. The present disclosure also relates to FET-based biosensors using metal nitride/graphene hybrid sheets. The disclosure provides a method for detecting a target biomolecule in a sample using the FET-based biosensor described herein.

  13. A Highly Sensitive Electrochemical DNA Biosensor from Acrylic-Gold Nano-composite for the Determination of Arowana Fish Gender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Mahbubur; Heng, Lee Yook; Futra, Dedi; Chiang, Chew Poh; Rashid, Zulkafli A.; Ling, Tan Ling

    2017-08-01

    The present research describes a simple method for the identification of the gender of arowana fish ( Scleropages formosus). The DNA biosensor was able to detect specific DNA sequence at extremely low level down to atto M regimes. An electrochemical DNA biosensor based on acrylic microsphere-gold nanoparticle (AcMP-AuNP) hybrid composite was fabricated. Hydrophobic poly(n-butylacrylate-N-acryloxysuccinimide) microspheres were synthesised with a facile and well-established one-step photopolymerization procedure and physically adsorbed on the AuNPs at the surface of a carbon screen printed electrode (SPE). The DNA biosensor was constructed simply by grafting an aminated DNA probe on the succinimide functionalised AcMPs via a strong covalent attachment. DNA hybridisation response was determined by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) technique using anthraquinone monosulphonic acid redox probe as an electroactive oligonucleotide label (Table 1). A low detection limit at 1.0 × 10-18 M with a wide linear calibration range of 1.0 × 10-18 to 1.0 × 10-8 M ( R 2 = 0.99) can be achieved by the proposed DNA biosensor under optimal conditions. Electrochemical detection of arowana DNA can be completed within 1 hour. Due to its small size and light weight, the developed DNA biosensor holds high promise for the development of functional kit for fish culture usage.

  14. New Catalytic DNA Biosensors for Radionuclides and Metal ion

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Yi Lu

    2008-03-01

    We aim to develop new DNA biosensors for simultaneous detection and quantification of bioavailable radionuclides, such as uranium, technetium, and plutonium, and metal contaminants, such as lead, chromium, and mercury. The sensors will be highly sensitive and selective. They will be applied to on-site, real-time assessment of concentration, speciation, and stability of the individual contaminants before and during bioremediation, and for long-term monitoring of DOE contaminated sites. To achieve this goal, we have employed a combinatorial method called “in vitro selection” to search from a large DNA library (~ 1015 different molecules) for catalytic DNA molecules that are highly specificmore » for radionuclides or other metal ions through intricate 3-dimensional interactions as in metalloproteins. Comprehensive biochemical and biophysical studies have been performed on the selected DNA molecules. The findings from these studies have helped to elucidate fundamental principles for designing effective sensors for radionuclides and metal ions. Based on the study, the DNA have been converted to fluorescent or colorimetric sensors by attaching to it fluorescent donor/acceptor pairs or gold nanoparticles, with 11 part-per-trillion detection limit (for uranium) and over million fold selectivity (over other radionuclides and metal ions tested). Practical application of the biosensors for samples from the Environmental Remediation Sciences Program (ERSP) Field Research Center (FRC) at Oak Ridge has also been demonstrated.« less

  15. Biosensors based on DNA-Functionalized Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishnubhotla, Ramya; Ping, Jinglei; Vrudhula, Amey; Johnson, A. T. Charlie

    Since its discovery, graphene has been used for sensing applications due to its outstanding electrical properties and biocompatibility. Here, we demonstrate the capabilities of field effect transistors (FETs) based on CVD-grown graphene functionalized with commercially obtained DNA oligomers and aptamers for detection of various biomolecular targets (e.g., complementary DNA and small molecule drug targets). Graphene FETs were created with a scalable photolithography process that produces arrays consisting of 50-100 FETs with a layout suitable for multiplexed detection of four molecular targets. FETs were characterized via AFM to confirm the presence of the aptamer. From the measured electrical characteristics, it was determined that binding of molecular targets by the DNA chemical recognition element led to a reproducible, concentration-dependent shift in the Dirac voltage. This biosensor class is potentially suitable for applications in drug detection. This work is funded by NIH through the Center for AIDS Research at the University of Pennsylvania.

  16. ZnS nanoparticles electrodeposited onto ITO electrode as a platform for fabrication of enzyme-based biosensors of glucose.

    PubMed

    Du, Jian; Yu, Xiuping; Wu, Ying; Di, Junwei

    2013-05-01

    The electrochemical and photoelectrochemical biosensors based on glucose oxidase (GOD) and ZnS nanoparticles modified indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode were investigated. The ZnS nanoparticles were electrodeposited directly on the surface of ITO electrode. The enzyme was immobilized on ZnS/ITO electrode surface by sol-gel method to fabricate glucose biosensor. GOD could electrocatalyze the reduction of dissolved oxygen, which resulted in a great increase of the reduction peak current. The reduction peak current decreased linearly with the addition of glucose, which could be used for glucose detection. Moreover, ZnS nanoparticles deposited on ITO electrode surface showed good photocurrent response under illumination. A photoelectrochemical biosensor for the detection of glucose was also developed by monitoring the decreases in the cathodic peak photocurrent. The results indicated that ZnS nanoparticles deposited on ITO substrate were a good candidate material for the immobilization of enzyme in glucose biosensor construction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A novel probe density controllable electrochemiluminescence biosensor for ultra-sensitive detection of Hg2+ based on DNA hybridization optimization with gold nanoparticles array patterned self-assembly platform.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wenhua; Zhang, An; Chen, Yunsheng; Chen, Zixuan; Chen, Yaowen; Lu, Fushen; Chen, Zhanguang

    2013-11-15

    Biosensor based on DNA hybridization holds great potential to get higher sensitivity as the optimal DNA hybridization efficiency can be achieved by controlling the distribution and orientation of probe strands on the transducer surface. In this work, an innovative strategy is reported to tap the sensitivity potential of current electrochemiluminescence (ECL) biosensing system by dispersedly anchoring the DNA beacons on the gold nanoparticles (GNPs) array which was electrodeposited on the glassy carbon electrode surface, rather than simply sprawling the coil-like strands onto planar gold surface. The strategy was developed by designing a "signal-on" ECL biosensing switch fabricated on the GNPs nanopatterned electrode surface for enhanced ultra-sensitivity detection of Hg(2+). A 57-mer hairpin-DNA labeled with ferrocene as ECL quencher and a 13-mer DNA labeled with Ru(bpy)3(2+) as reporter were hybridized to construct the signal generator in off-state. A 31-mer thymine (T)-rich capture-DNA was introduced to form T-T mismatches with the loop sequence of the hairpin-DNA in the presence of Hg(2+) and induce the stem-loop open, meanwhile the ECL "signal-on" was triggered. The peak sensitivity with the lowest detection limit of 0.1 nM was achieved with the optimal GNPs number density while exorbitant GNPs deposition resulted in sensitivity deterioration for the biosensor. We expect the present strategy could lead the renovation of the existing probe-immobilized ECL genosensor design to get an even higher sensitivity in ultralow level of target detection such as the identification of genetic diseases and disorders in basic research and clinical application. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Electrochemical DNA biosensor based on the BDD nanograss array electrode.

    PubMed

    Jin, Huali; Wei, Min; Wang, Jinshui

    2013-04-10

    The development of DNA biosensor has attracted considerable attention due to their potential applications, including gene analysis, clinical diagnostics, forensic study and more medical applications. Using electroactive daunomycin as an indicator, the hybridization detection was measured by differential pulse voltammetry in this study. Electrochemical DNA biosensor was developed based on the BDD film electrode (fBDD) and BDD nanograss array electrode (nBDD). In comparison with fBDD and AuNPs/CA/fBDD electrode, the lower semicircle diameter of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy obtained on nBDD and AuNPs/CA/nBDD electrode indicated that the presence of nanograss array improved the reactive site, reduced the interfacial resistance, and made the electron transfer easier. Using electroactive daunomycin as an indicator, the hybridization detection was measured by differential pulse voltammetry. The experimental results demonstrated that the prepared AuNPs/CA/nBDD electrode was suitable for DNA hybridization with favorable performance of faster response, higher sensitivity, lower detection limit and satisfactory selectivity, reproducibility and stability.

  19. Development of an Electrochemical DNA Biosensor to Detect a Foodborne Pathogen.

    PubMed

    Nordin, Noordiana; Yusof, Nor Azah; Radu, Son; Hushiarian, Roozbeh

    2018-06-03

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. parahaemolyticus) is a common foodborne pathogen that contributes to a large proportion of public health problems globally, significantly affecting the rate of human mortality and morbidity. Conventional methods for the detection of V. parahaemolyticus such as culture-based methods, immunological assays, and molecular-based methods require complicated sample handling and are time-consuming, tedious, and costly. Recently, biosensors have proven to be a promising and comprehensive detection method with the advantages of fast detection, cost-effectiveness, and practicality. This research focuses on developing a rapid method of detecting V. parahaemolyticus with high selectivity and sensitivity using the principles of DNA hybridization. In the work, characterization of synthesized polylactic acid-stabilized gold nanoparticles (PLA-AuNPs) was achieved using X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Ultraviolet-visible Spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Field-emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), and Cyclic Voltammetry (CV). We also carried out further testing of stability, sensitivity, and reproducibility of the PLA-AuNPs. We found that the PLA-AuNPs formed a sound structure of stabilized nanoparticles in aqueous solution. We also observed that the sensitivity improved as a result of the smaller charge transfer resistance (Rct) value and an increase of active surface area (0.41 cm 2 ). The development of our DNA biosensor was based on modification of a screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) with PLA-AuNPs and using methylene blue (MB) as the redox indicator. We assessed the immobilization and hybridization events by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). We found that complementary, non-complementary, and mismatched oligonucleotides were specifically distinguished by the fabricated biosensor. It also showed reliably sensitive detection in cross-reactivity studies against various food-borne pathogens and in the

  20. A biosensor system using nickel ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Prachi; Rathore, Deepshikha

    2016-05-01

    NiFe2O4 ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical co-precipitation method and the structural characteristics were investigated using X-ray diffraction technique, where single cubic phase formation of nanoparticles was confirmed. The average particle size of NiFe2O4 was found to be 4.9 nm. Nanoscale magnetic materials are an important source of labels for biosensing due to their strong magnetic properties which are not found in biological systems. This property of the material was exploited and the fabrication of the NiFe2O4 nanoparticle based biosensor was done in the form of a capacitor system, with NiFe2O4 as the dielectric material. The biosensor system was tested towards different biological materials with the help of electrochemical workstation and the same was analysed through Cole-Cole plot of NiFe2O4. The performance of the sensor was determined based on its sensitivity, response time and recovery time.

  1. Effect of DNA type on response of DNA biosensor for carcinogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sani, Nor Diyana bt. Md.; Heng, Lee Yook; Surif, Salmijah; Lazim, Azwani Mat

    2013-11-01

    Carcinogens are cancer causing chemicals that can bind to DNA and cause damage to the DNA. These chemicals are available everywhere including in water, air, soil and food. Therefore, a sensor that can detect the presence of these chemicals will be a very useful tool. Since carcinogens bind to DNA, DNA can be used as the biological element in a biosensor. This study has utilized different types of DNA in a biosensor for carcinogen detection. The DNAs include double stranded calf thymus DNA, single stranded calf thymus DNA and guanine rich single stranded DNA. The modified SPE was exposed to a carcinogen followed by interaction with methylene blue which acts as the electroactive indicator. The SPE was then analysed using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Optimization studies were conducted for MB concentration and accumulation time, DNA concentration, as well as effect of buffer concentration, buffer pH and ionic strength. The performance of the biosensor was tested on a group 1 carcinogen, formaldehyde. The results indicated that the usage of guanine rich single stranded DNA also gives higher response as carcinogens prefer to bind with guanine compared to other bases.

  2. Nanostructured enzymatic biosensor based on fullerene and gold nanoparticles: preparation, characterization and analytical applications.

    PubMed

    Lanzellotto, C; Favero, G; Antonelli, M L; Tortolini, C; Cannistraro, S; Coppari, E; Mazzei, F

    2014-05-15

    In this work a novel electrochemical biosensing platform based on the coupling of two different nanostructured materials (gold nanoparticles and fullerenols) displaying interesting electrochemical features, has been developed and characterized. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) exhibit attractive electrocatalytic behavior stimulating in the last years, several sensing applications; on the other hand, fullerene and its derivatives are a very promising family of electroactive compounds although they have not yet been fully employed in biosensing. The methodology proposed in this work was finalized to the setup of a laccase biosensor based on a multilayer material consisting in AuNPs, fullerenols and Trametes versicolor Laccase (TvL) assembled layer by layer onto a gold (Au) electrode surface. The influence of different modification step procedures on the electroanalytical performance of biosensors has been evaluated. Cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) were used to characterize the modification of surface and to investigate the bioelectrocatalytic biosensor response. This biosensor showed fast amperometric response to gallic acid, which is usually considered a standard for polyphenols analysis of wines, with a linear range 0.03-0.30 mmol L(-1) (r(2)=0.9998), with a LOD of 0.006 mmol L(-1) or expressed as polyphenol index 5.0-50 mg L(-1) and LOD 1.1 mg L(-1). A tentative application of the developed nanostructured enzyme-based biosensor was performed evaluating the detection of polyphenols either in buffer solution or in real wine samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Overview of Piezoelectric Biosensors, Immunosensors and DNA Sensors and Their Applications.

    PubMed

    Pohanka, Miroslav

    2018-03-19

    Piezoelectric biosensors are a group of analytical devices working on a principle of affinity interaction recording. A piezoelectric platform or piezoelectric crystal is a sensor part working on the principle of oscillations change due to a mass bound on the piezoelectric crystal surface. In this review, biosensors having their surface modified with an antibody or antigen, with a molecularly imprinted polymer, with genetic information like single stranded DNA, and biosensors with bound receptors of organic of biochemical origin, are presented and discussed. The mentioned recognition parts are frequently combined with use of nanoparticles and applications in this way are also introduced. An overview of the current literature is given and the methods presented are commented upon.

  4. An improved DNA force field for ssDNA interactions with gold nanoparticles

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Jiang, Xiankai; Huai, Ping; Fan, Chunhai

    The widespread applications of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) conjugated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have spurred an increasing interest in the interactions between ssDNA and AuNPs. Despite extensive studies using the most sophisticated experimental techniques, the detailed molecular mechanisms still remain largely unknown. Large scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations can thus be used to supplement experiments by providing complementary information about ssDNA-AuNP interactions. However, up to now, all modern force fields for DNA were developed based on the properties of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) molecules, which have hydrophilic outer backbones “protecting” hydrophobic inner nucleobases from water. Without the double-helix structure of dsDNA and thusmore » the “protection” by the outer backbone, the nucleobases of ssDNA are directly exposed to solvent, and their behavior in water is very different from that of dsDNA, especially at the interface with nanoparticles. In this work, we have improved the force field of ssDNA for use with nanoparticles, such as AuNPs, based on recent experimental results and quantum mechanics calculations. With the new improved force field, we demonstrated that a poly(A) sequence adsorbed on a AuNP surface is much more stable than a poly(T) sequence, which is consistent with recent experimental observations. On the contrary, the current standard force fields, including AMBER03, CHARMM27, and OPLSAA, all gave erroneous results as compared to experiments. The current improved force field is expected to have wide applications in the study of ssDNA with nanomaterials including AuNPs, which might help promote the development of ssDNA-based biosensors and other bionano-devices.« less

  5. An improved DNA force field for ssDNA interactions with gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiankai; Gao, Jun; Huynh, Tien; Huai, Ping; Fan, Chunhai; Zhou, Ruhong; Song, Bo

    2014-06-01

    The widespread applications of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) conjugated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have spurred an increasing interest in the interactions between ssDNA and AuNPs. Despite extensive studies using the most sophisticated experimental techniques, the detailed molecular mechanisms still remain largely unknown. Large scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations can thus be used to supplement experiments by providing complementary information about ssDNA-AuNP interactions. However, up to now, all modern force fields for DNA were developed based on the properties of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) molecules, which have hydrophilic outer backbones "protecting" hydrophobic inner nucleobases from water. Without the double-helix structure of dsDNA and thus the "protection" by the outer backbone, the nucleobases of ssDNA are directly exposed to solvent, and their behavior in water is very different from that of dsDNA, especially at the interface with nanoparticles. In this work, we have improved the force field of ssDNA for use with nanoparticles, such as AuNPs, based on recent experimental results and quantum mechanics calculations. With the new improved force field, we demonstrated that a poly(A) sequence adsorbed on a AuNP surface is much more stable than a poly(T) sequence, which is consistent with recent experimental observations. On the contrary, the current standard force fields, including AMBER03, CHARMM27, and OPLSAA, all gave erroneous results as compared to experiments. The current improved force field is expected to have wide applications in the study of ssDNA with nanomaterials including AuNPs, which might help promote the development of ssDNA-based biosensors and other bionano-devices.

  6. An improved DNA force field for ssDNA interactions with gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiankai; Gao, Jun; Huynh, Tien; Huai, Ping; Fan, Chunhai; Zhou, Ruhong; Song, Bo

    2014-06-21

    The widespread applications of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) conjugated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have spurred an increasing interest in the interactions between ssDNA and AuNPs. Despite extensive studies using the most sophisticated experimental techniques, the detailed molecular mechanisms still remain largely unknown. Large scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations can thus be used to supplement experiments by providing complementary information about ssDNA-AuNP interactions. However, up to now, all modern force fields for DNA were developed based on the properties of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) molecules, which have hydrophilic outer backbones "protecting" hydrophobic inner nucleobases from water. Without the double-helix structure of dsDNA and thus the "protection" by the outer backbone, the nucleobases of ssDNA are directly exposed to solvent, and their behavior in water is very different from that of dsDNA, especially at the interface with nanoparticles. In this work, we have improved the force field of ssDNA for use with nanoparticles, such as AuNPs, based on recent experimental results and quantum mechanics calculations. With the new improved force field, we demonstrated that a poly(A) sequence adsorbed on a AuNP surface is much more stable than a poly(T) sequence, which is consistent with recent experimental observations. On the contrary, the current standard force fields, including AMBER03, CHARMM27, and OPLSAA, all gave erroneous results as compared to experiments. The current improved force field is expected to have wide applications in the study of ssDNA with nanomaterials including AuNPs, which might help promote the development of ssDNA-based biosensors and other bionano-devices.

  7. Electrochemical DNA biosensor based on the BDD nanograss array electrode

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The development of DNA biosensor has attracted considerable attention due to their potential applications, including gene analysis, clinical diagnostics, forensic study and more medical applications. Using electroactive daunomycin as an indicator, the hybridization detection was measured by differential pulse voltammetry in this study. Results Electrochemical DNA biosensor was developed based on the BDD film electrode (fBDD) and BDD nanograss array electrode (nBDD). In comparison with fBDD and AuNPs/CA/fBDD electrode, the lower semicircle diameter of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy obtained on nBDD and AuNPs/CA/nBDD electrode indicated that the presence of nanograss array improved the reactive site, reduced the interfacial resistance, and made the electron transfer easier. Using electroactive daunomycin as an indicator, the hybridization detection was measured by differential pulse voltammetry. Conclusions The experimental results demonstrated that the prepared AuNPs/CA/nBDD electrode was suitable for DNA hybridization with favorable performance of faster response, higher sensitivity, lower detection limit and satisfactory selectivity, reproducibility and stability. PMID:23575250

  8. Potentiometric glucose biosensor based on core-shell Fe3O4-enzyme-polypyrrole nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhengpeng; Zhang, Chunjing; Zhang, Jianxin; Bai, Wanbei

    2014-01-15

    Core-shell Fe3O4-enzyme-polypyrrole (Ppy) nanoparticles with excellent magnetism and conductivity were successfully prepared via the surface modification and enzyme self-encapsulation within Ppy. A novel potentiometric glucose biosensor has been constructed by effectively attaching the proposed Fe3O4-enzyme-Ppy nanoparticles to the surface of the magnetic glassy carbon electrode (MGCE). The optimum biosensing conditions could be provided with polymerization time of pyrrole for 6h and 0.42 mg immobilization amount of Fe3O4-enzyme-Ppy nanoparticles on MGCE. The performance of the developed glucose biosensor was evaluated and the results indicated that a sensitive glucose biosensor could be fabricated. The obtained glucose biosensor presents shorter response time (6 s), wider linear range (0.5 μM to 34 mM), lower limit of detection (LOD, 0.3 μM), high-selectivity monitoring of glucose and good stability (with about 98.1% of the initial response signal retained after 20 days). The analytical application of the glucose biosensor confirms the feasibility of glucose detection in serum sample. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A biosensor system using nickel ferrite nanoparticles

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Singh, Prachi, E-mail: prachi.singh@st.niituniversity.in; Rathore, Deepshikha, E-mail: deep.nano@gmail.com

    2016-05-06

    NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical co-precipitation method and the structural characteristics were investigated using X-ray diffraction technique, where single cubic phase formation of nanoparticles was confirmed. The average particle size of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} was found to be 4.9 nm. Nanoscale magnetic materials are an important source of labels for biosensing due to their strong magnetic properties which are not found in biological systems. This property of the material was exploited and the fabrication of the NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticle based biosensor was done in the form of a capacitor system, with NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} as themore » dielectric material. The biosensor system was tested towards different biological materials with the help of electrochemical workstation and the same was analysed through Cole-Cole plot of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. The performance of the sensor was determined based on its sensitivity, response time and recovery time.« less

  10. Basics of DNA biosensors and cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Sohrabi, Nasrin; Valizadeh, Alireza; Farkhani, Samad Mussa; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl

    2016-01-01

    The human genome is exposed to mutations during the life cycle because of many types of changes in the DNA. Viruses, radiation, transposons, mutagenic chemicals, or any errors that happen during DNA replication or the meiotic process in the cell, may cause the mutation. Many mutations have no effect on phenotype or health, while some mutations cause crucial diseases such as cancer or cardiac diseases; therefore, a better understanding of the effects of mutation on phenotype is a very important part of genetic studies. Biosensors based on DNA, RNA, and peptide nucleic acids are the most sensitive tools, due to a strong pairing of lined up nucleotide strands between bases in their complementary parts. These methods can provide information to assist clinicians in making successful treatment decisions and increase the patient survival rate. In this review, we discuss DNA biosensors based on peptide nucleic acids that have an important role in cancer diagnosis.

  11. Real-space transmission electron microscopy investigations of attachment of functionalized magnetic nanoparticles to DNA-coils acting as a biosensor.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Sultan; Strömberg, Mattias; Zardán Gómez de la Torre, Teresa; Russell, Camilla; Gunnarsson, Klas; Nilsson, Mats; Svedlindh, Peter; Strømme, Maria; Leifer, Klaus

    2010-10-21

    The present work provides the first real-space analysis of nanobead-DNA coil interactions. Immobilization of oligonucleotide-functionalized magnetic nanobeads in rolling circle amplified DNA-coils was studied by complex magnetization measurements and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and a statistical analysis of the number of beads hybridized to the DNA-coils was performed. The average number of beads per DNA-coil using the results from both methods was found to be around 6 and slightly above 2 for samples with 40 and 130 nm beads, respectively. The TEM analysis supported an earlier hypothesis that 40 nm beads are preferably immobilized in the interior of DNA-coils whereas 130 nm beads, to a larger extent, are immobilized closer to the exterior of the coils. The methodology demonstrated in the present work should open up new possibilities for characterization of interactions of a large variety of functionalized nanoparticles with macromolecules, useful for gaining more fundamental understanding of such interactions as well as for optimizing a number of biosensor applications.

  12. DNA Nanotechnology-Enabled Interfacial Engineering for Biosensor Development.

    PubMed

    Ye, Dekai; Zuo, Xiaolei; Fan, Chunhai

    2018-06-12

    Biosensors represent biomimetic analytical tools for addressing increasing needs in medical diagnosis, environmental monitoring, security, and biodefense. Nevertheless, widespread real-world applications of biosensors remain challenging due to limitations of performance, including sensitivity, specificity, speed, and reproducibility. In this review, we present a DNA nanotechnology-enabled interfacial engineering approach for improving the performance of biosensors. We first introduce the main challenges of the biosensing interfaces, especially under the context of controlling the DNA interfacial assembly. We then summarize recent progress in DNA nanotechnology and efforts to harness DNA nanostructures to engineer various biological interfaces, with a particular focus on the use of framework nucleic acids. We also discuss the implementation of biosensors to detect physiologically relevant nucleic acids, proteins, small molecules, ions, and other biomarkers. This review highlights promising applications of DNA nanotechnology in interfacial engineering for biosensors and related areas.

  13. Application of a Nanostructured Enzymatic Biosensor Based on Fullerene and Gold Nanoparticles to Polyphenol Detection.

    PubMed

    Tortolini, Cristina; Sanzò, Gabriella; Antiochia, Riccarda; Mazzei, Franco; Favero, Gabriele

    2017-01-01

    Electrochemical biosensors provide an attractive means of analyzing the content of a biological sample due to the direct conversion of a biological event to an electronic signal. The signal transduction and the general performance of electrochemical biosensors are often determined by the surface architectures that connect the sensing element to the biological sample at the nanometer scale. The most common surface modification techniques, the various electrochemical transduction mechanisms, and the choice of the recognition receptor molecules all influence the ultimate sensitivity of the sensor. We show herein a novel electrochemical biosensing platform based on the coupling of two different nanostructured materials (gold nanoparticles and fullerenols) displaying interesting electrochemical features. The use of these nanomaterials improved the electrochemical performance of the proposed biosensor.An application of the nanostructured enzyme-based biosensor has been developed for evaluating the detection of polyphenols either in buffer solution or in real wine samples.

  14. A novel signal-off electrochemiluminescence biosensor for the determination of glucose based on double nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Linlin; Ma, Qiang; Li, Yang; Liu, ZiPing; Su, Xingguang

    2015-01-15

    In this work, a novel facile signal-off electrochemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor has been developed for the determination of glucose based on the integration of chitosan (CHIT), CdTe quantum dots (CdTe QDs) and Au nanoparticles (Au NPs) on the glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Chitosan displays high water permeability, hydrophilic property, strong hydrogel ability and good adhesion to load the double nanoparticles to the glassy carbon electrode surfaces. Au NPs are efficient glucose oxidase (GOx)-mimickess to catalytically oxidize glucose, similar to the natural process. Upon the addition of glucose, the Au NPs catalyzed glucose to produce gluconic acid and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) based on the consumption of dissolved oxygen (O2), which resulted in a quenching effect on the ECL emission. Therefore, the determination of glucose could be achieved by monitoring the signal-off ECL biosensor. Under the optimum conditions, the ECL intensity of CdTe QDs and the concentration of glucose have a good linear relationship in the range of 0.01-10 mmol L(-1). The limit of detection for glucose was 5.28 μmol L(-1) (S/N=3). The biosensor showed good sensitivity, selectivity, reproducibility and stability. The proposed biosensor has been employed for the detection of glucose in human serum samples with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A highly sensitive magnetic biosensor for detection and quantification of anticancer drugs tagged to superparamagnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devkota, J.; Wingo, J.; Mai, T. T. T.; Nguyen, X. P.; Huong, N. T.; Mukherjee, P.; Srikanth, H.; Phan, M. H.

    2014-05-01

    We report on a highly sensitive magnetic biosensor based on the magneto-reactance (MX) effect of a Co65Fe4Ni2Si15B14 amorphous ribbon with a nanohole-patterned surface for detection and quantification of anticancer drugs (Curcumin) tagged to superparamagnetic (Fe3O4) nanoparticles. Fe3O4 nanoparticles (mean size, ˜10 nm) were first coated with Alginate, and Curcumin was then tagged to the nanoparticles. The detection and quantification of Curcumin were assessed by the change in MX of the ribbon subject to varying concentrations of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles to which Curcumin was tagged. A high capacity of the MX-based biosensor in quantitative analysis of Curcumin-loaded Fe3O4 nanoparticles was achieved in the range of 0-50 ng/ml, beyond which the detection sensitivity of the sensor remained unchanged. The detection sensitivity of the biosensor reached an extremely high value of 30%, which is about 4-5 times higher than that of a magneto-impedance (MI) based biosensor. This biosensor is well suited for detection of low-concentration magnetic biomarkers in biological systems.

  16. FIBER OPTIC BIOSENSOR FOR DNA DAMAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes a fiber optic biosensor for the rapid and sensitive detection of radiation-induced or chemically-induced oxidative DNA damage. The assay is based on the hybridization and temperature-induced dissociation (melting curves) of synthetic oligonucleotides. The...

  17. An improved amperometric creatinine biosensor based on nanoparticles of creatininase, creatinase and sarcosine oxidase.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Parveen; Jaiwal, Ranjana; Pundir, C S

    2017-11-15

    An improved amperometric biosensor for detection of creatinine was developed based on immobilization of nanoparticles (NPs) of creatininase (CA), creatinase (CI), and sarcosine oxidase (SOx) onto glassy carbon (GC) electrode. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were employed for characterization of enzyme nanoparticles (ENPs). The GC electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) at different stages of its amendment. The biosensor showed optimum response within 2s at pH 6.0 in 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer and 25 °C, when operated at 1.0 V against Ag/AgCl. Biosensor exhibited wider linear range from 0.01 μM to 12 μM with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.01 μM. The analytical recoveries of added creatinine in sera were 97.97 ± 0.1% for 0.1 mM and 98.76 ± 0.2% for 0.15 mM, within and between batch coefficients of variation (CV) were 2.06% and 3.09% respectively. A good correlation (R 2  = 0.99) was observed between sera creatinine values obtained by standard enzymic colorimetric method and the present biosensor. This biosensor measured creatinine level in sera of apparently healthy subjects and persons suffering from renal and muscular dysfunction. The ENPs electrode lost 10% of its initial activity within 240 days of its regular uses, when stored at 4 °C. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A highly sensitive magnetic biosensor for detection and quantification of anticancer drugs tagged to superparamagnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wingo, J.; Devkota, J.; Mai, T. T. T.; Nguyen, X. P.; Mukherjee, P.; Srikanth, H.; Phan, M. H.; Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology Collaboration; University of South Florida Team

    2014-03-01

    A precise detection of low concentrations of biomolecules attached to magnetic nanoparticles in complex biological systems is a challenging task and requires biosensors with improved sensitivity. Here, we present a highly sensitive magnetic biosensor based on the magneto-reactance (MX) effect of a Co65Fe4Ni2Si15B14 amorphous ribbon with nanohole-patterned surface for detection and quantification of anticancer drugs (Curcumin) tagged to Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The detection and quantification of Curcumin were assessed by the change in MX of the ribbon subject to varying concentrations of the functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticles. A high capacity of the MX-based biosensor in quantitative analysis of the nanoparticles was achieved in the range of 0 - 50 ng/ml, beyond which the detection sensitivity (η) remained unchanged. The η of the biosensor reached an extremely high value of 30%, which is about 4-5 times higher than that of a magneto-impedance (MI) based biosensor. This biosensor is well suited for detection of low-concentration magnetic biomarkers in biological systems. This work was supported by was supported by the Florida Cluster for Advanced Smart Sensor Technologies, USAMRMC (Grant # W81XWH-07-1-0708), and the NSF-funded REU program at the USF.

  19. Aptamer/Au nanoparticles/cobalt sulfide nanosheets biosensor for 17β-estradiol detection using a guanine-rich complementary DNA sequence for signal amplification.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ke-Jing; Liu, Yu-Jie; Zhang, Ji-Zong; Cao, Jun-Tao; Liu, Yan-Ming

    2015-05-15

    We have developed a sensitive sensing platform for 17β-estradiol by combining the aptamer probe and hybridization reaction. In this assay, 2-dimensional cobalt sulfide nanosheet (CoS) was synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method with L-cysteine as sulfur donor. An electrochemical aptamer biosensor was constructed by assembling a thiol group tagged 17β-estradiol aptamer on CoS and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) modified electrode. Methylene blue was applied as a tracer and a guanine-rich complementary DNA sequence was designed to bind with the unbound 17β-estradiol aptamer for signal amplification. The binding of guanine-rich DNA to the aptamer was inhibited when the aptamer captured 17β-estradiol. Using guanine-rich DNA in the assay greatly amplified the redox signal of methylene blue bound to the detection probe. The CoS/AuNPs film formed on the biosensor surface appeared to be a good conductor for accelerating the electron transfer. The method demonstrated a high sensitivity of detection with the dynamic concentration range spanning from 1.0×10(-9) to 1.0×10(-12) M and a detection limit of 7.0×10(-13) M. Besides, the fabricated biosensor exhibited good selectivity toward 17β-estradiol even when interferents were presented at 100-fold concentrations. Our attempt will extend the application of the CoS nanosheet and this signal amplification assay to biosensing areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Determination of atropine sulfate using a novel sensitive DNA-biosensor based on its interaction on a modified pencil graphite electrode.

    PubMed

    Ensafi, Ali A; Nasr-Esfahani, Parisa; Heydari-Bafrooei, Esmaeil; Rezaei, B

    2015-01-01

    A novel, selective, rapid and simple electrochemical method is developed for the determination of atropine sulfate. UV-Vis and differential pulse voltammetry are used to study the interaction of atropine sulfate with salmon sperm ds-DNA on the surface of salmon sperm ds-DNA modified-pencil graphite electrode (PGE). For this purpose, a pencil graphite electrode (PGE) modified with multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2NPs), and poly-dialyldimethylammonium chloride (PDDA) decorated with ds-DNA is tested for the determination of atropine sulfate. The electrochemical oxidation peak current of adenine and guanine bonded on the surface of ds-DNA/PDDA-TiO2NPs-MWCNTs/PGE is used to obtain the analytical signal. Decreases in the intensities of guanine and adenine oxidation signals after their interaction with atropine sulfate are used as indicator signals for the sensitive determination of atropine sulfate. Using ds-DNA/PDDA-TiO2NPs-MWCNTs/PGE and based on the guanine signal, linear calibration curves were obtained in the range of 0.6 to 30.0 μmol L(-1) and 30.0 to 600.0 μmol L(-1) atropine sulfate with low detection limits of 30.0 nmol L(-1). The biosensor shows a good selectivity for the determination of atropine sulfate. Finally, the applicability of the biosensor is evaluated by measuring atropine sulfate in real samples with good accuracy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Ultrasensitive electrochemical cocaine biosensor based on reversible DNA nanostructure.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Qinglin; Liu, Ruixiao; Zhang, Sai; Zheng, Jianbin

    2014-01-15

    We proposed an ultrasensitive electrochemical cocaine biosensor based on the three-dimensional (3D) DNA structure conversion of nanostructure from Triangular Pyramid Frustum (TPFDNA) to Equilateral Triangle (ETDNA). The presence of cocaine triggered the aptamer-composed DNA nanostructure change from "Close" to "Open", leading to obvious faradaic impedance changes. The unique properties with excellent stability and specific rigid structure of the 3D DNA nanostructure made the biosensing functions stable, sensitive, and regenerable. The Faradaic impedance responses were linearly related to cocaine concentration between 1.0 nM and 2.0 μM with a correlation coefficient of 0.993. The limit of detection was calculated to be 0.21 nM following IUPAC recommendations (3Sb/b). It is expected that the distinctive features of DNA nanostructure would make it potentially advantageous for a broad range of biosensing, bionanoelectronics, and therapeutic applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Electrochemical biosensor for Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA detection based on gold nanotubes array electrode platform.

    PubMed

    Torati, Sri Ramulu; Reddy, Venu; Yoon, Seok Soo; Kim, CheolGi

    2016-04-15

    The template assisted electrochemical deposition technique was used for the synthesis of gold nanotubes array (AuNTsA). The morphological structure of the synthesized AuNTsA was observed by scanning electron microscopy and found that the individual nanotubes are around 1.5 μm in length with a diameter of 200 nm. Nanotubes are vertically aligned to the Au thick film, which is formed during the synthesis process of nanotubes. The electrochemical performance of the AuNTsA was compared with the bare Au electrode and found that AuNTsA has better electron transfer surface than bare Au electrode which is due to the high surface area. Hence, the AuNTsA was used as an electrode for the fabrication of DNA hybridization biosensor for detection of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis DNA. The DNA hybridization biosensor constructed by AuNTsA electrode was characterized by cyclic voltammetry technique with Fe(CN)6(3-/4-) as an electrochemical redox indicator. The selectivity of the fabricated biosensor was illustrated by hybridization with complementary DNA and non-complementary DNA with probe DNA immobilized AuNTsA electrode using methylene blue as a hybridization indicator. The developed electrochemical DNA biosensor shows good linear range of complementary DNA concentration from 0.01 ng/μL to 100 ng/μL with high detection limit. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The field effect transistor DNA biosensor based on ITO nanowires in label-free hepatitis B virus detecting compatible with CMOS technology.

    PubMed

    Shariati, Mohsen

    2018-05-15

    In this paper the field-effect transistor DNA biosensor for detecting hepatitis B virus (HBV) based on indium tin oxide nanowires (ITO NWs) in label free approach has been fabricated. Because of ITO nanowires intensive conductance and functional modified surface, the probe immobilization and target hybridization were increased strongly. The high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) measurement showed that ITO nanowires were crystalline and less than 50nm in diameter. The single-stranded hepatitis B virus DNA (SS-DNA) was immobilized as probe on the Au-modified nanowires. The DNA targets were measured in a linear concentration range from 1fM to 10µM. The detection limit of the DNA biosensor was about 1fM. The time of the hybridization process for defined single strand was 90min. The switching ratio of the biosensor between "on" and "off" state was ~ 1.1 × 10 5 . For sensing the specificity of the biosensor, non-complementary, mismatch and complementary DNA oligonucleotide sequences were clearly discriminated. The HBV biosensor confirmed the highly satisfied specificity for differentiating complementary sequences from non-complementary and the mismatch oligonucleotides. The response time of the DNA sensor was 37s with a high reproducibility. The stability and repeatability of the DNA biosensor showed that the peak current of the biosensor retained 98% and 96% of its initial response for measurements after three and five weeks, respectively. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Fluorescence bio-barcode DNA assay based on gold and magnetic nanoparticles for detection of Exotoxin A gene sequence.

    PubMed

    Amini, Bahram; Kamali, Mehdi; Salouti, Mojtaba; Yaghmaei, Parichehreh

    2017-06-15

    Bio-barcode DNA based on gold nanoparticle (bDNA-GNPs) as a new generation of biosensor based detection tools, holds promise for biological science studies. They are of enormous importance in the emergence of rapid and sensitive procedures for detecting toxins of microorganisms. Exotoxin A (ETA) is the most toxic virulence factor of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. ETA has ADP-ribosylation activity and decisively affects the protein synthesis of the host cells. In the present study, we developed a fluorescence bio-barcode technology to trace P. aeruginosa ETA. The GNPs were coated with the first target-specific DNA probe 1 (1pDNA) and bio-barcode DNA, which acted as a signal reporter. The magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were coated with the second target-specific DNA probe 2 (2pDNA) that was able to recognize the other end of the target DNA. After binding the nanoparticles with the target DNA, the following sandwich structure was formed: MNP 2pDNA/tDNA/1pDNA-GNP-bDNA. After isolating the sandwiches by a magnetic field, the DNAs of the probes which have been hybridized to their complementary DNA, GNPs and MNPs, via the hydrogen, electrostatic and covalently bonds, were released from the sandwiches after dissolving in dithiothreitol solution (DTT 0.8M). This bio-barcode DNA with known DNA sequence was then detected by fluorescence spectrophotometry. The findings showed that the new method has the advantages of fast, high sensitivity (the detection limit was 1.2ng/ml), good selectivity, and wide linear range of 5-200ng/ml. The regression analysis also showed that there was a good linear relationship (∆F=0.57 [target DNA]+21.31, R 2 =0.9984) between the fluorescent intensity and the target DNA concentration in the samples. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Single bead-based electrochemical biosensor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changchun; Schrlau, Michael G; Bau, Haim H

    2009-12-15

    A simple, robust, single bead-based electrochemical biosensor was fabricated and characterized. The sensor's working electrode consists of an electrochemically etched platinum wire, with a nominal diameter of 25 microm, hermetically heat-fusion sealed in a pulled glass capillary (micropipette). The sealing process does not require any epoxy or glue. A commercially available, densely functionalized agarose bead was mounted on the tip of the etched platinum wire. The use of a pre-functionalized bead eliminates the tedious and complicated surface functionalization process that is often the bottleneck in the development of electrochemical biosensors. We report on the use of a biotin agarose bead-based, micropipette, electrochemical (Bio-BMP) biosensor to monitor H(2)O(2) concentration and the use of a streptavidin bead-based, micropipette, electrochemical (SA-BMP) biosensor to detect DNA amplicons. The Bio-BMP biosensor's response increased linearly as the H(2)O(2) concentration increased in the range from 1 x 10(-6) to 1.2 x10(-4)M with a detection limit of 5 x 10(-7)M. The SA-BMP was able to detect the amplicons of 1pg DNA template of B. Cereus bacteria, thus providing better detection sensitivity than conventional gel-based electropherograms.

  6. Structural polymorphism of a cytosine-rich DNA sequence forming i-motif structure: Exploring pH based biosensors.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Saami; Kaushik, Mahima; Chaudhary, Swati; Kukreti, Shrikant

    2018-05-01

    Sequence recognition and conformational polymorphism enable DNA to emerge out as a substantial tool in fabricating the devices within nano-dimensions. These DNA associated nano devices work on the principle of conformational switches, which can be facilitated by many factors like sequence of DNA/RNA strand, change in pH or temperature, enzyme or ligand interactions etc. Thus, controlling these DNA conformational changes to acquire the desired function is significant for evolving DNA hybridization biosensor, used in genetic screening and molecular diagnosis. For exploring this conformational switching ability of cytosine-rich DNA oligonucleotides as a function of pH for their potential usage as biosensors, this study has been designed. A C-rich stretch of DNA sequence (5'-TCCCCCAATTAATTCCCCCA-3'; SG20c) has been investigated using UV-Thermal denaturation, poly-acrylamide gel electrophoresis and CD spectroscopy. The SG20c sequence is shown to adopt various topologies of i-motif structure at low pH. This pH dependent transition of SG20c from unstructured single strand to unimolecular and bimolecular i-motif structures can further be exploited for its utilization as switching on/off pH-based biosensors. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Electrochemical Biosensor Composed of Silver Ion-Mediated dsDNA on Au-Encapsulated Bi2 Se3 Nanoparticles for the Detection of H2 O2 Released from Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Mohammadniaei, Mohsen; Yoon, Jinho; Lee, Taek; Bharate, Bapurao G; Jo, Jinhee; Lee, Donghyun; Choi, Jeong-Woo

    2018-04-01

    A newly developed electrochemical biosensor composed of a topological insulator (TI) and metallic DNA (mDNA) is fabricated. The bismuth selenide nanoparticle (Bi 2 Se 3 NP) is synthesized and sandwiched between the gold electrode and another Au-deposited thin layer (Bi 2 Se 3 @Au). Then, eight-silver-ion mediated double-stranded DNA (mDNA) is immobilized onto the substrate (Bi 2 Se 3 @Au-mDNA) for the further detection of hydrogen peroxide. The Bi 2 Se 3 NP acts as the electrochemical-signal booster, while unprecedentedly its encapsulation by the Au thin layer keeps the TI surface states protected, improves its electrochemical-signal stability and provides an excellent platform for the subsequent covalent immobilization of the mDNA through Au-thiol interaction. Electrochemical results show that the fabricated biosensor represents much higher Ag + redox current (≈10 times) than those electrodes prepared without Bi 2 Se 3 @Au. The characterization of the Bi 2 Se 3 @Au-mDNA film is confirmed by atomic force microscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. The proposed biosensor shows a dynamic range of 00.10 × 10 -6 m to 27.30 × 10 -6 m, very low detection limit (10 × 10 -9 m), unique current response (1.6 s), sound H 2 O 2 recovery in serum, and substantial capability to classify two breast cancer subtypes (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) based on their difference in the H 2 O 2 generation, offering potential applications in the biomedicine and pharmacology fields. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Novel amperometric glucose biosensor based on MXene nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Rakhi, R B; Nayak, Pranati; Xia, Chuan; Alshareef, Husam N

    2016-11-10

    A biosensor platform based on Au/MXene nanocomposite for sensitive enzymatic glucose detection is reported. The biosensor leverages the unique electrocatalytic properties and synergistic effects between Au nanoparticles and MXene sheets. An amperometric glucose biosensor is fabricated by the immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme on Nafion solubilized Au/ MXene nanocomposite over glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The biomediated Au nanoparticles play a significant role in facilitating the electron exchange between the electroactive center of GOx and the electrode. The GOx/Au/MXene/Nafion/GCE biosensor electrode displayed a linear amperometric response in the glucose concentration range from 0.1 to 18 mM with a relatively high sensitivity of 4.2 μAmM -1 cm -2 and a detection limit of 5.9 μM (S/N = 3). Furthermore, the biosensor exhibited excellent stability, reproducibility and repeatability. Therefore, the Au/MXene nanocomposite reported in this work is a potential candidate as an electrochemical transducer in electrochemical biosensors.

  9. Novel amperometric glucose biosensor based on MXene nanocomposite

    PubMed Central

    Rakhi, R. B.; Nayuk, Pranati; Xia, Chuan; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2016-01-01

    A biosensor platform based on Au/MXene nanocomposite for sensitive enzymatic glucose detection is reported. The biosensor leverages the unique electrocatalytic properties and synergistic effects between Au nanoparticles and MXene sheets. An amperometric glucose biosensor is fabricated by the immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme on Nafion solubilized Au/ MXene nanocomposite over glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The biomediated Au nanoparticles play a significant role in facilitating the electron exchange between the electroactive center of GOx and the electrode. The GOx/Au/MXene/Nafion/GCE biosensor electrode displayed a linear amperometric response in the glucose concentration range from 0.1 to 18 mM with a relatively high sensitivity of 4.2 μAmM−1 cm−2 and a detection limit of 5.9 μM (S/N = 3). Furthermore, the biosensor exhibited excellent stability, reproducibility and repeatability. Therefore, the Au/MXene nanocomposite reported in this work is a potential candidate as an electrochemical transducer in electrochemical biosensors. PMID:27830757

  10. Conducting polymer based DNA biosensor for the detection of the Bacillus cereus group species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velusamy, Vijayalakshmi; Arshak, Khalil; Korostynska, Olga; Oliwa, Kamila; Adley, Catherine

    2009-05-01

    Biosensor designs are emerging at a significant rate and play an increasingly important role in foodborne pathogen detection. Conducting polymers are excellent tools for the fabrication of biosensors and polypyrrole has been used in the detection of biomolecules due to its unique properties. The prime intention of this paper was to pioneer the design and fabrication of a single-strand (ss) DNA biosensor for the detection of the Bacillus cereus (B.cereus) group species. Growth of B. cereus, results in production of several highly active toxins. Therefore, consumption of food containing >106 bacteria/gm may results in emetic and diarrhoeal syndromes. The most common source of this bacterium is found in liquid food products, milk powder, mixed food products and is of particular concern in the baby formula industry. The electrochemical deposition technique, such as cyclic voltammetry, was used to develop and test a model DNA-based biosensor on a gold electrode electropolymerized with polypyrrole. The electrically conducting polymer, polypyrrole is used as a platform for immobilizing DNA (1μg) on the gold electrode surface, since it can be more easily deposited from neutral pH aqueous solutions of pyrrolemonomers. The average current peak during the electrodeposition event is 288μA. There is a clear change in the current after hybridization of the complementary oligonucleotide (6.35μA) and for the noncomplementary oligonucleotide (5.77μA). The drop in current after each event was clearly noticeable and it proved to be effective.

  11. Macro-/Nano- Materials Based Ultrasensitive Lateral Flow Nucleic Acid Biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takalkar, Sunitha

    Ultrasensitive detection of nucleic acids plays a very important role in the field of molecular diagnosis for the detection of various diseases. Lateral flow biosensors (LFB) are convenient, easy-to-use, patient friendly forms of detection methods offering rapid and convenient clinical testing in close proximity to the patients thus drawing a lot of attention in different areas of research over the years. In comparison with the traditional immunoassays, the nucleic acid based lateral flow biosensors (NABLFB) has several advantages in terms of stability and interference capabilities. NABLFB utilizes nucleic acid probes as the bio-recognition element. The target analyte typically is the oligonucleotide like the DNA, mRNA, miRNA which are among the nucleic acid secretions by the tumor cells when it comes to detection of cancer. Traditionally gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have been used as labels for conjugating with the detection probes for the qualitative and semi quantitative analysis, the application of GNP-based LFB is limited by its low sensitivity. This dissertation describes the use of different nanomaterials and advanced detection technologies to enhance the sensitivities of the LFB based methods. Silica Nanorods decorated with GNP were synthesized and employed as labels for ultrasensitive detection of miRNA on the LFB. Owing to the biocompatibility and convenience in surface modification of SiNRs, they acted as good carriers to load numerous GNPs. The sensitivity of the GNP-SiNR-based LFSB was enhanced six times compared to the previous GNP-based LFSB. A fluorescent carbon nanoparticle (FCN) was first used as a tag to develop a lateral flow nucleic acid biosensor for ultrasensitive and quantitative detection of nucleic acid samples. Under optimal conditions, the FCN-based LFNAB was capable of detecting minimum 0.4 fM target DNA without complex operations and additional signal amplification. The carbon nanotube was used as a label and carrier of numerous enzyme

  12. Amperometric Glucose Biosensor Based on Effective Self-Assembly Technology for Preparation of Poly(allylamine hydrochloride)/Au Nanoparticles Multilayers.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yuhang; Xie, Hangqing; Shao, Xiaobao; Wei, Yuan; Liu, Yuhong; Zhao, Wenbo; Xia, Xinyi

    2016-03-01

    Novel nanomaterials and nanotechnology for use in bioassay applications represent a rapidly advancing field. This study developed a novel method to fabricate the glucose biosensor with good gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) fixed efficiency based on effective self-assembly technology for preparation of multilayers composed of poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and AuNPs. The electrochemical properties of the biosensor based on (AuNPs/PAH)n/AuNPs/glucose oxide (GOD) with different multilayers were systematically investigated. Among the resulting glucose biosensors, electrochemical properties of the biosensor with three times self-assembly processes ((AuNPs/PAH)3/AuNPs/GOD) is best. The GOD biosensor exhibited a fast amperometric response (5 s) to glucose, a good linear current-time relation over a wide range of glucose concentrations from 0.05 to 162 mM, and a low detection limit of 0.029 mM. The GOD biosensor modified with (AuNPs/PAH)n layers will have essential significance and practical application in future owing to the simple method of fabrication and good performance.

  13. SPRi-based biosensing platforms for detection of specific DNA sequences using thiolate and dithiocarbamate assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozd, Marcin; Pietrzak, Mariusz D.; Malinowska, Elżbieta

    2018-05-01

    The framework of presented study covers the development and examination of the analytical performance of surface plasmon resonance-based (SPR) DNA biosensors dedicated for a detection of model target oligonucleotide sequence. For this aim, various strategies of immobilization of DNA probes on gold transducers were tested. Besides the typical approaches: chemisorption of thiolated ssDNA (DNA-thiol) and physisorption of non-functionalized oligonucleotides, relatively new method based on chemisorption of dithiocarbamate-functionalized ssDNA (DNA-DTC) was applied for the first time for preparation of DNA-based SPR biosensor. The special emphasis was put on the correlation between the method of DNA immobilization and the composition of obtained receptor layer. The carried out studies focused on the examination of the capability of developed receptors layers to interact with both target DNA and DNA-functionalized AuNPs. It was found, that the detection limit of target DNA sequence (27 nb length) depends on the strategy of probe immobilization and backfilling method, and in the best case it amounted to 0,66 nM. Moreover, the application of ssDNA-functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as plasmonic labels for secondary enhancement of SPR response is presented. The influence of spatial organization and surface density of a receptor layer on the ability to interact with DNA-functionalized AuNPs is discussed. Due to the best compatibility of receptors immobilized via DTC chemisorption: 1.47 ± 0.4 ·1012 molecules • cm-2 (with the calculated area occupied by single nanoparticle label of 132.7 nm2), DNA chemisorption based on DTCs is pointed as especially promising for DNA biosensors utilizing indirect detection in competitive assays.

  14. SPRi-Based Biosensing Platforms for Detection of Specific DNA Sequences Using Thiolate and Dithiocarbamate Assemblies.

    PubMed

    Drozd, Marcin; Pietrzak, Mariusz D; Malinowska, Elżbieta

    2018-01-01

    The framework of presented study covers the development and examination of the analytical performance of surface plasmon resonance-based (SPR) DNA biosensors dedicated for a detection of model target oligonucleotide sequence. For this aim, various strategies of immobilization of DNA probes on gold transducers were tested. Besides the typical approaches: chemisorption of thiolated ssDNA (DNA-thiol) and physisorption of non-functionalized oligonucleotides, relatively new method based on chemisorption of dithiocarbamate-functionalized ssDNA (DNA-DTC) was applied for the first time for preparation of DNA-based SPR biosensor. The special emphasis was put on the correlation between the method of DNA immobilization and the composition of obtained receptor layer. The carried out studies focused on the examination of the capability of developed receptors layers to interact with both target DNA and DNA-functionalized AuNPs. It was found, that the detection limit of target DNA sequence (27 nb length) depends on the strategy of probe immobilization and backfilling method, and in the best case it amounted to 0.66 nM. Moreover, the application of ssDNA-functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as plasmonic labels for secondary enhancement of SPR response is presented. The influence of spatial organization and surface density of a receptor layer on the ability to interact with DNA-functionalized AuNPs is discussed. Due to the best compatibility of receptors immobilized via DTC chemisorption: 1.47 ± 0.4 · 10 12 molecules · cm -2 (with the calculated area occupied by single nanoparticle label of ~132.7 nm 2 ), DNA chemisorption based on DTCs is pointed as especially promising for DNA biosensors utilizing indirect detection in competitive assays.

  15. A novel GMO biosensor for rapid ultrasensitive and simultaneous detection of multiple DNA components in GMO products.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lin; Zheng, Lei; Chen, Yinji; Xue, Feng; Cheng, Lin; Adeloju, Samuel B; Chen, Wei

    2015-04-15

    Since the introduction of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), there has been on-going and continuous concern and debates on the commercialization of products derived from GMOs. There is an urgent need for development of highly efficient analytical methods for rapid and high throughput screening of GMOs components, as required for appropriate labeling of GMO-derived foods, as well as for on-site inspection and import/export quarantine. In this study, we describe, for the first time, a multi-labeling based electrochemical biosensor for simultaneous detection of multiple DNA components of GMO products on the same sensing interface. Two-round signal amplification was applied by using both an exonuclease enzyme catalytic reaction and gold nanoparticle-based bio-barcode related strategies, respectively. Simultaneous multiple detections of different DNA components of GMOs were successfully achieved with satisfied sensitivity using this electrochemical biosensor. Furthermore, the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed approach was successfully demonstrated by application to various GMO products, including locally obtained and confirmed commercial GMO seeds and transgenetic plants. The proposed electrochemical biosensor demonstrated unique merits that promise to gain more interest in its use for rapid and on-site simultaneous multiple screening of different components of GMO products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Electronic Biosensors Based on III-Nitride Semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Kirste, Ronny; Rohrbaugh, Nathaniel; Bryan, Isaac; Bryan, Zachary; Collazo, Ramon; Ivanisevic, Albena

    2015-01-01

    We review recent advances of AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT)-based electronic biosensors. We discuss properties and fabrication of III-nitride-based biosensors. Because of their superior biocompatibility and aqueous stability, GaN-based devices are ready to be implemented as next-generation biosensors. We review surface properties, cleaning, and passivation as well as different pathways toward functionalization, and critically analyze III-nitride-based biosensors demonstrated in the literature, including those detecting DNA, bacteria, cancer antibodies, and toxins. We also discuss the high potential of these biosensors for monitoring living cardiac, fibroblast, and nerve cells. Finally, we report on current developments of covalent chemical functionalization of III-nitride devices. Our review concludes with a short outlook on future challenges and projected implementation directions of GaN-based HEMT biosensors.

  17. Amperometric L-lysine biosensor based on carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes-SnO2 nanoparticles-graphene composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaçar, Ceren; Erden, Pınar Esra; Kılıç, Esma

    2017-10-01

    A novel matrix, carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes-tin oxide nanoparticles-graphene-chitosan (c-MWCNTs-SnO2-GR-CS) composite, was prepared for biosensor construction. Lysine oxidase (LOx) enzyme was immobilized covalently on the surface of c-MWCNTs-GR-SnO2-CS composite modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) using N-ethyl-N‧-(3-dimethyaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydroxyl succinimide (NHS). Effects of electrode composition and buffer pH on biosensor response were investigated to optimize the working conditions. The biosensor exhibited wide linear range (9.9 × 10-7 M-1.6 × 10-4 M), low detection limit (1.5 × 10-7 M), high sensitivity (55.20 μA mM-1 cm-2) and fast amperometric response (<25 s) at +0.70 V vs. Ag/AgCl. With good repeatability and long-term stability, the c-MWCNTs-SnO2-GR-CS based biosensor offered an alternative for L-lysine biosensing. The practical applicability of the biosensor in two dietary supplements has also been addressed.

  18. Single plasmonic nanoparticles for ultrasensitive DNA sensing: From invisible to visible.

    PubMed

    Guo, Longhua; Chen, Lichan; Hong, Seungpyo; Kim, Dong-Hwan

    2016-05-15

    The background signal is a major factor that restricts the limit of detection of biosensors. Herein, we present a zero-background DNA-sensing approach that utilizes enzyme-guided gold nanoparticle (AuNP) enlargement. This sensing strategy is based on the finding that small nanoparticles are invisible under a darkfield optical microscope, thus completely eliminating the background signal. In the event of target binding, Ag deposition is triggered and enlarges the AuNP beyond its optical diffraction limit, thereby making the invisible AuNP visible. Because the plasmon scattering of Ag is stronger than that of Au, only a thin layer of Ag is required to greatly enhance the scattering intensity of the AuNPs. Our investigation revealed that a target DNA concentration as low as 5.0×10(-21)M can transform the darkfield image of the nanoparticle from completely dark (invisible) to a blue dot (visible). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Nano-machining of biosensor electrodes through gold nanoparticles deposition produced by femtosecond laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Della Ventura, B.; Funari, R.; Anoop, K. K.; Amoruso, S.; Ausanio, G.; Gesuele, F.; Velotta, R.; Altucci, C.

    2015-06-01

    We report an application of femtosecond laser ablation to improve the sensitivity of biosensors based on a quartz crystal microbalance device. The nanoparticles produced by irradiating a gold target with 527-nm, 300-fs laser pulses, in high vacuum, are directly deposited on the quartz crystal microbalance electrode. Different gold electrodes are fabricated by varying the deposition time, thus addressing how the nanoparticles surface coverage influences the sensor response. The modified biosensor is tested by weighting immobilized IgG antibody from goat and its analyte (IgG from mouse), and the results are compared with a standard electrode. A substantial increase of biosensor sensitivity is achieved, thus demonstrating that femtosecond laser ablation and deposition is a viable physical method to improve the biosensor sensitivity by means of nanostructured electrodes.

  20. An amperometric hydrogen peroxide biosensor based on Co3O4 nanoparticles and multiwalled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaçar, Ceren; Dalkiran, Berna; Erden, Pınar Esra; Kiliç, Esma

    2014-08-01

    In this work a new type of hydrogen peroxide biosensor was fabricated based on the immobilization of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) by cross-linking on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with Co3O4 nanoparticles, multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and gelatin. The introduction of MWCNTs and Co3O4 nanoparticles not only enhanced the surface area of the modified electrode for enzyme immobilization but also facilitated the electron transfer rate, resulting in a high sensitivity of the biosensor. The fabrication process of the sensing surface was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Amperometric detection of hydrogen peroxide was investigated by holding the modified electrode at -0.30 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). The biosensor showed optimum response within 5 s at pH 7.0. The optimized biosensor showed linear response range of 7.4 × 10-7-1.9 × 10-5 M with a detection limit of 7.4 × 10-7. The applicability of the purposed biosensor was tested by detecting hydrogen peroxide in disinfector samples. The average recovery was calculated as 100.78 ± 0.89.

  1. A label-free, PCR-free and signal-on electrochemical DNA biosensor for Leishmania major based on gold nanoleaves.

    PubMed

    Moradi, M; Sattarahmady, N; Rahi, A; Hatam, G R; Sorkhabadi, S M Rezayat; Heli, H

    2016-12-01

    Detection of leishmaniasis is important in clinical diagnoses. In the present study, identification of Leishmania parasites was performed by a label-free, PCR-free and signal-on ultrasensitive electrochemical DNA biosensor. Gold nanoleaves were firstly electrodeposited by an electrodeposition method using spermidine as a shape directing agent. The biosensor was fabricated by immobilization of a Leishmania major specific DNA probe onto gold nanoleaves, and methylene blue was employed as a marker. Hybridization of the complementary single stranded DNA sequence with the biosensor under the selected conditions was then investigated. The biosensor could detect a synthetic DNA target in a range of 1.0×10 -10 to 1.0×10 -19 molL -1 with a limit of detection of 1.8×10 -20 molL -1 , and genomic DNA in a range of 0.5-20ngμL -1 with a limit of detection of 0.07ngμL -1 . The biosensor could distinguish Leishmania major from a non-complementary-sequence oligonucleotide and the tropica species with a high selectivity. The biosensor was applicable to detect Leishmania major in patient samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Nano-particle enhanced impedimetric biosensor for detedtion of foodborne pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, G.; Om, A. S.; Mun, J. H.

    2007-03-01

    Recent outbreaks of foodborne illness have been increased the need for rapid and sensitive methods for detection of these pathogens. Conventional methods for pathogens detection and identification involve prolonged multiple enrichment steps. Even though some immunological rapid assays are available, these assays still need enrichment steps result in delayed detection. Biosensors have shown great potential for rapid detection of foodborne pathogens. They are capable of direct monitoring the antigen-antibody reactions in real time. Among the biosensors, impedimetric biosensors have been widely adapted as an analysis tool for the study of various biological binding reactions because of their high sensitivity and reagentless operation. In this study a nanoparticle-enhanced impedimetric biosensor for Salmonella enteritidis detection was developed which detected impedance changes caused by the attachment of the cells to the anti-Salmonella antibodies immobilized on interdigitated gold electrodes. Successive immobilization of neutravidin followed by anti-Salmonella antibodies was performed to the sensing area to create a biological detection surface. To enhance the impedance responses generated by antigen-antibody reactions, anti-Salmonella antibody conjugated nanoparticles were introduced on the sensing area. Using a portable impedance analyzer, the impedance across the interdigital electrodes was measured after the series of antigen-antibody bindings. Bacteria cells present in solution attached to capture antibodies and became tethered to the sensor surface. Attached bacteria cells changed the dielectric constant of the media between the electrodes thereby causing a change in measured impedance. Optimum input frequency was determined by analyzing frequency characteristics of the biosensor over ranges of applied frequencies from 10 Hz to 400 Hz. At 100 Hz of input frequency, the biosensor was most sensitive to the changes of the bacteria concentration and this frequency

  3. Biosensors for DNA sequence detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vercoutere, Wenonah; Akeson, Mark

    2002-01-01

    DNA biosensors are being developed as alternatives to conventional DNA microarrays. These devices couple signal transduction directly to sequence recognition. Some of the most sensitive and functional technologies use fibre optics or electrochemical sensors in combination with DNA hybridization. In a shift from sequence recognition by hybridization, two emerging single-molecule techniques read sequence composition using zero-mode waveguides or electrical impedance in nanoscale pores.

  4. Au nanoparticles/hollow molybdenum disulfide microcubes based biosensor for microRNA-21 detection coupled with duplex-specific nuclease and enzyme signal amplification.

    PubMed

    Shuai, Hong-Lei; Huang, Ke-Jing; Chen, Ying-Xu; Fang, Lin-Xia; Jia, Meng-Pei

    2017-03-15

    An ultrasensitive electrochemical biosensor for detecting microRNAs is fabricated based on hollow molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) microcubes. Duplex-specific nuclease, enzyme and electrochemical-chemical-chemical redox cycling are used for signal amplification. Hollow MoS 2 microcubes constructed by ultrathin nanosheets are synthesized by a facile template-assisted strategy and used as supporting substrate. For biosensor assembling, biotinylated ssDNA capture probes are first immobilized on Au nanoparticles (AuNPs)/MoS 2 modified electrode in order to combine with streptavidin-conjugated alkaline phosphatase (SA-ALP). When capture probes hybridize with miRNAs, duplex-specific nuclease cleaves the formative duplexes. At the moment, the biotin group strips from the electrode surface and SA-ALP is incapacitated to attach onto electrode. Then, ascorbic acids induce the electrochemical-chemical-chemical redox cycling to produce electrochemical response in the presence of ferrocene methanol and tris (2-carboxyethyl) phosphine. Under optimum conditions, the proposed biosensor shows a good linear relationship between the current variation and logarithm of the microRNAs concentration ranging from 0.1fM to 0.1pM with a detection limit of 0.086fM (S/N=3). Furthermore, the biosensor is successfully applied to detect target miRNA-21 in human serum samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Self-Assembled DNA Tetrahedral Scaffolds for the Construction of Electrochemiluminescence Biosensor with Programmable DNA Cyclic Amplification.

    PubMed

    Feng, Qiu-Mei; Guo, Yue-Hua; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2017-05-24

    A novel DNA tetrahedron-structured electrochemiluminescence (ECL) platform for bioanalysis with programmable DNA cyclic amplification was developed. In this work, glucose oxidase (GOD) was labeled to a DNA sequence (S) as functional conjugation (GOD-S), which could hybridize with other DNA sequences (L and P) to form GOD-S:L:P probe. In the presence of target DNA and a help DNA (A), the programmable DNA cyclic amplification was activated and released GOD-S via toehold-mediated strand displacement. Then, the obtained GOD-S was further immobilized on the DNA tetrahedral scaffolds with a pendant capture DNA and Ru(bpy) 3 2+ -conjugated silica nanoparticles (RuSi NPs) decorated on the electrode surface. Thus, the amount of GOD-S assembled on the electrode surface depended on the concentration of target DNA and GOD could catalyze glucose to generate H 2 O 2 in situ. The ECL signal of Ru(bpy) 3 2+ -TPrA system was quenched by the presence of H 2 O 2 . By integrating the programmable DNA cyclic amplification and in situ generating H 2 O 2 as Ru(bpy) 3 2+ ECL quencher, a sensitive DNA tetrahedron-structured ECL sensing platform was proposed for DNA detection. Under optimized conditions, this biosensor showed a wide linear range from 100 aM to 10 pM with a detection limit of 40 aM, indicating a promising application in DNA analysis. Furthermore, by labeling GOD to different recognition elements, the proposed strategy could be used for the detection of various targets. Thus, this programmable cascade amplification strategy not only retains the high selectivity and good capturing efficiency of tetrahedral-decorated electrode surface but also provides potential applications in the construction of ECL biosensor.

  6. Post-Translational Modification of Bionanoparticles as a Modular Platform for Biosensor Assembly.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qing; Chen, Qi; Blackstock, Daniel; Chen, Wilfred

    2015-08-25

    Context driven biosensor assembly with modular targeting and detection moieties is gaining significant attentions. Although protein-based nanoparticles have emerged as an excellent platform for biosensor assembly, current strategies of decorating bionanoparticles with targeting and detection moieties often suffer from unfavorable spacing and orientation as well as bionanoparticle aggregation. Herein, we report a highly modular post-translational modification approach for biosensor assembly based on sortase A-mediated ligation. This approach enables the simultaneous modifications of the Bacillus stearothermophilus E2 nanoparticles with different functional moieties for antibody, enzyme, DNA aptamer, and dye decoration. The resulting easy-purification platform offers a high degree of targeting and detection modularity with signal amplification. This flexibility is demonstrated for the detection of both immobilized antigens and cancer cells.

  7. Highly sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensor for the detection of HIV-related DNA based on dynamic and structural DNA nanodevices.

    PubMed

    Diao, Wei; Tang, Min; Ding, Shijia; Li, Xinmin; Cheng, Wenbin; Mo, Fei; Yan, Xiaoyu; Ma, Hongmin; Yan, Yurong

    2018-02-15

    Early detection, diagnosis and treatment of human immune deficiency virus (HIV) infection is the key to reduce acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) mortality. In our research, an innovative surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensing strategy has been developed for highly sensitive detection of HIV-related DNA based on entropy-driven strand displacement reactions (ESDRs) and double-layer DNA tetrahedrons (DDTs). ESDRs as enzyme-free and label-free signal amplification circuit can be specifically triggered by target DNA, leading to the cyclic utilization of target DNA and the formation of plentiful double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) products. Subsequently, the dsDNA products bind to the immobilized hairpin capture probes and further combine with DDTs nanostructures. Due to the high efficiency of ESDRs and large molecular weight of DDTs, the SPR response signal was enhanced dramatically. The proposed SPR biosensor could detect target DNA sensitively and specifically in a linear range from 1pM to 150nM with a detection limit of 48fM. In addition, the whole detecting process can be accomplished in 60min with high accuracy and duplicability. In particular, the developed SPR biosensor was successfully used to analyze target DNA in complex biological sample, indicating that the developed strategy is promising for rapid and early clinical diagnosis of HIV infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Facile and controllable preparation of glucose biosensor based on Prussian blue nanoparticles hybrid composites.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Sheng, Qinglin; Zheng, Jianbin; Zhang, Hongfang

    2008-11-01

    A glucose biosensor based on polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) protected Prussian blue nanoparticles (PBNPs)-polyaniline/multi-walled carbon nanotubes hybrid composites was fabricated by electrochemical method. A novel route for PBNPs preparation was applied in the fabrication with the help of PVP, and from scanning electron microscope images, Prussian blue particles on the electrode were found nanoscaled. The biosensor exhibits fast current response (<6 s) and a linearity in the range from 6.7x10(-6) to 1.9x10(-3) M with a high sensitivity of 6.28 microA mM(-1) and a detection limit of 6x10(-7) M (S/N=3) for the detection of glucose. The apparent activation energy of enzyme-catalyzed reaction and the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant are 23.9 kJ mol(-1) and 1.9 mM respectively, which suggests a high affinity of the enzyme-substrate. This easy and controllable construction method of glucose biosensor combines the characteristics of the components of the hybrid composites, which favors the fast and sensitive detection of glucose with improved analytical capabilities. In addition, the biosensor was examined in human serum samples for glucose determination with a recovery between 95.0 and 104.5%.

  9. CdS/MoS2 heterojunction-based photoelectrochemical DNA biosensor via enhanced chemiluminescence excitation.

    PubMed

    Zang, Yang; Lei, Jianping; Hao, Qing; Ju, Huangxian

    2016-03-15

    This work developed a CdS/MoS2 heterojunction-based photoelectrochemical biosensor for sensitive detection of DNA under the enhanced chemiluminescence excitation of luminol catalyzed by hemin-DNA complex. The CdS/MoS2 photocathode was prepared by the stepwise assembly of MoS2 and CdS quantum dots (QDs) on indium tin oxide (ITO), and achieved about 280% increasing of photocurrent compared to pure CdS QDs electrode due to the formation of heterostructure. High photoconversion efficiency in the photoelectrochemical system was identified to be the rapid spatial charge separation of electron-hole pairs by the extension of electron transport time and electron lifetime. In the presence of target DNA, the catalytic hairpin assembly was triggered, and simultaneously the dual hemin-labeled DNA probe was introduced to capture DNA/CdS/MoS2 modified ITO electrode. Thus the chemiluminescence emission of luminol was enhanced via hemin-induced mimetic catalysis, leading to the physical light-free photoelectrochemical strategy. Under optimized conditions, the resulting photoelectrode was proportional to the logarithm of target DNA concentration in the range from 1 fM to 100 pM with a detection limit of 0.39 fM. Moreover, the cascade amplification biosensor demonstrated high selectivity, desirable stability and good reproducibility, showing great prospect in molecular diagnosis and bioanalysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Use of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles for Enhancement of Biosensor Response to the Herbicide 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Kee-Shyuan; Lee, Yook Heng; Musa, Ahmad; Salmah, Abdul Aziz; Zamri, Ishak

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles of Fe3O4 were synthesized and characterized using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The Fe3O4 nanoparticles were found to have an average diameter of 5.48 ±1.37 nm. An electrochemical biosensor based on immobilized alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Fe3O4 nanoparticles was studied. The amperometric biosensor was based on the reaction of ALP with the substrate ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (AA2P). The incorporation of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles together with ALP into a sol gel/chitosan biosensor membrane has led to the enhancement of the biosensor response, with an improved linear response range to the substrate AA2P (5-120 μM) and increased sensitivity. Using the inhibition property of the ALP, the biosensor was applied to the determination of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). The use of Fe3O4 nanoparticles gives a two-fold improvement in the sensitivity towards 2,4-D, with a linear response range of 0.5-30 μgL-1. Exposure of the biosensor to other toxicants such as heavy metals demonstrated only slight interference from metals such as Hg2+, Cu2+, Ag2+ and Pb2+. The biosensor was shown to be useful for the determination of the herbicide 2, 4-D because good recovery of 95-100 percent was obtained, even though the analysis was performed in water samples with a complex matrix. Furthermore, the results from the analysis of 2,4-D in water samples using the biosensor correlated well with a HPLC method. PMID:27873839

  11. Preparation of surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on magnetic core/shell Fe3O4/SiO2 and Fe3O4/Ag/SiO2 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liying; Sun, Ying; Wang, Jing; Wang, Jian; Yu, Aimin; Zhang, Hanqi; Song, Daqian

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, surface plasmon resonance biosensors based on magnetic core/shell Fe(3)O(4)/SiO(2) and Fe(3)O(4)/Ag/SiO(2) nanoparticles were developed for immunoassay. With Fe(3)O(4) and Fe(3)O(4)/Ag nanoparticles being used as seeding materials, Fe(3)O(4)/SiO(2) and Fe(3)O(4)/Ag/SiO(2) nanoparticles were formed by hydrolysis of tetraethyl orthosilicate. The aldehyde group functionalized magnetic nanoparticles provide organic functionality for bioconjugation. The products were characterized by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), transmission electronic microscopy (TEM), FTIR and UV-vis absorption spectrometry. The magnetic nanoparticles possess the unique superparamagnetism property, exceptional optical properties and good compatibilities, and could be used as immobilization matrix for goat anti-rabbit IgG. The magnetic nanoparticles can be easily immobilized on the surface of SPR biosensor chip by a magnetic pillar. The effects of Fe(3)O(4)/SiO(2) and Fe(3)O(4)/Ag/SiO(2) nanoparticles on the sensitivity of SPR biosensors were also investigated. As a result, the SPR biosensors based on Fe(3)O(4)/SiO(2) nanoparticles and Fe(3)O(4)/Ag/SiO(2) nanoparticles exhibit a response for rabbit IgG in the concentration range of 1.25-20.00 μg ml(-1) and 0.30-20.00 μg ml(-1), respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Electroacoustic miniaturized DNA-biosensor.

    PubMed

    Gamby, Jean; Lazerges, Mathieu; Pernelle, Christine; Perrot, Hubert; Girault, Hubert H; Tribollet, Bernard

    2007-11-01

    A micrometer-sized electroacoustic DNA-biosensor was developed. The device included a thin semi-crystalline polyethylene terephthalate (PET) dielectric layer with two Ag microband electrodes on one side and a DNA thiol-labeled monolayer adsorbed on a gold surface on the other. A resonance wave was observed at 29 MHz with a network analyzer, upon AC voltage application between the two Ag electrodes, corresponding to electromechanical coupling induced by molecular dipoles of the PET polymer chain in the dielectric layer. It was found that the device size and geometry were well adapted to detect DNA hybridization, by measuring the capacity of the resonance response evolution: hybridization induced polarization of the dielectric material that affected the electromechanical coupling established in the dielectric layer. The 0.2 mm(2) sensor sensitive area allows detection in small volumes and still has higher detection levels for bioanalytical applications, the non-contact configuration adopted avoids electric faradic reactions that may damage biosensor sensitive layers, and finally, PET is a costless raw material, easy to process and well adapted for large scale production. The well-balanced technological and economic advantages of this kind of device make it a good candidate for biochip integration.

  13. Impedimetric DNA biosensor based on a nanoporous alumina membrane for the detection of the specific oligonucleotide sequence of dengue virus.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jiajia; Toh, Chee-Seng

    2013-06-17

    A novel and integrated membrane sensing platform for DNA detection is developed based on an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane. Platinum electrodes (~50-100 nm thick) are coated directly on both sides of the alumina membrane to eliminate the solution resistance outside the nanopores. The electrochemical impedance technique is employed to monitor the impedance changes within the nanopores upon DNA binding. Pore resistance (Rp) linearly increases in response towards the increasing concentration of the target DNA in the range of 1 × 10⁻¹² to 1 × 10⁻⁶ M. Moreover, the biosensor selectively differentiates the complementary sequence from single base mismatched (MM-1) strands and non-complementary strands. This study reveals a simple, selective and sensitive method to fabricate a label-free DNA biosensor.

  14. Methylamine-Sensitive Amperometric Biosensor Based on (His)6-Tagged Hansenula polymorpha Methylamine Oxidase Immobilized on the Gold Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Stasyuk, Nataliya Ye.; Smutok, Oleh V.; Zakalskiy, Andriy E.; Zakalska, Oksana M.; Gonchar, Mykhailo V.

    2014-01-01

    A novel methylamine-selective amperometric bienzyme biosensor based on recombinant primary amine oxidase isolated from the recombinant yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae and commercial horseradish peroxidase is described. Two amine oxidase preparations were used: free enzyme (AMO) and covalently immobilized on the surface of gold nanoparticles (AMO-nAu). Some bioanalytical parameters (sensitivity, selectivity, and storage stability) of the developed biosensors were investigated. The sensitivity for both sensors is high: 1450 ± 113 and 700 ± 30 A−1 ·M−1 ·m−2 for AMO-nAu biosensor, respectively. The biosensors exhibit the linear range from 15 μM to 150 μM (AMO-nAu) and from 15 μM to 60 μM (AMO). The developed biosensor demonstrated a good selectivity toward methylamine (MA) (signal for dimethylamine and trimethylamine is less than 5% and for ethylamine 15% compared to MA output) and reveals a satisfactory storage stability. The constructed amperometric biosensor was used for MA assay in real samples of fish products in comparison with chemical method. The values obtained with both approaches different methods demonstrated a high correlation. PMID:25136590

  15. Recent Trends in Rapid Environmental Monitoring of Pathogens and Toxicants: Potential of Nanoparticle-Based Biosensor and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Koedrith, Preeyaporn; Thasiphu, Thalisa; Weon, Jong-Il; Boonprasert, Rattana; Tuitemwong, Kooranee; Tuitemwong, Pravate

    2015-01-01

    Of global concern, environmental pollution adversely affects human health and socioeconomic development. The presence of environmental contaminants, especially bacterial, viral, and parasitic pathogens and their toxins as well as chemical substances, poses serious public health concerns. Nanoparticle-based biosensors are considered as potential tools for rapid, specific, and highly sensitive detection of the analyte of interest (both biotic and abiotic contaminants). In particular, there are several limitations of conventional detection methods for water-borne pathogens due to low concentrations and interference with various enzymatic inhibitors in the environmental samples. The increase of cells to detection levels requires long incubation time. This review describes current state of biosensor nanotechnology, the advantage over conventional detection methods, and the challenges due to testing of environmental samples. The major approach is to use nanoparticles as signal reporter to increase output rather than spending time to increase cell concentrations. Trends in future development of novel detection devices and their advantages over other environmental monitoring methodologies are also discussed. PMID:25884032

  16. Amperometric Biosensor Based on Diamine Oxidase/Platinum Nanoparticles/Graphene/Chitosan Modified Screen-Printed Carbon Electrode for Histamine Detection.

    PubMed

    Apetrei, Irina Mirela; Apetrei, Constantin

    2016-03-24

    This work describes the development and optimization studies of a novel biosensor employed in the detection and quantification of histamine in freshwater fish samples. The proposed biosensor is based on a modified carbon screen-printed electrode with diamineoxidase, graphene and platinum nanoparticles, which detects the hydrogen peroxide formed by the chemical process biocatalysed by the enzyme diamine oxidase and immobilized onto the nanostructurated surface of the receptor element. The amperometric measurements with the biosensor have been implemented in buffer solution of pH 7.4, applying an optimal low potential of +0.4 V. The novel biosensor shows high sensitivity (0.0631 μA·μM), low detection limit (2.54 × 10(-8) M) and a broad linear domain from 0.1 to 300 μM. The applicability in natural complex samples and the analytical parameters of this enzyme sensor have been performed in the quantification of histamine in freshwater fish. An excellent correlation among results achieved with the developed biosensor and results found with the standard method for all freshwater fish samples has been achieved.

  17. Amperometric Biosensor Based on Diamine Oxidase/Platinum Nanoparticles/Graphene/Chitosan Modified Screen-Printed Carbon Electrode for Histamine Detection

    PubMed Central

    Apetrei, Irina Mirela; Apetrei, Constantin

    2016-01-01

    This work describes the development and optimization studies of a novel biosensor employed in the detection and quantification of histamine in freshwater fish samples. The proposed biosensor is based on a modified carbon screen-printed electrode with diamineoxidase, graphene and platinum nanoparticles, which detects the hydrogen peroxide formed by the chemical process biocatalysed by the enzyme diamine oxidase and immobilized onto the nanostructurated surface of the receptor element. The amperometric measurements with the biosensor have been implemented in buffer solution of pH 7.4, applying an optimal low potential of +0.4 V. The novel biosensor shows high sensitivity (0.0631 μA·μM), low detection limit (2.54 × 10−8 M) and a broad linear domain from 0.1 to 300 μM. The applicability in natural complex samples and the analytical parameters of this enzyme sensor have been performed in the quantification of histamine in freshwater fish. An excellent correlation among results achieved with the developed biosensor and results found with the standard method for all freshwater fish samples has been achieved. PMID:27023541

  18. Graphene-Based Optical Biosensors and Imaging

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Tang, Zhiwen; He, Shijiang; Pei, Hao

    2014-01-13

    This chapter focuses on the design, fabrication and application of graphene based optical nanobiosensors. The emerging graphene based optical nanobiosensors demonstrated the promising bioassay and biomedical applications thanking to the unique optical features of graphene. According to the different applications, the graphene can be tailored to form either fluorescent emitter or efficient fluorescence quencher. The exceptional electronic feature of graphene makes it a powerful platform for fabricating the SPR and SERS biosensors. Today the graphene based optical biosensors have been constructed to detect various targets including ions, small biomolecules, DNA/RNA and proteins. This chapter reviews the recent progress in graphene-basedmore » optical biosensors and discusses the opportunities and challenges in this field.« less

  19. Development of a Sensitive Electrochemical Enzymatic Reaction-Based Cholesterol Biosensor Using Nano-Sized Carbon Interdigitated Electrodes Decorated with Gold Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Deepti; Lee, Jongmin; Seo, Junyoung; Shin, Heungjoo

    2017-01-01

    We developed a versatile and highly sensitive biosensor platform. The platform is based on electrochemical-enzymatic redox cycling induced by selective enzyme immobilization on nano-sized carbon interdigitated electrodes (IDEs) decorated with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Without resorting to sophisticated nanofabrication technologies, we used batch wafer-level carbon microelectromechanical systems (C-MEMS) processes to fabricate 3D carbon IDEs reproducibly, simply, and cost effectively. In addition, AuNPs were selectively electrodeposited on specific carbon nanoelectrodes; the high surface-to-volume ratio and fast electron transfer ability of AuNPs enhanced the electrochemical signal across these carbon IDEs. Gold nanoparticle characteristics such as size and morphology were reproducibly controlled by modulating the step-potential and time period in the electrodeposition processes. To detect cholesterol selectively using AuNP/carbon IDEs, cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) was selectively immobilized via the electrochemical reduction of the diazonium cation. The sensitivity of the AuNP/carbon IDE-based biosensor was ensured by efficient amplification of the redox mediators, ferricyanide and ferrocyanide, between selectively immobilized enzyme sites and both of the combs of AuNP/carbon IDEs. The presented AuNP/carbon IDE-based cholesterol biosensor exhibited a wide sensing range (0.005–10 mM) and high sensitivity (~993.91 µA mM−1 cm−2; limit of detection (LOD) ~1.28 µM). In addition, the proposed cholesterol biosensor was found to be highly selective for the cholesterol detection. PMID:28914766

  20. Development of a Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET)-Based DNA Biosensor for Detection of Synthetic Oligonucleotide of Ganoderma boninense.

    PubMed

    Bakhori, Noremylia Mohd; Yusof, Nor Azah; Abdullah, Abdul Halim; Hussein, Mohd Zobir

    2013-12-12

    An optical DNA biosensor based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) utilizing synthesized quantum dot (QD) has been developed for the detection of specific-sequence of DNA for Ganoderma boninense, an oil palm pathogen. Modified QD that contained carboxylic groups was conjugated with a single-stranded DNA probe (ssDNA) via amide-linkage. Hybridization of the target DNA with conjugated QD-ssDNA and reporter probe labeled with Cy5 allows for the detection of related synthetic DNA sequence of Ganoderma boninense gene based on FRET signals. Detection of FRET emission before and after hybridization was confirmed through the capability of the system to produce FRET at 680 nm for hybridized sandwich with complementary target DNA. No FRET emission was observed for non-complementary system. Hybridization time, temperature and effect of different concentration of target DNA were studied in order to optimize the developed system. The developed biosensor has shown high sensitivity with detection limit of 3.55 × 10-9 M. TEM results show that the particle size of QD varies in the range between 5 to 8 nm after ligand modification and conjugation with ssDNA. This approach is capable of providing a simple, rapid and sensitive method for detection of related synthetic DNA sequence of Ganoderma boninense.

  1. Development of a Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET)-Based DNA Biosensor for Detection of Synthetic Oligonucleotide of Ganoderma boninense

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Bakhori, Noremylia; Yusof, Nor Azah; Abdullah, Abdul Halim; Hussein, Mohd Zobir

    2013-01-01

    An optical DNA biosensor based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) utilizing synthesized quantum dot (QD) has been developed for the detection of specific-sequence of DNA for Ganoderma boninense, an oil palm pathogen. Modified QD that contained carboxylic groups was conjugated with a single-stranded DNA probe (ssDNA) via amide-linkage. Hybridization of the target DNA with conjugated QD-ssDNA and reporter probe labeled with Cy5 allows for the detection of related synthetic DNA sequence of Ganoderma boninense gene based on FRET signals. Detection of FRET emission before and after hybridization was confirmed through the capability of the system to produce FRET at 680 nm for hybridized sandwich with complementary target DNA. No FRET emission was observed for non-complementary system. Hybridization time, temperature and effect of different concentration of target DNA were studied in order to optimize the developed system. The developed biosensor has shown high sensitivity with detection limit of 3.55 × 10−9 M. TEM results show that the particle size of QD varies in the range between 5 to 8 nm after ligand modification and conjugation with ssDNA. This approach is capable of providing a simple, rapid and sensitive method for detection of related synthetic DNA sequence of Ganoderma boninense. PMID:25587406

  2. Development of a Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET)-Based DNA Biosensor for Detection of Synthetic Oligonucleotide of Ganoderma boninense.

    PubMed

    Mohd Bakhori, Noremylia; Yusof, Nor Azah; Abdullah, Abdul Halim; Hussein, Mohd Zobir

    2013-12-01

    An optical DNA biosensor based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) utilizing synthesized quantum dot (QD) has been developed for the detection of specific-sequence of DNA for Ganoderma boninense, an oil palm pathogen. Modified QD that contained carboxylic groups was conjugated with a single-stranded DNA probe (ssDNA) via amide-linkage. Hybridization of the target DNA with conjugated QD-ssDNA and reporter probe labeled with Cy5 allows for the detection of related synthetic DNA sequence of Ganoderma boninense gene based on FRET signals. Detection of FRET emission before and after hybridization was confirmed through the capability of the system to produce FRET at 680 nm for hybridized sandwich with complementary target DNA. No FRET emission was observed for non-complementary system. Hybridization time, temperature and effect of different concentration of target DNA were studied in order to optimize the developed system. The developed biosensor has shown high sensitivity with detection limit of 3.55 × 10(-9) M. TEM results show that the particle size of QD varies in the range between 5 to 8 nm after ligand modification and conjugation with ssDNA. This approach is capable of providing a simple, rapid and sensitive method for detection of related synthetic DNA sequence of Ganoderma boninense.

  3. Stimulus-response mesoporous silica nanoparticle-based chemiluminescence biosensor for cocaine determination.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhonghui; Tan, Yue; Xu, Kefeng; Zhang, Lan; Qiu, Bin; Guo, Longhua; Lin, Zhenyu; Chen, Guonan

    2016-01-15

    Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) based controlled release system had been coupled with diverse detection technologies to establish biosensors for different targets. Chemiluminescence (CL) system of luminol/H2O2 owns the characters of simplicity, low cost and high sensitivity, but the targets of which are mostly focused on some oxidants or which can participate in a chemical reaction that yields a product with a role in the CL reaction. In this study, chemiluminescent detection technique had been coupled with mesoporous silica-based controlled released system for the first time to develop a sensitive biosensor for the target which does not cause effect to the CL system itself. Cocaine had been chosen a model target, the MSN support was firstly loaded with glucose, then the positively charged MSN interacted with negatively charged oligonucleotides (the aptamer cocaine) to close the mesopores of MSN. At the present of target, cocaine binds with its aptamer with high affinity; the flexible linear aptamer structured will become stems structured through currently well-defined non-Waston-Crick interactions and causes the releasing of entrapped glucose into the solution. With the assistant of glucose oxidase (GOx), the released glucose can react with the dissolved oxgen to produce gluconic acid and H2O2, the latter can enhance the CL of luminol in the NaOH solution. The enhanced CL intensity has a relationship with the cocaine concentration in the range of 5.0-60μM with the detection limit of 1.43μM. The proposed method had been successfully applied to detect cocaine in serum samples with high selectivity. The same strategy can be applied to develop biosensors for different targets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Graphene-based biosensors.

    PubMed

    Szunerits, Sabine; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2018-06-06

    Reliable data obtained from analysis of DNA, proteins, bacteria and other disease-related molecules or organisms in biological samples have become a fundamental and crucial part of human health diagnostics and therapy. The development of non-invasive tests that are rapid, sensitive, specific and simple would allow patient discomfort to be prevented, delays in diagnosis to be avoided and the status of a disease to be followed up. Bioanalysis is thus a progressive discipline for which the future holds many exciting opportunities. The use of biosensors for the early diagnosis of diseases has become widely accepted as a point-of-care diagnosis with appropriate specificity in a short time. To allow a reliable diagnosis of a disease at an early stage, highly sensitive biosensors are required as the corresponding biomarkers are generally expressed at very low concentrations. In the past 50 years, various biosensors have been researched and developed encompassing a wide range of applications. This contrasts the limited number of commercially available biosensors. When it comes to sensing of biomarkers with the required picomolar (pM) sensitivity for real-time sensing of biological samples, only a handful of sensing systems have been proposed, and these are often rather complex and costly. Lately, graphene-based materials have been considered as superior over other nanomaterials for the development of sensitive biosensors. The advantages of graphene-based sensor interfaces are numerous, including enhanced surface loading of the desired ligand due to the high surface-to-volume ratio, excellent conductivity and a small band gap that is beneficial for sensitive electrical and electrochemical read-outs, as well as tunable optical properties for optical read-outs such as fluorescence and plasmonics. In this paper, we review the advances made in recent years on graphene-based biosensors in the field of medical diagnosis.

  5. A nonenzymatic DNA nanomachine for biomolecular detection by target recycling of hairpin DNA cascade amplification.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jiao; Li, Ningxing; Li, Chunrong; Wang, Xinxin; Liu, Yucheng; Mao, Guobin; Ji, Xinghu; He, Zhike

    2018-06-01

    Synthetic enzyme-free DNA nanomachine performs quasi-mechanical movements in response to external intervention, suggesting the promise of constructing sensitive and specific biosensors. Herein, a smart DNA nanomachine biosensor for biomolecule (such as nucleic acid, thrombin and adenosine) detection is developed by target-assisted enzyme-free hairpin DNA cascade amplifier. The whole DNA nanomachine system is constructed on gold nanoparticle which decorated with hundreds of locked hairpin substrate strands serving as DNA tracks, and the DNA nanomachine could be activated by target molecule toehold-mediated exchange on gold nanoparticle surface, resulted in the fluorescence recovery of fluorophore. The process is repeated so that each copy of the target can open multiplex fluorophore-labeled hairpin substrate strands, resulted in amplification of the fluorescence signal. Compared with the conventional biosensors of catalytic hairpin assembly (CHA) without substrate in solution, the DNA nanomachine could generate 2-3 orders of magnitude higher fluorescence signal. Furthermore, the DNA nanomachine could be used for nucleic acid, thrombin and adenosine highly sensitive specific detection based on isothermal, and homogeneous hairpin DNA cascade signal amplification in both buffer and a complicated biomatrix, and this kind of DNA nanomachine could be efficiently applied in the field of biomedical analysis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Nanostructured SERS-electrochemical biosensors for testing of anticancer drug interactions with DNA.

    PubMed

    Ilkhani, Hoda; Hughes, Taylor; Li, Jing; Zhong, Chuan Jian; Hepel, Maria

    2016-06-15

    Widely used anti-cancer treatments involving chemotherapeutic drugs result in cancer cell damage due to their strong interaction with DNA. In this work, we have developed laboratory biosensors for screening chemotherapeutic drugs and to aid in the assessment of DNA modification/damage caused by these drugs. The sensors utilize surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy and electrochemical methods to monitor sensory film modification and observe the drug-DNA reactivity. The self-assembled monolayer protected gold-disk electrode (AuDE) was coated with a reduced graphene oxide (rGO), decorated with plasmonic gold-coated Fe2Ni@Au magnetic nanoparticles functionalized with double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), a sequence of the breast cancer gene BRCA1. The nanobiosensors AuDE/SAM/rGO/Fe2Ni@Au/dsDNA were then subjected to the action of a model chemotherapeutic drug, doxorubicin (DOX), to assess the DNA modification and its dose dependence. The designed novel nanobiosensors offer SERS/electrochemical transduction, enabling chemically specific and highly sensitive analytical signals generation. The SERS measurements have corroborated the DOX intercalation into the DNA duplex whereas the electrochemical scans have indicated that the DNA modification by DOX proceeds in a concentration dependent manner, with limit of detection LOD=8 µg/mL (S/N=3), with semilog linearity over 3 orders of magnitude. These new biosensors are sensitive to agents that interact with DNA and facilitate the analysis of functional groups for determination of the binding mode. The proposed nanobiosensors can be applied in the first stage of the drug development for testing the interactions of new drugs with DNA before the drug efficacy can be assessed in more expensive testing in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Recent research trends of radio-frequency biosensors for biomolecular detection.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee-Jo; Yook, Jong-Gwan

    2014-11-15

    This article reviews radio-frequency (RF) biosensors based on passive and/or active devices and circuits. In particular, we focus on RF biosensors designed for detection of various biomolecules such as biotin-streptavidin, DNA hybridization, IgG, and glucose. The performance of these biosensors has been enhanced by the introduction of various sensing schemes with diverse nanomaterials (e.g., carbon nanotubes, graphene oxide, magnetic and gold nanoparticles, etc.). In addition, the RF biosensing platforms that can be associated with an RF active system are discussed. Finally, the challenges of RF biosensors are presented and suggestions are made for their future direction and prospects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Gold nanoparticles-induced enhancement of the analytical response of an electrochemical biosensor based on an organic-inorganic hybrid composite material.

    PubMed

    Barbadillo, M; Casero, E; Petit-Domínguez, M D; Vázquez, L; Pariente, F; Lorenzo, E

    2009-12-15

    The design and characterization of a new organic-inorganic hybrid composite material for glucose electrochemical sensing are described. This material is based on the entrapment of both gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and glucose oxidase, which was chosen as a model, into a sol-gel matrix. The addition of spectroscopic grade graphite to this system, which confers conductivity, leads to the development of a material particularly attractive for electrochemical biosensor fabrication. The characterization of the hybrid composite material was performed using atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy techniques. This composite material was applied to the determination of glucose in presence of hydroxymethylferrocene as a redox mediator. The system exhibits a clear electrocatalytic activity towards glucose, allowing its determination at 250 mV vs Ag/AgCl. The performance of the resulting enzyme biosensor was evaluated in terms of sensitivity, detection limit, linear response range, stability and accuracy. Finally, the enhancement of the analytical response of the resulting biosensor induced by the presence of gold nanoparticles was evaluated by comparison with a similar organic-inorganic hybrid composite material without AuNPs.

  9. A New Laccase Based Biosensor for Tartrazine.

    PubMed

    Mazlan, Siti Zulaikha; Lee, Yook Heng; Hanifah, Sharina Abu

    2017-12-09

    Laccase enzyme, a commonly used enzyme for the construction of biosensors for phenolic compounds was used for the first time to develop a new biosensor for the determination of the azo-dye tartrazine. The electrochemical biosensor was based on the immobilization of laccase on functionalized methacrylate-acrylate microspheres. The biosensor membrane is a composite of the laccase conjugated microspheres and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) coated on a carbon-paste screen-printed electrode. The reaction involving tartrazine can be catalyzed by laccase enzyme, where the current change was measured by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) at 1.1 V. The anodic peak current was linear within the tartrazine concentration range of 0.2 to 14 μM ( R ² = 0.979) and the detection limit was 0.04 μM. Common food ingredients or additives such as glucose, sucrose, ascorbic acid, phenol and sunset yellow did not interfere with the biosensor response. Furthermore, the biosensor response was stable up to 30 days of storage period at 4 °C. Foods and beverage were used as real samples for the biosensor validation. The biosensor response to tartrazine showed no significant difference with a standard HPLC method for tartrazine analysis.

  10. A New Laccase Based Biosensor for Tartrazine

    PubMed Central

    Mazlan, Siti Zulaikha; Lee, Yook Heng; Hanifah, Sharina Abu

    2017-01-01

    Laccase enzyme, a commonly used enzyme for the construction of biosensors for phenolic compounds was used for the first time to develop a new biosensor for the determination of the azo-dye tartrazine. The electrochemical biosensor was based on the immobilization of laccase on functionalized methacrylate-acrylate microspheres. The biosensor membrane is a composite of the laccase conjugated microspheres and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) coated on a carbon-paste screen-printed electrode. The reaction involving tartrazine can be catalyzed by laccase enzyme, where the current change was measured by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) at 1.1 V. The anodic peak current was linear within the tartrazine concentration range of 0.2 to 14 μM (R2 = 0.979) and the detection limit was 0.04 μM. Common food ingredients or additives such as glucose, sucrose, ascorbic acid, phenol and sunset yellow did not interfere with the biosensor response. Furthermore, the biosensor response was stable up to 30 days of storage period at 4 °C. Foods and beverage were used as real samples for the biosensor validation. The biosensor response to tartrazine showed no significant difference with a standard HPLC method for tartrazine analysis. PMID:29232842

  11. Hydrogen peroxide biosensor based on hemoglobin immobilized at graphene, flower-like zinc oxide, and gold nanoparticles nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Xie, Lingling; Xu, Yuandong; Cao, Xiaoyu

    2013-07-01

    In this work, a highly sensitive hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) biosensor based on immobilization of hemoglobin (Hb) at Au nanoparticles (AuNPs)/flower-like zinc oxide/graphene (AuNPs/ZnO/Gr) composite modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was constructed, where ZnO and Au nanoparticles were modified through layer-by-layer onto Gr/GCE. Flower-like ZnO nanoparticles could be easily prepared by adding ethanol to the precursor solution having higher concentration of hydroxide ions. The Hb/AuNPs/ZnO/Gr composite film showed a pair of well-defined, quasi-reversible redox peaks with a formal potential (E(0)) of -0.367 V, characteristic features of heme redox couple of Hb. The electron transfer rate constant (k(s)) of immobilized Hb was 1.3 s(-1). The developed biosensor showed a very fast response (<2 s) toward H2O2 with good sensitivity, wide linear range, and low detection limit of 0.8 μM. The fabricated biosensor showed interesting features, including high selectivity, acceptable stability, good reproducibility, and repeatability along with excellent conductivity, facile electron mobility of Gr, and good biocompatibility of ZnO and AuNPs. The fabrication method of this biosensor was simple and effective for determination of H2O2 in real samples with quick response, good sensitivity, high selectivity, and acceptable recovery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Biosensors and Bio-Bar Code Assays Based on Biofunctionalized Magnetic Microbeads

    PubMed Central

    Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole; Martelet, Claude; Chevolot, Yann; Cloarec, Jean-Pierre

    2007-01-01

    This review paper reports the applications of magnetic microbeads in biosensors and bio-bar code assays. Affinity biosensors are presented through different types of transducing systems: electrochemical, piezo electric or magnetic ones, applied to immunodetection and genodetection. Enzymatic biosensors are based on biofunctionalization through magnetic microbeads of a transducer, more often amperometric, potentiometric or conductimetric. The bio-bar code assays relie on a sandwich structure based on specific biological interaction of a magnetic microbead and a nanoparticle with a defined biological molecule. The magnetic particle allows the separation of the reacted target molecules from unreacted ones. The nanoparticles aim at the amplification and the detection of the target molecule. The bio-bar code assays allow the detection at very low concentration of biological molecules, similar to PCR sensitivity.

  13. Amperometric biosensors based on deposition of gold and platinum nanoparticles on polyvinylferrocene modified electrode for xanthine detection.

    PubMed

    Baş, Salih Zeki; Gülce, Handan; Yıldız, Salih; Gülce, Ahmet

    2011-12-15

    In this study, new xanthine biosensors, XO/Au/PVF/Pt and XO/Pt/PVF/Pt, based on electroless deposition of gold(Au) and platinum(Pt) nanoparticles on polyvinylferrocene(PVF) coated Pt electrode for detection of xanthine were presented. The amperometric responses of the enzyme electrodes were measured at the constant potential, which was due to the electrooxidation of enzymatically produced H(2)O(2). Compared with XO/PVF/Pt electrode, XO/Au/PVF/Pt and XO/Pt/PVF/Pt exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of the analyte. Effect of Au and Pt nanoparticles was investigated by monitoring the response currents at the different deposition times and the different concentrations of KAuCl(4) and PtBr(2). Under the optimal conditions, the calibration curves of XO/Au/PVF/Pt and XO/Pt/PVF/Pt were obtained over the range of 2.5 × 10(-3) to 0.56 mM and 2.0 × 10(-3) to 0.66 mM, respectively. The detection limits were 7.5 × 10(-4)mM for XO/Au/PVF/Pt and 6.0 × 10(-4)mM for XO/Pt/PVF/Pt. The effects of interferents, the operational and the storage stabilities of the biosensors and the applicabilities of the proposed biosensors to the drug samples analysis were also evaluated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Precise and selective sensing of DNA-DNA hybridization by graphene/Si-nanowires diode-type biosensors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungkil; Park, Shin-Young; Kim, Sung; Lee, Dae Hun; Kim, Ju Hwan; Kim, Jong Min; Kang, Hee; Han, Joong-Soo; Park, Jun Woo; Lee, Hosun; Choi, Suk-Ho

    2016-08-18

    Single-Si-nanowire (NW)-based DNA sensors have been recently developed, but their sensitivity is very limited because of high noise signals, originating from small source-drain current of the single Si NW. Here, we demonstrate that chemical-vapor-deposition-grown large-scale graphene/surface-modified vertical-Si-NW-arrays junctions can be utilized as diode-type biosensors for highly-sensitive and -selective detection of specific oligonucleotides. For this, a twenty-seven-base-long synthetic oligonucleotide, which is a fragment of human DENND2D promoter sequence, is first decorated as a probe on the surface of vertical Si-NW arrays, and then the complementary oligonucleotide is hybridized to the probe. This hybridization gives rise to a doping effect on the surface of Si NWs, resulting in the increase of the current in the biosensor. The current of the biosensor increases from 19 to 120% as the concentration of the target DNA varies from 0.1 to 500 nM. In contrast, such biosensing does not come into play by the use of the oligonucleotide with incompatible or mismatched sequences. Similar results are observed from photoluminescence microscopic images and spectra. The biosensors show very-uniform current changes with standard deviations ranging ~1 to ~10% by ten-times endurance tests. These results are very promising for their applications in accurate, selective, and stable biosensing.

  15. Self-assembly of glucose oxidase on reduced graphene oxide-magnetic nanoparticles nanocomposite-based direct electrochemistry for reagentless glucose biosensor.

    PubMed

    Pakapongpan, Saithip; Poo-Arporn, Rungtiva P

    2017-07-01

    A novel approach of the immobilization of a highly selective and stable glucose biosensor based on direct electrochemistry was fabricated by a self-assembly of glucose oxidase (GOD) on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) covalently conjugated to magnetic nanoparticles (Fe 3 O 4 NPs) modified on a magnetic screen-printed electrode (MSPE). The RGO-Fe 3 O 4 nanocomposite has remarkable enhancement in large surface areas, is favorable environment for enzyme immobilization, facilitates electron transfer between enzymes and electrode surfaces and possesses superparamagnetism property. The morphology and electrochemical properties of RGO-Fe 3 O 4 /GOD were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometry. The modified electrode was a fast, direct electron transfer with an apparent electron transfer rate constant (k s ) of 13.78s -1 . The proposed biosensor showed fast amperometric response (3s) to glucose with a wide linear range from 0.05 to 1mM, a low detection limit of 0.1μM at a signal to noise ratio of 3 (S/N=3) and good sensitivity (5.9μA/mM). The resulting biosensor has high stability, good reproducibility, excellent selectivity and successfully applied detection potential at -0.45V. This mediatorless glucose sensing used the advantages of covalent bonding and self-assembly as a new approach for immobilizing enzymes without any binder. It would be worth noting that it opens a new avenue for fabricating excellent electrochemical biosensors. This is a new approach that reporting the immobilization of glucose oxidase on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) covalently conjugated to magnetic nanoparticles (Fe 3 O 4 NPs) by electrostatic interaction and modified screen printed electrode. We propose the reagentless with fabrication method without binder and adhesive agents for immobilized enzyme. Fe 3 O 4 NPs increasing surface area to enhance the immobilization and prevent

  16. Comparison of impedimetric detection of DNA hybridization on the various biosensors based on modified glassy carbon electrodes with PANHS and nanomaterials of RGO and MWCNTs.

    PubMed

    Benvidi, Ali; Tezerjani, Marzieh Dehghan; Jahanbani, Shahriar; Mazloum Ardakani, Mohammad; Moshtaghioun, Seyed Mohammad

    2016-01-15

    In this research, we have developed lable free DNA biosensors based on modified glassy carbon electrodes (GCE) with reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for detection of DNA sequences. This paper compares the detection of BRCA1 5382insC mutation using independent glassy carbon electrodes (GCE) modified with RGO and MWCNTs. A probe (BRCA1 5382insC mutation detection (ssDNA)) was then immobilized on the modified electrodes for a specific time. The immobilization of the probe and its hybridization with the target DNA (Complementary DNA) were performed under optimum conditions using different electrochemical techniques such as cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The proposed biosensors were used for determination of complementary DNA sequences. The non-modified DNA biosensor (1-pyrenebutyric acid-N- hydroxysuccinimide ester (PANHS)/GCE), revealed a linear relationship between ∆Rct and logarithm of the complementary target DNA concentration ranging from 1.0×10(-16)molL(-1) to 1.0×10(-10)mol L(-1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.992, for DNA biosensors modified with multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) wider linear range and lower detection limit were obtained. For ssDNA/PANHS/MWCNTs/GCE a linear range 1.0×10(-17)mol L(-1)-1.0×10(-10)mol L(-1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.993 and for ssDNA/PANHS/RGO/GCE a linear range from 1.0×10(-18)mol L(-1) to 1.0×10(-10)mol L(-1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.985 were obtained. In addition, the mentioned biosensors were satisfactorily applied for discriminating of complementary sequences from noncomplementary sequences, so the mentioned biosensors can be used for the detection of BRCA1-associated breast cancer. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Diagnosis of EGFR exon21 L858R point mutation as lung cancer biomarker by electrochemical DNA biosensor based on reduced graphene oxide /functionalized ordered mesoporous carbon/Ni-oxytetracycline metallopolymer nanoparticles modified pencil graphite electrode.

    PubMed

    Shoja, Yalda; Kermanpur, Ahmad; Karimzadeh, Fathallah

    2018-08-15

    In this present work we made a novel, fast, selective and sensitive electrochemical genobiosensor to detection of EGFR exon 21 point mutation based on two step electropolymerization of Ni(II)-oxytetracycline conducting metallopolymer nanoparticles (Ni-OTC NPs) on the surface of pencil graphite electrode (PGE) which was modified by reduced graphene oxide/carboxyl functionalized ordered mesoporous carbon (rGO/f-OMC) nanocomposite. ssDNA capture probe with amine groups at the5' end which applied as recognition element was immobilized on the rGO/f-OMC/PGE surface via the strong amide bond. Ni-OTC metallopolymer NPs were electropolymerized to rGO/ssDNA-OMC/PGE surface and then hybridization fallows through the peak current change in differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) using Ni-OTC NPs as a redox label. The biosensor was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT-IR spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), cyclic voltammetry and Nitrogen adsorption-desorption analysis. The Ni-OTC current response verified only the complementary sequence indicating a significant reduction current signal in comparison to single point mismatched and non-complementary and sequences. Under optimal conditions, the prepared biosensor showed long-term stability (21 days) with a wide linear range from 0.1 µM to 3 µM with high sensitivity (0.0188 mA/µM) and low detection limit (120 nM). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Highly sensitive colorimetric detection of glucose in a serum based on DNA-embeded Au@Ag core-shell nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Fei; Hou, Xiangshu; Xu, Kun

    2015-10-01

    Glucose is a key energy substance in diverse biology and closely related to the life activities of the organism. To develop a simple and sensitive method for glucose detection is extremely urgent but still remains a key challenge. Herein, we report a colorimetric glucose sensor in a homogeneous system based on DNA-embedded core-shell Au@Ag nanoparticles. In this assay, a glucose substrate was first catalytically oxidized by glucose oxidase to produce H2O2 which would further oxidize and gradually etch the outer silver shell of Au@Ag nanoparticles. Afterwards, the solution color changed from yellow to red and the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band of Au@Ag nanoparticles declined and red-shifted from 430 to 516 nm. Compared with previous silver-based glucose colorimetric detection strategies, the distinctive SPR band change is superior to the color variation, which is critical to the high sensitivity of this assay. Benefiting from the outstanding optical property, robust stability and well-dispersion of the core-shell Au@AgNPs hybrid, this colorimetric assay obtained a detection limit of glucose as low as 10 nM, which is at least a 10-fold improvement over other AgNPs-based procedures. Moreover, this optical biosensor was successfully employed to the determination of glucose in fetal bovine serum.

  19. Recent advances in nanomaterial-based biosensors for antibiotics detection.

    PubMed

    Lan, Lingyi; Yao, Yao; Ping, Jianfeng; Ying, Yibin

    2017-05-15

    Antibiotics are able to be accumulated in human body by food chain and may induce severe influence to human health and safety. Hence, the development of sensitive and simple methods for rapid evaluation of antibiotic levels is highly desirable. Nanomaterials with excellent electronic, optical, mechanical, and thermal properties have been recognized as one of the most promising materials for opening new gates in the development of next-generation biosensors. This review highlights the current advances in the nanomaterial-based biosensors for antibiotics detection. Different kinds of nanomaterials including carbon nanomaterials, metal nanomaterials, magnetic nanoparticles, up-conversion nanoparticles, and quantum dots have been applied to the construction of biosensors with two main signal-transducing mechanisms, i.e. optical and electrochemical. Furthermore, the current challenges and future prospects in this field are also included to provide an overview for future research directions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A Large Response Range Reflectometric Urea Biosensor Made from Silica-Gel Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Alqasaimeh, Muawia; Heng, Lee Yook; Ahmad, Musa; Raj, A.S. Santhana; Ling, Tan Ling

    2014-01-01

    A new silica-gel nanospheres (SiO2NPs) composition was formulated, followed by biochemical surface functionalization to examine its potential in urea biosensor development. The SiO2NPs were basically synthesized based on sol–gel chemistry using a modified Stober method. The SiO2NPs surfaces were modified with amine (-NH2) functional groups for urease immobilization in the presence of glutaric acid (GA) cross-linker. The chromoionophore pH-sensitive dye ETH 5294 was physically adsorbed on the functionalized SiO2NPs as pH transducer. The immobilized urease determined urea concentration reflectometrically based on the colour change of the immobilized chromoionophore as a result of the enzymatic hydrolysis of urea. The pH changes on the biosensor due to the catalytic enzyme reaction of immobilized urease were found to correlate with the urea concentrations over a linear response range of 50–500 mM (R2 = 0.96) with a detection limit of 10 mM urea. The biosensor response time was 9 min with reproducibility of less than 10% relative standard deviation (RSD). This optical urea biosensor did not show interferences by Na+, K+, Mg2+ and NH4+ ions. The biosensor performance has been validated using urine samples in comparison with a non-enzymatic method based on the use of p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde (DMAB) reagent and demonstrated a good correlation between the two different methods (R2 = 0.996 and regression slope of 1.0307). The SiO2NPs-based reflectometric urea biosensor showed improved dynamic linear response range when compared to other nanoparticle-based optical urea biosensors. PMID:25054632

  1. A large response range reflectometric urea biosensor made from silica-gel nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Alqasaimeh, Muawia; Heng, Lee Yook; Ahmad, Musa; Raj, A S Santhana; Ling, Tan Ling

    2014-07-22

    A new silica-gel nanospheres (SiO2NPs) composition was formulated, followed by biochemical surface functionalization to examine its potential in urea biosensor development. The SiO2NPs were basically synthesized based on sol-gel chemistry using a modified Stober method. The SiO2NPs surfaces were modified with amine (-NH2) functional groups for urease immobilization in the presence of glutaric acid (GA) cross-linker. The chromoionophore pH-sensitive dye ETH 5294 was physically adsorbed on the functionalized SiO2NPs as pH transducer. The immobilized urease determined urea concentration reflectometrically based on the colour change of the immobilized chromoionophore as a result of the enzymatic hydrolysis of urea. The pH changes on the biosensor due to the catalytic enzyme reaction of immobilized urease were found to correlate with the urea concentrations over a linear response range of 50-500 mM (R2 = 0.96) with a detection limit of 10 mM urea. The biosensor response time was 9 min with reproducibility of less than 10% relative standard deviation (RSD). This optical urea biosensor did not show interferences by Na+, K+, Mg2+ and NH4+ ions. The biosensor performance has been validated using urine samples in comparison with a non-enzymatic method based on the use of p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde (DMAB) reagent and demonstrated a good correlation between the two different methods (R2 = 0.996 and regression slope of 1.0307). The SiO2NPs-based reflectometric urea biosensor showed improved dynamic linear response range when compared to other nanoparticle-based optical urea biosensors.

  2. Nano/biosensors based on large-area graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducos, Pedro Jose

    Two dimensional materials have properties that make them ideal for applications in chemical and biomolecular sensing. Their high surface/volume ratio implies that all atoms are exposed to the environment, in contrast to three dimensional materials with most atoms shielded from interactions inside the bulk. Graphene additionally has an extremely high carrier mobility, even at ambient temperature and pressure, which makes it ideal as a transduction device. The work presented in this thesis describes large-scale fabrication of Graphene Field Effect Transistors (GFETs), their physical and chemical characterization, and their application as biomolecular sensors. Initially, work was focused on developing an easily scalable fabrication process. A large-area graphene growth, transfer and photolithography process was developed that allowed the scaling of production of devices from a few devices per single transfer in a chip, to over a thousand devices per transfer in a full wafer of fabrication. Two approaches to biomolecules sensing were then investigated, through nanoparticles and through chemical linkers. Gold and platinum Nanoparticles were used as intermediary agents to immobilize a biomolecule. First, gold nanoparticles were monodispersed and functionalized with thiolated probe DNA to yield DNA biosensors with a detection limit of 1 nM and high specificity against noncomplementary DNA. Second, devices are modified with platinum nanoparticles and functionalized with thiolated genetically engineered scFv HER3 antibodies to realize a HER3 biosensor. Sensors retain the high affinity from the scFv fragment and show a detection limit of 300 pM. We then show covalent and non-covalent chemical linkers between graphene and antibodies. The chemical linker 1-pyrenebutanoic acid succinimidyl ester (pyrene) stacks to the graphene by Van der Waals interaction, being a completely non-covalent interaction. The linker 4-Azide-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzoic acid, succinimidyl ester (azide

  3. An electrochemiluminescence biosensor for endonuclease EcoRI detection.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingjie; Li, Yuqin; Wu, Yaoyu; Lu, Fushen; Chen, Yaowen; Gao, Wenhua

    2017-03-15

    Endonucleases cleavage of DNA plays an important role in biological and medicinal chemistry. This work was going to develop a reliable and sensitive electrochemiluminescent (ECL) biosensor for detecting endonucleases by using gold nanoparticles graphene composite (GNPs-graphene) as a signal amplifier. Firstly, the GNPs and graphene were simultaneously deposited on the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by cyclic voltammetry. Then a stem DNA was anchored on the surface of GCE. And with a modifying DNA introduced into the electrode by DNA assembly, a strong ECL signal was obtained. After a DNA modified with ferrocene assembly to the stem DNA, the ECL signal had a sharp decrease due to the quench effect of ferrocene to and the biosensor comes into being a "off" state. With the effect of endonuclease, the ECL signal had a recovery because of the ferrocene being released and the biosensor formed a "on" state. Moreover, the recovery of ECL signal was related to the concentration of endonucleases. Combining specific defined DNA and endonuclease, this method has a potential to detect different endonucleases. In this work, we took the EcoRI as an example to identify the feasibility of ECL biosensor in applying in sensitive detection of endonucleases using a GNPs-graphene signal amplifier. Under optimal condition, the proposed biosensor obtained a low limit of detection (LOD) 5.6×10 -5 UmL -1 . And the stability, selectivity and reproducibility of the biosensor also were researched. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Detection of Sub-fM DNA with Target Recycling and Self-Assembly Amplification on Graphene Field-Effect Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    All-electronic DNA biosensors based on graphene field-effect transistors (GFETs) offer the prospect of simple and cost-effective diagnostics. For GFET sensors based on complementary probe DNA, the sensitivity is limited by the binding affinity of the target oligonucleotide, in the nM range for 20 mer targets. We report a ∼20 000× improvement in sensitivity through the use of engineered hairpin probe DNA that allows for target recycling and hybridization chain reaction. This enables detection of 21 mer target DNA at sub-fM concentration and provides superior specificity against single-base mismatched oligomers. The work is based on a scalable fabrication process for biosensor arrays that is suitable for multiplexed detection. This approach overcomes the binding-affinity-dependent sensitivity of nucleic acid biosensors and offers a pathway toward multiplexed and label-free nucleic acid testing with high accuracy and selectivity. PMID:29768011

  5. Detection of Sub-fM DNA with Target Recycling and Self-Assembly Amplification on Graphene Field-Effect Biosensors.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhaoli; Xia, Han; Zauberman, Jonathan; Tomaiuolo, Maurizio; Ping, Jinglei; Zhang, Qicheng; Ducos, Pedro; Ye, Huacheng; Wang, Sheng; Yang, Xinping; Lubna, Fahmida; Luo, Zhengtang; Ren, Li; Johnson, Alan T Charlie

    2018-06-13

    All-electronic DNA biosensors based on graphene field-effect transistors (GFETs) offer the prospect of simple and cost-effective diagnostics. For GFET sensors based on complementary probe DNA, the sensitivity is limited by the binding affinity of the target oligonucleotide, in the nM range for 20 mer targets. We report a ∼20 000× improvement in sensitivity through the use of engineered hairpin probe DNA that allows for target recycling and hybridization chain reaction. This enables detection of 21 mer target DNA at sub-fM concentration and provides superior specificity against single-base mismatched oligomers. The work is based on a scalable fabrication process for biosensor arrays that is suitable for multiplexed detection. This approach overcomes the binding-affinity-dependent sensitivity of nucleic acid biosensors and offers a pathway toward multiplexed and label-free nucleic acid testing with high accuracy and selectivity.

  6. Label-free detection of glycoproteins by the lectin biosensor down to attomolar level using gold nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Bertok, Tomas; Sediva, Alena; Katrlik, Jaroslav; Gemeiner, Pavol; Mikula, Milan; Nosko, Martin; Tkac, Jan

    2016-01-01

    We present here an ultrasensitive electrochemical biosensor based on a lectin biorecognition capable to detect concentrations of glycoproteins down to attomolar (aM) level by investigation of changes in the charge transfer resistance (Rct) using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). On polycrystalline gold modified by an aminoalkanethiol linker layer, gold nanoparticles were attached. A Sambucus nigra agglutinin was covalently immobilised on a mixed self-assembled monolayer formed on gold nanoparticles and finally, the biosensor surface was blocked by poly(vinylalcohol). The lectin biosensor was applied for detection of sialic acid containing glycoproteins fetuin and asialofetuin. Building of a biosensing interface was carefully characterised by a broad range of techniques such as electrochemistry, EIS, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and surface plasmon resonance with the best performance of the biosensor achieved by application of HS-(CH2)11-NH2 linker and gold nanoparticles with a diameter of 20 nm. The lectin biosensor responded to an addition of fetuin (8.7% of sialic acid) with sensitivity of (338 ± 11) Ω decade-1 and to asialofetuin (≤ 0.5% of sialic acid) with sensitivity of (109 ± 10) Ω decade-1 with a blank experiment with oxidised asialofetuin (without recognisable sialic acid) revealing sensitivity of detection of (79 ± 13) Ω decade-1. These results suggest the lectin biosensor responded to changes in the glycan amount in a quantitative way with a successful validation by a lectin microarray. Such a biosensor device has a great potential to be employed in early biomedical diagnostics of diseases such as arthritis or cancer, which are connected to aberrant glycosylation of protein biomarkers in biological fluids. PMID:23601864

  7. A novel electrochemical biosensor based on Fe3O4 nanoparticles-polyvinyl alcohol composite for sensitive detection of glucose.

    PubMed

    Sanaeifar, Niuosha; Rabiee, Mohammad; Abdolrahim, Mojgan; Tahriri, Mohammadreza; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Tayebi, Lobat

    2017-02-15

    In this research, a new electrochemical biosensor was constructed for the glucose detection. Iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe 3 O 4 ) were synthesized through co-precipitation method. Polyvinyl alcohol-Fe 3 O 4 nanocomposite was prepared by dispersing synthesized nanoparticles in the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) solution. Glucose oxidase (GOx) was immobilized on the PVA-Fe 3 O 4 nanocomposite via physical adsorption. The mixture of PVA, Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles and GOx was drop cast on a tin (Sn) electrode surface (GOx/PVA-Fe 3 O 4 /Sn). The Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Also, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) techniques were utilized to evaluate the PVA-Fe 3 O 4 and GOx/PVA-Fe 3 O 4 nanocomposites. The electrochemical performance of the modified biosensor was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Presence of Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles in the PVA matrix enhanced the electron transfer between enzyme and electrode surface and the immobilized GOx showed excellent catalytic characteristic toward glucose. The GOx/PVA-Fe 3 O 4 /Sn bioelectrode could measure glucose in the range from 5 × 10 -3 to 30 mM with a sensitivity of 9.36 μA mM -1 and exhibited a lower detection limit of 8 μM at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. The value of Michaelis-Menten constant (K M ) was calculated as 1.42 mM. The modified biosensor also has good anti-interfering ability during the glucose detection, fast response (10 s), good reproducibility and satisfactory stability. Finally, the results demonstrated that the GOx/PVA-Fe 3 O 4 /Sn bioelectrode is promising in biosensor construction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Recent advances in electrochemical biosensors based on graphene two-dimensional nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Song, Yang; Luo, Yanan; Zhu, Chengzhou; Li, He; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe

    2016-02-15

    Graphene as a star among two-dimensional nanomaterials has attracted tremendous research interest in the field of electrochemistry due to their intrinsic properties, including the electronic, optical, and mechanical properties associated with their planar structure. The marriage of graphene and electrochemical biosensors has created many ingenious biosensing strategies for applications in the areas of clinical diagnosis and food safety. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the recent advances in the development of graphene based electrochemical biosensors. Special attention is paid to graphene-based enzyme biosensors, immunosensors, and DNA biosensors. Future perspectives on high-performance graphene-based electrochemical biosensors are also discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Detection of dopamine in dopaminergic cell using nanoparticles-based barcode DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    An, Jeung Hee; Kim, Tae-Hyung; Oh, Byung-Keun; Choi, Jeong Woo

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology-based bio-barcode-amplification analysis may be an innovative approach to dopamine detection. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of this bio-barcode DNA method in detecting dopamine from dopaminergic cells. Herein, a combination DNA barcode and bead-based immunoassay for neurotransmitter detection with PCR-like sensitivity is described. This method relies on magnetic nanoparticles with antibodies and nanoparticles that are encoded with DNA, and antibodies that can sandwich the target protein captured by the nanoparticle-bound antibodies. The aggregate sandwich structures are magnetically separated from solution, and treated in order to remove the conjugated barcode DNA. The DNA barcodes were then identified via PCR analysis. The dopamine concentration in dopaminergic cells can be readily and rapidly detected via the bio-barcode assay method. The bio-barcode assay method is, therefore, a rapid and high-throughput screening tool for the detection of neurotransmitters such as dopamine.

  10. DNA-programmable nanoparticle crystallization.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Yong; Lytton-Jean, Abigail K R; Lee, Byeongdu; Weigand, Steven; Schatz, George C; Mirkin, Chad A

    2008-01-31

    It was first shown more than ten years ago that DNA oligonucleotides can be attached to gold nanoparticles rationally to direct the formation of larger assemblies. Since then, oligonucleotide-functionalized nanoparticles have been developed into powerful diagnostic tools for nucleic acids and proteins, and into intracellular probes and gene regulators. In contrast, the conceptually simple yet powerful idea that functionalized nanoparticles might serve as basic building blocks that can be rationally assembled through programmable base-pairing interactions into highly ordered macroscopic materials remains poorly developed. So far, the approach has mainly resulted in polymerization, with modest control over the placement of, the periodicity in, and the distance between particles within the assembled material. That is, most of the materials obtained thus far are best classified as amorphous polymers, although a few examples of colloidal crystal formation exist. Here, we demonstrate that DNA can be used to control the crystallization of nanoparticle-oligonucleotide conjugates to the extent that different DNA sequences guide the assembly of the same type of inorganic nanoparticle into different crystalline states. We show that the choice of DNA sequences attached to the nanoparticle building blocks, the DNA linking molecules and the absence or presence of a non-bonding single-base flexor can be adjusted so that gold nanoparticles assemble into micrometre-sized face-centred-cubic or body-centred-cubic crystal structures. Our findings thus clearly demonstrate that synthetically programmable colloidal crystallization is possible, and that a single-component system can be directed to form different structures.

  11. Multicolor fluorescent biosensor for multiplexed detection of DNA.

    PubMed

    Hu, Rong; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Xiao-Bing; Huan, Shuang-Yan; Wu, Cuichen; Fu, Ting; Tan, Weihong

    2014-05-20

    Development of efficient methods for highly sensitive and rapid screening of specific oligonucleotide sequences is essential to the early diagnosis of serious diseases. In this work, an aggregated cationic perylene diimide (PDI) derivative was found to efficiently quench the fluorescence emission of a variety of anionic oligonucleotide-labeled fluorophores that emit at wavelengths from the visible to NIR region. This broad-spectrum quencher was then adopted to develop a multicolor biosensor via a label-free approach for multiplexed fluorescent detection of DNA. The aggregated perylene derivative exhibits a very high quenching efficiency on all ssDNA-labeled dyes associated with biosensor detection, having efficiency values of 98.3 ± 0.9%, 97 ± 1.1%, and 98.2 ± 0.6% for FAM, TAMRA, and Cy5, respectively. An exonuclease-assisted autocatalytic target recycling amplification was also integrated into the sensing system. High quenching efficiency combined with autocatalytic target recycling amplification afforded the biosensor with high sensitivity toward target DNA, resulting in a detection limit of 20 pM, which is about 50-fold lower than that of traditional unamplified homogeneous fluorescent assay methods. The quencher did not interfere with the catalytic activity of nuclease, and the biosensor could be manipulated in either preaddition or postaddition manner with similar sensitivity. Moreover, the proposed sensing system allows for simultaneous and multicolor analysis of several oligonucleotides in homogeneous solution, demonstrating its potential application in the rapid screening of multiple biotargets.

  12. Dithiothreitol-Regulated Coverage of Oligonucleotide-Modified Gold Nanoparticles To Achieve Optimized Biosensor Performance.

    PubMed

    Liang, Pingping; Canoura, Juan; Yu, Haixiang; Alkhamis, Obtin; Xiao, Yi

    2018-01-31

    DNA-modified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are useful signal-reporters for detecting diverse molecules through various hybridization- and enzyme-based assays. However, their performance is heavily dependent on the probe DNA surface coverage, which can influence both target binding and enzymatic processing of the bound probes. Current methods used to adjust the surface coverage of DNA-modified AuNPs require the production of multiple batches of AuNPs under different conditions, which is costly and laborious. We here develop a single-step assay utilizing dithiothreitol (DTT) to fine-tune the surface coverage of DNA-modified AuNPs. DTT is superior to the commonly used surface diluent, mercaptohexanol, as it is less volatile, allowing for the rapid and reproducible controlling of surface coverage on AuNPs with only micromolar concentrations of DTT. Upon adsorption, DTT forms a dense monolayer on gold surfaces, which provides antifouling capabilities. Furthermore, surface-bound DTT adopts a cyclic conformation, which reorients DNA probes into an upright position and provides ample space to promote DNA hybridization, aptamer assembly, and nuclease digestion. We demonstrate the effects of surface coverage on AuNP-based sensors using DTT-regulated DNA-modified AuNPs. We then use these AuNPs to visually detect DNA and cocaine in colorimetric assays based on enzyme-mediated AuNP aggregation. We determine that DTT-regulated AuNPs with lower surface coverage achieve shorter reaction times and lower detection limits relative to those for assays using untreated AuNPs or DTT-regulated AuNPs with high surface coverage. Additionally, we demonstrate that our DTT-regulated AuNPs can perform cocaine detection in 50% urine without any significant matrix effects. We believe that DTT regulation of surface coverage can be broadly employed for optimizing DNA-modified AuNP performance for use in biosensors as well as drug delivery and therapeutic applications.

  13. Voltammetric determination of the Escherichia coli DNA using a screen-printed carbon electrode modified with polyaniline and gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Shoaie, Nahid; Forouzandeh, Mehdi; Omidfar, Kobra

    2018-03-12

    The authors describe an electrochemical assay for fast detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli). It is based on a dual signal amplification strategy and the use of a screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) whose surface was modified with a polyaniline (PANI) film and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) via cyclic voltammetry (CV). In the next step, avidin was covalently immobilized on the PANI/AuNP composite on the SPCE surface. Subsequently, the biotinylated DNA capture probe was immobilized onto the PANI/AuNP/avidin-modified SPCE by biotin-avidin interaction. Then, DNA of E.coli, digoxigenin-labeled DNA detector probe and anti-digoxigenin-labeled horseradish peroxidase (HRP) were placed on the electrode. 3,3',5,5'-Tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) and H 2 O 2 solution were added and the CV electrochemical signal was generated at a potential of -0.1 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) and a scan rate 50 mV.s -1 . The assay can detect 4 × 10 6 to 4 CFU of E. coli without DNA amplification. The biosensor is highly specific over other pathogens including Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It can be concluded that this genosensor has an excellent potential for rapid and accurate diagnosis of E.coli inflicted infections. Graphical Abstract Schematic of an electrochemical E. coli genosensor based on sandwich assay on a polyaniline/gold nanoparticle-modified screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE). The biosensor can detect 4 × 10 6 to 4 CFU of E. coli without DNA amplification.

  14. Hall effect biosensors with ultraclean graphene film for improved sensitivity of label-free DNA detection.

    PubMed

    Loan, Phan Thi Kim; Wu, Dongqin; Ye, Chen; Li, Xiaoqing; Tra, Vu Thanh; Wei, Qiuping; Fu, Li; Yu, Aimin; Li, Lain-Jong; Lin, Cheng-Te

    2018-01-15

    The quality of graphene strongly affects the performance of graphene-based biosensors which are highly demanded for the sensitive and selective detection of biomolecules, such as DNA. This work reported a novel transfer process for preparing a residue-free graphene film using a thin gold supporting layer. A Hall effect device made of this gold-transferred graphene was demonstrated to significantly enhance the sensitivity (≈ 5 times) for hybridization detection, with a linear detection range of 1pM to 100nM for DNA target. Our findings provide an efficient method to boost the sensitivity of graphene-based biosensors for DNA recognition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. An electrochemical sulfite biosensor based on gold coated magnetic nanoparticles modified gold electrode.

    PubMed

    Rawal, Rachna; Chawla, Sheetal; Pundir, Chandra Shekhar

    2012-01-15

    A sulfite oxidase (SO(X)) (EC 1.8.3.1) purified from Syzygium cumini leaves was immobilized onto carboxylated gold coated magnetic nanoparticles (Fe(3)O(4)@GNPs) electrodeposited onto the surface of a gold (Au) electrode through N-ethyl-N'-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC)-N-hydroxy succinimide (NHS) chemistry. An amperometric sulfite biosensor was fabricated using SO(X)/Fe(3)O(4)@GNPs/Au electrode as working electrode, Ag/AgCl as standard and Pt wire as auxiliary electrode. The working electrode was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, Cyclic Voltammetry (CV), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) before and after immobilization of SO(X). The biosensor showed optimum response within 2s when operated at 0.2V (vs. Ag/AgCl) in 0.1 M Tris-HCl buffer, pH 8.5 and at 35 °C. Linear range and detection limit were 0.50-1000 μM and 0.15 μM (S/N=3) respectively. Biosensor was evaluated with 96.46% recovery of added sulfite in red wine and 1.7% and 3.3% within and between batch coefficients of variation respectively. Biosensor measured sulfite level in red and white wines. There was good correlation (r=0.99) between red wines sulfite value by standard DTNB (5,5'-dithio-bis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid)) method and the present method. Enzyme electrode was used 300 times over a period of 4 months, when stored at 4 °C. Biosensor has advantages over earlier biosensors that it has excellent electrocatalysis towards sulfite, lower detection limit, higher storage stability and no interference by ascorbate, cysteine, fructose and ethanol. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. An electrochemical biosensor for microRNA-196a detection based on cyclic enzymatic signal amplification and template-free DNA extension reaction with the adsorption of methylene blue.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jing; Yuan, Changjing; Yan, Qi; Duan, Qiuyue; Li, Xiaolu; Yi, Gang

    2018-05-15

    A simple and sensitive electrochemical biosensor was developed for microRNA-196a detection, which is of important diagnostic significance for pancreatic cancer. It was based on cyclic enzymatic signal amplification (CESA) and template-free DNA extension reaction. In the presence of microRNA-196a, duplex-specific nuclease (DSN) catalyzed the digestion of the 3'-PO 4 terminated capture probe (CP), resulting in the target recycling amplification. Meanwhile, the 3'-OH terminal of CP was exposed. Then, template-free DNA extension reaction was triggered by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT), producing amounts of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). After ssDNA absorbed numerous methylene blue (MB), an ultrasensitive electrochemical readout was obtained. Based on this dual amplification mechanism, the proposed biosensor exhibited a high sensitivity for detection of microRNA-196a down to 15 aM with a linear range from 0.05 fM to 50 pM. This biosensor displayed high specificity, which could discriminate target microRNAs from one base mismatched microRNAs. It also showed good reproducibility and stability. Furthermore, it was successfully applied to the determination of microRNA-196a in plasma samples. In conclusion, with the excellent analytical performance, this biosensor might have the potential for application in clinical diagnostics of pancreatic cancer. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. U-bent plastic optical fiber based plasmonic biosensor for nucleic acid detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowri, A.; Sai, V. V. R.

    2017-05-01

    This study presents the development of low cost, rapid and highly sensitive plasmonic sandwich DNA biosensor using U-bent plastic optical fiber (POF) probes with high evanescent wave absorbance sensitivity and gold nanoparticles (AuNP) as labels. Plastic optical fiber (PMMA core and fluorinated polymer as cladding) offer ease in machinability and handling due to which optimum U-bent geometry (with fiber and bend diameter of 0.5 and 1.5 mm respectively) for high sensitivity could be achieved. A sensitive fiber optic DNA biosensor is realized by (i) modifying the PMMA surface using ethylenediamine (EDA) in order to maximize the immobilization of capture oligonucleotides (ONs) and (ii) conjugating probe ONs to AuNP labels of optimum size ( 35 nm) with high extinction coefficient and optimal ON surface density. The sandwich hybridization assay on U-bent POF probes results in increase in optical absorbance through the probe with increase in target ON concentration due to the presence of increased number of AuNPs. The absorbance of light passing through the U-bent probe due to the presence of AuNP labels on its surface as result of sandwich DNA hybridization is measured using a halogen lamp and a fiber optic spectrometer. A picomolar limit of detection of target ON (0.2 pM or 1 pg/ml or 5 attomol in 25 μL) is achieved with this biosensing scheme, indicating its potential for the development of a highly sensitive DNA biosensor.

  18. Fiber optic-based biosensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ligler, Frances S.

    1991-01-01

    The NRL fiber optic biosensor is a device which measures the formation of a fluorescent complex at the surface of an optical fiber. Antibodies and DNA binding proteins provide the mechanism for recognizing an analyze and immobilizing a fluorescent complex on the fiber surface. The fiber optic biosensor is fast, sensitive, and permits analysis of hazardous materials remote from the instrumentation. The fiber optic biosensor is described in terms of the device configuration, chemistry for protein immobilization, and assay development. A lab version is being used for assay development and performance characterization while a portable device is under development. Antibodies coated on the fiber are stable for up to two years of storage prior to use. The fiber optic biosensor was used to measure concentration of toxins in the parts per billion (ng/ml) range in under a minute. Immunoassays for small molecules and whole bacteria are under development. Assays using DNA probes as the detection element can also be used with the fiber optic sensor, which is currently being developed to detect biological warfare agents, explosives, pathogens, and toxic materials which pollute the environment.

  19. A "turn-on" fluorescent copper biosensor based on DNA cleavage-dependent graphene-quenched DNAzyme.

    PubMed

    Liu, Meng; Zhao, Huimin; Chen, Shuo; Yu, Hongtao; Zhang, Yaobin; Quan, Xie

    2011-06-15

    A novel and promising "turn-on" fluorescent Cu(2+) biosensor is designed based on graphene-DNAzyme catalytic beacon. Due to the essential surface and quenching properties of two-dimensional graphene, it can function as both "scaffold" and "quencher" of the Cu(2+)-dependent DNAzyme, facilitating the formation of self-assembled graphene-quenched DNAzyme complex. However, Cu(2+)-induced catalytic reaction disturbs the graphene-DNAzyme conformation, which will produce internal DNA cleavage-dependent effect. In this case, the quenched fluorescence in graphene-DNAzyme is quickly recovered to a large extent in 15 min. Compared with common DNAzyme-based sensors, the presented graphene-based catalytic beacon greatly improves the signal-to-background ratio, hence increasing the sensitivity (LOD=0.365 nM). Furthermore, the controllable DNA cleavage reaction provides an original and alternative internal method to regulate the interaction between graphene and DNA relative to the previous external sequence-specific hybridization-dependent regulation, which will open new opportunities for nucleic studies and sensing applications in the future. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Glucose Biosensor Based on Immobilization of Glucose Oxidase in Platinum Nanoparticles/Graphene/Chitosan Nanocomposite Film

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Wu, Hong; Wang, Jun; Kang, Xinhuang

    2009-09-01

    The bionanocomposite film consisting of glucose oxidase/Pt/functional graphene sheets/chitosan (GOD/Pt/FGS/chitosan) for glucose sensing was described. With the electrocatalytic synergy of FGS and Pt nanoparticles to hydrogen peroxide, a sensitive biosensor with detection limit of 0.6 µM glucose was achieved. The biosensor also had good reproducibility, long term stability and negligible interfering signals from ascorbic acid and uric acid comparing to the response to glucose. The large surface area and good conductivity of graphene suggests that graphene is a potential candidate for sensor material. The hybrid nanocomposite glucose sensor provides new opportunity for clinical diagnosis and point-of-care applications.

  1. Hybrid structures based on gold nanoparticles and semiconductor quantum dots for biosensor applications.

    PubMed

    Kurochkina, Margarita; Konshina, Elena; Oseev, Aleksandr; Hirsch, Soeren

    2018-01-01

    The luminescence amplification of semiconductor quantum dots (QD) in the presence of self-assembled gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) is one of way for creating biosensors with highly efficient transduction. The objective of this study was to fabricate the hybrid structures based on semiconductor CdSe/ZnS QDs and Au NP arrays and to use them as biosensors of protein. In this paper, the hybrid structures based on CdSe/ZnS QDs and Au NP arrays were fabricated using spin coating processes. Au NP arrays deposited on a glass wafer were investigated by optical microscopy and absorption spectroscopy depending on numbers of spin coating layers and their baking temperature. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as the target protein analyte in a phosphate buffer. A confocal laser scanning microscope was used to study the luminescent properties of Au NP/QD hybrid structures and to test BSA. The dimensions of Au NP aggregates increased and the space between them decreased with increasing processing temperature. At the same time, a blue shift of the plasmon resonance peak in the absorption spectra of Au NP arrays was observed. The deposition of CdSe/ZnS QDs with a core diameter of 5 nm on the surface of the Au NP arrays caused an increase in absorption and a red shift of the plasmon peak in the spectra. The exciton-plasmon enhancement of the QDs' photoluminescence intensity has been obtained at room temperature for hybrid structures with Au NPs array pretreated at temperatures of 100°C and 150°C. It has been found that an increase in the weight content of BSA increases the photoluminescence intensity of such hybrid structures. The ability of the qualitative and quantitative determination of protein content in solution using the Au NP/QD structures as an optical biosensor has been shown experimentally.

  2. MRI biosensor for lead detection based on the DNAzyme-induced catalytic reaction.

    PubMed

    Xu, Liguang; Yin, Honghong; Ma, Wei; Wang, Libing; Kuang, Hua; Xu, Chuanlai

    2013-11-21

    A MRI biosensor for sensitive and specific detection of lead ions (Pb(2+)) was developed based on DNAzyme-induced cleavage of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). A low limit of detection (LOD) of 0.05 ng mL(-1) was obtained. This biosensor has the potential to serve as a general platform for the detection of heavy metal ions.

  3. A Conductometric Indium Oxide Semiconducting Nanoparticle Enzymatic Biosensor Array

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dongjin; Ondrake, Janet; Cui, Tianhong

    2011-01-01

    We report a conductometric nanoparticle biosensor array to address the significant variation of electrical property in nanomaterial biosensors due to the random network nature of nanoparticle thin-film. Indium oxide and silica nanoparticles (SNP) are assembled selectively on the multi-site channel area of the resistors using layer-by-layer self-assembly. To demonstrate enzymatic biosensing capability, glucose oxidase is immobilized on the SNP layer for glucose detection. The packaged sensor chip onto a ceramic pin grid array is tested using syringe pump driven feed and multi-channel I–V measurement system. It is successfully demonstrated that glucose is detected in many different sensing sites within a chip, leading to concentration dependent currents. The sensitivity has been found to be dependent on the channel length of the resistor, 4–12 nA/mM for channel lengths of 5–20 μm, while the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant is 20 mM. By using sensor array, analytical data could be obtained with a single step of sample solution feeding. This work sheds light on the applicability of the developed nanoparticle microsensor array to multi-analyte sensors, novel bioassay platforms, and sensing components in a lab-on-a-chip. PMID:22163696

  4. A ratiometric electrochemical biosensor for the exosomal microRNAs detection based on bipedal DNA walkers propelled by locked nucleic acid modified toehold mediate strand displacement reaction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Wang, Liang-Liang; Hou, Mei-Feng; Xia, Yao-Kun; He, Wen-Hui; Yan, An; Weng, Yun-Ping; Zeng, Lu-Peng; Chen, Jing-Hua

    2018-04-15

    Sensitive and selective detection of microRNAs (miRNAs) in cancer cells derived exosomes have attracted rapidly growing interest owing to their potential in diagnostic and prognostic applications. Here, we design a ratiometric electrochemical biosensor based on bipedal DNA walkers for the attomolar detection of exosomal miR-21. In the presence of miR-21, DNA walkers are activated to walk continuously along DNA tracks, resulting in conformational changes as well as considerable increases of the signal ratio produced by target-respond and target-independent reporters. With the signal cascade amplification of DNA walkers, the biosensor exhibits ultrahigh sensitivity with the limit of detection (LOD) down to 67 aM. Furthermore, owing to the background-correcting function of target-independent reporters termed as reference reporters, the biosensor is robust and stable enough to be applied in the detection of exosomal miR-21 extracted from breast cancer cell lines and serums. In addition, because locked nucleic acid (LNA) modified toehold mediate strand displacement reaction (TMSDR) has extraordinary discriminative ability, the biosensor displays excellent selectivity even against the single-base-mismatched target. It is worth mentioning that our sensor is regenerative and stable for at least 5 cycles without diminution in sensitivity. In brief, the high sensitivity, selectivity and reproducibility, together with cheap, make the proposed biosensor a promising approach for exosomal miRNAs detection, in conjunction with early point-of-care testing (POCT) of cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Portable Enzyme-Paper Biosensors Based on Redox-Active CeO2 Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Karimi, A; Othman, A; Andreescu, S

    2016-01-01

    Portable, nanoparticle (NP)-enhanced enzyme sensors have emerged as powerful devices for qualitative and quantitative analysis of a variety of analytes for biomedicine, environmental applications, and pharmaceutical fields. This chapter describes a method for the fabrication of a portable, paper-based, inexpensive, robust enzyme biosensor for the detection of substrates of oxidase enzymes. The method utilizes redox-active NPs of cerium oxide (CeO2) as a sensing platform which produces color in response to H2O2 generated by the action of oxidase enzymes on their corresponding substrates. This avoids the use of peroxidases which are routinely used in conjunction with glucose oxidase. The CeO2 particles serve dual roles, as high surface area supports to anchor high loadings of the enzyme as well as a color generation reagent, and the particles are recycled multiple times for the reuse of the biosensor. These sensors are small, light, disposable, inexpensive, and they can be mass produced by standard, low-cost printing methods. All reagents needed for the analysis are embedded within the paper matrix, and sensors stored over extended periods of time without performance loss. This novel sensor is a general platform for the in-field detection of analytes that are substrates for oxidase enzymes in clinical, food, and environmental samples. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of highly sensitive electrochemical genosensor based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes-chitosan-bismuth and lead sulfide nanoparticles for the detection of pathogenic Aeromonas.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, António Maximiano; Abdalhai, Mandour H; Ji, Jian; Xi, Bing-Wen; Xie, Jun; Sun, Jiadi; Noeline, Rasoamandrary; Lee, Byong H; Sun, Xiulan

    2015-01-15

    In this paper, we reported the construction of new high sensitive electrochemical genosensor based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes-chitosan-bismuth complex (MWCNT-Chi-Bi) and lead sulfide nanoparticles for the detection of pathogenic Aeromonas. Lead sulfide nanoparticles capped with 5'-(NH2) oligonucleotides thought amide bond was used as signalizing probe DNA (sz-DNA) and thiol-modified oligonucleotides sequence was used as fixing probe DNA (fDNA). The two probes hybridize with target Aeromonas DNA (tDNA) sequence (fDNA-tDNA-szDNA). The signal of hybridization is detected by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) after electrodeposition of released lead nanoparticles (PbS) from sz-DNA on the surface of glass carbon electrode decorated with MWCNT-Chi-Bi, which improves the deposition and traducing electrical signal. The optimization of incubation time, hybridization temperature, deposition potential, deposition time and the specificity of the probes were investigated. Our results showed the highest sensibility to detect the target gene when compared with related biosensors and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The detection limit for this biosensor was 1.0×10(-14) M. We could detect lower than 10(2) CFU mL(-1) of Aeromonas in spiked tap water. This method is rapid and sensitive for the detection of pathogenic bacteria and would become a potential application in biomedical diagnosis, food safety and environmental monitoring. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Graphene-Based Materials for Biosensors: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Suvarnaphaet, Phitsini; Pechprasarn, Suejit

    2017-01-01

    The advantages conferred by the physical, optical and electrochemical properties of graphene-based nanomaterials have contributed to the current variety of ultrasensitive and selective biosensor devices. In this review, we present the points of view on the intrinsic properties of graphene and its surface engineering concerned with the transduction mechanisms in biosensing applications. We explain practical synthesis techniques along with prospective properties of the graphene-based materials, which include the pristine graphene and functionalized graphene (i.e., graphene oxide (GO), reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and graphene quantum dot (GQD). The biosensing mechanisms based on the utilization of the charge interactions with biomolecules and/or nanoparticle interactions and sensing platforms are also discussed, and the importance of surface functionalization in recent up-to-date biosensors for biological and medical applications. PMID:28934118

  8. Electrical DNA biosensor using aluminium interdigitated electrode for E.Coli O157:H7 detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natasha, N. Z.; Rajapaksha, R. D. A. A.; Uda, M. N. A.; Hashim, U.

    2017-09-01

    Escherichia Coli (E.Coli) O157:H7 is the one of the most dangerous foodborne pathogens based diseases that presence in our daily life that causes illness and death increase every year. Aluminum Interdigitated Electrode (Al IDE) biosensor was introduced to detect E.Coli O157:H7 in earlier stage. In this paper we investigated ssDNA of E.Coli O157:H7 bacteria detection through electrical behavior of Al IDE sensor. The physical properties of Al IDE biosensor has been characterized using Low Power Microscope (LPM), High Power Microscope (HPM), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and 3D Nano Profiler. The bare Al IDE was electrical characterized by using I-V measurement. The surface modification was accomplished by salinization using APTES and immobilization using Carboxylic Probe E.Coli which was the first step in preparing Al IDE biosensor. Geared up prepared biosensor was hybridized with complementary, non-complementary and single based mismatch ssDNA to confirmed specificity detection of E Coli O157:H7 ssDNA target. The Current - Voltage was performed for each step such as bare Al IDE, surface modification, immobilization and hybridization. Sensitivity measurement was accomplished using different concentration of complementary ssDNA target from 1 fM - 10 µM. Selectivity measurements was achieved using same concentration which was 10 µM concentration for complement, non-complement and mismatch E.Coli O157:H7 ssDNA target. It's totally proved that the Al IDE able to detect specific and small current down to Femtomolar concentration.

  9. Enhancing magnetic nanoparticle-based DNA transfection: Intracellular-active cassette features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernon, Matthew Martin

    Efficient plasmid DNA transfection of embryonic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, neural cell lines and the majority of primary cell lines is a current challenge in gene therapy research. Magnetic nanoparticle-based DNA transfection is a gene vectoring technique that is promising because it is capable of outperforming most other non-viral transfection methods in terms of both transfection efficiency and cell viability. The nature of the DNA vector implemented depends on the target cell phenotype, where the particle surface chemistry and DNA binding/unbinding kinetics of the DNA carrier molecule play a critical role in the many steps required for successful gene transfection. Accordingly, Neuromag, an iron oxide/polymer nanoparticle optimized for transfection of neural phenotypes, outperforms many other nanoparticles and lipidbased DNA carriers. Up to now, improvements to nanomagnetic transfection techniques have focused mostly on particle functionalization and transfection parameter optimization (cell confluence, growth media, serum starvation, magnet oscillation parameters, etc.). None of these parameters are capable of assisting the nuclear translocation of delivered plasmid DNA once the particle-DNA complex is released from the endosome and dissociates in the cell's cytoplasm. In this study, incorporation of a DNA targeting sequence (DTS) feature in the transfecting plasmid DNA confers improved nuclear translocation, demonstrating significant improvement in nanomagnetic transfection efficiency in differentiated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Other parameters, such as days in vitro, are also found to play a role and represent potential targets for further optimization.

  10. A novel amperometric biosensor based on gold nanoparticles anchored on reduced graphene oxide for sensitive detection of l-lactate tumor biomarker.

    PubMed

    Azzouzi, Sawsen; Rotariu, Lucian; Benito, Ana M; Maser, Wolfgang K; Ben Ali, Mounir; Bala, Camelia

    2015-07-15

    In this work, a novel amperometric biosensor based on gold nanoparticles anchored on reduced graphene oxide (RGO-AuNPs) and l-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was developed for the sensing of l-lactate. Firstly, the RGO-AuNPs modified screen printed electrodes were tested for NADH detection showing a wide dynamic range and a low detection limit. Next, the biosensor was constructed by incorporating both enzyme and RGO-AuNPs in a sol gel matrix derived from tetrametoxysilane and methyltrimetoxysilane. The enzyme loading, working pH, and coenzyme concentration were optimized. The biosensor linearly responded to l-lactate in the range of 10µM-5mM and showed a good specific sensitivity of 154µA/mMcm(2) with a detection limit of 0.13µM. This was accompanied by good reproducibility and operational stability. Tests on artificial serum proved that l-lactate can be determined practically without interferences from commonly interfering compounds such as urate, paracetamol and l-ascorbate. Our LDH/RGO-AuNPs/SPCE based biosensor thus performs as electrochemical device for the detection of l-lactate as a viable early cancer bio-marker. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Ultrasensitive electrochemical biosensor for detection of DNA from Bacillus subtilis by coupling target-induced strand displacement and nicking endonuclease signal amplification.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuhua; Xu, Xueqin; Liu, Qionghua; Wang, Ling; Lin, Zhenyu; Chen, Guonan

    2014-09-02

    A simple, ultrasensitive, and specific electrochemical biosensor was designed to determine the given DNA sequence of Bacillus subtilis by coupling target-induced strand displacement and nicking endonuclease signal amplification. The target DNA (TD, the DNA sequence from the hypervarient region of 16S rDNA of Bacillus subtilis) could be detected by the differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) in a range from 0.1 fM to 20 fM with the detection limit down to 0.08 fM at the 3s(blank) level. This electrochemical biosensor exhibits high distinction ability to single-base mismatch, double-bases mismatch, and noncomplementary DNA sequence, which may be expected to detect single-base mismatch and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Moreover, the applicability of the designed biosensor for detecting the given DNA sequence from Bacillus subtilis was investigated. The result obtained by electrochemical method is approximately consistent with that by a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction detecting system (QPCR) with SYBR Green.

  12. NANOPARTICLE DELIVERED BIOSENSOR FOR REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES IN DIABETES

    PubMed Central

    Prow, Tarl W.; Bhutto, Imran; Grebe, Rhonda; Uno, Koichi; Merges, Carol; Mcleod, D. Scott; Lutty, Gerard A.

    2008-01-01

    The cell’s own antioxidant response element (ARE) can be used to evaluate the complications of diabetes mellitus. The hypothesis that a synthetic ARE could be used as a genetic switch, or biosensor, to turn on and off therapeutic genes is tested herein. Mitochondrial oxidative stress (MOS) has been hypothesized as one of the earliest insults in diabetes. Fluorescent probes used to monitor MOS revealed that the addition of glucose at physiological levels to cultures of endothelial cells was able to induce MOS above normal levels and in a dose dependant manner. Additional data showed that increased glucose levels activated the ARE-GFP in a dose dependant manner. These data support the hypothesis that the induction of MOS is more sensitive to hyperglycemia than the induction of the ARE. Delivery of an ARE-GFP construct with nanoparticles to the eye was successful using sub-retinal injection. This ARE-GFP/nanoparticle construct was functional and reported the activation of the ARE in diabetic rat retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). These data support the use of nanoparticle delivered biosensors for monitoring the oxidative status of tissues in vivo. PMID:18252237

  13. Nanoparticle-delivered biosensor for reactive oxygen species in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Prow, Tarl W; Bhutto, Imran; Grebe, Rhonda; Uno, Koichi; Merges, Carol; McLeod, D Scott; Lutty, Gerard A

    2008-02-01

    The cell's own antioxidant response element (ARE) can be used to evaluate the complications of diabetes mellitus. The hypothesis that a synthetic ARE could be used as a genetic switch, or biosensor, to turn on and off therapeutic genes is tested herein. Mitochondrial oxidative stress (MOS) has been hypothesized as one of the earliest insults in diabetes. Fluorescent probes used to monitor MOS revealed that the addition of glucose at physiological levels to cultures of endothelial cells was able to induce MOS above normal levels and in a dose-dependant manner. Additional data showed that increased glucose levels activated the ARE-GFP in a dose-dependant manner. These data support the hypothesis that the induction of MOS is more sensitive to hyperglycemia than the induction of the ARE. Delivery of an ARE-GFP construct with nanoparticles to the eye was successful using sub-retinal injection. This ARE-GFP/nanoparticle construct was functional and reported the activation of the ARE in diabetic rat retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). These data support the use of nanoparticle-delivered biosensors for monitoring the oxidative status of tissues in vivo.

  14. Nanogravimetric and voltammetric DNA-hybridization biosensors for studies of DNA damage by common toxicants and pollutants.

    PubMed

    Nowicka, Anna M; Kowalczyk, Agata; Stojek, Zbigniew; Hepel, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Electrochemical and nanogravimetric DNA-hybridization biosensors have been developed for sensing single mismatches in the probe-target ssDNA sequences. The voltammetric transduction was achieved by coupling ferrocene moiety to streptavidin linked to biotinylated tDNA. The mass-related frequency transduction was implemented by immobilizing the sensory pDNA on a gold-coated quartz crystal piezoresonators oscillating in the 10MHz band. The high sensitivity of these sensors enabled us to study DNA damage caused by representative toxicants and environmental pollutants, including Cr(VI) species, common pesticides and herbicides. We have found that the sensor responds rapidly to any damage caused by Cr(VI) species, with more severe DNA damage observed for Cr(2)O(7)(2-) and for CrO(4)(2-) in the presence of H(2)O(2) as compared to CrO(4)(2-) alone. All herbicides and pesticides examined caused DNA damage or structural alterations leading to the double-helix unwinding. Among these compounds, paraoxon-ethyl and atrazine caused the fastest and most severe damage to DNA. The physico-chemical mechanism of damaging interactions between toxicants and DNA has been proposed. The methodology of testing voltammetric and nanogravimetric DNA-hybridization biosensors developed in this work can be employed as a simple protocol to obtain rapid comparative data concerning DNA damage caused by herbicide, pesticides and other toxic pollutants. The DNA-hybridization biosensor can, therefore, be utilized as a rapid screening device for classifying environmental pollutants and to evaluate DNA damage induced by these compounds.

  15. Fiber Optic Surface Plasmon Resonance-Based Biosensor Technique: Fabrication, Advancement, and Application.

    PubMed

    Liang, Gaoling; Luo, Zewei; Liu, Kunping; Wang, Yimin; Dai, Jianxiong; Duan, Yixiang

    2016-05-03

    Fiber optic-based biosensors with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology are advanced label-free optical biosensing methods. They have brought tremendous progress in the sensing of various chemical and biological species. This review summarizes four sensing configurations (prism, grating, waveguide, and fiber optic) with two ways, attenuated total reflection (ATR) and diffraction, to excite the surface plasmons. Meanwhile, the designs of different probes (U-bent, tapered, and other probes) are also described. Finally, four major types of biosensors, immunosensor, DNA biosensor, enzyme biosensor, and living cell biosensor, are discussed in detail for their sensing principles and applications. Future prospects of fiber optic-based SPR sensor technology are discussed.

  16. Glucose biosensor based on glucose oxidase immobilized at gold nanoparticles decorated graphene-carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Devasenathipathy, Rajkumar; Mani, Veerappan; Chen, Shen-Ming; Huang, Sheng-Tung; Huang, Tsung-Tao; Lin, Chun-Mao; Hwa, Kuo-Yuan; Chen, Ting-Yo; Chen, Bo-Jun

    2015-10-01

    Biopolymer pectin stabilized gold nanoparticles were prepared at graphene and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (GR-MWNTs/AuNPs) and employed for the determination of glucose. The formation of GR-MWNTs/AuNPs was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV-vis and FTIR spectroscopy methods. Glucose oxidase (GOx) was successfully immobilized on GR-MWNTs/AuNPs film and direct electron transfer of GOx was investigated. GOx exhibits highly enhanced redox peaks with formal potential of -0.40 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). The amount of electroactive GOx and electron transfer rate constant were found to be 10.5 × 10(-10) mol cm(-2) and 3.36 s(-1), respectively, which were significantly larger than the previous reports. The fabricated amperometric glucose biosensor sensitively detects glucose and showed two linear ranges: (1) 10 μM - 2 mM with LOD of 4.1 μM, (2) 2 mM - 5.2 mM with LOD of 0.95 mM. The comparison of the biosensor performance with reported sensors reveals the significant improvement in overall sensor performance. Moreover, the biosensor exhibited appreciable stability, repeatability, reproducibility and practicality. The other advantages of the fabricated biosensor are simple and green fabrication approach, roughed and stable electrode surface, fast in sensing and highly reproducible. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Construction of an improved amperometric acrylamide biosensor based on hemoglobin immobilized onto carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes/iron oxide nanoparticles/chitosan composite film.

    PubMed

    Batra, Bhawna; Lata, Suman; Pundir, C S

    2013-11-01

    A method is described for construction of an improved amperometric acrylamide biosensor based on covalent immobilization of hemoglobin (Hb) onto nanocomposite of carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (cMWCNT) and iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4NPs) electrodeposited onto Au electrode through chitosan (CHIT) film. The Hb/cMWCNT-Fe3O4NP/CHIT/Au electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and differential pulse voltammetry at different stages of its construction. The biosensor was based on interaction between acrylamide and Hb, which led to decrease in the electroactivity of Hb, i.e., current generated during its reversible conversion [Fe(II)/Fe(III)]. The biosensor showed optimum response within 8 s at pH 5.0 and 30 °C. The linear working range for acrylamide was 3-90 nM, with a detection limit of 0.02 nM and sensitivity of 36.9 μA/nM/cm(2). The biosensor was evaluated and employed for determination of acrylamide in potato crisps.

  18. Enhanced Plasmonic Biosensors of Hybrid Gold Nanoparticle-Graphene Oxide-Based Label-Free Immunoassay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Nan-Fu; Chen, Chi-Chu; Yang, Cheng-Du; Kao, Yu-Sheng; Wu, Wei-Ren

    2018-05-01

    In this study, we propose a modified gold nanoparticle-graphene oxide sheet (AuNP-GO) nanocomposite to detect two different interactions between proteins and hybrid nanocomposites for use in biomedical applications. GO sheets have high bioaffinity, which facilitates the attachment of biomolecules to carboxyl groups and has led to its use in the development of sensing mechanisms. When GO sheets are decorated with AuNPs, they introduce localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in the resonance energy transfer of spectral changes. Our results suggest a promising future for AuNP-GO-based label-free immunoassays to detect disease biomarkers and rapidly diagnose infectious diseases. The results showed the detection of antiBSA in 10 ng/ml of hCG non-specific interfering protein with dynamic responses ranging from 1.45 nM to 145 fM, and a LOD of 145 fM. Considering the wide range of potential applications of GO sheets as a host material for a variety of nanoparticles, the approach developed here may be beneficial for the future integration of nanoparticles with GO nanosheets for blood sensing. The excellent anti-interference characteristics allow for the use of the biosensor in clinical analysis and point-of-care testing (POCT) diagnostics of rapid immunoassay products, and it may also be a potential tool for the measurement of biomarkers in human serum.

  19. Enhanced Plasmonic Biosensors of Hybrid Gold Nanoparticle-Graphene Oxide-Based Label-Free Immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Nan-Fu; Chen, Chi-Chu; Yang, Cheng-Du; Kao, Yu-Sheng; Wu, Wei-Ren

    2018-05-16

    In this study, we propose a modified gold nanoparticle-graphene oxide sheet (AuNP-GO) nanocomposite to detect two different interactions between proteins and hybrid nanocomposites for use in biomedical applications. GO sheets have high bioaffinity, which facilitates the attachment of biomolecules to carboxyl groups and has led to its use in the development of sensing mechanisms. When GO sheets are decorated with AuNPs, they introduce localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in the resonance energy transfer of spectral changes. Our results suggest a promising future for AuNP-GO-based label-free immunoassays to detect disease biomarkers and rapidly diagnose infectious diseases. The results showed the detection of antiBSA in 10 ng/ml of hCG non-specific interfering protein with dynamic responses ranging from 1.45 nM to 145 fM, and a LOD of 145 fM. Considering the wide range of potential applications of GO sheets as a host material for a variety of nanoparticles, the approach developed here may be beneficial for the future integration of nanoparticles with GO nanosheets for blood sensing. The excellent anti-interference characteristics allow for the use of the biosensor in clinical analysis and point-of-care testing (POCT) diagnostics of rapid immunoassay products, and it may also be a potential tool for the measurement of biomarkers in human serum.

  20. Graphene Based Electrochemical Sensors and Biosensors: A Review

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Shao, Yuyan; Wang, Jun; Wu, Hong

    2010-05-01

    Graphene, emerging as a true 2-dimensional material, has received increasing attention due to its unique physicochemical properties (high surface area, excellent conductivity, high mechanical strength, and ease of functionalization and mass production). This article selectively reviews recent advances in graphene-based electrochemical sensors and biosensors. In particular, graphene for direct electrochemistry of enzyme, its electrocatalytic activity toward small biomolecules (hydrogen peroxide, NADH, dopamine, etc.), and graphene-based enzyme biosensors have been summarized in more detail; Graphene-based DNA sensing and environmental analysis have been discussed. Future perspectives in this rapidly developing field are also discussed.

  1. Oxygen sensing glucose biosensors based on alginate nano-micro systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhari, Rashmi; Joshi, Abhijeet; Srivastava, Rohit

    2014-04-01

    Clinically glucose monitoring in diabetes management is done by point-measurement. However, an accurate, continuous glucose monitoring, and minimally invasive method is desirable. The research aims at developing fluorescence-mediated glucose detecting biosensors based on near-infrared radiation (NIR) oxygen sensitive dyes. Biosensors based on Glucose oxidase (GOx)-Rudpp loaded alginate microspheres (GRAM) and GOx-Platinum-octaethylporphyrin (PtOEP)-PLAalginate microsphere system (GPAM) were developed using air-driven atomization and characterized using optical microscopy, CLSM, fluorescence spectro-photometry etc. Biosensing studies were performed by exposing standard solutions of glucose. Uniform sized GRAM and GPAM with size 50+/-10μm were formed using atomization. CLSM imaging of biosensors suggests that Rudpp and PtOEP nanoparticles are uniformly distributed in alginate microspheres. The GRAM and GPAM showed a good regression constant of 0.974 and of 0.9648 over a range of 0-10 mM of glucose with a high sensitivity of 3.349%/mM (625 nm) and 2.38%/mM (645 nm) at 10 mM of glucose for GRAM and GPAM biosensor. GRAM and GPAM biosensors show great potential in development of an accurate and minimally invasive glucose biosensor. NIR dye based assays can aid sensitive, minimally-invasive and interference-free detection of glucose in diabetic patients.

  2. DNA tetrahedral scaffolds-based platform for the construction of electrochemiluminescence biosensor.

    PubMed

    Feng, Qiu-Mei; Zhou, Zhen; Li, Mei-Xing; Zhao, Wei; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2017-04-15

    Proximal metallic nanoparticles (NPs) could quench the electrochemiluminescence (ECL) emission of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) due to Förster energy transfer (FRET), but at a certain distance, the coupling of light-emission with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) result in enhanced ECL. Thus, the modification strategies and distances control between QDs and metallic NPs are critical for the ECL intensity of QDs. In this strategy, a SPR enhanced ECL sensor based on DNA tetrahedral scaffolds modified platform was reported for the detection of telomerase activity. Due to the rigid three-dimensional structure, DNA tetrahedral scaffolds grafting on the electrode surface could accurately modulate the distance between CdS QDs and luminol labelled gold nanoparticles (L-Au NPs), meanwhile provide an enhanced spatial dimension and accessibility for the assembly of multiple L-Au NPs. The ECL intensities of both CdS QDs (-1.25V vs. SCE) and luminol (+0.33V vs. SCE) gradually increased along with the formation of multiple L-Au NPs at the vertex of DNA tetrahedral scaffolds induced by telomerase, bringing in a dual-potential ECL analysis. The proposed method showed high sensitivity for the identification of telomerase and was successfully applied for the differentiation of cancer cells from normal cells. This work suggests that DNA tetrahedral scaffolds could serve as an excellent choice for the construction of SPR-ECL system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Hairpin DNA Switch for Ultrasensitive Spectrophotometric Detection of DNA Hybridization Based on Gold Nanoparticles and Enzyme Signal Amplification

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Zhang, Youyu; Tang, Zhiwen; Wang, Jun

    2010-08-01

    A novel DNA detection platform based on a hairpin-DNA switch, nanoparticles, and enzyme signal amplification for ultrasensitive detection of DNA hybridization has been developed in this work. In this DNA assay, a “stem-loop” DNA probe dually labeled with a thiol at its 5’ end and a biotin at its 3’ end, respectively, was used. This probe was immobilized on the gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) anchored by a protein, globulin, on a 96-well microplate. In the absence of target DNA, the immobilized probe with the stem-loop structure shields the biotin from being approached by a bulky horseradish peroxidase linked-avidin (avidin-HRP) conjugate duemore » to the steric hindrance. However, in the presence of target DNA, the hybridization between the hairpin DNA probe and the target DNA causes significant conformational change of the probe, which forces biotin away from the surface of AuNPs. As a result, the biotin becomes accessible by the avidin-HRP, and the target hybridization event can be sensitively detected via the HRP catalyzed substrate 3, 3', 5, 5'-tetramethylbenzidine using spectrophometric method. Some experimental parameters governing the performance of the assay have been optimized. At optimal conditions, this DNA assay can detect DNA at the concentration of femtomolar level by means of a signal amplification strategy based on the combination of enzymes and nanoparticles. This approach also has shown excellent specificity to distinguish single-base mismatches of DNA targets because of the intrinsic high selectivity of the hairpin DNA probe.« less

  4. An interferometric imaging biosensor using weighted spectrum analysis to confirm DNA monolayer films with attogram sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Fu, Rongxin; Li, Qi; Wang, Ruliang; Xue, Ning; Lin, Xue; Su, Ya; Jiang, Kai; Jin, Xiangyu; Lin, Rongzan; Gan, Wupeng; Lu, Ying; Huang, Guoliang

    2018-05-01

    Interferometric imaging biosensors are powerful and convenient tools for confirming the existence of DNA monolayer films on silicon microarray platforms. However, their accuracy and sensitivity need further improvement because DNA molecules contribute to an inconspicuous interferometric signal both in thickness and size. Such weaknesses result in poor performance of these biosensors for low DNA content analyses and point mutation tests. In this paper, an interferometric imaging biosensor with weighted spectrum analysis is presented to confirm DNA monolayer films. The interferometric signal of DNA molecules can be extracted and then quantitative detection results for DNA microarrays can be reconstructed. With the proposed strategy, the relative error of thickness detection was reduced from 88.94% to merely 4.15%. The mass sensitivity per unit area of the proposed biosensor reached 20 attograms (ag). Therefore, the sample consumption per unit area of the target DNA content was only 62.5 zeptomoles (zm), with the volume of 0.25 picolitres (pL). Compared with the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), the measurement veracity of the interferometric imaging biosensor with weighted spectrum analysis is free to the changes in spotting concentration and DNA length. The detection range was more than 1µm. Moreover, single nucleotide mismatch could be pointed out combined with specific DNA ligation. A mutation experiment for lung cancer detection proved the high selectivity and accurate analysis capability of the presented biosensor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Nanomaterial-Based Biosensors for Detection of Pesticides and Explosives

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Wang, Jun; Lin, Yuehe

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe nanomaterial-based biosensors for detecting OP pesticides and explosives. CNTs and functionalized silica nanoparticles have been chosen for this study. The biosensors were combined with the flow-injection system, providing great advantages for onsite, real-time, and continuous detection of environmental pollutants such as OPs and TNT. The sensors take advantage of the electrocatalytic properties of CNTs, which makes it feasible to achieve a sensitive electrochemical detection of the products from enzymatic reactions at low potential. This approach uses a large aspect ratio of silica nanoparticles, which can be used as a carrier for loading a large amountmore » of electroactive species, such as poly(guanine), for amplified detection of explosives. These methods offer a new environmental monitoring tool for rapid, inexpensive, and highly sensitive detection of OPs or TNT compounds.« less

  6. Enzyme-assisted cycling amplification and DNA-templated in-situ deposition of silver nanoparticles for the sensitive electrochemical detection of Hg(2.).

    PubMed

    Xie, Hua; Wang, Qin; Chai, Yaqin; Yuan, Yali; Yuan, Ruo

    2016-12-15

    In this work, a label-free electrochemical biosensor was developed for sensitive and selective detection of mercury (II) ions (Hg(2+)) based on in-situ deposition of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) extended ssDNA for signal output and nicking endonuclease for cycling amplification. In the presence of target Hg(2+), the T-rich DNA (HP1) could partly fold into duplex-like structure (termed as output DNA) via T-Hg(2+)-T base pairs and thus exposed its sticky end. The sticky end of output DNA could then hybridize with 3'-PO4 terminated capture DNA (HP2) on electrode surface to form output DNA-HP2 hybridization complex with the sequence 5'-CCTCAGC-3'/3'-GGAGTCG-5' (the sequence could be recognized by nicking endonuclease Nt. BbvCI). With the introduction of Nt. BbvCI, output DNA existed in hybridization complex was released from electrode and participated in the next hybridization process, accompanying with the cleave of HP2 to expose substantial 3'-OH group, which could be extended into a long ssDNA nanotail with the aid of TdT and deoxyadenosine triphosphate (dATP). Since the long negatively charged ssDNA nanotail absorbed the positively charged silver ions on the DNA skeleton, the metallic silver could be in-situ deposited on electrode surface for electrochemical signal output upon addition of reduction regent sodium borohydride. Under optimal conditions, the developed electrochemical biosensor presented a good response to Hg(2+) with a detection limit of 3 pM (S/N=3). Furthermore, the biosensor exhibited good reproducibility and high selectivity towards other interfering ions. The proposed sensing system also showed a promising potential application in real sample analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Electrochemical detection of DNA hybridization based on signal DNA probe modified with Au and apoferritin nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fengli; Li, Gang; Qu, Bin; Cao, Wei

    2010-11-15

    A novel and ultrasensitive electrochemical approach for sequence-specific DNA detection based on signal dual-amplification with Au NPs and marker-loaded apoferritin NPs was reported. Target DNA was sandwiched between capture DNA coupled to magnetic beads and signal DNA self-assembled on Au NPs which were incorporated with marker-loaded apoferritin NPs. Subsequent electrochemical stripping analysis of the electroactive markers released from apoferritin NPs in acidic buffers provided a means to quantify the concentration of target DNA. In this means, one target signal could be transformed into multiple redox signals of the markers since a single Au NP could be loaded with dozens of apoferritin NPs, and an apoferritin NP could be loaded with thousands of markers. Under the optimum conditions, the linear range was from 2.0 × 10(-16) to 1.0 × 10(-14)M and the detection limit was 5.1 × 10(-17)M by using the cadmium as a model marker. The proposed DNA biosensor not only exhibited excellent sensitivity but also had good reproducibility and selectivity against two-base mismatched DNA. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Cholinesterase-based biosensors.

    PubMed

    Štěpánková, Šárka; Vorčáková, Katarína

    2016-01-01

    Recently, cholinesterase-based biosensors are widely used for assaying anticholinergic compounds. Primarily biosensors based on enzyme inhibition are useful analytical tools for fast screening of inhibitors, such as organophosphates and carbamates. The present review is aimed at compilation of the most important facts about cholinesterase based biosensors, types of physico-chemical transduction, immobilization strategies and practical applications.

  9. A Disposable Organophosphorus Pesticides Enzyme Biosensor Based on Magnetic Composite Nano-Particles Modified Screen Printed Carbon Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Ning; Yang, Xin; Xie, Donghua; Wu, Yuanzhao; Wen, Weigang

    2010-01-01

    A disposable organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) enzyme biosensor based on magnetic composite nanoparticle-modified screen printed carbon electrodes (SPCE) has been developed. Firstly, an acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-coated Fe3O4/Au (GMP) magnetic nanoparticulate (GMP-AChE) was synthesized. Then, GMP-AChE was absorbed on the surface of a SPCE modified by carbon nanotubes (CNTs)/nano-ZrO2/prussian blue (PB)/Nafion (Nf) composite membrane by an external magnetic field. Thus, the biosensor (SPCE│CNTs/ZrO2/PB/Nf│GMP-AChE) for OPs was fabricated. The surface of the biosensor was characterized by scanning electron micrography (SEM) and X-ray fluorescence spectrometery (XRFS) and its electrochemical properties were studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The degree of inhibition (A%) of the AChE by OPs was determined by measuring the reduction current of the PB generated by the AChE-catalyzed hydrolysis of acetylthiocholine (ATCh). In pH = 7.5 KNO3 solution, the A was related linearly to the concentration of dimethoate in the range from 1.0 × 10−3–10 ng·mL−1 with a detection limit of 5.6 × 10−4 ng·mL−1. The recovery rates in Chinese cabbage exhibited a range of 88%–105%. The results were consistent with the standard gas chromatography (GC) method. Compared with other enzyme biosensors the proposed biosensor exhibited high sensitivity, good selectivity with disposable, low consumption of sample. In particular its surface can be easily renewed by removal of the magnet. The convenient, fast and sensitive voltammetric measurement opens new opportunities for OPs analysis. PMID:22315558

  10. Selective detection of hypertoxic organophosphates pesticides via PDMS composite based acetylcholinesterase-inhibition biosensor.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Ge, Pei-Yu; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2009-09-01

    We report on a pair of highly sensitive amperometric biosensors for organophosphate pesticides (OPs) based on assembling acetylcholinesterase (AChE) on poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)-poly(diallydimethylemmonium) (PDDA)/gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) composite film. Two AChE immobilization strategies are proposed based on the composite film with hydrophobic and hydrophilic surface tailored by oxygen plasma. The twin biosensors show interesting different electrochemical performances. The hydrophobic surface based PDMS-PDDAN AuNPs/choline oxidase (ChO)/AChE biosensor (biosensor-1) shows excellent stability and unique selectivity to hypertoxic organophosphate. At optimal conditions, this biosensor-1 could measure 5.0 x 10(-10) g/L paraoxon and 1.0 x 10(-9) g/L parathion. As for the hydrophilic surface based biosensor (biosensor-2), it shows no selectivity but can be commonly used for the detection of most OPs. Based on the structure of AChE, it is assumed that via the hydrophobic interaction between enzyme molecules and hydrophobic surface, the enzyme active sites surrounded by hydrophobic amino acids face toward the surface and get better protection from OPs. This assumption may explain the different performances of the twin biosensors and especially the unique selectivity of biosensor-1 to hypertoxic OPs. Real sample detection was performed and the omethoate residue on Cottomrose Hibiscus leaves was detected with biosensor-1.

  11. Reduced graphene oxide decorated with gold nanoparticle as signal amplification element on ultra-sensitive electrochemiluminescence determination of caspase-3 activity and apoptosis using peptide based biosensor

    PubMed Central

    Khalilzadeh, Balal; Shadjou, Nasrin; Afsharan, Hadi; Eskandani, Morteza; Nozad Charoudeh, Hojjatollah; Rashidi, Mohammad-Reza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction:Growing demands for ultrasensitive biosensing have led to the development of numerous signal amplification strategies. In this report, a novel electrochemiluminescence (ECL) method was developed for the detection and determination of caspase-3 activity based on reduced graphene oxide sheets decorated by gold nanoparticles as signal amplification element and horseradish peroxidase enzyme (HRP) as ECL intensity enhancing agent. Methods: The ECL intensity of the luminol was improved by using the streptavidin coated magnetic beads and HRP in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The cleavage behavior of caspase-3 was characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques using biotinylated peptide (DEVD containing peptide) which was coated on reduced graphene oxide decorated with gold nanoparticle. The surface modification of graphene oxide was successfully confirmed by FTIR, UV-vis and x-ray spectroscopy. Results: ECL based biosensor showed that the linear dynamic range (LDR) and the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) were 0.5-100 and 0.5 femtomolar (fM), respectively. Finally, the performance of the engineered peptide based biosensor was validated in the A549 cell line as real samples. Conclusion: The prepared peptide based biosensor could be considered as an excellent candidate for early detection of apoptosis, cell turnover, and cancer related diseases. PMID:27853677

  12. Gold nanoparticle-based low limit of detection Love wave biosensor for carcinoembryonic antigens.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuangming; Wan, Ying; Su, Yan; Fan, Chunhai; Bhethanabotla, Venkat R

    2017-09-15

    In this work, a Love wave biosensing platform is described for detecting cancer-related biomarker carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). An ST 90°-X quartz Love wave device with a layer of SiO 2 waveguide was combined with gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) to amplify the mass loading effect of the acoustic wave sensor to achieve a limit of detection of 37pg/mL. The strategy involves modifying the Au NPs with anti-CEA antibody conjugates to form nanoprobes in a sandwich immunoassay. The unamplified detection limit of the Love wave biosensor is 9.4ng/mL. This 2-3 order of magnitude reduction in the limit of detection brings the SAW platform into the range useful for clinical diagnosis. Measurement electronics and microfluidics are easily constructed for acoustic wave biosensors, such as the Love wave device described here, allowing for robust platforms for point of care applications for cancer biomarkers in general. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A lateral flow biosensor for detection of single nucleotide polymorphism by circular strand displacement reaction.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zhuo; Lie, Puchang; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yu, Luxin; Chen, Junhua; Liu, Jie; Ge, Chenchen; Zhou, Xuemeng; Zeng, Lingwen

    2012-09-04

    A lateral flow biosensor for detection of single nucleotide polymorphism based on circular strand displacement reaction (CSDPR) has been developed. Taking advantage of high fidelity of T4 DNA ligase, signal amplification by CSDPR, and the optical properties of gold nanoparticles, this assay has reached a detection limit of 0.01 fM.

  14. Hybrid structures based on gold nanoparticles and semiconductor quantum dots for biosensor applications

    PubMed Central

    Kurochkina, Margarita; Konshina, Elena; Oseev, Aleksandr; Hirsch, Soeren

    2018-01-01

    Background The luminescence amplification of semiconductor quantum dots (QD) in the presence of self-assembled gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) is one of way for creating biosensors with highly efficient transduction. Aims The objective of this study was to fabricate the hybrid structures based on semiconductor CdSe/ZnS QDs and Au NP arrays and to use them as biosensors of protein. Methods In this paper, the hybrid structures based on CdSe/ZnS QDs and Au NP arrays were fabricated using spin coating processes. Au NP arrays deposited on a glass wafer were investigated by optical microscopy and absorption spectroscopy depending on numbers of spin coating layers and their baking temperature. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as the target protein analyte in a phosphate buffer. A confocal laser scanning microscope was used to study the luminescent properties of Au NP/QD hybrid structures and to test BSA. Results The dimensions of Au NP aggregates increased and the space between them decreased with increasing processing temperature. At the same time, a blue shift of the plasmon resonance peak in the absorption spectra of Au NP arrays was observed. The deposition of CdSe/ZnS QDs with a core diameter of 5 nm on the surface of the Au NP arrays caused an increase in absorption and a red shift of the plasmon peak in the spectra. The exciton–plasmon enhancement of the QDs’ photoluminescence intensity has been obtained at room temperature for hybrid structures with Au NPs array pretreated at temperatures of 100°C and 150°C. It has been found that an increase in the weight content of BSA increases the photoluminescence intensity of such hybrid structures. Conclusion The ability of the qualitative and quantitative determination of protein content in solution using the Au NP/QD structures as an optical biosensor has been shown experimentally. PMID:29731613

  15. A new photoelectrochemical biosensors based on DNA conformational changes and isothermal circular strand-displacement polymerization reaction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoru; Xu, Yunpeng; Zhao, Yanqing; Song, Weiling

    2013-01-15

    We report a strategy for the transduction of DNA hybridization into a readily detectable photoelectrochemical signal by means of a conformational change analogous to electrochemical DNA (E-DNA) approach. To demonstrate the effect of distance change for photosensitizer to the surface of electrode on the change of photocurrent, photosensitizer Ru(bpy)(2)(dcbpy)(2+) tagged DNA stem-loop structures were self-assembled onto a nanogold modified ITO electrode. Hybridization induced a large conformational change in DNA structure, which in turn significantly altered the electron-transfer tunneling distance between the electrode and photosensitizer. The resulting change in photocurrent was proportional to the concentration of DNA in the range of 1.0×10(-10)-8.0×10(-9)M. In order to improve the sensitivity of the photoelectrochemical biosensor, an amplified detection method based on isothermal strand displacement polymerization reaction was employed. With multiple rounds of isothermal strand replication, which led to strand displacement and constituted consecutive signal amplification, a detection limit of 9.4×10(-14)M target DNA was achieved. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. DNA biosensors that reason.

    PubMed

    Sainz de Murieta, Iñaki; Rodríguez-Patón, Alfonso

    2012-08-01

    Despite the many designs of devices operating with the DNA strand displacement, surprisingly none is explicitly devoted to the implementation of logical deductions. The present article introduces a new model of biosensor device that uses nucleic acid strands to encode simple rules such as "IF DNA_strand(1) is present THEN disease(A)" or "IF DNA_strand(1) AND DNA_strand(2) are present THEN disease(B)". Taking advantage of the strand displacement operation, our model makes these simple rules interact with input signals (either DNA or any type of RNA) to generate an output signal (in the form of nucleotide strands). This output signal represents a diagnosis, which either can be measured using FRET techniques, cascaded as the input of another logical deduction with different rules, or even be a drug that is administered in response to a set of symptoms. The encoding introduces an implicit error cancellation mechanism, which increases the system scalability enabling longer inference cascades with a bounded and controllable signal-noise relation. It also allows the same rule to be used in forward inference or backward inference, providing the option of validly outputting negated propositions (e.g. "diagnosis A excluded"). The models presented in this paper can be used to implement smart logical DNA devices that perform genetic diagnosis in vitro. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Surface stress-based biosensors.

    PubMed

    Sang, Shengbo; Zhao, Yuan; Zhang, Wendong; Li, Pengwei; Hu, Jie; Li, Gang

    2014-01-15

    Surface stress-based biosensors, as one kind of label-free biosensors, have attracted lots of attention in the process of information gathering and measurement for the biological, chemical and medical application with the development of technology and society. This kind of biosensors offers many advantages such as short response time (less than milliseconds) and a typical sensitivity at nanogram, picoliter, femtojoule and attomolar level. Furthermore, it simplifies sample preparation and testing procedures. In this work, progress made towards the use of surface stress-based biosensors for achieving better performance is critically reviewed, including our recent achievement, the optimally circular membrane-based biosensors and biosensor array. The further scientific and technological challenges in this field are also summarized. Critical remark and future steps towards the ultimate surface stress-based biosensors are addressed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. An amperometric glutamate biosensor based on immobilization of glutamate oxidase onto carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes/gold nanoparticles/chitosan composite film modified Au electrode.

    PubMed

    Batra, Bhawna; Pundir, C S

    2013-09-15

    A method is described for the construction of a novel amperometric glutamate biosensor based on covalent immobilization of glutamate oxidase (GluOx) onto, carboxylated multi walled carbon nanotubes (cMWCNT), gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and chitosan (CHIT) composite film electrodeposited on the surface of a Au electrode. The GluOx/cMWCNT/AuNP/CHIT modified Au electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The biosensor measured current due to electrons generated at 0.135V against Ag/AgCl from H2O2, which is produced from glutamate by immobilized GluOx. The biosensor showed optimum response within 2s at pH 7.5 and 35°C. A linear relationship was obtained between a wide glutamate concentration range (5-500μM) and current (μA) under optimum conditions. The biosensor showed high sensitivity (155nA/μM/cm(2)), low detection limit (1.6μM) and good storage stability. The biosensor was unaffected by a number of serum substances at their physiological concentrations. The biosensor was evaluated and employed for determination of glutamate in sera from apparently healthy subjects and persons suffering from epilepsy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of mercury (II) ion biosensors based on mercury-specific oligonucleotide probes.

    PubMed

    Li, Lanying; Wen, Yanli; Xu, Li; Xu, Qin; Song, Shiping; Zuo, Xiaolei; Yan, Juan; Zhang, Weijia; Liu, Gang

    2016-01-15

    Mercury (II) ion (Hg(2+)) contamination can be accumulated along the food chain and cause serious threat to the public health. Plenty of research effort thus has been devoted to the development of fast, sensitive and selective biosensors for monitoring Hg(2+). Thymine was demonstrated to specifically combine with Hg(2+) and form a thymine-Hg(2+)-thymine (T-Hg(2+)-T) structure, with binding constant even higher than T-A Watson-Crick pair in DNA duplex. Recently, various novel Hg(2+) biosensors have been developed based on T-rich Mercury-Specific Oligonucleotide (MSO) probes, and exhibited advanced selectivity and excellent sensitivity for Hg(2+) detection. In this review, we explained recent development of MSO-based Hg(2+) biosensors mainly in 3 groups: fluorescent biosensors, colorimetric biosensors and electrochemical biosensors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. DETECTION OF DNA DAMAGE USING A FIBEROPTIC BIOSENSOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    A rapid and sensitive fiber optic biosensor assay for radiation-induced DNA damage is reported. For this assay, a biotin-labeled capture oligonucleotide (38 mer) was immobilized to an avidin-coated quartz fiber. Hybridization of a dye-labeled complementary sequence was observed...

  1. Assessment of Carbon- and Metal-Based Nanoparticle DNA Damage with Microfluidic Electrophoretic Separation Technology.

    PubMed

    Schrand, Amanda M; Powell, Thomas; Robertson, Tiffany; Hussain, Saber M

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we examined the feasibility of extracting DNA from whole cell lysates exposed to nanoparticles using two different methodologies for evaluation of fragmentation with microfluidic electrophoretic separation. Human lung macrophages were exposed to five different carbon- and metal-based nanoparticles at two different time points (2 h, 24 h) and two different doses (5 µg/ml, 100 µg/ml). The primary difference in the banding patterns after 2 h of nanoparticle exposure is more DNA fragmentation at the higher NP concentration when examining cells exposed to nanoparticles of the same composition. However, higher doses of carbon and silver nanoparticles at both short and long dosing periods can contribute to erroneous or incomplete data with this technique. Also comparing DNA isolation methodologies, we recommend the centrifugation extraction technique, which provides more consistent banding patterns in the control samples compared to the spooling technique. Here we demonstrate that multi-walled carbon nanotubes, 15 nm silver nanoparticles and the positive control cadmium oxide cause similar DNA fragmentation at the short time point of 2 h with the centrifugation extraction technique. Therefore, the results of these studies contribute to elucidating the relationship between nanoparticle physicochemical properties and DNA fragmentation results while providing the pros and cons of altering the DNA isolation methodology. Overall, this technique provides a high throughput way to analyze subcellular alterations in DNA profiles of cells exposed to nanomaterials to aid in understanding the consequences of exposure and mechanistic effects. Future studies in microfluidic electrophoretic separation technologies should be investigated to determine the utility of protein or other assays applicable to cellular systems exposed to nanoparticles.

  2. Immobilization Techniques in the Fabrication of Nanomaterial-Based Electrochemical Biosensors: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Putzbach, William; Ronkainen, Niina J.

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of 1st to 3rd generation electrochemical biosensors reflects a simplification and enhancement of the transduction pathway. However, in recent years, modification of the transducer with nanomaterials has become increasingly studied and imparts many advantages. The sensitivity and overall performance of enzymatic biosensors has improved tremendously as a result of incorporating nanomaterials in their fabrication. Given the unique and favorable qualities of gold nanoparticles, graphene and carbon nanotubes as applied to electrochemical biosensors, a consolidated survey of the different methods of nanomaterial immobilization on transducer surfaces and enzyme immobilization on these species is beneficial and timely. This review encompasses modification of enzymatic biosensors with gold nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, and graphene. PMID:23580051

  3. Immobilization techniques in the fabrication of nanomaterial-based electrochemical biosensors: a review.

    PubMed

    Putzbach, William; Ronkainen, Niina J

    2013-04-11

    The evolution of 1st to 3rd generation electrochemical biosensors reflects a simplification and enhancement of the transduction pathway. However, in recent years, modification of the transducer with nanomaterials has become increasingly studied and imparts many advantages. The sensitivity and overall performance of enzymatic biosensors has improved tremendously as a result of incorporating nanomaterials in their fabrication. Given the unique and favorable qualities of gold nanoparticles, graphene and carbon nanotubes as applied to electrochemical biosensors, a consolidated survey of the different methods of nanomaterial immobilization on transducer surfaces and enzyme immobilization on these species is beneficial and timely. This review encompasses modification of enzymatic biosensors with gold nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, and graphene.

  4. Silver Nanoparticle Oligonucleotide Conjugates Based on DNA with Triple Cyclic Disulfide Moieties

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae-Seung; Lytton-Jean, Abigail K. R.; Hurst, Sarah J.; Mirkin, Chad A.

    2011-01-01

    We report a new strategy for preparing silver nanoparticle oligonucleotide conjugates that are based upon DNA with cyclic disulfide-anchoring groups. These particles are extremely stable and can withstand NaCl concentrations up to 1.0 M. When silver nanoparticles functionalized with complementary sequences are combined, they assemble to form DNA-linked nanoparticle networks. This assembly process is reversible with heating and is associated with a red-shifting of the particle surface plasmon resonance and a concomitant color change from yellow to pale red. Analogous to the oligonucleotide-functionalized gold nanoparticles, these particles also exhibit highly cooperative binding properties with extremely sharp melting transitions. This work is an important step towards being able to use silver nanoparticle oligonucleotide conjugates for a variety of purposes, including molecular diagnostic labels, synthons in programmable materials synthesis approaches, and functional components for nanoelectronic and plasmonic devices. PMID:17571909

  5. Recent advances in transition-metal dichalcogenides based electrochemical biosensors: A review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Han; Huang, Ke-Jing; Wu, Xu

    2017-11-15

    Layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) comprise a category of two-dimensional (2D) materials that offer exciting properties, including large surface area, metallic and semi-conducting electrical capabilities, and intercalatable morphologies. Biosensors employ biological molecules to recognize the target and utilize output elements which can translate the biorecognition event into electrical, optical or mass-sensitive signals to determine the quantities of the target. TMDCs nanomaterials have been widely applied in various electrochemical biosensors with high sensitivity and selectivity. The marriage of TMDCs and electrochemical biosensors has created many productive sensing strategies for applications in the areas of clinical diagnosis, environmental monitoring and food safety. In recent years, an increasing number of TMDCs-based electrochemical biosensors are reported, suggesting TMDCs offers new possibilities of improving the performance of electrochemical biosensors. This review summarizes recent advances in electrochemical biosensors based on TMDCs for detection of various inorganic and organic analytes in the last five years, including glucose, proteins, DNA, heavy metal, etc. In addition, we also point out the challenges and future perspectives related to the material design and development of TMDCs-based electrochemical biosensors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. In situ evaluation of heavy metal-DNA interactions using an electrochemical DNA biosensor.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, S C B; Corduneanu, O; Oliveira-Brett, A M

    2008-02-01

    Heavy metal ions, lead, cadmium and nickel, are well known carcinogens with natural different origins and their direct mode of action is still not fully understood. A dsDNA-electrochemical biosensor, employing differential pulse voltammetry, was used for the in situ evaluation of Pb2+, Cd2+ and Ni2+ interaction with dsDNA. The results confirm that Pb2+, Cd2+ and Ni2+ bind to dsDNA, and that this interaction leads to different modifications in the dsDNA structure. These modifications were electrochemically recognized as changes in the oxidation peaks of guanosine and adenosine bases. Using homopolynucleotides of guanine and adenine it has been proved that the interaction between Pb2+ and DNA causes oxidative damage and preferentially takes place at adenine-containing segments, with the formation of 2,8-dihydroxyadenine, the oxidation product of adenine residues and a biomarker of DNA oxidative damage. The Pb2+ bound to dsDNA can still undergo oxidation. The interaction of Cd2+ and Ni2+ causes conformational changes, destabilizing the double helix, which can enable the action of other oxidative agents on DNA.

  7. Fiber optofluidic biosensor for the label-free detection of DNA hybridization and methylation based on an in-line tunable mode coupler.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ran; Lu, Dan-Feng; Cheng, Jin; Jiang, Yi; Jiang, Lan; Xu, Jian-Dong; Qi, Zhi-Mei

    2016-12-15

    An optical fiber optofluidic biosensor for the detection of DNA hybridization and methylation has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated. An in-line fiber Michelson interferometer was formed in the photonic crystal fiber. A micrhole in the collapsed region, which combined the tunable mode coupler and optofluidic channel, was fabricated by using femtosecond laser micromachining. The mode field diameter of the guided light is changed with the refractive index in the optofluidic channel, which results in the tunable coupling ratio. Label-free detections of the DNA hybridization and methylation have been experimentally demonstrated. The probe single stranded DNA (ssDNA) was bound with the surface of the optofluidic channel through the Poly-l-lysine layer, and the hybridization between a short 22-mer probe ssDNA and a complementary target ssDNA was carried out and detected by interrogating the fringe visibility of the reflection spectrum. Then, the DNA methylation was also detected through the binding between the methylated DNA and the 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) monoclonal antibody. The experiments results demonstrate that the limit of detection of 5nM is achieved, establishing the tunable mode coupler as a sensitive and versatile biosensor. The sensitive optical fiber optofluidic biosensor possesses high specificity and low temperature cross-sensitivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Recent Advances in Nanotechnology Applied to Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xueqing; Guo, Qin; Cui, Daxiang

    2009-01-01

    In recent years there has been great progress the application of nanomaterials in biosensors. The importance of these to the fundamental development of biosensors has been recognized. In particular, nanomaterials such as gold nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, magnetic nanoparticles and quantum dots have been being actively investigated for their applications in biosensors, which have become a new interdisciplinary frontier between biological detection and material science. Here we review some of the main advances in this field over the past few years, explore the application prospects, and discuss the issues, approaches, and challenges, with the aim of stimulating a broader interest in developing nanomaterial-based biosensors and improving their applications in disease diagnosis and food safety examination. PMID:22399954

  9. An enzyme-free catalytic DNA circuit for amplified detection of aflatoxin B1 using gold nanoparticles as colorimetric indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Junhua; Wen, Junlin; Zhuang, Li; Zhou, Shungui

    2016-05-01

    An enzyme-free biosensor for the amplified detection of aflatoxin B1 has been constructed based on a catalytic DNA circuit. Three biotinylated hairpin DNA probes (H1, H2, and H3) were designed as the assembly components to construct the sensing system (triplex H1-H2-H3 product). Cascaded signal amplification capability was obtained through toehold-mediated strand displacement reactions to open the hairpins and recycle the trigger DNA. By the use of streptavidin-functionalized gold nanoparticles as the signal indicators, the colorimetric readout can be observed by the naked eye. In the presence of a target, the individual nanoparticles (red) aggregate into a cross-linked network of nanoparticles (blue) via biotin-streptavidin coupling. The colorimetric assay is ultrasensitive, enabling the visual detection of trace levels of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) as low as 10 pM without instrumentation. The calculated limit of detection (LOD) is 2 pM in terms of 3 times standard deviation over the blank response. The sensor is robust and works even when challenged with complex sample matrices such as rice samples. Our sensing platform is simple and convenient in operation, requiring only the mixing of several solutions at room temperature to achieve visible and intuitive results, and holds great promise for the point-of-use monitoring of AFB1 in environmental and food samples.An enzyme-free biosensor for the amplified detection of aflatoxin B1 has been constructed based on a catalytic DNA circuit. Three biotinylated hairpin DNA probes (H1, H2, and H3) were designed as the assembly components to construct the sensing system (triplex H1-H2-H3 product). Cascaded signal amplification capability was obtained through toehold-mediated strand displacement reactions to open the hairpins and recycle the trigger DNA. By the use of streptavidin-functionalized gold nanoparticles as the signal indicators, the colorimetric readout can be observed by the naked eye. In the presence of a target, the

  10. Electrochemical DNA biosensor based on poly(2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid) modified glassy carbon electrode for the determination of anticancer drug gemcitabine.

    PubMed

    Tığ, Gözde Aydoğdu; Zeybek, Bülent; Pekyardımcı, Şule

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a simple methodology was used to develop a new electrochemical DNA biosensor based on poly(2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid) (P(PDCA)) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). This modified electrode was used to monitor for the electrochemical interaction between the dsDNA and gemcitabine (GEM) for the first time. A decrease in oxidation signals of guanine after the interaction of the dsDNA with the GEM was used as an indicator for the selective determination of the GEM via differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The guanine oxidation peak currents were linearly proportional to the concentrations of the GEM in the range of 1-30mgL(‒1). Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were found to be 0.276mgL(‒1) and 0.922mgL(‒1), respectively. The reproducibility, repeatability, and applicability of the analysis to pharmaceutical dosage forms and human serum samples were also examined. In addition to DPV method, UV-vis and viscosity measurements were utilized to propose the interaction mechanism between the GEM and the dsDNA. The novel DNA biosensor could serve for sensitive, accurate and rapid determination of the GEM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Flower-like ZnO nanostructure based electrochemical DNA biosensor for bacterial meningitis detection.

    PubMed

    Tak, Manvi; Gupta, Vinay; Tomar, Monika

    2014-09-15

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures possessing flower-like morphology have been synthesised onto platinized silicon substrate by simple and economical hydrothermal method. The interaction of physically immobilized single stranded thiolated DNA (ss th-DNA) probe of N. meningitides onto the nanostructured ZnO (ZNF) matrix surface have been investigated using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impeadance spectroscopy (EIS). The electrochemical sensing response behaviour of the DNA bioelectrode (ss th-DNA/ZNF/Pt/Si) has been studied by both differential pulse voltammetric (DPV) as well as impedimetric techniques. The fabricated DNA biosensor can quantify wide range of the complementary target ss th-DNA in the range 5-240 ng μl(-1) with good linearity (R=0.98), high sensitivity (168.64 μA ng(-1) μl cm(-2)) and low detection limit of about 5 ng μl(-1). Results emphasise that the fabricated flower-like ZnO nanostructures offer a useful platform for the immobilization of DNA molecules and could be exploited for efficient detection of complementary target single stranded DNA corresponding to N. meningitides. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. DNA nanostructure-directed assembly of metal nanoparticle superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julin, Sofia; Nummelin, Sami; Kostiainen, Mauri A.; Linko, Veikko

    2018-05-01

    Structural DNA nanotechnology provides unique, well-controlled, versatile, and highly addressable motifs and templates for assembling materials at the nanoscale. These methods to build from the bottom-up using DNA as a construction material are based on programmable and fully predictable Watson-Crick base pairing. Researchers have adopted these techniques to an increasing extent for creating numerous DNA nanostructures for a variety of uses ranging from nanoelectronics to drug-delivery applications. Recently, an increasing effort has been put into attaching nanoparticles (the size range of 1-20 nm) to the accurate DNA motifs and into creating metallic nanostructures (typically 20-100 nm) using designer DNA nanoshapes as molds or stencils. By combining nanoparticles with the superior addressability of DNA-based scaffolds, it is possible to form well-ordered materials with intriguing and completely new optical, plasmonic, electronic, and magnetic properties. This focused review discusses the DNA structure-directed nanoparticle assemblies covering the wide range of different one-, two-, and three-dimensional systems.

  13. Study of Inhibition, Reactivation and Aging Processes of Pesticides Using Graphene Nanosheets/Gold Nanoparticles-Based Acetylcholinesterase Biosensor

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Zhang, Lin; Long, Linjuan; Zhang, Weiying

    2012-09-10

    Organophosphate (OP) and carbamate pesticides exert their toxicity via attacking the hydroxyl moiety of serine in the 'active site' of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). In this paper we developed a stable AChE biosensor based on self-assembling AChE to graphene nanosheet (GN)-gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) nanocomposite electrode for investigation of inhibition, reactivation and aging processes of different pesticides. It is confirmed that pesticides can inhibit AChE in a short time. OPs poisoning is treatable with oximes while carbarmates exposure is insensitive to oximes. The proposed electrochemical approach thus provides a new simple tool for comparison of pesticide sensitivity and guide of therapeutic intervention.

  14. DNA nanotechnology-based composite-type gold nanoparticle-immunostimulatory DNA hydrogel for tumor photothermal immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Yata, Tomoya; Takahashi, Yuki; Tan, Mengmeng; Nakatsuji, Hirotaka; Ohtsuki, Shozo; Murakami, Tatsuya; Imahori, Hiroshi; Umeki, Yuka; Shiomi, Tomoki; Takakura, Yoshinobu; Nishikawa, Makiya

    2017-11-01

    Success of tumor photothermal immunotherapy requires a system that induces heat stress in cancer cells and enhances strong anti-tumor immune responses. Here, we designed a composite-type immunostimulatory DNA hydrogel consisting of a hexapod-like structured DNA (hexapodna) with CpG sequences and gold nanoparticles. Mixing of the properly designed hexapodna and oligodeoxynucleotide-modified gold nanoparticles resulted in the formation of composite-type gold nanoparticle-DNA hydrogels. Laser irradiation of the hydrogel resulted in the release of hexapodna, which efficiently stimulated immune cells to release proinflammatory cytokines. Then, EG7-OVA tumor-bearing mice received an intratumoral injection of a gold nanoparticle-DNA hydrogel, followed by laser irradiation at 780 nm. This treatment increased the local temperature and the mRNA expression of heat shock protein 70 in the tumor tissue, increased tumor-associated antigen-specific IgG levels in the serum, and induced tumor-associated antigen-specific interferon-γ production from splenocytes. Moreover, the treatment significantly retarded the tumor growth and extended the survival of the tumor-bearing mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Fabrication of nanostructures and nanostructure based interfaces for biosensor application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Devesh

    Nanoparticles have applications from electronics, composites, drug-delivery, imaging and sensors etc. Fabricating and controlling shape and size of nanoparticles and also controlling the positioning of these particles in 1, 2 or 3-d structures is of most interest. The underlying theme of this study is to develop simple and efficient techniques to fabricate nanoparticles from polymers, and also achieve control in shape, size and functionalization of nanoparticles, while applying them in biosensor applications. First part of the dissertation studies the fabrication of nanostructures using anodized alumina membrane as template. It discusses the fabrication design for injecting polystyrene nanoparticles inside the pores of anodized alumina membranes and heating the membrane to coalesce the particles into tapered nanoparticles. Various parameters like temperature and amount of injected particles can vary the size and shape of fabricated nanoparticles. Later it focuses on the fabrication of metallic nanostructures using the alumina membranes without the aid of the injection system. It utilizes the difference in the functionality of the pore edges of cleaved alumina membrane with respect to the pore walls to first deposit charged polymers using layer-by-layer deposition followed by deposition of nickel. Second part of this study involves immobilization of enzymes for biosensor applications. It describes a biosensor interface developed by immobilization of tyrosinase using layer-by-layer (LBL) deposition process. The interface was modified with functional nanoparticles and their influence on the response of biosensor was studied. Tyrosinase sensor was further extended to develop a novel biosensor which was used to study real time inhibition of NEST, a subunit of the medically relevant membrane protein, neuropathy target esterase. The biosensor was developed to give real time monitoring of dose dependent decrease in activity of NEST. Final part of this study emphasizes on

  16. A graphene oxide based biosensor for microcystins detection by fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yan; Wu, Jiazhen; Sun, Yujing; Zhang, Yue; Wen, Zhiwei; Dai, Haichao; Wang, Hongda; Li, Zhuang

    2012-01-01

    Water safety is one of the most pervasive problems afflicting people throughout the world. Microcystin, a hepatotoxin produced by cyanobacteria, poses a growing and serious threat of water safety. According to World Health Organization (WHO), the limit of content of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) in drinking water is as low as 1 μg/L; it is thus necessary to explore a sensitive method for the trace detection of microcystins (MCs). Based on the observation of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) induced graphene oxide (GO) fluorescence quenching, a reliable biosensor was developed here for microcystins detection. MCs could be attached on Au NPs through the interaction with single strand-DNA (ss-DNA) modified on Au NPs, which formed Au-DNA-MCs complexes. These MCs in the complexes could be immunologically recognized by the antibodies adsorbed on GO sheets, as a result, Au NPs were close enough to quench the photoluminescence of GO by the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The fluorescence intensity decreased with the increase of MCs as more Au NPs linked onto GO surface. The limit of detection was 0.5 and 0.3 μg/L for microcystin-LR and microcystin-RR (MC-RR), respectively, which satisfies the strictest standard of WHO. Well defined results were also obtained in natural lake water and the specificity experiment. The antibody used here could recognize Adda group, the conservative part of MCs, which allowed the biosensor to detect both single toxin and the total content of MCs existing in the water sample. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of a mass sensitive quartz crystal microbalance (QCM)-based DNA biosensor using a 50 MHz electronic oscillator circuit.

    PubMed

    García-Martinez, Gonzalo; Bustabad, Enrique Alonso; Perrot, Hubert; Gabrielli, Claude; Bucur, Bogdan; Lazerges, Mathieu; Rose, Daniel; Rodriguez-Pardo, Loreto; Fariña, Jose; Compère, Chantal; Vives, Antonio Arnau

    2011-01-01

    This work deals with the design of a high sensitivity DNA sequence detector using a 50 MHz quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) electronic oscillator circuit. The oscillator circuitry is based on Miller topology, which is able to work in damping media. Calibration and experimental study of frequency noise are carried out, finding that the designed sensor has a resolution of 7.1 ng/cm(2) in dynamic conditions (with circulation of liquid). Then the oscillator is proved as DNA biosensor. Results show that the system is able to detect the presence of complementary target DNAs in a solution with high selectivity and sensitivity. DNA target concentrations higher of 50 ng/mL can be detected.

  18. The effect of microscopic attractive interactions on piezoelectric coefficients of nanoscale DNA films and its resultant mirocantilever-based biosensor signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jun-Zheng; Zhou, Mei-Hong; Zhang, Neng-Hui

    2017-10-01

    The adsorption of charged biomolecules on a substrate will trigger a self-induced electric potential field that could deflect microcantilever biosensors in the nanometer regime. The paper is devoted to a multiscale characterization of the piezoelectric coefficient of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) films with microscopic attractive interactions in multivalence salt solutions, which has a close relationship with biosensor signals. First, two different analytical models of cantilever deflections based on macroscopic piezoelectric theories or mesoscopic liquid crystal theories were combined in the sense of equivalent deformation in order to bridge the relation between the macroscopic piezoelectric coefficient of an adsorbate film and the sensitivity of its microstructure to surrounding conditions. Second, two interaction potentials of the free energy for repulsion-dominated DNA films in NaCl solution or attraction-repulsion-coexisted DNA films in multivalent salt solutions were used to compare the piezoelectric effect and the resultant cantilever deformation at various packing conditions, such as different packing density, various nucleotide numbers and two packing technologies, i.e. nano-grafting or self-assembling technology. The variational tendency of microcantilever deflections predicted by the present multiscale analytical model agrees well with the related DNA-mirocantilever experiments. Negative piezoelectric coefficient of dsDNA film exists in multivalent salt solutions, and its distinctive size effect with different packing densities and nucleotide numbers provides us with an opportunity to obtain a more sensitive microcantilever sensor by careful control of packing conditions.

  19. Facile construction of a highly sensitive DNA biosensor by in-situ assembly of electro-active tags on hairpin-structured probe fragment

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qingxiang; Gao, Feng; Ni, Jiancong; Liao, Xiaolei; Zhang, Xuan; Lin, Zhenyu

    2016-01-01

    An ultrasensitive DNA biosensor has been developed through in-situ labeling of electroactive melamine-Cu2+ complex (Mel-Cu2+) on the end of hairpin-like probe using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as the signal amplification platform. The 3′-thiolated hairpin-like probe was first immobilized to the gold electrode surface by the Au-S bond. The AuNPs were then tethered on the free 5′-end of the immobilized probe via the special affinity between Au and the modified -NH2. Followed by, the Mel and Cu2+ were assembled on the AuNPs surface through Au-N bond and Cu2+-N bond, respectively. Due to the surface area and electrocatalytic effects of the AuNPs, the loading amount and electron transfer kinetic of the Mel-Cu2+ were enhanced greatly, resulting in significantly enhanced electrochemical response of the developed biosensor. Compared with the synthesis process of conventional electroactive probe DNA accomplished by homogeneous method, the method presented in this work is more reagent- and time-saving. The proposed biosensor showed high selectivity, wide linear range and low detection limit. This novel strategy could also be extended to the other bioanalysis platforms such as immunosensors and aptasensors. PMID:26931160

  20. Electrochemical biosensor based on functional composite nanofibers for detection of K-ras gene via multiple signal amplification strategy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoying; Shu, Guofang; Gao, Chanchan; Yang, Yu; Xu, Qian; Tang, Meng

    2014-12-01

    An electrochemical biosensor based on functional composite nanofibers for hybridization detection of specific K-ras gene that is highly associated with colorectal cancer via multiple signal amplification strategy has been developed. The carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) doped nylon 6 (PA6) composite nanofibers (MWCNTs-PA6) was prepared using electrospinning, which served as the nanosized backbone for thionine (TH) electropolymerization. The functional composite nanofibers [MWCNTs-PA6-PTH, where PTH is poly(thionine)] used as supporting scaffolds for single-stranded DNA1 (ssDNA1) immobilization can dramatically increase the amount of DNA attachment and the hybridization sensitivity. Through the hybridization reaction, a sandwich format of ssDNA1/K-ras gene/gold nanoparticle-labeled ssDNA2 (AuNPs-ssDNA2) was fabricated, and the AuNPs offered excellent electrochemical signal transduction. The signal amplification was further implemented by forming network-like thiocyanuric acid/gold nanoparticles (TA/AuNPs). A significant sensitivity enhancement was obtained; the detection limit was down to 30fM, and the discriminations were up to 54.3 and 51.9% between the K-ras gene and the one-base mismatched sequences including G/C and A/T mismatched bases, respectively. The amenability of this method to the analyses of K-ras gene from the SW480 colorectal cancer cell lysates was demonstrated. The results are basically consistent with those of the K-ras Kit (HRM: high-resolution melt). The method holds promise for the diagnosis and management of cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A novel electrochemical biosensor based on dynamic polymerase-extending hybridization for E. coli O157:H7 DNA detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lijiang; Liu, Qingjun; Hu, Zhaoying; Zhang, Yuanfan; Wu, Chunsheng; Yang, Mo; Wang, Ping

    2009-05-15

    A novel biosensor based on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) probe functionalized aluminum anodized oxide (AAO) nanopore membranes was demonstrated for Escherichia coli O157:H7 DNA detection. An original and dynamic polymerase-extending (PE) DNA hybridization procedure is proposed, where hybridization happens in the existence of Taq DNA polymerase and dNTPs under controlled reaction temperature. The probe strand would be extended as long as the target DNA strand, then the capability to block the ionic flow in the pores has been prominently enhanced by the double strand complex. We have investigated the variation of ionic conductivity during the fabrication of the film and the hybridization using cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy. The present approach provides low detection limit for DNA (a few hundreds of pmol), rapid label-free and easy-to-use bacteria detection, which holds the potential for future use in various ss-DNA analyses by integrated into a self-contained biochip.

  2. Ultrasensitive aptamer biosensor for malathion detection based on cationic polymer and gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Bala, Rajni; Kumar, Munish; Bansal, Kavita; Sharma, Rohit K; Wangoo, Nishima

    2016-11-15

    In this work, we have demonstrated a novel sensing strategy for an organophosphorus pesticide namely, malathion, employing unmodified gold nanoparticles, aptamer and a positively charged, water-soluble polyelectrolyte Polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDDA). The PDDA when associated with the aptamer prevents the aggregation of the gold-nanoparticles while no such inhibition is observed when the aptamer specific pesticide is added to the solution, thereby changing the color of the solution from red to blue. This type of biosensor is quite simple and straightforward and can be completed in a few minutes without the need of any expensive equipment or trained personnel. The proposed method was linear in the concentration range of 0.5-1000pM with 0.06pM as the limit of detection. Moreover, the proposed assay selectively recognized malathion in the presence of other interfering substances and thus, can be applied to real samples for the rapid screening of malathion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Gold nanoparticles-decorated silver-bipyridine nanobelts for the construction of mediatorless hydrogen peroxide biosensor.

    PubMed

    Boujakhrout, Abderrahmane; Díez, Paula; Sánchez, Alfredo; Martínez-Ruíz, Paloma; Pingarrón, José M; Villalonga, Reynaldo

    2016-11-15

    Au nanoparticles modified with 4-mercaptopyridine and 6-mercapto-1-hexanol were used as coordination agents to prepare a novel hybrid nanomaterial with Ag:4,4'-bipyridine nanobelts. This nanohybrid was employed to modify glassy carbon electrodes and to construct a horseradish peroxidase-based mediatorless amperometric biosensor for H2O2. The electrode, poised at -100mV, exhibited a rapid response within 4s and a linear calibration range from 90pM to 6.5nM H2O2. The biosensor showed a high sensitivity of 283A/Mcm(2) and a very low detection limit of 45pM at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. The enzyme biosensor showed high stability when stored at 4°C under dry conditions, retaining over 96% and 78% of its initial activity after 15 and 30days of storage at 4°C, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Study on the binding of procaine hydrochloride to DNA/DNA bases and the effect of CdS nanoparticles on the binding behavior.

    PubMed

    Ping, Gang; Lv, Gang; Gutmann, Sebastian; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Renyun; Wang, Xuemei

    2006-01-01

    The interaction between procaine hydrochloride and DNA/DNA bases in the absence and presence of cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles has been explored in this study by using differential pulse voltammetry, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and so on, which illustrates the different binding behaviors of procaine hydrochloride with different DNA bases. The results clearly indicate that the binding of purines to procaine hydrochloride is stronger than that of pyrimidines and the binding affinity is in the order of G > A > T > C. In addition, it was observed that the presence of CdS nanoparticles could remarkably enhance the probing sensitivity for the interaction between procaine hydrochloride and DNA/DNA bases. Furthermore, AFM study illustrates that procaine hydrochloride can bind to some specific sites of DNA chains, which indicates that procaine hydrochloride may interact with some special sequences of DNA.

  5. Electrochemical study of quinone redox cycling: A novel application of DNA-based biosensors for monitoring biochemical reactions.

    PubMed

    Ensafi, Ali A; Jamei, Hamid Reza; Heydari-Bafrooei, Esmaeil; Rezaei, B

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation of voltammetric and impedimetric DNA-based biosensors for monitoring biological and chemical redox cycling reactions involving free radical intermediates. The concept is based on associating the amounts of radicals generated with the electrochemical signals produced, using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). For this purpose, a pencil graphite electrode (PGE) modified with multiwall carbon nanotubes and poly-diallydimethlammonium chloride decorated with double stranded fish sperm DNA was prepared to detect DNA damage induced by the radicals generated from a redox cycling quinone (i.e., menadione (MD; 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone)). Menadione was employed as a model compound to study the redox cycling of quinones. A direct relationship was found between free radical production and DNA damage. The relationship between MD-induced DNA damage and free radical generation was investigated in an attempt to identify the possible mechanism(s) involved in the action of MD. Results showed that DPV and EIS were appropriate, simple and inexpensive techniques for the quantitative and qualitative comparisons of different reducing reagents. These techniques may be recommended for monitoring DNA damages and investigating the mechanisms involved in the production of redox cycling compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Gold-Coated Superparamagnetic Nanoparticles for Single Methyl Discrimination in DNA Aptamers

    PubMed Central

    Tintoré, Maria; Mazzini, Stefania; Polito, Laura; Marelli, Marcello; Latorre, Alfonso; Somoza, Álvaro; Aviñó, Anna; Fàbrega, Carme; Eritja, Ramon

    2015-01-01

    Au- and iron-based magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) are promising NPs for biomedical applications due to their unique properties. The combination of a gold coating over a magnetic core puts together the benefits from adding the magnetic properties to the robust chemistry provided by the thiol functionalization of gold. Here, the use of Au-coated magnetic NPs for molecular detection of a single methylation in DNA aptamer is described. Binding of α-thrombin to two aptamers conjugated to these NPs causes aggregation, a phenomenon that can be observed by UV, DLS and MRI. These techniques discriminate a single methylation in one of the aptamers, preventing aggregation due to the inability of α-thrombin to recognize it. A parallel study with gold and ferromagnetic NPs is detailed, concluding that the Au coating of FexOy NP does not affect their performance and that they are suitable as complex biosensors. These results prove the high detection potency of Au-coated SPIONs for biomedical applications especially for DNA repair detection. PMID:26593913

  7. Photonic Crystal Biosensor with In-Situ Synthesized DNA Probes for Enhanced Sensitivity

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hu, Shuren; Zhao, Y.; Retterer, Scott T

    2013-01-01

    We report on a nearly 8-fold increase in multi-hole defect photonic crystal biosensor response by incorporating in-situ synthesis of DNA probes, as compared to the conventional functionalization method employing pre-synthesized DNA probe immobilization.

  8. A Highly Sensitive Oligonucleotide Hybridization Assay for Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase with the Probes on a Gold Nanoparticles Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hong-zhi; Yu, Hong- Wei; Wang, Na; Zhang, Ze; Wan, Guang-Cai; Liu, Hao; Guan, Xue; Chang, Dong

    2015-01-01

    To develop a new electrochemical DNA biosensor for determination of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase, a highly sensitive and selective electrochemical biosensor for DNA detection was constructed based on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with gold nanoparticles (Au-nano). The Au-nano/GCE was characterized by scanning electromicroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The hybridization detection was measured by differential pulse voltammetry using methylene blue as the hybridization indicator. The dynamic range of detection of the sensor for the target DNA sequences was from 1 × 10(-11) to 1 × 10(-8) M, with an LOD of 1 × 10(-12) M. The DNA biosensor had excellent specificity for distinguishing complementary DNA sequence in the presence of non-complementary and mismatched DNA sequence. The Au-nano/GCE showed significant improvement in electrochemical characteristics, and this biosensor was successfully applied for determination of K. pneumoniae.

  9. An enhanced sensing platform for ultrasensitive impedimetric detection of target genes based on ordered FePt nanoparticles decorated carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Zong, Peisong; Zheng, Xiuwen; Wang, Libin

    2013-04-15

    We demonstrate a novel high-performance DNA hybridization biosensor with a carbon nanotubes (CNTs)-based nanocomposite membrane as the enhanced sensing platform. The platform was constructed by homogenously distributing ordered FePt nanoparticles (NPs) onto the CNTs matrix. The surface structure and electrochemical performance of the FePt/CNTs nanocomposite membrane were systematically investigated. Such a nanostructured composite membrane platform could combine with the advantages of FePt NPs and CNTs, greatly facilitate the electron-transfer process and the sensing behavior for DNA detection, leading to excellent sensitivity and selectivity. The complementary target genes from acute promyelocytic leukemia could be quantified in a wide range of 1.0×10⁻¹² mol/L to 1.0×10⁻⁶ mol/L using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and the detection limit was 2.1×10⁻¹³ mol/L under the optimal conditions. In addition, the DNA electrochemical biosensor was highly selective to discriminate single-base or double-base mismatched sequences. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. DNA base pair resolution measurements using resonance energy transfer efficiency in lanthanide doped nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Delplanque, Aleksandra; Wawrzynczyk, Dominika; Jaworski, Pawel; Matczyszyn, Katarzyna; Pawlik, Krzysztof; Buckle, Malcolm; Nyk, Marcin; Nogues, Claude; Samoc, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Lanthanide-doped nanoparticles are of considerable interest for biodetection and bioimaging techniques thanks to their unique chemical and optical properties. As a sensitive luminescence material, they can be used as (bio) probes in Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) where trivalent lanthanide ions (La3+) act as energy donors. In this paper we present an efficient method to transfer ultrasmall (ca. 8 nm) NaYF4 nanoparticles dispersed in organic solvent to an aqueous solution via oxidation of the oleic acid ligand. Nanoparticles were then functionalized with single strand DNA oligomers (ssDNA) by inducing covalent bonds between surface carboxylic groups and a 5' amine modified-ssDNA. Hybridization with the 5' fluorophore (Cy5) modified complementary ssDNA strand demonstrated the specificity of binding and allowed the fine control over the distance between Eu3+ ions doped nanoparticle and the fluorophore by varying the number of the dsDNA base pairs. First, our results confirmed nonradiative resonance energy transfer and demonstrate the dependence of its efficiency on the distance between the donor (Eu3+) and the acceptor (Cy5) with sensitivity at a nanometre scale.

  11. "Off-On"switching electrochemiluminescence biosensor for mercury(II) detection based on molecular recognition technology.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lin; Wei, BingGuo; He, Ling Ling; Mao, Ling; Zhang, Jie; Ceng, JinXiang; Kong, DeRong; Chen, ChaDan; Cui, HanFeng; Hong, Nian; Fan, Hao

    2017-02-01

    A novel "off-On" electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor has been developed for the detection of mercury(II) based on molecular recognition technology. The ECL mercury(II) biosensor comprises two main parts: an ECL substrate and an ECL intensity switch. The ECL substrate was made by modifying the complex of Ruthenium(II) tris-(bipyridine)(Ru(bpy) 3 2+ )/Cyclodextrins-Au nanoparticles(CD-AuNps)/Nafion on the surface of glass carbon electrode (GCE), and the ECL intensity switch is the single hairpin DNA probe designed according to the "molecular recognition" strategy which was functionalized with ferrocene tag at one end and attached to Cyclodextrins (CD) on modified GCE through supramolecular noncovalent interaction. We demonstrated that, in the absence of Hg(II) ion, the probe keeps single hairpin structure and resulted in a quenching of ECL of Ru(bpy) 3 2+ . Whereas, in the presence of Hg(II) ion, the probe prefers to form the T-Hg(II)-T complex and lead to an obvious recovery of ECL of Ru(bpy) 3 2+ , which provided a sensing platform for the detection of Hg(II) ion. Using this sensing platform, a simple, rapid and selective "off-On" ECL biosensor for the detection of mercury(II) with a detection limit of 0.1 nM has been developed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Nonlinear optical behavior of DNA-functionalized gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulyk, B.; Krupka, O.; Smokal, V.; Figà, V.; Czaplicki, R.; Sahraoui, B.

    2018-03-01

    The third-order nonlinear optical properties of gold nanoparticles embedded in the DNA-based composites were investigated by means of the third harmonic generation. With this purpose, the thin films comprising DNA-based complexes and Au nanoparticles were spin-deposited on glass substrate and their optical and nonlinear optical features were studied using the Maker-fringe technique at a laser fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm. The values of the third-order susceptibility χ (3)(- 3ω; ω, ω, ω) of the composite films based on DNA complex doped with 5 wt% of N-ethyl-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4-(4-nitrophenylazo)aniline were found to be significantly higher than those for pure composite films. Meanwhile, the presence of Au nanoparticles noticeable decreases the third-order nonlinear response of DNA-based composite mainly due to the enhanced absorption and scattering of laser and generated beam, respectively.

  13. Ultrasensitive label-free detection of DNA hybridization by sapphire-based graphene field-effect transistor biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shicai; Jiang, Shouzhen; Zhang, Chao; Yue, Weiwei; Zou, Yan; Wang, Guiying; Liu, Huilan; Zhang, Xiumei; Li, Mingzhen; Zhu, Zhanshou; Wang, Jihua

    2018-01-01

    Graphene has attracted much attention in biosensing applications for its unique properties. Because of one-atom layer structure, every atom of graphene is exposed to the environment, making the electronic properties of graphene are very sensitive to charged analytes. Therefore, graphene is an ideal material for transistors in high-performance sensors. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method has been demonstrated the most successful method for fabricating large area graphene. However, the conventional CVD methods can only grow graphene on metallic substrate and the graphene has to be transferred to the insulating substrate for further device fabrication. The transfer process creates wrinkles, cracks, or tears on the graphene, which severely degrade electrical properties of graphene. These factors severely degrade the sensing performance of graphene. Here, we directly fabricated graphene on sapphire substrate by high temperature CVD without the use of metal catalysts. The sapphire-based graphene was patterned and make into a DNA biosensor in the configuration of field-effect transistor. The sensors show high performance and achieve the DNA detection sensitivity as low as 100 fM (10-13 M), which is at least 10 times lower than prior transferred CVD G-FET DNA sensors. The use of the sapphire-based G-FETs suggests a promising future for biosensing applications.

  14. Interaction of DNA bases with silver nanoparticles: assembly quantified through SPRS and SERS.

    PubMed

    Basu, Soumen; Jana, Subhra; Pande, Surojit; Pal, Tarasankar

    2008-05-15

    Colloidal silver nanoparticles were prepared by reducing silver nitrate with sodium borohydride. The synthesized silver particles show an intense surface plasmon band in the visible region. The work reported here describes the interaction between nanoscale silver particles and various DNA bases (adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine), which are used as molecular linkers because of their biological significance. In colloidal solutions, the color of silver nanoparticles may range from red to purple to orange to blue, depending on the degree of aggregation as well as the orientation of the individual particles within the aggregates. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and absorption spectroscopy were used to characterize the assemblies. DNA base-induced differential silver nanoparticle aggregation was quantified from the peak separation (relates to color) of surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy (SPRS) and the signal intensity of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), which rationalize the extent of silver-nucleobase interactions.

  15. Colorimetric biosensing of targeted gene sequence using dual nanoparticle platforms

    PubMed Central

    Thavanathan, Jeevan; Huang, Nay Ming; Thong, Kwai Lin

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a colorimetric biosensor using a dual platform of gold nanoparticles and graphene oxide sheets for the detection of Salmonella enterica. The presence of the invA gene in S. enterica causes a change in color of the biosensor from its original pinkish-red to a light purplish solution. This occurs through the aggregation of the primary gold nanoparticles–conjugated DNA probe onto the surface of the secondary graphene oxide–conjugated DNA probe through DNA hybridization with the targeted DNA sequence. Spectrophotometry analysis showed a shift in wavelength from 525 nm to 600 nm with 1 μM of DNA target. Specificity testing revealed that the biosensor was able to detect various serovars of the S. enterica while no color change was observed with the other bacterial species. Sensitivity testing revealed the limit of detection was at 1 nM of DNA target. This proves the effectiveness of the biosensor in the detection of S. enterica through DNA hybridization. PMID:25897217

  16. Detection of tyrosine hydroxylase in dopaminergic neuron cell using gold nanoparticles-based barcode DNA.

    PubMed

    An, Jeung Hee; Oh, Byung-Keun; Choi, Jeong Woo

    2013-04-01

    Tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme of catecholamine biosysthesis, is predominantly expressed in several cell groups within the brain, including the dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area. We evaluated the efficacy of this protein-detection method in detecting tyrosine hydroxylase in normal and oxidative stress damaged dopaminergic cells. In this study, a coupling of DNA barcode and bead-based immnunoassay for detecting tyrosine hydroxylaser with PCR-like sensitivity is reported. The method relies on magnetic nanoparticles with antibodies and nanoparticles that are encoded with DNA and antibodies that can sandwich the target protein captured by the nanoparticle-bound antibodies. The aggregate sandwich structures are magnetically separated from solution, and treated to remove the conjugated barcode DNA. The DNA barcodes were identified by PCR analysis. The concentration of tyrosine hydroxylase in dopaminergic cell can be easily and rapidly detected using bio-barcode assay. The bio-barcode assay is a rapid and high-throughput screening tool to detect of neurotransmitter such as dopamine.

  17. Strip biosensor for amplified detection of nerve growth factor-beta based on a molecular translator and catalytic DNA circuit.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Lai, Ting; Mu, Kejie; Zhou, Zheng

    2014-10-07

    We have demonstrated a new visual detection approach based on a molecular translator and a catalytic DNA circuit for the detection of nerve growth factor-beta (NGF-β). In this assay, a molecular translator based on the binding-induced DNA strand-displacement reaction was employed to convert the input protein to an output DNA signal. The molecular translator is composed of a target recognition element and a signal output element. Target recognition is achieved by the binding of the anti-NGF-β antibody to the target protein. Polyclonal anti-NGF-β antibody is conjugated to DNA1 and DNA2. The antibody conjugated DNA1 is initially hybridized to DNA3 to form a stable DNA1/DNA3 duplex. In the presence of NGF-β, the binding of the same target protein brings DNA1 and DNA2 into close proximity, resulting in an increase in their local effective concentration. This process triggers the strand-displacement reaction between DNA2 and DNA3 and releases the output DNA3. The released DNA3 is further amplified by a catalytic DNA circuit. The product of the catalytic DNA circuit is detected by a strip biosensor. This proposed assay has high sensitivity and selectivity with a dynamic response ranging from 10 fM to 10 pM, and its detection limit is 10 fM of NGF-β. This work provides a sensitive, enzyme-free, and universal strategy for the detection of other proteins.

  18. An electrochemical genosensor for Salmonella typhi on gold nanoparticles-mercaptosilane modified screen printed electrode.

    PubMed

    Das, Ritu; Sharma, Mukesh K; Rao, Vepa K; Bhattacharya, B K; Garg, Iti; Venkatesh, V; Upadhyay, Sanjay

    2014-10-20

    In this work, we fabricated a system of integrated self-assembled layer of organosilane 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxy silane (MPTS) on the screen printed electrode (SPE) and electrochemically deposited gold nanoparticle for Salmonella typhi detection employing Vi gene as a molecular marker. Thiolated DNA probe was immobilized on a gold nanoparticle (AuNP) modified SPE for DNA hybridization assay using methylene blue as redox (electroactive) hybridization indicator, and signal was monitored by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) method. The modified SPE was characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) method. The DNA biosensor showed excellent performances with high sensitivity and good selectivity. The current response was linear with the target sequence concentrations ranging from 1.0 × 10(-11) to 0.5 × 10(-8)M and the detection limit was found to be 50 (± 2.1)pM. The DNA biosensor showed good discrimination ability to the one-base, two-base and three-base mismatched sequences. The fabricated genosensor could also be regenerated easily and reused for three to four times for further hybridization studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Natural polyhydroxyalkanoate-gold nanocomposite based biosensor for detection of antimalarial drug artemisinin.

    PubMed

    Phukon, Pinkee; Radhapyari, Keisham; Konwar, Bolin Kumar; Khan, Raju

    2014-04-01

    The worrisome trend of antimalarial resistance has already highlighted the importance of artemisinin as a potent antimalarial agent. The current investigation aimed at fabricating a biosensor based on natural polymer polyhydroxyalkanoate-gold nanoparticle composite mounting on an indium-tin oxide glass plate for the analysis of artemisinin. The biosensor was fabricated using an adsorbing horse-radish peroxidase enzyme on the electrode surface for which cyclic voltammetry was used to monitor the electro-catalytic reduction of artemisinin under diffusion controlled conditions. Electrochemical interfacial properties and immobilization of enzyme onto a polyhydroxyalkanoate-gold nanoparticle film were evaluated, and confirmed by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The differential pulse voltammetric peak current for artemisinin was increased linearly (concentration range of 0.01-0.08μg mL(-1)) with sensitivity of 0.26μAμg mL(-1). The greater sensitivity of the fabricated biosensor to artemisinin (optimum limits of detection were 0.0035μg mL(-1) and 0.0036μg mL(-1) in bulk and spiked human serum, respectively) could be of much aid in medical diagnosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of human cell biosensor system for genotoxicity detection based on DNA damage-induced gene expression.

    PubMed

    Zager, Valerija; Cemazar, Maja; Hreljac, Irena; Lah, Tamara T; Sersa, Gregor; Filipic, Metka

    2010-03-01

    Human exposure to genotoxic agents in the environment and everyday life represents a serious health threat. Fast and reliable assessment of genotoxicity of chemicals is of main importance in the fields of new chemicals and drug development as well as in environmental monitoring. The tumor suppressor gene p21, the major downstream target gene of activated p53 which is responsible for cell cycle arrest following DNA damage, has been shown to be specifically up-regulated by genotoxic carcinogens. The aim of our study was to develop a human cell-based biosensor system for simple and fast detection of genotoxic agents. Metabolically active HepG2 human hepatoma cells were transfected with plasmid encoding Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (EGFP) under the control of the p21 promoter (p21HepG2GFP). DNA damage was induced by genotoxic agents with known mechanisms of action. The increase in fluorescence intensity, due to p21 mediated EGFP expression, was measured with a fluorescence microplate reader. The viability of treated cells was determined by the colorimetric MTS assay. The directly acting alkylating agent methylmethane sulphonate (MMS) showed significant increase in EGFP production after 48 h at 20 μg/mL. The indirectly acting carcinogen benzo(a)pyren (BaP) and the cross-linking agent cisplatin (CisPt) induced a dose- dependent increase in EGFP fluorescence, which was already significant at concentrations 0.13 μg/mL and 0.41 μg/mL, respectively. Vinblastine (VLB), a spindle poison that does not induce direct DNA damage, induced only a small increase in EGFP fluorescence intensity after 24 h at the lowest concentration (0.1 μg/mL), while exposure to higher concentrations was associated with significantly reduced cell viability. The results of our study demonstrated that this novel assay based on the stably transformed cell line p21HepG2GFP can be used as a fast and simple biosensor system for detection of genetic damage caused by chemical agents.

  1. Application of bioconjugation chemistry on biosensor fabrication for detection of TAR-DNA binding protein 43.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yifan; Wang, Chunlai; Chiu, Liang-Yuan; Abbasi, Kevin; Tolbert, Blanton S; Sauvé, Geneviève; Yen, Yun; Liu, Chung-Chiun

    2018-06-01

    A simple-prepare, single-use and cost-effective, in vitro biosensor for the detection of TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43), a biomarker of neuro-degenerative disorders, was designed, manufactured and tested. This study reports the first biosensor application for the detection of TDP-43 using a novel biosensor fabrication methodology. Bioconjugation mechanism was applied by conjugating anti-TDP 43 with N-succinimidyl S-acetylthioacetate (SATA) producing a thiol-linked anti-TDP 43, which was used to directly link with gold electrode surface, minimizing the preparation steps for biosensor fabrication and simplifying the biosensor surface. The effectiveness of this bioconjugation mechanism was evaluated and confirmed by FqRRM12 protein, using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The surface coverage of the electrode was analyzed by Time-of-Flight-Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was acted as the detection transduction mechanism with the use of [Fe(CN) 6 ] 3-/4- redox probe. Human TDP-43 peptide of 0.0005 µg/mL to 2 µg/mL in undiluted human serum was analyzed using this TDP-43 biosensor. Interference study of the TDP-43 biosensor using β-amyloid 42 protein and T-tau protein confirmed the specificity of this TDP-43 biosensor. This bioconjugation chemistry based approach for biosensor fabrication circumvents tedious gold surface modification and functionalization while enabling specific detection of TDP-43 in less than 1 h with a low fabrication cost of a single biosensor less than $3. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of an optical biosensor based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering for DNA analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yigit, Tugce; Akdogan, Ebru; Karagoz, Isık. Didem; Kahraman, Mehmet

    2016-03-01

    Rapid, accurate and sensitive DNA analysis is critically important for the diagnostic of genetic diseases. The most common method preferred in practice is fluorescence based microarrays to analyze the DNA. However, there exist some disadvantages related to the above-mentioned method such as the overlapping of the fluorescence emission wavelengths that can diminish in the performance of multiplexing, needed to obtain fluorescence spectra from each dye and photo degradation. In this study, a novel SERS based DNA analysis approach, which is Raman active dye-free and independent of SERS substrate properties, is developed. First, the single strand DNA probe is attached to the SERS substrate and half of the complimentary DNA is attached to gold nanoparticles, as well. We hypothesize that in the presence of target DNA, the complimentary DNA coupled colloids will bind to the SERS substrate surface via hybridization of single strand target DNA. To test this hypothesis, we used UV/Vis spectroscopy, atomic for microscopy (AFM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). DNA analysis is demonstrated by a peak shift of the certain peak of the small molecules attached to the SERS substrate surface instead of SERS spectrum obtained in the presence of target DNA from the Raman reporter molecules. The degree of peak shifting will be used for the quantification of the target DNA in the sample. Plasmonic properties of SERS substrates and reproducibility issues will not be considerable due to the use of peak shifting instead of peak intensity for the qualitative analysis.

  3. Biosensor based on Prussian blue nanocubes/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite for detection of organophosphorus pesticides

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Aidong; Du, Dan

    2012-07-13

    We demonstrate a facile procedure to efficiently prepare Prussian blue nanocubes/reduced graphene oxide (PBNCs/rGO) nanocomposite by directly mixing Fe3+ and [Fe(CN)6]3 in the presence of GO in polyethyleneimine aqueous solution, resulting in a novel acetylcholinesterase (AChE) biosensor for detection of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs). The obtained nanocomposite was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis. It was clearly observed that the nanosheet has been decorated with cubic PB nanoparticles and nearly all the nanoparticles are distributed uniformly only on the surface of the reduced GO. No isolated PB nanoparticles were observed, indicatingmore » the strong interaction between PB nanocubes and the reduced GO and the formation of PBNCs/rGO nanocomposite. The obtained PBNCs/rGO based AChE biosensor make the peak potential shift negatively to 220 mV. The AChE biosensor shows rapid response and high sensitivity for detection of monocrotophos. These results suggest that the PBNCs/rGO hybrids nanocomposite exhibited high electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of thiocholine, which lead to the sensitive detection of OP pesticides.« less

  4. Theory and modeling of particles with DNA-mediated interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licata, Nicholas A.

    2008-05-01

    In recent years significant attention has been attracted to proposals which utilize DNA for nanotechnological applications. Potential applications of these ideas range from the programmable self-assembly of colloidal crystals, to biosensors and nanoparticle based drug delivery platforms. In Chapter I we introduce the system, which generically consists of colloidal particles functionalized with specially designed DNA markers. The sequence of bases on the DNA markers determines the particle type. Due to the hybridization between complementary single-stranded DNA, specific, type-dependent interactions can be introduced between particles by choosing the appropriate DNA marker sequences. In Chapter II we develop a statistical mechanical description of the aggregation and melting behavior of particles with DNA-mediated interactions. In Chapter III a model is proposed to describe the dynamical departure and diffusion of particles which form reversible key-lock connections. In Chapter IV we propose a method to self-assemble nanoparticle clusters using DNA scaffolds. A natural extension is discussed in Chapter V, the programmable self-assembly of nanoparticle clusters where the desired cluster geometry is encoded using DNA-mediated interactions. In Chapter VI we consider a nanoparticle based drug delivery platform for targeted, cell specific chemotherapy. In Chapter VII we present prospects for future research: the connection between DNA-mediated colloidal crystallization and jamming, and the inverse problem in self-assembly.

  5. Immobilization free electrochemical biosensor for folate receptor in cancer cells based on terminal protection.

    PubMed

    Ni, Jiancong; Wang, Qingxiang; Yang, Weiqiang; Zhao, Mengmeng; Zhang, Ying; Guo, Longhua; Qiu, Bin; Lin, Zhenyu; Yang, Huang-Hao

    2016-12-15

    The determination of folate receptor (FR) that over expressed in vast quantity of cancerous cells frequently is significant for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of cancers. Many DNA-based electrochemical biosensors have been developed for FR detection with high selectivity and sensitivity, but most of them need complicated immobilization of DNA on the electrode surface firstly, which is tedious and therefore results in the poor reproducibility. In this study, a simple, sensitive, and selective electrochemical FR biosensor in cancer cells has been proposed, which combines the advantages of the convenient immobilization-free homogeneous indium tin oxide (ITO)-based electrochemical detection strategy and the high selectivity of the terminal protection of small molecule linked DNA. The small molecule of folic acid (FA) and an electroactive molecule of ferrocence (Fc) were tethered to 3'- and 5'-end of an arbitrary single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), respectively, forming the FA-ssDNA-Fc complex. In the absence of the target FR, the FA-ssDNA-Fc was degraded by exonuclease I (Exo I) from 3'-end and produced a free Fc, diffusing freely to the ITO electrode surface and resulting in strong electrochemical signal. When the target FR was present, the FA-ssDNA-Fc was bound to FR through specific interaction with FA anchored at the 3'-end, effectively protecting the ssDNA strand from hydrolysis by Exo I. The FR-FA-ssDNA-Fc could not diffuse easily to the negatively charged ITO electrode surface due to the electrostatic repulsion between the DNA strand and the negatively charged ITO electrode, so electrochemical signal reduced. The decreased electrochemical signal has a linear relationship with the logarithm of FR concentration in range of 10fM to 10nM with a detection limit of 3.8fM (S/N=3). The proposed biosensor has been applied to detect FR in HeLa cancer cells, and the decreased electrochemical signal has a linear relationship with the logarithm of cell concentration ranging

  6. Electrochemical DNA biosensor for bovine papillomavirus detection using polymeric film on screen-printed electrode.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Gustavo A; Souza, Elaine V M; Campos-Ferreira, Danielly S; Arruda, Mariana S; Castelletti, Carlos H M; Wanderley, Marcela S O; Ekert, Marek H F; Bruneska, Danyelly; Lima-Filho, José L

    2012-01-01

    A new electrochemical DNA biosensor for bovine papillomavirus (BPV) detection that was based on screen-printed electrodes was comprehensively studied by electrochemical methods of cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). A BPV probe was immobilised on a working electrode (gold) modified with a polymeric film of poly-L-lysine (PLL) and chitosan. The experimental design was carried out to evaluate the influence of polymers, probe concentration (BPV probe) and immobilisation time on the electrochemical reduction of methylene blue (MB). The polymer poly-L-lysine (PLL), a probe concentration of 1 μM and an immobilisation time of 60 min showed the best result for the BPV probe immobilisation. With the hybridisation of a complementary target sequence (BPV target), the electrochemical signal decreased compared to a BPV probe immobilised on the modified PLL-gold electrode. Viral DNA that was extracted from cattle with papillomatosis also showed a decrease in the MB electrochemical reduction, which suggested that the decreased electrochemical signal corresponded to a bovine papillomavirus infection. The hybridisation specificity experiments further indicated that the biosensor could discriminate the complementary sequence from the non-complementary sequence. Thus, the results showed that the development of analytical devices, such as a biosensor, could assist in the rapid and efficient detection of bovine papillomavirus DNA and help in the prevention and treatment of papillomatosis in cattle. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Label-free detection of cardiac troponin-I using gold nanoparticles functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes based chemiresistive biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajesh, Sharma, Vikash; Puri, Nitin K.; Singh, Rajiv K.; Biradar, Ashok M.; Mulchanadani, Ashok

    2013-11-01

    We report a specific and ultrasensitive, label-free chemiresistive biosensor based on mercaptopropionic acid capped gold nanoparticles (GNP) functionalized single walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) hybrid for the detection of cardiac specific biomarker troponin-I (cTnI). GNPs were attached to SWNTs through a molecular linker 1-pyrenemethylamine. The highly specific cTnI antibody was covalently immobilized on GNPs through capping agent using carbodiimide coupling reaction. The cTnI interaction to its corresponding antibody was studied with respect to changes in conductance in SWNTs channel, and a detailed field-effect transistor characteristic was delineated. The device exhibited a linear response to cTnI from 0.01 to 10 ng ml-1.

  8. Programmable Regulation of DNA Conjugation to Gold Nanoparticles via Strand Displacement.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cheng; Wu, Ranfeng; Li, Yifan; Zhang, Qiang; Yang, Jing

    2017-10-31

    Methods for conjugating DNA to gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have recently attracted considerable attention. The ability to control such conjugation in a programmable way is of great interest. Here, we have developed a logic-based method for manipulating the conjugation of thiolated DNA species to AuNPs via cascading DNA strand displacement. Using this method, several logic-based operation systems are established and up to three kinds of DNA signals are introduced at the same time. In addition, a more sensitive catalytic logic-based operation is also achieved based on an entropy-driven process. In the experiment, all of the DNA/AuNPs conjugation results are verified by agrose gel. This strategy promises great potential for automatically conjugating DNA stands onto label-free gold nanoparticles and can be extended to constructing DNA/nanoparticle devices for applications in diagnostics, biosensing, and molecular robotics.

  9. Biosensors based on inorganic nanoparticles with biomimetic properties: Biomedical applications and in vivo cytotoxicity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ispas, Cristina R.

    The rapid progress of nanotechnology and advanced nanomaterials production offer significant opportunities for designing powerful biosensing devices with enhanced performances. This thesis introduces ceria (CeO 2) nanoparticles and its congeners as a new class of materials with huge potential in bioanalytical and biosensing applications. Unique redox, catalytic and oxygen storage/release properties of ceria nanoparticles, originating from their dual oxidation state are used to design biomedical sensors with high sensitivity and low oxygen dependency. This thesis describes a new approach for fabrication of implantable microbiosensors designed for monitoring neurological activity in physiological conditions. Understanding the mechanisms involved in neurological signaling and functioning is of great physiological importance. In this respect, the development of effective methods that allow accurate detection and quantification of biological analytes (i.e. L-glutamate and glucose) associated with neurological processes is of paramount importance. The performance of most analytical techniques currently used to monitor L-glutamate and glucose is suboptimal and only a limited number of approaches address the problem of operation in oxygen-restricted conditions, such as ischemic brain injury. Over the past couple of years, enzyme based biosensors have been used to investigate processes related to L-glutamate release/uptake and the glucose cycle within the brain. However, most of these sensors, based on oxidoreductase enzymes, do not work in conditions of limited oxygen availability. This thesis presents the development of a novel sensing technology for the detection of L-glutamate and glucose in conditions of oxygen deprivation. This technology provides real-time assessment of the concentrations of these analytes with high sensitivity, wide linear range, and low oxygen dependence. The fabrication, characterization and optimization of enzyme microbiosensors are discussed

  10. Dielectrophoretic trapping of DNA-coated gold nanoparticles on silicon based vertical nanogap devices.

    PubMed

    Strobel, Sebastian; Sperling, Ralph A; Fenk, Bernhard; Parak, Wolfgang J; Tornow, Marc

    2011-06-07

    We report on the successful dielectrophoretic trapping and electrical characterization of DNA-coated gold nanoparticles on vertical nanogap devices (VNDs). The nanogap devices with an electrode distance of 13 nm were fabricated from Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) material using a combination of anisotropic reactive ion etching (RIE), selective wet chemical etching and metal thin-film deposition. Au nanoparticles (diameter 40 nm) coated with a monolayer of dithiolated 8 base pairs double stranded DNA were dielectrophoretically trapped into the nanogap from electrolyte buffer solution at MHz frequencies as verified by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM/TEM) analysis. First electrical transport measurements through the formed DNA-Au-DNA junctions partially revealed an approximately linear current-voltage characteristic with resistance in the range of 2-4 GΩ when measured in solution. Our findings point to the importance of strong covalent bonding to the electrodes in order to observe DNA conductance, both in solution and in the dry state. We propose our setup for novel applications in biosensing, addressing the direct interaction of biomolecular species with DNA in aqueous electrolyte media.

  11. Electrochemical H2O2 biosensor composed of myoglobin on MoS2 nanoparticle-graphene oxide hybrid structure.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jinho; Lee, Taek; Bapurao G, Bharate; Jo, Jinhee; Oh, Byung-Keun; Choi, Jeong-Woo

    2017-07-15

    In this research, the electrochemical biosensor composed of myoglobin (Mb) on molybdenum disulfide nanoparticles (MoS 2 NP) encapsulated with graphene oxide (GO) was fabricated for the detection of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). Hybrid structure composed of MoS 2 NP and GO (GO@MoS 2 ) was fabricated for the first time to enhance the electrochemical signal of the biosensor. As a sensing material, Mb was introduced to fabricate the biosensor for H 2 O 2 detection. Formation and immobilization of GO@MoS 2 was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy. Immobilization of Mb, and electrochemical property of biosensor were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and amperometric i-t measurements. Fabricated biosensor showed the electrochemical signal enhanced redox current as -1.86μA at an oxidation potential and 1.95μA at a reduction potential that were enhanced relative to those of electrode prepared without GO@MoS 2 . Also, this biosensor showed the reproducibility of electrochemical signal, and retained the property until 9 days from fabrication. Upon addition of H 2 O 2 , the biosensor showed enhanced amperometric response current with selectivity relative to that of the biosensor prepared without GO@MoS 2 . This novel hybrid material-based biosensor can suggest a milestone in the development of a highly sensitive detecting platform for biosensor fabrication with highly sensitive detection of target molecules other than H 2 O 2 . Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Spectrophotometric, colorimetric and visually detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ETA gene based gold nanoparticles DNA probe and endonuclease enzyme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amini, Bahram; Kamali, Mehdi; Salouti, Mojtaba; Yaghmaei, Parichehreh

    2018-06-01

    Colorimetric DNA detection is preferred over other methods for clinical molecular diagnosis because it does not require expensive equipment. In the present study, the colorimetric method based on gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and endonuclease enzyme was used for the detection of P. aeruginosa ETA gene. Firstly, the primers and probe for P. aeruginosa exotoxin A (ETA) gene were designed and checked for specificity by the PCR method. Then, GNPs were synthesized using the citrate reduction method and conjugated with the prepared probe to develop the new nano-biosensor. Next, the extracted target DNA of the bacteria was added to GNP-probe complex to check its efficacy for P. aeruginosa ETA gene diagnosis. A decrease in absorbance was seen when GNP-probe-target DNA cleaved into the small fragments of BamHI endonuclease due to the weakened electrostatic interaction between GNPs and the shortened DNA. The right shift of the absorbance peak from 530 to 562 nm occurred after adding the endonuclease. It was measured using a UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy that indicates the existence of the P. aeruginosa ETA gene. Sensitivity was determined in the presence of different concentrations of target DNA of P. aeruginosa. The results obtained from the optimized conditions showed that the absorbance value has linear correlation with concentration of target DNA (R: 0.9850) in the range of 10-50 ng mL-1 with the limit detection of 9.899 ng mL-1. Thus, the specificity of the new method for detection of P. aeruginosa was established in comparison with other bacteria. Additionally, the designed assay was quantitatively applied to detect the P. aeruginosa ETA gene from 103 to 108 CFU mL-1 in real samples with a detection limit of 320 CFU mL-1.

  13. Spectrophotometric, colorimetric and visually detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ETA gene based gold nanoparticles DNA probe and endonuclease enzyme.

    PubMed

    Amini, Bahram; Kamali, Mehdi; Salouti, Mojtaba; Yaghmaei, Parichehreh

    2018-06-15

    Colorimetric DNA detection is preferred over other methods for clinical molecular diagnosis because it does not require expensive equipment. In the present study, the colorimetric method based on gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and endonuclease enzyme was used for the detection of P. aeruginosa ETA gene. Firstly, the primers and probe for P. aeruginosa exotoxin A (ETA) gene were designed and checked for specificity by the PCR method. Then, GNPs were synthesized using the citrate reduction method and conjugated with the prepared probe to develop the new nano-biosensor. Next, the extracted target DNA of the bacteria was added to GNP-probe complex to check its efficacy for P. aeruginosa ETA gene diagnosis. A decrease in absorbance was seen when GNP-probe-target DNA cleaved into the small fragments of BamHI endonuclease due to the weakened electrostatic interaction between GNPs and the shortened DNA. The right shift of the absorbance peak from 530 to 562nm occurred after adding the endonuclease. It was measured using a UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy that indicates the existence of the P. aeruginosa ETA gene. Sensitivity was determined in the presence of different concentrations of target DNA of P. aeruginosa. The results obtained from the optimized conditions showed that the absorbance value has linear correlation with concentration of target DNA (R: 0.9850) in the range of 10-50ngmL -1 with the limit detection of 9.899ngmL -1 . Thus, the specificity of the new method for detection of P. aeruginosa was established in comparison with other bacteria. Additionally, the designed assay was quantitatively applied to detect the P. aeruginosa ETA gene from 10 3 to 10 8 CFUmL -1 in real samples with a detection limit of 320CFUmL -1 . Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Metal Nanoparticles/Porous Silicon Microcavity Enhanced Surface Plasmon Resonance Fluorescence for the Detection of DNA.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiajia; Jia, Zhenhong

    2018-02-23

    A porous silicon microcavity (PSiMC) with resonant peak wavelength of 635 nm was fabricated by electrochemical etching. Metal nanoparticles (NPs)/PSiMC enhanced fluorescence substrates were prepared by the electrostatic adherence of Au NPs that were distributed in PSiMC. The Au NPs/PSiMC device was used to characterize the target DNA immobilization and hybridization with its complementary DNA sequences marked with Rhodamine red (RRA). Fluorescence enhancement was observed on the Au NPs/PSiMC device substrate; and the minimum detection concentration of DNA ran up to 10 pM. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the MC substrate; which is so well-positioned to improve fluorescence enhancement rather the fluorescence enhancement of the high reflection band of the Bragg reflector; would welcome such a highly sensitive in biosensor.

  15. An electrochemical impedance biosensor for Hg2+ detection based on DNA hydrogel by coupling with DNAzyme-assisted target recycling and hybridization chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wei; Xie, Shunbi; Zhang, Jin; Tang, Dianyong; Tang, Ying

    2017-12-15

    In this work, an electrochemical impedance biosensor for high sensitive detection of Hg 2+ was presented by coupling with Hg 2+ -induced activation of Mg 2+ -specific DNAzyme (Mg 2+ -DNAzyme) for target cycling and hybridization chain reaction (HCR) assembled DNA hydrogel for signal amplification. Firstly, we synthesized two different copolymer chains P1 and P2 by modifying hairpin DNA H3 and H4 with acrylamide polymer, respectively. Subsequently, Hg 2+ was served as trigger to activate the Mg 2+ -DNAzyme for selectively cleavage ribonucleobase-modified substrate in the presence of Mg 2+ . The partial substrate strand could dissociate from DNAzyme structure, and hybridize with capture probe H1 to expose its concealed sequence for further hybridization. With the help of the exposed sequence, the HCR between hairpin DNA H3 and H4 in P1 and P2 was initiated, and assembled a layer of DNA cross-linked hydrogel on the electrode surface. The formed non-conductive DNA hydrogel film could greatly hinder the interfacial electronic transfer which provided a possibility for us to construct a high sensitive impedance biosensor for Hg 2+ detection. Under the optimal conditions, the impedance biosensor showed an excellent sensitivity and selectivity toward Hg 2+ in a concentration range of 0.1pM - 10nM with a detection limit of 0.042pM Moreover, the real sample analysis reveal that the proposed biosensor is capable of discriminating Hg 2+ ions in reliable and quantitative manners, indicating this method has a promising potential for preliminary application in routine tests. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. DNA nanoparticles with core-shell morphology.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Preethi L; Dimitriadis, Emilios K; Lisziewicz, Julianna; Speransky, Vlad; Horkay, Ferenc

    2014-10-14

    Mannobiose-modified polyethylenimines (PEI) are used in gene therapy to generate nanoparticles of DNA that can be targeted to the antigen-presenting cells of the immune system. We report that the sugar modification alters the DNA organization within the nanoparticles from homogenous to shell-like packing. The depth-dependent packing of DNA within the nanoparticles was probed using AFM nano-indentation. Unmodified PEI-DNA nanoparticles display linear elastic properties and depth-independent mechanics, characteristic of homogenous materials. Mannobiose-modified nanoparticles, however, showed distinct force regimes that were dependent on indentation depth, with 'buckling'-like response that is reproducible and not due to particle failure. By comparison with theoretical studies of spherical shell mechanics, the structure of mannobiosylated particles was deduced to be a thin shell with wall thickness in the order of few nanometers, and a fluid-filled core. The shell-core structure is also consistent with observations of nanoparticle denting in altered solution conditions, with measurements of nanoparticle water content from AFM images, and with images of DNA distribution in Transmission Electron Microscopy.

  17. Multiple Cross Displacement Amplification Combined with Gold Nanoparticle-Based Lateral Flow Biosensor for Detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Li, Hui; Li, Dongxun; Li, Kewei; Wang, Yan; Xu, Jianguo; Ye, Changyun

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. parahaemolyticus) is a marine seafood-borne pathogen causing severe illnesses in humans and aquatic animals. In the present study, multiple cross displacement amplification was combined with a lateral flow biosensor (MCDA-LFB) to detect the toxR gene of V. parahaemolyticus in DNA extracts from pure cultures and spiked oyster homogenates. Amplification was carried out at a constant temperature (62°C) for only 30 min, and amplification products were directly applied to the biosensor. The entire process, including oyster homogenate processing (30 min), isothermal amplification (30 min) and results indicating (∼2 min), could be completed within 65 min. Amplification product was detectable from as little as 10 fg of pure V. parahaemolyticus DNA and from approximately 4.2 × 102 CFU in 1 mL of oyster homogenate. No cross-reaction with other Vibrio species and with non-Vibrio species was observed. Therefore, the MCDA-LFB method established in the current report is suitable for the rapid screening of V. parahaemolyticus in clinical, food, and environmental samples. PMID:28066368

  18. An optical microplate biosensor for the detection of methyl parathion pesticide using a biohybrid of Sphingomonas sp. cells-silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Archana; Kumar, Jitendra; Melo, Jose Savio

    2017-01-15

    The previously developed Sphingomonas sp. based optical microplate biosensor for methyl parathion (MP) was good as it detected multiple samples but had poor stability and low sensitivity. The present study aims to overcome these limitations. Silica nanoparticles (Si NP) were thus functionalized with polyethyleneimine (PEI) and the functionalized silica nanoparticles ( f Si NP) were then integrated with Sphingomonas sp. cells. The process was optimized for hydrolysis of MP into p-nitrophenol (PNP). Integration of f Si NP with cells was confirmed by FT-IR analysis. Biohybrid of Sphingomonas sp.- f Si NP was immobilized on the wells of microplate and associated directly with the optical transducer of microplate reader. Immobilized biohybrid of Sphingomonas sp.- f Si NP was characterized using SEM. A detection range of 0.1-1ppm MP was achieved from the linear range of calibration plot. After integration with f Si NP the storage stability of biohybrid was enhanced ten times from 18 to 180 days. This study proves that after interaction of cells with f Si NP, improved the sensitivity and stability of the biosensor. Spiked samples were also analyzed and correlated using this biohybrid based biosensor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Simultaneous Profiling of DNA Mutation and Methylation by Melting Analysis Using Magnetoresistive Biosensor Array.

    PubMed

    Rizzi, Giovanni; Lee, Jung-Rok; Dahl, Christina; Guldberg, Per; Dufva, Martin; Wang, Shan X; Hansen, Mikkel F

    2017-09-26

    Epigenetic modifications, in particular DNA methylation, are gaining increasing interest as complementary information to DNA mutations for cancer diagnostics and prognostics. We introduce a method to simultaneously profile DNA mutation and methylation events for an array of sites with single site specificity. Genomic (mutation) or bisulphite-treated (methylation) DNA is amplified using nondiscriminatory primers, and the amplicons are then hybridized to a giant magnetoresistive (GMR) biosensor array followed by melting curve measurements. The GMR biosensor platform offers scalable multiplexed detection of DNA hybridization, which is insensitive to temperature variation. The melting curve approach further enhances the assay specificity and tolerance to variations in probe length. We demonstrate the utility of this method by simultaneously profiling five mutation and four methylation sites in human melanoma cell lines. The method correctly identified all mutation and methylation events and further provided quantitative assessment of methylation density validated by bisulphite pyrosequencing.

  20. Highly sensitive glucose biosensor based on the effective immobilization of glucose oxidase/carbon-nanotube and gold nanoparticle in nafion film and peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence reaction of a new fluorophore.

    PubMed

    Zargoosh, Kiomars; Chaichi, Mohammad Javad; Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Hossienkhani, Saman; Asghari, Sakineh; Qandalee, Mohammad

    2012-05-15

    A novel glucose biosensor based on the chemiluminescence (CL) detection of enzymatically generated H(2)O(2) was constructed by the effective immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOD)/carbon-nanotubes (CNTs)/gold nanoparticles (GNPs) in nafion film on graphite support. The influences of various experimental parameters such as solution pH, the action time of the enzyme, interferents and the concentration of CL reagents were investigated. Carbon nanotubes and gold nanoparticles offer excellent catalytic activity toward hydrogen peroxide generation in enzymatic reaction between glucose oxidase and glucose, which would enable sensitive determination of glucose. Under the optimum condition, the linear response range of glucose was found to be 2.25 × 10(-6) to 1.75 × 10(-4 ) mol L(-1), and the detection limit (defined as the concentration that could be detected at the signal-to-noise ratio of 3) was 1.00 × 10(-6) mol L(-1). The CL biosensor exhibited good storage stability, i.e., 80% of its initial response was retained after 10 days storage at pH 7.0. The present CL biosensor has been used to determine the glucose concentrations in real serum and urine samples with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Synthetic biology for microbial heavy metal biosensors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Ju; Jeong, Haeyoung; Lee, Sang Jun

    2018-02-01

    Using recombinant DNA technology, various whole-cell biosensors have been developed for detection of environmental pollutants, including heavy metal ions. Whole-cell biosensors have several advantages: easy and inexpensive cultivation, multiple assays, and no requirement of any special techniques for analysis. In the era of synthetic biology, cutting-edge DNA sequencing and gene synthesis technologies have accelerated the development of cell-based biosensors. Here, we summarize current technological advances in whole-cell heavy metal biosensors, including the synthetic biological components (bioparts), sensing and reporter modules, genetic circuits, and chassis cells. We discuss several opportunities for improvement of synthetic cell-based biosensors. First, new functional modules must be discovered in genome databases, and this knowledge must be used to upgrade specific bioparts through molecular engineering. Second, modules must be assembled into functional biosystems in chassis cells. Third, heterogeneity of individual cells in the microbial population must be eliminated. In the perspectives, the development of whole-cell biosensors is also discussed in the aspects of cultivation methods and synthetic cells.

  2. An impedimetric biosensor for detection of dengue serotype at picomolar concentration based on gold nanoparticles-polyaniline hybrid composites.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Helena P O; Oliveira, Maria D L; de Melo, Celso P; Silva, Gilcelia J L; Cordeiro, Marli T; Andrade, Cesar A S

    2011-09-01

    In this work, we describe the preparation and characterization of a novel gold nanoparticles-polyaniline hybrid composite (AuNpPANI) with SH-terminal groups that, due to its ability of immobilizing dengue serotype-specific primers 1, 2 and 3 (ST1, ST2 and ST3), can be used for the development of biosensors. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) were performed. CV and EIS results demonstrated that the AuNpPANI can immobilize ST1, ST2 and ST3, forming AuNpPANI-ST complexes. Well-defined cyclic voltammograms characteristic of a diffusion-limited redox process were observed both for the bare gold electrode and after these electrodes have been modified by the adsorption of AuNpPANI or AuNpPANI-ST. The AuNpPANI-ST(1-3) systems were able to recognize the dengue serotype of different patients at picomolar concentrations. Even when small volumes and low concentrations of the analyte were used, the CV and EIS results showed unequivocal evidence of an existing interaction between dengue serotype-specific primers and their complementary genomic DNA targets. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of amperometric glucose biosensor through immobilizing enzyme in a Pt nanoparticles/mesoporous carbon matrix.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jingjing; Yu, Donglei; Zhao, Tian; Zeng, Baizhao

    2008-02-15

    Pt nanoparticles were deposited on mesoporous carbon material CMK-3. Glucose oxidase (GOx) was immobilized in the resulting Pt nanoparticles/mesoporous carbon (Pt/CMK-3) matrix, and then the mixture was cast on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) using gelatin as a binder. The glucose biosensor exhibited excellent current response to glucose after cross-linking with glutaraldehyde. At 0.6V (vs. SCE) the response current was linear to glucose concentration in the range of 0.04-12.2mM. The response time (time for achieving 95% of the maximum current) was 15s and the detection limit (S/N=3) was 1 microM. The Michaelis-Menten constant (K(m)(app)) and the maximum current density (i(max)) were 10.8 mM and 908 microAcm(-2), respectively. The activation energy of the enzymatic reaction was estimated to be 22.54 kJ mol(-1). The biosensor showed good stability. It achieved the maximum response current at about 52 degrees C and retained 95.1% of its initial response current after being stored for 30 days. In addition, some fabrication and operation parameters for the biosensor were optimized in this work. The biosensor was used to monitor the glucose levels of serum samples after being covered with an extra Nafion film to improve its anti-interferent ability and satisfied results were obtained.

  4. Effect of platinum nanoparticle deposition parameters on hydrogen peroxide transduction for applications in wearable electrochemical glucose biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cargill, Allison A.; Neil, Kathrine M.; Hondred, John A.; McLamore, Eric S.; Claussen, Jonathan C.

    2016-05-01

    Enhanced interest in wearable biosensor technology over the past decade is directly related to the increasing prevalence of diabetes and the associated requirement of daily blood glucose monitoring. In this work we investigate the platinum-carbon transduction element used in traditional first-generation glucose biosensors which rely on the concentration of hydrogen peroxide produced by the glucose-glucose oxidase binding scheme. We electrodeposit platinum nanoparticles on a commercially-available screen printed carbon electrode by stepping an applied current between 0 and 7.12 mA/cm2 for a varying number of cycles. Next, we examine the trends in deposition and the effect that the number of deposition cycles has on the sensitivity of electrochemical glucose sensing. Results from this work indicate that applying platinum nanoparticles to screen printed carbon via electrodeposition from a metal salt solution improves overall biosensor sensitivity. This work also pinpoints the amount of platinum (i.e., number of deposition cycles) that maximizes biosensor sensitivity in an effort to minimize the use of the precious metals, viz., platinum, in electrode fabrication. In summary, this work quantifies the relationship between platinum electrodeposition and sensor performance, which is crucial in designing and producing cost-effective sensors.

  5. Gold nanoparticle-based probes for the colorimetric detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis DNA.

    PubMed

    Ganareal, Thenor Aristotile Charles S; Balbin, Michelle M; Monserate, Juvy J; Salazar, Joel R; Mingala, Claro N

    2018-02-12

    Gold nanoparticle (AuNP) is considered to be the most stable metal nanoparticle having the ability to be functionalized with biomolecules. Recently, AuNP-based DNA detection methods captured the interest of researchers worldwide. Paratuberculosis or Johne's disease, a chronic gastroenteritis in ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), was found to have negative effect in the livestock industry. In this study, AuNP-based probes were evaluated for the specific and sensitive detection of MAP DNA. AuNP-based probe was produced by functionalization of AuNPs with thiol-modified oligonucleotide and was confirmed by Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. UV-Vis spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize AuNPs. DNA detection was done by hybridization of 10 μL of DNA with 5 μL of probe at 63 °C for 10 min and addition of 3 μL salt solution. The method was specific to MAP with detection limit of 103 ng. UV-Vis and SEM showed dispersion and aggregation of the AuNPs for the positive and negative results, respectively, with no observed particle growth. This study therefore reports an AuNP-based probes which can be used for the specific and sensitive detection of MAP DNA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A Nanoporous Alumina Membrane Based Electrochemical Biosensor for Histamine Determination with Biofunctionalized Magnetic Nanoparticles Concentration and Signal Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Weiwei; Xu, Yifan; Zheng, Lihao; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Mo; Sun, Peilong

    2016-01-01

    Histamine is an indicator of food quality and indispensable in the efficient functioning of various physiological systems. Rapid and sensitive determination of histamine is urgently needed in food analysis and clinical diagnostics. Traditional histamine detection methods require qualified personnel, need complex operation processes, and are time-consuming. In this study, a biofunctionalized nanoporous alumina membrane based electrochemical biosensor with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) concentration and signal amplification was developed for histamine determination. Nanoporous alumina membranes were modified by anti-histamine antibody and integrated into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) chambers. The specific antibody modified MNPs were used to concentrate histamine from samples and transferred to the antibody modified nanoporous membrane. The MNPs conjugated to histamine were captured in the nanopores via specific reaction between histamine and anti-histamine antibody, resulting in a blocking effect that was amplified by MNPs in the nanopores. The blockage signals could be measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy across the nanoporous alumina membrane. The sensing platform had great sensitivity and the limit of detection (LOD) reached as low as 3 nM. This biosensor could be successfully applied for histamine determination in saury that was stored in frozen conditions for different hours, presenting a potentially novel, sensitive, and specific sensing system for food quality assessment and safety support. PMID:27782087

  7. Disposable amperometric biosensor based on nanostructured bacteriophages for glucose detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Yu Ri; Hwang, Kyung Hoon; Kim, Ju Hwan; Nam, Chang Hoon; Kim, Soo Won

    2010-10-01

    The selection of electrode material profoundly influences biosensor science and engineering, as it heavily influences biosensor sensitivity. Here we propose a novel electrochemical detection method using a working electrode consisting of bio-nanowires from genetically modified filamentous phages and nanoparticles. fd-tet p8MMM filamentous phages displaying a three-methionine (MMM) peptide on the major coat protein pVIII (designated p8MMM phages) were immobilized on the active area of an electrochemical sensor through physical adsorption and chemical bonding. Bio-nanowires composed of p8MMM phages and silver nanoparticles facilitated sensitive, rapid and selective detection of particular molecules. We explored whether the composite electrode with bio-nanowires was an effective platform to detect the glucose oxidase. The current response of the bio-nanowire sensor was high at various glucose concentrations (0.1 µm-0.1 mM). This method provides a considerable advantage to demonstrate analyte detection over low concentration ranges. Especially, phage-enabled bio-nanowires can serve as receptors with high affinity and specificity for the detection of particular biomolecules and provide a convenient platform for designing site-directed multifunctional scaffolds based on bacteriophages and may serve as a simple method for label-free detection.

  8. Enhanced DNA Sensing via Catalytic Aggregation of Gold Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Huttanus, Herbert M.; Graugnard, Elton; Yurke, Bernard; Knowlton, William B.; Kuang, Wan; Hughes, William L.; Lee, Jeunghoon

    2014-01-01

    A catalytic colorimetric detection scheme that incorporates a DNA-based hybridization chain reaction into gold nanoparticles was designed and tested. While direct aggregation forms an inter-particle linkage from only ones target DNA strand, the catalytic aggregation forms multiple linkages from a single target DNA strand. Gold nanoparticles were functionalized with thiol-modified DNA strands capable of undergoing hybridization chain reactions. The changes in their absorption spectra were measured at different times and target concentrations and compared against direct aggregation. Catalytic aggregation showed a multifold increase in sensitivity at low target concentrations when compared to direct aggregation. Gel electrophoresis was performed to compare DNA hybridization reactions in catalytic and direct aggregation schemes, and the product formation was confirmed in the catalytic aggregation scheme at low levels of target concentrations. The catalytic aggregation scheme also showed high target specificity. This application of a DNA reaction network to gold nanoparticle-based colorimetric detection enables highly-sensitive, field-deployable, colorimetric readout systems capable of detecting a variety of biomolecules. PMID:23891867

  9. An "off-on" electrochemiluminescent biosensor based on DNAzyme-assisted target recycling and rolling circle amplifications for ultrasensitive detection of microRNA.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pu; Wu, Xiaoyan; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Yaqin

    2015-03-17

    In this study, an off-on switching of a dual amplified electrochemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor based on Pb(2+)-induced DNAzyme-assisted target recycling and rolling circle amplification (RCA) was constructed for microRNA (miRNA) detection. First, the primer probe with assistant probe and miRNA formed Y junction which was cleaved with the addition of Pb(2+) to release miRNA. Subsequently, the released miRNA could initiate the next recycling process, leading to the generation of numerous intermediate DNA sequences (S2). Afterward, bare glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was immersed into HAuCl4 solution to electrodeposit a Au nanoparticle layer (depAu), followed by the assembly of a hairpin probe (HP). Then, dopamine (DA)-modified DNA sequence (S1) was employed to hybridize with HP, which switching off the sensing system. This is the first work that employs DA to quench luminol ECL signal, possessing the biosensor ultralow background signal. Afterward, S2 produced by the target recycling process was loaded onto the prepared electrode to displace S1 and served as an initiator for RCA. With rational design, numerous repeated DNA sequences coupling with hemin to form hemin/G-quadruplex were generated, which could exhibit strongly catalytic toward H2O2, thus amplified the ECL signal and switched the ON state of the sensing system. The liner range for miRNA detection was from 1.0 fM to 100 pM with a low detection limit down to 0.3 fM. Moreover, with the high sensitivity and specificity induced by the dual signal amplification, the proposed miRNA biosensor holds great potential for analysis of other interesting tumor markers.

  10. Nanoparticle Superlattice Engineering with DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macfarlane, Robert John

    In this thesis, we describe a set of design rules for using programmable oligonucleotide interactions, elements of both thermodynamic and kinetic control, and an understanding of the dominant forces that are responsible for particle assembly to design and deliberately make a wide variety of nanoparticle-based superlattices. Like the rules for ionic solids developed by Linus Pauling, these rules are guidelines for determining relative nanoparticle superlattice stability, rather than rigorous mathematical descriptions. However, unlike Pauling's rules, the set of rules developed herein allow one to not just predict crystal stability, but also to deliberately and independently control the nanoparticle sizes, interparticle spacings, and crystallographic symmetries of a superlattice. In the first chapter of this thesis, a general background is given for using DNA as a tool in programmable materials synthesis. Chapter 2 demonstrates how altering oligonucleotide length and nanoparticle size can be used to control nanoparticle superlattice lattice parameters with nanometer-scale precision. In the third chapter, the kinetics of crystallization are examined, and a method to selectively stabilize kinetic products is presented. The data in chapter 4 prove that it is the overall hydrodynamic radius of a DNA-functionalized particle, rather than the sizes of the inorganic nanoparticles being assembled, that dictates particle packing behavior. Chapter 5 demonstrates how particles that exhibit non-equivalent packing behavior can be used to control superlattice symmetry, and chapter 6 utilizes these data to develop a phase diagram that predicts lattice stability a priori to synthesis. In chapter 7, the ability to functionalize a particle with multiple types of oligonucleotides is used to synthesize complex lattices, including ternary superlattices that are capable of dynamic symmetry conversion between a binary and a ternary state. The final chapter provides an outlook on other

  11. Simulations of Interdigitated Electrode Interactions with Gold Nanoparticles for Impedance-Based Biosensing Applications

    PubMed Central

    MacKay, Scott; Hermansen, Peter; Wishart, David; Chen, Jie

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a point-of-care biosensor design. The uniqueness of our design is in its capability for detecting a wide variety of target biomolecules and the simplicity of nanoparticle enhanced electrical detection. The electrical properties of interdigitated electrodes (IDEs) and the mechanism for gold nanoparticle-enhanced impedance-based biosensor systems based on these electrodes are simulated using COMSOL Multiphysics software. Understanding these properties and how they can be affected is vital in designing effective biosensor devices. Simulations were used to show electrical screening develop over time for IDEs in a salt solution, as well as the electric field between individual digits of electrodes. Using these simulations, it was observed that gold nanoparticles bound closely to IDEs can lower the electric field magnitude between the digits of the electrode. The simulations are also shown to be a useful design tool in optimizing sensor function. Various different conditions, such as electrode dimensions and background ion concentrations, are shown to have a significant impact on the simulations. PMID:26364638

  12. Nanoscale Biosensor Based on Silicon Photonic Cavity for Home Healthcare Diagnostic Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimy, Mehdi N.; Moghaddam, Aydin B.; Andalib, Alireza; Naziri, Mohammad; Ronagh, Nazli

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, a new ultra-compact optical biosensor based on photonic crystal (phc) resonant cavity is proposed. This sensor has ability to work in chemical optical processes for the determination and analysis of liquid material. Here, we used an optical filter based on two-dimensional phc resonant cavity on a silicon layer and an active area is created in center of cavity. According to results, with increasing the refractive index of cavity, resonant wavelengths shift so that this phenomenon provides the ability to measure the properties of materials. This novel designed biosensor has more advantage to operate in the biochemical process for example sensing protein and DNA molecule refractive index. This nanoscale biosensor has quality factor higher than 1.5 × 104 and it is suitable to be used in the home healthcare diagnostic applications.

  13. Graphene and CdS nanocomposite: a facile interface for construction of DNA-based electrochemical biosensor and its application to the determination of phenformin.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Lijiao; Wang, Rui; Zhu, Lihua; Zhang, Jingdong

    2013-10-01

    Graphene/cadmium sulphide (GR-CdS) nanocomposite was synthesized via a low temperature process in aqueous solution. The as-prepared nanocomposite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The impedance analysis indicated that GR-CdS nanocomposite possessed outstanding electrochemical performance for facile electron transfer. When DNA was immobilized on GR-CdS (DNA/GR-CdS) modified electrode, the electrochemical oxidation of guanine and adenine in DNA residue bases was significantly promoted. Due to the interaction of DNA with phenformin, the voltammetric current of guanine or adenine on the DNA/GR-CdS electrode was decreased when phenformin was present in the electrolytic solution. Under optimized conditions, the signal of guanine on DNA/GR-CdS electrode decreased linearly with increasing the concentration of phenformin in the range of 1.0×10(-6)molL(-1) to 1.0×10(-3)molL(-1). The proposed DNA-based electrochemical biosensor was successfully applied to the determination of phenformin in real samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. ZnO-Based Amperometric Enzyme Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhiwei; Lei, Wei; Zhang, Xiaobing; Wang, Baoping; Jiang, Helong

    2010-01-01

    Nanostructured ZnO with its unique properties could provide a suitable microenvironment for immobilization of enzymes while retaining their biological activity, and thus lead to an expanded use of this nanomaterial for the construction of electrochemical biosensors with enhanced analytical performance. ZnO-based enzyme electrochemical biosensors are summarized in several tables for an easy overview according to the target biosensing analyte (glucose, hydrogen peroxide, phenol and cholesterol), respectively. Moreover, recent developments in enzyme electrochemical biosensors based on ZnO nanomaterials are reviewed with an emphasis on the fabrications and features of ZnO, approaches for biosensor construction (e.g., modified electrodes and enzyme immobilization) and biosensor performances. PMID:22205864

  15. DNA-hosted copper nanoclusters/graphene oxide based fluorescent biosensor for protein kinase activity detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mengke; Lin, Zihan; Liu, Qing; Jiang, Shan; Liu, Hua; Su, Xingguang

    2018-07-05

    A novel fluorescent biosensor for protein kinase activity (PKA) detection was designed by applying double-strands DNA-hosted copper nanoclusters (dsDNA-CuNCs) and graphene oxide (GO). One DNA strand of the dsDNA consisted of two domains, one domain can hybridize with another complementary DNA strand to stabilize the fluorescent CuNCs and another domain was adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) aptamer. ATP aptamer of the dsDNA-CuNCs would be spontaneously absorbed onto the GO surface through π-π stacking interactions. Thus GO can efficiently quench the fluorescence (FL) of dsDNA-CuNCs through fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). In the present of ATP, ATP specifically combined with ATP aptamer to form ATP-ATP aptamer binding complexes, which had much less affinity to GO, resulting in the fluorescence recovery of the system. Nevertheless, in the presence of PKA, ATP could be translated into ADP and ADP could not combine with ATP aptamer resulting in the fluorescence quenching of dsDNA-CuNCs again. According to the change of the fluorescence signal, PKA activity could be successfully monitored in the range of 0.1-5.0 U mL -1 with a detection limit (LOD) of 0.039 U mL -1 . Besides, the inhibitory effect of H-89 on PKA activity was studied. The sensor was performed for PKA activity detection in cell lysates with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A novel inhibition based biosensor using urease nanoconjugate entrapped biocomposite membrane for potentiometric glyphosate detection.

    PubMed

    Vaghela, Chetana; Kulkarni, Mohan; Haram, Santosh; Aiyer, Rohini; Karve, Meena

    2018-03-01

    A potentiometric biosensor based on agarose-guar gum (A-G) entrapped bio-nanoconjugate of urease with gold nanoparticles (AUNps), has been reported for the first time for glyphosate detection. The biosensor is based on inhibition of urease activity by glyphosate, which was measured by direct potentiometry using ammonium ion selective electrode covered with A-G-urease nanoconjugate membrane. TEM and FTIR analysis revealed nanoconjugate formation and its immobilization in A-G matrix respectively. The composite biopolymer employed for immobilization yields thin, transparent, flexible membrane having superior mechanical strength and stability. It retains the maximum activity (92%) of urease with negligible leaching. The conjugation of urease with AUNps allows improvement in response characteristics for potentiometric measurement. The biosensor shows a linear response in the glyphosate concentration range from 0.5ppm-50ppm, with limit of detection at 0.5ppm, which covers maximum residual limit set by WHO for drinking water. The inhibition of catalytic activity of urease nanoconjugate by gyphosate was confirmed by FTIR analysis. The response of fabricated biosensor is selective towards glyphosate as against various other pesticides. The biosensor exhibits good performance in terms of reproducibility and prolonged storage stability of 180days. Thus, the present biosensor provides an alternative method for simple, selective and cost effective detection of glyphosate based on urease inhibition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. DNA-Based Applications in Nanobiotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Salah, Khalid M.; Ansari, Anees A.; Alrokayan, Salman A.

    2010-01-01

    Biological molecules such as deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) have shown great potential in fabrication and construction of nanostructures and devices. The very properties that make DNA so effective as genetic material also make it a very suitable molecule for programmed self-assembly. The use of DNA to assemble metals or semiconducting particles has been extended to construct metallic nanowires and functionalized nanotubes. This paper highlights some important aspects of conjugating the unique physical properties of dots or wires with the remarkable recognition capabilities of DNA which could lead to miniaturizing biological electronics and optical devices, including biosensors and probes. Attempts to use DNA-based nanocarriers for gene delivery are discussed. In addition, the ecological advantages and risks of nanotechnology including DNA-based nanobiotechnology are evaluated. PMID:20652049

  18. DNA-based applications in nanobiotechnology.

    PubMed

    Abu-Salah, Khalid M; Ansari, Anees A; Alrokayan, Salman A

    2010-01-01

    Biological molecules such as deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) have shown great potential in fabrication and construction of nanostructures and devices. The very properties that make DNA so effective as genetic material also make it a very suitable molecule for programmed self-assembly. The use of DNA to assemble metals or semiconducting particles has been extended to construct metallic nanowires and functionalized nanotubes. This paper highlights some important aspects of conjugating the unique physical properties of dots or wires with the remarkable recognition capabilities of DNA which could lead to miniaturizing biological electronics and optical devices, including biosensors and probes. Attempts to use DNA-based nanocarriers for gene delivery are discussed. In addition, the ecological advantages and risks of nanotechnology including DNA-based nanobiotechnology are evaluated.

  19. Single Nanochannel-Aptamer-Based Biosensor for Ultrasensitive and Selective Cocaine Detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Hou, Jue; Zhang, Huacheng; Tian, Ye; Jiang, Lei

    2018-01-17

    Ultrasensitive and selective detection of molecules at nano or sub-nanomolar level is very important for many areas such as early diagnosis and drug testing. Herein, we report a high-sensitive cocaine sensor based on a single nanochannel coupled with DNA aptamers. The single nanochannel-aptamer-based biosensor can recognize cocaine molecules with an excellent sensitivity and good selectivity. A linear relationship between target cocaine concentration and output ionic current is obtained in a wide concentration range of cocaine from 1 nM to 10 μM. The cocaine sensor also shows a detection limit down to 1 nM. This study provides a new avenue to develop new nanochannel-aptamer-based biosensors for rapid and ultratrace detection of a variety of illicit drugs.

  20. Naked eye detection of mutagenic DNA photodimers using gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joong Hyun; Chung, Bong Hyun

    2011-01-15

    We developed a method to detect mutagenic DNA photodimers by the naked eye using gold nanoparticles. The stability of gold nanoparticles in a high ionic strength solution is maintained by straight ssDNA adsorbed physically on the AuNPs. However, we found that UV-irradiated DNA was less adsorptive onto gold nanoparticles because of a conformational change of UV-irradiated DNA. The accumulated deformation of the DNA structure by multiple-dimer formation triggered aggregation of the gold nanoparticles mixed with the UV-irradiated DNA and thus red to purple color changes of the mixture, which allowed colorimetric detection of the DNA photodimers by the naked eye. No fragmented mass and reactive oxygen species production under the UVB irradiation confirmed that the aggregation of gold nanoparticles was solely attributed to the accumulated deformation of the UV irradiated DNA. The degree of gold nanoparticles-aggregation was dependent on the UVB irradiated time and base compositions of the UV-irradiated oligonucleotides. In addition, we successfully demonstrated how to visually qualify the photosensitizing effect of chemical compounds in parallel within only 10 min by applying this new method. Since our method does not require any chemical or biochemical treatments or special instruments for purifying and qualifying the DNA photolesions, it should provide a feasible tool for the studies of the UV-induced mutagenic or carcinogenic DNA dimers and accelerate screening of a large number of drug candidates. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Signal-off Electrochemiluminescence Biosensor Based on Phi29 DNA Polymerase Mediated Strand Displacement Amplification for MicroRNA Detection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Anyi; Gui, Guo-Feng; Zhuo, Ying; Chai, Ya-Qin; Xiang, Yun; Yuan, Ruo

    2015-06-16

    A target induced cycling strand displacement amplification (SDA) mediated by phi29 DNA polymerase (phi29) was first investigated and applied in a signal-off electrochemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor for microRNA (miRNA) detection. Herein, the target miRNA triggered the phi29-mediated SDA which could produce amounts of single-stranded DNA (assistant probe) with accurate and comprehensive nucleotide sequence. Then, the assistant probe hybridized with the capture probe and the ferrocene-labeled probe (Fc-probe) to form a ternary "Y" structure for ECL signal quenching by ferrocene. Therefore, the ECL intensity would decrease with increasing concentration of the target miRNA, and the sensitivity of biosensor would be promoted on account of the efficient signal amplification of the target induced cycling reaction. Besides, a self-enhanced Ru(II) ECL system was designed to obtain a stable and strong initial signal to further improve the sensitivity. The ECL assay for miRNA-21 detection is developed with excellent sensitivity of a concentration variation from 10 aM to 1.0 pM and limit of detection down to 3.3 aM.

  2. Dynamic Properties of DNA-Programmable Nanoparticle Crystallization.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qiuyan; Zhang, Xuena; Hu, Yi; Zhang, Zhihao; Wang, Rong

    2016-08-23

    The dynamics of DNA hybridization is very important in DNA-programmable nanoparticle crystallization. Here, coarse-grained molecular dynamics is utilized to explore the structural and dynamic properties of DNA hybridizations for a self-complementary DNA-directed nanoparticle self-assembly system. The hexagonal close-packed (HCP) and close-packed face-centered cubic (FCC) ordered structures are identified for the systems of different grafted DNA chains per nanoparticle, which are in good agreement with the experimental results. Most importantly, the dynamic crystallization processes of DNA hybridizations are elucidated by virtue of the mean square displacement, the percentage of hybridizations, and the lifetime of DNA bonds. The lifetime can be modeled by the DNA dehybridization, which has an exponential form. The lifetime of DNA bonds closely depends on the temperature. A suitable temperature for the DNA-nanoparticle crystallization is obtained in the work. Moreover, a too large volume fraction hinders the self-assembly process due to steric effects. This work provides some essential information for future design of nanomaterials.

  3. A Highly Sensitive Nonenzymatic Glucose Biosensor Based on the Regulatory Effect of Glucose on Electrochemical Behaviors of Colloidal Silver Nanoparticles on MoS₂†.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kash; Poulter, Benjamin; Dudgeon, John; Li, Shu-En; Ma, Xiang

    2017-08-05

    A novel and highly sensitive nonenzymatic glucose biosensor was developed by nucleating colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on MoS₂. The facile fabrication method, high reproducibility (97.5%) and stability indicates a promising capability for large-scale manufacturing. Additionally, the excellent sensitivity (9044.6 μA mM -1 cm -2 ), low detection limit (0.03 μM), appropriate linear range of 0.1-1000 μM, and high selectivity suggests that this biosensor has a great potential to be applied for noninvasive glucose detection in human body fluids, such as sweat and saliva.

  4. Assessing activity of Hepatitis A virus 3C protease using a cyclized luciferase-based biosensor.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Junwei; Wang, Dang; Xi, Yongqiang; Zhu, Xinyu; Yang, Yuting; Lv, Mengting; Luo, Chuanzhen; Chen, Jiyao; Ye, Xu; Fang, Liurong; Xiao, Shaobo

    2017-07-08

    Hepatitis A is an acute infection caused by Hepatitis A virus (HAV), which is widely distributed throughout the world. The HAV 3C cysteine protease (3C pro ), an important nonstructural protein, is responsible for most cleavage within the viral polyprotein and is critical for the processes of viral replication. Our group has previously demonstrated that HAV 3C pro cleaves human NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO), a kinase required in interferon signaling. Based on this finding, we generated four luciferase-based biosensors containing the NEMO sequence (PVLKAQ↓ADIYKA) that is cleaved by HAV 3C pro and/or the Nostoc punctiforme DnaE intein, to monitor the activity of HAV 3C pro in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK-293T). Western blotting showed that HAV 3C pro recognized and cleaved the NEMO cleavage sequence incorporated in the four biosensors, whereas only one cyclized luciferase-based biosensor (233-DnaE-HAV, 233DH) showed a measurable and reliable increase in firefly luciferase activity, with very low background, in the presence of HAV 3C pro . With this biosensor (233DH), we monitored HAV 3C pro activity in HEK-293T cells, and tested it against a catalytically deficient mutant HAV 3C pro and other virus-encoded proteases. The results showed that the activity of this luciferase biosensor is specifically dependent on HAV 3C pro . Collectively, our data demonstrate that the luciferase biosensor developed here might provide a rapid, sensitive, and efficient evaluation of HAV 3C pro activity, and should extend our better understanding of the biological relevance of HAV 3C pro . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Recovery Based Nanowire Field-Effect Transistor Detection of Pathogenic Avian Influenza DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chih-Heng; Chu, Chia-Jung; Teng, Kang-Ning; Su, Yi-Jr; Chen, Chii-Dong; Tsai, Li-Chu; Yang, Yuh-Shyong

    2012-02-01

    Fast and accurate diagnosis is critical in infectious disease surveillance and management. We proposed a DNA recovery system that can easily be adapted to DNA chip or DNA biosensor for fast identification and confirmation of target DNA. This method was based on the re-hybridization of DNA target with a recovery DNA to free the DNA probe. Functionalized silicon nanowire field-effect transistor (SiNW FET) was demonstrated to monitor such specific DNA-DNA interaction using high pathogenic strain virus hemagglutinin 1 (H1) DNA of avian influenza (AI) as target. Specific electric changes were observed in real-time for AI virus DNA sensing and device recovery when nanowire surface of SiNW FET was modified with complementary captured DNA probe. The recovery based SiNW FET biosensor can be further developed for fast identification and further confirmation of a variety of influenza virus strains and other infectious diseases.

  6. A paper-based nanomodified electrochemical biosensor for ethanol detection in beers.

    PubMed

    Cinti, Stefano; Basso, Mattia; Moscone, Danila; Arduini, Fabiana

    2017-04-01

    Herein, we report the first example of a paper-based screen-printed biosensor for the detection of ethanol in beer samples. Common office paper was adopted to fabricate the analytical device. The properties of this paper-based screen-printed electrode (SPE) were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy, and they were compared with the well-established polyester-based SPEs as well. Paper demonstrated similar properties when compared with polyester, highlighting suitability towards its utilization in sensor development, with the advantages of low cost and simple disposal by incineration. A nanocomposite formed by Carbon Black (CB) and Prussian Blue nanoparticles (PBNPs), namely CB/PBNPs, was utilized as an electrocatalyst to detect the hydrogen peroxide generated by the enzymatic reaction between alcohol oxidase (AOx) and ethanol. After optimizing the analytical parameters, such as pH, enzyme, concentration, and working potential, the developed biosensor allowed a facile quantification of ethanol up to 10 mM (0.058 % vol ), with a sensitivity of 9.13 μA/mM cm 2 (1574 μA/% vol cm 2 ) and a detection limit equal to 0.52 mM (0.003% vol ). These satisfactory performances rendered the realized paper-based biosensor reliable over the analysis of ethanol contained in four different types of beers, including Pilsner, Weiss, Lager, and alcohol-free. The proposed manufacturing approach offers an affordable and sustainable tool for food quality control and for the realization of different electrochemical sensors and biosensors as well. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Continuous Production of Discrete Plasmid DNA-Polycation Nanoparticles Using Flash Nanocomplexation

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Jose Luis; Ren, Yong; Vandermark, John; Archang, Maani M.; Williford, John-Michael; Liu, Heng-wen; Lee, Jason; Wang, Tza-Huei; Mao, Hai-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Despite successful demonstration of linear polyethyleneimine (lPEI) as an effective carrier for a wide range of gene medicine, including DNA plasmids, small interfering RNAs, mRNAs, etc., and continuous improvement of the physical properties and biological performance of the polyelectrolyte complex nanoparticles prepared from lPEI and nucleic acids, there still exist major challenges to produce these nanocomplexes in a scalable manner, particularly for lPEI/DNA nanoparticles. This has significantly hindered the progress towards clinical translation of these nanoparticle-based gene medicine. Here we report a flash nanocomplexation (FNC) method that achieves continuous production of lPEI/plasmid DNA nanoparticles with narrow size distribution using a confined impinging jet device. The method involves the complex coacervation of negatively charged DNA plasmid and positive charged lPEI under rapid, highly dynamic, and homogeneous mixing conditions, producing polyelectrolyte complex nanoparticles with narrow distribution of particle size and shape. The average number of plasmid DNA packaged per nanoparticles and its distribution are similar between the FNC method and the small-scale batch mixing method. In addition, the nanoparticles prepared by these two methods exhibit similar cell transfection efficiency. These results confirm that FNC is an effective and scalable method that can produce well-controlled lPEI/plasmid DNA nanoparticles. PMID:27717227

  8. Multifunctional glucose biosensors from Fe3O4 nanoparticles modified chitosan/graphene nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenjing; Li, Xiaojian; Zou, Ruitao; Wu, Huizi; Shi, Haiyan; Yu, Shanshan; Liu, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Novel water-dispersible and biocompatible chitosan-functionalized graphene (CG) has been prepared by a one-step ball milling of carboxylic chitosan and graphite. Presence of nitrogen (from chitosan) at the surface of graphene enables the CG to be an outstanding catalyst for the electrochemical biosensors. The resulting CG shows lower ID/IG ratio in the Raman spectrum than other nitrogen-containing graphene prepared using different techniques. Magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles (MNP) are further introduced into the as-synthesized CG for multifunctional applications beyond biosensors such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Carboxyl groups from CG is used to directly immobilize glucose oxidase (GOx) via covalent linkage while incorporation of MNP further facilitated enzyme loading and other unique properties. The resulting biosensor exhibits a good glucose detection response with a detection limit of 16 μM, a sensitivity of 5.658 mA/cm2/M, and a linear detection range up to 26 mM glucose. Formation of the multifunctional MNP/CG nanocomposites provides additional advantages for applications in more clinical areas such as in vivo biosensors and MRI agents. PMID:26052919

  9. A fractal analysis of protein to DNA binding kinetics using biosensors.

    PubMed

    Sadana, Ajit

    2003-08-01

    A fractal analysis of a confirmative nature only is presented for the binding of estrogen receptor (ER) in solution to its corresponding DNA (estrogen response element, ERE) immobilized on a sensor chip surface [J. Biol. Chem. 272 (1997) 11384], and for the cooperative binding of human 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) receptor (VDR) to DNA with the 9-cis-retinoic acid receptor (RXR) [Biochemistry 35 (1996) 3309]. Ligands were also used to modulate the first reaction. Data taken from the literature may be modeled by using a single- or a dual-fractal analysis. Relationships are presented for the binding rate coefficient as a function of either the analyte concentration in solution or the fractal dimension that exists on the biosensor surface. The binding rate expressions developed exhibit a wide range of dependence on the degree of heterogeneity that exists on the surface, ranging from sensitive (order of dependence equal to 1.202) to very sensitive (order of dependence equal to 12.239). In general, the binding rate coefficient increases as the degree of heterogeneity or the fractal dimension of the surface increases. The predictive relationships presented provide further physical insights into the reactions occurring on the biosensor surface. Even though these reactions are occurring on the biosensor surface, the relationships presented should assist in understanding and in possibly manipulating the reactions occurring on cellular surfaces.

  10. Prospects of nanoparticle-DNA binding and its implications in medical biotechnology.

    PubMed

    An, Hongjie; Jin, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Bio-nanotechnology is a new interdisciplinary R&D area that integrates engineering and physical science with biology through the development of multifunctional devices and systems, focusing biology inspired processes or their applications, in particular in medical biotechnology. DNA based nanotechnology, in many ways, has been one of the most intensively studied fields in recent years that involves the use and the creation of bio-inspired materials and their technologies for highly selective biosensing, nanoarchitecture engineering and nanoelectronics. Increasing researches have been offered to a fundamental understanding how the interactions between the nanoparticles and DNA molecules could alter DNA molecular structure and its biochemical activities. This minor review describes the mechanisms of the nanoparticle-DNA binding and molecular interactions. We present recent discoveries and research progresses how the nanoparticle-DNA binding could vary DNA molecular structure, DNA detection, and gene therapy. We report a few case studies associated with the application of the nanoparticle-DNA binding devices in medical detection and biotechnology. The potential impacts of the nanoparticles via DNA binding on toxicity of the microorganisms are briefly discussed. The nanoparticle-DNA interactions and their impact on molecular and microbial functionalities have only drown attention in recent a few years. The information presented in this review can provide useful references for further studies on biomedical science and technology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. An improved amperometric triglyceride biosensor based on co-immobilization of nanoparticles of lipase, glycerol kinase and glycerol 3-phosphate oxidase onto pencil graphite electrode.

    PubMed

    Narwal, Vinay; Pundir, C S

    2017-05-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) of commercial lipase from Candida rugosa, of glycerol kinase (GK) from Cellulomonas species, of glycerol-3- phosphate oxidase (GPO) from Aerococcus viridans were prepared, characterized and co-immobilized onto a pencil graphite (PG) electrode. The morphological and electrochemical characterization of PG electrode was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) before and after co-immobilization of enzyme nanoparticles (ENPs). An improved amperometric triglyceride (TG) biosensor was fabricated using Lipase NPs/GKNPs/GPONPs/PG electrode as the working electrode, Ag/AgCl as the standard electrode and Pt wire as auxiliary electrode. The biosensor showed optimum response within 2.5s at a pH 7.0 and temperature of 35°C. The biosensor measured current due to electrons generated at 0.1V against Ag/AgCl, from H 2 O 2 , which is produced from triolein by co-immobilized ENPs. A linear relationship was obtained over between a wide triolein concentration range (0.1mM-45mM) and current (mA) under optimal conditions. The Lipase NPs/GKNPs/GPONPs/PG electrode showed high sensitivity (1241±20mAcm -2 mM -1 ); a lower detection limit (0.1nM) and good correlation coeficient (R 2 =0.99) with a standard enzymic colorimetric method. Analytical recovery of added triolein in serum was 98.01%, within and between batch coefficients of variation (CV) were 0.05% and 0.06% respectively. The biosensor was evaluated and employed for determination of TG in the serum of apparently healthy subject and persons suffering from hypertriglyceridemia. The biosensor lost 20% of its initial activity after its continued uses over a period of 240days, while being stored at 4°C. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. An improved amperometric L-lactate biosensor based on covalent immobilization of microbial lactate oxidase onto carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes/copper nanoparticles/polyaniline modified pencil graphite electrode.

    PubMed

    Dagar, Kusum; Pundir, C S

    2017-01-01

    An improved amperometric l-lactate biosensor was constructed based on covalent immobilization of lactate oxidase (LOx) from Pediococcus species onto carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (cMWCNT)/copper nanoparticles (CuNPs)/polyaniline (PANI) hybrid film electrodeposited on the surface of a pencil graphite electrode (PGE). The enzyme electrode was characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), while CuNPs synthesized by chemical reduction method, were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV spectrascopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The biosensor showed maximum response within 5s at pH 8.0 in 0.05M sodium phosphate buffer and 37°C, when operated at 20mVs -1 . The biosensor had a detection limit of 0.25μM with a wide working range between 1μM-2500μM. The biosensor was employed for measurement of l-lactic acid level in plasma of apparently healthy and diseased persons. Analytical recovery of added lactic acid in plasma was 95.5%. Within- and between-batch coefficients of variations were 6.24% and 4.19% respectively. There was a good correlation (R 2 =0.97) between plasma lactate values as measured by standard enzymatic spectrophotometric method and the present biosensor. The working enzyme electrode was used 180 times over a period of 140 days, when stored at 4°C. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Preparation, characterization and application of urease nanoparticles for construction of an improved potentiometric urea biosensor.

    PubMed

    Jakhar, Seema; Pundir, C S

    2018-02-15

    The nanoparticles (NPs) aggregates of commercial urease from jack beans (Canavalia ensiformis) were prepared by desolvation and glutaraldehyde crosslinking and functionalized by cysteamine dihydrochloride. These enzyme nanoparticles (ENPs) were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The TEM images of urease NPs showed their size in the range, 18-100nm with an average of 51.2nm. The ENPs were more active and stable with a longer shelf life than native enzyme molecules. The ENPs were immobilized onto chitosan (CHIT) activated nitrocellulose (NC) membrane via glutaraldehyde coupling with 32.22% retention of initial activity of free ureaseNPs with a conjugation yield of 1.63mg/cm 2 . This NC membrane was mounted at the lower/sensitive end of the ammonium ion selective electrode (AISE) with O-ring and then electrode was connected to a digital pH meter to construct a potentiometric urea biosensor. The biosensor exhibited optimum response within 10s at pH 5.5and 40°C. The biosensor was employed for measurement of potentiometric determination of urea in sera of apparently healthy and persons suffering from kidney disorders. The biosensor displayed a low detection limit of 1µM/L with a wide working range of 2-80µM/L (0.002-0.08mM) and sensitivity of 23mV/decade. The analytical recovery of added urea in serum was 106.33%. The within and between-batch coefficient of variations (CVs) of present biosensor were 0.18% and 0.32% respectively. There was a good correlation (r = 0.99) between sera urea values obtained by reference method (Enzymic colorimetric kit method) and the present biosensor. The biosensor had negligible interference from Na + ,K + ,NH +4 and Ca 2+ but Mg 2+ ,Cu 2+ and ascorbic acid but had slight interference, which was overcome by specific ion selective electrode. The ENPs bound NC membrane was used maximally 8-9 times per day over a period of 180 days, when stored in 0.01M sodium

  14. Real-time reliable determination of binding kinetics of DNA hybridization using a multi-channel graphene biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shicai; Zhan, Jian; Man, Baoyuan; Jiang, Shouzhen; Yue, Weiwei; Gao, Shoubao; Guo, Chengang; Liu, Hanping; Li, Zhenhua; Wang, Jihua; Zhou, Yaoqi

    2017-03-01

    Reliable determination of binding kinetics and affinity of DNA hybridization and single-base mismatches plays an essential role in systems biology, personalized and precision medicine. The standard tools are optical-based sensors that are difficult to operate in low cost and to miniaturize for high-throughput measurement. Biosensors based on nanowire field-effect transistors have been developed, but reliable and cost-effective fabrication remains a challenge. Here, we demonstrate that a graphene single-crystal domain patterned into multiple channels can measure time- and concentration-dependent DNA hybridization kinetics and affinity reliably and sensitively, with a detection limit of 10 pM for DNA. It can distinguish single-base mutations quantitatively in real time. An analytical model is developed to estimate probe density, efficiency of hybridization and the maximum sensor response. The results suggest a promising future for cost-effective, high-throughput screening of drug candidates, genetic variations and disease biomarkers by using an integrated, miniaturized, all-electrical multiplexed, graphene-based DNA array.

  15. Approaches to label-free flexible DNA biosensors using low-temperature solution-processed InZnO thin-film transistors.

    PubMed

    Jung, Joohye; Kim, Si Joon; Lee, Keun Woo; Yoon, Doo Hyun; Kim, Yeong-Gyu; Kwak, Hee Young; Dugasani, Sreekantha Reddy; Park, Sung Ha; Kim, Hyun Jae

    2014-05-15

    Low-temperature solution-processed In-Zn-O (IZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) exhibiting a favorable microenvironment for electron transfer by adsorbed artificial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) have extraordinary potential for emerging flexible biosensor applications. Superb sensing ability to differentiate even 0.5 μL of 50 nM DNA target solution was achieved through using IZO TFTs fabricated at 280 °C. Our IZO TFT had a turn-on voltage (V(on)) of -0.8 V, on/off ratio of 6.94 × 10(5), and on-current (I(on)) value of 2.32 × 10(-6)A in pristine condition. A dry-wet method was applied to immobilize two dimensional double crossover tile based DNA nanostructures on the IZO surface, after which we observed a negative shift of the transfer curve accompanied by a significant increase in the Ion and degradation of the Von and on/off ratio. As the concentration of DNA target solution increased, variances in these parameters became increasingly apparent. The sensing mechanism based on the current evolution was attributed to the oxidation of DNA, in which the guanine nucleobase plays a key role. The sensing behavior obtained from flexible biosensors on a polymeric substrate fabricated under the identical conditions was exactly analogous. These results compare favorably with the conventional field-effect transistor based DNA sensors by demonstrating remarkable sensitivity and feasibility of flexible devices that arose from a different sensing mechanism and a low-temperature process, respectively. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. pH-Switchable Interaction of a Carboxybetaine Ester-Based SAM with DNA and Gold Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Filip, Jaroslav; Popelka, Anton; Bertok, Tomas; Holazova, Alena; Osicka, Josef; Kollar, Jozef; Ilcikova, Marketa; Tkac, Jan; Kasak, Peter

    2017-07-11

    We describe a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on a gold surface with a carboxybetaine ester functionality to control the interaction between DNA and gold nanoparticles via pH. The negatively charged phosphate backbone of DNA interacts with and adsorbs to the positively charged carboxybetaine esters on the SAM. DNA release can be achieved by the hydrolysis of carboxybetaine ester (CBE) to a zwitterionic carboxybetaine state. Furthermore, the adsorption of negatively charged citrate-capped gold nanoparticles to a SAM-modified plain gold surface can be controlled by the pH. The SAM based on carboxybetaine ester allows for the homogeneous adsorption of particles, whereas the SAM after hydrolysis at high pH repels AuNP adsorption. The antifouling surface properties of the surface modified with carboxybetaine were investigated with protein samples.

  17. Continuous Production of Discrete Plasmid DNA-Polycation Nanoparticles Using Flash Nanocomplexation.

    PubMed

    Santos, Jose Luis; Ren, Yong; Vandermark, John; Archang, Maani M; Williford, John-Michael; Liu, Heng-Wen; Lee, Jason; Wang, Tza-Huei; Mao, Hai-Quan

    2016-12-01

    Despite successful demonstration of linear polyethyleneimine (lPEI) as an effective carrier for a wide range of gene medicine, including DNA plasmids, small interfering RNAs, mRNAs, etc., and continuous improvement of the physical properties and biological performance of the polyelectrolyte complex nanoparticles prepared from lPEI and nucleic acids, there still exist major challenges to produce these nanocomplexes in a scalable manner, particularly for lPEI/DNA nanoparticles. This has significantly hindered the progress toward clinical translation of these nanoparticle-based gene medicine. Here the authors report a flash nanocomplexation (FNC) method that achieves continuous production of lPEI/plasmid DNA nanoparticles with narrow size distribution using a confined impinging jet device. The method involves the complex coacervation of negatively charged DNA plasmid and positive charged lPEI under rapid, highly dynamic, and homogeneous mixing conditions, producing polyelectrolyte complex nanoparticles with narrow distribution of particle size and shape. The average number of plasmid DNA packaged per nanoparticles and its distribution are similar between the FNC method and the small-scale batch mixing method. In addition, the nanoparticles prepared by these two methods exhibit similar cell transfection efficiency. These results confirm that FNC is an effective and scalable method that can produce well-controlled lPEI/plasmid DNA nanoparticles. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. The detection of HBV DNA with gold-coated iron oxide nanoparticle gene probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Dong; Luo, XiaoPing; Lu, QiangHua; Yao, KaiLun; Liu, ZuLi; Ning, Qin

    2008-03-01

    Gold-coated iron oxide nanoparticle Hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA probes were prepared, and their application for HBV DNA measurement was studied. Gold-coated iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared by the citrate reduction of tetra-chloroauric acid in the presence of iron oxide nanoparticles which were added as seeds. With a fluorescence-based method, the maximal surface coverage of hexaethiol 30-mer oligonucleotides and the maximal percentage of hybridization strands on gold-coated iron oxide nanoparticles were (120 ± 8) oligonucleotides per nanoparticle, and (14 ± 2%), respectively, which were comparable with those of (132 ± 10) and (22 ± 3%) in Au nanoparticle groups. Large network aggregates were formed when gold-coated iron oxide nanoparticle HBV DNA gene probe was applied to detect HBV DNA molecules as evidenced by transmission electron microscopy and the high specificity was verified by blot hybridization. Our results further suggested that detecting DNA with iron oxide nanoparticles and magnetic separator was feasible and might be an alternative effective method.

  19. Functional graphene-gold nano-composite fabricated electrochemical biosensor for direct and rapid detection of bisphenol A.

    PubMed

    Pan, Daodong; Gu, Yuanyuan; Lan, Hangzhen; Sun, Yangying; Gao, Huiju

    2015-01-01

    In this research, the graphene with excellent dispersity is prepared successfully by introducing gold nanoparticle to separate the individual sheets. Various techniques are adopted to characterize the prepared graphene and graphene-gold nanoparticle composite materials. This fabricated new composite material is used as the support material to construct a novel tyrosinase based biosensor for detection of bisphenol A (BPA). The electrochemical performances of the proposed new enzyme biosensor were investigated by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) method. The proposed biosensor exhibited excellent performance for BPA determination with a wide linear range (2.5×10(-3)-3.0 μM), a highly reproducible response (RSD of 2.7%), low interferences and long-term stability. And more importantly, the calculated detection limit of the proposed biosensor was as low as 1 nM. Compared with other detection methods, this graphene-gold nanoparticle composite based tyrosinase biosensor is proved to be a promising and reliable tool for rapid detection of BPA for on-site analysis of emergency BPA related pollution affairs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Localized surface plasmon resonance-based abscisic acid biosensor using aptamer-functionalized gold nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shun; Li, Wei; Chang, Keke; Liu, Juan; Guo, Qingqian; Sun, Haifeng; Jiang, Min; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) plays an important role in abiotic stress response and physiological signal transduction resisting to the adverse environment. Therefore, it is very essential for the quantitative detection of abscisic acid (ABA) due to its indispensable role in plant physiological activities. Herein, a new detection method based on localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) using aptamer-functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) is developed without using expensive instrument and antibody. In the presence of ABA, ABA specifically bind with their aptamers to form the ABA-aptamer complexes with G-quadruplex-like structure and lose the ability to stabilize AuNPs against NaCl-induced aggregation. Meanwhile, the changes of the LSPR spectra of AuNP solution occur and therefore the detection of ABA achieved. Under optimized conditions, this method showed a good linear range covering from 5×10−7 M to 5×10−5 M with a detection limit of 0.33 μM. In practice, the usage of this novel method has been demonstrated by its application to detect ABA from fresh leaves of rice with the relative error of 6.59%-7.93% compared with ELISA bioassay. The experimental results confirmed that this LSPR-based biosensor is simple, selective and sensitive for the detection of ABA. The proposed LSPR method could offer a new analytical platform for the detection of other plant hormones by changing the corresponding aptamer. PMID:28953934

  1. Rapid and sensitive detection of foodborne pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus) using an electrochemical DNA genomic biosensor and its application in fresh beef.

    PubMed

    Abdalhai, Mandour H; Fernandes, António Maximiano; Bashari, Mohand; Ji, Jian; He, Qian; Sun, Xiulan

    2014-12-31

    Rapid early detection of food contamination is the main key in food safety and quality control. Biosensors are emerging as a vibrant area of research, and the use of DNA biosensor recognition detectors is relatively new. In this study a genomic DNA biosensor system with a fixing and capture probe was modified by a sulfhydryl and amino group, respectively, as complementary with target DNA. After immobilization and hybridization, the following sandwich structure fixing DNA-target DNA-capture DNA-PbS NPs was formed to detect pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococuus aureus EF529607.1) by using GCE modified with (multiwalled carbon nanotubes-chitosan-bismuth) to increase the sensitivity of the electrode. The modification procedure was characterized by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The sandwich structure was dissolved in 1 M nitric acid to become accessible to the electrode, and the PbS NPs was measured in solution by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The results showed that the detection limit of the DNA sensor was 3.17 × 10(-14) M S. aureus using PbS NPs, whereas the result for beef samples was 1.23 ng/mL. Thus, according to the experimental results presented, the DNA biosensor exhibited high sensitivity and rapid response, and it will be useful for the food matrix.

  2. Quantum dot-based microfluidic biosensor for cancer detection

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ghrera, Aditya Sharma; School of Engineering and Technology, ITM University, Gurgaon-122017; Pandey, Chandra Mouli

    2015-05-11

    We report results of the studies relating to fabrication of an impedimetric microfluidic–based nucleic acid sensor for quantification of DNA sequences specific to chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). The sensor chip is prepared by patterning an indium–tin–oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate via wet chemical etching method followed by sealing with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannel for fluid control. The fabricated microfluidic chip comprising of a patterned ITO substrate is modified by depositing cadmium selenide quantum dots (QCdSe) via Langmuir–Blodgett technique. Further, the QCdSe surface has been functionalized with specific DNA probe for CML detection. The probe DNA functionalized QCdSe integrated miniaturized system hasmore » been used to monitor target complementary DNA concentration by measuring the interfacial charge transfer resistance via hybridization. The presence of complementary DNA in buffer solution significantly results in decreased electro-conductivity of the interface due to presence of a charge barrier for transport of the redox probe ions. The microfluidic DNA biosensor exhibits improved linearity in the concentration range of 10{sup −15} M to 10{sup −11} M.« less

  3. Quantum dot-based microfluidic biosensor for cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghrera, Aditya Sharma; Pandey, Chandra Mouli; Ali, Md. Azahar; Malhotra, Bansi Dhar

    2015-05-01

    We report results of the studies relating to fabrication of an impedimetric microfluidic-based nucleic acid sensor for quantification of DNA sequences specific to chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). The sensor chip is prepared by patterning an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate via wet chemical etching method followed by sealing with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannel for fluid control. The fabricated microfluidic chip comprising of a patterned ITO substrate is modified by depositing cadmium selenide quantum dots (QCdSe) via Langmuir-Blodgett technique. Further, the QCdSe surface has been functionalized with specific DNA probe for CML detection. The probe DNA functionalized QCdSe integrated miniaturized system has been used to monitor target complementary DNA concentration by measuring the interfacial charge transfer resistance via hybridization. The presence of complementary DNA in buffer solution significantly results in decreased electro-conductivity of the interface due to presence of a charge barrier for transport of the redox probe ions. The microfluidic DNA biosensor exhibits improved linearity in the concentration range of 10-15 M to 10-11 M.

  4. Graphitized carbon nanofiber-Pt nanoparticle hybrids as sensitive tool for preparation of screen printing biosensors. Detection of lactate in wines and ciders.

    PubMed

    Loaiza, Oscar A; Lamas-Ardisana, Pedro J; Añorga, Larraitz; Jubete, Elena; Ruiz, Virginia; Borghei, Maryam; Cabañero, Germán; Grande, Hans J

    2015-02-01

    This work describes the fabrication of a new lactate biosensor. The strategy is based on the use of a novel hybrid nanomaterial for amperometric biosensors i.e. platinum nanoparticles (PtNps) supported on graphitized carbon nanofibers (PtNps/GCNF) prepared by chemical reduction of the Pt precursor at GCNF surfaces. The biosensors were constructed by covalent immobilization of lactate oxidase (LOx) onto screen printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs) modified with PtNps (PtNps/GCNF-SPCEs) using polyethyleneimine (PEI) and glutaraldehyde (GA). Experimental variables concerning both the biosensor design and the detection process were investigated for an optimal analytical performance. Lactate biosensors show good reproducibility (RSD 4.9%, n=10) and sensitivity (41,302±546) μA/Mcm(2), with a good limit of detection (6.9μM). Covalent immobilization of the enzyme allows the reuse of the biosensor for several measurements, converting them in a cheap alternative to the solid electrodes. The long-term stability of the biosensors was also evaluated. 90% of the signal was kept after 3months of storage at room temperature (RT), while 95% was retained after 18months at -20°C. These results demonstrate that the method provides sensitive electrochemical lactate biosensors where the stability of the enzymatic activity can be preserved for a long period of time in adequate storage conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Simulations and design of microfabricated interdigitated electrodes for use in a gold nanoparticle enhanced biosensor.

    PubMed

    Hermansen, Peter; MacKay, Scott; Wishart, David; Jie Chen

    2016-08-01

    Microfabricated interdigitated electrode chips have been designed for use in a unique gold-nanoparticle based biosensor system. The use of these electrodes will allow for simple, accurate, inexpensive, and portable biosensing, with potential applications in diagnostics, medical research, and environmental testing. To determine the optimal design for these electrodes, finite element analysis simulations were carried out using COMSOL Multiphysics software. The results of these simulations determined some of the optimal design parameters for microfabricating interdigitated electrodes as well as predicting the effects of different electrode materials. Finally, based on the results of these simulations two different kinds of interdigitated electrode chips were made using photolithography.

  6. Significance of DNA bond strength in programmable nanoparticle thermodynamics and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qiuyan; Hu, Jinglei; Hu, Yi; Wang, Rong

    2018-04-04

    Assembly of nanoparticles (NPs) coated with complementary DNA strands leads to novel crystals with nanosized basic units rather than classic atoms, ions or molecules. The assembly process is mediated by hybridization of DNA via specific base pairing interaction, and is kinetically linked to the disassociation of DNA duplexes. DNA-level physiochemical quantities, both thermodynamic and kinetic, are key to understanding this process and essential for the design of DNA-NP crystals. The melting transition properties are helpful to judge the thermostability and sensitivity of relative DNA probes or other applications. Three different cases are investigated by changing the linker length and the spacer length on which the melting properties depend using the molecular dynamics method. Melting temperature is determined by sigmoidal melting curves based on hybridization percentage versus temperature and the Lindemann melting rule simultaneously. We provide a computational strategy based on a coarse-grained model to estimate the hybridization enthalpy, entropy and free energy from percentages of hybridizations which are readily accessible in experiments. Importantly, the lifetime of DNA bond dehybridization based on temperature and the activation energy depending on DNA bond strength are also calculated. The simulation results are in good agreement with the theoretical analysis and the present experimental data. Our study provides a good strategy to predict the melting temperature which is important for the DNA-directed nanoparticle system, and bridges the dynamics and thermodynamics of DNA-directed nanoparticle systems by estimating the equilibrium constant from the hybridization of DNA bonds quantitatively.

  7. Noble metal nanostructures in optical biosensors: Basics, and their introduction to anti-doping detection.

    PubMed

    Malekzad, Hedieh; Zangabad, Parham Sahandi; Mohammadi, Hadi; Sadroddini, Mohsen; Jafari, Zahra; Mahlooji, Niloofar; Abbaspour, Somaye; Gholami, Somaye; Ghanbarpoor, Mana; Pashazadeh, Rahim; Beyzavi, Ali; Karimi, Mahdi; Hamblin, Michael R

    2018-03-01

    Nanotechnology has illustrated significant potentials in biomolecular-sensing applications; particularly its introduction to anti-doping detection is of great importance. Illicit recreational drugs, substances that can be potentially abused, and drugs with dosage limitations according to the prohibited lists announced by the World Antidoping Agency (WADA) are becoming of increasing interest to forensic chemists. In this review, the theoretical principles of optical biosensors based on noble metal nanoparticles, and the transduction mechanism of commonly-applied plasmonic biosensors are covered. We review different classes of recently-developed plasmonic biosensors for analytic determination and quantification of illicit drugs in anti-doping applications. The important classes of illicit drugs include anabolic steroids, opioids, stimulants, and peptide hormones. The main emphasis is on the advantages that noble metal nano-particles bring to optical biosensors for signal enhancement and the development of highly sensitive (label-free) biosensors. In the near future, such optical biosensors may be an invaluable substitute for conventional anti-doping detection methods such as chromatography-based approaches, and may even be commercialized for routine anti-doping tests.

  8. Effect of gold nanoparticle on stability of the DNA molecule: A study of molecular dynamics simulation.

    PubMed

    Izanloo, Cobra

    2017-09-02

    An understanding of the mechanism of DNA interactions with gold nanoparticles is useful in today medicine applications. We have performed a molecular dynamics simulation on a B-DNA duplex (CCTCAGGCCTCC) in the vicinity of a gold nanoparticle with a truncated octahedron structure composed of 201 gold atoms (diameter ∼1.8 nm) to investigate gold nanoparticle (GNP) effects on the stability of DNA. During simulation, the nanoparticle is closed to DNA and phosphate groups direct the particles into the major grooves of the DNA molecule. Because of peeling and untwisting states that are occur at end of DNA, the nucleotide base lies flat on the surface of GNP. The configuration entropy is estimated using the covariance matrix of atom-positional fluctuations for different bases. The results show that when a gold nanoparticle has interaction with DNA, entropy increases. The results of conformational energy and the hydrogen bond numbers for DNA indicated that DNA becomes unstable in the vicinity of a gold nanoparticle. The radial distribution function was calculated for water hydrogen-phosphate oxygen pairs. Almost for all nucleotide, the presence of a nanoparticle around DNA caused water molecules to be released from the DNA duplex and cations were close to the DNA.

  9. Upconversion nanoparticle-based fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay for organophosphorus pesticides.

    PubMed

    Long, Qian; Li, Haitao; Zhang, Youyu; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2015-06-15

    This paper reports a novel nanosensor for organophosphorus pesticides based on the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between NaYF4:Yb,Er upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The detection mechanism is based on the facts that AuNPs quench the fluorescence of UCNPs and organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) inhibit the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) which catalyzes the hydrolysis of acetylthiocholine (ATC) into thiocholine. Under the optimized conditions, the logarithm of the pesticides concentration was proportional to the inhibition efficiency. The detection limits of parathion-methyl, monocrotophos and dimethoate reached 0.67, 23, and 67 ng/L, respectively. Meanwhile, the biosensor shows good sensitivity, stability, and could be successfully applied to detection of OPs in real food samples, suggesting the biosensor has potentially extensive application clinic diagnoses assays. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. REVIEW ARTICLE: Environmental applications of analytical biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marco, María-Pilar; Barceló, Damià

    1996-11-01

    A review of the fundamental aspects and environmental applications of biosensors is presented. The bases of different transducer principles such as electrochemical, optical and piezoelectric are discussed. Various examples are given of the applications of such principles to develop immunosensor devices to determine common environmental contaminants. Attention is also paid to catalytic biosensors, using enzymes as sensing elements. Biosensor devices based on the use of cholinesterase and various oxidase enzymes such as tyrosinase, laccase, peroxidase and aldehyde dehydrogenase are reported. Some examples are given of the applications of other biomolecules such as whole cells, DNA or proteins, to determine pollution. Validation studies are presented comparing biosensors with chromatographic techniques to determine organophosphorus pesticides and phenolic compounds in environmental samples.

  11. A novel electrochemical biosensor for ultrasensitive and specific detection of DNA based on molecular beacon mediated circular strand displacement and rolling circle amplification.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Yan, Yurong; Shen, Bo; Zhu, Dan; Lei, Pinhua; Ding, Shijia

    2014-12-15

    A novel electrochemical biosensing strategy was developed for ultrasensitive and specific detection of target DNA using a cascade signal amplification based on molecular beacon (MB) mediated circular strand displacement (CSD), rolling circle amplification (RCA), biotin-strepavidin system, and enzymatic amplification. The target DNA hybridized with the loop portion of MB probe immobilized on the gold electrode and triggered the CSD, leading to multiple biotin-tagged DNA duplex. Furthermore, via biotin-streptavidin interaction, the RCA was implemented, producing long massive tandem-repeat DNA sequences for binding numerous biotinylated detection probes. This enabled an ultrasensitive electrochemical readout by further employing the streptavidin-alkaline phosphatase. The proposed biosensor showed very high sensitivity and selectivity with a dynamic response range from 1 fM to 100 pM. The proposed strategy could have the potential for applying in clinical molecular diagnostics and environmental monitoring. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Assembly/Disassembly of DNA-Au Nanoparticles: A Strategy of Intervention

    DOE PAGES

    Lim, I-Im S.; Wang, Lingyan; Chandrachud, Uma; ...

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the viability of a strategy for manipulating the assembly/disassembly processes of DNA-Au nanoparticles by molecular intervention. Using the temperature-induced assembly and disassembly processes of DNAs and gold nanoparticles as a model system, the introduction of a molecular recognition probe is demonstrated to lead to the intervention of the assembly/disassembly processes depending on its specific biorecognition. This process can be detected by monitoring the change in the optical properties of gold nanoparticles and their DNA assemblies. Implications of the preliminary results to exploration of the resulting nanostructures for fine-tuning of the interfacial reactivities in DNA-based bioassays and biomaterialmore » engineering are also discussed.« less

  13. Optical fiber-based biosensors.

    PubMed

    Monk, David J; Walt, David R

    2004-08-01

    This review outlines optical fiber-based biosensor research from January 2001 through September 2003 and was written to complement the previous review in this journal by Marazuela and Moreno-Bondi. Optical fiber-based biosensors combine the use of a biological recognition element with an optical fiber or optical fiber bundle. They are classified by the nature of the biological recognition element used for sensing: enzyme, antibody/antigen (immunoassay), nucleic acid, whole cell, and biomimetic, and may be used for a variety of analytes ranging from metals and chemicals to physiological materials.

  14. Multifunctional Dumbbell-Shaped DNA-Templated Selective Formation of Fluorescent Silver Nanoclusters or Copper Nanoparticles for Sensitive Detection of Biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinyang; Ji, Xinghu; Tinnefeld, Philip; He, Zhike

    2016-01-27

    In this work, a multifunctional template for selective formation of fluorescent silver nanoclusters (AgNCs) or copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) is put forward. This dumbbell-shaped (DS) DNA template is made up of two cytosine hairpin loops and an adenine-thymine-rich double-helical stem which is closed by the loops. The cytosine loops act as specific regions for the growth of AgNCs, and the double-helical stem serves as template for the CuNPs formation. By carefully investigating the sequence and length of DS DNA, we present the optimal design of the template. Benefiting from the smart design and facile synthesis, a simple, label-free, and ultrasensitive fluorescence strategy for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) detection is proposed. Through the systematic comparison, it is found that the strategy based on CuNPs formation is more sensitive for ATP assay than that based on AgNCs synthesis, and the detection limitation was found to be 81 pM. What's more, the CuNPs formation-based method is successfully applied in the detection of ATP in human serum as well as the determination of cellular ATP. In addition to small target molecule, the sensing strategy was also extended to the detection of biomacromolecule (DNA), which illustrates the generality of this biosensor.

  15. A Novel Conductometric Urea Biosensor with Improved Analytical Characteristic Based on Recombinant Urease Adsorbed on Nanoparticle of Silicalite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velychko, T. P.; Soldatkin, O. O.; Melnyk, V. G.; Marchenko, S. V.; Kirdeciler, S. K.; Akata, B.; Soldatkin, A. P.; El'skaya, A. V.; Dzyadevych, S. V.

    2016-02-01

    Development of a conductometric biosensor for the urea detection has been reported. It was created using a non-typical method of the recombinant urease immobilization via adsorption on nanoporous particles of silicalite. It should be noted that this biosensor has a number of advantages, such as simple and fast performance, the absence of toxic compounds during biosensor preparation, and high reproducibility (RSD = 5.1 %). The linear range of urea determination by using the biosensor was 0.05-15 mM, and a lower limit of urea detection was 20 μM. The bioselective element was found to be stable for 19 days. The characteristics of recombinant urease-based biomembranes, such as dependence of responses on the protein and ion concentrations, were investigated. It is shown that the developed biosensor can be successfully used for the urea analysis during renal dialysis.

  16. Label-free optical biosensors based on aptamer-functionalized porous silicon scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Urmann, Katharina; Walter, Johanna-Gabriela; Scheper, Thomas; Segal, Ester

    2015-02-03

    A proof-of-concept for a label-free and reagentless optical biosensing platform based on nanostructured porous silicon (PSi) and aptamers is presented in this work. Aptamers are oligonucleotides (single-stranded DNA or RNA) that can bind their targets with high affinity and specificity, making them excellent recognition elements for biosensor design. Here we describe the fabrication and characterization of aptamer-conjugated PSi biosensors, where a previously characterized his-tag binding aptamer (6H7) is used as model system. Exposure of the aptamer-functionalized PSi to the target proteins as well as to complex fluids (i.e., bacteria lysates containing target proteins) results in robust and well-defined changes in the PSi optical interference spectrum, ascribed to specific aptamer-protein binding events occurring within the nanoscale pores, monitored in real time. The biosensors show exceptional stability and can be easily regenerated by a short rinsing step for multiple biosensing analyses. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates the possibility of designing highly stable and specific label-free optical PSi biosensors, employing aptamers as capture probes, holding immense potential for application in detection of a broad range of targets, in a simple yet reliable manner.

  17. DNA-mediated nanoparticle crystallization into Wulff polyhedra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auyeung, Evelyn; Li, Ting I. N. G.; Senesi, Andrew J.; Schmucker, Abrin L.; Pals, Bridget C.; de La Cruz, Monica Olvera; Mirkin, Chad A.

    2014-01-01

    Crystallization is a fundamental and ubiquitous process much studied over the centuries. But although the crystallization of atoms is fairly well understood, it remains challenging to predict reliably the outcome of molecular crystallization processes that are complicated by various molecular interactions and solvent involvement. This difficulty also applies to nanoparticles: high-quality three-dimensional crystals are mostly produced using drying and sedimentation techniques that are often impossible to rationalize and control to give a desired crystal symmetry, lattice spacing and habit (crystal shape). In principle, DNA-mediated assembly of nanoparticles offers an ideal opportunity for studying nanoparticle crystallization: a well-defined set of rules have been developed to target desired lattice symmetries and lattice constants, and the occurrence of features such as grain boundaries and twinning in DNA superlattices and traditional crystals comprised of molecular or atomic building blocks suggests that similar principles govern their crystallization. But the presence of charged biomolecules, interparticle spacings of tens of nanometres, and the realization so far of only polycrystalline DNA-interconnected nanoparticle superlattices, all suggest that DNA-guided crystallization may differ from traditional crystal growth. Here we show that very slow cooling, over several days, of solutions of complementary-DNA-modified nanoparticles through the melting temperature of the system gives the thermodynamic product with a specific and uniform crystal habit. We find that our nanoparticle assemblies have the Wulff equilibrium crystal structure that is predicted from theoretical considerations and molecular dynamics simulations, thus establishing that DNA hybridization can direct nanoparticle assembly along a pathway that mimics atomic crystallization.

  18. Biomimetic nanochannels based biosensor for ultrasensitive and label-free detection of nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhongyue; Liao, Tangbin; Zhang, Yulin; Shu, Jing; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Guo-Jun

    2016-12-15

    A very simple sensing device based on biomimetic nanochannels has been developed for label-free, ultrasensitive and highly sequence-specific detection of DNA. Probe DNA was modified on the inner wall of the nanochannel surface by layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly. After probe DNA immobilization, DNA detection was realized by monitoring the rectified ion current when hybridization occurred. Due to three dimensional (3D) nanoscale environment of the nanochannel, this special geometry dramatically increased the surface area of the nanochannel for immobilization of probe molecules on the inner-surface and enlarged contact area between probes and target-molecules. Thus, the unique sensor reached a reliable detection limit of 10 fM for target DNA. In addition, this DNA sensor could discriminate complementary DNA (c-DNA) from non-complementary DNA (nc-DNA), two-base mismatched DNA (2bm-DNA) and one-base mismatched DNA (1bm-DNA) with high specificity. Moreover, the nanochannel-based biosensor was also able to detect target DNA even in an interfering environment and serum samples. This approach will provide a novel biosensing platform for detection and discrimination of disease-related molecular targets and unknown sequence DNA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Control of DNA-Functionalized Nanoparticle Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olvera de La Cruz, Monica

    Directed crystallization of a large variety of nanoparticles, including proteins, via DNA hybridization kinetics has led to unique materials with a broad range of crystal symmetries. The nanoparticles are functionalized with DNA chains that link neighboring functionalized units. The shape of the nanoparticle, the DNA length, the sequence of the hybridizing DNA linker and the grafting density determine the crystal symmetries and lattice spacing. By carefully selecting these parameters one can, in principle, achieve all the symmetries found for both atomic and colloidal crystals of asymmetric shapes as well as new symmetries, and drive transitions between them. A scale-accurate coarse-grained model with explicit DNA chains provides the design parameters, including degree of hybridization, to achieve specific crystal structures. The model also provides surface energy values to determine the shape of defect-free single crystals with macroscopic anisotropic properties, as well as the parameters to develop colloidal models that reproduce both the shape of single crystals and their growth kinetics.

  20. Colorimetric DNA detection of transgenic plants using gold nanoparticles functionalized with L-shaped DNA probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nourisaeid, Elham; Mousavi, Amir; Arpanaei, Ayyoob

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a DNA colorimetric detection system based on gold nanoparticles functionalized with L-shaped DNA probes was prepared and evaluated. We investigated the hybridization efficiency of the L-shaped probes and studied the effect of nanoparticle size and the L-shaped DNA probe length on the performance of the as-prepared system. Probes were attached to the surface of gold nanoparticles using an adenine sequence. An optimal sequence of 35S rRNA gene promoter from the cauliflower mosaic virus, which is frequently used in the development of transgenic plants, and the two complementary ends of this gene were employed as model target strands and probe molecules, respectively. The spectrophotometric properties of the as-prepared systems indicated that the large NPs show better changes in the absorption spectrum and consequently present a better performance. The results of this study revealed that the probe/Au-NPs prepared using a vertical spacer containing 5 thymine oligonucleotides exhibited a stronger spectrophotometric response in comparison to that of larger probes. These results in general indicate the suitable performance of the L-shaped DNA probe-functionalized Au-NPs, and in particular emphasize the important role of the gold nanoparticle size and length of the DNA probes in enhancing the performance of such a system.

  1. Detection of Helicobacter Pylori Genome with an Optical Biosensor Based on Hybridization of Urease Gene with a Gold Nanoparticles-Labeled Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahrashoob, M.; Mohsenifar, A.; Tabatabaei, M.; Rahmani-Cherati, T.; Mobaraki, M.; Mota, A.; Shojaei, T. R.

    2016-05-01

    A novel optics-based nanobiosensor for sensitive determination of the Helicobacter pylori genome using a gold nanoparticles (AuNPs)-labeled probe is reported. Two specific thiol-modified capture and signal probes were designed based on a single-stranded complementary DNA (cDNA) region of the urease gene. The capture probe was immobilized on AuNPs, which were previously immobilized on an APTES-activated glass, and the signal probe was conjugated to different AuNPs as well. The presence of the cDNA in the reaction mixture led to the hybridization of the AuNPs-labeled capture probe and the signal probe with the cDNA, and consequently the optical density of the reaction mixture (AuNPs) was reduced proportionally to the cDNA concentration. The limit of detection was measured at 0.5 nM.

  2. Electrochemical DNA biosensor for detection of porcine oligonucleotides using ruthenium(II) complex as intercalator label redox

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Halid, Nurul Izni Abdullah; Hasbullah, Siti Aishah; Heng, Lee Yook

    2014-09-03

    A DNA biosensor detection of oligonucleotides via the interactions of porcine DNA with redox active complex based on the electrochemical transduction is described. A ruthenium(II) complex, [Ru(bpy){sub 2}(PIP)]{sup 2+}, (bpy = 2,2′bipyridine, PIP = 2-phenylimidazo[4,5-f[[1,10-phenanthroline]) as DNA label has been synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR and mass spectra. The study was carried out by covalent bonding immobilization of porcine aminated DNA probes sequences on screen printed electrode (SPE) modified with succinimide-acrylic microspheres and [Ru(bpy){sub 2}(PIP)]{sup 2+} was used as electrochemical redox intercalator label to detect DNA hybridization event. Electrochemical detection was performed by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulsemore » voltammetry (DPV) over the potential range where the ruthenium (II) complex was active. The results indicate that the interaction of [Ru(bpy){sub 2}(PIP)]{sup 2+} with hybridization complementary DNA has higher response compared to single-stranded and mismatch complementary DNA.« less

  3. NIST gold nanoparticle reference materials do not induce oxidative DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Bryant C; Petersen, Elijah J; Marquis, Bryce J; Atha, Donald H; Elliott, John T; Cleveland, Danielle; Watson, Stephanie S; Tseng, I-Hsiang; Dillon, Andrew; Theodore, Mellisa; Jackman, Joany

    2013-02-01

    One primary challenge in nanotoxicology studies is the lack of well-characterised nanoparticle reference materials which could be used as positive or negative nanoparticle controls. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has developed three gold nanoparticle (AuNP) reference materials (10, 30 and 60 nm). The genotoxicity of these nanoparticles was tested using HepG2 cells and calf-thymus DNA. DNA damage was assessed based on the specific and sensitive measurement of four oxidatively-modified DNA lesions (8-hydroxy-2´-deoxyguanosine, 8-hydroxy-2´-deoxyadenosine, (5´S)-8,5´-cyclo-2´-deoxyadenosine and (5´R)-8,5´-cyclo-2´-deoxyadenosine) using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Significantly elevated, dose-dependent DNA damage was not detected at concentrations up to 0.2 μg/ml, and free radicals were not detected using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. These data suggest that the NIST AuNPs could potentially serve as suitable negative-control nanoparticle reference materials for in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity studies. NIST AuNPs thus hold substantial promise for improving the reproducibility and reliability of nanoparticle genotoxicity studies.

  4. Reversible Regulation of Catalytic Activity of Gold Nanoparticles with DNA Nanomachines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Peipei; Jia, Sisi; Pan, Dun; Wang, Lihua; Gao, Jimin; Lu, Jianxin; Shi, Jiye; Tang, Zisheng; Liu, Huajie

    2015-09-01

    Reversible catalysis regulation has gained much attention and traditional strategies utilized reversible ligand coordination for switching catalyst’s conformations. However, it remains challenging to regulate the catalytic activity of metal nanoparticle-based catalysts. Herein, we report a new DNA nanomachine-driven reversible nano-shield strategy for circumventing this problem. The basic idea is based on the fact that the conformational change of surface-attached DNA nanomachines will cause the variation of the exposed surface active area on metal nanoparticles. As a proof-of-concept study, we immobilized G-rich DNA strands on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) which have glucose oxidase (GOx) like activity. Through the reversible conformational change of the G-rich DNA between a flexible single-stranded form and a compact G-quadruplex form, the catalytic activity of AuNPs has been regulated reversibly for several cycles. This strategy is reliable and robust, which demonstrated the possibility of reversibly adjusting catalytic activity with external surface coverage switching, rather than coordination interactions.

  5. DNA polymorphism sensitive impedimetric detection on gold-nanoislands modified electrodes.

    PubMed

    Bonanni, Alessandra; Pividori, Maria Isabel; del Valle, Manel

    2015-05-01

    Nanocomposite materials are being increasingly used in biosensing applications as they can significantly improve biosensor performance. Here we report the use of a novel impedimetric genosensor based on gold nanoparticles graphite-epoxy nanocomposite (nanoAu-GEC) for the detection of triple base mutation deletion in a cystic-fibrosis (CF) related human DNA sequence. The developed platform consists of chemisorbing gold nano-islands surrounded by rigid, non-chemisorbing, and conducting graphite-epoxy composite. The ratio of the gold nanoparticles in the composite was carefully optimized by electrochemical and microscopy studies. Such platform allows the very fast and stable thiol immobilization of DNA probes on the gold islands, thus minimizing the steric and electrostatic repulsion among the DNA probes and improving the detection of DNA polymorphism down to 2.25fmol by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. These findings are very important in order to develop new and renewable platforms to be used in point-of-care devices for the detection of biomolecules. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Halloysite clay nanotubes and platinum nanoparticles dispersed in ionic liquid applied in the development of a catecholamine biosensor.

    PubMed

    Brondani, Daniela; Scheeren, Carla Weber; Dupont, Jairton; Vieira, Iolanda Cruz

    2012-08-21

    Halloysite clay nanotubes were used as a support for the immobilization of the enzyme peroxidase from clover sprouts (Trifolium), and employed together with platinum nanoparticles in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ionic liquid (Pt-BMI·PF(6)) in the development of a new biosensor for the determination of catecholamines by square-wave voltammetry. Under optimized conditions, the analytical curves showed detection limits of 0.05, 0.06, 0.07, 0.12 μM for dopamine, isoproterenol, dobutamine and epinephrine, respectively. The biosensor demonstrated high sensitivity, good repeatability and reproducibility, and long-term stability (18% decrease in response over 150 days). A recovery study of dopamine in pharmaceutical samples gave values from 97.5 to 101.4%. The proposed biosensor was successfully applied to the determination of dopamine in pharmaceutical samples, with a maximum relative error of ±1.0% in relation to the standard (spectrophotometric) method. The good analytical performance of the proposed method can be attributed to the efficient immobilization of the peroxidase in the nanoclay, and the facilitation of electron transfer between the protein and the electrode surface due to the presence of the Pt nanoparticles and ionic liquid.

  7. Studies on sildenafil citrate (Viagra) interaction with DNA using electrochemical DNA biosensor.

    PubMed

    Rauf, Sakandar; Nawaz, Haq; Akhtar, Kalsoom; Ghauri, Muhammad A; Khalid, Ahmad M

    2007-05-15

    The interaction of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) with DNA was studied by using an electrochemical DNA biosensor. The binding mechanism of sildenafil citrate was elucidated by using constant current potentiometry and differential pulse voltammetry at DNA-modified glassy carbon electrode. The decrease in the guanine oxidation peak area or peak current was used as an indicator for the interaction in 0.2M acetate buffer (pH 5). The binding constant (K) values obtained were 2.01+/-0.05 x 10(5) and 1.97+/-0.01 x 10(5)M(-1) with constant current potentiometry and differential pulse voltammetry, respectively. A linear dependence of the guanine peak area or peak current was observed within the range of 1-40 microM sildenafil citrate with slope=-2.74 x 10(-4)s/microM, r=0.989 and slope=-2.78 x 10(-3)microA/microM, r=0.995 by using constant current potentiometry and differential pulse voltammetry, respectively. Additionally, binding constant values for sildenafil citrate-DNA interaction were determined for the pH range of 4-8 and in biological fluids (serum and urine) at pH 5. The influence of sodium and calcium ions was also studied to elucidate the mechanism of sildenafil citrate-DNA interaction under different solution conditions. The present study may prove to be helpful in extending our understanding of the anticancer activity of sildenafil citrate from cellular to DNA level.

  8. Simple method for preparing glucose biosensor based on in-situ polypyrrole cross-linked chitosan/glucose oxidase/gold bionanocomposite film.

    PubMed

    Şenel, Mehmet

    2015-03-01

    A film of chitosan-polypyrrole-gold nanoparticles was fabricated by in-situ chemical synthesis method and its application in glucose biosensor was investigated. The obtained biosensor exhibited a high and reproducible sensitivity of 0.58μA/mM, response time ~4s, linear dynamic range from 1 to 20mM, correlation coefficient of R(2)=0.9981, and limit of detection (LOD), based on S/N ratio (S/N=3) of 0.068mM. A value of 1.83mM for the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant was obtained. The resulting bio-nanocomposite provided a suitable environment for the enzyme to retain its bioactivity at considerably extreme conditions, and the decorated gold nanoparticles in the bio-nanocomposite offer good affinity to enzyme. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. DNA origami based Au-Ag-core-shell nanoparticle dimers with single-molecule SERS sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prinz, J.; Heck, C.; Ellerik, L.; Merk, V.; Bald, I.

    2016-03-01

    DNA origami nanostructures are a versatile tool to arrange metal nanostructures and other chemical entities with nanometer precision. In this way gold nanoparticle dimers with defined distance can be constructed, which can be exploited as novel substrates for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). We have optimized the size, composition and arrangement of Au/Ag nanoparticles to create intense SERS hot spots, with Raman enhancement up to 1010, which is sufficient to detect single molecules by Raman scattering. This is demonstrated using single dye molecules (TAMRA and Cy3) placed into the center of the nanoparticle dimers. In conjunction with the DNA origami nanostructures novel SERS substrates are created, which can in the future be applied to the SERS analysis of more complex biomolecular targets, whose position and conformation within the SERS hot spot can be precisely controlled.DNA origami nanostructures are a versatile tool to arrange metal nanostructures and other chemical entities with nanometer precision. In this way gold nanoparticle dimers with defined distance can be constructed, which can be exploited as novel substrates for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). We have optimized the size, composition and arrangement of Au/Ag nanoparticles to create intense SERS hot spots, with Raman enhancement up to 1010, which is sufficient to detect single molecules by Raman scattering. This is demonstrated using single dye molecules (TAMRA and Cy3) placed into the center of the nanoparticle dimers. In conjunction with the DNA origami nanostructures novel SERS substrates are created, which can in the future be applied to the SERS analysis of more complex biomolecular targets, whose position and conformation within the SERS hot spot can be precisely controlled. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional information about materials and methods, designs of DNA origami templates, height profiles, additional SERS spectra, assignment of DNA

  10. Detection of sub-femtomolar DNA based on double potential electrodeposition of electrocatalytic platinum nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Spain, Elaine; McArdle, Hazel; Keyes, Tia E; Forster, Robert J

    2013-08-07

    Suspensions of electrocatalytic platinum nanoparticles with radii as small as 78.9 ± 3.5 nm that are functionalised with DNA only in one region have been created using templated electrodeposition. The integrity of the bound DNA following nanoparticle desorption from the electrode is demonstrated by detecting attomolar concentrations of DNA without the need for molecular, e.g., PCR or NASBA, amplification. Double potential step approaches coupled with interface engineering via nucleation sites allows PtNPs to be created with controlled particle size and density in a facile and reproducible manner.

  11. Nanoparticle-based electrochemical sensors for the detection of lactate and hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzunoglu, Aytekin

    In the present study, electrochemical sensors for the detection of lactate and hydrogen peroxide were constructed by exploiting the physicochemical properties of metal ad metal oxide nanoparticles. This study can be divided into two main sections. While chapter 2, 3, and 4 report on the construction of electrochemical lactate biosensors using CeO2 and CeO2-based mixed metal oxide nanoparticles, chapter 5 and 6 show the development of electrochemical hydrogen peroxide sensors by the decoration of the electrode surface with palladium-based nanoparticles. First generation oxidase enzyme-based sensors suffer from oxygen dependency which results in errors in the response current of the sensors in O2-lean environments. To address this challenge, the surface of the sensors must be modified with oxygen rich materials. In this regard, we developed a novel electrochemical lactate biosensor design by exploiting the oxygen storage capacity of CeO2 and CeO 2-CuO nanoparticles. By the introduction of CeO2 nanoparticles into the enzyme layer of the sensors, negative interference effect of ascorbate which resulted from the formation of oxygen-lean regions was eliminated successfully. When CeO2-based design was exposed to higher degree of O2 -depleted environments, however, the response current of the biosensors experienced an almost 21 % decrease, showing that the OSC of CeO2 was not high enough to sustain the enzymatic reactions. When CeO2-CuO nanoparticles, which have 5 times higher OSC than pristine CeO2, were used as an oxygen supply in the enzyme layer, the biosensors did not show any drop in the performance when moving from oxygen-rich to oxygen-lean conditions. In the second part of the study, PdCu/SPCE and PdAg/rGO-based electrochemical H2O2 sensors were designed and their performances were evaluated to determine their sensitivity, linear range, detection limit, and storage stability. In addition, practical applicability of the sensors was studied in human serum. The

  12. Replaceable Microfluidic Cartridges for a PCR Biosensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francis, Kevin; Sullivan, Ron

    2005-01-01

    The figure depicts a replaceable microfluidic cartridge that is a component of a miniature biosensor that detects target deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequences. The biosensor utilizes (1) polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) to multiply the amount of DNA to be detected, (2) fluorogenic polynucleotide probe chemicals for labeling the target DNA sequences, and (3) a high-sensitivity epifluorescence-detection optoelectronic subsystem. Microfluidics is a relatively new field of device development in which one applies techniques for fabricating microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) to miniature systems for containing and/or moving fluids. Typically, microfluidic devices are microfabricated, variously, from silicon or polymers. The development of microfluidic devices for applications that involve PCR and fluorescence-based detection of PCR products poses special challenges

  13. Self-catalytic growth of unmodified gold nanoparticles as conductive bridges mediated gap-electrical signal transduction for DNA hybridization detection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Nie, Huagui; Wu, Zhan; Yang, Zhi; Zhang, Lijie; Xu, Xiangju; Huang, Shaoming

    2014-01-21

    A simple and sensitive gap-electrical biosensor based on self-catalytic growth of unmodified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as conductive bridges has been developed for amplifying DNA hybridization events. In this strategy, the signal amplification degree of such conductive bridges is closely related to the variation of the glucose oxidase (GOx)-like catalytic activity of AuNPs upon interaction with single- and double-stranded DNA (ssDNA and dsDNA), respectively. In the presence of target DNA, the obtained dsDNA product cannot adsorb onto the surface of AuNPs due to electrostatic interaction, which makes the unmodified AuNPs exhibit excellent GOx-like catalytic activity. Such catalytic activity can enlarge the diameters of AuNPs in the glucose and HAuCl4 solution and result in a connection between most of the AuNPs and a conductive gold film formation with a dramatically increased conductance. For the control sample, the catalytic activity sites of AuNPs are fully blocked by ssDNA due to the noncovalent interaction between nucleotide bases and AuNPs. Thus, the growth of the assembled AuNPs will not happen and the conductance between microelectrodes will be not changed. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the developed strategy exhibited a sensitive response to target DNA with a high signal-to-noise ratio. Moreover, this strategy was also demonstrated to provide excellent differentiation ability for single-nucleotide polymorphism. Such performances indicated the great potential of this label-free electrical strategy for clinical diagnostics and genetic analysis under real biological sample separation.

  14. Impedance spectroscopy assisted by magnetic nanoparticles as a potential biosensor principle for breast cancer cells in suspension.

    PubMed

    Silva, Jesús G; Cárdenas, Rey A; Quiróz, Alan R; Sánchez, Virginia; Lozano, Lucila M; Pérez, Nadia M; López, Jaime; Villanueva, Cleva; González, César A

    2014-06-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide, with a higher mortality reported in undeveloped countries. Ideal adjuvant therapeutic strategies require the continuous monitoring of patients by regular blood tests to detect circulating cancer cells, in order to determine whether additional treatment is necessary to prevent cancer dissemination. This circumstance requires a non-complex design of tumor cell biosensor in whole blood with feasibility for use in poor regions. In this work we have evaluated an inexpensive and simple technique of relative bioimpedance measurement, assisted by magnetic nanoparticles, as a potential biosensor of BC cells in suspension. Measurements represent the relative impedance changes caused by the magnetic holding of an interphase of tumor cells versus a homogenous condition in the frequency range of 10-100 kHz. The results indicate that use of a magnet to separate tumor cells in suspension, coupled to magnetic nanoparticles, is a feasible technique to fix an interphase of tumor cells in close proximity to gold electrodes. Relative impedance changes were shown to have potential value as a biosensor method for BC cells in whole blood, at frequencies around 20 kHz. Additional studies are warranted with respect to electrode design and sensitivity at micro-scale levels, according to the proposed technique.

  15. S-Layer Protein-Based Biosensors.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Bernhard

    2018-04-11

    The present paper highlights the application of bacterial surface (S-) layer proteins as versatile components for the fabrication of biosensors. One technologically relevant feature of S-layer proteins is their ability to self-assemble on many surfaces and interfaces to form a crystalline two-dimensional (2D) protein lattice. The S-layer lattice on the surface of a biosensor becomes part of the interface architecture linking the bioreceptor to the transducer interface, which may cause signal amplification. The S-layer lattice as ultrathin, highly porous structure with functional groups in a well-defined special distribution and orientation and an overall anti-fouling characteristics can significantly raise the limit in terms of variety and the ease of bioreceptor immobilization, compactness of bioreceptor molecule arrangement, sensitivity, specificity, and detection limit for many types of biosensors. The present paper discusses and summarizes examples for the successful implementation of S-layer lattices on biosensor surfaces in order to give a comprehensive overview on the application potential of these bioinspired S-layer protein-based biosensors.

  16. A partial structural and functional rescue of a retinitis pigmentosa model with compacted DNA nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xue; Nash, Zack; Conley, Shannon M; Fliesler, Steven J; Cooper, Mark J; Naash, Muna I

    2009-01-01

    Previously we have shown that compacted DNA nanoparticles can drive high levels of transgene expression after subretinal injection in the mouse eye. Here we delivered compacted DNA nanoparticles containing a therapeutic gene to the retinas of a mouse model of retinitis pigmentosa. Nanoparticles containing the wild-type retinal degeneration slow (Rds) gene were injected into the subretinal space of rds(+/-) mice on postnatal day 5. Gene expression was sustained for up to four months at levels up to four times higher than in controls injected with saline or naked DNA. The nanoparticles were taken up into virtually all photoreceptors and mediated significant structural and biochemical rescue of the disease without histological or functional evidence of toxicity. Electroretinogram recordings showed that nanoparticle-mediated gene transfer restored cone function to a near-normal level in contrast to transfer of naked plasmid DNA. Rod function was also improved. These findings demonstrate that compacted DNA nanoparticles represent a viable option for development of gene-based interventions for ocular diseases and obviate major barriers commonly encountered with non-viral based therapies.

  17. [Application of DNA-based electrochemical biosensor in rapid detection of Escherichia coli exist in licorice decoction].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu-Wen; Wang, Hai-Xia; Bie, Song-Tao; Shao, Qian; Wang, Chun-Hua; Wang, Dong-Heng; Li, Zheng

    2018-03-01

    A new method for detection of Escherichia coli exist in licorice decoction was developed by using DNA-based electrochemical biosensor. The thiolated capture probe was immobilized on a gold electrode at first. Then the aptamer for Escherichia coli was combined with the capture probe by hybridization. Due to the stronger interaction between the aptamer and the E. coli, the aptamer can dissociate from the capture probe in the presence of E. coli in licorice decoction. The biotinylated detection probe was hybridized with the single-strand capture probe. As a result, the electrochemical response to Escherichia coli can be measured by using differential pulse voltammetric in the presence of α-naphthyl phosphate. The plot of peak current vs. the logarithm of concentration in the range from 2.7×10² to 2.7×10⁸ CFU·mL⁻¹ displayed a linear relationship with a detection limit of 50 CFU·mL⁻¹. The relative standard deviation of 3 successive scans was 2.5%,2.1%,4.6% for 2×10²,2×10⁴,2×106:⁶ CFU·mL⁻¹ E. coli, respectively. The proposed procedure showed better specificity to E. coli in comparison to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. In the detection of the real extractum glycyrrhizae, the results between the proposed strategy and the GB assay showed high degree of agreement, demonstrating the designed biosensor could be utilized as a powerful tool for microbial examination for traditional Chinese medicine. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  18. Decoration of reduced graphene oxide with rhodium nanoparticles for the design of a sensitive electrochemical enzyme biosensor for 17β-estradiol.

    PubMed

    Povedano, Eloy; Cincotto, Fernando H; Parrado, Concepción; Díez, Paula; Sánchez, Alfredo; Canevari, Thiago C; Machado, Sergio A S; Pingarrón, José M; Villalonga, Reynaldo

    2017-03-15

    A novel nanocomposite material consisting of reduced graphene oxide/Rh nanoparticles was prepared by a one-pot reaction process. The strategy involved the simultaneous reduction of RhCl 3 and graphene oxide with NaBH 4 and the in situ deposition of the metal nanoparticles on the 2D carbon nanomaterial planar sheets. Glassy carbon electrode coated with this nanocomposite was employed as nanostructured support for the cross-linking of the enzyme laccase with glutaraldehyde to construct a voltammperometric biosensor for 17β-estradiol in the 0.9-11 pM range. The biosensor showed excellent analytical performance with high sensitivity of 25.7AµM -1 cm -1 , a very low detection limit of 0.54pM and high selectivity. The biosensor was applied to the rapid and successful determination of the hormone in spiked synthetic and real human urine samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of different nanoparticles on electrochemical behavior of glucose biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nenkova, R. D.; Ivanov, Y. L.; Godjevargova, T. I.

    2017-02-01

    The influence of nanosized particles on the glucose oxidase loading and the performance of amperometric glucose bionsensors were studied. Four enzyme electrodes (Pt/PAN/GOD, Pt/PAN/NZ/GOD, Pt/PAN/NZ/MNP/GOD, Pt/PAN/NZ/MWNT/GOD) were prepared by cross-linking of glucose oxidase (GOD) on nanocomposite material. Nanocomposites were prepared by entrapping nanozeolite (NZ), multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) and magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) in polyacrylonitrile (PAN) film. Cyclic voltammetric kinetic studies have been carried out with the four biosensors and the surface concentration of the adsorbed electroactive species on the electrodes was estimated. The highest enzyme concentration on the electrode surface corresponded to the electrodes prepared by nanozeolite separate (Pt/PAN/NZ/GOD) and combined with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (Pt/PAN/NZ/MWNT/GOD). The sensitivity of these two biosensors was the highest and that is in accordance with the greater amount of the adsorbed electroactive species on the electrodes (0.373 mol.cm-2). This was indication that a good synergistic effect happened when MWNTs and NZ were combined and these greatly improve the electron transfer ability of the sensor interface. Amperometric measurement of the two glucose oxidase electrodes (Pt/PAN/NZ/GOD and Pt/PAN/NZ/MWNT/GOD) with best results was carried out. The linear concentration interval of the Pt/PAN/NZ/MWNT/GOD biosensor was up to 3 mM, the detection limit - 0.02 mM glucose and the storage stability - 81% of its initial current response after 30 days.

  20. Device considerations for development of conductance-based biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kangho; Nair, Pradeep R.; Scott, Adina; Alam, Muhammad A.; Janes, David B.

    2009-01-01

    Design and fabrication of electronic biosensors based on field-effect-transistor (FET) devices require understanding of interactions between semiconductor surfaces and organic biomolecules. From this perspective, we review practical considerations for electronic biosensors with emphasis on molecular passivation effects on FET device characteristics upon immobilization of organic molecules and an electrostatic model for FET-based biosensors. PMID:24753627

  1. Enhancement in sensitivity of graphene-based zinc oxide assisted bimetallic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rajeev; Kushwaha, Angad S.; Srivastava, Monika; Mishra, H.; Srivastava, S. K.

    2018-03-01

    In the present communication, a highly sensitive surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor with Kretschmann configuration having alternate layers, prism/zinc oxide/silver/gold/graphene/biomolecules (ss-DNA) is presented. The optimization of the proposed configuration has been accomplished by keeping the constant thickness of zinc oxide (32 nm), silver (32 nm), graphene (0.34 nm) layer and biomolecules (100 nm) for different values of gold layer thickness (1, 3 and 5 nm). The sensitivity of the proposed SPR biosensor has been demonstrated for a number of design parameters such as gold layer thickness, number of graphene layer, refractive index of biomolecules and the thickness of biomolecules layer. SPR biosensor with optimized geometry has greater sensitivity (66 deg/RIU) than the conventional (52 deg/RIU) as well as other graphene-based (53.2 deg/RIU) SPR biosensor. The effect of zinc oxide layer thickness on the sensitivity of SPR biosensor has also been analysed. From the analysis, it is found that the sensitivity increases significantly by increasing the thickness of zinc oxide layer. It means zinc oxide intermediate layer plays an important role to improve the sensitivity of the biosensor. The sensitivity of SPR biosensor also increases by increasing the number of graphene layer (upto nine layer).

  2. A universal aptameric biosensor: Multiplexed detection of small analytes via aggregated perylene-based broad-spectrum quencher.

    PubMed

    Hu, Rong; Zhang, Xi; Xu, Qiang; Lu, Dan-Qing; Yang, Yun-Hui; Xu, Quan-Qing; Ruan, Qiong; Mo, Liu-Ting; Zhang, Xiao-Bing

    2017-06-15

    A universal aptameric system based on the taking advantage of double-stranded DNA/perylene diimide (dsDNA/PDI) as the signal probe was developed for multiplexed detection of small molecules. Aptamers are single-stranded DNA or RNA oligonucleotides which are selected in vitro by a process known as systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment. In this work, we synthesized a new kind of PDI and reported this aggregated PDI could quench the double-stranded DNA (dsDNA)-labeled fluorophores with a high quenching efficiency. The quenching efficiencies on the fluorescence of FAM, TAMRA and Cy5 could reach to 98.3%±0.9%, 97.2%±0.6% and 98.1%±1.1%, respectively. This broad-spectrum quencher was then adopted to construct a multicolor biosensor via a label-free approach. A structure-switching-triggered enzymatic recycling amplification was employed for signal amplification. High quenching efficiency combined with autocatalytic target recycling amplification afforded the biosensor with high sensitivity towards small analytes. For other targets, changing the corresponding aptamer can achieve the goal. The quencher did not interfere with the catalytic activity of nuclease. The biosensor could be manipulated with similar sensitivity no matter in pre-addition or post-addition manner. Moreover, simultaneous and multiplexed analysis of several small molecules in homogeneous solution was achieved, demonstrating its potential application in the rapid screening of multiple biotargets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Enzyme-Based Ultrasensitive Electrochemical Biosensors for Rapid Assessment of Nitrite Toxicity: Recent Advances and Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Gahlaut, Anjum; Hooda, Vinita; Gothwal, Ashish; Hooda, Vikas

    2018-05-14

    In the present era of rapid international globalization and industrialization, intensive use of nitrite as a fertilizing agent in agriculture, preservative, dyeing agent, food additive and as corrosion inhibitor in industrial sectors is adversely effecting environment, natural habitats and human health. The issue of toxicity and carcinogenicity due to excessive ingestion of nitrites via the dietary intake has led to an imminent need for its efficient real-time monitoring in situ. Nitrite detection employing electrochemical biosensors has been gaining high credibility in the field of clinical research. Nitrite biosensors have emerged as an outstanding choice for portable point of care testing of nitrite quantification owing to the excellent properties, such as rapidity, miniaturization, ultra-low limits of detection, multiplexing and enhanced detection sensitivity. The article is enclosed with an interesting outlook on latest emerging trends in the development of nitrite biosensors utilizing nanomaterials, such as metal nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, metal oxide nanoparticles, nanocomposites, polymers and biomaterials. The present review embarks on the highlights relevant to the nitrite quantification in real samples, then proceeds with a meticulous description of the most pertinent electrochemical nitrite biosensors, which have been proposed by adopting diverse materials and strategies of fabrication and finally end with the achievements and future outlook signifying the application of these nanoengineered biosensors for environmental surveillance and human safety.

  4. Gold Nanoparticle-Quantum Dot Fluorescent Nanohybrid: Application for Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance-induced Molecular Beacon Ultrasensitive DNA Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adegoke, Oluwasesan; Park, Enoch Y.

    2016-11-01

    In biosensor design, localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR)-induced signal from gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-conjugated reporter can produce highly sensitive nanohybrid systems. In order to retain the physicochemical properties of AuNPs upon conjugation, high colloidal stability in aqueous solution is needed. In this work, the colloidal stability with respect to the zeta potential (ZP) of four negatively charged thiol-functionalized AuNPs, thioglycolic (TGA)-AuNPs, 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA)-AuNPs, l-cysteine-AuNPs and l-glutathione (GSH)-AuNPs, and a cationic cyteamine-capped AuNPs was studied at various pHs, ionic strength, and NP concentration. A strong dependence of the ZP charge on the nanoparticle (NP) concentration was observed. High colloidal stability was exhibited between pH 3 and 9 for the negatively charged AuNPs and between pH 3 and 7 for the cationic AuNPs. With respect to the ionic strength, high colloidal stability was exhibited at ≤104 μM for TGA-AuNPs, l-cysteine-AuNPs, and GSH-AuNPs, whereas ≤103 μM is recommended for MPA-AuNPs. For the cationic AuNPs, very low ionic strength of ≤10 μM is recommended due to deprotonation at higher concentration. GSH-AuNPs were thereafter bonded to SiO2-functionalized alloyed CdZnSeS/ZnSe1.0S1.3 quantum dots (SiO2-Qdots) to form a plasmon-enhanced AuNP-SiO2-Qdots fluorescent nanohybrid. The AuNP-SiO2-Qdots conjugate was afterward conjugated to a molecular beacon (MB), thus forming an ultrasensitive LSPR-induced SiO2-Qdots-MB biosensor probe that detected a perfect nucleotide DNA sequence at a concentration as low as 10 fg/mL. The limit of detection was 11 fg/mL (1.4 fM) while the biosensor probe efficiently distinguished between single-base mismatch and noncomplementary sequence target.

  5. Disposable DNA biosensor with the carbon nanotubes-polyethyleneimine interface at a screen-printed carbon electrode for tests of DNA layer damage by quinazolines.

    PubMed

    Galandová, Júlia; Ovádeková, Renáta; Ferancová, Adriana; Labuda, Ján

    2009-06-01

    A screen-printed carbon working electrode within a commercially available screen-printed three-electrode assembly was modified by using a composite of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) dispersed in polyethylenimine (PEI) followed by covering with the calf thymus dsDNA layer. Several electrochemical methods were used to characterize the biosensor and to evaluate damage to the surface-attached DNA: square wave voltammetry of the [Ru(bpy)(3)](2+) redox indicator and mediator of the guanine moiety oxidation, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in the presence of the [Fe(CN)(6)](3-/4-) indicator in solution. Due to high electroconductivity and large surface area of MWCNT and positive charge of PEI, the MWCNT-PEI composite is an advantageous platform for the DNA immobilization by the polyelectrolyte complexation and its voltammetric and impedimetric detection. In this respect, the MWCNT-PEI interface exhibited better properties than the MWCNT-chitosan one reported from our laboratory previously. A deep DNA layer damage at incubation of the biosensor in quinazoline solution was found, which depends on the quinazoline concentration and incubation time.

  6. A novel upconversion@polydopamine core@shell nanoparticle based aptameric biosensor for biosensing and imaging of cytochrome c inside living cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lina; Liu, Fuyao; Lei, Zhen; Wang, Zhenxin

    2017-01-15

    Herein, a novel upconversion@polydopamine core@shell nanoparticle (termed as UCNP@PDA NP) -based aptameric biosensor has been fabricated for the quantitative analysis of cytochrome c (Cyt c) inside living cells, which comprises an UCNP@PDA NP, acting as an internal reference and fluorescence quenching agent, and Cy3 modified aptamer enabling ratiometric quantitative Cyt c measurement. After the hybridization of Cy3 labeled aptamer with amino-terminated single DNA on the UCNP@PDA NP surface (termed as UCNP@PDA@AP), the fluorescence of Cy3 can be efficiently quenched by the PDA shell. With the spontaneous cellular uptake of UCNP@PDA@AP, the Cyt c aptamer dissociates from UCNP@PDA NP surface through formation of aptamer-Cyt c complex, resulting in concomitant activation of the Cy3 fluorescence. High amount of Cyt c leads to high fluorescence emission, enabling direct visualization/measurement of the Cyt c by fluorescence microscopy/spectroscopy. The steady upconversion luminescent (UCL) signals can be employed not only for intracellular imaging, but also as an internal reference for evaluating intracellular Cyt c amount using the ratio of fluorescence intensity of Cy3 with the UCL intensity of UCNP. The UCNP@PDA@AP shows a reasonable detection limit (20nM) and large dynamic range (50nM to 10μM, which covers the literature reported values (1-10μM) for cytosolic Cyt c in apoptotic cells) for detecting Cyt c in buffer with excellent selectivity. In addition, the UCNP@PDA@AP has been successfully used to monitor etoposide induced intracellular releasing of Cyt c, providing the possibility for cell-based screening of apoptosis-inducing drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Oligonucleotide flexibility dictates crystal quality in DNA-programmable nanoparticle superlattices.

    PubMed

    Senesi, Andrew J; Eichelsdoerfer, Daniel J; Brown, Keith A; Lee, Byeongdu; Auyeung, Evelyn; Choi, Chung Hang J; Macfarlane, Robert J; Young, Kaylie L; Mirkin, Chad A

    2014-11-12

    The evolution of crystallite size and microstrain in DNA-mediated nanoparticle superlattices is dictated by annealing temperature and the flexibility of the interparticle bonds. This work addresses a major challenge in synthesizing optical metamaterials based upon noble metal nanoparticles by enabling the crystallization of large nanoparticles (100 nm diameter) at high volume fractions (34% metal). © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Photoelectrochemical DNA Biosensor Based on Dual-Signal Amplification Strategy Integrating Inorganic-Organic Nanocomposites Sensitization with λ-Exonuclease-Assisted Target Recycling.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiao-Mei; Fan, Gao-Chao; Shen, Qingming; Zhu, Jun-Jie

    2016-12-28

    Sensitive and accurate analysis of DNA is crucial to better understanding of DNA functions and early diagnosis of fatal disease. Herein, an enhanced photoelectrochemical (PEC) DNA biosensor was proposed based on dual-signal amplification via coupling inorganic-organic nanocomposites sensitization with λ-exonuclease (λ-Exo)-assisted target recycling. The short DNA sequence about chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML, type b3a2) was selected as target DNA (tDNA). ZnO nanoplates were deposited with CdS nanocrystals to form ZnO/CdS hetero-nanostructure, and it was used as PEC substrate for immobilizing hairpin DNA (hDNA). CdTe quantum dots (QDs) covalently linked with meso-tetra(4-carboxyphenyl)porphine (TCPP) to form CdTe/TCPP inorganic-organic nanocomposites, which were utilized as sensitization agents labeling at the terminal of probe DNA (pDNA). When the hDNA-modified sensing electrode was incubated with tDNA and λ-Exo, hDNA hybridized with tDNA, and meanwhile it could be recognized and cleaved by λ-Exo, resulting in the release of tDNA. The rest of nonhybridized hDNA would continuously hybridize with the released tDNA, cleave by λ-Exo, and set free the tDNA again. After λ-Exo-assisted tDNA recycling, more amounts of short DNA (sDNA) fragments coming from digestion of hDNA produced on the electrode and hybridized with CdTe/TCPP-labeled pDNA (pDNA-CdTe/TCPP conjugates). In this case, the sensitization of CdTe/TCPP inorganic-organic nanocomposites occurred, which evidently extend the absorption range and strengthened the absorption intensity of light energy, and accordingly the photocurrent signal significantly promoted. Through introducing the dual-signal amplification tactics, the developed PEC assay allowed a low calculated detection limit of 25.6 aM with a wide detection scope from 0.1 fM to 5 pM for sensitive and selective determination of tDNA.

  9. Current Trends in Nanomaterial-Based Amperometric Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Akhtar; Catanante, Gaëlle; Marty, Jean Louis

    2014-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed an intensive research effort in the field of electrochemical sensors, with a particular focus on the design of amperometric biosensors for diverse analytical applications. In this context, nanomaterial integration in the construction of amperometric biosensors may constitute one of the most exciting approaches. The attractive properties of nanomaterials have paved the way for the design of a wide variety of biosensors based on various electrochemical detection methods to enhance the analytical characteristics. However, most of these nanostructured materials are not explored in the design of amperometric biosensors. This review aims to provide insight into the diverse properties of nanomaterials that can be possibly explored in the construction of amperometric biosensors. PMID:25494347

  10. Label-free DNA biosensor based on a peptide nucleic acid-functionalized microstructured optical fiber-Bragg grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candiani, Alessandro; Bertucci, Alessandro; Giannetti, Sara; Konstantaki, Maria; Manicardi, Alex; Pissadakis, Stavros; Cucinotta, Annamaria; Corradini, Roberto; Selleri, Stefano

    2013-05-01

    We describe a novel sensing approach based on a functionalized microstructured optical fiber-Bragg grating for specific DNA target sequences detection. The inner surface of a microstructured fiber, where a Bragg grating was previously inscribed, has been functionalized by covalent linking of a peptide nucleic acid probe targeting a DNA sequence bearing a single point mutation implicated in cystic fibrosis (CF) disease. A solution of an oligonucleotide (ON) corresponding to a tract of the CF gene containing the mutated DNA has been infiltrated inside the fiber capillaries and allowed to hybridize to the fiber surface according to the Watson-Crick pairing. In order to achieve signal amplification, ON-functionalized gold nanoparticles were then infiltrated and used in a sandwich-like assay. Experimental measurements show a clear shift of the reflected high order mode of a Bragg grating for a 100 nM DNA solution, and fluorescence measurements have confirmed the successful hybridization. Several experiments have been carried out on the same fiber using the identical concentration, showing the same modulation trend, suggesting the possibility of the reuse of the sensor. Measurements have also been made using a 100 nM mismatched DNA solution, containing a single nucleotide mutation and corresponding to the wild-type gene, and the results demonstrate the high selectivity of the sensor.

  11. Multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)-doped polypyrrole DNA biosensor for label-free detection of genetically modified organisms by QCM and EIS.

    PubMed

    Truong, Thi Ngoc Lien; Tran, Dai Lam; Vu, Thi Hong An; Tran, Vinh Hoang; Duong, Tuan Quang; Dinh, Quang Khieu; Tsukahara, Toshifumi; Lee, Young Hoon; Kim, Jong Seung

    2010-01-15

    In this paper, we describe DNA electrochemical detection for genetically modified organism (GMO) based on multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)-doped polypyrrole (PPy). DNA hybridization is studied by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). An increase in DNA complementary target concentration results in a decrease in the faradic charge transfer resistance (R(ct)) and signifying "signal-on" behavior of MWCNTs-PPy-DNA system. QCM and EIS data indicated that the electroanalytical MWCNTs-PPy films were highly sensitive (as low as 4pM of target can be detected with QCM technique). In principle, this system can be suitable not only for DNA but also for protein biosensor construction.

  12. Progress in utilisation of graphene for electrochemical biosensors.

    PubMed

    Lawal, Abdulazeez T

    2018-05-30

    This review discusses recent graphene (GR) electrochemical biosensor for accurate detection of biomolecules, including glucose, hydrogen peroxide, dopamine, ascorbic acid, uric acid, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, DNA, metals and immunosensor through effective immobilization of enzymes, including glucose oxidase, horseradish peroxidase, and haemoglobin. GR-based biosensors exhibited remarkable performance with high sensitivities, wide linear detection ranges, low detection limits, and long-term stabilities. Future challenges for the field include miniaturising biosensors and simplifying mass production are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Electrochemical Glucose Biosensor of Platinum Nanospheres Connected by Carbon Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Claussen, Jonathan C.; Kim, Sungwon S.; Haque, Aeraj ul; Artiles, Mayra S.; Porterfield, D. Marshall; Fisher, Timothy S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Glucose biosensors comprised of nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and metallic nanoparticles offer enhanced electrochemical performance that produces highly sensitive glucose sensing. This article presents a facile biosensor fabrication and biofunctionalization procedure that utilizes CNTs electrochemically decorated with platinum (Pt) nanospheres to sense glucose amperometrically with high sensitivity. Method Carbon nanotubes are grown in situ by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) and electro-chemically decorated with Pt nanospheres to form a CNT/Pt nanosphere composite biosensor. Carbon nanotube electrodes are immobilized with fluorescently labeled bovine serum albumin (BSA) and analyzed with fluorescence microscopy to demonstrate their biocompatibility. The enzyme glucose oxidase (GOX) is immobilized onto the CNT/Pt nanosphere biosensor by a simple drop-coat method for amperometric glucose sensing. Results Fluorescence microscopy demonstrates the biofunctionalization capability of the sensor by portraying adsorption of fluorescently labeled BSA unto MPCVD-grown CNT electrodes. The subsequent GOX–CNT/Pt nanosphere biosensor demonstrates a high sensitivity toward H2O2 (7.4 μA/mM/cm2) and glucose (70 μA/mM/cm2), with a glucose detection limit and response time of 380 nM (signal-to-noise ratio = 3) and 8 s (t90%), respectively. The apparent Michaelis–Menten constant (0.64 mM) of the biosensor also reflects the improved sensitivity of the immobilized GOX/nanomaterial complexes. Conclusions The GOX–CNT/Pt nanosphere biosensor outperforms similar CNT, metallic nanoparticle, and more conventional carbon-based biosensors in terms of glucose sensitivity and detection limit. The biosensor fabrication and biofunctionalization scheme can easily be scaled and adapted for microsensors for physiological research applications that require highly sensitive glucose sensing. PMID:20307391

  14. Electrochemical glucose biosensor of platinum nanospheres connected by carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Claussen, Jonathan C; Kim, Sungwon S; Haque, Aeraj Ul; Artiles, Mayra S; Porterfield, D Marshall; Fisher, Timothy S

    2010-03-01

    Glucose biosensors comprised of nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and metallic nanoparticles offer enhanced electrochemical performance that produces highly sensitive glucose sensing. This article presents a facile biosensor fabrication and biofunctionalization procedure that utilizes CNTs electrochemically decorated with platinum (Pt) nanospheres to sense glucose amperometrically with high sensitivity. Carbon nanotubes are grown in situ by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) and electro-chemically decorated with Pt nanospheres to form a CNT/Pt nanosphere composite biosensor. Carbon nanotube electrodes are immobilized with fluorescently labeled bovine serum albumin (BSA) and analyzed with fluorescence microscopy to demonstrate their biocompatibility. The enzyme glucose oxidase (GO(X)) is immobilized onto the CNT/Pt nanosphere biosensor by a simple drop-coat method for amperometric glucose sensing. Fluorescence microscopy demonstrates the biofunctionalization capability of the sensor by portraying adsorption of fluorescently labeled BSA unto MPCVD-grown CNT electrodes. The subsequent GO(X)-CNT/Pt nanosphere biosensor demonstrates a high sensitivity toward H(2)O(2) (7.4 microA/mM/cm(2)) and glucose (70 microA/mM/cm(2)), with a glucose detection limit and response time of 380 nM (signal-to-noise ratio = 3) and 8 s (t(90%)), respectively. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (0.64 mM) of the biosensor also reflects the improved sensitivity of the immobilized GO(X)/nanomaterial complexes. The GO(X)-CNT/Pt nanosphere biosensor outperforms similar CNT, metallic nanoparticle, and more conventional carbon-based biosensors in terms of glucose sensitivity and detection limit. The biosensor fabrication and biofunctionalization scheme can easily be scaled and adapted for microsensors for physiological research applications that require highly sensitive glucose sensing. (c) 2010 Diabetes Technology Society.

  15. Application of the SSB biosensor to study in vitro transcription.

    PubMed

    Cook, Alexander; Hari-Gupta, Yukti; Toseland, Christopher P

    2018-02-12

    Gene expression, catalysed by RNA polymerases (RNAP), is one of the most fundamental processes in living cells. The majority of methods to quantify mRNA are based upon purification of the nucleic acid which leads to experimental inaccuracies and loss of product, or use of high cost dyes and sensitive spectrophotometers. Here, we describe the use of a fluorescent biosensor based upon the single stranded binding (SSB) protein. In this study, the SSB biosensor showed similar binding properties to mRNA, to that of its native substrate, single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). We found the biosensor to be reproducible with no associated loss of product through purification, or the requirement for expensive dyes. Therefore, we propose that the SSB biosensor is a useful tool for comparative measurement of mRNA yield following in vitro transcription. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Biosensor based on ds-DNA decorated chitosan modified multiwall carbon nanotubes for voltammetric biodetection of herbicide amitrole.

    PubMed

    Ensafi, Ali A; Amini, Maryam; Rezaei, Behzad

    2013-09-01

    The interaction of amitrole and salmon sperm ds-DNA was studied using UV-vis and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) at both bare and DNA-modified electrodes. Amitrole showed an oxidation peak at 0.445 V at a bare pencil graphite electrode (PGE). When ds-DNA was added into the amitrole solution, the peak current of amitrole decreased and the peak potential underwent a shift. UV-vis spectra showed that the absorption intensity of the ds-DNA at 260 nm decreased with increasing amitrole concentration, proving the interaction between amitrole and the ds-DNA. The results also showed that amitrole could interact with the ds-DNA molecules via the intercalative binding mode. Finally, a pretreated pencil graphite electrode (PGE) modified with multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and chitosan (CHIT) decorated with the ds-DNA were tested in order to determine amitrole content in solution. Electrochemical oxidation of amitrole bonded on DNA/MWCNTs-CHIT/PGE was used to obtain an analytical signal. A linear dependence was observed to exist between the peak current and 0.025-2.4 ng mL(-1) amitrole with a detection limit of 0.017 ng mL(-1). The sensor showed a good selectivity and precision for the determination of amitrole. Finally, applicability of the biosensor was evaluated by measuring the analyte in soil and water samples with good selectivity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A duplex DNA-gold nanoparticle probe composed as a colorimetric biosensor for sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Junho; Choi, Yeonweon; Lee, Ae-Ree; Lee, Joon-Hwa; Jung, Jong Hwa

    2016-03-21

    Using duplex DNA-AuNP aggregates, a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein, SQUAMOSA Promoter-binding-Like protein 12 (SPL-12), was directly determined by SPL-12-duplex DNA interaction-based colorimetric actions of DNA-Au assemblies. In order to prepare duplex DNA-Au aggregates, thiol-modified DNA 1 and DNA 2 were attached onto the surface of AuNPs, respectively, by the salt-aging method and then the DNA-attached AuNPs were mixed. Duplex-DNA-Au aggregates having the average size of 160 nm diameter and the maximum absorption at 529 nm were able to recognize SPL-12 and reached the equivalent state by the addition of ∼30 equivalents of SPL-12 accompanying a color change from red to blue with a red shift of the maximum absorption at 570 nm. As a result, the aggregation size grew to about 247 nm. Also, at higher temperatures of the mixture of duplex-DNA-Au aggregate solution and SPL-12, the equivalent state was reached rapidly. On the contrary, in the control experiment using Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA), no absorption band shift of duplex-DNA-Au aggregates was observed.

  18. Sensitive detection of multiple pathogens using a single DNA probe.

    PubMed

    Nordin, Noordiana; Yusof, Nor Azah; Abdullah, Jaafar; Radu, Son; Hushiarian, Roozbeh

    2016-12-15

    A simple but promising electrochemical DNA nanosensor was designed, constructed and applied to differentiate a few food-borne pathogens. The DNA probe was initially designed to have a complementary region in Vibrio parahaemolyticus (VP) genome and to make different hybridization patterns with other selected pathogens. The sensor was based on a screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE) modified with polylactide-stabilized gold nanoparticles (PLA-AuNPs) and methylene blue (MB) was employed as the redox indicator binding better to single-stranded DNA. The immobilization and hybridization events were assessed using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The fabricated biosensor was able to specifically distinguish complementary, non-complementary and mismatched oligonucleotides. DNA was measured in the range of 2.0×10(-9)-2.0×10(-13)M with a detection limit of 5.3×10(-12)M. The relative standard deviation for 6 replications of DPV measurement of 0.2µM complementary DNA was 4.88%. The fabricated DNA biosensor was considered stable and portable as indicated by a recovery of more than 80% after a storage period of 6 months at 4-45°C. Cross-reactivity studies against various food-borne pathogens showed a reliably sensitive detection of VP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Electrochemical biosensors for biocontaminant detection consisting of carbon nanotubes, platinum nanoparticles, dendrimers, and enzymes.

    PubMed

    Siriviriyanun, Ampornphan; Imae, Toyoko; Nagatani, Naoki

    2013-12-15

    The presented approach provides the advanced development of effective, rapid, and versatile electrochemical sensors for a small amount of analytes on potential, cheap, and disposable printed chips. The electrocatalytic activity of this biosensor revealed the feasible detection of hydrogen peroxide at low potential (~0.09 V) and the detection of a biocontaminant inhibitor (organophosphorus pesticide) in a wide range of concentrations. This efficiency comes from the chemical immobilization of catalysts (Pt nanoparticles) and electron transfer-enlarging materials (carbon nanotubes) on an electrode. Especially, dendrimers raise the stable conjugation of enzymes (acetylcholinesterase/choline oxidase/peroxidase) as well as nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes on an electrode. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Screening the sequence selectivity of DNA-binding molecules using a gold nanoparticle-based colorimetric approach.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Sarah J; Han, Min Su; Lytton-Jean, Abigail K R; Mirkin, Chad A

    2007-09-15

    We have developed a novel competition assay that uses a gold nanoparticle (Au NP)-based, high-throughput colorimetric approach to screen the sequence selectivity of DNA-binding molecules. This assay hinges on the observation that the melting behavior of DNA-functionalized Au NP aggregates is sensitive to the concentration of the DNA-binding molecule in solution. When short, oligomeric hairpin DNA sequences were added to a reaction solution consisting of DNA-functionalized Au NP aggregates and DNA-binding molecules, these molecules may either bind to the Au NP aggregate interconnects or the hairpin stems based on their relative affinity for each. This relative affinity can be measured as a change in the melting temperature (Tm) of the DNA-modified Au NP aggregates in solution. As a proof of concept, we evaluated the selectivity of 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindone (an AT-specific binder), ethidium bromide (a nonspecific binder), and chromomycin A (a GC-specific binder) for six sequences of hairpin DNA having different numbers of AT pairs in a five-base pair variable stem region. Our assay accurately and easily confirmed the known trends in selectivity for the DNA binders in question without the use of complicated instrumentation. This novel assay will be useful in assessing large libraries of potential drug candidates that work by binding DNA to form a drug/DNA complex.

  1. Combining functionalised nanoparticles and SERS for the detection of DNA relating to disease.

    PubMed

    Graham, Duncan; Stevenson, Ross; Thompson, David G; Barrett, Lee; Dalton, Colette; Faulds, Karen

    2011-01-01

    DNA functionalised nanoparticle probes offer new opportunities in analyte detection. Ultrasensitive, molecularly specific targeting of analytes is possible through the use of metallic nanoparticles and their ability to generate a surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) response. This is leading to a new range of diagnostic clinical probes based on SERS detection. Our approaches have shown how such probes can detect specific DNA sequences by using a biomolecular recognition event to 'turn on' a SERS response through a controlled assembly process of the DNA functionalised nanoparticles. Further, we have prepared DNA aptamer functionalised SERS probes and demonstrated how introduction of a protein target can change the aggregation state of the nanoparticles in a dose-dependant manner. These approaches are being used as methods to detect biomolecules that indicate a specific disease being present with a view to improving disease management.

  2. Electrochemical and AFM Characterization of G-Quadruplex Electrochemical Biosensors and Applications

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Guanine-rich DNA sequences are able to form G-quadruplexes, being involved in important biological processes and representing smart self-assembling nanomaterials that are increasingly used in DNA nanotechnology and biosensor technology. G-quadruplex electrochemical biosensors have received particular attention, since the electrochemical response is particularly sensitive to the DNA structural changes from single-stranded, double-stranded, or hairpin into a G-quadruplex configuration. Furthermore, the development of an increased number of G-quadruplex aptamers that combine the G-quadruplex stiffness and self-assembling versatility with the aptamer high specificity of binding to a variety of molecular targets allowed the construction of biosensors with increased selectivity and sensitivity. This review discusses the recent advances on the electrochemical characterization, design, and applications of G-quadruplex electrochemical biosensors in the evaluation of metal ions, G-quadruplex ligands, and other small organic molecules, proteins, and cells. The electrochemical and atomic force microscopy characterization of G-quadruplexes is presented. The incubation time and cations concentration dependence in controlling the G-quadruplex folding, stability, and nanostructures formation at carbon electrodes are discussed. Different G-quadruplex electrochemical biosensors design strategies, based on the DNA folding into a G-quadruplex, the use of G-quadruplex aptamers, or the use of hemin/G-quadruplex DNAzymes, are revisited. PMID:29666699

  3. Anionic magnetite nanoparticle conjugated with pyrrolidinyl peptide nucleic acid for DNA base discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khadsai, Sudarat; Rutnakornpituk, Boonjira; Vilaivan, Tirayut; Nakkuntod, Maliwan; Rutnakornpituk, Metha

    2016-09-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) were surface modified with anionic poly( N-acryloyl glycine) (PNAG) and streptavidin for specific interaction with biotin-conjugated pyrrolidinyl peptide nucleic acid (PNA). Hydrodynamic size ( D h) of PNAG-grafted MNPs varied from 334 to 496 nm depending on the loading ratio of the MNP to NAG in the reaction. UV-visible and fluorescence spectrophotometries were used to confirm the successful immobilization of streptavidin and PNA on the MNPs. About 291 pmol of the PNA/mg MNP was immobilized on the particle surface. The PNA-functionalized MNPs were effectively used as solid supports to differentiate between fully complementary and non-complementary/single-base mismatch DNA using the PNA probe. These novel anionic MNPs can be efficiently applicable for use as a magnetically guidable support for DNA base discrimination.

  4. Biodegradable DNA Nanoparticles that Provide Widespread Gene Delivery in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Mastorakos, Panagiotis; Song, Eric; Zhang, Clark; Berry, Sneha; Park, Hee Won; Kim, Young Eun; Park, Jong Sung; Lee, Seulki; Suk, Jung Soo; Hanes, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Successful gene therapy of neurological disorders is predicated on achieving widespread and uniform transgene expression throughout the affected disease area in the brain. However, conventional gene vectors preferentially travel through low-resistance perivascular spaces and/or are confined to the administration site even with the aid of a pressure-driven flow provided by convection-enhanced delivery. Biodegradable DNA nanoparticles offer a safe gene delivery platform devoid of adverse effects associated with virus-based or synthetic non-biodegradable systems. Using a state-of-the-art biodegradable polymer, poly(β-amino ester), we engineered colloidally stable sub-100 nm DNA nanoparticles coated with a non-adhesive polyethylene glycol corona that are able to avoid the adhesive and steric hindrances imposed by the extracellular matrix. Following convection enhanced delivery, these brain-penetrating nanoparticles were able to homogeneously distribute throughout the rodent striatum and mediate widespread and high-level transgene expression. These nanoparticles provide a biodegradable DNA nanoparticle platform enabling uniform transgene expression patterns in vivo and hold promise for the treatment of neurological diseases. PMID:26680637

  5. Recent trends and perspectives in enzyme based biosensor development for the screening of triglycerides: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Hooda, Vinita; Gahlaut, Anjum; Gothwal, Ashish; Hooda, Vikas

    2018-04-27

    Clinical manifestations of the elevated plasma triacylglycerol (TG) include a greater prevalence of atherosclerotic heart disease, acute pancreatitis, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and ischemic vascular disease. Hence, these significant health troubles have attracted scientific attention for the precise detection of TG in biological samples. Numerous techniques have been employed to quantify TG over many decades, but biosensors hold the leading position owing to their superior traits such as highly specific recognition for target molecules, accuracy, minituarization, small sample requirement and rapid response. Enzyme-based electrochemical biosensors represent an instantaneous resolution for the foremost bottlenecks constraining laboratory prototypes to reach real time bedside applications. We highlight the choice of transducers and constructive strategies to design high-performance biosensor for the quantification of triglycerides in sera and early diagnosis of health problems related to it. In the present review, a small effort has been made to emphasize the significant role of enzymes, nanostructured metal oxides, graphene, conducting polypyrrole, nanoparticles, porous silicon, EISCAP and ENFET in enabling TG biosensors more proficient and taking a revolutionary step forward.

  6. Highly Sensitive Electrochemical Biosensor for Evaluation of Oxidative Stress Based on the Nanointerface of Graphene Nanocomposites Blended with Gold, Fe3O4, and Platinum Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Le; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Cheng, Chuansheng; Liu, Xiaoli; Jiang, Hui; Wang, Xuemei

    2015-08-26

    High levels of H2O2 pertain to high oxidative stress and are associated with cancer, autoimmune, and neurodegenerative disease, and other related diseases. In this study, a sensitive H2O2 biosensor for evaluation of oxidative stress was fabricated on the basis of the reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanocomposites decorated with Au, Fe3O4, and Pt nanoparticles (RGO/AuFe3O4/Pt) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and used to detect the released H2O2 from cancer cells and assess the oxidative stress elicited from H2O2 in living cells. Electrochemical behavior of RGO/AuFe3O4/Pt nanocomposites exhibits excellent catalytic activity toward the relevant reduction with high selection and sensitivity, low overpotential of 0 V, low detection limit of ∼0.1 μM, large linear range from 0.5 μM to 11.5 mM, and outstanding reproducibility. The as-prepared biosensor was applied in the measurement of efflux of H2O2 from living cells including healthy normal cells and tumor cells under the external stimulation. The results display that this new nanocomposites-based biosensor is a promising candidate of nonenzymatic H2O2 sensor which has the possibility of application in clinical diagnostics to assess oxidative stress of different kinds of living cells.

  7. Angle-resolved diffraction grating biosensor based on porous silicon

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Lv, Changwu; Li, Peng; Jia, Zhenhong, E-mail: jzhh@xju.edu.cn

    2016-03-07

    In this study, an optical biosensor based on a porous silicon composite structure was fabricated using a simple method. This structure consists of a thin, porous silicon surface diffraction grating and a one-dimensional porous silicon photonic crystal. An angle-resolved diffraction efficiency spectrum was obtained by measuring the diffraction efficiency at a range of incident angles. The angle-resolved diffraction efficiency of the 2nd and 3rd orders was studied experimentally and theoretically. The device was sensitive to the change of refractive index in the presence of a biomolecule indicated by the shift of the diffraction efficiency spectrum. The sensitivity of this sensormore » was investigated through use of an 8 base pair antifreeze protein DNA hybridization. The shifts of the angle-resolved diffraction efficiency spectrum showed a relationship with the change of the refractive index, and the detection limit of the biosensor reached 41.7 nM. This optical device is highly sensitive, inexpensive, and simple to fabricate. Using shifts in diffraction efficiency spectrum to detect biological molecules has not yet been explored, so this study establishes a foundation for future work.« less

  8. Alginate cryogel based glucose biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatoni, Amin; Windy Dwiasi, Dian; Hermawan, Dadan

    2016-02-01

    Cryogel is macroporous structure provides a large surface area for biomolecule immobilization. In this work, an alginate cryogel based biosensor was developed to detect glucose. The cryogel was prepared using alginate cross-linked by calcium chloride under sub-zero temperature. This porous structure was growth in a 100 μL micropipette tip with a glucose oxidase enzyme entrapped inside the cryogel. The glucose detection was based on the colour change of redox indicator, potassium permanganate, by the hydrogen peroxide resulted from the conversion of glucose. The result showed a porous structure of alginate cryogel with pores diameter of 20-50 μm. The developed glucose biosensor was showed a linear response in the glucose detection from 1.0 to 5.0 mM with a regression of y = 0.01x+0.02 and R2 of 0.994. Furthermore, the glucose biosensor was showed a high operational stability up to 10 times of uninterrupted glucose detections.

  9. DNA-Encoded Raman-Active Anisotropic Nanoparticles for microRNA Detection.

    PubMed

    Qi, Lin; Xiao, Mingshu; Wang, Xiwei; Wang, Cheng; Wang, Lihua; Song, Shiping; Qu, Xiangmeng; Li, Li; Shi, Jiye; Pei, Hao

    2017-09-19

    The development of highly sensitive and selective methods for the detection of microRNA (miRNA) has attracted tremendous attention because of its importance in fundamental biological studies and diagnostic applications. In this work, we develop DNA-encoded Raman-active anisotropic nanoparticles modified origami paper analytical devices (oPADs) for rapid, highly sensitive, and specific miRNA detection. The Raman-active anisotropic nanoparticles were prepared using 10-mer oligo-A, -T, -C, and -G to mediate the growth of Ag cubic seeds into Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) with different morphologies. The resulting AgNPs were further encoded with DNA probes to serve as effective surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) probes. The analytical device was then fabricated on a single piece of SERS probes loaded paper-based substrate and assembled based on the principles of origami. The addition of the target analyte amplifies the Raman signals on DNA-encoded AgNPs through a target-dependent, sequence specific DNA hybridization assembly. This simple and low-cost analytical device is generic and applicable to a variety of miRNAs, allowing detection sensitivity down to 1 pM and assay time within 15 min, and therefore holds promising applications in point-of-care diagnostics.

  10. Development of a new paper based nano-biosensor using the co-catalytic effect of tyrosinase from banana peel tissue (Musa Cavendish) and functionalized silica nanoparticles for voltammetric determination of l-tyrosine.

    PubMed

    Rahimi-Mohseni, Mohadeseh; Raoof, Jahan Bakhsh; Ojani, Reza; Aghajanzadeh, Tahereh A; Bagheri Hashkavayi, Ayemeh

    2018-07-01

    In this paper, a new and facile method for the electrochemical determination of l-tyrosine was designed. First, 3-mercaptopropyl trimethoxysilane-functionalized silica nanoparticles were added to a paper disc. Then, the banana peel tissue and the mediator potassium hexacyanoferrate were dropped onto the paper, respectively. The modified paper disc was placed on the top of the graphite screen printed electrode and electrochemical characterization of this biosensor was studied by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy methods. The effective parameters like pH, banana peel tissue percentage, and the amount of mediator loading were optimized. l-tyrosine measurements were done by differential pulse voltammetry with a little sample (3 μL) for analysis. The biosensor showed a linear response for l-tyrosine in the wide concentration range of 0.05-600 μM and a low detection limit about 0.02 μM because of the co-catalytic effect of enzyme and nanoparticles. The stability of the biosensor and its selectivity were evaluated. This biosensor was applied for the voltammetric determination of l-tyrosine in the blood plasma sample. The results of the practical application study were comparable with the standard method (HPLC). In conclusion, a simple, inexpensive, rapid, sensitive and selective technique was successfully applied to the l-tyrosine analysis of the little samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Rapid identification and quantification of tumor cells using an electrocatalytic method based on gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    de la Escosura-Muñiz, Alfredo; Sánchez-Espinel, Christian; Díaz-Freitas, Belén; González-Fernández, Africa; Maltez-da Costa, Marisa; Merkoçi, Arben

    2009-12-15

    There is a high demand for simple, rapid, efficient, and user-friendly alternative methods for the detection of cells in general and, in particular, for the detection of cancer cells. A biosensor able to detect cells would be an all-in-one dream device for such applications. The successful integration of nanoparticles into cell detection assays could allow for the development of this novel class of cell sensors. Indeed, their application could well have a great future in diagnostics, as well as other fields. As an example of a novel biosensor, we report here an electrocatalytic device for the specific identification of tumor cells that quantifies gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) coupled with an electrotransducing platform/sensor. Proliferation and adherence of tumor cells are achieved on the electrotransducer/detector, which consists of a mass-produced screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE). In situ identification/quantification of tumor cells is achieved with a detection limit of 4000 cells per 700 microL of suspension. This novel and selective cell-sensing device is based on the reaction of cell surface proteins with specific antibodies conjugated with AuNPs. Final detection requires only a couple of minutes, taking advantage of the catalytic properties of AuNPs on hydrogen evolution. The proposed detection method does not require the chemical agents used in most existing assays for the detection of AuNPs. It allows for the miniaturization of the system and is much cheaper than other expensive and sophisticated methods used for tumor cell detection. We envisage that this device could operate in a simple way as an immunosensor or DNA sensor. Moreover, it could be used, even by inexperienced staff, for the detection of protein molecules or DNA strands.

  12. Light-Triggered Release of DNA from Plasmon-Resonant Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huschka, Ryan

    Plasmon-resonant nanoparticle complexes show promising potential for lighttriggered, controllable delivery of deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) for research and therapeutic purposes. For example, the approach of RNA interference (RNAi) . using antisense DNA or RNA oligonucleotides to silence activity of a specific pathogenic gene transcript and reduce expression of the encoded protein . is very useful in dissecting genetic function and holds promise as a molecular therapeutic. Herein, we investigate the mechanism and probe the in vitro therapeutic potential of DNA light-triggered release from plasmonic nanoparticles. First, we investigate the mechanism of light-triggered release by dehybridizing double-stranded (dsDNA) via laser illumination from two types of nanoparticle substrates: gold (Au) nanoshells and Au nanorods. Both light-triggered and thermally induced releases are distinctly observable from nanoshell-based complexes. Surprisingly, no analogous measurable light-triggered release was observable from nanorod-based complexes below the DNA melting temperature. These results suggest that a nonthermal mechanism may play a role in light-triggered DNA release. Second, we demonstrate the in vitro light-triggered release of molecules noncovalently attached within dsDNA bound to the Au nanoshell surface. DAPI (4',6- diamidino-2-phenylindole), a bright blue fluorescent molecule that binds reversibly to double-stranded DNA, was chosen to visualize this intracellular light-induced release process. Illumination through the cell membrane of the nanoshell-dsDNA-DAPI complexes dehybridizes the DNA and releases the DAPI molecules within living cells. The DAPI molecules diffuse to the nucleus and associate with the cell's endogenous DNA. This work could have future applications towards drug delivery of molecules that associate with dsDNA. Finally, we demonstrate an engineered Au nanoshell (AuNS)-based therapeutic oligonucleotide delivery vehicle, designed to release its cargo on

  13. Nanostructured Tip-Shaped Biosensors: Application of Six Sigma Approach for Enhanced Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Kahng, Seong-Joong; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Chung, Jae-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Nanostructured tip-shaped biosensors have drawn attention for biomolecule detection as they are promising for highly sensitive and specific detection of a target analyte. Using a nanostructured tip, the sensitivity is increased to identify individual molecules because of the high aspect ratio structure. Various detection methods, such as electrochemistry, fluorescence microcopy, and Raman spectroscopy, have been attempted to enhance the sensitivity and the specificity. Due to the confined path of electrons, electrochemical measurement using a nanotip enables the detection of single molecules. When an electric field is combined with capillary action and fluid flow, target molecules can be effectively concentrated onto a nanotip surface for detection. To enhance the concentration efficacy, a dendritic nanotip rather than a single tip could be used to detect target analytes, such as nanoparticles, cells, and DNA. However, reproducible fabrication with relation to specific detection remains a challenge due to the instability of a manufacturing method, resulting in inconsistent shape. In this paper, nanostructured biosensors are reviewed with our experimental results using dendritic nanotips for sequence specific detection of DNA. By the aid of the Six Sigma approach, the fabrication yield of dendritic nanotips increases from 20.0% to 86.6%. Using the nanotips, DNA is concentrated and detected in a sequence specific way with the detection limit equivalent to 1000 CFU/mL. The pros and cons of a nanotip biosensor are evaluated in conjunction with future prospects. PMID:28025540

  14. Nanostructured Tip-Shaped Biosensors: Application of Six Sigma Approach for Enhanced Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Kahng, Seong-Joong; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Chung, Jae-Hyun

    2016-12-23

    Nanostructured tip-shaped biosensors have drawn attention for biomolecule detection as they are promising for highly sensitive and specific detection of a target analyte. Using a nanostructured tip, the sensitivity is increased to identify individual molecules because of the high aspect ratio structure. Various detection methods, such as electrochemistry, fluorescence microcopy, and Raman spectroscopy, have been attempted to enhance the sensitivity and the specificity. Due to the confined path of electrons, electrochemical measurement using a nanotip enables the detection of single molecules. When an electric field is combined with capillary action and fluid flow, target molecules can be effectively concentrated onto a nanotip surface for detection. To enhance the concentration efficacy, a dendritic nanotip rather than a single tip could be used to detect target analytes, such as nanoparticles, cells, and DNA. However, reproducible fabrication with relation to specific detection remains a challenge due to the instability of a manufacturing method, resulting in inconsistent shape. In this paper, nanostructured biosensors are reviewed with our experimental results using dendritic nanotips for sequence specific detection of DNA. By the aid of the Six Sigma approach, the fabrication yield of dendritic nanotips increases from 20.0% to 86.6%. Using the nanotips, DNA is concentrated and detected in a sequence specific way with the detection limit equivalent to 1000 CFU/mL. The pros and cons of a nanotip biosensor are evaluated in conjunction with future prospects.

  15. Theory and modeling of particles with DNA-mediated interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licata, Nicholas A.

    In recent years significant attention has been attracted to proposals which utilize DNA for nanotechnological applications. Potential applications of these ideas range from the programmable self-assembly of colloidal crystals, to biosensors and nanoparticle based drug delivery platforms. In Chapter I we introduce the system, which generically consists of colloidal particles functionalized with specially designed DNA markers. The sequence of bases on the DNA markers determines the particle type. Due to the hybridization between complementary single-stranded DNA, specific, type-dependent interactions can be introduced between particles by choosing the appropriate DNA marker sequences. In Chapter II we develop a statistical mechanical description of the aggregation and melting behavior of particles with DNA-mediated interactions. A quantitative comparison between the theory and experiments is made by calculating the experimentally observed melting profile. In Chapter III a model is proposed to describe the dynamical departure and diffusion of particles which form reversible key-lock connections. The model predicts a crossover from localized to diffusive behavior. The random walk statistics for the particles' in plane diffusion is discussed. The lateral motion is analogous to dispersive transport in disordered semiconductors, ranging from standard diffusion with a renormalized diffusion coefficient to anomalous, subdiffusive behavior. In Chapter IV we propose a method to self-assemble nanoparticle clusters using DNA scaffolds. An optimal concentration ratio is determined for the experimental implementation of our self-assembly proposal. A natural extension is discussed in Chapter V, the programmable self-assembly of nanoparticle clusters where the desired cluster geometry is encoded using DNA-mediated interactions. We determine the probability that the system self-assembles the desired cluster geometry, and discuss the connections to jamming in granular and colloidal

  16. Biosensor method and system based on feature vector extraction

    DOEpatents

    Greenbaum, Elias [Knoxville, TN; Rodriguez, Jr., Miguel; Qi, Hairong [Knoxville, TN; Wang, Xiaoling [San Jose, CA

    2012-04-17

    A method of biosensor-based detection of toxins comprises the steps of providing at least one time-dependent control signal generated by a biosensor in a gas or liquid medium, and obtaining a time-dependent biosensor signal from the biosensor in the gas or liquid medium to be monitored or analyzed for the presence of one or more toxins selected from chemical, biological or radiological agents. The time-dependent biosensor signal is processed to obtain a plurality of feature vectors using at least one of amplitude statistics and a time-frequency analysis. At least one parameter relating to toxicity of the gas or liquid medium is then determined from the feature vectors based on reference to the control signal.

  17. Biosensor method and system based on feature vector extraction

    DOEpatents

    Greenbaum, Elias; Rodriguez, Jr., Miguel; Qi, Hairong; Wang, Xiaoling

    2013-07-02

    A system for biosensor-based detection of toxins includes providing at least one time-dependent control signal generated by a biosensor in a gas or liquid medium, and obtaining a time-dependent biosensor signal from the biosensor in the gas or liquid medium to be monitored or analyzed for the presence of one or more toxins selected from chemical, biological or radiological agents. The time-dependent biosensor signal is processed to obtain a plurality of feature vectors using at least one of amplitude statistics and a time-frequency analysis. At least one parameter relating to toxicity of the gas or liquid medium is then determined from the feature vectors based on reference to the control signal.

  18. Yeast-based biosensors: design and applications.

    PubMed

    Adeniran, Adebola; Sherer, Michael; Tyo, Keith E J

    2015-02-01

    Yeast-based biosensing (YBB) is an exciting research area, as many studies have demonstrated the use of yeasts to accurately detect specific molecules. Biosensors incorporating various yeasts have been reported to detect an incredibly large range of molecules including but not limited to odorants, metals, intracellular metabolites, carcinogens, lactate, alcohols, and sugars. We review the detection strategies available for different types of analytes, as well as the wide range of output methods that have been incorporated with yeast biosensors. We group biosensors into two categories: those that are dependent upon transcription of a gene to report the detection of a desired molecule and those that are independent of this reporting mechanism. Transcription-dependent biosensors frequently depend on heterologous expression of sensing elements from non-yeast organisms, a strategy that has greatly expanded the range of molecules available for detection by YBBs. Transcription-independent biosensors circumvent the problem of sensing difficult-to-detect analytes by instead relying on yeast metabolism to generate easily detected molecules when the analyte is present. The use of yeast as the sensing element in biosensors has proven to be successful and continues to hold great promise for a variety of applications. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permission@oup.com.

  19. Powering the programmed nanostructure and function of gold nanoparticles with catenated DNA machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elbaz, Johann; Cecconello, Alessandro; Fan, Zhiyuan; Govorov, Alexander O.; Willner, Itamar

    2013-06-01

    DNA nanotechnology is a rapidly developing research area in nanoscience. It includes the development of DNA machines, tailoring of DNA nanostructures, application of DNA nanostructures for computing, and more. Different DNA machines were reported in the past and DNA-guided assembly of nanoparticles represents an active research effort in DNA nanotechnology. Several DNA-dictated nanoparticle structures were reported, including a tetrahedron, a triangle or linear nanoengineered nanoparticle structures; however, the programmed, dynamic reversible switching of nanoparticle structures and, particularly, the dictated switchable functions emerging from the nanostructures, are missing elements in DNA nanotechnology. Here we introduce DNA catenane systems (interlocked DNA rings) as molecular DNA machines for the programmed, reversible and switchable arrangement of different-sized gold nanoparticles. We further demonstrate that the machine-powered gold nanoparticle structures reveal unique emerging switchable spectroscopic features, such as plasmonic coupling or surface-enhanced fluorescence.

  20. Nanoparticle Superlattice Engineering with DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirkin, Chad

    2012-02-01

    Recent developments in strategies for assembling nanomaterials have allowed us to draw a direct analogy between the assembly of solid state atomic lattices and the construction of nanoparticle superlattices. Herein, we present a set of six design rules for using DNA as a programmable linker to deliberately stabilize nine distinct colloidal crystal structures, with lattice parameters that are tailorable over the 25-150 nm size regime. These rules are analogous to those put forth by Pauling decades ago to explain the relative stability of lattices composed of atoms and small molecules. It is ideal to use DNA as a nanoscale bond to connect nanoparticles to achieve colloidal superlattice structures in this system, since its programmable nature allows for facile control over nanoparticle bond length and strength, and nanoparticle bond selectivity. This assembly method affords simultaneous and independent control over nanoparticle structure, crystallographic symmetry, and lattice parameters with nanometer scale precision. Further, we have developed a phase diagram that predicts the design parameters necessary to achieve a lattice with a given symmetry and lattice parameters a priori. The rules developed in this work present a major advance towards true materials by design, as they effectively separate the identity of a particle core (and thereby its physical properties) from the variables that control its assembly.

  1. Electrochemical Aptamer Scaffold Biosensors for Detection of Botulism and Ricin Proteins.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Jessica; Fetter, Lisa; Jett, Susan; Rowland, Teisha J; Bonham, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    Electrochemical DNA (E-DNA) biosensors enable the detection and quantification of a variety of molecular targets, including oligonucleotides, small molecules, heavy metals, antibodies, and proteins. Here we describe the design, electrode preparation and sensor attachment, and voltammetry conditions needed to generate and perform measurements using E-DNA biosensors against two protein targets, the biological toxins ricin and botulinum neurotoxin. This method can be applied to generate E-DNA biosensors for the detection of many other protein targets, with potential advantages over other systems including sensitive detection limits typically in the nanomolar range, real-time monitoring, and reusable biosensors.

  2. A creatinine biosensor based on admittance measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ching, Congo Tak-Shing; Sun, Tai-Ping; Jheng, Deng-Yun; Tsai, Hou-Wei; Shieh, Hsiu-Li

    2015-08-01

    Regular check of blood creatinine level is very important as it is a measurement of renal function. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop a simple and reliable creatinine biosensor based on admittance measurement for precise determination of creatinine. The creatinine biosensor was fabricated with creatinine deiminase immobilized on screen-printed carbon electrodes. Admittance measurement at a specific frequency ranges (22.80 - 84.71 Hz) showed that the biosensor has an excellent linear (r2 > 0.95) response range (50 - 250 uM), which covers the normal physiological and pathological ranges of blood creatinine levels. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) showed that the biosensor has excellent reliability and validity (ICC = 0.98). In conclusion, a simple and reliable creatinine biosensor was developed and it is capable of precisely determining blood creatinine levels in both the normal physiological and pathological ranges.

  3. A thermal biosensor based on enzyme reaction.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yi-Hua; Hua, Tse-Chao; Xu, Fei

    2005-01-01

    Application of the thermal biosensor as analytical tool is promising due to advantages as universal, simplicity and quick response. A novel thermal biosensor based on enzyme reaction has been developed. This biosensor is a flow injection analysis system and consists of two channels with enzyme reaction column and reference column. The reference column, which is set for eliminating the unspecific heat, is inactived on special enzyme reaction of the ingredient to be detected. The special enzyme reaction takes places in the enzyme reaction column at a constant temperature realizing by a thermoelectric thermostat. Thermal sensor based on the thermoelectric module containing 127 serial BiTe-thermocouples is used to monitor the temperature difference between two streams from the enzyme reaction column and the reference column. The analytical example for dichlorvos shows that this biosensor can be used as analytical tool in medicine and biology.

  4. Nanoparticles and DNA - a powerful and growing functional combination in bionanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Anirban; Medintz, Igor L.

    2016-04-01

    Functionally integrating DNA and other nucleic acids with nanoparticles in all their different physicochemical forms has produced a rich variety of composite nanomaterials which, in many cases, display unique or augmented properties due to the synergistic activity of both components. These capabilities, in turn, are attracting greater attention from various research communities in search of new nanoscale tools for diverse applications that include (bio)sensing, labeling, targeted imaging, cellular delivery, diagnostics, therapeutics, theranostics, bioelectronics, and biocomputing to name just a few amongst many others. Here, we review this vibrant and growing research area from the perspective of the materials themselves and their unique capabilities. Inorganic nanocrystals such as quantum dots or those made from gold or other (noble) metals along with metal oxides and carbon allotropes are desired as participants in these hybrid materials since they can provide distinctive optical, physical, magnetic, and electrochemical properties. Beyond this, synthetic polymer-based and proteinaceous or viral nanoparticulate materials are also useful in the same role since they can provide a predefined and biocompatible cargo-carrying and targeting capability. The DNA component typically provides sequence-based addressability for probes along with, more recently, unique architectural properties that directly originate from the burgeoning structural DNA field. Additionally, DNA aptamers can also provide specific recognition capabilities against many diverse non-nucleic acid targets across a range of size scales from ions to full protein and cells. In addition to appending DNA to inorganic or polymeric nanoparticles, purely DNA-based nanoparticles have recently surfaced as an excellent assembly platform and have started finding application in areas like sensing, imaging and immunotherapy. We focus on selected and representative nanoparticle-DNA materials and highlight their

  5. Facile fabrication of gold nanoparticles-poly(vinyl alcohol) electrospun water-stable nanofibrous mats: efficient substrate materials for biosensors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Yao, Hong-Bin; He, Dian; Zhang, Chuan-Ling; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2012-04-01

    Electrospun nanofibrous mats are intensively studied as efficient scaffold materials applied in the fields of tissue engineering, catalysis, and biosensors due to their flexibility and porosity. In this paper, we report a facile route to fabricate gold nanoparticles-poly(vinyl alcohol) (Au NPs-PVA) hybrid water stable nanofibrous mats with tunable densities of Au NPs and further demonstrate the potential application of as-prepared Au NPs-PVA nanofibrous mats as efficient biosensor substrate materials. First, through the designed in situ cross-linkage in coelectrospun PVA-glutaraldehyde nanofibers, water insoluble PVA nanofibrous mats with suitable tensile strength were successfully prepared. Then, 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTES) was modified on the surface of obtained PVA nanofibrous films, which triggered successful homogeneous decoration of Au NPs through gold-sulfur bonding interactions. Finally, the Au NPs-PVA nanofibrous mats embedded with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) by electrostatic interactions were used as biosensor substrate materials for H(2)O(2) detection. The fabricated HRP-Au NPs/PVA biosensor showed a highly sensitive detection of H(2)O(2) with a detection limit of 0.5 μM at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. By modifying other different functional nanaoparticles or enzyme on the PVA nanofibrous film will further expand their potential applications as substrate materials of different biosensors.

  6. Development of biosensors based on the one-dimensional semiconductor nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shancheng; Shi, Yi; Xiao, Zhongdang; Zhou, Minmin; Yan, Wenfu; Shen, Haoliang; Hu, Dong

    2012-09-01

    Biosensors are becoming increasingly important due to their applications in biological and chemical analyses, food safety industry, biomedical diagnostics, clinical detection, and environmental monitoring. Recent years, nanostructured semiconductor materials have been used to fabricate biosensors owing to their biocompatibility, low toxicity, high electron mobility, and easy fabrication. In the present study, we focus on recent various biosensors based on the one-dimensional semiconductor nanomaterials such as electrochemical biosensor, field-effect transistors biosensor, and label-free optical biosensor. In particular, the development of the electrochemical biosensor is discussed detailedly.

  7. Design Strategies for Aptamer-Based Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kun; Liang, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Nandi

    2010-01-01

    Aptamers have been widely used as recognition elements for biosensor construction, especially in the detection of proteins or small molecule targets, and regarded as promising alternatives for antibodies in bioassay areas. In this review, we present an overview of reported design strategies for the fabrication of biosensors and classify them into four basic modes: target-induced structure switching mode, sandwich or sandwich-like mode, target-induced dissociation/displacement mode and competitive replacement mode. In view of the unprecedented advantages brought about by aptamers and smart design strategies, aptamer-based biosensors are expected to be one of the most promising devices in bioassay related applications. PMID:22399891

  8. Designing Optical Properties in DNA-Programmed Nanoparticle Superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Michael Brendan

    can be used to influence the properties of mesoscale single crystal superlattices, such that they exhibit either plasmonic absorption or photonic scattering. This concept is generalized through simulation, which demonstrates that the crystal habit (size, shape, and morphology) is a powerful design parameter for optical properties in mesoscale nanoparticle assemblies. Finally, chapter 7 summarizes these data and their impact, and puts them in context regarding future opportunities. This work presents a comprehensive demonstration that the optical properties of nanoparticle-based architectures can be precisely controlled and deliberately designed a priori using the unique programmability of DNA and the use of several levels of predictive electromagnetic theory.

  9. DNA@Mn3(PO4)2 Nanoparticles Supported with Graphene Oxide as Photoelectrodes for Photoeletrocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Lixia; Xie, Jiale; Ma, Xiaoqing; Li, Man; Yu, Ling

    2017-01-01

    A novel deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA)-based photoelectrode consisting of DNA@Mn3(PO4)2 nanoparticles on graphene oxide (GO) sheets was successfully fabricated for photoelectrocatalysis. DNA served as a soft template to guide the nucleation and growth of Mn3(PO4)2 nanoparticles in the synthesis of Mn3(PO4)2 nanoparticles. More importantly, the DNA also serves as semiconductor materials to adjust charge transport. Under UV light irradiation (180-420 nm, 15 mW/cm2), the photocurrent density of DNA@ Mn3(PO4)2/GO electrodes reached 9 μA/cm2 at 0.7 V bias (vs. SCE). An applied bias photon-to-current efficiency (ABPE) of 0.18% can be achieved, which was much higher than that of other control electrodes (<0.04%). In this DNA-based photoelectrode, well-matched energy levels can efficiently improve charge transfer and reduce the recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pairs.

  10. Dielectrophoresis of gold nanoparticles conjugated to DNA origami structures

    PubMed Central

    Wiens, Matthew; Lakatos, Mathias; Heerwig, Andreas; Ostermaier, Frieder; Haufe, Nora

    2016-01-01

    Summary DNA nanostructures are promising construction materials to bridge the gap between self-assembly of functional molecules and conventional top-down fabrication methods in nanotechnology. Their positioning onto specific locations of a microstructured substrate is an important task towards this aim. Here we study manipulation and positioning of pristine and of gold nanoparticle-conjugated tubular DNA origami structures using ac dielectrophoresis. The dielectrophoretic behavior was investigated employing fluorescence microscopy. For the pristine origami, a significant dielectrophoretic response was found to take place in the megahertz range, whereas, due to the higher polarizability of the metallic nanoparticles, the nanoparticle/DNA hybrid structures required a lower electrical field strength and frequency for a comparable trapping at the edges of the electrode structure. The nanoparticle conjugation additionally resulted in a remarkable alteration of the DNA structure arrangement. The growth of linear, chain-like structures in between electrodes at applied frequencies in the megahertz range was observed. The long-range chain formation is caused by a local, gold nanoparticle-induced field concentration along the DNA nanostructures, which in turn, creates dielectrophoretic forces that enable the observed self-alignment of the hybrid structures. PMID:27547612

  11. DNA biosensors implemented on PNA-functionalized microstructured optical fibers Bragg gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candiani, A.; Giannetti, S.; Cucinotta, A.; Bertucci, A.; Manicardi, A.; Konstantaki, M.; Margulis, W.; Pissadakis, S.; Corradini, R.; Selleri, S.

    2013-05-01

    A novel DNA sensing platform based on a Peptide Nucleic Acid - functionalized Microstructured Optical Fibers gratings has been demonstrated. The inner surface of different MOFs has been functionalized using PNA probes, OligoNucleotides mimic that are well suited for specific DNA target sequences detection. The hybrid sensing systems were tested for optical DNA detection of targets of relevance in biomedical application, using the cystic fibrosis gene mutation, and food-analysis, using the genomic DNA from genetic modified organism soy flour. After the solutions of DNA molecules has been infiltrated inside the fibers capillaries and hybridization has occurred, oligonucleotidefunctionalized gold nanoparticles were infiltrated and used to form a sandwich-like system to achieve signal amplification. Spectral measurements of the reflected signal reveal a clear wavelength shift of the reflected modes when the infiltrated complementary DNA matches with the PNA probes placed on the inner fiber surface. Measurements have also been made using the mismatched DNA solution for the c, containing a single nucleotide polymorphism, showing no significant changes in the reflected spectrum. Several experiments have been carried out demonstrating the reproducibility of the results and the high selectivity of the sensors, showing the simplicity and the potential of this approach.

  12. Thiomers and thiomer-based nanoparticles in protein and DNA drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Hauptstein, Sabine; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2012-09-01

    Thanks to advances in biotechnology, more and more highly efficient protein- and DNA-based drugs have been developed. Unfortunately, these kinds of drugs underlie poor non-parental bioavailability. To overcome hindrances like low mucosal permeability and enzymatic degradation polymeric excipients are utilized as drug carrier whereat thiolated excipients showed several promising qualities in comparison to the analogical unmodified polymer. The article deals with the comparatively easy modification of well-established polymers like chitosan or poly(acrylates) to synthesize thiomers. Further, the recently developed "next generation" thiomers e.g. preactivated or S-protected thiomers are introduced. Designative properties like mucoadhesion, uptake and permeation enhancement, efflux pump inhibition and protection against enzymatic degradation will be discussed and differences between first and next generation thiomers will be pointed out. Additionally, nanoparticles prepared with thiomers will be dealt with regarding to protein and DNA drug delivery as thiomers seem to be a promising approach to avoid parenteral application. Properties of thiomers per se and results of in vivo studies carried out so far for peptide and DNA drugs demonstrate their potential as multifunctional excipients. However, further investigations and optimizations have to be done before establishing a carrier system ready for clinical approval.

  13. Graphene, carbon nanotubes, zinc oxide and gold as elite nanomaterials for fabrication of biosensors for healthcare.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Ahlawat, Wandit; Kumar, Rajesh; Dilbaghi, Neeraj

    2015-08-15

    Technological advancements worldwide at rapid pace in the area of materials science and nanotechnology have made it possible to synthesize nanoparticles with desirable properties not exhibited by the bulk material. Among variety of available nanomaterials, graphene, carbon nanotubes, zinc oxide and gold nanopartilces proved to be elite and offered amazing electrochemical biosensing. This encourages us to write a review which highlights the recent achievements in the construction of genosensor, immunosensor and enzymatic biosensor based on the above nanomaterials. Carbon based nanomaterials offers a direct electron transfer between the functionalized nanomaterials and active site of bioreceptor without involvement of any mediator which not only amplifies the signal but also provide label free sensing. Gold shows affinity towards immunological molecules and is most routinely used for immunological sensing. Zinc oxide can easily immobilize proteins and hence offers a large group of enzyme based biosensor. Modification of the working electrode by introduction of these nanomaterials or combination of two/three of above nanomaterials together and forming a nanocomposite reflected the best results with excellent stability, reproducibility and enhanced sensitivity. Highly attractive electrochemical properties and electrocatalytic activity of these elite nanomaterials have facilitated achievement of enhanced signal amplification needed for the construction of ultrasensitive electrochemical affinity biosensors for detection of glucose, cholesterol, Escherichia coli, influenza virus, cancer, human papillomavirus, dopamine, glutamic acid, IgG, IgE, uric acid, ascorbic acid, acetlycholine, cortisol, cytosome, sequence specific DNA and amino acids. Recent researches for bedside biosensors are also discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Aptamer-Nanoparticle Strip Biosensor for Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Xun; Phillips, Joseph A.; Xu, Hui; Tan, Weihong; Zeng, Lingwen; Liu, Guodong

    2009-01-01

    We report an aptamer-nanoparticle strip biosensor (ANSB) for the rapid, specific, sensitive and low-cost detection of circulating cancer cells. Known for their high specificity and affinity, aptamers were first selected from live cells by the cell-SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) process. When next combined with the unique optical properties of gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs), ANSBs were prepared on a lateral flow device. Ramos cells were used as a model target cell to demonstrate proof of principle. Under optimal conditions, the ANSB was capable of detecting a minimum of 4000 Ramos cells without instrumentation (visual judgment) and 800 Ramos cells with a portable strip reader within 15 minutes. Importantly, ANSB has successfully detected Ramos cells in human blood, thus providing a rapid, sensitive and low-cost quantitative tool for the detection of circulating cancer cells. ANSB therefore shows great promise for in-field and point-of-care cancer diagnosis and therapy. PMID:19904989

  15. Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Label-Based Gold Nanoparticles Lateral Flow Biosensor for Detection of Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Li, Hui; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Lu; Xu, Jianguo; Ye, Changyun

    2017-01-01

    The report describes a simple, rapid and sensitive assay for visual and multiplex detection of Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus based on multiple loop-mediated isothermal amplification (mLAMP) and lateral flow biosensor (LFB). Detection and differentiation of the Ef0027 gene (E. faecalis-specific gene) and nuc gene (S. aureus-specific gene) were determined using fluorescein (FITC)-and digoxin-modified primers in the mLAMP process. In the presence of biotin- and FITC-/digoxin-modified primers, the mLAMP yielded numerous biotin- and FITC-/digoxin-attached duplex products, which were detected by LFB through biotin/streptavidin interaction (biotin on the duplex and streptavidin on the gold nanoparticle) and immunoreactions (FITC/digoxin on the duplex and anti-FITC/digoxin on the LFB test line). The accumulation of gold nanoparticles generated a characteristic red line, enabling visual and multiplex detection of target pathogens without instrumentation. The limit of detection (LoD), analytical specificity and feasibility of LAMP-LFB technique were successfully examined in pure culture and blood samples. The entire procedure, including specimen (blood samples) processing (30 min), isothermal reaction (40 min) and result reporting (within 2 min), could be completed within 75 min. Thus, this assay offers a simple, rapid, sensitive and specific test for multiplex detection of E. faecalis and S. aureus strains. Furthermore, the LAMP-LFB strategy is a universal technique, which can be extended to detect various target sequences by re-designing the specific LAMP primers. PMID:28239371

  16. How can macromolecular crowding inhibit biological reactions? The enhanced formation of DNA nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Sen; Trochimczyk, Piotr; Sun, Lili; Wisniewska, Agnieszka; Kalwarczyk, Tomasz; Zhang, Xuzhu; Wielgus-Kutrowska, Beata; Bzowska, Agnieszka; Holyst, Robert

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to the already known effect that macromolecular crowding usually promotes biological reactions, solutions of PEG 6k at high concentrations stop the cleavage of DNA by HindIII enzyme, due to the formation of DNA nanoparticles. We characterized the DNA nanoparticles and probed the prerequisites for their formation using multiple techniques such as fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, fluorescence analytical ultracentrifugation etc. In >25% PEG 6k solution, macromolecular crowding promotes the formation of DNA nanoparticles with dimensions of several hundreds of nanometers. The formation of DNA nanoparticles is a fast and reversible process. Both plasmid DNA (2686 bp) and double-stranded/single-stranded DNA fragment (66bp/nt) can form nanoparticles. We attribute the enhanced nanoparticle formation to the depletion effect of macromolecular crowding. This study presents our idea to enhance the formation of DNA nanoparticles by macromolecular crowding, providing the first step towards a final solution to efficient gene therapy. PMID:26903405

  17. How can macromolecular crowding inhibit biological reactions? The enhanced formation of DNA nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hou, Sen; Trochimczyk, Piotr; Sun, Lili; Wisniewska, Agnieszka; Kalwarczyk, Tomasz; Zhang, Xuzhu; Wielgus-Kutrowska, Beata; Bzowska, Agnieszka; Holyst, Robert

    2016-02-23

    In contrast to the already known effect that macromolecular crowding usually promotes biological reactions, solutions of PEG 6k at high concentrations stop the cleavage of DNA by HindIII enzyme, due to the formation of DNA nanoparticles. We characterized the DNA nanoparticles and probed the prerequisites for their formation using multiple techniques such as fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, fluorescence analytical ultracentrifugation etc. In >25% PEG 6k solution, macromolecular crowding promotes the formation of DNA nanoparticles with dimensions of several hundreds of nanometers. The formation of DNA nanoparticles is a fast and reversible process. Both plasmid DNA (2686 bp) and double-stranded/single-stranded DNA fragment (66 bp/nt) can form nanoparticles. We attribute the enhanced nanoparticle formation to the depletion effect of macromolecular crowding. This study presents our idea to enhance the formation of DNA nanoparticles by macromolecular crowding, providing the first step towards a final solution to efficient gene therapy.

  18. Fabrication of sensitive enzymatic biosensor based on multi-layered reduced graphene oxide added PtAu nanoparticles-modified hybrid electrode

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Md Faruk; Park, Jae Y.

    2017-01-01

    A highly sensitive amperometric glucose sensor was developed by immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOx) onto multi-layer reduced graphene oxide (MRGO) sheets decorated with platinum and gold flower-like nanoparticles (PtAuNPs) modified Au substrate electrode. The fabricated MRGO/PtAuNPs modified hybrid electrode demonstrated high electrocatalytic activities toward oxidation of H2O2, to which it had a wide linear response that ranged from 0.5 to 8 mM (R2 = 0.997), and high sensitivity of 506.25 μA/mMcm2. Furthermore, glucose oxidase-chitosan composite and cationic polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDDA) were assembled by a casting method on the surface of MRGO/PtAuNPs modified electrode. This as-fabricated hybrid biosensor electrode exhibited high electrocatalytic activity for the detection of glucose in PBS. It demonstrated good analytical properties in terms of a low detection limit of 1 μM (signal-to-noise ratio of 3), short response time (3 s), high sensitivity (17.85 μA/mMcm2), and a wide linear range (0.01–8 mM) for glucose sensing. These results reveal that the newly developed sensing electrode offers great promise for new type enzymatic biosensor applications. PMID:28333943

  19. Progress in chemical luminescence-based biosensors: A critical review.

    PubMed

    Roda, Aldo; Mirasoli, Mara; Michelini, Elisa; Di Fusco, Massimo; Zangheri, Martina; Cevenini, Luca; Roda, Barbara; Simoni, Patrizia

    2016-02-15

    Biosensors are a very active research field. They have the potential to lead to low-cost, rapid, sensitive, reproducible, and miniaturized bioanalytical devices, which exploit the high binding avidity and selectivity of biospecific binding molecules together with highly sensitive detection principles. Of the optical biosensors, those based on chemical luminescence detection (including chemiluminescence, bioluminescence, electrogenerated chemiluminescence, and thermochemiluminescence) are particularly attractive, due to their high-to-signal ratio and the simplicity of the required measurement equipment. Several biosensors based on chemical luminescence have been described for quantitative, and in some cases multiplex, analysis of organic molecules (such as hormones, drugs, pollutants), proteins, and nucleic acids. These exploit a variety of miniaturized analytical formats, such as microfluidics, microarrays, paper-based analytical devices, and whole-cell biosensors. Nevertheless, despite the high analytical performances described in the literature, the field of chemical luminescence biosensors has yet to demonstrate commercial success. This review presents the main recent advances in the field and discusses the approaches, challenges, and open issues, with the aim of stimulating a broader interest in developing chemical luminescence biosensors and improving their commercial exploitation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Engineering the Structure and Properties of DNA-Nanoparticle Superstructures Using Polyvalent Counterions.

    PubMed

    Chou, Leo Y T; Song, Fayi; Chan, Warren C W

    2016-04-06

    DNA assembly of nanoparticles is a powerful approach to control their properties and prototype new materials. However, the structure and properties of DNA-assembled nanoparticles are labile and sensitive to interactions with counterions, which vary with processing and application environment. Here we show that substituting polyamines in place of elemental counterions significantly enhanced the structural rigidity and plasmonic properties of DNA-assembled metal nanoparticles. These effects arose from the ability of polyamines to condense DNA and cross-link DNA-coated nanoparticles. We further used polyamine wrapped DNA nanostructures as structural templates to seed the growth of polymer multilayers via layer-by-layer assembly, and controlled the degree of DNA condensation, plasmon coupling efficiency, and material responsiveness to environmental stimuli by varying polyelectrolyte composition. These results highlight counterion engineering as a versatile strategy to tailor the properties of DNA-nanoparticle assemblies for various applications, and should be applicable to other classes of DNA nanostructures.

  1. Designing electrochemical interfaces with functionalized magnetic nanoparticles and wrapped carbon nanotubes as platforms for the construction of high-performance bienzyme biosensors.

    PubMed

    Eguílaz, Marcos; Villalonga, Reynaldo; Yáñez-Sedeño, Paloma; Pingarrón, José M

    2011-10-15

    The design of a novel biosensing electrode surface, combining the advantages of magnetic ferrite nanoparticles (MNPs) functionalized with glutaraldehyde (GA) and poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA)-coated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as platforms for the construction of high-performance multienzyme biosensors, is reported in this work. Before the immobilization of enzymes, GA-MNP/PDDA/MWCNT composites were prepared by wrapping of carboxylated MWCNTs with positively charged PDDA and interaction with GA-functionalized MNPs. The nanoconjugates were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrochemistry. The electrode platform was used to construct a bienzyme biosensor for the determination of cholesterol, which implied coimmobilization of cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) and peroxidase (HRP) and the use of hydroquinone as redox mediator. Optimization of all variables involved in the preparation and analytical performance of the bienzyme electrode was accomplished. At an applied potential of -0.05 V, a linear calibration graph for cholesterol was obtained in the 0.01-0.95 mM concentration range. The detection limit (0.85 μM), the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (1.57 mM), the stability of the biosensor, and the calculated activation energy can be advantageously compared with the analytical characteristics of other CNT-based cholesterol biosensors reported in the literature. Analysis of human serum spiked with cholesterol at different concentration levels yielded recoveries between 100% and 103% © 2011 American Chemical Society

  2. Development of solution-gated graphene transistor model for biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, Hediyeh; Yusof, Rubiyah; Rahmani, Rasoul; Hosseinpour, Hoda; Ahmadi, Mohammad T.

    2014-02-01

    The distinctive properties of graphene, characterized by its high carrier mobility and biocompatibility, have stimulated extreme scientific interest as a promising nanomaterial for future nanoelectronic applications. In particular, graphene-based transistors have been developed rapidly and are considered as an option for DNA sensing applications. Recent findings in the field of DNA biosensors have led to a renewed interest in the identification of genetic risk factors associated with complex human diseases for diagnosis of cancers or hereditary diseases. In this paper, an analytical model of graphene-based solution gated field effect transistors (SGFET) is proposed to constitute an important step towards development of DNA biosensors with high sensitivity and selectivity. Inspired by this fact, a novel strategy for a DNA sensor model with capability of single-nucleotide polymorphism detection is proposed and extensively explained. First of all, graphene-based DNA sensor model is optimized using particle swarm optimization algorithm. Based on the sensing mechanism of DNA sensors, detective parameters ( I ds and V gmin) are suggested to facilitate the decision making process. Finally, the behaviour of graphene-based SGFET is predicted in the presence of single-nucleotide polymorphism with an accuracy of more than 98% which guarantees the reliability of the optimized model for any application of the graphene-based DNA sensor. It is expected to achieve the rapid, quick and economical detection of DNA hybridization which could speed up the realization of the next generation of the homecare sensor system.

  3. Development of solution-gated graphene transistor model for biosensors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The distinctive properties of graphene, characterized by its high carrier mobility and biocompatibility, have stimulated extreme scientific interest as a promising nanomaterial for future nanoelectronic applications. In particular, graphene-based transistors have been developed rapidly and are considered as an option for DNA sensing applications. Recent findings in the field of DNA biosensors have led to a renewed interest in the identification of genetic risk factors associated with complex human diseases for diagnosis of cancers or hereditary diseases. In this paper, an analytical model of graphene-based solution gated field effect transistors (SGFET) is proposed to constitute an important step towards development of DNA biosensors with high sensitivity and selectivity. Inspired by this fact, a novel strategy for a DNA sensor model with capability of single-nucleotide polymorphism detection is proposed and extensively explained. First of all, graphene-based DNA sensor model is optimized using particle swarm optimization algorithm. Based on the sensing mechanism of DNA sensors, detective parameters (Ids and Vgmin) are suggested to facilitate the decision making process. Finally, the behaviour of graphene-based SGFET is predicted in the presence of single-nucleotide polymorphism with an accuracy of more than 98% which guarantees the reliability of the optimized model for any application of the graphene-based DNA sensor. It is expected to achieve the rapid, quick and economical detection of DNA hybridization which could speed up the realization of the next generation of the homecare sensor system. PMID:24517158

  4. Controllable g5p-Protein-Directed Aggregation of ssDNA-Gold Nanoparticles

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Lee, S.; Maye, M; Zhang, Y

    We assembled single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) conjugated nanoparticles using the phage M13 gene 5 protein (g5p) as the molecular glue to bind two antiparallel noncomplementary ssDNA strands. The entire process was controlled tightly by the concentration of the g5p protein and the presence of double-stranded DNA. The g5p-ssDNA aggregate was disintegrated by hybridization with complementary ssDNA (C-ssDNA) that triggers the dissociation of the complex. Polyhistidine-tagged g5p was bound to nickel nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni2+-NTA) conjugated nanoparticles and subsequently used to coassemble the ssDNA-conjugated nanoparticles into multiparticle-type aggregates. Our approach offers great promise for designing biologically functional, controllable protein/nanoparticle composites.

  5. Electrochemical lectin based biosensors as a label-free tool in glycomics

    PubMed Central

    Bertók, Tomáš; Katrlík, Jaroslav; Gemeiner, Peter; Tkac, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Glycans and other saccharide moieties attached to proteins and lipids, or present on the surface of a cell, are actively involved in numerous physiological or pathological processes. Their structural flexibility (that is based on the formation of various kinds of linkages between saccharides) is making glycans superb “identity cards”. In fact, glycans can form more “words” or “codes” (i.e., unique sequences) from the same number of “letters” (building blocks) than DNA or proteins. Glycans are physicochemically similar and it is not a trivial task to identify their sequence, or - even more challenging - to link a given glycan to a particular physiological or pathological process. Lectins can recognise differences in glycan compositions even in their bound state and therefore are most useful tools in the task to decipher the “glycocode”. Thus, lectin-based biosensors working in a label-free mode can effectively complement the current weaponry of analytical tools in glycomics. This review gives an introduction into the area of glycomics and then focuses on the design, analytical performance, and practical utility of lectin-based electrochemical label-free biosensors for the detection of isolated glycoproteins or intact cells. PMID:27239071

  6. Multi-pedal DNA walker biosensors based on catalyzed hairpin assembly and isothermal strand-displacement polymerase reaction for the chemiluminescent detection of proteins.

    PubMed

    Li, Ningxing; Du, Mingyuan; Liu, Yucheng; Ji, Xinghu; He, Zhike

    2018-06-25

    Two kinds of sensitive biosensors based on multi-pedal DNA walker along a 3-D DNA functional magnet particles track for the chemiluminescent detection of streptavidin are constructed and compared in this study. In the presence of SA, multi-pedal DNA walker has been constructed by biotin-modified catalyst as a result of the terminal protection for avoiding the digestion by exonuclease I. Then a toehold of CHA-H1 conjugated with magnetic microparticles (MMPs) could interact with a 'leg' of multi-pedal DNA walker to open the hairpin via toehold-mediated strand exchange catalysis. A newly exposed DNA segment in CHA-H1 would be hybridized with a toehold of biotin-labeled H2. Via the strand displacement process, H2 displaces one 'leg' of multi-pedal DNA walker, and the other 'leg' could still hybridize with neighboring H1 to initiate the next cycle. In order to solve the high background caused by the hybridization between CHA-H1 and H2 without CHA-catalyst, the other model has been designed. The principle of the other model (ISDPR DNA walker) is similar to the above one. After the terminal protection of SA, a 'leg' of multi-pedal DNA walker triggers the opening of the hairpin of ISDPR-H1 conjugated with MMPs. Then the biotin-modified primer could hybridize with the open stem, triggering the polymerization reaction in the presence of dNTPs/polymerase. As the extension of the primer, the 'leg' of multi-pedal DNA walker is displaced so that the other 'leg' could trigger proximal H1 to go on the next cycle. Due to its lower background and stronger signal, multi-pedal DNA walker based on ISDPR has a lower limit of detection for SA. The limit of detection (LOD) for SA is 6.5 pM. What's more, these DNA walker methods have been applied in complex samples successfully.

  7. Enzyme-modified nanoporous gold-based electrochemical biosensors.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Huajun; Xue, Luyan; Ji, Guanglei; Zhou, Guiping; Huang, Xirong; Qu, Yinbo; Gao, Peiji

    2009-06-15

    On the basis of the unique physical and chemical properties of nanoporous gold (NPG), which was obtained simply by dealloying Ag from Au/Ag alloy, an attempt was made in the present study to develop NPG-based electrochemical biosensors. The NPG-modified glassy carbon electrode (NPG/GCE) exhibited high-electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), which resulted in a remarkable decrease in the overpotential of NADH and H(2)O(2) electro-oxidation when compared with the gold sheet electrode. The high density of edge-plane-like defective sites and large specific surface area of NPG should be responsible for the electrocatalytic behavior. Such electrocatalytic behavior of the NPG/GCE permitted effective low-potential amperometric biosensing of ethanol or glucose via the incorporation of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) or glucose oxidase (GOD) within the three-dimensional matrix of NPG. The ADH- and GOD-modified NPG-based biosensors showed good analytical performance for biosensing ethanol and glucose due to the clean, reproducible and uniformly distributed microstructure of NPG. The stabilization effect of NPG on the incorporated enzymes also made the constructed biosensors very stable. After 1 month storage at 4 degrees C, the ADH- and GOD-based biosensors lost only 5.0% and 4.2% of the original current response. All these indicated that NPG was a promising electrode material for biosensors construction.

  8. High-density fiber optic biosensor arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epstein, Jason R.; Walt, David R.

    2002-02-01

    Novel approaches are required to coordinate the immense amounts of information derived from diverse genomes. This concept has influenced the expanded role of high-throughput DNA detection and analysis in the biological sciences. A high-density fiber optic DNA biosensor was developed consisting of oligonucleotide-functionalized, 3.1 mm diameter microspheres deposited into the etched wells on the distal face of a 500 micrometers imaging fiber bundle. Imaging fiber bundles containing thousands of optical fibers, each associated with a unique oligonucleotide probe sequence, were the foundation for an optically connected, individually addressable DNA detection platform. Different oligonucleotide-functionalized microspheres were combined in a stock solution, and randomly dispersed into the etched wells. Microsphere positions were registered from optical dyes incorporated onto the microspheres. The distribution process provided an inherent redundancy that increases the signal-to-noise ratio as the square root of the number of sensors examined. The representative amount of each probe-type in the array was dependent on their initial stock solution concentration, and as other sequences of interest arise, new microsphere elements can be added to arrays without altering the existing detection capabilities. The oligonucleotide probe sequences hybridize to fluorescently-labeled, complementary DNA target solutions. Fiber optic DNA microarray research has included DNA-protein interaction profiles, microbial strain differentiation, non-labeled target interrogation with molecular beacons, and single cell-based assays. This biosensor array is proficient in DNA detection linked to specific disease states, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP's) discrimination, and gene expression analysis. This array platform permits multiple detection formats, provides smaller feature sizes, and enables sensor design flexibility. High-density fiber optic microarray biosensors provide a fast

  9. DNA/nickel oxide nanoparticles/osmium(III)-complex modified electrode toward selective oxidation of l-cysteine and simultaneous detection of l-cysteine and homocysteine.

    PubMed

    Sharifi, Ensiyeh; Salimi, Abdollah; Shams, Esmaeil

    2012-08-01

    The modification of glassy carbon (GC) electrode with electrodeposited nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiOxNPs) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is utilized as a new efficient platform for entrapment of osmium (III) complex. Surface morphology and electrochemical properties of the prepared nanocomposite modified electrode (GC/DNA/NiOxNPs/Os(III)-complex) were investigated by FESEM, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. Cyclic voltammetric results indicated the excellent electrocatalytic activity of the resulting electrode toward oxidation of l-cysteine (CySH) at reduced overpotential (0.1 V vs. Ag/AgCl). Using chronoamperometry to CySH detection, the sensitivity and detection limit of the biosensor are obtained as 44 μA mM(-1) and 0.07 μM with a concentration range up to 1000 μM. The electrocatalytic activity of the modified electrode not only for oxidation of low molecular-mass biothiols derivatives such as, glutathione, l-cystine, l-methionine and electroactive biological species ( dopamine, uric acid, glucose) is negligible but also for very similar biothiol compound (homocysteine) no recognizable response is observed at the applied potential window. Furthermore, the simultaneous voltammetric determination of l-cysteine and homocysteine compounds without any separation or pretreatment process was reported for the first time in this work. Finally, the applicability of sensor for the analysis of CySH concentration in complex serum samples was successfully demonstrated. Highly selectivity, excellent electrocatalytic activity and stability, remarkable antifouling property toward thiols and their oxidation products, as well as the ability for simultaneous detection of l-cysteine and homocysteine are remarkably advantageous of the proposed DNA based biosensor. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. An Electrochemical DNA Microbiosensor Based on Succinimide-Modified Acrylic Microspheres

    PubMed Central

    Ulianas, Alizar; Heng, Lee Yook; Hanifah, Sharina Abu; Ling, Tan Ling

    2012-01-01

    An electrochemical microbiosensor for DNA has been fabricated based on new acrylic microspheres modified with reactive N-acryloxysuccinimide (NAS) functional groups. Hydrophobic poly(n-butylacrylate-N-acryloxysuccinimide) microspheres were synthesized in an emulsion form with a simple one-step photopolymerization technique. Aminated DNA probe was attached to the succinimde functional group of the acrylic microspheres via covalent bonding. The hybridization of the immobilized DNA probe with the complementary DNA was studied by differential pulse voltametry using anthraquninone-2-sulfonic acid monohydrate sodium salt (AQMS) as the electroactive hybridization label. The influences of many factors such as duration of DNA probe immobilization and hybridization, pH, type of ions, buffer concentrations, ionic strength, operational temperature and non-complementary DNA on the biosensor performance were evaluated. Under optimized conditions, the DNA microbiosensor demonstrated a linear response range to target DNA over a wide concentration range of 1.0 × 10−16 and 1.0 × 10−8 M with a lower limit of detection (LOD) of 9.46 × 10−17 M (R2 = 0.97). This DNA microbiosensor showed good reproducibility with 2.84% RSD (relative standard deviation) (n = 3). Application of the NAS-modified acrylic microspheres in the construction of DNA microbiosensor had improved the overall analytical performance of the resultant DNA microbiosensor when compared with other reported DNA biosensors using other nano-materials for membranes and microspheres as DNA immobilization matrices. PMID:22778594

  11. Thermoresponsive magnetic nano-biosensors for rapid measurements of inorganic arsenic and cadmium.

    PubMed

    Siddiki, Mohammad Shohel Rana; Shimoaoki, Shun; Ueda, Shunsaku; Maeda, Isamu

    2012-10-18

    Green fluorescent protein-tagged sensor proteins, ArsR-GFP and CadC-GFP, have been produced as biosensors for simple and low-cost quantification of As(III) or Cd(II). In this study, the sensor protein-promoter DNA complexes were reconstructed on the surfaces of magnetic particles of different sizes. After the surface modification all the particles could be attracted by magnets, and released different amounts of GFP-tagged protein, according to the metal concentrations within 5 min, which caused significant increases in fluorescence. A detection limit of 1 µg/L for As(III) and Cd(II) in purified water was obtained only with the nanoparticles exhibiting enough magnetization after heat treatment for 1 min. Therefore, thermoresponsive magnetic nano-biosensors offer great advantages of rapidity and sensitivity for the measurement of the toxic metals in drinking water.

  12. Thermoresponsive Magnetic Nano-Biosensors for Rapid Measurements of Inorganic Arsenic and Cadmium

    PubMed Central

    Siddiki, Mohammad Shohel Rana; Shimoaoki, Shun; Ueda, Shunsaku; Maeda, Isamu

    2012-01-01

    Green fluorescent protein-tagged sensor proteins, ArsR-GFP and CadC-GFP, have been produced as biosensors for simple and low-cost quantification of As(III) or Cd(II). In this study, the sensor protein-promoter DNA complexes were reconstructed on the surfaces of magnetic particles of different sizes. After the surface modification all the particles could be attracted by magnets, and released different amounts of GFP-tagged protein, according to the metal concentrations within 5 min, which caused significant increases in fluorescence. A detection limit of 1 μg/L for As(III) and Cd(II) in purified water was obtained only with the nanoparticles exhibiting enough magnetization after heat treatment for 1 min. Therefore, thermoresponsive magnetic nano-biosensors offer great advantages of rapidity and sensitivity for the measurement of the toxic metals in drinking water. PMID:23202034

  13. A gold nanohole array based surface-enhanced Raman scattering biosensor for detection of silver(I) and mercury(II) in human saliva†

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Peng; Li, Ming; Jurevic, Richard; Cushing, Scott K.; Liu, Yuxin

    2015-01-01

    A surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) biosensor has been developed by incorporating a gold nanohole array with a SERS probe (a gold nanostar@Raman-reporter@silica sandwich structure) into a single detection platform via DNA hybridization, which circumvents the nanoparticle aggregation and the inefficient Raman scattering issues. Strong plasmonic coupling between the Au nanostar and the Au nanohole array results in a large enhancement of the electromagnetic field, leading to amplification of the SERS signal. The SERS sensor has been used to detect Ag(i) and Hg(ii) ions in human saliva because both the metal ions could be released from dental amalgam fillings. The developed SERS sensor can be adapted as a general detection platform for non-invasive measurements of a wide range of analytes such as metal ions, small molecules, DNA and proteins in body fluids. PMID:26008641

  14. Plasmid DNA loaded chitosan nanoparticles for nasal mucosal immunization against hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Kapil; Goyal, Amit K; Gupta, Prem N; Mishra, Neeraj; Vyas, Suresh P

    2008-04-16

    This work investigates the preparation and in vivo efficacy of plasmid DNA loaded chitosan nanoparticles for nasal mucosal immunization against hepatitis B. Chitosan pDNA nanoparticles were prepared using a complex coacervation process. Prepared nanoparticles were characterized for size, shape, surface charge, plasmid loading and ability of nanoparticles to protect DNA against nuclease digestion and for their transfection efficacy. Nasal administration of nanoparticles resulted in serum anti-HBsAg titre that was less compared to that elicited by naked DNA and alum adsorbed HBsAg, but the mice were seroprotective within 2 weeks and the immunoglobulin level was above the clinically protective level. However, intramuscular administration of naked DNA and alum adsorbed HBsAg did not elicit sIgA titre in mucosal secretions that was induced by nasal immunization with chitosan nanoparticles. Similarly, cellular responses (cytokine levels) were poor in case of alum adsorbed HBsAg. Chitosan nanoparticles thus produced humoral (both systemic and mucosal) and cellular immune responses upon nasal administration. The study signifies the potential of chitosan nanoparticles as DNA vaccine carrier and adjuvant for effective immunization through non-invasive nasal route.

  15. Papers Based Electrochemical Biosensors: From Test Strips to Paper-Based Microfluidics

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Liu, Bingwen; Du, Dan; Hua, Xin

    2014-05-08

    Papers based biosensors such as lateral flow test strips and paper-based microfluidic devices (or paperfluidics) are inexpensive, rapid, flexible, and easy-to-use analytical tools. An apparent trend in their detection is to interpret sensing results from qualitative assessment to quantitative determination. Electrochemical detection plays an important role in quantification. This review focuses on electrochemical (EC) detection enabled biosensors. The first part provides detailed examples in paper test strips. The second part gives an overview of paperfluidics engaging EC detections. The outlook and recommendation of future directions of EC enabled biosensors are discussed in the end.

  16. DNA-mediated inhibition of peroxidase-like activities on platinum nanoparticles for simple and rapid colorimetric detection of nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiwei; Fang, Xueen; Li, Hua; Cao, Hongmei; Kong, Jilie

    2017-08-15

    In this research, we found that the peroxidase-like activities of noncovalent DNA-Pt hybrid nanoparticles could be obviously blocked, when Pt nanoparticles (PtNPs) were synthesized in situ using DNA as a template. Moreover, this self-assembled synthetic process was very convenient and rapid (within few mintues), and the inhibition mediated by DNA was also very effective. First, by the paper-based analytical device (PAD) we found the catalytic activities of DNA-Pt hybrid nanoparticles exhibited a linear response to the concentration of DNA in the range from 0.0075 to 0.25µM. Then, with the magnetic bead isolated system and target DNA-induced hybridization chain reaction (HCR), we realized the specific target DNA analysis with a low detection of 0.228nM, and demonstrated its effectivity in distinguishing the target DNA from other interferences. To our knowledge, this is the first report that used the nanoassembly between DNA and PtNPs for colorimetric detection of nucleic acids, which was based on DNA-mediated inhibition of catalytic activities of platinum nanoparticles. The results may be useful for understanding the interactions between DNA and metal nanoparticles, and for development of other convenient and effective analytical strategies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Engineering nanomaterials-based biosensors for food safety detection.

    PubMed

    Lv, Man; Liu, Yang; Geng, Jinhui; Kou, Xiaohong; Xin, Zhihong; Yang, Dayong

    2018-05-30

    Food safety always remains a grand global challenge to human health, especially in developing countries. To solve food safety pertained problems, numerous strategies have been developed to detect biological and chemical contaminants in food. Among these approaches, nanomaterials-based biosensors provide opportunity to realize rapid, sensitive, efficient and portable detection, overcoming the restrictions and limitations of traditional methods such as complicated sample pretreatment, long detection time, and relying on expensive instruments and well-trained personnel. In this review article, we provide a cross-disciplinary perspective to review the progress of nanomaterials-based biosensors for the detection of food contaminants. The review article is organized by the category of food contaminants including pathogens/toxins, heavy metals, pesticides, veterinary drugs and illegal additives. In each category of food contaminant, the biosensing strategies are summarized including optical, colorimetric, fluorescent, electrochemical, and immune- biosensors; the relevant analytes, nanomaterials and biosensors are analyzed comprehensively. Future perspectives and challenges are also discussed briefly. We envision that our review could bridge the gap between the fields of food science and nanotechnology, providing implications for the scientists or engineers in both areas to collaborate and promote the development of nanomaterials-based biosensors for food safety detection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Fiber optic-based regenerable biosensor

    DOEpatents

    Sepaniak, Michael J.; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    1993-01-01

    A fiber optic-based regenerable biosensor. The biosensor is particularly suitable for use in microscale work in situ. In one embodiment, the biosensor comprises a reaction chamber disposed adjacent the distal end of a waveguide and adapted to receive therein a quantity of a sample containing an analyte. Leading into the chamber is a plurality of capillary conduits suitable for introducing into the chamber antibodies or other reagents suitable for selective interaction with a predetermined analyte. Following such interaction, the contents of the chamber may be subjected to an incident energy signal for developing fluorescence within the chamber that is detectable via the optical fiber and which is representative of the presence, i.e. concentration, of the selected analyte. Regeneration of the biosensor is accomplished by replacement of the reagents and/or the analyte, or a combination of these, at least in part via one or more of the capillary conduits. The capillary conduits extend from their respective terminal ends that are in fluid communication with the chamber, away from the chamber to respective location(s) remote from the chamber thereby permitting in situ location of the chamber and remote manipulation and/or analysis of the activity with the chamber.

  19. Development of a Fish Cell Biosensor System for Genotoxicity Detection Based on DNA Damage-Induced Trans-Activation of p21 Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Deyu; Zhang, Zhixia; Guo, Huarong

    2012-01-01

    p21CIP1/WAF1 is a p53-target gene in response to cellular DNA damage. Here we report the development of a fish cell biosensor system for high throughput genotoxicity detection of new drugs, by stably integrating two reporter plasmids of pGL3-p21-luc (human p21 promoter linked to firefly luciferase) and pRL-CMV-luc (CMV promoter linked to Renilla luciferase) into marine flatfish flounder gill (FG) cells, referred to as p21FGLuc. Initial validation of this genotoxicity biosensor system showed that p21FGLuc cells had a wild-type p53 signaling pathway and responded positively to the challenge of both directly acting genotoxic agents (bleomycin and mitomycin C) and indirectly acting genotoxic agents (cyclophosphamide with metabolic activation), but negatively to cyclophosphamide without metabolic activation and the non-genotoxic agents ethanol and D-mannitol, thus confirming a high specificity and sensitivity, fast and stable response to genotoxic agents for this easily maintained fish cell biosensor system. This system was especially useful in the genotoxicity detection of Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a rodent carcinogen, but negatively reported in most non-mammalian in vitro mutation assays, by providing a strong indication of genotoxicity for DEHP. A limitation for this biosensor system was that it might give false positive results in response to sodium butyrate and any other agents, which can trans-activate the p21 gene in a p53-independent manner. PMID:25585933

  20. Selective DNA-Mediated Assembly of Gold Nanoparticles on Electroded Substrates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    might use the Watson - Crick base-pairing of DNA as a means for ultrahigh-precision engineering is well- known.5,6 The idea is to use the highly specific...Selective DNA -Mediated Assembly of Gold Nanoparticles on Electroded Substrates K. E. Sapsford,†,‡,∇ D. Park,§ E. R. Goldman,‡ E. E. Foos,| S. A...electrodes via DNA hybridization. Protocols are demonstrated for maximizing selectivity and coverage using 15mers as the active binding agents. Detailed

  1. Development of amperometric lysine biosensors based on Au nanoparticles/multiwalled carbon nanotubes/polymers modified Au electrodes.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Nidhi; Singh, Anamika; Narang, Jagriti; Dahiya, Swati; Pundir, C S

    2012-11-07

    The construction of two amperometric l-lysine biosensors is described in this study. The construction comprises the covalent immobilization of lysine oxidase (LOx) onto nanocomposite composed of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (c-MWCNT), decorated on (i) polyaniline (PANI) and (ii) poly 1,2 diaminobenzene (DAB), electrodeposited on Au electrodes. The biosensors were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) studies. The optimum response (current) was observed within 2 s at pH 7.0 and 25 °C for LOx/AuNPs/c-MWCNT/PANI/Au, and 4 s at pH 7.0 and 30 °C for LOx/AuNPs/c-MWCNT/DAB/Au electrodes. There was a linear relationship between current and lysine concentration ranging from 5.0 to 600 μM for LOx/AuNPs/c-MWCNT/PANI/Au with a detection limit of 5.0 μM, and 20 to 600 μM for the LOx/AuNPs/c-MWCNT/DAB/Au electrode with a detection limit of 20 μM. The PANI modified electrode was in good agreement with the standard HPLC method, with a better correlation (r = 0.992) compared to the DAB modified electrode (r = 0.986). These observations revealed that the PANI modified Au electrode was better than the DAB modified electrode, and hence it was employed for the determination of lysine in milk, pharmaceutical tablets and sera. The PANI modified electrode showed a half life of 120 days, compared to that of 90 days for the DAB modified electrode, after their 100 uses, when stored at 4 °C.

  2. Efficient self-assembly of DNA-functionalized fluorophores and gold nanoparticles with DNA functionalized silicon surfaces: the effect of oligomer spacers

    PubMed Central

    Milton, James A.; Patole, Samson; Yin, Huabing; Xiao, Qiang; Brown, Tom; Melvin, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    Although strategies for the immobilization of DNA oligonucleotides onto surfaces for bioanalytical and top-down bio-inspired nanobiofabrication approaches are well developed, the effect of introducing spacer molecules between the surface and the DNA oligonucleotide for the hybridization of nanoparticle–DNA conjugates has not been previously assessed in a quantitative manner. The hybridization efficiency of DNA oligonucleotides end-labelled with gold nanoparticles (1.4 or 10 nm diameter) with DNA sequences conjugated to silicon surfaces via hexaethylene glycol phosphate diester oligomer spacers (0, 1, 2, 6 oligomers) was found to be independent of spacer length. To quantify both the density of DNA strands attached to the surfaces and hybridization with the surface-attached DNA, new methodologies have been developed. Firstly, a simple approach based on fluorescence has been developed for determination of the immobilization density of DNA oligonucleotides. Secondly, an approach using mass spectrometry has been created to establish (i) the mean number of DNA oligonucleotides attached to the gold nanoparticles and (ii) the hybridization density of nanoparticle–oligonucleotide conjugates with the silicon surface–attached complementary sequence. These methods and results will be useful for application with nanosensors, the self-assembly of nanoelectronic devices and the attachment of nanoparticles to biomolecules for single-molecule biophysical studies. PMID:23361467

  3. A novel surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on the PDA-AgNPs-PDA-Au film sensing platform for horse IgG detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ning; Zhang, Di; Deng, Xinyu; Sun, Ying; Wang, Xinghua; Ma, Pinyi; Song, Daqian

    2018-02-01

    Herein we report a novel polydopamine-silver nanoparticle-polydopamine-gold (PDA-AgNPs-PDA-Au) film based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor for horse IgG detection. The PDA-AgNPs-PDA-Au film sensing platform was built on Au-film via layer-by-layer self-assembly. Ag ion was reduced in situ to AgNPs in presence of PDA. The top PDA layer can prevent AgNPs from being oxidized and connect with antibody via Schiff alkali reaction directly. The morphology and thickness of the modified gold film were characterized using scanning electron microscope and Talystep. Experimental results show that the PDA-AgNPs-PDA-Au film sensing platform is stable, regenerative and sensitive for horse IgG detection. The detection limit of horse IgG obtained with the present biosensor is 0.625 μg mL- 1, which is 2-fold and 4-fold lower than that obtained with biosensor based on PDA modified Au film and conventional biosensor based on MPA, respectively. Furthermore, when challenged to real serum samples, our sensor exhibited excellent specificity to horse IgG, suggesting its potential for industrial application.

  4. Establishment of dsDNA/GNs/chit/GCE biosensor and electrochemical study on interaction between 6-mercaptopurine and DNA.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wenwei; Zhang, Min; Zeng, Xinping

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the anti-cancer drug 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) was taken as the detection object. The biosensor of dsDNA/GNs/chit/GCE was established using the grapheme (GNs) and chitosan (chit) as the compound modified material. The electrochemical behavior of 6-MP on the sensor was discussed, and the damage and its mechanism of 6-MP on DNA were studied. The experimental result showed that, after the modification of GNs-chit, the electrode activation area of GNs/chit/GCE increased remarkably, which was improved from 1.76cm2 to 8.64 cm2, and the responsive oxidation peak current of GNs/chit/GCE to K3[Fe(CN)6] also increased remarkably. At the meantime, it was demonstrated that DNA was effectively fixed on the GNs/chit/GCE electrode;6-MP caused obvious damage to dsDNA, and the damage degree on the adenine was bigger than that on the guanine; the interaction between 6-MP and dsDNA was preliminarily deduced as the intercalation, and its electrochemical oxidation process was an irreversible process controlled by the adsorption.

  5. Flexible Molybdenum Electrodes towards Designing Affinity Based Protein Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Kamakoti, Vikramshankar; Panneer Selvam, Anjan; Radha Shanmugam, Nandhinee; Muthukumar, Sriram; Prasad, Shalini

    2016-01-01

    Molybdenum electrode based flexible biosensor on porous polyamide substrates has been fabricated and tested for its functionality as a protein affinity based biosensor. The biosensor performance was evaluated using a key cardiac biomarker; cardiac Troponin-I (cTnI). Molybdenum is a transition metal and demonstrates electrochemical behavior upon interaction with an electrolyte. We have leveraged this property of molybdenum for designing an affinity based biosensor using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. We have evaluated the feasibility of detection of cTnI in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and human serum (HS) by measuring impedance changes over a frequency window from 100 mHz to 1 MHz. Increasing changes to the measured impedance was correlated to the increased dose of cTnI molecules binding to the cTnI antibody functionalized molybdenum surface. We achieved cTnI detection limit of 10 pg/mL in PBS and 1 ng/mL in HS medium. The use of flexible substrates for designing the biosensor demonstrates promise for integration with a large-scale batch manufacturing process. PMID:27438863

  6. Flexible Molybdenum Electrodes towards Designing Affinity Based Protein Biosensors.

    PubMed

    Kamakoti, Vikramshankar; Panneer Selvam, Anjan; Radha Shanmugam, Nandhinee; Muthukumar, Sriram; Prasad, Shalini

    2016-07-18

    Molybdenum electrode based flexible biosensor on porous polyamide substrates has been fabricated and tested for its functionality as a protein affinity based biosensor. The biosensor performance was evaluated using a key cardiac biomarker; cardiac Troponin-I (cTnI). Molybdenum is a transition metal and demonstrates electrochemical behavior upon interaction with an electrolyte. We have leveraged this property of molybdenum for designing an affinity based biosensor using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. We have evaluated the feasibility of detection of cTnI in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and human serum (HS) by measuring impedance changes over a frequency window from 100 mHz to 1 MHz. Increasing changes to the measured impedance was correlated to the increased dose of cTnI molecules binding to the cTnI antibody functionalized molybdenum surface. We achieved cTnI detection limit of 10 pg/mL in PBS and 1 ng/mL in HS medium. The use of flexible substrates for designing the biosensor demonstrates promise for integration with a large-scale batch manufacturing process.

  7. Magneto-reactance based detection of MnO nanoparticle-embedded Lewis lung carcinoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devkota, J.; Howell, M.; Mukherjee, P.; Srikanth, H.; Mohapatra, S.; Phan, M. H.

    2015-05-01

    We demonstrate the capacity of detecting magnetically weak manganese oxide (MnO) nanoparticles and the Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cancer cells that have taken up these nanoparticles using a novel biosensor based on the magneto-reactance (MX) effect of a soft ferromagnetic amorphous ribbon with a microhole-patterned surface. While the magnetic moment of the MnO nanoparticles is relatively small, and a magneto-impedance based sensor fails to detect them in solution (0.05 mg/ml manganese oxide lipid micellar nanoparticles) and inside cells at low concentrations (8.25 × 104 cells/ml), the detection of these nanoparticles and the LLC cells containing them is achieved with the MX-based sensor, which, respectively, reaches the detection sensitivity of ˜3.6% and 2.8% as compared to the blank cells. Since the MnO nanoparticles are a promising contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of lung cells, the MX-based biosensing technique can be developed as a pre-detection method for MRI of lung cancer cells.

  8. Electrochemical DNA Hybridization Sensors Based on Conducting Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Md. Mahbubur; Li, Xiao-Bo; Lopa, Nasrin Siraj; Ahn, Sang Jung; Lee, Jae-Joon

    2015-01-01

    Conducting polymers (CPs) are a group of polymeric materials that have attracted considerable attention because of their unique electronic, chemical, and biochemical properties. This is reflected in their use in a wide range of potential applications, including light-emitting diodes, anti-static coating, electrochromic materials, solar cells, chemical sensors, biosensors, and drug-release systems. Electrochemical DNA sensors based on CPs can be used in numerous areas related to human health. This review summarizes the recent progress made in the development and use of CP-based electrochemical DNA hybridization sensors. We discuss the distinct properties of CPs with respect to their use in the immobilization of probe DNA on electrode surfaces, and we describe the immobilization techniques used for developing DNA hybridization sensors together with the various transduction methods employed. In the concluding part of this review, we present some of the challenges faced in the use of CP-based DNA hybridization sensors, as well as a future perspective. PMID:25664436

  9. Electrochemical DNA hybridization sensors based on conducting polymers.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Mahbubur; Li, Xiao-Bo; Lopa, Nasrin Siraj; Ahn, Sang Jung; Lee, Jae-Joon

    2015-02-05

    Conducting polymers (CPs) are a group of polymeric materials that have attracted considerable attention because of their unique electronic, chemical, and biochemical properties. This is reflected in their use in a wide range of potential applications, including light-emitting diodes, anti-static coating, electrochromic materials, solar cells, chemical sensors, biosensors, and drug-release systems. Electrochemical DNA sensors based on CPs can be used in numerous areas related to human health. This review summarizes the recent progress made in the development and use of CP-based electrochemical DNA hybridization sensors. We discuss the distinct properties of CPs with respect to their use in the immobilization of probe DNA on electrode surfaces, and we describe the immobilization techniques used for developing DNA hybridization sensors together with the various transduction methods employed. In the concluding part of this review, we present some of the challenges faced in the use of CP-based DNA hybridization sensors, as well as a future perspective.

  10. Microarray Detection of Duplex and Triplex DNA Binders with DNA-Modified Gold Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Lytton-Jean, Abigail K. R.; Han, Min Su; Mirkin, Chad A.

    2008-01-01

    We have designed a chip-based assay, using microarray technology, for determining the relative binding affinities of duplex and triplex DNA binders. This assay combines the high discrimination capabilities afforded by DNA-modified Au nanoparticles with the high-throughput capabilities of DNA microarrays. The detection and screening of duplex DNA binders are important because these molecules, in many cases, are potential anticancer agents as well as toxins. Triplex DNA binders are also promising drug candidates. These molecules, in conjunction with triplex forming oligonucleotides, could potentially be used to achieve control of gene expression by interfering with transcription factors that bind to DNA. Therefore, the ability to screen for these molecules in a high-throughput fashion could dramatically improve the drug screening process. The assay reported here provides excellent discrimination between strong, intermediate, and weak duplex and triplex DNA binders in a high-throughput fashion. PMID:17614366

  11. Packaging of DNA by shell crosslinked nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Thurmond, K B; Remsen, E E; Kowalewski, T; Wooley, K L

    1999-07-15

    We demonstrate compaction of DNA with nanoscale biomimetic constructs which are robust synthetic analogs of globular proteins. These constructs are approximately 15 nm in diameter, shell crosslinked knedel-like (SCKs) nanoparticles, which are prepared by covalent stabilization of amphiphilic di-block co-polymer micelles, self-assembled in an aqueous solution. This synthetic approach yields size-controlled nanoparticles of persistent shape and containing positively charged functional groups at and near the particle surface. Such properties allow SCKs to bind with DNA through electrostatic interactions and facilitate reduction of the DNA hydrodynamic diameter through reversible compaction. Compaction of DNA by SCKs was evident in dynamic light scattering experiments and was directly observed by in situ atomic force microscopy. Moreover, enzymatic digestion of the DNA plasmid (pBR322, 4361 bp) by Eco RI was inhibited at low SCK:DNA ratios and prevented when [le]60 DNA bp were bound per SCK. Digestion by Msp I in the presence of SCKs resulted in longer DNA fragments, indicating that not all enzyme cleavage sites were accessible within the DNA/SCK aggregates. These results have implications for the development of vehicles for successful gene therapy applications.

  12. Carbon Nanotube Biosensors for Space Molecule Detection and Clinical Molecular Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Jie

    2001-01-01

    Both space molecule detection and clinical molecule diagnostics need to develop ultra sensitive biosensors for detection of less than attomole molecules such as amino acids for DNA. However all the electrode sensor systems including those fabricated from the existing carbon nanotubes, have a background level of nA (nanoAmp). This has limited DNA or other molecule detection to nA level or molecules whose concentration is, much higher than attomole level. A program has been created by NASA and NCI (National Cancer Institute) to exploit the possibility of carbon nanotube based biosensors to solve this problem for both's interest. In this talk, I will present our effort on the evaluation and novel design of carbon nanotubes as electrode biosensors with strategies to minimize background currents while maximizing signal intensity.The fabrication of nanotube electrode arrays, immobilization of molecular probes on nanotube electrodes and in vitro biosensor testing will also be discussed.

  13. Microneedle-mediated transcutaneous immunization with plasmid DNA coated on cationic PLGA nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Wonganan, Piyanuch; Sandoval, Michael A; Li, Xinran; Zhu, Saijie; Cui, Zhengrong

    2012-10-28

    Previously, it was shown that microneedle-mediated transcutaneous immunization with plasmid DNA can potentially induce a stronger immune response than intramuscular injection of the same plasmid DNA. In the present study, we showed that the immune responses induced by transcutaneous immunization by applying plasmid DNA onto a skin area pretreated with solid microneedles were significantly enhanced by coating the plasmid DNA on the surface of cationic nanoparticles. In addition, the net surface charge of the DNA-coated nanoparticles significantly affected their in vitro skin permeation and their ability to induce immune responses in vivo. Transcutaneous immunization with plasmid DNA-coated net positively charged nanoparticles elicited a stronger immune response than with plasmid DNA-coated net negatively charged nanoparticles or by intramuscular immunization with plasmid DNA alone. Transcutaneous immunization with plasmid DNA-coated net positively charged nanoparticles induced comparable immune responses as intramuscular injection of them, but transcutaneous immunization was able to induce specific mucosal immunity and a more balanced T helper type 1 and type 2 response. The ability of the net positively charged DNA-coated nanoparticles to induce a strong immune response through microneedle-mediated transcutaneous immunization may be attributed to their ability to increase the expression of the antigen gene encoded by the plasmid and to more effectively stimulate the maturation of antigen-presenting cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Environmental Stability of Plasmonic Biosensors Based on Natural versus Artificial Antibody.

    PubMed

    Luan, Jingyi; Xu, Ting; Cashin, John; Morrissey, Jeremiah J; Kharasch, Evan D; Singamaneni, Srikanth

    2018-06-13

    Plasmonic biosensors based on the refractive index sensitivity of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) are considered to be highly promising for on-chip and point-of-care biodiagnostics. However, most of the current plasmonic biosensors employ natural antibodies as biorecognition elements, which can easily lose their biorecognition ability upon exposure to environmental stressors (e.g., temperature and humidity). Plasmonic biosensors relying on molecular imprints as recognition elements (artificial antibodies) are hypothesized to be an attractive alternative for applications in resource-limited settings due to their excellent thermal, chemical, and environmental stability. In this work, we provide a comprehensive comparison of the stability of plasmonic biosensors based on natural and artificial antibodies. Although the natural antibody-based plasmonic biosensors exhibit superior sensitivity, their stability (temporal, thermal, and chemical) was found to be vastly inferior to those based on artificial antibodies. Our results convincingly demonstrate that these novel classes of artificial antibody-based plasmonic biosensors are highly attractive for point-of-care and resource-limited conditions where tight control over transport, storage, and handling conditions is not possible.

  15. Improvement of up-converting phosphor technology-based biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Chengke; Huang, Lihua; Zhang, Youbao; Guo, Xiaoxian; Qu, Jianfeng; Huang, Huijie

    2008-12-01

    A novel biosensor based on up-converting phosphor technology (UPT) was developed several years ago. It is a kind of optical biosensor using up-converting phosphor (UCP) particles as the biological marker. From then on, some improvements have been made for this UPT-based biosensor. The primary aspects of the improvement lie in the control system. On one hand, the hardware of the control system has been optimized, including replacing two single chip microcomputers (SCM) with only one, the optimal design of the keyboard interface circuit and the liquid crystal module (LCM) control circuit et al.. These result in lower power consumption and higher reliability. On the other hand, a novel signal processing algorithm is proposed in this paper, which can improve the automation and operating simplicity of the UPT-based biosensor. It has proved to have high sensitivity (~ng/ml), high stability and good repeatability (CV<5%), which is better than the former system. It can meet the need of some various applications such as rapid immunoassay, chemical and biological detection and so on.

  16. A label-free fluorescence biosensor for highly sensitive detection of lectin based on carboxymethyl chitosan-quantum dots and gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ziping; Liu, Hua; Wang, Lei; Su, Xingguang

    2016-08-17

    In this work, we report a novel label-free fluorescence "turn off-on" biosensor for lectin detection. The highly sensitive and selective sensing system is based on the integration of carboxymethyl chitosan (CM-CHIT), CuInS2 quantum dots (QDs) and Au nanoparticles (NPs). Firstly, CuInS2 QDs featuring carboxyl groups were directly synthesized via a hydrothermal synthesis method. Then, the carboxyl groups on the CuInS2 QDs surface were interacted with the amino groups (NH2), carboxyl groups (COOH) and hydroxyl groups (OH) within CM-CHIT polymeric chains via electrostatic interactions and hydrogen bonding to form CM-CHIT-QDs assemblies. Introduction of Au NPs could quench the fluorescence of CM-CHIT-QDs through electron and energy transfer. In the presence of lectin, lectin could bind exclusively with CM-CHIT-QDs by means of specific multivalent carbohydrate-protein interaction. Thus, the electron and energy transfer process between CM-CHIT-QDs and Au NPs was inhibited, and as a result, the fluorescence of CM-CHIT-QDs was effectively "turned on". Under the optimum conditions, there was a good linear relationship between the fluorescence intensity ratio I/I0 (I and I0 were the fluorescence intensity of CM-CHIT-QDs-Au NPs in the presence and absence of lectin, respectively) and lectin concentration in the range of 0.2-192.5 nmol L(-1), And the detection limit could be down to 0.08 nmol L(-1). Furthermore, the proposed biosensor was employed for the determination of lectin in fetal bovine serum samples with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Microbial Fuels Cell-Based Biosensor for Toxicity Detection: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Tuoyu; Han, Huawen; Liu, Pu; Xiong, Jian; Tian, Fake; Li, Xiangkai

    2017-01-01

    With the unprecedented deterioration of environmental quality, rapid recognition of toxic compounds is paramount for performing in situ real-time monitoring. Although several analytical techniques based on electrochemistry or biosensors have been developed for the detection of toxic compounds, most of them are time-consuming, inaccurate, or cumbersome for practical applications. More recently, microbial fuel cell (MFC)-based biosensors have drawn increasing interest due to their sustainability and cost-effectiveness, with applications ranging from the monitoring of anaerobic digestion process parameters (VFA) to water quality detection (e.g., COD, BOD). When a MFC runs under correct conditions, the voltage generated is correlated with the amount of a given substrate. Based on this linear relationship, several studies have demonstrated that MFC-based biosensors could detect heavy metals such as copper, chromium, or zinc, as well as organic compounds, including p-nitrophenol (PNP), formaldehyde and levofloxacin. Both bacterial consortia and single strains can be used to develop MFC-based biosensors. Biosensors with single strains show several advantages over systems integrating bacterial consortia, such as selectivity and stability. One of the limitations of such sensors is that the detection range usually exceeds the actual pollution level. Therefore, improving their sensitivity is the most important for widespread application. Nonetheless, MFC-based biosensors represent a promising approach towards single pollutant detection. PMID:28956857

  18. Microbial Fuels Cell-Based Biosensor for Toxicity Detection: A Review.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tuoyu; Han, Huawen; Liu, Pu; Xiong, Jian; Tian, Fake; Li, Xiangkai

    2017-09-28

    With the unprecedented deterioration of environmental quality, rapid recognition of toxic compounds is paramount for performing in situ real-time monitoring. Although several analytical techniques based on electrochemistry or biosensors have been developed for the detection of toxic compounds, most of them are time-consuming, inaccurate, or cumbersome for practical applications. More recently, microbial fuel cell (MFC)-based biosensors have drawn increasing interest due to their sustainability and cost-effectiveness, with applications ranging from the monitoring of anaerobic digestion process parameters (VFA) to water quality detection (e.g., COD, BOD). When a MFC runs under correct conditions, the voltage generated is correlated with the amount of a given substrate. Based on this linear relationship, several studies have demonstrated that MFC-based biosensors could detect heavy metals such as copper, chromium, or zinc, as well as organic compounds, including p -nitrophenol (PNP), formaldehyde and levofloxacin. Both bacterial consortia and single strains can be used to develop MFC-based biosensors. Biosensors with single strains show several advantages over systems integrating bacterial consortia, such as selectivity and stability. One of the limitations of such sensors is that the detection range usually exceeds the actual pollution level. Therefore, improving their sensitivity is the most important for widespread application. Nonetheless, MFC-based biosensors represent a promising approach towards single pollutant detection.

  19. Interaction of DNA and mononucleotides with theophylline investigated using electrochemical biosensors and biosensing.

    PubMed

    Nemčeková, Katarína; Labuda, Ján; Milata, Viktor; Blaškovičová, Jana; Sochr, Jozef

    2018-05-03

    The understanding of DNA-drug interaction mechanism is among the important aspects of biological studies for drug design, discovery and pharmaceutical development processes. Published rather detailed FTIR and UV-visible spectroscopic studies on the interactions of theophylline, theobromine and caffeine with calf thymus DNA have shown effective binding of these methylxanthine derivatives to DNA and RNA involving H-bonds. However, to our knowledge, there is no such investigation using electrochemical approach. As a novelty of the study, in this paper the bioelectrochemical approach has been chosen for the investigation of an interaction of low molecular salmon sperm dsDNA, ssDNA and mononucleotides with theophylline (TP) in aqueous phosphate buffered medium using DNA-based electrochemical biosensors and biosensing in solution phase. Exploitation of the electrochemical approach via changes in square wave voltammetric responses of deoxyguanosine (dGuo) and deoxyadenosine (dAdo) provided a new indication on preferential association of TP with dGuo in the case of double helical dsDNA structure which was not reported previously. Moreover, an attachment of TP molecules outside DNA was found in the presence of high concentration of 3.3 × 10 -4  M TP in solution which diminishes the electron transfer and leads to the difficulties in quantitative evaluation of the TP and dGuo voltammetric responses. The changes in UV-vis and FTIR spectra obtained in the same medium confirmed the association interaction of TP with both nucleobases. Utilizing the model and the published energies of hydrogen bonding stabilization, the formation of a DNA-TP complex was predicted through the intermolecular H-bonds between TP and the NH-CO moiety of guanine and the N-NH 2 moiety of adenine. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Amperometric Biosensor Based on Zirconium Oxide/Polyethylene Glycol/Tyrosinase Composite Film for the Detection of Phenolic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Nor Monica; Abdullah, Jaafar; Yusof, Nor Azah; Ab Rashid, Ahmad Hazri; Abd Rahman, Samsulida; Hasan, Md. Rakibul

    2016-01-01

    A phenolic biosensor based on a zirconium oxide/polyethylene glycol/tyrosinase composite film for the detection of phenolic compounds has been explored. The formation of the composite film was expected via electrostatic interaction between hexacetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), polyethylene glycol (PEG), and zirconium oxide nanoparticles casted on screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE). Herein, the electrode was treated by casting hexacetyltrimethylammonium bromide on SPCE to promote a positively charged surface. Later, zirconium oxide was mixed with polyethylene glycol and the mixture was dropped cast onto the positively charged SPCE/CTAB. Tyrosinase was further immobilized onto the modified SPCE. Characterization of the prepared nanocomposite film and the modified SPCE surface was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS), and Cyclic voltamogram (CV). The developed biosensor exhibits rapid response for less than 10 s. Two linear calibration curves towards phenol in the concentrations ranges of 0.075–10 µM and 10–55 µM with the detection limit of 0.034 µM were obtained. The biosensor shows high sensitivity and good storage stability for at least 30 days. PMID:27367738

  1. Amperometric Biosensor Based on Zirconium Oxide/Polyethylene Glycol/Tyrosinase Composite Film for the Detection of Phenolic Compounds.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nor Monica; Abdullah, Jaafar; Yusof, Nor Azah; Ab Rashid, Ahmad Hazri; Abd Rahman, Samsulida; Hasan, Md Rakibul

    2016-06-29

    A phenolic biosensor based on a zirconium oxide/polyethylene glycol/tyrosinase composite film for the detection of phenolic compounds has been explored. The formation of the composite film was expected via electrostatic interaction between hexacetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), polyethylene glycol (PEG), and zirconium oxide nanoparticles casted on screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE). Herein, the electrode was treated by casting hexacetyltrimethylammonium bromide on SPCE to promote a positively charged surface. Later, zirconium oxide was mixed with polyethylene glycol and the mixture was dropped cast onto the positively charged SPCE/CTAB. Tyrosinase was further immobilized onto the modified SPCE. Characterization of the prepared nanocomposite film and the modified SPCE surface was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS), and Cyclic voltamogram (CV). The developed biosensor exhibits rapid response for less than 10 s. Two linear calibration curves towards phenol in the concentrations ranges of 0.075-10 µM and 10-55 µM with the detection limit of 0.034 µM were obtained. The biosensor shows high sensitivity and good storage stability for at least 30 days.

  2. Nanomaterials towards fabrication of cholesterol biosensors: Key roles and design approaches.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Urmila; Das, Asim Bikas

    2016-01-15

    Importance of cholesterol biosensors is already recognized in the clinical diagnosis of cardiac and brain vascular diseases as discernible from the enormous amount of research in this field. Nevertheless, the practical application of a majority of the fabricated cholesterol biosensors is ordinarily limited by their inadequate performance in terms of one or more analytical parameters including stability, sensitivity and detection limit. Nanoscale materials offer distinctive size tunable electronic, catalytic and optical properties which opened new opportunities for designing highly efficient biosensor devices. Incorporation of nanomaterials in biosensing devices has found to improve the electroactive surface, electronic conductivity and biocompatibility of the electrode surfaces which then improves the analytical performance of the biosensors. Here we have reviewed recent advances in nanomaterial-based cholesterol biosensors. Foremost, the diverse roles of nanomaterials in these sensor systems have been discussed. Later, we have exhaustively explored the strategies used for engineering cholesterol biosensors with nanotubes, nanoparticles and nanocomposites. Finally, this review concludes with future outlook signifying some challenges of these nanoengineered cholesterol sensors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Electrocatalytic processes promoted by diamond nanoparticles in enzymatic biosensing devices.

    PubMed

    Briones, M; Petit-Domínguez, M D; Parra-Alfambra, A M; Vázquez, L; Pariente, F; Lorenzo, E; Casero, E

    2016-10-01

    We have developed a biosensing platform for lactate determination based on gold electrodes modified with diamond nanoparticles of 4nm of nominal diameter, employing the enzyme lactate oxidase and (hydroxymethyl)ferrocene (HMF) as redox mediator in solution. This system displays a response towards lactate that is completely different to those typically observed for lactate biosensors based on other nanomaterials, such as graphene, carbon nanotubes, gold nanoparticles or even diamond nanoparticles of greater size. We have observed by cyclic voltammetry that, under certain experimental conditions, an irreversible wave (E(0)=+0.15V) appears concomitantly with the typical Fe(II)/Fe(III) peaks (E(0)=+0.30V) of HMF. In this case, the biosensor response to lactate shows simultaneous electrocatalytic peaks at +0.15V and +0.30V, indicating the concurrence of different feedback mechanisms. The achievement of a biosensor response to lactate at +0.15V is very convenient in order to avoid potential interferences. The developed biosensor presents a linear concentration range from 0.02mM to 1.2mM, a sensitivity of 6.1μAmM(-1), a detection limit of 5.3μM and excellent stability. These analytical properties compare well with those obtained for other lactate-based biosensors that also include nanomaterials and employ HMF as redox mediator. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.