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Sample records for nanoparticles densely loaded

  1. Intravaginal gene silencing using biodegradable polymer nanoparticles densely loaded with small-interfering RNA

    PubMed Central

    Woodrow, Kim A.; Cu, Yen; Booth, Carmen J.; Saucier-Sawyer, Jennifer K.; Wood, Monica J.; Saltzman, W. Mark

    2009-01-01

    Vaginal instillation of small-interfering RNA (siRNA) using liposomes has led to silencing of endogenous genes in the genital tract and protected against challenge from infectious disease. Although siRNA lipoplexes are easily formulated, several of the most effective transfection agents available commercially may be toxic to the mucosal epithelia and none are able to provide controlled or sustained release. Here, we demonstrate an alternate approach, using nanoparticles composed entirely of FDA-approved materials. To render these materials effective for gene silencing we developed novel approaches to load them with high amounts of siRNA. A single dose of siRNA-loaded nanoparticles to the mouse female reproductive tract caused efficient and sustained gene silencing. Knockdown of gene expression was observed proximal (in the vaginal lumen) and distal (in the uterine horns) to the site of topical delivery. In addition, nanoparticles penetrated deep into the epithelial tissue. This is the first report demonstrating that biodegradable polymer nanoparticles are effective delivery vehicles for siRNA in the vaginal mucosa. PMID:19404239

  2. Intravaginal gene silencing using biodegradable polymer nanoparticles densely loaded with small-interfering RNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodrow, Kim A.; Cu, Yen; Booth, Carmen J.; Saucier-Sawyer, Jennifer K.; Wood, Monica J.; Mark Saltzman, W.

    2009-06-01

    Vaginal instillation of small-interfering RNA (siRNA) using liposomes has led to silencing of endogenous genes in the genital tract and protection against challenge from infectious disease. Although siRNA lipoplexes are easily formulated, several of the most effective transfection agents available commercially may be toxic to the mucosal epithelia and none are able to provide controlled or sustained release. Here, we demonstrate an alternative approach using nanoparticles composed entirely of FDA-approved materials. To render these materials effective for gene silencing, we developed novel approaches to load them with high amounts of siRNA. A single dose of siRNA-loaded nanoparticles to the mouse female reproductive tract caused efficient and sustained gene silencing. Knockdown of gene expression was observed proximal (in the vaginal lumen) and distal (in the uterine horns) to the site of topical delivery. In addition, nanoparticles penetrated deep into the epithelial tissue. This is the first report demonstrating that biodegradable polymer nanoparticles are effective delivery vehicles for siRNA to the vaginal mucosa.

  3. Load Designs For MJ Dense Plasma Foci

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Link, A.; Povlius, A.; Anaya, R.; Anderson, M. G.; Angus, J. R.; Cooper, C. M.; Falabella, S.; Goerz, D.; Higginson, D.; Holod, I.; McMahon, M.; Mitrani, J.; Koh, E. S.; Pearson, A.; Podpaly, Y. A.; Prasad, R.; van Lue, D.; Watson, J.; Schmidt, A. E.

    2017-10-01

    Dense plasma focus (DPF) Z-pinches are compact pulse power driven devices with coaxial electrodes. The discharge of DPF consists of three distinct phases: first generation of a plasma sheath, plasma rail gun phase where the sheath is accelerated down the electrodes and finally an implosion phase where the plasma stagnates into a z-pinch geometry. During the z-pinch phase, DPFs can produce MeV ion beams, x-rays and neutrons. Megaampere class DPFs with deuterium fills have demonstrated neutron yields in the 1012 neutrons/shot range with pulse durations of 10-100 ns. Kinetic simulations using the code Chicago are being used to evaluate various load configurations from initial sheath formation to the final z-pinch phase for DPFs with up to 5 MA and 1 MJ coupled to the load. Results will be presented from the preliminary design simulations. LLNL-ABS-734785 This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and with support from the Computing Grand Challenge program at LLNL.

  4. Microchannel cross load array with dense parallel input

    DOEpatents

    Swierkowski, Stefan P.

    2004-04-06

    An architecture or layout for microchannel arrays using T or Cross (+) loading for electrophoresis or other injection and separation chemistry that are performed in microfluidic configurations. This architecture enables a very dense layout of arrays of functionally identical shaped channels and it also solves the problem of simultaneously enabling efficient parallel shapes and biasing of the input wells, waste wells, and bias wells at the input end of the separation columns. One T load architecture uses circular holes with common rows, but not columns, which allows the flow paths for each channel to be identical in shape, using multiple mirror image pieces. Another T load architecture enables the access hole array to be formed on a biaxial, collinear grid suitable for EDM micromachining (square holes), with common rows and columns.

  5. Engineering Tenofovir Loaded Chitosan Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Jianing; Sturgis, Timothy F.; Youan, Bi-Botti C.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to engineer a model anti-HIV microbicide (Tenofovir) loaded chitosan based nanoparticles (NPs). Box-Behnken design allowed to assess the influence of formulation variables on the size of NPs and drug encapsulation efficiency (EE%) that were analyzed by dynamic light scattering and UV spectroscopy, respectively. The effect of the NPs on vaginal epithelial cells and Lactobacillus crispatus viability and their mucoadhesion to porcine vaginal tissue were assessed by cytotoxicity assays and fluorimetry, respectively. In the optimal aqueous conditions, the EE% and NPs size was 5.83% and 207.97nm, respectively. With 50% (v/v) ethanol/water as alternative solvent, these two responses increased to 20% and 602 nm, respectively. Drug release from medium (281 nm) and large size (602 nm)-sized NPs fitted the Higuchi (r2=0.991) and first-order release (r2=0.999) models, respectively. These NPs were not cytotoxic to both the vaginal epithelial cell line and Lactobacillus for 48 hours. When the diameter of the NPs decreased from 900 nm to 188 nm, the mucoadhesion increased from 6% to 12%. However, the combinatorial effect of EE% × mucoadhesion for larger size NPs was the highest. Overall, large-size, microbicide loaded chitosan NPs appeared to be promising nanomedicines for the prevention of HIV transmission. PMID:21704704

  6. A Dense Poly(ethylene glycol) Coating Improves Penetration of Large Polymeric Nanoparticles within Brain Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Nance, Elizabeth A.; Woodworth, Graeme F.; Sailor, Kurt A.; Shih, Ting-Yu; Xu, Qingguo; Swaminathan, Ganesh; Xiang, Dennis; Eberhart, Charles; Hanes, Justin

    2013-01-01

    Prevailing opinion suggests that only substances up to 64 nm in diameter can move at appreciable rates through the brain extracellular space (ECS). This size range is large enough to allow diffusion of signaling molecules, nutrients, and metabolic waste products, but too small to allow efficient penetration of most particulate drug delivery systems and viruses carrying therapeutic genes, thereby limiting effectiveness of many potential therapies. We analyzed the movements of nanoparticles of various diameters and surface coatings within fresh human and rat brain tissue ex vivo and mouse brain in vivo. Nanoparticles as large as 114-nm in diameter diffused within the human and rat brain, but only if they were densely coated with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). Using these minimally adhesive PEG-coated particles, we estimated that human brain tissue ECS has some pores larger than 200 nm, and that more than one-quarter of all pores are ≥100 nm. These findings were confirmed in vivo in mice, where 40- and 100-nm, but not 200-nm, nanoparticles, spread rapidly within brain tissue, only if densely coated with PEG. Similar results were observed in rat brain tissue with paclitaxel-loaded biodegradable nanoparticles of similar size (85 nm) and surface properties. The ability to achieve brain penetration with larger nanoparticles is expected to allow more uniform, longer-lasting, and effective delivery of drugs within the brain, and may find use in the treatment of brain tumors, stroke, neuroinflammation, and other brain diseases where the blood-brain barrier is compromised or where local delivery strategies are feasible. PMID:22932224

  7. Fluoride loaded polymeric nanoparticles for dental delivery.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Sanko; Escudero, Carlos; Sediqi, Nadia; Smistad, Gro; Hiorth, Marianne

    2017-06-15

    The overall aim of the present paper was to develop fluoride loaded nanoparticles based on the biopolymers chitosan, pectin, and alginate, for use in dental delivery. First, the preparation of nanoparticles in the presence of sodium fluoride (NaF) as the active ingredient by ionic gelation was investigated followed by an evaluation of their drug entrapment and release properties. Chitosan formed stable, spherical, and monodisperse nanoparticles in the presence of NaF and tripolyphoshate as the crosslinker, whereas alginate and pectin were not able to form any definite nanostructures in similar conditions. The fluoride loading capacity was found to be 33-113ppm, and the entrapment efficiency 3.6-6.2% for chitosan nanoparticles prepared in 0.2-0.4% (w/w) NaF, respectively. A steady increase in the fluoride release was observed for chitosan nanoparticles prepared in 0.2% NaF both in pH5 and 7 until it reached a maximum at time point 4h and maintained at this level for at least 24h. Similar profiles were observed for formulations prepared in 0.4% NaF; however the fluoride was released at a higher level at pH5. The low concentration, but continuous delivery of fluoride from the chitosan nanoparticles, with possible expedited release in acidic environment, makes these formulations highly promising as dental delivery systems in the protection against caries development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Prediction of a Densely Loaded Particle-Laden Jet using a Euler-Lagrange Dense Spray Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakseresht, Pedram; Apte, Sourabh V.

    2017-11-01

    Modeling of a dense spray regime using an Euler-Lagrange discrete-element approach is challenging because of local high volume loading. A subgrid cluster of droplets can lead to locally high void fractions for the disperse phase. Under these conditions, spatio-temporal changes in the carrier phase volume fractions, which are commonly neglected in spray simulations in an Euler-Lagrange two-way coupling model, could become important. Accounting for the carrier phase volume fraction variations, leads to zero-Mach number, variable density governing equations. Using pressure-based solvers, this gives rise to a source term in the pressure Poisson equation and a non-divergence free velocity field. To test the validity and predictive capability of such an approach, a round jet laden with solid particles is investigated using Direct Numerical Simulation and compared with available experimental data for different loadings. Various volume fractions spanning from dilute to dense regimes are investigated with and without taking into account the volume displacement effects. The predictions of the two approaches are compared and analyzed to investigate the effectiveness of the dense spray model. Financial support was provided by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

  9. Programmed Nanoparticle-Loaded Nanoparticles for Deep-Penetrating 3D Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinhwan; Jo, Changshin; Lim, Won-Gwang; Jung, Sungjin; Lee, Yeong Mi; Lim, Jun; Lee, Haeshin; Lee, Jinwoo; Kim, Won Jong

    2018-05-18

    Tumors are 3D, composed of cellular agglomerations and blood vessels. Therapies involving nanoparticles utilize specific accumulations due to the leaky vascular structures. However, systemically injected nanoparticles are mostly uptaken by cells located on the surfaces of cancer tissues, lacking deep penetration into the core cancer regions. Herein, an unprecedented strategy, described as injecting "nanoparticle-loaded nanoparticles" to address the long-lasting problem is reported for effective surface-to-core drug delivery in entire 3D tumors. The "nanoparticle-loaded nanoparticle" is a silica nanoparticle (≈150 nm) with well-developed, interconnected channels (diameter of ≈30 nm), in which small gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) (≈15 nm) with programmable DNA are located. The nanoparticle (AuNPs)-loaded nanoparticles (silica): (1) can accumulate in tumors through leaky vascular structures by protecting the inner therapeutic AuNPs during blood circulation, and then (2) allow diffusion of the AuNPs for penetration into the entire surface-to-core tumor tissues, and finally (3) release a drug triggered by cancer-characteristic pH gradients. The hierarchical "nanoparticle-loaded nanoparticle" can be a rational design for cancer therapies because the outer large nanoparticles are effective in blood circulation and in protection of the therapeutic nanoparticles inside, allowing the loaded small nanoparticles to penetrate deeply into 3D tumors with anticancer drugs. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Characterization of ergocalciferol loaded solid lipid nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mandar R; San Martin-Gonzalez, M Fernanda

    2012-01-01

    The use of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) is a technique that has been widely used in the pharmaceutical industry for the last 2 decades and has become of increasing interest to food scientists due to its potential for encapsulation and controlled release. Ergocalciferol (vitamin D₂) is a bioactive compound whose deficiency may lead to rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. In this study, ergocalciferol was encapsulated in tripalmitin SLNs stabilized by polysorbate 20 (Tween 20). SLN dispersions (5% w/w) were prepared by hot homogenization technique using a nozzle-type high-pressure homogenizer. Ergocalciferol at 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% (w/w of lipid) was dissolved in the molten lipid at 80 °C, mixed with a 5% (w/w) aqueous solution of polysorbate 20 and homogenized at 138 MPa at 80 °C. Particle size, thermal properties, and microstructure were evaluated by dynamic light scattering (DLS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) respectively. As the proportion of ergocalciferol in the SLN increased from 0% to 20%, the Z-average values of the particles gradually decreased (P≤ 0.05) from approximately 120 nm to approximately 65 nm. DSC analysis of freeze dried SLN samples showed gradual decrease in enthalpies of fusion and crystallization for stable β-subcell whereas for SLN dispersions, the enthalpy of fusion of unstable α-subcell crystal increased with increased ergocalciferol loading. The TEM images of the ergocalciferol loaded SLN samples showed the presence of spherical as well as rod-shaped nanoparticles. It was also observed that the turbidity of the SLN dispersions reduced noticeably with increased ergocalciferol loading. This finding could be useful in terms of fortification of clear juices with ergocalciferol. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) were used in this study to encapsulate vitamin D₂, a vitamin important for bone health. It was found that as the concentration of vitamin D₂ increased

  11. Biophysical characterization of gold nanoparticles-loaded liposomes.

    PubMed

    Mady, Mohsen Mahmoud; Fathy, Mohamed Mahmoud; Youssef, Tareq; Khalil, Wafaa Mohamed

    2012-10-01

    Gold nanoparticles were prepared and loaded into the bilayer of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) liposomes, named as gold-loaded liposomes. Biophysical characterization of gold-loaded liposomes was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy as well as turbidity and rheological measurements. FTIR measurements showed that gold nanoparticles made significant changes in the frequency of the CH(2) stretching bands, revealing that gold nanoparticles increased the number of gauche conformers and create a conformational change within the acyl chains of phospholipids. The transmission electron micrographs (TEM) revealed that gold nanoparticles were loaded in the liposomal bilayer. The zeta potential of DPPC liposomes had a more negative value after incorporating of Au NPs into liposomal membranes. Turbidity studies revealed that the loading of gold nanoparticles into DPPC liposomes results in shifting the temperature of the main phase transition to a lower value. The membrane fluidity of DPPC bilayer was increased by loading the gold nanoparticles as shown from rheological measurements. Knowledge gained in this study may open the door to pursuing liposomes as a viable strategy for Au NPs delivery in many diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Copyright © 2011 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Immunological evaluation of chitosan nanoparticles loaded with tetanus toxoid.

    PubMed

    Ghalavand, M; Saadati, M; Ahmadi, A; Abbasi, E; Salimian, J

    2018-01-01

    The present study was aimed at comparing tetanus toxoid (TT)‑loaded-chitosan nanoparticles with aluminum hydroxide as a common vaccine adjuvant. Tetanus remains to be a major public health problem. Nanoparticles have been extensively used as immune adjuvants. Tetanus toxoid (TT) encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles is considered to be a promising tetanus vaccine candidate. TT‑loaded chitosan nanoparticles were prepared by the ionic gelation method. The nanoparticles were studied by SEM for their size and morphology. In vivo study was conducted to evaluate the immunity response using mice divided into 4 groups and injected with encapsulated toxoid. The immune responses were then measured using indirect ELISA. The purity and integrity of antigen were confirmed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. The size of nanoparticles was estimated at 100 nm. As a result, the IgG antibody levels were 1.9, 1.76, and 0.87 in chitosan nanoparticles, aluminum hydroxide, and TT alone groups, respectively. Also, the immune responses were significantly higher in immunized groups compared to control groups vaccinated with free adjuvant vaccines (p < 0.05). The quality and efficacy of toxoid‑loaded chitosan nanoparticles were reasonable. It enhanced the immune responses as much as aluminum hydroxide adjuvant does and thus may be a good alternative candidate (Tab. 1, Fig. 3, Ref. 16).

  13. Processing and properties of magnesium containing a dense uniform dispersion of nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lian-Yi; Xu, Jia-Quan; Choi, Hongseok; Pozuelo, Marta; Ma, Xiaolong; Bhowmick, Sanjit; Yang, Jenn-Ming; Mathaudhu, Suveen; Li, Xiao-Chun

    2015-12-24

    Magnesium is a light metal, with a density two-thirds that of aluminium, is abundant on Earth and is biocompatible; it thus has the potential to improve energy efficiency and system performance in aerospace, automobile, defence, mobile electronics and biomedical applications. However, conventional synthesis and processing methods (alloying and thermomechanical processing) have reached certain limits in further improving the properties of magnesium and other metals. Ceramic particles have been introduced into metal matrices to improve the strength of the metals, but unfortunately, ceramic microparticles severely degrade the plasticity and machinability of metals, and nanoparticles, although they have the potential to improve strength while maintaining or even improving the plasticity of metals, are difficult to disperse uniformly in metal matrices. Here we show that a dense uniform dispersion of silicon carbide nanoparticles (14 per cent by volume) in magnesium can be achieved through a nanoparticle self-stabilization mechanism in molten metal. An enhancement of strength, stiffness, plasticity and high-temperature stability is simultaneously achieved, delivering a higher specific yield strength and higher specific modulus than almost all structural metals.

  14. Preparation of starch nanoparticles loaded with quercetin using nanoprecipitation technique.

    PubMed

    Farrag, Yousof; Ide, Walther; Montero, Belén; Rico, Maite; Rodríguez-Llamazares, Saddys; Barral, Luis; Bouza, Rebeca

    2018-07-15

    Nanoparticles of starches from different botanical origin were prepared by nanoprecipitation using 0.1M hydrochloric acid as non-solvent. The morphology and the particle size were analyzed using field emission scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The nanoparticles were spherical and their sizes vary depending on the origin and the concentration of the starch solution. Starch nanoparticles loaded with quercetin were prepared. In-vitro release studies of the quercetin from the starch nanoparticles were performed in 35% ethanol as a release medium. The starch origin affects the quercetin loading percentage, the release kinetics and the antioxidant activity of the produced nanoparticles. The starch-quercetin nanoparticles from cereal origin showed the lowest loading percentage and the lowest fraction released of quercetin in comparison with nanoparticles from tuber and legume origin. The release kinetics seem to be controlled mainly by Fickian diffusion which have been revealed fitting the release data to the Peppas-Sahlin model. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Development and characterization of voriconazole loaded nanoparticles for parenteral delivery.

    PubMed

    Füredi, Petra; Kovács, Kristóf; Ludányi, Krisztina; Antal, István; Klebovich, Imre

    2016-08-20

    Human serum albumin (HSA) has attracted the most attention in the last decades as a new nanocarrier system of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) due to its biocompatibility and high binding capacity to hydrophobic drugs. Voriconazole (VCZ), an antifungal agent with low water solubility, was selected to produce albumin based nanoparticles using nanoparticle albumin-bound technology (nab™-technology). Aim of our study was to study the development process of VCZ-loaded nanoparticles for parenteral drug delivery, such as homogenizing pressure, homogenizing cycle number and drug loading capacity. The main characters of nanoparticles such as particle size distribution and polydispersity index (PDI) were determined by dynamic light scattering. Six homogenization cycles at 1800bar were ensured the acceptable PDI value (lower than 0.3) of the VCZ content nanoparticles. Optimized formulation process produced 81.2±1nm average particle size which meets the requirements of intravenous administration. Furthermore, the encapsulated concentration of VCZ was 69.7±4.2% and the water solubility was over 2 times greater than the API itself which were determined by the developed HPLC method. The in vivo release behavior can be predicted from our applied in vitro dissolution study. Almost 50% of VCZ was liberated from the nanoparticles in the first 60min. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A Comparative Study of the Behaviour of Five Dense Glass Materials Under Shock Loading Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radford, Darren D.; Proud, William G.; Field, John E.

    2001-06-01

    Previous work at the Cavendish Laboratory on the properties of glasses under shock loading has demonstrated that the material response is highly dependent upon the composition of the glass. The shock response of glass materials with an open structure, such as borosilicate, exhibits a ramping behaviour in the longitudinal stress histories due to structural collapse. Glass materials with a “filled” microstructure, as in the case of Type-D, Extra Dense Flint (DEDF) do not exhibit a ramping behaviour and behave in a manner similar to polycrystalline ceramics [1]. The current investigation compares the behaviour of five such glasses (SF15, DEDF, LACA, SF57 and DEDF-927210) under shock loading conditions. It is observed that slight changes in material composition can have a large affect on the inelastic behaviour. Principal Hugoniot and shear strength data are presented for all of the materials for pressures ranging from 2 to 14 GPa. Evidence of the so-called failure-front [2] is presented via lateral stress histories measured using manganin stress gauges and confirmed with high-speed photography. 1. Bourne, N.K., Millett, J.C.F., and Field, J.E., “On the strength of shocked glasses” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 455 (1999) 1275-1282 2. Brar, N.S., “Failure Waves in Glass and Ceramics Under Shock Compression”, in "Shock Compression of Condensed Matter 1999", ed. M.D. Furnish, L.C. Chhabildas, and R.S. Hixson, American Institute of Physics, Woodbury, New York, (1999) 601-606

  17. Essential oil-loaded lipid nanoparticles for wound healing.

    PubMed

    Saporito, Francesca; Sandri, Giuseppina; Bonferoni, Maria Cristina; Rossi, Silvia; Boselli, Cinzia; Icaro Cornaglia, Antonia; Mannucci, Barbara; Grisoli, Pietro; Vigani, Barbara; Ferrari, Franca

    2018-01-01

    Chronic wounds and severe burns are diseases responsible for severe morbidity and even death. Wound repair is a crucial process and tissue regeneration enhancement and infection prevention are key factors to minimize pain, discomfort, and scar formation. The aim of this work was the development of lipid nanoparticles (solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers [NLC]), to be loaded with eucalyptus or rosemary essential oils and to be used, as medical devices, to enhance healing of skin wounds. Lipid nanoparticles were based on natural lipids: cocoa butter, as solid lipid, and olive oil or sesame oil, as liquid lipids. Lecithin was chosen as surfactant to stabilize nanoparticles and to prevent their aggregation. The systems were prepared by high shear homogenization followed by ultrasound application. Nanoparticles were characterized for physical-chemical properties, bioadhesion, cytocompatibility, in vitro proliferation enhancement, and wound healing properties toward normal human dermal fibroblasts. Antimicrobial activity of nanoparticles was evaluated against two reference microbial strains, one of Staphylococcus aureus , the other of Streptococcus pyogenes . Finally, the capability of nanoparticles to promote wound healing in vivo was evaluated on a rat burn model. NLC based on olive oil and loaded with eucalyptus oil showed appropriate physical-chemical properties, good bioadhesion, cytocompatibility, in vitro proliferation enhancement, and wound healing properties toward fibroblasts, associated to antimicrobial properties. Moreover, the in vivo results evidenced the capability of these NLC to enhance the healing process. Olive oil, which is characterized by a high content of oleic acid, proved to exert a synergic effect with eucalyptus oil with respect to antimicrobial activity and wound repair promotion.

  18. Essential oil-loaded lipid nanoparticles for wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Saporito, Francesca; Sandri, Giuseppina; Bonferoni, Maria Cristina; Rossi, Silvia; Boselli, Cinzia; Icaro Cornaglia, Antonia; Mannucci, Barbara; Grisoli, Pietro; Vigani, Barbara; Ferrari, Franca

    2018-01-01

    Chronic wounds and severe burns are diseases responsible for severe morbidity and even death. Wound repair is a crucial process and tissue regeneration enhancement and infection prevention are key factors to minimize pain, discomfort, and scar formation. The aim of this work was the development of lipid nanoparticles (solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers [NLC]), to be loaded with eucalyptus or rosemary essential oils and to be used, as medical devices, to enhance healing of skin wounds. Lipid nanoparticles were based on natural lipids: cocoa butter, as solid lipid, and olive oil or sesame oil, as liquid lipids. Lecithin was chosen as surfactant to stabilize nanoparticles and to prevent their aggregation. The systems were prepared by high shear homogenization followed by ultrasound application. Nanoparticles were characterized for physical–chemical properties, bioadhesion, cytocompatibility, in vitro proliferation enhancement, and wound healing properties toward normal human dermal fibroblasts. Antimicrobial activity of nanoparticles was evaluated against two reference microbial strains, one of Staphylococcus aureus, the other of Streptococcus pyogenes. Finally, the capability of nanoparticles to promote wound healing in vivo was evaluated on a rat burn model. NLC based on olive oil and loaded with eucalyptus oil showed appropriate physical–chemical properties, good bioadhesion, cytocompatibility, in vitro proliferation enhancement, and wound healing properties toward fibroblasts, associated to antimicrobial properties. Moreover, the in vivo results evidenced the capability of these NLC to enhance the healing process. Olive oil, which is characterized by a high content of oleic acid, proved to exert a synergic effect with eucalyptus oil with respect to antimicrobial activity and wound repair promotion. PMID:29343956

  19. Novel Lutein Loaded Lipid Nanoparticles on Porcine Corneal Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chi-Hsien; Chiu, Hao-Che; Wu, Wei-Chi; Sahoo, Soubhagya Laxmi; Hsu, Ching-Yun

    2014-01-01

    Topical delivery has the advantages including being user friendly and cost effective. Development of topical delivery carriers for lutein is becoming an important issue for the ocular drug delivery. Quantification of the partition coefficient of drug in the ocular tissue is the first step for the evaluation of delivery efficacy. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of lipid nanoparticles and cyclodextrin (CD) on the corneal lutein accumulation and to measure the partition coefficients in the porcine cornea. Lipid nanoparticles combined with 2% HPβCD could enhance lutein accumulation up to 209.2 ± 18 (μg/g) which is 4.9-fold higher than that of the nanoparticles. CD combined nanoparticles have 68% of drug loading efficiency and lower cytotoxicity in the bovine cornea cells. From the confocal images, this improvement is due to the increased partitioning of lutein to the corneal epithelium by CD in the lipid nanoparticles. The novel lipid nanoparticles could not only improve the stability and entrapment efficacy of lutein but also enhance the lutein accumulation and partition in the cornea. Additionally the corneal accumulation of lutein was further enhanced by increasing the lutein payload in the vehicles. PMID:25101172

  20. Experimental evidence of exciton-plasmon coupling in densely packed dye doped core-shell nanoparticles obtained via microfluidic technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Luca, A.; Iazzolino, A.; Salmon, J.-B.; Leng, J.; Ravaine, S.; Grigorenko, A. N.; Strangi, G.

    2014-09-01

    The interplay between plasmons and excitons in bulk metamaterials are investigated by performing spectroscopic studies, including variable angle pump-probe ellipsometry. Gain functionalized gold nanoparticles have been densely packed through a microfluidic chip, representing a scalable process towards bulk metamaterials based on self-assembly approach. Chromophores placed at the hearth of plasmonic subunits ensure exciton-plasmon coupling to convey excitation energy to the quasi-static electric field of the plasmon states. The overall complex polarizability of the system, probed by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry, shows a significant modification under optical excitation, as demonstrated by the behavior of the ellipsometric angles Ψ and Δ as a function of suitable excitation fields. The plasmon resonances observed in densely packed gain functionalized core-shell gold nanoparticles represent a promising step to enable a wide range of electromagnetic properties and fascinating applications of plasmonic bulk systems for advanced optical materials.

  1. Assembling metal oxide nanocrystals into dense, hollow, porous nanoparticles for lithium-ion and lithium-oxygen battery application.

    PubMed

    Ming, Jun; Wu, Yingqiang; Park, Jin-Bum; Lee, Joong Kee; Zhao, Fengyu; Sun, Yang-Kook

    2013-11-07

    New dense hollow porous (DHP) metal oxide nanoparticles that are smaller than 100 nm and composed of Co3O4, FeOx, NiO and MnOx were prepared by densely assembling metal oxide nanocrystals based on the hard-template method using a carbon colloid as a sacrificial core. These nanoparticles are quite different from the traditional particles as their hollow interior originates from the stacking of nanocrystals rather than a spherical shell. The DHP nanoparticles preserve the intriguing properties of nanocrystals and possess desirable surface area and pore volume that enhance the active surface, which ultimately benefits applications such as lithium-ion batteries. The DHP Co3O4 nanoparticles demonstrated an enhanced capacity of 1168 mA h g(-1) at 100 mA g(-1)vs. 590 mA h g(-1) of powders and stable cycling performance greater than 250 cycles when used as an anode material. Most importantly, the electrochemical performance of DHP Co3O4 nanoparticles in a lithium-O2 battery was also investigated for the first time. A low charge potential of ∼4.0 V, a high discharge voltage near 2.74 V and a long cycle ability greater than 100 cycles at a delivered capacity of 2000 mA h g(-1) (current density, 200 mA g(-1)) were observed. The performances were considerably improved compared to recent results of mesoporous Co3O4, Co3O4 nanoparticles and a composite of Co3O4/RGO and Co3O4/Pd. Therefore, it would be promising to investigate such properties of DHP nanoparticles or other hollow metal (oxide) particles for the popular lithium-air battery.

  2. Curcuminoids-loaded lipid nanoparticles: novel approach towards malaria treatment.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Aditya P; Tiyaboonchai, Waree; Patankar, Swati; Madhusudhan, Basavaraj; Souto, Eliana B

    2010-11-01

    In the present work, curcuminoids-loaded lipid nanoparticles for parenteral administration were successfully prepared by a nanoemulsion technique employing high-speed homogenizer and ultrasonic probe. For the production of nanoparticles, trimyristin, tristerin and glyceryl monostearate were selected as solid lipids and medium chain triglyceride (MCT) as liquid lipid. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed the spherical nature of the particles with sizes ranging between 120 and 250 nm measured by photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS). The zeta potential of the particles ranged between -28 and -45 mV depending on the nature of the lipid matrix produced, which also influenced the entrapment efficiency (EE) and drug loading capacity (LC) found to be in the range of 80-94% and 1.62-3.27%, respectively. The LC increased reciprocally on increasing the amount of MCT as confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). DSC analyses revealed that increasing imperfections within the lipid matrix allowed for increasing encapsulation parameters. Nanoparticles were further sterilized by filtration process which was found to be superior over autoclaving in preventing thermal degradation of thermo-sensitive curcuminoids. The in vivo pharmacodynamic activity revealed 2-fold increase in antimalarial activity of curcuminoids entrapped in lipid nanoparticles when compared to free curcuminoids at the tested dosage level. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. In vitro digestion of curcuminoid-loaded lipid nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noack, Andreas; Oidtmann, Johannes; Kutza, Johannes; Mäder, Karsten

    2012-09-01

    Curcuminoid-loaded lipid nanoparticles were produced by melt homogenization. The used lipid matrices were medium chain triglycerides, trimyristin (TM), and tristearin. The mean particle size of the preparations was between 130 and 180 nm. The incorporated curcuminoids revealed a good stability over a period of 12 months. The curcuminoid-loaded lipid nanoparticles were intended for the oral delivery of curcuminoids. Therefore, the fate of the triglyceride matrix in simulated gastric and simulated intestinal media under the influence of pepsin and pancreatin, respectively, was assessed. The degradation of the triglycerides was monitored by the pH-stat method and with high performance thin layer chromatography in connection with spectrodensitometry to quantify the different lipid fractions. The TM nanoparticles were not degraded in simulated gastric fluid (SGF), but the decomposition of the triglyceride matrix was rapid in the intestinal media. The digestion process was faster in the simulated fed state medium compared to the simulated fasted state medium. Additionally, the stability of the incorporated drug was tested in the respective physiological media. The curcuminoids showed an overall good stability in the different test media. The release of the curcuminoids from the lipid nanoparticles was determined by fluorescence imaging techniques. A slow release of the drug was found in phosphate buffer. In contrast, a more distinct release of the curcuminoids was verifiable in SGF and in simulated intestinal fluids. Overall, it was considered that the transfer of the drug into the outer media was mainly triggered by the lipid degradation and not by drug release.

  4. Size, Loading Efficiency, and Cytotoxicity of Albumin-Loaded Chitosan Nanoparticles: An Artificial Neural Networks Study.

    PubMed

    Baharifar, Hadi; Amani, Amir

    2017-01-01

    When designing nanoparticles for drug delivery, many variables such as size, loading efficiency, and cytotoxicity should be considered. Usually, smaller particles are preferred in drug delivery because of longer blood circulation time and their ability to escape from immune system, whereas smaller nanoparticles often show increased toxicity. Determination of parameters which affect size of particles and factors such as loading efficiency and cytotoxicity could be very helpful in designing drug delivery systems. In this work, albumin (as a protein drug model)-loaded chitosan nanoparticles were prepared by polyelectrolyte complexation method. Simultaneously, effects of 4 independent variables including chitosan and albumin concentrations, pH, and reaction time were determined on 3 dependent variables (i.e., size, loading efficiency, and cytotoxicity) by artificial neural networks. Results showed that concentrations of initial materials are the most important factors which may affect the dependent variables. A drop in the concentrations decreases the size directly, but they simultaneously decrease loading efficiency and increase cytotoxicity. Therefore, an optimization of the independent variables is required to obtain the most useful preparation. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cargo and Carrier Effects of Rapamycin-Loaded Perfluorocarbon Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bibee, Kristin Page

    Nanoparticle-based drug delivery has been championed as a means to increase local delivery of therapeutics while decreasing systemic drug exposure. By targeting the particles, and therefore the drugs, to diseased cells of interest, healthy cells will be spared and side effects avoided. This delivery mechanism would be particularly useful for drugs that interfere with cell growth and proliferation pathways, as blocking proliferation in normal cells leads to significant patient morbidity. Rapamycin is a macrolide and a known inhibitor of mTORC1, a protein complex that plays a crucial role in protein translation and cell growth. This work demonstrates the effects of rapamycin complexed with a nanoparticle carrier on two distinct pathologies: a new triple negative breast cancer cell line and a conventional mouse model of muscular dystrophy (mdx). Rapamycin is able to alter mitochondrial function and thus metabolism in both free and nanoparticle-delivered form without killing the cells. Although nanoparticles are considered to be a benign carrier, this work shows that perfluorocarbon nanoparticles are able to induce autophagy in vitro. The benefits of autophagy induction in cancer cells is cell and stage specific, but has been reported to be useful for radiosensitization of triple negative breast cancers. Additionally, the particles are shown to induce autophagy in the mdx model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and, when loaded with rapamycin, dramatically improve strength even in older animals with muscular dystrophy. Overall, this work enhances our understanding of the cellular effects of perfluorocarbon nanoparticles in two different disease models and enhances prospects for clinical translation of nanoparticle-based drug delivery.

  6. Guided bone regeneration with asymmetric collagen-chitosan membranes containing aspirin-loaded chitosan nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiayu; Ma, Shiqing; Liu, Zihao; Geng, Hongjuan; Lu, Xin; Zhang, Xi; Li, Hongjie; Gao, Chenyuan; Zhang, Xu; Gao, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Membranes allowing the sustained release of drugs that can achieve cell adhesion are very promising for guided bone regeneration. Previous studies have suggested that aspirin has the potential to promote bone regeneration. The purpose of this study was to prepare a local drug delivery system with aspirin-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (ACS) contained in an asymmetric collagen-chitosan membrane (CCM). Methods In this study, the ACS were fabricated using different concentrations of aspirin (5 mg, 25 mg, 50 mg, and 75 mg). The drug release behavior of ACS was studied. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to examine the micromorphology of ACS and aspirin-loaded chitosan nanoparticles contained in chitosan-collagen membranes (ACS-CCM). In vitro bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) were cultured and critical-sized cranial defects on Sprague-Dawley rats were made to evaluate the effect of the ACS-CCM on bone regeneration. Results Drug release behavior results of ACS showed that the nanoparticles fabricated in this study could successfully sustain the release of the drug. TEM showed the morphology of the nanoparticles. SEM images indicated that the asymmetric membrane comprised a loose collagen layer and a dense chitosan layer. In vitro studies showed that ACS-CCM could promote the proliferation of BMSCs, and that the degree of differentiated BMSCs seeded on CCMs containing 50 mg of ACS was higher than that of other membranes. Micro-computed tomography showed that 50 mg of ACS-CCM resulted in enhanced bone regeneration compared with the control group. Conclusion This study shows that the ACS-CCM would allow the sustained release of aspirin and have further osteogenic potential. This membrane is a promising therapeutic approach to guiding bone regeneration. PMID:29276386

  7. Guided bone regeneration with asymmetric collagen-chitosan membranes containing aspirin-loaded chitosan nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiayu; Ma, Shiqing; Liu, Zihao; Geng, Hongjuan; Lu, Xin; Zhang, Xi; Li, Hongjie; Gao, Chenyuan; Zhang, Xu; Gao, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Membranes allowing the sustained release of drugs that can achieve cell adhesion are very promising for guided bone regeneration. Previous studies have suggested that aspirin has the potential to promote bone regeneration. The purpose of this study was to prepare a local drug delivery system with aspirin-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (ACS) contained in an asymmetric collagen-chitosan membrane (CCM). In this study, the ACS were fabricated using different concentrations of aspirin (5 mg, 25 mg, 50 mg, and 75 mg). The drug release behavior of ACS was studied. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to examine the micromorphology of ACS and aspirin-loaded chitosan nanoparticles contained in chitosan-collagen membranes (ACS-CCM). In vitro bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) were cultured and critical-sized cranial defects on Sprague-Dawley rats were made to evaluate the effect of the ACS-CCM on bone regeneration. Drug release behavior results of ACS showed that the nanoparticles fabricated in this study could successfully sustain the release of the drug. TEM showed the morphology of the nanoparticles. SEM images indicated that the asymmetric membrane comprised a loose collagen layer and a dense chitosan layer. In vitro studies showed that ACS-CCM could promote the proliferation of BMSCs, and that the degree of differentiated BMSCs seeded on CCMs containing 50 mg of ACS was higher than that of other membranes. Micro-computed tomography showed that 50 mg of ACS-CCM resulted in enhanced bone regeneration compared with the control group. This study shows that the ACS-CCM would allow the sustained release of aspirin and have further osteogenic potential. This membrane is a promising therapeutic approach to guiding bone regeneration.

  8. Roxithromycin-loaded lipid nanoparticles for follicular targeting.

    PubMed

    Wosicka-Frąckowiak, Hanna; Cal, Krzysztof; Stefanowska, Justyna; Główka, Eliza; Nowacka, Magdalena; Struck-Lewicka, Wiktoria; Govedarica, Biljana; Pasikowska, Monika; Dębowska, Renata; Jesionowski, Teofil; Srčič, Stane; Markuszewski, Michał Jan

    2015-11-30

    Particulate drug carriers e.g. nanoparticles (NPs) have been shown to penetrate and accumulate preferentially in skin hair follicles creating high local concentration of a drug. In order to develop such a follicle targeting system we obtained and characterized solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) loaded with roxithromycin (ROX). The mean particle size (172±2 nm), polydisperisty index (0.237±0.007), zeta potential (-31.68±3.10 mV) and incorporation efficiency (82.1±3.0%) were measured. The long term stability of ROX-loaded SLN suspensions was proved up to 26 weeks. In vitro drug release study was performed using apparatus 4 dialysis adapters. Skin irritation test conducted using the EpiDerm™ tissue model demonstrated no irritation potential for ROX-loaded SLN. Ex vivo human skin penetration studies, employing rhodamine B hexyl ester perchlorate (RBHE) as a fluorescent dye to label the particles, revealed fluorescence deep in the skin, specifically around the hair follicles up to over 1mm depth. The comparison of fluorescence intensities after application of RBHE solution and RBHE-labelled ROX-loaded SLN was done. Then cyanoacrylate follicular biopsies were obtained in vivo and analyzed for ROX content, proving the possibility of penetration to human pilosebaceous units and delivering ROX by using SLN with the size below 200 nm. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Solid lipid nanoparticles loading adefovir dipivoxil for antiviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xing-guo; Miao, Jing; Li, Min-wei; Jiang, Sai-ping; Hu, Fu-qiang; Du, Yong-zhong

    2008-01-01

    Herein, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) were proposed as a new drug delivery system for adefovir dipivoxil (ADV). The octadecylamine-fluorescein isothiocynate (ODA-FITC) was synthesized and used as a fluorescence maker to be incorporated into SLN to investigate the time-dependent cellular uptake of SLN by HepG2.2.15. The SLN of monostearin with ODA-FITC or ADV were prepared by solvent diffusion method in an aqueous system. About 15 wt% drug entrapment efficiency (EE) and 3 wt% drug loading (DL) could be reached in SLN loading ADV. Comparing with free ADV, the inhibitory effects of ADV loaded in SLN on hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA levels in vitro were significantly enhanced. PMID:18543406

  10. Oxygen Sensing with Perfluorocarbon-Loaded Ultraporous Mesostructured Silica Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Amani L; Gee, Clifford T; Weegman, Bradley P; Einstein, Samuel A; Juelfs, Adam R; Ring, Hattie L; Hurley, Katie R; Egger, Sam M; Swindlehurst, Garrett; Garwood, Michael; Pomerantz, William C K; Haynes, Christy L

    2017-06-27

    Oxygen homeostasis is important in the regulation of biological function. Disease progression can be monitored by measuring oxygen levels, thus producing information for the design of therapeutic treatments. Noninvasive measurements of tissue oxygenation require the development of tools with minimal adverse effects and facile detection of features of interest. Fluorine magnetic resonance imaging ( 19 F MRI) exploits the intrinsic properties of perfluorocarbon (PFC) liquids for anatomical imaging, cell tracking, and oxygen sensing. However, the highly hydrophobic and lipophobic properties of perfluorocarbons require the formation of emulsions for biological studies, though stabilizing these emulsions has been challenging. To enhance the stability and biological loading of perfluorocarbons, one option is to incorporate perfluorocarbon liquids into the internal space of biocompatible mesoporous silica nanoparticles. Here, we developed perfluorocarbon-loaded ultraporous mesostructured silica nanoparticles (PERFUMNs) as 19 F MRI detectable oxygen-sensing probes. Ultraporous mesostructured silica nanoparticles (UMNs) have large internal cavities (average = 1.8 cm 3 g -1 ), facilitating an average 17% loading efficiency of PFCs, meeting the threshold fluorine concentrations needed for imaging studies. Perfluoro-15-crown-5-ether PERFUMNs have the highest equivalent nuclei per PFC molecule and a spin-lattice (T 1 ) relaxation-based oxygen sensitivity of 0.0032 mmHg -1 s -1 at 16.4 T. The option of loading PFCs after synthesizing UMNs, rather than traditional in situ core-shell syntheses, allows for use of a broad range of PFC liquids from a single material. The biocompatible and tunable chemistry of UMNs combined with the intrinsic properties of PFCs makes PERFUMNs a MRI sensor with potential for anatomical imaging, cell tracking, and metabolic spectroscopy with improved stability.

  11. Synthesis of Pyrimethanil-Loaded Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles and Its Distribution and Dissipation in Cucumber Plants.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Pengyue; Cao, Lidong; Ma, Dukang; Zhou, Zhaolu; Huang, Qiliang; Pan, Canping

    2017-05-16

    Mesoporous silica nanoparticles are used as pesticide carries in plants, which has been considered as a novel method to reduce the indiscriminate use of conventional pesticides. In the present work, mesoporous silica nanoparticles with particle diameters of 200-300 nm were synthesized in order to obtain pyrimethanil-loaded nanoparticles. The microstructure of the nanoparticles was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The loading content of pyrimethanil-loaded nanoparticles was investigated. After treatment on cucumber leaves, the concentrations of pyrimethanil were determined in different parts of cucumber over a period of 48 days using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. It was shown that the pyrimethanil-loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticles might be more conducive to acropetal, rather than basipetal, uptake, and the dosage had almost no effect on the distribution and dissipation rate in cucumber plants. The application of the pesticide-loaded nanoparticles in leaves had a low risk of pyrimethanil accumulating in the edible part of the plant.

  12. Synthesis of berberine loaded polymeric nanoparticles by central composite design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehra, Meenakshi; Sheorain, Jyoti; Kumari, Santosh

    2016-04-01

    Berberine is an isoquinoline alkaloid which is extracted from bark and roots of Berberis vulgaris plant. It has been used in ayurvedic medicine as it possess antimicrobial, antidiabetic, anticancer, antioxidant properties etc. But poor solubility of berberine leads to poor stability and bioavailability in medical formulations decreasing its efficacy. Hence nanoformulations of berberine can help in removing the limiting factors of alkaloid enhancing its utilization in pharmaceutical industry. Sodium alginate polymer was used to encapsulate berberine within nanoparticles by emulsion solvent evaporation method using tween 80 as a surfactant. Two factors and three level in central composite design was used to study the formulation. The optimized formulation (1% v/v of Tween 80 and 0.01% w/v of sodium alginate) of polymeric nanoparticles was taken for further evaluations. The size of synthesized nanoparticles was found to be 71.18 nm by particle size analysis (PSA). The berberine loaded polymeric nanoparticles showed better antibacterial activity compared to aqueous solution of berberine by well diffusion assay.

  13. Fabrication, characterization and bioevaluation of silibinin loaded chitosan nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pooja, Deep; Babu Bikkina, Dileep J; Kulhari, Hitesh; Nikhila, Nalla; Chinde, Srinivas; Raghavendra, Y M; Sreedhar, B; Tiwari, Ashok K

    2014-08-01

    Silibinin is reported to possess multiple biological activities. However, its hydrophobic nature limits its bioavailability compromising in vivo biological activities. Nanoparticles-based delivery of such molecules has emerged as new technique to resolve these issues. Bio-degradable, compatible and adhesive nature of chitosan has recently attracted its suitability as a carrier for biologically active molecules. This study presents fabrication and characterization of chitosan-tripolyphosphate based encapsulation of silibinin. Various preparations of silibinin encapsulated chitosan-tripolyphosphate nanoparticles were studied for particle size, morphology, zeta-potential, and encapsulation efficiencies. Preparations were also evaluated for cytotoxic activities in vitro. The optimized silibinin loaded chitosan nanoparticles were of 263.7±4.1nm in particle size with zeta potential 37.4±1.57mV. Nanoparticles showed high silibinin encapsulation efficiencies (82.94±1.82%). No chemical interactions between silibinin and chitosan were observed in FTIR analysis. Powder X-ray diffraction analysis revealed transformed physical state of silibinin after encapsulation. Surface morphology and thermal behaviour were determined using TEM and DSC analysis. Encapsulated silibinin displayed increased dissolution and better cytotoxicity against human prostate cancer cells (DU145) than silibinin alone. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Preparation, characterization and antibacterial properties against E. coli K88 of chitosan nanoparticle loaded copper ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Wen-Li; Xu, Ying-Lei; Xu, Zi-Rong; Fan, Cheng-Li

    2008-02-01

    The present study was conducted to prepare and characterize chitosan nanoparticle loaded copper ions, and evaluate their antibacterial activity. Chitosan nanoparticles were prepared based on ionotropic gelation, and then the copper ions were loaded. The particle size, zeta potential and morphology were determined. Antibacterial activity was evaluated against E. coli K88 by determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) in vitro. Results showed that the antibacterial activity was significantly enhanced by the loading of copper ions compared to those of chitosan nanoparticles and copper ions. The MIC and MBC of chitosan nanoparticle loaded copper ions were 21 times and 42 times lower than those of copper ions, respectively. To confirm the antibacterial mechanism, morphological changes of E. coli K88 treated by chitosan nanoparticle loaded copper ions were dynamically observed with an atomic force microscope (AFM). It was found that chitosan nanoparticle loaded copper ions killed E. coli K88 through damage to the cell membrane.

  15. Preparation and in Vitro Analysis of Human Serum Albumin Nanoparticles Loaded with Anthracycline Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Kotaro; Yamasaki, Keishi; Nakamura, Hideaki; Haratake, Mamoru; Taguchi, Kazuaki; Otagiri, Masaki

    2018-01-01

    Nanoparticles prepared using human serum albumin (HSA) have emerged as versatile carriers for improving the pharmacokinetic profile of drugs. The desolvation of HSA using ethanol followed by stabilization through crosslinking with glutaraldehyde is a common technique for preparing HSA nanoparticles, but our knowledge concerning the characteristics (or functions) of HSA nanoparticles and their efficiency when loaded with drugs is limited. To address this issue in more detail, we prepared anthracycline-loaded HSA nanoparticles. Doxorubicin-loaded HSA nanoparticles with a size similar to doxorubicin-unloaded particles could be prepared by desolvating at a higher pH (8-9), and the size (100-150 nm) was optimum for delivery to tumor tissues. Using this procedure, HSA nanoparticles were loaded with other anthracycline derivatives, and all showed cytotoxicity in cancer cells. However, the efficiency of drug loading and dissolution rate were different among them possibly due to the differences in the type of association of the drugs on nanoparticles (doxorubicin and daunorubicin; covalently bound to nanoparticles, pirarubicin; both covalently bound to and adsorbed on nanoparticles, aclarubicin; adsorbed on nanoparticles). Since the formulation of such drug-loaded HSA nanoparticles should be modified for efficient delivery to tumors, the findings reported herein provide the useful information for optimizing the formulation and the production process for the HSA nanoparticles using a desolvation technique.

  16. Predicting drug loading in PLA-PEG nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Meunier, M; Goupil, A; Lienard, P

    2017-06-30

    Polymer nanoparticles present advantageous physical and biopharmaceutical properties as drug delivery systems compared to conventional liquid formulations. Active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are often hydrophobic, thus not soluble in conventional liquid delivery. Encapsulating the drugs in polymer nanoparticles can improve their pharmacological and bio-distribution properties, preventing rapid clearance from the bloodstream. Such nanoparticles are commonly made of non-toxic amphiphilic self-assembling block copolymers where the core (poly-[d,l-lactic acid] or PLA) serves as a reservoir for the API and the external part (Poly-(Ethylene-Glycol) or PEG) serves as a stealth corona to avoid capture by macrophage. The present study aims to predict the drug affinity for PLA-PEG nanoparticles and their effective drug loading using in silico tools in order to virtually screen potential drugs for non-covalent encapsulation applications. To that end, different simulation methods such as molecular dynamics and Monte-Carlo have been used to estimate the binding of actives on model polymer surfaces. Initially, the methods and models are validated against a series of pigments molecules for which experimental data exist. The drug affinity for the core of the nanoparticles is estimated using a Monte-Carlo "docking" method. Drug miscibility in the polymer matrix, using the Hildebrand solubility parameter (δ), and the solvation free energy of the drug in the PLA polymer model is then estimated. Finally, existing published ALogP quantitative structure-property relationships (QSPR) are compared to this method. Our results demonstrate that adsorption energies modelled by docking atomistic simulations on PLA surfaces correlate well with experimental drug loadings, whereas simpler approaches based on Hildebrand solubility parameters and Flory-Huggins interaction parameters do not. More complex molecular dynamics techniques which use estimation of the solvation free energies both in

  17. Nearly full-dense and fine-grained AZO:Y ceramics sintered from the corresponding nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide ceramics with yttria doping (AZO:Y) ranging from 0 to 0.2 wt.% were fabricated by pressureless sintering yttria-modified nanoparticles in air at 1,300°C. Scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, a physical property measurement system, and a densimeter were employed to characterize the precursor nanoparticles and the sintered AZO ceramics. It was shown that a small amount of yttria doping can remarkably retard the growth of the as-received precursor nanoparticles, further improve the microstructure, refine the grain size, and enhance the density for the sintered ceramic. Increasing the yttria doping to 0.2 wt.%, the AZO:Y nanoparticles synthetized by a coprecipitation process have a nearly sphere-shaped morphology and a mean particle diameter of 15.1 nm. Using the same amount of yttria, a fully dense AZO ceramic (99.98% of theoretical density) with a grain size of 2.2 μm and a bulk resistivity of 4.6 × 10−3 Ω·cm can be achieved. This kind of AZO:Y ceramic has a potential to be used as a high-quality sputtering target to deposit ZnO-based transparent conductive films with better optical and electrical properties. PMID:22929049

  18. Next generation radiotherapy biomaterials loaded with high-Z nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cifter, Gizem

    This research investigates the dosimetric feasibility of using high-Z nanoparticles as localized radiosensitizers to boost the dose to the residual tumor cells during accelerated partial breast irradiation while minimizing the dose to surrounding healthy tissue. Analytical microdosimetry calculations were carried out to calculate dose enhancement (DEF) in the presence of high-Z nanoparticles. It has been proposed that routinely used inert radiotherapy (RT) biomaterials (e.g. fiducials, spacers) can be upgraded to smarter ones by coating/loading them with radiosensitizing gold nanoparticles (GNPs), for sustained in-situ release after implantation to enhance RT. Prototype smart biomaterials were produced by incorporating the GNPs in poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) polymer millirods during the gel phase of production. In vitro release of GNPs was monitored over time by optical/spectroscopy methods as a function of various design parameters. The prototype smart biomaterials displayed sustained customizable release of NPs in-vitro, reaching a burst release profile approximately after 25 days. The results also show that customizable release profiles can be achievable by varying GNP concentrations that are embedded within smart biomaterials, as well as other design parameters. This would potentially allow customizable local dose boost resulting in diverse treatment planning opportunities for individual cases. Considered together, the results provide preliminary data for development of next generation of RT biomaterials, which can be employed at no additional inconvenience to RT patients.

  19. Gambogic acid-loaded biomimetic nanoparticles in colorectal cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhen; Qian, Hanqing; Yang, Mi; Li, Rutian; Hu, Jing; Li, Li; Yu, Lixia; Liu, Baorui; Qian, Xiaoping

    2017-01-01

    Gambogic acid (GA) is expected to be a potential new antitumor drug, but its poor aqueous solubility and inevitable side effects limit its clinical application. Despite these inhe rent defects, various nanocarriers can be used to promote the solubility and tumor targeting of GA, improving antitumor efficiency. In addition, a cell membrane-coated nanoparticle platform that was reported recently, unites the customizability and flexibility of a synthetic copolymer, as well as the functionality and complexity of natural membrane, and is a new synthetic biomimetic nanocarrier with improved stability and biocompatibility. Here, we combined poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) with red blood-cell membrane (RBCm), and evaluated whether GA-loaded RBCm nanoparticles can retain and improve the antitumor efficacy of GA with relatively lower toxicity in colorectal cancer treatment compared with free GA. We also confirmed the stability, biocompatibility, passive targeting, and few side effects of RBCm-GA/PLGA nanoparticles. We expect to provide a new drug carrier in the treatment of colorectal cancer, which has strong clinical application prospects. In addition, the potential antitumor drug GA and other similar drugs could achieve broader clinical applications via this biomimetic nanocarrier. PMID:28280328

  20. Copper Loading of Preformed Nanoparticles for PET-Imaging Applications.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hoang D; Wang, Leon Z; Wilson, Brian K; McManus, Simon A; Jumai'an, Jenny; Padakanti, Prashanth K; Alavi, Abass; Mach, Robert H; Prud'homme, Robert K

    2018-01-31

    Nanoparticles (NP) are promising contrast agents for positron emission tomography (PET) radionuclide imaging that can increase signal intensity by localizing clusters of PET radionuclides together. However, methods to load NPs with PET radionuclides suffer from harsh loading conditions or poor loading efficacies or result in NP surface modifications that alter targeting in vivo. We present the formation of water-dispersible, polyethylene glycol coated NPs that encapsulate phthalocyanines into NP cores at greater than 50 wt % loading, using the self-assembly technique Flash NanoPrecipitation. Particles from 70 to 160 nm are produced. Phthalocyanine NPs rapidly and spontaneously chelate metals under mild conditions and can act as sinks for PET radionuclides such as 64-Cu to produce PET-active NPs. NPs chelate copper(II) with characteristic rates of 1845 M -1 h -1 at pH 6 and 37 °C, which produced >90% radionuclide chelation within 1 h. NP physical properties, such as core composition, core fluidity, and size, can be tuned to modulate chelation kinetics. These NPs retain 64 Cu even in the presence of the strong chelator ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid. The development of these constructs for rapid and facile radionuclide labeling expands the applications of NP-based PET imaging.

  1. Diazepam-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles: design and characterization.

    PubMed

    Abdelbary, Ghada; Fahmy, Rania H

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of the inclusion of a water-insoluble drug (diazepam, DZ) into solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs), which offer combined advantages of rapid onset and prolonged release of the drug. This work also describes a new approach to prepare suppositories containing DZ-loaded SLN dispersions, as potential drug carrier for the rectal route. Modified high-shear homogenization and ultrasound techniques were employed to prepare SLNs. The effect of incorporation of different concentrations of Compritol ATO 888 or Imwitor 900K and Poloxamer 188 or Tween 80 was investigated. Results showed that varying the type or concentration of lipid matrix or surfactant had a noticeable influence on the entrapment efficiencies, particle size, and release profiles of prepared SLNs. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction measurements showed that the majority of SLNs possessed less ordered arrangements of crystals than the corresponding bulk lipids, which was favorable for increasing the drug loading capacity. Transmission electron microscopy and laser diffractometry studies revealed that the prepared nanoparticles were round and homogeneous and 60% of the formulations were less than 500 nm. Additionally, SLN formulations showed significant (P < 0.05) prolonged release than DZ solution. The subsequent step encompassed the preparation and evaluation of SLN-based suppositories utilizing SLN formulations that illustrated optimal release profiles. The in vitro release of DZ from the suppositories prepared using DZ-loaded SLN dispersions (equivalent to 2 mg DZ) was significantly (P < 0.05) extended compared to suppositories containing 2 mg DZ free drug.

  2. Drug loading and release on tumor cells using silk fibroin-albumin nanoparticles as carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subia, B.; Kundu, S. C.

    2013-01-01

    Polymeric and biodegradable nanoparticles are frequently used in drug delivery systems. In this study silk fibroin-albumin blended nanoparticles were prepared using the desolvation method without any surfactant. These nanoparticles are easily internalized by the cells, reside within perinuclear spaces and act as carriers for delivery of the model drug methotrexate. Methotrexate loaded nanoparticles have better encapsulation efficiency, drug loading ability and less toxicity. The in vitro release behavior of methotrexate from the nanoparticles suggests that about 85% of the drug gets released after 12 days. The encapsulation and loading of a drug would depend on factors such as size, charge and hydrophobicity, which affect drug release. MTT assay and conjugation of particles with FITC demonstrate that the silk fibroin-albumin nanoparticles do not affect the viability and biocompatibility of cells. This blended nanoparticle, therefore, could be a promising nanocarrier for the delivery of drugs and other bioactive molecules.

  3. Formulation and Characterization of Anthocyanins-Loaded Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Dupeyrón, Danay; Kawakami, Monique; Rieumont, Jacques; Carvalho, José Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Açaí berry, from the Euterpe oleracea Mart. Palm, has been described as the most important fruit in the Brazilian Amazon. Several studies have reported that anthocyanins (ACNs), one of the components of the açaí, have enormous potential for pharmaceuticals applications. However, the bioavailability of anthocyanins is relatively low compared to that of other flavonoids. Then, in the present work, anthocyanins-loaded nanoparticles have been developed to overcome their poor bioavailability. A two-level factorial design with three factors was considered to evaluate the effect of EUDRAGIT ® L100, polyethylene glycol 2000 (PEG 2000) and polysorbate 80 on encapsulation efficiency (EE) of anthocyanins. Also, major parameters of nanoparticles were assessed by using mainly SEM microscopy and Dynamic light scattering. PEG 2000 was the only individual factor that has statistical significance (95% confidence level). The process yields (PY) were found in between 67% and 92%; the particle size and morphology analysis showed two distribution size, one for NPs and another for the agglomerates. The pH-sensitive polymer together with the hydrophilic polymer showed to be suitable as ACNs delivery system. The delayed release profile of ACNs, observed for all formulations, can enhance their poor bioavailability. Nevertheless, ACNs bioavailability in vivo remains to be studied. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Optimal Base Station Density of Dense Network: From the Viewpoint of Interference and Load.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jianyuan; Feng, Zhiyong

    2017-09-11

    Network densification is attracting increasing attention recently due to its ability to improve network capacity by spatial reuse and relieve congestion by offloading. However, excessive densification and aggressive offloading can also cause the degradation of network performance due to problems of interference and load. In this paper, with consideration of load issues, we study the optimal base station density that maximizes the throughput of the network. The expected link rate and the utilization ratio of the contention-based channel are derived as the functions of base station density using the Poisson Point Process (PPP) and Markov Chain. They reveal the rules of deployment. Based on these results, we obtain the throughput of the network and indicate the optimal deployment density under different network conditions. Extensive simulations are conducted to validate our analysis and show the substantial performance gain obtained by the proposed deployment scheme. These results can provide guidance for the network densification.

  5. Functionalized PLA polymers to control loading and/or release properties of drug-loaded nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Thauvin, Cédric; Schwarz, Bettina; Delie, Florence; Allémann, Eric

    2017-11-15

    Advantages associated with the use of polylactic acid (PLA) nano- or microparticles as drug delivery systems have been widely proven in the field of pharmaceutical sciences. These biodegradable and biocompatible carriers have demonstrated different loading and release properties depending on interactions with the cargo, preparation methods, particles size or molecular weight of PLA. In this study, we sought to show the possibility of influencing these properties by modifying the structure of the constituting polymer. Seven non-functionalized or functionalized PLA polymers were specifically designed and synthesized by microwave-assisted ring-opening polymerization of d,l-lactide. They presented short hydrophobic and/or hydrophilic groups thanks to the use of C20 aliphatic chain, mPEG1000, sorbitan esters (Spans ® ) or polysorbates (Tweens ® ), their PEGylated analogues, as initiators. Then, seven types of drug-loaded nanoparticles (NP) were prepared from these polymers and compared in terms of physico-chemical characteristics, drug loading and release profiles. Although the loading properties were not improved with any of the functionalized PLA NP, different release profiles were observed in an aqueous medium at 37 °C and over a period of five days. The presence of PEG moieties in the core of PLA-polysorbates NP induced a faster release while the addition of a single aliphatic chain induced a slower release due to better interactions with the active molecule. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Loading Ag nanoparticles on Cd(II) boron imidazolate framework for photocatalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Min; State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002; Zhang, De-Xiang

    2016-05-15

    An amine-functionalized Cd(II) boron imidazolate framework (BIF-77) with three-dimensional open structure has been successfully synthesized, which can load Ag nanoparticles (NPs) for photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB). - Graphical abstract: An amine-functionalized neutral Cd(II) boron imidazolate framework can load Ag NPs and show excellent photocatalytic degradation behavious for MB. - Highlights: • Amine-functionalization. • Neutral boron imidazolate framework. • Loading Ag nanoparticles (NPs). • Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue.

  7. Docetaxel-loaded multilayer nanoparticles with nanodroplets for cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Keun Sang; Kim, Kyungim; Yoon, Byeong Deok; Lee, Hye Jin; Park, Dal Yong; Kim, Eun-yeong; Lee, Kiho; Seo, Jae Hong; Yuk, Soon Hong

    2016-01-01

    A mixture of docetaxel (DTX) and Solutol® HS 15 (Solutol) transiently formed nanodroplets when it was suspended in an aqueous medium. However, nanodroplets that comprised DTX and Solutol showed a rapid precipitation of DTX because of their unstable characteristics in the aqueous medium. The incorporation of nanodroplets that comprised DTX and Solutol through vesicle fusion and subsequent stabilization was designed to prepare multilayer nanoparticles (NPs) with a DTX-loaded Solutol nanodroplet (as template NPs) core for an efficient delivery of DTX as a chemotherapeutic drug. As a result, the DTX-loaded Solutol nanodroplets (~11.7 nm) were observed to have an increased average diameter (from 11.7 nm to 156.1 nm) and a good stability of the hydrated NPs without precipitation of DTX by vesicle fusion and multilayered structure, respectively. Also, a long circulation of the multilayer NPs was observed, and this was due to the presence of Pluronic F-68 on the surface of the multilayer NPs. This led to an improved antitumor efficacy based on the enhanced permeation and retention effect. Therefore, this study indicated that the multilayer NPs have a considerable potential as a drug delivery system with an enhanced therapeutic efficacy by blood circulation and with low side effects. PMID:27042062

  8. Docetaxel-loaded multilayer nanoparticles with nanodroplets for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Oh, Keun Sang; Kim, Kyungim; Yoon, Byeong Deok; Lee, Hye Jin; Park, Dal Yong; Kim, Eun-Yeong; Lee, Kiho; Seo, Jae Hong; Yuk, Soon Hong

    2016-01-01

    A mixture of docetaxel (DTX) and Solutol(®) HS 15 (Solutol) transiently formed nanodroplets when it was suspended in an aqueous medium. However, nanodroplets that comprised DTX and Solutol showed a rapid precipitation of DTX because of their unstable characteristics in the aqueous medium. The incorporation of nanodroplets that comprised DTX and Solutol through vesicle fusion and subsequent stabilization was designed to prepare multilayer nanoparticles (NPs) with a DTX-loaded Solutol nanodroplet (as template NPs) core for an efficient delivery of DTX as a chemotherapeutic drug. As a result, the DTX-loaded Solutol nanodroplets (~11.7 nm) were observed to have an increased average diameter (from 11.7 nm to 156.1 nm) and a good stability of the hydrated NPs without precipitation of DTX by vesicle fusion and multilayered structure, respectively. Also, a long circulation of the multilayer NPs was observed, and this was due to the presence of Pluronic F-68 on the surface of the multilayer NPs. This led to an improved antitumor efficacy based on the enhanced permeation and retention effect. Therefore, this study indicated that the multilayer NPs have a considerable potential as a drug delivery system with an enhanced therapeutic efficacy by blood circulation and with low side effects.

  9. Polymorphic transformation of dense ZnO nanoparticles: Implications for chair/boat-type Peierls distortions of AB semiconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.-Y.; Shen Pouyan; Jiang Jianzhong

    2004-12-08

    Peierls distortion path was proved experimentally for dense ZnO nanoparticles prepared by static compression. Electron irradiation caused rock salt (R) to wurtzite (W) transition, following preferential (11-bar1){sub R}//(01-bar11){sub W}; [011]{sub R}//[1-bar21-bar3]{sub W} and then transformation strain induced (111-bar){sub R}//(1-bar011){sub W}; [011]{sub R}//[011-bar1]{sub W}. The two relationships can be rationalized by specified extent of chair- and boat-type Peierls distortions accompanied with band gap opening and intermediate {l_brace}111{r_brace}{sub R} slip for energetically favorable {l_brace}111{r_brace}{sub R}/(01-bar11){sub W} match.

  10. Nebulization performance of biodegradable sildenafil-loaded nanoparticles using the Aeroneb Pro: formulation aspects and nanoparticle stability to nebulization.

    PubMed

    Beck-Broichsitter, Moritz; Kleimann, Pia; Gessler, Tobias; Seeger, Werner; Kissel, Thomas; Schmehl, Thomas

    2012-01-17

    Polymeric nanoparticles meet the increasing interest for drug delivery applications and hold great promise to improve controlled drug delivery to the lung. Here, we present a series of investigations that were carried out to understand the impact of formulation variables on the nebulization performance of novel biodegradable sildenafil-loaded nanoparticles designed for targeted aerosol therapy of life-threatening pulmonary arterial hypertension. Narrowly distributed poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles (size: ∼200 nm) were prepared by a solvent evaporation technique using poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) as stabilizer. The aerodynamic and output characteristics using the Aeroneb Pro nebulizer correlated well with the dynamic viscosity of the employed fluids for nebulization. The nebulization performance was mainly affected by the amount of employed stabilizer, rather than by the applied nanoparticle concentration. Nanoparticles revealed physical stability against forces generated during aerosolization, what is attributed to the adsorbed PVA layer around the nanoparticles. Sildenafil was successfully encapsulated into nanoparticles (encapsulation efficiency: ∼80%). Size, size distribution and sildenafil content of nanoparticles were not affected by nebulization and the in vitro drug release profile demonstrated a sustained sildenafil release over ∼120 min. The current study suggests that the prepared sildenafil-loaded nanoparticles are a promising pharmaceutical for the therapy of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Preparation and Evaluation of Montelukast Sodium Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Priyanka, K; Sathali, A Abdul Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) are an alternative carrier system used to load the drug for targeting, to improve the bioavailability by increasing its solubility, and protecting the drug from presystemic metabolism. The avoidance of presystemic metabolism is due to the nano-metric size range, so that the liver cannot uptake the drug from the delivery system and is not metabolized by the liver. Montelukast sodium is an anti-asthmatic drug, because of its poor oral bioavailability, presystemic metabolism, and decreased half-life; it was chosen to formulate as the solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) system by hot homogenization followed by an ultrasonication method, to overcome the above. Compritol ATO 888, stearic acid, and glyceryl monostearate were used as a lipid matrix and polyvinyl alcohol as a surfactant. The prepared formulations have been evaluated for entrapment efficiency, drug content, in vitro drug release, particle size analysis, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform-infrared studies (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and stability. Particle size analysis revealed that the SLN prepared from the higher melting point lipid showed a larger particle size and with increased carbon chain length of the fatty acids. Entrapment efficiency (EE) was ranging from 42% to 92%. In vitro release studies showed maximum cumulative drug release was obtained for F 1 (59.1%) containing stearic acid, and the lowest was observed for F 18 (28.1%) containing compritol ATO 888 after 12 h and all the formulations followed first-order release kinetics. FT-IR and DSC studies revealed no interaction between drug and lipids. Studies showed that increase in lipid concentration, increased particle size, EE, and maintained the sustained release of drug. Among all, compritol ATO 888 was chosen as the best lipid for formulating SLN because it had high EE and sustained the drug release. PMID:23112531

  12. Insulin-loaded pH-sensitive hyaluronic acid nanoparticles enhance transcellular delivery.

    PubMed

    Han, Lina; Zhao, Yuefang; Yin, Lifang; Li, Ruiming; Liang, Yang; Huang, Huan; Pan, Shirong; Wu, Chuanbin; Feng, Min

    2012-09-01

    In the present study, we developed novel insulin-loaded hyaluronic acid (HA) nanoparticles for insulin delivery. The insulin-loaded HA nanoparticles were prepared by reverse-emulsion-freeze-drying method. This method led to a homogenous population of small HA nanoparticles with average size of 182.2 nm and achieved high insulin entrapment efficiencies (approximately 95%). The pH-sensitive HA nanoparticles as an oral delivery carrier showed advantages in protecting insulin against the strongly acidic environment of the stomach, and not destroying the junction integrity of epithelial cells which promise long-term safety for chronic insulin treatment. The results of transport experiments suggested that insulin-loaded HA nanoparticles were transported across Caco-2 cell monolayers mainly via transcellular pathway and their apparent permeability coefficient from apical to basolateral had more than twofold increase compared with insulin solution. The efflux ratio of P (app) (B to A) to P (app) (A to B) less than 1 demonstrated that HA nanoparticle-mediated transport of insulin across Caco-2 cell monolayers underwent active transport. The results of permeability through the rat small intestine confirmed that HA nanoparticles significantly enhanced insulin transport through the duodenum and ileum. Diabetic rats treated with oral insulin-loaded HA nanoparticles also showed stronger hypoglycemic effects than insulin solution. Therefore, these HA nanoparticles could be a promising candidate for oral insulin delivery.

  13. Development and evaluation of a novel topical treatment for acne with azelaic acid-loaded nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Reis, Catarina Pinto; Gomes, Ana; Rijo, Patrícia; Candeias, Sara; Pinto, Pedro; Baptista, Marina; Martinho, Nuno; Ascensão, Lia

    2013-10-01

    Azelaic acid (AzA) is used in the treatment of acne. However, side effects and low compliance have been associated with several topical treatments with AzA. Nanotechnology presents a strategy that can overcome these problems. Polymeric nanoparticles can control drug release and targeting and reduce local drug toxicity. The aim of this study was to produce and evaluate an innovative topical treatment for acne with AzA-loaded poly-DL-lactide/glycolide copolymer nanoparticles. A soft white powder of nanoparticles was prepared. The mean size of loaded nanoparticles was < 400 nm and zeta potential was negative. Spherical nanoparticles were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Encapsulation efficiency was around 80% and a strong interaction between the polymer and the drug was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetric analysis. In vitro drug release studies suggested a controlled and pulsatile release profile. System efficacy tests suggested similar results between the loaded nanoparticles and the nonencapsulated drug against the most common bacteria associated with acne. Cytotoxicity of AzA-loaded nanoparticles was concentration dependent, although not pronounced. The occluded patch test seemed to indicate that the formulation excipients were safe and thus AzA-loaded nanoparticles appear to be an efficient and safe treatment for acne.

  14. Non-Gurney Scaling of Explosives Heavily Loaded with Dense Inert Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loiseau, Jason; Higgins, Andrew; Frost, David

    2017-06-01

    For most high explosives, the ability to accelerate material to some terminal velocity scales with the ratio of material-mass to charge-mass (M/C) according to the Gurney equations. Generally, the Gurney equation for planar geometry accurately predicts the terminal velocity of the driven material until the M/C ratio is reduced to roughly 0.15 or lower; at which point gasdynamic departures from the assumptions in the model result in systematic underpredictions of the material velocity. The authors conducted a series of open-face sandwich flyer plate experiments to measure the scaling of flyer terminal velocity with M/C for a heterogeneous explosive composed of a packed bed of 280 μm steel particles saturated with amine-sensitized nitromethane (90% NM, 10% diethylenetriamine). The propulsive capability of this explosive did not scale according to a modified form of the Gurney equation. Rather, propulsive efficiency increased as the flyer plate became relatively thicker. In the present study the authors have conducted further experiments using this explosive in symmetric sandwiches as well as for normally-incident detonations initiated via a slapping foil to examine how flyer terminal velocity scales with M/C for alternative geometries and loading conditions.

  15. Preparation and characterization of citral-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Tian, Huaixiang; Lu, Zhuoyan; Li, Danfeng; Hu, Jing

    2018-05-15

    Citral-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (citral-SLNs) were prepared via a high-pressure homogenization method, using glyceryl monostearate (GMS) as the solid lipid and a mixture of Tween 80 (T-80) and Span 80 (S-80) at a weight ratio of 1:1 as the surfactant. The microstructure and properties of the citral-SLNs were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The chemical stability of citral in the citral-SLNs was analyzed by solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography (SPME-GC). The GC results showed that 67.0% of the citral remained in the citral-SLN suspensions after 12 days, while only 8.22% remained in the control. Therefore, the encapsulation of citral in the solid lipid can enhance its stability in acidic surroundings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Streptomycin-loaded PLGA-alginate nanoparticles: preparation, characterization, and assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadi, Asadollah

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to formulate and characterize streptomycin-loaded PLGA-alginate nanoparticles for their potential therapeutic use in Salmonella subsp. enterica ATCC 14028 infections. The streptomycin nanoparticle was prepared by solvent diffusion method, and the other properties such as size, zeta potential, loading efficacy, release kinetics, and antimicrobial strength were evaluated. The survey shows that nanoparticles may serve as a carrier of streptomycin and may provide localized antibacterial activity in the treatment of Salmonellosis. Electron microscopy showed spherical particles with indentations. The average size of the nanoparticles was 90 nm. At pH 7.2, the release kinetics of streptomycin from the nanoparticles was successfully illustrated as an initial burst defined by a first order equation that after this stage, it has a drastic tendency to obtain steady state. Nevertheless, nanoparticles showed loading efficacy nearly about 70-75 %. In addition, the tendency of concentration of streptomycin released from nanoparticles to reach antibacterial activity was similar to that of free streptomycin against PLGA-alginate, but it had threefold more antimicrobial strength in comparison with free streptomycin. This work shows the potential use of streptomycin-loaded PLGA-alginate nanoparticles and its capability.

  17. Encapsulation of antigen-loaded silica nanoparticles into microparticles for intradermal powder injection.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yibin; Mathaes, Roman; Winter, Gerhard; Engert, Julia

    2014-10-15

    Epidermal powder immunisation (EPI) is being investigated as a promising needle-free delivery methods for vaccination. The objective of this work was to prepare a nanoparticles-in-microparticles (nano-in-micro) system, integrating the advantages of nanoparticles and microparticles into one vaccine delivery system for epidermal powder immunisation. Cationic mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNP-NH2) were prepared and loaded with ovalbumin as a model antigen. Loading was driven by electrostatic interactions. Ovalbumin-loaded silica nanoparticles were subsequently formulated into sugar-based microparticles by spray-freeze-drying. The obtained microparticles meet the size requirement for EPI. Confocal microscopy was used to demonstrate that the nanoparticles are homogeneously distributed in the microparticles. Furthermore, the silica nanoparticles in the dry microparticles can be re-dispersed in aqueous solution showing no aggregation. The recovered ovalbumin shows integrity compared to native ovalbumin. The present nano-in-micro system allows (1) nanoparticles to be immobilized and finely distributed in microparticles, (2) microparticle formation and (3) re-dispersion of nanoparticles without subsequent aggregation. The nanoparticles inside microparticles can (1) adsorb proteins to cationic shell/surface voids in spray-dried products without detriment to ovalbumin stability, (2) deliver antigens in nano-sized modes to allow recognition by the immune system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Development and in vitro evaluation of oxytetracycline-loaded PMMA nanoparticles for oral delivery against anaplasmosis.

    PubMed

    SadguruPrasad, Lakshminarayana Turuvekere; Madhusudhan, Basavaraj; Kodihalli B, Prakash; Ghosh, Prahlad Chandra

    2017-02-01

    Poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA) polymer with remarkable properties and merits are being preferred in various biomedical applications due to its biocompatibility, non-toxicity and cost effectiveness. In this investigation, oxytetracycline-loaded PMMA nanoparticles were prepared using nano-precipitation method for the treatment of anaplasmosis. The prepared nanoparticles were characterised using dynamic light scattering (DLS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The mean average diameter of the nanoparticles ranged between 190-240 nm and zeta potential was found to be -19 mV. The drug loading capacity and entrapment efficiency of nanoparticles was found varied between 33.7-62.2% and 40.5-60.0%. The in vitro drug release profile exhibited a biphasic phenomenon indicating controlled drug release. The uptake of coumarin-6(C-6)-loaded PMMA nanoparticles in Plasmodium falciparum ( Pf 3D7) culture model was studied. The preferential uptake of C-6-loaded nanoparticles by the Plasmodium infected erythrocytes in comparison with the uninfected erythrocytes was observed under fluorescence microscopy. These findings suggest that oxytetracycline-loaded PMMA nanoparticles were found to be an effective oral delivery vehicle and an alternative pharmaceutical formulation in anaplasmosis treatment, too.

  19. Mechanism-Based Enhanced Delivery of Drug-Loaded Targeted Nanoparticles for Breast Cancer Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-01

    Enhanced Delivery of Drug-Loaded Targeted Nanoparticles for Breast Cancer Therapy” 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0166 5c... Nanotechnologies in Living Systems”, Moscow Region, Russia, September, 2011. 3. “Ionic nanogels for drug delivery in cancer ”. NanoDDS’12; Atlantic City, New...AD Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0166 TITLE: Mechanism-Based Enhanced Delivery of Drug-Loaded Targeted Nanoparticles for Breast

  20. Mechanism-Based Enhanced Delivery of Drug-Loaded Targeted Nanoparticles for Breast Cancer Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-01

    Based Enhanced Delivery of Drug-Loaded Targeted Nanoparticles for Breast Cancer Therapy” 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0167 5c... Nanotechnologies in Living Systems”, Moscow Region, Russia, September, 2011. 3. “Ionic nanogels for drug delivery in cancer ”. NanoDDS’12; Atlantic City, New...AD Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0167 TITLE: Mechanism-Based Enhanced Delivery of Drug-Loaded Targeted Nanoparticles for Breast

  1. Structural control of nonlinear optical absorption and refraction in dense metal nanoparticle arrays.

    PubMed

    Kohlgraf-Owens, Dana C; Kik, Pieter G

    2009-08-17

    The linear and nonlinear optical properties of a composite containing interacting spherical silver nanoparticles embedded in a dielectric host are studied as a function of interparticle separation using three dimensional frequency domain simulations. It is shown that for a fixed amount of metal, the effective third-order nonlinear susceptibility of the composite chi((3))(omega) can be significantly enhanced with respect to the linear optical properties, due to a combination of resonant surface plasmon excitation and local field redistribution. It is shown that this geometry-dependent susceptibility enhancement can lead to an improved figure of merit for nonlinear absorption. Enhancement factors for the nonlinear susceptibility of the composite are calculated, and the complex nature of the enhancement factors is discussed.

  2. Eugenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles: II. Application in bio-based plastics for active packaging.

    PubMed

    Woranuch, Sarekha; Yoksan, Rangrong

    2013-07-25

    The aim of the present research was to study the possibility of using eugenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles as antioxidants for active bio-based packaging material. Eugenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles were incorporated into thermoplastic flour (TPF) - a model bio-based plastic - through an extrusion process at temperatures above 150°C. The influences of eugenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles on crystallinity, morphology, thermal properties, radical scavenging activity, reducing power, tensile properties and barrier properties of TPF were investigated. Although the incorporation of 3% (w/w) of eugenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles significantly reduced the extensibility and the oxygen barrier property of TPF, it provided antioxidant activity and improved the water vapor barrier property. In addition, TPF containing eugenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles exhibited superior radical scavenging activity and stronger reducing power compared with TPF containing naked eugenol. The results suggest the applicability of TPF containing eugenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles as an antioxidant active packaging material. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Activation of Latent HIV Using Drug-loaded Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovochich, Michael

    Antiretroviral therapy is currently only capable of controlling human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication, rather than completely eradicating virus from patients. This is due in part to the establishment of a latent virus reservoir in resting CD4+ T-cells, which persists even in the presence of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). It is thought that forced activation of latently infected cells could induce virus production, allowing targeting of the cell by the immune response. A variety of molecules are able to stimulate HIV from latency. However, no tested purging strategy has proven capable of eliminating the infection completely or preventing viral rebound if therapy is stopped. Hence, novel latency activation approaches are required. Nanoparticles can offer several advantages over more traditional drug delivery methods, including improved drug solubility, stability, and the ability to simultaneously target multiple different molecules to particular cell or tissue types. Here we describe the development of a novel lipid nanoparticle with the protein kinase C activator bryostatin-2 incorporated (LNP-Bry). These particles can target, activate primary human CD4+ T-cells, and stimulate latent virus production from human T-cell lines in vitro and from latently infected cells in a humanized mouse model ex vivo. This activation was synergistically enhanced by the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) sodium butyrate. Furthermore, LNP-Bry can also be loaded with the protease inhibitor nelfinavir (LNP-Bry-Nel), producing a particle capable of both activating latent virus and inhibiting viral spread. LNP-Bry was further tested for its in vivo biodistribution in both wild type mice (C57 black 6), as well as humanized mice (SCID-hu Thy/Liv, and bone marrow-liver-thymus [BLT]). LNP-Bry accumulated in the spleen and induced the early activation marker CD69 in wild type mice. Taken together, these data demonstrate the ability of nanotechnological approaches to

  4. PLGA nanoparticles from nano-emulsion templating as imaging agents: Versatile technology to obtain nanoparticles loaded with fluorescent dyes.

    PubMed

    Fornaguera, C; Feiner-Gracia, N; Calderó, G; García-Celma, M J; Solans, C

    2016-11-01

    The interest in polymeric nanoparticles as imaging systems for biomedical applications has increased notably in the last decades. In this work, PLGA nanoparticles, prepared from nano-emulsion templating, have been used to prepare novel fluorescent imaging agents. Two model fluorescent dyes were chosen and dissolved in the oil phase of the nano-emulsions together with PLGA. Nano-emulsions were prepared by the phase inversion composition (PIC) low-energy method. Fluorescent dye-loaded nanoparticles were obtained by solvent evaporation of nano-emulsion templates. PLGA nanoparticles loaded with the fluorescent dyes showed hydrodynamic radii lower than 40nm; markedly lower than those reported in previous studies. The small nanoparticle size was attributed to the nano-emulsification strategy used. PLGA nanoparticles showed negative surface charge and enough stability to be used for biomedical imaging purposes. Encapsulation efficiencies were higher than 99%, which was also attributed to the nano-emulsification approach as well as to the low solubility of the dyes in the aqueous component. Release kinetics of both fluorescent dyes from the nanoparticle dispersions was pH-independent and sustained. These results indicate that the dyes could remain encapsulated enough time to reach any organ and that the decrease of the pH produced during cell internalization by the endocytic route would not affect their release. Therefore, it can be assumed that these nanoparticles are appropriate as systemic imaging agents. In addition, in vitro toxicity tests showed that nanoparticles are non-cytotoxic. Consequently, it can be concluded that the preparation of PLGA nanoparticles from nano-emulsion templating represents a very versatile technology that enables obtaining biocompatible, biodegradable and safe imaging agents suitable for biomedical purposes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Endostar-loaded PEG-PLGA nanoparticles: in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Sanyuan; Zhang, Yangde

    2010-11-24

    Endostar, a novel recombinant human endostatin, which was approved by the Chinese State Food and Drug Administration in 2005, has a broad spectrum of activity against solid tumors. In this study, we aimed to determine whether the anticancer effect of Endostar is increased by using a nanocarrier system. It is expected that the prolonged circulation of endostar will improve its anticancer activity. Endostar-loaded nanoparticles were prepared to improve controlled release of the drug in mice and rabbits, as well as its anticancer effects in mice with colon cancer. A protein release system could be exploited to act as a drug carrier. Nanoparticles were formulated from poly (ethylene glycol) modified poly (DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PEG-PLGA) by a double emulsion technique. Physical and release characteristics of endostar-loaded nanoparticles in vitro were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), and micro bicinchoninic acid protein assay. The pharmacokinetic parameters of endostar nanoparticles in rabbit and mice plasma were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Western blot was used to detect endostatin in different tissues. To study the effects of endostar-loaded nanoparticles in vivo, nude mice in which tumor cells HT-29 were implanted, were subsequently treated with endostar or endostar-loaded PEG-PLGA nanoparticles. Using TEM and PCS, endostar-loaded PEG-PLGA nanoparticles were found to have a spherical core-shell structure with a diameter of 169.56 ± 35.03 nm. Drug-loading capacity was 8.22% ± 2.35% and drug encapsulation was 80.17% ± 7.83%. Compared with endostar, endostar-loaded PEG-PLGA nanoparticles had a longer elimination half-life and lower peak concentration, caused slower growth of tumor cell xenografts, and prolonged tumor doubling times. The nanoparticles changed the pharmacokinetic characteristics of endostar in mice and rabbits, thereby reinforcing anticancer activity. In conclusion, PEG

  6. Targeting Paclitaxel-Loaded Nanoparticles to Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    nanoparticle of »20 nm in aqueous solutions as determined by dynamic light scattering (2) Figure 1. Figure 1 In our studies, this new nanoparticle...Selective Integrin avb3 Antagonists. J Am Chem Soc. 1996;118:7461-72. 11. Jolimaitre P , Poirier C, Richard A, Blanpain A, Delord B, Roux D, et al...Tissue-penetrating delivery of compounds and nanoparticles into tumors. Cancer Cell. 2009;16:510-20. 15. Laakkonen P , Porkka K, Hoffman JA, Ruoslahti

  7. Production of Curcumin-Loaded Silk Fibroin Nanoparticles for Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Montalbán, Mercedes G; Coburn, Jeannine M; Lozano-Pérez, A Abel; Cenis, José L; Víllora, Gloria; Kaplan, David L

    2018-02-24

    Curcumin, extracted from the rhizome of Curcuma longa , has been widely used in medicine for centuries due to its anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-oxidant and anti-microbial effects. However, its bioavailability during treatments is poor because of its low solubility in water, slow dissolution rate and rapid intestinal metabolism. For these reasons, improving the therapeutic efficiency of curcumin using nanocarriers (e.g., biopolymer nanoparticles) has been a research focus, to foster delivery of the curcumin inside cells due to their small size and large surface area. Silk fibroin from the Bombyx mori silkworm is a biopolymer characterized by its biocompatibility, biodegradability, amphiphilic chemistry, and excellent mechanical properties in various material formats. These features make silk fibroin nanoparticles useful vehicles for delivering therapeutic drugs, such as curcumin. Curcumin-loaded silk fibroin nanoparticles were synthesized using two procedures (physical adsorption and coprecipitation) more scalable than methods previously described using ionic liquids. The results showed that nanoparticle formulations were 155 to 170 nm in diameter with a zeta potential of approximately -45 mV. The curcumin-loaded silk fibroin nanoparticles obtained by both processing methods were cytotoxic to carcinogenic cells, while not decreasing viability of healthy cells. In the case of tumor cells, curcumin-loaded silk fibroin nanoparticles presented higher efficacy in cytotoxicity against neuroblastoma cells than hepatocarcinoma cells. In conclusion, curcumin-loaded silk fibroin nanoparticles constitute a biodegradable and biocompatible delivery system with the potential to treat tumors by local, long-term sustained drug delivery.

  8. Individual-collective crossover driven by particle size in dense assemblies of superparamagnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridier, Karl; Gillon, Béatrice; Chaboussant, Grégory; Catala, Laure; Mazérat, Sandra; Rivière, Eric; Mallah, Talal

    2017-02-01

    Prussian blue analogues (PBA) ferromagnetic nanoparticles CsIxNiII[CrIII(CN)6 ]z·3(H2O) embedded in CTA+ (cetyltrimethylammonium) matrix have been investigated by magnetometry and magnetic small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). Choosing particle sizes (diameter D = 4.8 and 8.6 nm) well below the single-domain radius and comparable volume fraction of particle, we show that the expected superparamagnetic regime for weakly anisotropic isolated magnetic particles is drastically affected due to the interplay of surface/volume anisotropies and dipolar interactions. For the smallest particles (D = 4.8 nm), magnetocrystalline anisotropy is enhanced by surface spins and drives the system into a regime of ferromagnetically correlated clusters characterized by a temperature-dependent magnetic correlation length Lmag which is experimentally accessible using magnetic SANS. For D = 8.6 nm particles, a superparamagnetic regime is recovered in a wide temperature range. We propose a model of interacting single-domain particles with axial anisotropy that accounts quantitatively for the observed behaviors in both magnetic regimes. Supplementary material in the form of one pdf file available from the Journal web page at http://https://doi.org/10.1140/epjb/e2017-70534-9

  9. Evaluation of self-assembled HCPT-loaded PEG-b-PLA nanoparticles by comparing with HCPT-loaded PLA nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiangrui; Wu, Shichao; Wang, Yange; Li, Yang; Chang, Di; Luo, Yin; Ye, Shefang; Hou, Zhenqing

    2014-12-01

    We present a dialysis technique to prepare the 10-hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT)-loaded nanoparticles (NPs) using methoxypolyethylene glycol-poly(D,L-lactide) (PEG-b-PLA) and PLA, respectively. Both HCPT-loaded PEG-b-PLA NPs and HCPT-loaded PLA NPs were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The results showed that the HCPT-loaded PEG-b-PLA NPs and HCPT-loaded PLA NPs presented a hydrodynamic particle size of 120.1 and 226.8 nm, with a polydispersity index of 0.057 and 0.207, a zeta potential of -31.2 and -45.7 mV, drug encapsulation efficiency of 44.52% and 44.94%, and drug-loaded content of 7.42% and 7.49%, respectively. The HCPT-loaded PEG-b-PLA NPs presented faster drug release rate compared to the HCPT-loaded PLA NPs. The HCPT-loaded PEG-b-PLA NPs presented higher cytotoxicity than the HCPT-loaded PLA NPs. These results suggested that the HCPT-loaded PEG-b-PLA NPs presented better characteristics for drug delivery compared to HCPT-loaded PLA NPs.

  10. Critical material attributes (CMAs) of strip films loaded with poorly water-soluble drug nanoparticles: III. Impact of drug nanoparticle loading.

    PubMed

    Krull, Scott M; Moreno, Jacqueline; Li, Meng; Bilgili, Ecevit; Davé, Rajesh N

    2017-05-15

    Polymer strip films have emerged as a robust platform for poorly water-soluble drug delivery. However, the common conception is that films cannot exceed low drug loadings, mainly due to poor drug stability, slow release, and film brittleness. This study explores the ability to achieve high loadings of poorly water-soluble drug nanoparticles in strip films while retaining good mechanical properties and enhanced dissolution rate. Aqueous suspensions containing up to 30wt% griseofulvin nanoparticles were prepared via wet stirred media milling and incorporated into hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) films. Griseofulvin loading in films was adjusted to be between 9 and 49wt% in HPMC-E15 films and 30 and 73wt% in HPMC-E4M films by varying the mixing ratio of HPMC solution-to-griseofulvin suspension. All films exhibited good content uniformity and nanoparticle redispersibility up to 50wt% griseofulvin, while E4M films above 50wt% griseofulvin had slightly worse content uniformity and poor nanoparticle redispersibility. Increasing drug loading in films generally required more time to achieve 100% release during dissolution, although polymer-drug clusters dispersed from E4M films above 50wt% griseofulvin, resulting in similar dissolution profiles. While all films exhibited good tensile strength, a significant decrease in percent elongation was observed above 40-50wt% GF, resulting in brittle films. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of flurbiprofen-loaded nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution using sucrose.

    PubMed

    Oh, Dong Hoon; Yan, Yi-Dong; Kim, Dong Wuk; Kim, Jong Oh; Yong, Chul Soon; Choi, Han-Gon

    2014-02-01

    A novel flurbiprofen-loaded nanoemulsion which gave uniform emulsion droplets with a narrow size distribution was previously reported to be prepared using membrane emulsification method. The purpose of this study is to develop a novel flurbiprofen-loaded nanoparticle with a narrow size distribution and improved bioavailability. The nanoparticle was prepared by solidifying nanoemulsion using sucrose as a carrier via spray drying method. Its physicochemical properties were investigated using SEM, DSC and PXRD. Furthermore, dissolution and bioavailability in rats were evaluated compared to a flurbiprofen-loaded commercial product. The flurbiprofen-loaded nanoparticles with flurbiprofen/sucrose/surfactant mixture (1/20/2, weight ratio) gave good solidification and no stickiness. They associated with about 70,000-fold improved drug solubility and had a mean size of about 300 nm with a narrow size distribution. Flurbiprofen was present in a changed amorphous state in these nanoparticles. Moreover, the nanoparticles gave significantly shorter Tmax, and higher AUC and Cmax of the drug compared to the commercial product (p < 0.05). In particular, they showed about nine-fold higher AUC of the drug than did the commercial product. These flurbiprofen-loaded nanoparticles prepared with sucrose by the membrane emulsification and spray drying method would be a potential candidate for orally delivering poorly water-soluble flurbiprofen with enhanced bioavailability.

  12. Superior anticancer efficacy of curcumin-loaded nanoparticles against lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Yin, Haitao; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Baorui

    2013-08-01

    Curcumin (CM) has anticancer potential for several cancers and blocks several steps in the carcinogenesis process. However, the clinical application of CM is greatly limited due to its low effects in vivo resulted from its poor solubility and pharmacokinetics. This raises the possibility of taking CM as a novel model drug in a new nanoparticle-based delivery system. In this study, CM-loaded nanoparticles were prepared from three kinds of amphilic methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG)-polycaprolactone (PCL) block copolymers. It was noted that CM-loaded nanoparticles prepared from mPEG10k-PCL30k showed not only the highest loading efficiency, but also the most sustained release pattern. In vitro studies showed that CM was effectively transported into A549 cells by nanoparticles and localized around the nuclei in the cytoplasm. In addition, the cytotoxicity of CM-loaded nanoparticles with mEPG10k-PCL30k as a drug carrier was in a dose- and time-dependent manner in A549 cells. Further apoptotic staining results demonstrated the superior pro-apoptotic effect of CM-loaded nanoparticles over free drug. Data in this study not only confirmed the potential of CM in treating lung cancer, but also offered an effective way to improve the anticancer efficiency of CM through the nano-drug delivery system.

  13. High-performance flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors based on densely-packed graphene/polypyrrole nanoparticle papers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chao; Zhang, Liling; Hu, Nantao; Yang, Zhi; Wei, Hao; Wang, Yanyan; Zhang, Yafei

    2016-11-01

    Graphene-based all-solid-state supercapacitors (ASSSCs) have received increasing attention. It's a great challenge to fabricate high-performance flexible solid-state supercapacitors with high areal and volumetric energy storage capability, superior electron and ion conductivity, robust mechanical flexibility, as well as long term stability. Herein, we report a facile method to fabricate flexible ASSSCs based on densely-packed reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/polypyrrole nanoparticle (PPy NP) hybrid papers with a sandwich framework, which consists of well-separated and continuously-aligned rGO sheets. The incorporation of PPy NPs not only provides pseudocapacitance but also facilitates the infiltration of gel electrolyte. The assembled ASSSCs possess maximum areal and volumetric specific capacitances of 477 mF/cm2 and 94.9 F/cm3 at 0.5 mA/cm2. They also exhibit little capacitance deviation under different bending states, excellent cycling stability, small leakage current and low self-discharge characteristics. Additionally, the maximum areal and volumetric energy densities of 132.5 μWh/cm2 and 26.4 mWh/cm3 are achieved, which indicate that this hybrid paper is a promising candidate for high-performance flexible energy storage devices.

  14. Temozolomide-loaded PLGA nanoparticles to treat glioblastoma cells: a biophysical and cell culture evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ananta, Jeyarama S; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy; Massoud, Tarik F

    2016-01-01

    Current chemotherapies for brain glioblastoma do not achieve sufficient drug concentrations within tumors. Polymeric nanoparticles have useful physicochemical properties that make them promising as nanoparticle platforms for glioblastoma drug delivery. Poly[lactic-co-glycolic acid] (PLGA) nanoparticles encapsulating temozolomide (TMZ) could improve localized delivery and sustained drug release to glioblastomas. We investigated three different procedures to encapsulate TMZ within PLGA nanoparticles. We studied the biophysical features of optimized nanocarriers, including their size, shape, surface properties, and release characteristics of TMZ. We evaluated the antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects of TMZ-loaded PLGA nanoparticles on U87 MG glioblastoma cells. A single emulsion technique using a TMZ saturated aqueous phase produced nanoparticles ≤200 nm in size allowing a maximal drug loading of 4.4% w/w of polymer. There was a bi-phasic drug release pattern, with 80% of TMZ released within the first 6 h. Nanoparticles accumulated in the cytoplasm after effective endocytosis. There was no significant difference in cytotoxic effect of TMZ encapsulated within PLGA nanoparticles and free TMZ. PLGA nanoparticles are not suitable as carriers of TMZ for glioblastoma drug delivery on account of the overall high IC50 values of glioblastoma cells to TMZ and poor loading and encapsulation efficiencies. Further biotechnological developments aimed at improving the loading of TMZ in PLGA nanoparticles or co-delivery of small molecule sensitizers to improve the response of human glioblastoma cells to TMZ are required for this approach to be considered and optimized for future clinical translation.

  15. Silk sericin loaded alginate nanoparticles: Preparation and anti-inflammatory efficacy.

    PubMed

    Khampieng, Thitikan; Aramwit, Pornanong; Supaphol, Pitt

    2015-09-01

    In this study, silk sericin loaded alginate nanoparticles were prepared by the emulsification method followed by internal crosslinking. The effects of various silk sericin loading concentration on particle size, shape, thermal properties, and release characteristics were investigated. The initial silk sericin loadings of 20, 40, and 80% w/w to polymer were incorporated into these alginate nanoparticles. SEM images showed a spherical shape and small particles of about 71.30-89.50 nm. TGA analysis showed that thermal stability slightly increased with increasing silk sericin loadings. FTIR analysis suggested interactions between alginate and silk sericin in the nanoparticles. The release study was performed in acetate buffer at normal skin conditions (pH 5.5; 32 °C). The release profiles of silk sericin exhibited initial rapid release, consequently with sustained release. These silk sericin loaded alginate nanoparticles were further incorporated into topical hydrogel and their anti-inflammatory properties were studied using carrageenan-induced paw edema assay. The current study confirms the hypothesis that the application of silk sericin loaded alginate nanoparticle gel can inhibit inflammation induced by carrageenan. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The role of chitosan on oral delivery of peptide-loaded nanoparticle formulation.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chun Y; Al-Salami, Hani; Dass, Crispin R

    2017-12-01

    Therapeutic peptides are conventionally administered via subcutaneous injection. Chitosan-based nanoparticles are gaining increased attention for their ability to serve as a carrier for oral delivery of peptides and vaccination. They offered superior biocompatibiltiy, controlled drug release profile and facilitated gastrointestinal (GI) absorption. The encapsulated peptides can withstand enzymatic degradation and various pH. Chitosan-based nanoparticles can also be modified by ligand conjugation to the surface of nanoparticle for transcellular absorption and specific-targeted delivery of macromolecules to the tissue of interest. Current research suggests that chitosan-based nanoparticles can deliver therapeutic peptide for the treatment of several medical conditions such as diabetes, bacterial infection and cancer. This review summarises the role of chitosan in oral nanoparticle delivery and identifies the clinical application of peptide-loaded chitosan-based nanoparticles.

  17. Fabrication and evaluation of SDF-1 loaded galactosylated chitosan nanoparticles for liver targeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue-Hui, Chu; Zhang-Qi, Feng; Qian, Xu; Jiang-Qiang, Xiao; Xian-Wen, Yuan; Xi-Tai, Sun

    2017-03-01

    Objective. SDF-1 loaded galactosylated chitosan (GC) nanoparticles for liver targeting were synthesized by electrospraying technique, and its biocompatibility and liver targeting effect were evaluated. Method. The SDF-1 loaded GC nanoparticles were constructed and its morphology was observed by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Hepatocytes were harvested and cocultured with the nanoparticles, and the albumin secretion and urea synthesis were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay assay, the concentration of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was also measured. Finally, the nanoparticles were injected intravenously through the caudal vein of rat, and its liver targeting effect was evaluated. Result. SEM showed the nanoparticles distributed uniformly, with an average diameter of 100 nm and a regular spherical shape. There was no significant difference in urea synthesis, albumin secretion, concentration of LDH and TNF-α between two groups (p > 0.05). The nanoparticles were significantly accumulated in the liver tissue after its injection, but seldom fluorescence signals were observed in the lung, spleen, heart and kidney. Conclusion. The SDF-1 loaded GC nanoparticles showed uniform distribution, good biocompatibility and liver targeting effect, and suggested its potential application as a liver targeting delivery system.

  18. Apatinib-loaded nanoparticles suppress vascular endothelial growth factor-induced angiogenesis and experimental corneal neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Eun; Kim, Koung Li; Kim, Danbi; Yeo, Yeongju; Han, Hyounkoo; Kim, Myung Goo; Kim, Sun Hwa; Kim, Hyuncheol; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Suh, Wonhee

    2017-01-01

    Pathological angiogenesis is one of the major symptoms of severe ocular diseases, including corneal neovascularization. The blockade of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) action has been recognized as an efficient strategy for treating corneal neovascularization. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether nanoparticle-based delivery of apatinib, a novel and selective inhibitor of VEGF receptor 2, inhibits VEGF-mediated angiogenesis and suppresses experimental corneal neovascularization. Water-insoluble apatinib was encapsulated in nanoparticles composed of human serum albumin (HSA)-conjugated polyethylene glycol (PEG). In vitro angiogenesis assays showed that apatinib-loaded HSA-PEG (Apa-HSA-PEG) nanoparticles potently inhibited VEGF-induced tube formation, scratch wounding migration, and proliferation of human endothelial cells. In a rat model of alkali burn injury-induced corneal neovascularization, a subconjunctival injection of Apa-HSA-PEG nanoparticles induced a significant decrease in neovascularization compared to that observed with an injection of free apatinib solution or phosphate-buffered saline. An in vivo distribution study using HSA-PEG nanoparticles loaded with fluorescent hydrophobic model drugs revealed the presence of a substantial number of nanoparticles in the corneal stroma within 24 h after injection. These in vitro and in vivo results demonstrate that apatinib-loaded nanoparticles may be promising for the prevention and treatment of corneal neovascularization-related ocular disorders.

  19. Apatinib-loaded nanoparticles suppress vascular endothelial growth factor-induced angiogenesis and experimental corneal neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Eun; Kim, Koung Li; Kim, Danbi; Yeo, Yeongju; Han, Hyounkoo; Kim, Myung Goo; Kim, Sun Hwa; Kim, Hyuncheol; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Suh, Wonhee

    2017-01-01

    Pathological angiogenesis is one of the major symptoms of severe ocular diseases, including corneal neovascularization. The blockade of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) action has been recognized as an efficient strategy for treating corneal neovascularization. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether nanoparticle-based delivery of apatinib, a novel and selective inhibitor of VEGF receptor 2, inhibits VEGF-mediated angiogenesis and suppresses experimental corneal neovascularization. Water-insoluble apatinib was encapsulated in nanoparticles composed of human serum albumin (HSA)-conjugated polyethylene glycol (PEG). In vitro angiogenesis assays showed that apatinib-loaded HSA-PEG (Apa-HSA-PEG) nanoparticles potently inhibited VEGF-induced tube formation, scratch wounding migration, and proliferation of human endothelial cells. In a rat model of alkali burn injury-induced corneal neovascularization, a subconjunctival injection of Apa-HSA-PEG nanoparticles induced a significant decrease in neovascularization compared to that observed with an injection of free apatinib solution or phosphate-buffered saline. An in vivo distribution study using HSA-PEG nanoparticles loaded with fluorescent hydrophobic model drugs revealed the presence of a substantial number of nanoparticles in the corneal stroma within 24 h after injection. These in vitro and in vivo results demonstrate that apatinib-loaded nanoparticles may be promising for the prevention and treatment of corneal neovascularization-related ocular disorders. PMID:28740387

  20. Therapeutic effect of apatinib-loaded nanoparticles on diabetes-induced retinal vascular leakage.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Ji Hoon; Nguyen, Hong Khanh; Lee, Jung Eun; Suh, Wonhee

    2016-01-01

    Apatinib, a novel and selective inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 2, has been demonstrated recently to exhibit anticancer efficacy by inhibiting the VEGF signaling pathway. Given the importance of VEGF in retinal vascular leakage, the present study was designed to investigate whether apatinib-loaded polymeric nanoparticles inhibit VEGF-mediated retinal vascular hyperpermeability and block diabetes-induced retinal vascular leakage. For the delivery of water-insoluble apatinib, the drug was encapsulated in nanoparticles composed of human serum albumin (HSA)-conjugated polyethylene glycol (PEG). In vitro paracellular permeability and transendothelial electric resistance assays showed that apatinib-loaded HSA-PEG (Apa-HSA-PEG) nanoparticles significantly inhibited VEGF-induced endothelial hyperpermeability in human retinal microvascular endothelial cells. In addition, they substantially reduced the VEGF-induced junctional loss and internalization of vascular endothelial-cadherin, a major component of endothelial junction complexes. In vivo intravitreal injection of Apa-HSA-PEG nanoparticles in mice blocked VEGF-induced retinal vascular leakage. These in vitro and in vivo data indicated that Apa-HSA-PEG nanoparticles efficiently blocked VEGF-induced breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier. In vivo experiments with streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice showed that an intravitreal injection of Apa-HSA-PEG nanoparticles substantially inhibited diabetes-induced retinal vascular leakage. These results demonstrated, for the first time, that apatinib-loaded nanoparticles may be a promising therapeutic agent for the prevention and treatment of diabetes-induced retinal vascular disorders.

  1. Therapeutic effect of apatinib-loaded nanoparticles on diabetes-induced retinal vascular leakage

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Ji Hoon; Nguyen, Hong Khanh; Lee, Jung Eun; Suh, Wonhee

    2016-01-01

    Apatinib, a novel and selective inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 2, has been demonstrated recently to exhibit anticancer efficacy by inhibiting the VEGF signaling pathway. Given the importance of VEGF in retinal vascular leakage, the present study was designed to investigate whether apatinib-loaded polymeric nanoparticles inhibit VEGF-mediated retinal vascular hyperpermeability and block diabetes-induced retinal vascular leakage. For the delivery of water-insoluble apatinib, the drug was encapsulated in nanoparticles composed of human serum albumin (HSA)-conjugated polyethylene glycol (PEG). In vitro paracellular permeability and transendothelial electric resistance assays showed that apatinib-loaded HSA-PEG (Apa-HSA-PEG) nanoparticles significantly inhibited VEGF-induced endothelial hyperpermeability in human retinal microvascular endothelial cells. In addition, they substantially reduced the VEGF-induced junctional loss and internalization of vascular endothelial-cadherin, a major component of endothelial junction complexes. In vivo intravitreal injection of Apa-HSA-PEG nanoparticles in mice blocked VEGF-induced retinal vascular leakage. These in vitro and in vivo data indicated that Apa-HSA-PEG nanoparticles efficiently blocked VEGF-induced breakdown of the blood–retinal barrier. In vivo experiments with streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice showed that an intravitreal injection of Apa-HSA-PEG nanoparticles substantially inhibited diabetes-induced retinal vascular leakage. These results demonstrated, for the first time, that apatinib-loaded nanoparticles may be a promising therapeutic agent for the prevention and treatment of diabetes-induced retinal vascular disorders. PMID:27462154

  2. Degradable polyphosphoester-based silver-loaded nanoparticles as therapeutics for bacterial lung infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fuwu; Smolen, Justin A.; Zhang, Shiyi; Li, Richen; Shah, Parth N.; Cho, Sangho; Wang, Hai; Raymond, Jeffery E.; Cannon, Carolyn L.; Wooley, Karen L.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a new type of degradable polyphosphoester-based polymeric nanoparticle, capable of carrying silver cations via interactions with alkyne groups, has been developed as a potentially effective and safe treatment for lung infections. It was found that up to 15% (w/w) silver loading into the nanoparticles could be achieved, consuming most of the pendant alkyne groups along the backbone, as revealed by Raman spectroscopy. The well-defined Ag-loaded nanoparticles released silver in a controlled and sustained manner over 5 days, and displayed enhanced in vitro antibacterial activities against cystic fibrosis-associated pathogens and decreased cytotoxicity to human bronchial epithelial cells, in comparison to silver acetate.In this study, a new type of degradable polyphosphoester-based polymeric nanoparticle, capable of carrying silver cations via interactions with alkyne groups, has been developed as a potentially effective and safe treatment for lung infections. It was found that up to 15% (w/w) silver loading into the nanoparticles could be achieved, consuming most of the pendant alkyne groups along the backbone, as revealed by Raman spectroscopy. The well-defined Ag-loaded nanoparticles released silver in a controlled and sustained manner over 5 days, and displayed enhanced in vitro antibacterial activities against cystic fibrosis-associated pathogens and decreased cytotoxicity to human bronchial epithelial cells, in comparison to silver acetate. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Materials, experimental details, and characterization. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr07103d

  3. Plasmid DNA loaded chitosan nanoparticles for nasal mucosal immunization against hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Kapil; Goyal, Amit K; Gupta, Prem N; Mishra, Neeraj; Vyas, Suresh P

    2008-04-16

    This work investigates the preparation and in vivo efficacy of plasmid DNA loaded chitosan nanoparticles for nasal mucosal immunization against hepatitis B. Chitosan pDNA nanoparticles were prepared using a complex coacervation process. Prepared nanoparticles were characterized for size, shape, surface charge, plasmid loading and ability of nanoparticles to protect DNA against nuclease digestion and for their transfection efficacy. Nasal administration of nanoparticles resulted in serum anti-HBsAg titre that was less compared to that elicited by naked DNA and alum adsorbed HBsAg, but the mice were seroprotective within 2 weeks and the immunoglobulin level was above the clinically protective level. However, intramuscular administration of naked DNA and alum adsorbed HBsAg did not elicit sIgA titre in mucosal secretions that was induced by nasal immunization with chitosan nanoparticles. Similarly, cellular responses (cytokine levels) were poor in case of alum adsorbed HBsAg. Chitosan nanoparticles thus produced humoral (both systemic and mucosal) and cellular immune responses upon nasal administration. The study signifies the potential of chitosan nanoparticles as DNA vaccine carrier and adjuvant for effective immunization through non-invasive nasal route.

  4. Budesonide Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles for Targeting the Inflamed Intestinal Mucosa--Pharmaceutical Characterization and Fluorescence Imaging.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hussain; Weigmann, Benno; Collnot, Eva-Maria; Khan, Saeed Ahmad; Windbergs, Maike; Lehr, Claus-Michael

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the specifically targeted efficiency of budesonide loaded PLGA nanoparticles for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The nanoparticles were prepared by an oil/water (O/W) emulsion evaporation technique. The nanoparticles were characterized for their size, shape and in vitro drug release profile. Solid state characterization was carried out by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray Power diffraction (XPRD). In order to evaluate the targeted efficiency of nanoparticles, a particle localization study in the healthy and in the inflamed colon was determined in vivo. These data were complemented by cryo-sections. Nanoparticles were 200 ± 05 nm in size with a smooth and spherical shape. The encapsulation efficiency was around 85 ± 3.5%, which was find-out by both, direct and indirect methods. Release of budesonide from the nanoparticles showed a biphasic release profile with an initial burst followed by sustained release. XPRD data revealed that the drug in the polymer matrix existed in crystalline state. Nanoparticles accumulation in inflamed tissues was evaluated by in-vivo imaging system and it was found that particles are accumulated in abundance at the site of inflammation when compared to the healthy group. The study demonstrates that the budesonide loaded PLGA nanoparticles are an efficient delivery system for targeted drug delivery to the inflamed intestinal mucosa.

  5. Enhanced tolerance and antitumor efficacy by docetaxel-loaded albumin nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaolei; Wang, Guijun; Shi, Runjie; Jiang, Ke; Meng, Lingtong; Ren, Hao; Wu, Jinhui; Hu, Yiqiao

    2016-10-01

    Docetaxel is one of the most active chemotherapeutic agents for cancer treatment. The traditional docetaxel injection (TAXOTERE®) is currently formulated in the surfactant polysorbate 80, which has been associated with severe adverse reactions. To avoid the use of polysorbate 80 as well as to reduce the systemic toxicity of docetaxel, in this study, docetaxel-loaded albumin nanoparticles were fabricated by a novel simple self-assembly method. The resulting nanoparticles showed a mean diameter size of 150 nm. After being encapsulated into nanoparticles, docetaxel displayed similar cytotoxicity to traditional injection. Since polysorbate 80 was not involved in nanoparticles, the hemolysis was completely eliminated. The maximal tolerance dose of nanoparticles was also increased, which allowed a higher dose to be safely intravenously injected and produced ideal antitumor effects. The 150 nm diameter also allowed the nanoparticles to accumulate in tumor tissue via the enhanced permeability and retention effect. The passive targeting ability further caused the higher antitumor effects of nanoparticles than that of traditional injection at the same dose (7.5 mg/kg). Therefore, docetaxel-loaded albumin nanoparticles fabricated by our strategy showed higher promise in their safety and effectiveness than the traditional docetaxel injection.

  6. Еvaluation of biocompatibility and antioxidant efficiency of chitosan-alginate nanoparticles loaded with quercetin.

    PubMed

    Aluani, Denitsa; Tzankova, Virginia; Kondeva-Burdina, Magdalena; Yordanov, Yordan; Nikolova, Elena; Odzhakov, Feodor; Apostolov, Alexandar; Markova, Tzvetanka; Yoncheva, Krassimira

    2017-10-01

    The present study deals with development and evaluation of the safety profile of chitosan/alginate nanoparticles as a platform for delivery of a natural antioxidant quercetin. The nanoparticles were prepared by varying the ratios between both biopolymers giving different size and charge of the formulations. The biocompatibility was explored in vitro in cells from different origin: cultivated HepG2 cells, isolated primary rat hepatocytes, isolated murine spleen lymphocytes and macrophages. In vivo toxicological evaluation was performed after repeated 14-day oral administration to rats. The study revealed that chitosan/alginate nanoparticles did not change body weight, the relative weight of rat livers, liver histology, hematology and biochemical parameters. The protective effects of quercetin-loaded nanoparticles were investigated in the models of iron/ascorbic acid (Fe 2+ /AA) induced lipid peroxidation in microsomes and tert-butyl hydroperoxide oxidative stress in isolated rat hepatocytes. Interesting finding was that the empty chitosan/alginate nanoparticles possessed protective activity themselves. The antioxidant effects of quercetin loaded into the nanoparticles formulated with higher concentration of chitosan were superior compared to quercetin encapsulated in nanoparticles with higher amount of sodium alginate. In conclusion, chitosan/alginate nanoparticles can be considered appropriate carrier for quercetin, combining safety profile and improved protective activity of the encapsulated antioxidant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Dielectric characterization of TiO2, Al2O3 - Nanoparticle loaded epoxy resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakor, S. G.; Rana, V. A.; Vankar, H. P.

    2018-05-01

    In present work, the dielectric properties of two different nanoparticle loaded Bisphenol A-epoxy resin were carried out at room temperature. Sample of the neat epoxy resin and nanoparticle loaded epoxy resin in the form of disc were prepared of different weight fraction (i.e 0.5 wt%,0.7 wt%,1 wt%,1.5 wt%,1.7 wt%,2 wt%). TiO2 and Al2O3 nanoparticles were taken as filler in the epoxy resin. Complex permittivity of the prepared samples was measured using Agilent E4980A precision LCR meter in frequency range of 103 Hz to 106 Hz. The dependency of dielectric behavior on type and concentration of nanoparticle in considered frequency range are discussed in detail.

  8. Preparation and Optimization OF Palm-Based Lipid Nanoparticles Loaded with Griseofulvin.

    PubMed

    Huei Lim, Wen; Jean Tan, Yann; Sin Lee, Choy; Meng Er, Hui; Fung Wong, Shew

    2017-01-01

    Palm-based lipid nanoparticle formulation loaded with griseofulvin was prepared by solvent-free hot homogenization method. The griseofulvin loaded lipid nanoparticles were prepared via stages of optimisation, by altering the high pressure homogenisation (HPH) parameters, screening on palm-based lipids and Tween series surfactants and selection of lipid to surfactant ratios. A HPLC method has been validated for the drug loading capacity study. The optimum HPH parameter was determined to be 1500 bar with 5 cycles and among the palm-based lipid materials; Lipid C (triglycerides) was selected for the preparation of lipid nanoparticles. Tween 80 was chosen from the Tween series surfactants for its highest saturated solubility of griseofulvin at 53.1 ± 2.16 µg/mL. The optimum formulation of the griseofulvin loaded lipid nanoparticles demonstrated nano-range of particle size (179.8 nm) with intermediate distribution index (PDI) of 0.306, zeta potential of -27.9 mV and drug loading of 0.77%. The formulation was stable upon storage for 1 month at room temperature (25 ° C) and 45 ° C with consistent drug loading capacity.

  9. Prostate-targeted biodegradable nanoparticles loaded with androgen receptor silencing constructs eradicate xenograft tumors in mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jun; Xie, Sheng-Xue; Huang, Yiling; Ling, Min; Liu, Jihong; Ran, Yali; Wang, Yanlin; Thrasher, J Brantley; Berkland, Cory; Li, Benyi

    2012-01-01

    Background Prostate cancer is the major cause of cancer death in men and the androgen receptor (AR) has been shown to play a critical role in the progression of the disease. Our previous reports showed that knocking down the expression of the AR gene using a siRNA-based approach in prostate cancer cells led to apoptotic cell death and xenograft tumor eradication. In this study, we utilized a biodegradable nanoparticle to deliver the therapeutic AR shRNA construct specifically to prostate cancer cells. Materials & methods The biodegradable nanoparticles were fabricated using a poly(dl-lactic-co-glycolic acid) polymer and the AR shRNA constructs were loaded inside the particles. The surface of the nanoparticles were then conjugated with prostate-specific membrane antigen aptamer A10 for prostate cancer cell-specific targeting. Results A10-conjugation largely enhanced cellular uptake of nanoparticles in both cell culture- and xenograft-based models. The efficacy of AR shRNA encapsulated in nanoparticles on AR gene silencing was confirmed in PC-3/AR-derived xenografts in nude mice. The therapeutic property of A10-conjugated AR shRNA-loaded nanoparticles was evaluated in xenograft models with different prostate cancer cell lines: 22RV1, LAPC-4 and LNCaP. Upon two injections of the AR shRNA-loaded nanoparticles, rapid tumor regression was observed over 2 weeks. Consistent with previous reports, A10 aptamer conjugation significantly enhanced xenograft tumor regression compared with nonconjugated nanoparticles. Discussion These data demonstrated that tissue-specific delivery of AR shRNA using a biodegradable nanoparticle approach represents a novel therapy for life-threatening prostate cancers. PMID:22583574

  10. Effects of curcumin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles on the RG2 rat glioma model.

    PubMed

    Orunoğlu, Merdan; Kaffashi, Abbas; Pehlivan, Sibel Bozdağ; Şahin, Selma; Söylemezoğlu, Figen; Oğuz, Kader Karli; Mut, Melike

    2017-09-01

    Curcumin, the active ingredient of turmeric, has a remarkable antitumor activity against various cancers, including glioblastoma. However, it has poor absorption and low bioavailability; thus, to cross the blood-brain barrier and reach tumor tissue, it needs to be transferred to tumor site by special drug delivery systems, such as nanoparticles. We aimed to evaluate the antitumor activity of curcumin on glioblastoma tissue in the rat glioma-2 (RG2) tumor model when it is loaded on poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-1,2-distearoyl-glycerol-3-phospho-ethanolamine-N-[methoxy (polyethylene glycol)-2000] ammonium salt (PLGA-DSPE-PEG) hybrid nanoparticles. Glioblastoma was induced in 42 adult female Wistar rats (250-300g) by RG2 tumor model. The curcumin-loaded nanoparticles were injected by intravenous (n=6) or intratumoral route (n=6). There were five control groups, each containing six rats. First control group was not applied any treatment. The remaining four control groups were given empty nanoparticles or curcumin alone by intravenous or intratumoral route, respectively. The change in tumor volume was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging and histopathology before and 5days after drug injections. Tumor size decreased significantly after 5days of intratumoral injection of curcumin-loaded nanoparticle (from 66.6±44.6 to 34.9±21.7mm 3 , p=0.028), whereas it significantly increased in nontreated control group (from 33.9±21.3 to 123.7±41.1mm 3 , p=0.036) and did not significantly change in other groups (p>0.05 for all). In this in vivo experimental model, intratumoral administration of curcumin-loaded PLGA-DSPE-PEG hybrid nanoparticles was effective against glioblastoma. Curcumine-loaded nanoparticles may have potential application in chemotherapy of glioblastoma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Preparation and evaluation of quercetin-loaded lecithin-chitosan nanoparticles for topical delivery.

    PubMed

    Tan, Qi; Liu, Weidong; Guo, Chenyu; Zhai, Guangxi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate lecithin-chitosan nanoparticles as a topical delivery system for quercetin. Tocopheryl propylene glycol succinate was chosen to be the surfactant for the nanosystem. The mean particle size of the nanoparticles was 95.3 nm, and the entrapment efficiency and drug loading for quercetin were 48.5% and 2.45%, respectively. Topical delivery in vitro and in vivo of the quercetin-loaded nanoparticles was evaluated using quercetin propylene glycol solution as the control. Compared with quercetin solution, the quercetin-loaded nanoparticles showed higher permeation ability, and significantly increased accumulation of quercetin in the skin, especially in the epidermis. Microstructure observation of the skin surface after administration indicated that the interaction between ingredients of the nanoparticles and the skin surface markedly changed the morphology of the stratum corneum and disrupted the corneocyte layers, thus facilitating the permeation and accumulation of quercetin in skin. Lecithin-chitosan nanoparticles are a promising carrier for topical delivery of quercetin.

  12. Preparation and evaluation of quercetin-loaded lecithin-chitosan nanoparticles for topical delivery

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Qi; Liu, Weidong; Guo, Chenyu; Zhai, Guangxi

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate lecithin-chitosan nanoparticles as a topical delivery system for quercetin. Methods Tocopheryl propylene glycol succinate was chosen to be the surfactant for the nanosystem. The mean particle size of the nanoparticles was 95.3 nm, and the entrapment efficiency and drug loading for quercetin were 48.5% and 2.45%, respectively. Topical delivery in vitro and in vivo of the quercetin-loaded nanoparticles was evaluated using quercetin propylene glycol solution as the control. Results Compared with quercetin solution, the quercetin-loaded nanoparticles showed higher permeation ability, and significantly increased accumulation of quercetin in the skin, especially in the epidermis. Microstructure observation of the skin surface after administration indicated that the interaction between ingredients of the nanoparticles and the skin surface markedly changed the morphology of the stratum corneum and disrupted the corneocyte layers, thus facilitating the permeation and accumulation of quercetin in skin. Conclusion Lecithin-chitosan nanoparticles are a promising carrier for topical delivery of quercetin. PMID:21904452

  13. Cyclodextrin-PEG conjugate-wrapped magnetic ferrite nanoparticles for enhanced drug loading and release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enoch, Israel V. M. V.; Ramasamy, Sivaraj; Mohiyuddin, Shanid; Gopinath, Packirisamy; Manoharan, R.

    2018-05-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles are envisaged to overcome the impediments in the methods of targeted drug delivery and hence cure cancer effectively. We report herein, manganese ferrite nanoparticles, coated with β-cyclodextrin-modified polyethylene glycol as a carrier for the drug, camptothecin. The particles are of the size of 100 nm and they show superparamagnetic behaviour. The saturation magnetization does not get diminished on polymer coverage of the nanoparticles. The β-cyclodextrin-polyethylene glycol conjugates are characterized using NMR and mass spectrometric techniques. By coating the magnetic nanoparticles with the cyclodextrin-tethered polymer, the drug-loading capacity is enhanced and the observed release of the drug is slow and sustained. The cell viability of HEK293 and HCT15 cells is evaluated and the cytotoxicity is enhanced when the drug is loaded in the polymer-coated magnetic nanoparticles. The noncovalent-binding based and enhanced drug loading on the nanoparticles and the sustained release make the nanocarrier a promising agent for carrying the payload to the target.

  14. Magnetic properties of superparamagnetic nanoparticles loaded into silicon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Granitzer, Petra; Rumpf, Klemens; Gonzalez, Roberto; Coffer, Jeffery; Reissner, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the magnetic properties of silicon nanotubes (SiNTs) filled with Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) are investigated. SiNTs with different wall thicknesses of 10 and 70 nm and an inner diameter of approximately 50 nm are prepared and filled with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles of 4 and 10 nm in diameter. The infiltration process of the NPs into the tubes and dependence on the wall-thickness is described. Furthermore, data from magnetization measurements of the nanocomposite systems are analyzed in terms of iron oxide nanoparticle size dependence. Such biocompatible nanocomposites have potential merit in the field of magnetically guided drug delivery vehicles. 61.46.Fg; 62.23.Pq; 75.75.-c; 75.20.-g.

  15. [Development of Inhalable Dry Powder Formulations Loaded with Nanoparticles Maintaining Their Original Physical Properties and Functions].

    PubMed

    Okuda, Tomoyuki

    2017-01-01

     Functional nanoparticles, such as liposomes and polymeric micelles, are attractive drug delivery systems for solubilization, stabilization, sustained release, prolonged tissue retention, and tissue targeting of various encapsulated drugs. For their clinical application in therapy for pulmonary diseases, the development of dry powder inhalation (DPI) formulations is considered practical due to such advantages as: (1) it is noninvasive and can be directly delivered into the lungs; (2) there are few biocomponents in the lungs that interact with nanoparticles; and (3) it shows high storage stability in the solid state against aggregation or precipitation of nanoparticles in water. However, in order to produce effective nanoparticle-loaded dry powders for inhalation, it is essential to pursue an innovative and comprehensive formulation strategy in relation to composition and powderization which can achieve (1) the particle design of dry powders with physical properties suitable for pulmonary delivery through inhalation, and (2) the effective reconstitution of nanoparticles that will maintain their original physical properties and functions after dissolution of the powders. Spray-freeze drying (SFD) is a relatively new powderization technique combining atomization and lyophilization, which can easily produce highly porous dry powders from an aqueous sample solution. Previously, we advanced the optimization of components and process conditions for the production of SFD powders suitable to DPI application. This review describes our recent results in the development of novel DPI formulations effectively loaded with various nanoparticles (electrostatic nanocomplexes for gene therapy, liposomes, and self-assembled lipid nanoparticles), based on SFD.

  16. Characterization and carboplatin loaded chitosan nanoparticles for the chemotherapy against breast cancer in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Khan, Md Asad; Zafaryab, Md; Mehdi, Syed Hassan; Quadri, Javed; Rizvi, M Moshahid A

    2017-04-01

    Aim of the studies to synthesized chitosan nanoparticles by an ionic interaction procedure. The nanoparticles were characterized by physicochemical methods like, DLS, TEM, Surface potential measurements, FT-IR and DSC. The average particle size of chitosan and carboplatin nanoparticles was found to be 277.25±11.37nm and 289.30±8.15nm and zeta potential was found to be 31±3.14mV and 33±2.15mV respectively with low polydispersity index. The maximum entrapment of carboplatin in nanoparticles was a spherical shape with a positive charge. The maximum encapsulation and loading efficiencies of carboplatin (5mg/ml) were obtained to be 58.43% and 13.27% respectively. The nanocarboplatin was better blood compatibility as compared to chitosan nanoparticles. Finally, the cytotoxic effects of the carboplatin loaded chitosan nanoparticles were tested in-vitro against breast cancer (MCF-7) cell lines. Our studies showed that the chitosan nanoparticles could be used as a promising candidate for drug delivery for the therapeutic treatment of breast cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Silymarin-loaded solid nanoparticles provide excellent hepatic protection: physicochemical characterization and in vivo evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kwan Yeol; Hwang, Du Hyeong; Yousaf, Abid Mehmood; Kim, Dong Wuk; Shin, Young-Jun; Bae, Ok-Nam; Kim, Yong-II; Kim, Jong Oh; Yong, Chul Soon; Choi, Han-Gon

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to develop a novel silymarin-loaded solid nanoparticle system with enhanced oral bioavailability and an ability to provide excellent hepatic protection for poorly water-soluble drugs using Shirasu porous glass (SPG) membrane emulsification and a spray-drying technique. Methods A silymarin-loaded liquid nanoemulsion was formulated by applying the SPG membrane emulsification technique. This was further converted into solid state nanosized particles by the spray-drying technique. The physicochemical characteristics of these nanoparticles were determined by scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and powder X-ray diffraction. Their dissolution, bioavailability, and hepatoprotective activity in rats were assessed by comparison with a commercially available silymarin-loaded product. Results Formulation of a silymarin-loaded nanoemulsion, comprising silymarin, castor oil, polyvinylpyrrolidone, Transcutol HP, Tween 80, and water at a weight ratio of 5/3/3/1.25/1.25/100 was accomplished using an SPG membrane emulsification technique at an agitator speed of 700 rpm, a feed pressure of 15 kPa, and a continuous phase temperature of 25°C. This resulted in generation of comparatively uniform emulsion globules with a narrow size distribution. Moreover, the silymarin-loaded solid nanoparticles, containing silymarin/castor oil/polyvinylpyrrolidone/Transcutol HP/Tween 80 at a weight ratio of 5/3/3/1.25/1.25, improved about 1,300-fold drug solubility and retained a mean size of about 210 nm. Silymarin was located in unaltered crystalline form in the nanoparticles. The drug dissolved rapidly from the nanoparticles, reaching nearly 80% within 15 minutes, indicating three-fold better dissolution than that of the commercial product. Further, the nanoparticles showed a considerably shorter time to peak concentration, a greater area under the concentration-time curve, and a higher maximum concentration of silymarin compared

  18. Dual drug-loaded nanoparticles on self-integrated scaffold for controlled delivery

    PubMed Central

    Bennet, Devasier; Marimuthu, Mohana; Kim, Sanghyo; An, Jeongho

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidant (quercetin) and hypoglycemic (voglibose) drug-loaded poly-D,L-lactideco-glycolide nanoparticles were successfully synthesized using the solvent evaporation method. The dual drug-loaded nanoparticles were incorporated into a scaffold film using a solvent casting method, creating a controlled transdermal drug-delivery system. Key features of the film formulation were achieved utilizing several ratios of excipients, including polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylene glycol, hyaluronic acid, xylitol, and alginate. The scaffold film showed superior encapsulation capability and swelling properties, with various potential applications, eg, the treatment of diabetes-associated complications. Structural and light scattering characterization confirmed a spherical shape and a mean particle size distribution of 41.3 nm for nanoparticles in the scaffold film. Spectroscopy revealed a stable polymer structure before and after encapsulation. The thermoresponsive swelling properties of the film were evaluated according to temperature and pH. Scaffold films incorporating dual drug-loaded nanoparticles showed remarkably high thermoresponsivity, cell compatibility, and ex vivo drug-release behavior. In addition, the hybrid film formulation showed enhanced cell adhesion and proliferation. These dual drug-loaded nanoparticles incorporated into a scaffold film may be promising for development into a transdermal drug-delivery system. PMID:22888222

  19. Photodynamic effects of methylene blue-loaded polymeric nanoparticles on dental plaque bacteria.

    PubMed

    Klepac-Ceraj, Vanja; Patel, Niraj; Song, Xiaoqing; Holewa, Colleen; Patel, Chitrang; Kent, Ralph; Amiji, Mansoor M; Soukos, Nikolaos S

    2011-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is increasingly being explored for treatment of oral infections. Here, we investigate the effect of PDT on human dental plaque bacteria in vitro using methylene blue (MB)-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic) (PLGA) nanoparticles with a positive or negative charge and red light at 665 nm. Dental plaque samples were obtained from 14 patients with chronic periodontitis. Suspensions of plaque microorganisms from seven patients were sensitized with anionic, cationic PLGA nanoparticles (50 µg/ml equivalent to MB) or free MB (50 µg/ml) for 20 min followed by exposure to red light for 5 min with a power density of 100 mW/cm2 . Polymicrobial oral biofilms, which were developed on blood agar in 96-well plates from dental plaque inocula obtained from seven patients, were also exposed to PDT as above. Following the treatment, survival fractions were calculated by counting the number of colony-forming units. The cationic MB-loaded nanoparticles exhibited greater bacterial phototoxicity in both planktonic and biofilm phase compared to anionic MB-loaded nanoparticles and free MB, but results were not significantly different (P > 0.05). Cationic MB-loaded PLGA nanoparticles have the potential to be used as carriers of MB for PDT systems. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Batch and continuous production of stable dense suspensions of drug nanoparticles in a wet stirred media mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afolabi, Afola we mi

    One way to improve the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs is to reduce particle size of drug crystals down to nanoscale via wet stirred media milling. An increase in total surface area per mass loading of the drug and specific surface area as well as reduced external mass transfer resistance allow a faster dissolution of the poorly-water soluble drug from nanocrystals. To prevent aggregation of nanoparticles, polymers and surfactants are dissolved in water acting as stabilizers via adsorption onto the drug crystals. In the last two decades, ample experimental data were generated in the area of wet stirred media milling for the production of drug nanoparticle suspensions. However, a fundamental scientific/engineering understanding of various aspects of this process is still lacking. These challenges include elucidation of the governing mechanism(s) during nanoparticle formation and physical stabilization of the nanosuspension with the use of polymers and surfactants (formulation parameters), understanding the impact of process parameters in the context of first-principle-based models, and production of truly nanosized drug particles (10-100 nm) with acceptable physical stability and minimal contamination with the media. Recirculation mode of milling operation, where the drug suspension in a holding tank continuously circulates through the stirred media mill, has been commonly used in lab, pilot, and commercial scales. Although the recirculation is continuous, the recirculation operation mode is overall a batch operation, requiring significant number of batches for a large-volume pharmaceutical product. Hence, development and investigation of a truly continuous process should offer significant advantages. To explain the impact of some of the processing parameters, stress intensity and stress number concepts were widely used in literature, which do not account for the effect of suspension viscosity explicitly. The impact of the processing parameters has not

  1. Targeting Paclitaxel-Loaded Nanoparticles to Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    with each other causes the polymer to collapse to form a nanoparticle of ~20 nm in aqueous solutions as determined by dynamic light scattering (2, 8...molecular target in tumor cells and tumor stroma. Cancer Res. 2008;68:7210-8. 19. von Maltzahn G, Ren Y, Park JH, Min DH, Kotamraju VR, Jayakumar J, et

  2. Production of Curcumin-Loaded Silk Fibroin Nanoparticles for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Coburn, Jeannine M.; Cenis, José L.; Víllora, Gloria; Kaplan, David L.

    2018-01-01

    Curcumin, extracted from the rhizome of Curcuma longa, has been widely used in medicine for centuries due to its anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-oxidant and anti-microbial effects. However, its bioavailability during treatments is poor because of its low solubility in water, slow dissolution rate and rapid intestinal metabolism. For these reasons, improving the therapeutic efficiency of curcumin using nanocarriers (e.g., biopolymer nanoparticles) has been a research focus, to foster delivery of the curcumin inside cells due to their small size and large surface area. Silk fibroin from the Bombyx mori silkworm is a biopolymer characterized by its biocompatibility, biodegradability, amphiphilic chemistry, and excellent mechanical properties in various material formats. These features make silk fibroin nanoparticles useful vehicles for delivering therapeutic drugs, such as curcumin. Curcumin-loaded silk fibroin nanoparticles were synthesized using two procedures (physical adsorption and coprecipitation) more scalable than methods previously described using ionic liquids. The results showed that nanoparticle formulations were 155 to 170 nm in diameter with a zeta potential of approximately −45 mV. The curcumin-loaded silk fibroin nanoparticles obtained by both processing methods were cytotoxic to carcinogenic cells, while not decreasing viability of healthy cells. In the case of tumor cells, curcumin-loaded silk fibroin nanoparticles presented higher efficacy in cytotoxicity against neuroblastoma cells than hepatocarcinoma cells. In conclusion, curcumin-loaded silk fibroin nanoparticles constitute a biodegradable and biocompatible delivery system with the potential to treat tumors by local, long-term sustained drug delivery. PMID:29495296

  3. Practical preparation procedures for docetaxel-loaded nanoparticles using polylactic acid-co-glycolic acid.

    PubMed

    Keum, Chang-Gu; Noh, Young-Wook; Baek, Jong-Suep; Lim, Ji-Ho; Hwang, Chan-Ju; Na, Young-Guk; Shin, Sang-Chul; Cho, Cheong-Weon

    2011-01-01

    Nanoparticles fabricated from the biodegradable and biocompatible polymer, polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA), are the most intensively investigated polymers for drug delivery systems. The objective of this study was to explore fully the development of a PLGA nanoparticle drug delivery system for alternative preparation of a commercial formulation. In our nanoparticle fabrication, our purpose was to compare various preparation parameters. Docetaxel-loaded PLGA nanoparticles were prepared by a single emulsion technique and solvent evaporation. The nanoparticles were characterized by various techniques, including scanning electron microscopy for surface morphology, dynamic light scattering for size and zeta potential, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for surface chemistry, and high-performance liquid chromatography for in vitro drug release kinetics. To obtain a smaller particle, 0.2% polyvinyl alcohol, 0.03% D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS), 2% Poloxamer 188, a five-minute sonication time, 130 W sonication power, evaporation with magnetic stirring, and centrifugation at 8000 rpm were selected. To increase encapsulation efficiency in the nanoparticles, certain factors were varied, ie, 2-5 minutes of sonication time, 70-130 W sonication power, and 5-25 mg drug loading. A five-minute sonication time, 130 W sonication power, and a 10 mg drug loading amount were selected. Under these conditions, the nanoparticles reached over 90% encapsulation efficiency. Release kinetics showed that 20.83%, 40.07%, and 51.5% of the docetaxel was released in 28 days from nanoparticles containing Poloxamer 188, TPGS, or polyvinyl alcohol, respectively. TPGS and Poloxamer 188 had slower release kinetics than polyvinyl alcohol. It was predicted that there was residual drug remaining on the surface from x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Our research shows that the choice of surfactant is important for controlled release of docetaxel.

  4. Optimization of β-carotene loaded solid lipid nanoparticles preparation using a high shear homogenization technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triplett, Michael D.; Rathman, James F.

    2009-04-01

    Using statistical experimental design methodologies, the solid lipid nanoparticle design space was found to be more robust than previously shown in literature. Formulation and high shear homogenization process effects on solid lipid nanoparticle size distribution, stability, drug loading, and drug release have been investigated. Experimentation indicated stearic acid as the optimal lipid, sodium taurocholate as the optimal cosurfactant, an optimum lecithin to sodium taurocholate ratio of 3:1, and an inverse relationship between mixing time and speed and nanoparticle size and polydispersity. Having defined the base solid lipid nanoparticle system, β-carotene was incorporated into stearic acid nanoparticles to investigate the effects of introducing a drug into the base solid lipid nanoparticle system. The presence of β-carotene produced a significant effect on the optimal formulation and process conditions, but the design space was found to be robust enough to accommodate the drug. β-Carotene entrapment efficiency averaged 40%. β-Carotene was retained in the nanoparticles for 1 month. As demonstrated herein, solid lipid nanoparticle technology can be sufficiently robust from a design standpoint to become commercially viable.

  5. Farnesylthiosalicylic acid-loaded lipid-polyethylene glycol-polymer hybrid nanoparticles for treatment of glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Kaffashi, Abbas; Lüle, Sevda; Bozdağ Pehlivan, Sibel; Sarısözen, Can; Vural, İmran; Koşucu, Hüsnü; Demir, Taner; Buğdaycı, Kadir Emre; Söylemezoğlu, Figen; Karlı Oğuz, Kader; Mut, Melike

    2017-08-01

    We aimed to develop lipid-polyethylene glycol (PEG)-polymer hybrid nanoparticles, which have high affinity to tumour tissue with active ingredient, a new generation antineoplastic drug, farnesylthiosalicylic acid (FTA) for treatment of glioblastoma. Farnesylthiosalicylic acid-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-1,2 distearoyl-glycerol-3-phospho-ethanolamine-N [methoxy (PEG)-2000] ammonium salt (PLGA-DSPE-PEG) with or without 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) hybrid nanoparticles has been prepared and evaluated for in-vitro characterization. Cytotoxicity of FTA-loaded nanoparticles along with its efficacy on rat glioma-2 (RG2) cells was also evaluated both in vitro (in comparison with non-malignant cell line, L929) and in vivo. Scanning electron microscopy studies showed that all formulations prepared had smooth surface and spherical in shape. FTA and FTA-loaded nanoparticles have cytotoxic activity against RG2 glioma cell lines in cell culture studies, which further increases with addition of DOTAP. Magnetic resonance imaging and histopathologic evaluation on RG2 tumour cells in rat glioma model (49 female Wistar rats, 250-300 g) comparing intravenous and intratumoral injections of the drug have been performed and FTA-loaded nanoparticles reduced tumour size significantly in in-vivo studies, with higher efficiency of intratumoral administration than intravenous route. Farnesylthiosalicylic acid-loaded PLGA-DSPE-PEG-DOTAP hybrid nanoparticles are proven to be effective against glioblastoma in both in-vitro and in-vivo experiments. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  6. Development of Acyclovir-Loaded Albumin Nanoparticles and Improvement of Acyclovir Permeation Across Human Corneal Epithelial T Cells.

    PubMed

    Suwannoi, Panita; Chomnawang, Mullika; Sarisuta, Narong; Reichl, Stephan; Müller-Goymann, Christel C

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop acyclovir (ACV) ocular drug delivery systems of bovine serum albumin (BSA) nanoparticles as well as to assess their in vitro transcorneal permeation across human corneal epithelial (HCE-T) cell multilayers. The ACV-loaded BSA nanoparticles were prepared by desolvation method along with physicochemical characterization, cytotoxicity, as well as in vitro transcorneal permeation studies across HCE-T cell multilayers. The nanoparticles appeared to be spherical in shape and nearly uniform in size of about 200 nm. The size of nanoparticles became smaller with decreasing BSA concentration, while the ratios of water to ethanol seemed not to affect the size. Increasing the amount of ethanol in desolvation process led to significant reduction of drug entrapment of nanoparticles with smaller size and more uniformity. The ACV-loaded BSA nanoparticles prepared were shown to have no cytotoxic effect on HCE-T cells used in permeation studies. The in vitro transcorneal permeation results revealed that ACV could permeate through the HCE-T cell multilayers significantly higher from BSA nanoparticles than from aqueous ACV solutions. The ACV-loaded BSA nanoparticles could be prepared by desolvation method without glutaraldehyde in the formulation. ACV could increasingly permeate through the multilayers of HCE-T cells from the ACV-loaded BSA nanoparticles. Therefore, the ACV-loaded BSA nanoparticles could be a highly potential ocular drug delivery system.

  7. Silymarin-Loaded Nanoparticles Based on Stearic Acid-Modified Bletilla striata Polysaccharide for Hepatic Targeting.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yanni; He, Shaolong; Ma, Xueqin; Hong, Tongtong; Li, Zhifang; Park, Kinam; Wang, Wenping

    2016-02-29

    Silymarin has been widely used as a hepatoprotective drug in the treatment of various liver diseases, yet its effectiveness is affected by its poor water solubility and low bioavailability after oral administration, and there is a need for the development of intravenous products, especially for liver-targeting purposes. In this study, silymarin was encapsulated in self-assembled nanoparticles of Bletilla striata polysaccharide (BSP) conjugates modified with stearic acid and the physicochemical properties of the obtained nanoparticles were characterized. The silymarin-loaded micelles appeared as spherical particles with a mean diameter of 200 nm under TEM. The encapsulation of drug molecules was confirmed by DSC thermograms and XRD diffractograms, respectively. The nanoparticles exhibited a sustained-release profile for nearly 1 week with no obvious initial burst. Compared to drug solutions, the drug-loaded nanoparticles showed a lower viability and higher uptake intensity on HepG2 cell lines. After intravenous administration of nanoparticle formulation for 30 min to mice, the liver became the most significant organ enriched with the fluorescent probe. These results suggest that BSP derivative nanoparticles possess hepatic targeting capability and are promising nanocarriers for delivering silymarin to the liver.

  8. Magnetic nanoparticle-loaded electrospun polymeric nanofibers for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Heng; Xia, JiYi; Pang, XianLun; Zhao, Ming; Wang, BiQiong; Yang, LingLin; Wan, HaiSu; Wu, JingBo; Fu, ShaoZhi

    2017-04-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles have been one of the most attractive nanomaterials for various biomedical applications including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diagnostic contrast enhancement, magnetic cell separation, and targeted drug delivery. Three-dimensional (3-D) fibrous scaffolds have broad application prospects in the biomedical field, such as drug delivery and tissue engineering. In this work, a novel three-dimensional composite membrane composed of the tri-block copolymer poly(ε-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL-PEG-PCL, PCEC) and magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe 3 O 4 NPs) were fabricated using electrospinning technology. The physico-chemical properties of the PCEC/Fe 3 O 4 membranes were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Morphological observation using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the composite fibers containing 5% Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles had a diameter of 250nm. In vitro cell culture of NIH 3T3 cells on the PCEC/Fe 3 O 4 membranes showed that the PCEC/Fe 3 O 4 fibers might be a suitable scaffold for cell adhesion. Moreover, MTT analysis also demonstrated that the membranes possessed lower cytotoxicity. Therefore, this study revealed that the magnetic PCEC/Fe 3 O 4 fibers might have great potential for using in skin tissue engineering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Preparation, characterization and immunological evaluation: canine parvovirus synthetic peptide loaded PLGA nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Derman, Serap; Mustafaeva, Zeynep Akdeste; Abamor, Emrah Sefik; Bagirova, Melahat; Allahverdiyev, Adil

    2015-10-20

    Canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) remains a significant worldwide canine pathogen and the most common cause of viral enteritis in dogs. The 1 L15 and 7 L15 peptides overlap each other with QPDGGQPAV residues (7-15 of VP2 capsid protein of CPV) is shown to produce high immune response. PLGA nanoparticles were demonstrated to have special properties such as; controlled antigen release, protection from degradation, elimination of booster-dose and enhancing the cellular uptake by antigen presenting cells. Nevertheless, there is no study available in literature, about developing vaccine based on PLGA nanoparticles with adjuvant properties against CPV. Thus, the aim of the present study was to synthesize and characterize high immunogenic W-1 L19 peptide (from the VP2 capsid protein of CPV) loaded PLGA nanoparticle and to evaluate their in vitro immunogenic activity. PLGA nanoparticles were produced with 5.26 ± 0.05 % loading capacity and high encapsulation efficiency with 81.2 ± 3.1 %. Additionally, it was evaluated that free NPs and W-1 L19 peptide encapsulated PLGA nanoparticles have Z-ave of 183.9 ± 12.1 nm, 221.7 ± 15.8 nm and polydispersity index of 0.107 ± 0.08, 0.135 ± 0.12 respectively. It was determined that peptide loaded PLGA nanoparticles were successfully phagocytized by macrophage cells and increased NO production at 2-folds (*P < 0.05) in contrast to free peptide, and 3-folds (*P < 0.01) in contrast to control. In conclusion, for the first time, W-1 L19 peptide loaded PLGA nanoparticles were successfully synthesized and immunogenic properties evaluated. Obtained results showed that PLGA nanoparticles enhanced the capacity of W-1 L19 peptide to induce nitric oxide production in vitro due to its adjuvant properties. Depend on the obtained results, these nanoparticles can be accepted as potential vaccine candidate against Canine Parvovirus. Studies targeting PLGA nanoparticles based delivery system must be maintained in near

  10. Expansion and improvement of the FORMA system for response and load analysis. Volume 2A: Listings, dense FORMA subroutines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wohlen, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    A listing of the source deck of each dense FORMA subroutine is given to remove the 'black-box' aura of the subroutines so that the analyst may better understand the detail operations of each subroutine. The FORTRAN 4 programming language is used throughout.

  11. Intranasal delivery of cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride-loaded thiolated chitosan nanoparticles for pain relief.

    PubMed

    Patel, Deepa; Naik, Sachin; Chuttani, Krishna; Mathur, Rashi; Mishra, Anil K; Misra, Ambikanandan

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of present investigation was to formulate and characterize the cyclobenzaprine HCl (CBZ)-loaded thiolated chitosan nanoparticles and assessment of in-vitro cell viability, trans-mucosal permeability on RPMI2650 cell monolayer, in-vivo pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic study of thiolated chitosan nanoparticles on Swiss albino mice after intranasal administration. A significant high permeation of drug was observed from thiolated chitosan nanoparticles with less toxicity on nasal epithelial cells. Brain uptake of the drug after (99m)Tc labeling was significantly enhanced after thiolation of chitosan. CBZ-loaded thiolated chitosan NPs significantly reverse the N-Methyl-.-Aspartate (NMDA)-induced hyperalgesia by intranasal administration than the CBZ solution. The studies of present investigation revealed that thiolation of chitosan significantly reduce trans-mucosal toxicity with enhanced trans-mucosal permeability via paracellular pathway and brain uptake of a hydrophilic drug (normally impermeable across blood brain barrier) and pain alleviation activity via intranasal route.

  12. Preparation, characterisation and antioxidant activities of rutin-loaded zein-sodium caseinate nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuangling; Han, Yue

    2018-01-01

    Novel rutin-loaded zein-sodium caseinate nanoparticles (ZP) with antioxidant activity in aqueous medium were investigated. The results showed that the sodium caseinate concentrations, dosages of rutin and ethanol volume fractions significantly affected the zein nanoparticles' characteristics. Concerning the antioxidant properties, the highest values of rutin loaded ZP obtained using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging and 2 and 2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) decolourisation assays were 52.7% and 71.2%, respectively, and the total antioxidant capacity was 0.40 nmol g-1. The results suggest that zein-sodium caseinate nanoparticles can be used as a new nano carrier system for rutin or other water insoluble active ingredients.

  13. Solid lipid nanoparticles by coacervation loaded with a methotrexate prodrug: preliminary study for glioma treatment.

    PubMed

    Battaglia, Luigi; Muntoni, Elisabetta; Chirio, Daniela; Peira, Elena; Annovazzi, Laura; Schiffer, Davide; Mellai, Marta; Riganti, Chiara; Salaroglio, Iris Chiara; Lanotte, Michele; Panciani, Pierpaolo; Capucchio, Maria Teresa; Valazza, Alberto; Biasibetti, Elena; Gallarate, Marina

    2017-03-01

    Methotrexate-loaded biocompatible nanoparticles were tested for preliminary efficacy in glioma treatment. Behenic acid nanoparticles, prepared by the coacervation method, were loaded with the ester prodrug didodecylmethotrexate, which was previously tested in vitro against glioblastoma human primary cultures. Nanoparticle conjugation with an ApoE mimicking chimera peptide was performed to obtain active targeting to the brain. Biodistribution studies in healthy rats assessed the superiority of ApoE-conjugated formulation, which was tested on an F98/Fischer glioma model. Differences were observed in tumor growth rate (measured by MRI) between control and treated rats. In vitro tests on F98 cultured cells assessed their susceptibility to treatment, with consequent apoptosis, and allowed us to explain the apoptosis observed in glioma models.

  14. Multimodal doxorubicin loaded magnetic nanoparticles for VEGF targeted theranostics of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Semkina, Alevtina S; Abakumov, Maxim A; Skorikov, Alexander S; Abakumova, Tatiana O; Melnikov, Pavel A; Grinenko, Nadejda F; Cherepanov, Sergey A; Vishnevskiy, Daniil A; Naumenko, Victor A; Ionova, Klavdiya P; Majouga, Alexander G; Chekhonin, Vladimir P

    2018-05-03

    In presented paper we have developed new system for cancer theranostics based on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) targeted magnetic nanoparticles. Conjugation of anti-VEGF antibodies with bovine serum albumin coated PEGylated magnetic nanoparticles allows for improved binding with murine breast adenocarcinoma 4T1 cell line and facilitates doxorubicin delivery to tumor cells. It was shown that intravenous injection of doxorubicin loaded VEGF targeted nanoparticles increases median survival rate of mice bearing 4T1 tumors up to 50%. On the other hand magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of 4T1 tumors 24 h after intravenous injection showed accumulation of nanoparticles in tumors, thus allowing simultaneous cancer therapy and diagnostics. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. An interdisciplinary computational/experimental approach to evaluate drug-loaded gold nanoparticle tumor cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Louis T; England, Christopher G; Wu, Min; Lowengrub, John; Frieboes, Hermann B

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Clinical translation of cancer nanotherapy has largely failed due to the infeasibility of optimizing the complex interaction of nano/drug/tumor/patient parameters. We develop an interdisciplinary approach modeling diffusive transport of drug-loaded gold nanoparticles in heterogeneously-vascularized tumors. Materials & methods: Evaluated lung cancer cytotoxicity to paclitaxel/cisplatin using novel two-layer (hexadecanethiol/phosphatidylcholine) and three-layer (with high-density-lipoprotein) nanoparticles. Computer simulations calibrated to in-vitro data simulated nanotherapy of heterogeneously-vascularized tumors. Results: Evaluation of free-drug cytotoxicity between monolayer/spheroid cultures demonstrates a substantial differential, with increased resistance conferred by diffusive transport. Nanoparticles had significantly higher efficacy than free-drug. Simulations of nanotherapy demonstrate 9.5% (cisplatin) and 41.3% (paclitaxel) tumor radius decrease. Conclusion: Interdisciplinary approach evaluating gold nanoparticle cytotoxicity and diffusive transport may provide insight into cancer nanotherapy. PMID:26829163

  16. Development of drug-loaded chitosan-vanillin nanoparticles and its cytotoxicity against HT-29 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Pu-Wang; Wang, Guang; Yang, Zi-Ming; Duan, Wei; Peng, Zheng; Kong, Ling-Xue; Wang, Qing-Huang

    2016-01-01

    Chitosan as a natural polysaccharide derived from chitin of arthropods like shrimp and crab, attracts much interest due to its inherent properties, especially for application in biomedical materials. Presently, biodegradable and biocompatible chitosan nanoparticles are attractive for drug delivery. However, some physicochemical characteristics of chitosan nanoparticles still need to be further improved in practice. In this work, chitosan nanoparticles were produced by crosslinking chitosan with 3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (vanillin) through a Schiff reaction. Chitosan nanoparticles were 200-250 nm in diameter with smooth surface and were negatively charged with a zeta potential of - 17.4 mV in neutral solution. Efficient drug loading and drug encapsulation were achieved using 5-fluorouracil as a model of hydrophilic drug. Drug release from the nanoparticles was constant and controllable. The in vitro cytotoxicity against HT-29 cells and cellular uptake of the chitosan nanoparticles were evaluated by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium method, confocal laser scanning microscope and flow cytometer, respectively. The results indicate that the chitosan nanoparticles crosslinked with vanillin are a promising vehicle for the delivery of anticancer drugs.

  17. Doxorubicin loaded iron oxide nanoparticles overcome multidrug resistance in cancer in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Kievit, Forrest M.; Wang, Freddy Y.; Fang, Chen; Mok, Hyejung; Wang, Kui; Silber, John R.; Ellenbogen, Richard G.; Zhang, Miqin

    2011-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is characterized by the overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters that actively pump a broad class of hydrophobic chemotherapeutic drugs out of cancer cells. MDR is a major mechanism of treatment resistance in a variety of human tumors, and clinically applicable strategies to circumvent MDR remain to be characterized. Here we describe the fabrication and characterization of a drug-loaded iron oxide nanoparticle designed to circumvent MDR. Doxorubicin (DOX), an anthracycline antibiotic commonly used in cancer chemotherapy and substrate for ABC-mediated drug efflux, was covalently bound to polyethylenimine via a pH sensitive hydrazone linkage and conjugated to an iron oxide nanoparticle coated with amine terminated polyethylene glycol. Drug loading, physiochemical properties and pH lability of the DOX-hydrazone linkage were evaluated in vitro. Nanoparticle uptake, retention, and dose-dependent effects on viability were compared in wild-type and DOX-resistant ABC transporter over-expressing rat glioma C6 cells. We found that DOX release from nanoparticles was greatest at acidic pH, indicative of cleavage of the hydrazone linkage. DOX-conjugated nanoparticles were readily taken up by wild-type and drug-resistant cells. In contrast to free drug, DOX-conjugated nanoparticles persisted in drug-resistant cells, indicating that they were not subject to drug efflux. Greater retention of DOX-conjugated nanoparticles was accompanied by reduction of viability relative to cells treated with free drug. Our results suggest that DOX-conjugated nanoparticles could improve the efficacy of chemotherapy by circumventing MDR. PMID:21277920

  18. Investigation of drug loading and in vitro release mechanisms of insulin-lauryl sulfate complex loaded PLGA nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Shi, K; Cui, F; Yamamoto, H; Kawashima, Y

    2008-12-01

    Insulin, a water soluble peptide hormone, was hydrophobically ion-paired with sodium lauryl sulfate (SDS) at the stoichiometric molar ratio of 6:1. The obtained insulin-SDS complex precipitation was subsequently formulated in biodegradable poly (D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles by a modified spontaneous emulsion solvent diffusion method. Compared with a conventional method for free insulin encapsulation, direct dissolution of SDS-paired insulin in the non-aqueous organic phase led to an increase in drug recovery from 42.5% to 89.6%. The more hydrophobic complex contributes to the improved affinity of insulin to the polymer matrix, resulting in a higher drug content in the nanoparticles. The drug loading was investigated by determining initial burst release at the first 30 min. The results showed that 64.8% of recovered drug were preferentially surface bound on complex loaded nanoparticles. The in vitro drug release was characterized by an initial burst and subsequent delayed release in dissolution media of deionized water and phosphate buffer saline (PBS). Compared with that in PBS, nanoparticles in deionized water medium presented very low initial burst release (15% vs. 65%) and incomplete cumulative release (25% vs. 90%) of the drug. In addition, dialysis experiments were performed to clarify the form of the released insulin in the dissolution media. The results suggested that the ion-pair complex was sensitive to ionic strength, insulin was released from the particular matrix as complex form and subsequently suffered dissociation from SDS in buffer saline. Moreover, the in vivo bioactivity of the SDS-paired insulin and nanoparticulate formulations were evaluated in mice by estimation of their blood sugar levels. The results showed that the bioactivity of insulin was unaltered after the ion-pairing process.

  19. Fabrication, characterization and antimicrobial activities of thymol-loaded zein nanoparticles stabilized by sodium caseinate-chitosan hydrochloride double layers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaqiong; Niu, Yuge; Luo, Yangchao; Ge, Mei; Yang, Tian; Yu, Liangli Lucy; Wang, Qin

    2014-01-01

    Thymol-loaded zein nanoparticles stabilized with sodium caseinate (SC) and chitosan hydrochloride (CHC) were prepared and characterized. The SC stabilized nanoparticles had well-defined size range and negatively charged surface. Due to the presence of SC, the stabilized zein nanoparticles showed a shift of isoelectric point from 6.18 to 5.05, and had a desirable redispersibility in water at neutral pH after lyophilization. Coating with CHC onto the SC stabilized zein nanoparticles resulted in increased particle size, reversal of zeta potential value from negative to positive, and improved encapsulation efficiency. Both thymol-loaded zein nanoparticles and SC stabilized zein nanoparticles had a spherical shape and smooth surface, while the surfaces of CHC-SC stabilized zein nanoparticles seemed rough and had some clumps. Encapsulated thymol was more effective in suppressing gram-positive bacterium than un-encapsulated thymol for a longer time period. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Crizotinib-loaded polymeric nanoparticles in lung cancer chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhi-Ming; Dai, Shou-Ping; Xu, Yong-Qing; Li, Tao; Xie, Jian; Li, Chong; Zhang, Zhong-Hui

    2015-07-01

    The study describes the development of polylactide-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (PLA-TPGS)-based nanosystem as a carrier of crizotinib (CZT) to achieve superior anticancer efficacy in lung cancer therapy. We have demonstrated that block copolymer and hydrophobic drug is capable of self-assembling into a very stable nanocarrier, with suitable properties that allow their application for cancer drug delivery. Drug release study showed a sustained release pattern as a result of entrapment in the hydrophobic core of micelles. CZT/PT NP showed a noticeable cytotoxic effect in NCIH3122 lung cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, morphological imaging and Live/Dead assay revealed a superior anticancer efficacy for nanoformulations. The polymeric nanoparticle showed a predominant presence in the cytoplasmic region of cell, indicating a typical endocytosis-mediated cellular uptake. The annexin V/PI staining-based apoptosis assay showed a remarkable ~40 % apoptosis (early and late apoptosis cells) comparing to only ~25 % apoptosis by free CZT. Taken together, Vitamin E TPGS-modified PLA nanoparticles would be a potential drug delivery system to increase the chemotherapeutic efficacy of CZT in lung cancer chemotherapy.

  1. A Novel Docetaxel-Loaded Poly (ɛ-Caprolactone)/Pluronic F68 Nanoparticle Overcoming Multidrug Resistance for Breast Cancer Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Lin; Zhang, Yangqing; Zheng, Yi; Tian, Ge; Song, Cunxian; Yang, Dongye; Chen, Hongli; Sun, Hongfan; Tian, Yan; Liu, Kexin; Li, Zhen; Huang, Laiqiang

    2009-12-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) in tumor cells is a significant obstacle to the success of chemotherapy in many cancers. The purpose of this research is to test the possibility of docetaxel-loaded poly (ɛ-caprolactone)/Pluronic F68 (PCL/Pluronic F68) nanoparticles to overcome MDR in docetaxel-resistance human breast cancer cell line. Docetaxel-loaded nanoparticles were prepared by modified solvent displacement method using commercial PCL and self-synthesized PCL/Pluronic F68, respectively. PCL/Pluronic F68 nanoparticles were found to be of spherical shape with a rough and porous surface. The nanoparticles had an average size of around 200 nm with a narrow size distribution. The in vitro drug release profile of both nanoparticle formulations showed a biphasic release pattern. There was an increased level of uptake of PCL/Pluronic F68 nanoparticles in docetaxel-resistance human breast cancer cell line, MCF-7 TAX30, when compared with PCL nanoparticles. The cytotoxicity of PCL nanoparticles was higher than commercial Taxotere® in the MCF-7 TAX30 cell culture, but the differences were not significant ( p > 0.05). However, the PCL/Pluronic F68 nanoparticles achieved significantly higher level of cytotoxicity than both of PCL nanoparticles and Taxotere® ( p < 0.05), indicating docetaxel-loaded PCL/Pluronic F68 nanoparticles could overcome multidrug resistance in human breast cancer cells and therefore have considerable potential for treatment of breast cancer.

  2. Paclitaxel-loaded nanoparticles of star-shaped cholic acid-core PLA-TPGS copolymer for breast cancer treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xiaolong; Cai, Shuyu; Zhang, Rongbo; Liu, Peng; Chen, Hongbo; Zheng, Yi; Sun, Leilei

    2013-10-01

    A system of novel nanoparticles of star-shaped cholic acid-core polylactide- d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (CA-PLA-TPGS) block copolymer was developed for paclitaxel delivery for breast cancer treatment, which demonstrated superior in vitro and in vivo performance in comparison with paclitaxel-loaded poly( d, l-lactide- co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles and linear PLA-TPGS nanoparticles. The paclitaxel- or couramin 6-loaded nanoparticles were fabricated by a modified nanoprecipitation method and then characterized in terms of size, surface charge, surface morphology, drug encapsulation efficiency, and in vitro drug release. The CA-PLA-TPGS nanoparticles were found to be spherical in shape with an average size of around 120 nm. The nanoparticles were found to be stable, showing no change in the particle size and surface charge during 90-day storage of the aqueous solution. The release profiles of the paclitaxel-loaded nanoparticles exhibited typically biphasic release patterns. The results also showed that the CA-PLA-TPGS nanoparticles have higher antitumor efficacy than the PLA-TPGS nanoparticles and PLGA nanoparticles in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, such nanoparticles of star-shaped cholic acid-core PLA-TPGS block copolymer could be considered as a potentially promising and effective strategy for breast cancer treatment.

  3. Bovine serum albumin nanoparticles loaded with Photosens photosensitizer for effective photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanadeev, Vitaly; Khlebtsov, Boris; Packirisamy, Gopinath; Khlebtsov, Nikolai

    2017-03-01

    Polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) are widely used for drug delivery applications due to high biodegradability, low toxicity and high loading capacity. The focus of this study is the development of photosensitizer Photosens (PS) loaded albumin NPs for efficient photodynamic therapy (PDT). To fabricate PS-loaded bovine serum albumin nanoparticles (BSA-PS NPs), we used a coacervation method with glutaraldehyde followed by passive loading of PS. Successful loading of PS was confirmed by appearance of characteristic peak in absorption spectrum which allows to determine the PS loading in BSA NPs. The synthesized BSA-PS NPs demonstrated low toxicity to HeLa cells at therapeutic concentrations of loaded PS. Compared to free PS solution, the synthesized BSA-PS NPs generated the singlet oxygen more effectively under laser irradiation at 660 nm. In addition, due to presence of various chemical groups on the surface of BSA-PS NPs, they are capable to adsorb on cell surface and accumulate in cells due to cellular uptake mechanisms. Owing to combination of PD and cell uptake advantages, BSA-PS NPs demonstrated higher efficacy of photodynamic damage to cancer cells as compared to free PS at equivalent concentrations. These results suggest that non-targeted BSA-PS NPs with high PD activity and low-fabrication costs of are promising candidates for transfer to PD clinic treatments.

  4. Endothelial cell-derived microparticles loaded with iron oxide nanoparticles: feasibility of MR imaging monitoring in mice.

    PubMed

    Al Faraj, Achraf; Gazeau, Florence; Wilhelm, Claire; Devue, Cécile; Guérin, Coralie L; Péchoux, Christine; Paradis, Valérie; Clément, Olivier; Boulanger, Chantal M; Rautou, Pierre-Emmanuel

    2012-04-01

    To assess the feasibility of loading iron oxide nanoparticles in endothelial microparticles (EMPs), thereby enabling their noninvasive monitoring with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in mice. Experiments were approved by the French Ministry of Agriculture. Endothelial cells, first labeled with anionic superparamagnetic nanoparticles, were stimulated to generate EMPs, carrying the nanoparticles in their inner compartment. C57BL/6 mice received an intravenous injection of nanoparticle-loaded EMPs, free nanoparticles, or the supernatant of nanoparticle-loaded EMPs. A 1-week follow-up was performed with a 4.7-T MR imaging device by using a gradient-echo sequence for imaging spleen, liver, and kidney and a radial very-short-echo time sequence for lung imaging. Comparisons were performed by using the Student t test. The signal intensity loss induced by nanoparticle-loaded EMPs or free nanoparticles was readily detected within 5 minutes after injection in the liver and spleen, with a more pronounced effect in the spleen for the magnetic EMPs. The kinetics of signal intensity attenuation differed for nanoparticle-loaded EMPs and free nanoparticles. No signal intensity changes were observed in mice injected with the supernatant of nanoparticle-loaded EMPs, confirming that cells had not released free nanoparticles, but only in association with EMPs. The results were confirmed by using Perls staining and immunofluorescence analysis. The strategy to generate EMPs with magnetic properties allowed noninvasive MR imaging assessment and follow-up of EMPs and opens perspectives for imaging the implications of these cellular vectors in diseases. © RSNA, 2012.

  5. Differential permeation of piroxicam-loaded PLGA micro/nanoparticles and their in vitro enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shankarayan, Raju; Kumar, Sumit; Mishra, Prashant

    2013-03-01

    Piroxicam is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used for the treatment of musculoskeletal pain. The main problem encountered when piroxicam is administered orally is its gastric side-effect (ulcer, bleeding and holes in the stomach). Transmucosal delivery and encapsulation of piroxicam in biodegradable particles offer potential advantages over conventional oral delivery. The present study was aimed to develop an alternative to piroxicam-delivery which could overcome the direct contact of the drug at the mucosal membrane and its permeation through the mucosal membrane was studied. To achieve this, the piroxicam was encapsulated in Poly (lactide- co-glycolide) (PLGA) microparticles (size 1-4 μm, encapsulation efficiency 80-85 %) and nanoparticles (size 151.6 ± 28.6 nm, encapsulation efficiency 92.17 ± 3.08 %). Various formulation process parameters were optimised for the preparation of piroxicam-loaded PLGA nanoparticles of optimal size and encapsulation efficiency. Transmucosal permeability of piroxicam-loaded PLGA micro- and nanoparticles through the porcine oesophageal mucosa was studied. Using fluorescently labelled PLGA micro- and nanoparticles, size-dependent permeation was demonstrated. Furthermore, the effect of different permeation enhancers on the flux rate and permeability coefficient for the permeation of nanoparticles was investigated. The results suggested that amongst the permeation enhancers used the most efficient enhancement of permeation was observed with 10 mM sodium dodecyl sulphate.

  6. One-pot green synthesis of doxorubicin loaded-silica nanoparticles for in vivo cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shan; Hua, Li; Guo, Zilong; Sun, Lin

    2018-09-01

    The present work reveals a new and simple one-pot green method to load doxorubicin (DOX) drugs in silica nanoparticles for efficient in vivo cancer therapy. The synthesis of DOX loaded silica nanoparticles (SiNPs/DOX) is based on the efficient encapsulation of DOX in surfactant Tween 80 micelles which act as a template for the formation of silica nanoparticles. The release profile, cellular uptake behavior, cytotoxicity and antitumor effect of SiNPs/DOX nanoparticles were investigated and compared to free DOX. The silica nanoparticles improved the cellular drug delivery efficiency and exhibited high cytotoxicity, successfully achieving the inhibition of tumor growth. Notably, the tumor size and weight of SiNPs/DOX group was 2-fold and 1.7-fold smaller than that of free DOX group, and 4-fold and 2-fold smaller than that of PBS group. The one-pot green synthesis system may have the potential to be developed as a promising drug delivery system. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. In situ gelling dorzolamide loaded chitosan nanoparticles for the treatment of glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Katiyar, Shefali; Pandit, Jayamanti; Mondal, Rabi S; Mishra, Anil K; Chuttani, Krishna; Aqil, Mohd; Ali, Asgar; Sultana, Yasmin

    2014-02-15

    The most important risk associated with glaucoma is the onset and progression of intraocular pressure. The objective of this study was to formulate in situ gel of chitosan nanoparticles to enhance the bioavailability and efficacy of dorzolamide in the glaucoma treatment. Optimized nanoparticles were spherical in shape (particle size: 164 nm) with a loading efficiency of 98.1%. The ex vivo release of the optimized in situ gel nanoparticle formulation showed a sustained drug release as compared to marketed formulation. The gamma scintigraphic study of prepared in situ nanoparticle gel showed good corneal retention compared to marketed formulation. HET-CAM assay of the prepared formulation scored 0.33 in 5 min which indicates the non-irritant property of the formulation. Thus in situ gel of dorzolamide hydrochloride loaded nanoparticles offers a more intensive treatment of glaucoma and a better patient compliance as it requires fewer applications per day compared to conventional eye drops. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Repetitive heterocoagulation of oppositely charged particles for enhancement of magnetic nanoparticle loading into monodisperse silica particles.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Hideki; Nagao, Daisuke; Konno, Mikio

    2010-03-16

    Oppositely charged particles were repetitively heterocoagulated to fabricate highly monodisperse magnetic silica particles with high loading of magnetic nanoparticles. Positively charged magnetic nanoparticles prepared by surface modification with N-trimethoxysilylpropyl-N,N,N-trimethylammonium chloride (TSA) were used to heterocoagulate with silica particles under basic conditions to give rise to negative silica surface charge and prevent the oxidation of the magnetic nanoparticles. The resultant particles of silica core homogeneously coated with the magnetic nanoparticles were further coated with thin silica layer with sodium silicate in order to enhance colloidal stability and avoid desorption of the magnetic nanoparticles from the silica cores. Five repetitions of the heterocoagulation and the silica coating could increase saturation magnetization of the magnetic silica particles to 27.7 emu/g, keeping the coefficient of variation of particle sizes (C(V)) less than 6.5%. Highly homogeneous loading of the magnetic component was confirmed by measuring Fe-to-Si atomic ratios of individual particles with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.

  9. Synthesis of protein-coated biocompatible methotrexate-loaded PLA-PEG-PLA nanoparticles for breast cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Massadeh, Salam; Alaamery, Manal; Al-Qatanani, Shatha; Alarifi, Saqer; Bawazeer, Shahad; Alyafee, Yusra

    2016-01-01

    Background PLA-PEG-PLA triblock polymer nanoparticles are promising tools for targeted dug delivery. The main aim in designing polymeric nanoparticles for drug delivery is achieving a controlled and targeted release of a specific drug at the therapeutically optimal rate and choosing a suitable preparation method to encapsulate the drug efficiently, which depends mainly on the nature of the drug (hydrophilic or hydrophobic). In this study, methotrexate (MTX)-loaded nanoparticles were prepared by the double emulsion method. Method Biodegradable polymer polyethylene glycol-polylactide acid tri-block was used with poly(vinyl alcohol) as emulsifier. The resulting methotrexate polymer nanoparticles were coated with bovine serum albumin in order to improve their biocompatibility. This study focused on particle size distribution, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, loading capacity, and in vitro drug release at various concentrations of PVA (0.5%, 1%, 2%, and 3%). Results Reduced particle size of methotrexate-loaded nanoparticles was obtained using lower PVA concentrations. Enhanced encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity was obtained using 1% PVA. FT-IR characterization was conducted for the void polymer nanoparticles and for drug-loaded nanoparticles with methotrexate, and the protein-coated nanoparticles in solid state showed the structure of the plain PEG-PLA and the drug-loaded nanoparticles with methotrexate. The methotrexate-loaded PLA-PEG-PLA nanoparticles have been studied in vitro; the drug release, drug loading, and yield are reported. Conclusion The drug release profile was monitored over a period of 168 hours, and was free of burst effect before the protein coating. The results obtained from this work are promising; this work can be taken further to develop MTX based therapies.

  10. Biodistribution of indocyanine green-loaded nanoparticles with surface modifications of PEG and folic acid.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ying; Sadoqi, Mostafa; Shao, Jun

    2012-10-15

    To establish the biodistribution profile of the PLGA nanoparticles with dual surface modifications of PEG and folic acid (FA) in mice xenografted with MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells with high expression of folate receptor (FR); and to illustrate that the modified nanoparticles can target the loaded indocyanine green (ICG) to the tumor with high FR expression. ICG-loaded nanoparticles were prepared with PLGA (non-modified nanoparticles, NM-NP) or mPEG-PLGA and FA-PLGA (dual modified nanoparticles, DM-NP). Biodistribution of the ICG-loaded nanoparticles (1.25 mg/kg) after i.v. injection was investigated on athymic mice transplanted with MDA-MB-231 tumor. ICG concentration in plasma from the DM-NP group was significantly (p<0.05) higher than the NM-NP group from 90 min to the end of the study (12 h). After 4 h, the drug concentration in the tumor tissue from the DM-NP started to be significantly (p<0.05) higher than the NM-NP until 12 h. Compared to the NM-NP, the DM-NP increased the AUC(0-12 h) in plasma by 245% and the AUC(0-12 h) in tumor by 194%, while decreased the AUC(0-12 h) in liver by 13%. The accumulation of DM-NP into the tumor was significantly higher than NM-NP due to the long circulation and FR-mediated uptake. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Aerosolized Antimicrobial Agents Based on Degradable Dextran Nanoparticles Loaded with Silver Carbene Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Ornelas-Megiatto, Cátia; Shah, Parth N.; Wich, Peter R.; Cohen, Jessica L.; Tagaev, Jasur A.; Smolen, Justin A.; Wright, Brian D.; Panzner, Matthew J.; Youngs, Wiley J.; Fréchet, Jean M. J.; Cannon, Carolyn L.

    2012-01-01

    Degradable acetalated dextran (Ac-DEX) nanoparticles were prepared and loaded with a hydrophobic silver carbene complex (SCC) by a single-emulsion process. The resulting particles were characterized for morphology and size distribution using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The average particle size and particle size distribution were found to be a function of the ratio of the organic phase to the surfactant containing aqueous phase with a 1:5 volume ratio of Ac-DEX CH2Cl2 (organic): PBS (aqueous) being optimal for the formulation of nanoparticles with an average size of 100 ± 40 nm and a low polydispersity. The SCC loading was found to increase with an increase in the SCC quantity in the initial feed used during particle formulation up to 30% (w/w); however, the encapsulation efficiency was observed to be the best at a feed ratio of 20% (w/w). In vitro efficacy testing of the SCC loaded Ac-DEX nanoparticles demonstrated their activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria; the nanoparticles inhibited the growth of every bacterial species tested. As expected, a higher concentration of drug was required to inhibit bacterial growth when the drug was encapsulated within the nanoparticle formulations compared with the free drug illustrating the desired depot release. Compared with free drug, the Ac-DEX nanoparticles were much more readily suspended in an aqueous phase and subsequently aerosolized, thus providing an effective method of pulmonary drug delivery. PMID:23025592

  12. Aerosolized antimicrobial agents based on degradable dextran nanoparticles loaded with silver carbene complexes.

    PubMed

    Ornelas-Megiatto, Cátia; Shah, Parth N; Wich, Peter R; Cohen, Jessica L; Tagaev, Jasur A; Smolen, Justin A; Wright, Brian D; Panzner, Matthew J; Youngs, Wiley J; Fréchet, Jean M J; Cannon, Carolyn L

    2012-11-05

    Degradable acetalated dextran (Ac-DEX) nanoparticles were prepared and loaded with a hydrophobic silver carbene complex (SCC) by a single-emulsion process. The resulting particles were characterized for morphology and size distribution using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The average particle size and particle size distribution were found to be a function of the ratio of the organic phase to the surfactant containing aqueous phase with a 1:5 volume ratio of Ac-DEX CH(2)Cl(2) (organic):PBS (aqueous) being optimal for the formulation of nanoparticles with an average size of 100 ± 40 nm and a low polydispersity. The SCC loading was found to increase with an increase in the SCC quantity in the initial feed used during particle formulation up to 30% (w/w); however, the encapsulation efficiency was observed to be the best at a feed ratio of 20% (w/w). In vitro efficacy testing of the SCC loaded Ac-DEX nanoparticles demonstrated their activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria; the nanoparticles inhibited the growth of every bacterial species tested. As expected, a higher concentration of drug was required to inhibit bacterial growth when the drug was encapsulated within the nanoparticle formulations compared with the free drug illustrating the desired depot release. Compared with free drug, the Ac-DEX nanoparticles were much more readily suspended in an aqueous phase and subsequently aerosolized, thus providing an effective method of pulmonary drug delivery.

  13. Studies on paclitaxel-loaded glyceryl monostearate nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Shenoy, Vikram Subraya; Rajyaguru, Tushar Himmatlal; Gude, Rajiv Phondu; Murthy, Rayasa S Ramchandra

    2009-09-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) of Paclitaxel were prepared by modified Hot homogenization method using Glyceryl monostearate (GMS). The SLNs were characterized for its physicochemical characteristics such as mean particle size, percentage entrapment efficiency and zeta potential, which were found to be 226 nm, 92.43% and -29.4 mV, respectively. The Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) studies showed that prepared SLNs were of spherical shape. The drug retarding efficiency of the lipid (GMS) was better in pH 7.4 compared to pH 3.5. The release profile showed a tendency to follow Higuchi diffusion pattern at pH 7.4 and Peppas-Korsenmeyer model at pH 3.5. Chemosensitivity assay carried out using B16F10 cell lines showed that anti-proliferative activity of Paclitaxel was not hindered due to encapsulation.

  14. Indocyanine green-loaded hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles as an activatable theranostic agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Suk ho; Kim, Hyunjin; Choi, Yongdoo

    2017-05-01

    Here we report indocyanine green (ICG)-loaded hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (ICG@HMSNP) as an activatable theranostic platform. Near-infrared fluorescence and singlet oxygen generation of ICG@HMSNP was effectively quenched (i.e. turned off) in its native state because of the fluorescence resonance energy transfer between ICG molecules. Therefore, ICG@HMSNP was nonfluorescent and nonphototoxic in the extracellular region. After the nanoparticles entered the cancer cells via endocytosis, they became highly fluorescent and phototoxic. In addition, intracellular uptake of ICG@HMSNP was 2.75 times higher than that of free ICG, resulting in an enhanced phototherapy of cancer.

  15. In vitro release and biological activities of Carum copticum essential oil (CEO) loaded chitosan nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Esmaeili, Akbar; Asgari, Azadeh

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, the unparalleled and functional properties of essential oils have been extensively reported, but the sensitivity of essential oils to environmental factors and their poor aqueous solubility have limited their applications in industries. Hence, we encapsulated CEO in chitosan nanoparticles by an emulsion-ionic gelation with pantasodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) and sodium hexametaphosphte (HMP), separately, as crosslinkers. The nanoparticles were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The encapsulation efficiency (EE) and loading capacity (LC) of CEO in chitosan nanoparticles increased with the increase of initial CEO amount. The nanoparticles displayed an average size of 30-80nm with a spherical shape and regular distribution. In vitro release profiles exhibited an initial burst release and followed by a sustained CEO release at different pH conditions. The amount of CEO release from chitosan nanoparticles was higher in acidic pH to basic or neutral pH, respectively. The biological properties of CEO, before and after the encapsulation process were evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and agar disk diffusion method, respectively. The results indicated the encapsulation of CEO in chitosan nanoparticles could be protected the quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Formulation, characterization and pharmacokinetics of praziquantel-loaded hydrogenated castor oil solid lipid nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Xie, Shuyu; Pan, Baoliang; Wang, Ming; Zhu, Luyan; Wang, Fenghua; Dong, Zhao; Wang, Xiaofang; Zhou, WenZhong

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to formulate praziquantel (PZQ)-loaded hydrogenated castor oil (HCO) solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) to enhance the bioavailability and prolong the systemic circulation of the drug. PZQ was encapsulated into HCO nanoparticles by a hot homogenization and ultrasonication method. The physicochemical characteristics of SLN were investigated by optical microscope, scanning electron microscopy and photon correlation spectroscopy. Pharmacokinetics were studied after oral, subcutaneous and intramuscular administration in mice. The diameter, polydispersivity index, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity of the nanoparticles were 344.0 +/- 15.1 nm, 0.31 +/- 0.08, -16.7 +/- 0.5 mV, 62.17 +/- 6.53% and 12.43 +/- 1.31%, respectively. In vitro release of PZQ-loaded HCO-SLN exhibited an initial burst release followed by a sustained release. SLN increased the bioavailability of PZQ by 14.9-, 16.1- and 2.6-fold, and extended the mean residence time of the drug from 7.6, 6.6 and 8.2 to 95.9, 151.6 and 48.2 h after oral, subcutaneous and intramuscular administration, respectively. The PZQ-loaded HCO-SLN could be a promising formulation to enhance the pharmacological activity of PZQ.

  17. Strain features and condition assessment of orthotropic steel deck cable-supported bridges subjected to vehicle loads by using dense FBG strain sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Shiyin; Zhang, Zhaohui; Li, Shunlong; Li, Hui

    2017-10-01

    Strain is a direct indicator of structural safety. Therefore, strain sensors have been used in most structural health monitoring systems for bridges. However, until now, the investigation of strain response has been insufficient. This paper conducts a comprehensive study of the strain features of the U ribs and transverse diaphragm on an orthotropic steel deck and proposes a statistical paradigm for crack detection based on the features of vehicle-induced strain response by using the densely distributed optic fibre Bragg grating (FBG) strain sensors. The local feature of strain under vehicle load is highlighted, which enables the use of measurement data to determine the vehicle loading event and to make a decision regarding the health status of a girder near the strain sensors via technical elimination of the load information. Time-frequency analysis shows that the strain contains three features: the long-term trend item, the short-term trend item, and the instantaneous vehicle-induced item (IVII). The IVII is the wheel-induced strain with a remarkable local feature, and the measured wheel-induced strain is only influenced by the vehicle near the FBG sensor, while other vehicles slightly farther away have no effect on the wheel-induced strain. This causes the local strain series, among the FBG strain sensors in the same transverse locations of different cross-sections, to present similarities in shape to some extent and presents a time delay in successive order along the driving direction. Therefore, the strain series induced by an identical vehicle can be easily tracked and compared by extracting the amplitude and calculating the mutual ratio to eliminate vehicle loading information, leaving the girder information alone. The statistical paradigm for crack detection is finally proposed, and the detection accuracy is then validated by using dense FBG strain sensors on a long-span suspension bridge in China.

  18. D, L-Sulforaphane Loaded Fe3O4@ Gold Core Shell Nanoparticles: A Potential Sulforaphane Delivery System.

    PubMed

    Kheiri Manjili, Hamidreza; Ma'mani, Leila; Tavaddod, Sharareh; Mashhadikhan, Maedeh; Shafiee, Abbas; Naderi-Manesh, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    A novel design of gold-coated iron oxide nanoparticles was fabricated as a potential delivery system to improve the efficiency and stability of d, l-sulforaphane as an anticancer drug. To this purpose, the surface of gold-coated iron oxide nanoparticles was modified for sulforaphane delivery via furnishing its surface with thiolated polyethylene glycol-folic acid and thiolated polyethylene glycol-FITC. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by different techniques such as FTIR, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The average diameters of the synthesized nanoparticles before and after sulforaphane loading were obtained ∼ 33 nm and ∼ 38 nm, respectively, when ∼ 2.8 mmol/g of sulforaphane was loaded. The result of cell viability assay which was confirmed by apoptosis assay on the human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 line) as a model of in vitro-cancerous cells, proved that the bare nanoparticles showed little inherent cytotoxicity, whereas the sulforaphane-loaded nanoparticles were cytotoxic. The expression rate of the anti-apoptotic genes (bcl-2 and bcl-xL), and the pro-apoptotic genes (bax and bak) were quantified, and it was found that the expression rate of bcl-2 and bcl-xL genes significantly were decreased when MCF-7 cells were incubated by sulforaphane-loaded nanoparticles. The sulforaphane-loaded into the designed gold-coated iron oxide nanoparticles, acceptably induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells.

  19. Near-infrared fluorescent aza-BODIPY dye-loaded biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles for optical cancer imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamon, Casey L.; Dorsey, Christopher L.; Özel, Tuğba; Barnes, Eugenia M.; Hudnall, Todd W.; Betancourt, Tania

    2016-07-01

    Nanoparticles are being readily investigated as carriers for the delivery of imaging and therapeutic agents for the detection, monitoring, and treatment of cancer and other diseases. In the present work, the preparation of biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles loaded with a near-infrared fluorescent aza-boron dipyrromethene (NIR-BODIPY ) derivative, and their use as contrast agents for optical imaging in cancer are described. Nanoparticles were prepared by nanoprecipitation of amphiphilic block copolymers of poly(lactic acid) and poly(ethylene glycol). The size, morphology, dye loading, spectral properties, quantum yield, cytocompatibility, and in vitro NIR imaging potential of the nanoparticles in breast and ovarian cancer cells were evaluated. Spherical nanoparticles of 30-70 nm in diameter were loaded with 0.73 w/w% BODIPY derivative. At this loading, the dye presented a fluorescence quantum yield in the same order of magnitude as in solution. Nanoparticle suspensions at concentrations up to 580 μg/mL were cytocompatible to breast (MDA-MB-231) and ovarian (SKOV-3 and Caov-3) cancer cells after a four-hour incubation period. Fluorescence microscopy images demonstrated the ability of the nanoparticles to act as imaging agents in all three cell lines in as little as 1 hour. The results shown indicate the potential of these NIR-BODIPY-loaded nanoparticles as contrast agents for near-infrared optical imaging in cancer.

  20. Biodistribution of arctigenin-loaded nanoparticles designed for multimodal imaging.

    PubMed

    Cui, Qingxin; Hou, Yuanyuan; Wang, Yanan; Li, Xu; Liu, Yang; Ma, Xiaoyao; Wang, Zengyong; Wang, Weiya; Tao, Jin; Wang, Qian; Jiang, Min; Chen, Dongyan; Feng, Xizeng; Bai, Gang

    2017-04-07

    Tracking targets of natural products is one of the most challenging issues in fields ranging from pharmacognosy to biomedicine. It is widely recognized that the biocompatible nanoparticle (NP) could function as a "key" that opens the target "lock". We report a functionalized poly-lysine NP technique that can monitor the target protein of arctigenin (ATG) in vivo non-invasively. The NPs were synthesized, and their morphologies and surface chemical properties were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), laser particle size analysis and atomic force microscopy (AFM). In addition, we studied the localization of ATG at the level of the cell and the whole animal (zebrafish and mice). We demonstrated that fluorescent NPs could be ideal carriers in the development of a feasible method for target identification. The distributions of the target proteins were found to be consistent with the pharmacological action of ATG at the cellular and whole-organism levels. The results indicated that functionalized poly-lysine NPs could be valuable in the multimodal imaging of arctigenin.

  1. Ligand Assisted Stabilization of Fluorescence Nanoparticles; an Insight on the Fluorescence Characteristics, Dispersion Stability and DNA Loading Efficiency of Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Rhouati, Amina; Hayat, Akhtar; Mishra, Rupesh K; Bueno, Diana; Shahid, Shakir Ahmad; Muñoz, Roberto; Marty, Jean Louis

    2016-07-01

    This work reports on the ligand assisted stabilization of Fluospheres® carboxylate modified nanoparticles (FCMNPs), and subsequently investigation on the DNA loading capacity and fluorescence response of the modified particles. The designed fluorescence bioconjugate was characterized with enhanced fluorescence characteristics, good stability and large surface area with high DNA loading efficiency. For comparison purpose, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) with three different length strands were used as cross linkers to modify the particles, and their DNA loading capacity and fluorescence characteristics were investigated. By comparing the performance of the particles, we found that the most improved fluorescence characteristics, enhanced DNA loading and high dispersion stability were obtained, when employing PEG of long spacer arm length. The designed fluorescence bioconjugate was observed to maintain all its characteristics under varying pH over an extended period of time. These types of bioconjugates are in great demand for fluorescence imaging and in vivo fluorescence biomedical application, especially when most of the as synthesized fluorescence particles cannot withstand to varying in vivo physiological conditions with decreases in fluorescence response and DNA loading efficiency.

  2. Resveratrol stabilized gold nanoparticles enable surface loading of doxorubicin and anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Ranjeet Kumar; Thennarasu, Sathiah; Mandal, Asit Baran

    2014-02-01

    The green synthesis of gold nanoparticles was achieved by exploiting the antioxidant property of resveratrol (R). The formation of resveratrol stabilized gold nanoparticles (R-GNPs) was confirmed by the observation of the surface plasmon resonance band at 537 nm. The average size of R-GNPs produced in resveratrol medium was ~35nm. The geometrical shape and zeta potential of the gold nanoparticles were spherical and -21.2 mV, respectively. R-GNPs showed excellent stability in saline and other buffers mimicking the physiological pH. The MTT assay using fibroblast cells from explants tissue revealed the biocompatibility of R-GNPs. The cytotoxic activity of doxorubicin loaded R-GNPs against glioma carcinoma cell line (LN 229), showed the suitability of R-GNPs as a carrier for anticancer drugs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Improved insulin loading in poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles upon self-assembly with lipids.

    PubMed

    García-Díaz, María; Foged, Camilla; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck

    2015-03-30

    Polymeric nanoparticles are widely investigated as drug delivery systems for oral administration. However, the hydrophobic nature of many polymers hampers effective loading of the particles with hydrophilic macromolecules such as insulin. Thus, the aim of this work was to improve the loading of insulin into poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles by pre-assembly with amphiphilic lipids. Insulin was complexed with soybean phosphatidylcholine or sodium caprate by self-assembly and subsequently loaded into PLGA nanoparticles by using the double emulsion-solvent evaporation technique. The nanoparticles were characterized in terms of size, zeta potential, insulin encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity. Upon pre-assembly with lipids, there was an increased distribution of insulin into the organic phase of the emulsion, eventually resulting in significantly enhanced encapsulation efficiencies (90% as compared to 24% in the absence of lipids). Importantly, the insulin loading capacity was increased up to 20% by using the lipid-insulin complexes. The results further showed that a main fraction of the lipid was incorporated into the nanoparticles and remained associated to the polymer during release studies in buffers, whereas insulin was released in a non-complexed form as a burst of approximately 80% of the loaded insulin. In conclusion, the protein load in PLGA nanoparticles can be significantly increased by employing self-assembled protein-lipid complexes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Dirhenium decacarbonyl-loaded PLLA nanoparticles: influence of neutron irradiation and preliminary in vivo administration by the TMT technique.

    PubMed

    Hamoudeh, Misara; Fessi, Hatem; Mehier, Henri; Faraj, Achraf Al; Canet-Soulas, Emmanuelle

    2008-02-04

    In a previous study, we have described the elaboration of PLLA-based nanoparticles loaded with non radioactive dirhenium decacarbonyl [Re(2)(CO)(10)], a novel neutron-activatable radiopharmaceutical dosage form for intra-tumoral radiotherapy. These nanoparticles are designed for a neutron irradiation which can be carried out in a nuclear reactor facility. This new paper describes the neutron irradiation influence on these Re(2)(CO)(10)-loaded PLLA nanoparticles. The loaded nanoparticles with 23% (w/w) of metallic rhenium have shown to remain stable and separated and to keep out their sphericity at the lower neutron flux (1x10(11)n/cm(2)/s for 0.5h) which was used for rhenium content determination (neutron activation analysis, NAA). However, when loaded nanoparticles were irradiated at the higher neutron flux (1.45x10(13)n/cm(2)/s, 1h), they have shown to be partially coagglomerated and some pores appeared at their surface. Furthermore, DSC results showed a decrease in the PLLA melting point and melting enthalpy in both blank and loaded nanoparticles indicating a decrease in polymer crystallinity. In addition, the polymer molecular weights (M(n), M(w)) decreased after irradiation but without largely affecting the polymer polydispersity index (P.I.) which indicated that an irradiation-induced PLLA chain scission had occurred in a random way. The XRD patterns of irradiated PLLA provided another proof of polymer loss of crystallinity. FTIR spectra results have shown that irradiated nanoparticles retained the chemical identity of the used Re(2)(CO)(10) and PLLA despite the reduction in polymer crystallinity and molecular weight. Nanoparticles suspending after irradiation became also more difficult, but it was properly achievable by adding PVA (1%) and ethanol (10%) into the dispersing medium. Moreover, after 24h incubation of different irradiated nanoparticles in two different culture mediums, visual examination did not show bacterial growth indicating that applied

  5. Therapeutic efficacy of artemisinin-loaded nanoparticles in experimental visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Want, Muzamil Yaqub; Islamuddin, Mohammad; Chouhan, Garima; Ozbak, Hani A; Hemeg, Hassan A; Dasgupta, Anjan Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Asoke Prasun; Afrin, Farhat

    2015-06-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a fatal vector-borne parasitic syndrome attributable to the protozoa of the Leishmania donovani complex. The available chemotherapeutic options are not ideal due to their potential toxicity, high cost and prolonged treatment schedule. In the present study, we conjectured the use of nano drug delivery systems for plant-derived secondary metabolite; artemisinin as an alternative strategy for the treatment of experimental VL. Artemisinin-loaded poly lactic co-glycolic acid (ALPLGA) nanoparticles prepared were spherical in shape with a particle size of 220.0±15.0 nm, 29.2±2.0% drug loading and 69.0±3.3% encapsulation efficiency. ALPLGA nanoparticles administered at doses of 10 and 20mg/kg body weight showed superior antileishmanial efficacy compared with free artemisinin in BALB/c model of VL. There was a significant reduction in hepatosplenomegaly as well as in parasite load in the liver (85.0±5.4%) and spleen (82.0±2.4%) with ALPLGA nanoparticles treatment at 20mg/kg body weight compared to free artemisinin (70.3±0.6% in liver and 62.7±3.7% in spleen). In addition, ALPLGA nanoparticle treatment restored the defective host immune response in mice with established VL infection. The protection was associated with a Th1-biased immune response as evident from a positive delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction, escalated IgG2a levels, augmented lymphoproliferation and enhancement in proinflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-2) with significant suppression of Th2 cytokines (IL-10 and IL-4) after in vitro recall, compared to infected control and free artemisinin treatment. In conclusion, our results advocate superior efficacy of ALPLGA nanoparticles over free artemisinin, which was coupled with restoration of suppressed cell-mediated immunity in animal models of VL. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Resveratrol-loaded glycyrrhizic acid-conjugated human serum albumin nanoparticles wrapping resveratrol nanoparticles: Preparation, characterization, and targeting effect on liver tumors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mingfang; Lian, Bolin; Deng, Yiping; Feng, Ziqi; Zhong, Chen; Wu, Weiwei; Huang, Yannian; Wang, Lingling; Zu, Chang; Zhao, Xiuhua

    2017-08-01

    In this study, glycyrrhizic acid-conjugated human serum albumin nanoparticles wrapping resveratrol nanoparticles were prepared to establish a tumor targeting nano-sized drug delivery system. Glycyrrhizic acid was coupled to human serum albumin, and resveratrol was encapsulated in glycyrrhizic acid-conjugated human serum albumin by high-pressure homogenization emulsification. The average particle size of sample nanoparticles prepared under the optimal conditions was 108.1 ± 5.3 nm with a polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.001, and the amount of glycyrrhizic acid coupled with human serum albumin was 112.56 µg/mg. The drug encapsulation efficiency and drug loading efficiency were 83.6 and 11.5%, respectively. The glycyrrhizic acid-conjugated human serum albumin nanoparticles wrapping resveratrol nanoparticles were characterized through laser light scattering, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analyses, and gas chromatography. The characterization results showed that resveratrol in glycyrrhizic acid-conjugated human serum albumin nanoparticles wrapping resveratrol nanoparticles existed in amorphous state and the residual amounts of chloroform and methanol in nanoparticles were separately less than the international conference on harmonization (ICH) limit. The in vitro drug-release study showed that the nanoparticles released the drug slowly and continuously. The inhibitory rate of glycyrrhizic acid-conjugated human serum albumin nanoparticles wrapping resveratrol nanoparticles was measured using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2 H-tetrazolium bromide method. The IC50 values of glycyrrhizic acid-conjugated human serum albumin nanoparticles wrapping resveratrol nanoparticles and resveratrol were 62.5 and 95.5 µg/ml, respectively. The target ability of glycyrrhizic acid-conjugated human serum albumin nanoparticles wrapping resveratrol nanoparticles

  7. In Vivo Assessment of Clobetasol Propionate-Loaded Lecithin-Chitosan Nanoparticles for Skin Delivery.

    PubMed

    Şenyiğit, Taner; Sonvico, Fabio; Rossi, Alessandra; Tekmen, Işıl; Santi, Patrizia; Colombo, Paolo; Nicoli, Sara; Özer, Özgen

    2016-12-26

    The aim of this work was to assess in vivo the anti-inflammatory efficacy and tolerability of clobetasol propionate (CP) loaded lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles incorporated into chitosan gel for topical application (CP 0.005%). As a comparison, a commercial cream (CP 0.05% w / w ), and a sodium deoxycholate gel (CP 0.05% w / w ) were also evaluated. Lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles were prepared by self-assembling of the components obtained by direct injection of soybean lecithin alcoholic solution containing CP into chitosan aqueous solution. Nanoparticles obtained had a particle size around 250 nm, narrow distribution (polydispersity index below 0.2) and positive surface charge, provided by a superficial layer of the cationic polymer. The nanoparticle suspension was then loaded into a chitosan gel, to obtain a final CP concentration of 0.005%. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan-induced hind paw edema test on Wistar rats, the effect of formulations on the barrier property of the stratum corneum were determined using transepidermal water loss measurements (TEWL) and histological analysis was performed to evaluate the possible presence of morphological changes. The results obtained indicate that nanoparticle-in-gel formulation produced significantly higher edema inhibition compared to other formulations tested, although it contained ten times less CP. TEWL measurements also revealed that all formulations have no significant disturbance on the barrier function of skin. Furthermore, histological analysis of rat abdominal skin did not show morphological tissue changes nor cell infiltration signs after application of the formulations. Taken together, the present data show that the use of lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles in chitosan gel as a drug carrier significantly improves the risk-benefit ratio as compared with sodium-deoxycholate gel and commercial cream formulations of CP.

  8. In Vivo Assessment of Clobetasol Propionate-Loaded Lecithin-Chitosan Nanoparticles for Skin Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Şenyiğit, Taner; Sonvico, Fabio; Rossi, Alessandra; Tekmen, Işıl; Santi, Patrizia; Colombo, Paolo; Nicoli, Sara; Özer, Özgen

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess in vivo the anti-inflammatory efficacy and tolerability of clobetasol propionate (CP) loaded lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles incorporated into chitosan gel for topical application (CP 0.005%). As a comparison, a commercial cream (CP 0.05% w/w), and a sodium deoxycholate gel (CP 0.05% w/w) were also evaluated. Lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles were prepared by self-assembling of the components obtained by direct injection of soybean lecithin alcoholic solution containing CP into chitosan aqueous solution. Nanoparticles obtained had a particle size around 250 nm, narrow distribution (polydispersity index below 0.2) and positive surface charge, provided by a superficial layer of the cationic polymer. The nanoparticle suspension was then loaded into a chitosan gel, to obtain a final CP concentration of 0.005%. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan-induced hind paw edema test on Wistar rats, the effect of formulations on the barrier property of the stratum corneum were determined using transepidermal water loss measurements (TEWL) and histological analysis was performed to evaluate the possible presence of morphological changes. The results obtained indicate that nanoparticle-in-gel formulation produced significantly higher edema inhibition compared to other formulations tested, although it contained ten times less CP. TEWL measurements also revealed that all formulations have no significant disturbance on the barrier function of skin. Furthermore, histological analysis of rat abdominal skin did not show morphological tissue changes nor cell infiltration signs after application of the formulations. Taken together, the present data show that the use of lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles in chitosan gel as a drug carrier significantly improves the risk-benefit ratio as compared with sodium-deoxycholate gel and commercial cream formulations of CP. PMID:28035957

  9. High precision and high yield fabrication of dense nanoparticle arrays onto DNA origami at statistically independent binding sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takabayashi, Sadao; Klein, William P.; Onodera, Craig; Rapp, Blake; Flores-Estrada, Juan; Lindau, Elias; Snowball, Lejmarc; Sam, Joseph T.; Padilla, Jennifer E.; Lee, Jeunghoon; Knowlton, William B.; Graugnard, Elton; Yurke, Bernard; Kuang, Wan; Hughes, William L.

    2014-10-01

    High precision, high yield, and high density self-assembly of nanoparticles into arrays is essential for nanophotonics. Spatial deviations as small as a few nanometers can alter the properties of near-field coupled optical nanostructures. Several studies have reported assemblies of few nanoparticle structures with controlled spacing using DNA nanostructures with variable yield. Here, we report multi-tether design strategies and attachment yields for homo- and hetero-nanoparticle arrays templated by DNA origami nanotubes. Nanoparticle attachment yield via DNA hybridization is comparable with streptavidin-biotin binding. Independent of the number of binding sites, >97% site-occupation was achieved with four tethers and 99.2% site-occupation is theoretically possible with five tethers. The interparticle distance was within 2 nm of all design specifications and the nanoparticle spatial deviations decreased with interparticle spacing. Modified geometric, binomial, and trinomial distributions indicate that site-bridging, steric hindrance, and electrostatic repulsion were not dominant barriers to self-assembly and both tethers and binding sites were statistically independent at high particle densities.High precision, high yield, and high density self-assembly of nanoparticles into arrays is essential for nanophotonics. Spatial deviations as small as a few nanometers can alter the properties of near-field coupled optical nanostructures. Several studies have reported assemblies of few nanoparticle structures with controlled spacing using DNA nanostructures with variable yield. Here, we report multi-tether design strategies and attachment yields for homo- and hetero-nanoparticle arrays templated by DNA origami nanotubes. Nanoparticle attachment yield via DNA hybridization is comparable with streptavidin-biotin binding. Independent of the number of binding sites, >97% site-occupation was achieved with four tethers and 99.2% site-occupation is theoretically possible with five

  10. Core-shell poly-methylmethacrylate nanoparticles as effective carriers of electrostatically loaded anionic porphyrin.

    PubMed

    Varchi, Greta; Benfenati, Valentina; Pistone, Assunta; Ballestri, Marco; Sotgiu, Giovanna; Guerrini, Andrea; Dambruoso, Paolo; Liscio, Andrea; Ventura, Barbara

    2013-05-01

    Among the medical applications of nanoparticles, their usage as photosensitizer (PS) carriers for photodynamic therapy (PDT) has attracted increasing attention. In the present study we explored the morphological and photophysical properties of core-shell PMMA nanoparticles (PMMA-NPs) electrostatically post-loaded with the synthetic, water soluble 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-sulphonatophenyl)-porphyrin (TPPS4). pH response and singlet oxygen analyses of differently loaded samples proved the high capability of the PMMA-NPs to shield the PS from the environment, while retaining the PS singlet oxygen production capability. Preliminary in vitro imaging and phototoxicity experiments on HepG2 cells demonstrated the efficacy of the system to trigger photoinduced cell death in the culture.

  11. Catalytic hydrogen sensing using microheated platinum nanoparticle-loaded graphene aerogel

    DOE PAGES

    Harley-Trochimczyk, Anna; Chang, Jiyoung; Zhou, Qin; ...

    2014-10-02

    We present that low power catalytic hydrogen sensors are fabricated by functionalizing low power polysilicon microheaters with platinum nanoparticle catalyst loaded in a high surface area graphene aerogel support. Fabrication and characterization of the polysilicon microheaters are described. The platinum nanoparticle-loaded graphene aerogel is characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Finally, the catalytic hydrogen sensors consume as little as 2.2 mW of power, have sensitivity of 1.6%/10,000 ppm hydrogen, a t90 response and recovery time of 0.97 s and 0.72 s, respectively, a lower detection limit of approximately 65 ppm, and negligible crossmore » sensitivity to methane, n-pentane, and diethylether.« less

  12. An antibacterial coating based on a polymer/sol-gel hybrid matrix loaded with silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivero, Pedro José; Urrutia, Aitor; Goicoechea, Javier; Zamarreño, Carlos Ruiz; Arregui, Francisco Javier; Matías, Ignacio Raúl

    2011-12-01

    In this work a novel antibacterial surface composed of an organic-inorganic hybrid matrix of tetraorthosilicate and a polyelectrolyte is presented. A precursor solution of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and poly(acrylic acid sodium salt) (PAA) was prepared and subsequently thin films were fabricated by the dip-coating technique using glass slides as substrates. This hybrid matrix coating is further loaded with silver nanoparticles using an in situ synthesis route. The morphology and composition of the coatings have been studied using UV-VIS spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) was also used to confirm the presence of the resulting silver nanoparticles within the thin films. Finally the coatings have been tested in bacterial cultures of genus Lactobacillus plantarum to observe their antibacterial properties. It has been experimentally demonstrated that these silver loaded organic-inorganic hybrid films have a very good antimicrobial behavior against this type of bacteria.

  13. Preparation, characterisation and antioxidant activities of rutin-loaded zein-sodium caseinate nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yue

    2018-01-01

    Novel rutin-loaded zein-sodium caseinate nanoparticles (ZP) with antioxidant activity in aqueous medium were investigated. The results showed that the sodium caseinate concentrations, dosages of rutin and ethanol volume fractions significantly affected the zein nanoparticles’ characteristics. Concerning the antioxidant properties, the highest values of rutin loaded ZP obtained using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging and 2 and 2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) decolourisation assays were 52.7% and 71.2%, respectively, and the total antioxidant capacity was 0.40 nmol g-1. The results suggest that zein-sodium caseinate nanoparticles can be used as a new nano carrier system for rutin or other water insoluble active ingredients. PMID:29579133

  14. Formulation and Evaluation of Morin-Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ikeuchi-Takahashi, Yuri; Ishihara, Chizuko; Onishi, Hiraku

    2016-09-01

    In this study, solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) suspensions were prepared using a base of hard fat with or without ethylcellulose (EC) and polyvinyl alcohols (PVA) and polysorbate (Tween) 60 surfactants. Commercially available PVAs vary in their degree of saponification and polymerization, and the appropriate PVAs to form SLNs from hard fat with or without EC were investigated. A relatively low-saponification-degree PVA was required to reproducibly form SLN suspensions without EC and relatively high-saponification-degree PVAs were suitable for SLNs with EC. The release of morin from SLNs with EC was more sustained than that from SLNs without EC. The maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of SLNs with and without EC were almost the same, and both were higher than that of a morin suspension. The area under the curve for 0 to 360 min (AUC0-360) of SLNs with EC was increased compared with those of a morin suspension and SLNs without EC. The median diameter of SLNs with EC and a very low-saponification-degree PVA was decreased compared to other formulation, and morin release was more sustained for this formulation. SLNs with EC and a very low-saponification-degree PVA showed higher Cmax and AUC0-360 than SLNs with EC lacking a very low-saponification-degree PVA. The optimized SLNs with EC and a very low-saponification-degree PVA improved bioavailability via increased accessibility to the enterocyte surface by decreased particle size and increased permeation of SLN encapsulated morin through the intestinal membrane by sustained release properties.

  15. Production of drug-loaded polymeric nanoparticles by electrospraying technology.

    PubMed

    Sosnik, Alejandro

    2014-09-01

    The pharmaceutical industry struggles with high attrition. The outbreak of pharmaceutical micro/nanotechnology has been fundamental to overcome several (bio)pharmaceutic drawbacks of drugs such as poor aqueous solubility, physicochemical instability, short half life, inappropriate biodistribution and toxicity. The spatiotemporal release of drugs directly in the site of action and the restriction of the systemic exposure by means of nanotechnology has notoriously improved drug safety ratios. At the same time, the development of production methods that are cost-effective, scalable and reproducible under industrial settings becomes crucial to ensure the clinical translation of any development. The electrospraying process, also known as electrohydrodynamic atomization (EHDA), is a single-stage technique of liquid atomization by means of electrical forces that enables the generation of micro/nanoparticles with especially narrow size distribution. EHDA is based on the ability of an electric field to deform the interface of a liquid drop and break it into smaller mono-disperse droplets. The main advantageous features over conventional methods are the possibility to produce particles without the use of surfactants, at ambient temperature and pressure and with maximum encapsulation efficiency due to the absence of an external medium that allows the migration and/or dissolution of water-soluble cargos. In addition, the mild conditions are optimal for the encapsulation of thermo-sensitive cargos. The present article overviews the applications of this technology for the production of nano-drug delivery systems and discusses its key role to support the transfer of a broad spectrum of nanomedicines to the market.

  16. Study of Antimicrobial Effects of Clarithromycin Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles against Clinical Strains of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Lotfipour, F; Valizadeh, H; Milani, M; Bahrami, N; Ghotaslou, R

    2016-01-01

    Clarithromycin (CLR) formulation was prepared as PLGA nanoparticles in order to enhance the therapeutic effects using the distinctive features of a nanoparticulate delivery system. CLR loaded PLGA nanoparticles were prepared by Quasi Emulsion Solvent Diffusion (QESD) method using Poly lactic-co-Glycolic Acid (PLGA) as a biodegradable polymer. Antibacterial activity of the prepared formulations was evaluated against clinical strains of Helicobacter pylori, isolated from gastric biopsies of patients with gastritis, duodenal ulcer, peptic ulcer, and gastroesophageal reflux disease undergoing endoscopy, by using agar dilution method.Spherical nanoparticles with relatively narrow size distribution (between 200 and 800 nm) in the size range of 305 ± 138, 344 ± 148 and 362 ± 110 nm were achieved for F22, F23 and F23 respectively. CLR encapsulation percentages were measured to be 57.4 ± 4.3 to 80.2 ± 4.0%. CLR loaded PLGA nanoparticles showed equal or enhanced eradication effect against H. pylori strains according to the declined MIC values in comparison with the untreated CLR.In conclusion, the prepared CLR nanoformulation showed appropriate physicochemical properties and improved activity against H. pylori that could be a suitable candidate for oral preparations. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Freeze-drying of HI-6-loaded recombinant human serum albumin nanoparticles for improved storage stability.

    PubMed

    Dadparvar, Miriam; Wagner, Sylvia; Wien, Sascha; Worek, Franz; von Briesen, Hagen; Kreuter, Jörg

    2014-10-01

    Severe intoxications with organophosphates require the immediate administration of atropine in combination with acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) reactivators such as HI-6. Although this therapy regimen enables the treatment of peripheral symptoms, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) restricts the access of the hydrophilic antidotes to the central nervous system which could lead to a fatal respiratory arrest. Therefore, HI-6-loaded albumin nanoparticles were previously developed to enhance the transport across this barrier and were able to reactivate organophosphate-(OP)-inhibited AChE in an in vitro BBB model. Since HI-6 is known to be moisture-sensitive, the feasibility of freeze-drying of the HI-6-loaded nanoparticles was investigated in the present study using different cryo- and lyoprotectants at different concentrations. Trehalose and sucrose (3%, w/v)-containing formulations were superior to mannitol concerning the physicochemical parameters of the nanoparticles whereas trehalose-containing samples were subject of a prolonged storage stability study at temperatures between -20°C and +40°C for predetermined time intervals. Shelf-life computations of the freeze-dried HI-6 nanoparticle formulations revealed a shelf-life time of 18 months when stored at -20°C. The formulations' efficacy was proven in vitro by reactivation of OP-inhibited AChE after transport over a porcine brain capillary endothelial cell layer model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. In vitro evaluation of paclitaxel loaded amorphous chitin nanoparticles for colon cancer drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Smitha, K T; Anitha, A; Furuike, T; Tamura, H; Nair, Shantikumar V; Jayakumar, R

    2013-04-01

    Chitin and its derivatives have been widely used in drug delivery applications due to its biocompatible, biodegradable and non-toxic nature. In this study, we have developed amorphous chitin nanoparticles (150±50 nm) and evaluated its potential as a drug delivery system. Paclitaxel (PTX), a major chemotherapeutic agent was loaded into amorphous chitin nanoparticles (AC NPs) through ionic cross-linking reaction using TPP. The prepared PTX loaded AC NPs had an average diameter of 200±50 nm. Physico-chemical characterization of the prepared nanoparticles was carried out. These nanoparticles were proven to be hemocompatible and in vitro drug release studies showed a sustained release of PTX. Cellular internalization of the NPs was confirmed by fluorescent microscopy as well as by flow cytometry. Anticancer activity studies proved the toxicity of PTX-AC NPs toward colon cancer cells. These preliminary results indicate the potential of PTX-AC NPs in colon cancer drug delivery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Mechanism-Based Enhanced Delivery of Drug-Loaded Targeted Nanoparticles for Breast Cancer Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    the chemotherapeutics on the normal tissue. Anti-ErbB2 antibody- conjugated polymeric nanoparticles with a capacity to load multiple drugs at high...copolymers containing anionic and nonionic hydrophilic polymeric segments (block ionomers) were used for the synthesis of nanogels. Polymethacrylic...where x and y represent the degree of polymerization of the PEO segment and PMA or PGA segment, respectively. Nanogels were synthesized using the

  20. Gum tragacanth stabilized green gold nanoparticles as cargos for Naringin loading: A morphological investigation through AFM.

    PubMed

    Rao, Komal; Imran, Muhammad; Jabri, Tooba; Ali, Imdad; Perveen, Samina; Shafiullah; Ahmed, Shakil; Shah, Muhammad Raza

    2017-10-15

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have attracted greater scientific interests for the construction of drugs loading cargos due to their biocompatibility, safety and facile surface modifications. This study deals with the fabrication of gum tragacanth (GT) green AuNPs as carrier for Naringin, a less water soluble therapeutic molecule. The optimized AuNPs were characterized through UV-vis spectroscopy, FT-IR and atomic force microscope (AFM). Naringin loaded nanoparticles were investigated for their bactericidal potentials using Tetrazolium Microplate assay. Morphological studies conducted via AFM revealed spherical shape for AuNPs with nano-range size and stabilized by GT multi-functional groups. The AuNPs acted as carrier for increased amount of Naringin. Upon loading in AuNPs, Naringin An increased in the bactericidal potentials of Naringin was observed after loading on AuNPs against various tested bacterial strains. This was further authenticated by the surface morphological analysis, showing enhanced membrane destabilizing effects of loaded Naringin. The results suggest that GT stabilized green AuNPs can act as effective delivery vehicles for enhancing bactericidal potentials of Naringin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Doxorubicin-loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticle composite nanofibers for long-term adjustments of tumor apoptosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Ziming; Pan, Yue; Cheng, Ruoyu; Sheng, Lulu; Wu, Wei; Pan, Guoqing; Feng, Qiming; Cui, Wenguo

    2016-06-01

    There is a high local recurrence (LR) rate in breast-conserving therapy (BCT) and enhancement of the local treatment is promising as a way to improve this. Thus we propose a drug delivery system using doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticle composite nanofibers which can release anti-tumor drugs in two phases—burst release in the early stage and sustained release at a later stage—to reduce the LR of BCT. In the present study, we designed a novel composite nanofibrous scaffold to realize the efficient release of drugs by loading both DOX and DOX-loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticles into an electrospun PLLA nanofibrous scaffold. In vitro results demonstrated that this kind of nanomaterial can release DOX in two phases, and the results of in vivo experiments showed that this hybrid nanomaterial significantly inhibited the tumor growth in a solid tumor model. Histopathological examination demonstrated that the apoptosis of tumor cells in the treated group over a 10 week period was significant. The anti-cancer effects were also accompanied with decreased expression of Bcl-2 and TNF-α, along with up-regulation of Bax, Fas and the activation of caspase-3 levels. The present study illustrates that the mesoporous silica nanoparticle composite nanofibrous scaffold could have anti-tumor properties and could be further developed as adjuvant therapeutic protocols for the treatment of cancer.

  2. Preparation, characterization and in vitro release study of carvacrol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Keawchaoon, Lalita; Yoksan, Rangrong

    2011-05-01

    The fabrication of carvacrol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles was achieved by a two-step method, i.e., oil-in-water emulsion and ionic gelation of chitosan with pentasodium tripolyphosphate. The obtained particles possessed encapsulation efficiency (EE) and loading capacity (LC) in the ranges of 14-31% and 3-21%, respectively, when the initial carvacrol content was 0.25-1.25 g/g of chitosan. The individual particles exhibited a spherical shape with an average diameter of 40-80 nm, and a positively charged surface with a zeta potential value of 25-29 mV. The increment of initial carvacrol content caused a reduction of surface charge. Carvacrol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli with an MIC of 0.257 mg/mL. The release of carvacrol from chitosan nanoparticles reached plateau level on day 30, with release amounts of 53% in acetate buffer solution with pH of 3, and 23% and 33% in phosphate buffer solutions with pH of 7 and 11, respectively. The release mechanism followed a Fickian behavior. The release rate was superior in an acidic medium to either alkaline or neutral media, respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Dual drug loaded chitosan nanoparticles-sugar--coated arsenal against pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    David, Karolyn Infanta; Jaidev, Leela Raghav; Sethuraman, Swaminathan; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari

    2015-11-01

    Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive form of cancer with poor survival rates. The increased mortality due to pancreatic cancer arises due to many factors such as development of multidrug resistance, presence of cancer stem cells, development of a stromal barrier and a hypoxic environment due to hypo-perfusion. The present study aims to develop a nanocarrier for a combination of drugs that can address these multiple issues. Quercetin and 5-fluorouracil were loaded in chitosan nanoparticles, individually as well as in combination. The nanoparticles were characterized for morphology, size, zeta potential, percentage encapsulation of drugs as well as their release profiles in different media. The dual drug-loaded carrier exhibited good entrapment efficiency (quercetin 95% and 5-fluorouracil 75%) with chitosan: quercetin: 5-fluorouracil in the ratio 3:1:2. The release profiles suggest that 5-fluorouracil preferentially localized in the periphery while quercetin was located towards the core of chitosan nanoparticles. Both drugs exhibited considerable association with the chitosan matrix. The dual drug-loaded carrier system exhibited significant toxicity towards pancreatic cancer cells both in the 2D as well as in the 3D cultures. We believe that the results from these studies can open up interesting options in the treatment of pancreatic cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Antiretroviral Drugs-Loaded Nanoparticles Fabricated by Dispersion Polymerization with Potential for HIV/AIDS Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ogunwuyi, Oluwaseun; Kumari, Namita; Smith, Kahli A.; Bolshakov, Oleg; Adesina, Simeon; Gugssa, Ayele; Anderson, Winston A.; Nekhai, Sergei; Akala, Emmanuel O.

    2016-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral (ARV) therapy (HAART) for chronic suppression of HIV replication has revolutionized the treatment of HIV/AIDS. HAART is no panacea; treatments must be maintained for life. Although great progress has been made in ARV therapy, HIV continues to replicate in anatomical and intracellular sites where ARV drugs have restricted access. Nanotechnology has been considered a platform to circumvent some of the challenges in HIV/AIDS treatment. Dispersion polymerization was used to fabricate two types (PMM and ECA) of polymeric nanoparticles, and each was successfully loaded with four ARV drugs (zidovudine, lamivudine, nevirapine, and raltegravir), followed by physicochemical characterization: scanning electron microscope, particle size, zeta potential, drug loading, and in vitro availability. These nanoparticles efficiently inhibited HIV-1 infection in CEM T cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells; they hold promise for the treatment of HIV/AIDS. The ARV-loaded nanoparticles with polyethylene glycol on the corona may facilitate tethering ligands for targeting specific receptors expressed on the cells of HIV reservoirs. PMID:27013886

  5. Doxorubicin Loaded Chitosan-W18 O49 Hybrid Nanoparticles for Combined Photothermal-Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Shanmei; Hua, Jisong; Zhou, Yinyin; Ding, Yin; Hu, Yong

    2017-08-01

    Combined treatment is more effective than single treatment against most forms of cancer. In this work, doxorubicin loaded chitosan-W 18 O 49 nanoparticles combined with the photothermal therapy and chemotherapy are fabricated through the electrostatic interaction between positively charged chitosan and negatively charged W 18 O 49 nanoparticles. The in vitro and in vivo behaviors of these nanoparticles are examined by dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, cytotoxicity, near-infrared fluorescence imaging, and tumor growth inhibition experiment. These nanoparticles have a mean size around 110 nm and show a pH sensitive drug release behavior. After irradiation by the 980 nm laser, these nanoparticles show more pronounced cytotoxicity against HeLa cells than that of free doxorubicin or photothermal therapy alone. The in vivo experiments confirm that their antitumor ability is significantly improved, resulting in superior efficiency in impeding tumor growth and extension of the lifetime of mice. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Calcium-silicate mesoporous nanoparticles loaded with chlorhexidine for both anti- Enterococcus faecalis and mineralization properties.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wei; Li, Yanyun; Sun, Qing; Ma, Tengjiao; Fan, Bing

    2016-10-21

    In infected periapical tissues, Enterococcus faecalis is one of the most common dominant bacteria. Chlorhexidine has been proved to show strong antibacterial ability against E. faecalis but is ineffective in promoting mineralization for tissues around root apex. Mesoporous calcium-silicate nanoparticles are newly synthesized biomaterials with excellent ability to promote mineralization and carry-release bioactive molecules in a controlled manner. In this study, mesoporous calcium-silicate nanoparticles were functionalized with chlorhexidine and their releasing profile, antibacterial ability, effect on cell proliferation and in vitro mineralization property were evaluated. The chlorhexidine was successfully incorporated into mesoporous calcium-silicate nanoparticles by a mixing-coupling method. The new material could release chlorhexidine as well as Ca 2+ and SiO 3 2- in a sustained manner with an alkaline pH value under different conditions. The antimicrobial ability against planktonic E. faecalis was dramatically improved after chlorhexidine incorporation. The nanoparticles with chlorhexidine showed no negative effect on cell proliferation with low concentrations. On dentin slices, the new synthesized material demonstrated a similar inhibitory effect on E. faecalis as the chlorhexidine. After being immersed in SBF for 9 days, numerous apatite crystals could be observed on surfaces of the material tablets. Mesoporous calcium-silicate nanoparticles loaded with chlorhexidine exhibited release of ions and chlorhexidine, low cytotoxicity, excellent antibacterial ability and in vitro mineralization. This material could be developed into a new effective intra-canal medication in dentistry or a new bone defect filling material for infected bone defects.

  7. Preparation and characterization of the Adriamycin-loaded amphiphilic chitosan nanoparticles and their application in the treatment of liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kou, Chang-Hua; Han, Jin; Han, Xi-Lin; Zhuang, Hui-Jie; Zhao, Zi-Ming

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, two nanoparticles including lactose myristoyl carboxymethyl chitosan (LMCC) and algal polysaccharide myristoyl carboxymethyl chitosan (AMCC), were obtained for hepatic-targeted Adriamycin (ADM) drug delivery systems. ADM was successfully loaded into the LMCC or AMCC nanoparticle by dialysis. The release function and liver targeting of the nanoparticles was explored, and it was revealed that ADM release from the nanoparticles was greatest at acidic pH 5.5. ADM-conjugated nanoparticles were readily taken up by HU7 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells, relative to HT22 mouse hippocampal neuron cells in vitro. In vivo, ADM-loaded nanoparticles had significant antitumor efficacy with a 62.7% inhibition rate, followed by ADM and ADM-AMCC (51.2 and 42.5%, respectively). The tissue distribution study confirmed that ADM-LMCC had an improved liver delivery efficacy, by comparison with ADM. Furthermore, a series of safety studies, including hemolysis, acute toxicity and organ toxicity, revealed that the ADM-loaded LMCC and AMCC nanoparticles had advantages over the commercially available injectable preparation of Adriamycin hydrochloride, in terms of low toxicity levels and increased tolerated dose. These results indicated that LMCC is a promising carrier for injectable ADM nanoparticle and ADM-conjugated nanoparticles may improve the efficacy of ADM by hepatic targeting. PMID:29344229

  8. Buparvaquone loaded solid lipid nanoparticles for targeted delivery in theleriosis

    PubMed Central

    Soni, Maheshkumar P.; Shelkar, Nilakash; Gaikwad, Rajiv V.; Vanage, Geeta R.; Samad, Abdul; Devarajan, Padma V.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Buparvaquone (BPQ), a hydroxynaphthoquinone derivative, has been investigated for the treatment of many infections and is recommended as the gold standard for the treatment of theileriosis. Theileriosis, an intramacrophage infection is localized mainly in reticuloendotheileial system (RES) organs. The present study investigates development of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) of BPQ for targeted delivery to the RES. Materials and Methods: BPQ SLN was prepared using melt method by adding a molten mixture into aqueous Lutrol F68 solution (80°C). Larger batches were prepared up to 6 g of BPQ with GMS: BPQ, 2:1. SLN of designed size were obtained using ultraturrax and high pressure homogenizer. A freeze and thaw study was used to optimize type and concentration of cryoprotectant with Sf: Mean particle size, Si: Initial particle size <1.3. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) study was performed on optimized formulation. Formulation was investigated for in vitro serum stability, hemolysis and cell uptake study. Pharmacokinetic and biodistribution study was performed in Holtzman rat. Results: Based on solubility in lipid; glyceryl monostearate (GMS) was selected for preparation of BPQ SLN. Batches of BPQ SLN were optimized for average particle size and entrapment efficiency at <100 mg solid content. A combination of Solutol HS-15 and Lutrol F68 at 2% w/v and greater enabled the desired Sf/Si < 1.3. Differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffraction revealed decrease in crystallinity of BPQ in BPQ SLN while, scanning electron microscope revealed spherical morphology. BPQ SLN revealed good stability at 4°C and 25°C. Low hemolytic potential (<8%) and in vitro serum stability up to 5 h was observed. Cytotoxicity of SLN to the U937 cell was low. The macrophage cell line revealed high (52%) uptake of BPQ SLN in 1 h suggesting the potential to RES uptake. SLN revealed longer

  9. Comparative evaluation of in vitro parameters of tamoxifen citrate loaded poly(lactide-co-glycolide), poly(epsilon-caprolactone) and chitosan nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Cirpanli, Y; Yerlikaya, F; Ozturk, K; Erdogar, N; Launay, M; Gegu, C; Leturgez, T; Bilensoy, E; Calis, S; Capan, Y

    2010-12-01

    Tamoxifen (TAM), the clinical choice for the antiestrogen treatment of advanced or metastatic breast cancer, was formulated in nanoparticulate carrier systems in the form of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA), poly-epsilon-caprolactone (PCL) and chitosan (CS) nanoparticles. The PLGA and PCL nanoparticles were prepared by a nanoprecipitation technique whereas the CS nanoparticles were prepared by the ionic gelation method. Mean particle sizes were under 260 nm for PLGA and PCL nanoparticles and around 400 nm for CS nanoparticles. Polydispersity indices were less than 0.4 for all formulations. Zeta potential values were positive for TAM loaded nanoparticles because of the positive charge of the drug. Drug loading values were significantly higher for PCL nanoparticles when compared to PLGA and CS nanoparticles. All nanoparticle formulations exhibited controlled release properties. These results indicate that TAM loaded PLGA, PCL and CS nanoparticles may provide promising carrier systems for tumor targeting.

  10. Preparation of carboplatin-Fe@C-loaded chitosan nanoparticles and study on hyperthermia combined with pharmacotherapy for liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Fu-rong; Yan, Wen-hui; Guo, Yue-hua; Qi, Hui; Zhou, Han-xin

    2009-08-01

    Magnetic fluid hyperthermia is a kind of technology for treating tumors based on nanotechnology. It is suitable to various types of tumors. The purpose of this study was to prepare carboplatin-Fe@C-loaded chitosan nanoparticles with Fe@C as a magnetic core and to investigate efficacy of hyperthermia combined with chemotherapy for transplanted liver cancer in rats. Fe@C nanopowder was treated with dilute hydrochloric acid to prepare Fe@C nanocage. Carboplatin-Fe@C-loaded chitosan nanoparticles were prepared by reverse microemulsion method with the nanocages as the magnetic cores, chitosan as the matrix. The shape, size, drug-loading rate, and in vitro cumulative release of the nanoparticles were observed and heat product under high frequency alternating electromagnetic field in vitro was explored. Eighty rats with transplanted liver cancer were randomly divided into 4 groups (group A: control group, group B: free carboplatin group, group C: nanoparticles with static magnetic field group, and group D: nanoparticles with static field and alternating magnetic field). Drug was injected into the hepatic artery. The therapeutic effect of hyperthermia combined with chemotherapy for tumor, toxicity and rat survival time were observed. Carboplatin-Fe@C-loaded chitosan nanoparticles were spherical in shape with an average size of (207 +/- 21) nm and high saturation magnetization. The drug-loading rate of the nanoparticles was 11.0 +/- 1.1%. The cumulative release percentage of carboplatin-Fe@C-loaded chitosan nanoparticles in vitro at different point time phase of 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, 96 h and 120 h were 51%, 68%, 80%, 87% and 91%, respectively. With an increase in carboplatin-Fe@C-loaded chitosan nanoparticle concentration and magnetic field strength, the heating rate and constant temperature of carboplatin-Fe@C-loaded chitosan nanoparticles dispersed in physiological saline were increased in an alternating magnetic field. In vivo experiments showed that after particle

  11. An alternative choice of lidocaine-loaded liposomes: lidocaine-loaded lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles for local anesthetic therapy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianguo; Zhang, Laizhu; Chi, Huimin; Wang, Shilei

    2016-05-01

    The skin permeation enhancement of local anesthetics by newer innovative nanotechnologies has been an appealing field recently. However, which nanocarrier is better for drug loading and has better stability? Therefore, the aim of our study was to compare two kinds of nanocarriers: liposomes and lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles (LPNs) for lidocaine (LA) delivery. LA-loaded liposomes (LA-LPs) and LPNs (LA-LPNs) were prepared. Two kinds of nanocarriers were characterized in terms of particle size, zeta potential, drug encapsulation efficiency (EE), drug release, and stability. Their in vitro skin permeation was studied using a Franz diffusion cell mounted with depilated mouse skin in vitro. In vivo local anesthetic effects of LA containing formulations were evaluated by tail flick latency (TFL) test using a tail-flick measuring device. Compared with LA-LPs, LA-LPNs showed significantly better in vitro skin permeation ability and in vivo local anesthetic effects. The results demonstrated that LPNs could improve the efficacy of drugs to higher levels than LPs and free drugs, thus could serve as an effective drug system for LA loading for local anesthetic therapy.

  12. Measurement of dispersion of nanoparticles in a dense suspension by high-sensitivity low-coherence dynamic light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Katsuhiro; Nakamura, Sohichiro; Sato, Yuki

    2014-08-01

    High-sensitivity low-coherence DLS apply to measurement of particle size distribution of pigments suspended in a ink. This method can be apply to extremely dense and turbid media without dilution. We show the temporal variation of particle size distribution of thixotropy and sedimentary pigments due to aggregation, agglomerate, and sedimentation. Moreover, we demonstrate the influence of dilution of ink to particle size distribution.

  13. Hypericin-loaded nanoparticles for the photodynamic treatment of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Zeisser-Labouèbe, Magali; Lange, Norbert; Gurny, Robert; Delie, Florence

    2006-12-01

    A photodynamic approach has been suggested to improve diagnosis and therapy of ovarian cancer. As Hypericin (Hy), a natural photosensitizer (PS) extracted from Hypericum perforatum, has been shown to be efficient in vitro and in vivo for the detection or treatment of other cancers, Hy could also be a potent tool for the treatment and detection of ovarian cancer. Due to its hydrophobicity, systemic administration of Hy is problematic. Thus, polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) of polylactic acid (PLA) or polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) were used as a drug delivery system. Hy-loaded NPs were produced with the following characteristics: (i) size in the 200-300 nm range, (ii) negative zeta potential, (iii) low residual PVAL and (iv) drug loading from 0.03 to 0.15% (w/w). Their in vitro photoactivity was investigated on the NuTu-19 ovarian cancer cell model derived from Fischer 344 rats and compared to free drug. Hy-loaded PLA NPs exhibited a higher photoactivity than free drug. Increasing light dose or incubation time with cells induced an enhanced activity of Hy-loaded PLA NPs. Increased NP drug loading had a negative effect on their photoactivity on NuTu-19 cells: at the same Hy concentration, the higher was the drug loading, the lower was the phototoxic effect. The influence of NP drug loading on the Hy release from NPs was also investigated.

  14. Synthesis and Characterization of BSA Conjugated Silver Nanoparticles (Ag/BSA Nanoparticles) and Evaluation of Biological Properties of Ag/BSA Nanoparticles and Ag/BSA Nanoparticles Loaded Poly(hydroxy butyrate valerate) PHBV Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambaye, Almaz

    Ag/BSA nanoparticles was found to be in a range of 9-13 nm. X-ray photo electron spectroscopy measurements of argon sputtered Ag/BSA nanoparticles provided evidence that the outer and inner region of nanoparticles are mainly composed of BSA and silver, respectively. Having characterized the nanoparticles, the next phase of the study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity level of BSA stabilized silver nanoparticles. The antibacterial efficacy of Ag/BSA nanoparticles against E. coli and S. aureus was evaluated, and minimum lethal concentration was found to be 2ppm and 7ppm, respectively. E. coli showed a higher susceptibility to silver nanoparticles than S. aureus, which could be attributed to the difference in the cell wall structure. We have also investigated the cytotoxicity level of Ag/BSA nanoparticles towards MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cells. The minimum bactericidal concentration found for both strains is lower than the silver nanoparticles concentration that was toxic to the osteoblast cells. Preliminary studies of Ag/BSA nanoparticles loaded collagen immobilized PHBV film showed that the Ag/BSA nanoparticles loaded PHBV film inhibit bacterial growth. The findings of our study can be extremely useful in the design of novel scaffold to address the critical needs of bone tissue engineering community.

  15. Facile fabrication of high-efficiency near-infrared absorption film with tungsten bronze nanoparticle dense layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seong Yun; Kim, Jae Young; Lee, Jun Young; Song, Ho Jun; Lee, Sangkug; Choi, Kyung Ho; Shin, Gyojic

    2014-06-01

    An excellent transparent film with effective absorption property in near-infrared (NIR) region based on cesium-doped tungsten oxide nanoparticles was fabricated using a facile double layer coating method via the theoretical considerations. The optical performance was evaluated; the double layer-coated film exhibited 10% transmittance at 1,000 nm in the NIR region and over 80% transmittance at 550 nm in the visible region. To optimize the selectivity, the optical spectrum of this film was correlated with a theoretical model by combining the contributions of the Mie-Gans absorption-based localized surface plasmon resonance and reflections by the interfaces of the heterogeneous layers and the nanoparticles in the film. Through comparison of the composite and double layer coating method, the difference of the nanoscale distances between nanoparticles in each layer was significantly revealed. It is worth noting that the nanodistance between the nanoparticles decreased in the double layer film, which enhanced the optical properties of the film, yielding a haze value of 1% or less without any additional process. These results are very attractive for the nanocomposite coating process, which would lead to industrial fields of NIR shielding and thermo-medical applications.

  16. Polymeric nanoparticles loaded with dexamethasone or α-tocopheryl succinate to prevent cisplatin-induced ototoxicity.

    PubMed

    Martín-Saldaña, Sergio; Palao-Suay, Raquel; Aguilar, María Rosa; Ramírez-Camacho, Rafael; San Román, Julio

    2017-04-15

    The aim of this work is the development of highly protective agents to be administered locally within the middle ear to avoid cisplatin-induced ototoxicity, which affects to 100% of the clinical patients at ultra-high concentrations (16mg/kg). The protective agents are based on polymeric nanoparticles loaded with dexamethasone or α-tocopheryl succinate as anti-inflammarory and anti-apoptotic molecules. Dexamethasone and α-tocopheryl succinate are poorly soluble in water and present severe side effects when systemic administered during long periods of time. Their incorporation in the hydrophobic core of nanoparticles with the appropriate hydrodynamic properties provides the desired effects in vitro (lower cisplatin-induced toxicity, decreasing of caspase 3/7 activity, and lower IL-1β release) and in vivo (reducing the hearing loss at the local level). The local administration of the nanoparticles by bullostomy provides an adequate dose of drug without systemic interference with the chemotherapeutic effect of cisplatin. 100% of the cancer patients receiving ultra-high doses of CDDP (16mg/kg) suffer severe hearing loss, being a limiting factor in antineoplastic treatments. In this paper we describe the application of polymeric nanoparticles loaded with dexamethasone or α-tocopheryl succinate to palliate the cisplatin ototoxicity derived from chemotherapy treatment. These new nanoparticles, that encapsulate, transport, and deliver dexamethasone or α-tocopheryl succinate in the middle ear, are able to partially prevent ototoxicity derived from high doses of CDDP. This is an interdisciplinary study in which in vitro and in vivo experiments are described and extensively discussed. The importance of the results opens an excellent opportunity to the translation to the clinic. Copyright © 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of neuropeptide loaded trimethyl chitosan nanoparticles for nose to brain delivery.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manoj; Pandey, Ravi Shankar; Patra, Kartik Chandra; Jain, Sunil Kumar; Soni, Muarai Lal; Dangi, Jawahar Singh; Madan, Jitender

    2013-10-01

    Leucine-enkephalin (Leu-Enk) is a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator in pain transmission. Due to non-addictive opioid analgesic activity of this peptide, it might have great potential in pain management. Leu-Enk loaded N-trimethyl chitosan (TMC) nanoparticles were prepared and evaluated as a brain delivery vehicle via nasal route. TMC biopolymer was synthesized and analyzed by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. TMC nanoparticles were prepared by ionic gelation method. Mean peptide encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity were 78.28±3.8% and 14±1.3%, respectively. Mean particle size, polydispersity index and zeta potential were found to be 443±23 nm, 0.317±0.17 and +15±2 mV respectively for optimized formulations. Apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) of Leu-Enk released from nanoparticles across the porcine nasal mucosa was determined to be 7.45±0.30×10(-6) cm s(-1). Permeability of Leu-Enk released from nanoparticles was 35 fold improved from the nasal mucosa as compared to Leu-Enk solution. Fluorescent microscopy of brain sections of mice showed higher accumulation of fluorescent marker NBD-F labelled Leu-Enk, when administered nasally by TMC nanoparticles, while low brain uptake of marker solution was observed. Furthermore, enhancement in brain uptake resulted into significant improvement in the observed antinociceptive effect of Leu-Enk as evidenced by hot plate and acetic acid induced writhing assay. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Doxorubicin-loaded glycyrrhetinic acid modified recombinant human serum albumin nanoparticles for targeting liver tumor chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Qi, Wen-Wen; Yu, Hai-Yan; Guo, Hui; Lou, Jun; Wang, Zhi-Ming; Liu, Peng; Sapin-Minet, Anne; Maincent, Philippe; Hong, Xue-Chuan; Hu, Xian-Ming; Xiao, Yu-Ling

    2015-03-02

    Due to overexpression of glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) receptor in liver cancer cells, glycyrrhetinic acid modified recombinant human serum albumin (rHSA) nanoparticles for targeting liver tumor cells may result in increased therapeutic efficacy and decreased adverse effects of cancer therapy. In this study, doxorubicin (DOX) loaded and glycyrrhetinic acid modified recombinant human serum albumin nanoparticles (DOX/GA-rHSA NPs) were prepared for targeting therapy for liver cancer. GA was covalently coupled to recombinant human serum albumin nanoparticles, which could efficiently deliver DOX into liver cancer cells. The resultant GA-rHSA NPs exhibited uniform spherical shape and high stability in plasma with fixed negative charge (∼-25 mV) and a size about 170 nm. DOX was loaded into GA-rHSA NPs with a maximal encapsulation efficiency of 75.8%. Moreover, the targeted NPs (DOX/GA-rHSA NPs) showed increased cytotoxic activity in liver tumor cells compared to the nontargeted NPs (DOX/rHSA NPs, DOX loaded recombinant human serum albumin nanoparticles without GA conjugating). The targeted NPs exhibited higher cellular uptake in a GA receptor-positive liver cancer cell line than nontargeted NPs as measured by both flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Biodistribution experiments showed that DOX/GA-rHSA NPs exhibited a much higher level of tumor accumulation than nontargeted NPs at 1 h after injection in hepatoma-bearing Balb/c mice. Therefore, the DOX/GA-rHSA NPs could be considered as an efficient nanoplatform for targeting drug delivery system for liver cancer.

  19. Formation of enriched black tea extract loaded chitosan nanoparticles via electrospraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, Samuel James

    Creating nanoparticles of beneficial nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals has had a large surge of research due to the enhancement of absorption and bioavailability by decreasing their size. One of these ways is by electrohydrodynamic atomization, also known as electrospraying. In general, this novel process is done by forcing a liquid through a capillary nozzle and which is subjected to an electrical field. While there are different ways to create nanoparticles, the novel method of electrospraying can be beneficial over other types of nanoparticle formation. Reasons include high control over particle size and distribution by altering electrospray parameters (voltage, flow rate, distance, and time), higher encapsulation efficiency than other methods, and also it is a one step process without exposure to extreme conditions (Gomez-Estaca et. al. 2012, Jaworek and Sobcyzk 2008). The current study aimed to create a chitosan encapsulated theaflavin-2 enriched black tea extract (BTE) nanoparticles via electrospraying. The first step of this process was to create the smallest chitosan nanoparticles possible by altering the electrospray parameters and the chitosan-acetic acid solution parameters. The solution properties altered include chitosan molecular weight, acetic acid concentration, and chitosan concentration. Specifically, the electrospray parameters such as voltage, flow rate and distance from syringe to collector are the most important in determining particle size. After creating the smallest chitosan particles, the TF-2 enriched black tea extract was added to the chitosan-acetic acid solution to be electrosprayed. The particles were assessed with the following procedures: Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for particle morphology and size, and loading efficiency with ultraviolet--visible spectrophotometer (UV-VIS). Chitosan-BTE nanoparticles were successfully created in a one step process. Diameter of the particles on average

  20. Synthesis of curcumin-loaded chitosan phosphate nanoparticle and study of its cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Deka, C; Aidew, L; Devi, N; Buragohain, A K; Kakati, D K

    2016-11-01

    Curcumin has acquired an important position in the treatment of various diseases. But its use, as a chemotherapeutic agent, is limited due to its low water solubility, poor bioavailability, and its sensitive nature at the physiological pH. To overcome this, curcumin was loaded into chitosan phosphate nanoparticles (CPNs). The loading efficiency was found to be 84%. DLS studies revealed the average particle size of CPNs and curcumin-loaded CPNs as 53 and 91 nm, respectively, and TEM results supplemented these values. A sustained release pattern was noticed and the amount of curcumin released in acidic pH was higher than at physiological pH. The curcumin nanoformulation exhibited proficient activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as fungus. Cytocompatibility of the nanoformulations against peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and murine monocyte-macrophage cell line was confirmed by incubating with PBMCs and murine monocyte-macrophage cell line.

  1. Antibiotic loading and release studies of LSMO nanoparticles embedded in an acrylic polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Sonali; Keshri, Sunita; Goswami, Sudipta; Isaac, Jinu; Ganguly, Swastika; Perov, Nikolai

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we present the drug loading and release works of ? (LSMO) manganite nanoparticles (NPs). The LSMO NPs, grown using the sol-gel method, were embedded in an acrylic interpenetrating polymer network to make the sample applicable for biomedical purposes. The results of scanning electron microscopy showed that these NPs were well dispersed in the polymer. The grain size of these NPs lies in the range of 25-45 nm, as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The measurements of DC magnetization and hysteresis loops reveal that the basic magnetic behaviour of the LSMO NPs remained almost unaltered even after embedding in polymer, but with lower saturation value of magnetization. The drug loading and release studies of the grown sample were carried out using an antibiotic, ciprofloxacin. The minimum inhibitory effect of the sample loaded with this drug has exhibited high activity against different strains of bacteria, comparable to the pure ciprofloxacin.

  2. Preparation of curcumin-loaded pluronic F127/chitosan nanoparticles for cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phuc Le, Thi Minh; Phuc Pham, Van; Lua Dang, Thi Minh; Huyen La, Thi; Hanh Le, Thi; Huan Le, Quang

    2013-06-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have been proven to be an effective delivery system with few side effects for anticancer drugs. In this study, curcumin-loaded NPs have been prepared by an ionic gelation method using chitosan (Chi) and pluronic®F-127 (PF) as carriers to deliver curcumin to the target cancer cells. Prepared NPs were characterized using Zetasizer, fluorescence microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our results showed that the encapsulation efficiency of curcumin was approximately 50%. The average size of curcumin-loaded PF/Chi NPs was 150.9 nm, while the zeta potential was 5.09 mV. Cellular uptake of curcumin-loaded NPs into HEK293 cells was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy.

  3. Efficient antitumor effect of co-drug-loaded nanoparticles with gelatin hydrogel by local implantation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hao; Tian, Yong; Zhu, Zhenshu; Xu, Huae; Li, Xiaolin; Zheng, Donghui; Sun, Weihao

    2016-01-01

    Tetrandrine (Tet) could enhance the antitumor effect of Paclitaxel (Ptx) by increasing intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) levels, which leads to the possibility of co-delivery of both drugs for synergistic antitumor effect. In the current study, we reported an efficient, local therapeutic strategy employing effective Tet and Ptx delivery with a nanoparticle-loaded gelatin system. Tet- and Ptx co-loaded mPEG-PCL nanoparticles (P/T-NPs) were encapsulated into the physically cross-linked gelatin hydrogel and then implanted on the tumor site for continuous drug release. The drug-loaded gelatin hydrogel underwent a phase change when the temperature slowly increased. In vitro study showed that Tet/Ptx-loaded PEG-b-PCL nanoparticles encapsulated within a gelatin hydrogel (P/T-NPs-Gelatin) inhibited the growth and invasive ability of BGC-823 cells more effectively than the combination of free drugs or P/T-NPs. In vivo study validated the therapeutic potential of P/T-NPs-Gelatin. P/T-NPs-Gelatin significantly inhibited the activation of p-Akt and the downstream anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein and also inducing the activation of pro-apoptotic Bax protein. Moreover, the molecular-modulating effect of P/T-NPs-Gelatin on related proteins varied slightly under the influence of NAC, which was supported by the observations of the tumor volumes and weights. Based on these findings, local implantation of P/T-NPs-Gelatin may be a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of gastric cancer. PMID:27226240

  4. Preparation, characterization, drug release and computational modelling studies of antibiotics loaded amorphous chitin nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Gayathri, N K; Aparna, V; Maya, S; Biswas, Raja; Jayakumar, R; Mohan, C Gopi

    2017-12-01

    We present a computational investigation of binding affinity of different types of drugs with chitin nanocarriers. Understanding the chitn polymer-drug interaction is important to design and optimize the chitin based drug delivery systems. The binding affinity of three different types of anti-bacterial drugs Ethionamide (ETA) Methacycline (MET) and Rifampicin (RIF) with amorphous chitin nanoparticles (AC-NPs) were studied by integrating computational and experimental techniques. The binding energies (BE) of hydrophobic ETA, hydrophilic MET and hydrophobic RIF were -7.3kcal/mol, -5.1kcal/mol and -8.1kcal/mol respectively, with respect to AC-NPs, using molecular docking studies. This theoretical result was in good correlation with the experimental studies of AC-drug loading and drug entrapment efficiencies of MET (3.5±0.1 and 25± 2%), ETA (5.6±0.02 and 45±4%) and RIF (8.9±0.20 and 53±5%) drugs respectively. Stability studies of the drug encapsulated nanoparticles showed stable values of size, zeta and polydispersity index at 6°C temperature. The correlation between computational BE and experimental drug entrapment efficiencies of RIF, ETA and MET drugs with four AC-NPs strands were 0.999 respectively, while that of the drug loading efficiencies were 0.854 respectively. Further, the molecular docking results predict the atomic level details derived from the electrostatic, hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions of the drug and nanoparticle for its encapsulation and loading in the chitin-based host-guest nanosystems. The present results thus revealed the drug loading and drug delivery insights and has the potential of reducing the time and cost of processing new antibiotic drug delivery nanosystem optimization, development and discovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. MO-FG-BRA-05: Next Generation Radiotherapy Biomaterials Loaded With Gold Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Cifter, G; Ngwa, W; Univ Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: It has been proposed that routinely used inert radiotherapy (RT) biomaterials (e.g. fiducials, spacers) can be upgraded to smarter ones by coating/loading them with radiosensitizing gold nanoparticles (GNPs), for sustained in-situ release after implantation to enhance RT. In this work, we developed prototypes of such RT biomaterials and investigated the sustained release of GNPs from the biomaterials as a function of design parameters. Methods: Prototype smart biomaterials were produced by incorporating the GNPs in poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) polymer millirods during the gel phase of production. For comparison, commercially available spacers were also coated with a polymer film loaded with fluorescentmore » GNP. Optical/spectroscopy methods were used to monitor in vitro release of GNPs over time as a function of different design parameters: polymer weighting, type, and initial (loading) GNP concentrations. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was employed to verify GNP release. Results: Results showed that gold nanoparticles could be successfully loaded in the new RT biomaterial prototypes. Burst release of GNPs could be achieved within 1 to 25 days depending on the preparation approach. Burst release was followed by sustained release profile over time. The amount of released GNP increased with increasing loading concentration as expected. The release profiles could also be customized as a function of polymer weighting, or preparation approaches. Conclusion: Considered together, our results highlight potential for the development of next generation RT biomaterials loaded with GNPs customizable to different RT schedules. Such biomaterials could be employed as needed instead of currently used inert spacers/fiducials at no additional inconvenience to patients, to enhance RT.« less

  6. Chitosan Nanolayered Cisplatin-Loaded Lipid Nanoparticles for Enhanced Anticancer Efficacy in Cervical Cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing-yi; Wang, Yu; Meng, Xia

    2016-11-01

    In this study, cisplatin (CDDP)-loaded chitosan-coated solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) was successfully formulated to treat HeLa cervical carcinoma. The formulation nanoparticles were nanosized and exhibited a controlled release of drug in physiological conditions. The blank nanoparticles exhibited an excellent biocompatibility profile indicating its suitability for cancer targeting. The incorporation of CDDP in SLN remarkably increased the cancer cell death as evident from the MTT assay. Importantly, CDDP-loaded chitosan-coated SLN (CChSLN) significantly ( P < 0.05) decreased the viability of cancer cells even at low concentration. The higher cytotoxicity potential of CChSLN was attributed to the higher cellular uptake as well as the sustained drug release manner in comparison with CSLN. Consistent with the cytotoxicity assay, CChSLN showed the lowest IC50 value of 0.6125 μg/ml while CSLN presented 1.156 μg/ml. CChSLN showed a significantly higher apoptosis in cancer cells compared to that of CSLN and CDDP, which is attributed to the better internalization of nanocarriers and controlled release of anticancer drugs in the intracellular environment. Our findings suggest that this new formulation could be a promising alternative for the treatment of cervical cancers. These findings are encouraging us to continue our research, with a more extended investigation of cellular response in real time and in animal models.

  7. G-CSF loaded nanofiber/nanoparticle composite coated with collagen promotes wound healing in vivo.

    PubMed

    Tanha, Shima; Rafiee-Tehrani, Morteza; Abdollahi, Mohamad; Vakilian, Saeid; Esmaili, Zahra; Naraghi, Zahra Safaei; Seyedjafari, Ehsan; Javar, Hamid Akbari

    2017-10-01

    Sustained release of functional growth factors can be considered as a beneficial methodology for wound healing. In this study, recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-loaded chitosan nanoparticles were incorporated in Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) nanofibers, followed by surface coating with collagen type I. Physical and mechanical properties of the PCL nanofibers containing G-CSF loaded chitosan nanoparticles PCL/NP(G-CSF) and in vivo performance for wound healing were investigated. G-CSF structural stability was evaluated through SDS_PAGE, reversed phase (RP) HPLC and size-exclusion chromatography, as well as circular dichroism. Nanofiber/nanoparticle composite scaffold was demonstrated to have appropriate mechanical properties as a wound dresser and a sustained release of functional G-CSF. The PCL/NP(G-CSF) scaffold showed a suitable proliferation and well-adherent morphology of stem cells. In vivo study and histopathological evaluation outcome revealed that skin regeneration was dramatically accelerated under PCL/NP(G-CSF) as compared with control groups. Superior fibroblast maturation, enhanced collagen deposition and minimum inflammatory cells were also the beneficial properties of PCL/NP(G-CSF) over the commercial dressing. The synergistic effect of extracellular matrix-mimicking nanofibrous membrane and G-CSF could develop a suitable supportive substrate in order to extensive utilization for the healing of skin wounds. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 2830-2842, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. SN-38 loading capacity of hydrophobic polymer blend nanoparticles: formulation, optimization and efficacy evaluation.

    PubMed

    Dimchevska, Simona; Geskovski, Nikola; Petruševski, Gjorgji; Chacorovska, Marina; Popeski-Dimovski, Riste; Ugarkovic, Sonja; Goracinova, Katerina

    2017-03-01

    One of the most important problems in nanoencapsulation of extremely hydrophobic drugs is poor drug loading due to rapid drug crystallization outside the polymer core. The effort to use nanoprecipitation, as a simple one-step procedure with good reproducibility and FDA approved polymers like Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and Polycaprolactone (PCL), will only potentiate this issue. Considering that drug loading is one of the key defining characteristics, in this study we attempted to examine whether the nanoparticle (NP) core composed of two hydrophobic polymers will provide increased drug loading for 7-Ethyl-10-hydroxy-camptothecin (SN-38), relative to NPs prepared using individual polymers. D-optimal design was applied to optimize PLGA/PCL ratio in the polymer blend and the mode of addition of the amphiphilic copolymer Lutrol ® F127 in order to maximize SN-38 loading and obtain NPs with acceptable size for passive tumor targeting. Drug/polymer and polymer/polymer interaction analysis pointed to high degree of compatibility and miscibility among both hydrophobic polymers, providing core configuration with higher drug loading capacity. Toxicity studies outlined the biocompatibility of the blank NPs. Increased in vitro efficacy of drug-loaded NPs compared to the free drug was confirmed by growth inhibition studies using SW-480 cell line. Additionally, the optimized NP formulation showed very promising blood circulation profile with elimination half-time of 7.4 h.

  9. Impact of enzyme loading on the efficacy and recovery of cellulolytic enzymes immobilized on enzymogel nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Samaratunga, Ashani; Kudina, Olena; Nahar, Nurun; Zakharchenko, Andrey; Minko, Sergiy; Voronov, Andriy; Pryor, Scott W

    2015-03-01

    Cellulase and β-glucosidase were adsorbed on a polyacrylic acid polymer brush grafted on silica nanoparticles to produce enzymogels as a form of enzyme immobilization. Enzyme loading on the enzymogels was increased to a saturation level of approximately 110 μg (protein) mg(-1) (particle) for each enzyme. Enzymogels with varied enzyme loadings were then used to determine the impact on hydrolysis rate and enzyme recovery. Soluble sugar concentrations during the hydrolysis of filter paper and Solka-Floc with the enzymogels were 45 and 53%, respectively, of concentrations when using free cellulase. β-Glucosidase enzymogels showed lower performance; hydrolyzate glucose concentrations were just 38% of those using free enzymes. Increasing enzyme loading on the enzymogels did not reduce net efficacy for cellulase and improved efficacy for β-glucosidase. The use of free cellulases and cellulase enzymogels resulted in hydrolyzates with different proportions of cellobiose and glucose, suggesting differential attachment or efficacy of endoglucanases, exoglucanases, and β-glucosidases present in cellulase mixtures. When loading β-glucosidase individually, higher enzyme loadings on the enzymogels produced higher hydrolyzate glucose concentrations. Approximately 96% of cellulase and 66 % of β-glucosidase were recovered on the enzymogels, while enzyme loading level did not impact recovery for either enzyme.

  10. Periadventitial Application of Rapamycin-Loaded Nanoparticles Produces Sustained Inhibition of Vascular Restenosis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lian-Wang; Si, Yi; Zhu, Men; Pilla, Srikanth; Liu, Bo; Gong, Shaoqin; Kent, K. Craig

    2014-01-01

    Open vascular reconstructions frequently fail due to the development of recurrent disease or intimal hyperplasia (IH). This paper reports a novel drug delivery method using a rapamycin-loaded poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs)/pluronic gel system that can be applied periadventitially around the carotid artery immediately following the open surgery. In vitro studies revealed that rapamycin dispersed in pluronic gel was rapidly released over 3 days whereas release of rapamycin from rapamycin-loaded PLGA NPs embedded in pluronic gel was more gradual over 4 weeks. In cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs), rapamycin-loaded NPs produced durable (14 days versus 3 days for free rapamycin) inhibition of phosphorylation of S6 kinase (S6K1), a downstream target in the mTOR pathway. In a rat balloon injury model, periadventitial delivery of rapamycin-loaded NPs produced inhibition of phospho-S6K1 14 days after balloon injury. Immunostaining revealed that rapamycin-loaded NPs reduced SMC proliferation at both 14 and 28 days whereas rapamycin alone suppressed proliferation at day 14 only. Moreover, rapamycin-loaded NPs sustainably suppressed IH for at least 28 days following treatment, whereas rapamycin alone produced suppression on day 14 with rebound of IH by day 28. Since rapamycin, PLGA, and pluronic gel have all been approved by the FDA for other human therapies, this drug delivery method could potentially be translated into human use quickly to prevent failure of open vascular reconstructions. PMID:24586612

  11. Cholesteryl oleate-loaded cationic solid lipid nanoparticles as carriers for efficient gene-silencing therapy

    PubMed Central

    Suñé-Pou, Marc; Prieto-Sánchez, Silvia; El Yousfi, Younes; Boyero-Corral, Sofía; Nardi-Ricart, Anna; Nofrerias-Roig, Isaac; Pérez-Lozano, Pilar; García-Montoya, Encarna; Miñarro-Carmona, Montserrat; Ticó, Josep Ramón; Suñé-Negre, Josep Mª; Hernández-Munain, Cristina; Suñé, Carlos

    2018-01-01

    Background Cationic solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) have been given considerable attention for therapeutic nucleic acid delivery owing to their advantages over viral and other nanoparticle delivery systems. However, poor delivery efficiency and complex formulations hinder the clinical translation of SLNs. Aim The aim of this study was to formulate and characterize SLNs incorporating the cholesterol derivative cholesteryl oleate to produce SLN–nucleic acid complexes with reduced cytotoxicity and more efficient cellular uptake. Methods Five cholesteryl oleate-containing formulations were prepared. Laser diffraction and laser Doppler microelectrophoresis were used to evaluate particle size and zeta potential, respectively. Nanoparticle morphology was analyzed using electron microscopy. Cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of lipoplexes were evaluated using flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. The gene inhibition capacity of the lipoplexes was assessed using siRNAs to block constitutive luciferase expression. Results We obtained nanoparticles with a mean diameter of approximately 150–200 nm in size and zeta potential values of 25–40 mV. SLN formulations with intermediate concentrations of cholesteryl oleate exhibited good stability and spherical structures with no aggregation. No cell toxicity of any reference SLN was observed. Finally, cellular uptake experiments with DNA-and RNA-SLNs were performed to select one reference with superior transient transfection efficiency that significantly decreased gene activity upon siRNA complexation. Conclusion The results indicate that cholesteryl oleate-loaded SLNs are a safe and effective platform for nonviral nucleic acid delivery. PMID:29881274

  12. Inkjet Printing of Drug-Loaded Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles-A Platform for Drug Development.

    PubMed

    Wickström, Henrika; Hilgert, Ellen; Nyman, Johan O; Desai, Diti; Şen Karaman, Didem; de Beer, Thomas; Sandler, Niklas; Rosenholm, Jessica M

    2017-11-21

    Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) have shown great potential in improving drug delivery of poorly water soluble (BCS class II, IV) and poorly permeable (BCS class III, IV) drugs, as well as facilitating successful delivery of unstable compounds. The nanoparticle technology would allow improved treatment by reducing adverse reactions of currently approved drugs and possibly reintroducing previously discarded compounds from the drug development pipeline. This study aims to highlight important aspects in mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) ink formulation development for digital inkjet printing technology and to advice on choosing a method (2D/3D) for nanoparticle print deposit characterization. The results show that both unfunctionalized and polyethyeleneimine (PEI) surface functionalized MSNs, as well as drug-free and drug-loaded MSN-PEI suspensions, can be successfully inkjet-printed. Furthermore, the model BCS class IV drug remained incorporated in the MSNs and the suspension remained physically stable during the processing time and steps. This proof-of-concept study suggests that inkjet printing technology would be a flexible deposition method of pharmaceutical MSN suspensions to generate patterns according to predefined designs. The concept could be utilized as a versatile drug screening platform in the future due to the possibility of accurately depositing controlled volumes of MSN suspensions on various materials.

  13. Molybdenum cluster loaded PLGA nanoparticles: An innovative theranostic approach for the treatment of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Brandhonneur, N; Hatahet, T; Amela-Cortes, M; Molard, Y; Cordier, S; Dollo, G

    2018-04-01

    We evaluate poly (d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles embedding inorganic molybdenum octahedral cluster for photodynamic therapy of cancer (PDT). Tetrabutyl ammonium salt of Mo 6 Br 14 cluster unit, (TBA) 2 Mo 6 Br 14 , presents promising photosensitization activity in the destruction of targeted cancer cells. Stable cluster loaded nanoparticles (CNPs) were prepared by solvent displacement method showing spherical shapes, zeta potential values around -30 mV, polydispersity index lower than 0.2 and sizes around 100 nm. FT-IR and DSC analysis revealed the lack of strong chemical interaction between the cluster and the polymer within the nanoparticles. In vitro release study showed that (TBA) 2 Mo 6 Br 14 was totally dissolved in 20 min, while CNPs were able to control the release of encapsulated cluster. In vitro cellular viability studies conducted on A2780 ovarian cancer cell line treated up to 72 h with cluster or CNPs did not show any sign of toxicity in concentrations up to 20 µg/ml. This concentration was selected for photo-activation test on A2780 cells and CNPs were able to generate oxygen singlet resulting in a decrease of the cellular viability up to 50%, respectively compared to non-activated conditions. This work presents (TBA) 2 Mo 6 Br 14 as a novel photosensitizer for PDT and suggests PLGA nanoparticles as an efficient delivery system intended for tumor targeting. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Preparation of astaxanthin-loaded DNA/chitosan nanoparticles for improved cellular uptake and antioxidation capability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Zhao, Yingyuan; Guan, Lei; Zhang, Yaping; Dang, Qifeng; Dong, Ping; Li, Jing; Liang, Xingguo

    2017-07-15

    DNA/chitosan co-assemblies were initially used as nanocarriers for efficient astaxanthin encapsulation and delivery. The obtained astaxanthin-loaded DNA/chitosan (ADC) colloidal system was transparent and homogenous, with astaxanthin content up to 65μg/ml. Compared to free astaxanthin, ADC nanoparticles with an astaxanthin concentration as low as 3.35nM still showed a more powerful cytoprotective effect on H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative cell damage, and improved cell viability from 49.9% to 61.9%. The ROS scavenging efficiency of ADC nanoparticles was as high as 54.3%, which was 2-fold higher than that of free astaxanthin. Besides this, ADC nanoparticles were easily engulfed by Caco-2 cells in a short time, indicating that the encapsulated astaxanthin could be absorbed through endocytosis by intestinal epithelial cells. The improved antioxidation capability and facilitated cellular uptake enabled the ADC nanoparticles to be good candidates for efficient delivery and absorption of astaxanthin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. BSA nanoparticle loaded atorvastatin calcium--a new facet for an old drug.

    PubMed

    Sripriyalakshmi, S; Anjali, C H; George, Priya Doss C; Rajith, B; Ravindran, Aswathy

    2014-01-01

    Currently, the discovery of effective chemotherapeutic agents poses a major challenge to the field of cancer biology. The present study focuses on enhancing the therapeutic and anti cancer properties of atorvastatin calcium loaded BSA (ATV-BSA) nanoparticles in vitro. BSA-ATV nanoparticles were prepared using desolvation technique. The process parameters were optimized based on the amount of desolvating agent, stabilization conditions as well as the concentration of the cross linker. The anti cancer properties of the protein coated ATV nanoparticles were tested on MiaPaCa-2 cell lines. In vitro release behavior of the drug from the carrier suggests that about 85% of the drug gets released after 72 hrs. Our studies show that ATV-BSA nanoparticles showed specific targeting and enhanced cytotoxicity to MiaPaCa-2 cells when compared to the bare ATV. We hereby propose that the possible mechanism of cellular uptake of albumin bound ATV could be through caveolin mediated endocytosis. Hence our studies open up new facet for an existing cholesterol drug as a potent anti-cancer agent.

  16. Purification of Drug Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles Prepared by Emulsification Solvent Evaporation Using Stirred Cell Ultrafiltration Technique.

    PubMed

    Paswan, Suresh K; Saini, T R

    2017-12-01

    The emulsifiers in an exceedingly higher level are used in the preparation of drug loaded polymeric nanoparticles prepared by emulsification solvent evaporation method. This creates great problem to the formulator due to their serious toxicities when it is to be administered by parenteral route. The final product is therefore required to be freed from the used surfactants by the conventional purification techniques which is a cumbersome job. The solvent resistant stirred cell ultrafiltration unit (Millipore) was used in this study using polyethersulfone ultrafiltration membrane (Biomax®) having pore size of NMWL 300 KDa as the membrane filter. The purification efficiency of this technique was compared with the conventional centrifugation technique. The flow rate of ultrafiltration was optimized for removal of surfactant (polyvinyl alcohol) impurities to the acceptable levels in 1-3.5 h from the nanoparticle dispersion of tamoxifen prepared by emulsification solvent evaporation method. The present investigations demonstrate the application of solvent resistant stirred cell ultrafiltration technique for removal of toxic impurities of surfactant (PVA) from the polymeric drug nanoparticles (tamoxifen) prepared by emulsification solvent evaporation method. This technique offers added benefit of producing more concentrated nanoparticles dispersion without causing significant particle size growth which is observed in other purification techniques, e.g., centrifugation and ultracentrifugation.

  17. Gamma Interferon Loaded onto Albumin Nanoparticles: In Vitro and In Vivo Activities against Brucella abortus▿

    PubMed Central

    Segura, S.; Gamazo, C.; Irache, J. M.; Espuelas, S.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) when it was either adsorbed onto or loaded into albumin nanoparticles. Brucella abortus-infected macrophages and infected BALB/c mice were selected as the models for testing of the therapeutic potentials of these cytokine delivery systems, in view of the well-established role of IFN-γ-activated macrophages for the control of Brucella sp. infections. Whereas the encapsulation of IFN-γ inside the matrix of nanoparticles completely abrogated its activity, adsorbed IFN-γ increased by 0.75 log unit the bactericidal effect induced by RAW macrophages activated with free IFN-γ, along with a higher level of production of nitric oxide. In infected BALB/c-mice, IFN-γ adsorbed onto nanoparticles was also more active than free cytokine in reducing the number of bacteria in the spleens, and the effect was mediated by an increased ratio of IFN-γ-secreting (Th1) to interleukin-4-secreting (Th2) cells. Overall, albumin nanoparticles would be suitable as carriers that target IFN-γ to macrophages and, thus, potentiate their therapeutic activity. PMID:17220401

  18. Nonenzymatic glucose sensor based on renewable electrospun Ni nanoparticle-loaded carbon nanofiber paste electrode.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Teng, Hong; Hou, Haoqing; You, Tianyan

    2009-07-15

    A novel nonenzymatic glucose sensor was developed based on the renewable Ni nanoparticle-loaded carbon nanofiber paste (NiCFP) electrode. The NiCF nanocomposite was prepared by combination of electrospinning technique with thermal treatment method. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed that large amounts of spherical nanoparticles were well dispersed on the surface or embedded in the carbon nanofibers. And the nanoparticles were composed of Ni and NiO, as revealed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). In application to nonenzymatic glucose determination, the renewable NiCFP electrodes, which were constructed by simply mixing the electrospun nanocomposite with mineral oil, exhibited strong and fast amperometric response without being poisoned by chloride ions. Low detection limit of 1 microM with wide linear range from 2 microM to 2.5 mM (R=0.9997) could be obtained. The current response of the proposed glucose sensor was highly sensitive and stable, attributing to the electrocatalytic performance of the firmly embedded Ni nanoparticles as well as the chemical inertness of the carbon-based electrode. The good analytical performance, low cost and straightforward preparation method made this novel electrode material promising for the development of effective glucose sensor.

  19. A novel paclitaxel-loaded poly(epsilon-caprolactone)/Poloxamer 188 blend nanoparticle overcoming multidrug resistance for cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yangqing; Tang, Lina; Sun, Leilei; Bao, Junbo; Song, Cunxian; Huang, Laiqiang; Liu, Kexin; Tian, Yan; Tian, Ge; Li, Zhen; Sun, Hongfan; Mei, Lin

    2010-06-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) of tumor cells is a major obstacle to the success of cancer chemotherapy. Poloxamers have been used in cancer therapy to overcome MDR. The objective of this research is to test the feasibility of paclitaxel-loaded poly(epsilon-caprolactone)/Poloxamer 188 (PCL/Poloxamer 188) nanoparticles to overcome MDR in a paclitaxel-resistant human breast cancer cell line. Paclitaxel-loaded nanoparticles were prepared by a water-acetone solvent displacement method using commercial PCL and self-synthesized PCL/Poloxamer 188 compound, respectively. PCL/Poloxamer 188 nanoparticles were found to be of spherical shape and tended to have a rough and porous surface. The nanoparticles had an average size of around 220nm, with a narrow size distribution. The in vitro drug release profile of both nanoparticle formulations showed a clear biphasic release pattern. There was an increased level of uptake of PCL/Poloxamer 188 nanoparticles (PPNP) in the paclitaxel-resistant human breast cancer cell line MCF-7/TAX, in comparison with PCL nanoparticles. The cytotoxicity of PCL nanoparticles was higher than commercial Taxol in the MCF-7/TAX cell culture, but the differences were not significant. However, the PCL/Poloxamer 188 nanoparticles achieved a significantly higher level of cytotoxicity than both of PCL nanoparticle formulation and Taxol(R), indicating that paclitaxel-loaded PCL/Poloxamer 188 nanoparticles could overcome MDR in human breast cancer cells and therefore could have considerable therapeutic potential for breast cancer. Copyright 2009 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fabrication, optimization, and characterization of umbelliferone β-D-galactopyranoside-loaded PLGA nanoparticles in treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma: in vitro and in vivo studies

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vikas; Bhatt, Prakash Chandra; Rahman, Mahfoozur; Kaithwas, Gaurav; Choudhry, Hani; Al-Abbasi, Fahad A; Anwar, Firoz; Verma, Amita

    2017-01-01

    Umbelliferone β-D-galactopyranoside (UFG), isolated from plants, exhibits promising inhibitory action on numerous diseases. The present research was initiated to develop a suitable delivery system for UFG with an intention to enhance its therapeutic efficacy against diethyl nitrosamine (DEN)-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Wistar rats. UFG-loaded polymeric nanoparticles prepared by sonication were scrutinized for average size, drug loading capacity, zeta potential, and drug release potency in animals. HCC cell lines HuH-7 and Hep G2 were used for in vitro cytotoxic investigation. Several hepatic, nonhepatic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory biochemical parameters were estimated to establish the anticancer potential of UFG nanoformulation. Microscopical and histopathological investigations were also undertaken to substantiate the results of our work. Umbelliferone β-D-galactopyranoside-loaded poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles (UFG-PLGA-NP) with particle size of 187.1 nm and polydispersity index 0.16 were uniform in nature with 82.5% release of the total amount of drug after 48 h. Our study successfully established the development and characterization of UFG-PLGA-NP with noticeable effect against both in vivo and in vitro models. The anticancer potential of UFG-PLGA-NP was brought about by the management of DEN-induced reactive oxygen species generation, mitochondrial dysfunction, proinflammatory cytokines alteration, and induction of apoptosis. Positive zeta potential on the surface of UFG-PLGA-NP would have possibly offered higher hepatic accumulation of UFG, particularly in the electron-dense mitochondria organelles, and this was the take-home message from this study. Our results demonstrated that such polymer-loaded delivery systems of UFG can be a better option and can be further explored to improve the clinical outcomes against hepatic cancer. PMID:28932118

  1. Controlling the interparticle spacing of Au-salt loaded micelles and Au nanoparticles on flat surfaces.

    PubMed

    Bansmann, J; Kielbassa, S; Hoster, H; Weigl, F; Boyen, H G; Wiedwald, U; Ziemann, P; Behm, R J

    2007-09-25

    The self-organization of diblock copolymers into micellar structures in an appropriate solvent allows the deposition of well ordered arrays of pure metal and alloy nanoparticles on flat surfaces with narrow distributions in particle size and interparticle spacing. Here we investigated the influence of the materials (substrate and polymer) and deposition parameters (temperature and emersion velocity) on the deposition of metal salt loaded micelles by dip-coating from solution and on the order and inter-particle spacing of the micellar deposits and thus of the metal nanoparticle arrays resulting after plasma removal of the polymer shell. For identical substrate and polymer, variation of the process parameters temperature and emersion velocity enables the controlled modification of the interparticle distance within a certain length regime. Moreover, also the degree of hexagonal order of the final array depends sensitively on these parameters.

  2. Enzyme-free ethanol sensor based on electrospun nickel nanoparticle-loaded carbon fiber paste electrode.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Lei; Guo, Qiaohui; Hou, Haoqing; You, Tianyan

    2010-03-24

    We have developed a novel nickel nanoparticle-loaded carbon fiber paste (NiCFP) electrode for enzyme-free determination of ethanol. An electrospinning technique was used to prepare the NiCF composite with large amounts of spherical nanoparticles firmly embedded in carbon fibers (CF). In application to electroanalysis of ethanol, the NiCFP electrode exhibited high amperometric response and good operational stability. The calibration curve was linear up to 87.5 mM with a detection limit of 0.25 mM, which is superior to that obtained with other transition metal based electrodes. For detection of ethanol present in liquor samples, the values obtained with the NiCFP electrode were in agreement with the ones declared on the label. The attractive analytical performance and simple preparation method make this novel material promising for the development of effective enzyme-free sensors. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Synergistic bactericidal activity of chlorhexidine-loaded, silver-decorated mesoporous silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lu, Meng-Meng; Wang, Qiu-Jing; Chang, Zhi-Min; Wang, Zheng; Zheng, Xiao; Shao, Dan; Dong, Wen-Fei; Zhou, Yan-Min

    2017-01-01

    Combination of chlorhexidine (CHX) and silver ions could engender synergistic bactericidal effect and improve the bactericidal efficacy. It is highly desired to develop an efficient carrier for the antiseptics codelivery targeting infection foci with acidic microenvironment. In this work, monodisperse mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) nanospheres were successfully developed as an ideal carrier for CHX and nanosilver codelivery through a facile and environmentally friendly method. The CHX-loaded, silver-decorated mesoporous silica nanoparticles (Ag-MSNs@CHX) exhibited a pH-responsive release manner of CHX and silver ions simultaneously, leading to synergistically antibacterial effect against both gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative Escherichia coli . Moreover, the effective antibacterial concentration of Ag-MSNs@CHX showed less cytotoxicity on normal cells. Given their synergistically bactericidal ability and good biocompatibility, these nanoantiseptics might have effective and broad clinical applications for bacterial infections.

  4. Estradiol-loaded PLGA nanoparticles for improving low bone mineral density of cancellous bone caused by osteoporosis: Application of enhanced charged nanoparticles with iontophoresis.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Issei; Kobayashi, Shiori; Hida, Yukari; Makino, Kimiko

    2017-07-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis among older women, which occurs by an ovarian hormone deficiency, is one of the major public health problems. 17 β-estradiol (E2) is used to prevent and treat this disease as a drug of hormone replacement therapy. In oral administration, E2 is significantly affected by first-pass hepatic metabolism, and high dose administration must be needed to obtain drug efficacy. Therefore, alternative administration route is needed, and we have focused on the transdermal drug delivery system. In this study, we have prepared E2-loaded poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles for osteoporosis by using a combination of an antisolvent diffusion method with preferential solvation. The average particle diameter of the nanoparticles was 110.0±41.0nm and the surface charge number density was 82 times higher than that of conventional E2-loaded PLGA nanoparticles. Therapeutic evaluation of E2-loaded PLGA nanoparticles was carried out using ovariectomized female rats. Therapeutic efficacy was evaluated to measure bone mineral density of cancellous bone using an X-ray CT system. When the E2-loaded PLGA nanoparticles were administrated once a week, bone mineral density was significantly higher than that of the non-treated group at 60days after the start of treatment. Also, in the group administered this nanoparticle twice a week, the bone mineral density increased significantly at 45days after the start of treatment. From these results, it was revealed that E2-loaded PLGA nanoparticles with iontophoresis were useful to recover bone mineral density of cancellous bone, and it was also suggested that they extend the dosing interval of E2. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Biocompatible and colloidally stabilized mPEG-PE/calcium phosphate hybrid nanoparticles loaded with siRNAs targeting tumors.

    PubMed

    Gao, Pei; Zhang, Xiangyu; Wang, Hongzhi; Zhang, Qinghong; Li, He; Li, Yaogang; Duan, Yourong

    2016-01-19

    Calcium phosphate nanoparticles are safe and effective delivery vehicles for small interfering RNA (siRNA), as a result of their excellent biocompatibility. In this work, mPEG-PE (polyethylene glycol-L-α-phosphatidylethanolamine) was synthesized and used to prepare nanoparticles composed of mPEG-PE and calcium phosphate for siRNA delivery. Calcium phosphate and mPEG-PE formed the stable hybrid nanoparticles through self-assembly resulting from electrostatic interaction in water. The average size of the hybrid nanoparticles was approximately 53.2 nm with a negative charge of approximately -16.7 mV, which was confirmed by dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements. The nanoparticles exhibited excellent stability in serum and could protect siRNA from ribonuclease (RNase) degradation. The cellular internalization of siRNA-loaded nanoparticles was evaluated in SMMC-7721 cells using a laser scanning confocal microscope (CLSM) and flow cytometry. The hybrid nanoparticles could efficiently deliver siRNA to cells compared with free siRNA. Moreover, the in vivo distribution of Cy5-siRNA-loaded hybrid nanoparticles was observed after being injected into tumor-bearing nude mice. The nanoparticles concentrated in the tumor regions through an enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect based on the fluorescence intensities of tissue distribution. A safety evaluation of the nanoparticles was performed both in vitro and in vivo demonstrating that the hybrid nanoparticle delivery system had almost no toxicity. These results indicated that the mPEG-PE/CaP hybrid nanoparticles could be a stable, safe and promising siRNA nanocarrier for anticancer therapy.

  6. Biocompatible and colloidally stabilized mPEG-PE/calcium phosphate hybrid nanoparticles loaded with siRNAs targeting tumors

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Pei; Zhang, Xiangyu; Wang, Hongzhi; Zhang, Qinghong

    2016-01-01

    Calcium phosphate nanoparticles are safe and effective delivery vehicles for small interfering RNA (siRNA), as a result of their excellent biocompatibility. In this work, mPEG-PE (polyethylene glycol-L-α-phosphatidylethanolamine) was synthesized and used to prepare nanoparticles composed of mPEG-PE and calcium phosphate for siRNA delivery. Calcium phosphate and mPEG-PE formed the stable hybrid nanoparticles through self-assembly resulting from electrostatic interaction in water. The average size of the hybrid nanoparticles was approximately 53.2 nm with a negative charge of approximately −16.7 mV, which was confirmed by dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements. The nanoparticles exhibited excellent stability in serum and could protect siRNA from ribonuclease (RNase) degradation. The cellular internalization of siRNA-loaded nanoparticles was evaluated in SMMC-7721 cells using a laser scanning confocal microscope (CLSM) and flow cytometry. The hybrid nanoparticles could efficiently deliver siRNA to cells compared with free siRNA. Moreover, the in vivo distribution of Cy5-siRNA-loaded hybrid nanoparticles was observed after being injected into tumor-bearing nude mice. The nanoparticles concentrated in the tumor regions through an enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect based on the fluorescence intensities of tissue distribution. A safety evaluation of the nanoparticles was performed both in vitro and in vivo demonstrating that the hybrid nanoparticle delivery system had almost no toxicity. These results indicated that the mPEG-PE/CaP hybrid nanoparticles could be a stable, safe and promising siRNA nanocarrier for anticancer therapy. PMID:26625203

  7. Preparation of Curcumin Loaded Egg Albumin Nanoparticles Using Acetone and Optimization of Desolvation Process.

    PubMed

    Aniesrani Delfiya, D S; Thangavel, K; Amirtham, D

    2016-04-01

    In this study, acetone was used as a desolvating agent to prepare the curcumin-loaded egg albumin nanoparticles. Response surface methodology was employed to analyze the influence of process parameters namely concentration (5-15%w/v) and pH (5-7) of egg albumin solution on solubility, curcumin loading and entrapment efficiency, nanoparticles yield and particle size. Optimum processing conditions obtained from response surface analysis were found to be the egg albumin solution concentration of 8.85%w/v and pH of 5. At this optimum condition, the solubility of 33.57%, curcumin loading of 4.125%, curcumin entrapment efficiency of 55.23%, yield of 72.85% and particles size of 232.6 nm were obtained and these values were related to the values which are predicted using polynomial model equations. Thus, the model equations generated for each response was validated and it can be used to predict the response values at any concentration and pH.

  8. Magnetic field-enhanced cellular uptake of doxorubicin loaded magnetic nanoparticles for tumor treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venugopal, Indu; Pernal, Sebastian; Duproz, Alexandra; Bentley, Jeromy; Engelhard, Herbert; Linninger, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    Cancer remains the second most common cause of death in the US, accounting for nearly 1 out of every 4 deaths. In recent years, several varieties of nanoparticles (NPs) have been synthesized with the intent of being utilized as tumor drug delivery vehicles. We have produced superparamagnetic, gold-coated magnetite (Fe3O4@Au) NPs and loaded them with the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin (DOX) for magnetic drug targeting (MDT) of tumors. The synthetic strategy uses the food thickening agent gellan gum (Phytagel) as a negatively charged shell around the Fe3O4@Au NP onto which the positively charged DOX molecules are loaded via electrostatic attraction. The resulting DOX-loaded magnetic nanoparticles (DOX-MNPs) were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry, surface area electron diffraction, zeta potential measurements, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy as well as UV/Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. Cytotoxicity of the DOX-MNPs was demonstrated using the MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay on C6 glioma cells. Cellular uptake of DOX-MNPs was enhanced with magnetic fields, which was quantitatively determined using flow cytometry. This improved uptake also led to greater tumor cell death, which was measured using MTT assay. These MDT results are promising for a new therapy for cancer.

  9. Efficient production of nanoparticle-loaded orodispersible films by process integration in a stirred media mill.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Denise; Finke, Jan Henrik; Kwade, Arno

    2016-09-25

    Orodispersible films possess a great potential as a versatile platform for nanoparticle-loaded oral dosage forms. In this case, poorly water-soluble organic materials were ground in a stirred media mill and embedded into a polymer matrix. The aim of this study was the shortening of this manufacturing process by the integration of several process steps into a stirred media mill without facing disadvantages regarding the film quality. Furthermore, this process integration is time conserving due to the high stress intensities provided in the mill and applicable for high solids contents and high suspension viscosities. Two organic materials, the model compound Anthraquinone and the active pharmaceutical ingredient Naproxen were investigated in this study. Besides the impact of the film processing on the crystallinity of the particles in the orodispersible film, a particle load of up to 50% was investigated with the new developed processing route. Additionally, a disintegration test was developed, combining an appropriate amount of saliva substitute and a clear endpoint determination. In summary, high nanoparticle loads in orodispersible films with good particle size preservation after film redispersion in water as well as a manufacturing of the film casting mass within a few minutes in a stirred media mill was achieved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Preparation and in vitro release characteristics of vincristine sulphate loaded poly (butylcyanoacrylate) nanoparticles].

    PubMed

    Tan, Rong; Liu, Ying; Feng, Nianping; Zhao, Jihui

    2011-06-01

    To prepare vincristine sulphate loaded poly (butylcyanoacrylate) nanoparticles (VCR-PBCA-NPs) and to investigate the in vitro release charactersitics. VCR-PBCA-NPs were prepared by emulsion polymerization method, and characterized for morphology, particle size, drug encapsulation efficiency and loading efficiency. The formulation was optimized using central composite design and response surface methodology. In vitro release study of VCR-PBCA-NPs was performed by dialysis technique. Model fitting was used to determine the kinetics and to discuss the mechanism. The nanoparticles were spherical and uniform with a mean diameter of (98.9 +/- 3.05) nm. The drug encapsulation efficiency and loading efficiency were (55.23 +/- 0.96)% and (7.87 +/- 0.11)%, respectively. In vitro release results showed that 63.66% of VCR was released from VCR-PBCA-NPs in 4 h, and the Weibull model fitted VCR release pattern best. The VCR-PBCA-NPs prepared in this study showed sustained release compared with VCR solution.

  11. Target-specific porphyrin-loaded hybrid nanoparticles to improve photodynamic therapy for cancer treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivero-Escoto, Juan L.; Vega, Daniel L.

    2017-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has emerged as an alternative approach to chemotherapy and radiotherapy for cancer treatment. The photosensitizer (PS) is perhaps the most critical component of PDT, and continues to be an area of intense scientific research. Traditionally, PS molecules like porphyrins have dominated the field. Nevertheless, these PS agents have several disadvantages, with low water solubility, poor light absorption, and reduced selectivity for targeted tissues being some of the main drawbacks. Polysilsesquioxane (PSilQ) nanoparticles provide an interesting platform for developing PS-loaded hybrid nanocarriers. Several advantages can be foreseen by using this platform such as carrying a large payload of PS molecules; their surface and composition can be tailored to develop multifunctional systems (e.g. target-specific); and due to their small size, nanoparticles can penetrate deep into tissues and be readily internalized by cells. In this work, porphyrin-loaded PSilQ nanoparticles with a high payload of photosensitizers were synthesized, characterized, and applied in vitro. The network of this nanomaterial is formed by porphyrin-based photosensitizers chemically connected via a redox-responsive linker. Under reducing environment such as the one found in cancer cells the nanoparticles can be degraded to efficiently release single photosensitizers in the cytoplasm. The platform was further functionalized with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and folic acid as targeting ligand to improve its biocompatibility and target specificity toward cancer cells overexpressing folate receptors. The effectiveness of this porphyrin-based hybrid nanomaterial was successfully demonstrated in vitro using MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line.

  12. Galantamine-loaded PLGA nanoparticles, from nano-emulsion templating, as novel advanced drug delivery systems to treat neurodegenerative diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornaguera, C.; Feiner-Gracia, N.; Calderó, G.; García-Celma, M. J.; Solans, C.

    2015-07-01

    Polymeric nanoparticles could be promising drug delivery systems to treat neurodegenerative diseases. Among the various methods of nanoparticle preparation, nano-emulsion templating was used in the present study to prepare galantamine-loaded nano-emulsions by a low-energy emulsification method followed by solvent evaporation to obtain galantamine-loaded polymeric nanoparticles. This approach was found to be suitable because biocompatible, biodegradable and safe nanoparticles with appropriate features (hydrodynamic radii around 20 nm, negative surface charge and stability higher than 3 months) for their intravenous administration were obtained. Encapsulation efficiencies higher than 90 wt% were obtained with a sustained drug release profile as compared to that from aqueous and micellar solutions. The enzymatic activity of the drug was maintained at 80% after its encapsulation into nanoparticles that were non-cytotoxic at the required therapeutic concentration. Therefore, novel galantamine-loaded polymeric nanoparticles have been designed for the first time using the nano-emulsification approach and showed the appropriate features to become advanced drug delivery systems to treat neurodegenerative diseases.Polymeric nanoparticles could be promising drug delivery systems to treat neurodegenerative diseases. Among the various methods of nanoparticle preparation, nano-emulsion templating was used in the present study to prepare galantamine-loaded nano-emulsions by a low-energy emulsification method followed by solvent evaporation to obtain galantamine-loaded polymeric nanoparticles. This approach was found to be suitable because biocompatible, biodegradable and safe nanoparticles with appropriate features (hydrodynamic radii around 20 nm, negative surface charge and stability higher than 3 months) for their intravenous administration were obtained. Encapsulation efficiencies higher than 90 wt% were obtained with a sustained drug release profile as compared to that from

  13. Improved drug loading and antibacterial activity of minocycline-loaded PLGA nanoparticles prepared by solid/oil/water ion pairing method.

    PubMed

    Kashi, Tahereh Sadat Jafarzadeh; Eskandarion, Solmaz; Esfandyari-Manesh, Mehdi; Marashi, Seyyed Mahmoud Amin; Samadi, Nasrin; Fatemi, Seyyed Mostafa; Atyabi, Fatemeh; Eshraghi, Saeed; Dinarvand, Rassoul

    2012-01-01

    Low drug entrapment efficiency of hydrophilic drugs into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles is a major drawback. The objective of this work was to investigate different methods of producing PLGA nanoparticles containing minocycline, a drug suitable for periodontal infections. Different methods, such as single and double solvent evaporation emulsion, ion pairing, and nanoprecipitation were used to prepare both PLGA and PEGylated PLGA nanoparticles. The resulting nanoparticles were analyzed for their morphology, particle size and size distribution, drug loading and entrapment efficiency, thermal properties, and antibacterial activity. The nanoparticles prepared in this study were spherical, with an average particle size of 85-424 nm. The entrapment efficiency of the nanoparticles prepared using different methods was as follows: solid/oil/water ion pairing (29.9%) > oil/oil (5.5%) > water/oil/water (4.7%) > modified oil/water (4.1%) > nano precipitation (0.8%). Addition of dextran sulfate as an ion pairing agent, acting as an ionic spacer between PEGylated PLGA and minocycline, decreased the water solubility of minocycline, hence increasing the drug entrapment efficiency. Entrapment efficiency was also increased when low molecular weight PLGA and high molecular weight dextran sulfate was used. Drug release studies performed in phosphate buffer at pH 7.4 indicated slow release of minocycline from 3 days to several weeks. On antibacterial analysis, the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of nanoparticles was at least two times lower than that of the free drug. Novel minocycline-PEGylated PLGA nanoparticles prepared by the ion pairing method had the best drug loading and entrapment efficiency compared with other prepared nanoparticles. They also showed higher in vitro antibacterial activity than the free drug.

  14. Improved drug loading and antibacterial activity of minocycline-loaded PLGA nanoparticles prepared by solid/oil/water ion pairing method

    PubMed Central

    Kashi, Tahereh Sadat Jafarzadeh; Eskandarion, Solmaz; Esfandyari-Manesh, Mehdi; Marashi, Seyyed Mahmoud Amin; Samadi, Nasrin; Fatemi, Seyyed Mostafa; Atyabi, Fatemeh; Eshraghi, Saeed; Dinarvand, Rassoul

    2012-01-01

    Background Low drug entrapment efficiency of hydrophilic drugs into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles is a major drawback. The objective of this work was to investigate different methods of producing PLGA nanoparticles containing minocycline, a drug suitable for periodontal infections. Methods Different methods, such as single and double solvent evaporation emulsion, ion pairing, and nanoprecipitation were used to prepare both PLGA and PEGylated PLGA nanoparticles. The resulting nanoparticles were analyzed for their morphology, particle size and size distribution, drug loading and entrapment efficiency, thermal properties, and antibacterial activity. Results The nanoparticles prepared in this study were spherical, with an average particle size of 85–424 nm. The entrapment efficiency of the nanoparticles prepared using different methods was as follows: solid/oil/water ion pairing (29.9%) > oil/oil (5.5%) > water/oil/water (4.7%) > modified oil/water (4.1%) > nano precipitation (0.8%). Addition of dextran sulfate as an ion pairing agent, acting as an ionic spacer between PEGylated PLGA and minocycline, decreased the water solubility of minocycline, hence increasing the drug entrapment efficiency. Entrapment efficiency was also increased when low molecular weight PLGA and high molecular weight dextran sulfate was used. Drug release studies performed in phosphate buffer at pH 7.4 indicated slow release of minocycline from 3 days to several weeks. On antibacterial analysis, the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of nanoparticles was at least two times lower than that of the free drug. Conclusion Novel minocycline-PEGylated PLGA nanoparticles prepared by the ion pairing method had the best drug loading and entrapment efficiency compared with other prepared nanoparticles. They also showed higher in vitro antibacterial activity than the free drug. PMID:22275837

  15. Double loaded self-decomposable SiO2 nanoparticles for sustained drug release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Saisai; Zhang, Silu; Ma, Jiang; Fan, Li; Yin, Chun; Lin, Ge; Li, Quan

    2015-10-01

    Sustained drug release for a long duration is a desired feature of modern drugs. Using double-loaded self-decomposable SiO2 nanoparticles, we demonstrated sustained drug release in a controllable manner. The double loading of the drugs was achieved using two different mechanisms--the first one via a co-growth mechanism, and the second one by absorption. A two-phase sustained drug release was firstly revealed in an in vitro system, and then further demonstrated in mice. After a single intravenous injection, the drug was controllably released from the nanoparticles into blood circulation with a Tmax of about 8 h, afterwards a long lasting release pattern was achieved to maintain drug systemic exposure with a plasma elimination half-life of approximately 28 h. We disclosed that the absorbed drug molecules contributed to the initial fast release for quickly reaching the therapeutic level with relatively higher plasma concentrations, while the ``grown-in'' drugs were responsible for maintaining the therapeutic level via the later controlled slow and sustained release. The present nanoparticle carrier drug configuration and the loading/maintenance release mechanisms provide a promising platform that ensures a prolonged therapeutic effect by controlling drug concentrations within the therapeutic window--a sustained drug delivery system with a great impact on improving the management of chronic diseases.Sustained drug release for a long duration is a desired feature of modern drugs. Using double-loaded self-decomposable SiO2 nanoparticles, we demonstrated sustained drug release in a controllable manner. The double loading of the drugs was achieved using two different mechanisms--the first one via a co-growth mechanism, and the second one by absorption. A two-phase sustained drug release was firstly revealed in an in vitro system, and then further demonstrated in mice. After a single intravenous injection, the drug was controllably released from the nanoparticles into blood

  16. Calix[4]arene-Functionalised Silver Nanoparticles as Hosts for Pyridinium-Loaded Gold Nanoparticles as Guests.

    PubMed

    Vita, Francesco; Boccia, Alice; Marrani, Andrea G; Zanoni, Robertino; Rossi, Francesca; Arduini, Arturo; Secchi, Andrea

    2015-10-19

    A series of lipophilic gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) circa 5 nm in diameter and having a mixed organic layer consisting of 1-dodecanethiol and 1-(11-mercaptoundecyl) pyridinium bromide was synthesised by reacting tetraoctylammonium bromide stabilised AuNPs in toluene with different mixtures of the two thiolate ligands. A bidentate ω-alkylthiolate calix[4]arene derivative was instead used as a functional protecting layer on AgNPs of approximately 3 nm. The functionalised nanoparticles were characterised by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and by UV/Vis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Recognition of the pyridinium moieties loaded on the AuNPs by the calix[4]arene units immobilised on the AgNPs was demonstrated in solution of weakly polar solvents by UV/Vis titrations and DLS measurements. The extent of Au-AgNPs aggregation, shown through the low-energy shift of their surface plasmon bands (SPB), was strongly dependent on the loading of the pyridinium moieties present in the organic layer of the AuNPs. Extensive aggregation between dodecanethiol-capped AuNPs and the Ag calix[4]arene-functionalised NPs was also promoted by the action of a simple N-octyl pyridinium difunctional supramolecular linker. This linker can interdigitate through its long fatty tail in the organic layer of the dodecanethiol-capped AuNPs, and simultaneously interact through its pyridinium moiety with the calix[4]arene units at the surface of the modified AgNPs. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Ultrasound-guided delivery of microRNA loaded nanoparticles into cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tzu-Yin; Choe, Jung Woo; Pu, Kanyi; Devulapally, Rammohan; Bachawal, Sunitha; Machtaler, Steven; Chowdhury, Sayan Mullick; Luong, Richard; Tian, Lu; Khuri-Yakub, Butrus; Rao, Jianghong; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy; Willmann, Jürgen K

    2015-04-10

    Ultrasound induced microbubble cavitation can cause enhanced permeability across natural barriers of tumors such as vessel walls or cellular membranes, allowing for enhanced therapeutic delivery into the target tissues. While enhanced delivery of small (<1nm) molecules has been shown at acoustic pressures below 1MPa both in vitro and in vivo, the delivery efficiency of larger (>100nm) therapeutic carriers into cancer remains unclear and may require a higher pressure for sufficient delivery. Enhanced delivery of larger therapeutic carriers such as FDA approved pegylated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (PLGA-PEG-NP) has significant clinical value because these nanoparticles have been shown to protect encapsulated drugs from degradation in the blood circulation and allow for slow and prolonged release of encapsulated drugs at the target location. In this study, various acoustic parameters were investigated to facilitate the successful delivery of two nanocarriers, a fluorescent semiconducting polymer model drug nanoparticle as well as PLGA-PEG-NP into human colon cancer xenografts in mice. We first measured the cavitation dose produced by various acoustic parameters (pressure, pulse length, and pulse repetition frequency) and microbubble concentration in a tissue mimicking phantom. Next, in vivo studies were performed to evaluate the penetration depth of nanocarriers using various acoustic pressures, ranging between 1.7 and 6.9MPa. Finally, a therapeutic microRNA, miR-122, was loaded into PLGA-PEG-NP and the amount of delivered miR-122 was assessed using quantitative RT-PCR. Our results show that acoustic pressures had the strongest effect on cavitation. An increase of the pressure from 0.8 to 6.9MPa resulted in a nearly 50-fold increase in cavitation in phantom experiments. In vivo, as the pressures increased from 1.7 to 6.9MPa, the amount of nanoparticles deposited in cancer xenografts was increased from 4- to 14-fold, and the median penetration depth of

  18. Repaglinide-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles: effect of using different surfactants/stabilizers on physicochemical properties of nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Hossein Ali; Javadzadeh, Yousef; Hamidi, Mehrdad; Jalali, Mohammad Barzegar

    2015-09-21

    Repaglinide is an efficient anti-diabetic drug which is prescribed widely as multi-dosage oral daily regimens. Due to the low compliance inherent to each multi-dosage regimen, development of prolonged-release formulations could enhance the overall drug efficacy in patient populations. Repaglinide-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) were developed and characterized in vitro. Various surfactants were used in this study during the nanocarrier preparation procedure and their corresponding effects on some physicochemical properties of SLNs such as size, zeta potential; drug loading parameters and drug release profiles was investigated. Stearic acid and glyceryl mono stearate (GMS) were used as lipid phase and phosphatidylcholin, Tween80, Pluronic F127, poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) were used as surfactant/stabilizer. The results showed some variations between formulations; where the Tween80-based SLNs showed smallest size, the phosphatidylcholin-based SLNs indicated most prolonged drug release time and the highest loading capacity. SEM images of these formulations showed morphological variations and also confirmed the nanoscale size of these particles. The FTIR and DSC results demonstrated no interaction between drug and excipients. The invitro release profiles of different formulations were studied and observed slow release of drug from all formulations. However significant differences were found among them in terms of their initial burst release as well as the whole drug release profile. From fitting these data to various statistical models, the Peppas model was proposed as the best model to describe the statistical indices and, therefore, mechanism of drug release. The results of this study confirmed the effect of surfactant type on SLNs physicochemical properties such as morphological features, loading parameters, particle sizes and drug release kinetic. With respect to the outcome data, the mixture of phosphatidylcholin/Pluronic F127

  19. Fabrication and characterization of novel antimicrobial films derived from thymol-loaded zein-sodium caseinate (SC) nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Li, Kang-Kang; Yin, Shou-Wei; Yang, Xiao-Quan; Tang, Chuan-He; Wei, Zi-Hao

    2012-11-21

    The objective of this research was to fabricate novel antimicrobial films based on zein colloidal nanoparticles coated with sodium caseinate (SC), an emulsifier/stabilizer. Thymol-loaded zein-SC nanoparticles were prepared using an antisolvent technique, with the average particle size and zeta potential about 200 ± 20 nm and -40 mV, respectively. Zein-SC nanoparticle-based films exhibited higher mechanical resistance and water barrier capacity than the SC films and concomitant good extensibility as compared with zein films. Thymol loadings endowed zein-SC nanoparticle-based films with antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Salmonella as well as DPPH radical scavenging activity. Water vapor permeability, microstructure, mechanical, and controlled release properties of the films were evaluated. The possible relationship between some selected physical properties and microstructure were also discussed. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis indicated that thymol loadings resulted in the emergence phenomena of the nanoparticles to form large particles or packed structure, consisting of clusters of nanoparticles, within the film matrix, in a thymol loading dependent manner. The appearance of large particles or an agglomerate of particles may weaken the compactness of protein network of films and thus impair the water barrier capacity, mechanical resistance, and extensibility of the films. The release kinetics of thymol from nanoparticle-based films can be described as a two-step biphasic process, that is, an initial burst effect followed by subsequent slower release, and zein-SC nanoparticles within the films matrices gave them the ability to sustain the release of thymol. In addition, a schematic illustration of the formation pathway of zein-SC nanoparticle-based films with or without thymol was proposed to illuminate the possible relationship between some selected physical properties and the microstructure of the films.

  20. Optimization of methazolamide-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles for ophthalmic delivery using Box-Behnken design.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fengzhen; Chen, Li; Jiang, Sunmin; He, Jun; Zhang, Xiumei; Peng, Jin; Xu, Qunwei; Li, Rui

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to optimize methazolamide (MTZ)-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) which were used as topical eye drops by evaluating the relationship between design factors and experimental data. A three factor, three-level Box-Behnken design (BBD) was used for the optimization procedure, choosing the amount of GMS, the amount of phospholipid, the concentration of surfactant as the independent variables. The chosen dependent variables were entrapment efficiency, dosage loading, and particle size. The generated polynomial equations and response surface plots were used to relate the dependent and independent variables. The optimal nanoparticles were formulated with 100 mg GMS, 150 mg phospholipid, and 1% Tween80 and PEG 400 (1:1, w/v). A new formulation was prepared according to these levels. The observed responses were close to the predicted values of the optimized formulation. The particle size was 197.8 ± 4.9 nm. The polydispersity index of particle size was 0.239 ± 0.01 and the zeta potential was 32.7 ± 2.6 mV. The entrapment efficiency and dosage loading were about 68.39% and 2.49%, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) study indicated that the drug was entrapped in nanoparticles. The optimized formulation showed a sustained release followed the Peppas model. MTZ-SLNs showed significant prolonged decreasing intraocular pressure effect comparing with MTZ solution in vivo pharmacodynamics studies. The results of acute eye irritation study indicated that MTZ-SLNs and AZOPT both had no eye irritation. Furthermore, the MTZ-SLNs were suitable to be stored at low temperature (4 °C).

  1. Cutaneous biocompatible rutin-loaded gelatin-based nanoparticles increase the SPF of the association of UVA and UVB filters.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Camila Areias de; Peres, Daniela D'Almeida; Graziola, Fabiana; Chacra, Nádia Araci Bou; Araújo, Gabriel Lima Barros de; Flórido, Ana Catarina; Mota, Joana; Rosado, Catarina; Velasco, Maria Valéria Robles; Rodrigues, Luís Monteiro; Fernandes, Ana Sofia; Baby, André Rolim

    2016-01-01

    The encapsulation of natural ingredients, such as rutin, can offer improvements in sun protection effectiveness. This strategy can provide enhanced flavonoid content and produces an improved bioactive compound with new physical and functional characteristics. As an alternative to common synthetic-based sunscreens, rutin-entrapped gelatin nanoparticles (GNPs) were designed and associated with ethylhexyl dimethyl PABA (EHDP), ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC) and methoxydibenzoylmethane (BMDBM) in sunscreen formulations. The purpose of this study was to develop rutin-loaded gelatin nanoparticles and characterize their physicochemical, thermal, functional and safety properties. Rutin-loaded gelatin nanoparticles increased antioxidant activity by 74% relative to free-rutin (FR) solution. Also, this new ingredient upgraded the Sun Protection Factor (SPF) by 48%, indicating its potential as a raw material for bioactive sunscreens. The safety profile indicated that GNPs and glutaraldehyde (GTA) decreased HaCaT cell viability in a concentration/time-dependent manner. However, both blank nanoparticles (B-NC) and rutin-loaded nanoparticles (R-NC) had good performance on skin compatibility tests. These results functionally characterized rutin-loaded nanoparticles as a safe SPF enhancer in sunscreens, especially in association with UV filters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. [PLA-O-CMC nanoparticles: HGF loading and delivery behaviors in vitro].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhifeng; Chen, Zhong; Chang, Ren'an

    2011-04-01

    This paper is aimed to observe the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) loading and delivery ability of polylactic acid and oxygen carboxymethylated chitosan copolyer nanoparticles (PLA-O-CMC NPs). We prepared PLA-O-CMC NPs loaded with HGF by ultrasound in combination with magnetic stirring method. The NPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, embedding ratio; drug loading and drug delivery behaviors were observed by ELISA. The characteristics of PLA-O-CMC NPs loaded with HGF showed that the mean size was 139. 82 nm, polydispersity was 0.108, maximal HGF-embedding ratio was 76. 32%. The cumulative HGF release gradually increased in the first 24 hours in vitro, with sharp increasing in the first 7 hours, and moderate and steady increasing in the following 17 hours. The HGF had a burst release in the first 24 hours, and in this process the released HGF took up 36.7% of the whole release. From the second day,the HGF release decreased obviously, while it kept on releasing steadily (45-55 ng/d) for quite long time up to 30 days. The experiment proved that PLA-O-CMC NPs is a favourable carrier of HGF. PLA-O-CMC NPs loaded with HGF could rapidly release HGF in vitro. The released HGF reached the effective drug concentration and maintained the certain effective drug concentration for a long time.

  3. Preparation of curcumin-loaded PCL-PEG-PCL triblock copolymeric nanoparticles by a microchannel technology.

    PubMed

    Guo, Fangyuan; Guo, Dingjia; Zhang, Wei; Yan, Qinying; Yang, Yan; Hong, Weiyong; Yang, Gensheng

    2017-03-01

    Biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) have potential therapeutic applications; however, preparing NPs of a specific diameter and uniform size distribution is a challenge. In this work, we fabricated a microchannel system for the preparation of curcumin (Cur)-loaded NPs by the interfacial precipitation method, which rapidly and consistently generated stable NPs with a relatively smaller diameter, narrow size distribution, and higher drug-loading capacity and entrapment efficiency. Poly(ε-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly (ε-caprolactone) triblock copolymers(PCEC) used as the carrier material was synthesized and characterized. Cur-loaded PCEC NPs had an average size of 167.2nm with a zeta potential of -29.23mV, and showed a loading capacity and drug entrapment efficiency of 15.28%±0.23% and 96.11%±0.13%, respectively. Meanwhile, the NPs demonstrated good biocompatibility and bioavailability, efficient cellular uptake, and long circulation time and a possible liver targeting effect in vivo. These results indicate that the Cur-loaded PCEC NPs can be used as drug carriers in controlled delivery systems and other biomedical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Utilizing the protein corona around silica nanoparticles for dual drug loading and release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahabi, Shakiba; Treccani, Laura; Dringen, Ralf; Rezwan, Kurosch

    2015-10-01

    A protein corona forms spontaneously around silica nanoparticles (SNPs) in serum-containing media. To test whether this protein corona can be utilized for the loading and release of anticancer drugs we incorporated the hydrophilic doxorubicin, the hydrophobic meloxicam as well as their combination in the corona around SNPs. The application of corona-covered SNPs to osteosarcoma cells revealed that drug-free particles did not affect the cell viability. In contrast, SNPs carrying a protein corona with doxorubicin or meloxicam lowered the cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, these particles had an even greater antiproliferative potential than the respective concentrations of free drugs. The best antiproliferative effects were observed for SNPs containing both doxorubicin and meloxicam in their corona. Co-localization studies revealed the presence of doxorubicin fluorescence in the nucleus and lysosomes of cells exposed to doxorubicin-containing coated SNPs, suggesting that endocytotic uptake of the SNPs facilitates the cellular accumulation of the drug. Our data demonstrate that the protein corona, which spontaneously forms around nanoparticles, can be efficiently exploited for loading the particles with multiple drugs for therapeutic purposes. As drugs are efficiently released from such particles they may have a great potential for nanomedical applications.A protein corona forms spontaneously around silica nanoparticles (SNPs) in serum-containing media. To test whether this protein corona can be utilized for the loading and release of anticancer drugs we incorporated the hydrophilic doxorubicin, the hydrophobic meloxicam as well as their combination in the corona around SNPs. The application of corona-covered SNPs to osteosarcoma cells revealed that drug-free particles did not affect the cell viability. In contrast, SNPs carrying a protein corona with doxorubicin or meloxicam lowered the cell proliferation in a concentration

  5. Lycopene loaded gelatin nanoparticles induces internucleosmal DNA fragmentation and apoptosis in human breast adenocarcinoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preetha, K. Mary Anne; Devasena, T.

    2018-06-01

    The complex disease, cancer is caused by genetic uncertainty and various molecular alterations. Due to the present ineffective diagnostic and prognostic classifications, the complete heterogeneity of a tumor is not revealed which in turn affects the selection of suitable treatment and patient outcome. Cancer nanotechnology is an emerging interdisciplinary research field that covers important aspects of chemistry, engineering, biology and medicine, leading to the advancement of cancer diagnosis and treatment. Hence the main aim of this study is to develop lycopene loaded gelatin nanoparticles and evaluate its in vitro anticancer activity using breast adenocarcinoma cells.

  6. Formulation of carbapenems loaded gold nanoparticles to combat multi-antibiotic bacterial resistance: In vitro antibacterial study.

    PubMed

    Shaker, Mohamed A; Shaaban, Mona I

    2017-06-15

    Despite the fact that carbapenems (powerful β-lactams antibiotics) were able to fight serious infectious diseases, nowadays the spread of carbapenems-resistant bacteria is considered the main challenge in antibacterial therapy. In this study, we focused on evaluating the surface conjugation of carbapenems (imipenem and meropenem) with gold nanoparticles as a delivering strategy to specifically and safely maximize their therapeutic efficacy while destroying the developing resistance of the pathogens. Different particle size formulae (35, 70 and 200nm) were prepared by citrate reduction method. The prepared nanoparticles were functionalized with imipenem (Ipm) or meropenem (Mem) and physico-chemically characterized for loading efficiency, particle size, morphology, and in-vitro release. The antibacterial efficacy was also evaluated against carbapenems resistant Gram-negative bacteria isolated from infected human, through measuring the minimum inhibitory concentration and antibiotic kill test. All the obtained gold nanoparticles showed a distinct nano-size with loading efficiency up to 72% and 74% for Ipm and Mem, respectively. The conjugation and physico-chemical stability of the formulated carbapenems were confirmed by FTIR and X-RPD. Diffusion driven release behavior was observed for both Ipm and Mem from all of the loaded gold nanoparticles. For both Ipm and Mem, formula with 35nm diameter showed the most significant enhancement in antibacterial activity against all the selected isolates including Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis and Acinteobacter baumanii. Ipm loaded Gold nanoparticles demonstrated decrease in the MIC of Ipm down to four folds, whereas, Mem loaded gold nanoparticles showed decrease in the MIC of Mem down to three folds on the tested bacterial isolates. Based on these results, the formulation of carbapenems-loaded gold nanoparticles demonstrated to be a promising nano-size delivery vehicle for improving the therapeutic activity and

  7. Densely-packed graphene/conducting polymer nanoparticle papers for high-volumetric-performance flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chao; Zhang, Liling; Hu, Nantao; Yang, Zhi; Wei, Hao; Xu, Zhichuan J.; Wang, Yanyan; Zhang, Yafei

    2016-08-01

    Graphene-based all-solid-state supercapacitors (ASSSCs) are one of the most ideal candidates for high-performance flexible power sources. The achievement of high volumetric energy density is highly desired for practical application of this type of ASSSCs. Here, we present a facile method to boost volumetric performances of graphene-based flexible ASSSCs through incorporation of ultrafine polyaniline-poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PANI-PSS) nanoparticles in reduced graphene oxide (rGO) papers. A compact structure is obtained via intimate contact and π-π interaction between PANI-PSS nanoparticles and rGO sheets. The hybrid paper electrode with the film thickness of 13.5 μm, shows an extremely high volumetric specific capacitance of 272 F/cm3 (0.37 A/cm3 in a three-electrode cell). The assembled ASSSCs show a large volumetric specific capacitance of 217 F/cm3 (0.37 A/cm3 in a two-electrode cell), high volumetric energy and power density, excellent capacitance stability, small leakage current as well as low self-discharge characteristics, revealing the usefulness of this robust hybrid paper for high-performance flexible energy storage devices.

  8. Safety profile of solid lipid nanoparticles loaded with rosmarinic acid for oral use: in vitro and animal approaches.

    PubMed

    Madureira, Ana Raquel; Nunes, Sara; Campos, Débora A; Fernandes, João C; Marques, Cláudia; Zuzarte, Monica; Gullón, Beatriz; Rodríguez-Alcalá, Luís M; Calhau, Conceição; Sarmento, Bruno; Gomes, Ana Maria; Pintado, Maria Manuela; Reis, Flávio

    2016-01-01

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) possesses several protective bioactivities that have attracted increasing interest by nutraceutical/pharmaceutical industries. Considering the reduced bioavailability after oral use, effective (and safe) delivery systems are crucial to protect RA from gastrointestinal degradation. This study aims to characterize the safety profile of solid lipid nanoparticles produced with Witepsol and Carnauba waxes and loaded with RA, using in vitro and in vivo approaches, focused on genotoxicity and cytotoxicity assays, redox status markers, hematological and biochemical profile, liver and kidney function, gut bacterial microbiota, and fecal fatty acids composition. Free RA and sage extract, empty nanoparticles, or nanoparticles loaded with RA or sage extract (0.15 and 1.5 mg/mL) were evaluated for cell (lymphocytes) viability, necrosis and apoptosis, and antioxidant/prooxidant effects upon DNA. Wistar rats were orally treated for 14 days with vehicle (control) and with Witepsol or Carnauba nanoparticles loaded with RA at 1 and 10 mg/kg body weight/d. Blood, urine, feces, and several tissues were collected for analysis. Free and loaded RA, at 0.15 mg/mL, presented a safe profile, while genotoxic potential was found for the higher dose (1.5 mg/mL), mainly by necrosis. Our data suggest that both types of nanoparticles are safe when loaded with moderate concentrations of RA, without in vitro genotoxicity and cytotoxicity and with an in vivo safety profile in rats orally treated, thus opening new avenues for use in nutraceutical applications.

  9. Safety profile of solid lipid nanoparticles loaded with rosmarinic acid for oral use: in vitro and animal approaches

    PubMed Central

    Madureira, Ana Raquel; Nunes, Sara; Campos, Débora A; Fernandes, João C; Marques, Cláudia; Zuzarte, Monica; Gullón, Beatriz; Rodríguez-Alcalá, Luís M; Calhau, Conceição; Sarmento, Bruno; Gomes, Ana Maria; Pintado, Maria Manuela; Reis, Flávio

    2016-01-01

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) possesses several protective bioactivities that have attracted increasing interest by nutraceutical/pharmaceutical industries. Considering the reduced bioavailability after oral use, effective (and safe) delivery systems are crucial to protect RA from gastrointestinal degradation. This study aims to characterize the safety profile of solid lipid nanoparticles produced with Witepsol and Carnauba waxes and loaded with RA, using in vitro and in vivo approaches, focused on genotoxicity and cytotoxicity assays, redox status markers, hematological and biochemical profile, liver and kidney function, gut bacterial microbiota, and fecal fatty acids composition. Free RA and sage extract, empty nanoparticles, or nanoparticles loaded with RA or sage extract (0.15 and 1.5 mg/mL) were evaluated for cell (lymphocytes) viability, necrosis and apoptosis, and antioxidant/prooxidant effects upon DNA. Wistar rats were orally treated for 14 days with vehicle (control) and with Witepsol or Carnauba nanoparticles loaded with RA at 1 and 10 mg/kg body weight/d. Blood, urine, feces, and several tissues were collected for analysis. Free and loaded RA, at 0.15 mg/mL, presented a safe profile, while genotoxic potential was found for the higher dose (1.5 mg/mL), mainly by necrosis. Our data suggest that both types of nanoparticles are safe when loaded with moderate concentrations of RA, without in vitro genotoxicity and cytotoxicity and with an in vivo safety profile in rats orally treated, thus opening new avenues for use in nutraceutical applications. PMID:27536103

  10. A sustained release formulation of chitosan modified PLCL:poloxamer blend nanoparticles loaded with optical agent for animal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjan, Amalendu P.; Zeglam, Karim; Mukerjee, Anindita; Thamake, Sanjay; Vishwanatha, Jamboor K.

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this study was to develop optical imaging agent loaded biodegradable nanoparticles with indocynanine green (ICG) using chitosan modified poly(L-lactide-co-epsilon-caprolactone) (PLCL):poloxamer (Pluronic F68) blended polymer. Nanoparticles were formulated with an emulsification solvent diffusion technique using PLCL and poloxamer as blend-polymers. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and chitosan were used as stabilizers. The particle size, shape and zeta potential of the formulated nanoparticles and the release kinetics of ICG from these nanoparticles were determined. Further, biodistribution of these nanoparticles was studied in mice at various time points until 24 h following intravenous administration, using a non-invasive imaging system. The average particle size of the nanoparticles was found to be 146 ± 3.7 to 260 ± 4.5 nm. The zeta potential progressively increased from - 41.6 to + 25.3 mV with increasing amounts of chitosan. Particle size and shape of the nanoparticles were studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) which revealed the particles to be smooth and spherical in shape. These nanoparticles were efficiently delivered to the cytoplasm of the cells, as observed in prostate and breast cancer cells using confocal laser scanning microscopy. In vitro release studies indicated sustained release of ICG from the nanoparticles over a period of seven days. Nanoparticle distribution results in mice showing improved uptake and accumulation with chitosan modified nanoparticles in various organs and slower clearance at different time points over a 24 h period as compared to unmodified nanoparticles. The successful formulation of such cationically modified nanoparticles for encapsulating optical agents may lead to a potential deep tissue imaging technique for tumor detection, diagnosis and therapy.

  11. Novel Simvastatin-Loaded Nanoparticles Based on Cholic Acid-Core Star-Shaped PLGA for Breast Cancer Treatment.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanping; Wang, Zhongyuan; Liu, Gan; Zeng, Xiaowei; Wang, Xusheng; Gao, Yongfeng; Jiang, Lijuan; Shi, Xiaojun; Tao, Wei; Huang, Laiqiang; Mei, Lin

    2015-07-01

    A novel nanocarrier system of cholic acid (CA) core, star-shaped polymer consisting of poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) was developed for sustained and controlled delivery of simvastatin for chemotherapy of breast adenocarcinoma. The star-shaped polymer CA-PLGA with three branch arms was synthesized successfully through the core-first approach. The simvastatin-loaded star-shaped CA-PLGA nanoparticles were prepared through a modified nanoprecipitation method. The data showed that the fluorescence star-shaped CA-PLGA nanoparticles could be internalized into MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 human breast cancer cells. The simvastatin-loaded star-shaped CA-PLGA nanoparticles achieved significantly higher level of cytotoxicity than pristine simvastatin and simvastatin-loaded linear PLGA nanoparticles. Moreover, the expression of the cell cycle protein cyclin D1 was dramatically inhibited by simvastatin in both cells, with simvastatin-loaded star-shaped CA-PLGA nanoparticles having the greatest effect. MDA-MB-231 xenograft tumor model on BALB/c nude mice showed that simvastatin-loaded star-shaped CA-PLGA nanoformulations could effectively inhibit the growth of tumor over a longer period of time than pristine simvastatin and simvastatin-loaded linear PLGA nanoformulations at the same dose. In agreement with these, the nuclear expression of proliferation marker Ki-67 in simvastatin-loaded star-shaped CA-PLGA nanoparticles group was reduced to a most extent among four groups through tumor frozen section immunohistochemistry. In conclusion, the star-shaped CA-PLGA polymers could serve as a novel polymeric nanocarrier for breast cancer chemotherapy.

  12. Development of CMC hydrogels loaded with silver nano-particles for medical applications.

    PubMed

    Hebeish, Ali; Hashem, M; El-Hady, M M Abd; Sharaf, S

    2013-01-30

    Innovative CMC-based hydrogels with great potentials for usage in medical area were principally synthesized as per two strategies .The first involved reaction of epichlorohydrin in alkaline medium containing silver nitrate to yield silver nano-particles (AgNPs)-loaded CMC hydrogel. While CMC acted as stabilizing for AgNPs, trisodium citrate was added to the reaction medium to assist CMC in establishing reduction of Ag(+) to AgNPs. The second strategy entailed preparation of CMC hydrogel which assists the in situ preparation of AgNPs under the same conditions. In both strategies, factors affecting the characterization of AgNPs-loaded CMC hydrogels were studied. Analysis and characterization of the so obtained hydrogels were performed through monitoring swelling behavior, FTIR spectroscopy, SEM, EDX, UV-vis spectrophotometer and TEM. Antimicrobial activity of the hydrogels was examined and mechanisms involved in their synthesis were reported. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Intracellular delivery of etoposide loaded biodegradable nanoparticles: cytotoxicity and cellular uptake studies.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Khushwant S; Jacob, Sheeba; Sachdeva, Geetanjali; Sawant, Krutika K

    2011-08-01

    The preferred delivery systems for anticancer drugs would be the one which would have selective and effective destruction of cancer cells. In the present study etoposide (ETO) loaded nanoparticles (NP) were prepared using PLGA (ETO-PLGA NP), PLGA-MPEG block copolymer (ETO-PLGA-MPEG NP) and PLGA-Pluronic copolymer (ETO-PLGA-PLU NP) and they were evaluated for cytotoxicity and cellular uptake studies using two cancer cell lines, L1210 and DU145. The IC50 values for L1210 cells were 18.0, 6.2, 4.8 and 5.4 microM and for DU145 cells the IC50 values were 98.4, 75.1, 60.1 and 71.3 microM for ETO, ETO-PLGA NP, ETO-PLGA-MPEG NP and ETO-PLGA-PLU NP respectively. The increased cytotoxicities were attributed to increased uptake of the NPs by the cells. Moreover the ETO loaded PLGA-MPEG NP and PLGA-Pluronic NP showed a sustained cytotoxic effect till 5 days on both the cell lines. Results of the long term cytotoxicity study concluded that the drug loaded PLGA nanoparticulate formulations were efficient in decreasing the viability of the L1210 cells over a period of three days, whereas the pure drug exerted its maximum efficiency on the day one itself. Z-stack confocal images of NPs showed fluorescence activity in each section of DU 145 and L1210 cells indicating that the nanoparticles were internalized by the cells. The study concluded that ETO loaded PLGA NPs had higher cytotoxicity compared with that of the free drug and ETO-PLGA-MPEG NP and ETO-PLGA-PLU NP had higher cell uptake efficiency compared with that of ETO-PLGA NP. The developed PLGA based NPs shows promise to be used for cancer therapy.

  14. Polydopamine and peptide decorated doxorubicin-loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticles as a targeted drug delivery system for bladder cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yi; Gao, Li; Wang, Lu; Shi, Lin; Wei, Erdong; Zhou, Baotong; Zhou, Li; Ge, Bo

    2017-11-01

    We reported a simple polydopamine (PDA)-based surface modification method to prepare novel targeted doxorubicin-loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticles and peptide CSNRDARRC conjugation (DOX-loaded MSNs@PDA-PEP) for enhancing the therapeutic effects on bladder cancer. Drug-loaded NPs were characterized in terms of size, size distribution, zeta potential, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and drug loading content. In vitro drug release indicated that DOX-loaded MSNs@PDA and MSNs@PDA-PEP had similar release kinetic profiles of DOX. The PDA coating well controlled DOX release and was highly sensitive to pH value. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) showed that drug-loaded MSNs could be internalized by human bladder cancer cell line HT-1376, and DOX-loaded MSNs@PDA-PEP had the highest cellular uptake efficiency due to ligand-receptor recognition. The antitumor effects of DOX-loaded nanoparticles were evaluated by the MTT assay in vitro and by a xenograft tumor model in vivo, demonstrating that targeted nanocarriers DOX-loaded MSNs@PDA-PEP were significantly superior to free DOX and DOX-loaded MSNs@PDA. The novel DOX-loaded MSNs@PDA-PEP, which specifically recognized HT-1376 cells, can be used as a potential targeted drug delivery system for bladder cancer therapy.

  15. Recombinant IκBα-loaded curcumin nanoparticles for improved cancer therapeutics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Subhamoy; Sahoo, Amaresh Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Arun; Sankar Ghosh, Siddhartha

    2014-08-01

    The field of recombinant protein therapeutics has been evolving rapidly, making significant impact on clinical applications for several diseases, including cancer. However, the functional aspects of proteins rely exclusively on their structural integrity, in which nanoparticle mediated delivery offers unique advantages over free proteins. In the present work, a novel strategy has been developed where the nanoparticles (NPs) used for the delivery of the recombinant protein could contribute to enhancing the therapeutic efficacy of the recombinant protein. The transcription factor, NFκB, involved in cell growth and its inhibitor, IκBα, regulates its proliferation. Another similar naturally available molecule, which inhibits the function of NFκB, is curcumin. Hence, we have developed a ‘green synthesis’ method for preparing water-soluble curcumin nanoparticles to stabilize recombinant IκBα protein. The NPs were characterized by UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering before administration into human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) and glioblastoma (U87MG) cells. Experimental results demonstrated that this combined module had enhanced therapeutic efficacy, causing apoptotic cell death, which was confirmed by cytotoxicity assay and flowcytometry analyses. The expression of apoptotic genes studied by semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR delineated the molecular pathways involved in cell death. Thus, our study revealed that the functional delivery of recombinant IκBα-loaded curcumin NPs has promise as a natural-product-based protein therapeutics against cancer cells.

  16. Preparation and characterization of ketoprofen-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles made from beeswax and carnauba wax.

    PubMed

    Kheradmandnia, Soheila; Vasheghani-Farahani, Ebrahim; Nosrati, Mohsen; Atyabi, Fatemeh

    2010-12-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) have been proposed as suitable colloidal carriers for delivery of drugs with limited solubility. Ketoprofen as a model drug was incorporated into SLNs prepared from a mixture of beeswax and carnauba wax using Tween 80 and egg lecithin as emulsifiers. The characteristics of the SLNs with various lipid and surfactant composition were investigated. The mean particle size of drug-loaded SLNs decreased upon mixing with Tween 80 and egg lecithin as well as upon increasing total surfactant concentration. SLNs of 75 ± 4 nm with a polydispersity index of 0.2 ± 0.02 were obtained using 1% (vol/vol) mixed surfactant at a ratio of 60:40 Tween 80 to egg lecithin. The zeta potential of these SLNs varied in the range of -15 to -17 (mV), suggesting the presence of similar interface properties. High drug entrapment efficiency of 97% revealed the ability of SLNs to incorporate a poorly water-soluble drug such as ketoprofen. Differential scanning calorimetry thermograms and high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis indicated the stability of nanoparticles with negligible drug leakage after 45 days of storage. It was also found that nanoparticles with more beeswax content in their core exhibited faster drug release as compared with those containing more carnauba wax in their structure. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Tangeretin-loaded protein nanoparticles fabricated from zein/β-lactoglobulin: preparation, characterization, and functional performance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jingjing; Zheng, Jinkai; McClements, David Julian; Xiao, Hang

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to design a colloidal delivery system to encapsulate poor water-soluble bioactive flavonoid tangeretin so that it could be utilized in various food products as functional ingredient. Tangeretin-loaded protein nanoparticles were produced by mixing an organic phase containing zein and tangeretin with an aqueous phase containing β-lactoglobulin and then converted into powder by freeze-drying. This powder formed a colloidal suspension when dispersed in water that is relatively stable to particle aggregation and sedimentation. The influence of temperature, ionic strength, and pH on the stability of the protein nanoparticles was tested. Extensive particle aggregation occurred at high ionic strength (>100mM) and intermediate pH (4.5-5.5) due to reduced electrostatic repulsion. Extensive aggregation also occurred at temperatures exceeding 60 °C, which was presumably due to increased hydrophobic attraction. Overall, this study shows that protein-based nanoparticles can be used to encapsulate bioactive tangeretin so that it can be readily dispersed in compatible food products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Antibacterial performance on plasma polymerized heptylamine films loaded with silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yu-Chun; Lin, Chia-Chun; Lin, Chih-Hao; Wang, Meng-Jiy

    2017-01-01

    The antibacterial performance of the plasma-polymerized (pp) heptylamine thin films loaded with silver nanoparticles was evaluated against the colonization of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The properties including the thickness and chemical composition of the as deposited HApp films were modulated by adjusting plasma parameters. The acquired results showed that the film thickness was controlled in the range of 20 to 400 nm by adjusting deposition time. The subsequent immersion of the HApp thin films in silver nitrate solutions result in the formation of amine-metal complexes, in which the silver nanoparticles were reduced directly on the matrices to form Ag@HApp. The reduction reaction of silver was facilitated by applying NaBH4 as a reducing agent. The results of physicochemical analyses including morphological analysis and ellipsometry revealed that the silver nanoparticles were successfully reduced on the HApp films, and the amount of reduced silver was closely associated which the thickness of the plasma-polymerized films, the concentration of applied metal ions solutions, and the time of immobilization. Regarding the antibacterial performance, the Ag@HApp films reduced by NaBH4 showed antibacterial abilities of 70.1 and 68.2% against E. coli and S. aureus, respectively.

  19. Application of Box-Behnken design to prepare gentamicin-loaded calcium carbonate nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Maleki Dizaj, Solmaz; Lotfipour, Farzaneh; Barzegar-Jalali, Mohammad; Zarrintan, Mohammad-Hossein; Adibkia, Khosro

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this research was to prepare and optimize calcium carbonate (CaCO3) nanoparticles as carriers for gentamicin sulfate. A chemical precipitation method was used to prepare the gentamicin sulfate-loaded CaCO3 nanoparticles. A 3-factor, 3-level Box-Behnken design was used for the optimization procedure, with the molar ratio of CaCl2: Na2CO3 (X1), the concentration of drug (X2), and the speed of homogenization (X3) as the independent variables. The particle size and entrapment efficiency were considered as response variables. Mathematical equations and response surface plots were used, along with the counter plots, to relate the dependent and independent variables. The results indicated that the speed of homogenization was the main variable contributing to particle size and entrapment efficiency. The combined effect of all three independent variables was also evaluated. Using the response optimization design, the optimized Xl-X3 levels were predicted. An optimized formulation was then prepared according to these levels, resulting in a particle size of 80.23 nm and an entrapment efficiency of 30.80%. It was concluded that the chemical precipitation technique, together with the Box-Behnken experimental design methodology, could be successfully used to optimize the formulation of drug-incorporated calcium carbonate nanoparticles.

  20. Recombinant IκBα-loaded curcumin nanoparticles for improved cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Subhamoy; Sahoo, Amaresh Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Arun; Ghosh, Siddhartha Sankar

    2014-08-29

    The field of recombinant protein therapeutics has been evolving rapidly, making significant impact on clinical applications for several diseases, including cancer. However, the functional aspects of proteins rely exclusively on their structural integrity, in which nanoparticle mediated delivery offers unique advantages over free proteins. In the present work, a novel strategy has been developed where the nanoparticles (NPs) used for the delivery of the recombinant protein could contribute to enhancing the therapeutic efficacy of the recombinant protein. The transcription factor, NFκB, involved in cell growth and its inhibitor, IκBα, regulates its proliferation. Another similar naturally available molecule, which inhibits the function of NFκB, is curcumin. Hence, we have developed a 'green synthesis' method for preparing water-soluble curcumin nanoparticles to stabilize recombinant IκBα protein. The NPs were characterized by UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering before administration into human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) and glioblastoma (U87MG) cells. Experimental results demonstrated that this combined module had enhanced therapeutic efficacy, causing apoptotic cell death, which was confirmed by cytotoxicity assay and flowcytometry analyses. The expression of apoptotic genes studied by semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR delineated the molecular pathways involved in cell death. Thus, our study revealed that the functional delivery of recombinant IκBα-loaded curcumin NPs has promise as a natural-product-based protein therapeutics against cancer cells.

  1. Ultraselective Toluene-Gas Sensor: Nanosized Gold Loaded on Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Suematsu, Koichi; Watanabe, Kosuke; Tou, Akihiro; Sun, Yongjiao; Shimanoe, Kengo

    2018-02-06

    Selectivity is an important parameter of resistive-type gas sensors that use metal oxides. In this study, a highly selective toluene sensor is prepared using highly dispersed gold-nanoparticle-loaded zinc oxide nanoparticles (Au-ZnO NPs). Au-ZnO NPs are synthesized by coprecipitation and calcination at 400 °C with Au loadings of 0.15, 0.5, and 1.5 mol %. The Au NPs on ZnO are about 2-4 nm in size, and exist in a metallic state. Porous gas-sensing layers are fabricated by screen printing. The responses of the sensor to 200 ppm hydrogen, 200 ppm carbon monoxide, 100 ppm ethanol, 100 ppm acetaldehyde, 100 ppm acetone, and 100 ppm toluene are evaluated at 377 °C in a dry atmosphere. The sensor response of 0.15 mol % Au-ZnO NPs to toluene is about 92, whereas its sensor responses to other combustible gases are less than 7. Such selective toluene detection is probably caused by the utilization efficiency of the gas-sensing layer. Gas diffusivity into the sensing layer of Au-ZnO NPs is lowered by the catalytic oxidation of combustible gases during their diffusion through the layer. The present approach is an effective way to improve the selectivity of resistive-type gas sensors.

  2. Adjuvant-Loaded Spiky Gold Nanoparticles for Activation of Innate Immune Cells.

    PubMed

    Nam, Jutaek; Son, Sejin; Moon, James J

    2017-10-01

    Gold nanoparticles are versatile carriers for delivery of biomacromolecules. Here, we have developed spiky gold nanoparticles (SGNPs) that can efficiently deliver immunostimulatory agents. Our goal was to develop a platform technology for co-delivery of multiple adjuvant molecules for synergistic stimulation and maturation of innate immune cells. SGNPs were synthesized by a seed-mediated, surfactant-free synthesis method and incorporated with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (pIC) and DNA oligonucleotide containing unmethylated CpG motif (CpG) by an electrostatic layer-by-layer approach. Adjuvant-loaded SGNP nano-complexes were examined for their biophysical and biochemical properties and studied for immune activation using bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs). We have synthesized SGNPs with branched nano-spikes layered with pIC and/or CpG. Adjuvant-loaded SGNP nano-complexes promoted cellular uptake of the adjuvants. Importantly, we achieved spatio-temporal control over co-delivery of pIC and CpG via SGNPs, which produced synergistic enhancement in cytokine release (IL-6, TNF-α) and upregulation of co-stimulatory markers (CD40, CD80, CD86) in BMDCs, compared with pIC, CpG, or their admixtures. SGNPs serve as a versatile delivery platform that allows flexible and on-demand cargo fabrication for strong activation of innate immune cells.

  3. Facile preparation of paclitaxel loaded silk fibroin nanoparticles for enhanced antitumor efficacy by locoregional drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Wu, Puyuan; Liu, Qin; Li, Rutian; Wang, Jing; Zhen, Xu; Yue, Guofeng; Wang, Huiyu; Cui, Fangbo; Wu, Fenglei; Yang, Mi; Qian, Xiaoping; Yu, Lixia; Jiang, Xiqun; Liu, Baorui

    2013-12-11

    Non-toxic, safe materials and preparation methods are among the most important factors when designing nanoparticles (NPs) for future clinical application. Here we report a novel and facile method encapsulating anticancer drug paclitaxel (PTX) into silk fibroin (SF), a biocompatible and biodegradable natural polymer, without adding any toxic organic solvents, surfactants or other toxic agents. The paclitaxel loaded silk fibroin nanoparticles (PTX-SF-NPs) with a diameter of 130 nm were formed in an aqueous solution at room temperature by self-assembling of SF protein, which demonstrated mainly silk I conformation in the NPs. In cellular uptake experiments, coumarin-6 loaded SF NPs were taken up efficiently by two human gastric cancer cell lines BGC-823 and SGC-7901. In vitro cytotoxicity studies demonstrated that PTX kept its pharmacological activity when incorporating into PTX-SF-NPs, while SF showed no cytotoxicity to cells. The in vivo antitumor effects of PTX-SF-NPs were evaluated on gastric cancer nude mice exnograft model. We found that locoregional delivery of PTX-SF-NPs demonstrated superior antitumor efficacy by delaying tumor growth and reducing tumor weights compared with systemic administration. Furthermore, the organs of mice in NP treated groups didn't show obvious toxicity, indicating the in vivo safety of SF NPs. These results suggest that SF NPs are promising drug delivery carriers, and locoregional delivery of SF NPs could be a potential future clinical cancer treatment regimen.

  4. Photosensitizer-Loaded Branched Polyethylenimine-PEGylated Ceria Nanoparticles for Imaging-Guided Synchronous Photochemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhang-You; Li, Hong; Zeng, Yi-Ping; Hao, Yu-Hui; Liu, Cong; Liu, Jing; Wang, Wei-Dong; Li, Rong

    2015-11-04

    A multifunctional theranostic platform based on photosensitizer (chlorin e6, Ce6)-loaded branched polyethylenimine-PEGylated ceria nanoparticles (PPCNPs-Ce6) was created for the development of effective cancer treatments involving the use of imaging-guided synchronous photochemotherapy. PPCNPs-Ce6 with high Ce6 photosensitizer loading (Ce6: cerium ∼40 wt %) significantly enhanced the delivery of Ce6 into cells and its accumulation in lysosomes, remarkably improving photodynamic therapeutic (PDT) efficacy levels compared to those in the administration of free Ce6 at ultralow drug doses (∼200 nM). Interestingly, PPCNPs-Ce6 efficiently induced HeLa cell death even at low concentrations (∼10 μM) without the use of laser irradiation and exhibit chemocytotoxicity. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and biology transmission electron microscopy (Bio-TEM) analyses demonstrated that ceria nanoparticles enter cells abundantly and accumulate in lysosomes or large vesicles. We then evaluated the effects of the different materials on lysosomal integrity and function, which revealed that PPCNPs-Ce6 catastrophically impaired lysosomal function compared to results with PPCNPs and Ce6. Studies of apoptosis revealed greater induction of apoptosis by PPCNPs-Ce6 treatment. This multifunctional nanocarrier also exhibited a high degree of solubility and stability in aqueous solutions, suggesting its applicability for extensive biomedical application.

  5. Auranofin-loaded nanoparticles as a new therapeutic tool to fight streptococcal infections.

    PubMed

    Díez-Martínez, Roberto; García-Fernández, Esther; Manzano, Miguel; Martínez, Ángel; Domenech, Mirian; Vallet-Regí, María; García, Pedro

    2016-01-18

    Drug-loaded nanoparticles (NPs) can improve infection treatment by ensuring drug concentration at the right place within the therapeutic window. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) NPs are able to enhance drug localization in target site and to sustainably release the entrapped molecule, reducing the secondary effects caused by systemic antibiotic administration. We have loaded auranofin, a gold compound traditionally used for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, into PLGA NPs and their efficiency as antibacterial agent against two Gram-positive pathogens, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes was evaluated. Auranofin-PLGA NPs showed a strong bactericidal effect as cultures of multiresistant pneumococcal strains were practically sterilized after 6 h of treatment with such auranofin-NPs at 0.25 μM. Moreover, this potent bactericidal effect was also observed in S. pneumoniae and S. pyogenes biofilms, where the same concentration of auranofin-NPs was capable of decreasing the bacterial population about 4 logs more than free auranofin. These results were validated using a zebrafish embryo model demonstrating that treatment with auranofin loaded into NPs achieved a noticeable survival against pneumococcal infections. All these approaches displayed a clear superiority of loaded auranofin PLGA nanocarriers compared to free administration of the drug, which supports their potential application for the treatment of streptococcal infections.

  6. Antibacterial Activity of Silver Nanoparticle-Loaded Soft Contact Lens Materials: The Effect of Monomer Composition.

    PubMed

    Shayani Rad, Maryam; Khameneh, Bahman; Sabeti, Zahra; Mohajeri, Seyed Ahmad; Fazly Bazzaz, Bibi Sedigheh

    2016-10-01

    In the present work, the effect of monomer composition on silver nanoparticles' (SNPs) binding capacity of hydrogels was investigated and their antibacterial efficacy was evaluated. Three series of poly-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) hydrogels were prepared using methacrylic acid (MAA), methacrylamide (MAAM), and 4-vinylpyridine (4VP) as co-monomers, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as cross-linker. SNPs binding capacity of hydrogels was evaluated in different concentrations (2, 10, and 20 ppm). In vitro antibacterial activity of SNP-loaded hydrogels was studied against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) isolated from patients' eyes. Then, inhibitory effect of hydrogels in biofilm formation was evaluated in the presence of Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) (DSMZ 3270). Our data indicated that poly(HEMA-co-MAA-co-EGDMA) had superior binding affinity for SNPs in comparison with other hydrogels. All SNP-loaded hydrogels demonstrated excellent antimicrobial effects at all times against P. aeruginosa and S. epidermidis after soaking in 10 and 20 ppm SNP suspensions. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images revealed excellent inhibitory effect of SNPs against biofilm formation on the surface of the hydrogels. This study indicated the effect of monomer compositions in SNP loading capacity of poly(HEMA) hydrogels and antibacterial efficacy of SNP-loaded hydrogels against P. aeruginosa and S. epidermidis, but further in vivo evaluation is necessary.

  7. Transient loading of CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells with polystyrene nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Deville, Sarah; Hadiwikarta, Wahyu Wijaya; Smisdom, Nick; Wathiong, Bart; Ameloot, Marcel; Nelissen, Inge; Hooyberghs, Jef

    2017-01-01

    CD34 + hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) offer great opportunities to develop new treatments for numerous malignant and non-malignant diseases. Nanoparticle (NP)-based strategies can further enhance this potential, and therefore a thorough understanding of the loading behavior of HPCs towards NPs is essential for a successful application. The present study focusses on the interaction kinetics of 40 nm sized carboxylated polystyrene (PS) NPs with HPCs. Interestingly, a transient association of the NPs with HPCs is observed, reaching a maximum within 1 hour and declining afterwards. This behavior is not seen in dendritic cells (CD34-DCs) differentiated from HPCs, which display a monotonic increase in NP load. We demonstrate that this transient interaction requires an energy-dependent cellular process, suggesting active loading and release of NPs by HPCs. This novel observation offers a unique approach to transiently equip HPCs. A simple theoretical approach modeling the kinetics of NP loading and release is presented, contributing to a framework of describing this phenomenon.

  8. Rosemary Essential Oil-Loaded Lipid Nanoparticles: In Vivo Topical Activity from Gel Vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Montenegro, Lucia; Zappalà, Agata; Parenti, Carmela

    2017-01-01

    Although rosemary essential oil (EO) shows many biological activities, its topical benefits have not been clearly demonstrated. In this work, we assessed the effects on skin hydration and elasticity of rosemary EO after topical application via gel vehicles in human volunteers. To improve its topical efficacy, rosemary EO was loaded into lipid nanoparticles (NLCs) consisting of cetyl palmitate as a solid lipid, and non-ionic surfactants. Such NLCs were prepared using different ratios of EO/solid lipid and those containing EO 3% w/w and cetyl pamitate 7% w/w were selected for in vivo studies, showing the best technological properties (small particle size, low polydispersity index and good stability). Gels containing free EO or EO-loaded NLCs were applied on the hand skin surface of ten healthy volunteers twice a day for one week. Skin hydration and elasticity changes were recorded using the instrument Soft Plus. Gels containing EO-loaded NLCs showed a significant increase in skin hydration in comparison with gels containing free EO. Skin elasticity increased, as well, although to a lesser extent. The results of this study point out the usefulness of rosemary EO-loaded NLCs for the treatment of cutaneous alterations involving loss of skin hydration and elasticity. PMID:29065483

  9. Idebenone-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles for drug delivery to the skin: in vitro evaluation.

    PubMed

    Montenegro, Lucia; Sinico, Chiara; Castangia, Ines; Carbone, Claudia; Puglisi, Giovanni

    2012-09-15

    Idebenone (IDE), a synthetic derivative of ubiquinone, shows a potent antioxidant activity that could be beneficial in the treatment of skin oxidative damages. In this work, the feasibility of targeting IDE into the upper layers of the skin by topical application of IDE-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) was evaluated. SLN loading different amounts of IDE were prepared by the phase inversion temperature method using cetyl palmitate as solid lipid and three different non-ionic surfactants: ceteth-20, isoceteth-20 and oleth-20. All IDE loaded SLN showed a mean particle size in the range of 30-49 nm and a single peak in size distribution. In vitro permeation/penetration experiments were performed on pig skin using Franz-type diffusion cells. IDE penetration into the different skin layers depended on the type of SLN used while no IDE permeation occurred from all the SLN under investigation. The highest IDE content was found in the epidermis when SLN contained ceteth-20 or isoceteth-20 as surfactant while IDE distribution into the upper skin layers depended on the amount of IDE loaded when oleth-20 was used as surfactant. These results suggest that the SLN tested could be an interesting carrier for IDE targeting to the upper skin layers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Magnetically triggered release of molecular cargo from iron oxide nanoparticle loaded microcapsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carregal-Romero, Susana; Guardia, Pablo; Yu, Xiang; Hartmann, Raimo; Pellegrino, Teresa; Parak, Wolfgang J.

    2014-12-01

    Photothermal release of cargo molecules has been extensively studied for bioapplications. For instance, microcapsules decorated with plasmonic nanoparticles have been widely used in in vitro assays. However, some concerns about their suitability for some in vivo applications cannot be easily overcome, in particular the limited penetration depth of light (even infrared). Magnetic nanoparticles are alternative heat-mediators for local heating, which can be triggered by applying an alternating magnetic field (AMF). AMFs are much less absorbed by tissue than light and thus can penetrate deeper overcoming the above mentioned limitations. Here we present iron oxide nanocube-modified microcapsules as a platform for magnetically triggered molecular release. Layer-by-layer assembled polyelectrolyte microcapsules with 4.6 μm diameter, which had 18 nm diameter iron oxide nanocubes integrated in their walls, were synthesized. The microcapsules were further loaded with an organic fluorescent polymer (Cascade Blue-labelled dextran), which was used as a model of molecular cargo. Through an AMF the magnetic nanoparticles were able to heat their surroundings and destroy the microcapsule walls, leading to a final release of the embedded cargo to the surrounding solution. The cargo release was monitored in solution by measuring the increase in both absorbance and fluorescence signal after the exposure to an AMF. Our results demonstrate that magnetothermal release of the encapsulated material is possible using magnetic nanoparticles with a high heating performance.Photothermal release of cargo molecules has been extensively studied for bioapplications. For instance, microcapsules decorated with plasmonic nanoparticles have been widely used in in vitro assays. However, some concerns about their suitability for some in vivo applications cannot be easily overcome, in particular the limited penetration depth of light (even infrared). Magnetic nanoparticles are alternative heat

  11. Silymarin-Loaded Eudragit Nanoparticles: Formulation, Characterization, and Hepatoprotective and Toxicity Evaluation.

    PubMed

    El-Nahas, Amira E; Allam, Ahmed N; Abdelmonsif, Doaa A; El-Kamel, Amal H

    2017-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to formulate, characterize silymarin-loaded Eudragit nanoparticles (SNPs) and evaluate their hepatoprotective and cytotoxic effects after oral administration. SNPs were prepared by nanoprecipitation technique and were evaluated for particle size, entrapment efficiency, TEM, solid-state characterization, and in vitro drug release. The hepatoprotective activity was evaluated after oral administration of selected SNPs in carbon tetrachloride-intoxicated rats. Potential in vivo acute cytotoxicity study was also assessed. The selected SNPs contained 50 mg silymarin and 50 mg Eudragit polymers (1:1 w/w Eudragit RS 100 & Eudragit LS 100). Morphology of the selected SNPs (particle size of 84.70 nm and entrapment efficiency of 83.45% with 100% drug release after 12 h) revealed spherical and uniformly distributed nanoparticles. DSC and FT-IR studies suggested the presence of silymarin in an amorphous state and absence of chemical interaction. The hepatoprotective evaluation of the selected SNPs in CCl 4 -intoxicated rats revealed significant improvement in the activities of different biochemical parameters (P ≤ 0.01) compared to the marketed product. The histopathological studies suggested that the selected SNPs produced better hepatoprotective effect in CCl 4 -intoxicated rats compared with the commercially marketed product. Toxicity study revealed no evident toxic effect for blank or silymarin-loaded nanoparticles at the dose level of 50 mg/kg body weight. The obtained results suggested that the selected SNPs were safe and potentially offered enhancement in the pharmacological hepatoprotective properties of silymarin.

  12. Formulation, characteristics and antiatherogenic bioactivities of CD36-targeted epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)-loaded nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jia; Nie, Shufang; Martinez-Zaguilan, Raul; Sennoune, Souad R; Wang, Shu

    2016-04-01

    Intimal macrophages are determinant cells for atherosclerotic lesion formation by releasing inflammatory factors and taking up oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) via scavenger receptors, primarily the CD36 receptor. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) has a potential to decrease cholesterol accumulation and inflammatory responses in macrophages. We made EGCG-loaded nanoparticles (Enano) using phosphatidylcholine, kolliphor HS15, alpha-tocopherol acetate and EGCG. 1-(Palmitoyl)-2-(5-keto-6-octene-dioyl) phosphatidylcholine (KOdiA-PC), a CD36-targeted ligand found on oxLDL, was incorporated on the surface of Enano to make ligand-Enano (L-Enano). The objectives of this study are to deliver EGCG to macrophages via CD36-targeted L-Enano and to determine its antiatherogenic bioactivities. The optimized nanoparticles obtained in our study were spherical and around 108 nm in diameter, and had about 10% of EGCG loading capacity and 96% of EGCG encapsulation efficiency. Compared to Enano, CD36-targeted L-Enano had significantly higher binding affinity to and uptake by macrophages at the same pattern as oxLDL. CD36-targeted L-Enano dramatically improved EGCG stability, increased macrophage EGCG content, delivered EGCG to macrophage cytosol and avoided lysosomes. L-Enano significantly decreased macrophage mRNA levels and protein secretion of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, but did not significantly change macrophage cholesterol content. The innovative CD36-targeted nanoparticles may facilitate targeted delivery of diagnostic, preventive and therapeutic compounds to intimal macrophages for the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis with enhanced efficacy and decreased side effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. New Method to Prepare Mitomycin C Loaded PLA-Nanoparticles with High Drug Entrapment Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Zhenqing; Wei, Heng; Wang, Qian; Sun, Qian; Zhou, Chunxiao; Zhan, Chuanming; Tang, Xiaolong; Zhang, Qiqing

    2009-07-01

    The classical utilized double emulsion solvent diffusion technique for encapsulating water soluble Mitomycin C (MMC) in PLA nanoparticles suffers from low encapsulation efficiency because of the drug rapid partitioning to the external aqueous phase. In this paper, MMC loaded PLA nanoparticles were prepared by a new single emulsion solvent evaporation method, in which soybean phosphatidylcholine (SPC) was employed to improve the liposolubility of MMC by formation of MMC-SPC complex. Four main influential factors based on the results of a single-factor test, namely, PLA molecular weight, ratio of PLA to SPC (wt/wt) and MMC to SPC (wt/wt), volume ratio of oil phase to water phase, were evaluated using an orthogonal design with respect to drug entrapment efficiency. The drug release study was performed in pH 7.2 PBS at 37 °C with drug analysis using UV/vis spectrometer at 365 nm. MMC-PLA particles prepared by classical method were used as comparison. The formulated MMC-SPC-PLA nanoparticles under optimized condition are found to be relatively uniform in size (594 nm) with up to 94.8% of drug entrapment efficiency compared to 6.44 μm of PLA-MMC microparticles with 34.5% of drug entrapment efficiency. The release of MMC shows biphasic with an initial burst effect, followed by a cumulated drug release over 30 days is 50.17% for PLA-MMC-SPC nanoparticles, and 74.1% for PLA-MMC particles. The IR analysis of MMC-SPC complex shows that their high liposolubility may be attributed to some weak physical interaction between MMC and SPC during the formation of the complex. It is concluded that the new method is advantageous in terms of smaller size, lower size distribution, higher encapsulation yield, and longer sustained drug release in comparison to classical method.

  14. Memantine loaded PLGA PEGylated nanoparticles for Alzheimer's disease: in vitro and in vivo characterization.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-López, Elena; Ettcheto, Miren; Egea, Maria Antonia; Espina, Marta; Cano, Amanda; Calpena, Ana Cristina; Camins, Antoni; Carmona, Nuria; Silva, Amélia M; Souto, Eliana B; García, Maria Luisa

    2018-03-27

    Memantine, drug approved for moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease, has not shown to be fully effective. In order to solve this issue, polylactic-co-glycolic (PLGA) nanoparticles could be a suitable solution to increase drug's action on the target site as well as decrease adverse effects. For these reason, Memantine was loaded in biodegradable PLGA nanoparticles, produced by double emulsion method and surface-coated with polyethylene glycol. MEM-PEG-PLGA nanoparticles (NPs) were aimed to target the blood-brain barrier (BBB) upon oral administration for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. The production parameters were optimized by design of experiments. MEM-PEG-PLGA NPs showed a mean particle size below 200 nm (152.6 ± 0.5 nm), monomodal size distribution (polydispersity index, PI < 0.1) and negative surface charge (- 22.4 mV). Physicochemical characterization of NPs confirmed that the crystalline drug was dispersed inside the PLGA matrix. MEM-PEG-PLGA NPs were found to be non-cytotoxic on brain cell lines (bEnd.3 and astrocytes). Memantine followed a slower release profile from the NPs against the free drug solution, allowing to reduce drug administration frequency in vivo. Nanoparticles were able to cross BBB both in vitro and in vivo. Behavioral tests carried out on transgenic APPswe/PS1dE9 mice demonstrated to enhance the benefit of decreasing memory impairment when using MEM-PEG-PLGA NPs in comparison to the free drug solution. Histological studies confirmed that MEM-PEG-PLGA NPs reduced β-amyloid plaques and the associated inflammation characteristic of Alzheimer's disease. Memantine NPs were suitable for Alzheimer's disease and more effective than the free drug.

  15. Development of Houttuynia cordata Extract-Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles for Oral Delivery: High Drug Loading Efficiency and Controlled Release.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ju-Heon; Baek, Jong-Suep; Park, Jin-Kyu; Lee, Bong-Joo; Kim, Min-Soo; Hwang, Sung-Joo; Lee, Jae-Young; Cho, Cheong-Weon

    2017-12-13

    Houttuynia cordata ( H. cordata ) has been used for diuresis and detoxification in folk medicine as well as a herbal medicine with antiviral and antibacterial activities. H. cordata extract-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (H-SLNs) were prepared with various concentration of poloxamer 188 or poloxamer 407 by a hot homogenization and ultrasonication method. H-SLNs dispersion was freeze-dried with or without trehalose as a cryoprotectant. The physicochemical characteristics of H-SLNs were evaluated by dynamic laser scattering (DLS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Additionally, the in vitro release and in vitro cytotoxicity of H-SLNs were measured. Encapsulation efficiencies of H-SLNs (as quercitrin) were 92.9-95.9%. The SEM images of H-SLNs showed that H-SLNs have a spherical morphology. DSC and FT-IR showed that there were no interactions between ingredients. The increased extent of particle size of freeze-dried H-SLNs with trehalose was significantly lower than that of H-SLNs without trehalose. H-SLNs provided sustained release of quercitrin from H. cordata extracts. Cell viability of Caco-2 cells was over 70% according to the concentration of various formulation. Therefore, it was suggested that SLNs could be good carrier for administering H. cordata extracts.

  16. Ciprofloxacin HCl-loaded calcium carbonate nanoparticles: preparation, solid state characterization, and evaluation of antimicrobial effect against Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Maleki Dizaj, Solmaz; Lotfipour, Farzaneh; Barzegar-Jalali, Mohammad; Zarrintan, Mohammad-Hossein; Adibkia, Khosro

    2017-05-01

    Ciprofloxacin HCl-loaded calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) nanoparticles were prepared via a w/o microemulsion method and characterized by dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The in vitro drug release profiles as well as antimicrobial effect against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) were also evaluated. The antibacterial effect was studied using serial dilution technique to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the nanoparticles and was confirmed by streak cultures. The mean particle size, drug loading and entrapment efficiency were calculated to be 116.09 nm, 20.49% and 44.05%, respectively. PXRD and FTIR studies confirmed that both vaterite and calcite polymorphs of CaCO 3 were formed during the preparation process. In vitro release profiles of the nanoparticles showed slow release pattern for 12 h. The drug-loaded nanoparticles showed similar MICs against S. aureus compared to untreated drug. However, a preserved antimicrobial effect was observed for drug-loaded nanoparticles compared to untreated drug after 2 days of incubation.

  17. Dense Breasts

    MedlinePlus

    ... fatty tissue. On a mammogram, fatty tissue appears dark (radio-lucent) and the glandular and connective tissues ... white on mammography) and non-dense fatty tissue (dark on mammography) using a visual scale and assign ...

  18. Polyethylenimine-mediated synthetic insertion of gold nanoparticles into mesoporous silica nanoparticles for drug loading and biocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Prem C; Pandey, Govind; Narayan, Roger J

    2017-03-27

    Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNPs) have been used as an efficient and safe carrier for drug delivery and biocatalysis. The surface modification of MSNPs using suitable reagents may provide a robust framework in which two or more components can be incorporated to give multifunctional capabilities (e.g., synthesis of noble metal nanoparticles within mesoporous architecture along with loading of a bioactive molecule). In this study, the authors reported on a new synthetic route for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) within (1) unmodified MSNPs and (2) 3-trihydroxysilylpropyl methylphosphonate-modified MSNPs. A cationic polymer, polyethylenimine (PEI), and formaldehyde were used to mediate synthetic incorporation of AuNPs within MSNPs. The AuNPs incorporated within the mesoporous matrix were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray analysis, and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. PEI in the presence of formaldehyde enabled synthetic incorporation of AuNPs in both unmodified and modified MSNPs. The use of unmodified MSNPs was associated with an increase in the polycrystalline structure of the AuNPs within the MSNPs. The AuNPs within modified MSNPs showed better catalytic activity than those within unmodified MSNPs. MSNPs with an average size of 200 nm and with a pore size of 4-6 nm were used for synthetic insertion of AuNPs. It was found that the PEI coating enabled AuNPs synthesis within the mesopores in the presence of formaldehyde or tetrahydrofuran hydroperoxide at a temperature between 10 and 25 °C or at 60 °C in the absence of organic reducing agents. The as-made AuNP-inserted MSNPs exhibited enhanced catalytic activity. For example, these materials enabled rapid catalytic oxidation of the o-dianisidine substrate to produce a colored solution in proportion to the amount of H 2 O 2 generated as a function of glucose oxidase-catalyzed oxidation of glucose; a linear concentration range from 80 to

  19. Alginate/Gelatin scaffolds incorporated with Silibinin-loaded Chitosan nanoparticles for bone formation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Leena, R S; Vairamani, M; Selvamurugan, N

    2017-10-01

    Silibinin is a plant derived flavonolignan known for its multiple biological properties, but its role in the promotion of bone formation has not yet been well studied. Moreover, the delivery of Silibinin is hindered by its complex hydrophobic nature, which limits its bioavailability. Hence, in this study, we fabricated a drug delivery system using chitosan nanoparticles loaded with Silibinin at different concentrations (20μM, 50μM, and 100μM). They were then incorporated into scaffolds containing Alginate and Gelatin (Alg/Gel) for the sustained and prolonged release of Silibinin. The Silibinin-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (SCN) were prepared using the ionic gelation technique, and the scaffolds (Alg/Gel-SCN) were synthesized by the conventional method of freeze drying. The scaffolds were subjected to physicochemical and material characterization studies. The addition of SCN did not affect the porosity of the scaffolds, yet increased the protein adsorption, degradation rates, and bio-mineralization. These scaffolds were biocompatible with mouse mesenchymal stem cells. The scaffolds loaded with 50μM Silibinin promoted osteoblast differentiation, which was determined at cellular and molecular levels. Recent studies indicated the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in osteogenesis and we found that the Silibinin released from scaffolds regulated miRNAs that control the bone morphogenetic protein pathway. Hence, our results suggest the potential for sustained and prolonged release of Silibinin to promote bone formation and, thus, these Alg/Gel-SCN scaffolds may be candidates for bone tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Sucrose ester stabilized solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers. II. Evaluation of the imidazole antifungal drug-loaded nanoparticle dispersions and their gel formulations.

    PubMed

    Das, Surajit; Ng, Wai Kiong; Tan, Reginald B H

    2014-03-14

    This study focused on: (i) feasibility of the previously developed sucrose ester stabilized SLNs and NLCs to encapsulate different imidazole antifungal drugs and (ii) preparation and evaluation of topical gel formulations of those SLNs and NLCs. Three imidazole antifungal drugs; clotrimazole, ketoconazole and climbazole were selected for this study. The results suggested that size, size distribution and drug encapsulation efficiency depend on the drug molecule and type of nanoparticles (SLN/NLC). The drug release experiment always showed faster drug release from NLCs than SLNs when the same drug molecule was loaded in both nanoparticles. However, drug release rate from both SLNs and NLCs followed the order of climbazole > ketoconazole > clotrimazole. NLCs demonstrated better physicochemical stability than SLNs in the case of all drugs. The drug release rate from ketoconazole- and clotrimazole-loaded SLNs became faster after three months than a fresh formulation. There was no significant change in drug release rate from climbazole-loaded SLNs and all drug-loaded NLCs. Gel formulations of SLNs and NLCs were prepared using polycarbophil polymer. Continuous flow measurements demonstrated non-Newtonian flow with shear-thinning behavior and thixotropy. Oscillation measurements depicted viscoelasticity of the gel formulations. Similar to nanoparticle dispersion, drug release rate from SLN- and NLC-gel was in the order of climbazole > ketoconazole > clotrimazole. However, significantly slower drug release was noticed from all gel formulations than their nanoparticle counterparts. Unlike nanoparticle dispersions, no significant difference in drug release from gel formulations containing SLNs and NLCs was observed for each drug. This study concludes that gel formulation of imidazole drug-loaded SLNs and NLCs can be used for sustained/prolonged topical delivery of the drugs.

  1. Preparation, characterization, and transport of dexamethasone-loaded polymeric nanoparticles across a human placental in vitro model

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Hazem; Kalashnikova, Irina; White, Mark Andrew; Sherman, Michael; Rytting, Erik

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to prepare dexamethasone-loaded polymeric nanoparticles and evaluate their potential for transport across human placenta. Statistical modeling and factorial design was applied to investigate the influence of process parameters on the following nanoparticle characteristics: particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, and drug encapsulation efficiency. Dexamethasone and nanoparticle transport was subsequently investigated using the BeWo b30 cell line, an in vitro model of human placental trophoblast cells, which represent the rate-limiting barrier for maternal-fetal transfer. Encapsulation efficiency and drug transport were determined using a validated high performance liquid chromatography method. Nanoparticle morphology and drug encapsulation were further characterized by cryo-transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, respectively. Nanoparticles prepared from poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) were spherical, with particle sizes ranging from 140–298 nm, and encapsulation efficiency ranging from 52–89%. Nanoencapsulation enhanced the apparent permeability of dexamethasone from the maternal compartment to the fetal compartment more than 10-fold in this model. Particle size was shown to be inversely correlated with drug and nanoparticle permeability, as confirmed with fluorescently-labeled nanoparticles. These results highlight the feasibility of designing nanoparticles capable of delivering medication to the fetus, in particular, potential dexamethasone therapy for the prenatal treatment of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. PMID:23850397

  2. Fabrication of curcumin-loaded bovine serum albumin (BSA)-dextran nanoparticles and the cellular antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yuting; Yi, Jiang; Zhang, Yuzhu; Yokoyama, Wallace

    2018-01-15

    Bovine serum albumin (BSA)-dextran conjugate was prepared with glycation. Self-assembly nanoparticles were synthesized with a green, and facile approach. The effects of dry-heating time on the fabrication and characteristics of BSA-dextran conjugate nanoparticles were examined. Stable nanoparticles (<200nm) were formed after only 6h dry-heating because enough dextran was grafted onto the BSA to provide significant steric hindrance. Particle size decreased with the increase of dry-heating time and the lowest particle size (51.2nm) was obtained after 24h dry-heating. The nanoparticles were stable in a wide pH range (pH 2.0-7.0). The particle size of nanoparticles increased to 115nm after curcumin incorporation and was stable even after one-month storage. TEM results demonstrated that curcumin-loaded nanoparticles displayed a spherical structure and were homogeneously dispersed. Curcumin in BSA-dextran nanoparticle showed better stability, compared to free curcumin. In addition, BSA-dextran nanoparticles can improve the cellular antioxidant activity of curcumin in Caco-2 cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of silver nanoparticles loaded chitosan-alginate constructs with biomedical potentialities.

    PubMed

    Bilal, Muhammad; Rasheed, Tahir; Iqbal, Hafiz M N; Li, Chuanlong; Hu, Hongbo; Zhang, Xuehong

    2017-12-01

    Herein, a facile biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and AgNPs-loaded chitosan-alginate constructs with biomedical potentialities is reported. The UV-vis spectroscopic profile confirmed the synthesis of AgNPs using methanolic leaves extract of Euphorbia helioscopia. The newly developed AgNPs were characterized using various analytical and imaging techniques including UV-vis and FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The optimally yielded AgNPs at 24h reaction period were loaded onto various chitosan-alginate constructs. A maximum of 95% loading efficiency (LE) was recorded with a chitosan: alginate ratio at 2:1, followed by 81% at 2:2 ratios. The anti-bacterial activities of AgNPs and AgNPs loaded chitosan-alginate constructs were tested against six bacterial strains i.e. Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Morganella morganii and Haemophilus influenza. A significant reduction in the log values was recorded for all test constructs, in comparison to the initial bacterial count (control value, i.e., 1.5×10 8 CFU/mL). The cytotoxicity profile revealed complete biocompatibility against normal cell line i.e. L929. Almost all constructs showed considerable cytotoxicity up to certain extant against human epithelial cells (HeLa) cancer cells. In summary, the highest antibacterial activities along with anti-cancer behavior both suggest the biomedical potentialities of newly engineered AgNPs and AgNPs-loaded chitosan-alginate constructs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Docosahexaenoic acid loaded lipid nanoparticles with bactericidal activity against Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Seabra, Catarina Leal; Nunes, Cláudia; Gomez-Lazaro, Maria; Correia, Marta; Machado, José Carlos; Gonçalves, Inês C; Reis, Celso A; Reis, Salette; Martins, M Cristina L

    2017-03-15

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid present in fish oil, has been described as a promising molecule to the treatment of Helicobacter pylori gastric infection. However, due to its highly unsaturated structure, DHA can be easily oxidized loosing part of its bioactivity. This work aims the nanoencapsulation of DHA to improve its bactericidal efficacy against H. pylori. DHA was loaded into nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) produced by hot homogenization and ultrasonication using a blend of lipids (Precirol ATO5 ® , Miglyol-812 ® ) and a surfactant (Tween 60 ® ). Homogeneous NLC with 302±14nm diameter, -28±3mV surface charge (dynamic and electrophoretic light scattering) and containing 66±7% DHA (UV/VIS spectroscopy) were successfully produced. Bacterial growth curves, performed over 24h in the presence of different DHA concentrations (free or loaded into NLC), demonstrated that nanoencapsulation enhanced DHA bactericidal effect, since DHA-loaded NLC were able to inhibit H. pylori growth in a much lower concentrations (25μM) than free DHA (>100μM). Bioimaging studies, using scanning and transmission electron microscopy and also imaging flow cytometry, demonstrated that DHA-loaded NLC interact with H. pylori membrane, increasing their periplasmic space and disrupting membrane and allowing the leakage of cytoplasmic content. Furthermore, the developed nanoparticles are not cytotoxic to human gastric adenocarcinoma cells at bactericidal concentrations. DHA-loaded NLC should, therefore, be envisaged as an alternative to the current treatments for H. pylori infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Cell death induced by the application of alternating magnetic fields to nanoparticle-loaded dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Marcos-Campos, I; Asín, L; Torres, T E; Marquina, C; Tres, A; Ibarra, M R; Goya, G F

    2011-05-20

    In this work, the capability of primary, monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) to uptake iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is assessed and a strategy to induce selective cell death in these MNP-loaded DCs using external alternating magnetic fields (AMFs) is reported. No significant decrease in the cell viability of MNP-loaded DCs, compared to the control samples, was observed after five days of culture. The number of MNPs incorporated into the cytoplasm was measured by magnetometry, which confirmed that 1-5 pg of the particles were uploaded per cell. The intracellular distribution of these MNPs, assessed by transmission electron microscopy, was found to be primarily inside the endosomic structures. These cells were then subjected to an AMF for 30 min and the viability of the blank DCs (i.e. without MNPs), which were used as control samples, remained essentially unaffected. However, a remarkable decrease of viability from approximately 90% to 2-5% of DCs previously loaded with MNPs was observed after the same 30 min exposure to an AMF. The same results were obtained using MNPs having either positive (NH(2)(+)) or negative (COOH(-)) surface functional groups. In spite of the massive cell death induced by application of AMF to MNP-loaded DCs, the number of incorporated magnetic particles did not raise the temperature of the cell culture. Clear morphological changes at the cell structure after magnetic field application were observed using scanning electron microscopy. Therefore, local damage produced by the MNPs could be the main mechanism for the selective cell death of MNP-loaded DCs under an AMF. Based on the ability of these cells to evade the reticuloendothelial system, these complexes combined with an AMF should be considered as a potentially powerful tool for tumour therapy.

  6. Precise engineering of dapivirine-loaded nanoparticles for the development of anti-HIV vaginal microbicides.

    PubMed

    das Neves, José; Sarmento, Bruno

    2015-05-01

    Polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) have the potential to provide effective and safe delivery of antiretroviral drugs in the context of prophylactic anti-HIV vaginal microbicides. Dapivirine-loaded poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) NPs were produced by an emulsion-solvent evaporation method, optimized for colloidal properties using a 3-factor, 3-level Box-Behnken experimental design, and characterized for drug loading, production yield, morphology, thermal behavior, drug release, in vitro cellular uptake, cytotoxicity and pro-inflammatory potential. Also, drug permeability/membrane retention in well-established HEC-1-A and CaSki cell monolayer models as mediated by NPs was assessed in the absence or presence of mucin. Box-Behnken design allowed optimizing monodisperse 170nm drug-loaded NPs. Drug release experiments showed an initial burst effect up to 4h, followed by sustained 24h release at pH 4.2 and 7.4. NPs were readily taken up by different genital and macrophage cell lines as assessed by fluorescence microscopy. Drug-loaded NPs presented lower or at least similar cytotoxicity as compared to the free drug, with up to around one-log increase in half-maximal cytotoxic concentration values. In all cases, no relevant changes in cell pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine production were observed. Dapivirine transport across cell monolayers was significantly decreased when mucin was present at the donor side with either NPs or the free drug, thus evidencing the influence of this natural glycoprotein in membrane permeability. Moreover, drug retention in cell monolayers was significantly higher for NPs in comparison with the free drug. Overall, obtained dapivirine-loaded PLGA NPs possess interesting technological and biological features that may contribute to their use as novel safe and effective vaginal microbicides. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Preparation and in vitro characterization of gallic acid-loaded human serum albumin nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad-Beigi, Hossein; Shojaosadati, Seyed Abbas; Morshedi, Dina; Arpanaei, Ayyoob; Marvian, Amir Tayaranian

    2015-04-01

    Gallic acid (GA), as an antioxidant and antiparkinson agent, was loaded onto cationic human serum albumin nanoparticles (HSA NPs). Polyethylenimine (PEI)-coated HSA (PEI-HSA) NPs were prepared using three different methods: (I) coating negatively charged HSA NPs with positively charged PEI through attractive electrostatic interactions, (II) coating HSA NPs with PEI via covalent amide bond formation using N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)- N-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride, and (III) coating HSA NPs with PEI via covalent bonding using glutaraldehyde for linking amine groups of PEI and amine groups of albumin NPs. Method II was selected since it resulted in a higher shift in the zeta potential value (mV) and less zeta potential value deviation, and also less size polydispersity. GA was loaded by adsorption onto the surface of PEI-HSA NPs of two different sizes: 117 ± 2.9 nm (PEI-P1) and 180 ± 3.1 nm (PEI-P2) NPs. Both GA-entrapment and GA-loading efficiencies increased slightly with the increasing size of NPs, and were affected intensely by the mass ratio of GA to PEI-HSA NPs. Free radical scavenging of GA was quantified based on the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method. The obtained results showed that GA remains active during the preparation of GA-loaded PEI-HSA NPs. The cytotoxicities of HSA, PEI-HSA, and GA-loaded PEI-HSA NPs on the PC-12 cells, as the neuroendocrine cell line, were measured. Our results indicate that positively charged PEI-HSA NPs are good candidates for efficient and safe delivery of GA to the brain.

  8. Nanoparticle-neural stem cells for targeted ovarian cancer treatment: optimization of silica nanoparticles for efficient drug loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Z.; Berlin, J.; Abidi, W.

    2018-02-01

    One of the drugs used to treat ovarian cancer is cisplatin. However, cisplatin kills normal surrounding tissue in addition to cancer cells. To improve tumor targeting efficiency, our lab uses neural stem cells (NSCs), which migrate directly to ovarian tumors. If free cisplatin is loaded into NSCs for targeted drug delivery, it will kill the NSCs. To prevent the drug cisplatin from killing both the NSCs and normal surrounding tissue, our lab synthesizes silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) that act as a protective carrier. The big picture here is to maximize efficiency of tumor targeting using NSCs and minimize toxicity to these NSCs using SiNPs. The goal of this project is to optimize the stability of SiNPs, which is important for efficient drug loading. To do this, the concentration of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), one of the main components of SiNPs, was varied. We hypothesized that more TEOS equates to more stable SiNPs because TEOS contributes carbon to SiNPs, and thus a tightly-packed chemical structure results in a stable particle. Then, the stability of the SiNPs were checked in cell media and phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Lastly, the SiNPs were analyzed for their porosity using the transmission electron microscope (TEM). TEM imaging showed white spots in the 200-800 μL TEOS batches and no white spots in the 1000-1800 μL TEOS batches. The white spots were pores, which indicate instability. We concluded that the ultimate factor that determines the stability of SiNPs (100 nm) is the concentration of organic substance.

  9. Reduced bacteria adhesion on octenidine loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticles coating on titanium substrates.

    PubMed

    Xu, Gaoqiang; Shen, Xinkun; Dai, Liangliang; Ran, Qichun; Ma, Pingping; Cai, Kaiyong

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial infection is one of the most severe postoperative complications leading to implantation failure. The early bacterial stage (4-6h) was proved to be the "decisive period" for long-term bacteria-related infection. Thus, to endow potential early antibacterial capacity for a titanium (Ti) based implant, an effective antiseptic agent of octenidine dihydrochloride (OCT) was effectively loaded on the mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs)-incorporated titania coating which was fabricated by an electrophoretic-enhanced micro-arc oxidation technique. The surface characteristic of the coatings were characterized by various methods (SEM, AFM, XPS, XRD, etc.), and its corrosion resistance was also examined by the potentiodynamic polarization curves. The composite coating without OCT loading not only displayed good cytocompatibility but also exhibited certain anti-bacterial property. After loading with OCT, its antibacterial efficiency of the titanium substrates with composite coating was greatly enhanced without compromising their cytocompatibility. The study provides an approach for the fabrication of anti-bacterial Ti implant for potential orthopedic application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Selective in vitro anticancer effect of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles loaded in hyaluronan polymeric micelles.

    PubMed

    Smejkalová, Daniela; Nešporová, Kristina; Huerta-Angeles, Gloria; Syrovátka, Jakub; Jirák, Daniel; Gálisová, Andrea; Velebný, Vladimír

    2014-11-10

    Due to its native origin, excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability, hyaluronan (HA) represents an attractive polymer for superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) coating. Herein, we report HA polymeric micelles encapsulating oleic acid coated SPIONs, having a hydrodynamic size of about 100 nm and SPION loading capacity of 1-2 wt %. The HA-SPION polymeric micelles were found to be selectively cytotoxic toward a number of human cancer cell lines, mainly those of colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29). The selective inhibition of cell growth was even observed when the SPION loaded HA polymeric micelles were incubated with a mixture of control and cancer cells. The selective in vitro inhibition could not be connected with an enhanced CD44 uptake or radical oxygen species formation and was rather connected with a different way of SPION intracellular release. While aggregated iron particles were visualized in control cells, nonaggregated solubilized iron oxide particles were detected in cancer cells. In vivo SPION accumulation in intramuscular tumor following an intravenous micelle administration was confirmed by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and histological analysis. Having a suitable hydrodynamic size, high magnetic relaxivity, and being cancer specific and able to accumulate in vivo in tumors, SPION-loaded HA micelles represent a promising platform for theranostic applications.

  11. Evaluation of hypericin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles: physicochemical properties, photostability and phototoxicity.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Tareq; Fadel, Maha; Fahmy, Rania; Kassab, Kawser

    2012-01-01

    Hypericin (HYP), a natural photosensitizer, has powerful photo-oxidizing ability, tumor-seeking characteristics, and minimal dark toxicity; nevertheless, it has proven high lipid solubility compared to its sparingly water soluble nature. Therefore, its formulation into solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) has attracted increasing attention as a potential drug-delivery carrier. Two HYP-loaded SLNs formulations were prepared utilizing microemulsion-based technique. Thereafter, the physicochemical properties of the formulations were investigated and evaluated. HYP-loaded SLNs showed spherical shape with mean particle size ranging from 200-300 nm for both formulations (FA and FB). The encapsulation efficiencies reached above 80% and FA showed significant higher encapsulation than FB (P<0.05), also, the thermal analysis using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) indicated good compatibility between hypericin and lipids forming the cores in both formulations. Spectroscopic measurements of the photostability study showed that hypericin encapsulation into SLNs improved its photostability, compared to free HYP in 0.1% ethanolic solution. However, photocytotoxicity studies on HepG2 cells revealed an evident inhibition of the photodynamic efficacy of HYP-loaded SLNs, compared to free HYP. In conclusion, although the elevated entrapment efficiency of HYP into SLNs increased its photostability, it decreased its phototoxicity which might be due to the quenching deactivation of HYP molecules resulting from SLN compactness and thickness structure. © 2012 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

  12. Hydrazone linked doxorubicin-PLA prodrug nanoparticles with high drug loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatti, Simone; Agostini, Azzurra; Capasso Palmiero, Umberto; Colombo, Claudio; Peviani, Marco; Biffi, Alessandra; Moscatelli, Davide

    2018-07-01

    An optimal drug delivery system should be characterized by biocompatibility, biodegradability, high drug loading and favorable drug release profile. To achieve this goal a hydrazone linked doxorubicin-poly(lactic acid) prodrug (PLA-DOX) was synthesized by the functionalization of a short polymer chain produced by ring opening polymerization. The hydrophobic prodrug generated in this way was nanoprecipitated using a block copolymer to form polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) with a quantitative loading efficiency and a high and tunable drug loading. The effects of the concentration of the PLA-DOX prodrug and surfactant were studied by dynamic light scattering showing a range of NP size between 50 and 90 nm and monodispersed size distributions with polydispersity indexes lower then 0.27 up to a maximum DOX concentration of 27% w/w. The release profile of DOX from these NPs, tested at different pH conditions, showed a higher release rate in acidic conditions, consistent with the nature of the hydrazone bond which was used to conjugate the drug to the polymer. In vitro cytotoxicity studies performed on BV2 microglia-like cell line highlighted a specific cytotoxic effect of these NPs suggesting the maintenance of the drug efficacy and a modified release profile upon encapsulation of DOX in the NPs.

  13. Investigations on clonazepam-loaded polymeric micelle-like nanoparticles for safe drug administration during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Sezgin-Bayindir, Zerrin; Elcin, Ayse Eser; Parmaksiz, Mahmut; Elcin, Yasar Murat; Yuksel, Nilufer

    2018-03-01

    Medication during pregnancy is often a necessity for women to treat their acute or chronic diseases. The goal of this study is to evaluate the potential of micelle-like nanoparticles (MNP) for providing safe drug usage in pregnancy and protect both foetus and mother from medication side effects. Clonazepam-loaded MNP were prepared from copolymers [polystyrene-poly(acrylic acid) (PS-PAA), poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(lactic acid) (PEG-PLA) and distearyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-DSPE)] with varying monomer ratios and their drug-loading efficiency, drug release ratio, particle size, surface charge and morphology were characterised. The cellular transport and cytotoxicity experiments were conducted on clonazepam and MNP formulations using placenta-choriocarcinoma-BeWo and brain-endothelial-bEnd3 cells. Clonazepam-loaded PEG 5000 -PLA 4500 MNP reduced the drug transport through BeWo cells demonstrating that MNP may lower foetal drug exposure, thus reduce the drug side effects. However, lipofectamine modified MNP improved the transport of clonazepam and found to be promising for brain and in-utero-specific drug treatment.

  14. Preparation, characterization, and biodistribution of letrozole loaded PLGA nanoparticles in Ehrlich Ascites tumor bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Nita; Halder, Kamal Krishna; Kamila, Madan Mohan; Debnath, Mita Chatterjee; Pal, Tapan K; Ghosal, Saroj K; Sarkar, Bharat R; Ganguly, Shantanu

    2010-09-15

    Letrozole (LTZ) incorporated PLGA nanoparticles were prepared by solvent displacement technique and characterized by transmission electron microscopy, poly-dispersity index and zeta potential measurement. Radiolabeling of free LTZ and LTZ-loaded PLGA NPs was performed with technetium-99m with high labeling efficiency. The labeled complex showed good in vitro stability as verified by DTPA challenge test. The labeled complexes also showed significant in vivo stability when incubated in rat serum for 24 h. Biodistribution studies of (99m)Tc-labeled complexes were performed after intravenous administration in normal mice and Ehrlich Ascites tumor bearing mice. Compared to free LTZ, LTZ-loaded PLGA NPs exhibited significantly lower uptake by the organs of RES. The tumor concentration of LTZ-loaded PLGA NPs was 4.65 times higher than that of free LTZ at 4 h post-injection. This study indicates the capability of PLGA nanopartcles in enhancing the tumor uptake of letrozole. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Docetaxel-loaded polylactic acid-co-glycolic acid nanoparticles: formulation, physicochemical characterization and cytotoxicity studies.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Roshan; Poudel, Bijay Kumar; Ramasamy, Thiruganesh; Choi, Han-Gon; Yong, Chul Soon; Kim, Jong Oh

    2013-08-01

    In the present study, we developed novel docetaxel (DTX)-loaded polylactic acid-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) using the combination of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and poloxamer 407, the anionic and non-ionic surfactants respectively for stabilization. The NPs were prepared by emulsification/solvent evaporation method. The combination of these surfactants at weight ratio of 1:0.5 was able to produce uniformly distributed small sized NPs and demonstrated the better stability of NP dispersion with high encapsulation efficiency (85.9 +/- 0.6%). The drug/polymer ratio and phase ratio were 2:10 and 1:10, respectively. The optimized formulation of DTX-loaded PLGA NPs had a particle size and polydispersity index of 104.2 +/- 1.5 nm and 0.152 +/- 0.006, respectively, which was further supported by TEM image. In vitro release study was carried out with dialysis membrane and showed 32% drug release in 192 h. When in vitro release data were fitted to Korsmeyer-Peppas model, the n value was 0.481, which suggested the drug was released by anomalous or non-Fickian diffusion. In addition, DTX-loaded PLGA NPs in 72 h, displayed approximately 75% cell viability reduction at 10 microg/ml DTX concentration, in MCF-7 cell lines, indicating sustained release from NPs. Therefore, our results demonstrated that incorporation of DTX into PLGA NPs could provide a novel effective nanocarrier for the treatment of cancer.

  16. Nanoparticle orientation to control RNA loading and ligand display on extracellular vesicles for cancer regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pi, Fengmei; Binzel, Daniel W.; Lee, Tae Jin; Li, Zhefeng; Sun, Meiyan; Rychahou, Piotr; Li, Hui; Haque, Farzin; Wang, Shaoying; Croce, Carlo M.; Guo, Bin; Evers, B. Mark; Guo, Peixuan

    2018-01-01

    Nanotechnology offers many benefits, and here we report an advantage of applying RNA nanotechnology for directional control. The orientation of arrow-shaped RNA was altered to control ligand display on extracellular vesicle membranes for specific cell targeting, or to regulate intracellular trafficking of small interfering RNA (siRNA) or microRNA (miRNA). Placing membrane-anchoring cholesterol at the tail of the arrow results in display of RNA aptamer or folate on the outer surface of the extracellular vesicle. In contrast, placing the cholesterol at the arrowhead results in partial loading of RNA nanoparticles into the extracellular vesicles. Taking advantage of the RNA ligand for specific targeting and extracellular vesicles for efficient membrane fusion, the resulting ligand-displaying extracellular vesicles were capable of specific delivery of siRNA to cells, and efficiently blocked tumour growth in three cancer models. Extracellular vesicles displaying an aptamer that binds to prostate-specific membrane antigen, and loaded with survivin siRNA, inhibited prostate cancer xenograft. The same extracellular vesicle instead displaying epidermal growth-factor receptor aptamer inhibited orthotopic breast cancer models. Likewise, survivin siRNA-loaded and folate-displaying extracellular vesicles inhibited patient-derived colorectal cancer xenograft.

  17. Targeted delivery of mesoporous silica nanoparticles loaded monastrol into cancer cells: an in vitro study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanif, Huzaifa; Nazir, Samina; Mazhar, Kehkashan; Waseem, Muhammad; Bano, Shazia; Rashid, Umer

    2017-11-01

    Monastrol is a simple low molecular weight dihydropyrimidine-based kinesin Eg5 inhibitor. Its low cellular activity and its non-drug-like properties have impeded its further development. In a previous report, we have reported various topological parameters to improve the pharmacokinetic properties of monastrol. The purpose of this study is to determine the loading and release feasibility of poorly water-soluble monastrol into the synthesized mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs). The synthesis of MSNs was attained by the ammonia-catalysed hydrolysis and condensation of TEOS in ethanol using polysorbate-80 as surfactant. These were characterized by BET surface area and pore size distribution analyses, SEM, XRD, UV and FTIR spectroscopy. The synthesized monastrol was successfully loaded on MSNPs and coated by hydrogels for successful controlled drug delivery. In vitro release studies are done by simple dialysis method. Monastrol-loaded MSNPs were tested on human cervical epithelial malignant carcinoma (HeLa) cell lines for studying their anticancer activity. Our presented system described a reliable method for targeted delivery of monastrol into the cancer cells in vitro.

  18. Acute toxicity study of tilmicosin-loaded hydrogenated castor oil-solid lipid nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Xie, Shuyu; Wang, Fenghua; Wang, Yan; Zhu, Luyan; Dong, Zhao; Wang, Xiaofang; Li, Xihe; Zhou, Wenzhong

    2011-11-20

    Our previous studies demonstrated that tilmicosin-loaded hydrogenated castor oil solid lipid nanoparticles (Til-HCO-SLN) are a promising formulation for enhanced pharmacological activity and therapeutic efficacy in veterinary use. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the acute toxicity of Til-HCO-SLN. Two nanoparticle doses were used for the study in ICR mice. The low dose (766 mg/kg.bw) with tilmicosin 7.5 times of the clinic dosage and below the median lethal dose (LD(50)) was subcutaneously administered twice on the first and 7th day. The single high dose (5 g/kg.bw) was the practical upper limit in an acute toxicity study and was administered subcutaneously on the first day. Blank HCO-SLN, native tilmicosin, and saline solution were included as controls. After medication, animals were monitored over 14 days, and then necropsied. Signs of toxicity were evaluated via mortality, symptoms of treatment effect, gross and microscopic pathology, and hematologic and biochemical parameters. After administration of native tilmicosin, all mice died within 2 h in the high dose group, in the low dose group 3 died after the first and 2 died after the second injections. The surviving mice in the tilmicosin low dose group showed hypoactivity, accelerated breath, gloomy spirit and lethargy. In contrast, all mice in Til-HCO-SLN and blank HCO-SLN groups survived at both low and high doses. The high nanoparticle dose induced transient clinical symptoms of treatment effect such as transient reversible action retardation, anorexy and gloomy spirit, increased spleen and liver coefficients and decreased heart coefficients, microscopic pathological changes of liver, spleen and heart, and minor changes in hematologic and biochemical parameters, but no adverse effects were observed in the nanoparticle low dose group. The results revealed that the LD50 of Til-HCO-SLN and blank HCO-SLN exceeded 5 g/kg.bw and thus the nanoparticles are considered low toxic according to the toxicity

  19. Acute toxicity study of tilmicosin-loaded hydrogenated castor oil-solid lipid nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Our previous studies demonstrated that tilmicosin-loaded hydrogenated castor oil solid lipid nanoparticles (Til-HCO-SLN) are a promising formulation for enhanced pharmacological activity and therapeutic efficacy in veterinary use. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the acute toxicity of Til-HCO-SLN. Methods Two nanoparticle doses were used for the study in ICR mice. The low dose (766 mg/kg.bw) with tilmicosin 7.5 times of the clinic dosage and below the median lethal dose (LD50) was subcutaneously administered twice on the first and 7th day. The single high dose (5 g/kg.bw) was the practical upper limit in an acute toxicity study and was administered subcutaneously on the first day. Blank HCO-SLN, native tilmicosin, and saline solution were included as controls. After medication, animals were monitored over 14 days, and then necropsied. Signs of toxicity were evaluated via mortality, symptoms of treatment effect, gross and microscopic pathology, and hematologic and biochemical parameters. Results After administration of native tilmicosin, all mice died within 2 h in the high dose group, in the low dose group 3 died after the first and 2 died after the second injections. The surviving mice in the tilmicosin low dose group showed hypoactivity, accelerated breath, gloomy spirit and lethargy. In contrast, all mice in Til-HCO-SLN and blank HCO-SLN groups survived at both low and high doses. The high nanoparticle dose induced transient clinical symptoms of treatment effect such as transient reversible action retardation, anorexy and gloomy spirit, increased spleen and liver coefficients and decreased heart coefficients, microscopic pathological changes of liver, spleen and heart, and minor changes in hematologic and biochemical parameters, but no adverse effects were observed in the nanoparticle low dose group. Conclusions The results revealed that the LD50 of Til-HCO-SLN and blank HCO-SLN exceeded 5 g/kg.bw and thus the nanoparticles are considered low

  20. Cell type-specific response to high intracellular loading of polyacrylic acid-coated magnetic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Lojk, Jasna; Bregar, Vladimir B; Rajh, Maruša; Miš, Katarina; Kreft, Mateja Erdani; Pirkmajer, Sergej; Veranič, Peter; Pavlin, Mojca

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) are a special type of NP with a ferromagnetic, electron-dense core that enables several applications such as cell tracking, hyperthermia, and magnetic separation, as well as multimodality. So far, superparamagnetic iron oxide NPs (SPIONs) are the only clinically approved type of metal oxide NPs, but cobalt ferrite NPs have properties suitable for biomedical applications as well. In this study, we analyzed the cellular responses to magnetic cobalt ferrite NPs coated with polyacrylic acid (PAA) in three cell types: Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO), mouse melanoma (B16) cell line, and primary human myoblasts (MYO). We compared the internalization pathway, intracellular trafficking, and intracellular fate of our NPs using fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) as well as quantified NP uptake and analyzed uptake dynamics. We determined cell viability after 24 or 96 hours’ exposure to increasing concentrations of NPs, and quantified the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon 24 and 48 hours’ exposure. Our NPs have been shown to readily enter and accumulate in cells in high quantities using the same two endocytic pathways; mostly by macropinocytosis and partially by clathrin-mediated endocytosis. The cell types differed in their uptake rate, the dynamics of intracellular trafficking, and the uptake capacity, as well as in their response to higher concentrations of internalized NPs. The observed differences in cell responses stress the importance of evaluation of NP–cell interactions on several different cell types for better prediction of possible toxic effects on different cell and tissue types in vivo. PMID:25733835

  1. Synthesis and characterization of folate decorated albumin bio-conjugate nanoparticles loaded with a synthetic curcumin difluorinated analogue.

    PubMed

    Gawde, Kaustubh A; Kesharwani, Prashant; Sau, Samaresh; Sarkar, Fazlul H; Padhye, Subhash; Kashaw, Sushil K; Iyer, Arun K

    2017-06-15

    Albumin-bound paclitaxel colloidal nanoparticle (Abraxane®) is an FDA approved anticancer formulation available in the market. It is a suspension which is currently used therapeutically for treating cancers of the breast, lung, and pancreas among others. CDF is a novel new and potent synthetic curcumin analogue that is widely used for breast and ovarian cancer. The aim of this study was to use biocompatible albumin as well as folate decorated albumin to formulate colloidal nanoparticles encapsulating curcumin difluorinated (CDF). CDF has demonstrated a 16-fold improvement in stability and remarkable anticancer potency compared to its natural derivative, curcumin. CDF showed marked inhibition of cancer cell growth through down-regulation of multiple miRNAs, up-regulation of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), and attenuation of histone methyl transferase EZH2. However, CDF is highly hydrophobic and photodegradable with sparing aqueous solubility. In this study, we have formulated albumin nanoparticle using a modified desolvation method, which yielded high CDF loading in a nanoformulation. The physicochemical properties of CDF loaded albumin and folate-decorated albumin nanosuspensions were assessed for particle size, morphology, zeta potential, drug encapsulation efficiency/loading, solubility and drug release. Importantly, the folate ligand decorated albumin nanoparticles were formulated in principle to passively and actively target folate-overexpressing-cancers. In this study, the synthesis and optimization of BSA and folate decorated BSA conjugated CDF nanoparticles are assessed in detail that will be useful for its future clinical translation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of crystallinity and surface modification of calcium phosphate nanoparticles on the loading and release of tetracycline hydro-chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huaizhi; Yan, Dong; Menike Korale Gedara, Sriyani; Dingiri Marakkalage, Sajith Sudeepa Fernando; Gamage Kasun Methlal, Jothirathna; Han, YingChao; Dai, HongLian

    2017-03-01

    The influences of crystallinity and surface modification of calcium phosphate nanoparticles (nCaP) on their drug loading capacity and drug release profile were studied in the present investigation. The CaP nanoparticles with different crystallinity were prepared by precipitation method under different temperatures. CaP nanoparticles with lower crystallinity exhibited higher drug loading capacity. The samples were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, SEM, TEM and BET surface area analyzer respectively. The drug loading capacity of nCaP was evaluated to tetracycline hydro-chloride (TCH). The internalization of TCH loaded nCaP in cancer cell was observed by florescence microscope. nCaP could be stabilized and dispersed in aqueous solution by poly(acrylic acid) surface modification agent, leading to enhanced drug loading capacity. The drug release was conducted in different pH environment and the experimental data proved that nCaP were pH sensitive drug carrier, suggesting that nCaP could achieve the controlled drug release in intracellular acidic environment. Furthermore, nCaP with higher crystallinity showed lower drug release rate than that of lower crystallinity, indicating that the drug release profile could be adjusted by crystallinity of nCaP. nCaP with adjustable drug loading and release properties are promising candidate as drug carrier for disease treatment.

  3. Microfluidic Synthesis Enables Dense and Uniform Loading of Surfactant-Free PtSn Nanocrystals on Carbon Supports for Enhanced Ethanol Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fuxiang; Zhang, Dongtang; Peng, Manhua; Yu, Zhihui; Wang, Xiayan; Guo, Guangsheng; Sun, Yugang

    2016-04-11

    Developing new synthetic methods for carbon supported catalysts with improved performance is of fundamental importance in advancing proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology. Continuous-flow, microfluidic reactions in capillary tube reactors are described, which are capable of synthesizing surfactant-free, ultrafine PtSn alloyed nanoparticles (NPs) on various carbon supports (for example, commercial carbon black particles, carbon nanotubes, and graphene sheets). The PtSn NPs are highly crystalline with sizes smaller than 2 nm, and they are highly dispersed on the carbon supports with high loadings up to 33 wt%. These characteristics make the as-synthesized carbon-supported PtSn NPs more efficient than state of the art commercial Pt/C catalysts applied to the ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR). Significantly enhanced mass catalytic activity (two-times that of Pt/C) and improved stability are obtained. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Preparation and evaluation of tilmicosin-loaded hydrogenated castor oil nanoparticle suspensions of different particle sizes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaojin; Wang, Ting; Lu, Mengmeng; Zhu, Luyan; Wang, Yan; Zhou, WenZhong

    2014-01-01

    Three tilmicosin-loaded hydrogenated castor oil nanoparticle (TMS-HCO-NP) suspensions of different particle sizes were prepared with different polyvinyl alcohol surfactant concentrations using a hot homogenization and ultrasonic technique. The in vitro release, in vitro antibacterial activity, mammalian cytotoxicity, acute toxicity in mice, and stability study were conducted to evaluate the characteristics of the suspensions. The in vitro tilmicosin release rate, antibacterial activity, mammalian cytotoxicity, acute toxicity in mice, and stability of the suspensions were evaluated. When prepared with polyvinyl alcohol concentrations of 0.2%, 1%, and 5%, the mean diameters of the nanoparticles in the three suspensions were 920±35 nm, 452±10 nm, and 151±4 nm, respectively. The three suspensions displayed biphasic release profiles similar to that of freeze-dried TMS-HCO-NP powders, with the exception of having a faster initial release. Moreover, suspensions of smaller-sized particles showed faster initial release, and lower minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum bactericidal concentrations. Time-kill curves showed that within 12 hours, the suspension with the 151 nm particles had the most potent bactericidal activity, but later, the suspensions with larger-sized particles showed increased antibacterial activity. None of the three suspensions were cytotoxic at clinical dosage levels. At higher drug concentrations, all three suspensions showed similar concentration-dependent cytotoxicity. The suspension with the smallest-sized particle showed significantly more acute toxicity in mice, perhaps due to faster drug release. All three suspensions exhibited good stability at 4°C and at room temperature for at least 6 months. These results demonstrate that TMS-HCO-NP suspensions can be a promising formulation for tilmicosin, and that nanoparticle size can be an important consideration for formulation development.

  5. Preparation and evaluation of tilmicosin-loaded hydrogenated castor oil nanoparticle suspensions of different particle sizes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaojin; Wang, Ting; Lu, Mengmeng; Zhu, Luyan; Wang, Yan; Zhou, WenZhong

    2014-01-01

    Three tilmicosin-loaded hydrogenated castor oil nanoparticle (TMS-HCO-NP) suspensions of different particle sizes were prepared with different polyvinyl alcohol surfactant concentrations using a hot homogenization and ultrasonic technique. The in vitro release, in vitro antibacterial activity, mammalian cytotoxicity, acute toxicity in mice, and stability study were conducted to evaluate the characteristics of the suspensions. The in vitro tilmicosin release rate, antibacterial activity, mammalian cytotoxicity, acute toxicity in mice, and stability of the suspensions were evaluated. When prepared with polyvinyl alcohol concentrations of 0.2%, 1%, and 5%, the mean diameters of the nanoparticles in the three suspensions were 920±35 nm, 452±10 nm, and 151±4 nm, respectively. The three suspensions displayed biphasic release profiles similar to that of freeze-dried TMS-HCO-NP powders, with the exception of having a faster initial release. Moreover, suspensions of smaller-sized particles showed faster initial release, and lower minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum bactericidal concentrations. Time-kill curves showed that within 12 hours, the suspension with the 151 nm particles had the most potent bactericidal activity, but later, the suspensions with larger-sized particles showed increased antibacterial activity. None of the three suspensions were cytotoxic at clinical dosage levels. At higher drug concentrations, all three suspensions showed similar concentration-dependent cytotoxicity. The suspension with the smallest-sized particle showed significantly more acute toxicity in mice, perhaps due to faster drug release. All three suspensions exhibited good stability at 4°C and at room temperature for at least 6 months. These results demonstrate that TMS-HCO-NP suspensions can be a promising formulation for tilmicosin, and that nanoparticle size can be an important consideration for formulation development. PMID:24920902

  6. Disulfiram-loaded mixed nanoparticles with high drug-loading and plasma stability by reducing the core crystallinity for intravenous delivery.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Xuezhi; Lei, Tian; Miao, Linlin; Chu, Wei; Li, Xiaowen; Luo, Lifeng; Gou, Jingxin; Zhang, Yu; Yin, Tian; He, Haibing; Tang, Xing

    2018-05-30

    To develop an injectable formulation and improve the stability of disulfiram (DSF), DSF was encapsulated into mixed nanoparticles (DSF-NPs) through a high-pressure homogenization method. The Flory-Huggins interaction parameters (χ FH ) were calculated to predict the miscibility between DSF and the hydrophobic core, resulting in PCL 5000 selected as the hydrophobic block to encapsulate the DSF, as PCL 5000 had a lower χ FH 3.39 and the drug loading of the nanoparticles prepared by mPEG 5000 -PCL 5000 was relatively higher. mPEG 5000 -PCL 5000 and PCL 5000 were blended to reduce the leakage of DSF during preparation, as well as increase the stability of the nanoparticles. The cargo-loading capacity of the nanoparticles was improved from 3.35% to 5.50% by reducing the crystallinity of the PCL nanoparticle core, and the crystallinity decreased from 51.13% to 25.15% after adding medium chain triglyceride (MCT). The DSF-NPs prepared by the above method had a small particle size of 98.1 ± 10.54 nm, with a polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.036, as well as drug loading of 5.50%. Furthermore, DSF-NPs containing MCT showed higher stability than DSF-NPs without MCT and DSF-sol (DSF dissolved in Cremophor EL and ethanol) in water and 90% plasma-containing PBS. The pharmacokinetics proved that DSF-NPs containing MCT enhanced the DSF concentration in the blood. Finally, DSF-NPs effectively inhibited H22 xenograft tumor growth in vivo. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Palladium Nanoparticle-Loaded Cellulose Paper: A Highly Efficient, Robust, and Recyclable Self-Assembled Composite Catalytic System.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guangchao; Kaefer, Katharina; Mourdikoudis, Stefanos; Polavarapu, Lakshminarayana; Vaz, Belén; Cartmell, Samantha E; Bouleghlimat, Azzedine; Buurma, Niklaas J; Yate, Luis; de Lera, Ángel R; Liz-Marzán, Luis M; Pastoriza-Santos, Isabel; Pérez-Juste, Jorge

    2015-01-15

    We present a novel strategy based on the immobilization of palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) on filter paper for development of a catalytic system with high efficiency and recyclability. Oleylamine-capped Pd nanoparticles, dispersed in an organic solvent, strongly adsorb on cellulose filter paper, which shows a great ability to wick fluids due to its microfiber structure. Strong van der Waals forces and hydrophobic interactions between the particles and the substrate lead to nanoparticle immobilization, with no desorption upon further immersion in any solvent. The prepared Pd NP-loaded paper substrates were tested for several model reactions such as the oxidative homocoupling of arylboronic acids, the Suzuki cross-coupling reaction, and nitro-to-amine reduction, and they display efficient catalytic activity and excellent recyclability and reusability. This approach of using NP-loaded paper substrates as reusable catalysts is expected to open doors for new types of catalytic support for practical applications.

  8. Silibinin-loaded magnetic nanoparticles inhibit hTERT gene expression and proliferation of lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Amirsaadat, Soumaye; Pilehvar-Soltanahmadi, Younes; Zarghami, Faraz; Alipour, Shahriar; Ebrahimnezhad, Zohreh; Zarghami, Nosratollah

    2017-12-01

    Nanoparticle-based targeted drug delivery has the potential for rendering silibinin specifically at the favorite site using an external magnetic field. Also, it can circumvent the pitfalls of poor solubility. For this purpose, silibinin-loaded magnetic nanoparticles are fabricated, characterized and evaluated cytotoxicity and hTERT gene expression in A549 lung cancer cell line. silibinin-loaded PLGA-PEG-Fe 3 O 4 had dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity than pure silibinin. Additionally, hTERT expression is more efficiently reduced with increasing concentrations of nanosilibinin than pure silibinin. The present study indicates that PLGA-PEG-Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles, as an effective targeted carrier, can make a promising horizon in targeted lung cancer therapy.

  9. Mucoadhesive buccal tablets containing silymarin Eudragit-loaded nanoparticles: formulation, characterisation and ex vivo permeation.

    PubMed

    El-Nahas, Amira E; Allam, Ahmed N; El-Kamel, Amal H

    2017-08-01

    Eudragit-loaded silymarin nanoparticles (SNPs) and their formulation into buccal mucoadhesive tablets were investigated to improve the low bioavailability of silymarin through buccal delivery. Characterisation of SNPs and silymarin buccal tablets (SBTs) containing the optimised NPs were performed. Ex vivo permeability of nominated SBTs were assessed using chicken pouch mucosa compared to SNPs and drug suspension followed by histopathological examination. Selected SNPs had a small size (<150 nm), encapsulation effciency (>77%) with drug release of about 90% after 6 h. For STBs, all physicochemical parameters were satisfactory for different polymers used. DSC and FT-IR studies suggested the presence of silymarin in an amorphous state. Ex vivo permeation significantly emphasised the great enhancement of silymarin permeation after NPs formation and much more increase after formulating into BTs relative to the corresponding drug dispersion with confirmed membrane integrity. Incorporation of SNPs into BTs could be an efficient vehicle for delivery of silymarin.

  10. Metabolic and structural integrity of magnetic nanoparticle-loaded primary endothelial cells for targeted cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Orynbayeva, Zulfiya; Sensenig, Richard; Polyak, Boris

    2015-05-01

    To successfully translate magnetically mediated cell targeting from bench to bedside, there is a need to systematically assess the potential adverse effects of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) interacting with 'therapeutic' cells. Here, we examined in detail the effects of internalized polymeric MNPs on primary rat endothelial cells' structural intactness, metabolic integrity and proliferation potential. The intactness of cytoskeleton and organelles was studied by fluorescent confocal microscopy, flow cytometry and high-resolution respirometry. MNP-loaded primary endothelial cells preserve intact cytoskeleton and organelles, maintain normal rate of proliferation, calcium signaling and mitochondria energy metabolism. This study provides supportive evidence that MNPs at doses necessary for targeting did not induce significant adverse effects on structural integrity and functionality of primary endothelial cells - potential cell therapy vectors.

  11. Polyacrylic acid@zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 nanoparticles with ultrahigh drug loading capability for pH-sensitive drug release.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hong; Zhang, Lingyu; An, Jiping; Wang, Tingting; Li, Lu; Si, Xiaoyan; He, Liu; Wu, Xiaotong; Wang, Chungang; Su, Zhongmin

    2014-01-28

    The polyacrylic acid@zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (PAA@ZIF-8) nanoparticles (NPs) were first fabricated using a facile and simple route. It is worthwhile noting that the as-fabricated PAA@ZIF-8 NPs possessed ultrahigh doxorubicin (DOX) loading capability (1.9 g DOX g(-1) NPs), which were employed as pH-dependent drug delivery vehicles.

  12. Liposomes Loaded with Hydrophobic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: Suitable T₂ Contrast Agents for MRI.

    PubMed

    Martínez-González, Raquel; Estelrich, Joan; Busquets, Maria Antònia

    2016-07-27

    There has been a recent surge of interest in the use of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) as contrast agents (CAs) for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), due to their tunable properties and their low toxicity compared with other CAs such as gadolinium. SPIONs exert a strong influence on spin-spin T₂ relaxation times by decreasing the MR signal in the regions to which they are delivered, consequently yielding darker images or negative contrast. Given the potential of these nanoparticles to enhance detection of alterations in soft tissues, we studied the MRI response of hydrophobic or hydrophilic SPIONs loaded into liposomes (magnetoliposomes) of different lipid composition obtained by sonication. These hybrid nanostructures were characterized by measuring several parameters such as size and polydispersity, and number of SPIONs encapsulated or embedded into the lipid systems. We then studied the influence of acyl chain length as well as its unsaturation, charge, and presence of cholesterol in the lipid bilayer at high field strength (7 T) to mimic the conditions used in preclinical assays. Our results showed a high variability depending on the nature of the magnetic particles. Focusing on the hydrophobic SPIONs, the cholesterol-containing samples showed a slight reduction in r₂, while unsaturation of the lipid acyl chain and inclusion of a negatively charged lipid into the bilayer appeared to yield a marked increase in negative contrast, thus rendering these magnetoliposomes suitable candidates as CAs, especially as a liver CA.

  13. A novel technology using transscleral ultrasound to deliver protein loaded nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Huang, Di; Wang, Lili; Dong, Yixuan; Pan, Xin; Li, Ge; Wu, Chuanbin

    2014-09-01

    This study was designed to investigate the feasibility of silk fibroin nanoparticles (SFNs) for sustained drug delivery in transscleral ultrasound. Fluorescein isothiocynate labeled bovine serum albumin (FITC-BSA, MW 66.45 kDa) was chosen as a model macromolecular protein drug and SFNs were used as nano-carrier systems suitable for ocular drug delivery. Drug loaded nanoparticles (FITC-BSA-SFNs) were first prepared and characterized. In vitro transscleral study under ultrasound exposure (1MHz, 0.5 W/cm(2), 5 min continuous wave) using isolated sclera of rabbit was performed. The posterior eye segment of rabbit was examined for adverse effect by slit-lamp and histology. It was found that FITC-BSA-SFNs possessed sustained release, bioadhesive, and co-permeation characteristics. The ultrasound application significantly improved the penetration efficiency of FITC-BSA-SFNs as compared with passive delivery, meanwhile caused no damages to the ocular tissue and particles themselves. The distribution profile of SFNs revealed rapid and lasting adhesion on the outer scleral tissues, followed by migration into the interior up to one week after treatment. This research suggested a novel non-invasive transscleral administration of macromolecular protein drugs using SFN carriers combining with ultrasound technology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. One-step electrodeposition of graphene loaded nickel oxides nanoparticles for acetaminophen detection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gui-Ting; Chen, Hui-Fen; Lin, Guo-Ming; Ye, Ping-ping; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Jiao, Ying-Zhi; Guo, Xiao-Yu; Wen, Ying; Yang, Hai-Feng

    2014-06-15

    An electrochemical sensor of acetaminophen (AP) based on electrochemically reduced graphene (ERG) loaded nickel oxides (Ni2O3-NiO) nanoparticles coated onto glassy carbon electrode (ERG/Ni2O3-NiO/GCE) was prepared by a one-step electrodeposition process. The as-prepared electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The electrocatalytic properties of ERG/Ni2O3-NiO modified glassy carbon electrode toward the oxidation of acetaminophen were analyzed via cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The electrodes of Ni2O3-NiO/GCE, ERG/GCE, and Ni2O3-NiO deposited ERG/GCE were fabricated for the comparison and the catalytic mechanism understanding. The studies showed that the one-step prepared ERG/Ni2O3-NiO/GCE displayed the highest electro-catalytic activity, attributing to the synergetic effect derived from the unique composite structure and physical properties of nickel oxides nanoparticles and graphene. The low detection limit of 0.02 μM (S/N=3) with the wide linear detection range from 0.04 μM to 100 μM (R=0.998) was obtained. The resulting sensor was successfully used to detect acetaminophen in commercial pharmaceutical tablets and urine samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Preparation and antioxidant properties of selenium nanoparticles-loaded chitosan microspheres.

    PubMed

    Bai, Kaikai; Hong, Bihong; He, Jianlin; Hong, Zhuan; Tan, Ran

    2017-01-01

    Selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs), as a special form of selenium (Se) supplement, have attracted worldwide attention due to their favorable properties and unique bioactivities. Herein, an eco-friendly and economic way to prepare stable SeNPs is introduced. SeNPs were synthesized in aqueous chitosan (CTS) and then embedded into CTS microspheres by spray-drying, forming selenium nanoparticles-loaded chitosan microspheres (SeNPs-M). The physicochemical properties including morphology, elemental state, size distribution and surface potential were investigated. Institute of Cancer Research mice were used as model animal to evaluate the bioactivities of SeNPs-M. Trigonal-phase SeNPs of ~35 nm were synthesized, and SeNPs-M physically embedding those SeNPs were successfully prepared. Amazingly, acute toxicity test indicated that SeNPs-M were much safer than selenite in terms of Se dose, with a LD 50 of around 18-fold of that of selenite. In addition, SeNPs-M possessed powerful antioxidant activities, as evidenced by a dramatic increase of both Se retention and the levels of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase. The design of SeNPs-M can offer a new way for further development of SeNPs with a higher efficacy and better biosafety. Thus, SeNPs-M may be a potential candidate for further evaluation as an Se supplement with antioxidant properties and be used against Se deficiency in animals and human beings.

  16. Non-invasive Photoacoustic and Fluorescence Sentinel Lymph Node Identification using Dye-loaded Perfluorocarbon Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Akers, Walter J.; Kim, Chulhong; Berezin, Mikhail; Guo, Kevin; Fuhrhop, Ralph; Lanza, Gregory M.; Fischer, Georg M.; Daltrozzo, Ewald; Zumbusch, Andreas; Cai, Xin; Wang, Lihong V.; Achilefu, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    The contrast mechanisms used for photoacoustic tomography (PAT) and fluorescence imaging differ in subtle but significant ways. Design of contrast agents for each or both modalities requires an understanding of the spectral characteristics as well as intra- and intermolecular interactions that occur during formulation. We found that fluorescence quenching that occurs in the formulation of near infrared (NIR) fluorescent dyes in nanoparticles results in enhanced contrast for PAT. The ability of the new PAT method to utilize strongly absorbing chromophores for signal generation allowed us to convert a highly fluorescent dye into an exceptionally high PA contrast material. Spectroscopic characterization of the developed NIR dye-loaded perfluorocarbon-based nanoparticles for combined fluorescence and PA imaging revealed distinct dye-dependent photophysical behavior. We demonstrate that the enhanced contrast allows detection of regional lymph nodes of rats in vivo with time-domain optical and photoacoustic imaging methods. The results further show that the use of fluorescence lifetime (FLT) imaging, which is less dependent on fluorescence intensity, provides a strategic approach to bridge the disparate contrast reporting mechanisms of fluorescence and PA imaging methods. PMID:21171567

  17. Production, characterisation, and in vitro nebulisation performance of budesonide-loaded PLA nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Amini, Mohammad Ali; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali; Gilani, Kambiz; Moazeni, Esmaeil; Esmaeilzadeh-Gharehdaghi, Elina; Amani, Amir

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to prepare a nanosuspension of budesonide for respiratory delivery using nebuliser by optimising its particle size and characterising its in vitro deposition behaviour. PLA (poly lactic acid)-budesonide nanosuspension (BNS) was prepared using high-pressure emulsification/solvent evaporation method. To optimise particle size, different parameters such as PLA concentration, sonication time, and amplitude were investigated. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses were performed to characterise the prepared PLA-budesonide nanoparticles. The in vitro aerodynamic characteristics of the PLA-BNS using a jet nebuliser were estimated and compared with that of commercially available suspension formulation of budesonide. Budesonide-loaded PLA nanoparticles with fine particle size (an average size of 224-360 nm), narrow size distribution, and spherical and smooth surface were prepared. The optimum condition for preparation of fine particle size for aerosolisation was found to be at PLA concentration of 1.2 mg/ml and amplitude of 70 for 75 s sonication time. The in vitro aerosolisation performance of PLA-BNS compared to that of commercial budesonide indicated that it has significantly (p < 0.05) smaller mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) value with an enhancement in fine particle fraction (FPF) value. Improving the in vitro deposition of budesonide, PLA-BNS could be considered as a promising alternative suspension formulation for deep lung delivery of the drug using nebuliser.

  18. Optimized Preparation of Levofloxacin-loaded Chitosan Nanoparticles by Ionotropic Gelation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, J.; Cheng, P.; Huang, S. J.; Wu, J. M.; Li, Z. H.; You, X. D.; Hao, L. M.; Guo, Y.; Li, R. X.; Zhang, H.

    The present work investigates the feasibility of fabricating chitosan (CS)-levofloxacin (LOF) nanoparticles by ionotropic gelation technology. An orthogonal experiment was designed to optimize its preparing parameters and multi-index comprehensive weighed score analysis method was used to study the effects of various factors including concentration of CS, concentration of tripolyphosphate (TPP), mass ratio of CS to TPP, and mass ratio of CS to LOF on the properties of nanoparticles. The particles prepared under optimal condition of 2 mg/ml CS concentration, 2 mg/ml TPP concentration, 0.5:1 mass ratio of oil to water and 4:1 mass ratio of CS to TPP had 140 nm diameter, 0.95 span, 6.13% loading capacity (LC) and 24.91% encapsulation efficiency (EE). In vitro release profile showed that LOF released fast initially and then slowly with T90 occurring at 76.5 h. Future studies should focus on antibacterial and biocompatible properties in order to evaluate its potential as sustainable delivery system.

  19. Preparation and antioxidant properties of selenium nanoparticles-loaded chitosan microspheres

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Kaikai; Hong, Bihong; He, Jianlin; Hong, Zhuan; Tan, Ran

    2017-01-01

    Selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs), as a special form of selenium (Se) supplement, have attracted worldwide attention due to their favorable properties and unique bioactivities. Herein, an eco-friendly and economic way to prepare stable SeNPs is introduced. SeNPs were synthesized in aqueous chitosan (CTS) and then embedded into CTS microspheres by spray-drying, forming selenium nanoparticles-loaded chitosan microspheres (SeNPs-M). The physicochemical properties including morphology, elemental state, size distribution and surface potential were investigated. Institute of Cancer Research mice were used as model animal to evaluate the bioactivities of SeNPs-M. Trigonal-phase SeNPs of ~35 nm were synthesized, and SeNPs-M physically embedding those SeNPs were successfully prepared. Amazingly, acute toxicity test indicated that SeNPs-M were much safer than selenite in terms of Se dose, with a LD50 of around 18-fold of that of selenite. In addition, SeNPs-M possessed powerful antioxidant activities, as evidenced by a dramatic increase of both Se retention and the levels of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase. The design of SeNPs-M can offer a new way for further development of SeNPs with a higher efficacy and better biosafety. Thus, SeNPs-M may be a potential candidate for further evaluation as an Se supplement with antioxidant properties and be used against Se deficiency in animals and human beings. PMID:28684913

  20. Preparation and evaluation of amoxicillin loaded dual molecularly imprinted nanoparticles for anti-Helicobacter pylori therapy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhihui; Hou, Jiapeng; Wang, Yuyan; Chai, Miaolin; Xiong, Yan; Lu, Weiyue; Pan, Jun

    2015-12-30

    This paper reports studies on preparation and evaluation of amoxicillin loaded dual molecularly imprinted nanoparticles (Amo/Dual-MIPs) designed for anti-H. pylori therapy. Both MNQA and AmoNa were chosen as templates to prepare Dual-MIPs using inverse microemulsion polymerization method. NQA was modified with myristic acid (MNQA) to become amphiphilic and assist in leaving NQA cavities on the surface of Dual-MIPs for H. pylori adhesion. AmoNa was applied to produce imprinting sites in Dual-MIPs for rebinding AmoNa to exert its anti-H. pylori effect. Batch rebinding test demonstrated a preferential rebinding effect of NQA toward the Dual-MIPs. In vivofluorescence imaging showed the prolonged residence time of Dual-MIPs in H. pylori infected mice stomachs after intragastric administration of nanoparticles.In vivo H. pylori clearance tests indicated Amo/Dual-MIPs had a better aniti-H. pylori effect than amoxicillin powder did. In conclusion, Amo/Dual-MIPs may provide an alternative drug delivery strategy for anti-H. pylori therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Carboxymethylated ɩ-carrageenan conjugated amphotericin B loaded gelatin nanoparticles for treating intracellular Candida glabrata infections.

    PubMed

    Aparna, V; Melge, Anu Rohit; Rajan, V K; Biswas, Raja; Jayakumar, R; Gopi Mohan, C

    2018-04-15

    Intercellular Candida glabrata infections are difficult to treat due to poor penetration of drugs into the fungal niche. Delivering amphotericin B (Amp B) into the macrophages where the pathogen inhabits is an effective solution. We are studying the macrophage targeting proficiency of ɩ-carrageenan for the delivery of Amp B using gelatin A nanoparticles (GNPs). The choice of gelatin A was the outcome of in silico inspections where the amino functionalized polymer having the best docking score with Amp B was selected. We prepared a sustained release formulation of amp B loaded carboxymethyl ɩ-carrageenan conjugated gelatin nanoparticles (CMC-Amp B-GNPs) with size 343±12nm and -25±5.3mV zeta potential. The formulations were found to be stable, biocompatible and non-haemolytic. Flow cytometry analysis showed 3 fold higher uptake of CMC-GNPs compared to the GNPs by RAW 264.7 cells. CMC-Amp B-GNPs showed enhanced antifungal activity than bare Amp B and Amp B-GNPs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Stabilizers influence drug–polymer interactions and physicochemical properties of disulfiram-loaded poly-lactide-co-glycolide nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Hoda, Muddasarul; Sufi, Shamim Akhtar; Cavuturu, Bindumadhuri; Rajagopalan, Rukkumani

    2018-01-01

    Aim: Stabilizers are known to be an integral component of polymeric nanostructures. Ideally, they manipulate physicochemical properties of nanoparticles. Based on this hypothesis, we demonstrated that disulfiram (drug) and Poly-lactide-co-glycolide (polymer) interactions and physicochemical properties of their nanoparticles formulations are significantly influenced by the choice of stabilizers. Methodology: Electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, x-ray diffraction, Raman spectrum analysis, isothermal titration calorimetry and in silico docking studies were performed. Results & discussion: Polysorbate 80 imparted highest crystallinity while Triton-X 100 imparted highest rigidity, possibly influencing drug bioavailability, blood-retention time, cellular uptake and sustained drug release. All the molecular interactions were hydrophobic in nature and entropy driven. Therefore, polymeric nanoparticles may be critically manipulated to streamline the passive targeting of drug-loaded nanoparticles. PMID:29379637

  3. Preparation, characterization and pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles: influences of fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Xie, Shuyu; Zhu, Luyan; Dong, Zhao; Wang, Xiaofang; Wang, Yan; Li, Xihe; Zhou, WenZhong

    2011-04-01

    Enrofloxacin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) were prepared using fatty acids (tetradecanoic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid) as lipid matrix by hot homogenization and ultrasonication method. The effect of fatty acids on the characteristics and pharmacokinetics of the SLN were investigated. The results showed that the encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity of nanoparticles varied with fatty acids in the order of stearic acid>palmitic acid>tetradecanoic acid. Furthermore, stearic acid-SLN had larger particle size, bigger polydispersity index (PDI) and higher zeta potential compared with the other two fatty acid formulated SLN. The SLN showed sustained releases in vitro and the released enrofloxacin had the same antibacterial activity as that of the native enrofloxacin. Although in vitro release exhibited similar patterns, within 24 h the releasing rates of the three formulations were significantly different (tetradecanoic acid-SLN>palmitic acid-SLN>stearic acid-SLN). Pharmacokinetic study after a single dose of intramuscular administration to mice demonstrated that tetradecanoic acid-SLN, palmitic acid-SLN, and stearic acid-SLN increased the bioavailability by 6.79, 3.56 and 2.39 folds, and extended the mean residence time (MRT) of the drug from 10.60 h to 180.36, 46.26 and 19.09 h, respectively. These results suggest that the enrofloxacin-fatty acid SLN are promising formulations for sustained release while fatty acids had significant influences on the characteristics and performances of the SLN. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Curcumin-loaded magnetic nanoparticles for breast cancer therapeutics and imaging applications.

    PubMed

    Yallapu, Murali M; Othman, Shadi F; Curtis, Evan T; Bauer, Nichole A; Chauhan, Neeraj; Kumar, Deepak; Jaggi, Meena; Chauhan, Subhash C

    2012-01-01

    The next generation magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) with theranostic applications have attracted significant attention and will greatly improve nanomedicine in cancer therapeutics. Such novel MNP formulations must have ultra-low particle size, high inherent magnetic properties, effective imaging, drug targeting, and drug delivery properties. To achieve these characteristic properties, a curcumin-loaded MNP (MNP-CUR) formulation was developed. MNPs were prepared by chemical precipitation method and loaded with curcumin (CUR) using diffusion method. The physicochemical properties of MNP-CUR were characterized using dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and spectroscopy. The internalization of MNP-CUR was achieved after 6 hours incubation with MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. The anticancer potential was evaluated by a tetrazolium-based dye and colony formation assays. Further, to prove MNP-CUR results in superior therapeutic effects over CUR, the mitochondrial membrane potential integrity and reactive oxygen species generation were determined. Magnetic resonance imaging capability and magnetic targeting property were also evaluated. MNP-CUR exhibited individual particle grain size of ~9 nm and hydrodynamic average aggregative particle size of ~123 nm. Internalized MNP-CUR showed a preferential uptake in MDA-MB-231 cells in a concentration-dependent manner and demonstrated accumulation throughout the cell, which indicates that particles are not attached on the cell surface but internalized through endocytosis. MNP-CUR displayed strong anticancer properties compared to free CUR. MNP-CUR also amplified loss of potential integrity and generation of reactive oxygen species upon treatment compared to free CUR. Furthermore, MNP-CUR exhibited superior magnetic resonance imaging characteristics and significantly increased the targeting capability of CUR. MNP-CUR exhibits potent anticancer activity along with imaging and magnetic targeting capabilities. This

  5. Eudragit S100-Coated Chitosan Nanoparticles Co-loading Tat for Enhanced Oral Colon Absorption of Insulin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuangxi; Guo, Feng; Deng, Tiantian; Zhu, Siqi; Liu, Wenyu; Zhong, Haijun; Yu, Hua; Luo, Rong; Deng, Zeyuan

    2017-05-01

    In order to improve oral absorption of insulin, especially the absorption at the colon, Eudragit S100® (ES)-coated chitosan nanoparticles loading insulin and a trans-activating transcriptional peptide (Tat) were employed as the vehicle. In vitro releases of insulin and Tat from ES-coated chitosan nanoparticles had a pH-dependant characteristic. A small amount of the contents was released from the coated nanoparticles at pH 1.2 simulated gastric fluid, while a fairly fast and complete release was observed in pH 7.4 medium. Caco-2 cell was used as the model of cellular transport and uptake studies. The results showed that the cellular transport and uptake of insulin for ES-coated chitosan nanoparticles co-loading insulin and Tat (ES-Tat-cNPs) were about 3-fold and 4-fold higher than those for the nanoparticles loading only insulin (ES-cNPs), respectively. The evaluations in vivo of ES-Tat-cNPs were conducted on diabetic rats and normal minipigs, respectively. The experimental results on rats revealed that the pharmacodynamical bioavailability of ES-Tat-cNPs had 2.16-fold increase compared with ES-cNPs. After oral administration of nanoparticle suspensions to the minipigs, insulin bioavailability of ES-Tat-cNPs was 1.73-fold higher than that of ES-cNPs, and the main absorption site of insulin was probably located in the colon for the two nanoparticles. In summary, this report provided an exploratory means for the improvement of oral absorption of insulin.

  6. Polycaprolactone Based Nanoparticles Loaded with Indomethacin for Anti-Inflammatory Therapy: From Preparation to Ex Vivo Study.

    PubMed

    Badri, Waisudin; Miladi, Karim; Robin, Sophie; Viennet, Céline; Nazari, Qand Agha; Agusti, Géraldine; Fessi, Hatem; Elaissari, Abdelhamid

    2017-09-01

    This work focused on the preparation of polycaprolactone based nanoparticles containing indomethacin to provide topical analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect for symptomatic treatment of inflammatory diseases. Indomethacin loaded nanoparticles are prepared for topical application to decrease indomethacin side effects and administration frequency. Oppositely to already reported works, in this research non-invasive method has been used for the enhancement of indomethacin dermal drug penetration. Ex-vivo skin penetration study was carried out on fresh human skin. Nanoprecipitation was used to prepare nanoparticles. Nanoparticles were characterized using numerous techniques; dynamic light scattering, SEM, TEM, DSC and FTIR. Regarding ex-vivo skin penetration of nanoparticles, confocal laser scanning microscopy has been used. The results showed that NPs hydrodynamic size was between 220 to 245 nm and the zeta potential value ranges from -19 to -13 mV at pH 5 and 1 mM NaCl. The encapsulation efficiency was around 70% and the drug loading was about 14 to 17%. SEM and TEM images confirmed that the obtained nanoparticles were spherical with smooth surface. The prepared nanoparticles dispersions were stable for a period of 30 days under three temperatures of 4°C, 25°C and 40°C. In addition, CLSM images proved that obtained NPs can penetrate the skin as well. The prepared nanoparticles are submicron in nature, with good colloidal stability and penetrate the stratum corneum layer of the skin. This formulation potentiates IND skin penetration and as a promising strategy would be able to decline the side effects of IND.

  7. Preparation, Optimization and Toxicity Evaluation of (SPION-PLGA) ±PEG Nanoparticles Loaded with Gemcitabine as a Multifunctional Nanoparticle for Therapeutic and Diagnostic Applications.

    PubMed

    Hamzian, Nima; Hashemi, Maryam; Ghorbani, Mahdi; Bahreyni Toosi, Mohammad Hossein; Ramezani, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a novel multifunctional nanoparticle, which encapsulates SPION and Gemcitabine in PLGA ± PEG to form multifunctional drug delivery system. For this aim, super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) were simultaneously synthesized and encapsulated with Gemcitabine (Gem) in PLGA ± PEG copolymers via W/O/W double emulsification method. Optimum size and encapsulation efficiency for radiosensitization, hyperthermia and diagnostic applications were considered and the preparation parameters systematically were investigated and physicochemical characteristics of optimized nanoparticle were studied. Then SPION-PLGA and PLGA-Gem nanoparticles were prepared with the same optimized parameters and the toxicity of these nanoparticles was compared with Gemcitabine in human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7). The optimum preparation parameters were obtained with Gem/polymer equal to 0.04, SPION/polymer equal to 0.8 and 1% sucrose per 20 mg of polymer. The hydrodynamic diameters of all nanoparticles were under 200 nm. Encapsulation efficiency was adjusted between 13.2% to 16.1% for Gemcitabine and 48.2% to 50.1% for SPION. In-vitro Gemcitabine release kinetics had controlled behavior. Enhancement ratios for PLGA-Gem and SPION-PLGA-Gem at concentration of nanoparticles equal to IC50 of Gemcitabine were 1.53 and 1.89 respectively. The statistical difference was significant ( p -value = 0.006 for SPION-PLGA-Gem and p -value = 0.015 for PLGA-Gem compared with Gemcitabine). In conclusion, we have successfully developed a Gemcitabine loaded super paramagnetic PLGA-Iron Oxide multifunctional drag delivery system. Future work includes in-vitro and in-vivo investigation of radiosensitization and other application of these nanoparticles.

  8. Towards development of novel immunization strategies against leishmaniasis using PLGA nanoparticles loaded with kinetoplastid membrane protein-11.

    PubMed

    Santos, Diego M; Carneiro, Marcia W; de Moura, Tatiana R; Fukutani, Kiyoshi; Clarencio, Jorge; Soto, Manuel; Espuelas, Socorro; Brodskyn, Claudia; Barral, Aldina; Barral-Netto, Manoel; de Oliveira, Camila I

    2012-01-01

    Vaccine development has been a priority in the fight against leishmaniases, which are vector-borne diseases caused by Leishmania protozoa. Among the different immunization strategies employed to date is inoculation of plasmid DNA coding for parasite antigens, which has a demonstrated ability to induce humoral and cellular immune responses. In this sense, inoculation of plasmid DNA encoding Leishmania kinetoplasmid membrane protein-11 (KMP-11) was able to confer protection against visceral leishmaniasis. However, recently the use of antigen delivery systems such as poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles has also proven effective for eliciting protective immune responses. In the present work, we tested two immunization strategies with the goal of obtaining protection, in terms of lesion development and parasite load, against cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. braziliensis. One strategy involved immunization with plasmid DNA encoding L. infantum chagasi KMP-11. Alternatively, mice were primed with PLGA nanoparticles loaded with the recombinant plasmid DNA and boosted using PLGA nanoparticles loaded with recombinant KMP-11. Both immunization strategies elicited detectable cellular immune responses with the presence of both proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines; mice receiving the recombinant PLGA nanoparticle formulations also demonstrated anti-KMP-11 IgG1 and IgG2a. Mice were then challenged with L. braziliensis, in the presence of sand fly saliva. Lesion development was not inhibited following either immunization strategy. However, immunization with PLGA nanoparticles resulted in a more prominent reduction in parasite load at the infection site when compared with immunization using plasmid DNA alone. This effect was associated with a local increase in interferon-gamma and in tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Both immunization strategies also resulted in a lower parasite load in the draining lymph nodes, albeit not significantly. Our results

  9. [Synthesis of antibiotic loaded polylactic acid nanoparticles and their antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus].

    PubMed

    Herrera, Mónica Tatiana; Artunduaga, Jhon Jhamilton; Ortiz, Claudia Cristina; Torres, Rodrigo Gonzalo

    2017-01-24

    Polymeric nanoparticles are promising nanotechnology tools to fight pathogenic bacteria resistant to conventional antibiotics. To synthesize polylactic acid nanoparticles loaded with ofloxacin and vancomycin, and to determine their antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). We synthesized ofloxacin or vancomycin loaded polylactic acid nanoparticles by the emulsification-solvent evaporation method, and characterized them by dynamic light scattering, laser Doppler electrophoresis and scanning electron microscopy. We evaluated in vitro antibacterial activity of ofloxacin- and vancomycin-loaded polylactic acid nanoparticles against E. coli O157:H7 and MRSA using the broth microdilution method. Ofloxacin- and vancomycin-loaded polylactic acid nanoparticles registered a positive surface charge density of 21 mV and an average size lower than 379 nm. In vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50) of ofloxacin-polylactic acid nanoparticles was 0,001 μg/ml against E. coli O157:H7, i.e., 40 times lower than the free ofloxacin (MIC50: 0.04 μg/ml), indicating enhanced antibacterial activity while the in vitro MIC50 of vancomycin-polylactic acid nanoparticles was 0,005 μg/ml against MRSA, i.e., 100 times lower than that of free vancomycin (MIC50: 0.5 μg/ml). Polylactic acid nanoparticles loaded with ofloxacin and vancomycin showed a higher antibacterial activity. Polymeric nanoparticles are a possible alternative for drug design against pathogenic bacterial strains of public health interest.

  10. A Feasibility Study of Bevacizumab Plus Dose-Dense Doxorubicin–Cyclophosphamide (AC) Followed by Nanoparticle Albumin–Bound Paclitaxel in Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    McArthur, Heather L.; Rugo, Hope; Nulsen, Benjamin; Hawks, Laura; Grothusen, Jill; Melisko, Michelle; Moasser, Mark; Paulson, Matthew; Traina, Tiffany; Patil, Sujata; Zhou, Qin; Steingart, Richard; Dang, Chau; Morrow, Monica; Cordeiro, Peter; Fornier, Monica; Park, John; Seidman, Andrew; Lake, Diana; Gilewski, Theresa; Theodoulou, Maria; Modi, Shanu; D’Andrea, Gabriella; Sklarin, Nancy; Robson, Mark; Moynahan, Mary Ellen; Sugarman, Steven; Sealey, Jane E.; Laragh, John H.; Merali, Carmen; Norton, Larry; Hudis, Clifford A.; Dickler, Maura N.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Bevacizumab confers benefits in metastatic breast cancer but may be more effective as adjuvant therapy. We evaluated the cardiac safety of bevacizumab plus dose-dense doxorubicin–cyclophosphamide (ddAC)→nanoparticle albumin−bound (nab)-paclitaxel in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 normal early-stage breast cancer. Experimental Design Eighty patients with normal left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were enrolled. Bevacizumab was administered for 1 year, concurrently with ddAC→nab-paclitaxel then as a single agent. LVEF was evaluated at months 0, 2, 6, 9, and 18. This regimen was considered safe if fewer than three cardiac events or fewer than two deaths from left ventricular dysfunction occurred. Correlative studies of cardiac troponin (cTn) and plasma renin activity (PRA) were conducted. Results The median age was 48 years (range, 27−75 years), and baseline LVEF was 68% (53%−82%). After 39 months’ median follow-up (5−45 months): median LVEF was 68% (53%−80%) at 2 months (n=78), 64% (51%−77%) at 6 months (n=66), 63% (48%−77%) at 9 months (n=61), and 66% (42%−76%) at 18 months (n=54). One patient developed symptomatic LV dysfunction at month 15. Common toxicities necessitating treatment discontinuation were hypertension (HTN, 4%), wound-healing complications (4%), and asymptomatic LVEF declines (4%). Neither cTn nor PRA predicted CHF or HTN, respectively. Conclusions Bevacizumab with ddAC→nab-paclitaxel had a low rate of cardiac events; cTn and PRA levels are not predictive of CHF or HTN, respectively. The efficacy of bevacizumab as adjuvant treatment will be established in several ongoing phase III trials. PMID:21350003

  11. PEG-PLGA electrospun nanofibrous membranes loaded with Au@Fe2O3 nanoparticles for drug delivery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spadaro, Salvatore; Santoro, Marco; Barreca, Francesco; Scala, Angela; Grimato, Simona; Neri, Fortunato; Fazio, Enza

    2018-02-01

    A PEGylated-PLGA random nanofibrous membrane loaded with gold and iron oxide nanoparticles and with silibinin was prepared by electrospinning deposition. The nanofibrous membrane can be remotely controlled and activated by a laser light or magnetic field to release biological agents on demand. The nanosystems were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analyses. The drug loading efficiency and drug content percentages were determined by UV-vis optical absorption spectroscopy. The nanofibrous membrane irradiated by a relatively low-intensity laser or stimulated by a magnetic field showed sustained silibinin release for at least 60 h, without the burst effect. The proposed low-cost electrospinning procedure is capable of assembling, via a one-step procedure, a stimuli-responsive drug-loaded nanosystem with metallic nanoparticles to be externally activated for controlled drug delivery.

  12. Dacarbazine-Loaded Hollow Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles Grafted with Folic Acid for Enhancing Antimetastatic Melanoma Response.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qianqian; Xu, Nan; Liu, Liping; Li, Jun; Zhang, Yamin; Shen, Chen; Shezad, Khurram; Zhang, Lianbin; Zhu, Jintao; Tao, Juan

    2017-07-05

    Dacarbazine (DTIC) is one of the most important chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of melanoma; however, its poor solubility, photosensitivity, instability, and serious toxicity to normal cells limit its clinical applications. In this article, we present a rationally designed nanocarrier based on hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSNs) for the encapsulation and targeted release of DTIC for eradicating melanoma. The nanocarrier (DTIC@HMLBFs) is prepared by modifying HMSNs with carboxyl groups to enhance the loading of DTIC, followed by further enveloping of folic acid-grafted liposomes, which act as a melanoma active target for controlled and targeted drug release. In vitro, DTIC@HMLBFs exhibited the strongest cytotoxicity to melanoma cells compared with DTIC@HMSNs and free DTIC. The in vivo investigations demonstrate that the rationally designed nanocarrier loaded with DTIC achieves significant improvement against lung metastasis of melanoma via targeting melanoma cells and tumor-associated macrophages. This study provides a promising platform for the design and fabrication of multifunctional nanomedicines, which are potentially useful for the treatment of melanoma.

  13. Cabazitaxel-loaded human serum albumin nanoparticles as a therapeutic agent against prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Na; Lee, Robert J; Sun, Yating; Cai, Guangsheng; Wang, Junyang; Wang, Mengqiao; Lu, Jiahui; Meng, Qingfan; Teng, Lirong; Wang, Di; Teng, Lesheng

    2016-01-01

    Cabazitaxel-loaded human serum albumin nanoparticles (Cbz-NPs) were synthesized to overcome vehicle-related toxicity of current clinical formulation of the drug based on Tween-80 (Cbz-Tween). A salting-out method was used for NP synthesis that avoids the use of chlorinated organic solvent and is simpler compared to the methods based on emulsion-solvent evaporation. Cbz-NPs had a narrow particle size distribution, suitable drug loading content (4.9%), and superior blood biocompatibility based on in vitro hemolysis assay. Blood circulation, tumor uptake, and antitumor activity of Cbz-NPs were assessed in prostatic cancer xenograft-bearing nude mice. Cbz-NPs exhibited prolonged blood circulation and greater accumulation of Cbz in tumors along with reduced toxicity compared to Cbz-Tween. Moreover, hematoxylin and eosin histopathological staining of organs revealed consistent results. The levels of blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine in drug-treated mice showed that Cbz-NPs were less toxic than Cbz-Tween to the kidneys. In conclusion, Cbz-NPs provide a promising therapeutic for prostate cancer. PMID:27555767

  14. Highly Loaded Mesoporous Silica/Nanoparticle Composites and Patterned Mesoporous Silica Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothari, Rohit; Hendricks, Nicholas R.; Wang, Xinyu; Watkins, James J.

    2014-03-01

    Novel approaches for the preparation of highly filled mesoporous silica/nanoparticle (MS/NP) composites and for the fabrication of patterned MS films are described. The incorporation of iron platinum NPs within the walls of MS is achieved at high NP loadings by doping amphiphilic poly(ethylene oxide-b-propylene oxide-b-ethylene oxide) (Pluronic®) copolymer templates via selective hydrogen bonding between the pre-synthesized NPs and the hydrophilic portion of the block copolymer. The MS is then synthesized by means of phase selective condensation of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) within the NP loaded block copolymer templates dilated with supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) followed by calcination. For patterned films, microphase separated block copolymer/small molecule additive blends are patterned using UV-assisted nanoimprint lithography. Infusion and condensation of a TEOS within template films using ScCO2 as a processing medium followed by calcination yields the patterned MS films. Scanning electron microscopy is used characterize pattern fidelity and transmission electron microscopy analysis confirms the presence of the mesopores. Long range order in nanocomposites is confirmed by low angle x-ray diffraction.

  15. Enhanced antitumor efficacy of folate targeted nanoparticles co-loaded with docetaxel and curcumin.

    PubMed

    Hu, Liandong; Pang, Saixi; Hu, Qiaofeng; Gu, Deliang; Kong, Dongqian; Xiong, Xiaoyun; Su, Jianying

    2015-10-01

    The current study aimed to investigate whether the novel folate (FT) modified nanoparticles (NPs) co-loaded with docetaxel (DT) and curcumin (CU) (named as FT-NPs) could enhance the delivery efficiency to tumor compared with the NPs without FT (non-targeted NPs). FT-NPs were successfully formulated in this article. In vitro cytotoxic activity against A549 cells and in vivo antitumor activity of FT-NPs in S180 cell bearing mice were conducted. Cellular uptake test was used to evaluate uptake efficiency of FT-NPs. Histological observation was used to determine the lung security. Besides, the physical chemical properties such as stability, particle size, zeta potential, drug encapsulation efficiency, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were also conducted. FT-NPs exhibited stronger growth inhibition effects on A549 cells compared with non-targeted NPs, moreover, the novel FT-NPs indicated more effective antitumor efficacy in inhibiting tumor growth. Confocal laser scanning microscopy indicated that the uptake of FT-NPs was facilitated and effective. Histological observation meant that FT-NPs were biocompatible and appropriate for pulmonary administration. These results confirmed that FT-NPs with relatively high drug loading capacity could effectively inhibit tumor growth and reduce toxicity. The novel FT-NPs could produce as an outstanding nanocarrier for the targeted treatment of cancers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Near-infrared fluorescence imaging platform for quantifying in vivo nanoparticle diffusion from drug loaded implants.

    PubMed

    Markovic, Stacey; Belz, Jodi; Kumar, Rajiv; Cormack, Robert A; Sridhar, Srinivas; Niedre, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Drug loaded implants are a new, versatile technology platform to deliver a localized payload of drugs for various disease models. One example is the implantable nanoplatform for chemo-radiation therapy where inert brachytherapy spacers are replaced by spacers doped with nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with chemotherapeutics and placed directly at the disease site for long-term localized drug delivery. However, it is difficult to directly validate and optimize the diffusion of these doped NPs in in vivo systems. To better study this drug release and diffusion, we developed a custom macroscopic fluorescence imaging system to visualize and quantify fluorescent NP diffusion from spacers in vivo. To validate the platform, we studied the release of free fluorophores, and 30 nm and 200 nm NPs conjugated with the same fluorophores as a model drug, in agar gel phantoms in vitro and in mice in vivo. Our data verified that the diffusion volume was NP size-dependent in all cases. Our near-infrared imaging system provides a method by which NP diffusion from implantable nanoplatform for chemo-radiation therapy spacers can be systematically optimized (eg, particle size or charge) thereby improving treatment efficacy of the platform.

  17. Studying the loading effect of acidic type antioxidant on amorphous silica nanoparticle carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravinayagam, Vijaya; Rabindran Jermy, B.

    2017-06-01

    The study investigates the suitable nanosilica carriers to transport acidic type cargo molecules for potential targeted drug delivery application. Using phenolic acidic type antioxidant gallic acid (GA) as model compound, the present study investigates the loading effect of GA (0.3-15.9 mmol GA g-1 support) on textural characteristics of amorphous silica nanoparticles such as Q10 silica (1D), structured two-dimensional Si-MCM-41 (2D), and three-dimensional Si-SBA-16 (3D). The variation in the nature of textures after GA loading was analyzed using X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption, FT-IR, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Among the nanocarriers, high adsorption of GA was found in the following order: Si-SBA-16 (3D)˜Si-KIT-6 (3D) > Si-MCM-41 (2D) > ultralarge pore FDU-12 (ULPFDU-12; 3D) > Q10 (1D)˜mesostructured cellular silica foam (MSU-F). 3D-type silicas Si-SBA-16 and KIT-6 were shown to maintain structural integrity at acidic condition (pH ˜3) and accommodate GA in non-crystalline form. In the case of ULPFDU-12 and MSU-F cellular foam, only crystalline deposition of GA occurs with a significant variation in the surface area and pore volume. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  18. Photodynamic therapy using nanoparticle loaded with indocyanine green for experimental peritoneal dissemination of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tsujimoto, Hironori; Morimoto, Yuji; Takahata, Risa; Nomura, Shinsuke; Yoshida, Kazumichi; Horiguchi, Hiroyuki; Hiraki, Shuichi; Ono, Satoshi; Miyazaki, Hiromi; Saito, Daizo; Hara, Isao; Ozeki, Eiichi; Yamamoto, Junji; Hase, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Although there have been multiple advances in the development of novel anticancer agents and operative procedures, prognosis of patients with advanced gastric cancer remains poor, especially in patients with peritoneal metastasis. In this study, we established nanoparticles loaded with indocyanine green (ICG) derivatives: ICG loaded lactosomes (ICGm) and investigated the diagnostic and therapeutic value of photodynamic therapy (PDT) using ICGm for experimental peritoneal dissemination of gastric cancer. Experimental peritoneal disseminated xenografts of human gastric cancer were established in nude mice. Three weeks after intraperitoneal injection of the cancer cells, either ICGm (ICGm-treated mice) or ICG solution (ICG-treated mice) was injected through the tail vein. Forty-eight hours after injection of the photosensitizer, in vivo and ex vivo imaging was carried out. For PDT, 48 h after injection of the photosensitizer, other mice were irradiated through the abdominal wall, and the body weight and survival rate were monitored. In vivo imaging revealed that peritoneal tumors were visualized through the abdominal wall in ICGm-treated mice, whereas only non-specific fluorescence was observed in ICG-treated mice. The PDT reduced the total weight of the disseminated nodules and significantly improved weight loss and survival rate in ICGm-treated mice. In conclusion, ICGm can be used as a novel diagnostic and therapeutic nanodevice in peritoneal dissemination of gastric cancer. PMID:25287817

  19. Biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of dapivirine-loaded nanoparticles after vaginal delivery in mice.

    PubMed

    das Neves, José; Araújo, Francisca; Andrade, Fernanda; Amiji, Mansoor; Bahia, Maria Fernanda; Sarmento, Bruno

    2014-07-01

    To assess the potential of polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) to affect the genital distribution and local and systemic pharmacokinetics (PK) of the anti-HIV microbicide drug candidate dapivirine after vaginal delivery. Dapivirine-loaded, poly(ethylene oxide)-coated poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PEO-PCL) NPs were prepared by a nanoprecipitation method. Genital distribution of NPs and their ability to modify the PK of dapivirine up to 24 h was assessed after vaginal instillation in a female mouse model. Also, the safety of NPs upon daily administration for 14 days was assessed by histological analysis and chemokine/cytokine content in vaginal lavages. PEO-PCL NPs (180-200 nm) were rapidly eliminated after administration but able to distribute throughout the vagina and lower uterus, and capable of tackling mucus and penetrate the epithelial lining. Nanocarriers modified the PK of dapivirine, with higher drug levels being recovered from vaginal lavages and vaginal/lower uterine tissues as compared to a drug suspension. Systemic drug exposure was reduced when NPs were used. Also, NPs were shown safe upon administration for 14 days. Dapivirine-loaded PEO-PCL NPs were able to provide likely favorable genital drug levels, thus attesting the potential value of using this vaginal drug delivery nanosystem in the context of HIV prophylaxis.

  20. A new strategy based on SmRho protein loaded chitosan nanoparticles as a candidate oral vaccine against schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Carolina R; Rezende, Cíntia M F; Silva, Marina R; Pêgo, Ana Paula; Borges, Olga; Goes, Alfredo M

    2012-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is one of the most important neglected tropical diseases and an effective control is unlikely in the absence of improved sanitation and vaccination. A new approach of oral vaccination with alginate coated chitosan nanoparticles appears interesting because their great stability and the ease of target accessibility, besides of chitosan and alginate immunostimulatory properties. Here we propose a candidate vaccine based on the combination of chitosan-based nanoparticles containing the antigen SmRho and coated with sodium alginate. Our results showed an efficient performance of protein loading of nanoparticles before and after coating with alginate. Characterization of the resulting nanoparticles reported a size around 430 nm and a negative zeta potential. In vitro release studies of protein showed great stability of coated nanoparticles in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF). Further in vivo studies was performed with different formulations of chitosan nanoparticles and it showed that oral immunization was not able to induce high levels of antibodies, otherwise intramuscular immunization induced high levels of both subtypes IgG1 and IgG2a SmRho specific antibodies. Mice immunized with nanoparticles associated to CpG showed significant modulation of granuloma reaction. Mice from all groups immunized orally with nanoparticles presented significant levels of protection against infection challenge with S. mansoni worms, suggesting an important role of chitosan in inducing a protective immune response. Finally, mice immunized with nanoparticles associated with the antigen SmRho plus CpG had 38% of the granuloma area reduced and also presented 48% of protection against of S. mansoni infection. Taken together, this results support this new strategy as an efficient delivery system and a potential vaccine against schistosomiasis.

  1. Development of silane grafted ZnO core shell nanoparticles loaded diglycidyl epoxy nanocomposites film for antimicrobial applications.

    PubMed

    Suresh, S; Saravanan, P; Jayamoorthy, K; Ananda Kumar, S; Karthikeyan, S

    2016-07-01

    In this article a series of epoxy nanocomposites film were developed using amine functionalized (ZnO-APTES) core shell nanoparticles as the dispersed phase and a commercially available epoxy resin as the matrix phase. The functional group of the samples was characterized using FT-IR spectra. The most prominent peaks of epoxy resin were found in bare epoxy and in all the functionalized ZnO dispersed epoxy nanocomposites (ZnO-APTES-DGEBA). The XRD analysis of all the samples exhibits considerable shift in 2θ, intensity and d-spacing values but the best and optimum concentration is found to be 3% ZnO-APTES core shell nanoparticles loaded epoxy nanocomposites supported by FT-IR results. From TGA measurements, 100wt% residue is obtained in bare ZnO nanoparticles whereas in ZnO core shell nanoparticles grafted DGEBA residue percentages are 37, 41, 45, 46 and 52% for 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7% ZnO-APTES-DGEBA respectively, which is confirmed with ICP-OES analysis. From antimicrobial activity test, it was notable that antimicrobial activity of 7% ZnO-APTES core shell nanoparticles loaded epoxy nanocomposite film has best inhibition zone effect against all pathogens under study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Feasibility of haloperidol-anchored albumin nanoparticles loaded with doxorubicin as dry powder inhaler for pulmonary delivery.

    PubMed

    Varshosaz, Jaleh; Hassanzadeh, Farshid; Mardani, Amin; Rostami, Mahboubeh

    2015-03-01

    Haloperidol (Hal) is a ligand that can target sigma 2 receptors over-expressed in non-small cell lung cancer. Hal targeted nanoparticles of bovine serum albumin (BSA) were prepared for pulmonary delivery of doxorubicin (DOX). The conjugation was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectroscopic methods. Nanoparticles were prepared by desolvation method from BSA-Hal and were loaded with DOX. They were characterized for their morphology, particle size, zeta potential, drug loading and release efficiency. The optimized nanoparticles were spray-dried using trehalose, l-leucin and mannitol as dry powder inhaler (DPI) in different inlet temperatures between 80 and 120°C. The obtained nanocomposites were characterized for their aerodynamic diameter, specific surface area (cm(2)/g) and fine particle fraction (FPF) by a Cascade Impactor device. The optimized nanoparticles showed particle size of 218 nm, zeta potential of -25.4 mV, drug entrapment efficiency of 89% and release efficiency of 56% until 2 h. After spray drying of these nanoparticles, the best results were obtained from mannitol with an inlet temperature of 80°C which produced a mean aerodynamic diameter of 4.58 μm, FPF of 66% and specific surface area of 6302.99 cm(2)/g. The obtained results suggest that the designed DPI could be a suitable inhaler for targeted delivery of DOX in pulmonary delivery.

  3. Preparation, characterization and optimization of sildenafil citrate loaded PLGA nanoparticles by statistical factorial design

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background and the aim of the study The objective of the present study was to formulate and optimize nanoparticles (NPs) of sildenafil-loaded poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) by double emulsion solvent evaporation (DESE) method. The relationship between design factors and experimental data was evaluated using response surface methodology. Method A Box-Behnken design was made considering the mass ratio of drug to polymer (D/P), the volumetric proportion of the water to oil phase (W/O) and the concentration of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as the independent agents. PLGA-NPs were successfully prepared and the size (nm), entrapment efficiency (EE), drug loading (DL) and cumulative release of drug from NPs post 1 and 8 hrs were assessed as the responses. Results The NPs were prepared in a spherical shape and the sizes range of 240 to 316 nm. The polydispersity index of size was lower than 0.5 and the EE (%) and DL (%) varied between 14-62% and 2-6%, respectively. The optimized formulation with a desirability factor of 0.9 was selected and characterized. This formulation demonstrated the particle size of 270 nm, EE of 55%, DL of 3.9% and cumulative drug release of 79% after 12 hrs. In vitro release studies showed a burst release at the initial stage followed by a sustained release of sildenafil from NPs up to 12 hrs. The release kinetic of the optimized formulation was fitted to Higuchi model. Conclusions Sildenafil citrate NPs with small particle size, lipophilic feature, high entrapment efficiency and good loading capacity is produced by this method. Characterization of optimum formulation, provided by an evaluation of experimental data, showed no significant difference between calculated and measured data. PMID:24355133

  4. Uptake mechanism of furosemide-loaded pegylated nanoparticles by cochlear cell lines.

    PubMed

    Youm, Ibrahima; Youan, Bi-Botti C

    2013-10-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that pegylated nanoparticles (NPs) could be taken up by the cochlear cells [House Ear Institute-organ of Corti 1 (HEI-OC1) and Stria vascularis K-1 (SVK-1)], through endocytic pathways. Furthermore, the in vitro drug release and the cytotoxicity of Furosemide (FUR)-loaded NPs on these two cochlear cells are investigated. FUR-loaded pegylated NPs are prepared by the emulsion-solvent diffusion method without surfactant. The NPs are characterized for particle mean diameter, polydispersity index (PDI), morphology, percent drug encapsulation efficiency (EE%), and FUR release kinetics. The methyl tetrazolium salt (MTS) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) bioassays are used to evaluate in vitro, the cytotoxicity of FUR-loaded NPs and native FUR. The NPs uptake is investigated using confocal microscopy, microplate reader/fluorimetry, and flow cytometry. Spherical NPs with a mean diameter range of 133-210 nm and PDI values varying from 0.037 to 0.41 are produced. The FUR EE% is 86% and the drug is released from the NPs according to the zero-order and Higuchi models. After treatment with blank NPs, the percentage of cell viability and cell death are 95.96% and 8.95%, in HEI-OC1 cells, respectively. The NPs are internalized by HEI-OC1 cells through a clathrin-dependent pathway. In addition, results show that NPs can be taken up via clathrin and cytoskeleton mediated pathways in SVK-1 cells. The internalization of the pegylated NPs can enhance the drug toxicity by necrosis in a dose-dependent and sustained release manner. The formulated NPs provide a promising template for a targeted drug delivery system to the inner ear. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Paclitaxel-loaded KMnF3 nanoparticles for cancer imaging and therapy in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xiao-xia; Wan, Hong-ping; Zhang, Jin-sheng; Tang, Qun

    2014-11-01

    Biocompatible nanoparticles (NPs) responding to the light, thermal, or magnetic excitation are attracting more attention for diagnosis and therapy of cancer. Design of an effective multifunctional complex based on those NPs is a key issue to be addressed, for example, integration of anti-tumor agents with nanoprobes has been considered as one of the successful strategies for combined cancer diagnosis and therapy. In this paper, we develop paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded PEGylation KMnF3 NP, with the size ranged from 18 to 23 nm, as MRI contrast agents for cancer imaging and drug delivery for chemotherapy. Preliminary cell tests demonstrated that PTX@PEG-KMnF3 NP is highly biocompatible. The NP has high loading capacity of PTX (0.7 mg PTX/mg Mn ions), enhanced solubility of PTX (0.16 mg PTX/ml vs 0.02 mg PTX/ml), and high releasing ratio (90 %) in the weak acid solution. As it was applied for in vivo imaging and therapy, the NP enhanced contrast of tumor's MR images and PTX's anti-tumor effect profoundly. The signal noise ratio of the cancer image increased 170 % as comparison to pre-injection with the injection dose of 1.15 mg Mn/kg. The drug delivery's efficacy was also substantially improved, as the tumor growth inhibition effects reached 50 %, meanwhile only 30 % for pristine PTX. Our studies suggest that PTX-loaded KMnF3 NP might be useful as MR image-guided drug delivery for tumor treatment.

  6. Formulation, characterization and cytotoxicity studies of alendronate sodium-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ezzati Nazhad Dolatabadi, Jafar; Hamishehkar, Hamed; Eskandani, Morteza; Valizadeh, Hadi

    2014-05-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) are novel drug delivery system for drug targeting in various routs of administration such as parenteral, oral, ophthalmic and topical. These carriers have some advantages such as high drug payload, increased drug stability, the possibility of incorporation of lipophilic and hydrophilic drugs, and low biotoxicity. In this study, alendronate sodium was used as a hydrophilic model drug and was incorporated into SLNs. Hot homogenization method was used for preparation of alendronate sodium-loaded SLN formulations and the encapsulation efficiency of drug in SLNs was determined by ultrafiltration method using centrifugal devices. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was carried out to study the morphological behaviors of prepared SLNs like sphericity. Several cytotoxicity studies including MTT, DAPI staining and DNA fragmentation assays were used for biocompatibility assays. High drug encapsulation efficiency (70-85%) was achieved by drug determination through derivatization with o-phthalaldehyde. The physical stability of drug-loaded SLNs in aqueous dispersions was assessed in terms of size and drug leakage during two weeks. Scanning electron microscopy images showed spherical particles in the nanometer range confirming the obtained data from size analyzer. Several cytotoxicity studies including MTT, DAPI staining and DNA fragmentation assays as well as flow cytometry analysis confirmed the low toxicity of alendronate-loaded SLNs. The cost-efficient procedure, the avoidance of organic solvents application, acceptable reproducibility, ease of manufacturing under mild preparation conditions, high level of drug encapsulation, desirable physical stability and biocompatibility are the advantages of the proposed SLN formulations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Preparation, characterization, and cellular studies of photosensitizer-loaded lipid nanoparticles for photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Fabrice P.; Bechet, Denise; Delmas, Thomas; Couleaud, Pierre; Frochot, Céline; Verhille, Marc; Kamarulzaman, Ezatul; Vanderesse, Régis; Boisseau, Patrick; Texier, Isabelle; Gravier, Julien; Vinet, Françoise; Barberi-Heyob, Muriel; Couffin, Anne Claude

    2011-02-01

    PhotoDynamic Therapy (PDT) has been established as a potent and less invasive treatment for different kinds of cancer. Among various attempts to enhance the therapeutics efficacy of PDT, the specific delivery of the PhotoSensitizer (PS) in the tumor is expected to increase its clinical applications, since unwanted accumulation, especially in the skin, impairs the patients' quality of life (prolonged cutaneous photosensitivity). The aim of this study was to engineer Lipid Nanoparticles (LNP) with different sizes and various PS contents, using simple, solvent-free and easily scale up manufacturing processes. Meso-tetra (hydroxyphenyl) chlorin (mTHPC) is one of the most potent photoactive compounds for clinical use and it has been successfully applied in the treatment of various indications, such as the head and neck, prostate and pancreatic cancers. Here, a derivative of mTHPC was efficiently incorporated into the lipid core of LNP, leading to a large range of stable and reproducible mTHPC-loaded LNP with narrow size distribution. The photophysical and photochemical properties of mTHPC-loaded LNP were studied by measuring absorbance and fluorescence spectra, colloidal stability, particle size and zeta potential, as well as singlet oxygen luminescence. The photocytotoxicity of three selected mTHPC-loaded LNP (25 nm, 45 nm and 95 nm of diameter, respectively) was evaluated on MCF-7 cells, in comparison to free mTHPC, under irradiation at 652 nm with a range of light fluence from 1 to 5 J/cm2. All the physico-chemical, photophysical and biological measurements allow us to conclude that LNP is a promising nano-drug delivery system for PDT.

  8. Nevirapine Loaded Core Shell Gold Nanoparticles by Double Emulsion Solvent Evaporation: In vitro and In vivo Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Dalvi, Bhagyashree R; Siddiqui, Ejaz A; Syed, Asad S; Velhal, Shilpa M; Ahmad, Absar; Bandivdekar, Atmaram B; Devarajan, Padma V

    2016-01-01

    HIV/AIDS is a macrophage resident infection localized in the reticuloendothelial system and remote locations of brain and bone marrow. We present core shell nanoparticles of gold(AuNPs) and nevirapine(NVP) for targeted delivery to the multiple HIV reservoirs. The aim of the study was to design core shell NVP loaded AuNPs with high drug loading and to evaluate biodistribution of the nanoparticles in possible HIV reservoirs in vivo. A specific objective was to assess the possible synergy of AuNPs with NVP on anti-HIV activity in vitro. Core shell nanoparticles were prepared by double emulsion solvent evaporation method and characterized. Glyceryl monostearate-nevirapine-gold nanoparticles(GMS-NVP-AuNPs) revealed high entrapment efficiency (>70%), high loading (~40%), particle size <250 nm and zeta potential -35.9± 1.41mv and exhibited sustained release with good stability. Surface plasmon resonance indicated shell formation while SEM coupled EDAX confirmed the presence of Au. TEM confirmed formation of spherical core shell nanoparticles. GMS-NVP-AuNPs revealed low hemolysis (<10 %) and serum stability upto 6 h. GMS-NVP-AuNPs exhibited rapid, high and sustained accumulation in the possible HIV reservoir organs, including the major organs of liver, spleen, lymph nodes, thymus and also remote locations of brain, ovary and bone marrow. High cell viability and enhanced uptake in PBMC's and TZM-bl cells were observed. While uptake in PBMC's proposed monocytes/macrophages enabled brain delivery. GMS-NVP-AuNPs demonstrated synergistic anti-HIV activity. The superior anti-HIV activity in vitro coupled with extensive localization of the nanoparticles in multiple HIV reservoirs suggests great promise of the core shell GMS-NVP-AuNPs for improved therapy of HIV.

  9. Drug-Loaded Nanoparticle Systems And Adult Stem Cells: A Potential Marriage For The Treatment Of Malignant Glioma?

    PubMed Central

    Auffinger, Brenda; Morshed, Ramin; Tobias, Alex; Cheng, Yu; Ahmed, Atique U; Lesniak, Maciej S

    2013-01-01

    Despite all recent advances in malignant glioma research, only modest progress has been achieved in improving patient prognosis and quality of life. Such a clinical scenario underscores the importance of investing in new therapeutic approaches that, when combined with conventional therapies, are able to effectively eradicate glioma infiltration and target distant tumor foci. Nanoparticle-loaded delivery systems have recently arisen as an exciting alternative to improve targeted anti-glioma drug delivery. As drug carriers, they are able to efficiently protect the therapeutic agent and allow for sustained drug release. In addition, their surface can be easily manipulated with the addition of special ligands, which are responsible for enhancing tumor-specific nanoparticle permeability. However, their inefficient intratumoral distribution and failure to target disseminated tumor burden still pose a big challenge for their implementation as a therapeutic option in the clinical setting. Stem cell-based delivery of drug-loaded nanoparticles offers an interesting option to overcome such issues. Their ability to incorporate nanoparticles and migrate throughout interstitial barriers, together with their inherent tumor-tropic properties and synergistic anti-tumor effects make these stem cell carriers a good fit for such combined therapy. In this review, we will describe the main nanoparticle delivery systems that are presently available in preclinical and clinical studies. We will discuss their mechanisms of targeting, current delivery methods, attractive features and pitfalls. We will also debate the potential applications of stem cell carriers loaded with therapeutic nanoparticles in anticancer therapy and why such an attractive combined approach has not yet reached clinical trials. PMID:23594406

  10. Endothelial delivery of antioxidant enzymes loaded into non-polymeric magnetic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Chorny, Michael; Hood, Elizabeth; Levy, Robert J.; Muzykantov, Vladimir R.

    2010-01-01

    Antioxidant enzymes have shown promise as a therapy for pathological conditions involving increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However the efficiency of their use for combating oxidative stress is dependent on the ability to achieve therapeutically adequate levels of active enzymes at the site of ROS-mediated injury. Thus, the implementation of antioxidant enzyme therapy requires a strategy enabling both guided delivery to the target site and effective protection of the protein in its active form. To address these requirements we developed magnetically responsive nanoparticles (MNP) formed by precipitation of calcium oleate in the presence of magnetite-based ferrofluid (controlled aggregation/precipitation) as a carrier for magnetically guided delivery of therapeutic proteins. We hypothesized that antioxidant enzymes, catalase and superoxide dismutase, can be protected from proteolytic inactivation by encapsulation in MNP. We also hypothesized that catalase-loaded MNP applied with a high-gradient magnetic field can rescue endothelial cells from hydrogen peroxide toxicity in culture. To test these hypotheses, a family of enzyme-loaded MNP formulations were prepared and characterized with respect to their magnetic properties, enzyme entrapment yields and protection capacity. SOD- and catalase-loaded MNP were formed with average sizes ranging from 300 to 400 nm, and a protein loading efficiency of 20–33%. MNP were strongly magnetically responsive (magnetic moment at saturation of 14.3 emu/g) in the absence of magnetic remanence, and exhibited a protracted release of their cargo protein in plasma. Catalase stably associated with MNP was protected from proteolysis and retained 20% of its initial enzymatic activity after 24 hr of exposure to pronase. Under magnetic guidance catalase-loaded MNP were rapidly taken up by cultured endothelial cells providing increased resistance to oxidative stress (62±12% cells rescued from hydrogen peroxide induced

  11. Endothelial delivery of antioxidant enzymes loaded into non-polymeric magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Chorny, Michael; Hood, Elizabeth; Levy, Robert J; Muzykantov, Vladimir R

    2010-08-17

    Antioxidant enzymes have shown promise as a therapy for pathological conditions involving increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However the efficiency of their use for combating oxidative stress is dependent on the ability to achieve therapeutically adequate levels of active enzymes at the site of ROS-mediated injury. Thus, the implementation of antioxidant enzyme therapy requires a strategy enabling both guided delivery to the target site and effective protection of the protein in its active form. To address these requirements we developed magnetically responsive nanoparticles (MNP) formed by precipitation of calcium oleate in the presence of magnetite-based ferrofluid (controlled aggregation/precipitation) as a carrier for magnetically guided delivery of therapeutic proteins. We hypothesized that antioxidant enzymes, catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD), can be protected from proteolytic inactivation by encapsulation in MNP. We also hypothesized that catalase-loaded MNP applied with a high-gradient magnetic field can rescue endothelial cells from hydrogen peroxide toxicity in culture. To test these hypotheses, a family of enzyme-loaded MNP formulations were prepared and characterized with respect to their magnetic properties, enzyme entrapment yields and protection capacity. SOD- and catalase-loaded MNP were formed with average sizes ranging from 300 to 400 nm, and a protein loading efficiency of 20-33%. MNP were strongly magnetically responsive (magnetic moment at saturation of 14.3 emu/g) in the absence of magnetic remanence, and exhibited a protracted release of their cargo protein in plasma. Catalase stably associated with MNP was protected from proteolysis and retained 20% of its initial enzymatic activity after 24h of exposure to pronase. Under magnetic guidance catalase-loaded MNP were rapidly taken up by cultured endothelial cells providing increased resistance to oxidative stress (62+/-12% cells rescued from hydrogen peroxide induced

  12. Evaluation of in-vitro cytotoxicity and cellular uptake efficiency of zidovudine-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles modified with Aloe Vera in glioma cells.

    PubMed

    K S, Joshy; Sharma, Chandra P; Kalarikkal, Nandakumar; Sandeep, K; Thomas, Sabu; Pothen, Laly A

    2016-09-01

    Zidovudine loaded solid lipid nanoparticles of stearic acid modified with Aloe Vera (AV) have been prepared via simple emulsion solvent evaporation method which showed excellent stability at room temperature and refrigerated condition. The nanoparticles were examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), which revealed the overlap of the AV absorption peak with the absorption peak of modified stearic acid nanoparticles. The inclusion of AV to stearic acid decreased the crystallinity and improved the hydrophilicity of lipid nanoparticles and thereby improved the drug loading efficacy of lipid nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging revealed that, the average particle size of unmodified (bare) nanoparticles was 45.66±12.22nm and modified solid lipid nanoparticles showed an average size of 265.61±80.44nm. Solid lipid nanoparticles with well-defined morphology were tested in vitro for their possible application in drug delivery. Cell culture studies using C6 glioma cells on the nanoparticles showed enhanced growth and proliferation of cells without exhibiting any toxicity. In addition, normal cell morphology and improved uptake were observed by fluorescence microscopy images of rhodamine labeled modified solid lipid nanoparticles compared with unmodified nanoparticles. The cellular uptake study suggested that these nanoparticles could be a promising drug delivery system to enhance the uptake of antiviral drug by brain cells and it could be a suitable drug carrier system for the treatment of HIV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of Particle Hydrophobicity, Surface Charge, Media pH Value and Complexation with Human Serum Albumin on Drug Release Behavior of Mitoxantrone-Loaded Pullulan Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Xiaojun; Jin, Shu; Wu, Dehong; Ling, Kai; Yuan, Liming; Lin, Pingfa; Xie, Yongchao; Yang, Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    We prepared two types of cholesterol hydrophobically modified pullulan nanoparticles (CHP) and carboxyethyl hydrophobically modified pullulan nanoparticles (CHCP) substituted with various degrees of cholesterol, including 3.11, 6.03, 6.91 and 3.46 per polymer, and named CHP−3.11, CHP−6.03, CHP−6.91 and CHCP−3.46. Dynamic laser light scattering (DLS) showed that the pullulan nanoparticles were 80–120 nm depending on the degree of cholesterol substitution. The mean size of CHCP nanoparticles was about 160 nm, with zeta potential −19.9 mV, larger than CHP because of the carboxyethyl group. A greater degree of cholesterol substitution conferred greater nanoparticle hydrophobicity. Drug-loading efficiency depended on nanoparticle hydrophobicity, that is, nanoparticles with the greatest degree of cholesterol substitution (6.91) showed the most drug encapsulation efficiency (90.2%). The amount of drug loading increased and that of drug release decreased with enhanced nanoparticle hydrophobicity. Nanoparticle surface-negative charge disturbed the amount of drug loading and drug release, for an opposite effect relative to nanoparticle hydrophobicity. The drug release in pullulan nanoparticles was higher pH 4.0 than pH 6.8 media. However, the changed drug release amount was not larger for negative-surface nanoparticles than CHP nanoparticles in the acid release media. Drug release of pullulan nanoparticles was further slowed with human serum albumin complexation and was little affected by nanoparticle hydrophobicity and surface negative charge. PMID:28344259

  14. Scale up, optimization and stability analysis of Curcumin C3 complex-loaded nanoparticles for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Amalendu P; Mukerjee, Anindita; Helson, Lawrence; Vishwanatha, Jamboor K

    2012-08-31

    Nanoparticle based delivery of anticancer drugs have been widely investigated. However, a very important process for Research & Development in any pharmaceutical industry is scaling nanoparticle formulation techniques so as to produce large batches for preclinical and clinical trials. This process is not only critical but also difficult as it involves various formulation parameters to be modulated all in the same process. In our present study, we formulated curcumin loaded poly (lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (PLGA-CURC). This improved the bioavailability of curcumin, a potent natural anticancer drug, making it suitable for cancer therapy. Post formulation, we optimized our process by Reponse Surface Methodology (RSM) using Central Composite Design (CCD) and scaled up the formulation process in four stages with final scale-up process yielding 5 g of curcumin loaded nanoparticles within the laboratory setup. The nanoparticles formed after scale-up process were characterized for particle size, drug loading and encapsulation efficiency, surface morphology, in vitro release kinetics and pharmacokinetics. Stability analysis and gamma sterilization were also carried out. Results revealed that that process scale-up is being mastered for elaboration to 5 g level. The mean nanoparticle size of the scaled up batch was found to be 158.5±9.8 nm and the drug loading was determined to be 10.32±1.4%. The in vitro release study illustrated a slow sustained release corresponding to 75% drug over a period of 10 days. The pharmacokinetic profile of PLGA-CURC in rats following i.v. administration showed two compartmental model with the area under the curve (AUC0-∞) being 6.139 mg/L h. Gamma sterilization showed no significant change in the particle size or drug loading of the nanoparticles. Stability analysis revealed long term physiochemical stability of the PLGA-CURC formulation. A successful effort towards formulating, optimizing and scaling up PLGA-CURC by using

  15. Scale up, optimization and stability analysis of Curcumin C3 complex-loaded nanoparticles for cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nanoparticle based delivery of anticancer drugs have been widely investigated. However, a very important process for Research & Development in any pharmaceutical industry is scaling nanoparticle formulation techniques so as to produce large batches for preclinical and clinical trials. This process is not only critical but also difficult as it involves various formulation parameters to be modulated all in the same process. Methods In our present study, we formulated curcumin loaded poly (lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (PLGA-CURC). This improved the bioavailability of curcumin, a potent natural anticancer drug, making it suitable for cancer therapy. Post formulation, we optimized our process by Reponse Surface Methodology (RSM) using Central Composite Design (CCD) and scaled up the formulation process in four stages with final scale-up process yielding 5 g of curcumin loaded nanoparticles within the laboratory setup. The nanoparticles formed after scale-up process were characterized for particle size, drug loading and encapsulation efficiency, surface morphology, in vitro release kinetics and pharmacokinetics. Stability analysis and gamma sterilization were also carried out. Results Results revealed that that process scale-up is being mastered for elaboration to 5 g level. The mean nanoparticle size of the scaled up batch was found to be 158.5 ± 9.8 nm and the drug loading was determined to be 10.32 ± 1.4%. The in vitro release study illustrated a slow sustained release corresponding to 75% drug over a period of 10 days. The pharmacokinetic profile of PLGA-CURC in rats following i.v. administration showed two compartmental model with the area under the curve (AUC0-∞) being 6.139 mg/L h. Gamma sterilization showed no significant change in the particle size or drug loading of the nanoparticles. Stability analysis revealed long term physiochemical stability of the PLGA-CURC formulation. Conclusions A successful effort towards

  16. Dual Agent Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles Enhanced Antitumor Activity in a Multidrug-Resistant Breast Tumor Eenograft Model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yan; Zheng, Xue-Lian; Fang, Dai-Long; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Jin-Kun; Li, Hui-Li; Xu, Bei; Lei, Yi; Ren, Ke; Song, Xiang-Rong

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant breast cancers have limited and ineffective clinical treatment options. This study aimed to develop PLGA nanoparticles containing a synergistic combination of vincristine and verapamil to achieve less toxicity and enhanced efficacy on multidrug-resistant breast cancers. The 1:250 molar ratio of VCR/VRP showed strong synergism with the reversal index of approximately 130 in the multidrug-resistant MCF-7/ADR cells compared to drug-sensitive MCF-7 cells. The lyophilized nanoparticles could get dispersed quickly with the similar size distribution, zeta potential and encapsulation efficiency to the pre-lyophilized nanoparticles suspension, and maintain the synergistic in vitro release ratio of drugs. The co-encapsulated nanoparticle formulation had lower toxicity than free vincristine/verapamil combinations according to the acute-toxicity test. Furthermore, the most effective tumor growth inhibition in the MCF-7/ADR human breast tumor xenograft was observed in the co-delivery nanoparticle formulation group in comparison with saline control, free vincristine, free vincristine/verapamil combinations and single-drug nanoparticle combinations. All the data demonstrated that PLGANPs simultaneously loaded with chemotherapeutic drug and chemosensitizer might be one of the most potential formulations in the treatment of multidrug-resistant breast cancer in clinic. PMID:24552875

  17. Dual stimuli-sensitive dendrimers: Photothermogenic gold nanoparticle-loaded thermo-responsive elastin-mimetic dendrimers.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Daichi; Sk, Ugir Hossain; Sakamoto, Yasuhiro; Nakase, Ikuhiko; Kojima, Chie

    2015-08-01

    Dendrimers are synthetic macromolecules with unique structures that can work as nanoplatforms for both photothermogenic gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and thermosensitive elastin-like peptides (ELPs) with valine-proline-glycine-valine-glycine (VPGVG) repeats. In this study, photothermogenic AuNPs were loaded into thermo-responsive elastin-mimetic dendrimers (dendrimers conjugating ELPs at their periphery) to produce dual stimuli-sensitive nanoparticles. Polyamidoamine G4 dendrimers were modified with acetylated VPGVG and (VPGVG)2, and the resulting materials were named ELP1-den and ELP2-den, respectively. The AuNPs were prepared by the reduction of Au ions using a dendrimer-nanotemplated method. The AuNP-loaded elastin-mimetic dendrimers exhibited photothermal properties. ELP1-den and ELP2-den showed similar temperature-dependent changes in their conformations. Phase transitions were observed at around 55°C and 35°C for the AuNP-loaded ELP1-den and AuNP-loaded ELP2-den, respectively, but not for the corresponding PEGylated dendrimer. In contrast to the AuNP-loaded PEGylated dendrimer, AuNP-loaded ELP2-den readily associated with cells and induced efficient photocytotoxicity at 37°C. The cell association and the photocytotoxicity properties of AuNP-loaded ELP2-den could be controlled by temperature. These results therefore suggest that dual stimuli-sensitive dendrimer nanoparticles of this type could be used for photothermal therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Surface enhanced fluorescence of anti-tumoral drug emodin adsorbed on silver nanoparticles and loaded on porous silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Margarita; Recio, Gonzalo; Martin-Palma, Raul J.; Garcia-Ramos, Jose V.; Domingo, Concepcion; Sevilla, Paz

    2012-07-01

    Fluorescence spectra of anti-tumoral drug emodin loaded on nanostructured porous silicon have been recorded. The use of colloidal nanoparticles allowed embedding of the drug without previous porous silicon functionalization and leads to the observation of an enhancement of fluorescence of the drug. Mean pore size of porous silicon matrices was 60 nm, while silver nanoparticles mean diameter was 50 nm. Atmospheric and vacuum conditions at room temperature were used to infiltrate emodin-silver nanoparticles complexes into porous silicon matrices. The drug was loaded after adsorption on metal surface, alone, and bound to bovine serum albumin. Methanol and water were used as solvents. Spectra with 1 μm spatial resolution of cross-section of porous silicon layers were recorded to observe the penetration of the drug. A maximum fluorescence enhancement factor of 24 was obtained when protein was loaded bound to albumin, and atmospheric conditions of inclusion were used. A better penetration was obtained using methanol as solvent when comparing with water. Complexes of emodin remain loaded for 30 days after preparation without an apparent degradation of the drug, although a decrease in the enhancement factor is observed. The study reported here constitutes the basis for designing a new drug delivery system with future applications in medicine and pharmacy.

  19. Antifungal activity of Zataria multiflora essential oil-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles in-vitro condition.

    PubMed

    Nasseri, Mahboobeh; Golmohammadzadeh, Shiva; Arouiee, Hossein; Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza; Neamati, Hossein

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to prepare, characterize, and evaluate solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) containing Zataria multiflora essential oil (ZEO). In this study, Z. multiflora essential oil-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (ZE-SLNs) were prepared to improve its efficiency in controlling some fungal pathogens. SLNs containing Z. multiflora essential oil were prepared by high shear homogenization and ultra sound technique. ZEO-SLNs contained 0.03% ZEO in 5% of lipid phase (Glyceryl monostearate-GMS and Precirol® ATO 5). Tween 80 and Poloxamer 188 (2.5% w/v) were used as surfactant in the aqueous phase. The antifungal efficacy of ZE-SLNs and ZEO was compared under in vitro conditions. The particle size of ZE-SLNs was around 255.5±3 nm with PDI of 0.369±0.05 and zeta potential was about -37.8±0.8 mV. Encapsulation efficacy of ZE-SLNs in crystalline form was 84±0.92%. The results showed that the ZEO and ZE-SLNs had 54 and 79% inhibition on the growth of fungal pathogens, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) under in vitro conditions for the ZEO on the fungal pathogens of Aspergillus ochraceus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Alternaria solani, Rhizoctonia solani, and Rhizopus stolonifer was 300, 200, 300, 200, 200 and 200 ppm, respectively, for ZE-SLNs, it was 200, 200, 200, 100, 50 and 50 ppm. The antifungal efficacy of ZE-SLNs was significantly more than ZEO. Our results showed that the SLNs were suitable carriers for Z. multiflora essential oil in controlling the fungal pathogens and merits further investigation.

  20. Carboplatin loaded polymethylmethacrylate nano-particles in an adjunctive role in retinoblastoma: An animal trial

    PubMed Central

    Shome, Debraj; Kalita, Dhrubajyoti; Jain, Viral; Sarin, Rajiv; Maru, Girish B.; Bellare, Jayesh R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to compare the intra-vitreal concentrations of carboplatin, post peri-ocular injections of commercially available carboplatin (CAC) and a novel carboplatin loaded polymethylmethacrylate nanoparticulate carboplatin (NPC), in either eye, as a model system for treatment of advanced intra-ocular retinoblastoma (RB). Design: Experimental, comparative, animal study. Materials and Methods: Polymethylmethacrylate nanoparticles were prepared by free radical emulsion polymerization of methyl methacrylate in aqueous solution of carboplatin in the presence of surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate and thermal initiator ammonium persulfate. 21 Sprague-Dawley rats, aged between 6 weeks and 3 months were enrolled. The right eye of each rat was injected peri-ocularly with CAC formulation (1 ml of 10 mg/ml) and the left eye with NPC (1 ml of 10 mg/ml), post-anesthesia, by an ophthalmologist trained in ocular oncology. Three rats each were euthanized on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 28 and 42, post-injection and both eyes were carefully enucleated. Intra-vitreal concentrations of CAC and NPC were determined with Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy. Analysis of data was done with paired t-test. Results: The intra-vitreal concentration of carboplatin with NPC was ~3-4 times higher than with CAC in all animals, on all the days (P < 0.05). Conclusion: A higher trans-scleral permeability gradient is obtained with the novel nanoparticles than with the commercial drug, leading to sustained higher levels of carboplatin in the vitreous. Peri-ocular injection of NPC could thus have an adjuvant efficacy in the treatment for advanced clinical RB, specifically those with vitreous seeds. PMID:24881606

  1. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles loading doxorubicin reverse multidrug resistance: performance and mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jianan; He, Qianjun; Gao, Yu; Shi, Jianlin; Li, Yaping

    2011-10-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is one of the major obstacles for successful chemotherapy in cancer. One of the effective approaches to overcome MDR is to use nanoparticle-mediated drug delivery to increase drug accumulation in drug resistant cancer cells. In this work, we first report that the performance and mechanism of an inorganic engineered delivery system based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) loading doxorubicin (DMNs) to overcome the MDR of MCF-7/ADR (a DOX-resistant and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) over-expression cancer cell line). The experimental results showed that DMNs could enhance the cellular uptake of doxorubicin (DOX) and increase the cell proliferation suppression effect of DOX against MCF-7/ADR cells. The IC50 of DMNs against MCF-7/ADR cells was 8-fold lower than that of free DOX. However, an improved effect of DOX in DMNs against MCF-7 cells (a DOX-sensitive cancer cell line) was not found. The increased cellular uptake and nuclear accumulation of DOX delivered by DMNs in MCF-7/ADR cells was confirmed by confocal laser scanning microscopy, and could result from the down-regulation of P-gp and bypassing the efflux action by MSNs themselves. The cellular uptake mechanism of DMNs indicated that the macropinocytosis was one of the pathways for the uptake of DMNs by MCF-7/ADR cells. The in vivo biodistribution showed that DMNs induced a higher accumulation of DOX in drug resistant tumors than free DOX. These results suggested that MSNs could be an effective delivery system to overcome multidrug resistance.

  2. Docetaxel-loaded PLGA and PLGA-PEG nanoparticles for intravenous application: pharmacokinetics and biodistribution profile

    PubMed Central

    Rafiei, Pedram; Haddadi, Azita

    2017-01-01

    Docetaxel is a highly potent anticancer agent being used in a wide spectrum of cancer types. There are important matters of concern regarding the drug’s pharmacokinetics related to the conventional formulation. Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) is a biocompatible/biodegradable polymer with variable physicochemical characteristics, and its application in human has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration. PLGA gives polymeric nanoparticles with unique drug delivery characteristics. The application of PLGA nanoparticles (NPs) as intravenous (IV) sustained-release delivery vehicles for docetaxel can favorably modify pharmacokinetics, biofate, and pharmacotherapy of the drug in cancer patients. Surface modification of PLGA NPs with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) can further enhance NPs’ long-circulating properties. Herein, an optimized fabrication approach has been used for the preparation of PLGA and PLGA–PEG NPs loaded with docetaxel for IV application. Both types of NP formulations demonstrated in vitro characteristics that were considered suitable for IV administration (with long-circulating sustained-release purposes). NP formulations were IV administered to an animal model, and docetaxel’s pharmacokinetic and biodistribution profiles were determined and compared between study groups. PLGA and PEGylated PLGA NPs were able to modify the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of docetaxel. Accordingly, the mode of changes made to pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of docetaxel is attributed to the size and surface properties of NPs. NPs contributed to increased blood residence time of docetaxel fulfilling their role as long-circulating sustained-release drug delivery systems. Surface modification of NPs contributed to more pronounced docetaxel blood concentration, which confirms the role of PEG in conferring long-circulation properties to NPs. PMID:28184163

  3. Targeted chelation therapy with EDTA-loaded albumin nanoparticles regresses arterial calcification without causing systemic side effects

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Yang; Nosoudi, Nasim; Vyavahare, Naren

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims Elastin-specific medial arterial calcification (MAC) is an arterial disease commonly referred as Monckeberg’s sclerosis. It causes significant arterial stiffness, and as yet, no clinical therapy exists to prevent or reverse it. We developed albumin nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with disodium ethylene diaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) that were designed to target calcified elastic lamina when administrated by intravenous injection. Methods and Results We optimized NP size, charge, and EDTA-loading efficiency (150~200 nm, zeta potential of − 22.89 ~ − 31.72 mV, loading efficiency for EDTA ~20 %) for in vivo targeting in rats. These NPs released EDTA slowly for up to 5 days. In both ex-vivo study and in vivo study with injury-induced local abdominal aortic calcification, we showed that elastin antibody-coated and EDTA-loaded albumin NPs targeted the damaged elastic lamina while sparing healthy artery. Intravenous NP injections reversed elastin-specific MAC in rats after four injections over a 2-week period. EDTA-loaded albumin NPs did not cause the side effects observed in EDTA injection alone, such as decrease in serum calcium (Ca), increase in urine Ca, or toxicity to kidney. There was no bone loss in any treated groups. Conclusion We demonstrate that elastin antibody-coated and EDTA-loaded albumin NPs might be a promising nanoparticle therapy to reverse elastin-specific MAC and circumvent side effects associated with systemic EDTA chelation therapy. PMID:25285609

  4. Mithramycin-loaded mPEG-PLGA nanoparticles exert potent antitumor efficacy against pancreatic carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xu-Jie; Li, Liang; Liu, Xiu-Jun; Li, Yi; Zhao, Chun-Yan; Wang, Rui-Qi; Zhen, Yong-Su

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that mithramycin A (MIT) is a promising candidate for the treatment of pancreatic carcinoma through inhibiting transcription factor Sp1. However, systemic toxicities may limit its clinical application. Here, we report a rationally designed formulation of MIT-loaded nanoparticles (MIT-NPs) with a small size and sustained release for improved passive targeting and enhanced therapeutic efficacy. Nearly spherical MIT-NPs with a mean particle size of 25.0±4.6 nm were prepared by encapsulating MIT into methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (mPEG-PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) with drug loading of 2.11%±0.51%. The in vitro release of the MIT-NPs lasted for >48 h with a sustained-release pattern. The cytotoxicity of MIT-NPs to human pancreatic cancer BxPC-3 and MIA Paca-2 cells was comparable to that of free MIT. Determined by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy, the NPs internalized into the cells quickly and efficiently, reaching the peak level at 1–2 h. In vivo fluorescence imaging showed that the prepared NPs were gradually accumulated in BxPC-3 and MIA Paca-2 xenografts and retained for 168 h. The fluorescence intensity in both BxPC-3 and MIA Paca-2 tumors was much stronger than that of various tested organs. Therapeutic efficacy was evaluated with the poorly permeable BxPC-3 pancreatic carcinoma xenograft model. At a well-tolerated dose of 2 mg/kg, MIT-NPs suppressed BxPC-3 tumor growth by 96%. Compared at an equivalent dose, MIT-NPs exerted significantly higher therapeutic effect than free MIT (86% versus 51%, P<0.01). Moreover, the treatment of MIT and MIT-NPs reduced the expression level of oncogene c-Myc regulated by Sp1, and notably, both of them decreased the protein level of CD47. In summary, the novel formulation of MIT-NPs shows highly therapeutic efficacy against pancreatic carcinoma xenograft. In addition, MIT-NPs can downregulate CD47 expression, implying that it might play a positive role in

  5. Silica-coated Gd(DOTA)-loaded protein nanoparticles enable magnetic resonance imaging of macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Bruckman, Michael A.; Randolph, Lauren N.; Gulati, Neetu M.; Stewart, Phoebe L.; Steinmetz, Nicole F.

    2015-01-01

    The molecular imaging of in vivo targets allows non-invasive disease diagnosis. Nanoparticles offer a promising platform for molecular imaging because they can deliver large payloads of imaging reagents to the site of disease. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is often preferred for clinical diagnosis because it uses non-ionizing radiation and offers both high spatial resolution and excellent penetration. We have explored the use of plant viruses as the basis of for MRI contrast reagents, specifically Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), which can assemble to form either stiff rods or spheres. We loaded TMV particles with paramagnetic Gd ions, increasing the ionic relaxivity compared to free Gd ions. The loaded TMV particles were then coated with silica maintaining high relaxivities. Interestingly, we found that when Gd(DOTA) was loaded into the interior channel of TMV and the exterior was coated with silica, the T1 relaxivities increased by three-fold from 10.9 mM−1 s−1 to 29.7 mM−1s−1 at 60 MHz compared to uncoated Gd-loaded TMV. To test the performance of the contrast agents in a biological setting, we focused on interactions with macrophages because the active or passive targeting of immune cells is a popular strategy to investigate the cellular components involved in disease progression associated with inflammation. In vitro assays and phantom MRI experiments indicate efficient targeting and imaging of macrophages, enhanced contrast-to-noise ratio was observed by shape-engineering (SNP > TMV) and silica-coating (Si-TMV/SNP > TMV/SNP). Because plant viruses are in the food chain, antibodies may be prevalent in the population. Therefore we investigated whether the silica-coating could prevent antibody recognition; indeed our data indicate that mineralization can be used as a stealth coating option to reduce clearance. Therefore, we conclude that the silica-coated protein-based contrast agent may provide an interesting candidate material for further investigation

  6. Formulation and comparative in vitro evaluation of various dexamethasone-loaded pH-sensitive polymeric nanoparticles intended for dermal applications.

    PubMed

    Sahle, Fitsum Feleke; Gerecke, Christian; Kleuser, Burkhard; Bodmeier, Roland

    2017-01-10

    pH-sensitive nanoparticles have a great potential for dermal and transfollicular drug delivery. In this study, pH-sensitive, dexamethasone-loaded Eudragit ® L 100, Eudragit ® L 100-55, Eudragit ® S 100, HPMCP-50, HPMCP-55 and cellulose acetate phthalate nanoparticles were prepared by nanoprecipitation and characterized. The pH-dependent swelling, erosion, dissolution and drug release kinetics were investigated in vitro using dynamic light scattering and Franz diffusion cells, respectively. Their toxicity potential was assessed by the ROS and MTT assays. 100-700nm nanoparticles with high drug loading and entrapment efficiency were obtained. The nanoparticles bear no toxicity potential. Cellulose phthalates nanoparticles were more sensitive to pH than acrylates nanoparticles. They dissolved in 10mM pH 7.5 buffer and released>80% of the drug within 7h. The acrylate nanoparticles dissolved in 40mM pH 7.5 buffer and released 65-70% of the drug within 7h. The nanoparticles remained intact in 10 and 40mM pH 6.0 buffers (HPMCP nanoparticles dissolved in 40mM pH 6.0 buffer) and released slowly. The nanoparticles properties could be modulated by blending the different polymers. In conclusion, various pH-sensitive nanoparticles that could release differently on the skin surface and dissolve and release in the hair follicles were obtained. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization and anticancer potential of ferulic acid-loaded chitosan nanoparticles against ME-180 human cervical cancer cell lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panwar, Richa; Sharma, Asvene K.; Kaloti, Mandeep; Dutt, Dharm; Pruthi, Vikas

    2016-08-01

    Ferulic acid (FA) is a widely distributed hydroxycinnamic acid found in various cereals and fruits exhibiting potent antioxidant and anticancer activities. However, due to low solubility and permeability, its availability to biological systems is limited. Non-toxic chitosan-tripolyphosphate pentasodium (CS-TPP) nanoparticles (NPs) are used to load sparingly soluble molecules and drugs, increasing their bioavailability. In the present work, we have encapsulated FA into the CS-TPP NPs to increase its potential as a therapeutic agent. Different concentrations of FA were tested to obtain optimum sized FA-loaded CS-TPP nanoparticles (FA/CS-TPP NPs) by ionic gelation method. Nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analyses and evaluated for their anticancer activity against ME-180 human cervical cancer cell lines. The FTIR spectra confirmed the encapsulation of FA and thermal analysis depicted its degradation profile. A concentration-dependent relationship between FA encapsulation efficiency and FA/CS-TPP NPs diameter was observed. Smooth and spherical FA-loaded cytocompatible nanoparticles with an average diameter of 125 nm were obtained at 40 µM FA conc. The cytotoxicity of 40 µM FA/CS-TPP NPs against ME-180 cervical cancer cell lines was found to be higher as compared to 40 µM native FA. Apoptotic morphological changes as cytoplasmic remnants and damaged wrinkled cells in ME-180 cells were visualized using scanning electron microscopic and fluorescent microscopic techniques. Data concluded that chitosan enveloped FA nanoparticles could be exploited as an excellent therapeutic drug against cancer cells proliferation.

  8. Preparation and in vitro characterization of 9-nitrocamptothecin-loaded long circulating nanoparticles for delivery in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Derakhshandeh, Katayoun; Soheili, Marzieh; Dadashzadeh, Simin; Saghiri, Reza

    2010-08-09

    The purpose in this study was to investigate poly(ethylene glycol)-modified poly (d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles (PLGA-PEG-NPs) loading 9-nitrocamptothecin (9-NC) as a potent anticancer drug. 9-NC is an analog of the natural plant alkaloid camptothecin that has shown high antitumor activity and is currently in the end stage of clinical trial. Unfortunately, at physiological pH, these potent agents undergo a rapid and reversible hydrolysis with the loss of antitumor activity. Previous researchers have shown that the encapsulation of this drug in PLGA nanoparticles could increase its stability and release profile. In this research we investigated PLGA-PEG nanoparticles and their effect on in vitro characteristics of this labile drug. 9-NC-PLGA-PEG nanoparticles with particle size within the range of 148.5 ± 30 nm were prepared by a nanoprecipitation method. The influence of four different independent variables (amount of polymer, percent of emulsifier, internal phase volume, and external phase volume) on nanoparticle drug-loading was studied. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffractometry were also evaluated for physical characterizing. The results of optimized formulation showed a narrow size distribution, suitable zeta potential (+1.84), and a drug loading of more than 45%. The in vitro drug release from PLGA-PEG NPs showed a sustained release pattern of up to 120 hours and comparing with PLGA-NPs had a significant decrease in initial burst effect. These experimental results indicate that PLGA-PEG-NPs (versus PLGA-NPs) have a better physicochemical characterization and can be developed as a drug carrier in order to treat different malignancies.

  9. Preparation and in vitro characterization of 9-nitrocamptothecin-loaded long circulating nanoparticles for delivery in cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Derakhshandeh, Katayoun; Soheili, Marzieh; Dadashzadeh, Simin; Saghiri, Reza

    2010-01-01

    The purpose in this study was to investigate poly(ethylene glycol)-modified poly (d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles (PLGA-PEG-NPs) loading 9-nitrocamptothecin (9-NC) as a potent anticancer drug. 9-NC is an analog of the natural plant alkaloid camptothecin that has shown high antitumor activity and is currently in the end stage of clinical trial. Unfortunately, at physiological pH, these potent agents undergo a rapid and reversible hydrolysis with the loss of antitumor activity. Previous researchers have shown that the encapsulation of this drug in PLGA nanoparticles could increase its stability and release profile. In this research we investigated PLGA-PEG nanoparticles and their effect on in vitro characteristics of this labile drug. 9-NC-PLGA-PEG nanoparticles with particle size within the range of 148.5 ± 30 nm were prepared by a nanoprecipitation method. The influence of four different independent variables (amount of polymer, percent of emulsifier, internal phase volume, and external phase volume) on nanoparticle drug-loading was studied. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffractometry were also evaluated for physical characterizing. The results of optimized formulation showed a narrow size distribution, suitable zeta potential (+1.84), and a drug loading of more than 45%. The in vitro drug release from PLGA-PEG NPs showed a sustained release pattern of up to 120 hours and comparing with PLGA-NPs had a significant decrease in initial burst effect. These experimental results indicate that PLGA-PEG-NPs (versus PLGA-NPs) have a better physicochemical characterization and can be developed as a drug carrier in order to treat different malignancies. PMID:20957168

  10. Melatonin-loaded lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles: physicochemical characterisation and permeability through Caco-2 cell monolayers.

    PubMed

    Hafner, Anita; Lovrić, Jasmina; Voinovich, Dario; Filipović-Grcić, Jelena

    2009-11-03

    In this study, the potential of lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles (NPs) as a mucoadhesive colloidal nanosystem for transmucosal delivery of melatonin was investigated. The size, zeta potential and melatonin loading of the lecithin/chitosan NPs were investigated as a function of lecithin type (Lipoid S45, S75 and S100) and chitosan content in the preparation. The NPs were characterised by mean diameter and zeta potential ranging between 121.6 and 347.5 nm, and 7.5 and 32.7 mV, respectively, and increasing with lecithin-negative charge and chitosan content in the preparation. Melatonin loadings were up to 7.1%. All NPs were characterised by prolonged release profiles with an initial burst (approximately 25%), followed by a slow release phase. Approximately 60-70% of melatonin was released in 4h. The permeability of melatonin was investigated using Caco-2 cells as an in vitro model of the epithelial barrier. Melatonin permeability from an NP suspension prepared with Lipoid S45 lecithin and a lecithin-to-chitosan weight ratio (L/C) of 20:1 (sample C2) was significantly improved compared to the permeability of melatonin from the solution (P<0.001) and from all other NPs investigated (P<0.05). The results obtained by the cell viability studies (MTT and LDH leakage assays) showed that C2 NP suspension did not induce plasma membrane damage or decrease cell viability and could be safely applied to Caco-2 cells in the concentration range tested (<400 microg/ml).

  11. Short- and long-term stability of lyophilised melatonin-loaded lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hafner, Anita; Dürrigl, Marjana; Pepić, Ivan; Filipović-Grčić, Jelena

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a freeze-drying process for melatonin-loaded lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles (NPs) to preserve their chemical and physical stability for a longer time period that what is possible in an aqueous suspension. Glucose and trehalose were investigated as potential excipients during freeze-drying of NP suspensions. Lecithin/chitosan NPs were characterised by mean diameter and zeta potential, ranging between 117.4 and 328.5 nm and 6.7 and 30.2 mV, respectively, depending on the lecithin type and chitosan content in the preparation. Melatonin loadings were up to 7.1%. For all lecithin/chitosan NPs, no notable differences in the mean particle size, size distribution, zeta potential or melatonin content were observed before or immediately after the lyophilisation process or after 7 months of storage at 4 °C. The residual moisture contents of lyophilisates with glucose and trehalose immediately after the lyophilisation process varied between 4.0-4.8% and 2.4-3.0%, respectively. All lecithin/chitosan NPs had a fully amorphous nature after the freeze-drying process, as indicated by modulated differential scanning calorimetry. NP lyophilisates with glucose had a low glass transition temperature (ca. 5 °C), confirming that lyophilisation with glucose as a cryoprotectant was not appropriate. All lyophilisates with trehalose had a glass transition temperature above the room temperature, allowing formation of the cake without a collapse of the structure, which was capable of preserving its characteristics and appearance following 7 months of storage at 4 °C.

  12. Co-administration with cell penetrating peptide enhances the oral bioavailability of docetaxel-loaded nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Bu, Xiangyuan; Zhu, Tao; Ma, Yiran; Shen, Qi

    2015-05-01

    This study proposes a novel docetaxel (DTX) cyclodextrin inclusion-loaded poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (D-CNPs) system with cell penetrating peptide (CPP), and evaluates its potential for oral administration of DTX. Heptaarginine (R7) was used as the CPP. D-CNPs were prepared by the double-emulsification method. The mean particle size and zeta potential of the resulting D-CNPs were 198.7 ± 12.56 nm and -27.25 ± 4.62 mV, respectively, and their mean encapsulation efficiency and drug loading were 80.35 ± 6.37% and 1.02 ± 0.15%, respectively. The morphology of the D-CNPs was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The release behavior of the D-CNPs was studied by using the dialysis method. The relative bioavailability of D-CNPs and D-CNPs co-administered with R7 was enhanced about 5.57- and 9.43-fold, respectively, compared with the free DTX suspension. Furthermore, D-CNPs with R7 displayed maximum cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells in MTT assay. D-CNPs co-administered with R7 showed markedly higher fluorescence intensity than D-CNPs without CPP. The results suggest that the D-CNPs co-administered with R7 could be a potential delivery system with excellent therapeutic efficacy for targeting the drugs to cancer cells.

  13. Development and analytical characterization of vitamin(s)-loaded chitosan nanoparticles for potential food packaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aresta, Antonella; Calvano, Cosima Damiana; Trapani, Adriana; Cellamare, Saverio; Zambonin, Carlo Giorgio; De Giglio, Elvira

    2013-04-01

    Most vitamins are well-known natural antioxidant agents which can be usefully employed for foods preservation to increase their shelf life. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the potential of vitamin-based chitosan nanoparticles (CSNPs) for novel food packaging application. In particular, Vitamin C- and/or E-loaded CSNPs were formulated following the ionic gelation technique and using sulfobutylether-β-cyclodextrin as cross-linking agent. The obtained CSNPs were characterized in terms of size and zeta potential measurements, leading to size range of 375-503 nm and zeta range values from +16.0 to +33.8 mV. At the solid-state, the same particles were subjected to X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Then, the antioxidant potential of the produced vitamin(s) nanoparticulate formulations has been evaluated through 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl test, a rapid spectrophotometric assay. The standardized procedure was used on vitamin(s)-modified CSNPs systems to determine both the amount of active vitamin(s) loaded in CSNPs and their release performances by in vitro release studies. Of all, high vitamins association efficiency along with an improvement of their shelf life (also under light exposure up to 7 days) were achieved. Altogether, the results suggest that Vitamin E is available in a hydrophilic delivery system able to replace organic solvents usually used for the solubilization of this antioxidant agent. In conclusion, these nanocarriers represent a promising strategy for the co-administration of Vitamin E and Vitamin C in packaging materials intended for a better storage of hydrophilic and/or lipophilic food.

  14. Development of Dorzolamide Loaded 6-O-Carboxymethyl Chitosan Nanoparticles for Open Angle Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Mohammed Hadi

    2013-01-01

    Chitosan (CS) is a biodegradable, biocompatible, and mucoadhesive natural polymer soluble in acidic pH only and can be irritating to the eye. Objective of the study was to synthesize water soluble 6-O-carboxymethyl (OCM-CS) derivative of CS, and to develop CS and OCM-CS nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with dorzolamide hydrochloride (DRZ). CS was reacted with monochloroacetic acid (MCA) for OCM-CS synthesis and was characterized by FT-IR, DSC, and 13C NMR. CS and OCM-CS NPs were prepared by ionic gelation method. Ocular irritation potential were evaluated and therapeutic efficacy was measured by reduction in intraocular pressure (IOP) in normotensive rabbits. Maximum yield was obtained when the ratio of water/isopropyl alcohol was 1/4 at 55°C. The FT-IR, DSC and 13C NMR confirmed the formation of an ether linkage between hydroxyl groups of CS and MCA. The particle size and zeta potential of optimised CSNPs was 250.3 ± 2.62 nm and +33.47 ± 0.723 mV, whereas those for OCM-CSNPs were 187.1 ± 2.72 nm and 30.87 ± 0.86 mV. The entrapment efficiency was significantly improved for OCM-CSNPs, compared to CSNPs. OCM-CSNPs had tailored drug release and improved bioavailability with reduction in pulse entry as compared to CSNPs. Hence, it can be concluded that DRZ loaded OCM-CSNPs would be better alternative option to available eye drops for glaucoma treatment. PMID:24222858

  15. Development of dorzolamide loaded 6-o-carboxymethyl chitosan nanoparticles for open angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Shinde, Ujwala; Ahmed, Mohammed Hadi; Singh, Kavita

    2013-01-01

    Chitosan (CS) is a biodegradable, biocompatible, and mucoadhesive natural polymer soluble in acidic pH only and can be irritating to the eye. Objective of the study was to synthesize water soluble 6-O-carboxymethyl (OCM-CS) derivative of CS, and to develop CS and OCM-CS nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with dorzolamide hydrochloride (DRZ). CS was reacted with monochloroacetic acid (MCA) for OCM-CS synthesis and was characterized by FT-IR, DSC, and (13)C NMR. CS and OCM-CS NPs were prepared by ionic gelation method. Ocular irritation potential were evaluated and therapeutic efficacy was measured by reduction in intraocular pressure (IOP) in normotensive rabbits. Maximum yield was obtained when the ratio of water/isopropyl alcohol was 1/4 at 55°C. The FT-IR, DSC and (13)C NMR confirmed the formation of an ether linkage between hydroxyl groups of CS and MCA. The particle size and zeta potential of optimised CSNPs was 250.3 ± 2.62 nm and +33.47 ± 0.723 mV, whereas those for OCM-CSNPs were 187.1 ± 2.72 nm and 30.87 ± 0.86 mV. The entrapment efficiency was significantly improved for OCM-CSNPs, compared to CSNPs. OCM-CSNPs had tailored drug release and improved bioavailability with reduction in pulse entry as compared to CSNPs. Hence, it can be concluded that DRZ loaded OCM-CSNPs would be better alternative option to available eye drops for glaucoma treatment.

  16. Assessing the physical-chemical properties and stability of dapivirine-loaded polymeric nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    das Neves, José; Amiji, Mansoor; Bahia, Maria Fernanda; Sarmento, Bruno

    2013-11-18

    Nanocarriers may provide interesting delivery platforms for microbicide drugs and their characterization should be addressed early in development. Differently surface-engineered dapivirine-loaded, poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL)-based nanoparticles (NPs) were obtained by nanoprecipitation using polyethylene oxide (PEO), sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), or cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as surface modifiers. Physical-chemical properties of NP aqueous dispersions were evaluated upon storage at -20-40 °C for one year. NPs presented 170-200 nm in diameter, roundish-shape, low polydispersity index (≤0.18), and high drug association efficiency (≥97%) and loading (≥12.7%). NPs differed in zeta potential, depending on surface modifier (PEO: -27.9 mV; SLS: -54.7 mV; CTAB: +42.4 mV). No interactions among formulation components were detected by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), except for SLS-PCL NPs. Colloidal properties of NPs were lost at -20 °C storage. Negatively charged NPs were stable up to one year at 5-40°C; as for CTAB-PCL NPs, particle aggregation was observed from 30 to 90 days of storage depending on temperature. Colloidal instability affected the in vitro drug release of CTAB-PCL NPs after 360 days. In any case, no degradation of dapivirine was apparent. Overall, PEO-PCL and SLS-PCL NPs presented suitable properties as nanocarriers for dapivirine. Conversely, CTAB-PCL NPs require additional strategies in order to increase stability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of the treatment with resveratrol-loaded nanoparticles in intestinal injury model caused by ischemia and reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Borges, Stephanie Carvalho; Ferreira, Paulo Emílio Botura; da Silva, Luisa Mota; de Paula Werner, Maria Fernanda; Irache, Juan Manuel; Cavalcanti, Osvaldo Albuquerque; Buttow, Nilza Cristina

    2018-03-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is extremely sensitive to ischemia and reperfusion (I/R). Studies have reported that resveratrol (RSV) is able to combat damage caused by intestinal I/R. Because of its effectiveness in increasing the permanence and bioavailability of resveratrol in the intestinal epithelium, we investigated whether the effect of resveratrol-loaded in poly(anhydride) nanoparticles reduce oxidative stress and promote myenteric neuroprotection in the ileum of rats subjected to I/R. Physicochemical evaluations were performed on nanoparticles. The animals were divided into nine groups (n = 6/group) and treated every 48 h. Treatments with resveratrol (7 mg/kg of body weight) were applied 5 days before surgery and continued for 7 days after surgery (reperfusion period). The superior mesenteric artery was occluded to cause I/R injury. Oxidative stress, myeloperoxidase, nitrite, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, immunolabeling of myenteric neurons and glial cells, and gastrointestinal transit was evaluated. Both nanoparticle formulations presented negative charge with homogeneous distribution, and the payload, showed an encapsulation efficiency of 60%. Resveratrol administered in free form prevented alterations that were caused by I/R. The results of the groups treated with RSV-loaded nanoparticles presented similar results to the group treated with free resveratrol. Treatment with empty nanoparticles showed that poly(anhydride) is not an ideal nanocarrier for application in in vivo models of intestinal I/R injury, because of hepatotoxicity that may be caused by epithelial barrier dysfunction that triggers the translocation of nanoparticles. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Towards better modelling of drug-loading in solid lipid nanoparticles: Molecular dynamics, docking experiments and Gaussian Processes machine learning.

    PubMed

    Hathout, Rania M; Metwally, Abdelkader A

    2016-11-01

    This study represents one of the series applying computer-oriented processes and tools in digging for information, analysing data and finally extracting correlations and meaningful outcomes. In this context, binding energies could be used to model and predict the mass of loaded drugs in solid lipid nanoparticles after molecular docking of literature-gathered drugs using MOE® software package on molecularly simulated tripalmitin matrices using GROMACS®. Consequently, Gaussian processes as a supervised machine learning artificial intelligence technique were used to correlate the drugs' descriptors (e.g. M.W., xLogP, TPSA and fragment complexity) with their molecular docking binding energies. Lower percentage bias was obtained compared to previous studies which allows the accurate estimation of the loaded mass of any drug in the investigated solid lipid nanoparticles by just projecting its chemical structure to its main features (descriptors). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Local administration of curcumin-loaded nanoparticles effectively inhibits inflammation and bone resorption associated with experimental periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Zambrano, Laura M G; Brandao, Dayane A; Rocha, Fernanda R G; Marsiglio, Raquel P; Longo, Ieda B; Primo, Fernando L; Tedesco, Antonio C; Guimaraes-Stabili, Morgana R; Rossa Junior, Carlos

    2018-04-27

    There is evidence indicating that curcumin has multiple biological activities, including anti-inflammatory properties. In vitro and in vivo studies demonstrate that curcumin may attenuate inflammation and the connective tissue destruction associated with periodontal disease. Most of these studies use systemic administration, and considering the site-specific nature of periodontal disease and also the poor pharmacodynamic properties of curcumin, we conducted this proof of principle study to assess the biological effect of the local administration of curcumin in a nanoparticle vehicle on experimental periodontal disease. We used 16 rats divided into two groups of 8 animals according to the induction of experimental periodontal disease by bilateral injections of LPS or of the vehicle control directly into the gingival tissues 3×/week for 4 weeks. The same volume of curcumin-loaded nanoparticles or of nanoparticle vehicle was injected into the same sites 2×/week. µCT analysis showed that local administration of curcumin resulted in a complete inhibition of inflammatory bone resorption and in a significant decrease of both osteoclast counts and of the inflammatory infiltrate; as well as a marked attenuation of p38 MAPK and NF-kB activation. We conclude that local administration of curcumin-loaded nanoparticles effectively inhibited inflammation and bone resorption associated with experimental periodontal disease.

  20. Quercetin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles: a highly effective antibacterial agent in vitro and anti-infection application in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Dongdong; Li, Nuan; Zhang, Weiwei; Yang, Endong; Mou, Zhipeng; Zhao, Zhiwei; Liu, Haiping; Wang, Weiyun

    2016-01-01

    Nanotechnology-based approaches have tremendous potential for enhancing efficacy against infectious diseases. PLGA-based nanoparticles as drug delivery carrier have shown promising potential, owing to their sizes and related unique properties. This article aims to develop nanosized poly ( d, l-lactide-co-glycolide) PLGA nanoparticle formulation loaded with quercetin (QT). QT is an antioxidant and antibacterial compound isolated from Chinese traditional medicine with low skin permeability and extreme water insolubility. The quercetin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles (PQTs) were synthesized by emulsion-solvent evaporation method and stabilized by coating with poly (vinyl alcohol). The characteristics of PQTs were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Ultraviolet-Visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy, respectively. The PQTs showed a spherical shape with an average size of 100-150 nm. We compared the antibacterial effects of PQTs against Escherichia coli ( E. coli) and Micrococcus tetragenus ( M. tetragenus).The PQTs produced stronger antibacterial activity to E. coli than that to M. tetragenus through disrupting bacterial cell wall integrity. The antibacterial ratio was increased with the increasing dosages and incubation time. Next, we tested the in vivo antibacterial activity in mice. No noticeable organ damage was captured from H&E-staining organ slices, suggesting the promise of using PQTs for in vivo applications. The results of this study demonstrated the interaction between bacteria and PLGA-based nanoparticles, providing encouragement for conducting further investigations on properties and antimicrobial activity of the PQTs in clinical application.

  1. Preparation and evaluation of miconazole nitrate-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles for topical delivery.

    PubMed

    Bhalekar, Mangesh R; Pokharkar, Varsha; Madgulkar, Ashwini; Patil, Nilam; Patil, Nilkanth

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to prepare miconazole nitrate (MN) loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (MN-SLN) effective for topical delivery of miconazole nitrate. Compritol 888 ATO as lipid, propylene glycol (PG) to increase drug solubility in lipid, tween 80, and glyceryl monostearate were used as the surfactants to stabilize SLN dispersion in the SLN preparation using hot homogenization method. SLN dispersions exhibited average size between 244 and 766 nm. All the dispersions had high entrapment efficiency ranging from 80% to 100%. The MN-SLN dispersion which showed good stability for a period of 1 month was selected. This MN-SLN was characterized for particle size, entrapment efficiency, and X-ray diffraction. The penetration of miconazole nitrate from the gel formulated using selected MN-SLN dispersion as into cadaver skins was evaluated ex-vivo using franz diffusion cell. The results of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed that MN was dispersed in SLN in an amorphous state. The MN-SLN formulations could significantly increase the accumulative uptake of MN in skin over the marketed gel and showed a significantly enhanced skin targeting effect. These results indicate that the studied MN-SLN formulation with skin targeting may be a promising carrier for topical delivery of miconazole nitrate.

  2. Cyclosporine a loaded solid lipid nanoparticles: optimization of formulation, process variable and characterization.

    PubMed

    Varia, Jigisha K; Dodiya, Shamsunder S; Sawant, Krutika K

    2008-01-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) loaded with Cyclosporine A using glyceryl monostearate (GMS) and glyceryl palmitostearate (GPS) as lipid matrices were prepared by melt-homogenization using high-pressure homogenizer. Various process parameters such as homogenization pressure, homogenization cycles and formulation parameters such as ratio of drug: lipid, emulsifier: lipid and emulsifier: co-emulsifier were optimized using particle size and entrapment efficiencies as the dependent variables. The mean particle size of optimized batches of the GMS SLN and GPS SLN were found to be 131 nm and 158 nm and their entrapment efficiencies were 83 +/- 3.08% and 97 +/- 2.59% respectively. To improve the handling processing and stability of the prepared SLNs, the SLN dispersions were spray dried and its effect on size and reconstitution parameters were evaluated. The spray drying of SLNs did not significantly alter the size of SLNs and they exhibited good redispersibility. Solid state studies such as Infra Red Spectroscopy and Differential Scanning Calorimetry indicated absence of any chemical interaction between Cyclosporine A and the lipids. Scanning Electron Microscopy of optimized formulations showed spherical shape with smooth and non porous surface. In vitro release studies revealed that GMS based SLNs released the drug faster (41.12% in 20 hours) than GPS SLNs (7.958% in 20 hours). Release of Cyclosporine A from GMS SLN followed Higuchi equation better than first order while release from GPS SLN followed first order better than Higuchi model.

  3. Solid lipid nanoparticles loaded with edaravone for inner ear protection after noise exposure.

    PubMed

    Gao, Gang; Liu, Ya; Zhou, Chang-Hua; Jiang, Ping; Sun, Jian-Jun

    2015-01-20

    Antioxidants and the duration of treatment after noise exposure on hearing recovery are important. We investigated the protective effects of an antioxidant substance, edaravone, and its slow-release dosage form, edaravone solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs), in steady noise-exposed guinea pigs. SLNs loaded with edaravone were produced by an ultrasound technique. Edaravone solution or edaravone SLNs were administered by intratympanic or intravenous injection after the 1 st day of noise exposure. Guinea pigs were exposed to 110 dB sound pressure level (SPL) noise, centered at 0.25-4.0 kHz, for 4 days at 2 h/d. After noise exposure, the guinea pigs underwent auditory brainstem response (ABR) threshold measurements, reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected in their cochleas with electron spin resonance (ESR), and outer hair cells (OHCs) were counted with silvernitrate (AgNO 3 ) staining at 1, 4, and 6 days. The ultrasound technique was able to prepare adequate edaravone SLNs with a mean particle size of 93.6 nm and entrapment efficiency of 76.7%. Acoustic stress-induced ROS formation and edaravone exerted a protective effect on the cochlea. Comparisons of hearing thresholds and ROS changes in different animal groups showed that the threshold shift and ROS generation were significantly lower in treated animals than in those without treatment, especially in the edaravone SLN intratympanic injection group. Edaravone SLNs show noticeable slow-release effects and have certain protective effects against noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL).

  4. Preparation and characterization of essential oil-loaded starch nanoparticles formed by short glucan chains.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Chao; Chang, Ranran; Yang, Jie; Ge, Shengju; Xiong, Liu; Zhao, Mei; Li, Man; Sun, Qingjie

    2017-04-15

    Essential oils (EOs), including menthone, oregano, cinnamon, lavender, and citral, are natural products that have antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. However, extremely low water solubility, and easy degradation by heat, restrict their application. The aim of this work was to evaluate the enhancement in antioxidative and antimicrobial activities of EOs encapsulated in starch nanoparticles (SNPs) prepared by short glucan chains. For the first time, we have successfully fabricated menthone-loaded SNPs (SNPs-M) at different complexation temperatures (30, 60, and 90°C) by an in situ nanoprecipitation method. The SNPs-M displayed spherical shapes, and the particle sizes ranged from 93 to 113nm. The encapsulation efficiency (EE) of SNPs-M increased significantly with an increase in complexation temperature, and the maximum EE was 86.6%. The SNPs-M formed at 90°C had high crystallization and thermal stability. The durations of the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of EOs was extended by their encapsulation in the SNPs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cadmium telluride nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon as adsorbent for removal of sunset yellow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaedi, M.; Hekmati Jah, A.; Khodadoust, S.; Sahraei, R.; Daneshfar, A.; Mihandoost, A.; Purkait, M. K.

    2012-05-01

    Adsorption is a promising technique for decolorization of effluents of textile dyeing industries but its application is limited due to requirement of high amounts of adsorbent required. The objective of this study was to assess the potential of cadmium telluride nanoparticles loaded onto activated carbon (CdTN-AC) for the removal of sunset yellow (SY) dye from aqueous solution. Adsorption studies were conducted in a batch mode varying solution pH, contact time, initial dye concentration, CdTN-AC dose, and temperature. In order to investigate the efficiency of SY adsorption on CdTN-AC, pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich, and intra-particle diffusion kinetic models were studied. It was observed that the pseudo-second-order kinetic model fits better than other kinetic models with good correlation coefficient. Equilibrium data were fitted to the Langmuir model. Thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy, entropy, activation energy, and sticking probability were also calculated. It was found that the sorption of SY onto CdTN-AC was spontaneous and endothermic in nature. The proposed adsorbent is applicable for SY removal from waste of real effluents including pea-shooter, orange drink and jelly banana with efficiency more than 97%.

  6. Biopharmaceutical profile of pranoprofen-loaded PLGA nanoparticles containing hydrogels for ocular administration.

    PubMed

    Abrego, Guadalupe; Alvarado, Helen; Souto, Eliana B; Guevara, Bessy; Bellowa, Lyda Halbaut; Parra, Alexander; Calpena, Ana; Garcia, María Luisa

    2015-09-01

    Two optimized pranoprofen-loaded poly-l-lactic-co glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles (PF-F1NPs; PF-F2NPs) have been developed and further dispersed into hydrogels for the production of semi-solid formulations intended for ocular administration. The optimized PF-NP suspensions were dispersed in freshly prepared carbomer hydrogels (HG_PF-F1NPs and HG_PF-F2NPs) or in hydrogels containing 1% azone (HG_PF-F1NPs-Azone and HG_PF-F2NPs-Azone) in order to improve the ocular biopharmaceutical profile of the selected non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), by prolonging the contact of the pranoprofen with the eye, increasing the drug retention in the organ and enhancing its anti-inflammatory and analgesic efficiency. Carbomer 934 has been selected as gel-forming polymer. The hydrogel formulations with or without azone showed a non-Newtonian behavior and adequate physicochemical properties for ocular instillation. The release study of pranoprofen from the semi-solid formulations exhibited a sustained release behavior. The results obtained from ex vivo corneal permeation and in vivo anti-inflammatory efficacy studies suggest that the ocular application of the hydrogels containing azone was more effective over the azone-free formulations in the treatment of edema on the ocular surface. No signs of ocular irritancy have been detected for the produced hydrogels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of sulfadiazine-decorated PLGA nanoparticles loaded with 5-fluorouracil and cell viability.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Pedro Pires Goulart; Oliveira, Sheila Rodrigues; de Castro Rodrigues, Gabrielle; Gontijo, Savio Morato Lacerda; Lula, Ivana Silva; Cortés, Maria Esperanza; Denadai, Ângelo Márcio Leite; Sinisterra, Rubén Dario

    2015-01-08

    The aim of this work was to synthesize sulfadiazine-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (SUL-PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) for the efficient delivery of 5-fluorouracil to cancer cells. The SUL-PLGA conjugation was assessed using FTIR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, elemental analysis and TG and DTA analysis. The SUL-PLGA NPs were characterized using transmission and scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Additionally, the zeta potential, drug content, and in vitro 5-FU release were evaluated. We found that for the SUL-PLGA NPs, Dh = 114.0 nm, ZP = -32.1 mV and the encapsulation efficiency was 49%. The 5-FU was released for up to 7 days from the NPs. Cytotoxicity evaluations of 5-FU-loaded NPs (5-FU-SUL-PLGA and 5-FU-PLGA) on two cancer cell lines (Caco-2, A431) and two normal cell lines (fibroblast, osteoblast) were compared. Higher cytotoxicity of 5-FU-SUL-PLGA NPs were found to both cancer cell lines when compared to normal cell lines, demonstrating that the presence of SUL could significantly enhance the cytotoxicity of the 5-FU-SUL-PLGA NPs when compared with 5-FU-PLGA NPs. Thus, the development of 5-FU-SUL-PLGA NPs to cancer cells is a promising strategy for the 5-FU antitumor formulation in the future.

  8. Bevacizumab loaded solid lipid nanoparticles prepared by the coacervation technique: preliminary in vitro studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battaglia, Luigi; Gallarate, Marina; Peira, Elena; Chirio, Daniela; Solazzi, Ilaria; Giordano, Susanna Marzia Adele; Gigliotti, Casimiro Luca; Riganti, Chiara; Dianzani, Chiara

    2015-06-01

    Glioblastoma, the most common primary brain tumor in adults, has an inauspicious prognosis, given that overcoming the blood-brain barrier is the major obstacle to the pharmacological treatment of brain tumors. As neoangiogenesis plays a key role in glioblastoma growth, the US Food and Drug Administration approved bevacizumab (BVZ), an antivascular endothelial growth factor antibody for the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma in patients whose the initial therapy has failed. In this experimental work, BVZ was entrapped in solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) prepared by the fatty-acid coacervation technique, thanks to the formation of a hydrophobic ion pair. BVZ activity, which was evaluated by means of four different in vitro tests on HUVEC cells, increased by 100- to 200-fold when delivered in SLNs. Moreover, SLNs can enhance the permeation of fluorescently labelled BVZ through an hCMEC/D3 cell monolayer—an in vitro model of the blood brain barrier. These results are promising, even if further in vivo studies are required to evaluate the effective potential of BVZ-loaded SLNs in glioblastoma treatment.

  9. Sesamol-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles for treatment of skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Geetha, T; Kapila, Meenakshi; Prakash, Om; Deol, Parneet Kaur; Kakkar, Vandita; Kaur, Indu Pal

    2015-02-01

    Abstract Role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in skin carcinogenesis is well documented. Natural molecules, like sesamol, with marked antioxidant potential can be useful in combating skin cancers. In vitro antiproliferative (using MTT assay) and DNA fragmentation studies in HL 60 cell lines, confirmed the apoptotic nature of sesamol. However, it showed a significant flux across the mice skin upon topical application, such that its local availability in skin is limited. Former is attributed mainly to its properties like small size, low molecular weight (138.28), and a sufficient lipid and water solubility (log P 1.29; solubility 38.8 mg/ml). To achieve its maximum epicutaneous delivery, packaging it into a suitable carrier system is thus indicated. Sesamol-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (S-SLN) were thus prepared with particle size of 127.9 nm (PI: 0.256) and entrapment efficiency of 88.21%. Topical application of S-SLN in a cream base indicated significant retention in the skin with minimal flux across skin as confirmed by the in-vivo skin retention and ex-vivo skin permeation studies. In vivo anticancer studies performed on TPA-induced and benzo(a)pyrene initiated tumour production (ROS mediated) in mouse epidermis showed the normalization (in histology studies) of skin cancers post their induction, upon treatment with S-SLN.

  10. Liposomes loaded with hydrophilic magnetite nanoparticles: Preparation and application as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    German, S V; Navolokin, N A; Kuznetsova, N R; Zuev, V V; Inozemtseva, O A; Anis'kov, A A; Volkova, E K; Bucharskaya, A B; Maslyakova, G N; Fakhrullin, R F; Terentyuk, G S; Vodovozova, E L; Gorin, D A

    2015-11-01

    Magnetic fluid-loaded liposomes (MFLs) were fabricated using magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) and natural phospholipids via the thin film hydration method followed by extrusion. The size distribution and composition of MFLs were studied using dynamic light scattering and spectrophotometry. The effective ranges of magnetite concentration in MNPs hydrosol and MFLs for contrasting at both T2 and T1 relaxation were determined. On T2 weighted images, the MFLs effectively increased the contrast if compared with MNPs hydrosol, while on T1 weighted images, MNPs hydrosol contrasting was more efficient than that of MFLs. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrasting properties of MFLs and their effects on tumor and normal tissues morphology, were investigated in rats with transplanted renal cell carcinoma upon intratumoral administration of MFLs. No significant morphological changes in rat internal organs upon intratumoral injection of MFLs were detected, suggesting that the liposomes are relatively safe and can be used as the potential contrasting agents for MRI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Stability and Ocular Pharmacokinetics of Celecoxib-Loaded Nanoparticles Topical Ophthalmic Formulations.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohammed Mostafa; Abd-Elgawad, Abd-Elgawad Helmy; Soliman, Osama Abd-Elazeem; Jablonski, Monica M

    2016-12-01

    A spontaneous emulsification and/or solvent diffusion method was used for the preparation of celecoxib-loaded nanoparticles (NPs) using polymers, including chitosan (CS), sodium alginate, poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL), poly-l-lactide, and poly-d,l-lactide-co-glycolide. NPs were incorporated into vehicles (eye drops, in situ gelling system, and gel). Formulations were subjected to an accelerated stability study by storing them at elevated temperatures of 30, 35, and 45°C for 6 months. Formulations were evaluated monthly for general appearance, pH, viscosity, particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, and drug content. Gels containing CS-NPs and PCL-NPs were selected for an ocular pharmacokinetics study using Sprague-Dawley rats due to their high stability and long shelf lives (24.56 and 33.76 months, respectively). The gel improved NP stability by keeping it inside its network structure, which protected them from aggregation and interacting with water. Our formulations improved celecoxib bioavailability due to their bioadhesivness, thus preventing their rapid removal. Also, NPs acted as drug reservoirs that adhered to eye surface and continuously released the drug. The availability of celecoxib in all eye tissues and its absence in plasma suggests that our formulation could be used for anterior eye disorders and also for treatment of diseases associated with the posterior eye with no systemic side effects. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Facile Preparation of Drug-Loaded Tristearin Encapsulated Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Using Coaxial Electrospray Processing.

    PubMed

    Rasekh, Manoochehr; Ahmad, Zeeshan; Cross, Richard; Hernández-Gil, Javier; Wilton-Ely, James D E T; Miller, Philip W

    2017-06-05

    Naturally occurring polymers are promising biocompatible materials that have many applications for emerging therapies, drug delivery systems, and diagnostic agents. The handling and processing of such materials still constitutes a major challenge, which can limit the full exploitation of their properties. This study explores an ambient environment processing technique: coaxial electrospray (CO-ES) to encapsulate genistein (an isoflavonoid and model drug), superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs, 10-15 nm), and a fluorophore (BODIPY) into a layered (triglyceride tristearin shell) particulate system, with a view to constructing a theranostic agent. Mode mapping of CO-ES led to an optimized atomization engineering window for stable jetting, leading to encapsulation of SPIONs within particles of diameter 0.65-1.2 μm and drug encapsulation efficiencies of around 92%. Electron microscopy was used to image the encapsulated SPIONs and confirm core-shell triglyceride encapsulation in addition to further physicochemical characterization (AFM, FTIR, DSC, and TGA). Cell viability assays (MTT, HeLa cells) were used to determine optimal SPION loaded particles (∼1 mg/mL), while in vitro release profile experiments (PBS, pH = 7.4) demonstrate a triphasic release profile. Further cell studies confirmed cell uptake and internalization at selected time points (t = 1, 2, and 4 h). The results suggest potential for using the CO-ES technique as an efficient way to encapsulate SPIONs together with sensitive drugs for the development of multimodal particles that have potential application for combined imaging and therapy.

  13. A facile one-step route to synthesize cage-like silica hollow spheres loaded with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in their shells.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Choo, Eugene Shi Guang; Tang, Xiaosheng; Ding, Jun; Xue, Junmin

    2009-02-28

    Cage-like silica hollow spheres loaded with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles incorporated in their macroporous shells are synthesized in a facile manner through a one-step oil-in-diethylene glycol (DEG) microemulsion route.

  14. Oral Delivery of DMAB-Modified Docetaxel-Loaded PLGA-TPGS Nanoparticles for Cancer Chemotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hongbo; Zheng, Yi; Tian, Ge; Tian, Yan; Zeng, Xiaowei; Liu, Gan; Liu, Kexin; Li, Lei; Li, Zhen; Mei, Lin; Huang, Laiqiang

    2011-12-01

    Three types of nanoparticle formulation from biodegradable PLGA-TPGS random copolymer were developed in this research for oral administration of anticancer drugs, which include DMAB-modified PLGA nanoparticles, unmodified PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles and DMAB-modified PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles. Firstly, the PLGA-TPGS random copolymer was synthesized and characterized. DMAB was used to increase retention time at the cell surface, thus increasing the chances of particle uptake and improving oral drug bioavailability. Nanoparticles were found to be of spherical shape with an average particle diameter of around 250 nm. The surface charge of PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles was changed to positive after DMAB modification. The results also showed that the DMAB-modified PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles have significantly higher level of the cellular uptake than that of DMAB-modified PLGA nanoparticles and unmodified PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles. In vitro, cytotoxicity experiment showed advantages of the DMAB-modified PLGA-TPGS nanoparticle formulation over commercial Taxotere® in terms of cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells. In conclusion, oral chemotherapy by DMAB-modified PLGA-TPGS nanoparticle formulation is an attractive and promising treatment option for patients.

  15. Intracellular drug release from curcumin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles induces G2/M block in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Verderio, Paolo; Bonetti, Paolo; Colombo, Miriam; Pandolfi, Laura; Prosperi, Davide

    2013-03-11

    PLGA nanoparticles are among the most studied polymer nanoformulations for several drugs against different kinds of malignant diseases, thanks to their in vivo stability and tumor localization exploiting the well-documented "enhanced permeation and retention" (EPR) effect. In this paper, we have developed uniform curcumin-bearing PLGA nanoparticles by a single-emulsion process, which exhibited a curcumin release following a Fickian-law diffusion over 10 days in vitro. PLGA nanoparticles were about 120 nm in size, as determined by dynamic light scattering, with a surface negative charge of -30 mV. The loading ratio of encapsulated drug in our PLGA nanoformulation was 8 wt%. PLGA encapsulation provided efficient protection of curcumin from environment, as determined by fluorescence emission experiments. Next, we have investigated the possibility to study the intracellular degradation of nanoparticles associated with a specific G2/M blocking effect on MCF7 breast cancer cells caused by curcumin release in the cytoplasm, which provided direct evidence on the mechanism of action of our nanocomplex. This study was carried out using Annexin V-based cell death analysis, MTT assessment of proliferation, flow cytometry, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. PLGA nanoparticles proved to be completely safe, suggesting a potential utilization of this nanocomplex to improve the intrinsically poor bioavailability of curcumin for the treatment of severe malignant breast cancer.

  16. Design of experiments for the development of poly( d, l-lactide- co-glycolide) nanoparticles loaded with Uncaria tomentosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Ana Ferreira; Ferreira, Carina Torres Garruth; dos Santos, Juliana Fernandes; Cabral, Lúcio Mendes; de Sousa, Valéria Pereira

    2015-02-01

    Polymeric nanoparticles have been shown to be effective carriers for natural substances that possess anticancer properties. Incorporation of these natural substances into polymeric nanoparticles increases targeting of these drugs, thus reducing side effects. Uncaria tomentosa (UT) is a Peruvian Amazon plant (existing in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest) that possesses promising anti-tumor activity. This paper describes the development of poly( d, l-lactide- co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles loaded with UT extract. The emulsion solvent evaporation method was utilized and the initial conditions were determined for the organic phase (OP) and the aqueous phase (AP). The influence of surfactant (type and concentration), PLGA concentration and AP volume on nanoparticle size, polydispersity index (PI), and entrapment efficiency (EE) was determined using a fractional factorial design (FFD). In addition, the formulation was optimized using a Box-Behnken design. After the conditions were optimized, UT nanoparticles were obtained using an OP composed of an ethyl acetate:acetone (3:2) mixture which contained the UT alkaloids and PLGA, and an AP composed of a buffered solution of Poloxamer 188 (pH 7.5). The optimized formulation produced an EE of 64.6 %, a particle size of 107.4 nm and a PI of 0.163. The preliminary experiments provided important information regarding the behavior of the nanoparticulate system and the FFD used in this study greatly facilitated the selection of the most optimal conditions for formulation development.

  17. Improved Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer With Drug Delivery Nanoparticles Loaded With a Novel AKT/PDK1 Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Kobes, Joseph E; Daryaei, Iman; Howison, Christine M; Bontrager, Jordan G; Sirianni, Rachael W; Meuillet, Emmanuelle J; Pagel, Mark D

    2016-09-01

    This research study sought to improve the treatment of pancreatic cancer by improving the drug delivery of a promising AKT/PDK1 inhibitor, PHT-427, in poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles. PHT-427 was encapsulated in single-emulsion and double-emulsion PLGA nanoparticles (SE-PLGA-427 and DE-PLGA-427). The drug release rate was evaluated to assess the effect of the second PLGA layer of DE-PLGA-427. Ex vivo cryo-imaging and drug extraction from ex vivo organs was used to assess the whole-body biodistribution in an orthotopic model of MIA PaCa-2 pancreatic cancer. Anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to noninvasively assess the effects of 4 weeks of nanoparticle drug treatment on tumor size, and diffusion-weighted MRI longitudinally assessed changes in tumor cellularity. DE-PLGA-427 showed delayed drug release and longer drug retention in the pancreas relative to SE-PLGA-427. Diffusion-weighted MRI indicated a consistent decrease in cellularity during drug treatment with both types of drug-loaded nanoparticles. Both SE- and DE-PLGA-427 showed a 6-fold and 4-fold reduction in tumor volume relative to untreated tumors and an elimination of primary pancreatic tumor in 68% of the mice. These results indicated that the PLGA nanoparticles improved drug delivery of PHT-427 to pancreatic tumors, which improved the treatment of MIA PaCa-2 pancreatic cancer.

  18. Improved Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer With Drug Delivery Nanoparticles Loaded With a Novel AKT/PDK1 Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Kobes, Joseph E.; Daryaei, Iman; Howison, Christine M.; Bontrager, Jordan G.; Sirianni, Rachael W.; Meuillet, Emmanuelle J.; Pagel, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This research study sought to improve the treatment of pancreatic cancer by improving the drug delivery of a promising AKT/PDK1 inhibitor, PHT-427, in poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles. Methods PHT-427 was encapsulated in single-emulsion and double-emulsion PLGA nanoparticles (SE- and DE-PLGA-427). The drug release rate was evaluated to assess the effect of the second PLGA layer of DE-PLGA-427. Ex vivo cryo-imaging and drug extraction from ex vivo organs was used to assess the whole body biodistribution in an orthotopic model of MiaPaCa-2 pancreatic cancer. Anatomical MRI was used to noninvasively assess the effects of four weeks of nanoparticle-drug treatment on tumor size, and diffusion-weighted MRI longitudinally assessed changes in tumor cellularity. Results DE-PLGA-427 showed delayed drug release and longer drug retention in the pancreas relative to SE-PLGA-427. Diffusion-weighted MRI indicated a consistent decrease in cellularity during drug treatment with both types of drug-loaded nanoparticles. Both SE- and DE-PLGA-427 showed a 6-fold and 4-fold reduction in tumor volume relative to untreated tumors, and an elimination of primary pancreatic tumor in 68% of the mice. Conclusions These results indicated that the PLGA nanoparticles improved drug delivery of PHT-427 to pancreatic tumors, which improved the treatment of Mia PaCa-2 pancreatic cancer. PMID:26918875

  19. Pharmaceutical suspension containing both immediate/sustained-release amoxicillin-loaded gelatin nanoparticles: preparation and in vitro characterization.

    PubMed

    Harsha, Sree

    2013-01-01

    Pharmaceutical suspension containing oral dosage forms delivering both immediate-release and sustained-release amoxicillin was developed as a new dosage form to eradicate Helicobacter pylori. Amoxicillin-loaded gelatin nanoparticles are able to bind with the mucosal membrane after delivery to the stomach and could escalate the effectiveness of a drug, providing dual release. The objective of this study was to develop amoxicillin nanoparticles using innovative new technology--the Büchi Nano Spray Dryer B-90 - and investigate such features as drug content, particle morphology, yield, in vitro release, flow properties, and stability. The nanoparticles had an average particle size of 571 nm. The drug content and percentage yield was 89.2% ± 0.5% and 93.3% ± 0.6%, respectively. Angle of repose of nanoparticle suspension was 26.3° and bulk density was 0.59 g/cm(3). In vitro drug release of formulations was best fitted by first-order and Peppas models with R (2) of 0.9841 and 0.9837 respectively; release profile was 15.9%, while; for the original drug, amoxicillin, under the same conditions, 90% was released in the first 30 minutes. The nanoparticles used in this study enabled sustained release of amoxicillin over an extended period of time, up to 12 hours, and were stable for 12 months under accelerated storage conditions of 25 °C ± 2 °C and 60% ± 5% relative humidity.

  20. Plant bio-transformable HMG-CoA reductase gene loaded calcium phosphate nanoparticle: in vitro characterization and stability study.

    PubMed

    Ohadi R, Mehrnaz S; Alvari, Amene; Samim, M; Abdin, Malik Z

    2013-03-01

    Encapsulation of plasmid DNA in nanoparticle is expected to enhance the stability of DNA, reproducibility and frequency of the genetic transformation in plants. Here we report the formulation of HMG Co-A reductase gene loaded calcium phosphate nanoparticles (Cap nanoparticles) and their in-vitro, in-vivo characterization. The developed Cap nanoparticles were characterized by DSC, FT-IR, and XRD. Developed Cap nanoparticles were spherical in shape having the particle size and zeta potential in the range of 10.86±0.09nm to 33.42±0.18nm and -25.5±0.07mV to -31.7±0.07mV (for Cap-I to Cap-IV). DNA releasing in acidic media showed, initially slow release followed by fast release with a maximum release of Cap-I (95.77±1.39%) > Cap-II (87.32±2.07%) > Cap-III (76.54±2.01%) > Cap-IV (72.93±1.75%) over 60min. Cap nanoparticles were quite stable at storage condition of 40±0.5°C/75±5%RH, 25±0.5°C/60±RH, 4±0.5°C/ambient humidity and the integrity of pDNA encapsulated was confirmed by gel electrophoresis. Compared to wild type C. intybus, transformation efficiency and enhanced biosynthesis of esculin with the DNA nanoparticles in C. intybus were about 10% and 71%, respectively. Antioxidant activity capacity of the biotransformed plants was significantly higher than the normal plant due to high accumulation of esculin.

  1. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs)-loaded Trojan microparticles for targeted aerosol delivery to the lung.

    PubMed

    Tewes, Frederic; Ehrhardt, Carsten; Healy, Anne Marie

    2014-01-01

    Targeted aerosol delivery to specific regions of the lung may improve therapeutic efficiency and minimise unwanted side effects. Targeted delivery could potentially be achieved with porous microparticles loaded with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs)-in combination with a target-directed magnetic gradient field. The aim of this study was to formulate and evaluate the aerodynamic properties of SPIONs-loaded Trojan microparticles after delivery from a dry powder inhaler. Microparticles made of SPIONs, PEG and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) were formulated by spray drying and characterised by various physicochemical methods. Aerodynamic properties were evaluated using a next generation cascade impactor (NGI), with or without a magnet positioned at stage 2. Mixing appropriate proportions of SPIONs, PEG and HPβCD allowed Trojan microparticle to be formulated. These particles had a median geometric diameter of 2.8±0.3μm and were shown to be sensitive to the magnetic field induced by a magnet having a maximum energy product of 413.8kJ/m(3). However, these particles, characterised by a mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of 10.2±2.0μm, were considered to be not inhalable. The poor aerodynamic properties resulted from aggregation of the particles. The addition of (NH4)2CO3 and magnesium stearate (MgST) to the formulation improved the aerodynamic properties of the Trojan particles and resulted in a MMAD of 2.2±0.8μm. In the presence of a magnetic field on stage 2 of the NGI, the amount of particles deposited at this stage increased 4-fold from 4.8±0.7% to 19.5±3.3%. These Trojan particles appeared highly sensitive to the magnetic field and their deposition on most of the stages of the NGI was changed in the presence compared to the absence of the magnet. If loaded with a pharmaceutical active ingredient, these particles may be useful for treating localised lung disease such as cancer nodules or bacterial infectious foci. Copyright

  2. Delivery of enteric neural progenitors with 5-HT4 agonist-loaded nanoparticles and thermosensitive hydrogel enhances cell proliferation and differentiation following transplantation in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Hannah K.; Nagy, Nandor; Belkind-Gerson, Jaime; Mattheolabakis, George; Amiji, Mansoor M.; Goldstein, Allan M.

    2016-01-01

    Cell therapy offers an innovative approach for treating enteric neuropathies. Postnatal gut-derived enteric neural stem/progenitor cells (ENSCs) represent a potential autologous source, but have a limited capacity for proliferation and neuronal differentiation. Since serotonin (5-HT) promotes enteric neuronal growth during embryonic development, we hypothesized that serotonin receptor agonism would augment growth of neurons from transplanted ENSCs. Postnatal ENSCs were isolated from 2-4 week-old mouse colon and cultured with 5-HT4 receptor agonist (RS67506)-loaded liposomal nanoparticles. ENSCs were co-cultured with mouse colon explants in the presence of RS67506-loaded (n=3) or empty nanoparticles (n=3). ENSCs were also transplanted into mouse rectum in vivo with RS67506-loaded (n=8) or blank nanoparticles (n=4) confined in a thermosensitive hydrogel, Pluronic F-127. Neuronal density and proliferation were analyzed immunohistochemically. Cultured ENSCs gave rise to significantly more neurons in the presence of RS67506-loaded nanoparticles. Similarly, colon explants had significantly increased neuronal density when RS67506-loaded nanoparticles were present. Finally, following in vivo cell delivery, co-transplantation of ENSCs with 5-HT4 receptor agonist-loaded nanoparticles led to significantly increased neuronal density and proliferation. We conclude that optimization of postnatal ENSCs can support their use in cell-based therapies for neurointestinal diseases. PMID:26922325

  3. Solid lipid nanoparticles loaded with insulin by sodium cholate-phosphatidylcholine-based mixed micelles: preparation and characterization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Gong, Tao; Wang, Changguang; Zhong, Zhirong; Zhang, Zhirong

    2007-08-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) loaded with insulin-mixed micelles (Ins-MMs) were prepared by a novel reverse micelle-double emulsion method, in which sodium cholate (SC) and soybean phosphatidylcholine (SPC) were employed to improve the liposolubility of insulin, and the mixture of stearic acid and palmitic acid were employed to prepare insulin loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (Ins-MM-SLNs). Some of the formulation parameters were optimized to obtain high quality nanoparticles. The particle size and zeta potential measured by photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) were 114.7+/-4.68 nm and -51.36+/-2.04 mV, respectively. Nanospheres observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed extremely spherical shape. The entrapment efficiency (EE%) and drug loading capacity (DL%) determined with high performance liquid chromatogram (HPLC) by modified ultracentrifuge method were 97.78+/-0.37% and 18.92+/-0.07%, respectively. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) of Ins-MM-SLNs indicated no tendency of recrystallisation. The core-shell drug loading pattern of the SLNs was confirmed by fluorescence spectra and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) which also proved the integrity of insulin after being incorporated into lipid carrier. The drug release behavior was studied by in situ and externally sink method and the release pattern of drug was found to follow Weibull and Higuchi equations. Results of stability evaluation showed a relatively long-term stability after storage at 4 degrees C for 6 months. In conclusion, SLNs with small particle size, excellent physical stability, high entrapment efficiency, good loading capacity for protein drug can be produced by this novel reverse micelle-double emulsion method in present study.

  4. Diphtheria toxoid loaded poly-(epsilon-caprolactone) nanoparticles as mucosal vaccine delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jasvinder; Pandit, Sreenivas; Bramwell, Vincent W; Alpar, H Oya

    2006-02-01

    Poly-(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL), a poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)-PCL blend and co-polymer nanoparticles encapsulating diphtheria toxoid (DT) were investigated for their potential as a mucosal vaccine delivery system. The nanoparticles, prepared using a water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) double emulsion solvent evaporation method, demonstrated release profiles which were dependent on the properties of the polymers. An in vitro experiment using Caco-2 cells showed significantly higher uptake of PCL nanoparticles in comparison to polymeric PLGA, the PLGA-PCL blend and co-polymer nanoparticles. The highest uptake mediated by the most hydrophobic nanoparticles using Caco-2 cells was mirrored in the in vivo studies following nasal administration. PCL nanoparticles induced DT serum specific IgG antibody responses significantly higher than PLGA. A significant positive correlation between hydrophobicity of the nanoparticles and the immune response was observed following intramuscular administration. The positive correlation between hydrophobicity of the nanoparticles and serum DT specific IgG antibody response was also observed after intranasal administration of the nanoparticles. The cytokine assays showed that the serum IgG antibody response induced is different according to the route of administration, indicated by the differential levels of IL-6 and IFN-gamma. The nanoparticles eliciting the highest IgG antibody response did not necessarily elicit the highest levels of the cytokines IL-6 and IFN-gamma.

  5. Optimization and charaterization of repaglinide biodegradable polymeric nanoparticle loaded transdermal patchs: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Vijayan, V; Reddy, K Ravindra; Sakthivel, S; Swetha, C

    2013-11-01

    Biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles loaded Repaglinide were prepared by solvent extraction method. In this method chitosan, PLA and PCL were employed to prepare Repaglinide polymeric nanoparticles. Some of the formulation parameters were optimized to obtain high quality nanoparticles. The particles were spherical shape with sizes of 108.6 ± 3.4 nm to 220.6 ± 1.2 nm and the poly dispersity indexes were in the range of 0.06 to 0.44. The zeta potential was in the range between - 16.48 ± 2.02 and 30.52 ± 3.20 mV. The percentage entrapment efficiency (EE%) was 81.4 ± 1.8% to 92.7 ± 1.4%. The drug release behavior was studied by externally sink method and the release pattern of drug was found to follow zero order, Higuchi and Peppas equations. The optimized PLA-Repaglinide nanoparticles were loaded in Methocel transdermal patches. These transdermal patches were evaluated by physiochemical parameters, in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo studies. Based on in vivo hypoglycemic results, bioavailability parameters like AUC, AUMC, Cmax, Tmax, MRT, t1/2 and relative bioavailability were found to be 2218.88 μIU/mL/h, 381630.3 μIU/mL/h, 41.88 μIU/mL, 36 h, 83.24h, and 52.79 h respectively. The transdermal patch containing Repaglinide nanoparticles showed 76 fold effective than conventional oral administrations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Curcumin-loaded polymeric nanoparticles for enhanced anti-colorectal cancer applications.

    PubMed

    Udompornmongkol, Panisa; Chiang, Been-Huang

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to fabricate polymeric nanoparticles as drug carriers for encapsulated curcumin with enhanced anti-colorectal cancer applications. Nanoparticles were formulated from chitosan and gum arabic, natural polysaccharides, via an emulsification solvent diffusion method. The formation of curcumin nanoparticles was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimeter. The results show that curcumin was entrapped in carriers with +48 mV, 136 nm size, and high encapsulation efficiency (95%). Based on an in vitro release study, we inferred that curcumin nanoparticles could tolerate hydrolysis due to gastric juice or small intestinal enzymes, and therefore, it should reach the colon largely intact. In addition, curcumin nanoparticles had higher anti-colorectal cancer properties than free curcumin due to greater cellular uptake. Therefore, we concluded that curcumin was successfully encapsulated in chitosan-gum arabic nanoparticles with superior anti-colorectal cancer activity. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Effects of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) on preparation and characteristics of plasmid DNA-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhu, L; Xie, S; Dong, Z; Wang, X; Wang, Y; Zhou, W

    2011-09-01

    Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) was used as a polymeric emulsifier to encapsulate plasmid DNA into hydrogenated castor oil (HCO)-solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) by w/o/w double emulsion and solvent evaporation techniques. The effects of PLGA on the preparation, characteristics and transfection efficiency of DNA-loaded SLN were studied. The results showed that PLGA was essential to form the primary w/o emulsion and the stability of the emulsion was enhanced with the increase of PLGA content. DNA-loaded SLN were spherical with smooth surfaces. The SLN had a negative charge in weak acid and alkaline environment but acquired a positive charge in acidic pH and the cationisation capacity of the SLN increased with the increase of PLGA/HCO ratio. Agarose gel electrophoresis demonstrated that the majority of the DNA maintained its structural integrity after preparation and being extracted or released from DNA-loaded SLN. When PLGA/HCO ratio increased from 5 to 15%, the encapsulation efficiency, loading capacity and transfection efficiency of the nanoparticles increased significantly, whereas the changes of particle size and polydispersity index were insignificant. Cytotoxicity study in cell culture demonstrated that the SLN was not toxic.

  8. The effects of quercetin-loaded PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles on ultraviolet B-induced skin damages in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xianbing; Zeng, Xiaowei; Zhang, Xudong; Cao, Wei; Wang, Yilin; Chen, Houjie; Wang, Teng; Tsai, Hsiang-I; Zhang, Ran; Chang, Danfeng; He, Shuai; Mei, Lin; Shi, Xiaojun

    2016-04-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation has deleterious effects on living organisms, and functions as a tumor initiator and promoter. Multiple natural compounds, like quercetin, have been shown the protective effects on UV-induced damage. However, quercetin is extremely hydrophobic and limited by its poor percutaneous permeation and skin deposition. Here, we show that quercetin-loaded PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles could overcome low hydrophilicity of quercetin and improve its anti-UVB effect. Quercetin-loaded NPs can significantly block UVB irradiation induced COX-2 up-expression and NF-kB activation in Hacat cell line. Moreover, PLGA-TPGS NPs could efficiently get through epidermis and reach dermis. Treatment of mice with quercetin-loaded NPs also attenuates UVB irradiation-associated macroscopic and histopathological changes in mice skin. These results demonstrated that copolymer PLGA-TPGS could be used as drug nanocarriers against skin damage and disease. The findings provide an external use of PLGA-TPGS nanocarriers for application in the treatment of skin diseases. Skin is the largest organ in the body and is subjected to ultraviolet (UV) radiation damage daily from the sun. Excessive exposure has been linked to the development of skin cancer. Hence, topically applied agents can play a major role in skin protection. In this article, the authors developed quercetin-loaded PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles and showed their anti-UVB effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Safety and efficacy of antioxidants-loaded nanoparticles for an anti-aging application.

    PubMed

    Felippi, Cândice C; Oliveira, Dileusa; Ströher, Alessandra; Carvalho, Anderson R; Van Etten, Eliana A M Aquino; Bruschi, Márcia; Raffin, Renata P

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this work was to perform a pilot study on the safety and efficacy of nanoparticle formulation for cosmetic application. The encapsulated actives in the nanoparticles were a blend of coenzyme Q10, retinyl palmitate, tocopheryl acetate, grape seed oil and linseed oil. The nanoparticle suspension was characterized in terms of pH and particle size. For the safety assessment, alternative methods as cytotoxicity and HET CAM were used. The clinical skin compatibility tests were also performed. The efficacy was evaluated in healthy volunteers presenting different degrees of periorbital wrinkles. Skin hydration was performed by corneometry. The nanoparticles presented narrow size around 140 nm and pH close to neutral and were suitable to cutaneous application. The alternative tests demonstrated that the nanoparticles did not present potential to induce skin irritant effects, cytotoxicity or generate oxidative stress. The clinical assays confirmed the in vitro results, demonstrating the safety of the nanoparticles, which were not irritant, sensitizing and comedogenic. Furthermore, the exposure to UVA light did not cause photoxicity. Regarding the efficacy, nanoparticles presented significant reduction in wrinkle degree after 21 days of application compared to the control. The volunteers could differentiate the nanoparticles and the control product by means of subjective analyses. In conclusion, the nanoparticles containing antioxidant actives were safe for topical use and presented anti-aging activity in vivo and are suitable to be used as cosmetic ingredient.

  10. Evaluation of the Cytotoxic Effects of Hyperthermia and 5-Fluorouracil Loaded Magnetic Nanoparticles on Human Colon Cancer Cell Line HT-29.

    PubMed

    Eynali, Samira; Khoei, Samideh; Khoei, Sepideh; Esmaelbeygi, Elaheh

    2016-10-04

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the combined effects of heat and poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles, as 5-fluorouracil carriers with/without iron oxide core, on the viability and proliferation capacity of human colon cancer cell line HT-29 in the spheroid model. HT-29 spheroid cells were treated with different concentrations of 5-FU or 5-FU loaded into both nanoparticles for 74 h. Hyperthermia was then performed at 43°C for 60 min. Finally, the effects of the mentioned treatments on cell viability and proliferation capacity were evaluated using the trypan blue dye exclusion test and colony formation assay, respectively. Our results showed that hyperthermia, in combination with 5-FU or PLGA nanoparticles as 5-FU carriers, significantly enhanced the cytotoxic effects as compared to the control group. Considering that nanoparticles could increase the intracellular concentration of drugs in cancer cells, the extent of cytotoxic effects following treatment with 5-FU loaded into both nanoparticles was significantly higher than that with free 5-FU. In addition, the presence of iron oxide cores in nanoparticles during hyperthermia enhanced the cytotoxic effects of hyperthermia compared with nanoparticles without iron oxide core. Based on this study, hyperthermia in combination with 5-FU-loaded PLGA nanoparticles with iron oxide core drastically reduced the proliferation capacity of HT-29 cells; therefore, it may be considered a new direction in the treatment of colon cancer.

  11. Curcumin loaded solid lipid nanoparticles ameliorate adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats.

    PubMed

    Arora, R; Kuhad, A; Kaur, I P; Chopra, K

    2015-08-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a chronic and systemic inflammation, results in destruction of joints and cartilages. Effectiveness of curcumin has been established in a wide variety of inflammatory disorders, but its utility as a therapeutic agent is limited by its poor absorption, rapid metabolism and fast systemic elimination. To apprehend these limitations, we propose to use highly bioavailable curcumin loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (C-SLNs) for the treatment of RA. In the present study, the protective effect of curcumin and its SLNs was evaluated in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis in rats. Arthritic rats exhibited marked decrease in paw withdrawal threshold in Randall-Selitto and von Frey hair test along with decreased reaction time in hot plate. Arthritic rats also showed significant joint hyperalgesia, joint stiffness and increased paw volume along with marked decrease in mobility score. Arthritic rats showed a significant increase in blood leukocyte count, oxidative-nitrosative stress, tumour necrosis factor-α, C-reactive protein, cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody levels and radiological alterations in tibiotarsal joint. C-SLN administration (10 and 30 mg/kg), when compared with free curcumin (10 and 30 mg/kg), significantly and dose dependently ameliorated various symptoms of arthritis in rats, improved biochemical markers and preserved radiological alterations in joints of arthritic rats. The current findings suggest the protective potential of curcumin-SLNs in ameliorating CFA-induced arthritis in rats through attenuation of oxido-inflammatory and immunomodulatory cascade. Further, the results emphasize that SLNs are a novel approach to deliver curcumin into the inflamed joints and improve its biopharmaceutical performance. © 2014 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  12. Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Loaded with Edaravone for Inner Ear Protection After Noise Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Gang; Liu, Ya; Zhou, Chang-Hua; Jiang, Ping; Sun, Jian-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Antioxidants and the duration of treatment after noise exposure on hearing recovery are important. We investigated the protective effects of an antioxidant substance, edaravone, and its slow-release dosage form, edaravone solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs), in steady noise-exposed guinea pigs. Methods: SLNs loaded with edaravone were produced by an ultrasound technique. Edaravone solution or edaravone SLNs were administered by intratympanic or intravenous injection after the 1st day of noise exposure. Guinea pigs were exposed to 110 dB sound pressure level (SPL) noise, centered at 0.25–4.0 kHz, for 4 days at 2 h/d. After noise exposure, the guinea pigs underwent auditory brainstem response (ABR) threshold measurements, reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected in their cochleas with electron spin resonance (ESR), and outer hair cells (OHCs) were counted with silvernitrate (AgNO3) staining at 1, 4, and 6 days. Results: The ultrasound technique was able to prepare adequate edaravone SLNs with a mean particle size of 93.6 nm and entrapment efficiency of 76.7%. Acoustic stress-induced ROS formation and edaravone exerted a protective effect on the cochlea. Comparisons of hearing thresholds and ROS changes in different animal groups showed that the threshold shift and ROS generation were significantly lower in treated animals than in those without treatment, especially in the edaravone SLN intratympanic injection group. Conclusions: Edaravone SLNs show noticeable slow-release effects and have certain protective effects against noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). PMID:25591563

  13. Combinatorial anticancer effects of curcumin and 5-fluorouracil loaded thiolated chitosan nanoparticles towards colon cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Anitha, A; Deepa, N; Chennazhi, K P; Lakshmanan, Vinoth-Kumar; Jayakumar, R

    2014-09-01

    Evaluation of the combinatorial anticancer effects of curcumin/5-fluorouracil loaded thiolated chitosan nanoparticles (CRC-TCS-NPs/5-FU-TCS-NPs) on colon cancer cells and the analysis of pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of CRC-TCS-NPs/5-FU-TCS-NPs in a mouse model. CRC-TCS-NPs/5-FU-TCS-NPs were developed by ionic cross-linking. The in vitro combinatorial anticancer effect of the nanomedicine was proven by different assays. Further the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution analyses were performed in Swiss Albino mouse using HPLC. The 5-FU-TCS-NPs (size: 150±40nm, zeta potential: +48.2±5mV) and CRC-TCS-NPs (size: 150±20nm, zeta potential: +35.7±3mV) were proven to be compatible with blood. The in vitro drug release studies at pH4.5 and 7.4 showed a sustained release profile over a period of 4 days, where both the systems exhibited a higher release in acidic pH. The in vitro combinatorial anticancer effects in colon cancer (HT29) cells using MTT, live/dead, mitochondrial membrane potential and cell cycle analysis measurements confirmed the enhanced anticancer effects (2.5 to 3 fold). The pharmacokinetic studies confirmed the improved plasma concentrations of 5-FU and CRC up to 72h, unlike bare CRC and 5-FU. To conclude, the combination of 5-FU-TCS-NPs and CRC-TCS-NPs showed enhanced anticancer effects on colon cancer cells in vitro and improved the bioavailability of the drugs in vivo. The enhanced anticancer effects of combinatorial nanomedicine are advantageous in terms of reduction in the dosage of 5-FU, thereby improving the chemotherapeutic efficacy and patient compliance of colorectal cancer cases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of bioavailability, efficacy, and safety profile of doxorubicin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patro, Nagaraju M.; Devi, Kshama; Pai, Roopa S.; Suresh, Sarasija

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the bioavailability, efficacy, and toxicity of doxorubicin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (DOX-SLNs) prepared by a simple modified double-emulsification method. A 3-factor, 3-level Box-Behnken statistical design was adopted in the optimization of DOX-SLN formulation considering dependent factors particle size and entrapment efficiency. Optimized SLN formulation composed of lipid (2 %) consisting of soya lecithin and Precirol ATO 5 (1:3) with Pluronic F68 (0.3 %) resulted in 217.36 ± 3.31 nm particle size and 59.45 ± 1.75 % entrapment efficiency. DOX-SLN exhibited significant enhancement ( p < 0.05) in bioavailability as compared with free DOX in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. DOX-SLN exhibited higher peak plasma concentration (6.761 ± 0.08 vs. 2.412 ± 0.04 μg/ml), increased AUC (61.368 ± 3.54 vs. 5.812 ± 0.49 μg/ml h), decreased clearance (36 ± 0.01 vs. 619 ± 0.005 mL/h kg), and volume of distribution (733 ± 0.092 vs. 2,064 ± 0.061 mL/kg) when compared to free DOX. The collective results of cardiac and kidney enzyme assay, antioxidant enzyme levels, hematological parameters, effect on body weight and tumor volume, tumor necrosis factor-α level, histopathological examination, and survival analysis confirmed the improved efficacy and safety profile of DOX-SLN in 7,12-dimethyl benzanthracene-induced breast cancer in SD rats.

  15. Protein functionalized tramadol-loaded PLGA nanoparticles: preparation, optimization, stability and pharmacodynamic studies.

    PubMed

    Lalani, Jigar; Rathi, Mohan; Lalan, Manisha; Misra, Ambikanandan

    2013-06-01

    Poly (d,l-lactide-co-glycolide acid) (PLGA) Nanoparticles (NPs) with sustained drug release and enhanced circulation time presents widely explored non-invasive approach for drug delivery to brain. However, blood-brain barrier (BBB) limits the drug delivery to brain. This can be overcome by anchoring endogenous ligand like Transferrin (Tf) and Lactoferrin (Lf) on the surface of NPs, allowing efficient brain delivery via receptor-mediated endocytosis. The aim of the present investigation was preparation, optimization, characterization and comparative evaluation of targeting efficiency of Tf- vs. Lf-conjugated NPs. Tramadol-loaded PLGA NPs were prepared by nanoprecipitation techniques and optimized using 3(3) factorial design. The effect of polymer concentration, stabilizer concentration and organic:aqueous phase ratio were evaluated on particle size (PS) and entrapment efficiency (EE). The formulation was optimized based on desirability for lower PS (<150 nm) and higher EE (>70%). Optimized PLGA NPs were conjugated with Tf and Lf, characterized and evaluated for stability study. Pharmacodynamic study was performed in rat after intravenous administration. The optimized formulation had 100 mg of PLGA, 1% polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and 1:2 acetone:water ratio. The Lf and Tf conjugation to PLGA NPs was estimated to 186 Tf and 185 Lf molecules per NPs. Lyophilization was optimized at 1:2 ratio of NPs:trehalose. The NPs were found stable for 6 months at refrigerated condition. Pharmacodynamic study demonstrated enhanced efficacy of ligand-conjugated NPs against unconjugated NPs. Conjugated NPs demonstrated significantly higher pharmacological effect over a period of 24 h. Furthermore Lf functionalized NPs exhibited better antinociceptive effect as compared to Tf functionalized NPs.

  16. Tenofovir alafenamide and elvitegravir loaded nanoparticles for long-acting prevention of HIV-1 vaginal transmission

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Subhra; Prathipati, Pavan K.; Kang, Guobin; Zhao, You; Yuan, Zhe; Fan, Wejlin; Li, Qingsheng; Destache, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This report presents tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) and elvitegravir (EVG) fabricated into nanoparticles (NPs) for subcutaneous (SubQ) delivery as prevention strategy. Design Prospective prevention study in hu-BLT mice. Methods Using an oil-in-water emulsion solvent evaporation technique, TAF+EVG drugs were entrapped together into NPs containing poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA). In vitro prophylaxis studies (IC90) compared NPs to drugs in solution. Humanized-BLT (n=5/group) mice were given 200 mg/kg SubQ, and vaginally challenged with HIV-1 (5×105 TCID50) 4 and 14 days (d) post-NP administration (PI). Control mice (n=5) were challenged at 4 d. Weekly plasma viral load (pVL) was performed using RT-PCR. Hu-BLT mice were sacrificed and lymph nodes were harvested for HIV-1 viral RNA detection by in situ hybridization (ISH). In parallel, CD34+ humanized mice (3/time point) compared tenofovir (TFV) and EVG drug levels in vaginal tissues from NPs and solution. TFV and EVG were analyzed from tissue using LC-MS/MS. Results TAF+EVG NPs were < 200 nm in size. In-vitro prophylaxis indicates TAF+EVG NPs IC90 was 0.002 μg/mL and TAF+EVG solution was 0.78 μg/mL. TAF+EVG NPs demonstrated detectable drugs for 14 days and 72 h for solution, respectively. All Hu-BLT control mice became infected within 14 d after HIV-1 challenge. In contrast, hu-BLT mice that received NPs and challenged at 4 d PI, 100% were uninfected, and 60% challenged at 14 d PI were uninfected (p = 0.007; Mantel-Cox test). ISH confirmed these results. Conclusions This proof-of-concept study demonstrated sustained protection for TAF+EVG NPs in a hu-BLT mouse model of HIV vaginal transmission. PMID:28121666

  17. Antitumor efficacy and tolerability of systemically administered gallium acetylacetonate-loaded gelucire-stabilized nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wehrung, Daniel; Bi, Lipeng; Geldenhuys, Werner J; Oyewumi, Moses O

    2013-06-01

    The widespread clinical success with most gallium compounds in cancer therapy is markedly hampered by lack of tumor specific accumulation, poor tumor permeability and undesirable toxicity to healthy tissues. The aim of this work was to investigate for the first time antitumor mechanism of a new gallium compound (gallium acetylacetonate; GaAcAc) while assessing effectiveness of gelucire-stabilized nanoparticles (NPs) for potential application in gallium-based lung cancer therapy. NPs loaded with GaAcAc (Ga-NPs) were prepared using mixtures of cetyl alcohol with Gelucire 44/14 (Ga-NP-1) or Gelucire 53/13 (Ga-NP-2) as matrix materials. Of special note from this work is the direct evidence of involvement of microtubule disruption in antitumor effects of GaAcAc on human lung adenocarcinoma (A549). In-vivo tolerability studies were based on plasma ALT, creatinine levels and histopathological examination of tissues. The superior in-vivo antitumor efficacy of Ga-NPs over GaAcAc was depicted in marked reduction of tumor weight and tumor volume as well as histological assessment of excised tumors. Compared to free GaAcAc, Ga-NPs showed a 3-fold increase in tumor-to-blood gallium concentrations with minimized overall exposure to healthy tissues. Overall, enhancement of antitumor effects of GaAcAc by gelucire-stabilized NPs coupled with reduced exposure of healthy tissues to gallium would likely ensure desired therapeutic outcomes and safety of gallium-based cancer treatment.

  18. Preparation of finasteride capsules-loaded drug nanoparticles: formulation, optimization, in vitro, and pharmacokinetic evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Tarek A

    2016-01-01

    In this study, optimized freeze-dried finasteride nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared from drug nanosuspension formulation that was developed using the bottom–up technique. The effects of four formulation and processing variables that affect the particle size and solubility enhancement of the NPs were explored using the response surface optimization design. The optimized formulation was morphologically characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Physicochemical interaction among the studied components was investigated. Crystalline change was investigated using X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). Crystal growth of the freeze-dried NPs was compared to the corresponding aqueous drug nanosuspension. Freeze-dried NPs formulation was subsequently loaded into hard gelatin capsules that were examined for in vitro dissolution and pharmacokinetic behavior. Results revealed that in most of the studied variables, some of the quadratic and interaction effects had a significant effect on the studied responses. TEM image illustrated homogeneity and shape of the prepared NPs. No interaction among components was noticed. XRPD confirmed crystalline state change in the optimized NPs. An enhancement in the dissolution rate of more than 2.5 times from capsules filled with optimum drug NPs, when compared to capsules filled with pure drug, was obtained. Crystal growth, due to Ostwald ripening phenomenon and positive Gibbs free energy, was reduced following lyophilization of the nanosuspension formulation. Pharmacokinetic parameters from drug NPs were superior to that of pure drug and drug microparticles. In conclusion, freeze-dried NPs based on drug nanosuspension formulation is a successful technique in enhancing stability, solubility, and in vitro dissolution of poorly water-soluble drugs with possible impact on the drug bioavailability. PMID:26893559

  19. Improved Chemical Stability and Antiproliferative Activities of Curcumin-Loaded Nanoparticles with a Chitosan Chlorogenic Acid Conjugate.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yuting; Yi, Jiang; Zhang, Yuzhu; Yokoyama, Wallace

    2017-12-13

    A chitosan (CS)-chlorogenic acid (CA) conjugate was successfully prepared through free-radical-induced protocols with a substitution of CA on CS of 103.5 mg/g. ATR-FTIR and 1 H NMR results validated the covalent conjugation of CA onto CS. XRD results indicated the decrease of crystallinity after CA conjugation. DPPH-scavenging activity and reducing-power studies indicated that the CS-CA conjugate had stronger antioxidant activity than chitosan. The particle diameters of curcumin-loaded CS and CS-CA nanoparticles simultaneously formed by ionic gelling in the presence of tripolyphosphate (TPP) were less than 300 nm (243.6 and 256.5 nm, respectively), and zeta-potential values between 25 and 30 mV were obtained. TEM results showed that the nanoparticles were spherically shaped and homogeneously dispersed. Curcumin with the CS-CA conjugate showed better heat stability than with CA at both temperatures (25 and 95 °C) (p <0.05). Curcumin release was inhibited by the CS-CA conjugate. The total release amount of curcumin from CS and CS-CA-conjugate nanoparticles were 70.5 and 61.7%, respectively (p <0.05). A methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay showed that the antiproliferative activity of curcumin in CS-CA nanoparticles was remarkably higher than that in CS nanoparticles because of the higher chemical stability. The results suggest that CS-CA-based nanoparticles are promising candidates for the encapsulation and controlled release of hydrophobic, bioactive compounds and can improve these compounds' chemical stabilities and anticancer activities.

  20. Characterization and evaluation of 5-fluorouracil-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles prepared via a temperature-modulated solidification technique.

    PubMed

    Patel, Meghavi N; Lakkadwala, Sushant; Majrad, Mohamed S; Injeti, Elisha R; Gollmer, Steven M; Shah, Zahoor A; Boddu, Sai Hanuman Sagar; Nesamony, Jerry

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this research was to advance solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) preparation methodology by preparing glyceryl monostearate (GMS) nanoparticles using a temperature-modulated solidification process. The technique was reproducible and prepared nanoparticles without the need of organic solvents. An anticancer agent, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), was incorporated in the SLNs. The SLNs were characterized by particle size analysis, zeta potential analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), drug encapsulation efficiency, in vitro drug release, and in vitro cell viability studies. Particle size of the SLN dispersion was below 100 nm, and that of redispersed lyophilizates was ~500 nm. DSC and infrared spectroscopy suggested that the degree of crystallinity did not decrease appreciably when compared to GMS. TEM and AFM images showed well-defined spherical to oval particles. The drug encapsulation efficiency was found to be approximately 46%. In vitro drug release studies showed that 80% of the encapsulated drug was released within 1 h. In vitro cell cultures were biocompatible with blank SLNs but demonstrated concentration-dependent changes in cell viability to 5-FU-loaded SLNs. The 5-FU-loaded SLNs can potentially be utilized in an anticancer drug delivery system.

  1. Development and evaluation of nitrendipine loaded solid lipid nanoparticles: influence of wax and glyceride lipids on plasma pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Venishetty Vinay; Chandrasekar, Durairaj; Ramakrishna, Sistla; Kishan, Veerabrahma; Rao, Yamsani Madhusudan; Diwan, Prakash Vamanrao

    2007-04-20

    Nitrendipine is an antihypertensive drug with poor oral bioavailability ranging from 10 to 20% due to the first pass metabolism. For improving the oral bioavailability of nitrendipine, nitrendipine loaded solid lipid nanoparticles have been developed using triglyceride (tripalmitin), monoglyceride (glyceryl monostearate) and wax (cetyl palmitate). Poloxamer 188 was used as surfactant. Hot homogenization of melted lipids and aqueous phase followed by ultrasonication at temperature above the melting point of lipid was used to prepare SLN dispersions. SLN were characterized for particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency and crystallinity of lipid and drug. In vitro release studies were performed in phosphate buffer of pH 6.8 using Franz diffusion cell. Pharmacokinetics of nitrendipine loaded solid lipid nanoparticles after intraduodenal administration to conscious male Wistar rats was studied. Bioavailability of nitrendipine was increased three- to four-fold after intraduodenal administration compared to that of nitrendipine suspension. The obtained results are indicative of solid lipid nanoparticles as carriers for improving the bioavailability of lipophilic drugs such as nitrendipine by minimizing first pass metabolism.

  2. Kaempferol loaded lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles: preparation, characterization, and their potential applications as a sustainable antifungal agent.

    PubMed

    Ilk, Sedef; Saglam, Necdet; Özgen, Mustafa

    2017-08-01

    Flavonoid compounds are strong antioxidant and antifungal agents but their applications are limited due to their poor dissolution and bioavailability. The use of nanotechnology in agriculture has received increasing attention, with the development of new formulations containing active compounds. In this study, kaempferol (KAE) was loaded into lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles (LC NPs) to determine antifungal activity compared to pure KAE against the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporium to resolve the bioavailability problem. The influence of formulation parameters on the physicochemical properties of KAE loaded lecithin chitosan nanoparticles (KAE-LC NPs) were studied by using the electrostatic self-assembly technique. KAE-LC NPs were characterized in terms of physicochemical properties. KAE has been successfully encapsulated in LC NPs with an efficiency of 93.8 ± 4.28% and KAE-LC NPs showed good physicochemical stability. Moreover, in vitro evaluation of the KAE-LC NP system was made by the release kinetics, antioxidant and antifungal activity in a time-dependent manner against free KAE. Encapsulated KAE exhibited a significantly inhibition efficacy (67%) against Fusarium oxysporium at the end of the 60 day storage period. The results indicated that KAE-LC NP formulation could solve the problems related to the solubility and loss of KAE during use and storage. The new nanoparticle system enables the use of smaller quantities of fungicide and therefore, offers a more environmentally friendly method of controlling fungal pathogens in agriculture.

  3. A cellular uptake and cytotoxicity properties study of gallic acid-loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticles on Caco-2 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashidi, Ladan; Vasheghani-Farahani, Ebrahim; Soleimani, Masoud; Atashi, Amir; Rostami, Khosrow; Gangi, Fariba; Fallahpour, Masoud; Tahouri, Mohammad Taher

    2014-03-01

    In this study, the effects of intracellular delivery of various concentrations of gallic acid (GA) as a semistable antioxidant, gallic acid-loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs-GA), and cellular uptake of nanoparticles into Caco-2 cells were investigated. MSNs were synthesized and loaded with GA, then characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, N2 adsorption isotherms, X-ray diffraction, and thermal gravimetric analysis. The cytotoxicity of MSNs and MSNs-GA at low and high concentrations were studied by means of 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) test and flow cytometry. MSNs did not show significant toxicity in various concentrations (0-500 μg/ml) on Caco-2 cells. For MSNs-GA, cell viability was reduced as a function of incubation time and different concentrations of nanoparticles. The in vitro GA release from MSNs-GA exhibited the same antitumor properties as free GA on Caco-2 cells. Flow cytometry results confirmed those obtained using MTT assay. TEM and fluorescent microscopy confirmed the internalization of MSNs by Caco-2 cells through nonspecific cellular uptake. MSNs can easily internalize into Caco-2 cells without deleterious effects on cell viability. The cell viability of Caco-2 cells was affected during MSNs-GA uptake. MSNs could be designed as suitable nanocarriers for antioxidants delivery.

  4. Multimodal nanoporous silica nanoparticles functionalized with aminopropyl groups for improving loading and controlled release of doxorubicin hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Li, Chang; Fan, Na; Li, Jing; He, Zhonggui; Sun, Jin

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop amino modified multimodal nanoporous silica nanoparticles (M-NSNs-NH 2 ) loaded with doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX), intended to enhance the drug loading capacity and to achieve controlled release effect. M-NSNs were functionalized with aminopropyl groups through post-synthesis. The contribution of large pore sizes and surface chemical groups on DOX loading and release were systemically studied using transmission electron microscope (TEM), nitrogen adsorption/desorption measurement, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), zeta potential analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ultraviolet spectrophotometer (UV). The results demonstrated that the NSNs were functionalized with aminopropyl successfully and the DOX molecules were adsorbed inside the nanopores by the hydrogen bonding. The release performance indicated that DOX loaded M-NSNs significantly controlled DOX release, furthermore DOX loaded M-NSNs-NH 2 performed slower controlled release, which was mainly attributed to its stronger hydrogen bonding forces. As expected, we developed a novel carrier with high drug loading capacity and controlled release for DOX. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. PLGA nanoparticles introduction into mitoxantrone-loaded ultrasound-responsive liposomes: In vitro and in vivo investigations.

    PubMed

    Xin, Yuxuan; Qi, Qi; Mao, Zhenmin; Zhan, Xiaoping

    2017-08-07

    A novel ultrasound-responsive liposomal system for tumor targeting was prepared in order to increase the antitumor efficacy and decrease serious side effects. In this paper, PLGA nanoparticles were used ultrasound-responsive agents instead of conventional microbubbles. The PLGA-nanoparticles were prepared by an emulsion solvent evaporation method. The liposomes were prepared by a lipid film hydration method. Particle size, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency and drug loading capacity of the liposomes were studied by light scattering analysis and dialysis. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) were used to investigate the morphology of liposomes. The release in vitro was carried out in the pH 7.4 phosphate buffer solutions, as a result, liposome L3 encapsulating PLGA-nanoparticles displayed good stability under simulative physiological conditions and quickly responsive release under the ultrasound. The release in vivo was carried out on the rats, as a result, liposome L3 showed higher bioavailability than traditional intravenous injectable administration, and liposome L3 showed higher elimination ratio after stimulation by ultrasound than L3 without stimulation. Thus, the novel ultrasound-responsive liposome encapsulating PLGA-nanoparticles has a potential to be developed as a new drug delivery system for anti-tumor drug. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Fabrication, appraisal, and transdermal permeation of sildenafil citrate-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers versus solid lipid nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Elnaggar, Yosra SR; El-Massik, Magda A; Abdallah, Ossama Y

    2011-01-01

    Although sildenafil citrate (SC) is used extensively for erectile dysfunction, oral delivery of SC encounters many obstacles. Furthermore, the physicochemical characteristics of this amphoteric drug are challenging for delivery system formulation and transdermal permeation. This article concerns the assessment of the potential of nanomedicine for improving SC delivery and transdermal permeation. SC-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) and solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) were fabricated using a modified high-shear homogenization technique. Nanoparticle optimization steps included particle size analysis, entrapment efficiency (EE) determination, freeze-drying and reconstitution, differential scanning calorimetry, in vitro release, stability study and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Transdermal permeation of the nanocarriers compared with SC suspension across human skin was assessed using a modified Franz diffusion cell assembly. Results revealed that SLNs and NLCs could be optimized in the nanometric range (180 and 100 nm, respectively) with excellent EE (96.7% and 97.5%, respectively). Nanoparticles have significantly enhanced in vitro release and transdermal permeation of SC compared with its suspensions. Furthermore, transdermal permeation of SC exhibited higher initial release from both SLN and NLC formulations followed by controlled release, with promising implications for faster onset and longer drug duration. Nanomedicines prepared exhibited excellent physical stability for the study period. Solid nanoparticles optimized in this study successfully improved SC characteristics, paving the way for an efficient topical Viagra® product. PMID:22238508

  7. Drug-loaded gold/iron/gold plasmonic nanoparticles for magnetic targeted chemo-photothermal treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung Joon; Lee, Sun-Mi; Park, Kyu-Hyung; Mun, Chin Hee; Park, Yong-Beom; Yoo, Kyung-Hwa

    2015-08-01

    We have developed methotrexate (MTX)-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid, PLGA) gold (Au)/iron (Fe)/gold (Au) half-shell nanoparticles conjugated with arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD), which can be applied for magnetic targeted chemo-photothermal treatment, and in vivo multimodal imaging of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Upon near-infrared (NIR) irradiation, local heat is generated at the inflammation region due to the NIR resonance of Au half-shells and MTX release from PLGA nanoparticles is accelerated. The Fe half-shell layer embedded between the Au half-shell layers enables in vivo T2-magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in addition to NIR absorbance imaging. Furthermore, the delivery of the nanoparticles to the inflammation region in collagen-induced arthritic (CIA) mice, and their retention can be enhanced under external magnetic field. When combined with consecutive NIR irradiation and external magnetic field application, these nanoparticles provide enhanced therapeutic effects with an MTX dosages of only 0.05% dosage compared to free MTX therapy for the treatment of RA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Biodegradable nanoparticles loaded with insulin-phospholipid complex for oral delivery: preparation, in vitro characterization and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Cui, Fude; Shi, Kai; Zhang, Liqiang; Tao, Anjin; Kawashima, Yoshiaki

    2006-08-28

    Biodegradable nanoparticles loaded with insulin-phospholipid complex were prepared by a novel reverse micelle-solvent evaporation method, in which soybean phosphatidylcholine (SPC) was employed to improve the liposolubility of insulin, and biodegradable polymers as carrier materials to control drug release. Solubilization study, IR and X-ray diffraction analysis were employed to prove the complex formation. The effects of key parameters such as polymer/SPC weight ratio, organic phase and polymer type on the properties of the nanoparticles were investigated. Spherical particles of 200 nm mean diameter and a narrow size distribution were obtained under optimal conditions. The drug entrapment efficiency was up to 90%. The in vitro drug release was characterized by an initial burst and subsequent delayed release in both pH 6.8 and pH 1.2 dissolution mediums. The specific modality of drug release, i.e., free or SPC-combined, was investigated in the aid of ultracentrifugation and ultrafiltration methods. The influence of polymer type on the drug release was also discussed. The pharmacological effects of the nanoparticles made of PLGA 50/50 (Av.Mw 9500) were further evaluated to confirm their potential suitability for oral delivery. Intragastric administration of the 20 IU/kg nanoparticles reduced fasting plasma glucose levels to 57.4% within the first 8 h of administration and this continued for 12 h. PK/PD analysis indicated that 7.7% of oral bioavailability relative to subcutaneous injection was obtained.

  9. Budesonide loaded nanoparticles with pH-sensitive coating for improved mucosal targeting in mouse models of inflammatory bowel diseases.

    PubMed

    Ali, H; Weigmann, B; Neurath, M F; Collnot, E M; Windbergs, M; Lehr, C-M

    2014-06-10

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the therapeutic potential of budesonide loaded nanocarriers for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). First, budesonide was encapsulated in poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles by an oil in water (O/W) emulsion technique. A second batch of the same nanoparticles was additionally coated with a pH-sensitive methyl-methacrylate-copolymer. The particle sizes of the plain and the coated PLGA were 200±10.1nm and ~240±14.7nm, respectively. As could be shown in vitro, the pH-sensitive coating prevented premature drug release at acidic pH and only releases the drug at neutral to slightly alkaline pH. The efficacy of both coated and plain nanoparticle formulations was assessed in different acute and chronic colitis mouse models, also in comparison to an aqueous solution of the drug. The dose was always the same (0.168mg/kg). It was found that delivery by coated PLGA nanoparticles alleviated the induced colitis significantly better than by plain PLGA particles, which was already more effective than treatment with the same dose of the free drug. These data further corroborate the potential of polymeric nanocarriers for targeted drug delivery to the inflamed intestinal mucosa, and that this concept can still be further improved regarding the oral route of administration by implementing pH-dependent drug release characteristics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Preparation and evaluation of 188 Re sulfide colloidal nanoparticles loaded biodegradable poly (L-lactic acid) microspheres for radioembolization therapy.

    PubMed

    Jamre, Mina; Shamsaei, Mojtaba; Erfani, Mostafa; Sadjadi, Sodeh; Ghannadi Maragheh, Mohammad

    2018-04-12

    Radioembolization with radioactive microspheres has been an effective method for the treatment of liver lesions. The aim of this study was to prepare carrier-free 188 Re loaded poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA) microspheres through 188 Re sulfide colloidal nanoparticles ( 188 Re-SC nanoparticles). The formation of 188 Re-SC nanoparticles was confirmed by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry. The labeling yield of 188 Re-SC nanoparticles was verified using the RTLC method. Effects of synthesis parameters on morphology and size of prepared 188 Re-sulfide colloidal-PLLA microspheres ( 188 Re-SC-PLLA microspheres) were studied by scanning electron microscopy. In vitro stability of 188 Re-SC-PLLA microspheres was investigated in normal saline at room temperature and in human serum at 37°C. In vivo distribution studies and gamma camera imaging were performed in healthy BALB/c mice. The microspheres could be prepared with sizes between 13 and 48 μm (modal value 29 μm) and radiolabeling efficiency >99%. After incubation, the microspheres were found stable in vitro up to 72 hours. The biodistribution after intravenous injection in healthy BALB/c mice showed high accumulation in lung as a first capture pathway organ for microsphere followed by great retention over 48 hours for these microspheres. These data show that 188 Re-SC-PLLA microspheres are suitable candidate for clinical studies. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Tumor targeting efficiency of bare nanoparticles does not mean the efficacy of loaded anticancer drugs: importance of radionuclide imaging for optimization of highly selective tumor targeting polymeric nanoparticles with or without drug.

    PubMed

    Lee, Beom Suk; Park, Kyeongsoon; Park, Sangjin; Kim, Gui Chul; Kim, Hyo Jung; Lee, Sangjoo; Kil, Heeseup; Oh, Seung Jun; Chi, Daeyoon; Kim, Kwangmeyung; Choi, Kuiwon; Kwon, Ick Chan; Kim, Sang Yoon

    2010-10-15

    The better understanding of polymeric nanoparticles as a drug delivery carrier is a decisive factor to get more efficient therapeutic response in vivo. Here, we report the non-invasive imaging of bare polymeric nanoparticles and drug-loaded polymeric nanoparticles to evaluate biodistribution in tumor bearing mice. To make nano-sized drug delivery carrier, glycol chitosan was modified with different degrees of hydrophobic N-acetyl histidine (NAcHis-GC-1, -2, and -3). The biodistribution of polymeric nanoparticles and drug was confirmed by using gamma camera with (131)I-labeled NAcHis-GC and (131)I-labeled doxorubicin (DOX) and by using in vivo live animal imaging with near-infrared fluorescence Cy5.5-labeled NAcHis-GC. Among bare nanoparticles, NAcHis-GC3 (7.8% NAcHis content) showed much higher tumor targeting efficiency than NAcHis-GC1 (3.3% NAcHis content) and NAcHis-GC2 (6.8% NAcHis content). In contrast, for drug-loaded nanoparticles, DOX-NAcHis-GC1 displayed two-fold higher tumor targeting property than DOX-NAcHis-GC3. These data imply that the biodistribution and tumor targeting efficiency between bare and drug-loaded nanoparticles may be greatly different. Therapeutic responses for NAcHis-GC nanoparticles after drug loading were also evaluated. In xenograft animal model, we could find out that DOX-NAcHis-GC1 with higher tumor targeting of DOX has more excellent therapeutic effect than DOX-NAcHis-GC3 and free DOX. These results mean that the hydrophobic core stability might be a critical factor for tumor targeting efficiency of nanoparticles. The present study indicates that by using molecular imaging, we can select more appropriate nanoparticles with the highest tumor targeting properties, leading to exerting more excellent therapeutic results in cancer therapy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Multifunctional polymeric nanoparticles doubly loaded with SPION and ceftiofur retain their physical and biological properties.

    PubMed

    Solar, Paula; González, Guillermo; Vilos, Cristian; Herrera, Natalia; Juica, Natalia; Moreno, Mabel; Simon, Felipe; Velásquez, Luis

    2015-02-13

    Advances in nanostructure materials are leading to novel strategies for drug delivery and targeting, contrast media for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), agents for hyperthermia and nanocarriers. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are useful for all of these applications, and in drug-release systems, SPIONs allow for the localization, direction and concentration of drugs, providing a broad range of therapeutic applications. In this work, we developed and characterized polymeric nanoparticles based on poly (3-hydroxybutyric acid-co-hydroxyvaleric acid) (PHBV) functionalized with SPIONs and/or the antibiotic ceftiofur. These nanoparticles can be used in multiple biomedical applications, and the hybrid SPION-ceftiofur nanoparticles (PHBV/SPION/CEF) can serve as a multifunctional platform for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer and its associated bacterial infections. Morphological examination using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed nanoparticles with a spherical shape and a core-shell structure. The particle size was evaluated using dynamic light scattering (DLS), which revealed a diameter of 243.0 ± 17 nm. The efficiency of encapsulation (45.5 ± 0.6% w/v) of these polymeric nanoparticles was high, and their components were evaluated using spectroscopy. UV-VIS, FTIR and DSC showed that all of the nanoparticles contained the desired components, and these compounds interacted to form a nanocomposite. Using the agar diffusion method and live/dead bacterial viability assays, we demonstrated that these nanoparticles have antimicrobial properties against Escherichia coli, and they retain their magnetic properties as measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Cytotoxicity was assessed in HepG2 cells using live/dead viability assays and MTS, and these assays showed low cytotoxicity with IC50 > 10 mg/mL nanoparticles. Our results indicate that hybrid and multifunctional PHBV/SPION/CEF nanoparticles are suitable as a

  13. Fabrication of magnetic nano liquid metal fluid through loading of Ni nanoparticles into gallium or its alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Mingfeng; Gao, Yunxia; Liu, Jing

    2014-03-01

    In this study, Ni nanoparticles were loaded into the partially oxidized gallium and its alloys to fabricate desired magnetic nanofluid. It was disclosed that the Ni nanoparticles sharply increased the freezing temperature and latent heat of the obtained magnetic nano liquid metal fluid, while the melting process was less affected. For the gallium sample added with 10 vol% coated Ni particles, a hysteresis loop was observed and the magnetization intensity decreased with the increase of the temperature. The slope for the magnetization-temperature curve within 10-30 K was about 20 times of that from 40 K to 400 K. Further, the dynamic impact experiments of striking magnetic liquid metal droplets on the magnet revealed that the regurgitating of the leading edge of the liquid disk and the subsequent wave that often occurred in the gallium-indium droplets would disappear for the magnetic fluids case due to attraction force of the magnet.

  14. Engineering of budesonide-loaded lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles using a quality-by-design approach.

    PubMed

    Leng, Donglei; Thanki, Kaushik; Fattal, Elias; Foged, Camilla; Yang, Mingshi

    2017-08-25

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex disease, characterized by persistent airflow limitation and chronic inflammation. The purpose of this study was to design lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles (LPNs) loaded with the corticosteroid, budesonide, which could potentially be combined with small interfering RNA (siRNA) for COPD management. Here, we prepared LPNs based on the biodegradable polymer poly(dl-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and the cationic lipid dioleyltrimethylammonium propane (DOTAP) using a double emulsion solvent evaporation method. A quality-by-design (QbD) approach was adopted to define the optimal formulation parameters. The quality target product profile (QTPP) of the LPNs was identified based on risk assessment. Two critical formulation parameters (CFPs) were identified, including the theoretical budesonide loading and the theoretical DOTAP loading. The CFPs were linked to critical quality attributes (CQAs), which included the intensity-based hydrodynamic particle diameter (z-average), the polydispersity index (PDI), the zeta-potential, the budesonide encapsulation efficiency, the actual budesonide loading and the DOTAP encapsulation efficiency. A response surface methodology (RSM) was applied for the experimental design to evaluate the influence of the CFPs on the CQAs, and to identify the optimal operation space (OOS). All nanoparticle dispersions displayed monodisperse size distributions (PDI<0.2) with z-averages of approximately 150nm, suggesting that the size is not dependent on the investigated CFPs. In contrast, the zeta-potential was highly dependent on the theoretical DOTAP loading. Upon increased DOTAP loading, the zeta-potential reached a maximal point, after which it remained stable at the maximum value. This suggests that the LPN surface is covered by DOTAP, and that the DOTAP loading is saturable. The actual budesonide loading of the LPNs was mainly dependent on the initial amount of budesonide, and a clear

  15. Effect of PLGA as a polymeric emulsifier on preparation of hydrophilic protein-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Xie, ShuYu; Wang, SiLiang; Zhao, BaoKai; Han, Chao; Wang, Ming; Zhou, WenZhong

    2008-12-01

    Most proteins are hydrophilic and poorly encapsulated into the hydrophobic matrix of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN). To solve this problem, poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) was utilized as a lipophilic polymeric emulsifier to prepare hydrophilic protein-loaded SLN by w/o/w double emulsion and solvent evaporation techniques. Hydrogenated castor oil (HCO) was used as a lipid matrix and bovine serum albumin (BSA), lysozyme and insulin were used as model proteins to investigate the effect of PLGA on the formulation of the SLN. The results showed that PLGA was essential for the primary w/o emulsification. In addition, the stability of the w/o emulsion, the encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity of the nanoparticles were enhanced with the increase of PLGA concentration. Furthermore, increasing PLGA concentration decreased zeta potential significantly but had no influence on particle size of the SLN. In vitro release study showed that PLGA significantly affected the initial burst release, i.e. the higher the content of PLGA, the lower the burst release. The released proteins maintained their integrity and bioactivity as confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and biological assay. These results demonstrated that PLGA was an effective emulsifier for the preparation of hydrophilic protein-loaded SLN.

  16. Multifunctional Nanoplatforms for Fluorescence Imaging and Photodynamic Therapy Developed by Post-loading Photosensitizer and Fluorophore to Polyacrylamide Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Anurag; Wang, Shouyan; Pera, Paula; Rao, K.V.R.; Patel, Nayan; Ohulchanskyy, Tymish Y.; Missert, Joseph; Morgan, Janet; Koo-Lee, Yong-Eun; Kopelman, Raoul; Pandey, Ravindra K.

    2011-01-01

    We report a novel post-loading approach for constructing a multifunctional biodegradable polyacrylamide (PAA) nanoplatform for tumor-imaging (fluorescence) and photodynamic therapy (PDT). This approach provides an opportunity to post-load the imaging and therapeutic agents at desired concentrations. Among the PAA nanoparticles, a formulation containing the photosensitizer, HPPH [3-(1’-hexyloxyethyl)pyropheophorbide-a], and the cyanine dye in a ratio of 2:1 minimized the undesirable quenching of the HPPH electronic excitation energy due to energy migration within the nanoparticles and/or Förster (fluorescence) resonance energy transfer (FRET) between HPPH and cyanine dye. An excellent tumor-imaging (NIR fluorescence) and phototherapeutic efficacy of the nanoconstruct formulation is demonstrated. Under similar treatment parameters the HPPH in 1% Tween 80/5% aqueous dextrose formulation was less effective than the nanoconstruct containing HPPH and cyanine dye in a ratio of 2 to 1. This is the first example showing the utility of the post-loading approach in developing a nanoconstructs for tumor-imaging and therapy. PMID:22115602

  17. PE38KDEL-loaded anti-HER2 nanoparticles inhibit breast tumor progression with reduced toxicity and immunogenicity.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jie; Kou, Geng; Wang, Hao; Chen, Huaiwen; Li, Bohua; Lu, Ying; Zhang, Dapeng; Wang, Shuhui; Hou, Sheng; Qian, Weizhu; Dai, Jianxin; Zhao, Jian; Zhong, Yanqiang; Guo, Yajun

    2009-05-01

    The clinical use of Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE)-based immunotoxins is limited by the toxicity and immunogenicity of PE. To overcome the limitations, we have developed PE38KDEL-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles conjugated with Fab' fragments of a humanized anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody (rhuMAbHER2). The PE38KDEL-loaded nanoparticles-anti-HER2 Fab' bioconjugates (PE-NP-HER) were constructed modularly with Fab' fragments of rhuMAbHER2 covalently linked to PLGA nanoparticles containing PE38KDEL. Compared with nontargeted nanoparticles that lack anti-HER2 Fab', PE-NP-HER specifically bound to and were sequentially internalized into HER2 overexpressing breast cancer cells, which result in significant cytotoxicity in vitro. In HER2 overexpressing tumor xenograft model system, administration of PE-NP-HER showed a superior efficacy in inhibiting tumor growth compared with PE-HER referring to PE38KDEL conjugated directly to rhuMAbHER2. Moreover, PE-NP-HER was well tolerated in mice with a higher LD(50) (LD(50) of 6.86 +/- 0.47 mg/kg vs. 2.21 +/- 0.32 mg/kg for PE-NP-HER vs. PE-HER (mean +/- SD); n = 3), and had no influence on the plasma level of plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) of animals when injected at a dose of 1 mg/kg where PE-HER caused significant increase of serum ALT in the treated mice. Notably, PE-NP-HER was of low immunogenicity in development of anti-PE38KDEL neutralizing antibodies and was less susceptible to inactivation by anti-PE38KDEL antibodies compared with PE-HER. This novel bioconjugate, PE-NP-HER, may represent a useful strategy for cancer treatment.

  18. The effect of the triblock properties on the morphologies and photophysical properties of nanoparticle loaded with carboxylic dendrimer phthalocyanine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Huafei; Chen, Zhe; Yu, Xinxin; Pan, Sujuan; Zhang, Tiantian; Xie, Shusen; Yang, Hongqin; Peng, Yiru

    2016-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an emerging alternative treatment for various cancers and age-related macular degeneration. Phthalocyanines (Pcs) and their substituted derivatives are under intensive investigation as the second generation photosensitizers. A big challenge for the application of Pcs is poor solubility and limited accumulation in the tumor tissues, which severely reduced its PDT efficacy. Nano-delivery systems such as polymeric micelles are promising tools for increasing the solubility and improving delivery efficiency of Pcs for PDT application. In this paper, nanoparticles of amphiphilic triblock copolymer poly(L-lysine)-b-poly (ethylene glycol)-b-poly(L-lysine) were developed to encapsulate 1-2 generation carboxylic poly (benzyl aryl ether) dendrimer. The morphologies and photophysical properties of polymeric nanoparticles loaded with 1-2 generation dendritic phthalocyanines (G1-ZnPc(COOH)8/m and G2-ZnPc(COOH)16/m) were studied by AFM, UV/Vis and fluorescent spectroscopic method. The morphologies of self-assembled PLL-PEG-PLL aggregates exhibited concentration dependence. Its morphologies changed from cocoon-like to spheral. The diameters of G1-ZnPc(COOH)8/m and G2-ZnPc(COOH)16/m were in the range of 33-147 nm, increasing with the increase of the concentration of PLL-PEG-PLL. The morphologies of G2-ZnPc(COOH)16/m also changed from cocoon-like to sphere with the increase of the concentration of PLL-PEG-PLL. It was found that, the no obviously Q change was observed between the free phthalocyanines and nanoparticles. The fluorescence intensity of polymer nanoparticles were higher enhanced compared with free dendritic phthalocyanines. The dendrimer phthalocyanine loaded with poly(L-lysine)-b-poly (ethylene glycol)-b-poly(L-lysine) presented suitable physical stability, improved photophysical properties suggesting it may be considered as a promising formulation for PDT.

  19. Paclitaxel-loaded redox-sensitive nanoparticles based on hyaluronic acid-vitamin E succinate conjugates for improved lung cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Song, Yu; Cai, Han; Yin, Tingjie; Huo, Meirong; Ma, Ping; Zhou, Jianping; Lai, Wenfang

    2018-01-01

    Lung cancer is the primary cause of cancer-related death worldwide. A redox-sensitive nanocarrier system was developed for tumor-targeted drug delivery and sufficient drug release of the chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel (PTX) for improved lung cancer treatment. The redox-sensitive nanocarrier system constructed from a hyaluronic acid-disulfide-vitamin E succinate (HA-SS-VES, HSV) conjugate was synthesized and PTX was loaded in the delivery system. The physicochemical properties of the HSV nanoparticles were characterized. The redox-sensitivity, tumor-targeting and intracellular drug release capability of the HSV nanoparticles were evaluated. Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity of the PTX-loaded HSV nanoparticles was investigated in a CD44 over-expressed A549 tumor model. This HSV conjugate was successfully synthesized and self-assembled to form nanoparticles in aqueous condition with a low critical micelle concentration of 36.3 μg mL -1 . Free PTX was successfully entrapped into the HSV nanoparticles with a high drug loading of 33.5% (w/w) and an entrapment efficiency of 90.6%. Moreover, the redox-sensitivity of the HSV nanoparticles was confirmed by particle size change of the nanoparticles along with in vitro release profiles in different reducing environment. In addition, the HA-receptor mediated endocytosis and the potency of redox-sensitivity for intracellular drug delivery were further verified by flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopic analysis. The antitumor activity results showed that compared to redox-insensitive nanoparticles and Taxol ® , PTX-loaded redox-sensitive nanoparticles exhibited much greater in vitro cytotoxicity and apoptosis-inducing ability against CD44 over-expressed A549 tumor cells. In vivo, the PTX-loaded HSV nanoparticles possessed much higher antitumor efficacy in an A549 mouse xenograft model and demonstrated improved safety profile. In summary, our PTX-loaded redox-sensitive HSV nanoparticles

  20. Site-specific gene delivery to stented arteries using magnetically guided zinc oleate-based nanoparticles loaded with adenoviral vectors

    PubMed Central

    Chorny, Michael; Fishbein, Ilia; Tengood, Jillian E.; Adamo, Richard F.; Alferiev, Ivan S.; Levy, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Gene therapeutic strategies have shown promise in treating vascular disease. However, their translation into clinical use requires pharmaceutical carriers enabling effective, site-specific delivery as well as providing sustained transgene expression in blood vessels. While replication-deficient adenovirus (Ad) offers several important advantages as a vector for vascular gene therapy, its clinical applicability is limited by rapid inactivation, suboptimal transduction efficiency in vascular cells, and serious systemic adverse effects. We hypothesized that novel zinc oleate-based magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) loaded with Ad would enable effective arterial cell transduction by shifting vector processing to an alternative pathway, protect Ad from inactivation by neutralizing factors, and allow site-specific gene transfer to arteries treated with stent angioplasty using a 2-source magnetic guidance strategy. Ad-loaded MNPs effectively transduced cultured endothelial and smooth muscle cells under magnetic conditions compared to controls and retained capacity for gene transfer after exposure to neutralizing antibodies and lithium iodide, a lytic agent causing disruption of free Ad. Localized arterial gene expression significantly stronger than in control animal groups was demonstrated after magnetically guided MNP delivery in a rat stenting model 2 and 9 d post-treatment, confirming feasibility of using Ad-loaded MNPs to achieve site-specific transduction in stented blood vessels. In conclusion, Ad-loaded MNPs formed by controlled precipitation of zinc oleate represent a novel delivery system, well-suited for efficient, magnetically targeted vascular gene transfer.—Chorny, M., Fishbein, I., Tengood, J. E., Adamo, R. F., Alferiev, I. S., Levy, R. J. Site-specific gene delivery to stented arteries using magnetically guided zinc oleate-based nanoparticles loaded with adenoviral vectors. PMID:23407712

  1. Poly ɛ-caprolactone nanoparticles loaded with Uncaria tomentosa extract: preparation, characterization, and optimization using the Box-Behnken design.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Ana Ferreira; de Oliveira Rezende, Ricardo Leite; Cabral, Lúcio Mendes; de Sousa, Valéria Pereira

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was to develop and optimize a process for obtaining poly ɛ-caprolactone (PCL) nanoparticles loaded with Uncaria tomentosa (UT) extract. Nanoparticles were produced by the oil-in-water emulsion solvent evaporation method. Preliminary experiments determined the initial conditions of the organic phase (OP) and of the aqueous phase (AP) that would be utilized for this study. Ultimately, a three-factor three-level Box-Behnken design (BBD) was employed during the optimization process. PCL and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) concentrations (X(1) and X(2), respectively) and the AP/OP volume ratio (X(3)) were the independent variables studied, while entrapment efficiency (Y(1)), particle mean diameter (Y(2)), polydispersity (Y(3)), and zeta potential (Y(4)) served as the evaluated responses. PRELIMINARY EXPERIMENTS REVEALED THAT THE OPTIMAL INITIAL CONDITIONS FOR THE PREPARATION OF NANOPARTICLES WERE AS FOLLOWS: OP composed of 5 mL ethyl acetate/acetone (3/2) mixture containing UT extract and PCL, and an AP of buffered PVA (pH 7.5) solution. Statistical analysis of the BBD results indicated that all of the studied factors had significant effects on the responses Y(1), Y(2), and Y(4,) and these effects are closely described or fitted by regression equations. Based on the obtained models and the selected desirability function, the nanoparticles were optimized to maximize Y(1) and minimize Y(2). These optimal conditions were achieved using 3% (w/v) PCL, 1% (w/v) PVA, and an AP/OP ratio of 1.7, with predicted values of 89.1% for Y(1) and 280 nm for Y(2). Another batch was produced under the same optimal conditions. The entrapment efficiency of this new batch was measured at 81.6% (Y(1)) and the particles had a mean size of 247 nm (Y(2)) and a polydispersity index of 0.062 (Y(3)). This investigation obtained UT-loaded nanoparticle formulations with desired characteristics. The BBD approach was a useful tool for nanoparticle development and optimization, and

  2. Poly ɛ-caprolactone nanoparticles loaded with Uncaria tomentosa extract: preparation, characterization, and optimization using the Box–Behnken design

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Ana Ferreira; de Oliveira Rezende, Ricardo Leite; Cabral, Lúcio Mendes; de Sousa, Valéria Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this research was to develop and optimize a process for obtaining poly ɛ-caprolactone (PCL) nanoparticles loaded with Uncaria tomentosa (UT) extract. Methods Nanoparticles were produced by the oil-in-water emulsion solvent evaporation method. Preliminary experiments determined the initial conditions of the organic phase (OP) and of the aqueous phase (AP) that would be utilized for this study. Ultimately, a three-factor three-level Box–Behnken design (BBD) was employed during the optimization process. PCL and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) concentrations (X1 and X2, respectively) and the AP/OP volume ratio (X3) were the independent variables studied, while entrapment efficiency (Y1), particle mean diameter (Y2), polydispersity (Y3), and zeta potential (Y4) served as the evaluated responses. Results Preliminary experiments revealed that the optimal initial conditions for the preparation of nanoparticles were as follows: OP composed of 5 mL ethyl acetate/acetone (3/2) mixture containing UT extract and PCL, and an AP of buffered PVA (pH 7.5) solution. Statistical analysis of the BBD results indicated that all of the studied factors had significant effects on the responses Y1, Y2, and Y4, and these effects are closely described or fitted by regression equations. Based on the obtained models and the selected desirability function, the nanoparticles were optimized to maximize Y1 and minimize Y2. These optimal conditions were achieved using 3% (w/v) PCL, 1% (w/v) PVA, and an AP/OP ratio of 1.7, with predicted values of 89.1% for Y1 and 280 nm for Y2. Another batch was produced under the same optimal conditions. The entrapment efficiency of this new batch was measured at 81.6% (Y1) and the particles had a mean size of 247 nm (Y2) and a polydispersity index of 0.062 (Y3). Conclusion This investigation obtained UT-loaded nanoparticle formulations with desired characteristics. The BBD approach was a useful tool for nanoparticle development and optimization, and

  3. Antimicrobial and cell viability measurement of bovine serum albumin capped silver nanoparticles (Ag/BSA) loaded collagen immobilized poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) film.

    PubMed

    Bakare, Rotimi; Hawthrone, Samantha; Vails, Carmen; Gugssa, Ayele; Karim, Alamgir; Stubbs, John; Raghavan, Dharmaraj

    2016-03-01

    Bacterial infection of orthopedic devices has been a major concern in joint replacement procedures. Therefore, this study is aimed at formulating collagen immobilized poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) film loaded with bovine serum albumin capped silver nanoparticles (Ag/BSA NPs) to inhibit bacterial growth while retaining/promoting osteoblast cells viability. The nanoparticles loaded collagen immobilized PHBV film was characterized for its composition by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Anodic Stripping Voltammetry. The extent of loading of Ag/BSA NPs on collagen immobilized PHBV film was found to depend on the chemistry of the functionalized PHBV film and the concentration of Ag/BSA NPs solution used for loading nanoparticles. Our results showed that more Ag/BSA NPs were loaded on higher molecular weight collagen immobilized PHEMA-g-PHBV film. Maximum loading of Ag/BSA NPs on collagen immobilized PHBV film was observed when 16ppm solution was used for adsorption studies. Colony forming unit and optical density measurements showed broad antimicrobial activity towards Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at significantly lower concentration i.e., 0.19 and 0.31μg/disc, compared to gentamicin and sulfamethoxazole trimethoprim while MTT assay showed that released nanoparticles from Ag/BSA NPs loaded collagen immobilized PHBV film has no impact on MCTC3-E1 cells viability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessment of carbon nanotubes and silver nanoparticles loaded clays as adsorbents for removal of bacterial contaminants from water sources.

    PubMed

    Hassouna, M E M; ElBably, M A; Mohammed, Asmaa N; Nasser, M A G

    2017-02-01

    This work evaluated the antimicrobial efficacy of kaolin clay and its loaded forms with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against bacterial isolates from different water supplies (tap, underground and surface water) in addition to wastewater. A total of 160 water samples were collected from different water sources in the investigated districts. Samples were cultured for isolation and serological identification of pathogenic bacteria. AgNPs were synthesized by a typical one-step synthesis protocol, where CNTs were carried out in a reactor employing the double bias-assisted hot filament chemical vapor deposition method. Both were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, infrared and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy. The antimicrobial efficacy of each of natural kaolin clay, AgNPs- and CNTs-loaded clays were evaluated by their application in four concentrations (0.01, 0.03, 0.05 and 0.1 ppm) at different contact times (5 min, 15 min, 30 min and 2 h). AgNPs-loaded clays at concentrations of 0.05 and 0.1 mg/l for 2 h contact time exhibited a higher bactericidal efficacy on Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. (70, 70, 80 and 90%, respectively) compared to CNTs-loaded clay. Concluding, the application of AgNPs-loaded clay for removal of water bacterial contaminants at a concentration of 0.1 ppm for 2 h contact times resulted in highly effective removals.

  5. The antihypertensive effect of orally administered nifedipine-loaded nanoparticles in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Il Kim, Young; Fluckiger, Laurence; Hoffman, Maurice; Lartaud-Idjouadiene, Isabelle; Atkinson, Jeffrey; Maincent, Philippe

    1997-01-01

    The therapeutic use of nifedipine is limited by the rapidity of the onset of its action and its short biological half-life. In order to produce a form devoid of these disadvantages we made nanoparticles of nifedipine from three different polymers, poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL), polylactic and glycolic acid (1 : 1) copolymers (PLAGA), and Eudragit RL/RS (Eudragit). Nifedipine in polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG) solution was used as a control.The average diameters of the nanoparticles ranged from 0.12 to 0.21 μm; the encapsulation ratio was 82% to 88%.In spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), the initial rapid fall in systolic arterial blood pressure following oral administration of nifedipine in PEG solution (from 193±3 to 102±2 mmHg) was not seen following administration of the same dose in Eudragit nanoparticles (from 189±2 to 156±2 mmHg); with PCL and PLAGA nanoparticles the initial fall in blood pressure was significantly reduced (nadirs PCL 124±2 and PLAGA 113±2 mmHg). Ten hours following administration, blood pressure in rats administered the nifedipine/PEG preparation had returned to normal (183±3 mmHg) whereas that of animals given nifedipine in nanoparticles (PCL 170±3, PLAGA 168±2, Eudragit 160±3 mmHg) was still significantly reduced.All of the nanoparticle dosage forms decreased Cmax and increased Tmax and the mean residence time (MRT) values. Relative bioavailability was significantly increased with Eudragit nanoparticles compared to the nifedipine/PEG solution.There was an inverse linear correlation between the fall in blood pressure and plasma nifedipine concentration with all preparations.The nanoparticle nifedipine preparations represent sustained release forms with increased bioavailability, a less pronounced initial antihypertensive effect and a long-lasting action. PMID:9031742

  6. The antihypertensive effect of orally administered nifedipine-loaded nanoparticles in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y I; Fluckiger, L; Hoffman, M; Lartaud-Idjouadiene, I; Atkinson, J; Maincent, P

    1997-02-01

    1. The therapeutic use of nifedipine is limited by the rapidity of the onset of its action a