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Sample records for nanoparticles promotes ectopic

  1. Intraocular BDNF promotes ectopic branching, alters motility and stimulates abnormal collaterals in regenerating optic fibers.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Amy J; Miotke, Jill A; Meyer, Ronald L

    2015-07-10

    A great deal of effort has been invested in using trophic factors and other bioactive molecules to promote cell survival and axonal regeneration in the adult central nervous system. Far less attention has been paid to investigating potential effects that trophic factors may have that might interfere with recovery. In the visual system, BDNF has been previously reported to prevent regeneration. To test if BDNF is inherently incompatible with regeneration, BDNF was given intraocularly during optic nerve regeneration in the adult goldfish. In vivo imaging and anatomical analysis of selectively labeled axons were used as a sensitive assay for effects on regeneration within the tectum. BDNF had no detectable inhibitory effect on the ability of axons to regenerate. Normal numbers of axons regenerated into the tectum, exhibited dynamic growth and retractions similar to controls, and were able to navigate to their correct target zone in the tectum. However, BDNF was found to have additional effects that adversely affected the quality of regeneration. It promoted premature branching at ectopic locations, diminished the growth rate of axons through the tectum, and resulted in the formation of ectopic collaterals. Thus, although BDNF has robust effects on axonal behavior, it is, nevertheless, compatible with axonal regeneration, axon navigation and the formation of terminal arbors.

  2. TNFRp55 deficiency promotes the development of ectopic endometriotic-like lesions in mice.

    PubMed

    Vallcaneras, Sandra; Ghersa, Federica; Bastón, Juan; Delsouc, María Belén; Meresman, Gabriela; Casais, Marilina

    2017-09-01

    Endometriosis is an inflammatory disease depending on estradiol, with TNF-α being one of the most representative cytokines involved in its pathogenesis. TNF-α acts through its bond to the TNFRp55 and TNFRp75 membrane receptors. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of the TNFRp55 deficiency on the development of ectopic endometriotic-like lesions. Endometriosis was induced surgically in mice of the C57BL/6 strain, wild type (WT) and TNFRp55-/- (KO). After four weeks, the peritoneal fluid was collected and the lesions were counted, measured with a caliper, removed, weighed, fixed or kept at -80°C. We evaluated the cell proliferation by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemistry and apoptosis by TUNEL technique in the ectopic lesions. MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities (factors involved in invasiveness) were measured by zymography in the peritoneal fluid; estradiol and progesterone levels were measured by radioimmunoassay in the lesions and in the peritoneal fluid. We found that in KO animals the mean number of lesions established per mouse, the lesion volume, weight and cell proliferation increased and apoptosis decreased. In addition, the activity of MMP-2 and the estradiol level increased, whereas the progesterone level was not significantly modified. In conclusion, the deficiency of TNFRp55 promoted the establishment and development of endometriosis through an increase in the lesion size and high levels of estradiol which correlate with an increase in the MMP-2 activity. This is evidence of the possible association of the deregulation of the TNFRp55 expression and the survival of the endometriotic tissue in ectopic sites. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  3. Differentiation of osteoblast‑like cells and ectopic bone formation induced by bone marrow stem cells transfected with chitosan nanoparticles containing plasmid‑BMP2 sequences.

    PubMed

    Hong, Zhang Qing; Tao, Liu Meng; Bin, Zhang Xiao

    2017-03-01

    The present study investigated the efficiency of the use of chitosan nanoparticles containing plasmid‑bone morphogenetic protein 2 (pBMP2) sequences (CNPBs) to induce the differentiation of bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) into osteoblast‑like cells that may be able to promote ectopic bone formation. pBMP2s were constructed, and chitosan nanoparticles were incubated with 50, 100 or 200 µg/ml pBMP2. BMSCs were collected from the tibiae and femurs of 6‑week old rats, cultured and treated with the CNPBs or 200 µg/ml pBMP2 as a positive control. Transfection efficiency was confirmed using the green fluorescent protein assay. Histological staining methods, including alkaline phosphatase, Wright's and von Kasso staining, were used to identify features of osteoblast‑like cells differentiated from BMSCs. Expression levels of the markers of osteoblasts, such as alkaline phosphatase, osteoprotegerin, osteocalcin and osteopontin, were determined to verify the differentiation of BMSCs into osteoblast‑like cells. Ectopic bone formation was observed following the integration of polyglycolic acid (PGA) scaffolds with CNPBs and BMSCs, which were implanted into the dorsal muscles of Sprague‑Dawley rats. Exposure to CNPBs led to the transfection of BMSCs with BMP2. The transfected BMSCs possessed the characteristic phenotypes of osteoblasts. The expression levels of alkaline phosphatase, osteoprotegerin, osteocalcin and osteopontin were significantly higher in the transfected cells compared with the control group, particularly the CBP200 group. PGA scaffolds integrated with BMSCs and CNPBs induced ectopic bone formation, as changes in the morphology of cells were observed using histological staining. Therefore, CNPBs may be a promising method of promoting the formation of novel bone tissue.

  4. Ectopic Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Ectopic Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Ectopic Pregnancy Page ... Ectopic Pregnancy FAQ155, June 2017 PDF Format Ectopic Pregnancy Pregnancy What is an ectopic pregnancy? Who is ...

  5. Ectopic trypsin in the myocardium promotes dilated cardiomyopathy after influenza A virus infection.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hai-Yan; Sun, Hua-Mei; Xue, Lu-Jing; Pan, Min; Wang, Yi-Ping; Kido, Hiroshi; Zhu, Jian-Hua

    2014-09-15

    We have previously reported that ectopic trypsin in the myocardium triggers acute myocarditis after influenza A virus (IAV) infection. As myocarditis is a common precursor to dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of trypsin on the progression of DCM after IAV infection. IAV-infected mice treated with saline or trypsin inhibitor were euthanized on days 0, 9, 20, 40 and 60 postinfection. Trypsin expression colocalized with myocardial inflammatory loci and IAV-induced myocarditis peaked on day 9 postinfection and alleviated by day 20 but persisted until day 60 postinfection, even though replication of IAV was not detected from day 20 postinfection. Similar time courses were observed for the activation of pro-matrix metalloproteinase (pro-MMP)-9 and expression of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α. Degradation of collagen type I, proliferation of ventricular interstitial collagen, and expression of collagen type I and III mRNA increased significantly during acute and chronic phases; collagen type III mRNA increased more significantly than collagen type I mRNA. Cardiac function progressively deteriorated with progressive left ventricular dilation. The trypsin inhibitor aprotinin suppressed pro-MMP-9 activation and cytokine release, alleviated myocardial inflammation, and restored collagen metabolism during acute and chronic phases of myocarditis. This effectively prevented ventricular dilation and improved cardiac function. These results suggest that ectopic trypsin in the myocardium promoted DCM through chronic activation of pro-MMP-9, persistent induction of cytokines, and mediation of collagen remodeling. Pharmacological inhibition of trypsin activity might be a promising approach for the prevention of viral cardiomyopathy.

  6. COX-2 gene promoter DNA methylation status in eutopic and ectopic endometrium of Egyptian women with endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Zidan, Haidy E; Rezk, Noha A; Alnemr, Amr Abd Almohsen; Abd El Ghany, Amany M

    2015-11-01

    The pathophysiology of COX-2 expression in endometriosis is a matter of debate. The aim was to investigate the role of DNA methylation of the NF-IL6 site within the promoter of COX-2 gene in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. The endometrial tissues (ectopic and eutopic) were collected from 60 women with endometriosis and 30 women without endometriosis (control group). The methylation status of COX-2 was examined by methylation-specific PCR. Quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR) was performed to measure COX-2 mRNA levels in endometrial tissues. We found significantly higher levels of COX-2 in ectopic endometriotic tissue compared with eutopic tissue. Also, we found that the frequencies of methylation status of the NF-IL6 site within the COX-2 promoter in the eutopic and ectopic endometrial tissues of endometriosis groups were significantly decreased in comparison to controls (P=0.002, P=0.000 respectively). Our study demonstrated that DNA hypomethylation of the NF-IL6 site within the promoter of COX-2 gene could be a key mechanism for its elevated expression in the eutopic and ectopic tissues of endometriosis.

  7. Ectopic Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Ectopic Pregnancy KidsHealth > For Parents > Ectopic Pregnancy A A A ... lower back pain continue What Causes an Ectopic Pregnancy? An ectopic pregnancy usually happens because a fertilized ...

  8. Ectopic Expression of WUS in Hypocotyl Promotes Cell Division via GRP23 in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Min; Li, Junhua; Guo, Xiaoyu; Chong, Kang; Xu, Yunyuan

    2013-01-01

    WUSCHEL (WUS) is essential for preventing stem cell differentiation in Arabidopsis. Here we report that in addition to its functions in meristematic stem cell maintenance, WUS is involved in the regulation of cell division. The WUS gain-of-function mutant, stem ectopic flowers (sef), displayed elongated hypocotyls, whereas the loss-of-function wus-1 mutant had shortened hypocotyls. The long hypocotyl in sef was due to the presence of more cells, rather than increased cell elongation. Microscopic observation, flow cytometry assays, quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), and histochemical staining of CycB1;1::GUS supported the hypothesis that ectopic cell division occurred in the sef hypocotyls after germination. Both immunoblot and qRT-PCR results showed that WUS was ectopically expressed in sef hypocotyls. Luciferase activity, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) showed that GLUTAMINE-RICH PROTEIN 23 (GRP23) expression can be activated by WUS and that GRP23 is a direct target gene of WUS. The phenotypes of 35S::GRP23 plants and GRP23 knockdown lines supported the notion that GRP23 mediates the effects of WUS on hypocotyl length. Together, our data suggest that ectopic expression of WUS in hypocotyl controls cell division through its target gene GRP23. PMID:24086632

  9. Lkb1 deletion promotes ectopic lipid accumulation in muscle progenitor cells and mature muscles.

    PubMed

    Shan, Tizhong; Zhang, Pengpeng; Bi, Pengpeng; Kuang, Shihuan

    2015-05-01

    Excessive intramyocellular triglycerides (muscle lipids) are associated with reduced contractile function, insulin resistance, and Type 2 diabetes, but what governs lipid accumulation in muscle is unclear. Here we report a role of Lkb1 in regulating lipid metabolism in muscle stem cells and their descendent mature muscles. We used Myod(Cre) and Lkb1(flox/flox) mice to specifically delete Lkb1 in myogenic cells including stem and differentiated cells, and examined the lipid accumulation and gene expression of myoblasts cultured from muscle stem cells (satellite cells). Genetic deletion of Lkb1 in myogenic progenitors led to elevated expression of lipogenic genes and ectopic lipid accumulation in proliferating myoblasts. Interestingly, the Lkb1-deficient myoblasts differentiated into adipocyte-like cells upon adipogenic induction. However, these adipocyte-like cells maintained myogenic gene expression with reduced ability to form myotubes efficiently. Activation of AMPK by AICAR prevented ectopic lipid formation in the Lkb1-null myoblasts. Notably, Lkb1-deficient muscles accumulated excessive lipids in vivo in response to high-fat diet feeding. These results demonstrate that Lkb1 acts through AMPK to limit lipid deposition in muscle stem cells and their derivative mature muscles, and point to the possibility of controlling muscle lipid content using AMPK activating drugs.

  10. Ectopic Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... woman is pregnant. If you have an ectopic pregnancy, the fertilized egg grows in the wrong place, ... tubes. The result is usually a miscarriage. Ectopic pregnancy can be a medical emergency if it ruptures. ...

  11. Ectopic heartbeat

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001100.htm Ectopic heartbeat To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Ectopic heartbeats are small changes in a heartbeat that ...

  12. Ectopic expression of specific GA2 oxidase mutants promotes yield and stress tolerance in rice.

    PubMed

    Lo, Shuen-Fang; Ho, Tuan-Hua David; Liu, Yi-Lun; Jiang, Mirng-Jier; Hsieh, Kun-Ting; Chen, Ku-Ting; Yu, Lin-Chih; Lee, Miin-Huey; Chen, Chi-Yu; Huang, Tzu-Pi; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Chen, Liang-Jwu; Yu, Su-May

    2017-07-01

    A major challenge of modern agricultural biotechnology is the optimization of plant architecture for enhanced productivity, stress tolerance and water use efficiency (WUE). To optimize plant height and tillering that directly link to grain yield in cereals and are known to be tightly regulated by gibberellins (GAs), we attenuated the endogenous levels of GAs in rice via its degradation. GA 2-oxidase (GA2ox) is a key enzyme that inactivates endogenous GAs and their precursors. We identified three conserved domains in a unique class of C20 GA2ox, GA2ox6, which is known to regulate the architecture and function of rice plants. We mutated nine specific amino acids in these conserved domains and observed a gradient of effects on plant height. Ectopic expression of some of these GA2ox6 mutants moderately lowered GA levels and reprogrammed transcriptional networks, leading to reduced plant height, more productive tillers, expanded root system, higher WUE and photosynthesis rate, and elevated abiotic and biotic stress tolerance in transgenic rice. Combinations of these beneficial traits conferred not only drought and disease tolerance but also increased grain yield by 10-30% in field trials. Our studies hold the promise of manipulating GA levels to substantially improve plant architecture, stress tolerance and grain yield in rice and possibly in other major crops. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Arabidopsis homeodomain-leucine zipper IV proteins promote stomatal development and ectopically induce stomata beyond the epidermis.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Kylee M; Shyu, Christine; Burr, Christian A; Horst, Robin J; Kanaoka, Masahiro M; Omae, Minami; Sato, Yutaka; Torii, Keiko U

    2013-05-01

    The shoot epidermis of land plants serves as a crucial interface between plants and the atmosphere: pavement cells protect plants from desiccation and other environmental stresses, while stomata facilitate gas exchange and transpiration. Advances have been made in our understanding of stomatal patterning and differentiation, and a set of 'master regulatory' transcription factors of stomatal development have been identified. However, they are limited to specifying stomatal differentiation within the epidermis. Here, we report the identification of an Arabidopsis homeodomain-leucine zipper IV (HD-ZIP IV) protein, HOMEODOMAIN GLABROUS2 (HDG2), as a key epidermal component promoting stomatal differentiation. HDG2 is highly enriched in meristemoids, which are transient-amplifying populations of stomatal-cell lineages. Ectopic expression of HDG2 confers differentiation of stomata in internal mesophyll tissues and occasional multiple epidermal layers. Conversely, a loss-of-function hdg2 mutation delays stomatal differentiation and, rarely but consistently, results in aberrant stomata. A closely related HD-ZIP IV gene, Arabidopsis thaliana MERISTEM LAYER1 (AtML1), shares overlapping function with HDG2: AtML1 overexpression also triggers ectopic stomatal differentiation in the mesophyll layer and atml1 mutation enhances the stomatal differentiation defects of hdg2. Consistently, HDG2 and AtML1 bind the same DNA elements, and activate transcription in yeast. Furthermore, HDG2 transactivates expression of genes that regulate stomatal development in planta. Our study highlights the similarities and uniqueness of these two HD-ZIP IV genes in the specification of protodermal identity and stomatal differentiation beyond predetermined tissue layers.

  14. Fatty acid amide hydrolase ablation promotes ectopic lipid storage and insulin resistance due to centrally mediated hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Brown, Whitney H; Gillum, Matthew P; Lee, Hui-Young; Camporez, Joao Paulo G; Zhang, Xian-man; Jeong, Jin Kwon; Alves, Tiago C; Erion, Derek M; Guigni, Blas A; Kahn, Mario; Samuel, Varman T; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Diano, Sabrina; Shulman, Gerald I

    2012-09-11

    Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) knockout mice are prone to excess energy storage and adiposity, whereas mutations in FAAH are associated with obesity in humans. However, the molecular mechanism by which FAAH affects energy expenditure (EE) remains unknown. Here we show that reduced energy expenditure in FAAH(-/-) mice could be attributed to decreased circulating triiodothyronine and thyroxine concentrations secondary to reduced mRNA expression of both pituitary thyroid-stimulating hormone and hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone. These reductions in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis were associated with activation of hypothalamic peroxisome proliferating-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), and increased hypothalamic deiodinase 2 expression. Infusion of NAEs (anandamide and palmitoylethanolamide) recapitulated increases in PPARγ-mediated decreases in EE. FAAH(-/-) mice were also prone to diet-induced hepatic insulin resistance, which could be attributed to increased hepatic diacylglycerol content and protein kinase Cε activation. Our data indicate that FAAH deletion, and the resulting increases in NAEs, predispose mice to ectopic lipid storage and hepatic insulin resistance by promoting centrally mediated hypothyroidism.

  15. Identification of a Copper-Inducible Promoter for Use in Ectopic Expression in the Fungal Pathogen Histoplasma capsulatum†

    PubMed Central

    Gebhart, Dana; Bahrami, Adam K.; Sil, Anita

    2006-01-01

    Despite the existence of a number of genetic tools to study the fungal pathogen Histoplasma capsulatum, strategies for conditional gene expression have not been developed. We used microarray analysis to identify genes that are transcriptionally induced or repressed by the addition of copper sulfate (CuSO4) to H. capsulatum yeast cultures. One of these genes, CRP1, encodes a putative copper efflux pump that is significantly induced in the presence of CuSO4. The upstream regulatory region of CRP1 was sufficient to drive copper-regulated expression of two reporter genes, lacZ and the gene encoding green fluorescent protein. Microarray experiments were performed to determine a copper concentration that triggers accumulation of the CRP1 transcript without significant perturbation of global gene expression. These studies show that the CRP1 upstream regulatory region can be used for ectopic expression of heterologous genes in H. capsulatum. Furthermore, they demonstrate the strategic use of microarrays to identify conditional promoters that confer induction in the absence of large-scale shifts in gene expression. PMID:16757741

  16. Paclitaxel-induced epithelial damage and ectopic MMP-13 expression promotes neurotoxicity in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Lisse, Thomas S.; Middleton, Leah J.; Pellegrini, Adriana D.; Martin, Paige B.; Spaulding, Emily L.; Lopes, Olivia; Brochu, Elizabeth A.; Carter, Erin V.; Waldron, Ashley; Rieger, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Paclitaxel is a microtubule-stabilizing chemotherapeutic agent that is widely used in cancer treatment and in a number of curative and palliative regimens. Despite its beneficial effects on cancer, paclitaxel also damages healthy tissues, most prominently the peripheral sensory nervous system. The mechanisms leading to paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy remain elusive, and therapies that prevent or alleviate this condition are not available. We established a zebrafish in vivo model to study the underlying mechanisms and to identify pharmacological agents that may be developed into therapeutics. Both adult and larval zebrafish displayed signs of paclitaxel neurotoxicity, including sensory axon degeneration and the loss of touch response in the distal caudal fin. Intriguingly, studies in zebrafish larvae showed that paclitaxel rapidly promotes epithelial damage and decreased mechanical stress resistance of the skin before induction of axon degeneration. Moreover, injured paclitaxel-treated zebrafish skin and scratch-wounded human keratinocytes (HEK001) display reduced healing capacity. Epithelial damage correlated with rapid accumulation of fluorescein-conjugated paclitaxel in epidermal basal keratinocytes, but not axons, and up-regulation of matrix-metalloproteinase 13 (MMP-13, collagenase 3) in the skin. Pharmacological inhibition of MMP-13, in contrast, largely rescued paclitaxel-induced epithelial damage and neurotoxicity, whereas MMP-13 overexpression in zebrafish embryos rendered the skin vulnerable to injury under mechanical stress conditions. Thus, our studies provide evidence that the epidermis plays a critical role in this condition, and we provide a previously unidentified candidate for therapeutic interventions. PMID:27035978

  17. Porous hydroxyapatite and biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics promote ectopic osteoblast differentiation from mesenchymal stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lingli; Hanagata, Nobutaka; Maeda, Megumi; Minowa, Takashi; Ikoma, Toshiyuki; Fan, Hongsong; Zhang, Xingdong

    2009-04-01

    Because calcium phosphate (Ca-P) ceramics have been used as bone substitutes, it is necessary to investigate what effects the ceramics have on osteoblast maturation. We prepared three types of Ca-P ceramics with different Ca-P ratios, i.e. hydroxyapatite (HA), beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), and biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) ceramics with dense-smooth and porous structures. Comprehensive gene expression microarray analysis of mouse osteoblast-like cells cultured on these ceramics revealed that porous Ca-P ceramics considerably affected the gene expression profiles, having a higher potential for osteoblast maturation. In the in vivo study that followed, porous Ca-P ceramics were implanted into rat skeletal muscle. Sixteen weeks after the implantation, more alkaline-phosphatase-positive cells were observed in the pores of hydroxyapatite and BCP, and the expression of the osteocalcin gene (an osteoblast-specific marker) in tissue grown in pores was also higher in hydroxyapatite and BCP than in β-TCP. In the pores of any Ca-P ceramics, 16 weeks after the implantation, we detected the expressions of marker genes of the early differentiation stage of chondrocytes and the complete differentiation stage of adipocytes, which originate from mesenchymal stem cells, as well as osteoblasts. These marker gene expressions were not observed in the muscle tissue surrounding the implanted Ca-P ceramics. These observations indicate that porous hydroxyapatite and BCP had a greater potential for promoting the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblasts than β-TCP.

  18. Ectopic pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Tubal pregnancy; Cervical pregnancy; Tubal ligation - ectopic pregnancy ... In most pregnancies, the fertilized egg travels through the fallopian tube to the womb (uterus). If the movement of the egg ...

  19. Bivalent promoter marks and a latent enhancer may prime the leukaemia oncogene LMO1 for ectopic expression in T-cell leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Oram, S H; Thoms, J; Sive, J I; Calero-Nieto, F J; Kinston, S J; Schütte, J; Knezevic, K; Lock, R B; Pimanda, J E; Göttgens, B

    2013-06-01

    LMO1 is a transcriptional regulator and a T-acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL) oncogene. Although first identified in association with a chromosomal translocation in T-ALL, the ectopic expression of LMO1 occurs far more frequently in the absence of any known mutation involving its locus. Given that LMO1 is barely expressed in any haematopoietic lineage, and activation of transcriptional drivers in leukaemic cells is not well described, we investigated the regulation of this gene in normal haematopoietic and leukaemic cells. We show that LMO1 has two promoters that drive reporter gene expression in transgenic mice to neural tissues known to express endogenous LMO1. The LMO1 promoters display bivalent histone marks in multiple blood lineages including T-cells, and a 3' flanking region at LMO1 +57 contains a transcriptional enhancer that is active in developing blood cells in transgenic mouse embryos. The LMO1 promoters become activated in T-ALL together with the 3' enhancer, which is bound in primary T-ALL cells by SCL/TAL1 and GATA3. Taken together, our results show that LMO1 is poised for expression in normal progenitors, where activation of SCL/TAL1 together with a breakdown of epigenetic repression of LMO1 regulatory elements induces ectopic LMO1 expression that contributes to the development and maintenance of T-ALL.

  20. [Ectopic calcification].

    PubMed

    Fukumoto, Seiji

    2014-02-01

    Calcium deposition can be observed in many tissues in addition to bones and teeth which physiologically calcify. This unphysiological calcification can damage several organs. It has been shown that vascular calcification which is a risk factor for cardiovascular events develops through similar mechanisms to physiological calcification. Further studies to clarify detailed mechanisms of calcification are necessary to develop measures that inhibit unphysiological ectopic calcification without affecting physiological calcification in bones and teeth.

  1. Ectopic expression of Msx-2 in posterior limb bud mesoderm impairs limb morphogenesis while inducing BMP-4 expression, inhibiting cell proliferation, and promoting apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, D; Lichtler, A C; Pan, Z Z; Dealy, C N; Upholt, W B; Kosher, R A

    1998-05-01

    During early stages of chick limb development, the homeobox-containing gene Msx-2 is expressed in the mesoderm at the anterior margin of the limb bud and in a discrete group of mesodermal cells at the midproximal posterior margin. These domains of Msx-2 expression roughly demarcate the anterior and posterior boundaries of the progress zone, the highly proliferating posterior mesodermal cells underneath the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) that give rise to the skeletal elements of the limb and associated structures. Later in development as the AER loses its activity, Msx-2 expression expands into the distal mesoderm and subsequently into the interdigital mesenchyme which demarcates the developing digits. The domains of Msx-2 expression exhibit considerably less proliferation than the cells of the progress zone and also encompass several regions of programmed cell death including the anterior and posterior necrotic zones and interdigital mesenchyme. We have thus suggested that Msx-2 may be in a regulatory network that delimits the progress zone by suppressing the morphogenesis of the regions of the limb mesoderm in which it is highly expressed. In the present study we show that ectopic expression of Msx-2 via a retroviral expression vector in the posterior mesoderm of the progress zone from the time of initial formation of the limb bud severely impairs limb morphogenesis. Msx-2-infected limbs are typically very narrow along the anteroposterior axis, are occasionally truncated, and exhibit alterations in the pattern of formation of skeletal elements, indicating that as a consequence of ectopic Msx-2 expression the morphogenesis of large portions of the posterior mesoderm has been suppressed. We further show that Msx-2 impairs limb morphogenesis by reducing cell proliferation and promoting apoptosis in the regions of the posterior mesoderm in which it is ectopically expressed. The domains of ectopic Msx-2 expression in the posterior mesoderm also exhibit ectopic

  2. High-Fat Diet Promotion of Endometriosis in an Immunocompetent Mouse Model is Associated With Altered Peripheral and Ectopic Lesion Redox and Inflammatory Status.

    PubMed

    Heard, Melissa E; Melnyk, Stepan B; Simmen, Frank A; Yang, Yanqing; Pabona, John Mark P; Simmen, Rosalia C M

    2016-07-01

    Endometriosis is a benign gynecological condition that causes considerable morbidity due to associated infertility, debilitating pelvic pain and inflammatory dysfunctions. Diet is a highly modifiable risk factor for many chronic diseases, but its contribution to endometriosis has not been extensively investigated, due partly to the paradoxical inverse association between obesity and disease incidence. Nevertheless, chronic exposure to dietary high-fat intake has been linked to greater systemic inflammation and oxidative stress, both features of women with endometriosis. Here, we evaluated the effects of a high-fat diet (HFD) (45% fat kcal) on endometriosis progression using an immunocompetent mouse model where ectopic lesion incidence was induced in wild-type recipients by ip administration of endometrial fragments from transcription factor Krüppel-like factor 9-null donor mice. We show that HFD significantly increased ectopic lesion numbers in recipient mice with no significant weight gain and modifications in systemic ovarian steroid hormone and insulin levels, relative to control diet-fed (17% fat kcal) mice. HFD promotion of lesion establishment was associated with reductions in stromal estrogen receptor 1 isoform and progesterone receptor expression, increased F4/80-positive macrophage infiltration, higher stromal but not glandular epithelial proliferation, and enhanced expression of proinflammatory and prooxidative stress pathway genes. Lesion-bearing HFD-fed mice also displayed higher peritoneal fluid TNFα and elevated local and systemic redox status than control diet-fed counterparts. Our results suggest that HFD intake exacerbates endometriosis outcome in the absence of ovarian dysfunction and insulin resistance in mice and warrants further consideration with respect to clinical management of endometriosis progression and recurrence in nonobese patients.

  3. Ectopic expression of a fruit phytoene synthase from Citrus paradisi Macf. promotes abiotic stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Cidade, Luciana C; de Oliveira, Tahise M; Mendes, Amanda F S; Macedo, Amanda F; Floh, Eny I S; Gesteira, Abelmon S; Soares-Filho, Walter S; Costa, Marcio G C

    2012-12-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an important regulator of plant responses to environmental stresses and an absolute requirement for stress tolerance. Recently, a third phytoene synthase (PSY3) gene paralog was identified in monocots and demonstrated to play a specialized role in stress-induced ABA formation, thus suggesting that the first committed step in carotenogenesis is a key limiting step in ABA biosynthesis. To examine whether the ectopic expression of PSY, other than PSY3, would similarly affect ABA level and stress tolerance, we have produced transgenic tobacco containing a fruit-specific PSY (CpPSY) of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.). The transgenic plants contained a single- or double-locus insertion and expressed CpPSY at varying transcript levels. In comparison with the wild-type plants, the CpPSY expressing transgenic plants showed a significant increase on root length and shoot biomass under PEG-, NaCl- and mannitol-induced osmotic stress. The enhanced stress tolerance of transgenic plants was correlated with the increased endogenous ABA level and expression of stress-responsive genes, which in turn was correlated with the CpPSY copy number and expression level in different transgenic lines. Collectively, these results provide further evidence that PSY is a key enzyme regulating ABA biosynthesis and that the altered expression of other PSYs in transgenic plants may provide a similar function to that of the monocot's PSY3 in ABA biosynthesis and stress tolerance. The results also pave the way for further use of CpPSY, as well as other PSYs, as potential candidate genes for engineering tolerance to drought and salt stress in crop plants.

  4. Identification and molecular characterization of an IDA-like gene from litchi, LcIDL1, whose ectopic expression promotes floral organ abscission in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Peiyuan; Li, Caiqin; Liu, Xuncheng; Xia, Rui; Zhao, Minglei; Li, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    Unexpected abscission of flowers or fruits is a major limiting factor for crop productivity. Key genes controlling abscission in plants, especially in popular fruit trees, are largely unknown. Here we identified a litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) IDA-like (INFLORESCENCE DEFICIENT IN ABSCISSION-like) gene LcIDL1 as a potential key regulator of abscission. LcIDL1 encodes a peptide that shows the closest homology to Arabidopsis IDA, and is localized in cell membrane and cytoplasm. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression level of LcIDL1 accumulated gradually following flower abscission, and it was obviously induced by fruit abscission-promoting treatments. Transgenic plants expressing LcIDL1 in Arabidopsis revealed a role of LcIDL1 similar to IDA in promoting floral organ abscission. Moreover, ectopic expression of LcIDL1 in Arabidopsis activated the expression of abscission-related genes. Taken together, our findings provide evidence that LcIDL1 may act as a key regulator in control of abscission. PMID:27845425

  5. Chronic Neurotrophin Delivery Promotes Ectopic Neurite Growth From the Spiral Ganglion of Deafened Cochleae Without Compromising the Spatial Selectivity of Cochlear Implants

    PubMed Central

    Landry, Thomas G.; Fallon, James B.; Wise, Andrew K.; Shepherd, Robert K.

    2015-01-01

    Cochlear implants restore hearing cues in the severe– profoundly deaf by electrically stimulating spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs). However, SGNs degenerate following loss of cochlear hair cells, due at least in part to a reduction in the endogenous neurotrophin (NT) supply, normally provided by hair cells and supporting cells of the organ of Corti. Delivering exogenous NTs to the cochlea can rescue SGNs from degeneration and can also promote the ectopic growth of SGN neurites. This resprouting may disrupt the cochleotopic organization upon which cochlear implants rely to impart pitch cues. Using retrograde labeling and confocal imaging of SGNs, we determined the extent of neurite growth following 28 days of exogenous NT treatment in deafened guinea pigs with and without chronic electrical stimulation (ES). On completion of this treatment, we measured the spread of neural activation to intracochlear ES by recording neural responses across the cochleotopically organized inferior colliculus using multichannel recording techniques. Although NT treatment significantly increased both the length and the lateral extent of growth of neurites along the cochlea compared with deafened controls, these anatomical changes did not affect the spread of neural activation when examined immediately after 28 days of NT treatment. NT treatment did, however, result in lower excitation thresholds compared with deafened controls. These data support the application of NTs for improved clinical outcomes for cochlear implant patients. PMID:23436344

  6. Chronic neurotrophin delivery promotes ectopic neurite growth from the spiral ganglion of deafened cochleae without compromising the spatial selectivity of cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Landry, Thomas G; Fallon, James B; Wise, Andrew K; Shepherd, Robert K

    2013-08-15

    Cochlear implants restore hearing cues in the severe-profoundly deaf by electrically stimulating spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs). However, SGNs degenerate following loss of cochlear hair cells, due at least in part to a reduction in the endogenous neurotrophin (NT) supply, normally provided by hair cells and supporting cells of the organ of Corti. Delivering exogenous NTs to the cochlea can rescue SGNs from degeneration and can also promote the ectopic growth of SGN neurites. This resprouting may disrupt the cochleotopic organization upon which cochlear implants rely to impart pitch cues. Using retrograde labeling and confocal imaging of SGNs, we determined the extent of neurite growth following 28 days of exogenous NT treatment in deafened guinea pigs with and without chronic electrical stimulation (ES). On completion of this treatment, we measured the spread of neural activation to intracochlear ES by recording neural responses across the cochleotopically organized inferior colliculus using multichannel recording techniques. Although NT treatment significantly increased both the length and the lateral extent of growth of neurites along the cochlea compared with deafened controls, these anatomical changes did not affect the spread of neural activation when examined immediately after 28 days of NT treatment. NT treatment did, however, result in lower excitation thresholds compared with deafened controls. These data support the application of NTs for improved clinical outcomes for cochlear implant patients.

  7. Early B-cell-specific inactivation of ATM synergizes with ectopic CyclinD1 expression to promote pre-germinal center B-cell lymphomas in mice.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, K; Lee, B J; Li, C; Dubois, R L; Hobeika, E; Bhagat, G; Zha, S

    2015-06-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) kinase is a master regulator of the DNA damage response. ATM is frequently inactivated in human B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas, including ~50% of mantle cell lymphomas (MCLs) characterized by ectopic expression of CyclinD1. Here we report that early and robust deletion of ATM in precursor/progenitor B cells causes cell autonomous, clonal mature B-cell lymphomas of both pre- and post-germinal center (GC) origins. Unexpectedly, naive B-cell-specific deletion of ATM is not sufficient to induce lymphomas in mice, highlighting the important tumor suppressor function of ATM in immature B cells. Although EμCyclinD1 is not sufficient to induce lymphomas, EμCyclinD1 accelerates the kinetics and increases the incidence of clonal lymphomas in ATM-deficient B-cells and skews the lymphomas toward pre-GC-derived small lymphocytic neoplasms, sharing morphological features of human MCL. This is in part due to CyclinD1-driven expansion of ATM-deficient naive B cells with genomic instability, which promotes the deletions of additional tumor suppressor genes (i.e. Trp53, Mll2, Rb1 and Cdkn2a). Together these findings define a synergistic function of ATM and CyclinD1 in pre-GC B-cell proliferation and lymphomagenesis and provide a prototypic animal model to study the pathogenesis of human MCL.

  8. Early B-cell Specific Inactivation of ATM Synergizes with Ectopic CyclinD1 Expression to Promote Pre-germinal center B-cell Lymphomas in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kenta; Lee, Brian J.; Li, Chen; Dubois, Richard L.; Hobeika, Elias; Bhagat, Govind; Zha, Shan

    2017-01-01

    Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) kinase is a master regulator of the DNA damage response. ATM is frequently inactivated in human B-cell non-Hodgkin Lymphomas (B-NHL), including ~50% of mantle cell lymphomas (MCLs) characterized by ectopic expression of CyclinD1. Here we report that early and robust deletion of ATM in precursor/progenitor B-cells causes cell-autonomous, clonal mature B cell lymphomas of both pre- and post-germinal center (GC) origins. Unexpectedly naïve B cell specific deletion of ATM is not sufficient to induce lymphomas in mice, highlighting the important tumor suppressor function of ATM in immature B cells. While EμCyclinD1 is not sufficient to induce lymphomas, EμCyclinD1 accelerates the kinetics and increased the incidence of clonal lymphomas in ATM-deficient B-cells and skews the lymphomas towards pre-GC derived small lymphocytic neoplasms sharing morphological features of human MCL. This is in part due to CyclinD1-driven expansion of ATM-deficient naïve B cells with genomic instability, which promotes the deletions of additional tumor suppressor genes (i.g. Trp53, Mll2, Rb1 and Cdkn2a). Together these findings define a synergistic function of ATM and CyclinD1 in pre-germinal center B-cell proliferation and lymphomagenesis and provide a prototypic animal model to study the pathogenesis of human MCL. PMID:25676421

  9. BAFF overexpression increases lymphocytic infiltration in Sjögren's target tissue, but only inefficiently promotes ectopic B-cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jian; Zhang, Wei; Haskett, Scott; Pellerin, Alex; Xu, Shanqin; Petersen, Britta; Jandreski, Luke; Hamann, Stefan; Reynolds, Taylor L; Zheng, Timothy S; Mingueneau, Michael

    2016-08-01

    B-cell activating factor (BAFF) levels are increased in rheumatoid arthritis, lupus and primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). However, BAFF contribution to pathogenesis is not completely understood. In pSS, immune infiltration of the salivary and lacrimal glands leads to xerostomia and xerophtalmia. Glandular B cell hyperactivation, differentiation into germinal center (GC)-like structures and plasma cell accumulation are histopathological hallmarks that were attributed to increased BAFF. Here, we experimentally tested this hypothesis by overexpressing BAFF in a mouse model of pSS. BAFF overexpression enhanced lymphocytic infiltration and MHCII expression on B cells. Increased BAFF also induced B cell differentiation into GC B cells within the autoimmune target tissue. However, even in these conditions, GC B cells only accounted for <1% of glandular B cells, demonstrating that BAFF is not efficiently promoting ectopic GC formation in pSS and warranting further investigation of therapeutics targeting both BAFF and the related TNF-family member APRIL.

  10. Ectopic pregnancy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    An ectopic pregnancy is one in which the fertilized egg implants in tissue outside of the uterus and the ... common site is within a Fallopian tube, however, ectopic pregnancies can occur in the ovary, the abdomen, ...

  11. Tbet and IL-36γ cooperate in therapeutic DC-mediated promotion of ectopic lymphoid organogenesis in the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Aliyah M; Chen, Lu; Brzana, Emily A; Patil, Prashanti R; Taylor, Jennifer L; Fabian, Kellsye L; Wallace, Callen T; Jones, Sabrina D; Watkins, Simon C; Lu, Binfeng; Stroncek, David F; Denning, Timothy L; Fu, Yang-Xin; Cohen, Peter A; Storkus, Walter J

    2017-01-01

    We have previously reported that direct injection of dendritic cells (DC) engineered to express the Type-1 transactivator Tbet (i.e., DC.Tbet) into murine tumors results in antitumor efficacy in association with the development of structures resembling tertiary lymphoid organs (TLO) in the tumor microenvironment (TME). These TLO contained robust infiltrates of B cells, DC, NK cells, and T cells in proximity to PNAd(+) blood vessels; however, they were considered incomplete, since the recruited B cells failed to organize into classic germinal center-like structures. We now report that antitumor efficacy and TLO-inducing capacity of DC.Tbet-based i.t. therapy is operational in peripheral lymph node-deficient LTA(-/-) mice, and that it is highly dependent upon a direct Tbet target gene product, IL-36γ/IL-1F9. Intratumoral DC.Tbet fails to provide protection to tumor-bearing IL-36R(-/-) hosts, or to tumor-bearing wild-type recipient mice co-administered rmIL-1F5/IL-36RN, a natural IL-36R antagonist. Remarkably, the injection of tumors with DC engineered to secrete a bioactive form of mIL-36γ (DC.IL36γ) also initiated therapeutic TLO and slowed tumor progression in vivo. Furthermore, DC.IL36γ cells strongly upregulated their expression of Tbet, suggesting that Tbet and IL-36γ cooperate to reinforce each other's expression in DC, rendering them competent to promote TLO formation in an "immunologically normalized," therapeutic TME.

  12. Observable Electrochemical Oxidation of Carbon Promoted by Platinum Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kou, Zongkui; Cheng, Kun; Wu, Hui; Sun, Ronghui; Guo, Beibei; Mu, Shichun

    2016-02-17

    The radical degradation of Pt-based catalysts toward oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), predominantly caused by the oxidation of carbon supports, heavily blocks the commercialization of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). As reported, the electrochemical oxidation of carbon could be accelerated by Pt catalysts; however, hitherto no direct evidence is present for the promotion of Pt catalysts. Herein, a unique ultrathin carbon layer (approximately 2.9 nm in thickness) covered Pt catalyst (Pt/C-GC) is designed and synthesized by a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. This magnifies the catalysis effect of Pt to carbon oxidation due to the greatly increased contact sites between the metal-support, making it easy to investigate the carbon oxidation process by observing the thinning of the carbon layer on Pt nanoparticles from TEM observations. Undoubtedly, this finding can better guide the structural design of the durable metal catalysts for PEMFCs and other applications.

  13. Simultaneously photodeposited rhodium metal and oxide nanoparticles promoting photocatalytic hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Shimura, Katsuya; Kawai, Hiromasa; Yoshida, Tomoko; Yoshida, Hisao

    2011-08-21

    Photodeposition of a Rh cocatalyst under atmospheric conditions could simultaneously provide both Rh metal and oxide nanoparticles on a K(2)Ti(6)O(13) photocatalyst, both of which cooperatively promoted the photocatalytic hydrogen production from water and methane.

  14. Ectopic expression of H2AX protein promotes TrkA-induced cell death via modulation of TrkA tyrosine-490 phosphorylation and JNK activity upon DNA damage

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Eun Joo; Kim, Deok Ryong

    2011-01-21

    Research highlights: {yields} We established TrkA-inducible U2OS cells stably expressing GFP-H2AX proteins. {yields} GFP-H2AX was colocalized with TrkA in the cytoplasm. {yields} {gamma}H2AX production was significantly increased upon activation of TrkA and suppressed by TrkA inhibitor or JNK inhibitor. {yields} Ectopic expression of H2AX promoted TrkA-mediated cell death through the modulation of TrkA tyrosine-490 phosphorylation and JNK activity upon DNA damage. -- Abstract: We previously reported that TrkA overexpression causes accumulation of {gamma}H2AX proteins in the cytoplasm, subsequently leading to massive cell death in U2OS cells. To further investigate how cytoplasmic H2AX is associated with TrkA-induced cell death, we established TrkA-inducible cells stably expressing GFP-tagged H2AX. We found that TrkA co-localizes with ectopically expressed GFP-H2AX proteins in the cytoplasm, especially at the juxta-nuclear membranes, which supports our previous results about a functional connection between TrkA and {gamma}H2AX in TrkA-induced cell death. {gamma}H2AX production from GFP-H2AX proteins was significantly increased when TrkA was overexpressed. Moreover, ectopic expression of H2AX activated TrkA-mediated signal pathways via up-regulation of TrkA tyrosine-490 phosphorylation. In addition, suppression of TrkA tyrosine-490 phosphorylation under a certain condition was removed by ectopic expression of H2AX, indicating a functional role of H2AX in the maintenance of TrkA activity. Indeed, TrkA-induced cell death was highly elevated by ectopic H2AX expression, and it was further accelerated by DNA damage via JNK activation. These all results suggest that cytoplasmic H2AX could play an important role in TrkA-mediated cell death by modulating TrkA upon DNA damage.

  15. [Transverse ectopic testis].

    PubMed

    Jouini, Riadh; Lefi, Mounir; Sami, Chelly; Manef, Gesmi; Mohsen, Belguith; Nouri, Abdellatif

    2002-09-01

    Transverse ectopic testis (TET) is a rare form of ectopic testis. The authors report the case of a 2-month-old infant presenting with right inguinoscrotal hernia and ectopic left testis with an impalpable testis. Opening of the hernia sac revealed two testes with two distally fused vasa deferentes. The contralateral testis was easily descended by translocation through the other inguinal canal. A favourable result was obtained with two testes situated in a normal position. In the light of this case, the authors emphasize the clinical and therapeutic features of this anomaly.

  16. Gold nanoparticles promote amorphous carbon to be ammonia gas sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Hua-Shu; Ju, Shin-Pon; Sun, Shih-Jye; Chou, Hsiung; Chia, C. H.

    2016-05-01

    As gold-nanoparticles-embedded in amorphous carbon films the sp 3 carbon orbits near the interface will be partially transferred to sp 2. The Raman spectrum measurements as well as the molecular-dynamics simulations used the second reactive empirical bond order (REBO) potential simulating the interatomic force between carbon atoms both confirm the orbital transformations. The amorphous carbon films are initially inert to gases, while the films embedded with gold nanoparticles exhibit the increase of resistance in ammonia atmosphere. Namely, gold-nanoparticles-embedded amorphous carbon films become the candidate for ammonia gas sensor materials.

  17. [Ectopic pregnancy in Senegal].

    PubMed

    Cissé, Cheikh A Tidiane; Bernis, Luc De; Faye, El Hadj Ousseynou; Diadhiou, Fadel

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this prospective study was to analyse the epidemiology and prognosis of ectopic pregnancy in Senegal. From January 1 to December 31, 1996, 255 ectopic pregnancies were registered. The national rate of ectopic pregnancy was 0.6%. of expected pregnancies. However, rates differed greatly between areas in Senegal, with extremes ranging from 0.85%. in Dakar to 0.32%. in Thiès. The epidemiological profile was that of a young woman-mean age: 23 years old, mean parity=3, admitted with broken ectopic pregnancy (95%). A salpingectomy was performed in all cases. The maternal mortality rate was 1.20%, while morbidity, mainly due to post-operative infection, was found in 2.7% of the cases.

  18. Electrocatalytic processes promoted by diamond nanoparticles in enzymatic biosensing devices.

    PubMed

    Briones, M; Petit-Domínguez, M D; Parra-Alfambra, A M; Vázquez, L; Pariente, F; Lorenzo, E; Casero, E

    2016-10-01

    We have developed a biosensing platform for lactate determination based on gold electrodes modified with diamond nanoparticles of 4nm of nominal diameter, employing the enzyme lactate oxidase and (hydroxymethyl)ferrocene (HMF) as redox mediator in solution. This system displays a response towards lactate that is completely different to those typically observed for lactate biosensors based on other nanomaterials, such as graphene, carbon nanotubes, gold nanoparticles or even diamond nanoparticles of greater size. We have observed by cyclic voltammetry that, under certain experimental conditions, an irreversible wave (E(0)=+0.15V) appears concomitantly with the typical Fe(II)/Fe(III) peaks (E(0)=+0.30V) of HMF. In this case, the biosensor response to lactate shows simultaneous electrocatalytic peaks at +0.15V and +0.30V, indicating the concurrence of different feedback mechanisms. The achievement of a biosensor response to lactate at +0.15V is very convenient in order to avoid potential interferences. The developed biosensor presents a linear concentration range from 0.02mM to 1.2mM, a sensitivity of 6.1μAmM(-1), a detection limit of 5.3μM and excellent stability. These analytical properties compare well with those obtained for other lactate-based biosensors that also include nanomaterials and employ HMF as redox mediator. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Ectopic Hidradenoma Papilliferum

    PubMed Central

    Rosmaninho, Aristóteles David Neiva; de Almeida, Maria Teresa Duarte Pinto; Costa, Vírgilio; Sanches, Maria Madalena Vasconcelos; Lopes, Carlos; Selores Gomes Meirinhos, Maria Manuela

    2010-01-01

    Hidradenoma papilliferum is a rare tumor that occurs almost exclusively in females on the anogenital area. Rare cases of ectopic (nongenital) hidradenoma papilliferum have been described. The lesions usually present as an asymptomatic slow-growing, red, firm, mobile, well-delimitated nodule that grows for a long time before resection. We describe a case of an 26-year-old man that presented with an enlarging nodule on his right eyelid. The histological findings revealed a hidradenoma papilliferum. So far, among the very few reports of ectopic hidradenoma papilliferum, only a very small number were localized to the eyelid. PMID:21197082

  20. WO3/Pt nanoparticles promote light-induced lipid peroxidation and lysosomal instability within tumor cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Andrea J.; Petty, Howard R.

    2016-02-01

    Although metal-metal oxide nanoparticles have attracted considerable interest as catalysts, they have attracted little interest in nanomedicine. This is likely due to the fact that metal oxide semiconductors generally require biologically harmful ultraviolet excitation. In contrast, this study focuses upon WO3/Pt nanoparticles, which can be excited by visible light. To optimize the nanoparticles’ catalytic performance, platinization was performed at alkaline pH. These nanoparticles destroyed organic dyes, consumed dissolved oxygen and produced hydroxyl radicals. 4T1 breast cancer cells internalized WO3/Pt nanoparticles within the membrane-bound endo-lysosomal compartment as shown by electron and fluorescence microscopy. During visible light exposure, but not in darkness, WO3/Pt nanoparticles manufacture reactive oxygen species, promote lipid peroxidation, and trigger lysosomal membrane disruption. As cells of the immune system degrade organic molecules, produce reactive oxygen species, and activate the lipid peroxidation pathway within target cells, these nanoparticles mimic the chemical attributes of immune effector cells. These biomimetic nanoparticles should become useful in managing certain cancers, especially ocular cancer.

  1. Primary ectopic frontotemporal craniopharyngioma

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Porcayo, Luis Alberto; Ponce-Gómez, Juan Antonio; Martínez-Moreno, Mauricio; Portocarrero-Ortíz, Lesly; Tena-Suck, Martha Lilia; Gómez-Amador, Juan Luis

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Primary ectopic craniopharyngiomas have only rarely been reported. Craniopharyngiomas involve usually the sellar and suprasellar region, but can be originated from cell remnants of the obliterated craniopharyngeal duct or metaplastic change of andenohypophyseal cells. We present the first case of a primary ectopic frontotemporal craniopharyngioma. Presentation of case A 35-year old woman presented with a one-year history of headache and diplopia. MRI showed a large frontotemporal cystic lesion. Tumor resection was performed with a keyhole endoscopic frontal lateral approach. The pathological features showed an adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma with a cholesterol granuloma reaction. Discussion There have been reported different localizations for primary ectopic craniopharyngioma. Our case presented a lobulated frontotemporal cystic mass formed by a dense eosinophilic proteinaceous material dystrophic calcifications and cholesterol crystals, with epithelial remnants. No tumor regrowth was observed in the magnetic resonance image 27 months postoperatively. Conclusion Primary ectopic craniopharyngioma is a rare entity with a pathogenesis that remains uncertain. This is an unusual anatomic location associated with unique clinical findings. PMID:25725331

  2. Plasmonic properties of gold nanoparticles can promote neuronal activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paviolo, Chiara; Haycock, John W.; Yong, Jiawey; Yu, Aimin; McArthur, Sally L.; Stoddart, Paul R.

    2013-02-01

    As-synthesized, poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid) (PSS)-coated and SiO2 coated gold nanorods were taken up by NG108-15 neuronal cells. Exposure to laser light at the plasmon resonance wavelength of gold nanorods was found to trigger the differentiation process in the nanoparticle treated cells. Results were assessed by measuring the maximum neurite length, the number of neurites per neuron and the percentage of neurons with neurites. When the intracellular Ca2+ signaling was monitored, evidence of photo-generated transients were recorded without altering other normal cell functions. These results open new opportunities for peripheral nerve regeneration treatments and for the process of infrared nerve stimulation.

  3. Promoted sulfurization of a single silver nanoparticle by plasmon resonance under white light illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Yuki; Miyata, Masashi; Takahara, Junichi

    2017-04-01

    We demonstrate the rapid spectral shift of the plasmon resonant peak from a single silver nanoparticle deposited on a dielectric-coated silver film in air under white light illumination. This shift occurs within several hours of white light illumination under the resonant condition of the metal–insulator–metal structure formed below the particle and is attributed to promoted sulfurization at the surface of the single silver nanoparticle resulting from the plasmonic heat generation. This thermal plasmonic effect will play a crucial role in the stability of plasmonic devices in the future.

  4. Sustained release poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres of bone morphogenetic protein 2 plasmid/calcium phosphate to promote in vitro bone formation and in vivo ectopic osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Chunyan; Zhang, Kai; Sun, Bin; Liu, Jinzhong; Song, Jiyu; Hu, Yue; Yang, Shihui; Sun, Hongchen; Yang, Bai

    2015-01-01

    Bone regeneration often requires continuous stimulation to promote local bone formation. In the present study, calcium phosphate (CaPi) was used to promote transfection of human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) cDNA plasmid, and poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) was used to prepare microspheres of pBMP-2/CaPi (i.e., PLGA@pBMP-2/CaPi) using W/O/W double emulsion solvent evaporation method. We showed that PLGA@pBMP-2/CaPi microspheres were spherical with smooth surface, and the particle size ranged from 0.5 to 35 μm. Encapsulation efficiency was up to 30~50%. The release of BMP-2 cDNA from microspheres continued more than 30 days and constituted, less than 7.5% of total plasmid amount within the first 24 h. Real-time PCR results showed that co-culturing of PLGA@pBMP-2/CaPi with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) increased calcium deposition and gene expressions of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), SP7, and collagen type I (COLL I) in a time-dependent manner. Finally, X-ray analysis demonstrated that in vivo delivery of PLGA@pBMP-2/CaPi microspheres into the tibialis anterior muscles of rats promoted the generation of osteoblasts, bone tissue, and bone structure. The findings suggested that PLGA@pBMP-2/CaPi microspheres can promote ectopic osteogenesis in non-bone tissues, with strong prospects in promoting bone regeneration. PMID:26885257

  5. Promoting optofluidic actuation of microparticles with plasmonic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgin, Julien; Si, Satyabrata; Delville, Marie-Hélène; Delville, Jean-Pierre

    2014-09-01

    The amplitude of optical forces on flowing dielectric microparticles can be actuated by coating them partially with metallic nanospheres and exposing them to laser light within the surface plasmon resonance. Here, optical forces on both pure silica particles and silica-gold raspberries are characterized within an optical chromatography setup by measuring the Stokes drag versus laser beam power. Results are compared to Mie theory predictions for both core dielectric particles and core-shell ones where the shell is described by a continuous dielectricmetal composite of dielectric constant determined from the Maxwell Garnett approach. The nice observed quantitative agreement demonstrates that radiation pressure forces are directly related to the metal concentration present at the microparticle surface and that nano-metallic objects increase the magnitude of optical forces compared to pure dielectric particles of the same overall size, even at very low metal concentration. Behaving as "micro-sized nanoparticles", the benefit of microparticles coated with metallic nanospheres is thus twofold: (i) to enhance optofluidic manipulation and transport at the microscale and (ii) to increase sensing capabilities at the nanoscale, compared to separated pure dielectric particles and single metallic nanosystems.

  6. Cancer cell-selective promoter recognition accompanies antitumor effect by glucocorticoid receptor-targeted gold nanoparticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sau, Samaresh; Agarwalla, Pritha; Mukherjee, Sudip; Bag, Indira; Sreedhar, Bojja; Pal-Bhadra, Manika; Patra, Chitta Ranjan; Banerjee, Rajkumar

    2014-05-01

    Nanoparticles, such as gold nanoparticles (GNP), upon convenient modifications perform multi tasks catering to many biomedical applications. However, GNP or any other type of nanoparticles is yet to achieve the feat of intracellular regulation of endogenous genes of choice such as through manipulation of a gene-promoter in a chromosome. As for gene modulation and delivery, GNP (or other nanoparticles) showed only limited gene therapy potential, which relied on the delivery of `exogenous' genes invoking gene knockdown or replacement. Practically, there are no instances for the nanoparticle-mediated promoter regulation of `endogenous' genes, more so, as a cancer selective phenomenon. In this regard, we report the development of a simple, easily modifiable GNP-formulation, which promoted/up-regulated the expression of a specific category of `endogenous' genes, the glucocorticoid responsive genes. This genetic up-regulation was induced in only cancer cells by modified GNP-mediated transcriptional activation of its cytoplasmic receptor, glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Normal cells and their GR remained primarily unperturbed by this GNP-formulation. The most potent gene up-regulating GNP-formulation down-regulated a cancer-specific proliferative signal, phospho-Akt in cancer cells, which accompanied retardation of tumor growth in the murine melanoma model. We show that GR-targeted GNPs may find potential use in the targeting and modulation of genetic information in cancer towards developing novel anticancer therapeutics.Nanoparticles, such as gold nanoparticles (GNP), upon convenient modifications perform multi tasks catering to many biomedical applications. However, GNP or any other type of nanoparticles is yet to achieve the feat of intracellular regulation of endogenous genes of choice such as through manipulation of a gene-promoter in a chromosome. As for gene modulation and delivery, GNP (or other nanoparticles) showed only limited gene therapy potential, which relied

  7. EGF Functionalized Polymer-Coated Gold Nanoparticles Promote EGF Photostability and EGFR Internalization for Photothermal Therapy.

    PubMed

    Silva, Catarina Oliveira; Petersen, Steffen B; Reis, Catarina Pinto; Rijo, Patrícia; Molpeceres, Jesús; Fernandes, Ana Sofia; Gonçalves, Odete; Gomes, Andreia C; Correia, Isabel; Vorum, Henrik; Neves-Petersen, Maria Teresa

    2016-01-01

    The application of functionalized nanocarriers on photothermal therapy for cancer ablation has wide interest. The success of this application depends on the therapeutic efficiency and biocompatibility of the system, but also on the stability and biorecognition of the conjugated protein. This study aims at investigating the hypothesis that EGF functionalized polymer-coated gold nanoparticles promote EGF photostability and EGFR internalization, making these conjugated particles suitable for photothermal therapy. The conjugated gold nanoparticles (100-200 nm) showed a plasmon absorption band located within the near-infrared range (650-900 nm), optimal for photothermal therapy applications. The effects of temperature, of polymer-coated gold nanoparticles and of UVB light (295nm) on the fluorescence properties of EGF have been investigated with steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The fluorescence properties of EGF, including the formation of Trp and Tyr photoproducts, is modulated by temperature and by the intensity of the excitation light. The presence of polymeric-coated gold nanoparticles reduced or even avoided the formation of Trp and Tyr photoproducts when EGF is exposed to UVB light, protecting this way the structure and function of EGF. Cytotoxicity studies of conjugated nanoparticles carried out in normal-like human keratinocytes showed small, concentration dependent decreases in cell viability (0-25%). Moreover, conjugated nanoparticles could activate and induce the internalization of overexpressed Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in human lung carcinoma cells. In conclusion, the gold nanoparticles conjugated with Epidermal Growth Factor and coated with biopolymers developed in this work, show a potential application for near infrared photothermal therapy, which may efficiently destroy solid tumours, reducing the damage of the healthy tissue.

  8. EGF Functionalized Polymer-Coated Gold Nanoparticles Promote EGF Photostability and EGFR Internalization for Photothermal Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Catarina Oliveira; Petersen, Steffen B.; Reis, Catarina Pinto; Rijo, Patrícia; Molpeceres, Jesús; Fernandes, Ana Sofia; Gonçalves, Odete; Gomes, Andreia C.; Correia, Isabel; Vorum, Henrik; Neves-Petersen, Maria Teresa

    2016-01-01

    The application of functionalized nanocarriers on photothermal therapy for cancer ablation has wide interest. The success of this application depends on the therapeutic efficiency and biocompatibility of the system, but also on the stability and biorecognition of the conjugated protein. This study aims at investigating the hypothesis that EGF functionalized polymer-coated gold nanoparticles promote EGF photostability and EGFR internalization, making these conjugated particles suitable for photothermal therapy. The conjugated gold nanoparticles (100–200 nm) showed a plasmon absorption band located within the near-infrared range (650–900 nm), optimal for photothermal therapy applications. The effects of temperature, of polymer-coated gold nanoparticles and of UVB light (295nm) on the fluorescence properties of EGF have been investigated with steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The fluorescence properties of EGF, including the formation of Trp and Tyr photoproducts, is modulated by temperature and by the intensity of the excitation light. The presence of polymeric-coated gold nanoparticles reduced or even avoided the formation of Trp and Tyr photoproducts when EGF is exposed to UVB light, protecting this way the structure and function of EGF. Cytotoxicity studies of conjugated nanoparticles carried out in normal-like human keratinocytes showed small, concentration dependent decreases in cell viability (0–25%). Moreover, conjugated nanoparticles could activate and induce the internalization of overexpressed Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in human lung carcinoma cells. In conclusion, the gold nanoparticles conjugated with Epidermal Growth Factor and coated with biopolymers developed in this work, show a potential application for near infrared photothermal therapy, which may efficiently destroy solid tumours, reducing the damage of the healthy tissue. PMID:27788212

  9. Site-specific conjugation of ScFvs antibodies to nanoparticles by bioorthogonal strain-promoted alkyne-nitrone cycloaddition.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Miriam; Sommaruga, Silvia; Mazzucchelli, Serena; Polito, Laura; Verderio, Paolo; Galeffi, Patrizia; Corsi, Fabio; Tortora, Paolo; Prosperi, Davide

    2012-01-09

    Particularly suitable: An N-terminal serine mutant of anti-HER2 scFv antibody was conjugated to polymer-coated magnetofluorescent nanoparticles by strain-promoted alkyne-nitrone cycloaddition. The resulting nanoparticles (see scheme) proved effective in targeting and labeling HER2-positive breast cancer cells.

  10. Use of a stress inducible promoter to drive ectopic AtCBF expression improves potato freezing tolerance while minimizing negative effects on tuber yield.

    PubMed

    Pino, María-Teresa; Skinner, Jeffrey S; Park, Eung-Jun; Jeknić, Zoran; Hayes, Patrick M; Thomashow, Michael F; Chen, Tony H H

    2007-09-01

    Solanum tuberosum is a frost-sensitive species incapable of cold acclimation. A brief exposure to frost can significantly reduce its yields, while hard frosts can completely destroy entire crops. Thus, gains in freezing tolerance of even a few degrees would be of considerable benefit relative to frost damage. The S. tuberosum cv. Umatilla was transformed with three Arabidopsis CBF genes (AtCBF1-3) driven by either a constitutive CaMV35S or a stress-inducible Arabidopsis rd29A promoter. AtCBF1 and AtCBF3 over-expression via the 35S promoter increased freezing tolerance about 2 degrees C, whereas AtCBF2 over-expression failed to increase freezing tolerance. Transgenic plants of AtCBF1 and AtCBF3 driven by the rd29A promoter reached the same level of freezing tolerance as the 35S versions within a few hours of exposure to low but non-freezing temperatures. Constitutive expression of AtCBF genes was associated with negative phenotypes, including smaller leaves, stunted plants, delayed flowering, and reduction or lack of tuber production. While imparting the same degree of freezing tolerance, control of AtCBF expression via the stress-inducible promoter ameliorated these negative phenotypic effects and restored tuber production to levels similar to wild-type plants. These results suggest that use of a stress-inducible promoter to direct CBF transgene expression can yield significant gains in freezing tolerance without negatively impacting agronomically important traits in potato.

  11. Intra-cholecystic ectopic liver.

    PubMed

    Natori, T; Hawkin, S; Aizawa, M; Asai, T; Kameda, Y; Ikuyohashi, K

    1986-08-01

    A 56-year-old Japanese woman who had an ectopic liver attached to the inner surface of the gallbladder is reported. The ectopic nodule measuring 1.2 X 0.5 X 0.8 cm was found incidentally when her gallbladder was resected because of cholelithiasis. Ectopic liver tissue in reported cases war located on the serosal surface, or in the wall of the gallbladder. This report described, to our knowledge, the first case of an ectopic liver nodule attached to the mucosal surface of the gallbladder with a thin pedicle.

  12. Graphene oxide-promoted reshaping and coarsening of gold nanorods and nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hanqing; Low, Serena; Weerasuriya, Nisala; Shon, Young-Seok

    2015-02-11

    This paper describes thermally induced reshaping and coarsening behaviors of gold nanorods and nanoparticles immobilized on the surface of graphene oxide. Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide-stabilized gold nanorods with an aspect ratio of ∼3.5 (54:15 nm) and glutathione-capped gold nanoparticles with an average core size of ∼3 nm were synthesized and self-assembled onto the surface of graphene oxide. The hybrid materials were then heated at different temperatures ranging from 50 to 300 °C. The effects of heat treatments were monitored using UV-vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These results were directly compared with those of heat-treated free-standing gold nanorods and nanoparticles without graphene oxide to understand the heat-induced morphological changes of the nanohybrids. The obtained results showed that the gold nanorods would undergo a complete reshaping to spherical particles at the temperature of 50 °C when they are assembled on graphene oxide. In comparison, the complete reshaping of free-standing gold nanorods to spherical particles would ultimately require a heating of the samples at 200 °C. In addition, the spherical gold nanoparticles immobilized on graphene oxide would undergo a rapid coarsening at the temperature of 100-150 °C, which was lower than the temperature (150-200 °C) required for visible coarsening of free-standing gold nanoparticles. The results indicated that graphene oxide facilitates the reshaping and coarsening of gold nanorods and nanoparticles, respectively, during the heat treatments. The stripping and spillover of stabilizing ligands promoted by graphene oxide are proposed to be the main mechanism for the enhancements in the heat-induced transformations of nanohybrids.

  13. Graphene Oxide-Promoted Reshaping and Coarsening of Gold Nanorods and Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Hanqing; Low, Serena; Weerasuriya, Nisala; Shon, Young-Seok

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes thermally induced reshaping and coarsening behaviors of gold nanorods and nanoparticles immobilized on the surface of graphene oxide. Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide-stabilized gold nanorods with an aspect ratio of ~3.5 (54:15 nm) and glutathione-capped gold nanoparticles with an average core size of ~3 nm were synthesized and self-assembled onto the surface of graphene oxide. The hybrid materials were then heated at different temperatures ranging from 50 to 300 °C. The effects of heat treatments were monitored using UV–vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These results were directly compared with those of heat-treated free-standing gold nanorods and nanoparticles without graphene oxide to understand the heat-induced morphological changes of the nanohybrids. The obtained results showed that the gold nanorods would undergo a complete reshaping to spherical particles at the temperature of 50 °C when they are assembled on graphene oxide. In comparison, the complete reshaping of free-standing gold nanorods to spherical particles would ultimately require a heating of the samples at 200 °C. In addition, the spherical gold nanoparticles immobilized on graphene oxide would undergo a rapid coarsening at the temperature of 100–150 °C, which was lower than the temperature (150–200 °C) required for visible coarsening of free-standing gold nanoparticles. The results indicated that graphene oxide facilitates the reshaping and coarsening of gold nanorods and nanoparticles, respectively, during the heat treatments. The stripping and spillover of stabilizing ligands promoted by graphene oxide are proposed to be the main mechanism for the enhancements in the heat-induced transformations of nanohybrids. PMID:25611371

  14. Cervical ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Samal, Sunil Kumar; Rathod, Setu

    2015-01-01

    Cervical pregnancy is a rare type of ectopic pregnancy and it represents <1% of all ectopic pregnancies. Early diagnosis and medical management with systemic or local administration of methotrexate is the treatment of choice. If the pregnancy is disturbed, it may lead to massive hemorrhage, which may require hysterectomy to save the patient. We report three cases of cervical pregnancy managed successfully with different approaches of management. Our first case, 28 years old G3P2L2 with previous two lower segment cesarean sections, presented with bleeding per vaginum following 6 weeks of amenorrhea. Clinical examination followed by transvaginal ultrasound confirmed the diagnosis of cervical pregnancy. Total abdominal hysterectomy was done in view of intractable bleeding to save the patient. The second case, a 26-year-old second gravida with previous normal vaginal delivery presented with pain abdomen and single episode of spotting per vaginum following 7 weeks of amenorrhea. Transvaginal ultrasound revealed empty endometrial cavity, closed internal os with gestational sac containing live fetus of 7 weeks gestational age in cervical canal and she was treated with intra-amniotic potassium chloride followed by systemic methotrexate. Follow up with serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin level revealed successful outcome. Our third case, a 27-year-old primigravida with history of infertility treatment admitted with complaints of bleeding per vaginum for 1 day following 8 weeks amenorrhea. She was diagnosed as cervical pregnancy by clinical examination, confirmed by transvaginal ultrasonography and subsequently managed by dilation and curettage with intracervical Foleys' ballon tamponade.

  15. Ectopic activation of the transcription promoter for the testis-specific mouse Pgk-2 gene on elimination of a cis-acting upstream DNA region.

    PubMed

    Ando, H; Haruna, Y; Suzuki, M; Yamada, S; Okabe, M; Nakanishi, Y

    2000-08-01

    Transgenic mice carrying the coding sequence of beta-galactosidase, for which expression was driven by various upstream regions including the transcription promoter of the testis-specific mouse Pgk-2 gene, were generated. Expression of beta-galactosidase mRNA driven by the region between nucleotide positions -1404 and +61, with respect to the transcription initiation site numbered +1, was examined by reverse transcription-mediated polymerase chain reaction, blot hybridization and in situ hybridization, and compared with that of endogenous Pgk-2 mRNA. The results revealed that the 1.4kb DNA region is sufficient for determining the organ-specific, developmental stage-specific and spermatogenic stage-specific transcription of the mouse Pgk-2 gene. When the region between -684 and +61 was used to generate transgenic mice, beta-galactosidase mRNA was detectable not only in the testis, but also in other organs such as brain and lung. However, the timing and cell-type specificity of testicular expression of beta-galactosidase mRNA were retained in these mice. Because the region between -1404 and -685 repressed the Pgk-2 promoter in somatic cell-derived cell lines, it is suggested that the organ specificity of Pgk-2 transcription is achieved at least partly by negative regulation.

  16. Non-tubal ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Parker, Victoria Louise; Srinivas, M

    2016-07-01

    11 per 1000 pregnancies are ectopic (NICE Guidelines, 2012) with 95 % of ectopic pregnancies being tubal in origin, and 80 % of these occurring within the ampulla (The Ectopic Pregnancy Trust). 5% therefore are non-tubal. In this review we aim to collate literature relevant to non-tubal ectopic pregnancy. Literature regarding cornual, ovarian, abdominal, interstitial, cervical and Caesarean scar ectopic pregnancy was reviewed using EMBASE and Medline databases. Non-tubal ectopic pregnancies are often overlooked, diagnosed late and are associated with higher maternal morbidity and mortality. Ultrasound remains the mainstay of diagnosis in corroboration with clinical features. Management may include medical treatment with methotrexate, surgery or expectancy. There is also an increasing interest in the use of minimally invasive radiological approaches. Non-tubal ectopic pregnancy is a rare but potentially life-threatening and often misdiagnosed condition. This is particularly pertinent for Caesarean scar ectopic pregnancies, the prevalence of which is increasing due to the rising proportion of women having Caesarean sections (Litwicka and Greco, 2011). Practitioners should be aware of non-tubal pregnancies to aid more efficient diagnosis, optimise management and increase patient safety.

  17. Promotion of flowering and reduction of a generation time in apple seedlings by ectopical expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana FT gene using the Apple latent spherical virus vector.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Noriko; Sasaki, Shintaro; Yamagata, Kousuke; Komori, Sadao; Nagase, Momoyo; Wada, Masato; Yamamoto, Toshiya; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2011-01-01

    Tree crops have a long juvenile period which is a serious constraint for genetic improvement and experimental research. For example, apple remains in a juvenile phase for more than five years after seed germination. Here, we report about induction of rapid flowering in apple seedlings using the Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) vector expressing a FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene from Arabidopsis thaliana. Apple seedlings could be flowered at 1.5-2 months after inoculation to cotyledons of seeds just after germination with ALSV expressing the FT gene. A half of precocious flowers was normal in appearance with sepals, petals, stamens, and pistils. Pollen from a precocious flower successfully pollinated flowers of 'Fuji' apple from which fruits developed normally and next-generation seeds were produced. Our system using the ALSV vector promoted flowering time of apple seedlings within two months after germination and shortened the generation time from seed germination to next-generation seed maturation to within 7 months when pollen from precocious flowers was used for pollination.

  18. Bone morphogenetic protein-2-encapsulated grafted-poly-lactic acid-polycaprolactone nanoparticles promote bone repair.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaojun; Yang, Jun; Ding, Lifeng; Li, Jianjun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to test the efficacy of a novel tissue-engineered bone in repairing bone defects, using poly-lactic-acid-polycaprolactone (PLA-PCL) scaffolding seeded with PEG-bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2)-transfected rBMSCs (rabbit bone marrow stromal cells). The rBMSCs were transfected with PEG/BMP-2 or liposome/BMP-2, and then implanted into a PLA-PCL tissue-engineered bone. The protein level of BMP-2 was assessed by Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. ELISA was used to measure the amount of BMP-2 secreted in the culture media. The mRNA level of BMP-2 and osteocalcin was assayed quantitatively by real-time PCR. The middle portion of the bilateral radius in New Zealand rabbits was excised and implanted with tissue-engineered bone, and the modified areas were monitored by X-ray, hematoxylin-eosin staining, and immunohistochemistry staining of BMP-2. PEG-BMP-2 nanoparticles (NPs) and BMP-2-loaded PEG-PLA-PCL tissue-engineered bones were successfully constructed. The novel PEG-PLA-PCL NPs/DNA complex was a superior option for transfecting BMP-2 in rBMSCs compared to normal liposomes Moreover, the mRNA level of osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase activity was also elevated upon transfection of BMP-2-encapsulated NPs. In vivo implants with BMP-2-carried tissue-engineered bone exhibited dramatic augmentation of BMP-2 and effective bone formation in the rabbit ectopic model. The PEG-PLA-PCL NPs/BMP-2 complex had an advantageous effect on bone repair, which provided an important theoretic basis for potential clinical treatments.

  19. Cervical ectopic pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Samal, Sunil Kumar; Rathod, Setu

    2015-01-01

    Cervical pregnancy is a rare type of ectopic pregnancy and it represents <1% of all ectopic pregnancies. Early diagnosis and medical management with systemic or local administration of methotrexate is the treatment of choice. If the pregnancy is disturbed, it may lead to massive hemorrhage, which may require hysterectomy to save the patient. We report three cases of cervical pregnancy managed successfully with different approaches of management. Our first case, 28 years old G3P2L2 with previous two lower segment cesarean sections, presented with bleeding per vaginum following 6 weeks of amenorrhea. Clinical examination followed by transvaginal ultrasound confirmed the diagnosis of cervical pregnancy. Total abdominal hysterectomy was done in view of intractable bleeding to save the patient. The second case, a 26-year-old second gravida with previous normal vaginal delivery presented with pain abdomen and single episode of spotting per vaginum following 7 weeks of amenorrhea. Transvaginal ultrasound revealed empty endometrial cavity, closed internal os with gestational sac containing live fetus of 7 weeks gestational age in cervical canal and she was treated with intra-amniotic potassium chloride followed by systemic methotrexate. Follow up with serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin level revealed successful outcome. Our third case, a 27-year-old primigravida with history of infertility treatment admitted with complaints of bleeding per vaginum for 1 day following 8 weeks amenorrhea. She was diagnosed as cervical pregnancy by clinical examination, confirmed by transvaginal ultrasonography and subsequently managed by dilation and curettage with intracervical Foleys’ ballon tamponade. PMID:25810679

  20. Promoting tumor penetration of nanoparticles for cancer stem cell therapy by TGF-β signaling pathway inhibition.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Zu-Qi; Chen, Kai-Ge; Yu, Xiao-Yuan; Zhao, Gui; Shen, Song; Cao, Zhi-Ting; Luo, Ying-Li; Wang, Yu-Cai; Wang, Jun

    2016-03-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs), which hold a high capacity for self-renewal, play a central role in the development, metastasis, and recurrence of various malignancies. CSCs must be eradicated to cure instances of cancer; however, because they can reside far from tumor vessels, they are not easily targeted by drug agents carried by nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems. We herein demonstrate that promoting tumor penetration of nanoparticles by transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling pathway inhibition facilitates CSC therapy. In our study, we observed that although nanoparticles carrying siRNA targeting the oncogene polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) efficiently killed breast CSCs derived from MDA-MB-231 cells in vitro, this intervention enriched CSCs in the residual tumor tissue following systemic treatment. However, inhibition of the TGF-β signaling pathway with LY364947, an inhibitor of TGF-β type I receptor, promoted the penetration of nanoparticles in tumor tissue, significantly ameliorating the intratumoral distribution of nanoparticles in MDA-MB-231 xenografts and further leading to enhanced internalization of nanoparticles by CSCs. As a result, synergistic treatment with a nanoparticle drug delivery system and LY364947 inhibited tumor growth and reduced the proportion of CSCs in vivo. This study suggests that enhanced tumor penetration of drug-carrying nanoparticles can enhance CSCs clearance in vivo and consequently provide superior anti-tumor effects.

  1. Sonography of Methotrexate for Ectopics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urzicǎ, Denise; Dorohoi, Dana-Ortansa

    2007-04-01

    Treatment unruptured ectopic pregnancy with methotrexate (MTX) and citrovorum factor is now an established alternative to surgical therapy. Serial measurements of serum beta-HCG and early ultrasound examination have allowed detection of early and unruptured tubal ectopic pregnancies, permitting treatment without removal of the tube. It is believed that preserving the tube increases the chance of subsequent live births. Our findings suggest that outpatient transvaginal intratubal methorexate administration can provide a safe and effective alternative to surgical treatment for patients with early and unruptured tubal ectopic pregnancy.

  2. Promotion of nucleation for nano-particle formation by two-stage microwave irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishijima, S.; Matsumura, S.; Asakuma, Y.; Saptoro, A.

    2017-06-01

    Microwave has been widely used for nano-particle synthesis because rapid growth and mono-dispersed particle size can be obtained. In our previous work, it was found that bubble formation during the irradiation is greatly affected by particle size and suspension density. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanism has not been clearly understood, especially pertinent to superheat behavior caused by the higher power when colloidal particle of ferric hydroxide was produced by heating ferric chloride solution under the irradiation. In this study, to prevent superheat behavior, two-stage irradiation was proposed in nano-particle formation process. Based on in-situ measurement data, such as the profiles of bubble size, final particle size and brightness of scattering light of suspension, it is evident that nucleation of nano-particle is promoted by higher power of the first irradiation. As a result, particle number density became higher, and then microwave absorbance energy was evenly distributed to each particle. Due to suppression of heat generation in a particle, bubble size became smaller. Two-stage irradiation became more advantageous in obtaining smaller particle than continuous irradiation because lower power of the second irradiation prevents superheat behavior.

  3. Promoting filopodial elongation in neurons by membrane-bound magnetic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Pita-Thomas, Wolfgang; Steketee, Michael B.; Moysidis, Stavros N.; Thakor, Kinjal; Hampton, Blake; Goldberg, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Filopodia are 5–10 μm long processes that elongate by actin polymerization, and promote axon growth and guidance by exerting mechanical tension and by molecular signaling. Although axons elongate in response to mechanical tension, the structural and functional effects of tension specifically applied to growth cone filopodia are unknown. Here we developed a strategy to apply tension specifically to retinal ganglion cell (RGC) growth cone filopodia through surface-functionalized, membrane-targeted superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs). When magnetic fields were applied to surface-bound SPIONs, RGC filopodia elongated directionally, contained polymerized actin filaments, and generated retrograde forces, behaving as bona fide filopodia. Data presented here support the premise that mechanical tension induces filopodia growth but counter the hypothesis that filopodial tension directly promotes growth cone advance. Future applications of these approaches may be used to induce sustained forces on multiple filopodia or other subcellular microstructures to study filopodial on axon growth or cell migration. PMID:25596077

  4. PLGA nanoparticles loaded with host defense peptide LL37 promote wound healing.

    PubMed

    Chereddy, Kiran Kumar; Her, Charles-Henry; Comune, Michela; Moia, Claudia; Lopes, Alessandra; Porporato, Paolo E; Vanacker, Julie; Lam, Martin C; Steinstraesser, Lars; Sonveaux, Pierre; Zhu, Huijun; Ferreira, Lino S; Vandermeulen, Gaëlle; Préat, Véronique

    2014-11-28

    Wound treatment remains one of the most prevalent and economically burdensome healthcare issues in the world. Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) supplies lactate that accelerates neovascularization and promotes wound healing. LL37 is an endogenous human host defense peptide that modulates wound healing and angiogenesis and fights infection. Hence, we hypothesized that the administration of LL37 encapsulated in PLGA nanoparticles (PLGA-LL37 NP) promotes wound closure due to the sustained release of both LL37 and lactate. In full thickness excisional wounds, the treatment with PLGA-LL37 NP significantly accelerated wound healing compared to PLGA or LL37 administration alone. PLGA-LL37 NP-treated wounds displayed advanced granulation tissue formation by significant higher collagen deposition, re-epithelialized and neovascularized composition. PLGA-LL37 NP improved angiogenesis, significantly up-regulated IL-6 and VEGFa expression, and modulated the inflammatory wound response. In vitro, PLGA-LL37 NP induced enhanced cell migration but had no effect on the metabolism and proliferation of keratinocytes. It displayed antimicrobial activity on Escherichia coli. In conclusion, we developed a biodegradable drug delivery system that accelerated healing processes due to the combined effects of lactate and LL37 released from the nanoparticles.

  5. [Early diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Belics, Zoran; Gérecz, Balázs; Csákány, M György

    2014-07-20

    Ectopic pregnancy is a high-risk condition that occurs in 2% of reported pregnancies. This percentage is fivefold higher than that registered in the 1970s. Since 1970 there has been a two-fold increase in the ratio of ectopic pregnancies to all reported pregnancies in Hungary and in 2012 7.4 ectopic pregnancies per thousand registered pregnancies were reported. Recently, the majority (80%) of cases can be diagnosed in early stage, and the related mortality objectively decreased in the past few decades to 3.8/10,000 ectopic pregnancies. If a woman with positive pregnancy test has abdominal pain and/or vaginal bleeding the physician should perform a work-up to safely exclude the possibility of ectopic pregnancy. The basis of diagnosis is ultrasonography, especially vaginal ultrasound examination and measurement of the β-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin. The ultrasound diagnosis is based on the visualization of an ectopic mass rather than the inability to visualize an intrauterine pregnancy. In some questionable cases the diagnostic uterine curettage or laparoscopy may be useful. The actuality of this topic is justified by practical difficulties in obtaining correct diagnosis, especially in the early gestational time.

  6. Clinical study of ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, S; Aher, K; Jaiswal, M

    1992-01-01

    Ectopic pregnancy remains a leading cause of maternal mortality and accounts for a sizeable proportion of infertility and ectopic recurrence. The possibility that a woman is experiencing an ectopic pregnancy must be considered when evaluating a woman, especially a sterilized woman, who has a possible pregnancy, amenorrhea, abdominal pain, or abnormal bleeding; studies have found that one in six pregnancies occurring after tubal sterilization are ectopic. The authors present a clinical study of 82 cases of ectopic pregnancy admitted to the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram. Cases of ectopic pregnancy represent 0.99% of total obstetric admissions, of whom 69.51% were diagnosed as such on admission. 40.24% of the women were older than 30 years, while 34.14% were elderly beyond third parity. 70.73% of the women presented before missing their second period. Patients presented with multiple complaints, but the most common was abdominal pain reported by 61.70%. 78.04% were admitted with an acute abdomen, but shock was present in only 7.14% of cases. The main surgical treatment modality was salpingectomy among 59.75%. There was no maternal mortality through postoperative morbidity in the form of paralytic ileus, although fever did occur in some women.

  7. Electrochemical promotion of catalysis over Pd nanoparticles for CO2 reduction.

    PubMed

    Cai, Fan; Gao, Dunfeng; Zhou, Hu; Wang, Guoxiong; He, Ting; Gong, Huimin; Miao, Shu; Yang, Fan; Wang, Jianguo; Bao, Xinhe

    2017-04-01

    Electrochemical promotion of catalysis (EPOC) has been shown to accelerate the rate of many heterogeneous catalytic reactions; however, it has rarely been reported in low-temperature aqueous electrochemical reactions. Herein, we report a significant EPOC effect for the CO2 reduction to generate formate over Pd nanoparticles (NPs) in a 1 M KHCO3 aqueous solution. By applying a negative potential over differently-sized Pd NPs, the rate of formate production is greatly improved as compared to that at an open-circuit voltage, with a rate enhancement ratio ranging from 10 to 143. The thermocatalytic and electrocatalytic reduction of CO2 compete with each other and are promoted by the applied negative potential and H2 in the feeds, respectively. Inspired by the EPOC effect, a composite electrode containing Pd/C and Pt/C catalysts on different sides of a carbon paper was constructed for catalyzing the CO2 reduction without adding H2 to the feeds. Water electrolysis over Pt NPs generates H2, which then effectively promotes formate production over Pd NPs.

  8. Promotion of airway anastomotic microvascular regeneration and alleviation of airway ischemia by deferoxamine nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Wen; Sung, Yon K.; Sun, Wenchao; Hsu, Joe L.; Manickam, Sathish; Wagh, Dhananjay; Joubert, Lydia-Marie; Semenza, Gregg L.; Rajadas, Jayakumar; Nicolls, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    Airway tissue ischemia and hypoxia in human lung transplantation is a consequence of the sacrifice of the bronchial circulation during the surgical procedure and is a major risk factor for the development of airway anastomotic complications. Augmented expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α promotes microvascular repair and alleviates allograft ischemia and hypoxia. Deferoxamine mesylate (DFO) is an FDA-approved iron chelator which has been shown to upregulate cellular HIF-1α. Here, we developed a nanoparticle formulation of DFO that can be topically applied to airway transplants at the time of surgery. In a mouse orthotopic tracheal transplant (OTT) model, the DFO nanoparticle was highly effective in enhancing airway microvascular perfusion following transplantation through the production of the angiogenic factors, placental growth factor (PLGF) and stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1. The endothelial cells in DFO treated airways displayed higher levels of p-eNOS and Ki67, less apoptosis, and decreased production of perivascular reactive oxygen species (ROS) compared to vehicle-treated airways. In summary, a DFO formulation topically-applied at the time of surgery successfully augmented airway anastomotic microvascular regeneration and the repair of alloimmune-injured microvasculature. This approach may be an effective topical transplant-conditioning therapy for preventing airway complications following clinical lung transplantation. PMID:24161166

  9. New ligand design to promote water compatibility of luminescent quantum dots and gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Bing C.; Susumu, Kimihiro; Medintz, Igor L.; Delehanty, James B.; Mattoussi, Hedi

    2008-02-01

    We report the design and synthesis of new bidentate ligands to promote biocompatibility of luminescent quantum dots (QDs) and gold nanoparticle (Au-NPs) alike. The ligands use commercially available methoxy-terminated hydroxypoly( ethylene glycol) (HO-PEG-OCH3) and thioctic acid (TA) coupled via a stable amide bond to make TA-PEG-OCH3 ligands. Following a simple transformation of the hydroxyl group into an amine group on the methoxy-PEG, the ligand was attached to thioctic acid via DCC coupling. The use of mono-hydroxy-terminated PEG simplifies the reaction and purification steps. Following ring opening of the TA to form DHLA-PEG-OCH3, cap exchange on CdSe-ZnS core-shell QDs provided homogeneous stable dispersions in buffer solutions. Furthermore, using either the newly designed ligand pure, or mixed with amine-functionalized ligands (DHLA-PEG-NH2) allowed tuning of the surface functionalities of the nanoparticles. Gel electrophoresis, absorption and fluorescence experiments confirmed cap exchange, while microinjection in live cells provided additional verification of the potential utility of these hydrophilic QDs in biology. These ligands were also applied to functionalize Au-NPs, with a substantial improvement of their stability under high salt conditions compared to citrate-functionalized dispersions.

  10. Amyloid Aβ 42, a promoter of magnetite nanoparticle formation in Alzheimer’s disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogachan Tahirbegi, Islam; Pardo, Wilmer Alfonso; Alvira, Margarita; Mir, Mònica; Samitier, Josep

    2016-11-01

    The accumulation of iron oxides—mainly magnetite—with amyloid peptide is a key process in the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, the mechanism for biogeneration of magnetite inside the brain of someone with AD is still unclear. The iron-storing protein ferritin has been identified as the main magnetite-storing molecule. However, accumulations of magnetite in AD are not correlated with an increase in ferritin, leaving this question unresolved. Here we demonstrate the key role of amyloid peptide Aβ 42, one of the main hallmarks of AD, in the generation of magnetite nanoparticles in the absence of ferritin. The capacity of amyloid peptide to bind and concentrate iron hydroxides, the basis for the formation of magnetite, benefits the spontaneous synthesis of these nanoparticles, even under unfavorable conditions for their formation. Using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy and magnetic force microscopy we characterized the capacity of amyloid peptide Aβ 42 to promote magnetite formation.

  11. Application of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles against a cancer promoter cyanobacterium, Microcystis aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    El-Sheekh, Mostafa Mohamed; El-Kassas, Hala Yassin

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology opens new applications in many fields including medicine. Among all metallic nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles (silver NPS) have proved to be the most effective against a large variety of organisms including toxic cyanobacteria. Silver NPs were biosynthesized in vivo with different alga species namely, Spirulina platensis, Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus obliquus following two scenarios. First: by suspending a thoroughly washed algae biomass in 1 mM aqueous AgNO3 solution. Second: by culturing them individually in culture media containing the same concentration of AgNO3. Silver NPs were characterized using UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive analysis (EDX) and Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy. The biosynthesized silver NPs were tested for cytotoxic activity against a cancer promoter cyanobacteruim Microcystis aeruginosa, considering effects on cell viability and chlorophyll content. The surface plasmon band indicated the biosynthesis of silver NPs at ~400 nm. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the silver NPs had a mean average size below 100 nm. Energy-dispersive analysis X-ray (EDX) spectra confirmed the presence of silver element. FTIR spectral analyses suggested that proteins and or polysaccharides may be responsible for the biosynthesis of silver NPs and (-COO-) of carboxylate ions is responsible for stabilizing them. The toxic potentialities of the biosynthesized silver NPs against the cancer promoter cyanobacterium, Microcystis aeruginosa showed high reduction in viable cells count and the total chlorophyll content. The potential activity of the biosynthesized silver NPs from the studied algae species against Microcystis aeruginosa cells is expected to be mainly mediated by the release of silver ions (Ag+) from the particle surface and bioactive compounds as indicated by FTIR analysis.

  12. Ectopic testis: a rare case.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Congenital undescending testis is a common anomaly of testis, but we had a rare case of ectopic testis. A 15-month-old infant was operated emergently because of left incarcerate inguinal hernia. Intraoperative exploration of hernial sac revealed two ectopic testes with one spermatic cord proximally but in the middle divided to two spermatic cords in a 8 shape. There was an important point about vas deferens as it was single proximal to the chord, but divided into two in the middle of the chord. Vessels showed a similar condition about. We released both testes and brought down both of them into scrotum. This is a rare case of ectopic testis transectopia with partially common vas and vessels.

  13. Pancreatic solitary fibrous tumor causing ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone syndrome.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Keigo; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Felizola, Saulo J A; Morimoto, Ryo; Satoh, Fumitoshi; Takanami, Kentaro; Katakami, Hideki; Hirota, Seiichi; Takeda, Yoshiyu; Meguro-Horike, Makiko; Horike, Shin-Ichi; Unno, Michiaki; Sasano, Hironobu

    2016-11-15

    Solitary fibrous tumors occasionally present with hypoglycemia because of the excessive release of insulin-like growth factor II. We report the first case of pancreatic solitary fibrous tumor causing ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone syndrome. An 82-year-old Japanese man presented with lower limb edema, uncontrolled hypertension, hypokalemia, and baseline hypercortisolism. Distal pancreatectomy was performed after the clinical diagnosis of a neuroendocrine tumor with ectopic secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone. On histological examination, the tumor showed spindle cells in a fascicular arrangement. The diagnosis of the solitary fibrous tumor was confirmed by the identification of the NAB2-STAT6 fusion gene and positive immuno-histochemical staining for STAT6 and CD34. Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, mRNA that encoded proopiomelanocortin, precursor of adrenocorticotropic hormone, was detected. Proopiomelanocortin production through the demethylation of the promoter region Domain IV was detected. Pancreatic solitary fibrous tumors represent a new cause of ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone syndrome.

  14. Spontaneous bilateral tubal ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Marasinghe, Jeevan P; Condous, George; Amarasinghe, W I

    2009-03-01

    A 28-year-old woman presented at eight weeks and four days of gestation, according to her menstrual dates, complaining of painless vaginal bleeding for three days. Her urinary pregnancy test was positive. Initial transvaginal ultrasound demonstrated an irregular complex structure with a fluid filled centre in the right adnexum. Despite the diagnosis of a possible underlying unruptured right tubal ectopic pregnancy, she declined surgical intervention and was managed expectantly as an inpatient. When she complained of increasing abdominal pain with haemodynamic instability, an emergency laparotomy was performed and a diagnosis of bilateral tubal ectopic pregnancy was made.

  15. Spontaneous triplet, tubal ectopic gestation.

    PubMed Central

    Nwanodi, Oroma; Berry, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Only six cases of spontaneous, unilateral, triplet ectopic gestations have previously been reported. We now present a seventh case. The patient's prior obstetrical history was significant for a term stillbirth and a term cesarean section for breech. Quantitative betahCG was normal for gestational age; however, the increased trophoblastic mass of an inappropriately implanted multiple gestation may produce sufficient betahCG to mimic an intrauterine singleton gestation. Resolution was achieved via salpingostomy. This case is significant for being spontaneously conceived and not the result of assisted reproductive technologies. Furthermore, this case supports an association between prior cesarean section and ectopic gestation. Images Figure 1 PMID:16775922

  16. Surgical management of ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Stock, Laura; Milad, Magdy

    2012-06-01

    Surgery remains an acceptable, and sometimes necessary, modality for the treatment of ectopic pregnancy. Laparoscopy is the preferred method of access, yet controversy remains regarding the optimal procedure and postoperative management. Generally, salpingostomy is employed with the goal of maintaining fertility, although data to support this tenet are lacking. In most cases, the decision to perform conservative versus radical surgery is on the basis of the patient's history, her desire for future fertility, and surgical findings. The procedures of salpingostomy and salpingectomy, techniques to prevent and control blood loss at the time of surgery, and surgical options for nontubal ectopic pregnancies are reviewed.

  17. Heterochronic bilateral ectopic pregnancy after ovulation induction.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bo; Xu, Gu-feng; Liu, Yi-feng; Qu, Fan; Yao, Wei-miao; Zhu, Yi-min; Gao, Hui-juan; Zhang, Dan

    2014-08-01

    Ectopic pregnancy is identified with the widely-applied assisted reproductive technology (ART). Bilateral ectopic pregnancy is a rare form of ectopic pregnancy which is difficult to be diagnosed at the pre-operation stage. In this paper, we presented an unusual case of heterochronic bilateral ectopic pregnancy after stimulated intrauterine insemination (IUI), where there has been a delay of 22 d between the diagnoses of the two ectopic pregnancies. Literature was reviewed on the occurrence of bilateral ectopic pregnancy during the past four years in the MEDLINE database. We found 16 cases of bilateral ectopic pregnancy reported since 2008, and analyzed the characteristics of those cases of bilateral ectopic pregnancy. We emphasize that ovulation induction and other ARTs may increase the risk of bilateral ectopic pregnancy. Because of the difficulty in identification of bilateral ectopic pregnancy by ultrasonography, the clinician should be aware that the treatment of one ectopic pregnancy does not preclude the occurrence of a second ectopic pregnancy in the same patient and should pay attention to the intra-operation inspection of both side fallopian tubes in any ectopic pregnancy case.

  18. Hybrid-Type Organic Thermoelectric Materials Containing Nanoparticles as a Carrier Transport Promoter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, Keisuke; Inoue, Junta; Sadakata, Shifumi; Shiraishi, Yukihide; Toshima, Naoki

    2016-08-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have recently received much attention as thermoelectric materials. Although the carrier mobility within a single CNT is very high, the charge carrier transport between CNTs is quite slow. We have utilized nanoparticles (NPs) for promotion of the carrier transport between CNTs for improving their thermoelectric performance. Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) was used as a binder of the CNTs. Thus, hybrid-type organic thermoelectric materials containing the NPs were constructed from Pd NPs, CNTs, and PVC. The thermoelectric properties were slightly improved in the three-component films by only mixing the separately-prepared Pd NPs. The NPs of a polymer complex, poly(nickel 1,1,2,2-ethenetetrathiolate) (n-PETT), were also used as a charge carrier transport promoter instead of the Pd NPs to produce n-PETT/CNT/PVC hybrid films. Treatment of the three-component films with methanol produced a high thermoelectric power factor and low thermal conductivity, resulting in a high "apparent" thermoelectric performance (ZT ˜ 0.3 near room temperature) although the thermal conductivity was measured in the through-plane direction, which is a different direction from that for the electrical conductivity.

  19. Hybrid-Type Organic Thermoelectric Materials Containing Nanoparticles as a Carrier Transport Promoter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, Keisuke; Inoue, Junta; Sadakata, Shifumi; Shiraishi, Yukihide; Toshima, Naoki

    2017-05-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have recently received much attention as thermoelectric materials. Although the carrier mobility within a single CNT is very high, the charge carrier transport between CNTs is quite slow. We have utilized nanoparticles (NPs) for promotion of the carrier transport between CNTs for improving their thermoelectric performance. Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) was used as a binder of the CNTs. Thus, hybrid-type organic thermoelectric materials containing the NPs were constructed from Pd NPs, CNTs, and PVC. The thermoelectric properties were slightly improved in the three-component films by only mixing the separately-prepared Pd NPs. The NPs of a polymer complex, poly(nickel 1,1,2,2-ethenetetrathiolate) (n-PETT), were also used as a charge carrier transport promoter instead of the Pd NPs to produce n-PETT/CNT/PVC hybrid films. Treatment of the three-component films with methanol produced a high thermoelectric power factor and low thermal conductivity, resulting in a high "apparent" thermoelectric performance ( ZT ˜ 0.3 near room temperature) although the thermal conductivity was measured in the through-plane direction, which is a different direction from that for the electrical conductivity.

  20. Possible link between ectopic pancreas and holoprosencephaly.

    PubMed

    Kin, Tatsuya; Korbutt, Gregory S; Shapiro, A M James

    2012-01-01

    We report on the incidental observation of ectopic pancreas in a donor for islet cell transplantation. The donor's clinical and imaging presentation was definitive for holoprosencephaly. This case report discusses a possible link between ectopic pancreas and holoprosencephaly.

  1. NGF-conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles promote differentiation and outgrowth of PC12 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcus, M.; Skaat, H.; Alon, N.; Margel, S.; Shefi, O.

    2014-12-01

    The search for regenerative agents that promote neuronal differentiation and repair is of great importance. Nerve growth factor (NGF) which is an essential contributor to neuronal differentiation has shown high pharmacological potential for the treatment of central neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. However, growth factors undergo rapid degradation, leading to a short biological half-life. In our study, we describe a new nano-based approach to enhance the NGF activity resulting in promoted neuronal differentiation. We covalently conjugated NGF to iron oxide nanoparticles (NGF-NPs) and studied the effect of the novel complex on the differentiation of PC12 cells. We found that the NGF-NP treatment, at the same concentration as free NGF, significantly promoted neurite outgrowth and increased the complexity of the neuronal branching trees. Examination of neuronal differentiation gene markers demonstrated higher levels of expression in PC12 cells treated with the conjugated factor. By manipulating the NGF specific receptor, TrkA, we have demonstrated that NGF-NPs induce cell differentiation via the regular pathway. Importantly, we have shown that NGF-NPs undergo slower degradation than free NGF, extending their half-life and increasing NGF availability. Even a low concentration of conjugated NGF treatment has led to an effective response. We propose the use of the NGF-NP complex which has magnetic characteristics, also as a useful method to enhance NGF efficiency and activity, thus, paving the way for substantial neuronal repair therapeutics.The search for regenerative agents that promote neuronal differentiation and repair is of great importance. Nerve growth factor (NGF) which is an essential contributor to neuronal differentiation has shown high pharmacological potential for the treatment of central neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. However, growth factors undergo rapid degradation, leading to a short

  2. MRI atlas of ectopic endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Dallaudière, B; Salut, C; Hummel, V; Pouquet, M; Piver, P; Rouanet, J-P; Maubon, A

    2013-03-01

    Ectopic endometriosis is a common condition which is often underdiagnosed, where MRI can help make a diagnosis simply, non-invasively and without irradiation. However, imagery signs of it are enormously polymorphic with a wide range of possible locations. In this paper, we have tried to illustrate comprehensively all its MRI appearances depending on the different locations where it occurs.

  3. [Ectopic breast fibroadenoma. Case report].

    PubMed

    Senatore, G; Zanotti, S; Cambrini, P; Montroni, I; Pellegrini, A; Montanari, E; Santini, D; Taffurelli, M

    2010-03-01

    Among the rare anomalies of the breast development, polythelia is the most common, between 1% and 5% of women and men present supernumerary nipples. Polymastia, usually presenting as ectopic breast tissue without areola-nipple complex, is seen mostly along the milk line, extending from the axilla to the pubic region. Ectopic breast tissue is functionally analogous to mammary gland and it is subjected to the same alterations and diseases, whether benign or malignant, that affect normal breast tissue. We report the case of a 21 years-old female evaluated by the medical staff after founding a solid nodular mass by suspect axillary lymphadenopathy. Differential diagnosis with lymphoma is the major problem in these cases. The mass was removed and the intraoperative histological examination showed fibroadenoma in axillary supernumerary breast. Presence of ectopic breast tissue is a rare condition; development of benign mass or malignant degeneration is possible, but it is very unusual. In case of polymastia diagnosis is simple; in case of isolated nodule, without local inflammation or infection, there are greater difficulties. Ultrasonography is diagnostic in case of breast fibroadenoma, but it might be inadequate in ectopic localizations owing to the shortage of mammary tissue around the mass. Preoperative diagnosis is important to plan an adequate surgical treatment; lumpectomy is indicated in case of benign tissue; in case of malignancy, therapy is based on the standard treatment used for breast cancer (surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy).

  4. Clinical audit of ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hamid, Alaa Aldin Abdel; Yousry, Almraghy; El Radi, Safwat Abd; Shabaan, Omar Mamdouh; Mazen, Elzahry; Nabil, Halal

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors of ectopic pregnancy in cases presented to the Woman's Health Hospital (WHH) in Assuit University, and to perform clinical audit on strategies for management of ectopic pregnancy in the WHH. This descriptive hospital based study was conducted at the Woman's Health Hospital (WHH) of Assuit University (Egypt). There were 210 patients who were admitted to the WHH with the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy in the period between February 1, 2015 through the end of October 2015. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 21, using descriptive statistics, Mann-Whitney U test, and Chi square. Ectopic pregnancy affects woman in the reproductive age. There are many risk factors that increase the chance of its occurrence; however, it may also occur in the absence of any risk factors (14.0%). Internal VD (72.5%) is the most frequent risk factor; other risk factors include history of abortion, previous CS, ovulation induction, history of infertility, or previous history of EP. Clinical audit is an important item of any adequate health care. As regards to the clinical audit of EP management, we are not adhering to the guidelines.

  5. The Flexibility of Ectopic Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Loher, Hannah; Kreis, Roland; Boesch, Chris; Christ, Emanuel

    2016-01-01

    In addition to the subcutaneous and the visceral fat tissue, lipids can also be stored in non-adipose tissue such as in hepatocytes (intrahepatocellular lipids; IHCL), skeletal (intramyocellular lipids; IMCL) or cardiac muscle cells (intracardiomyocellular lipids; ICCL). Ectopic lipids are flexible fuel stores that can be depleted by physical exercise and repleted by diet. They are related to obesity and insulin resistance. Quantification of IMCL was initially performed invasively, using muscle biopsies with biochemical and/or histological analysis. 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) is now a validated method that allows for not only quantifying IMCL non-invasively and repeatedly, but also assessing IHCL and ICCL. This review summarizes the current available knowledge on the flexibility of ectopic lipids. The available evidence suggests a complex interplay between quantitative and qualitative diet, fat availability (fat mass), insulin action, and physical exercise, all important factors that influence the flexibility of ectopic lipids. Furthermore, the time frame of the intervention on these parameters (short-term vs. long-term) appears to be critical. Consequently, standardization of physical activity and diet are critical when assessing ectopic lipids in predefined clinical situations. PMID:27649157

  6. The Flexibility of Ectopic Lipids.

    PubMed

    Loher, Hannah; Kreis, Roland; Boesch, Chris; Christ, Emanuel

    2016-09-14

    In addition to the subcutaneous and the visceral fat tissue, lipids can also be stored in non-adipose tissue such as in hepatocytes (intrahepatocellular lipids; IHCL), skeletal (intramyocellular lipids; IMCL) or cardiac muscle cells (intracardiomyocellular lipids; ICCL). Ectopic lipids are flexible fuel stores that can be depleted by physical exercise and repleted by diet. They are related to obesity and insulin resistance. Quantification of IMCL was initially performed invasively, using muscle biopsies with biochemical and/or histological analysis. ¹H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H-MRS) is now a validated method that allows for not only quantifying IMCL non-invasively and repeatedly, but also assessing IHCL and ICCL. This review summarizes the current available knowledge on the flexibility of ectopic lipids. The available evidence suggests a complex interplay between quantitative and qualitative diet, fat availability (fat mass), insulin action, and physical exercise, all important factors that influence the flexibility of ectopic lipids. Furthermore, the time frame of the intervention on these parameters (short-term vs. long-term) appears to be critical. Consequently, standardization of physical activity and diet are critical when assessing ectopic lipids in predefined clinical situations.

  7. Electrolyzed Reduced Water Supplemented with Platinum Nanoparticles Suppresses Promotion of Two-stage Cell Transformation.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Ryuhei; Teruya, Kiichiro; Katakura, Yoshinori; Osada, Kazuhiro; Hamasaki, Takeki; Kashiwagi, Taichi; Komatsu, Takaaki; Li, Yuping; Ye, Jun; Ichikawa, Akira; Otsubo, Kazumichi; Morisawa, Shinkatsu; Xu, Qianghua; Shirahata, Sanetaka

    2005-01-01

    In the two-stage cell transformation theory, cancer cells first receive initiation, which is mainly caused by DNA damage, and then promotion, which enhances transformation. Murine Balb/c 3T3 cells are widely used for transformation experiments because they lose contact inhibition ability when transformed. Electrolyzed reduced water (ERW), which is produced near a cathode during electrolysis of water, is an alkaline drinking water that is beneficial to health. ERW contains a high concentration of dissolved hydrogen and scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS), along with a small amount of platinum (Pt) nanoparticles (Pt nps) derived from Pt-coated titanium electrodes. Pt nps stably disperse in aqueous solution for a long time, and convert hydrogen molecules to active hydrogen (atomic hydrogen) that can scavenge ROS. Therefore, ERW supplemented with synthesized Pt nps is a model strong reduced water. This is the first report that ERW supplemented with synthesized Pt nps strongly prevents transformation of Balb/c 3T3 cells. ERW was prepared by electrolysis of 0.002 M NaOH solution using a batch-type electrolysis device. Balb/c 3T3 cells were treated with 3-methyl cholanthrene (MCA) as an initiation substance, followed by treatment with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) as a promotion substance. MCA/PMA-induced formation of a transformation focus was strongly suppressed by ERW supplemented with Pt nps but not by ERW or Pt nps individually. ERW supplemented with Pt nps suppressed transformation at the promoter stage, not at initiation, suggesting that ERW supplemented with Pt nps suppressed the PMA-induced augmentation of intracellular ROS. ERW supplemented with Pt nps is a potential new antioxidant against carcinogenesis.

  8. Promote potential applications of nanoparticles as respiratory drug carrier: insights from molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xubo; Bai, Tingting; Zuo, Yi Y.; Gu, Ning

    2014-02-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) show great promises in biomedical applications as the respiratory drug carrier system. Once reaching the alveolar region, NPs first interact with the pulmonary surfactant (PS) film, which serves as the first biological barrier and plays an important role in maintaining the normal respiratory mechanics. Therefore, understanding the interactions between NPs and PS can help promote the NP-based respiratory drug carrier systems. Using coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations, we studied the effect of rigid spherical NPs with different hydrophobicity and sizes on a dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) monolayer at the air-water interface. Four different NPs were considered, including hydrophilic and hydrophobic NPs, each with two diameters of 3 nm and 5 nm (the sizes are comparable to that of generation 3 and 5 PAMAM dendrimers, which have been widely used for nanoscale drug carrier systems). Our simulations showed that hydrophilic NPs can readily penetrate into the aqueous phase with little or no disturbance on the DPPC monolayer. However, hydrophobic NPs tend to induce large structural disruptions, thus inhibiting the normal phase transition of the DPPC monolayer upon film compression. Our simulations also showed that this inhibitory effect of hydrophobic NPs can be mitigated through PEGylation. Our results provide useful guidelines for molecular design of NPs as carrier systems for pulmonary drug delivery.Nanoparticles (NPs) show great promises in biomedical applications as the respiratory drug carrier system. Once reaching the alveolar region, NPs first interact with the pulmonary surfactant (PS) film, which serves as the first biological barrier and plays an important role in maintaining the normal respiratory mechanics. Therefore, understanding the interactions between NPs and PS can help promote the NP-based respiratory drug carrier systems. Using coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations, we studied the effect of rigid spherical NPs

  9. Silver nanoparticles promote osteogenic differentiation of human urine-derived stem cells at noncytotoxic concentrations.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hui; Zhu, Chen; An, Zhiquan; Jiang, Yao; Zhao, Yaochao; Wang, Jiaxin; Liu, Xin; Hui, Bing; Zhang, Xianlong; Wang, Yang

    2014-01-01

    In tissue engineering, urine-derived stem cells are ideal seed cells and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are perfect antimicrobial agents. Due to a distinct lack of information on the effects of AgNPs on urine-derived stem cells, a study was conducted to evaluate the effects of silver ions and AgNPs upon the cytotoxicity and osteogenic differentiation of urine-derived stem cells. Initially, AgNPs or AgNO3 were exposed to urine-derived stem cells for 24 hours. Cytotoxicity was measured using the Cell Counting kit-8 (CCK-8) test. The effects of AgNPs or AgNO3 at the maximum safety concentration determined by the CCK-8 test on osteogenic differentiation of urine-derived stem cells were assessed by alkaline phosphatase activity, Alizarin Red S staining, and the quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Lastly, the effects of AgNPs or AgNO3 on "urine-derived stem cell actin cytoskeleton organization" and RhoA activity were assessed by rhodamine-phalloidin staining and Western blotting. Concentration-dependent toxicity was observed starting at an AgNO3 concentration of 2 μg/mL and at an AgNP concentration of 4 μg/mL. At these concentrations, AgNPs were observed to promote osteogenic differentiation of urine-derived stem cells, induce actin polymerization and increase cytoskeletal tension, and activate RhoA; AgNO3 had no such effects. In conclusion, AgNPs can promote osteogenic differentiation of urine-derived stem cells at a suitable concentration, independently of silver ions, and are suitable for incorporation into tissue-engineered scaffolds that utilize urine-derived stem cells as seed cells.

  10. Thermoplastics Reinforced with Self-Welded Short Carbon Fibers: Nanoparticle-Promoted Structural Evolution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongge; Liu, Yaohua; Lin, Yu; Wu, Guozhang

    2016-07-27

    The large volume of currently available fiber-reinforced polymer composites critically limits the intrinsic versatility of fibers such as high mechanical strength, heat resistance, and excellent thermal/electrical conductivity. We proposed a facile and widely applicable strategy to promote self-organization of randomly dispersed short carbon fibers (CFs) into a three-dimensionally continuous scaffold. The morphological evolution and structural reinforcement of the self-welded CF-polyamide 6 (PA6) scaffold in polystyrene (PS) matrix were investigated, with carbon black (CB) or titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) selectively localized in the PA6 domains. Surprisingly, all of the PA6 droplets once dispersed in the PS matrix can migrate and evenly encapsulate onto the CF surface when 5.8 wt % CB is incorporated, whereas in the TiO2-filled system, the PA6 droplets preferentially segregate at the junction point of CFs to fasten the self-welded CF structure. In addition, a remarkable increase in the interfacial adhesive work between PA6 and CF was observed only when TiO2 is added, and a loading of even less than 0.8 wt % can effectively abruptly strengthen the self-welded CF scaffold. We clarified that the structural evolution is promoted by the nature of self-agglomeration of NPs. CB is highly capable of self-networking in the PA6 domain, resulting in high encapsulation of PA6, although the capillary force for preferential segregation of PA6 at the junction point of CFs is reduced. By contrast, the TiO2 particles tend to form compact aggregates. Such an agglomeration pattern, together with enhanced interfacial affinity, must contribute to a strong capillary force for the preferential segregation of PA6.

  11. Promote potential applications of nanoparticles as respiratory drug carrier: insights from molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xubo; Bai, Tingting; Zuo, Yi Y; Gu, Ning

    2014-03-07

    Nanoparticles (NPs) show great promises in biomedical applications as the respiratory drug carrier system. Once reaching the alveolar region, NPs first interact with the pulmonary surfactant (PS) film, which serves as the first biological barrier and plays an important role in maintaining the normal respiratory mechanics. Therefore, understanding the interactions between NPs and PS can help promote the NP-based respiratory drug carrier systems. Using coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations, we studied the effect of rigid spherical NPs with different hydrophobicity and sizes on a dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) monolayer at the air-water interface. Four different NPs were considered, including hydrophilic and hydrophobic NPs, each with two diameters of 3 nm and 5 nm (the sizes are comparable to that of generation 3 and 5 PAMAM dendrimers, which have been widely used for nanoscale drug carrier systems). Our simulations showed that hydrophilic NPs can readily penetrate into the aqueous phase with little or no disturbance on the DPPC monolayer. However, hydrophobic NPs tend to induce large structural disruptions, thus inhibiting the normal phase transition of the DPPC monolayer upon film compression. Our simulations also showed that this inhibitory effect of hydrophobic NPs can be mitigated through PEGylation. Our results provide useful guidelines for molecular design of NPs as carrier systems for pulmonary drug delivery.

  12. Intraspinal Delivery of Polyethylene Glycol-coated Gold Nanoparticles Promotes Functional Recovery After Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Papastefanaki, Florentia; Jakovcevski, Igor; Poulia, Nafsika; Djogo, Nevena; Schulz, Florian; Martinovic, Tamara; Ciric, Darko; Loers, Gabrielle; Vossmeyer, Tobias; Weller, Horst; Schachner, Melitta; Matsas, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Failure of the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) to regenerate effectively after injury leads to mostly irreversible functional impairment. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are promising candidates for drug delivery in combination with tissue-compatible reagents, such as polyethylene glycol (PEG). PEG administration in CNS injury models has received interest for potential therapy, but toxicity and low bioavailability prevents clinical application. Here we show that intraspinal delivery of PEG-functionalized 40-nm-AuNPs at early stages after mouse spinal cord injury is beneficial for recovery. Positive outcome of hind limb motor function was accompanied by attenuated inflammatory response, enhanced motor neuron survival, and increased myelination of spared or regrown/sprouted axons. No adverse effects, such as body weight loss, ill health, or increased mortality were observed. We propose that PEG-AuNPs represent a favorable drug-delivery platform with therapeutic potential that could be further enhanced if PEG-AuNPs are used as carriers of regeneration-promoting molecules. PMID:25807288

  13. Branched Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane Nanoparticles Prepared via Strain-Promoted 1,3-Dipolar Cycloadditions

    PubMed Central

    Ledin, Petr A.; Xu, Weinan; Friscourt, Frédéric; Boons, Geert-Jan; Tsukruk, Vladimir V.

    2016-01-01

    Conjugation of small organic molecules and polymers to polyhedral oligosilsesquioxane (POSS) cores results in novel hybrid materials with unique physical characteristics. We report here an approach in which star-shaped organic–inorganic scaffolds bearing eight cyclooctyne moieties can be rapidly functionalized via strain-promoted azide–alkyne cycloaddition (SPAAC) to synthesize a series of nearly monodisperse branched core–shell nanoparticles with hydrophobic POSS cores and hydrophilic arms. We established that SPAAC is a robust method for POSS core octafunctionalization with the reaction rate constant of 1.9 × 10−2 M−1 s−1. Functionalization with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) azide, fluorescein azide, and unprotected lactose azide gave conjugates which represent different classes of compounds: polymer conjugates, fluorescent dots, and bioconjugates. These resulting hybrid compounds were preliminarily tested for their ability to self-assemble in solution and at the air–water interface. We observed the formation of robust smooth Langmuir monolayers with diverse morphologies. We found that polar lactose moieties are completely submerged into the subphase whereas the relatively hydrophobic fluorescein arms had extended conformation at the interface, and PEG arms were partially submerged. Finally, we observed the formation of stable micelles with sizes between 70 and 160 nm in aqueous solutions with size and morphology of the structures dependent on the molecular weight and the type of the peripheral hydrophilic moieties. PMID:26131712

  14. Ectopic ACTH syndrome: clinicopathological correlations.

    PubMed Central

    Singer, W; Kovacs, K; Ryan, N; Horvath, E

    1978-01-01

    Ten out of 164 cases of bronchogenic carcinoma showed pathological evidence at necropsy of the ectopic ACTH syndrome. All occurred in association with oat-cell carcinoma, constituting 19% of that group. The pathological features consisted of adrenocortical hyperplasia confined to the zona fasciculata and Crooke's hyaline change in the pituitary. Immunoperoxidase stainable ACTH was detected in the pituitary but not in the carcinoma tissue, a surprising finding, which may be due to the different nature of ACTH present in tumour tissue. The ectopic ACTH syndrome was diagnosed ante mortem in only four out of 10 patients on the basis of hypokalaemia and metabolic alkalosis. The lack of clinical pointers in all but terminal cases is discussed as well as possible measures for earlier diagnosis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:209063

  15. Ectopic mammary tissue in vulva.

    PubMed

    Dordević, Momcilo; Jovanović, Bozidar; Mitrović, Slobodanka; Dordević, Gordana

    2008-05-01

    Ectopic mammary gland tissue is a residual tissue that persists during the embryologic development along ectodermal primitive milk streaks. Incomplete involution anywhere along the primitive milk streak can result in accessory or ectopic mammary tissue. A woman, 27-year old, admitted to Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinic Kragujevac for surgery, of goose-egg size, vulva tumor, of elastic consistency. Menarche started in 12 years of age, with the regular menstrual cycle, without previous gyneocological diseases. The woman had one pregnancy terminated by cesarean section because of the multiple (twin) pregnancy. Excision of the tumor was completely done in the total endotracheal anesthesia. Pathohistologic (PH) findings was: Dysplasia fibrosa cystica simplex mammae, with focuses of sclerosing adenosis. Expression of estrogen (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR) were positive. Ectopic mammary tissue in vulva in adult period is very rarely seen, and can be changed pathologically as well as normally positioned breast tissue into benign cystic changes, benign tumors, adenomas and fibroadenomas and tumors. Cells with low ER/PR receptor level grow independently of estrogene stimulation and they could be resistant to hormonal therapy effects.

  16. Metallofullerene nanoparticles promote osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells through BMP signaling pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kangning; Cao, Weipeng; Hao, Xiaohong; Xue, Xue; Zhao, Jing; Liu, Juan; Zhao, Yuliang; Meng, Jie; Sun, Baoyun; Zhang, Jinchao; Liang, Xing-Jie

    2013-01-01

    Although endohedral metallofullerenol [Gd@C82(OH)22]n nanoparticles have anti-tumor efficiency and mostly deposit in the bones of mice, how these nanoparticles act in bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) remains largely unknown. Herein, we observed that [Gd@C82(OH)22]n nanoparticles facilitated the differentiation of MSCs toward osteoblasts, as evidenced by the enhancement of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralized nodule formation upon [Gd@C82(OH)22]n nanoparticle treatment. Mechanistically, the effect of [Gd@C82(OH)22]n nanoparticles on ALP activity was inhibited by the addition of noggin as an inhibitor of the BMP signaling pathway. Moreover, the in vivo results of the ovariectomized rats further indicated that [Gd@C82(OH)22]n nanoparticles effectively improved bone density and prevented osteoporosis.Although endohedral metallofullerenol [Gd@C82(OH)22]n nanoparticles have anti-tumor efficiency and mostly deposit in the bones of mice, how these nanoparticles act in bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) remains largely unknown. Herein, we observed that [Gd@C82(OH)22]n nanoparticles facilitated the differentiation of MSCs toward osteoblasts, as evidenced by the enhancement of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralized nodule formation upon [Gd@C82(OH)22]n nanoparticle treatment. Mechanistically, the effect of [Gd@C82(OH)22]n nanoparticles on ALP activity was inhibited by the addition of noggin as an inhibitor of the BMP signaling pathway. Moreover, the in vivo results of the ovariectomized rats further indicated that [Gd@C82(OH)22]n nanoparticles effectively improved bone density and prevented osteoporosis. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr33575a

  17. Brief review of models of ectopic bone formation.

    PubMed

    Scott, Michelle A; Levi, Benjamin; Askarinam, Asal; Nguyen, Alan; Rackohn, Todd; Ting, Kang; Soo, Chia; James, Aaron W

    2012-03-20

    Ectopic bone formation is a unique biologic entity--distinct from other areas of skeletal biology. Animal research models of ectopic bone formation most often employ rodent models and have unique advantages over orthotopic (bone) environments, including a relative lack of bone cytokine stimulation and cell-to-cell interaction with endogenous (host) bone-forming cells. This allows for relatively controlled in vivo experimental bone formation. A wide variety of ectopic locations have been used for experimentation, including subcutaneous, intramuscular, and kidney capsule transplantation. The method, benefits and detractions of each method are summarized in the following review. Briefly, subcutaneous implantation is the simplest method. However, the most pertinent concern is the relative paucity of bone formation in comparison to other models. Intramuscular implantation is also widely used and relatively simple, however intramuscular implants are exposed to skeletal muscle satellite progenitor cells. Thus, distinguishing host from donor osteogenesis becomes challenging without cell-tracking studies. The kidney capsule (perirenal or renal capsule) method is less widely used and more technically challenging. It allows for supraphysiologic blood and nutrient resource, promoting robust bone growth. In summary, ectopic bone models are extremely useful in the evaluation of bone-forming stem cells, new osteoinductive biomaterials, and growth factors; an appropriate choice of model, however, will greatly increase experimental success.

  18. Glutathione promoted expeditious green synthesis of silver nanoparticles in water using microwaves

    EPA Science Inventory

    Silver nanoparticles with size range 5-10 nm has been synthesized under microwave irradiation conditions using gluathione, an absolutely benign antioxidant that serves as the reducing as well as capping agent in aqueous medium. This rapid protocol yields the nanoparticles within ...

  19. Glutathione promoted expeditious green synthesis of silver nanoparticles in water using microwaves

    EPA Science Inventory

    Silver nanoparticles with size range 5-10 nm has been synthesized under microwave irradiation conditions using gluathione, an absolutely benign antioxidant that serves as the reducing as well as capping agent in aqueous medium. This rapid protocol yields the nanoparticles within ...

  20. Different Sonographic Faces of Ectopic Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Chanana, Charu; Gupta, Nishant; Bansal, Itisha; Hooda, Kusum; Sharma, Pranav; Gupta, Mohit; Gandhi, Darshan; Kumar, Yogesh

    2017-01-01

    Vaginal bleeding in the first trimester has wide differential diagnoses, the most common being a normal early intrauterine pregnancy, with other potential causes including spontaneous abortion and ectopic pregnancy. The incidence of ectopic pregnancy is approximately 2% of all reported pregnancies and is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality worldwide. Clinical signs and symptoms of ectopic pregnancy are often nonspecific. History of pelvic pain with bleeding and positive β-human chorionic gonadotropin should raise the possibility of ectopic pregnancy. Knowledge of the different locations of ectopic pregnancy is of utmost importance, in which ultrasound imaging plays a crucial role. This pictorial essay depicts sonographic findings and essential pitfalls in diagnosing ectopic pregnancy. PMID:28299234

  1. Different Sonographic Faces of Ectopic Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Chanana, Charu; Gupta, Nishant; Bansal, Itisha; Hooda, Kusum; Sharma, Pranav; Gupta, Mohit; Gandhi, Darshan; Kumar, Yogesh

    2017-01-01

    Vaginal bleeding in the first trimester has wide differential diagnoses, the most common being a normal early intrauterine pregnancy, with other potential causes including spontaneous abortion and ectopic pregnancy. The incidence of ectopic pregnancy is approximately 2% of all reported pregnancies and is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality worldwide. Clinical signs and symptoms of ectopic pregnancy are often nonspecific. History of pelvic pain with bleeding and positive β-human chorionic gonadotropin should raise the possibility of ectopic pregnancy. Knowledge of the different locations of ectopic pregnancy is of utmost importance, in which ultrasound imaging plays a crucial role. This pictorial essay depicts sonographic findings and essential pitfalls in diagnosing ectopic pregnancy.

  2. Ectopic Premolar Tooth in the Sigmoid Notch

    PubMed Central

    Akgül, H. M.; Bayrakdar, I. S.

    2016-01-01

    Impaction of a mandibular premolar is relatively uncommon. Ectopic placement is more unusual and there has been no discussion in the literature of an ectopic mandibular premolar in the coronoid process. In this case report, we present an impacted ectopic mandibular permanent premolar in the sigmoid notch (incisura mandibulae) region. Etiology of the tooth and treatment options are discussed and illustrated by Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) images. PMID:27547475

  3. Nanoparticles prepared from the water extract of Gusuibu (Drynaria fortunei J. Sm.) protects osteoblasts against insults and promotes cell maturation.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chung-King; Liao, Mei-Hsiu; Tai, Yu-Tyng; Liu, Shing-Hwa; Ou, Keng-Liang; Fang, Hsu-Wei; Lee, I-Jung; Chen, Ruei-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Our previous study showed that Gusuibu (Drynaria fortunei J. Sm.) can stimulate osteoblast maturation. This study was further designed to evaluate the effects of nanoparticles prepared from the water extract of Gusuibu (WEG) on osteoblast survival and maturation. Primary osteoblasts were exposed to 1, 10, 100, and 1000 μg/mL nanoparticles of WEG (nWEG) for 24, 48, and 72 hours did not affect morphologies, viability, or apoptosis of osteoblasts. In comparison, treatment of osteoblasts with 1000 μg/mL WEG for 72 hours decreased cell viability and induced DNA fragmentation and cell apoptosis. nWEG had better antioxidant bioactivity in protecting osteoblasts from oxidative and nitrosative stress-induced apoptosis than WEG. In addition, nWEG stimulated greater osteoblast maturation than did WEG. Therefore, this study shows that WEG nanoparticles are safer to primary osteoblasts than are normal-sized products, and may promote better bone healing by protecting osteoblasts from apoptotic insults, and by promoting osteogenic maturation.

  4. Cutaneous ectopic schistosomiasis: diagnostic challenge*

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Cláudia Renata Castro do Rêgo; Maia, Daniela Cristina Caetano; dos Santos, Josemir Belo; Medeiros, Camila Carolina Queiroz; de Araújo, Jessica Guido

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous schistosomiasis is a rare clinical manifestation of schistosomiasis, an infectious and parasitic disease, caused in Brazil by the trematode Schistosoma mansoni. The lesions are due to the deposition of eggs or, rarely, adult worms, usually involving the genital and groin areas. Extra-genital lesions occur mainly on the torso as papules of zosteriform appearance. The case of a patient with ectopic cutaneous schistosomiasis is reported in this article, due to the rarity of its occurrence and its difficult clinical diagnosis. PMID:26982792

  5. Autotransplantation of Ectopic Permanent Maxillary Incisors

    PubMed Central

    Abd Jalil, Laila; Muhd Noor, Nurhidayah

    2017-01-01

    The report presents examples of successful cases of autotransplantation of ectopic teeth as donor in the treatment of clinically missing maxillary anterior teeth in young patients. The transplanted teeth were either severely ectopic, inverted, rotated or in an unfavourable position that they are commonly sacrificed as a result. Details of surgical technique as well as clinical and radiographic assessments were discussed. PMID:28352481

  6. [Some demographic aspects associated with ectopic pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Martínez, Elly; Rivas-López, Radamés; Martínez-Escudero, Itzell Sarahid

    2014-02-01

    The determination techniques of chorionic gonadotropin and transvaginal high resolution ultrasound have revolutionized the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy. Assess demographic aspects associated with ectopic pregnancy in Hospital Angeles del Pedregal over a 6 years period. Descriptive and retrospective study. We reviewed 143 clinical records from March 1, 2006 to January 31, 2013, with diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy discharge. The analyzed variables were: age, history of ectopic pregnancy, method of family planning, pelvic inflammatory disease, smoking, weeks of gestation, clinical picture, localization of ectopic pregnancy, treatment and complications. Were analyzed 143 cases, diagnosed and corroborated with histopathological study, of ectopic pregnancy in Hospital Angeles del Pedregal during the period from 2006 to 2012. The average age at which pregnancies occurred was 32.4 +/- 5.4 years; 89% of patients were over 25 years old. 35% were primigravidous and 51 women had previous caesarean, 31 abortion and 22 childbirth. 10% had history of ectopic pregnancy and 39% had 5 weeks gestation; 72% not used contraceptives, 30% were smokers, and only 2% had suffered pelvic inflammatory disease. Despite the technological advances the correct evaluation of risk factors is essential for the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy.

  7. Minimally Invasive Management of Ectopic Pancreas.

    PubMed

    Vitiello, Gerardo A; Cavnar, Michael J; Hajdu, Cristina; Khaykis, Inessa; Newman, Elliot; Melis, Marcovalerio; Pachter, H Leon; Cohen, Steven M

    2017-03-01

    The management of ectopic pancreas is not well defined. This study aims to determine the prevalence of symptomatic ectopic pancreas and identify those who may benefit from treatment, with a particular focus on robotically assisted surgical management. Our institutional pathology database was queried to identify a cohort of ectopic pancreas specimens. Additional clinical data regarding clinical symptomatology, diagnostic studies, and treatment were obtained through chart review. Nineteen cases of ectopic pancreas were found incidentally during surgery for another condition or found incidentally in a pathologic specimen (65.5%). Eleven patients (37.9%) reported prior symptoms, notably abdominal pain and/or gastrointestinal bleeding. The most common locations for ectopic pancreas were the duodenum and small bowel (31% and 27.6%, respectively). Three out of 29 cases (10.3%) had no symptoms, but had evidence of preneoplastic changes on pathology, while one harbored pancreatic cancer. Over the years, treatment of ectopic pancreas has shifted from open to laparoscopic and more recently to robotic surgery. Our experience is in line with existing evidence supporting surgical treatment of symptomatic or complicated ectopic pancreas. In the current era, minimally invasive and robotic surgery can be used safely and successfully for treatment of ectopic pancreas.

  8. Revisiting Ectopic Pregnancy: A Pictorial Essay

    PubMed Central

    Petrides, Artemis; Dinglas, Cheryl; Chavez, Martin; Taylor, Sharon; Mahboob, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    Ectopic pregnancies occur in approximately 1.4% of all pregnancies and account for 15% of pregnancy-related deaths. Considering the high degree of mortality, recognizing an ectopic pregnancy is important. Signs and symptoms of an ectopic pregnancy are nonspecific and include pain, vaginal bleeding, and an adnexal mass. Therefore, imaging can play a critical role in diagnosis. There are different types of ectopic pregnancies, which are tubal, cornual, cesarean scar, cervical, heterotopic, abdominal, and ovarian. Initial imaging evaluation of pregnant patients with pelvic symptoms is by ultrasonography, transabdominal, transvaginal or both. We review the sonographic appearance of different types of ectopic pregnancies that will aid in accurate and prompt diagnosis. PMID:25161806

  9. Triple ectopic thyroid: A rare entity

    PubMed Central

    Nilegaonkar, Sujit; Naik, Chetna; Sonar, Sameer; Hirawe, Deepti

    2011-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid tissue is an uncommon congenital aberration. It is extremely rare to have three ectopic foci at three different sites. The thyroid scan has been used successfully to diagnose ectopic thyroid tissue. We report a case of ectopic thyroid tissue at base of tongue, another at the level of hyoid and third one as aberrant tissue at suprahyoid location in a 16 year old female who presented with swelling in front of neck. This patient was clinically diagnosed as thyroglossal cyst and was being planned for surgery. Preoperative thyroid scan helped in establishing diagnosis of ectopic thyroid which was the only functioning thyroid tissue. Thus, it prevented unnecessary surgery. Therefore it is suggested that thyroid scan and USG/CT scan must be done as routine work up in neck swellings pre operatively to avoid unnecessary surgeries. PMID:23559716

  10. Optimising the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Berry, Janet; Davey, Mark; Hon, Mei-See; Behrens, Renée

    2016-05-01

    This retrospective cohort study reviewed the diagnosis of all ectopic pregnancies within a district general hospital over a 5-year period after the establishment of a dedicated Early Pregnancy Assessment Unit (EPAU). Of 215 ectopic pregnancies identified, notes were available for 208 (97%). Two-hundred and two cases were determined to have been diagnosed and managed as ectopic pregnancies. Six cases were excluded as they were pregnancies of unknown location managed as such. Overall, 91% were diagnosed by ultrasound scan, 5% were diagnosed clinically and 3% were diagnosed on serial human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) levels. This study found that the introduction of a dedicated, multi-professional, EPAU with a stable workforce improved ultrasound visualisation of ectopic pregnancies at first ultrasound scan from 22% prior to its commencement, to 61% over this period. The improvement in positive scan diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy was associated with a reduction in negative laparoscopy rate from 13% to 6%.

  11. Ovarian ectopic pregnancy: A rare case

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemi Tehrani, Hatav; Hamoush, Zaynab; Ghasemi, Mojdeh; Hashemi, Leila

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ovarian pregnancy is a rare form of the non-tubal ectopic pregnancy. It ends with rupture before the end of the first trimester. One of the important risk factors for ovarian pregnancy is in the use of Intra uterine devices (IUD). Case: We report here one such uncommon case of ovarian ectopic pregnancy. Our patient is a 30 years old multiparous woman with two previous cesarean sections with severe hypogastric abdominal pain. During laparotomy, ruptured ovarian ectopic pregnancy was diagnosed, and wedge resection of the ovary was only done. Histopathological examination confirmed it to be an ovarian ectopic pregnancy. Conclusion: IUD is one of contraceptive methods which prevents intra-uterine implantation in 99.5%, if implant occurs with IUD, it is tubal implantation in 95% of cases, and it is very rare in other places such as ovary. The most important risk factor of ovarian ectopic pregnancy is IUD as in this study it was showed. PMID:24976824

  12. [Ectopic Decidualization: A Forgotten Entity].

    PubMed

    Mendes, Joana; Costa, Antónia

    2016-01-01

    Introdução: Apesar da decidualização ectópica ser uma entidade frequentemente subdiagnosticada, pode ter impacto clínico adverso na morbimortalidade materno-fetal. O objetivo deste trabalho foi rever a evidência científica relativa a etiopatogenia, clínica, abordagem diagnóstica e terapêutica sobre esta temática. Material e Métodos: A pesquisa bibliográfica foi realizada na PubMed, Web of Science e Scopus, através da query ('deciduosis' OR 'ectopic decidualization' OR 'ectopic decidua' OR 'ectopic decidua reaction'), incluindo-se artigos publicados até 31/6/2014 e de todos os níveis de evidência. Resultados: A decidualização ectópica, geralmente, representa uma condição benigna, assintomática e sem necessidade de intervenção terapêutica. Encontra-se, maioritariamente, associada à gravidez, com regressão completa no período pós-parto. A frequência do seu diagnóstico depende da suspeição clínica, bem como do local onde surge, sendo o omento e o ovário os locais mais comuns. Quando sintomática, as principais manifestações clínicas são quadros hemorrágicos, nomeadamente hemorragia genital e hemoperitoneu. Os diagnósticos diferenciais incluem patologia maligna, sendo essencial, nestas situações, a confirmação histopatológica. O baixo índice de suspeição clínica pode levar à realização de biópsia, que pode acarretar impacto adverso grave devido à elevada friabilidade destas lesões. Discussão e Conclusão: O reconhecimento desta entidade e das suas características clínicas torna-se essencial na conduta destas doentes. Tal permite por um lado a abordagem médica precoce e adequada nos casos graves, e por outro lado (na maioria dos casos) manter a atitude expectante minimizando a iatrogenia, mantendo o desfecho favorável da decidualização ectópica.

  13. Gold-promoted structurally ordered intermetallic palladium cobalt nanoparticles for the oxygen reduction reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuttiyiel, Kurian A.; Sasaki, Kotaro; Su, Dong; Wu, Lijun; Zhu, Yimei; Adzic, Radoslav R.

    2014-11-01

    Considerable efforts to make palladium and palladium alloys active catalysts and a possible replacement for platinum have had a marginal success. Here we report on a structurally ordered Au10Pd40Co50 catalyst that exhibits comparable activity to conventional platinum catalysts in both acid and alkaline media. Electron microscopic techniques demonstrate that, at elevated temperatures, palladium cobalt nanoparticles undergo an atomic structural transition from core-shell to a rare intermetallic ordered structure with twin boundaries forming stable {111}, {110} and {100} facets via addition of gold atoms. The superior stability of this catalyst compared with platinum after 10,000 potential cycles in alkaline media is attributed to the atomic structural order of PdCo nanoparticles along with protective effect of clusters of gold atoms on the surface. This strategy of making ordered palladium intermetallic alloy nanoparticles can be used in diverse heterogeneous catalysis where particle size and structural stability matter.

  14. Gold–promoted structurally ordered intermetallic palladium cobalt nanoparticles for the oxygen reduction reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Kuttiyiel, Kurian A.; Sasaki, Kotaro; Su, Dong; Wu, Lijun; Zhu, Yimei; Adzic, Radoslav R.

    2014-11-06

    Considerable efforts to make palladium and palladium alloys active catalysts and a possible replacement for platinum have had a marginal success. Here, we report on a structurally ordered Au₁₀Pd₄₀Co₅₀ catalyst that exhibits comparable activity to conventional platinum catalysts in both acid and alkaline media. Electron microscopic techniques demonstrate that via addition of gold atoms PdCo nanoparticles undergo at elevated temperatures an atomic structural transition from core-shell to a rare intermetallic ordered structure with twin boundaries forming stable {111}, {110} and {100} facets. The superior stability of this catalyst compared to platinum after 10,000 potential cycles in alkaline media is attributed to the atomic structural order of PdCo nanoparticles along with protective effect of clusters of gold atoms on the surface. This strategy of making ordered palladium intermetallic alloy nanoparticles can be used in diverse heterogeneous catalysis where particle size and structural stability matters.

  15. Effects of core/shell structure on magnetic induction heating promotion in Fe3O4/γ-Fe2O3 magnetic nanoparticles for hyperthermia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Shih-Chi; Fu, Chao-Ming; Chang, Fu-Hsiung

    2013-10-01

    Fe3O4/γ-Fe2O3 core-shell magnetic nanoparticles have demonstrated superior heating efficiency by applying the alternating magnetic field. The magnetic induction heating properties of core-shell magnetic nanoparticles were analyzed by the rate-dependent hysteresis model, taken into account the magnetic anisotropies and actual size distribution of particles. The analyzed results have disclosed the significance of magnetic anisotropies and shell-thickness to the promotion of magnetic induction heating performance. Further experiments about the cancer cells with uptake of these core-shell magnetic nanoparticles conjugated biocompatible cationic liposomes have achieved in vitro intracellular magnetically induced hyperthermia under a weak alternating magnetic field.

  16. Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Hasan B.

    2013-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the promotion process in an academic medical center. A description of different promotional tracks, tenure and endowed chairs, and the process of submitting an application is provided. Finally, some practical advice about developing skills and attributes that can help with academic growth and promotion is dispensed. PMID:24436683

  17. Ectopic molar pregnancy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bousfiha, Najoua; Erarhay, Sanaa; Louba, Adnane; Saadi, Hanan; Bouchikhi, Chahrazad; Banani, Abdelaziz; El Fatemi, Hind; Sekkal, Med; Laamarti, Afaf

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of hydatidiform moles is 1 per 1,000 pregnancies. Ectopic pregnancy occurs in 20 per 1,000 pregnancies. Thus, the incidence of the ectopic molar gestation is very rare. We report a case of tubal molar pregnancy diagnosed at the systematic histology exam of an ectopic pregnancy. We report the case of 32 years old nulliparus women who presented a vaginal bleeding, lower abdominal pain and 6 weeks amenorrhea corresponding to the last menstrual period. At the clinical examination, the arterial pressure was 100/60 mmHG. The gynecological examination was difficult because of lower abdominal pain. Serum gonadotropin activity was 3454 ui/l. Pelvic ultrasound revealed an irregular echogenic mass in the left adnexa. Diagnostic laparoscopy revealed a left-sided unruptured ampullary ectopic pregnancy. A left laparoscopic salpingectomy was performed. The systematic histologic test identified an ectopic partial molar pregnancy, which was confirmed by DNA ploidy image analysis. The patient was followed with weekly quantitative B-hCG titers until three successive B-hCG levels were negative. It is pertinent that clinicians take routine histological examination of tubal specimens in ectopic pregnancy very seriously in order to diagnose cases of ectopic molar gestations early and mount appropriate post treatment surveillance.

  18. Sigmoid Microinvasion by an Ectopic Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Paquette, Joalee; Leboeuf, Mathieu; Gorak-Savard, Émilie

    2016-11-01

    Approximately 2.1% to 8.6% of all pregnancies after IVF with embryo transfer have been reported to be ectopic. In this report, we present a case of presumed intestinal microperforation caused by an ectopic pregnancy following IVF. A 29-year-old woman presented with rectal bleeding. She had previously been treated for an ectopic pregnancy for which she had received two doses of methotrexate. Colonoscopy and abdominal CT angiography were performed and showed that the ectopic pregnancy was attached to the sigmoid colon. Surgery was performed to remove the ectopic pregnancy. Because intestinal microperforations were suspected, the patient received intravenous antibiotic therapy during her hospitalization. In cases of intestinal bleeding, clinicians should consider the possibility of intestinal involvement of an ectopic pregnancy, even if the response to treatment for the ectopic pregnancy has been appropriate. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada/La Société des obstétriciens et gynécologues du Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Formation of ectopic osteogenesis in weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    An ectopic osteogenesis experiment aboard the Cosmos-936 biosatellite is described. Decalcified, lyophilized femur and tibia were implanted under the fascia or in the anterior wall of the abdomen in rats. Bone formation before and after the tests is described and illustrated. The extent of formation of ectopic bone in weightlessness did not differ significantly from that in the ground controls, but the bone marrow of the ectopic bone of the flight rats consisted exclusively of fat cells. The deficit of support-muscle loading was considered to cause the disturbance in skeletal bone tissue development.

  20. Aortopulmonary ectopic parathyroid gland and concurrent thymolipoma.

    PubMed

    Abu Abeeleh, Mahmoud; Bani Hani, Amjad; Ghaith, Ata; Alodwan, Tareq; Bani Ismail, Zuhair; Alshehabat, Musa

    2016-10-01

    Ectopic parathyroid adenomas are considered the main cause of primary hyperparathyroidism. However, concurrent parathyroid and thymic pathologies are rarely diagnosed in the same patient. A 47-year-old man with history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and myasthenia gravis presented with persistent hypercalcemia. Laboratory investigations, computed tomography, and technetium-99 m sestamibi scintigraphy revealed ectopic parathyroid glands, a mediastinal mass, and an enlarged thymus. The patient underwent thymectomy and mass excision via a median sternotomy. Histopathology was consistent with ectopic parathyroid adenoma and thymolipoma. The serum calcium and parathormone concentrations normalized within 48 hours after surgery. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. E2F1-mediated human POMC expression in ectopic Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Araki, Takako; Liu, Ning-Ai; Tone, Yukiko; Cuevas-Ramos, Daniel; Heltsley, Roy; Tone, Masahide; Melmed, Shlomo

    2016-11-01

    Cushing's syndrome is caused by excessive adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secretion derived from pituitary corticotroph tumors (Cushing disease) or from non-pituitary tumors (ectopic Cushing's syndrome). Hypercortisolemic features of ectopic Cushing's syndrome are severe, and no definitive treatment for paraneoplastic ACTH excess is available. We aimed to identify subcellular therapeutic targets by elucidating transcriptional regulation of the human ACTH precursor POMC (proopiomelanocortin) and ACTH production in non-pituitary tumor cells and in cell lines derived from patients with ectopic Cushing's syndrome. We show that ectopic hPOMC transcription proceeds independently of pituitary-specific Tpit/Pitx1 and demonstrate a novel E2F1-mediated transcriptional mechanism regulating hPOMC We identify an E2F1 cluster binding to the proximal hPOMC promoter region (-42 to +68), with DNA-binding activity determined by the phosphorylation at Ser-337. hPOMC mRNA expression in cancer cells was upregulated (up to 40-fold) by the co-expression of E2F1 and its heterodimer partner DP1. Direct and indirect inhibitors of E2F1 activity suppressed hPOMC gene expression and ACTH by modifying E2F1 DNA-binding activity in ectopic Cushing's cell lines and primary tumor cells, and also suppressed paraneoplastic ACTH and cortisol levels in xenografted mice. E2F1-mediated hPOMC transcription is a potential target for suppressing ACTH production in ectopic Cushing's syndrome. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  2. Electronic cigarette aerosols and copper nanoparticles induce mitochondrial stress and promote DNA fragmentation in lung fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Chad A; Rutagarama, Pierrot; Ahmad, Tanveer; Sundar, Isaac K; Elder, Alison; Rahman, Irfan

    2016-09-02

    Oxidants or nanoparticles have recently been identified as constituents of aerosols released from various styles of electronic cigarettes (E-cigs). Cells in the lung may be directly exposed to these constituents and harbor reactive properties capable of incurring acute cell injury. Our results show mitochondria are sensitive to both E-cig aerosols and aerosol containing copper nanoparticles when exposed to human lung fibroblasts (HFL-1) using an Air-Liquid Interface culture system, evident by elevated levels of mitochondrial ROS (mtROS). Increased mtROS after aerosol exposure is associated with reduced stability of OxPhos electron transport chain (ETC) complex IV subunit and nuclear DNA fragmentation. Increased levels of IL-8 and IL-6 in HFL-1 conditioned media were also observed. These findings reveal both mitochondrial, genotoxic, and inflammatory stresses are features of direct cell exposure to E-cig aerosols which are ensued by inflammatory duress, raising a concern on deleterious effect of vaping.

  3. Preparation of gold nanoparticles by surfactant-promoted reductive reaction without extra reducing agent.

    PubMed

    Tang, Junqi; Huang, Jiamin; Man, Shi-Qing

    2013-02-15

    Cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) has been extensively applied in the solution-phase synthesis of many types of colloidal nanoparticles. However, the uses of CTAB were mainly considered as template or capping agents to form controllable shape and protect the product from agglomeration. Here it was discovered that CATB could serve as a very mild reductant to reduce gold salt precursors preparing gold nanoparticles (GNPs) at base environment. CTAB acted as the reducing agent suffering a partial degradation and forming CTA macro radicals. FTIR proved the formation of CCl and/or CBr bond after CTAB degraded. The characterization of synthesized GNPs was examined by UV-Vis spectra, TEM and XRD. Several factors affecting the process of reaction, such as the amount of NaOH, the molar ratio of CTAB and HAuCl(4), the reaction temperature, the effect of light and oxygen, and stirring were discussed.

  4. Ectopic pregnancy: a five year review.

    PubMed

    Weekes, A R; Hutchins, C J

    1976-05-01

    A survey of all women between the ages of 15-50 who underwent laparotomy at the Women's Hospital, Liverpool, from January 1970 to December 1974, was performed to identify etiological factors in ectopic pregnancy. There were 49 ectopic pregnancies during this peirod. The majority of patients were 30-35 years of age (20), 16 were in the 25-29 group. 63.3% had a previous viable pregnancy, 16.3% had a previous abortion, and 3 patients had a previous ectopic pregnancy. The major sysmptoms were vaginal bleeding followed by abdominal pain. Only 16.3% gave a history of previous pelvic infection. However, 53.5% were found to have evidence of previous pelvic infection. 4 patients. Results indicate that pelvic inflammatory disease is still the greatest cause of ectopic pregancy.

  5. Synthetic Platelets: Intravenous Infusible Nanoparticles to Promote Hemostasis and Survival Following Liver Injury in Swine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-12

    patt ic les arc not directly affecting the platelet plug, but arc aOccting something else. Many of the swine were observed to flush immediately...chosen because their cardiovascular sys tem is similar to that of the human cardiovascular sys tem. When changing animal models we optimized our...8217 hypotens ion. skin flushing and rash. bronchospasm, decreased cardiac output, increased adenosine, and more’. The zeta potential of a nanoparticle

  6. nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreu-Cabedo, Patricia; Mondragon, Rosa; Hernandez, Leonor; Martinez-Cuenca, Raul; Cabedo, Luis; Julia, J. Enrique

    2014-10-01

    Thermal energy storage (TES) is extremely important in concentrated solar power (CSP) plants since it represents the main difference and advantage of CSP plants with respect to other renewable energy sources such as wind, photovoltaic, etc. CSP represents a low-carbon emission renewable source of energy, and TES allows CSP plants to have energy availability and dispatchability using available industrial technologies. Molten salts are used in CSP plants as a TES material because of their high operational temperature and stability of up to 500°C. Their main drawbacks are their relative poor thermal properties and energy storage density. A simple cost-effective way to improve thermal properties of fluids is to dope them with nanoparticles, thus obtaining the so-called salt-based nanofluids. In this work, solar salt used in CSP plants (60% NaNO3 + 40% KNO3) was doped with silica nanoparticles at different solid mass concentrations (from 0.5% to 2%). Specific heat was measured by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A maximum increase of 25.03% was found at an optimal concentration of 1 wt.% of nanoparticles. The size distribution of nanoparticle clusters present in the salt at each concentration was evaluated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and image processing, as well as by means of dynamic light scattering (DLS). The cluster size and the specific surface available depended on the solid content, and a relationship between the specific heat increment and the available particle surface area was obtained. It was proved that the mechanism involved in the specific heat increment is based on a surface phenomenon. Stability of samples was tested for several thermal cycles and thermogravimetric analysis at high temperature was carried out, the samples being stable.

  7. Ectopic pregnancy in Conakry, Guinea.

    PubMed Central

    Thonneau, Patrick; Hijazi, Yolande; Goyaux, Nathalie; Calvez, Thierry; Keita, Namory

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence of ectopic pregnancy (EP) in hospitals in Conakry, the capital of Guinea, West Africa. Data on EP incidence in developing countries are rare and often out of date, particularly in Africa. METHODS: A retrospective study was carried out, examining all cases of EP registered in the medical files of two referral maternity units at the Donka and Ignace Deen university hospitals between 1995 and 1999. FINDINGS: The EP incidence at the two maternity units increased from 0.41% to 1.5% of annual deliveries over this period. Haemoperitoneum was observed in most women, with tubal rupture in 93%; only 6 women received conservative treatment. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the hospital-based incidence of EP per delivery has increased over the last decade in this West African capital, and that health professionals and public health officials in developing countries, especially those in Africa, should consider EP as a major obstetric problem for maternal morbidity. PMID:12077611

  8. G-CSF loaded nanofiber/nanoparticle composite coated with collagen promotes wound healing in vivo.

    PubMed

    Tanha, Shima; Rafiee-Tehrani, Morteza; Abdollahi, Mohamad; Vakilian, Saeid; Esmaili, Zahra; Naraghi, Zahra Safaei; Seyedjafari, Ehsan; Javar, Hamid Akbari

    2017-10-01

    Sustained release of functional growth factors can be considered as a beneficial methodology for wound healing. In this study, recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-loaded chitosan nanoparticles were incorporated in Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) nanofibers, followed by surface coating with collagen type I. Physical and mechanical properties of the PCL nanofibers containing G-CSF loaded chitosan nanoparticles PCL/NP(G-CSF) and in vivo performance for wound healing were investigated. G-CSF structural stability was evaluated through SDS_PAGE, reversed phase (RP) HPLC and size-exclusion chromatography, as well as circular dichroism. Nanofiber/nanoparticle composite scaffold was demonstrated to have appropriate mechanical properties as a wound dresser and a sustained release of functional G-CSF. The PCL/NP(G-CSF) scaffold showed a suitable proliferation and well-adherent morphology of stem cells. In vivo study and histopathological evaluation outcome revealed that skin regeneration was dramatically accelerated under PCL/NP(G-CSF) as compared with control groups. Superior fibroblast maturation, enhanced collagen deposition and minimum inflammatory cells were also the beneficial properties of PCL/NP(G-CSF) over the commercial dressing. The synergistic effect of extracellular matrix-mimicking nanofibrous membrane and G-CSF could develop a suitable supportive substrate in order to extensive utilization for the healing of skin wounds. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 2830-2842, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Gold–promoted structurally ordered intermetallic palladium cobalt nanoparticles for the oxygen reduction reaction

    DOE PAGES

    Kuttiyiel, Kurian A.; Sasaki, Kotaro; Su, Dong; ...

    2014-11-06

    Considerable efforts to make palladium and palladium alloys active catalysts and a possible replacement for platinum have had a marginal success. Here, we report on a structurally ordered Au₁₀Pd₄₀Co₅₀ catalyst that exhibits comparable activity to conventional platinum catalysts in both acid and alkaline media. Electron microscopic techniques demonstrate that via addition of gold atoms PdCo nanoparticles undergo at elevated temperatures an atomic structural transition from core-shell to a rare intermetallic ordered structure with twin boundaries forming stable {111}, {110} and {100} facets. The superior stability of this catalyst compared to platinum after 10,000 potential cycles in alkaline media is attributedmore » to the atomic structural order of PdCo nanoparticles along with protective effect of clusters of gold atoms on the surface. This strategy of making ordered palladium intermetallic alloy nanoparticles can be used in diverse heterogeneous catalysis where particle size and structural stability matters.« less

  10. Multiple ectopic hepatocellular carcinomas in the pancreas: A case report.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhigui; Wu, Xiaoting; Wen, Tianfu; Li, Chuan; Peng, Wen

    2017-07-01

    Ectopic liver tissue can develop at various sites near the liver. Ectopic hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) arising from ectopic liver tissue have a rare clinical incidence. A very rare case has been observed to have metastasis after operation. We report an extremely rare case with multiple masses which were identified in the head and body of the pancreas. Ectopic hepatocellular carcinomas. The masses were removed by surgical resection. Histopathological analysis showed that both masses were ectopic HCC. The patient was still alive and did not have metastasis and relapse. The literature review for this rare case is also presented to highlight the risk of ectopic HCC and good prognosis of operation for ectopic HCC.

  11. Locating Ectopic Foci on a Cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuklik, Pawel; Zebrowski, Jan J.

    2003-07-01

    Arrhythmia is a condition in which an additional ectopic pacemaker is present in the tissue of the heart. Localization of ectopic foci is essential for successful radio-frequency ablation, an important surgical way of treating arrhythmia. In one of the possible mechanisms, arrhythmia induced by an ectopic foci located in one of the main blood vessels leading out or onto the heart. The therapeutic procedure in this case is usually ablation of the whole junction of the blood vessel with heart wall. In this way, whatever excitation occurs inside the vessel, it cannot penetrate the ventricles perturbing their contraction cycle. Such an ablation procedure is long and burdened with the risk of the perforation. A more safe method would involve the localization of the source of the excitation (i.e. the ectopic foci) and its ablation. The methods used in cardiology at present involve complicated localization systems and are time-consuming with the patient spending a long time on the operating table. Recently, Hall and Glass have developed numerical methods which allow to quickly to model the localization of the ectopic foci in a flat, square sample of an inhomogeneous medium. Here, we demonstrate an extension of this model for the case of a cylinder containing an ectopic foci, that can be a model of a blood vessel with the source of the ectopic beat inside it. Three methods of localization are implemented. Standard electrodes containing several active tips are used to stimulate the medium locally and locate the foci judging from the reaction of the system. The first one uses electrode activation times to compute the location of the ectopic site. The second one localizes it by measuring the resetting response of the foci, and the third one, uses wavefront curvature. Specifically for the cylindrical geometry of the blood vessel, we developed a localization procedure that allows to quickly localize the pacemaker.

  12. Molecular diagnostics and therapeutics for ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Tong, Stephen; Skubisz, Monika M; Horne, Andrew W

    2015-02-01

    Ectopic pregnancies are a serious gynaecological emergency that can be fatal. As such, prompt diagnosis and safe timely treatment is essential. Here, we review the literature on the development of molecularly targeted diagnostics and therapeutics for ectopic pregnancy. A blood-based biomarker that accurately identifies an ectopic pregnancy could be used to offer early diagnostic certainty in cases where ultrasound cannot determine the location of the embryo ('a pregnancy of unknown location'). Molecules examined so far can be broadly grouped into biological themes of relevance to reproduction: (i) Fallopian tube (dys)function, (ii) embryo/trophoblast growth, (iii) corpus luteum function, (iv) inflammation, (v) uterine function and (vi) angiogenesis. While a sensitive and specific biomarker for ectopic pregnancy has yet to be identified, it is possible that improvements in platform technologies or a multi-modal biomarker approach may yield an accurate diagnostic biomarker test. Furthermore, with the advent of better imaging technology, the need for a blood-based biomarker test may be superseded by improvements in ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging technology. There have been some recent preclinical studies describing molecularly targeted therapeutic approaches for ectopic pregnancy. Notably, bench-to-bedside studies have examined the use of combination gefitinib (orally available epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor) and methotrexate. Preclinical studies suggest that combination gefitinib and methotrexate is highly effective in inducing placental cell death, and is significantly more effective than methotrexate alone. In early human trials, encouraging preliminary efficacy data have shown that combination gefitinib and methotrexate can rapidly resolve tubal ectopic pregnancies, and large extra-tubal ectopic pregnancies. If a large clinical randomized controlled trial confirms these findings, combination gefitinib and methotrexate could become a new

  13. [The laparoscopic management of ectopic pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Solar, O; Gómez, E

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-five ectopics pregnancies were treated successfully by laparoscopic approach from november 1990 to april 1992. The technics used were: salpingostomy, salpingectomy and taking out trophoblastic tissue exclusively. At the present time, two out of eight women who have wanted become pregnant, have delivered a healthy babies. We concluded that the ectopic pregnancy is efficiently managed by laparoscopy with advantages such as: minimal scar, short time in the hospital, quickly return to total activity, low costs, etc.

  14. Diagnosis and management of ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Barash, Joshua H; Buchanan, Edward M; Hillson, Christina

    2014-07-01

    Ectopic pregnancy affects 1% to 2% of all pregnancies and is responsible for 9% of pregnancy-related deaths in the United States. When a pregnant patient presents with first-trimester bleeding or abdominal pain, physicians should consider ectopic pregnancy as a possible cause. The patient history, physical examination, and imaging with transvaginal ultrasonography can usually confirm the diagnosis. When ultrasonography does not clearly identify the pregnancy location, the physician must determine whether the pregnancy is intrauterine (either viable or failing) or ectopic. Use of the beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (ß-hCG) discriminatory level, the ß-hCG value above which an intrauterine pregnancy should be visualized by transvaginal ultrasonography, may be helpful. Failure to visualize an intrauterine pregnancy when ß-hCG is above the discriminatory level suggests ectopic pregnancy. In addition to single measurements of ß-hCG levels, serial levels can be monitored to detect changes. ß-hCG values in approximately 99% of viable intrauterine pregnancies increase by about 50% in 48 hours. The remaining 1% of patients have a slower rate of increase; these patients may have pregnancies that are misdiagnosed as nonviable intrauterine or ectopic. After an ectopic pregnancy has been confirmed, treatment options include medical, surgical, or expectant management. For patients who are medically unstable or experiencing life-threatening hemorrhage, a surgical approach is indicated. For others, management should be based on patient preference after discussion of the risks, benefits, and monitoring requirements of all approaches.

  15. Ectopic recurrent craniopharyngioma of the frontal bone.

    PubMed

    Jakobs, Martin; Orakcioglu, Berk

    2012-09-01

    Ectopic recurrence of craniopharyngioma is a rare phenomenon after transcranial resection of the primary tumor. The authors present a case of ectopic recurrent adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma of the frontal bone resected 16 years after initial transcranial resection of the primary tumor. The lesion was first radiographically described 12 years after surgery and was adjacent to the osteosynthesis plate that had been implanted at the craniotomy site. The recurrent craniopharyngioma was totally resected via a lateral eyebrow approach. No infiltration of the meninges or the brain was detected. Only 50 cases of ectopic recurrent craniopharyngioma have been described to date, with the present case being the first one with recurrence located at the skull bone. So far 2 mechanisms have been described: contamination with tumor cells alongside the surgical tract and spreading via CSF and the subarachnoid space. The authors reviewed the literature, provided the largest collection of cases so far, and performed basic statistical analysis regarding ectopic recurrence. Pediatric and adult patients as well as male and female ones are affected equally by this phenomenon. The mean time of ectopic recurrence after initial surgery was 7.1 years. Ectopic recurrence, although rare, should always be considered in a patient with a newly diagnosed intracranial lesion who has undergone transcranial craniopharyngioma resection before.

  16. Cerium oxide nanoparticles promote neurogenesis and abrogate hypoxia-induced memory impairment through AMPK–PKC–CBP signaling cascade

    PubMed Central

    Arya, Aditya; Gangwar, Anamika; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Roy, Manas; Das, Mainak; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Bhargava, Kalpana

    2016-01-01

    Structural and functional integrity of the brain is adversely affected by reduced oxygen saturation, especially during chronic hypoxia exposure and often encountered by altitude travelers or dwellers. Hypoxia-induced generation of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species reportedly affects the cortex and hippocampus regions of the brain, promoting memory impairment and cognitive dysfunction. Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs), also known as nanoceria, switch between +3 and +4 oxidation states and reportedly scavenge superoxide anions, hydrogen peroxide, and peroxynitrite in vivo. In the present study, we evaluated the neuroprotective as well as the cognition-enhancing activities of nanoceria during hypobaric hypoxia. Using polyethylene glycol-coated 3 nm nanoceria (PEG-CNPs), we have demonstrated efficient localization of PEG-CNPs in rodent brain. This resulted in significant reduction of oxidative stress and associated damage during hypoxia exposure. Morris water maze-based memory function tests revealed that PEG-CNPs ameliorated hypoxia-induced memory impairment. Using microscopic, flow cytometric, and histological studies, we also provide evidences that PEG-CNPs augmented hippocampus neuronal survival and promoted neurogenesis. Molecular studies revealed that PEG-CNPs promoted neurogenesis through the 5′-adenine monophosphate-activated protein kinase–protein kinase C–cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein binding (AMPK-PKC-CBP) protein pathway. Our present study results suggest that nanoceria can be translated as promising therapeutic molecules for neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27069362

  17. Cerium oxide nanoparticles promote neurogenesis and abrogate hypoxia-induced memory impairment through AMPK-PKC-CBP signaling cascade.

    PubMed

    Arya, Aditya; Gangwar, Anamika; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Roy, Manas; Das, Mainak; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Bhargava, Kalpana

    2016-01-01

    Structural and functional integrity of the brain is adversely affected by reduced oxygen saturation, especially during chronic hypoxia exposure and often encountered by altitude travelers or dwellers. Hypoxia-induced generation of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species reportedly affects the cortex and hippocampus regions of the brain, promoting memory impairment and cognitive dysfunction. Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs), also known as nanoceria, switch between +3 and +4 oxidation states and reportedly scavenge superoxide anions, hydrogen peroxide, and peroxynitrite in vivo. In the present study, we evaluated the neuroprotective as well as the cognition-enhancing activities of nanoceria during hypobaric hypoxia. Using polyethylene glycol-coated 3 nm nanoceria (PEG-CNPs), we have demonstrated efficient localization of PEG-CNPs in rodent brain. This resulted in significant reduction of oxidative stress and associated damage during hypoxia exposure. Morris water maze-based memory function tests revealed that PEG-CNPs ameliorated hypoxia-induced memory impairment. Using microscopic, flow cytometric, and histological studies, we also provide evidences that PEG-CNPs augmented hippocampus neuronal survival and promoted neurogenesis. Molecular studies revealed that PEG-CNPs promoted neurogenesis through the 5'-adenine monophosphate-activated protein kinase-protein kinase C-cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein binding (AMPK-PKC-CBP) protein pathway. Our present study results suggest that nanoceria can be translated as promising therapeutic molecules for neurodegenerative diseases.

  18. Functional Silver Nanoparticle as a Benign Antimicrobial Agent That Eradicates Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria and Promotes Wound Healing.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiaomei; Guo, Qianqian; Zhao, Yu; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Tianqi; Zhang, Xinge; Li, Chaoxing

    2016-10-05

    With the increased prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria infections, there is a pressed need for innovative antimicrobial agent. Here, we report a benign ε-polylysine/silver nanoparticle nanocomposite (EPL-g-butyl@AgNPs) with polyvalent and synergistic antibacterial effects. EPL-g-butyl@AgNPs exhibited good stability in aqueous solution and effective antibacterial activity against both Gram-negative (P. aeruginosa) and Gram-positive (S. aureus) bacteria without emergence of bacterial resistance. Importantly, the nanocomposites eradicated the antibiotic-resistant bacteria without toxicity to mammalian cells. Analysis of the antibacterial mechanism confirmed that the nanocomposites adhered to the bacterial surface, irreversibly disrupted the membrane structure of the bacteria, subsequently penetrated cells, and effectively inhibited protein activity, which ultimately led to bacteria apoptosis. Notably, the nanocomposites modulated the relative level of CD3(+) T cells and CD68(+) macrophages and effectively promoted infected wound healing in diabetic rats. This work improves our understanding of the antibacterial mechanism of AgNPs-based nanocomposites and offers guidance to activity prediction and rational design of effective antimicrobial nanoparticles.

  19. Peptide-laden mesoporous silica nanoparticles with promoted bioactivity and osteo-differentiation ability for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zuyuan; Deng, Yi; Zhang, Ranran; Wang, Mengke; Bai, Yanjie; Zhao, Qiang; Lyu, Yalin; Wei, Jie; Wei, Shicheng

    2015-07-01

    Combination of mesoporous silica materials and bioactive factors is a promising niche-mimetic solution as a hybrid bone substitution for bone tissue engineering. In this work, we have synthesized biocompatible silica-based nanoparticles with abundant mesoporous structure, and incorporated bone-forming peptide (BFP) derived from bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) into the mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) to obtain a slow-release system for osteogenic factor delivery. The chemical characterization demonstrates that the small osteogenic peptide is encapsulated in the mesoporous successfully, and the nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms suggest that the peptide encapsulation has no influence on mesoporous structure of MSNs. In the cell experiment, the peptide-laden MSNs (p-MSNs) show higher MG-63 cell proliferation, spreading and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity than the bare MSNs, indicating good in vitro cytocompatibility. Simultaneously, the osteogenesis-related proteins expression and calcium mineral deposition disclose enhanced osteo-differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) under the stimulation of the p-MSNs, confirming that BFP released from MSNs could significantly promote the osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs, especially at 500μg/mL of p-MSNs concentration. The peptide-modified MSNs with better bioactivity and osteogenic differentiation make it a potential candidate as bioactive material for bone repairing, bone regeneration, and bio-implant coating applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Layered double hydroxide nanoparticles promote self-renewal of mouse embryonic stem cells through the PI3K signaling pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Youjun; Zhu, Rongrong; Zhou, Yang; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Wenrui; Sun, Xiaoyu; Wu, Xianzheng; Cheng, Liming; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Shilong

    2015-06-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) hold great potential for regenerative medicine due to their two unique characteristics: self-renewal and pluripotency. Several groups of nanoparticles have shown promising applications in directing the stem cell fate. Herein, we investigated the cellular effects of layered double hydroxide nanoparticles (LDH NPs) on mouse ESCs (mESCs) and the associated molecular mechanisms. Mg-Al-LDH NPs with an average diameter of ~100 nm were prepared by hydrothermal methods. To determine the influences of LDH NPs on mESCs, cellular cytotoxicity, self-renewal, differentiation potential, and the possible signaling pathways were explored. Evaluation of cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase release, ROS generation and apoptosis demonstrated the low cytotoxicity of LDH NPs. The alkaline phosphatase activity and the expression of pluripotency genes in mESCs were examined, which indicated that exposure to LDH NPs could support self-renewal and inhibit spontaneous differentiation of mESCs under feeder-free culture conditions. The self-renewal promotion was further proved to be independent of the leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). Furthermore, cells treated with LDH NPs maintained the potential to differentiate into all three germ layers both in vitro and in vivo through formation of embryoid bodies and teratomas. In addition, we observed that LDH NPs initiated the activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway, while treatment with the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 could block the effects of LDH NPs on mESCs. The results confirmed that the promotion of self-renewal by LDH NPs was associated with activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Altogether, our studies identified a new role of LDH NPs in maintaining self-renewal of mouse ES cells which could potentially be applied in stem cell research.Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) hold great potential for regenerative medicine due to their two unique characteristics: self-renewal and pluripotency. Several groups of nanoparticles

  1. Electronic cigarette aerosols and copper nanoparticles induce mitochondrial stress and promote DNA fragmentation in lung fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Lerner, Chad A.; Rutagarama, Pierrot; Ahmad, Tanveer; Sundar, Isaac K.; Elder, Alison; Rahman, Irfan

    2016-09-02

    Oxidants or nanoparticles have recently been identified as constituents of aerosols released from various styles of electronic cigarettes (E-cigs). Cells in the lung may be directly exposed to these constituents and harbor reactive properties capable of incurring acute cell injury. Our results show mitochondria are sensitive to both E-cig aerosols and aerosol containing copper nanoparticles when exposed to human lung fibroblasts (HFL-1) using an Air-Liquid Interface culture system, evident by elevated levels of mitochondrial ROS (mtROS). Increased mtROS after aerosol exposure is associated with reduced stability of OxPhos electron transport chain (ETC) complex IV subunit and nuclear DNA fragmentation. Increased levels of IL-8 and IL-6 in HFL-1 conditioned media were also observed. These findings reveal both mitochondrial, genotoxic, and inflammatory stresses are features of direct cell exposure to E-cig aerosols which are ensued by inflammatory duress, raising a concern on deleterious effect of vaping. - Graphical abstract: Oxidants and possibly reactive properties of metal particles in E-cig aerosols impart mitochondrial oxidative stress and DNA damage. These biological effects accompany inflammatory response which may raise concern regarding long term E-cig use. Mitochondria may be particularly sensitive to reactive properties of E-cig aerosols in addition to the potential for them to induce genotoxic stress by generating increased ROS. - Highlights: • Mitochondria are sensitive to both E-cig aerosols and metal nanoparticles. • Increased mtROS by E-cig aerosol is associated with disrupted mitochondrial energy. • E-cig causes nuclear DNA fragmentation. • E-cig aerosols induce pro-inflammatory response in human fibroblasts.

  2. Collagen peptide-based biomaterials for protein delivery and peptide-promoted self-assembly of gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernenwein, Dawn M.

    2011-12-01

    Bottom-up self-assembly of peptides has driven the research progress for the following two projects: protein delivery vehicles of collagen microflorettes and the assembly of gold nanoparticles with coiled-coil peptides. Collagen is the most abundant protein in the mammals yet due to immunogenic responses, batch-to-batch variability and lack of sequence modifications, synthetic collagen has been designed to self-assemble into native collagen-like structures. In particular with this research, metal binding ligands were incorporated on the termini of collagen-like peptides to generate micron-sized particles, microflorettes. The over-arching goal of the first research project is to engineer MRI-active microflorettes, loaded with His-tagged growth factors with differential release rates while bound to stem cells that can be implemented toward regenerative cell-based therapies. His-tagged proteins, such as green fluorescent protein, have successfully been incorporated on the surface and throughout the microflorettes. Protein release was monitored under physiological conditions and was related to particle degradation. In human plasma full release was obtained within six days. Stability of the microflorettes under physiological conditions was also examined for the development of a therapeutically relevant delivery agent. Additionally, MRI active microflorettes have been generated through the incorporation of a gadolinium binding ligand, DOTA within the collagen-based peptide sequence. To probe peptide-promoted self-assemblies of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) by non-covalent, charge complementary interactions, a highly anionic coiled-coil peptide was designed and synthesized. Upon formation of peptide-GNP interactions, the hydrophobic domain of the coiled-coil were shown to promote the self-assembly of peptide-GNPs clustering. Hydrophobic forces were found to play an important role in the assembly process, as a peptide with an equally overall negative charge, but lacking an

  3. Fragmentation of Care in Ectopic Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Stulberg, Debra B; Dahlquist, Irma; Jarosch, Christina; Lindau, Stacy T

    2016-05-01

    Ectopic pregnancy is an important cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Women who experience fragmented care may undergo unnecessary delays to diagnosis and treatment. Based on ectopic pregnancy cases observed in clinical practice that raised our concern about fragmentation of care, we designed an exploratory study to describe the number, characteristics, and outcomes of fragmented care among patients with ectopic pregnancy at one urban academic hospital. Chart review with descriptive statistics. Fragmented care was defined as a patient being evaluated at an outside facility for possible ectopic pregnancy and transferred, referred, or discharged before receiving care at the study institution. Of 191 women seen for possible or definite ectopic pregnancy during the study period, 42 (22 %) met the study definition of fragmented care. The study was under-powered to observe statistically significant differences across groups, but we found concerning, non-significant trends: patients with fragmented care were more likely to be Medicaid recipients (65.9 vs. 58.8 %) and to experience a complication (23.8 vs. 18.1 %) compared to those with non-fragmented care. Most patients (n = 37) received no identifiable treatment prior to transfer and arrived to the study hospital with no communication to the receiving hospital from the outside provider (n = 34). Nine patients (21 %) presented with ruptured ectopic pregnancies. The fragmentation we observed in our study may contribute to previously identified socio-economic disparities in ectopic pregnancy outcomes. If future research confirms these findings, health information exchanges and regional coordination of care may be important strategies for reducing maternal mortality.

  4. A clinical study of ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Najma Bano; Shaikh, Shabnam; Shaikh, Farhana

    2014-01-01

    The frequency of ectopic pregnancy is increasing throughout the globe and it is the most life threatening emergency in first trimester of pregnancy. Objective of this study was to determine the frequency, risk factors, clinical presentation and management of ectopic pregnancy. This prospective descriptive study was conducted in Gynaecology and Obstetrical Unit-II of Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences Hospital Hyderabad from 1st May 2009 to 30th April 2012. All women diagnosed with ectopic pregnancy were included in the study. A predesigned pro forma was used to record the details about demographic features, pre-existing risk factors, clinical features at presentation and management of ectopic pregnancy. Data was analysed using SPSS-11. Total numbers of admission during study period were 9600 with 60 cases of ectopic pregnancy, thus representing the frequency of 0.6% (1 in 160). Majority of women 43 (72%) were of 20-30 year age, multigravida 31 (52%) were the most sufferers. Pelvic inflammatory disease 27 (45%), previous abortion 20 (33%), previous surgery 12 (20%) were seen as common risk factors; however no risk factor was identified in 21 (35%) women. Typical history of amenorrhea and abdominal pain was found in 46 (77%) women, 23 (38%) were in a state of shock. Laparotomy was performed in 53 (88%) women. Three (5%) women were treated successfully with methotrexate. Laparoscopic surgery was done in 2 patients and 2 patients were required both Laparoscopy proceeded by laparotomy. No maternal death related to ectopic pregnancy was reported in our study. The early diagnosis of an ectopic pregnancy is one of the greatest challenges for obstetricians. The importance of early diagnosis lies in the fact that the lady can be offered a conservative line of management which can definitely have beneficial on her reproductive carrier.

  5. Annexin A1–containing extracellular vesicles and polymeric nanoparticles promote epithelial wound repair

    PubMed Central

    Leoni, Giovanna; Neumann, Philipp-Alexander; Kamaly, Nazila; Quiros, Miguel; Nishio, Hikaru; Jones, Hefin R.; Sumagin, Ronen; Hilgarth, Roland S.; Alam, Ashfaqul; Fredman, Gabrielle; Argyris, Ioannis; Rijcken, Emile; Kusters, Dennis; Reutelingsperger, Chris; Perretti, Mauro; Parkos, Charles A.; Farokhzad, Omid C.; Neish, Andrew S.; Nusrat, Asma

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial restitution is an essential process that is required to repair barrier function at mucosal surfaces following injury. Prolonged breaches in epithelial barrier function result in inflammation and further damage; therefore, a better understanding of the epithelial restitution process has potential for improving the development of therapeutics. In this work, we demonstrate that endogenous annexin A1 (ANXA1) is released as a component of extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from intestinal epithelial cells, and these ANXA1-containing EVs activate wound repair circuits. Compared with healthy controls, patients with active inflammatory bowel disease had elevated levels of secreted ANXA1-containing EVs in sera, indicating that ANXA1-containing EVs are systemically distributed in response to the inflammatory process and could potentially serve as a biomarker of intestinal mucosal inflammation. Local intestinal delivery of an exogenous ANXA1 mimetic peptide (Ac2-26) encapsulated within targeted polymeric nanoparticles (Ac2-26 Col IV NPs) accelerated healing of murine colonic wounds after biopsy-induced injury. Moreover, one-time systemic administration of Ac2-26 Col IV NPs accelerated recovery following experimentally induced colitis. Together, our results suggest that local delivery of proresolving peptides encapsulated within nanoparticles may represent a potential therapeutic strategy for clinical situations characterized by chronic mucosal injury, such as is seen in patients with IBD. PMID:25664854

  6. Stabilization of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles at the Surface of Carbon Nanomaterials Promoted by Microwave Heating.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Santangelo, Saveria; Fazio, Enza; Neri, Fortunato; D'Arienzo, Massimiliano; Morazzoni, Franca; Zhang, Yihe; Pinna, Nicola; Russo, Patrícia A

    2015-10-12

    TiO2 is frequently combined with carbon materials, such as reduced graphene oxide (RGO), to produce composites with improved properties, for example for photocatalytic applications. It is shown that heating conditions significantly affect the interface and photocatalytic properties of TiO2 @C, and that microwave irradiation can be advantageous for the synthesis of carbon-based materials. Composites of TiO2 with RGO or amorphous carbon were prepared from reaction of titanium isopropoxide with benzyl alcohol. During the synthesis of the TiO2 nanoparticles, the carbon is involved in reactions that lead to the covalent attachment of the oxide, the extent of which depends on the carbon characteristics, heating rate, and mechanism. TiO2 is more efficiently stabilized at the surface of RGO than amorphous carbon. Rapid heating of the reaction mixture results in a stronger coupling between the nanoparticles and carbon, more uniform coatings, and smaller particles with narrower size distributions. The more efficient attachment of the oxide leads to better photocatalytic performance. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Differential sensitivity of epidermal cell subpopulations to beta-catenin-induced ectopic hair follicle formation.

    PubMed

    Baker, Christopher M; Verstuyf, Annemieke; Jensen, Kim B; Watt, Fiona M

    2010-07-01

    Wnt signalling is required for hair follicle development and for the growth phase (anagen) of postnatal follicles. When the pathway is activated at high levels in adult mouse epidermis, ectopic follicles form from existing follicles, interfollicular epidermis (IFE) and sebaceous glands, revealing a remarkable ability of the tissue to be reprogrammed. To compare the competence of different epidermal cell populations to form ectopic follicles, we expressed a 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen (4OHT) inducible, stabilised beta-catenin transgene (DeltaNbeta-cateninER) under the control of two different promoters. We targeted the reservoir of stem cells in the hair follicle bulge via the keratin 15 (K15) promoter and targeted the sebaceous glands and base of the follicle (bulb) with a truncated K5 promoter (DeltaK5). No ectopic follicles formed in the IFE in either model, establishing the autonomy of the IFE stem cell compartment in undamaged epidermis. Activation of beta-catenin in the bulge stimulated proliferation and bulge expansion. Existing hair follicles entered anagen, but no ectopic follicles formed. DeltaK5DeltaNbeta-cateninER expressing hair follicles also entered anagen on 4OHT treatment. In addition, a subpopulation of cells at the base of the sebaceous gland readily formed ectopic follicles, resulting in complete and reversible conversion of sebaceous glands into hair follicles. Combined activation of beta-catenin and the vitamin D receptor enhanced differentiation of sebaceous gland-derived hair follicles and stimulated ectopic follicle formation in the hair follicle bulb, but not in the bulge. Our results suggest that the bulge and sebaceous gland are, respectively, non-permissive and permissive niches for Wnt induced hair follicle differentiation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Differential sensitivity of epidermal cell subpopulations to β-catenin-induced ectopic hair follicle formation

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Christopher M.; Verstuyf, Annemieke; Jensen, Kim B.; Watt, Fiona M.

    2010-01-01

    Wnt signalling is required for hair follicle development and for the growth phase (anagen) of postnatal follicles. When the pathway is activated at high levels in adult mouse epidermis, ectopic follicles form from existing follicles, interfollicular epidermis (IFE) and sebaceous glands, revealing a remarkable ability of the tissue to be reprogrammed. To compare the competence of different epidermal cell populations to form ectopic follicles, we expressed a 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen (4OHT) inducible, stabilised β-catenin transgene (ΔNβ-cateninER) under the control of two different promoters. We targeted the reservoir of stem cells in the hair follicle bulge via the keratin 15 (K15) promoter and targeted the sebaceous glands and base of the follicle (bulb) with a truncated K5 promoter (ΔK5). No ectopic follicles formed in the IFE in either model, establishing the autonomy of the IFE stem cell compartment in undamaged epidermis. Activation of β-catenin in the bulge stimulated proliferation and bulge expansion. Existing hair follicles entered anagen, but no ectopic follicles formed. ΔK5ΔNβ-cateninER expressing hair follicles also entered anagen on 4OHT treatment. In addition, a subpopulation of cells at the base of the sebaceous gland readily formed ectopic follicles, resulting in complete and reversible conversion of sebaceous glands into hair follicles. Combined activation of β-catenin and the vitamin D receptor enhanced differentiation of sebaceous gland-derived hair follicles and stimulated ectopic follicle formation in the hair follicle bulb, but not in the bulge. Our results suggest that the bulge and sebaceous gland are, respectively, non-permissive and permissive niches for Wnt induced hair follicle differentiation. PMID:20398648

  9. Restoration of Vision with Ectopic Expression of Human Rod Opsin.

    PubMed

    Cehajic-Kapetanovic, Jasmina; Eleftheriou, Cyril; Allen, Annette E; Milosavljevic, Nina; Pienaar, Abigail; Bedford, Robert; Davis, Katherine E; Bishop, Paul N; Lucas, Robert J

    2015-08-17

    Many retinal dystrophies result in photoreceptor loss, but the inner retinal neurons can survive, making them potentially amenable to emerging optogenetic therapies. Here, we show that ectopically expressed human rod opsin, driven by either a non-selective or ON-bipolar cell-specific promoter, can function outside native photoreceptors and restore visual function in a mouse model of advanced retinal degeneration. Electrophysiological recordings from retinal explants and the visual thalamus revealed changes in firing (increases and decreases) induced by simple light pulses, luminance increases, and naturalistic movies in treated mice. These responses could be elicited at light intensities within the physiological range and substantially below those required by other optogenetic strategies. Mice with rod opsin expression driven by the ON-bipolar specific promoter displayed behavioral responses to increases in luminance, flicker, coarse spatial patterns, and elements of a natural movie at levels of contrast and illuminance (≈50-100 lux) typical of natural indoor environments. These data reveal that virally mediated ectopic expression of human rod opsin can restore vision under natural viewing conditions and at moderate light intensities. Given the inherent advantages in employing a human protein, the simplicity of this intervention, and the quality of vision restored, we suggest that rod opsin merits consideration as an optogenetic actuator for treating patients with advanced retinal degeneration. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. [Ectopic Lippes' intrauterine devices. Hysterography].

    PubMed

    Villablanca, E

    1970-01-01

    Statistics on the indicence of ectopia (displacement) of Lippes loop vary significantly by author; from .5/1000 to 6.81/1000 insertions. It is not clear whether ectopia occurs as a result of uterine perforation or of progressive migration. In all reported cases, however, hysterography was used to investigate. 50 patients from a control group of 1064 active Lippes D users chosen from the Family Planning Center of the San Camilo Hospital in San Felipe were studied between 1965-1969. Observations were made using x-ray and hysterography at 10 days, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year or more after insertion. Also studied were some of the characteristics of the loop and techniques for its insertion. In the 50 patients the device was found to be out of place in 6 (an ectopia rate of 5.6/1000 insertions), in a normal position in 30, and in an abnormal one in 14 (the distal part near or across the neck). All the ectopia was observed in patients between 20-34 years who had had 2-5 births. Those with 7-13 births did not seem to be prone to the complication. 8 of the 50 had a retroflexed uterus and 2 of those were displacement cases, suggesting that anomaly of position could be a predisposition for ectopia. Incidence of displacement was not found to vary significantly with doctor. None of the ectopic cases had severe side effects (pain or heavy bleeding) after insertion. In each case displacement was found to have occurred between 1 week and 6 months postinsertion, 2 of them within 2 weeks. It is probably that the later diagnosis of the others was due to the patient not having noticed the disappearance of the threads. It is concluded that ectopia is due to uterine perforation and not to progressive migration. The different positions in which the device was found when it was removed by laparotomy indicated that such perforation was due to the structure of the device and the resistance of the uterine cavity. Through modification of the loop this complication could be

  11. Ectopic ganglion in cauda equina: case report.

    PubMed

    Conner, Andrew K; Fung, Kar-Ming; Peterson, Jo Elle G; Glenn, Chad A; Martin, Michael D

    2016-06-01

    Macroscopic ectopic or heterotopic ganglionic tissue within the cauda equina is a very rare pathological finding and is usually associated with spinal dysraphism. However, it may mimic genuine neoplasms of the cauda equina. The authors describe a 29-year-old woman with a history of back pain, right leg pain, and urinary incontinence in whom imaging demonstrated an enhancing mass located in the cauda equina at the L1-2 interspace. The patient subsequently underwent biopsy and was found to have a focus of ectopic ganglionic tissue that was 1.3 cm in greatest dimension. To the authors' knowledge, ectopic or heterotopic ganglionic tissue within the cauda equina in a patient without evidence of spinal dysraphism has never been reported. This patient presented with imaging and clinical findings suggestive of a neoplasm, and an open biopsy proved the lesion to be ectopic ganglionic tissue. The authors suggest that ectopic ganglionic tissue be added to the list of differential diagnoses of a space-occupying lesion arising from the cauda equina.

  12. Decorating CoP and Pt Nanoparticles on Graphitic Carbon Nitride Nanosheets to Promote Overall Water Splitting by Conjugated Polymers.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zhiming; Zheng, Yun; Guo, Fangsong; Niu, Pingping; Wang, Xinchen

    2017-01-10

    The splitting of water into H2 and O2 using solar energy is one of the key steps in artificial photosynthesis for the future production of renewable energy. Here, we show the first use of CoP and Pt nanoparticles as dual co-catalysts to modify graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3 N4 ) polymer to achieve overall water splitting under visible light irradiation. Our findings demonstrate that loading dual co-catalysts on delaminated g-C3 N4 imparts surface redox sites on the g-C3 N4 nanosheets that can not only promote catalytic kinetics but also promote charge separation and migration in the soft interface, thus improving the photocatalytic efficiency for overall water splitting. This robust, abundant, and stable photocatalyst based on covalent organic frameworks is demonstrated to hold great promise by forming heterojunctions with CoP and Pt for catalyzing the direct splitting of water into stoichiometric H2 and O2 using energy from photons. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Enhanced plant growth promoting role of phycomolecules coated zinc oxide nanoparticles with P supplementation in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    PubMed

    Venkatachalam, P; Priyanka, N; Manikandan, K; Ganeshbabu, I; Indiraarulselvi, P; Geetha, N; Muralikrishna, K; Bhattacharya, R C; Tiwari, M; Sharma, N; Sahi, S V

    2017-01-01

    This report focuses on application of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) carrying phycomolecule ligands as a novel plant growth promoter aimed at increasing the crop productivity. The present investigation examined the effect of ZnONPs on plant growth characteristics, and associated biochemical changes in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) following growth in a range of concentrations (25-200 mg L(-l) ZnONPs) in combination with 100 mM P in a hydroponic system. Treated plants registered an increase in growth and total biomass by 130.6% and 131%, respectively, over control. Results demonstrated a significant increase in the level of chlorophyll a (141.6%), b (134.7%), carotenoids (138.6%), and total soluble protein contents (179.4%); at the same time, a significant reduction (68%) in the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in leaves with respect to control. Interestingly, a significant increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD, 264.2%), and peroxidase (POX, 182.8%) enzyme activities followed by a decrease in the catalase (CAT) activity, in response to above treatments. These results suggest that bioengineered ZnONPs interact with meristematic cells triggering biochemical pathways conducive to an accumulation of biomass. Further investigations will map out the mode of action involved in growth promotion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Zero valent zinc nanoparticles promote neuroglial cell proliferation: A biodegradable and conductive filler candidate for nerve regeneration.

    PubMed

    Aydemir Sezer, Umran; Ozturk, Kevser; Aru, Basak; Yanıkkaya Demirel, Gulderen; Sezer, Serdar; Bozkurt, Mehmet Recep

    2017-01-01

    Regeneration of nerve, which has limited ability to undergo self-healing, is one of the most challenging areas in the field of tissue engineering. Regarding materials used in neuroregeneration, there is a recent trend toward electrically conductive materials. It has been emphasized that the capacity of conductive materials to regenerate such tissue having limited self-healing ability improves their clinical utility. However, there have been concerns about the safety of materials or fillers used for conductance due to their lack of degradability. Here, we attempt to use poly(Ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) matrix consisting of varying proportions of zero valent zinc nanoparticles (Zn NPs) via electrospinning. These conductive, biodegradable, and bioactive materials efficiently promoted neuroglial cell proliferation depending on the amount of Zn NPs present in the PCL matrix. Chemical characterizations indicated that the incorporated Zn NPs do not interact with the PCL matrix chemically and that the Zn NPs improved the tensile properties of the PCL matrix. All composites exhibited linear conductivity under in vitro conditions. In vitro cell culture studies were performed to determine the cytotoxicity and proliferative efficiency of materials containing different proportions of Zn NPs. The results were obtained to explore new conductive fillers that can promote tissue regeneration.

  15. Ectopic orbital meningioma: Fact or fiction?

    PubMed

    Tan, Lee Teak; Stewart, Christopher M; Sheerin, Fintan; MacDonald, Brendan; Silva, Priy; Norris, Jonathan H

    2017-06-01

    Primary intraorbital ectopic meningiomas are rare and their existence remains controversial. We present a 30-year-old female with painless, non-axial proptosis and a palpable superomedial mass. The MRI demonstrated that the mass had no optic nerve sheath or sphenoid wing involvement and was initially reported to have no intracranial extension. The patient was initially thought to have an ectopic orbital meningioma. Subsequent multidisciplinary team (MDT) consultation and further specialist review of the MRI revealed a subtle dural tail connecting to an enhancing mass in the olfactory groove. Biopsy revealed a WHO Grade 1 transitional meningioma with an infiltrative pattern. We argue that some previously reported cases of ectopic meningioma may lack the requisite imaging to discover the primary disease. Our report highlights the importance of MRI in this group of patients and the role of a skull-base MDT with specialist neuroradiology input to determine the true origin and extent of these extradural orbital meningiomas.

  16. [Lithiasis and ectopic pelvic kidney. Therapeutic aspects].

    PubMed

    Aboutaieb, R; Rabii, R; el Moussaoui, A; Joual, A; Sarf, I; el Mrini, M; Benjelloun, S

    1996-01-01

    Kidney in ectopic position is dysplasic, and associated to other malformations. The advent of a lithiasis in these conditions rises questions about therapeutic options. We report on five observations of pelvic ectopic kidney with urinary lithiasis. Patients were aged from 16 to 42 years. Kidney was non functional in two cases, or with normal appearance sized 10 to 12 cm. We performed total nephrectomy in two cases, pyelolithotomy in the other cases. Surgical approach was subperitoneal via iliac route. A dismembered pyeloplasty was associated in one case. All patients did well. Radiologic control at 6 and 12 months showed no recurrence in a well functioning kidney. Surgical lithotomy is advocated as a treatment in urinary lithiasis affecting ectopic kidney. It is an easy procedure which permits correction of other associated malformations.

  17. Ovarian tumor-derived ectopic hyperprolactinemia.

    PubMed

    Elms, Autumn F; Carlan, S J; Rich, Amy E; Cerezo, Lizardo

    2012-12-01

    To describe extreme hyperprolactinemia originating from a pituitary adenoma in the wall of an ovarian dermoid. This is a description of an unusual case and a review of ectopic prolactin production. Ectopic production of prolactin is a rare condition that has been reported in isolated organ system pathology including ovaries. An ovarian dermoid is a benign neoplasm that has the potential for active unregulated endocrine function. Hyperprolactinemia can result from functioning lactotrophs found in ovarian dermoids and can lead to clinical sequelae. Definitive treatment of the condition requires surgical removal of the functioning endocrine tissue. Extreme hyperprolactinemia caused by a pituitary tumor located within a dermoid has not been reported before. We present a case of profound hyperprolactinemia originating from a pituitary adenoma found in the wall of an ovarian dermoid and give a broad overview of the condition and literature. Ectopic prolactin production should always be considered in symptomatic patients found to have elevated serum levels and no findings on brain imaging.

  18. Mislocalization of the Drosophila centromere-specific histone CIDpromotes formation of functional ectopic kinetochores

    SciTech Connect

    Heun, Patrick; Erhardt, Sylvia; Blower, Michael D.; Weiss,Samara; Skora, Andrew D.; Karpen, Gary H.

    2006-01-30

    The centromere-specific histone variant CENP-A (CID in Drosophila) is a structural and functional foundation for kinetochore formation and chromosome segregation. Here, we show that overexpressed CID is mislocalized into normally non-centromeric regions in Drosophila tissue culture cells and animals. Analysis of mitoses in living and fixed cells reveals that mitotic delays, anaphase bridges, chromosome fragmentation, and cell and organismal lethality are all direct consequences of CID mislocalization. In addition, proteins that are normally restricted to endogenous kinetochores assemble at a subset of ectopic CID incorporation regions. The presence of microtubule motors and binding proteins, spindle attachments, and aberrant chromosome morphologies demonstrate that these ectopic kinetochores are functional. We conclude that CID mislocalization promotes formation of ectopic centromeres and multicentric chromosomes, which causes chromosome missegregation, aneuploidy, and growth defects. Thus, CENP-A mislocalization is one possible mechanism for genome instability during cancer progression, as well as centromere plasticity during evolution.

  19. Ovum transmigration after salpingectomy for ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ross, Jackie A; Davison, Amelia Z; Sana, Yasmin; Appiah, Adjoa; Johns, Jemma; Lee, Christopher T

    2013-04-01

    What proportion of pregnancies are a result of ovum transmigration after salpingectomy for ectopic pregnancy? Approximately one-third of spontaneously conceived pregnancies are a result of pick-up of the ovum from the ovary contralateral to the remaining tube in women with a history of salpingectomy. The corpus luteum has been found contralateral to tubal ectopic pregnancies in 32% of reported cases. The rate of contralateral ovum pick-up in intrauterine pregnancies is not known. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of clinical and ultrasound records collected over a 12-year period 1999-2010. Ten per cent of cases identified were excluded from the final analysis due to incomplete data or bilateral corpora lutea. Included were 842 pregnancies in 707 women with a history of unilateral salpingectomy for ectopic pregnancy and subsequent spontaneous pregnancy. The study was set in the Early Pregnancy Unit of a large UK inner city teaching hospital. The outcome measure was the side of the corpus luteum in relation to the side of the remaining tube. The corpus luteum was located in the ovary contralateral to the remaining tube in 266/842 pregnancies (31.6%; 95% CI 28.5-34.8%). There was no significant difference in this proportion between intrauterine and ectopic pregnancies [246/769 (32.0%) versus 21/73 (28.8%), P = 0.60]. This was a retrospective study and so did not address the conception rate according to the laterality of ovulation. Our findings were very similar to the frequency of ectopic pregnancies found contralateral to the corpus luteum described in previous studies. Ovum pick-up from the cul-de-sac probably occurs reasonably frequently and is unlikely to have a causative role in the pathogenesis of ectopic pregnancy. It is not known how often this phenomenon occurs in women with intact Fallopian tubes. No specific funding was obtained. The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.

  20. Nanoparticle and Ionic Zn Promote Nutrient Loading of Sorghum Grain under Low NPK Fertilization.

    PubMed

    Dimkpa, Christian O; White, Jason C; Elmer, Wade H; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge

    2017-10-04

    This study evaluated the effects of ZnO nanoparticles (NP) or Zn salt amendment on sorghum yield, macronutrient use efficiency, and grain Zn-enrichment. Amendments were through soil and foliar pathways, under "low" and "high" levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (NPK). In soil and foliar amendments, grain yield was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased by both Zn types, albeit insignificantly with soil-applied Zn at low NPK. Across NPK levels and Zn exposure pathways, both Zn types increased N and K accumulation relative to control plants. Compared to N and K, both Zn types had a mixed effect on P accumulation, depending on NPK level and Zn exposure pathway, and permitted greater soil P retention. Both Zn types significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased grain Zn content, irrespective of exposure pathway. These findings suggest a nanoenabled strategy for enhancing crop productivity, grain nutritional quality, and N use efficiency based on Zn micronutrient amendments, with potential implications for improved human and environmental health.

  1. What Is the Risk for a Second Ectopic Pregnancy?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old What Is the Risk for a Second Ectopic Pregnancy? KidsHealth > For Parents > What Is the Risk for ... TOPIC Medical Care During Pregnancy Pregnancy & Newborn Center Pregnancy Precautions: FAQs Ectopic Pregnancy Contact Us Print Resources Send to a ...

  2. Calcifying nanoparticles promote mineralization in vascular smooth muscle cells: implications for atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Larry W; Charlesworth, Jon E; Yu, Sam; Lieske, John C; Miller, Virginia M

    2014-01-01

    Nano-sized complexes of calcium phosphate mineral and proteins (calcifying nanoparticles [CNPs]) serve as mineral chaperones. Thus, CNPs may be both a result and cause of soft tissue calcification processes. This study determined if CNPs could augment calcification of arterial vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro. CNPs 210 nm in diameter were propagated in vitro from human serum. Porcine aortic smooth muscle cells were cultured for up to 28 days in medium in the absence (control) or presence of 2 mM phosphate ([P] positive calcification control) or after a single 3-day exposure to CNPs. Transmission electron-microscopy was used to characterize CNPs and to examine their cellular uptake. Calcium deposits were visualized by light microscopy and von Kossa staining and were quantified by colorimetry. Cell viability was quantified by confocal microscopy of live-/dead-stained cells and apoptosis was examined concurrently by fluorescent labeling of exposed phosphatidylserine. CNPs, as well as smaller calcium crystals, were observed by transmission electron-microscopy on day 3 in CNP-treated but not P-treated cells. By day 28, calcium deposits were visible in similar amounts within multicellular nodules of both CNP- and P-treated cells. Apoptosis increased with cell density under all treatments. CNP treatment augmented the density of apoptotic bodies and cellular debris in association with mineralized multicellular nodules. Exogenous CNPs are taken up by aortic smooth muscle cells in vitro and potentiate accumulation of smooth-muscle-derived apoptotic bodies at sites of mineralization. Thus, CNPs may accelerate vascular calcification.

  3. Calcifying nanoparticles promote mineralization in vascular smooth muscle cells: implications for atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Larry W; Charlesworth, Jon E; Yu, Sam; Lieske, John C; Miller, Virginia M

    2014-01-01

    Background Nano-sized complexes of calcium phosphate mineral and proteins (calcifying nanoparticles [CNPs]) serve as mineral chaperones. Thus, CNPs may be both a result and cause of soft tissue calcification processes. This study determined if CNPs could augment calcification of arterial vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro. Methods CNPs 210 nm in diameter were propagated in vitro from human serum. Porcine aortic smooth muscle cells were cultured for up to 28 days in medium in the absence (control) or presence of 2 mM phosphate ([P] positive calcification control) or after a single 3-day exposure to CNPs. Transmission electron-microscopy was used to characterize CNPs and to examine their cellular uptake. Calcium deposits were visualized by light microscopy and von Kossa staining and were quantified by colorimetry. Cell viability was quantified by confocal microscopy of live-/dead-stained cells and apoptosis was examined concurrently by fluorescent labeling of exposed phosphatidylserine. Results CNPs, as well as smaller calcium crystals, were observed by transmission electron-microscopy on day 3 in CNP-treated but not P-treated cells. By day 28, calcium deposits were visible in similar amounts within multicellular nodules of both CNP- and P-treated cells. Apoptosis increased with cell density under all treatments. CNP treatment augmented the density of apoptotic bodies and cellular debris in association with mineralized multicellular nodules. Conclusion Exogenous CNPs are taken up by aortic smooth muscle cells in vitro and potentiate accumulation of smooth-muscle-derived apoptotic bodies at sites of mineralization. Thus, CNPs may accelerate vascular calcification. PMID:24920905

  4. Intramural ectopic pregnancy: a case and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Emma; McDonald, Katie; Rees, Julia; Govind, Abha

    2013-06-01

    An intramural ectopic is a rare type of ectopic pregnancy in which the gestational sac is implanted within the myometrium, separate from the endometrial cavity and Fallopian tubes. There are only 53 cases in the published literature. We report a case of intramural ectopic pregnancy treated surgically and review the published data on this rare type of ectopic pregnancy, with respect to aetiology, diagnosis and management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. SERS detection of uranyl using functionalized gold nanostars promoted by nanoparticle shape and size.

    PubMed

    Lu, Grace; Forbes, Tori Z; Haes, Amanda J

    2016-08-15

    The radius of curvature of gold (Au) nanostar tips but not the overall particle dimensions can be used for understanding the large and quantitative surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signal of the uranyl (UO2)(2+) moiety. The engineered roughness of the Au nanostar architecture and the distance between the gold surface and uranyl cations are promoted using carboxylic acid terminated alkanethiols containing 2, 5, and 10 methylene groups. By systematically varying the self-assembled monolayer (SAM) thickness with these molecules, the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) spectral properties are used to quantify the SAM layer thickness and to promote uranyl coordination to the Au nanostars in neutral aqueous solutions. Successful uranyl detection is demonstrated for all three functionalized Au nanostar samples as indicated by enhanced signals and red-shifts in the symmetric U(vi)-O stretch. Quantitative uranyl detection is achieved by evaluating the integrated area of these bands in the uranyl fingerprint window. By varying the concentration of uranyl, similar free energies of adsorption are observed for the three carboxylic acid terminated functionalized Au nanostar samples indicating similar coordination to uranyl, but the SERS signals scale inversely with the alkanethiol layer thickness. This distance dependence follows previously established models assuming that roughness features associated with the radius of curvature of the tips are considered. These results indicate that SERS signals using functionalized Au nanostar substrates can provide quantitative detection of small molecules and that the tip architecture plays an important role in understanding the resulting SERS intensities.

  6. Ectopic pregnancy comparison of different treatments

    PubMed Central

    Kopani, Fatmir; Rrugia, Arben; Manoku, Nikita

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: We would like to determine the best treatment option depending of ectopic pregnancy situation. Methods. This is a retrospective cohort study that registered all women admitted in Obstetrics and Gynecologic “Queen Geraldine” Hospital June 2003 until 2008 dicember. There were admitted 228 women diagnosed with Ectopic Pregnancy that were treated in our Hospital. Results: Unruptured ectopic pregnancy is diagnosed in 5,2 week of pregnancy and ruptured ectopic in an average of 6,4 weeks. Surgical intervention is registered in 170 patients and we did tubectomy. Success rate of Methotrexate application was more successful if β-hCG level was lower. If the β-hCG level is higher over 10 000 the success rate will decrease in 83 % and in β-hCG levels over 15 000 the success rate will be until 50%. Conclusions: The treatment will be determined by combination of clinical symptoms, ultrasound examination and β-hCG levels. MTX is recommended for all women without hemodinamic problems, unruptured pregnancy and low β-hCG level (β-hCG < 5000 mlU/mL). It is confirmed that the reduction of 15% of β-hCG in the fourth day after application of MTX is a success guide. PMID:22439058

  7. Triplets—one ectopic, two intrauterine

    PubMed Central

    Khan, A. A.

    1973-01-01

    A case of ovarian ectopic conception, complicating a simultaneous twin intra-uterine pregnancy is described, in which the operative diagnosis was confirmed by histological examination. Such cases are extremely rare and comment is made upon this with references. PMID:4786440

  8. Ectopic pregnancy in an apparently healthy bitch.

    PubMed

    Eddey, Philip D

    2012-01-01

    This case describes an extrauterine fetus that was discovered in an apparently healthy bitch 5 mo after whelping. The extrauterine fetus was surgically removed, and the bitch made a complete recovery. The topic of canine ectopic pregnancy is discussed, and a review of previously reported cases is presented.

  9. Disparities in the management of ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jennifer Y; Chen, Ling; Gumer, Arielle R; Tergas, Ana I; Hou, June Y; Burke, William M; Ananth, Cande V; Hershman, Dawn L; Wright, Jason D

    2017-07-01

    Ectopic pregnancy is common among young women. Treatment can consist of either surgery with salpingectomy or salpingostomy or medical management with methotrexate. In addition to acute complications, treatment of ectopic pregnancy can result in long-term sequelae that include decreased fertility. Little is known about the patterns of care and predictors of treatment in women with ectopic pregnancy. Similarly, data on outcomes for various treatments are limited. We examined the patterns of care and outcomes for women with ectopic pregnancy. Specifically, we examined predictors of medical (vs surgical) management of ectopic pregnancy and tubal conservation (salpingostomy vs salpingectomy) among women who underwent surgery. The Perspective database was used to identify women with a diagnosis of tubal ectopic pregnancy treated from 2006-2015. Perspective is an all-payer database that collects data on patients at hospitals from throughout the United States. Women were classified as having undergone medical treatment, if they received methotrexate, and surgical treatment, if treatment consisted of salpingostomy or salpingectomy. Multivariable models were developed to examine predictors of medical treatment and of tubal conserving salpingostomy among women who were treated surgically. Among the 62,588 women, 49,090 women (78.4%) were treated surgically, and 13,498 women (21.6%) received methotrexate. Use of methotrexate increased from 14.5% in 2006 to 27.3% by 2015 (P<.001). Among women who underwent surgery, salpingostomy decreased over time from 13.0% in 2006 to 6.0% in 2015 (P<.001). Treatment in more recent years, at a teaching hospital and at higher volume centers, were associated with the increased use of methotrexate (P<.05 for all). In contrast, Medicaid recipients (adjusted risk ratio, 0.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.87-0.98) and uninsured women (adjusted risk ratio, 0.87; 95% confidence interval, 0.82-0.93) were less likely to receive methotrexate than

  10. Laparoscopic Resection of Cesarean Scar Ectopic Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ades, Alex; Parghi, Sneha

    To demonstrate a technique for the laparoscopic surgical management of cesarean section scar ectopic pregnancy. Step-by-step presentation of the procedure using video (Canadian Task Force classification III). Cesarean section scar ectopic pregnancy is a rare form of ectopic pregnancy with an incidence ranging from 1:1800 to 1:2216. Over the last decade, the incidence seems to be on the rise with increasing rates of cesarean deliveries and early use of Doppler ultrasound. These pregnancies can lead to life-threatening hemorrhage, uterine rupture, and hysterectomy if not managed promptly. Local or systemic methotrexate therapy has been used successfully but can result in prolonged hospitalization, requires long-term follow-up, and in some cases treatment can fail. In the hands of a trained operator, laparoscopic resection can be performed to manage this type of pregnancy. Consent was obtained from the patient, and exemption was granted from the local Internal Review Board (The Womens' Hospital, Parkville). In this video we describe our technique for laparoscopic management of a cesarean scar ectopic pregnancy. We present the case of a 34-year-old G4P2T1 with the finding of a live 8-week pregnancy embedded in the cesarean section scar. The patient had undergone 2 previous uncomplicated cesarean sections at term. On presentation her β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) level was 52 405 IU/L. She was initially managed with an intragestational sac injection of potassium chloride and methotrexate, followed by 4 doses of intramuscular methotrexate. Despite these conservative measures, the level of β-hCG did not adequately fall and an ultrasound showed a persistent 4-cm mass. A decision was made to proceed with surgical treatment in the form of a laparoscopic resection of the ectopic pregnancy. The surgery was uneventful, and the patient was discharged home within 24 hours of her procedure. Her serial β-hCG levels were followed until complete resolution

  11. [Surgery treatment of ectopic adrenocorticotrophic hormone syndrome].

    PubMed

    Fan, H; Li, H Z; Xu, W F; Ji, Z G; Zhang, Y S

    2017-08-18

    To investigation the diagnosis and treatment of ectopic adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) syndrome. The clinical characters of 57 cases of ecotopic ACTH syndrome from Jan. 1996 to Dec. 2016 were collected and analyzed. The 57 cases included 32 males and 25 females. The age ranged from 11 to 68 years (average 32 years). ACTH levels significantly increased from 16.5 to 365.6 pmol/L, with average 77.6 pmol/L (normal range <10.1 pmol/L). The pituitary MRI did not found lesions. The CT showed that their bilateral adrenal glands diffused small nodular changes or nodular hyperplasia. The 57 cases were divided into 3 groups according to different treatment options. In the study, 25 ectopic ACTH syndrome cases (44%) were group A, without identified source of ectopic hormone, were treated with bilateral or unilateral adrenalectomy due to the severity of the disease and difficulty of operation. Group B was composed of 16 cases (28%) diagnosed as ectopic ACTH syndrome by finding ectopic ACTH tumors and surgical resection. Group C included 16 cases (28%) with nonsurgical therapy. Different treatment results and prognosis were analyzed. In the study, 40 cases of the 57 had been followed up for 6 months to 10 years. In group A, of the 25 cases with bilateral or unilateral adrenalectomy, 4 died of diabetes and severe pulmonary infection, 18 survived, and 3 were lost to the follow-up, and the survival rate was 81% (18/22). In group B, of the 16 cases with radical tumor resection, 5 died of tumor recurrence 0.5-6.0 years after operation, 3 survived, and 8 were lost to the follow-up, and the survival rate was 37.5% (3/8). In group C, of the 16 non-operation patients, 4 with radiotherapy and chemotherapy died of metastases, diabetes or pulmonary infection, 6 with chemotherapy died of pulmonary infection within 1 year and the others were lost to the follow-up, and the survival rate was 0. Ectopic ACTH syndrome is difficult to treat. Adrenalectomy is effective for the management of

  12. Silver nanoparticles/chitosan oligosaccharide/poly(vinyl alcohol) nanofiber promotes wound healing by activating TGFβ1/Smad signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chen-wen; Wang, Qing; Li, Jing; Hu, Min; Shi, San-jun; Li, Zi-wei; Wu, Guo-lin; Cui, Huan-huan; Li, Yuan-yuan; Zhang, Qian; Yu, Xiu-heng; Lu, Lai-chun

    2016-01-01

    Wound healing occupies a remarkable place in everyday pathology and remains a challenging clinical problem. In our previous study, we prepared a silver nanoparticle/chitosan oligosaccharide/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA/COS-AgNPs) nanofiber via electrospinning and revealed that it could promote wound healing; however, the healing mechanism remained unknown. Therefore, we aimed to clarify the mechanism underlying the accelerated healing effect of the PVA/COS-AgNPs nanofiber. The TGFβ1/Smad signaling pathway is actively involved in wound healing. Considering the key role of this signaling pathway in wound healing, our preliminary study showed that the TGFβ1 level was significantly increased during the early stage of wound healing. Thus, in this study, hematoxylin–eosin, Masson’s trichrome, immunofluorescent staining, hydroxyproline content, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and Western blot analyses were used to analyze the wound healing in a rat model treated with gauze, the PVA/COS-AgNPs nanofiber, and the nanofiber plus SB431542 (an inhibitor of TGFβ1 receptor kinase). The results showed that the PVA/COS-AgNPs nanofiber promoted wound healing and upregulated the expression levels of cytokines associated with the TGFβ1/Smad signaling pathway such as TGFβ1, TGFβRI, TGFβRII, collagen I, collagen III, pSmad2, and pSmad3. Inhibiting this pathway with SB431542 resulted in prevention of the PVA/COS-AgNPs nanofiber-associated salutary effects on the early stage of wound healing and relative cytokines expression. In conclusion, the wound healing effect of the PVA/COS-AgNPs nanofiber involves activation of the TGFβ1/Smad signaling pathway. PMID:26855575

  13. S/MAR-containing DNA nanoparticles promote persistent RPE gene expression and improvement in RPE65-associated LCA.

    PubMed

    Koirala, Adarsha; Makkia, Rasha S; Conley, Shannon M; Cooper, Mark J; Naash, Muna I

    2013-04-15

    Mutations in genes in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cause or contribute to debilitating ocular diseases, including Leber's congenital amaurosis (LCA). Genetic therapies, particularly adeno-associated viruses (AAVs), are a popular choice for monogenic diseases; however, the limited payload capacity of AAVs combined with the large number of retinal disease genes exceeding that capacity make the development of alternative delivery methods critical. Here, we test the ability of compacted DNA nanoparticles (NPs) containing a plasmid with a scaffold matrix attachment region (S/MAR) and vitelliform macular dystrophy 2 (VMD2) promoter to target the RPE, drive long-term, tissue-specific gene expression and mediate proof-of-principle rescue in the rpe65(-/-) model of LCA. We show that the S/MAR-containing plasmid exhibited reporter gene expression levels several fold higher than plasmid or NPs without S/MARs. Importantly, this expression was highly persistent, lasting up to 2 years (last timepoint studied). We therefore selected this plasmid for testing in the rpe65(-/-) mouse model and observe that NP or plasmid VMD2-hRPE65-S/MAR led to structural and functional improvements in the LCA disease phenotype. These results indicate that the non-viral delivery of hRPE65 vectors can result in persistent, therapeutically efficacious gene expression in the RPE.

  14. Studies of the structure and function of Mms6, a bacterial protein that promotes the formation of magnetic nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lijun

    2011-01-01

    Here we report structural and functional studies of Mms6, a biomineralization protein that can promote the formation in vitro of magnetic nanoparticles with sizes and morphologies similar to the magnetites synthesized by magnetotactic bacteria. We found the binding pattern of Mms6 to ferric ion to be two-phase and multivalent. We quantatively determined that Mms6 binds one Fe3+ with a very high affinity (Kd = 1016 M). The second phase of iron binding is multivalent and cooperative with respect to iron with a Kd in the μM range and a stoichiometry of about 20 ferric ion per protein molecule. We found that Mms6 exists in large particles of two sizes, one consisting of 20-40 monomeric units and the other of 200 units. From proteolytic digestion, ultracentrifugation and liposome fusion studies, we found that Mms6 forms a large micellar quaternary structure with the N-terminal domain self-assembling into a uniformly sized micelle and the C-terminal domain on the surface. The two-phase iron-binding pattern may be relevant to iron crystal formation. We propose that the first high affinity phase may stabilize a new conformation of the C-terminal domain that allows interaction with other C-terminal domains leading to a structural change in the multimeric protein complex that enables the second low affinity iron binding phase to organize iron and initiate crystal formation. We also observed a dimeric apparent molecular mass of the Mms6 C-terminal peptide (C21Mms6). We speculate that the C-terminal domain may form higher order quaternary arrangements on the surface of the micelle or when anchored to a membrane by the N-terminal domain. The change in fluorescence quenching in the N-terminal domain with iron binding suggests a structural integrity between the C- and N-terminal domains. The slow change in trp fluorescence as a function of time after adding iron suggests a very slow conformational change in the protein that involves

  15. Conservative Management of Cervical Ectopic Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Murji, Ally; Garbedian, Kimberley; Thomas, Jacqueline; Cruickshank, Barbara

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of conservative management for cervical ectopic pregnancies. We conducted a retrospective review of all cases of cervical ectopic pregnancy diagnosed at our tertiary care academic centre between January 2002 and July 2014. The diagnosis of cervical ectopic pregnancy was made using transvaginal ultrasound according to published criteria. Management decisions were made by individual clinicians. Cervical ectopic pregnancy was diagnosed in 27 women with a median age of 34 years. Two thirds of them were nulliparous, and 44% (12/27) reported infertility. The mean gestational age at diagnosis was seven weeks. The median serum human chorionic gonadotropin level was 11 300 IU/L (range 610 to 163 700). Fetal cardiac activity was present in 19 pregnancies (70%). Vaginal bleeding was the most common presentation, occurring in 23 cases (85%). Three women presented with acute life-threatening hemorrhage. All cases were successfully managed conservatively, allowing uterine preservation. Systemic methotrexate (single or multi-dose protocol) was the mainstay of therapy. Other minimally invasive interventions included ultrasound-guided injection of potassium chloride into the pregnancy, uterine artery embolization, vaginal ligation of cervical branches of the uterine arteries, and dilatation and curettage, with or without dilute vasopressin cervical infiltration and Foley catheter tamponade. Systemic methotrexate alone or in combination with other minimally invasive techniques can be effective conservative treatment for cervical pregnancies. A fertility-sparing approach is the optimal treatment for this patient population, which has high rates of infertility and nulliparity. We present a management algorithm based on our results to aid in standardizing the management of cervical ectopic pregnancies.

  16. nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olive-Méndez, Sion F.; Santillán-Rodríguez, Carlos R.; González-Valenzuela, Ricardo A.; Espinosa-Magaña, Francisco; Matutes-Aquino, José A.

    2014-04-01

    In this work, we present the role of vanadium ions (V+5 and V+3), oxygen vacancies (VO), and interstitial zinc (Zni) to the contribution of specific magnetization for a mixture of ZnO-V2O5 nanoparticles (NPs). Samples were obtained by mechanical milling of dry powders and ethanol-assisted milling for 1 h with a fixed atomic ratio V/Zn?=?5% at. For comparison, pure ZnO samples were also prepared. All samples exhibit a room temperature magnetization ranging from 1.18?×?10-3 to 3.5?×?10-3 emu/gr. Pure ZnO powders (1.34?×?10-3 emu/gr) milled with ethanol exhibit slight increase in magnetization attributed to formation of Zni, while dry milled ZnO powders exhibit a decrease of magnetization due to a reduction of VO concentration. For the ZnO-V2O5 system, dry milled and thermally treated samples under reducing atmosphere exhibit a large paramagnetic component associated to the formation of V2O3 and secondary phases containing V+3 ions; at the same time, an increase of VO is observed with an abrupt fall of magnetization to σ?~?0.7?×?10-3 emu/gr due to segregation of V oxides and formation of secondary phases. As mechanical milling is an aggressive synthesis method, high disorder is induced at the surface of the ZnO NPs, including VO and Zni depending on the chemical environment. Thermal treatment restores partially structural order at the surface of the NPs, thus reducing the amount of Zni at the same time that V2O5 NPs segregate reducing the direct contact with the surface of ZnO NPs. Additional samples were milled for longer time up to 24 h to study the effect of milling on the magnetization; 1-h milled samples have the highest magnetizations. Structural characterization was carried out using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Identification of VO and Zni was carried out with Raman spectra, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was used to verify that V did not diffuse into ZnO NPs as well to quantify O/Zn ratios.

  17. Recurrent ectopic pregnancy after ipsilateral partial salpingectomy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lee, D H

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic pregnancy is associated with maternal morbidity and mortality during early pregnancy. Ectopic pregnancy occurs in approximately 2% of all pregnancies, and the risk of ectopic pregnancy is increased by eight-fold in women with a history of eopic pregnancy. However, recurrent ectopic pregnancy after ipsilateral partial salpingectomy is quite rare. The authors experienced a case of recurrent ectopic pregnancy in the distal remnant after right partial salpingectomy. In this case report, they discuss this unusual case and provide a brief review of the literature.

  18. Impact of ectopic pregnancy for reproductive prognosis in next generation.

    PubMed

    Kårhus, Line Lund; Egerup, Pia; Skovlund, Charlotte Wessel; Lidegaard, Øjvind

    2014-04-01

    The impact of an ectopic pregnancy in the next generation is unknown. Our aim was to compare reproductive outcomes in daughters of women with and without ectopic pregnancy. Designed as a historical prospective controlled cohort study with data collected in four Danish registries from 1977-2009, women with ectopic pregnancy during 1977-1982 were age-matched to women without ectopic pregnancy. Daughters of these two cohorts were followed until 2009. We compared 5126 daughters of women with ectopic pregnancy with 19 928 daughters of women without ectopic pregnancy. The daughters of women with ectopic pregnancy had a 1.5-fold (95% confidence interval 1.2-1.9) increased risk of ectopic pregnancy, while for deliveries this was 1.0 (1.0-1.1), for miscarriages 1.1 (1.0-1.2), and for induced abortions 1.3 (1.2-1.4). Daughters of mothers with ectopic pregnancy have a 50% higher risk of ectopic pregnancy than daughters of women without an ectopic pregnancy, but a normal delivery rate.

  19. Ectopic parathyroid adenoma in the soft palate: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chang, Brent A; Sharma, Anil; Anderson, Donald W

    2016-10-18

    Ectopic parathyroid adenomas can occur in numerous anatomic locations. While ectopic parathyroid adenomas can rarely occur in the pharyngeal region, this has not previously been described in the soft palate. We report the first case of ectopic parathyroid adenoma within the soft palate. A 59 year old woman presented with hyperparathyroidism. She remained persistently hyperparathyroid after initial parathyroidectomy. Repeat exploration for a lesion suspicious on PET-CT for an ectopic parathyroid adenoma in the parapharyngeal region was unsuccessful in treating the hyperparathyroidism. An ectopic adenoma in the soft palate was eventually discovered. Removal through a transoral approach was successful in treating the hyperparathyroidism. Ectopic parathyroid adenomas can occur in various anatomical locations that may be missed even with the use of the various imaging modalities. The soft palate should be added to the list of possible ectopic locations high in the neck.

  20. Ectopic Lymphoid Structures: Powerhouse of Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Corsiero, Elisa; Nerviani, Alessandra; Bombardieri, Michele; Pitzalis, Costantino

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic lymphoid structures (ELS) often develop at sites of inflammation in target tissues of autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren’s syndrome, multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, and systemic lupus erythematosus. ELS are characterized by the formation of organized T/B cells aggregates, which can acquire follicular dendritic cells network supporting an ectopic germinal center response. In this review, we shall summarize the mechanisms that regulate the formation of ELS in tertiary lymphoid organs, with particular emphasis on the role of lymphoid chemokines in both formation and maintenance of ELS, the role of emerging positive and negative regulators of ELS development and function, including T follicular helper cells and IL-27, respectively. Finally, we shall discuss the main functions of ELS in supporting the affinity maturation, clonal selection, and differentiation of autoreactive B cells contributing to the maintenance and perpetuation of humoral autoimmunity. PMID:27799933

  1. The paracrinology of tubal ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Julie L V; Horne, Andrew W

    2012-07-25

    As part of successful human reproduction, the Fallopian tube must provide a suitable environment for pre-implantation development of the embryo and for efficient transport of the embryo to the uterus for implantation. These functions are coordinated by paracrine interactions between tubal epithelial, smooth muscle and immune cells and the cells of the developing embryo. Alterations in these signals can lead to a tubal microenvironment encouraging of embryo implantation and to dysregulated tubal motility, ultimately resulting in inappropriate and early implantation of the embryo in the Fallopian tube. Here, we highlight novel and emerging concepts in tubal physiology and pathobiology, such as the induction of a receptive phenotype within the Fallopian tube, leading to ectopic implantation. Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a risk factor for tubal ectopic pregnancy. Activation of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2) in the Fallopian tube epithelium, by C. trachomatis has recently been demonstrated, leading to the dysregulation of factors involved in implantation and smooth muscle contractility, such as prokineticins (PROK), activin A and interleukin 1 (IL-1). The Fallopian tube has also recently been shown to harbour a unique population of immune cells, compared to the endometrium. In addition, the complement of immune cells in the Fallopian tube has been reported to be altered in Fallopian tube from women with ectopic pregnancy. There are increasing data suggesting that vascularisation of the Fallopian tube, by the embryo during ectopic pregnancy, differs from that initiated in the uterus during normal pregnancy. This too, is likely the result of paracrine signals between the embryo and the tubal microenvironment.

  2. Functions of ectopically transplanted invasive horse trophoblast

    PubMed Central

    de Mestre, Amanda M.; Hanlon, David; Adams, A. Paige; Runcan, Erin; Leadbeater, Jane C.; Erb, Hollis N.; Costa, Christina C.; Miller, Donald; Allen, W. R; Antczak, Douglas F.

    2013-01-01

    The invasive and fully antigenic trophoblast of the chorionic girdle portion of the equine fetal membranes has the capacity to survive and differentiate after transplantation to ectopic sites. The objectives of this study were to determine: (i) the survival time of ectopically transplanted allogeneic trophoblast cells in non-pregnant recipient mares, (ii) whether equine Chorionic Gonadotrophin (eCG) can be delivered systemically by transplanted chorionic girdle cells, and (iii) if eCG delivered by the transplanted cells is biologically active and can suppress behavioral signs associated with estrus. Ectopically transplanted chorionic girdle survived for up to 105 days with a mean lifespan of 75 days (95% CI 55–94), and secreted sufficient eCG for the hormone to be measurable in the recipients’ circulation. Immunohistochemical labeling of serial biopsies of the transplant sites and measurement of eCG profiles demonstrated that graft survival was similar to the lifespan of equine endometrial cups in normal horse pregnancy. The eCG secreted by the transplanted cells induced corpora lutea formation and sustained systemic progesterone levels in the recipient mares, effects that are also observed during pregnancy. This in turn caused suppression of estrus behavior in the recipients for up to three months. Thus, ectopically transplanted equine trophoblast provides an unusual example of sustained viability and function of an immunogenic transplant in a recipient with an intact immune system. This model highlights the importance of innate immunoregulatory capabilities of invasive trophoblast cells and describes a new method to deliver sustained circulating concentrations of eCG in non-pregnant mares. PMID:21389079

  3. Heterolytic Activation of Hydrogen Promoted by Ruthenium Nanoparticles immobilized on Basic Supports and Hydrogenation of Aromatic Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Minfeng

    Despite the aggressive development and deployment of new renewable and nuclear technologies, petroleum-derived transportation fuels---gasoline, diesel and jet fuels---will continue to dominate the markets for decades. Environmental legislation imposes severe limits on the tolerable proportion of aromatics, sulfur and nitrogen contents in transportation fuels, which is difficult to achieve with current refining technologies. Catalytic hydrogenation plays an important role in the production of cleaner fuels, both as a direct means to reduce the aromatics and as a key step in the hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) and hydrodesulfurization (HDS) processes. However, conventional catalysts require drastic conditions and/or are easily poisoned by S or N aromatics. Therefore, there is still a need for new efficient catalysts for hydrogenation reactions relevant to the production of cleaner fossil fuels. Our catalyst design involves metallic nanoparticles intimately associated with a basic support, with the aim of creating a nanostructure capable of promoting the heterolytic activation of hydrogen and ionic hydrogenation mechanisms, as a strategy to avoid catalyst poisoning and enhance catalytic activity. We have designed and prepared a new nanostructured catalytic material composed of RuNPs immobilized on the basic polymer P4VPy. We have demonstrated that the Ru/P4VPy catalyst can promote heterolytic hydrogen activation and a unique surface ionic hydrogenation mechanism for the efficient hydrogenation of N-aromatics. This is the first time these ionic hydrogenation pathways have been demonstrated on solid surfaces. For the RuNPs surfaces without basic sites in close proximity, the conventional homolytic H2 splitting is otherwise involved. Using the mechanistic concepts from Ru/P4VPy, we have designed and prepared the Ru/MgO catalyst, with the aim to improve the catalytic efficiency for the hydrogenation of heteroatom aromatics operating by the ionic hydrogenation mechanism. The Ru

  4. Laparoscopic Treatment of Cesarean Scar Ectopic Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Felsingerová, Zuzana; Felsinger, Michal; Jandakova, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: An ectopic pregnancy within a Cesarean scar represents a rare type of extrauterine pregnancy in which the fertilized egg nidates in the myometrium of the uterine wall within a scar left from a previous Cesarean delivery. An unrecognized growing Cesarian scar pregnancy may result in uterine rupture, uncontrollable metrorrhagia, and bleeding into the abdominal cavity; therefore, early diagnosis and therapy are necessary to prevent the development of severe complications. Case: A 34-year-old woman after a previous Cesarean delivery presented with amenorrhoa of 7 weeks' duration. Transvaginal ultrasonography revealed an ectopic pregnancy in the Cesarean scar, and a laparoscopic removal of the gestational sac was performed with no complications. Results: Three months later, another laparoscopy with chromopertubation showed no signs of penetration in the suture, both the Fallopian tubes being bilaterally passable. The patient was advised that she could try to achieve pregnancy through spontaneous conception, after which monitoring of the gestational development and a careful assessment of the nidation site would be needed. Conclusions: Laparoscopic surgical management of a viable ectopic pregnancy is technically simple, and is followed by a good recovery. (J GYNECOL SURG 30:309) PMID:25336858

  5. [Non surgical management of ectopic pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Kdous, Moez

    2006-06-01

    During the past 25 years, the incidence of ectopic pregnancy has progressively increased while the morbidity and mortality have substantialy decreased, and the treatment has progressed from salpingectomy by laparotomy to conservative surgery by laparoscopy and more recently to medical therapy with Methotrexate or expectant management. This therapeutic transition from surgical emergency to non surgical managment has been attributed to early diagnosis through the use of sensitive assays for hCG and the high definition of vaginal ultrasound. By using these sensitive diagnostic tools, we are now able to select those patients who are most likely to respond to expectant or medical managment versus those who are at high risk of rupture and require surgery. We have reviewed the scientific literature on ectopic pregnancy published over the past 20 years, with the aim to assess the value of non surgical managment of etopic pregnancy. Predictor factors of expectant managment are discussed. Medical therapy with methotrexate: results, indications, Unpleasant side effects and complications are detailed. Several protocols are defined and therapeutic supervision is etablished. The authors offred several recommandations for OB/GY wich will optimize the effectivness of non invasive methods for treatment of ectopic pregnancy.

  6. Perforation of jejunal diverticulum with ectopic pancreas.

    PubMed

    Shiratori, Hiroshi; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Shintani, Yukako; Murono, Koji; Sasaki, Kazuhito; Yasuda, Koji; Otani, Kensuke; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Kiyomatsu, Tomomichi; Hata, Keisuke; Kawai, Kazushige; Nozawa, Hiroaki; Ishihara, Soichiro; Fukayama, Masashi; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2017-04-01

    Perforation of jejunal diverticulum is a rare complication. Here, we report a case of jejunal diverticulum penetration with surrounding ectopic pancreas. An 83-year-old female patient was admitted to our department with acute onset of severe abdominal pain lasting for half a day. Abdominal computed tomography showed outpouching of the small intestine that contained air/fluid, with multiple surrounding air bubbles in the mesentery of the small intestine. She was diagnosed with penetration of the small intestine, and an emergency laparotomy was indicated. The penetrated jejunal diverticulum was identified ~20-cm distal to the ligament of Treitz. Partial resection of the jejunum was performed, and her postoperative course was uneventful. The pathological findings confirmed diverticulum penetration into the mesentery and severe inflammation at the site, with surrounding ectopic pancreas. Furthermore, the pancreatic ducts were opened through the penetrated diverticulum. This rare case shows that the ectopic pancreas might have caused penetration of jejunal diverticulum owing to the pancreatic duct opening through the diverticulum.

  7. Widespread ectopic expression of olfactory receptor genes

    PubMed Central

    Feldmesser, Ester; Olender, Tsviya; Khen, Miriam; Yanai, Itai; Ophir, Ron; Lancet, Doron

    2006-01-01

    Background Olfactory receptors (ORs) are the largest gene family in the human genome. Although they are expected to be expressed specifically in olfactory tissues, some ectopic expression has been reported, with special emphasis on sperm and testis. The present study systematically explores the expression patterns of OR genes in a large number of tissues and assesses the potential functional implication of such ectopic expression. Results We analyzed the expression of hundreds of human and mouse OR transcripts, via EST and microarray data, in several dozens of human and mouse tissues. Different tissues had specific, relatively small OR gene subsets which had particularly high expression levels. In testis, average expression was not particularly high, and very few highly expressed genes were found, none corresponding to ORs previously implicated in sperm chemotaxis. Higher expression levels were more common for genes with a non-OR genomic neighbor. Importantly, no correlation in expression levels was detected for human-mouse orthologous pairs. Also, no significant difference in expression levels was seen between intact and pseudogenized ORs, except for the pseudogenes of subfamily 7E which has undergone a human-specific expansion. Conclusion The OR superfamily as a whole, show widespread, locus-dependent and heterogeneous expression, in agreement with a neutral or near neutral evolutionary model for transcription control. These results cannot reject the possibility that small OR subsets might play functional roles in different tissues, however considerable care should be exerted when offering a functional interpretation for ectopic OR expression based only on transcription information. PMID:16716209

  8. Simulation of Ectopic Pacemakers in the Heart: Multiple Ectopic Beats Generated by Reentry inside Fibrotic Regions

    PubMed Central

    Gouvêa de Barros, Bruno; Weber dos Santos, Rodrigo; Lobosco, Marcelo; Alonso, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    The inclusion of nonconducting media, mimicking cardiac fibrosis, in two models of cardiac tissue produces the formation of ectopic beats. The fraction of nonconducting media in comparison with the fraction of healthy myocytes and the topological distribution of cells determines the probability of ectopic beat generation. First, a detailed subcellular microscopic model that accounts for the microstructure of the cardiac tissue is constructed and employed for the numerical simulation of action potential propagation. Next, an equivalent discrete model is implemented, which permits a faster integration of the equations. This discrete model is a simplified version of the microscopic model that maintains the distribution of connections between cells. Both models produce similar results when describing action potential propagation in homogeneous tissue; however, they slightly differ in the generation of ectopic beats in heterogeneous tissue. Nevertheless, both models present the generation of reentry inside fibrotic tissues. This kind of reentry restricted to microfibrosis regions can result in the formation of ectopic pacemakers, that is, regions that will generate a series of ectopic stimulus at a fast pacing rate. In turn, such activity has been related to trigger fibrillation in the atria and in the ventricles in clinical and animal studies. PMID:26583127

  9. Simulation of Ectopic Pacemakers in the Heart: Multiple Ectopic Beats Generated by Reentry inside Fibrotic Regions.

    PubMed

    Gouvêa de Barros, Bruno; Weber dos Santos, Rodrigo; Lobosco, Marcelo; Alonso, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    The inclusion of nonconducting media, mimicking cardiac fibrosis, in two models of cardiac tissue produces the formation of ectopic beats. The fraction of nonconducting media in comparison with the fraction of healthy myocytes and the topological distribution of cells determines the probability of ectopic beat generation. First, a detailed subcellular microscopic model that accounts for the microstructure of the cardiac tissue is constructed and employed for the numerical simulation of action potential propagation. Next, an equivalent discrete model is implemented, which permits a faster integration of the equations. This discrete model is a simplified version of the microscopic model that maintains the distribution of connections between cells. Both models produce similar results when describing action potential propagation in homogeneous tissue; however, they slightly differ in the generation of ectopic beats in heterogeneous tissue. Nevertheless, both models present the generation of reentry inside fibrotic tissues. This kind of reentry restricted to microfibrosis regions can result in the formation of ectopic pacemakers, that is, regions that will generate a series of ectopic stimulus at a fast pacing rate. In turn, such activity has been related to trigger fibrillation in the atria and in the ventricles in clinical and animal studies.

  10. Epigenetic assembly of centromeric chromatin at ectopic alpha-satellite sites on human chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Megumi; Okamoto, Yasuhide; Ohzeki, Jun-ichirou; Masumoto, Hiroshi

    2003-10-01

    To investigate the mechanism of chromatin assembly at human centromeres, we isolated cultured human cell lines in which a transfected alpha-satellite (alphoid) YAC was integrated ectopically into the terminal region of host chromosome 16, where it was stably maintained. Centromere activity of the alphoid YAC was suppressed at ectopic locations on the host chromosome, as indicated by the absent or reduced assembly of CENP-A and -C. However, long-term culture in selective medium, or short-term treatment with the histone deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A (TSA), promoted the re-assembly of CENPA, -B and -C at the YAC site and the release of minichromosomes containing the YAC integration site. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses of the re-formed minichromosome and the alphoid YAC-based stable human artificial chromosome both indicated that CENP-A and CENP-B assembled only on the inserted alphoid array but not on the YAC arms. On the YAC arms at the alphoid YAC integration sites, TSA treatment increased both the acetylation level of histone H3 and the transcriptional level of a marker gene. An increase in the level of transcription was also observed after long-term culture in selective medium. These activities, which are associated with changes in chromatin structure, might reverse the suppressed chromatin state of the YAC at ectopic loci, and thus might be involved in the epigenetic change of silent centromeres on ectopic alphoid loci.

  11. Suppression of matrix metalloproteinases inhibits establishment of ectopic lesions by human endometrium in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Bruner, K L; Matrisian, L M; Rodgers, W H; Gorstein, F; Osteen, K G

    1997-06-15

    Matrix metalloproteinases of the stromelysin family are expressed in the human endometrium as a consequence of cellular events during the menstrual cycle that require extracellular matrix remodeling. We have recently documented the presence of these enzymes in lesions of endometriosis, a benign disease that presents as persistent ectopic sites of endometrial tissue, usually within the peritoneal cavity. Endometriosis can develop after retrograde menstruation of endometrial tissue fragments, and establishment of ectopic sites within the peritoneal cavity requires breakdown of extracellular matrix. To examine whether matrix metalloproteinases might contribute to the steroid-dependent epidemiology and cellular pathophysiology of endometriosis, we have developed an experimental model of endometriosis using athymic nude mice as recipients of human endometrial tissue. Our results demonstrate that estrogen treatment of human endometrial tissue in organ culture maintains secretion of matrix metalloproteinases, and promotes establishment of ectopic peritoneal lesions when injected into recipient animals. In contrast, suppressing metalloproteinase secretion in vitro with progesterone treatment, or blocking enzyme activity with a natural inhibitor of metalloproteinases, inhibits the formation of ectopic lesions in this experimental model.

  12. Targeting Innate Immunity with dsRNA-Conjugated Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles Promotes Antitumor Effects on Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Ultimo, Amelia; Giménez, Cristina; Bartovsky, Pavel; Aznar, Elena; Sancenón, Félix; Marcos, M Dolores; Amorós, Pedro; Bernardo, Ana R; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón; Jiménez-Lara, Ana M; Murguía, José R

    2016-01-26

    We describe herein a Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) targeting delivery system based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles capped with the synthetic double stranded RNA polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) for controlled cargo delivery in SK-BR-3 breast carcinoma cells. Our results show that poly(I:C)-conjugated nanoparticles efficiently targeted breast cancer cells due to dsRNA-TLR3 interaction. Such interaction also triggered apoptotic pathways in SK-BR-3, significantly decreasing cells viability. Poly(I:C) cytotoxic effect in breast carcinoma cells was enhanced by loading nanoparticles' mesopores with the anthracyclinic antibiotic doxorubicin, a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent.

  13. PELA microspheres with encapsulated arginine-chitosan/pBMP-2 nanoparticles induce pBMP-2 controlled-release, transfected osteoblastic progenitor cells, and promoted osteogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaolong; Qiu, Sujun; Zhang, Yuxian; Yin, Jie; Min, Shaoxiong

    2017-03-01

    Repair of the bone injury remains a challenge in clinical practices. Recent progress in tissue engineering and therapeutic gene delivery systems have led to promising new strategies for successful acceleration of bone repair process. The aim of this study was to create a controlled-release system to slowly release the arginine-chitosan/plasmid DNA nanoparticles encoding BMP-2 gene (Arg-CS/pBMP-2 NPs), efficiently transfect osteoblastic progenitor cells, secrete functional BMP-2 protein, and promote osteogenic differentiation. In this study, chitosan was conjugated with arginine to generate arginine-chitosan polymer (Arg-CS) for gene delivery. Mix the Arg-CS with pBMP-2 to condense pBMP-2 into nano-sized particles. In vitro transfection assays demonstrated that the transfection efficiency of Arg-CS/pBMP-2 nanoparticles and the expression level of BMP-2 was obviously exceed control groups. Further, PELA microspheres as the controlled-release carrier for the nanoparticles were used to encapsulate Arg-CS/pBMP-2 NPs. We demonstrated that the Arg-CS/pBMP-2 NPs could slowly release from the PELA microspheres at least for 42 d. During the co-culture with the PELA microspheres, the content of BMP-2 protein secreted by MC3T3-E1 reached the peak at 7 d. After 21d, the secretion of BMP-2 protein still maintain a higher level. The alkaline phosphatase activity, alizarin red staining, and osteogenesis-related gene expression by real-time quantitative PCR analysis all showed the PELA microspheres entrapping with Arg-CS/pBMP-2 NPs can obviously induce the osteogenic differentiation. The results indicated that the Arg-CS is a suitable gene vector which can promote the gene transfection. And the novel PELA microspheres-nanoparticle controlled-release system has potential clinical application in the future after further research.

  14. Using poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres to encapsulate plasmid of bone morphogenetic protein 2/polyethylenimine nanoparticles to promote bone formation in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Chunyan; Zhang, Kai; Jin, Han; Miao, Leiying; Shi, Ce; Liu, Xia; Yuan, Anliang; Liu, Jinzhong; Li, Daowei; Zheng, Changyu; Zhang, Guirong; Li, Xiangwei; Yang, Bai; Sun, Hongchen

    2013-01-01

    Repair of large bone defects is a major challenge, requiring sustained stimulation to continually promote bone formation locally. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) plays an important role in bone development. In an attempt to overcome this difficulty of bone repair, we created a delivery system to slowly release human BMP-2 cDNA plasmid locally, efficiently transfecting local target cells and secreting functional human BMP-2 protein. For transfection, we used polyethylenimine (PEI) to create pBMP-2/PEI nanoparticles, and to ensure slow release we used poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) to create microsphere encapsulated pBMP-2/PEI nanoparticles, PLGA@pBMP-2/PEI. We demonstrated that pBMP-2/PEI nanoparticles could slowly release from the PLGA@pBMP-2/PEI microspheres for a long period of time. The 3-15 μm diameter of the PLGA@pBMP-2/PEI further supported this slow release ability of the PLGA@pBMP-2/PEI. In vitro transfection assays demonstrated that pBMP-2/PEI released from PLGA@pBMP-2/PEI could efficiently transfect MC3T3-E1 cells, causing MC3T3-E1 cells to secrete human BMP-2 protein, increase calcium deposition and gene expressions of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), SP7 and I type collagen (COLL I), and finally induce MC3T3-E1 cell differentiation. Importantly, in vivo data from micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and histological staining demonstrated that the human BMP-2 released from PLGA@pBMP-2/PEI had a long-term effect locally and efficiently promoted bone formation in the bone defect area compared to control animals. All our data suggest that our PLGA-nanoparticle delivery system efficiently and functionally delivers the human BMP-2 cDNA and has potential clinical application in the future after further modification.

  15. Silver nanoparticles confined in carbon nanotubes: on the understanding of the confinement effect and promotional catalysis for the selective hydrogenation of dimethyl oxalate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jianwei; Duan, Xinping; Lin, Haiqiang; Gu, Zhengqiang; Fang, Huihuang; Li, Jianhui; Yuan, Youzhu

    2016-03-01

    A confined Ag nanomaterial in the channels of herringbone multi-walled carbon nanotubes (Ag-in/hCNT) was effectively prepared. The space restriction induces morphological changes of Ag nanoparticles into rough nanowires with an estimated aspect ratio of 60 : 8 (nm/nm). Dihydrogen activation is enhanced through the vacancy-enriched wire-like Ag nanocatalyst, as well as the confinement effect. The grain boundaries of Ag and rolled-up graphene layers of CNTs are speculated to play vital roles in the diffusion of activated hydrogen species. The Ag-in/hCNT catalyst exhibits an activity that is three times higher than that of Ag nanoparticles located on the CNT exterior walls in DMO hydrogenation. This finding may insinuate that interplanar spaces provide available access to the external surface of CNTs. Designed experiments further confirm the importance of herringbone CNTs with higher reaction rate than parallel CNTs, and confined Ag produces considerably more activated hydrogen species, thereby benefiting the reduction of surface copper nanoparticles or DMO molecules during hydrogenation. This paper presents a study of the effective utilization of hydrogen over herringbone CNT confined Ag and an understanding of the confinement and promotional catalytic effects.A confined Ag nanomaterial in the channels of herringbone multi-walled carbon nanotubes (Ag-in/hCNT) was effectively prepared. The space restriction induces morphological changes of Ag nanoparticles into rough nanowires with an estimated aspect ratio of 60 : 8 (nm/nm). Dihydrogen activation is enhanced through the vacancy-enriched wire-like Ag nanocatalyst, as well as the confinement effect. The grain boundaries of Ag and rolled-up graphene layers of CNTs are speculated to play vital roles in the diffusion of activated hydrogen species. The Ag-in/hCNT catalyst exhibits an activity that is three times higher than that of Ag nanoparticles located on the CNT exterior walls in DMO hydrogenation. This finding may

  16. Gold nanoparticles promote osteogenic differentiation in human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells through the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seon Young; Song, Min Seok; Ryu, Pan Dong; Lam, Anh Thu Ngoc; Joo, Sang-Woo; Lee, So Yeong

    2015-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are attractive materials for use in biomedicine due to their physical properties. Increasing evidence suggests that several nanoparticles induce the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblasts and adipocytes. In this study, we hypothesized that chitosan-conjugated AuNPs promote the osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells. For the evaluation of osteogenic differentiation, alizarin red staining, an alamarBlue® assay, and a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis were performed. In order to examine specific signaling pathways, immunofluorescence and a western blotting assay were performed. Our results demonstrate that chitosan-conjugated AuNPs increase the deposition of calcium content and the expression of marker genes related to osteogenic differentiation in human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells at nontoxic concentrations. These results indicate that chitosan-conjugated AuNPs promote osteogenesis through the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Therefore, chitosan-conjugated AuNPs can be used as a reagent for promoting bone formation. PMID:26185441

  17. [Abdominal ectopic pregnancy. A case report and literature review].

    PubMed

    Puch-Ceballos, Eduardo Erik; Vázquez-Castro, Rosbel; Osorio-Pérez, Ana Isabel; Ramos-Ayala, Montserrat; Villarreal-Sosa, Conrado Otoniel; Ruvalcaba-Rivera, Everardo

    2015-07-01

    Abdominal ectopic pregnancy is an extremely rare entity, which represents 1% of all ectopic pregnancies and is associated with high maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The maternal mortality risk of an abdominal ectopic pregnancy is seven to eight times greater than the risk of a tubal ectopic pregnancy and is 90 times greater than the risk of intrauterine pregnancy. This is a disease of difficult diagnosis that often takes place late. We report the case of a patient with an abdominal ectopic pregnancy, which was diagnosed by abdominal ultrasound in the second trimester; the patient was suc- cessfully treated with exploratory laparotomy with complete removal of the fetus and placenta. We provide a review of the literature on the risk factors for abdominal ectopic pregnancy, diagnostic tests and therapeutic options.

  18. [Magnetic resonance urography in the diagnosis of the ectopic ureters].

    PubMed

    Straub, Péter; Horváth, Gyula; Dávidovics, Sándor; Pintér, András

    2007-01-21

    Ectopic ureters are often very difficult to diagnose with conventional diagnostic modalities (physical examination, ultrasound, intravenous urography, cystography, urethro-cystoscopy, isotop examinations) in children. The authors report their experience with a relatively new method, the magnetic resonance urography (MRU) diagnosing ectopic ureters in childhood. MRU was used in 7 girls to detect an ectopic ureter in the last 3 years. On the basis of typical clinical signs, an ectopic ureter was suspected in all patients, but it could not be demonstrated by conventional diagnostic methods. Thus, MRU was done to confirm the suspected diagnosis. In all of the 7 patients, the examinations demonstrated ectopic ureters with the intraoperative findings further confirming the pre-operative diagnosis. In 2 patients, the intraoperative findings of the upper urinary tract anomalies were slightly different from the MRU report. The MRU is a reliable diagnostic method to diagnose ectopic ureters which are not easily detectable with conventional diagnostic modalities.

  19. Genital tuberculosis: an important cause of ectopic pregnancy in India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Jai B; Naha, Moumita; Kumar, Sunesh; Roy, Kallol K; Singh, Neeta; Arora, Raksha

    2014-10-01

    To assess the role of genital tuberculosis as an etiological factor for ectopic pregnancy. A total of eighteen women of ectopic pregnancy with concomitant female genital tuberculosis and a total of one hundred thirty six patients of ectopic pregnancy over a period of three years were enrolled. Mean age of patients with ectopic pregnancy and concomitant female genital tuberculosis was twenty-six and mean parity was 0.7. Most of these patients were in poor socio-economic group. Diagnosis of female genital tuberculosis was made by presence of granuloma in histopathological examination of endometrial aspirate or tubal specimen, positive acid fast bacilli in microscopy or culture, positive polymerase chain reaction in endometrial tissue and positive findings of genital tuberculosis during laparoscopy or laparotomy. Genital tuberculosis was responsible for 13.2% of all cases of ectopic pregnancy in the present study. Genital tuberculosis appears to be an important cause of ectopic pregnancy in India.

  20. Recurrent Ectopic Pregnancy in the Tubal Remnant after Salpingectomy

    PubMed Central

    Samiei-Sarir, Bahareh; Diehm, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    We present two cases of ectopic pregnancy located within the remnant tube following ipsilateral salpingectomy. This particular pathology is rare and yet has significant consequences for the patient, with mortality rates 10–15 times higher than other ectopic pregnancies. It demonstrates that salpingectomy does not exclude ectopic pregnancy on the ipsilateral side. We suggest careful clinical consideration and bring attention to the current surgical technique. PMID:24151570

  1. [Ectopic parathyroid glands. Imaging methods and surgical access].

    PubMed

    Fialová, M; Adámková, J; Adámek, S; Libánský, P; Kubinyi, J

    2014-08-01

    We discuss the benefits of imaging methods in localizing ectopic parathyroid glands in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. The ectopic localizations are discussed within the context of the orthotopic norm. In the sample of 123 patients, a 23% rate of ectopic parathyroid glands was detected. Three selected case studies are presented, supporting the benefit of SPECT/CT imaging in terms of surgical access strategy selection.

  2. [Cushing syndrome due to ectopic ACTH secretion].

    PubMed

    Mendonça, B B; Madureira, G; Bloise, W; Albergaria, A; Halpern, A; Liberman, B; Villares, S M; Batista, M C; Avancini, V F; Nitterdorfi, C T

    1989-01-01

    The authors studied 8 patients (4 males and 4 females) with Cushing's syndrome due to ectopic ACTH secretion. Chronological age ranged from 15 to 45 years and duration of the disease ranged from 3 to 48 months. All patients presented typical signs of Cushing's syndrome, blood hypertension, and four of them had hyperpigmentation of the skin. Five patients had fasting hyperglycemia and all patients but one had serum hypokalemia (serum K = 2.2 to 3.9mEq/l). The circadian rhythm of cortisol was absent in all patients and basal cortisol levels were elevated in all patients but one. Basal ACTH levels evaluated in 7 patients were elevated in 6 (29 to 1050 pg/ml-MRC). One patient presented normal depression of urinary 17-OH after two days of dexamethasone and normal increase of urinary 17-OH and serum 11-dexycortisol after methyrapone. Four patients had carcinoid tumor (3 thymic and 1 bronchial), two had pancreatic islets cell tumors, one had bilateral pheochromocytoma and medular carcinoma of the thyroid, and one had oat cell carcinoma of the lung and medular carcinoma of the thyroid. Thoracic X-rays identified the ectopic ACTH secretion tumor in four cases, all confirmed by CT scan. Abdominal CT showed a difuse enlargement of the adrenals in seven cases and bilateral nodules in one case (pheochromocytomas). Six patients died within 3 years of the diagnosis. The authors concluded that clinical and hormonal findings could mislead the findings of ACTH ectopic secretion and Cushing's disease, and suggest that thoracic X-rays and CT scans of the skull, thorax, and abdome should be done in all cases of Cushing's syndrome.

  3. Radiologic features of primary intracranial ectopic germinomas

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xin-Hua; Shen, Hui-Cong; Tang, Shou-Xian; Gao, Cui-Hua; Ren, Ji-Liang; Ai, Lin; Dai, Jian-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Germinomas are sensitive to radiation therapy and chemotherapy; therefore, correct imaging diagnosis is crucial for them. However, the imaging findings of germinomas originating from off-midline regions displayed different patterns from those originating from midline areas. Patient concerns: The objective of this study is to describe the radiologic features of primary ectopic germinoma. We reviewed the MR and CT findings of 12 patients with histologically proven off-midline ectopic germinomas with off-midline locations. Interventions: All of these patients underwent conventional MR images and 3 of them underwent diffusion images. Additional CT images were available in 3 patients. Analysis was focused on the shape and entity of tumors in images, signs of hemiatrophy, and the involvement of fibers in diffusion images. Outcomes: Well-defined (8/12) and ill-defined margin masses (4/12) were identified according to the shape of the mass. Multicystic masses were seen in 11 of the 12 patients. The solid component of the tumors had a high density (3/3) with calcifications (2/3) on CT images, iso- to hypointensity in T2WI (11/12) and restricted diffusion on apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps (3/3). Hemiatrophy was observed in 5 cases and progressive hemiatrophy was observed in 1 case. Other signs included mild peritumoral edema (10/12), and hydrocephalus (7/12). Additionally, infiltration of the corticospinal tract (CST) was identified on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) (2/2). Lessons: The results indicate that multicysitic entities and hypointensities in solid components on T2WI and hemiatrophy are the imaging features of ectopic germinomas. DTI has potential for assessing CST involvement. PMID:28033250

  4. Submandibular ectopic thyroid with normally located thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Mahmut Sinan; Aytürk, Semra; Güven, Mehmet; Dilek, Fatma Hüsniye

    2014-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid is a rare developmental anomaly of the thyroid gland which is defined as the presence of thyroid tissue at a site other than the pretracheal area. Nearly 1 to 3% of all ectopic thyroids are located in the lateral neck. Simultaneous submandibular ectopic thyroid tissue presenting with a functional orthotopic thyroid gland is extremely rare. In this article, we report a 37-year-old female case admitted to our clinic with a complaint of swollen neck in whom ultrasonography revealed submandibular ectopic thyroid tissue presenting with an orthotopic thyroid gland.

  5. Ruptured ectopic pregnancy with a negative urine pregnancy test.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Mallory; Lupo, Andrew; Browning, Adrianne

    2017-01-01

    Ectopic pregnancy is commonly seen as a differential diagnosis of first-trimester vaginal bleeding. Often the diagnosis is made based on a combination of exam findings, transvaginal ultrasound, and a positive pregnancy test. Our case describes a patient with a history of ectopic pregnancy treated with methotrexate and serial human chorionic gonadotropin measurements that were decreasing appropriately. At the time of evaluation, her urine pregnancy test was negative; however, she was confirmed to have a ruptured tubal ectopic pregnancy. This case highlights the variable presentation of ectopic pregnancies and the importance of combining exam findings with ultrasound and laboratory results.

  6. Ruptured ectopic pregnancy with a negative urine pregnancy test

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Mallory; Lupo, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Ectopic pregnancy is commonly seen as a differential diagnosis of first-trimester vaginal bleeding. Often the diagnosis is made based on a combination of exam findings, transvaginal ultrasound, and a positive pregnancy test. Our case describes a patient with a history of ectopic pregnancy treated with methotrexate and serial human chorionic gonadotropin measurements that were decreasing appropriately. At the time of evaluation, her urine pregnancy test was negative; however, she was confirmed to have a ruptured tubal ectopic pregnancy. This case highlights the variable presentation of ectopic pregnancies and the importance of combining exam findings with ultrasound and laboratory results. PMID:28127150

  7. Current knowledge of the aetiology of human tubal ectopic pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, J.L.V.; Dey, S.K.; Critchley, H.O.D.; Horne, A.W.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND An ectopic pregnancy is a pregnancy which occurs outside of the uterine cavity, and over 98% implant in the Fallopian tube. Tubal ectopic pregnancy remains the most common cause of maternal mortality in the first trimester of pregnancy. The epidemiological risk factors for tubal ectopic pregnancy are well established and include: tubal damage as a result of surgery or infection (particularly Chlamydia trachomatis), smoking and in vitro fertilization. This review appraises the data to date researching the aetiology of tubal ectopic pregnancy. METHODS Scientific literature was searched for studies investigating the underlying aetiology of tubal ectopic pregnancy. RESULTS Existing data addressing the underlying cause of tubal ectopic pregnancy are mostly descriptive. There are currently few good animal models of tubal ectopic pregnancy. There are limited data explaining the link between risk factors and tubal implantation. CONCLUSIONS Current evidence supports the hypothesis that tubal ectopic pregnancy is caused by a combination of retention of the embryo within the Fallopian tube due to impaired embryo-tubal transport and alterations in the tubal environment allowing early implantation to occur. Future studies are needed that address the functional consequences of infection and smoking on Fallopian tube physiology. A greater understanding of the aetiology of tubal ectopic pregnancy is critical for the development of improved preventative measures, the advancement of diagnostic screening methods and the development of novel treatments. PMID:20071358

  8. Ectopic goitrous submandibular thyroid with goitrous orthotopic thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Avinash Kumar; Mani, Vinayaga; Dixit, Rashmi; Garg, Anju

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid is a rare developmental anomaly with lingual thyroid accounting for majority of the cases. The presence of ectopic thyroid tissue lateral to the midline is very rare, and very few cases located in the submandibular region have been reported. The simultaneous finding of submandibular ectopic thyroid tissue and a functional orthotopic thyroid gland is even rarer. In the differential diagnosis of an ectopic submandibular thyroid, it is fundamental to exclude a metastasis from well-differentiated thyroid cancer, even when primary thyroid carcinoma is not demonstrable.

  9. Endotracheal ectopic parathyroid adenoma mimicking asthma

    PubMed Central

    Özgül, M. Akif; Seyhan, Ekrem Cengiz; Özgül, Güler; Çetinkaya, Erdoğan; Büyükkale, Songul; Ünver, Nurcan; Çakır, Tansel; Sayar, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    Primary benign tumors of the trachea are uncommon. These tumors may cause tracheal occlusion and lead to a misdiagnosis of asthma. Ectopic parathyroid adenoma (EPA) can be seen anywhere between the mandibular angle and the mediastinum. The distal part of the trachea is a rare location for EPA, and EPA obstructing the endotracheal lumen has not been reported in the literature. We herein describe a 52-year-old female with a several-year history of asthma treatment who presented with progressive dyspnea. Computed tomography revealed a mass that was obstructing the tracheal lumen. Total mass excision was performed via endobronchial treatment, and pathologic examination revealed EPA. PMID:26029555

  10. Transplantation of Porcine Hepatocytes Cultured with Polylactic Acid-O-Carboxymethylated Chitosan Nanoparticles Promotes Liver Regeneration in Acute Liver Failure Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhong; Chang, Renan; Guan, Weijun; Cai, Hongyu; Tang, Fei; Zhu, Wencai; Chen, Jiahui

    2011-01-01

    In this study, free porcine hepatocytes suspension (Group A), porcine hepatocytes embedded in collagen gel (Group B), porcine hepatocytes cultured with PLA-O-CMC nanoparticles and embedded in collagen gel (Group C), and PLA-O-CMC nanoparticles alone (Group D) were transplanted into peritoneal cavity of ALF rats, respectively. The result showed that plasma HGF levels were elevated post-transplantation with a peak at 12 hr. The rats in Group C showed highest plasma HGF levels at 2, 6, 12, 24 and 36 hr post-transplantation and lowest HGF level at 48 hr. Plasma VEGF levels were elevated at 48 hr post-transplantation with a peak at 72 hr. The rats in Group C showed highest plasma HGF levels at 48, 72, and 96 hr post-transplantation. The liver functions in Group C were recovered most rapidly. Compared with Group B, Group C had significant high liver Kiel 67 antigen labeling index (Ki-67 LI) at day 1 post-HTx (P < .05). Ki-67 LI in groups B and C was higher than that in groups A and D at days 5 and 7 post-HTx. In conclusion, intraperitoneal transplantation of porcine hepatocytes cultured with PLA-O-CMC nanoparticles and embedded in collagen gel can promote significantly liver regeneration in ALF rats. PMID:21603218

  11. Visible light photo-degradation of methylene blue over Fe or Cu promoted ZnO nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mardani, Hamid Reza; Forouzani, Mehdi; Ziari, Mitra; Biparva, Pourya

    2015-04-15

    CuxZn(1-x)O, FexZn(1-x)O (x=0.01) and ZnO nanoparticles were and were characterized by X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy and SEM. The photodegradation of an aqueous solution of methylene blue (as an organic pollutant) by nanoparticles with H2O2 (30%) under visible light and the progress of the reaction were monitored by UV-Vis spectroscopy absorption. The photocatalytic oxidation efficiency of all nanoparticles was 100% at the appropriate time. The degradation time was 90 min for FeZnO, 120 min for CuZnO and 210 min for ZnO. This indicates that the photocatalytic activity of the doped nanoparticles was better than that of ZnO alone. ZnO doped with a small amount of Fe or Cu decreased the size of the nanoparticles and the band gap and increased photocatalytic efficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis Of Two Years Cases Of Ectopic Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Islam, Ansa; Fawad, Aneesa; Shah, Azmat Ali; Jadoon, Humaira; Sarwar, Iram; Abbasi, Aziz-Un-Nisa

    2017-01-01

    Ectopic pregnancy is the leading cause of pregnancy related deaths in the first trimester. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of risk factors, clinical presentation, diagnostic methods and site of ectopic pregnancy. This descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in Gynaecology and Obstetrical Unit-A of Ayub Teaching Hospital Abbottabad from 1st October 2013 to 31st October 2015. All women diagnosed with ectopic pregnancy were included in the study. A predesigned proforma was used to record the details about demographic features, risk factors, clinical features at presentation, diagnostic methods and site of ectopic pregnancy. Out of total 6675 patients admitted during the study period, 45 cases of ectopic pregnancy were diagnosed with frequency of ectopic pregnancy to be 0.65%. Mean age of the patients was 28.98±5.525. Majority of patients were primigravida14 (31.3%), 9 (20.0%) gravida 2, 5 (11.1%) gravida 3, 4 (8.8%) gravida 4, 7 (15.5%) gravida 5, 6 (13.3%) found grand multi out of total 45 ectopic pregnancies, 45% of the patients had no identifiable risk factors, however history of infertility 20 (22.22%), history of Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) 10 (22.22%), previous ectopic 2 (4.44%) and previous abdominal pelvic surgery 3 (6.67%) were identified as common risk factors of 45 ectopic pregnancies. Out of total 45 sufferers 23 (51.11%) were clinically diagnosed, 20 (44.44%) through abdominal ultrasound and 2 (4.44%) through transvaginal ultrasound. The most frequent clinical presentation was amenorrhea 30 (66.67%) followed by abdominal pain 28 (62.22%), irregular vaginal bleeding 18 (40.00%), asymptomatic patients with routine ultrasound 18 (40.0%) and 10 (22.22%) presented in shock. Twenty-eight (62.2%) of the ectopic pregnancies were found in right sided fallopian tube and 17(37.8%) were found in left sided fallopian tube. The commonest site of ectopic pregnancy was ampulla 29 (64.44%) followed by 11 (24.44%) Isthmus, 4 (8

  13. Humanized mice with ectopic artificial liver tissues.

    PubMed

    Chen, Alice A; Thomas, David K; Ong, Luvena L; Schwartz, Robert E; Golub, Todd R; Bhatia, Sangeeta N

    2011-07-19

    "Humanized" mice offer a window into aspects of human physiology that are otherwise inaccessible. The best available methods for liver humanization rely on cell transplantation into immunodeficient mice with liver injury but these methods have not gained widespread use due to the duration and variability of hepatocyte repopulation. In light of the significant progress that has been achieved in clinical cell transplantation through tissue engineering, we sought to develop a humanized mouse model based on the facile and ectopic implantation of a tissue-engineered human liver. These human ectopic artificial livers (HEALs) stabilize the function of cryopreserved primary human hepatocytes through juxtacrine and paracrine signals in polymeric scaffolds. In contrast to current methods, HEALs can be efficiently established in immunocompetent mice with normal liver function. Mice transplanted with HEALs exhibit humanized liver functions persistent for weeks, including synthesis of human proteins, human drug metabolism, drug-drug interaction, and drug-induced liver injury. Here, mice with HEALs are used to predict the disproportionate metabolism and toxicity of "major" human metabolites using multiple routes of administration and monitoring. These advances may enable manufacturing of reproducible in vivo models for diverse drug development and research applications.

  14. Laboratory models for studying ectopic pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jeremy K; Horne, Andrew W

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of Review Understanding of the aetiology of tubal ectopic pregnancy (tEP) remains incomplete. We aim to summarize the latest advances in laboratory models of tEP that we believe will, ultimately, contribute to improving the diagnosis and management of the condition. Recent Findings Progress in proteome pre-fractionation and multidimensional protein identification technology has proved particularly effective in identifying novel biomarkers of tEP. These, and related global proteomic and genomic approaches, have as yet to be fully exploited in this context but do have substantial potential to inform future hypothesis driven studies. The majority of data generated since 2009 to explain the aetiology of tEP continues to derive from descriptive human ex-vivo studies. In-vitro models of Fallopian tube ciliary and smooth muscle function have improved to a limited degree, on the back of continuing advances in imaging and data acquisition. We believe that the recent development of a primary human Fallopian tube epithelium culture system represents the most significant recent advance in laboratory models for studying ectopic pregnancy. There remain no good animal models of tEP. Summary The establishment of a viable animal model of tEP remains the key obstacle to a complete understanding the aetiology of the condition. PMID:21666470

  15. Ectopic pregnancy treatment by combination therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chudecka-Głaz, Anita; Kuźniak, Sławomir; Menkiszak, Janusz

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Detectability of early stages of ectopic pregnancies has increased due to improvements in ultrasonographic and biochemical techniques. Since the patients’ future procreative plans must be taken into consideration when commencing treatment, the goal of this work was to compare the effects of treatment methods and their impact on fertility. The study included 91 patients treated surgically for ectopic pregnancy. The choice of treatment depended on patients’ general condition, ultrasonographic evaluation and serum level of beta-hCG. A combination of laparoscopic and conservative systemic treatment was applied in 70% of cases. More rapid beta-hCG reduction was noted when laparoscopy and intra-oviductal injection of hyperosmolar glucose or methotrexate (MTX) were combined with intramuscular administration of MTX at a dose of 50 mg/m2. Follow-up examination of 66 patients revealed that the greatest number of spontaneous pregnancies (48%) resulted after this combination therapy. We conclude that this combination treatment is safe and provides satisfactory results in terms of future fertility. PMID:28352846

  16. Incidental Finding of Dual Ectopic Thyroid on Computed Tomography Angiography.

    PubMed

    Pierro, Antonio; Cilla, Savino; Modugno, Pietro; Sallustio, Giuseppina

    2017-01-01

    The presence of simultaneous two ectopic foci of thyroid tissue (dual ectopic thyroid) is rare, and few cases have been reported in the literature. The ectopic thyroid tissue is an extremely uncommon embryological aberration due to the alterations occurring during the embryological development with incomplete migration of thyroid precursors. Commonly ectopic thyroid tissue is a midline structures, but the lateral location is possible but very rare. Ectopic thyroid is common in women and can vary in size from a microscopic focus to a few centimeters. The normal process of migration of the thyroid can be interrupted at various levels determining a lingual ectopy, a sublingual ectopic, prelaryngeal ectopy, or mediastinic ectopy. Intrathoracic and subdiaphragmatic organs are other sites where the ectopic thyroid tissue may be present. In most of the cases, ectopic tissue is a lingual thyroid and this condition can be totally asymptomatic, discovered incidentally, or occurs with symptoms such as dysphonia, dysphagia, dyspnea, and hemoptysis. Sublingual or suprahyoid ectopia is rare and even rarer are the cases of two foci of ectopic thyroid tissue simultaneously present. On imaging, the ectopic tissue shows the same characteristics of orthotopic thyroid tissue and similarly can undergo goiterous and cancerous transformation. We report a case of incidental dual ectopic thyroid in lingual and suprahyoid level in a 72-year-old female patient, asymptomatic and with normal thyroid function, who underwent computed tomography (CT) angiography before vascular surgery for the treatment of carotid stenosis. The presence of a lingual thyroid can lead to a difficult and dangerous intubation, with possible fatal consequences. For this reason, the discovery of these abnormalities has totally changed the patient management who has been subjected to endovascular treatment, instead to the classical surgery.

  17. Ectopic expression of BABY BOOM triggers a conversion from vegetative to embryonic growth.

    PubMed

    Boutilier, Kim; Offringa, Remko; Sharma, Vijay K; Kieft, Henk; Ouellet, Thérèse; Zhang, Lemin; Hattori, Jiro; Liu, Chun-Ming; van Lammeren, André A M; Miki, Brian L A; Custers, Jan B M; van Lookeren Campagne, Michiel M

    2002-08-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the initiation and maintenance of the embryonic pathway in plants are largely unknown. To obtain more insight into these processes, we used subtractive hybridization to identify genes that are upregulated during the in vitro induction of embryo development from immature pollen grains of Brassica napus (microspore embryogenesis). One of the genes identified, BABY BOOM (BBM), shows similarity to the AP2/ERF family of transcription factors and is expressed preferentially in developing embryos and seeds. Ectopic expression of BBM in Arabidopsis and Brassica led to the spontaneous formation of somatic embryos and cotyledon-like structures on seedlings. Ectopic BBM expression induced additional pleiotropic phenotypes, including neoplastic growth, hormone-free regeneration of explants, and alterations in leaf and flower morphology. The expression pattern of BBM in developing seeds combined with the BBM overexpression phenotype suggests a role for this gene in promoting cell proliferation and morphogenesis during embryogenesis.

  18. Biocompatible micro-sized cell culture chamber for the detection of nanoparticle-induced IL8 promoter activity on a small cell population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohl, Yvonne; Oostingh, Gertie J.; Sossalla, Adam; Duschl, Albert; von Briesen, Hagen; Thielecke, Hagen

    2011-08-01

    In most conventional in vitro toxicological assays, the response of a complete cell population is averaged, and therefore, single-cell responses are not detectable. Such averaging might result in misinterpretations when only individual cells within a population respond to a certain stimulus. Therefore, there is a need for non-invasive in vitro systems to verify the toxicity of nanoscale materials. In the present study, a micro-sized cell culture chamber with a silicon nitride membrane (0.16 mm2) was produced for cell cultivation and the detection of specific cell responses. The biocompatibility of the microcavity chip (MCC) was verified by studying adipogenic and neuronal differentiation. Thereafter, the suitability of the MCC to study the effects of nanoparticles on a small cell population was determined by using a green fluorescence protein-based reporter cell line. Interleukin-8 promoter (pIL8) induction, a marker of an inflammatory response, was used to monitor immune activation. The validation of the MCC-based method was performed using well-characterized gold and silver nanoparticles. The sensitivity of the new method was verified comparing the quantified pIL8 activation via MCC-based and standard techniques. The results proved the biocompatibility and the sensitivity of the microculture chamber, as well as a high optical quality due to the properties of Si3N4. The MCC-based method is suited for threshold- and time-dependent analysis of nanoparticle-induced IL8 promoter activity. This novel system can give dynamic information at the level of adherent single cells of a small cell population and presents a new non-invasive in vitro test method to assess the toxicity of nanomaterials and other compounds. PACS: 85.35.Be, 81.16.Nd, 87.18.Mp

  19. Development of HSPA1A promoter-driven luciferase reporter gene assays in human cells for assessing the oxidative damage induced by silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Xin, Lili; Wang, Jianshu; Zhang, Leshuai W; Che, Bizhong; Dong, Guangzhu; Fan, Guoqiang; Cheng, Kaiming

    2016-08-01

    The exponential increase in the total number of engineered nanoparticles in consumer products requires novel tools for rapid and cost-effective toxicology screening. In order to assess the oxidative damage induced by nanoparticles, toxicity test systems based on a human HSPA1A promoter-driven luciferase reporter in HepG2, LO2, A549, and HBE cells were established. After treated with heat shock and a group of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with different primary particle sizes, the cell viability, oxidative damage, and luciferase activity were determined. The time-dependent Ag(+) ions release from AgNPs in cell medium was also evaluated. Our results showed that heat shock produced a strong time-dependent induction of relative luciferase activity in the four luciferase reporter cells. Surprisingly, at 4h of recovery, the relative luciferase activity was >98× the control level in HepG2-luciferase cells. Exposure to different sizes of AgNPs resulted in activation of the HSPA1A promoter in a dose-dependent manner, even at low cytotoxic or non-cytotoxic doses. The smaller (5nm) AgNPs were more potent in luciferase induction than the larger (50 and 75nm) AgNPs. These results were generally in accordance with the oxidative damage indicated by malondialdehyde concentration, reactive oxygen species induction and glutathione depletion, and Ag(+) ions release in cell medium. Compared with the other three luciferase reporter cells, the luciferase signal in HepG2-luciferase cells is obviously more sensitive and stable. We conclude that the luciferase reporter cells, especially the HepG2-luciferase cells, could provide a valuable tool for rapid screening of the oxidative damage induced by AgNPs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Ectopic pancreas mimicking advanced gastric malignancy--case report].

    PubMed

    Zawada, Iwona; Lewosiuk, Agnieszka; Hnatyszyn, Krzysztof; Patalan, Michał; Woyke, Stanisław; Kostyrka, Roman; Marlicz, Krzysztof; Starzyńska, Teresa

    2012-04-01

    Ectopic pancreas is the most common type of ectopic tissue in gastrointestinal tract. It is typically asymptomatic, presenting as a small submucosal lesion in prepyloric region of stomach. The diagnosis is usually incidental, during gastroscopy. The patient with symptomatic heterotropic pancreas, mimicking gastric malignancy was described.

  1. Promoted regeneration of mature blood vessels by electrospun fibers with loaded multiple pDNA-calcium phosphate nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang; Wan, Huiying; Xia, Tian; Guo, Xueqin; Wang, Huan; Liu, Yaowen; Li, Xiaohong

    2013-11-01

    Vascularization is one of the capital challenges in the establishment of tissue engineering constructs and recovery of ischemic and wounded tissues. The aim of this study was to assess electrospun fibers with loadings of multiple pDNA to allow a localized delivery for an efficient regeneration of mature blood vessels. To induce sufficient protein expression, a reverse microemulsion process was adopted to load pDNA into calcium phosphate nanoparticles (CP-pDNA), which were electrospun into fibers to achieve a sustained release for 4 weeks. Compared with pDNA-infiltrated fibers, the localized and gradual release of pDNA facilitated cell proliferation, gene transfection, and extracellular matrix secretion and enhanced the generation of blood vessels after subcutaneous implantation. Compared with commonly used pDNA polyplexes with poly(ethyleneimine), CP-pDNA nanoparticles induced significantly lower cytotoxicity and less inflammation reaction after implantation into animals. Fibers with encapsulated nanoparticles containing plasmids encoding vascular endothelial growth factor (pVEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factors (pbFGF) led to significantly higher density of mature blood vessels than those containing individual plasmid. It is suggested that the integration of CP-pDNA nanoparticles with loadings of multiple plasmids into fibrous scaffolds should provide clinical relevance for therapeutic vascularization, getting fully vascularized in engineered tissues and regeneration of blood vessel substitutes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Synthesis of 9H-furo [2,3-f]Chromene Derivatives by Promoting ZnO Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Rostami-Charati, Faramarz; Hossaini, Zinatossadat; Sheikholeslami-Farahani, Fatemeh; Azizi, Zahra; Siadati, Seyyed Amir

    2015-01-01

    Three- component reactions of 1-(6-hydroxy-2-isopropenyl-1-benzofuran-yl)-1-ethanone, aldehydes and malononitrile or ethyl cyanoacetate in the presence of nanoparticles of ZnO as catalyst are explained as effective and green synthetic method for generating 9H- furo[2,3-f]chromenes in good yield.

  3. Tuning Azolium Azolate Ionic Liquids to Promote Surface Interactions with Titanium Nanoparticles Leading to Increased Passivation and Colloidal Stability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    that coordination can be utilized to increase the stability and catalytic activity of Rh and Pd nanoparticles in an IL by incorporating phosphine ...weighed into vials under Ar in a VAC-Omni Labs 25 (Hawthorne, CA) dry box as a black powder. To remove any remaining volatiles and entrapped gas

  4. Paederia foetida Linn. promoted biogenic gold and silver nanoparticles: Synthesis, characterization, photocatalytic and in vitro efficacy against clinically isolated pathogens.

    PubMed

    Bhuyan, Bishal; Paul, Arijita; Paul, Bappi; Dhar, Siddhartha Sankar; Dutta, Pranab

    2017-08-01

    Development of newer improved therapeutic agents with efficient antimicrobial activities continues to draw attention of researchers till date. Moreover, abatement of polluting dyes released from industry with enhanced efficiency is currently being considered as challenging task for people working on material sciences. In the present study, we report a facile biogenic synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles (NPs) in which aqueous extracts of Paederia foetida Linn. was used as reducing as well as stabilizing agent. The biosynthesized Au and Ag NPs were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), powder X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The photocatalytic activity of these nanoparticles were tested against Rhodamine B (RhB). The antimicrobial activity of these biosynthesized NPs were investigated against four human pathogens viz. B. cereus, E. coli, S. aureus and A. niger. Biogenic silver nanoparticles presented a strong antimicrobial activity against B. cereus (26.13) followed by E. coli (26.02), S. aureus (25.43) and A. niger (22.69). Ag NPs owing to their small size (5-25nm) could have easily penetrate into the cell membrane, disturb the metabolism, cause irretrievable damage finally leading to the microbial cell death. Interestingly biogenic gold nanoparticles didn't show any antimicrobial activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Dual Ectopic Thyroid with Normally Located Thyroid: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kumar Choudhury, Bipul; Kaimal Saikia, Uma; Sarma, Dipti; Saikia, Mihir; Dutta Choudhury, Sarojini; Barua, Santanu; Dewri, Swapna

    2011-01-01

    Dual ectopic thyroid is a rare presentation of thyroid ectopia. Only a few cases have been reported in the world literature. Dual ectopic thyroid in the presence of a normally located thyroid is even rarer. We report a case of dual ectopic thyroid in the lingual and submandibular areas in a seventeen-year-old female with hypoplastic thyroid gland in its normal location. The patient presented with a midline swelling at the base of tongue with dysphagia. Thyroid function test revealed primary hypothyroidism. Ultrasonography of the neck showed hypoplastic thyroid in its normal location. A thyroid scan with Technetium-99 m pertechnate showed two intensely hyperfunctioning foci of ectopic thyroid tissue at a higher level in the midline consistent with dual ectopic thyroid, one at the base of tongue and the other in submental region. No uptake was seen in the normal bed. PMID:21765986

  6. Laparoscope resection of ectopic corticosteroid-secreting adrenal adenoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xian-Ling; Dou, Jing-Tao; Gao, Jiang-Ping; Zhong, Wen-Wen; Jin, Du; Hui, Lüzhao; Lu, Ju-Ming; Mu, Yi-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Tumors originating from ectopic adrenal tissue are relatively rare. In this article, we describe a case with Cushing's syndrome caused by an ectopic adrenal adenoma. A 38 year-old male patient presenting with cushingoid appearance for 2 years was diagnosed to have ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome based on endocrinological evaluation. Mutiple radiological examinations detected bilateral adrenal atrophy. When the images were investigated in a more expanded scope, a 3.0×3.5×5.3 cm mass was detected in the anterior of left renal hilum and left renal vein. The mass was successfully resected with intraoperative endoscopy and pathological evaluation revealed an ectopic adrenal tumor. It is suggested that when the endocrinlogically confirmed adrenal neoplasm could not be well and definitely localized, the possibility of ectopic adrenal should be presumed and further radiography examinations should extend to the field where ectopic adrenal usually presents.

  7. A pragmatic and evidence-based management of ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Oron, Galia; Tulandi, Togas

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of ectopic pregnancy is approximately 2% of all pregnancies, and it remains the leading cause of death in early pregnancy. Over 95% of ectopic pregnancies are tubal pregnancies, and the remainders are nontubal pregnancies. The highest risk factor for ectopic pregnancy is a previous tubal pregnancy followed by previous tubal surgery, tubal sterilization, tubal pathology, and current intrauterine device use. The apparent increase in the incidence of nontubal ectopic pregnancy including heterotopic pregnancy may be attributed to the increasing number of pregnancies because of in vitro fertilization treatment. In most cases, an ectopic pregnancy can be treated medically with a single dose of methotrexate. Surgical treatment is still needed in women who are hemodynamically unstable and in those who do not fulfill the criteria for methotrexate treatment. Usually surgical treatment can be performed by laparoscopy and in some cases by hysteroscopy. Laparotomy is rarely needed even in women with intraperitoneal bleeding.

  8. Medullary thyroid carcinoma with ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone syndrome.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hong Seok; Kim, Min Joo; Moon, Chae Ho; Yoon, Jong Ho; Ku, Ha Ra; Kang, Geon Wook; Na, Im Il; Lee, Seung-Sook; Lee, Byung-Chul; Park, Young Joo; Kim, Hong Il; Ku, Yun Hyi

    2014-03-01

    Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) syndrome is caused most frequently by a bronchial carcinoid tumor or by small cell lung cancer. Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a rare etiology of ectopic ACTH syndrome. We describe a case of Cushing syndrome due to ectopic ACTH production from MTC in a 48-year-old male. He was diagnosed with MTC 14 years ago and underwent total thyroidectomy, cervical lymph node dissection and a series of metastasectomies. MTC was confirmed by the pathological examination of the thyroid and metastatic mediastinal lymph node tissues. Two years after his last surgery, he developed Cushingoid features, such as moon face and central obesity, accompanied by uncontrolled hypertension and new-onset diabetes. The laboratory results were compatible with ectopic ACTH syndrome. A bilateral adrenalectomy improved the clinical and laboratory findings that were associated with Cushing syndrome. This is the first confirmed case of ectopic ACTH syndrome caused by MTC in Korea.

  9. CpG oligodeoxynucleotide-loaded PAMAM dendrimer-coated magnetic nanoparticles promote apoptosis in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Taghavi Pourianazar, Negar; Gunduz, Ufuk

    2016-03-01

    One major application of nanotechnology in cancer treatment involves designing nanoparticles to deliver drugs, oligonucleotides, and genes to cancer cells. Nanoparticles should be engineered so that they could target and destroy tumor cells with minimal damage to healthy tissues. This research aims to develop an appropriate and efficient nanocarrier, having the ability of interacting with and delivering CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODNs) to tumor cells. CpG-ODNs activate Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), which can generate a signal cascade for cell death. In our study, we utilized three-layer magnetic nanoparticles composed of a Fe3O4 magnetic core, an aminosilane (APTS) interlayer and a cationic poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer. This will be a novel targeted delivery system to enhance the accumulation of CpG-ODN molecules in tumor cells. The validation of CpG-ODN binding to DcMNPs was performed using agarose gel electrophoresis, UV-spectrophotometer, XPS analyses. Cytotoxicity of conjugates was assessed in MDA-MB231 and SKBR3 cancer cells based on cell viability by XTT assay and flow cytometric analysis. Our results indicated that the synthesized DcMNPs having high positive charges on their surface could attach to CpG-ODN molecules via electrostatic means. These nanoparticles with the average sizes of 40±10nm bind to CpG-ODN molecules efficiently and induce cell death in MDA-MB231 and SKBR3 tumor cells and could be considered a suitable targeted delivery system for CpG-ODN in biomedical applications. The magnetic core of these nanoparticles represents a promising option for selective drug targeting as they can be concentrated and held in position by means of an external magnetic field.

  10. The multiple ultrasound patterns of ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hourani, Roula; Hachem, Kamal; Haddad-Zebouni, Soha; Mansour, Fersan; Elhage, Abdo; Checrallah, Antoine; Ghossain, Michel A

    2008-01-01

    Ectopic pregnancy (EP) has a variable and misleading clinical presentation contributing to the confusion with medical or other gynecological disorders. The rapid recourse to diagnostic methods, human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG) titers and transvaginal ultrasonography, represents the best approach not only in the early diagnosis but also in the management and monitoring of patients with diagnosed EP. The purpose of this article is to provide a pictorial essay about EP and its multiple ultrasound (US) patterns. We present a large spectrum of EP aspects diagnosed on US and confirmed by pathology. We also review miscellaneous gynecologic diseases that may mimic EP on US. Although endovaginal US combined with quantitative (beta-hCG) analysis is an excellent tool for identifying EP, it may be normal sometimes in early pregnancies. Knowledge of all these patterns is helpful in establishing an early correct diagnosis, therefore leading to elective and conservative management in stable patients and preventing tubal rupture or substantial hemorrhage.

  11. Ni-Supported Pd Nanoparticles with Ca Promoter: A New Catalyst for Low-Temperature Ammonia Cracking

    PubMed Central

    Polanski, Jaroslaw; Bartczak, Piotr; Ambrozkiewicz, Weronika; Sitko, Rafal; Siudyga, Tomasz; Mianowski, Andrzej; Szade, Jacek; Balin, Katarzyna; Lelątko, Józef

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we report a new nanometallic, self-activating catalyst, namely, Ni-supported Pd nanoparticles (PdNPs/Ni) for low temperature ammonia cracking, which was prepared using a novel approach involving the transfer of nanoparticles from the intermediate carrier, i.e. nano-spherical SiO2, to the target carrier technical grade Ni (t-Ni) or high purity Ni (p-Ni) grains. The method that was developed allows a uniform nanoparticle size distribution (4,4±0.8 nm) to be obtained. Unexpectedly, the t-Ni-supported Pd NPs, which seemed to have a surface Ca impurity, appeared to be more active than the Ca-free (p-Ni) system. A comparison of the novel PdNPs/Ni catalyst with these reported in the literature clearly indicates the much better hydrogen productivity of the new system, which seems to be a highly efficient, flexible and durable catalyst for gas-phase heterogeneous ammonia cracking in which the TOF reaches a value of 2615 mmolH2/gPd min (10,570 molNH3/molPd(NP) h) at 600°C under a flow of 12 dm3/h (t-Ni). PMID:26308929

  12. Ni-Supported Pd Nanoparticles with Ca Promoter: A New Catalyst for Low-Temperature Ammonia Cracking.

    PubMed

    Polanski, Jaroslaw; Bartczak, Piotr; Ambrozkiewicz, Weronika; Sitko, Rafal; Siudyga, Tomasz; Mianowski, Andrzej; Szade, Jacek; Balin, Katarzyna; Lelątko, Józef

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we report a new nanometallic, self-activating catalyst, namely, Ni-supported Pd nanoparticles (PdNPs/Ni) for low temperature ammonia cracking, which was prepared using a novel approach involving the transfer of nanoparticles from the intermediate carrier, i.e. nano-spherical SiO2, to the target carrier technical grade Ni (t-Ni) or high purity Ni (p-Ni) grains. The method that was developed allows a uniform nanoparticle size distribution (4,4±0.8 nm) to be obtained. Unexpectedly, the t-Ni-supported Pd NPs, which seemed to have a surface Ca impurity, appeared to be more active than the Ca-free (p-Ni) system. A comparison of the novel PdNPs/Ni catalyst with these reported in the literature clearly indicates the much better hydrogen productivity of the new system, which seems to be a highly efficient, flexible and durable catalyst for gas-phase heterogeneous ammonia cracking in which the TOF reaches a value of 2615 mmolH2/gPd min (10,570 molNH3/molPd(NP) h) at 600°C under a flow of 12 dm3/h (t-Ni).

  13. Leptin responsiveness in mice that ectopically express agouti protein.

    PubMed

    Harris, Ruth B S; Mitchell, Tiffany D; Mynatt, Randall L

    Agouti protein is an endogenous antagonist of melanocortin receptors (MCR), including MCR3 and MCR4, which have been implicated as part of the hypothalamic mechanism that mediates leptin-induced hypophagia. In this experiment we examined the effects of peripheral and central leptin administration in male and female beta-actin promoter (BAPa) mice that express agouti protein ectopically and have a phenotype that includes obesity and diabetes which is exaggerated in males compared with females. Intraperitoneal infusion of 10 microg leptin/day for 13 days caused weight loss and a transient inhibition of food intake in wild-type mice, with a greater effect in males than females. Male BAPa mice were resistant to leptin infusion whereas female mice lost weight. All of the mice lost body weight following a single intracerebroventricular injection of leptin but the effect was greater in female BAPa mice than any other group. There also was a delayed suppression of food intake that was the same for wild-type and BAPa female mice, whereas food intake recovered faster in BAPa than wild-type males. The dissociation between food intake and body weight loss implies a significant effect of leptin on energy expenditure in BAPa mice. These results demonstrate that the effect of leptin on energy balance is not entirely dependent upon the melanocortin system.

  14. Ectopic expression of SUPERMAN suppresses development of petals and stamens.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jae-Young; Weigel, Detlef; Lee, Ilha

    2002-01-01

    The floral regulatory gene SUPERMAN (SUP) encodes a C2H2 type zinc finger protein that is required for maintaining boundaries between floral organs in Arabidopsis. It has been proposed that the main function of SUP is to balance cell proliferation in the third and fourth whorl of developing flowers, thereby maintaining the boundaries between the two whorls. To gain further insight into the function of SUP, we have ectopically expressed SUP using the promoter of APETALA1 (AP1), a gene that is initially expressed throughout floral meristems and later becomes restricted to the first and second whorls. Flowers of AP1::SUP plants have fewer floral organs, consistent with an effect of SUP on cell proliferation. In addition, the AP1::SUP transgene caused the conversion of petals to sepals and suppressed the development of stamens. The expression of the B function homeotic gene APETALA3 (AP3) and its regulator UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) were delayed and reduced in AP1::SUP flowers. However, SUP does not act merely through UFO, as constitutive expression of UFO did not rescue the defects in petal and stamen development in AP1::SUP flowers. Together, these results suggest that SUP has both indirect and direct effects on the expression of B function homeotic genes.

  15. Abi induces ectopic sensory organ formation by stimulating EGFR signaling.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Raiko; Grevelhörster, Astrid; Wenderdel, Stefanie; Klämbt, Christian; Bogdan, Sven

    2008-01-01

    One of the central regulators coupling tyrosine phosphorylation with cytoskeletal dynamics is the Abelson interactor (Abi). Its activity regulates WASP-/WAVE mediated F-actin formation and in addition modulates the activity of the Abelson tyrosine kinase (Abl). We have recently shown that the Drosophila Abi is capable of promoting bristle development in a wasp dependent fashion. Here, we report that Drosophila Abi induces sensory organ development by modulating EGFR signaling. Expression of a membrane-tethered activated Abi protein (Abi(Myr)) leads to an increase in MAPK activity. Additionally, suppression of EGFR activity inhibits the induction of extra-sensory organs by Abi(Myr), whereas co-expression of activated Abi(Myr) and EGFR dramatically enhances the neurogenic phenotype. In agreement with this observation Abi is able to associate with the EGFR in a common complex. Furthermore, Abi binds the Abl tyrosine kinase. A block of Abl kinase-activity reduces Abi protein stability and strongly abrogates ectopic sensory organ formation induced by Abi(Myr). Concomitantly, we noted changes in tyrosine phosphorylation supporting previous reports that Abi protein stability is linked to tyrosine phosphorylation mediated by Abl.

  16. Meckel's diverticulum and ectopic epithelium: Evaluation of a complex relationship

    PubMed Central

    Burjonrappa, Sathyaprasad; Khaing, Phue

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Meckel's diverticulum is the most common congenital anomaly of the gastrointestinal tract. Currently, for any incidentally discovered Meckel's diverticulum, the management approach is based on weighing the statistical odds of future complications against the risks of a diverticulectomy. Materials and Methods: The temporal relationship between age at Meckel's diverticulectomy and the presence of ectopic epithelium was evaluated in our series. A meta-analysis of all reported recent literature on this condition was subsequently performed to evaluate the strength of the relationship between ectopic epithelium and symptomatic Meckel's diverticulum. Results: There was a paucity of ectopic epithelium in Meckel's diverticulectomy specimens in infants operated on at less than 1 year of age. Having two or more ectopic epithelia in a diverticulum does not appear to carry an additive risk for complications. The meta-analysis confirmed that ectopic epithelium was the most significant factor that influenced surgical intervention in all series of Meckel's diverticulum. Conclusion: The relationship between ectopic epithelium and the development of symptomatic Meckel's diverticulum is complex. Further understanding of the development of ectopic rests in the diverticulum will facilitate elucidating the pathophysiology in symptomatic cases. PMID:24741211

  17. [Ectopic pregnancy in the ultrasound. Case reports. Retrospektive analysis].

    PubMed

    Derbak, A

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the ultrasound findings of ectopic pregnancy in the group of women examined in our department transvaginal ultrasound. Analysis of ectopic pregnancy cases covers the period from 1. 8. 2012. to 31. 9. 2015. We introduced several case studies. Retrospective analysis. Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Hospital Jindrichuv Hradec. The methodology is based on a retrospective evaluation of the history, laboratory and ultrasound findings in a group of 30 patients with ectopic pregnancy. At the first visit were diagnosed by transvaginal ultrasound 82% ectopic pregnancy. A patological adnexal mass was visualised in 84% cases. A negative ultrasound finding was observed in 16% cases. The results of our group of patients are more or less comparable with other studies. We recorded the same risk factors for ectopic pregnancy. Most ectopic pregnancies can be diagnosed at the first examination before starting treatment and treated at an early stage. Transvaginal ultrasound is the "gold standard" diagnostic tool of choice in the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy in combination with the dynamics of serum levels β-hCG..

  18. A series of rat segmental forelimb ectopic implantation models.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xianyu; Luo, Xusong; Gao, Bowen; Liu, Fei; Gu, Chuan; Yu, Qingxiong; Li, Qingfeng; Zhu, Hainan

    2017-05-09

    Temporary ectopic implantation has been performed in clinical practice to salvage devascularized amputated tissues for delayed replantation purpose. In this study, we established a series of segmental forelimb ectopic implantation models in rats, including forelimb, forearm, forepaw, digit, and double forelimbs, to mimic the clinical context. Time of amputated limbs harvesting in donors and ectopic implantation process in recipients were recorded. Survival time and mortalities of recipients were also recorded. Sixty days after ectopic implantation, a full-field laser perfusion imager (FLPI) was used to detect the blood flow of amputated limbs and micro-CT imaging was used to examine bone morphological changes. Histological sections of amputated limbs were stained with hematoxylin and eosin to evaluate pathological changes. Implanted amputated limbs in all models achieved long term survival and there were no obvious morphological and histological changes were found according to results of micro-CT and histology study. Thus, a series of rat segmental forelimb temporary ectopic implantation models have been well established. To our knowledge, this is the first rodent animal model related to forelimb temporary ectopic implantation. These models might facilitate further research related to salvage, reconstruction and better aesthetic and functional outcome of upper extremity/digit in temporary ectopic implantation scenario.

  19. Medical management of an ovarian ectopic pregnancy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Birge, Ozer; Erkan, Mustafa Melih; Ozbey, Ertugrul Gazi; Arslan, Deniz

    2015-12-20

    Primary ovarian ectopic pregnancy is a rare type of ectopic pregnancy which has an estimated prevalence ranging from 1:7000 to 1:70,000 accounting for almost 3 % of all ectopic cases. Here we report the case of a 25-year-old woman who presented to our clinic with abdominal pain, 6 weeks' delay of menstruation and 3 days of vaginal bleeding, whose transvaginal ultrasonography showed an ectopic gestational sac with yolk sac inside, in her right ovary. This case shows that early diagnosis is very important particularly in places like the Sub-Saharan region of Africa. A 25-year-old African woman was referred to our clinic with 6 weeks' delay of menstruation, frequent increasing abdominal pain and 3 days of vaginal bleeding. Her general condition was good and her vital signs were normal. She felt tenderness in an abdominal examination and had a small amount of vaginal bleeding. Transvaginal ultrasonography showed an ectopic gestational sac with yolk sac inside, in her right ovary. Our final diagnosis was ectopic ovarian pregnancy and we successfully treated her with methotrexate. After 3 weeks of methotrexate administration her beta human chorionic gonadotropin was negative and a sonographic examination was completely normal. Ectopic ovarian pregnancy is a very important medical situation. It should be diagnosed in its early stages otherwise it could be life-threatening and surgical treatment may be inevitable. Because of the importance of fertility, medical treatment is an acceptable option and can be feasible with early diagnosis.

  20. Technique for the Laparoscopic Management of a Cornual Ectopic Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Mohamad S

    2016-01-01

    To describe a technique for the laparoscopic management of a cornual ectopic pregnancy. Step-by-step explanation of the procedure using video (Canadian Task Force classification III). Cornual pregnancy is a rare form of ectopic pregnancy, accounting for up to 2% to 4% of all ectopic pregnancies, with a mortality range of 2.0% to 2.5%, and this accounts for 20% of all deaths caused by ectopic pregnancies. Both medical and surgical treatments have been reported. Although laparotomy hysterectomy and cornuectomy used to be the preferred surgical approaches, more cornual ectopic pregnancies are being managed with the laparoscopic approach through cornuostomy or cornuectomy in recent years. The main concern with surgical treatment is hemorrhage and the need for cornual reconstruction, which necessitate advanced laparoscopic skills and technique. In this video, we describe our technique for the treatment of a cornual ectopic pregnancy. We present the case of a 21-year-old G3P2002 (gravida 3 para 2002) with the finding of a right live cornual ectopic pregnancy with gestational age of 6 weeks on pelvic ultrasound along with an elevated human chorionic gonadotropin level at 7,192 and right pelvic pain. After counseling regarding treatment options, the patient agreed with proceeding with surgery and underwent a laparoscopic right cornuectomy. Her surgery was uneventful, and she was discharged home a few hours after surgery. She was completely recovered at her postoperative follow-up visit. Her serial serum human chorionic gonadotropin levels were followed until complete resolution a few weeks later. Laparoscopic cornuectomy is a safe and effective procedure for the management of cornual ectopic pregnancy. The use of hemostatic agents and suturing can help prevent hemorrhage and allows a safe removal of the ectopic pregnancy and repair of the uterine defect created. Copyright © 2016 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Management of Ectopically Erupting Maxillary Incisors: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Kotumachagi Sangappa; Uma, H L; Nagarathna, J; Kumar, Pravin

    2015-01-01

    Eruption disturbances related to the position include ectopic eruption and transpositions. The occurrence of ectopic eruption is most commonly associated with maxillary incisors. The normal eruption, position and morphology of these teeth are crucial to craniofacial development, facial esthetics as well as phonetics. It is essential that the clinicians have thorough knowledge of the eruption disturbances in order to make an appropriate, as well as timely intervention, as dictated by the complexity of the problem. How to cite this article: Suresh KS, Uma HL, Nagarathna J, Kumar P. Management of Ectopically Erupting Maxillary Incisors: A Case Series. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(3):227-233.

  2. Ectopic presacral choroid plexus cyst in a neonate.

    PubMed

    Gross, Eitan; Koplewitz, Benjamin Z; Arbell, Dan; Fellig, Jakob; Udassin, Raphael

    2009-05-01

    An unusual case of a presacral ectopic choroid plexus cyst in a neonate is described. After birth, a soft lump was noticed at the left buttock. Imaging studies including sonography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a presacral cystic lesion extending to the buttocks, composed of several septated cystic masses with no connection to the spinal canal or rectum. After total resection, the tumor was diagnosed as an ectopic choroid plexus cyst. To our knowledge, this is the first case report in the English literature of a presacral ectopic choroid plexus cyst.

  3. Persistent trophoblastic tissue following salpingostomy for unruptured ectopic pregnancy

    SciTech Connect

    Rivlin, M.E.; Meeks, G.R.; Cowan, B.D.; Bates, G.W.

    1985-02-01

    Radioimmunoassay of beta-hCG was used to diagnose an ectopic pregnancy in a 30 year old patient and the site of pregnancy was determined by ultrasonography. A salpingostomy was performed; the ectopic pregnancy and the residual trophoblastic tissue were removed. Six weeks later a right salpingectomy was performed to remove persistent trophoblastic tissue. Histologic examination of the surgical specimen demonstrated viable chorionic villi. Serial measurements of beta-hCG are recommended following conservative surgery for ectopic gestation to assure the patient and the surgeon that the tube contains no residual products of conception.

  4. Papillary carcinoma in ectopic thyroid detected by Tl-201 scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Michigishi, T.; Mizukami, Y.; Mura, T.; Nomura, T.; Watanabe, K.; Tonami, N.; Hisada, K. )

    1991-05-01

    A 37-year-old man with papillary carcinoma in an ectopic thyroid is presented. Excisional biopsy revealed the cervical mass to be a metastasis from thyroid cancer. X-ray, ultrasonography, and computed tomography, however, failed to identify the primary tumor in the thyroid. Incidental TI-201 uptake was noted in the midline of the anterior neck, and a palpable nodule was discovered in this area. Fine needle aspiration cytology demonstrated Class V papillary adenocarcinoma, and subsequent surgery confirmed a papillary carcinoma in the ectopic thyroid. This case suggests the usefulness of TI-201 scintigraphy for the detection of ectopic thyroid malignancy.

  5. [Fertility after ectopic pregnancy at the University Hospital in Dakar].

    PubMed

    Cisse, M L; Moreau, J C; Kouedou, D; Faye, E O; Niang, M; Dionne, P; Diadhiou, F

    2002-01-01

    The aims is to evaluate fertility and medical cost about post ectopic pregnancy follow up. It is about a retrospective and descriptive study about 337 patients who have the opportunity to get a salpingectomy for an ectopic pregnancy between 1989 and 1997 at Le Dantec Gynecological and Obstetrical Clinic. After the ectopic pregnancy cure, women are followed with contraception, just time before trying to obtain another pregnancy. The studied parameters are: age, parity, socio-economical status, level of instruction, obstetrical and gynecological antecedents, Chlamydia serology, hysterosaipingography data, fertility after ectopic pregnancy, fees related to the cost of follow up after ectopic pregnancy. Data exploitation is done through an epidemiologic programme named Epi Info version 5 The average age of the patients was 27 years and that of the parity was 2.70. 87.83% of women were married. More than the half of those patients came from the suburb of Dakar. 171 patients (50.74%) were followed regularly, the other 166 (49.26%) disappeared. A Chlamydia trachomatis infection was found among 23.4% of cases. A tubal obstruction was noted in the level of the horns at 12.5 % of women. No case of maternal death was observed. Among 59 patients who wished a pregnancy, 34 ectopic pregnancy had been obtained (57.62%) in 4 month after stopping contraception and 26 cases of a new ectopic pregnancy. The expenses of medical cure after ectopic pregnancy are about 17.814 to 71,574.65 F CFA with an average of 38,689 F CFA (389.89 FF). Medical care after ectopic pregnancy raises a lot of problems: --some patients disappeared probably because of the inaccessibility of financial cost, --the high rate of Chlamydial trachomatis infection, an hypofertility after ectopic pregnancy. To combat this, we have to insist in the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases in general and of the chlamydial infection in particular. We have also to insist in the early diagnosis of the ectopic pregnancy

  6. Management of Ectopically Erupting Maxillary Incisors: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Suresh, Kotumachagi Sangappa; Uma, HL; Nagarathna, J

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Eruption disturbances related to the position include ectopic eruption and transpositions. The occurrence of ectopic eruption is most commonly associated with maxillary incisors. The normal eruption, position and morphology of these teeth are crucial to craniofacial development, facial esthetics as well as phonetics. It is essential that the clinicians have thorough knowledge of the eruption disturbances in order to make an appropriate, as well as timely intervention, as dictated by the complexity of the problem. How to cite this article: Suresh KS, Uma HL, Nagarathna J, Kumar P. Management of Ectopically Erupting Maxillary Incisors: A Case Series. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(3):227-233. PMID:26604543

  7. Papillary Carcinoma in Median Aberrant Thyroid (Ectopic) - Case Report

    PubMed Central

    K, Shashidhar; Deshmane, Vijaya Laxmi; Kumar, Veerendra; Arjunan, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Median ectopic thyroid may be encountered anywhere from the foramen caecum to the diaphragm. Non lingual median aberrant thyroid (incomplete descent) usually found in the infrahyoid region and malignant transformation in this ectopic thyroid tissue is very rare. We report an extremely rare case of papillary carcinoma in non lingual median aberrant thyroid in a 25-year-old female. The differentiation between a carcinoma arising in the median ectopic thyroid tissue and a metastatic papillary carcinoma from an occult primary in the main thyroid gland is also discussed. PMID:25121039

  8. Molar tubal ectopic pregnancy: Report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Mbarki, Chaouki; Jerbi, Emna; Hsayaoui, Najeh; Zouari, Fatma; Ben Brahim, Ehsen; Oueslati, Hedhili

    2015-06-01

    Ectopic molar pregnancy is a rare occurrence and consequently not often considered as a diagnostic possibility. We report two cases of molar hydatidiform tubal pregnancy. Diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy was confirmed on clinical biological and sonographic investigations. Diagnosis of molar pregnancy was done on histopathology. The clinical course was favorable for both patients. Although rare, molar changes can occur at any site of an ectopic pregnancy. Clinical diagnosis of a molar pregnancy is difficult but histopathology is the gold standard for diagnosis. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  9. Twin tubal pregnancy: A large unruptured ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Deepti; Agrawal, Nidhi; Arora, Vrinda

    2015-11-01

    Twin ectopic pregnancy is a rare occurrence, with an estimated incidence of 1 in 20 000 spontaneous pregnancies. We describe a case of unilateral twin ectopic pregnancy in which the gravid fallopian tube showed no signs of tubal rupture despite marked tubal distension. A 25-year-old woman presented with clinical features suggestive of large right-sided tubal ectopic pregnancy. Serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin was 10 800 IU/mL. Laparotomy revealed markedly distended right fallopian tube. There was no hemoperitoneum. The tube contained twin gestational sacs. The crown-rump length of the embryos was 2 cm. The ectopic gestation was thus unique, in that despite marked tubal distension, the trophoblastic invasion was not significant to cause tubal rupture. There may be a role for medical management based on individual gestational sac size in selected cases of twin tubal pregnancy in which there is no evidence of hemoperitoneum.

  10. Ectopic Pregnancy: A Statistical Review of 360 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Blanchet, Jean; Sparling, D. W.; MacFarlane, K. T.

    1967-01-01

    In a statistical analysis of 360 cases of ectopic pregnancy admitted to the Montreal General Hospital over a 20-year period ending December 1964, ectopic gestation occurred once in every 83 admissions to the gynecological service. This incidence has remained constant over the years. Only one out of four patients had had more than one child and 30% of the patients had absolute or relative infertility. Diagnosis was delayed or not made in 58 patients. There was evidence that neurogenic factors play a role in the etiology of ectopic gestation. Ten per cent of the patients had had a previous operation for the same condition. Symptomatology is variable and the possibility of ectopic pregnancy must never be overlooked in a woman of child-bearing age. Once the diagnosis is made the treatment is early operation. The morbidity rate in this series was 28% and there was one death. PMID:6017696

  11. Spontaneous live unilateral twin ectopic pregnancy – A case presentation

    PubMed Central

    Mahsood, Shazia; Shelton, Hannah; Zaedi, Khaled; Economides, DL

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of ectopic pregnancy has increased in recent years and now is around one in 100 pregnancies. However, the incidence of live twin ectopic pregnancy in a spontaneous conception is still quite rare. A 34-year-old gravida 3, para 0 presented in the Early Pregnancy Unit with a positive pregnancy test, lower abdominal pain and vaginal spotting. Her quantitative serum Beta hCG was high, and the transvaginal scan revealed an empty uterine cavity with a twin ectopic pregnancy in the left adnexa with cardiac activity in both embryos. The patient was taken for laparoscopic surgery and a left ampullary twin pregnancy was confirmed. She underwent a left salpingectomy and is well on a one-year follow-up. This case report discusses the incidence, diagnoses and treatment of ectopic pregnancies in general. PMID:27433227

  12. Ectopic pituitary adenoma presenting as midline nasopharyngeal mass.

    PubMed

    Ali, R; Noma, U; Jansen, M; Smyth, D

    2010-12-01

    Ectopic pituitary adenomas are extremely rare. We report a case of ectopic pituitary adenoma in the midline of the nasopharynx. This adenoma probably arose from the pharyngeal remnant of Rathke's pouch. We discuss a case of a lady who presented to our unit with 2 months history of dryness and sensation of lump in her throat and a long standing history of hypothyroidism. Examination of nasopharynx revealed a smooth and fluctuant midline mass. CT scan of nose and paranasal sinuses confirmed the midline mass with small defect communicating with the sphenoid sinus. An initial diagnosis of Thornwaldt's cyst was made and she underwent upper aerodigestive tract endoscopy and marsupialization of the mass. Histopathological examination revealed ectopic pituitary adenoma. Ectopic pituitary adenoma is an important differential diagnosis for a midline nasopharyngeal mass. It is recommended that prior to surgical resection of midline nasopharyngeal mass biopsy is taken and MRI is performed.

  13. Ectopic lymphoid-like structures in infection, cancer and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Pitzalis, Costantino; Jones, Gareth W; Bombardieri, Michele; Jones, Simon A

    2014-07-01

    Ectopic lymphoid-like structures often develop at sites of inflammation where they influence the course of infection, autoimmune disease, cancer and transplant rejection. These lymphoid aggregates range from tight clusters of B cells and T cells to highly organized structures that comprise functional germinal centres. Although the mechanisms governing ectopic lymphoid neogenesis in human pathology remain poorly defined, the presence of ectopic lymphoid-like structures within inflamed tissues has been linked to both protective and deleterious outcomes in patients. In this Review, we discuss investigations in both experimental model systems and patient cohorts to provide a perspective on the formation and functions of ectopic lymphoid-like structures in human pathology, with particular reference to the clinical implications and the potential for therapeutic targeting.

  14. Diagnosis and management of intramural ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bannon, Kimberly; Fernandez, Carlos; Rojas, David; Levine, Elliot M; Locher, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Intramural pregnancy, a gestation completely surrounded by the myometrium located within the uterine wall with separation from the uterine cavity, is an extremely unusual form of pregnancy. Complications resulting from intramural pregnancy include inevitable uterine rupture with resultant hemorrhage and possible hysterectomy if diagnosis is not made early and treatment is not initiated. An asymptomatic patient was initially diagnosed with a missed abortion at approximately 6 weeks of gestation after a routine ultrasound. Suction curettage was performed approximately 1 month after the initial diagnosis. The pathology specimen failed to reveal placental villi. Ultimately, the diagnosis of intramural pregnancy was made via ultrasound and a computed tomography scan. She was treated with a single dose of systemically administered methotrexate. Over a period of 4 months, β-human chorionic gonadotropin levels trended downward; however, the intramural pregnancy failed to resolve completely, and a persistent mass remained. The intramural pregnancy was removed using the da Vinci laparoscopic procedure (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA). If the diagnosis of intramural ectopic pregnancy is made sufficiently early, conservative measures can be taken, which can preserve a patient's future fertility.

  15. Ectopic anterior cerebellum (ala lobule centralis).

    PubMed

    Algin, Oktay; Ozmen, Evrim

    2015-06-01

    In this case report we present an adolescent girl who was referred to our radiology department for assessment with advanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging on suspicion of low-grade quadrigeminal cistern neoplasm on 1.5 Tesla MR examination. We were able to evaluate detailed cerebellar anatomy more clearly, and detected that the lesion was compatible with ectopic cerebellar tissue (a very rare developmental variation) on submillimetric 3-dimensional (3D) images from a 3 Tesla MR unit which has a 32-channel head coil. Our findings were further supported by diffusion tensor imaging which clearly indicated that the lesion was a part of the cerebellum. Furthermore, MR spectroscopic metabolite ratios were in accordance with the characteristics of normal neuronal tissue. As far we know there is no published report that contains similar findings to those of our patient. In conclusion, cranial MR images, if possible in 3D format (with very small isotropic voxels) should be obtained for the precise diagnosis of the lesions located in this region; in addition, the differential diagnostic list should be well known and advanced imaging techniques should be used when necessary. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. [Conservative therapy of ectopic pregnancy with methotrexate].

    PubMed

    Molina Sosa, A; Morales Garcia, V E

    1993-07-01

    Ectopic pregnancy (EP) treated by traditional methods, signifies an approximate lose of fertility capacity of the patient, of 50%. The early diagnosis allows conservative treatment with metotrexate (MTXE), with the objective of preserving the affected tube (salpynx) and its function. Early detection of EP, intact, was done, in 11 cases, with the following parameters: clinical picture, ultrasonography (Us) (empty uterus, adnexial mass and free fluid; adnexial ring or extrauterine embryo); quantitative determination of beta fraction of chorionic gonadotropin (CGH b) and laparoscopic observation, when the following characteristics were met: tubal pregnancy, no greater than 30 mm, intact tubarian serosa, lack of active bleeding and visualization of all pelvic cavity. MTXE 12.5 mg, intrasacularly via laparoscopy in eight patients, and three by laparotomy. The ulterior control of the procedure was: careful surveillance during eight days, Us daily and CGH b in two occasions; ten patients evolutionated satisfactorily, two of them required additional dosis of MTXE, parenterally, 0.5 mg/kg and citovorum factor, 0.1 mg/kg/4 days. The obtained conclusions are: 1. Conservative treatment with MTXE may be carried out provided the conditions established before, are met. 2. The patient's follow up must be precise and because of the high cost of the determination every third day of CGH b, Us may be used. Hysterosalpingography was done in five patients after six months of the procedure, and tubal permeability was seen.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. A case of an ectopic prolactinoma.

    PubMed

    Simsir, Ilgin Yildirim; Kocabas, Gokcen Unal; Sahin, Serap Baydur; Erdogan, Mehmet; Cetinkalp, Sevki; Saygili, Fusun; Yilmaz, Candeger; Ozgen, Ahmet Gokhan

    2012-02-01

    A 34-year-old female presented to our clinic with a 1.5 year history of secondary amenorrhea and galactorrhea. Prolactin (PRL) level was found to be 151.89 ng/ml. Pituitary imaging was reported to be normal. An examination of the patient revealed that PRL level was still high so the dose of cabergoline was further increased and subsequently, bromocriptine was added to the treatment. There was no reduction in PRL levels in controls. A scanning was performed to look for an ectopic focus. Abdominal computerized tomography revealed a heterogenous mass lesion originating from the uterus. Octreotide scintigraphy was performed and we observed an involvement consistent with the mass in the uterus. The patient underwent abdominal total hysterectomy. PRL dropped to 0.4 ng/ml the next day after the operation. The pathology result was a low-grade malignant mesenchymal tumor. Prolactin was found to be immunohistochemically negative. However, galactorrhea disappeared postoperative and PRL levels are still low. Elevated levels of PRL, resistant to bromocriptine and cabergoline, rapidly returned to normal after hysterectomy, which obviously indicates that hyperprolactinemia was associated with the myoma of the uterus.

  18. Dysfunctional ectopic thyroid gland: a case report.

    PubMed

    Stokić, Edita; Kljajić, Vladimir; Idjuški, Stevan; Benc, Damir; Popović, Djordje; Protić, Mladjan; Crnobrnja, Veljko

    2014-01-01

    Lingual thyroid gland is a rare anomaly of thyroid gland development, occurring more frequently in females. If it causes local symptomatology such as dysphagia, dysphonia or dyspnea it is diagnosed in childhood, however, if it is asymptomatic it is usually diagnosed in adulthood. We present a 23-year-old female patient in whom we diagnosed lingual thyroid gland coincidentally during diagnostic procedures of a concomitant disease. The application of 131I scintigraphy showed an oval field of intensive accumulation of radio markers in the zone of medial face line, around tongue base, with the absence of thyroid gland in its physiological position. Functional testing proved primary hypothyroidism and we started the application of substitution therapy. The application of levothyroxine resulted in reaching euthyroid state and the reduction of thyroid gland size. We present a very rare anomaly of the thyroid gland, and so far there have been no clear attitudes about further treatment. The general condition of the patient, age, the size of ectopic thyroid gland and the existence of local symptomatology or complications represent the factors that have influence on the choice of treatment method.

  19. [Bilateral tubal ectopic pregnancy in a spontaneous cycle--a case report].

    PubMed

    Kubiaczyk, Filip; Suchocki, Sławomir; Puskarz, Roman; Zaborowski, Adam; Zaranek, Krzysztof

    2014-08-01

    Ectopic pregnancy occurs in 0.5-2% of all pregnancies. A double ectopic pregnancy is very rare and has the incidence of 1 in 725 ectopic pregnancies. We describe a case of a 30-year-old patient with double ectopic pregnancy located in tubas in spontaneous cycle--diagnosed and treated at the Gynecology and Obstetrics Hospital in Walbrzych. The patient had no risk factors for ectopic pregnancy. This case shows that even the diagnosis of an evident ectopic pregnancy cannot exclude the possibility of a double ectopic pregnancy.

  20. Ectopic (subcutaneous) Paragonimus miyazakii infection in a dog.

    PubMed

    Madarame, H; Suzuki, H; Saitoh, Y; Tachibana, M; Habe, S; Uchida, A; Sugiyama, H

    2009-09-01

    Ectopic infection with Paragonimus miyazakii was determined to be the cause of a subcutaneous inguinal mass in a 15-month-old, male, boar-hunting dog. On histologic examination, the mass comprised granulomatous panniculitis, intralesional adult trematodes and eggs, and lymphadenitis. Extrapulmonary paragonimosis in animals is rare. This appears to be the first report in a dog of ectopic P. miyazakii infection with mature trematodes and eggs that involved the inguinofemoral lymphocenter and surrounding subcutis.

  1. A rare case of ectopic thoracic kidney and spleen.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Babu; Lakshminarayanan, P; Sudhakar, M K; Vishwanathan, K N

    2011-07-01

    A 23-year-old male presented with fever of 5 days duration. His peripheral smear was positive for Plasmodium vivax. He was treated for malaria and responded. During investigation with USG it was found that he had absent left kidney. An abdominal contrast enhanced CT scan revealed ectopic kidney and spleen in the left hemithorax. This was a rare case of ectopic thoracic kidney and spleen.

  2. Magnetic resonance urography in duplex kidney with ectopic ureteral insertion

    PubMed Central

    Thambidorai, Conjeevaram Rajendrarao; Anuar, Zulfiqar

    2011-01-01

    This is a report on the use of magnetic resonance urography (MRU) in a 6-year-old girl who presented with urinary incontinence. She had a left duplex kidney with poorly functioning upper moiety and ectopic insertion of the dilated upper pole ureter. MRU has been shown to be superior to conventional imaging techniques in delineating poorly functioning moieties of duplex kidneys and ectopic ureters. PMID:21897576

  3. Ectopic eruption of the maxillary second molar: Predictive factors.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Soonshin; Choi, Yoon Jeong; Lee, Ji Yeon; Chung, Chooryung; Kim, Kyung-Ho

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the diagnostic aspects, contributing conditions, and predictive key factors associated with ectopic eruption of maxillary second molars. This retrospective study evaluated the study models, lateral cephalographs, and panoramic radiographs of 40 adult subjects (20 men, 20 women) with bilateral ectopic eruption and 40 subjects (20 men, 20 women) with normal eruption of the maxillary second molars. Studied variables were analyzed statistically by independent t-tests, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis, followed by receiver-operating characteristic analysis. Tooth widths of bilateral lateral incisors, canines, and premolars were wider in the ectopic group, which resulted in greater arch lengths. The ANB angle and maxillary tuberosity distance (PTV-M1, PTV-M2) were smaller in the ectopic group. The long axes of the maxillary molars showed significant distal inclination in the ectopic group. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that three key factors-arch length, ANB angle, and PTV-M1 distance-were significantly associated with ectopic eruption of the second molars. The area under the curve (AUC) was the largest for the combination of the three key factors with an AUC greater than 0.75. PTV-M1 alone was the single factor that showed the strongest association with ectopic eruption (AUC = 0.7363). An increase in arch length, decrease in ANB angle, and decrease in maxillary tuberosity distance to the distal aspect of the maxillary first molar (PTV-M1) were the most predictive factors associated with ectopic eruption of maxillary second molars.

  4. Ectopic Granule Cells of the Rat Dentate Gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Scharfman, Helen; Goodman, Jeffrey; McCloskey, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Granule cells of the mammalian dentate gyrus normally form a discrete layer, and virtually all granule cells migrate to this location. Exceptional granule cells that are positioned incorrectly, in ‘ectopic’ locations, are rare. Although the characteristics of such ectopic granule cells appear similar in many respects to granule cells located in the granule cell layer, their rare occurrence has limited a full evaluation of their structure and function. More information about ectopic granule cells has been obtained by studying those that develop after experimental manipulations that increase their number. For example, after severe seizures, the number of ectopic granule cells located in the hilus increases dramatically. These experimentally induced ectopic granule cells may not be equivalent to normal ectopic granule cells necessarily, but the vastly increased numbers have allowed much more information to be obtained. Remarkably, the granule cells that are positioned ectopically develop intrinsic properties and an axonal projection that are similar to granule cells that are located normally, i.e., in the granule cell layer. However, dendritic structure and synaptic structure/function appear to differ. These studies have provided new insight into a rare type of granule cell in the dentate gyrus, and the plastic characteristics of dentate granule cells that appear to depend on the location of the cell body. PMID:17148946

  5. Late-Onset Postoperative Junctional Ectopic Tachycardia in Nonsurgical Procedures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lijun; Shang, Xiaoke; Qiu, Qiu; Lu, Rong; Xiao, Shuna; Li, Dingyang; Yu, Jie; Zhang, Changdong; Xia, Cheng; Zhou, Hongmei; Zhang, Gangcheng

    2016-07-27

    Postoperative junctional ectopic tachycardia (JET) is a narrow complex tachycardia and most frequently occurs during and after surgical repair of certain types of congenital heart defects. Postoperative junctional ectopic tachycardia may produce unfavorable hemodynamics that prolongs stays in the cardiac intensive care unit and hospital, prolongs time on a ventilator, and occasionally requires the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as rescue therapy. The present report describes a rare case of late-onset postoperative junctional ectopic tachycardia, which occurred 13 days after the deployment of a perimembranous ventricular septal defect (PmVSD) occluder in a 17-year-old female teenager. To the best of our knowledge, late-onset postoperative junctional ectopic tachycardia has not previously been reported as a complication in nonsurgical procedures. In this case, the junctional ectopic tachycardia remained resistant to medicines and the haemodynamic imbalance caused a serious life-threatening situation in the patient. The occluder was removed by an emergent thoracotomy; then, the patient was successfully cured by being supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. The findings suggest that during follow-up management, the physician should pay attention postoperatively to junctional ectopic tachycardia even after discharge from the hospital.

  6. Individualisation of intervention for tubal ectopic pregnancy: historical perspectives and the modern evidence based management of ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Odejinmi, Funlayo; Huff, Keren O; Oliver, Reeba

    2017-03-01

    Historically, ectopic pregnancy was a life-threatening condition where diagnosis was possible only at post mortem or laparotomy and maternal mortality was up to 90%. The evolution in the management of ectopic pregnancy has meant that diagnosis can be made using non-invasive techniques with an aim to identify the ectopic gestation before tubal rupture. This enables health care professionals to offer management options that consider not only maternal mortality, but morbidity and fertility outcomes as well. In spite of this, diagnostic techniques and management options are not without limitations. Research is currently focused on new tests with a single diagnostic capability, diagnostic and treatment algorithms and safe methods of triaging patients. This article aims to review the current literature on the diagnosis and management of ectopic pregnancy and to formulate a pathway to help individualise care and achieve the best possible outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Platelet-rich plasma-containing fragmin-protamine micro-nanoparticles promote epithelialization and angiogenesis in split-thickness skin graft donor sites.

    PubMed

    Takabayashi, Yuki; Ishihara, Masayuki; Sumi, Yuki; Takikawa, Makoto; Nakamura, Shingo; Kiyosawa, Tomoharu

    2015-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) contains multiple growth factors, and fragmin-protamine micro-nanoparticles (F-P M-NPs) significantly enhance and stabilize growth factors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of PRP-containing F-P M-NPs (PRP&F-P M-NPs) on wound repair in split-thickness skin graft (STSG-) donor sites (DS). A total of 56 inbred male rats were anesthetized and split-thickness skin graft donor site (STSG-DS) were created with a Padgett dermatome. PRP&F-P M-NPs, F-P M-NPs, PRP, and saline (control) were then intradermally injected evenly into the STSG-DSs. On 3, 4, 5, 7, and 10 d after creation of STSG-DS, skin sample sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin to evaluate reepithelialization and angiogenesis. Treatment of STSG-DS with PRP&F-P M-NPs effectively promoted epithelialization and new vessel formation compared with those treated with PRP, F-P M-NPs, and control (saline). The intradermal injection of PRP&F-P M-NPs promotes epithelialization and angiogenesis in STSG-DS wounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Graphite grains studded with silver nanoparticles: description and application in promoting direct biocatalysis between heme protein and the resulting carbon paste electrode.

    PubMed

    ElKaoutit, Mohammed; Naggar, Ahmad H; Naranjo-Rodríguez, Ignacio; de Cisneros, José L Hidalgo-Hidalgo

    2012-04-01

    The impregnation of graphite grains with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is proposed for making a novel carbon paste electrode (CPE). The resulting material promotes direct electron transfer and direct biocatalysis of embedded heme protein. It is demonstrated that the impregnation of graphite grains with AgNPs of 16-25 nm, incorporated in a CPE, can promote measurable bio-electrochemical phenomena involving hemoglobin and myoglobin. Unlike other biosensors prepared with simple carbon, those based on carbon grains studded with AgNPs show well-defined and quasi-reversible voltammetric peak with heterogeneous electron transfer rate k(s) of approximately 0.037±0.007 and 0.013±0.005s(-1) for hemoglobin and myoglobin, respectively. The embedded proteins also retain their bio-catalytical activity for hydrogen peroxide and nitrite reduction with linear ranges of 0.5-3000 μM and 30-150 μM, sensitivities of 73.6±0.6nA μM(-1) and 5.72±0.11 nA μM(-1), and detection limits close to 0.08 μM and 5.80 μM, for these two analytes respectively. These results support the viability of this preliminary approach for the development of advanced third-generation biosensors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Biomimicry Promotes the Efficiency of a 10-Step Sequential Enzymatic Reaction on Nanoparticles, Converting Glucose to Lactate.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Chinatsu; Gao, Lizeng; Nelson, Jacquelyn L; Lata, James P; Cohen, Roy; Wu, Lauren; Hinchman, Meleana M; Bergkvist, Magnus; Sherwood, Robert W; Zhang, Sheng; Travis, Alexander J

    2017-01-02

    For nanobiotechnology to achieve its potential, complex organic-inorganic systems must grow to utilize the sequential functions of multiple biological components. Critical challenges exist: immobilizing enzymes can block substrate-binding sites or prohibit conformational changes, substrate composition can interfere with activity, and multistep reactions risk diffusion of intermediates. As a result, the most complex tethered reaction reported involves only 3 enzymes. Inspired by the oriented immobilization of glycolytic enzymes on the fibrous sheath of mammalian sperm, here we show a complex reaction of 10 enzymes tethered to nanoparticles. Although individual enzyme efficiency was higher in solution, the efficacy of the 10-step pathway measured by conversion of glucose to lactate was significantly higher when tethered. To our knowledge, this is the most complex organic-inorganic system described, and it shows that tethered, multi-step biological pathways can be reconstituted in hybrid systems to carry out functions such as energy production or delivery of molecular cargo.

  10. Synergistic promotion of photoelectrochemical water splitting efficiency of TiO2 nanorods using metal-semiconducting nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, Alagesan; Pan, Zhenghui; Li, Hongfei; Zhou, Lisha; Li, Wanfei; Qiu, Yongcai; Xu, Yijun; Hou, Yuan; Muzi, Chen; Zhang, Yuegang

    2017-10-01

    Highly efficient photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting has been achieved by TiO2 nanorods (TNRs) decorated with Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) and graphene quantum dots (GQDs). The experimental analysis has indicated that the AuNPs has contributed to the plasmon resonance energy transfer/surface plasmon resonance-mediated hot electron injection and the GQDs contributed to the improved electron injection. The synergistic effect, which could be due to exciton-plasmon interactions and/or nonresonance energy transfer between the AuNPs and GQDs, is attributed to the superior PEC activity of the TNRs, which lead to a high photocurrent density of 1.75 mA cm-2 at 1.23 V vs RHE.

  11. Promotion of Oxygen Reduction by Exsolved Silver Nanoparticles on a Perovskite Scaffold for Low-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yinlong; Zhou, Wei; Ran, Ran; Chen, Yubo; Shao, Zongping; Liu, Meilin

    2016-01-13

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have potential to be the cleanest and most efficient electrochemical energy conversion devices with excellent fuel flexibility. To make SOFC systems more durable and economically competitive, however, the operation temperature must be significantly reduced, which depends sensitively on the development of highly active electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at low temperatures. Here we report a novel silver nanoparticle-decorated perovskite oxide, prepared via a facile exsolution process from a Sr0.95Ag0.05Nb0.1Co0.9O3-δ (SANC) perovskite precursor, as a highly active and robust ORR electrocatalyst for low-temperature SOFCs. The exsolved Sr0.95Ag0.05Nb0.1Co0.9O3-δ (denoted as e-SANC) electrode is very active for ORR, achieving a very low area specific resistance (∼0.214 Ω cm(2) at 500 °C). An anode-supported cell with the new heterostructured cathode demonstrates very high peak power density (1116 mW cm(-2) at 500 °C) and stable operation for 140 h at a current density of 625 mA cm(-2). The superior ORR activity and stability are attributed to the fast oxygen surface exchange kinetics and the firm adhesion of the Ag nanoparticles to the Sr0.95Nb0.1Co0.9O3-δ (SNC0.95) support. Moreover, the e-SANC cathode displays improved tolerance to CO2. These unique features make the new heterostructured material a highly promising cathode for low-temperature SOFCs.

  12. Promotion of the transdermal delivery of protein drugs by N-trimethyl chitosan nanoparticles combined with polypropylene electret.

    PubMed

    Tu, Ye; Wang, Xinxia; Lu, Ying; Zhang, He; Yu, Yuan; Chen, Yan; Liu, Junjie; Sun, Zhiguo; Cui, Lili; Gao, Jing; Zhong, Yanqiang

    We recently reported that electret, which was prepared by a corona charging system with polypropylene film, could enhance the transdermal delivery of several drugs of low molecular weight. The aim of this study was to investigate whether electret could enhance the transdermal delivery of protein drugs by N-trimethyl chitosan nanoparticles (TMC NPs) prepared by an ionic gelation method. A series of experiments were performed, including in vitro skin permeation assays and anti-inflammatory effects, to evaluate the transdermal delivery of protein drugs by TMC NPs in the presence of electret. The results showed that in the presence of electret, the transdermal delivery of protein drugs in TMC NPs was significantly enhanced, as demonstrated by in vitro permeation studies and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Notably, superoxide dismutase-loaded TMC NPs combined with electret exhibited the best inhibitory effect on the edema of the mouse ear. TMC NPs combined with electret represent a novel platform for the transdermal delivery of protein drugs.

  13. Codelivery of mTERT siRNA and paclitaxel by chitosan-based nanoparticles promoted synergistic tumor suppression.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Lv, Pi-Ping; Chen, Xiao-Ming; Yue, Zhan-Guo; Fu, Qiang; Liu, Shi-Ying; Yue, Hua; Ma, Guang-Hui

    2013-05-01

    Clinical applications of siRNA are being hindered by poor intracellular uptake and enzymatic degradation. To address these problems, we devised an oral delivery system for telomerase reverse transcriptase siRNA using N-((2-hydroxy-3-trimethylammonium) propyl) chitosan chloride (HTCC) nanoparticles (HNP). Both the porous structure and the positive charge of HNP facilitated siRNA encapsulation. The outer coating of HTCC not only protected siRNA from enzymatic degradation, but also improved siRNA permeability in intestine tract. In vivo and in vitro experiments proved that HNP could effectively deliver siRNA to lesion site and further into tumor cells. On the basis of confirming the antitumor activity of HNP:siRNA, we continued to encapsulate a hydrophobic chemotherapeutic drug-paclitaxel (PTX) into HNP to form a "two-in-one" nano-complex (HNP:siRNA/PTX). We demonstrated that HNP:siRNA/PTX could simultaneously ferry siRNA and PTX into tumor cells and increase drug concentration, which, in particular, was much more effective in tumor suppression than that of traditional cocktail therapy. These results suggested that the HNP, as a powerful delivery system for both siRNA and chemotherapeutic drug, would have a far-reaching application in human cancer therapy.

  14. Magnetite nanoparticles functionalized with α-tocopheryl succinate (α-TOS) promote selective cervical cancer cell death

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angulo-Molina, Aracely; Méndez-Rojas, Miguel Ángel; Palacios-Hernández, Teresa; Contreras-López, Oscar Edel; Hirata-Flores, Gustavo Alonso; Flores-Alonso, Juan Carlos; Merino-Contreras, Saul; Valenzuela, Olivia; Hernández, Jesús; Reyes-Leyva, Julio

    2014-08-01

    The vitamin E analog α-tocopheryl succinate (α-TOS) selectively induces apoptosis in several cancer cells, but it is sensitive to esterases present in cervical cancer cells. Magnetite nanoparticles (Nps) were prepared by a reduction-coprecipitation method; their surface was silanized and conjugated to α-TOS to enhance its resistance. Morphology, size, and crystal structure were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and selected area electron diffraction. Chemical composition was analyzed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy; functional groups were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; and α-TOS content was estimated by thermogravimetric analysis. The cytotoxic activity of α-TOS-Nps was evaluated in non-malignant fibroblasts and cervical cancer cells by means of the colorimetric MTT viability test. Intracellular localization was identified by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Characterization of α-TOS-Nps revealed sphere-like Nps with 15 nm average size, formed by mineral and organic constituents with high stability. α-TOS-Nps were internalized in the nucleus and selectively affected the viability of cervical cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner but were biocompatible with non-malignant fibroblasts. In conclusion, functionalization of magnetite Nps protected the cytotoxic activity of α-TOS in non-sensitive cervical cancer cells.

  15. Promotion of the transdermal delivery of protein drugs by N-trimethyl chitosan nanoparticles combined with polypropylene electret

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Ye; Wang, Xinxia; Lu, Ying; Zhang, He; Yu, Yuan; Chen, Yan; Liu, Junjie; Sun, Zhiguo; Cui, Lili; Gao, Jing; Zhong, Yanqiang

    2016-01-01

    We recently reported that electret, which was prepared by a corona charging system with polypropylene film, could enhance the transdermal delivery of several drugs of low molecular weight. The aim of this study was to investigate whether electret could enhance the transdermal delivery of protein drugs by N-trimethyl chitosan nanoparticles (TMC NPs) prepared by an ionic gelation method. A series of experiments were performed, including in vitro skin permeation assays and anti-inflammatory effects, to evaluate the transdermal delivery of protein drugs by TMC NPs in the presence of electret. The results showed that in the presence of electret, the transdermal delivery of protein drugs in TMC NPs was significantly enhanced, as demonstrated by in vitro permeation studies and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Notably, superoxide dismutase-loaded TMC NPs combined with electret exhibited the best inhibitory effect on the edema of the mouse ear. TMC NPs combined with electret represent a novel platform for the transdermal delivery of protein drugs. PMID:27822034

  16. HMGB1 Induces Secretion of Matrix Vesicles by Macrophages to Enhance Ectopic Mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qiang; Bei, Jun-Jie; Liu, Chuan; Feng, Shi-Bin; Zhao, Wei-Bo; Zhou, Zhou; Yu, Zheng-Ping; Du, Xiao-Jun; Hu, Hou-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Numerous clinical conditions have been linked to ectopic mineralization (EM). This process of pathological biomineralization is complex and not fully elucidated, but thought to be started within matrix vesicles (MVs). We hypothesized that high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a cytokine associated with biomineralizing process under physiological and pathological conditions, induces EM via promoting MVs secretion from macrophages. In this study, we found that HMGB1 significantly promoted secretion of MVs from macrophages and subsequently led to mineral deposition in elevated Ca/Pi medium in vitro. Transmission electron microscopy of calcifying MVs showed formation of hydroxyapatite crystals in the vesicle interior. Subcutaneous injection into mice with MVs derived from HMGB1-treated cells showed a greater potential to initiate regional mineralization. Mechanistic experiments revealed that HMGB1 activated neutral sphingomyelinase2 (nSMase2) that involved the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and p38 MAPK (upstream of nSMase2). Inhibition of nSMase2 with GW4869 or p38 MAPK with SB-239063 prevented MVs secretion and mineral deposition. Collectively, HMGB1 induces MVs secretion from macrophages at least in part, via the RAGE/p38 MAPK/nSMase2 signaling pathway. Our findings thus reveal a novel mechanism by which HMGB1 induces ectopic mineralization. PMID:27243975

  17. Ectopic Expression of Testis Germ Cell Proteins in Cancer and Its Potential Role in Genomic Instability

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Aaraby Yoheswaran; Gjerstorff, Morten Frier

    2016-01-01

    Genomic instability is a hallmark of human cancer and an enabling factor for the genetic alterations that drive cancer development. The processes involved in genomic instability resemble those of meiosis, where genetic material is interchanged between homologous chromosomes. In most types of human cancer, epigenetic changes, including hypomethylation of gene promoters, lead to the ectopic expression of a large number of proteins normally restricted to the germ cells of the testis. Due to the similarities between meiosis and genomic instability, it has been proposed that activation of meiotic programs may drive genomic instability in cancer cells. Some germ cell proteins with ectopic expression in cancer cells indeed seem to promote genomic instability, while others reduce polyploidy and maintain mitotic fidelity. Furthermore, oncogenic germ cell proteins may indirectly contribute to genomic instability through induction of replication stress, similar to classic oncogenes. Thus, current evidence suggests that testis germ cell proteins are implicated in cancer development by regulating genomic instability during tumorigenesis, and these proteins therefore represent promising targets for novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:27275820

  18. Ectopic ERK Expression Induces Phenotypic Conversion of C10 Cells and Alters DNA Methyltransferase Expression

    SciTech Connect

    Sontag, Ryan L.; Weber, Thomas J.

    2012-05-04

    In some model systems constitutive extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) activation is sufficient to promote an oncogenic phenotype. Here we investigate whether constitutive ERK expression influences phenotypic conversion in murine C10 type II alveolar epithelial cells. C10 cells were stably transduced with an ERK1-green fluorescent protein (ERK1-GFP) chimera or empty vector and ectopic ERK expression was associated with the acquisition of soft agar focus-forming potential in late passage, but not early passage cells. Late passage ERK1-GFP cells exhibited a significant increase in the expression of DNA methyl transferases (DNMT1 and 3b) and a marked increase in sensitivity to 5-azacytidine (5-azaC)-mediated toxicity, relative to early passage ERK1-GFP cells and vector controls. The expression of xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A (XPA) and DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) were significantly increased in late passage cells, suggesting enhanced DNA damage recognition and repair activity which we interpret as a reflection of genomic instability. Phospho-ERK levels were dramatically decreased in late passage ERK1-GFP cells, relative to early passage and vector controls, and phospho-ERK levels were restored by treatment with sodium orthovanadate, indicating a role for phosphatase activity in this response. Collectively these observations suggest that ectopic ERK expression promotes phenotypic conversion of C10 cells that is associated with latent effects on epigenetic programming and phosphatase activities.

  19. HMGB1 Induces Secretion of Matrix Vesicles by Macrophages to Enhance Ectopic Mineralization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiang; Bei, Jun-Jie; Liu, Chuan; Feng, Shi-Bin; Zhao, Wei-Bo; Zhou, Zhou; Yu, Zheng-Ping; Du, Xiao-Jun; Hu, Hou-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Numerous clinical conditions have been linked to ectopic mineralization (EM). This process of pathological biomineralization is complex and not fully elucidated, but thought to be started within matrix vesicles (MVs). We hypothesized that high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a cytokine associated with biomineralizing process under physiological and pathological conditions, induces EM via promoting MVs secretion from macrophages. In this study, we found that HMGB1 significantly promoted secretion of MVs from macrophages and subsequently led to mineral deposition in elevated Ca/Pi medium in vitro. Transmission electron microscopy of calcifying MVs showed formation of hydroxyapatite crystals in the vesicle interior. Subcutaneous injection into mice with MVs derived from HMGB1-treated cells showed a greater potential to initiate regional mineralization. Mechanistic experiments revealed that HMGB1 activated neutral sphingomyelinase2 (nSMase2) that involved the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and p38 MAPK (upstream of nSMase2). Inhibition of nSMase2 with GW4869 or p38 MAPK with SB-239063 prevented MVs secretion and mineral deposition. Collectively, HMGB1 induces MVs secretion from macrophages at least in part, via the RAGE/p38 MAPK/nSMase2 signaling pathway. Our findings thus reveal a novel mechanism by which HMGB1 induces ectopic mineralization.

  20. Clinical characteristics and molecular pathology of skull ectopic thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Cao, Longxing; Wang, Zhongyong; Ma, Jiawei; Chen, Jinsheng; Zhu, Haojiang; Zhou, Xiaohua; Zhu, Qing; Dong, Jun; Lan, Qing; Huang, Qiang

    2016-12-01

    Thyroid cancer is very common, but skull ectopic thyroid cancer has not been reported in 50 years of literatures in foreign countries. There are only four cases of the skull ectopic thyroid cancer reported in more than 30 years of domestic literature including the cases in this report. This paper aims to investigate the clinical characteristics and possible molecular mechanisms of this rare disease. Five keywords of "thyroid gland", "ectopic thyroid", "thyroid cancer", "ectopic thyroid cancer" and "metastatic thyroid cancer" were included and 50 years of literatures in the PubMed-MEDLINE and Wanfang database were reviewed. By combining the test data of 2 cases of surgical patient tissue microarray specimens-molecular immunology pathology, the possible molecular mechanisms were analyzed and molecular regulation network diagram was drawn. The skull ectopic thyroid cancer has not been reported in 50 years of literatures in foreign countries and there are only four cases of the skull ectopic thyroid cancer reported in more than 30 years of domestic literature including the cases in this report. The molecular expressions of skull ectopic thyroid cancer, orthotopic thyroid cancer, and metastatic thyroid cancer were not the same: (I) AKT (P=0.012, 0.002) and mTOR (P=0.002, 0.004) were highly expressed in the skull ectopic thyroid cancer; (II) BRAF (P=0.029, 0.014) and ERK (P=0.002, 0.001) were highly expressed in orthotopic thyroid cancer; (III) MMP-9 (P=0.023, 0.016) was highly expressed in metastatic thyroid cancer. According to the molecular information base, the PI3K is predicted to be a key crossing gene of the above three signaling pathways, which showed no significant differences in these three thyroid cancers (P=0.692, 0.388, 0.227), but PI3K has regulation roles in the three signaling pathways of Akt/mTOR, MAPK, and NF-κB. PI3K gene is an important starting gene of thyroid cancers. After the canceration starts, due to the fact that the local microenvironments of

  1. Chloride promoted room temperature preparation of silver nanoparticles on two dimensional tungsten oxide nanoarchitectures for the catalytic oxidation of tertiary N-compounds to N-oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Shilpi; Acharyya, Shankha S.; Kumar, Malika; Bal, Rajaram

    2015-09-01

    A halide ion promoted two dimensional silver tungsten-based nanomaterial was synthesized by a facile one-pot synthesis protocol at room temperature. The 2D morphology features high activity and selectivity for the oxidation of a wide range of tertiary N-compounds to their corresponding N-oxides. The morphology of Ag/WO3 materials can be varied by changing the synthesis parameters. The unique 2D plate like morphology of tungsten oxide increases adsorption sites of the support, leading to less sintering and higher dispersion of silver nanoparticles, resulting in significantly enhanced activity for the reaction. The influence of reaction parameters such as temperature, substrate to oxidant molar ratio, reaction time, etc. was investigated in detail. The catalyst was characterized by XRD, XPS, ICP-AES, TGA, FT-IR, UV-vis, Raman, SEM, TEM and STEM. Raman studies further provide mechanistic insight which proves that the formation of peroxo tungsten species is responsible for the N-oxidation reaction. High stability and recyclability of the 2D Ag/WO3 nanoplates are also observed under the investigated conditions.A halide ion promoted two dimensional silver tungsten-based nanomaterial was synthesized by a facile one-pot synthesis protocol at room temperature. The 2D morphology features high activity and selectivity for the oxidation of a wide range of tertiary N-compounds to their corresponding N-oxides. The morphology of Ag/WO3 materials can be varied by changing the synthesis parameters. The unique 2D plate like morphology of tungsten oxide increases adsorption sites of the support, leading to less sintering and higher dispersion of silver nanoparticles, resulting in significantly enhanced activity for the reaction. The influence of reaction parameters such as temperature, substrate to oxidant molar ratio, reaction time, etc. was investigated in detail. The catalyst was characterized by XRD, XPS, ICP-AES, TGA, FT-IR, UV-vis, Raman, SEM, TEM and STEM. Raman studies

  2. Hydatidiform mole presentation as a tubal ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Nakeer, Tabassum; Shahid, Muhammad; Ansari, Muhammad Asad; Nakeer, Rooham

    2014-05-01

    Presentation of hydatidiform mole as tubal ectopic pregnancy is very rare. These patients usually present with ectopic pregnancy and are later diagnosed with hydatidiform mole on the basis of histological examination following surgery. We present the case of a 32-year-old female who presented with abdominal pain and vaginal bleed since 2 days of presentation. She was vitally stable. There was mild tenderness in hypogastrium and left iliac fossa. Pelvic examination showed mild bleeding per vaginum and fullness in both fornices. The patient was suspected of having an ectopic pregnancy. Ultrasonography of pelvis revealed fluid in cul-de-sac and a sac like mass of 1.8 cm attached to the left ovary. On laparotomy, there was a left sided tubal ectopic pregnancy and subsequently left salpingectomy was done. Histopathology of the tissue sample showed features of partial hydatidiform mole. Ectopic pregnancy can present as hydatidiform mole in rare cases for which histological examination of the tissue is required to establish the diagnosis.

  3. Ectopic parathyroid glands and their anatomical, clinical and surgical implications.

    PubMed

    Noussios, G; Anagnostis, P; Natsis, K

    2012-11-01

    Ectopic parathyroid glands result from aberrant migration during early stages of development and lack of successful identification may lead to lack of success in parathyroid surgery. They constitute a common etiology of persistent or recurrent hyperparathyroidism, when they are missed at initial diagnosis. Their prevalence is about 2-43% in anatomical series and up to 16% and 14% in patients with primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism, respectively. Ectopic inferior parathyroids are most frequently found in the anterior mediastinum, in association with the thymus or the thyroid gland, while the most common position for ectopic superior parathyroids is the tracheoesophageal groove and retroesophageal region. Neck ultrasound and 99mTc Sestamibi scan are first-line imaging modalities, although with low sensitivity and specificity. However, their combination with modern techniques, such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) alone or in combination with CT (SPECT/CT) increases their diagnostic accuracy. Fine needle-aspiration cytology of a lesion suspicious for parathyroid tissue and measurement of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in the aspired material further assist to the successful preoperative localization of ectopic glands. Common sites for surgical investigation are the upper thyroid pole and the upper vascular thyroid stalk behind the hypopharynx and cervical esophagus for the superior parathyroids, and the carotid artery bifurcation and the thymic tongue, for the inferior parathyroids. Radioguided minimally invasive parathyroidectomy after successful localization, assisted by rapid PTH measurement postoperatively, significantly improves surgical outcomes in patients with ectopic parathyroid adenomas.

  4. Ectopic Pregnancy After Plan B Emergency Contraceptive Use.

    PubMed

    Steele, Brianne Jo; Layman, Kerri

    2016-04-01

    Pregnancy outcomes after emergency contraceptive use has been debated over time, but review of the literature includes mechanisms by which these medications may increase the chance of an ectopic pregnancy. Such cases are infrequently reported, and many emergency providers may not readily consider this possibility when treating patients. This is a case presentation of ectopic pregnancy in a patient who had recently used Plan B (levonorgestrel) emergency contraceptive. She presented with abdominal pain and vaginal spotting, and was evaluated by serum testing and pelvic ultrasound. She was discovered to have a right adnexal pregnancy. She was treated initially with methotrexate, though she ultimately required surgery for definitive treatment. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: This case report aims to bring a unique clinical case to the attention of emergency providers. The goal is to review research on the topic of levonorgestrel use and the incidence of ectopic pregnancies. The mechanism of action of this emergency contraceptive is addressed, and though no definite causal relationship is known between levonorgestrel and ectopic pregnancies, there is a pharmacologic explanation for how this event may occur after use of this medication. Ultimately, the emergency provider will be reminded of the importance of educating the patient on the possible outcomes after its use, including failure of an emergency contraceptive and the potential of ectopic pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Upper gastrointestinal ectopic variceal bleeding treated with various endoscopic modalities

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Woo; Cho, Eunae; Jun, Chung Hwan; Choi, Sung Kyu; Kim, Hyun Soo; Park, Chang Hwan; Rew, Jong Sun; Cho, Sung Bum; Kim, Hee Joon; Han, Mingui; Cho, Kyu Man

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Ectopic variceal bleeding is a rare (2–5%) but fatal gastrointestinal bleed in patients with portal hypertension. Patients with ectopic variceal bleeding manifest melena, hematochezia, or hematemesis, which require urgent managements. Definitive therapeutic modalities of ectopic varices are not yet standardized because of low incidence. Various therapeutic modalities have been applied on the basis of the experiences of experts or availability of facilities, with varying results. Patient concerns: We have encountered eight cases of gastrointestinal ectopic variceal bleeding in five patients in the last five years. Diagnoses: All patients were diagnosed with liver cirrhosis presenting melena or hematemesis. Interventions: All patients were treated with various endoscopic modalities (endoscopic variceal obturation [EVO] with cyanoacrylate in five cases, endoscopic variceal band ligation (EVL) in two cases, hemoclipping in one case). Outcomes: Satisfactory hemostasis was achieved without radiologic interventions in all cases. EVO and EVL each caused one case of portal biliopathy, and EVL induced ulcer bleeding in one case. Lessons: EVO generally accomplished better results of variceal obturations than EVL or hemoclipping, without serious adverse events. EVO may be an effective modality for control of ectopic variceal bleeding without radiologic intervention or surgery. PMID:28072750

  6. Ultra-small lipid nanoparticles promote the penetration of coenzyme Q10 in skin cells and counteract oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Lohan, Silke B; Bauersachs, Sonja; Ahlberg, Sebastian; Baisaeng, Nuttakorn; Keck, Cornelia M; Müller, Rainer H; Witte, Ellen; Wolk, Kerstin; Hackbarth, Steffen; Röder, Beate; Lademann, Jürgen; Meinke, Martina C

    2015-01-01

    UV irradiation leads to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). An imbalance between the antioxidant system and ROS can lead to cell damage, premature skin aging or skin cancer. To counteract these processes, antioxidants such as coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) are contained in many cosmetics. To improve and optimize cell/tissue penetration properties of the lipophilic CoQ10, ultra-small lipid nanoparticles (usNLC) were developed. The antioxidant effectiveness of CoQ10-loaded usNLC compared to conventional nanocarriers was investigated in the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT. Using confocal laser scanning microscopy investigations of the carriers additionally loaded with nile red showed a clear uptake into cells and their distribution within the cytoplasm. By use of the XTT cell viability test, CoQ10 concentrations of 10-50 μg/ml were shown to be non-toxic, and the antioxidant potential of 10 μg/ml CoQ10 loaded usNLC in the HaCaT cells was analyzed via electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy after cellular exposure to UVA (1J/cm(2)) and UVB (18 mJ/cm(2)) irradiation. In comparison with the CoQ10-loaded conventional carriers, usNLC-CoQ10 demonstrated the strongest reduction of the radical formation; reaching up to 23% compared to control cells without nanocarrier treatment. Therefore, usNLC-CoQ10 are very suitable to increase the antioxidant potential of skin.

  7. Aromaticity/Bulkiness of Surface Ligands to Promote the Interaction of Anionic Amphiphilic Gold Nanoparticles with Lipid Bilayers.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jinhong; Zhang, Ouyang; Ren, Jing; Wu, Chuanliu; Zhao, Yibing

    2016-02-16

    The presence of large hydrophobic aromatic residues in cell-penetrating peptides or proteins has been demonstrated to be advantageous for their cell penetration. This phenomenon has also been observed when AuNPs were modified with peptides containing aromatic amino acids. However, it is still not clear how the presence of hydrophobic and aromatic groups on the surface of anionic AuNPs affects their interaction with lipid bilayers. Here, we studied the interaction of a range of anionic amphiphilic AuNPs coated by different combinations of hydrophobic and anionic ligands with four different types of synthetic lipid vesicles. Our results demonstrated the important role of the surface aromatic or bulky groups, relative to the hydrocarbon chains, in the interaction of anionic AuNPs with lipid bilayers. Hydrophobic interaction itself arising from the insertion of aromatic/bulky ligands on the surface of AuNPs into lipid bilayers is sufficiently strong to cause overt disruption of lipid vesicles and cell membranes. Moreover, by comparing the results obtained from AuNPs coated with aromatic ligands and cyclohexyl ligands lacking aromaticity respectively, we demonstrated that the bulkiness of the terminal groups in hydrophobic ligands instead of the aromatic character might be more important to the interaction of AuNPs with lipid bilayers. Finally, we further correlated the observation on model liposomes with that on cell membranes, demonstrating that AuNPs that are more disruptive to the more negatively charged liposomes are also substantially more disruptive to cell membranes. In addition, our results revealed that certain cellular membrane domains that are more susceptible to disruption caused by hydrophobic interactions with nanoparticle surfaces might determine the threshold of AuNP-mediated cytotoxicity.

  8. Environmentally benign synthesis of phytochemicals-capped gold nanoparticles as nanopriming agent for promoting maize seed germination.

    PubMed

    Mahakham, Wuttipong; Theerakulpisut, Piyada; Maensiri, Santi; Phumying, Santi; Sarmah, Ajit K

    2016-12-15

    Application of nanotechnology in agriculture is moving towards to improve the cultivation and growth of crop plants. The present study is the first attempt to propose a simple, yet cost-effective and ecofriendly synthesis of phytochemicals-capped GNPs using rhizome extract of galanga plant at room temperature. The synthesized GNPs were characterized by various characterization techniques. To promote the green nanotechnology applications in agriculture, GNPs solution at environmentally realistic dose (5 to 15ppm) as nanopriming agent was used to activate the germination and early seedling growth of maize aged seeds. Priming with 5ppm GNPs showed the best effects on promoting emergence percentage (83%) compared to unprimed control (43%) and hydroprimed groups (56%). Seed priming at both 5 and 10ppm GNPs also enhanced seedling vigor index by 3 times over the control. Priming with GNPs at 10ppm was found to enhance the best physiological and biochemical properties of maize seedlings. Internalization studies by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) strongly supported that GNPs can internalize into seeds. However, ICP-OES analysis revealed that GNPs were not present in both shoot and root parts, suggesting that nanopriming approach minimizes the Au translocation from seeds into plant vegetative organs. Phytosynthesized GNPs were found to be less toxic than chemically synthesized GNPs. This is the first report showing phytochemicals-capped GNPs as a promising nanopriming agent for activating the germination of naturally aged seeds of crop plant.

  9. [Ectopic pregnancy: Its current interest in Primary Health Care].

    PubMed

    López-Luque, P R; Bergal-Mateo, G J; López-Olivares, M C

    2014-01-01

    An ectopic pregnancy is the implantation and development of the ovum fertilized outside the endometrial cavity. Its incidence has increased in the last 30 years, and although its morbimortality has decreased, it is still the first cause of mortality in the first trimester of the pregnancy. Early suspicion is important, particularly in women of fertile age and with risk factors indicative of an extrauterine gestation. The symptomatology is usually amenorrhea, abdominal pain, metrorrhagia, general pregnancy symptoms, and even syncope and shock. The diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy is based on the clinical information, analytical results on mother blood and urine, ultrasound examination, transvaginal culdocentesis, laparoscopic or laparotomic inspection, and a histological study. The treatment can be surgical (salpingostomy or salpingectomy), medical (methotrexate) or expectant, depending on the factors of the ectopic pregnancy: early diagnosis, presence of acute complications, clinical condition of the patient, etc.

  10. Ultrasound-Guided Percutaneous Management of Splenic Ectopic Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Python, Johanne L; Wakefield, Brian W; Kondo, Kimi L; Bang, Tami J; Stamm, Elizabeth R; Hurt, K Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Splenic ectopic pregnancies are a rare cause of abdominal pain in reproductive-age women. A 21-year-old woman with worsening abdominal pain and a positive pregnancy test presented with hemoperitoneum and no intrauterine pregnancy on transvaginal ultrasound. After 2 nondiagnostic laparoscopies, a splenic pregnancy was diagnosed by computed tomography scan and abdominal ultrasound. Currently, diagnosis and treatment of splenic pregnancies involve exploratory surgery and splenectomy. We report the successful treatment of this splenic ectopic pregnancy with combined intramuscular plus ultrasound-guided percutaneous methotrexate injection, with preservation of the patient's spleen. Abdominal implantation must be considered in patients with pregnancy of unknown location, and in carefully selected patients splenic ectopic pregnancy can be successfully managed by minimally invasive methods. Copyright © 2016 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. PET imaging in ectopic Cushing syndrome: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Santhanam, Prasanna; Taieb, David; Giovanella, Luca; Treglia, Giorgio

    2015-11-01

    Cushing syndrome due to endogenous hypercortisolism may cause significant morbidity and mortality. The source of excess cortisol may be adrenal, pituitary, or ectopic. Ectopic Cushing syndrome is sometimes difficult to localize on conventional imaging like CT and MRI. After performing a multilevel thoracoabdominal imaging with CT, the evidence regarding the use of radiotracers for PET imaging is unclear due to significant molecular and etiological heterogeneity of potential causes of ectopic Cushing's syndrome. In our systematic review of literature, it appears that GalLium-based (Ga68) somatostatin receptor analogs have better sensitivity in diagnosis of bronchial carcinoids causing Cushing syndrome and FDG PET appears superior for small-cell lung cancers and other aggressive tumors. Further large-scale studies are needed to identify the best PET tracer for this condition.

  12. Ectopic Centromere Nucleation by CENP-A in Fission Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Marlyn; He, Haijin; Dong, Qianhua; Sun, Siyu; Li, Fei

    2014-01-01

    The centromere is a specific chromosomal locus that organizes the assembly of the kinetochore. It plays a fundamental role in accurate chromosome segregation. In most eukaryotic organisms, each chromosome contains a single centromere the position and function of which are epigenetically specified. Occasionally, centromeres form at ectopic loci, which can be detrimental to the cell. However, the mechanisms that protect the cell against ectopic centromeres (neocentromeres) remain poorly understood. Centromere protein-A (CENP-A), a centromere-specific histone 3 (H3) variant, is found in all centromeres and is indispensable for centromere function. Here we report that the overexpression of CENP-ACnp1 in fission yeast results in the assembly of CENP-ACnp1 at noncentromeric chromatin during mitosis and meiosis. The noncentromeric CENP-A preferentially assembles near heterochromatin and is capable of recruiting kinetochore components. Consistent with this, cells overexpressing CENP-ACnp1 exhibit severe chromosome missegregation and spindle microtubule disorganization. In addition, pulse induction of CENP-ACnp1 overexpression reveals that ectopic CENP-A chromatin can persist for multiple generations. Intriguingly, ectopic assembly of CENP-Acnp1 is suppressed by overexpression of histone H3 or H4. Finally, we demonstrate that deletion of the N-terminal domain of CENP-Acnp1 results in an increase in the number of ectopic CENP-A sites and provide evidence that the N-terminal domain of CENP-A prevents CENP-A assembly at ectopic loci via the ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis. These studies expand our current understanding of how noncentromeric chromatin is protected from mistakenly assembling CENP-A. PMID:25298518

  13. Ectopic Adrenocorticotropic Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenomas: An Underestimated Entity.

    PubMed

    Knappe, Ulrich J; Jaspers, Christian; Buschsieweke, Desirée; Reinbold, Wolf-Dieter; Alomari, Ali; Saeger, Wolfgang; Ehlenz, Klaus; Mann, W Alexander; Kann, Peter Herbert; Feldkamp, Joachim

    2017-04-01

    The diagnosis of Cushing disease is based on endocrinological pa-rameters, with no single test being specific. In some patients, dynamic thin-slice sellar magnetic resonance imaging fails to detect a pituitary tumor. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of ectopic pituitary adenoma in this situation. In a retrospective chart review, 5 patients (6%) with ectopic adenomas were identified in 83 consecutive patients undergoing transsphenoidal surgery for adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting pituitary adenomas by 1 surgeon. In all 5 patients (all female, 32-41 years of age), an exclusively extrasellar ACTH-secreting adenoma was excised. Three adenomas were located in the cavernous sinus, 1 in the sphenoid sinus, and 1 in the ethmoidal cells. Histologically, none of the tumors showed signs of aggressiveness. Three of the 5 adenomas specifically expressed somatostatin receptor 5. In 4 patients with Cushing disease, postoperative remission was obtained, with 1 recurrence after 14 months. In the patient with Nelson syndrome, ACTH decreased from >800 to <80 pg/mL. Three patients underwent previous surgery elsewhere, including 1 hypophysectomy. In this case, the ectopic adenoma (positive for somatostatin receptor 5) in the ethmoidal cells turned out to be positive on gallium 68 DOTATATE positron emission tomography/computed tomography. The incidence of primarily ectopic ACTH-secreting adenomas in this series was 6%. In cases of negative MRI findings, an ectopic ACTH-secreting adenoma should be taken into account. 68 Ga DOTATATE positron emission tomography/computed tomography may identify ectopic pituitary adenomas. Hypophysectomy should always be avoided in primary surgery for CD.

  14. Site-specific DNA double-strand break generated by I-SceI endonuclease enhances ectopic homologous recombination in Pyricularia oryzae.

    PubMed

    Arazoe, Takayuki; Younomaru, Tetsuya; Ohsato, Shuichi; Kimura, Makoto; Arie, Tsutomu; Kuwata, Shigeru

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the contribution of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) to somatic homologous recombination (HR) in Pyricularia oryzae, we established a novel detection/selection system of DSBs-mediated ectopic HR. This system consists of donor and recipient nonfunctional yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)/blasticidin S deaminase (BSD) fusion genes and the yeast endonuclease I-SceI gene as a recipient-specific DSB inducer. The system enables to detect and select ectopic HR events by the restoration of YFP fluorescence and blasticidin S resistance. The transformed lines with donor and recipient showed low frequencies of endogenous ectopic HR (> 2.1%). Compared with spontaneous HR, c. 20-fold increases in HR and absolute frequency of HR as high as 40% were obtained by integration of I-SceI gene, indicating that I-SceI-mediated DSB was efficiently repaired via ectopic HR. Furthermore, to validate the impact of DSB on targeted gene replacement (TGR), the transformed lines with a recipient gene were transfected with an exogenous donor plasmid in combination with the DSB inducer. TGR events were not observed without the DSB inducer, whereas hundreds of colonies resulting from TGR events were obtained with the DSB inducer. These results clearly demonstrated that the introduction of site-specific DSB promotes ectopic HR repair in P. oryzae.

  15. Delayed puberty due to pituitary stalk dysgenesis and ectopic neurohypophysis.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hye Jin; Choi, Kyung Mook; Ryu, Ohk Hyun; Suh, Sang Il; Kim, Nan Hee; Baik, Sei Hyun; Choi, Dong Seop

    2006-03-01

    Hypopituitarism is not a common cause of delayed puberty. A 22 year old man was referred to our clinic because of the absence of the development of secondary sexual characteristics. The patient had no complaints of physical discomfort. Random serum testosterone and luteinizing hormone level were obtained and found to be low. The combined pituitary function stimulation test revealed a partial hypopituitarism. A pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was obtained and showed decreased pituitary stalk enhancement and ectopic neurohypophysis. Therefore, we conclude that the delayed puberty was a result of hypopituitarism due to pituitary stalk dysgenesis and ectopic neurohypophysis. The patient was started on hormone replacement therapy and gradually developed secondary sexual characteristics.

  16. Post-surgical treatment of a patient with ectopic pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Sheng, C F; Wang, R; Liu, B Y; Zhang, H M; Fang, M; Zheng, X

    2015-03-20

    We report here the course and treatment of a patient with ectopic pheochromocytoma. The patient was cured after treatment with respiratory and circulatory support, multiple-organ protection, and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) for approximately 2 weeks. After misdiagnosis, a patient with ectopic pheochromocytoma who is being treated should undergo aggressive fluid supplementation and CRRT instead of central venous pressure measurement, which has limited value in guiding fluid supplementation. The main priority is maintaining hypotension. Hypertension may be controlled with rapid-acting agents. A good outcome can be anticipated for patients who undergo comprehensive intensive care unit therapy.

  17. Pulmonary agenesis associated with dextrocardia, sternal defects, and ectopic kidney.

    PubMed

    Eroglu, Atilla; Alper, Fatih; Turkyilmaz, Atila; Karaoglanoglu, Nurettin; Okur, Adnan

    2005-12-01

    Pulmonary agenesis is a rare embryological defect, usually unilateral, and is associated with skeletal, cardiovascular, and other anomalies. A 22-month-old girl was admitted to our clinic with recurrent pulmonary infections. A chest X-ray and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) revealed pulmonary agenesis with dextrocardia, sternal defects, and a right pelvic ectopic kidney. We report on the first known case of right-sided pulmonary agenesis combined with isolated dextrocardia, sternal defects, and an ectopic kidney. The importance of MDCT for the diagnosis of pulmonary agenesis and associated other anomalies is demonstrated.

  18. Heterotopic pregnancy: discovery of ectopic pregnancy after elective abortion.

    PubMed

    DeFrancesch, F; DiLeo, L; Martinez, J

    1999-03-01

    We report a case of combined intrauterine and tubal pregnancy in a 23-year-old woman. The patient came to the emergency department complaining of lower abdominal pain after having had an elective abortion 2 weeks earlier. Her physician had done pelvic ultrasonography, noting an intrauterine pregnancy before the abortion. Our working diagnosis in the emergency department was retained products of conception versus postabortion endometritis. Pelvic ultrasonography in the emergency department revealed an ectopic pregnancy without evidence of retained products of conception, and the patient had a right salpingotomy with removal of the ectopic fetus without complications.

  19. Ectopic pregnancy following levonorgestrel emergency contraception: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kaymak, Oktay; Şimşek, Yavuz; Doğanay, Melike; Yıldız, Yasemin; Mollamahmutoğlu, Leyla

    2010-01-01

    Hormonal contraceptive pills containing 750 microgram levonorgestrel are the most commonly used postcoital contraceptive method because of their high efficacy and fewer side effects. Emergency contraceptive pills containing levonorgestrel present their effects by several mechanisms, including delayed tubal transport of the ovum. A delay of tubal transportation of an ovum is also one of the possible etiologic factors of tubal ectopic pregnancies. There are limited data on the risk of ectopic pregnancy following levonorgestrel treatment as an emergency contraception. Here, a case of tubal pregnancy associated with the use of levonorgestrel containing emergency contraceptive pills has been presented along with discussion of the relevant literature. PMID:24591928

  20. Multifunctional porous silicon nanoparticles for cancer theranostics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chang-Fang; Sarparanta, Mirkka P; Mäkilä, Ermei M; Hyvönen, Maija L K; Laakkonen, Pirjo M; Salonen, Jarno J; Hirvonen, Jouni T; Airaksinen, Anu J; Santos, Hélder A

    2015-04-01

    Nanomaterials provide a unique platform for the development of theranostic systems that combine diagnostic imaging modalities with a therapeutic payload in a single probe. In this work, dual-labeled iRGD-modified multifunctional porous silicon nanoparticles (PSi NPs) were prepared from dibenzocyclooctyl (DBCO) modified PSi NPs by strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition (SPAAC) click chemistry. Hydrophobic antiangiogenic drug, sorafenib, was loaded into the modified PSi NPs to enhance the drug dissolution rate and improve cancer therapy. Radiolabeling of the developed system with (111)In enabled the monitoring of the in vivo biodistribution of the nanocarrier by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in an ectopic PC3-MM2 mouse xenograft model. Fluorescent labeling with Alexa Fluor 488 was used to determine the long-term biodistribution of the nanocarrier by immunofluorescence at the tissue level ex vivo. Modification of the PSi NPs with an iRGD peptide enhanced the tumor uptake of the NPs when administered intravenously. After intratumoral delivery the NPs were retained in the tumor, resulting in efficient tumor growth suppression with particle-loaded sorafenib compared to the free drug. The presented multifunctional PSi NPs highlight the utility of constructing a theranostic nanosystems for simultaneous investigations of the in vivo behavior of the nanocarriers and their drug delivery efficiency, facilitating the selection of the most promising materials for further NP development.

  1. Ectopic ovary with torsion: uncommon diagnosis made by ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Adham do Amaral e; Morandini, Fernando; Calixto, Caroline Paludo; Barros, Wagner Haese; Nakatani, Edson Tetsuya; Castro, Allan do Amaral e

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasound is an important diagnostic tool in inguinal hernia and in the evaluation of the contents of the hernia sac. This report presents a case in which ultrasound revealed a herniated ectopic ovary, complicated by torsion of its vascular pedicle, in the right labia majora. We also present a brief discussion of ovarian hernia, its potential complications, and the treatments available. PMID:28298734

  2. Ectopic ovary with torsion: uncommon diagnosis made by ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Castro, Adham do Amaral E; Morandini, Fernando; Calixto, Caroline Paludo; Barros, Wagner Haese; Nakatani, Edson Tetsuya; Castro, Allan do Amaral E

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasound is an important diagnostic tool in inguinal hernia and in the evaluation of the contents of the hernia sac. This report presents a case in which ultrasound revealed a herniated ectopic ovary, complicated by torsion of its vascular pedicle, in the right labia majora. We also present a brief discussion of ovarian hernia, its potential complications, and the treatments available.

  3. A retroperitoneal neuroendocrine tumor in ectopic pancreatic tissue.

    PubMed

    Okasha, Hussein Hassan; Al-Bassiouni, Fahim; El-Ela, Monir Abo; Al-Gemeie, Emad Hamza; Ezzat, Reem

    2013-07-01

    Ectopic pancreas is the relatively uncommon presence of pancreatic tissue outside the normal location of the pancreas. We report a case of abdominal pain due to retroperitoneal neuroendocrine tumor arising from heterotopic pancreatic tissue between the duodenal wall and the head of the pancreas. Patient underwent surgical enucleation of the tumor.

  4. Ectopic tubal pregnancy after hysterectomy and tubal ligation.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Marilin; Mohammadi, Amir; Monteiro, Carmela

    2009-01-01

    Posthysterectomy ectopic pregnancy is an unusual condition that may present soon after hysterectomy or several years later. Similarly, although tubal ligation is a widespread method of contraception, tubal pregnancy after tubal ligation is not common either. If any of these conditions are rare, having an ectopic pregnancy after hysterectomy and tubal ligation is even more infrequent and only one of such cases was found in our review of the literature. We describe the case of a 35-year-old patient, with history of bilateral tubal ligation and vaginal hysterectomy that looked for medical attention due to abdominal pain. A pregnancy test was positive and a transvaginal ultrasound demonstrated the presence of a gestational sac at the vaginal cuff, adjacent to the ovary. An exploratory laparotomy showed a ruptured ectopic pregnancy located in the distal portion of the left fallopian tube. The occurrence of an ectopic pregnancy several years following tubal ligation and vaginal hysterectomy is a rare phenomenon that appears to be secondary to a fistulous connection into the peritoneal cavity.

  5. Robotic resection of an ectopic goiter in the mediastinum.

    PubMed

    Bodner, Johannes; Fish, John; Lottersberger, Andreas C; Wetscher, Gerold; Schmid, Thomas

    2005-08-01

    We report the first robotic resection of an ectopic mediastinal thyroid adenoma in a 72-year-old woman. This intervention was part of staged management for excessive bilateral cervical goiter with intrathoracic dispersion. The robotic resection was found to be feasible and safe. The robotic operating system offers better visual control and operative accuracy than does conventional thoracoscopy.

  6. Primary Tubal Choriocarcinoma Presented as Ruptured Ectopic Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Çetin, Orkun; Kolusari, Ali; Bayram, Irfan

    2015-01-01

    The primary tubal choriocarcinoma associated with ectopic pregnancy is very rare. A 31-year-old woman was admitted to the emergency room due to amenorrhea, left lower abdominal pain and fatigue. Her β-Hcg level was 29251.4 mIU/ml and transvaginal ultrasund revealed a 24x21 mm of left tubal ectopic pregancy mass with large amount of free fluid in pelvic cavity. The patient was diagnosed with ruptured tubal ectopic pregnancy and thus, she underwent laparotomy with left total salpingectomy. The pathological assessment was reported as primary tubal choriocarcinoma with the involvement of whole tubal layer. The patient was defined to have stage I choriocarcinoma with good prognostic factors and methotrexate monotherapy was administered. Serum β- Hcg levels of the patient gradually declined and eventually became negative at the first month of the treatment. With this case report we aimed to implicate that when diagnosing the ectopic pregnancy, even very rare, the tubal choriocarcinoma should be kept in mind. PMID:26500968

  7. Primary Tubal Choriocarcinoma Presented as Ruptured Ectopic Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Karaman, Erbil; Çetin, Orkun; Kolusari, Ali; Bayram, Irfan

    2015-09-01

    The primary tubal choriocarcinoma associated with ectopic pregnancy is very rare. A 31-year-old woman was admitted to the emergency room due to amenorrhea, left lower abdominal pain and fatigue. Her β-Hcg level was 29251.4 mIU/ml and transvaginal ultrasund revealed a 24x21 mm of left tubal ectopic pregancy mass with large amount of free fluid in pelvic cavity. The patient was diagnosed with ruptured tubal ectopic pregnancy and thus, she underwent laparotomy with left total salpingectomy. The pathological assessment was reported as primary tubal choriocarcinoma with the involvement of whole tubal layer. The patient was defined to have stage I choriocarcinoma with good prognostic factors and methotrexate monotherapy was administered. Serum β- Hcg levels of the patient gradually declined and eventually became negative at the first month of the treatment. With this case report we aimed to implicate that when diagnosing the ectopic pregnancy, even very rare, the tubal choriocarcinoma should be kept in mind.

  8. Ectopic orbital meningioma: report of two cases and literature review.

    PubMed

    Gündüz, Kaan; Kurt, Rengin Aslıhan; Erden, Esra

    2014-01-01

    Ectopic orbital meningioma is a rare tumor usually affecting the medial orbit. We present two cases that occurred in a 56-year-old woman and a 28-year-old man. The tumors in both patients were subtotally excised via orbitotomy surgery and were located in the superior quadrant in one of our patients and in the temporal quadrant in the other. Following histopathologic diagnosis, external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) was administered to one patient and intensity modulated radiotherapy to the other. We identified 12 other well-documented cases of ectopic orbital meningioma previously reported. Ectopic meningioma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of medial as well as lateral and superior orbital tumors. The tumor is usually well circumscribed but can be ill defined in imaging studies. There are intralesional calcifications and sclerosis of adjacent bone in some cases. Ectopic orbital meningioma can recur after incomplete excision. Based on the efficacy of EBRT in optic nerve sheath meningioma, we used this treatment to decrease the risk of recurrence in our two patients and found no tumor recurrence at follow-ups of 24 and 74 months, but one patient had severe vision loss from radiation retinopathy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Operative laparoscopy in the management of tubal ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Chatwani, A; Yazigi, R; Amin-Hanjani, S

    1992-12-01

    One hundred and seventeen consecutive patients with diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy admitted to Temple University Hospital between October 1989 and March 1992 were divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of 56 patients with operative laparoscopy and Group 2 consisted of 61 patients treated by laparotomy. The two groups were similar for age, race, parity, gestation, presentation, and location of the ectopic gestations. Fifty seven percent of patients in the laparoscopy group were treated by salpingectomy and 43% by salpingostomy, compared to 84% and 16% respectively in the laparotomy group. Mean operative time for laparoscopy was 58 min and 42 min for laparotomy. Complication rates were similar in the two sub-groups. Only two patients in the laparoscopy group required subsequent laparotomy, one to assure hemostasis and one, 5 weeks following surgery, for persistent trophoblastic disease. Operative laparoscopy was associated with a significantly shorter length of hospital stay (1.25 v. 4.39 days). This reflected in a lower cost of hospital stay ($10,105 vs. $13,608). The present data demonstrates that operative laparoscopy is not only safe and effective, but also more economical than open laparotomy in the treatment of ectopic pregnancies. This procedure is expected to replace laparotomy for the treatment of most cases of tubal ectopic pregnancy.

  10. Research Progress in Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum and Related Ectopic Mineralization Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiaoli; Arányi, Tamás; Váradi, András; Terry, Sharon F.; Uitto, Jouni

    2015-01-01

    Heritable ectopic mineralization disorders represent a phenotypically diverse group of conditions characterized by deposition of calcium phosphate complexes in soft connective tissues. The prototype of such conditions is pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), and related conditions with overlapping clinical features include generalized arterial calcification of infancy (GACI) and arterial calcification due to CD73 deficiency (ACDC). Molecular genetic investigations have revealed mutations in the genes physiologically involved in generation of inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) and phosphate (Pi), and the findings suggest a unifying pathomechanism relating to reduced PPi/Pi ratio. This hypothesis is based on the notion that PPi serves as a powerful inhibitor of mineralization while Pi is a pro-mineralization factor, and an appropriate PPi/Pi ratio is critical for prevention of ectopic mineralization under homeostatic conditions. PXE International, the premiere patient support organization, advocating on behalf of patients and families with PXE, sponsors regular research meetings evaluating the progress in this and related ectopic mineralization disorders. The latest meetings were held in September 2014 in Bethesda, MD and in September 2015 in Budapest, Hungary. This report summarizes the latest progress in research on PXE and related ectopic mineralization disorders, based on presentations and discussions in these meetings, with pharmacologic implications for currently intractable disorders. PMID:26902123

  11. Laparoscope resection of retroperitoneal ectopic insulinoma: A rare case

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Zhang, Cheng-Wu; Hong, De-Fei; Wu, Jia; Yang, Hong-Guo; Chen, Yuan; Zhao, Da-Jian; Zhang, Yu-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic insulinoma is a very rare and dormant tumor. Here we report the case of a 79-year-old female who presented with repeated episodes of hypoglycemia and was diagnosed with insulinoma based on laboratory and imaging examinations. Computed tomography and positron emission tomography revealed a tumor in the retroperitoneum under and left of the hepatoduodenal ligament, which was resected successfully using a laparoscopic approach. Pathologic results revealed an ectopic insulinoma, which was confirmed immunohistochemically. Ectopic insulinomas are accompanied by hypoglycemia that can be misdiagnosed as drug- or disease-induced. These tumors are difficult to diagnose and locate, particularly in atypical cases or for very small tumors. Synthetic or targeted examinations, including low blood glucose, elevated insulin, proinsulin, and C-peptide levels, 48-h fasting tests, and relevant imaging methods should be considered for suspected cases of insulinoma. Surgery is the treatment of choice for patients with insulinoma, and laparoscopic resection is a feasible and effective method for select ectopic insulinoma cases. PMID:25892896

  12. Nontubal Ectopic Pregnancies: Overview and Treatment via Local Injection.

    PubMed

    Dolinko, Andrey V; Vrees, Roxanne A; Frishman, Gary N

    2017-07-20

    Ectopic pregnancies account for 1.5% to 2% of all pregnancy in the United States. Of these, approximately 10% implant in nontubal locations, including the abdominal cavity, cervix, ovary, interstitial portion of the fallopian tube, broad ligament, the uterine cornua, or within a cesarean section scar. Because these pregnancies tend to present later than typical tubal pregnancies, they have been associated with greater maternal morbidity and mortality. Advances in ultrasound technology have allowed for earlier diagnosis of nontubal ectopic pregnancies, which in turn has led to the development of novel minimally invasive techniques to manage them. One of these methods involves the local injection of 1 of several agents directly into the ectopic pregnancy. In this article we provide a guide to this technique of local injection, including an overview of the potential agents that can be used, and review the diagnostic and specific ultrasound criteria, other possible treatment options, and overall outcomes for nontubal ectopic pregnancies. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Gynecologic Laparoscopists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Enhanced epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and upregulated MYC in ectopic lesions contribute independently to endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Proestling, Katharina; Birner, Peter; Gamperl, Susanne; Nirtl, Nadine; Marton, Erika; Yerlikaya, Gülen; Wenzl, Rene; Streubel, Berthold; Husslein, Heinrich

    2015-07-22

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process in which epithelial cells lose polarity and cell-to-cell contacts and acquire the migratory and invasive abilities of mesenchymal cells. These abilities are thought to be prerequisites for the establishment of endometriotic lesions. A hallmark of EMT is the functional loss of E-cadherin (CDH1) expression in epithelial cells. TWIST1, a transcription factor that represses E-cadherin transcription, is among the EMT inducers. SNAIL, a zinc-finger transcription factor, and its close relative SLUG have similar properties to TWIST1 and are thus also EMT inducers. MYC, which is upregulated by estrogens in the uterus by an estrogen response cis-acting element (ERE) in its promoter, is associated with proliferation in endometriosis. The role of EMT and proliferation in the pathogenesis of endometriosis was evaluated by analyzing TWIST1, CDH1 and MYC expression. CDH1, TWIST1, SNAIL and SLUG mRNA expression was analyzed by qRT-PCR from 47 controls and 74 patients with endometriosis. Approximately 42 ectopic and 62 eutopic endometrial tissues, of which 30 were matched samples, were collected during the same surgical procedure. We evaluated TWIST1 and MYC protein expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in the epithelial and stromal tissue of 69 eutopic and 90 ectopic endometrium samples, of which 49 matched samples were analyzed from the same patient. Concordant expression of TWIST1/SNAIL/SLUG and CDH1 but also of TWIST1 and MYC was analyzed. We found that TWIST1, SNAIL and SLUG are overexpressed (p < 0.001, p = 0.016 and p < 0.001) in endometriosis, while CDH1 expression was concordantly reduced in these samples (p < 0.001). Similar to TWIST1, the epithelial expression of MYC was also significantly enhanced in ectopic endometrium compared to eutopic tissues (p = 0.008). We found exclusive expression of either TWIST1 or MYC in the same samples (p = 0.003). Epithelial TWIST1 is overexpressed in

  14. Histological characterization of bone marrow in ectopic bone, induced by devitalized Saos-2 human osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Niru N; Tague, Sarah E; Wang, Jinxi; Danley, Marsha; Garimella, Rama; Anderson, H Clarke

    2013-01-01

    Devitalized Saos-2, cultured human osteosarcoma cells, or guanidinium-hydrochloride (GuHCl) extracts of these cells, induce ectopic bone and marrow formation when implanted subcutaneously in Nu/Nu mice. The aim of the present study was to characterize the bone marrow induced by Saos-2 cell extracts, specifically to determine which of the four major hematopoietic cell lineages: erythropoietic, granulopoietic, lymphopoietic and megakaryocytic, are induced by Saos-2 cell derivatives. Immunohistochemical localization of specific antigens was used to determine the presence of each major cell type (glycophorin A for erythropoietic, neutrophil elastase for granulopoietic, factor-VIII related antigen for megakaryocytes, and CD79a for B lymphocytes). Standard H & E stains confirmed the presence of normally organized apparently complete bone marrow within all newly induced bone at 3 weeks post-implantation of devitalized Saos-2 cells. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of erythropoietic cells, granulopoietic cells, megakaryocytes and B lymphocytes in the ectopic marrow. Saos-2 cells (freeze-dried) or their extracts, implanted subcutaneously into Nu/Nu mice, can induce normal marrow that is host-derived, and contains all major hematopoietic cell lineages. Saos-2 induced marrow could potentially restore deficient marrow and promote bone repair.

  15. Histological characterization of bone marrow in ectopic bone, induced by devitalized Saos-2 human osteosarcoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Nahar, Niru N; Tague, Sarah E; Wang, Jinxi; Danley, Marsha; Garimella, Rama; Anderson, H Clarke

    2013-01-01

    Devitalized Saos-2, cultured human osteosarcoma cells, or guanidinium-hydrochloride (GuHCl) extracts of these cells, induce ectopic bone and marrow formation when implanted subcutaneously in Nu/Nu mice. The aim of the present study was to characterize the bone marrow induced by Saos-2 cell extracts, specifically to determine which of the four major hematopoietic cell lineages: erythropoietic, granulopoietic, lymphopoietic and megakaryocytic, are induced by Saos-2 cell derivatives. Methods: Immunohistochemical localization of specific antigens was used to determine the presence of each major cell type (glycophorin A for erythropoietic, neutrophil elastase for granulopoietic, factor-VIII related antigen for megakaryocytes, and CD79a for B lymphocytes). Results: Standard H & E stains confirmed the presence of normally organized apparently complete bone marrow within all newly induced bone at 3 weeks post-implantation of devitalized Saos-2 cells. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of erythropoietic cells, granulopoietic cells, megakaryocytes and B lymphocytes in the ectopic marrow. Conclusion: Saos-2 cells (freeze-dried) or their extracts, implanted subcutaneously into Nu/Nu mice, can induce normal marrow that is host-derived, and contains all major hematopoietic cell lineages. Clinical Significance: Saos-2 induced marrow could potentially restore deficient marrow and promote bone repair. PMID:23386915

  16. Ectopic expression of embryonic stem cell and other developmental genes in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Litvinov, Ivan V; Netchiporouk, Elena; Cordeiro, Brendan; Zargham, Hanieh; Pehr, Kevin; Gilbert, Martin; Zhou, Youwen; Moreau, Linda; Woetmann, Anders; Ødum, Niels; Kupper, Thomas S; Sasseville, Denis

    2014-11-01

    Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) is a potentially devastating malignancy. The pathogenesis of this cancer remains poorly elucidated. Previous studies focused on analysis of expression and function of known oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. However, emerging reports highlight that it is also important to analyze the expression of genes that are ectopically expressed in CTCL (e.g., embryonic stem cell genes (ESC), cancer testis (CT) genes, etc.). Currently, it is not known whether ESC genes are expressed in CTCL. In the current work, we analyze by RT-PCR the expression of 26 ESC genes, many of which are known to regulate pluripotency and promote cancer stem cell-like phenotype, in a historic cohort of 60 patients from Boston and in a panel of 11 patient-derived CTCL cell lines and compare such expression to benign inflammatory dermatoses that often clinically mimic CTCL. Our findings document that many critical ESC genes including NANOG, SOX2, OCT4 (POU5F1) and their upstream and downstream signaling members are expressed in CTCL. Similarly, polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) genes (i.e., EZH2, EED, and SUZ12) are also expressed in CTCL lesional skin. Furthermore, select ESC genes (OCT4, EED, TCF3, THAP11, CHD7, TIP60, TRIM28) are preferentially expressed in CTCL samples when compared to benign skin biopsies. Our work suggests that ESC genes are ectopically expressed together with CT genes, thymocyte development genes and B cell-specific genes and may be working in concert to promote tumorigenesis. Specifically, while ESC genes may be promoting cancer stem cell-like phenotype, CT genes may be contributing to aneuploidy and genomic instability by producing aberrant chromosomal translocations. Further analysis of ESC expression and function in this cancer will greatly enhance our fundamental understanding of CTCL and will help us identify novel therapeutic targets.

  17. Murine Corneal Inflammation and Nerve Damage After Infection With HSV-1 Are Promoted by HVEM and Ameliorated by Immune-Modifying Nanoparticle Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Rebecca G.; Kopp, Sarah J.; Ifergan, Igal; Shui, Jr-Wen; Kronenberg, Mitchell; Miller, Stephen D.; Longnecker, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To determine cellular and temporal expression patterns of herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM, Tnfrsf14) in the murine cornea during the course of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection, the impact of this expression on pathogenesis, and whether alterations in HVEM or downstream HVEM-mediated effects ameliorate corneal disease. Methods Corneal HVEM levels were assessed in C57BL/6 mice after infection with HSV-1(17). Leukocytic infiltrates and corneal sensitivity loss were measured in the presence, global absence (HVEM knockout [KO] mice; Tnfrsf14−/−), or partial absence of HVEM (HVEM conditional KO). Effects of immune-modifying nanoparticles (IMPs) on viral replication, corneal sensitivity, and corneal infiltrates were measured. Results Corneal HVEM+ populations, particularly monocytes/macrophages during acute infection (3 days post infection [dpi]) and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) during the chronic inflammatory phase (14 dpi), increased after HSV-1 infection. Herpes virus entry mediator increased leukocytes in the cornea and corneal sensitivity loss. Ablation of HVEM from CD45+ cells, or intravenous IMP therapy, reduced infiltrates in the chronic phase and maintained corneal sensitivity. Conclusions Herpes virus entry mediator was expressed on two key populations: corneal monocytes/macrophages and PMNs. Herpes virus entry mediator promoted the recruitment of myeloid cells to the cornea in the chronic phase. Herpes virus entry mediator–associated corneal sensitivity loss preceded leukocytic infiltration, suggesting it may play an active role in recruitment. We propose that HVEM on resident corneal macrophages increases nerve damage and immune cell invasion, and we showed that prevention of late-phase infiltration of PMN and CD4+ T cells by IMP therapy improved clinical symptoms and mortality and reduced corneal sensitivity loss caused by HSV-1. PMID:28114589

  18. Non-Noble-Metal Nanoparticle Supported on Metal-Organic Framework as an Efficient and Durable Catalyst for Promoting H2 Production from Ammonia Borane under Visible Light Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Wen, Meicheng; Cui, Yiwen; Kuwahara, Yasutaka; Mori, Kohsuke; Yamashita, Hiromi

    2016-08-24

    In this work, we propose a straightforward method to enhance the catalytic activity of AB dehydrogenation by using non-noble-metal nanoparticle supported on chromium-based metal-organic framework (MIL-101). It was demonstrated to be effective for hydrogen generation from ammonia borane under assistance of visible light irradiation as a noble-metal-free catalyst. The catalytic activity of metal nanoparticles supported on MIL-101 under visible light irradiation is remarkably higher than that without light irradiation. The TOFs of Cu/MIL-101, Co/MIL-101, and Ni/MIL-101 are 1693, 1571, and 3238 h(-1), respectively. The enhanced activity of catalysts can be primarily attributed to the cooperative promoting effects from both non-noble-metal nanoparticles and photoactive metal-organic framework in activating the ammonia borane molecule and strong ability in the photocatalytic production of hydroxyl radicals, superoxide anions, and electron-rich non-noble-metal nanoparticle. This work sheds light on the exploration of active non-noble metals supported on photoactive porous materials for achieving high catalytic activity of various redox reactions under visible light irradiation.

  19. Ectopic norrin induces growth of ocular capillaries and restores normal retinal angiogenesis in Norrie disease mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Ohlmann, Andreas; Scholz, Michael; Goldwich, Andreas; Chauhan, Bharesh K; Hudl, Kristiane; Ohlmann, Anne V; Zrenner, Eberhart; Berger, Wolfgang; Cvekl, Ales; Seeliger, Mathias W; Tamm, Ernst R

    2005-02-16

    Norrie disease is an X-linked retinal dysplasia that presents with congenital blindness, sensorineural deafness, and mental retardation. Norrin, the protein product of the Norrie disease gene (NDP), is a secreted protein of unknown biochemical function. Norrie disease (Ndp(y/-)) mutant mice that are deficient in norrin develop blindness, show a distinct failure in retinal angiogenesis, and completely lack the deep capillary layers of the retina. We show here that the transgenic expression of ectopic norrin under control of a lens-specific promoter restores the formation of a normal retinal vascular network in Ndp(y/-) mutant mice. The improvement in structure correlates with restoration of neuronal function in the retina. In addition, lenses of transgenic mice with ectopic expression of norrin show significantly more capillaries in the hyaloid vasculature that surrounds the lens during development. In vitro, lenses of transgenic mice in coculture with microvascular endothelial cells induce proliferation of the cells. Transgenic mice with ectopic expression of norrin show more bromodeoxyuridine-labeled retinal progenitor cells at embryonic day 14.5 and thicker retinas at postnatal life than wild-type littermates, indicating a putative direct neurotrophic effect of norrin. These data provide direct evidence that norrin induces growth of ocular capillaries and that pharmacologic modulation of norrin might be used for treatment of the vascular abnormalities associated with Norrie disease or other vascular disorders of the retina.

  20. A stubborn anemia caused by ectopic pancreas bleeding in the jejunum revealed by capsule endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qun-Ying; Yang, Xiao-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic pancreas is extremely rare in clinical setting. Meanwhile, a stubborn anemia without obvious dark bloody stool due to ectopic pancreas diagnosed by capsule endoscopy has not been reported. We reported a case of an ectopic pancreas inducing obscure gastrointestinal bleeding in a 70-year-old woman presenting as stubborn anemia, which was diagnosed by capsule endoscopy. The patient recovered well after resection the lesion. Diagnosis of ectopic pancreas is extremely difficult with conventional techniques. Endoscopists should pay more attention to the ectopic pancreas as a rare differential consideration for occult intestinal bleeding. PMID:26682148

  1. Aquaporin 5 Plays a Role in Estrogen-Induced Ectopic Implantation of Endometrial Stromal Cells in Endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiu Xiu; Fei, Xiang Wei; Zhao, Li; Ye, Xiao Lei; Xin, Liao Bin; Qu, Yang; Xu, Kai Hong; Wu, Rui Jin; Lin, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporin 5 (AQP5) participates in the migration of endometrial cells. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms associated with AQP5-mediated, migration of endometrial cells may contribute to a better understanding of endometriosis. Our objectives included identifying the estrogen-response element (ERE) in the promoter region of the AQP5 gene, and, investigating the effects of AQP5 on ectopic implantation of endometrial cells. Luciferase reporter assays and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) identified the ERE-like motif in the promoter region of the AQP5 gene. After blocking and up-regulating estradiol (E2) levels, we analysed the expression of AQP5 in endometrial stromal (ES) cells. After blocking E2 /or phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase(PI3K), we analysed the role of AQP5 in signaling pathways. We constructed an AQP5, shRNA, lentiviral vector to knock out the AQP5 gene in ES cells. After knock-out of the AQP5 gene, we studied the role of AQP5 in cell invasion, proliferation, and the formation of ectopic endometrial implants in female mice. We identified an estrogen-response element in the promoter region of the AQP5 gene. Estradiol (E2) increased AQP5 expression in a dose-dependent fashion, that was blocked by ICI182,780(an estrogen receptor inhibitor). E2 activated PI3K /protein kinase B(AKT) pathway (PI3K/AKT), that, in turn, increased AQP5 expression. LY294002(PI3K inhibitor) attenuated estrogen-enhanced, AQP5 expression. Knock-out of the AQP5 gene with AQP5 shRNA lentiviral vector significantly inhibited E2-enhanced invasion, proliferation of ES cells and formation of ectopic implants. Estrogen induces AQP5 expression by activating ERE in the promoter region of the AQP5gene, activates the PI3K/AKT pathway, and, promotes endometrial cell invasion and proliferation. These results provide new insights into some of the mechanisms that may underpin the development of deposits of ectopic endometrium.

  2. Aquaporin 5 Plays a Role in Estrogen-Induced Ectopic Implantation of Endometrial Stromal Cells in Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiu Xiu; Fei, Xiang Wei; Zhao, Li; Ye, Xiao Lei; Xin, Liao Bin; Qu, Yang; Xu, Kai Hong; Wu, Rui Jin; Lin, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporin 5 (AQP5) participates in the migration of endometrial cells. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms associated with AQP5-mediated, migration of endometrial cells may contribute to a better understanding of endometriosis. Our objectives included identifying the estrogen-response element (ERE) in the promoter region of the AQP5 gene, and, investigating the effects of AQP5 on ectopic implantation of endometrial cells. Luciferase reporter assays and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) identified the ERE-like motif in the promoter region of the AQP5 gene. After blocking and up-regulating estradiol (E2) levels, we analysed the expression of AQP5 in endometrial stromal (ES) cells. After blocking E2 /or phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase(PI3K), we analysed the role of AQP5 in signaling pathways. We constructed an AQP5, shRNA, lentiviral vector to knock out the AQP5 gene in ES cells. After knock-out of the AQP5 gene, we studied the role of AQP5 in cell invasion, proliferation, and the formation of ectopic endometrial implants in female mice. We identified an estrogen-response element in the promoter region of the AQP5 gene. Estradiol (E2) increased AQP5 expression in a dose-dependent fashion, that was blocked by ICI182,780(an estrogen receptor inhibitor). E2 activated PI3K /protein kinase B(AKT) pathway (PI3K/AKT), that, in turn, increased AQP5 expression. LY294002(PI3K inhibitor) attenuated estrogen-enhanced, AQP5 expression. Knock-out of the AQP5 gene with AQP5 shRNA lentiviral vector significantly inhibited E2-enhanced invasion, proliferation of ES cells and formation of ectopic implants. Estrogen induces AQP5 expression by activating ERE in the promoter region of the AQP5gene, activates the PI3K/AKT pathway, and, promotes endometrial cell invasion and proliferation. These results provide new insights into some of the mechanisms that may underpin the development of deposits of ectopic endometrium. PMID:26679484

  3. Uncommon Implantation Sites of Ectopic Pregnancy: Thinking beyond the Complex Adnexal Mass.

    PubMed

    Chukus, Anjeza; Tirada, Nikki; Restrepo, Ricardo; Reddy, Neelima I

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic pregnancy occurs when implantation of the blastocyst takes place in a site other than the endometrium of the uterine cavity. Uncommon implantation sites of ectopic pregnancy include the cervix, interstitial segment of the fallopian tube, scar from a prior cesarean delivery, uterine myometrium, ovary, and peritoneal cavity. Heterotopic and twin ectopic pregnancies are other rare manifestations. Ultrasonography (US) plays a central role in diagnosis of uncommon ectopic pregnancies. US features of an interstitial ectopic pregnancy include an echogenic interstitial line and abnormal bulging of the myometrial contour. A gestational sac that is located below the internal os of the cervix and that contains an embryo with a fetal heartbeat is indicative of a cervical ectopic pregnancy. In a cesarean scar ectopic pregnancy, the gestational sac is implanted in the anterior lower uterine segment at the site of the cesarean scar, with thinning of the myometrium seen anterior to the gestational sac. An intramural gestational sac implants in the uterine myometrium, separate from the uterine cavity and fallopian tubes. In an ovarian ectopic pregnancy, a gestational sac with a thick hyperechoic circumferential rim is located in or on the ovarian parenchyma. An intraperitoneal gestational sac is present in an abdominal ectopic pregnancy. Intra- and extrauterine gestational sacs are seen in a heterotopic pregnancy. Two adnexal heartbeats suggest a live twin ectopic pregnancy. Recognition of the specific US features will help radiologists diagnose these uncommon types of ectopic pregnancy.

  4. Improved fermentation performance in an expanded ectopic fermentation system inoculated with thermophilic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hui; Zhu, Changxiong; Geng, Bing; Liu, Xue; Ye, Jing; Tian, Yunlong; Peng, Xiawei

    2015-12-01

    Previous research showed that ectopic fermentation system (EFS) inoculated with thermophilic bacteria is an excellent alternative for cow wastewater treatment. In this study, the effects of thermophilic bacterial consortium on the efficiency and quality of the fermentation process in EFS were evaluated by measuring physicochemical and environmental factors and the changes in organic matter composition. In parallel, the microbial communities correlated with fermentation performance were identified. Inoculation of EFS with thermophilic bacterial consortium led to higher temperatures, increased wastewater requirements for continuous fermentation, and improved quality of the litters in terms of physicochemical factors, security test, functional group analysis, and bacterial community composition. The relationship between the transformation of organic component and the dominant bacteria species indicated that environmental factors contributed to strain growth, which subsequently promoted the fermentation process. The results highlight the great potential of EFS model for wide application in cow wastewater treatment and re-utilization as bio-fertilizer.

  5. Management of Class II malocclusion with ectopic maxillary canines

    PubMed Central

    Mascarenhas, Rohan; Parveen, Shahista; Ansari, Tariq Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Correction of Class II relationship, deep bite and ectopically erupting canines is an orthodontic challenge for the clinician. A 13-year-old male patient presented with Class II malocclusion, ectopically erupting canines, and cross bite with maxillary left lateral incisor. He was treated with a combination of Headgear, Forsus™ fatigue resistant device [FFRD] with fixed mechanotherapy for the management of space deficiency and correction of Class II malocclusions. Headgear was used to distalize upper first molars and also to prevent further downward and forward growth of the maxilla. Then Forsus™ FFRD was used for the advancement of the mandible. The molar and canine relationship were corrected from a Class II to a Class I. The objectives were to establish good occlusion and enable eruption of unerupted canines. All these objectives were achieved and remained stable. PMID:26097371

  6. Mifepristone Improves Octreotide Efficacy in Resistant Ectopic Cushing's Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Moraitis, Andreas G.; Auchus, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    A 30-year-old Caucasian man presented with severe Cushing's syndrome (CS) resulting from ectopic adrenocorticotropin syndrome (EAS) from a metastatic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor. The patient remained hypercortisolemic despite treatment with steroidogenesis inhibitors, chemotherapy, and octreotide long-acting release (LAR) and was enrolled in a 24-week, phase 3 clinical trial of mifepristone for inoperable hypercortisolemia. After mifepristone was added to ongoing octreotide LAR treatment, EAS symptoms essentially resolved. Cortisol decreased dramatically, despite mifepristone's competitive glucocorticoid receptor antagonist effects. The clinical and biochemical effects reversed upon mifepristone discontinuation despite the continued use of octreotide LAR therapy. Substantial improvement in octreotide LAR efficacy with mifepristone use was noted in this patient with ectopic CS, consistent with upregulation of somatostatin receptors previously downregulated by hypercortisolemia. PMID:26989527

  7. A case of silent rupture of an ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Rawal, N; Sharma, S; Soni, B

    2008-11-01

    Case report and review of literature. To report a case of a woman with paraplegia who had ruptured ectopic pregnancy but presented with minimal non-specific symptoms and no clinical signs. A trans-vaginal scan confirmed the diagnosis and an emergency laprotomy was performed to save the patient's life. Regional spinal injury unit in North West England. The diagnosis of ruptured ectopic in spinal cord injury woman can be difficult due to the lack of classical signs and symptoms. Awareness and constant vigilance is required to detect the early signs. Clinicians looking after such women should have sound knowledge of nervous system diseases and their pathophysiology. There should be a high index of suspicion when managing such cases and a prompt surgical treatment should be initiated.

  8. Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma in Ectopic Pelvic Kidney.

    PubMed

    Halalsheh, Omar; Ghawanmeh, Hamzeh M; Alshammari, Ahmed; Sahawneh, Firas; Al-Okour, Radwan; Al Karasneh, Anas; Ghawanmeh, Malik

    2017-02-01

    Upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UC) is an uncommon tumor. Ectopic kidney is also a rare entity. The combination of these two conditions is very rare. A 49-year-old male complained of right flank pain with hematuria. On CT scan he was found to have a malrotated right kidney with soft tissue seen in the upper calyceal group and a normal left kidney. Diagnostic cystoscopy was unremarkable. Radical nephroureterectomy with bladder cuff excision was performed. Pathology report revealed low grade urothelial carcinoma. Patient's symptoms disappeared postoperatively. Follow up showed no recurrence during the first two years in the bladder and upper tract in the contralateral kidney. Isolated UC of ectopic kidney is rare disease three cases were reported in literature. Although treatment of this tumor can be challenging due to its complex blood supply and position inside the pelvis, treatment strategy is still similar as for orthotopic kidneys.

  9. Ectopic pregnancies: rising incidence rates in Northern California.

    PubMed Central

    Shiono, P H; Harlap, S; Pellegrin, F

    1982-01-01

    In a population of about 300,000 Northern California women aged 15--44, the age-adjusted incidence of ectopic pregnancy rose from 55.5 to 84.2/100,000 women, 1972--1978. The ratio of ectopics to 1,000 deliveries-plus-spontaneous abortions rose from 9.4 to 14.8. The change occurred mainly in women under age 30, and was observed in seven of the eight hospitals in the area. There was no alteration in the frequency of hospitalized pelvic inflammatory disease (PID); salpingitis decreased over the years studied; and tubal sterilization events remained constant at around 0.9 per cent per year of women aged 15--44. PMID:7055319

  10. Scary gas: intravascular, intracranial, and intraspinal ectopic gas (part III).

    PubMed

    Sandstrom, Claire K; Osman, Sherif F; Linnau, Ken F

    2017-08-01

    While ectopic gas can be a sign of dangerous disease requiring immediate medical or surgical intervention, it can also be an incidental and benign finding. Intravenous gas and spinal vacuum gas are common and almost always benign. Intravascular gas is most often related to instrumentation and, if intraarticular, can cause end-organ ischemia; however, treatment is usually supportive. Pneumocephalus arises from a communication with paranasal sinuses or mastoids more often than from meningeal infection and can usually be managed nonoperatively. In part 3 of this series, the different causes of ectopic gas in the vessels, skull, and spine are reviewed, as are the imaging features that can help to narrow the differential diagnosis.

  11. [Current state of conservative management of ectopic pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Marin Cantu, V A; Mondragon Alcocer, H; Cherem Cherem, B; Serviere Zaragoza, C

    1996-03-01

    The ectopic pregnancy constitutes a disease that require the most diagnostic accuracy, not only for the biologic importance of its clinical manifestations, but for the sequelae of its treatment too, in relation with the fertility of a patient frequently affected with infertility so far. The increase in its frequency, by multiple factors, including treatment of infertility itself and Assisted Reproduction techniques, make the clinician must be alert and have availability of all diagnostic tools for the establishment of an oportune and conservative treatment, directed to prevent an acute alteration of the hemostasis and a shadowy reproductive future. The present review of the literature about the conservative management of the ectopic pregnancy let us have to know the criteria neccessary for giving the optimum treatment to our patients and offering them a better reproductive future.

  12. Fibroadenoma in axilla: another manifestation of ectopic breast.

    PubMed

    Tiwary, Satyendra K; Kumar, Puneet; Khanna, Ajay Kumar

    2015-04-26

    Fibroadenoma of an accessory breast is a rare disease. The clinical significance lies in the fact that a number of cystic, inflammatory, neoplastic diseases similar to those of a normal breast have been reported in accessory breasts as well. Vigilant self-assessment and complete clinical examination are always encouraged to detect earliest malignancy in the axilla. We report two cases of ectopic breast fibroadenoma with the relevant literature.

  13. Transcatheter Embolotherapy with N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate for Ectopic Varices

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jin Woo; Kim, Hyo-Cheol Jae, Hwan Jun Jung, Hyun-Seok; Hur, Saebeom; Lee, Myungsu; Chung, Jin Wook

    2015-04-15

    PurposeTo address technical feasibility and clinical outcome of transcatheter embolotherapy with N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) for bleeding ectopic varices.MethodsThe institutional review board approved this retrospective study and waived informed consent. From January 2004 to June 2013, a total of 12 consecutive patients received transcatheter embolotherapy using NBCA for bleeding ectopic varices in our institute. Clinical and radiologic features of the endovascular procedures were comprehensively reviewed.ResultsPreprocedural computed tomography images revealed ectopic varices in the jejunum (n = 7), stoma (n = 2), rectum (n = 2), and duodenum (n = 1). The 12 procedures consisted of solitary embolotherapy (n = 8) and embolotherapy with portal decompression (main portal vein stenting in 3, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in 1). With regard to vascular access, percutaneous transhepatic access (n = 7), transsplenic access (n = 4), and transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt tract (n = 1) were used. There was no failure in either the embolotherapy or the vascular accesses (technical success rate, 100 %). Two patients died within 1 month from the procedure from preexisting fatal medical conditions. Only one patient, with a large varix that had been partially embolized by using coils and NBCA, underwent rebleeding 5.5 months after the procedure. The patient was retreated with NBCA and did not undergo any bleeding afterward for a follow-up period of 2.5 months. The remaining nine patients did not experience rebleeding during the follow-up periods (range 1.5–33.2 months).ConclusionTranscatheter embolotherapy using NBCA can be a useful option for bleeding ectopic varices.

  14. Ectopic prolactinoma in the clivus: a case report.

    PubMed

    Narese, D; Virzì, V; Virzì, G; Narese, F; Sciortino, A; Culmone, G; Virzì, F; Maira, G

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of an ectopic pituitary adenoma in a 65-year-old man with an empty sella who initially presented with right ptosis and eyelid edema and headache. Neuroimaging studies revealed a large tumoral process at the height of the clivus, with partial destruction of surrounding bone structure. He underwent transphenoidal surgery and histopathologic examination, including immunohistochemical studies, revealed a prolactin-producing pituitary adenoma. A careful review of the literature was done.

  15. Hyponatremia in pulmonary TB: evidence of ectopic antidiuretic hormone production.

    PubMed

    Lee, Paul; Ho, Ken K Y

    2010-01-01

    Hyponatremia is among the most common biochemical abnormalities in hospital inpatients. The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) is one of several causes of hyponatremia, particularly in patients with pulmonary diseases. The mechanism of SIADH associated with pulmonary infection is, however, poorly understood. We report an unusual case of hyponatremia in a man with pulmonary TB and central diabetes insipidus with biochemical evidence of ectopic antidiuretic hormone production as a possible mechanism causing hyponatremia.

  16. Fibroadenoma in axilla: another manifestation of ectopic breast

    PubMed Central

    Tiwary, Satyendra K; Kumar, Puneet; Khanna, Ajay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Fibroadenoma of an accessory breast is a rare disease. The clinical significance lies in the fact that a number of cystic, inflammatory, neoplastic diseases similar to those of a normal breast have been reported in accessory breasts as well. Vigilant self-assessment and complete clinical examination are always encouraged to detect earliest malignancy in the axilla. We report two cases of ectopic breast fibroadenoma with the relevant literature. PMID:25917072

  17. Imaging Unusual Pregnancy Implantations: Rare Ectopic Pregnancies and More.

    PubMed

    Dibble, Elizabeth H; Lourenco, Ana P

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to review key clinical issues and imaging features of unusual pregnancy implantations. Examples from different imaging modalities are provided to increase interpreting physicians' familiarity with the appearance and potential complications of unusual ectopic, cesarean scar, heterotopic, and rudimentary horn pregnancies. Abnormal pregnancy implantations are life-threatening. Interpreting physicians' familiarity with the appearance of unusual pregnancy implantations is critical for early identification and initiation of appropriate therapy.

  18. Pleomorphic adenoma of a deep orbital ectopic lacrimal gland.

    PubMed

    Misra, Somen; Bhandari, Akshay; Misra, Neeta; Gogri, Pratik; Mahajan, Shruti

    2016-10-01

    Ectopic lacrimal gland, being one of the choristomas, is comprised of lacrimal gland tissue outside the lacrimal gland fossa in the fronto-lateral part of the orbital roof. Ectopic lacrimal gland is a rare condition where the gland may be found in the orbit, eyelids, ocular adnexa or within the globe. Neoplastic transformation of such tissue may occur. A sixty-two-year old male patient presented with right eye proptosis and slight nasal displacement of the globe. Computerized tomography scan revealed a well-defined hypodense lesion of size 19 x 18 x 20 mm supero-lateral to lateral rectus muscle, with mild proptosis and thinning of the right lateral orbital wall. Excisional biopsy was performed through a lateral orbitotomy approach. A well circumscribed globular mass was removed from the right orbit, well behind the fossa for the lacrimal gland in the retrobulbar space. Histopathology was suggestive of pleomorphic adenoma of lacrimal gland. Pleomorphic adenoma is an epithelial tumor of the lacrimal gland which is extremely rare from an ectopic lacrimal gland and only few cases have been reported in literature till date.

  19. Multiple Ectopic Hepatocellular Carcinomas Arising in the Abdominal Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Miyake, Toru; Hoshino, Seiichiro; Yoshida, Yoichiro; Aisu, Naoya; Tanimura, Syu; Hisano, Satoshi; Kuno, Nobuaki; Sohda, Tetsuro; Sakisaka, Shotaro; Yamashita, Yuichi

    2012-01-01

    Ectopic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a very rare clinical entity that is defined as HCC arising from extrahepatic liver tissue. This report presents a case of ectopic multiple HCC arising in the abdominal cavity. A 42-year-old otherwise healthy male presented with liver dysfunction at a general health checkup. Both HCV antibody and hepatitis B surface antigen were negative. Laboratory examination showed elevations in serum alpha-fetoprotein and PIVKA-II. Ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed multiple nodular lesions in the abdominal cavity with ascites without a possible primary tumor. Exploratory laparoscopy was performed, which revealed bloody ascites and multiple brown nodular tumors measuring approximately 10 mm in size that were disseminated on the perineum and mesentery. A postoperative PET-CT scan was performed but it did not reveal any evidence of a tumor in the liver. The tumors resected from the peritoneum were diagnosed as HCC. The present case of HCC was thought to have possibly developed from ectopic liver on the peritoneum or mesentery. PMID:23139654

  20. Multiple ectopic hepatocellular carcinomas arising in the abdominal cavity.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Toru; Hoshino, Seiichiro; Yoshida, Yoichiro; Aisu, Naoya; Tanimura, Syu; Hisano, Satoshi; Kuno, Nobuaki; Sohda, Tetsuro; Sakisaka, Shotaro; Yamashita, Yuichi

    2012-09-01

    Ectopic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a very rare clinical entity that is defined as HCC arising from extrahepatic liver tissue. This report presents a case of ectopic multiple HCC arising in the abdominal cavity. A 42-year-old otherwise healthy male presented with liver dysfunction at a general health checkup. Both HCV antibody and hepatitis B surface antigen were negative. Laboratory examination showed elevations in serum alpha-fetoprotein and PIVKA-II. Ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed multiple nodular lesions in the abdominal cavity with ascites without a possible primary tumor. Exploratory laparoscopy was performed, which revealed bloody ascites and multiple brown nodular tumors measuring approximately 10 mm in size that were disseminated on the perineum and mesentery. A postoperative PET-CT scan was performed but it did not reveal any evidence of a tumor in the liver. The tumors resected from the peritoneum were diagnosed as HCC. The present case of HCC was thought to have possibly developed from ectopic liver on the peritoneum or mesentery.

  1. Laparoscopic tube-preserving surgical procedures for ectopic tubal pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong Hee; Kim, Hwa Cheung; Seong, Seok Ju

    2016-01-01

    Objective To present our experience with laparoscopic tube-preserving surgery for ectopic tubal pregnancy and evaluate its feasibility and efficacy. Methods This was a prospective study of 57 consecutive patients with ectopic tubal pregnancies undergoing laparoscopic tube-preserving procedures including salpingotomy, salpingostomy, segmental resection and reanastomosis, and fimbrial milking. The outcome measures were treatment success rates and homolateral patency rates. Results Of the 57 surgical procedures, 55 (96.4%) were performed successfully without any additional intervention. The number of patients receiving salpingotomy, salpingostomy, segmental resection and reanastomosis, and fimbrial milking were 24 (42.1%), 25 (43.9%), 4 (7.0%), and 2 (3.5%), respectively. Two case was switched to salpingectomy because excessive bipolar coagulation was required to obtain hemostasis at the tubal bleeding bed. Over a mean β-human chorionic gonadotropin resolution time of 18.3±5.9 days, no persistent trophoblast or postoperative complications occurred. A tubal patency test using hysterosalpingography was performed in 15 cases at 3 months postoperatively. Among these, the homolateral tubal patency rate was 75% (11 of 15) and the contralateral patency rate was 80% (12 of 15). Conclusion Tube-preserving surgery is a feasible and safe treatment option for ectopic tubal pregnancy. However, considering that the optimal goal of tube-preserving surgical procedures is not the treatment success, some caution is warranted in interpreting results of this study. PMID:27896254

  2. Ectopic Pancreas Imitating Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST) In The Stomach.

    PubMed

    Zińczuk, Justyna; Bandurski, Roman; Pryczynicz, Anna; Konarzewska-Duchnowska, Emilia; Kemona, Andrzej; Kędra, Bogusław

    2015-05-01

    Ectopic pancreas is a rare congenital disorder defined as pancreatic tissue lacking vascular or anatomic communication with the normal body of the pancreas. Most cases of ectopic pancreas are asymptomatic, but it may become clinically evident depending on the size, location and the pathological changes similar to those observed in case of the normal pancreas. It is often an incidental finding and can be located at different sites in the gastrointestinal tract. The most common locations are: the stomach, duodenum or the proximal part of small intestine. The risk of malignancy, bleeding and occlusion are the most serious complications. Despite the development in diagnostics, it still remains a challenge for the clinician to differentiate it from neoplasm. In this report, we described a case of 28-years old woman who presented recurrent epigastric pain. The upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed gastrointestinal stromal tumor on the border of the body and antrum of the back wall of great curvature of the stomach. The histopathological examination after surgery showed heterotopic pancreatic tissue. Ectopic pancreas should be considered in the differential diagnosis of gastric mass lesions.

  3. Ectopic pancreas associated with choledochal cyst and multiseptate gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Bahadir, Burak; Ozdamar, Sukru O; Gun, Banu D; Bektas, Sibel; Numanoglu, K Varim; Kuzey, Gamze M

    2006-01-01

    Congenital choledochal cyst is a rarely seen malformation of childhood, particularly when associated with multiseptate gallbladder or ectopic pancreas. The current case represents a 15-day-old boy with jaundice. Ultrasonography suggested a cystic lesion, probably of the common bile duct. The patient underwent a total excision of type I choledochal cyst and gallbladder with Roux-en-Y anastomosis, and a wedge biopsy from the liver. Gross examination revealed multiple septa dividing the gallbladder into multiple compartments. The outer and inner surfaces of the choledochal cyst were unremarkable. Microscopically, the cyst wall was composed of dense fibrous tissue with a single layer of cubic to columnar cells constituting the overlying epithelium. Serial sections incidentally revealed ectopic pancreatic tissue lying along the cyst wall characterized by acini, islets, and ductal structures with endocrine cells reactive for chromogranin A. Septa dividing the gallbladder were composed of fibrotic stalks containing smooth muscle fibers. Areas of papillary hyperplasia and intestinal metaplasia of gallbladder epithelium were also noted. The liver biopsy specimen demonstrated the presence of intrahepatic bile ducts, subsequently confirmed by cytokeratin 7. To our knowledge, this case represents the 1st one associated with these 3 entities and only the 2nd choledochal cyst with ectopic pancreatic tissue in its wall.

  4. Management Strategies for Aggressive Cushing's Syndrome: From Macroadenomas to Ectopics

    PubMed Central

    Pozza, Carlotta; Graziadio, Chiara; Giannetta, Elisa; Lenzi, Andrea; Isidori, Andrea M.

    2012-01-01

    Cushing's syndrome (CS) is a rare but severe clinical condition represented by an excessive endogenous cortisol secretion and hence excess circulating free cortisol, characterized by loss of the normal feedback regulation and circadian rhythm of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis due to inappropriate secretion of ACTH from a pituitary tumor (Cushing's disease, CD) or an ectopic source (ectopic ACTH secretion, EAS). The remaining causes (20%) are ACTH independent. As soon as the diagnosis is established, the therapeutic goal is the removal of the tumor. Whenever surgery is not curative, management of patients with CS requires a major effort to control hypercortisolemia and associated symptoms. A multidisciplinary approach that includes endocrinologists, neurosurgeons, oncologists, and radiotherapists should be adopted. This paper will focus on traditional and novel medical therapy for aggressive ACTH-dependent CS. Several drugs are able to reduce cortisol levels. Their mechanism of action involves blocking adrenal steroidogenesis (ketoconazole, metyrapone, aminoglutethimide, mitotane, etomidate) or inhibiting the peripheral action of cortisol through blocking its receptors (mifepristone “RU-486”). Other drugs include centrally acting agents (dopamine agonists, somatostatin receptor agonists, retinoic acid, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ “PPAR-γ” ligands) and novel chemotherapeutic agents (temozolomide and tyrosine kinase inhibitors) which have a significant activity against aggressive pituitary or ectopic tumors. PMID:22934113

  5. Bilateral tubal ectopic pregnancies: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Eze, Justus N; Obuna, Johnson A; Ejikeme, Brown N

    2012-01-01

    Bilateral tubal ectopic pregnancies are rare occurrences. Two recently managed cases are discussed. The first was a single, sexually active 23-year-old nullipara with family history of twinning who presented with eight weeks amenorrhea, positive pregnancy test, lower abdominal discomfort and other clinical and ultrasound findings suggestive of unruptured left tubal pregnancy. Intra-operatively, unruptured bilateral tubal pregnancies were found and bilateral salpingotomy performed with uneventful recovery. Histology of the specimens confirmed the intra-operative diagnosis. She was appropriately counseled. Case 2, a 30-year-old multiparous housewife who had been on clomid for secondary infertility, presented with signs and symptoms of ruptured tubal ectopic. Intra-operatively, ruptured left and unruptured right tubal pregnancies were found and salpingectomy and salpingotomy were done respectively, with uneventful recovery. The diagnosis was also confirmed histologically and counseling given as in case 1. Bilateral tubal ectopic pregnancies appear to be increasing with twin proneness and use of fertility drugs as risk factors. Whether spontaneous or induced, the hallmarks of good management include early presentation, high index of suspicion, meticulous ultrasound scanning, good case selection, judicious intra-operative inspection of the contralateral tube, histology of specimens and appropriate patient counseling.

  6. Ectopic Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Sphenoclivus: A Rare Entity.

    PubMed

    Zahedi, Farah Dayana; Gendeh, Balwant Singh; Husain, Salina; Kumar, Ramesh; Kew, Thean Yean

    2017-03-01

    Esthesioneuroblastoma is a rare malignant neoplasm of oflactory neuroepithelium and usually located at the olfactory cleft at superior nasal cavity. Ectopic localization of esthesioneuroblastoma is even rarer and usually posed with a diagnostic dilemma and delay in the diagnosis and management, We report a rare case of ectopic esthesioneuroblastoma of the sphenoclivus with the presentation of intermittent unilateral epistaxis, intermittent intractable headache without anosmia. Nasal endoscopy findings showed a pulsatile mass at the anterior face of the sphenoid sinus with extension posteriorly towards the clivus region and occupying the floor of the sphenoid sinus. Endonasal transclival endoscopic excision of tumour was performed which involved otorhinolaryngology surgeon and neurosurgeon with intraoperative navigation imaging and frozen section. The histopathological findings was esthesioneuroblastoma. Due to its rarity and unusual presentation, the diagnosis of ectopic esthesioneuroblastoma is difficult and can be misdiagnosed with the other type of malignancy. Therefore, the histopathological result is important in confirming the type of tumour and can lead to the next step of management.

  7. Rates of ectopic pregnancy, sterility follow PID rise.

    PubMed

    1980-05-01

    500,000 cases of PID (pelvic inflammatory disease) are reported annually in the US, with 34,000 to 92,000 women becoming sterile as a consequence of the disease. In addition, the contraceptive methods women use during their exposure to PID-causing agents may directly affect their relative risk of developing PID, at an annual cost of $2.7 billion in health-care expenses. Another sequelae of PID is ectopic pregnancy. The STD epidemic years from 1965 to 1975 are projected to increase the rate of ectopic pregnancies to 50,000 a year, or one for every 60 live births before leveling off. By 1990, 1 out of 32 women will have had an ectopic pregnancy. Tubal occlusion can result in involuntary infertility. The National Survey of Family Growth estimates that the prevalence of infertile women aged 15 to 44 who are married and use no contraceptive method has increased in the past 2-1/2 years from 2.7% to 6.1%. These women number 142,000 annually and resort to nonsurgical sterilization, with PID as a major reason. Gonococcal PID accounts for 34,000 to 92,000 women becoming involuntarily sterile each year. However, over 80% of PID is nongonococcal PID, which is a worst disease. Chronic PID and infertility are found "more often in women who have had nongonococcal PID than in women who have had gonococcal PID." Etiologic organisms of PID include gonorrhea; E. coli, anaerobes and Chlamydia trachomatis.

  8. Doppler findings in chronic ectopic pregnancy: case report.

    PubMed

    Abramov, Y; Nadjari, M; Shushan, A; Prus, D; Anteby, S O

    1997-05-01

    Chronic ectopic pregnancy is an uncommon form of tubal pregnancy manifested as a pelvic mass with minimal symptoms and a low or absent titer of human chorionic gonadotropin. For this reason, most of the reported cases have been diagnosed only after explorative laparotomy. The value of Doppler ultrasonography for preoperative diagnosis of this entity has not yet been established. We report on a 36-year-old patient who was admitted for intermittent right lower quadrant abdominal pain of 3 months' duration, and a right adnexal mass found on pelvic examination. On Doppler ultrasonography, a right complex adnexal mass was demonstrated, characterized by extensive external vascularization, aberrant vessels and arteriovenous shunting, but with no internal blood flow. Explorative laparotomy revealed a right tubal mass adherent to the omentum, and covered by numerous enlarged and tortuous blood vessels originating in the omentum. Pathological examination of the mass revealed a chronic ectopic pregnancy. The possible contribution of Doppler-specific characteristics for the diagnosis of chronic ectopic pregnancy is described and discussed.

  9. Ectopic cross-talk between thyroid and retinoic acid signaling: A possible etiology for spinal neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Li, Huili; Bai, Baoling; Zhang, Qin; Bao, Yihua; Guo, Jin; Chen, Shuyuan; Miao, Chunyue; Liu, Xiaozhen; Zhang, Ting

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies have highlighted the connections between neural tube defects (NTDs) and both thyroid hormones (TH) and vitamin A. However, whether the two hormonal signaling pathways interact in NTDs has remained unclear. We measured the expression levels of TH signaling genes in human fetuses with spinal NTDs associated with maternal hyperthyroidism as well as levels of retinoic acid (RA) signaling genes in mouse fetuses exposed to an overdose of RA using NanoString or real-time PCR on spinal cord tissues. Interactions between the two signaling pathways were detected by ChIP assays. The data revealed attenuated DIO2/DIO3 switching in fetuses with NTDs born to hyperthyroid mothers. The promoters of the RA signaling genes CRABP1 and RARB were ectopically occupied by increased RXRG and RXRB but displayed decreased levels of inhibitory histone modifications, suggesting that elevated TH signaling abnormally stimulates RA signaling genes. Conversely, in the mouse model, the observed decrease in Dio3 expression could be explained by increased levels of inhibitory histone modifications in the Dio3 promoter region, suggesting that overactive RA signaling may ectopically derepress TH signaling. This study thus raises in vivo a possible abnormal cross-promotion between two different hormonal signals through their common RXRs and the subsequent recruitment of histone modifications, prompting further investigation into their involvement in the etiology of spinal NTDs.

  10. Tissue plasminogen activator followed by antioxidant-loaded nanoparticle delivery promotes activation/mobilization of progenitor cells in infarcted rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Petro, Marianne; Jaffer, Hayder; Yang, Jun; Kabu, Shushi; Morris, Viola B.; Labhasetwar, Vinod

    2015-01-01

    Inherent neuronal and circulating progenitor cells play important roles in facilitating neuronal and functional recovery post stroke. However, this endogenous repair process is rather limited, primarily due to unfavorable conditions in the infarcted brain involving reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated oxidative stress and inflammation following ischemia/reperfusion injury. We hypothesized that during reperfusion, effective delivery of antioxidants to ischemic brain would create an environment without such oxidative stress and inflammation, thus promoting activation and mobilization of progenitor cells in the infarcted brain. We administered recombinant human tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) via carotid artery at 3 h post stroke in a thromboembolic rat model, followed by sequential administration of the antioxidants catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), encapsulated in biodegradable nanoparticles (nano-CAT/SOD). Brains were harvested at 48 h post stroke for immunohistochemical analysis. Ipsilateral brain slices from animals that had received tPA + nano-CAT/SOD showed a widespread distribution of glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive cells (with morphology resembling radial glia-like neural precursor cells) and nestin-positive cells (indicating the presence of immature neurons); such cells were considerably fewer in untreated animals or those treated with tPA alone. Brain sections from animals receiving tPA + nano-CAT/SOD also showed much greater numbers of SOX2- and nestin-positive progenitor cells migrating from subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle and entering the rostral migratory stream than in t-PA alone treated group or untreated control. Further, animals treated with tPA + nano-CAT/SOD showed far fewer caspase-positive cells and fewer neutrophils than did other groups, as well as an inhibition of hippocampal swelling. These results suggest that the antioxidants mitigated the inflammatory response, protected neuronal cells from

  11. Delayed Detection of Spontaneous Bilateral Tubal Ectopic Pregnancies After Methotrexate Treatment.

    PubMed

    Brown, Nicole E; Singer, Shereen A; Suyama, Joe

    2017-09-09

    Bilateral tubal ectopic pregnancies are a rare subset of ectopic pregnancy that can pose a diagnostic dilemma for clinicians. There is no distinct clinical presentation for bilateral tubal ectopic pregnancies, although they are typically associated with assistive reproductive techniques. In addition, there is no single diagnostic feature to help clinicians delineate bilateral tubal ectopic pregnancies from other types of ectopic pregnancy prior to passing the discriminatory zone (such as heterotopic pregnancy or twin ectopic [two gestational sacs in one tube]). Diagnosis is typically made via direct visualization intraoperatively and therefore treatment is usually surgical. We present a case of spontaneous bilateral tubal ectopic pregnancies diagnosed 7 days apart via transvaginal ultrasound. The patient presented to the emergency department with pelvic pain on the contralateral side of her previously diagnosed ectopic pregnancy and vaginal spotting. Bilateral adnexal masses were visualized on ultrasound and her serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin level had a 5.9% decline from day 4 to day 7 after methotrexate administration 7 days prior; gynecology was consulted. The patient was successfully treated with an additional dose of intramuscular methotrexate without any complications. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: The implications of this case suggest that diagnosis of bilateral tubal ectopic pregnancies requires clinicians to have a high level of suspicion in any pregnant female with a suspected or known ectopic pregnancy who presents with pelvic pain regardless of prior diagnosis or treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Frequency of nonallelic homologous recombination is correlated with length of homology: evidence that ectopic synapsis precedes ectopic crossing-over.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pengfei; Lacaria, Melanie; Zhang, Feng; Withers, Marjorie; Hastings, P J; Lupski, James R

    2011-10-07

    Genomic disorders constitute a class of diseases that are associated with DNA rearrangements resulting from region-specific genome instability, that is, genome architecture incites genome instability. Nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR) or crossing-over in meiosis between sequences that are not in allelic positions (i.e., paralogous sequences) can result in recurrent deletions or duplications causing genomic disorders. Previous studies of NAHR have focused on description of the phenomenon, but it remains unclear how NAHR occurs during meiosis and what factors determine its frequency. Here we assembled two patient cohorts with reciprocal genomic disorders; deletion associated Smith-Magenis syndrome and duplication associated Potocki-Lupski syndrome. By assessing the full spectrum of rearrangement types from the two cohorts, we find that complex rearrangements (those with more than one breakpoint) are more prevalent in copy-number gains (17.7%) than in copy-number losses (2.3%); an observation that supports a role for replicative mechanisms in complex rearrangement formation. Interestingly, for NAHR-mediated recurrent rearrangements, we show that crossover frequency is positively associated with the flanking low-copy repeat (LCR) length and inversely influenced by the inter-LCR distance. To explain this, we propose that the probability of ectopic chromosome synapsis increases with increased LCR length, and that ectopic synapsis is a necessary precursor to ectopic crossing-over. Copyright © 2011 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Frequency of Nonallelic Homologous Recombination Is Correlated with Length of Homology: Evidence that Ectopic Synapsis Precedes Ectopic Crossing-Over

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pengfei; Lacaria, Melanie; Zhang, Feng; Withers, Marjorie; Hastings, P.J.; Lupski, James R.

    2011-01-01

    Genomic disorders constitute a class of diseases that are associated with DNA rearrangements resulting from region-specific genome instability, that is, genome architecture incites genome instability. Nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR) or crossing-over in meiosis between sequences that are not in allelic positions (i.e., paralogous sequences) can result in recurrent deletions or duplications causing genomic disorders. Previous studies of NAHR have focused on description of the phenomenon, but it remains unclear how NAHR occurs during meiosis and what factors determine its frequency. Here we assembled two patient cohorts with reciprocal genomic disorders; deletion associated Smith-Magenis syndrome and duplication associated Potocki-Lupski syndrome. By assessing the full spectrum of rearrangement types from the two cohorts, we find that complex rearrangements (those with more than one breakpoint) are more prevalent in copy-number gains (17.7%) than in copy-number losses (2.3%); an observation that supports a role for replicative mechanisms in complex rearrangement formation. Interestingly, for NAHR-mediated recurrent rearrangements, we show that crossover frequency is positively associated with the flanking low-copy repeat (LCR) length and inversely influenced by the inter-LCR distance. To explain this, we propose that the probability of ectopic chromosome synapsis increases with increased LCR length, and that ectopic synapsis is a necessary precursor to ectopic crossing-over. PMID:21981782

  14. Dual ectopic thyroid gland: sonography and scintigraphy of lingual and sublingual thyroid.

    PubMed

    Marković, Vinko; Glavina, Gordana; Eterović, Davor; Punda, Ante; Brdar, Dubravka

    2014-06-01

    Dual ectopic lingual and sublingual thyroid gland is an extraordinarily rare condition. We present 1 patient with subclinical hypothyroidism. The clinical examination revealed that the thyroid gland was not palpable in its usual cervical location, whereas ultrasonography confirmed an empty thyroid bed without any ectopic thyroid tissue in the rest of the neck. The final diagnosis of dual ectopic lingual and sublingual thyroid was established by ultrasound examination through the mouth floor and confirmed by scintigraphy and CT thereafter.

  15. Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone syndrome: a diagnostic challenge and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yanjun; Aitelli, Cristi; Dobson, Robin W; Konduri, Kartik

    2010-10-01

    We present a case of a 60-year-old woman who initially presented with pneumonia and abdominal pain and was diagnosed with ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) syndrome secondary to small cell lung cancer. We review published literature and summarize the typical challenges in the diagnosis and treatment of ectopic ACTH syndrome. Recent research has shed new light on the mechanism of ectopic ACTH production and provided a potential new target for treatment.

  16. Predictors of non-pulmonary vein ectopic beats initiating paroxysmal atrial fibrillation: implication for catheter ablation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shih-Huang; Tai, Ching-Tai; Hsieh, Ming-Hsiung; Tsao, Hsuan-Ming; Lin, Yenn-Jiang; Chang, Shih-Lin; Huang, Jin-Long; Lee, Kun-Tai; Chen, Yi-Jen; Cheng, Jun-Jack; Chen, Shih-Ann

    2005-09-20

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the predictor of non-pulmonary vein (PV) ectopic beats initiating paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF). Non-PV ectopic beats can initiate PAF in some patients and play an important role in the recurrence of PAF after PV isolation. Information on the predictors of non-PV ectopic beats initiating PAF is unknown. This study included 293 patients (215 men and 78 women, age 60 +/- 14 years) with clinically documented drug-refractory PAF. Of the 94 patients with non-PV ectopic beats initiating PAF, 38 (40%) patients had superior vena cava (SVC) ectopic beats and 32 (34%) had left atrial posterior free wall (LAPFW) ectopic beats. In a univariate analysis, only female gender was related to the presence of non-PV (p = 0.016) and SVC ectopic beats (p = 0.012). Right atrial enlargement (p = 0.005) and left atrial enlargement (p < 0.001) were related to the presence of LAPFW ectopic beats. In a multivariate analysis, female gender (p = 0.043; odds ratio 2.00, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02 to 3.92) and left atrial enlargement (p = 0.007; odds ratio 2.34, 95% CI 1.27 to 4.32) could predict the presence of non-PV ectopic beats. Subgroup analysis showed that female gender could predict the presence of SVC ectopic beats (p = 0.039; odds ratio 2.14, 95% CI 1.04 to 4.43). In contrast, left atrial enlargement could predict the presence of LAPFW ectopic beats (p = 0.002; odds ratio 3.89, 95% CI 1.62 to 9.38). The location of non-PV ectopic beats initiating PAF can be predicted by both gender and left atrial enlargement.

  17. Cerium Oxide Nanoparticle Modified Scaffold Interface Enhances Vascularization of Bone Grafts by Activating Calcium Channel of Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Junyu; Li, Jianmei; He, Jian; Tang, Xiangyu; Dou, Ce; Cao, Zhen; Yu, Bo; Zhao, Chunrong; Kang, Fei; Yang, Lu; Dong, Shiwu; Yang, Xiaochao

    2016-02-01

    Insufficient blood perfusion is one of the critical problems that hamper the clinical application of tissue engineering bone (TEB). Current methods for improving blood vessel distribution in TEB mainly rely on delivering exogenous angiogenic factors to promote the proliferation, migration, differentiation, and vessel formation of endothelial cells (ECs) and/or endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). However, obstacles including limited activity preservation, difficulty in controlled release, and high cost obstructed the practical application of this strategy. In this study, TEB scaffold were modified with cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs) and the effects of CNPs existed at the scaffold surface on the growth and paracrine behavior of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were investigated. The CNPs could improve the proliferation and inhibit the apoptosis of MSCs. Meanwhile, the interaction between the cell membrane and the nanoparticle surface could activate the calcium channel of MSCs leading to the rise of intracellular free Ca(2+) level, which subsequently augments the stability of HIF-1α. These chain reactions finally resulted in high expression of angiogenic factor VEGF. The improved paracrine of VEGF could thereby promote the proliferation, differentiation, and tube formation ability of EPCs. Most importantly, in vivo ectopic bone formation experiment demonstrated this method could significantly improve the blood vessel distribution inside of TEB.

  18. Bilateral Simultaneous Tubal Ectopic Pregnancy: A Case Report, Review of Literature and a Proposed Management Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Jena, Saubhagya Kumar; Nayak, Monalisha; Das, Leena; Senapati, Swagatika

    2016-01-01

    Bilateral simultaneous Tubal Ectopic Pregnancy (BTP) is the rarest form of ectopic pregnancy. The incidence is higher in women undergoing assisted reproductive techniques or ovulation induction. The clinical presentation is unpredictable and there are no unique features to distinguish it from unilateral ectopic pregnancy. BTP continues to be a clinician’s dilemma as pre-operative diagnosis is difficult and is commonly made during surgery. Treatment options are varied depending on site of ectopic pregnancy, extent of tubal damage and requirement of future fertility. We report a case of BTP which was diagnosed during surgery and propose an algorithm for management of such patients. PMID:27134950

  19. Ectopic Fat and Insulin Resistance: Pathophysiology and Effect of Diet and Lifestyle Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Snel, M.; Jonker, J. T.; Schoones, J.; Lamb, H.; de Roos, A.; Pijl, H.; Smit, J. W. A.; Meinders, A. E.; Jazet, I. M.

    2012-01-01

    The storage of triglyceride (TG) droplets in nonadipose tissues is called ectopic fat storage. Ectopic fat is associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Not the triglycerides per se but the accumulation of intermediates of lipid metabolism in organs, such as the liver, skeletal muscle, and heart seem to disrupt metabolic processes and impair organ function. We describe the mechanisms of ectopic fat depositions in the liver, skeletal muscle, and in and around the heart and the consequences for each organs function. In addition, we systematically reviewed the literature for the effects of diet-induced weight loss and exercise on ectopic fat depositions. PMID:22675355

  20. Ectopic eruption of maxillary central incisor through abnormally thickened labial frenum: An unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Gugnani, Neeraj; Pandit, I K; Gupta, Monika; Gugnani, Shalini; Vishnoi, Ashmi; Sabharwal, Ozasvita; Manhas, Swati

    2017-01-01

    Ectopic eruption is a deviation from the normal eruption pattern, making the tooth erupt out of its normal position, and possibly causing resorption of adjacent primary teeth. A wide range of etiological factors may be responsible for ectopic eruption of the teeth, so their management depends on the correction of the established etiological factor. The present case report describes an unusual case of ectopically erupted central incisor encased within an abnormally thickened labial frenum, which was treated by orthodontic repositioning of the ectopically erupting tooth after frenectomy.

  1. Ectopic thyroid in duplicated gall bladder: a rare entity. Case report.

    PubMed

    Kachare, Manohar B; Khandelwal, Ashish; Kulkarni, Sanjay B; Saboo, Sachin S

    2013-03-01

    Duplication of the gall bladder is a rare anomaly. Ectopic thyroid in a gall bladder is also exceedingly rare with only four cases of ectopic thyroid tissue in the gall bladder reported in English literature. We report the unique case of ectopic thyroid tissue in a duplicated gall bladder in a 51-year-old female with recurrent right upper quadrant pain. Abdominal sonography revealed a duplicated gall bladder with the cystic-solid mass in the septum separating the two gall bladders while subsequent histopathology from the cholecystectomy specimen confirmed ectopic thyroid tissue within the wall of double gall bladder.

  2. Detection and removal of ventricular ectopic beats in atrial fibrillation recordings via principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Arturo; Alcaraz, Raúl; Rieta, José J

    2011-01-01

    Ectopic beats are early heart beats with remarkable large amplitude that provoke serious disturbances in the analysis of electrocardiograms (ECG). These beats are very common in atrial fibrillation (AF) and are the source of important residua when the QRST is intended to be removed. Given that QRST cancellation is a binding step in the appropriate analysis of atrial activity (AA) in AF, a method for ventricular ectopic beats cancellation is proposed as a previous step to the application of any QRST removal technique. First, the method discriminates between normal and ectopic beats with an accuracy higher than 99% through QRS morphological characterization. Next, the most similar ectopic beats to the one under cancellation are clustered and serve to get their eigenvector matrix by principal component analysis. Finally, the highest variance eigenvector is used as cancellation template. The reduction ectopic rate (RER) has been defined to evaluate the method's performance by using templates generated with 5, 10, 20, 40 or 80 ectopics. Optimal results were reached with the 5 most similar complexes, yielding a RER higher than 5.5. In addition, a decreasing RER trend was noticed as the number of considered ectopics for cancellation increased. As conclusion, given that ectopics presented a remarkable variability in their morphology, the proposed cancellation approach is a robust ectopic remover and can notably facilitate the later application of any QRST cancellation technique to extract the AA in the best conditions.

  3. The diversified function and potential therapy of ectopic olfactory receptors in non-olfactory tissues.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhe; Zhao, Hong; Fu, Nian; Chen, Linxi

    2017-03-24

    Olfactory receptors (ORs) are mainly distributed in olfactory neurons and play a key role in detecting volatile odorants, eventually resulting in the production of smell perception. Recently, it is also reported that ORs are expressed in non-olfactory tissues including heart, lung, sperm, skin, and cancerous tissues. Interestingly, ectopic ORs are associated with the development of diseases in non-olfactory tissues. For instance, ectopic ORs initiate the hypoxic ventilatory responses and maintain the oxygen homeostasis of breathing in the carotid body when oxygen levels decline. Ectopic ORs induce glucose homeostasis in diabetes. Ectopic ORs regulate systemic blood pressure by increasing renin secretion and vasodilation. Ectopic ORs participate in the process of tumor cell proliferation, apoptosis, metastasis, and invasiveness. Ectopic ORs accelerate the occurrence of obesity, angiogenesis and wound-healing processes. Ectopic ORs affect fetal hemoglobin levels in sickle cell anemia and thalassemia. Finally, we also elaborate some ligands targeting for ORs. Obviously, the diversified function and related signal pathway of ectopic ORs may play a potential therapeutic target in non-olfactory tissues. Thus, this review focuses on the latest research results about the diversified function and therapeutic potential of ectopic ORs in non-olfactory tissues. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Ectopic expression of RESISTANCE TO POWDERY MILDEW8.1 confers resistance to fungal and oomycete pathogens in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xian-Feng; Li, Yan; Sun, Jin-Long; Wang, Ting-Ting; Fan, Jing; Lei, Yang; Huang, Yan-Yan; Xu, Yong-Ju; Zhao, Ji-Qun; Xiao, Shunyuan; Wang, Wen-Ming

    2014-08-01

    Broad-spectrum disease resistance is a highly valuable trait in plant breeding and attracts special attention in research. The Arabidopsis gene locus RESISTANCE TO POWDERY MILDEW 8 (RPW8) contains two adjacent homologous genes, RPW8.1 and RPW8.2, and confers broad-spectrum resistance to powdery mildew. Remarkably, the RPW8.2 protein is specifically localized to the extrahaustorial membrane (EHM) encasing the feeding structure of powdery mildew whereby RPW8.2 activates haustorium-targeted defenses. Here, we show that ectopic expression of the yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-tagged RPW8.1 from the native promoter leads to unique cell death lesions and enhances resistance to virulent fungal and oomycete pathogens that cause powdery mildew and downy mildew diseases, respectively. In powdery mildew-infected plants, RPW8.1-YFP accumulates at higher levels in the mesophyll cells underneath the infected epidermal cells where RPW8.2-YFP is mainly expressed. This cell type-preferential protein accumulation pattern largely correlates with that of H(2)O(2) accumulation, suggesting that RPW8.1 may spatially collaborate with RPW8.2 in activation of resistance to powdery mildew. Interestingly, when ectopically expressed from the RPW8.2 promoter, RPW8.1-YFP is also targeted to the EHM of powdery mildew and the transgenic plants display resistance to both powdery mildew and downy mildew. Using YFP as a reporter, we further reveal that the RPW8.1 promoter is constitutively active but induced to higher levels in cells at the infection site, whereas the RPW8.2 promoter is activated specifically in cells at the infection site. Taken together, our results suggest that RPW8.1 (and its promoter) is functionally distinct from RPW8.2 and may have a higher potential in engineering broad-spectrum resistance in plants.

  5. Role of the planar cell polarity pathway in regulating ectopic hair cell-like cells induced by Math1 and testosterone treatment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-Yu; Jin, Kai; Ma, Rui; Yang, Juan-Mei; Luo, Wen-Wei; Han, Zhao; Cong, Ning; Ren, Dong-Dong; Chi, Fang-Lu

    2015-07-30

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling regulates cochlear extension and coordinates orientation of sensory hair cells in the inner ear. Retroviral-mediated introduction of the Math1 transcription factor leads to the transdifferentiation of some mature supporting cells into hair cells. Testosterone, a gonadal sex steroid hormone, is associated with neuroprotection and regeneration in Central Nervous System (CNS) development. Experiments were performed in vitro using Ad5-EGFP-Math1/Ad5-Math1 in neonatal mouse cochleas. Establishment of ectopic hair-cell like cell(HCLC) polarity in the lesser epithelial ridge (LER) with or without testosterone-3-(O-carboxymethyl) oxime bovine serum albumin (testosterone-BSA) treatment was investigated to determine the role of the PCP pathway in regulating ectopic regenerated (HCLCs) through induction by Math1 and testosterone treatment. After Math1 infection, new ectopic regenerated HCLCs were detected in the LER. After the HCLCs developed actin-rich stereocilia, the basal bodies moved from the center to the distal side. Moreover, the narrower, non-sensory LER region meant that the convergent extension (CE) was also established after transfection with Math1. After 9 days of in vitro testosterone-BSA treatment, more Edu(+), Sox2(+), and HCLC cells were observed in the LER with an accompanying downregulation of E-cadherin. Interestingly, the CE of the Ad5-EGFP-math1 treated LER is altered, but the intrinsic cellular polarity of the HCLCs is not obviously changed. In summary, our results indicate that PCP signaling is involved in the development of ectopic HCLCs and the CE of the ectopic sensory region is altered by testosterone-BSA through downregulation of cell-cell adhesion. Testosterone-BSA and Math1 treatment could promote an increase in HCLCs in the LER through proliferation and transdifferentiation.

  6. Surgical Management of Ectopic Kidney with Bilateral Iliac Vein Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Tanwar, Harshwardhan V; Fernandes, Gwendolyn; Patil, Bhushan; Patwardhan, Sujata K

    2016-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a very rare phenomenon in an ectopic kidney. We come across a 61-year-old gentleman with a history of 2 months of gross, painless haematuria and palpable pelvic mass on examination. CT scan showed 6.5cm X 5.1cm X 5.8cm mass in pelvic kidney with bilateral iliac vein invasion. With the help of intra-operative ultra-sound, tumour thrombus was extracted from both iliac veins with en mass removal of tumour. Patient was well intraoperatively as well as in postoperatively. We also presented an elegant imaging for the case. PMID:27134940

  7. Ectopic fat accumulation in patients with COPD: an ECLIPSE substudy

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Mickaël; Almeras, Natalie; Després, Jean-Pierre; Coxson, Harvey O; Washko, George R; Vivodtzev, Isabelle; Wouters, Emiel FM; Rutten, Erica; Williams, Michelle C; Murchison, John T; MacNee, William; Sin, Don D; Maltais, François

    2017-01-01

    Background Obesity is increasingly associated with COPD, but little is known about the prevalence of ectopic fat accumulation in COPD and whether this can possibly be associated with poor clinical outcomes and comorbidities. The Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints (ECLIPSE) substudy tested the hypothesis that COPD is associated with increased ectopic fat accumulation and that this would be associated with COPD-related outcomes and comorbidities. Methods Computed tomography (CT) images of the thorax obtained in ECLIPSE were used to quantify ectopic fat accumulation at L2–L3 (eg, cross-sectional area [CSA] of visceral adipose tissue [VAT] and muscle tissue [MT] attenuation, a reflection of muscle fat infiltration) and CSA of MT. A dose–response relationship between CSA of VAT, MT attenuation and CSA of MT and COPD-related outcomes (6-minute walking distance [6MWD], exacerbation rate, quality of life, and forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1] decline) was addressed with the Cochran–Armitage trend test. Regression models were used to investigate possible relationships between CT body composition indices and comorbidities. Results From the entire ECLIPSE cohort, we identified 585 subjects with valid CT images at L2–L3 to assess body composition. CSA of VAT was increased (P<0.0001) and MT attenuation was reduced (indicating more muscle fat accumulation) in patients with COPD (P<0.002). Progressively increasing CSA of VAT was not associated with adverse clinical outcomes. The probability of exhibiting low 6MWD and accelerated FEV1 decline increased with progressively decreasing MT attenuation and CSA of MT. In COPD, the probability of having diabetes (P=0.024) and gastroesophageal reflux (P=0.0048) at baseline increased in parallel with VAT accumulation, while the predicted MT attenuation increased the probability of cardiovascular comorbidities (P=0.042). Body composition parameters did not correlate with coronary

  8. An Ectopic Case of Tunga spp. Infection in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Maco, Vicente; Maco, Vicente P.; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Tungiasis is a neglected ectoparasitism of impoverished areas in South America and sub-Saharan Africa. The sand flea Tunga spp. preferably infests the soles and the periungueal and interdigital regions of the feet. Ectopic tungiasis is rare, even in highly endemic areas. We describe a case of an indigenous patient in Peru who presented with a nodular lesion in the extensor aspect of the knee and whose biopsy was compatible with Tunga spp. This is the first documented case of knee tungiasis in an endemic country. The historical, clinical, histological, and current epidemiological aspects of tungiasis in Peru are discussed here. PMID:20519602

  9. Ectopic fat accumulation in patients with COPD: an ECLIPSE substudy.

    PubMed

    Martin, Mickaël; Almeras, Natalie; Després, Jean-Pierre; Coxson, Harvey O; Washko, George R; Vivodtzev, Isabelle; Wouters, Emiel Fm; Rutten, Erica; Williams, Michelle C; Murchison, John T; MacNee, William; Sin, Don D; Maltais, François

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is increasingly associated with COPD, but little is known about the prevalence of ectopic fat accumulation in COPD and whether this can possibly be associated with poor clinical outcomes and comorbidities. The Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints (ECLIPSE) substudy tested the hypothesis that COPD is associated with increased ectopic fat accumulation and that this would be associated with COPD-related outcomes and comorbidities. Computed tomography (CT) images of the thorax obtained in ECLIPSE were used to quantify ectopic fat accumulation at L2-L3 (eg, cross-sectional area [CSA] of visceral adipose tissue [VAT] and muscle tissue [MT] attenuation, a reflection of muscle fat infiltration) and CSA of MT. A dose-response relationship between CSA of VAT, MT attenuation and CSA of MT and COPD-related outcomes (6-minute walking distance [6MWD], exacerbation rate, quality of life, and forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1] decline) was addressed with the Cochran-Armitage trend test. Regression models were used to investigate possible relationships between CT body composition indices and comorbidities. From the entire ECLIPSE cohort, we identified 585 subjects with valid CT images at L2-L3 to assess body composition. CSA of VAT was increased (P<0.0001) and MT attenuation was reduced (indicating more muscle fat accumulation) in patients with COPD (P<0.002). Progressively increasing CSA of VAT was not associated with adverse clinical outcomes. The probability of exhibiting low 6MWD and accelerated FEV1 decline increased with progressively decreasing MT attenuation and CSA of MT. In COPD, the probability of having diabetes (P=0.024) and gastroesophageal reflux (P=0.0048) at baseline increased in parallel with VAT accumulation, while the predicted MT attenuation increased the probability of cardiovascular comorbidities (P=0.042). Body composition parameters did not correlate with coronary artery scores or with survival

  10. Abdominal obesity: a marker of ectopic fat accumulation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ulf

    2015-05-01

    In the early 1980s, we analyzed the metabolic profile of 930 men and women and concluded that an abdominal distribution of fat for a given BMI is associated with increased insulin resistance and risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The correlation between abdominal fat and metabolic dysfunction has since been validated in many studies, and waist circumference is now a criterion for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. Several mechanisms for this relationship have been postulated; however, we now know that visceral fat is only one of many ectopic fat depots used when the subcutaneous adipose tissue cannot accommodate excess fat because of its limited expandability.

  11. [Relationship between ureaplasma urealyticum infection and ectopic pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Liang, Xu-Dong; Gu, Ting-Ting; Wang, Jian-Liu; Cui, Heng; Wei, Li-Hui

    2007-06-01

    To explore the relationship between different subtypes of Ureaplasma Urealyticum infection and ectopic pregnancy. Ectopic pregnancy group included 33 patients and another 40 patients undergoing salpingo-ovariectomy with ovarian cyst or uterine myoma were investigated as control group. Polymerase chain reaction technique was used to detect Uu DNA in the two groups samples from endosalpinx and secretion of cervix. At the same time, these samples were set to electron microscope for examination. (1) Uu was detected in 27 fallopian tubal epithelium tissues among 33 ectopic pregnancy samples (81.8%), in which biovar1 was positive in 17 samples (52%, 17/33), biovar 2 was positive in 15 (46%, 15/33) and both biovar 1 and 2 positive was 5 (15.2%). While in the control group, Uu was detected in 24 fallopian tubal epithelium tissues among 40 samples (60%), in which biovar1 was positive in 21 samples (52%, 21/40), biovar 2 was positive in 5 (12%, 5/40) and both biovar 1 and 2 positive was 2 (5%). There was no significant difference between the two groups in Uu of biovar 1 (P > 0.05). The positive rate of Uu in biovar 2 show a significant difference (P < 0.05). (2) Co-expression samples in both fallopian tubal epithelium and cervical mucus samples from ectopic pregnancy patients in biovar1 was 13 (72.2%), and in biovar 2 was 11 (71.4%). While in control group, co-expression samples in both fallopian tubal epithelium and cervical mucus samples in biovar 1 was 18 (81.8%), and in biovar 2 was 5 (71.4%). There was no significant difference between the two groups in co-expression in both fallopian tubal epithelium and cervical mucus samples (P > 0.05). (2) The fallopian tubes infected by biovar 2 have a high rate (90%) of ciliary adhesion and exuviation. While there is a low rate (10%) for biovar1 with ciliary adhesion and exuviation. There was significant difference between the two groups of Uu (P < 0.05). The infection of ureaplasma urealyticum may increase the occurrence of

  12. A randomized controlled trial: the effect of inulin on weight management and ectopic fat in subjects with prediabetes.

    PubMed

    Guess, Nicola D; Dornhorst, Anne; Oliver, Nick; Bell, Jimmy D; Thomas, E Louise; Frost, Gary S

    2015-01-01

    Fat infiltration of the liver, muscle and pancreas is associated with insulin resistance and risk of diabetes. Weight loss reduces ectopic fat deposition and risk of diabetes, but is difficult to sustain to due to compensatory increases in appetite. Fermentable carbohydrates have been shown to decrease appetite and food intake, and promote weight loss in overweight subjects. In animal studies, fermentable carbohydrate reduces ectopic fat independent of weight loss. We aimed to investigate the effect of the fermentable carbohydrate inulin on weight maintenance, appetite and ectopic fat in subjects with prediabetes. Forty-four subjects with prediabetes were randomized to 18 weeks' inulin or cellulose supplementation. During weeks 1-9 (weight loss phase) all subjects had four visits with a dietitian to guide them towards a 5 % weight loss. During weeks 10-18 (weight maintenance phase) subjects continued taking their assigned supplementation and were asked to maintain the weight they had lost but were offered no further support. All subjects attended study sessions at baseline, 9 and 18 weeks for measurement of weight; assessment of adipose tissue and ectopic fat content by magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy; glucose, insulin and GLP-1 levels following a meal tolerance test; and appetite by ad libitum meal test and visual analogue scales. Both groups lost approximately 5 % of their body weight by week nine (-5.3 ± 0.1 % vs -4.3 ± 0.4 %, p = 0.13, but the inulin group lost significantly more weight between 9 and 18 weeks (-2.3 ± 0.5 % vs -0.6 ± 0.4 %, p = 0.012). Subjects taking inulin had lower hepatic (p = 0.02) and soleus muscle (p < 0.05) fat content at 18 weeks compared to control even after controlling for weight loss and consumed less at the ad libitum meal test (p = 0.027). Fasting glucose significantly decreased at week nine only (p = 0.005), insulin concentrations did not change

  13. Ectopic expression of a soybean phytase in developing seeds of Glycine max to improve phosphorus availability.

    PubMed

    Chiera, Joseph M; Finer, John J; Grabau, Elizabeth A

    2004-12-01

    A transgenic approach was used to alter soybean seed phytate content by expressing a soybean phytase gene (GmPhy) during seed development to degrade accumulating phytic acid (IP6). An expression vector containing the soybean phytase cDNA controlled by the seed-specific beta-conglycinin promoter (alpha'-subunit) was used to transform embryogenic soybean cultures. Plants from four independent transgenic lines were analyzed for transgene integration and seed IP6 levels. The reduction in IP6 levels in transgenic seeds compared to control 'Jack' soybeans ranged from 12.6 to 24.8 as determined by HPLC. A low copy transformant was propagated to the T4 generation and examined in more detail for phytase expression and enzyme activity during seed development. Expression of phytase mRNA and phytase activity increased during seed development, consistent with the use of an embryo-specific promoter. Ectopic phytase expression during seed development offers potential as an effective strategy for reducing phytate content in soybean seed.

  14. Recycling of Acetylcholine Receptors at Ectopic Postsynaptic Clusters Induced by Exogenous Agrin in Living Rats

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Hans Rudolf; Akaaboune, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    During the development of the neuromuscular junction, motor axons induce the clustering of acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) and increase their metabolic stability in the muscle membrane. Here, we asked whether the synaptic organizer agrin might regulate the metabolic stability and density of AChRs by promoting the recycling of internalized AChRs, which would otherwise be destined for degradation, into synaptic sites. We show that at nerve-free AChR clusters induced by agrin in extrasynaptic membrane, internalized AChRs are driven back into the ectopic synaptic clusters where they intermingle with pre-existing and new receptors. The extent of AChR recycling depended on the strength of the agrin stimulus, but not on the development of junctional folds, another hallmark of mature postsynaptic membranes. In chronically denervated muscles, in which both AChR stability and recycling are significantly decreased by muscle inactivity, agrin maintained the amount of recycled AChRs at agrin-induced clusters at a level similar to that at denervated original endplates. In contrast, AChRs did not recycle at agrin-induced clusters in C2C12 or primary myotubes. Thus, in muscles in vivo, but not in cultured myotubes, neural agrin promotes the recycling of AChRs and thereby increases their metabolic stability. PMID:25093969

  15. Serum activin B concentration as predictive biomarker for ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, Pooja; Senthilkumar, G P; Rajendiran, Soundravally; Sivaraman, K; Soundararaghavan, S; Kulandhasamy, Maheshwari

    2016-05-01

    We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of activin B in discriminating tubal ectopic pregnancy (tEP) from intrauterine miscarriages (IUM), and normal viable intrauterine pregnancy (IUP). We included 28 women with tEP, 31 women with IUM, and 29 normal IUP, confirmed both by clinical examination and ultrasonography. Serum activin B concentration was measured at the time of admission using the ELISA kit. The median serum activin B concentration was found to be significantly decreased in both tEP (p=0.004) and IUM (p=0.022) compared to normal IUP. When compared between tEP and IUM, activin B concentrations did not differ significantly. ROC analysis of activin B and free β-hCG demonstrated AUC of 0.722 and 0.805, respectively to discriminate tEP from viable IUP. The model including both activin B and free β-hCG improved the discriminating potential with greater AUC (0.824), and specificity (93%) than individual one. To discriminate tEP from IUM, activin B, free β-hCG and combination of both performed poorly. We conclude that serum activin B concentration is lower in tubal ectopic pregnancy, and can discriminate it from normal pregnancy with moderate accuracy. It also shows improved diagnostic potential along with free β-hCG, but cannot distinguish tEP from IUM reliably.

  16. Bilateral Synchronous Ectopic Ethmoid Sinus Olfactory Neuroblastoma: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Leon-Soriano, Elena; Alfonso, Carolina; Yebenes, Laura; Garcia-Polo, Julio; Lassaletta, Luis; Gavilan, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 41 Final Diagnosis: Olfactory neuroblastoma Symptoms: Left nasal obstruction • occasional left epistaxis • headache Medication: None Clinical Procedure: Nasal endoscopic examination • neck palpation • CT • bilateral endoscopic resection • MRI • PET-CT • postoperative radiotherapy Specialty: Otolaryngology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB), also known as esthesioneuroblastoma, is a rare malignant head and neck cancer thought to originate from the olfactory epithelium. It typically invades contiguous structures at presentation. We report a very rare case of multifocal and ectopic ONB. Case Report: A 41-year-old man presented with left nasal obstruction and occasional left epistaxis associated with headache. Endoscopic examination of the nasal cavities and computed tomography suggested bilateral polypoid masses. Histopathological diagnosis after endoscopic resection established bilateral olfactory neuroblastoma of the ethmoid sinuses. The patient received postoperative radiotherapy. He remains free of disease 4 years after treatment. Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge this is the second documented case of multifocal ectopic olfactory neuroblastoma. Clinicians should consider ONB in the differential diagnosis of bilateral synchronous nasal and paranasal masses to avoid delayed diagnosis. Endoscopic resection of ONB could be an option in selected cases. PMID:27097989

  17. [Risk factors and clinical features of ectopic pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Escobar-Padilla, Beatriz; Perez-López, Carlos A; Martínez-Puon, Horacio

    2017-01-01

    Ectopic pregnancy (EP) is the most frequent cause of maternal death in the first trimester of pregnancy. The objective was to establish the clinical features and risk factors associated with EP. Observational, retrospective, transversal and analytic case-control study. Two groups were included: the cases group (28 patients) and the control group (56 postpartum patients). Univariate and bivariate descriptive statistical analysis were carried out using the Pearson chi-square test, p < 0.05, with odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Statistically significant values (OR) were: smoking: 18.33, history of EP: 11.96, IUD use: 11.9, abdominal surgery: 5.87, being multigravid: 3.80, and having two or more sexual partners: 2. The most common clinical symptom was pelvic pain with 57.1% (16), right ruptured EP 53.6%, tubal pregnancy 82.1% (23), unruptured EP 60.7% (17), hemoperitoneum 60.7% (17). Gestational age for EP was of 4-8 weeks (75%) and surgical treatment 96.4%. The frequency of EP found in our population was 1 in every 122 live births. Risk factors associated with ectopic pregnancy with statistically higher values were: smoking, being multigravid, having a clinical record of EP, IUD use before conception, abdominal surgery. The more frequent clinical characteristics were pelvic pain, right EP, tubal pregnancy, EP with no ruptures, hemoperitoneum < 750 ml, a gestational age between four and eight weeks.

  18. Ultrasound-promoted one-pot three component synthesis of tetrazoles catalyzed by zinc sulfide nanoparticles as a recyclable heterogeneous catalyst.

    PubMed

    Naeimi, Hossein; Kiani, Fatemeh

    2015-11-01

    Ultrasound irradiation was applied for the appropriate and rapid synthesis of 1-substituted tetrazoles through cyclization reaction of various primary amines, sodium azide and triethyl orthoformate. This reaction was effectively catalyzed by ZnS nanoparticles as an efficient, recoverable and reusable catalyst. Compared with conventional methods, this method has the considerable advantages such as shorter reaction times, easier work-up, purer products with high yields and mild conditions. The ZnS nanoparticles catalyst is an excellent instance to replace Brønsted acids for the preparation of 1-substituted tetrazole derivatives in very short reaction times with excellent yields. The catalyst can be recovered and reused several times without significant loss of its catalytic activity.

  19. Effect of 8 weeks of overfeeding on ectopic fat deposition and insulin sensitivity: testing the "adipose tissue expandability" hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Johannsen, Darcy L; Tchoukalova, Yourka; Tam, Charmaine S; Covington, Jeffrey D; Xie, Wenting; Schwarz, Jean-Marc; Bajpeyi, Sudip; Ravussin, Eric

    2014-10-01

    The presence of large subcutaneous adipocytes in obesity has been proposed to be linked with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes through the "adipose tissue expandability" hypothesis, which holds that large adipocytes have a limited capacity for expansion, forcing lipids to be stored in nonadipose ectopic depots (skeletal muscle, liver), where they interfere with insulin signaling. This hypothesis has, however, been largely formulated by cross-sectional findings and to date has not been prospectively demonstrated in the development of insulin resistance in humans. Twenty-nine men (26.8 ± 5.4 years old; BMI 25.5 ± 2.3 kg/m(2)) were fed 40% more than their baseline requirement for 8 weeks. Before and after overfeeding, insulin sensitivity was determined using a two-step hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Intrahepatic lipid (IHL) and intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) were measured by (1)H-MRS and abdominal fat by MRI. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose and skeletal muscle tissues were collected to measure adipocyte size and markers of tissue inflammation. Subjects gained 7.6 ± 2.1 kg (55% fat) and insulin sensitivity decreased 18% (P < 0.001) after overfeeding. IHL increased 46% from 1.5% to 2.2% (P = 0.002); however, IMCL did not change. There was no association between adipocyte size and ectopic lipid accumulation. Despite similar weight gain, subjects with smaller fat cells at baseline had a greater decrease in insulin sensitivity, which was linked with upregulated skeletal muscle tissue inflammation. In experimental substantial weight gain, the presence of larger adipocytes did not promote ectopic lipid accumulation. In contrast, smaller fat cells were associated with a worsened metabolic response to overfeeding. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  20. An Ectopic CTCF Binding Element Inhibits Tcrd Rearrangement by Limiting Contact between Vδ and Dδ Gene Segments.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Zhao, Lijuan; Alt, Frederick W; Krangel, Michael S

    2016-10-15

    Chromatin looping mediated by the CCCTC binding factor (CTCF) regulates V(D)J recombination at Ag receptor loci. CTCF-mediated looping can influence recombination signal sequence (RSS) accessibility by regulating enhancer activation of germline promoters. CTCF-mediated looping has also been shown to limit directional tracking of the RAG recombinase along chromatin, and to regulate long-distance interactions between RSSs, independent of the RAG recombinase. However, in all prior instances in which CTCF-mediated looping was shown to influence V(D)J recombination, it was not possible to fully resolve the relative contributions to the V(D)J recombination phenotype of changes in accessibility, RAG tracking, and RAG-independent long-distance interactions. In this study, to assess mechanisms by which CTCF-mediated looping can impact V(D)J recombination, we introduced an ectopic CTCF binding element (CBE) immediately downstream of Eδ in the murine Tcra-Tcrd locus. The ectopic CBE impaired inversional rearrangement of Trdv5 in the absence of measurable effects on Trdv5 transcription and chromatin accessibility. The ectopic CBE also limited directional RAG tracking from the Tcrd recombination center, demonstrating that a single CBE can impact the distribution of RAG proteins along chromatin. However, such tracking cannot account for Trdv5-to-Trdd2 inversional rearrangement. Rather, the defect in Trdv5 rearrangement could only be attributed to a reconfigured chromatin loop organization that limited RAG-independent contacts between the Trdv5 and Trdd2 RSSs. We conclude that CTCF can regulate V(D)J recombination by segregating RSSs into distinct loop domains and inhibiting RSS synapsis, independent of any effects on transcription, RSS accessibility, and RAG tracking. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  1. Upregulation of Nanog and Sox-2 genes following ectopic expression of Oct-4 in amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai-Hung; Kao, An-Pei; Chang, Chia-Cheng; Lin, Ta-Chin; Kuo, Tsung-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct-4), an important gene regulating stem cell pluripotency, is well-known for its ability to reprogram somatic cells in vitro, either alone or in concert with other factors. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of ectopic expression of Oct human amniotic fluid stem cells. We developed a novel method for isolation of putative human amniotic fluid-derived multipotent stem cells. These cells showing mesenchymal stem cell phenotypes (human amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells, hAFMSCs) were transfected with a plasmid carrying genes for Oct-4 and the green fluorescent protein (GFP). The stably transfected cells, hAFMSCs-Oct4/GFP, were selected by using G418 and found to express the GFP reporter gene under the control of Oct-4 promoter. We found that hAFMSCs developed by our method possess very high self-renewal ability (about 78 cumulative population doublings) and multilineage differentiation potency. Significantly, the hAFMSCs-Oct4/GFP cells showed enhanced expression of the three major pluripotency genes Oct-4, Nanog, and Sox-2, and increased colony-forming ability and growth rate compared with the parental hAFMSCs. We demonstrated that the ectopic expression of Oct-4 gene in hAFMSCs with high self-renewal ability could upregulate Nanog and Sox-2 gene expression and enhance cell growth rate and colony-forming efficiency. Therefore, the ectopic expression of Oct-4 could be a strategy to develop pluripotency in hAFMSCs for clinical applications. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Microarc-oxidized titanium surfaces functionalized with microRNA-21-loaded chitosan/hyaluronic acid nanoparticles promote the osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhongshan; Wu, Guangsheng; Feng, Zhihong; Bai, Shizhu; Dong, Yan; Wu, Guofeng; Zhao, Yimin

    2015-01-01

    Dental implants have been widely used for the replacement of missing teeth in the clinic, but further improvements are needed to meet the clinical demands for faster and tighter osseointegration. In this study, we fabricated safe and biocompatible chitosan (CS)/hyaluronic acid (HA) nanoparticles to deliver microRNA-21 (miR-21) and thereby accelerate osteogenesis in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMMSCs). The CS/HA/miR-21 nanoparticles were cross-linked with 0.2% gel solution onto microarc oxidation (MAO)-treated titanium (Ti) surfaces to fabricate the miR-21-functionalized MAO Ti surface, resulting in the development of a novel coating for reverse transfection. To characterize the CS/HA/miR-21 nanoparticles, their particle size, zeta potential, surface morphology, and gel retardation ability were sequentially investigated. Their biological effects, such as cell viability, cytotoxicity, and expression of osteogenic genes by hBMMSCs on the miR-21-functionalized MAO Ti surfaces, were evaluated. Finally, we explored appropriate CS/HA/miR-21 nanoparticles with a CS/HA ratio of 4:1 and N/P ratio 20:1 for transfection, which presented good spherical morphology, an average diameter of 160.4±10.75 nm, and a positive zeta potential. The miR-21-functionalized MAO Ti surfaces demonstrated cell viability, cytotoxicity, and cell spreading comparable to those exhibited by naked MAO Ti surfaces and led to significantly higher expression of osteogenic genes. This novel miR-21-functionalized Ti implant may be used in the clinic to allow more effective and robust osseointegration. PMID:26604744

  3. Interactions between SIRT1 and AP-1 reveal a mechanistic insight into the growth promoting properties of alumina (Al2O3) nanoparticles in mouse skin epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Dey, Swatee; Bakthavatchalu, Vasudevan; Tseng, Michael T; Wu, Peng; Florence, Rebecca L; Grulke, Eric A; Yokel, Robert A; Dhar, Sanjit Kumar; Yang, Hsin-Sheng; Chen, Yumin; St Clair, Daret K

    2008-10-01

    The physicochemical properties of nanomaterials differ from those of the bulk material of the same composition. However, little is known about the underlying effects of these particles in carcinogenesis. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanisms involved in the carcinogenic properties of nanoparticles using aluminum oxide (Al(2)O(3)/alumina) nanoparticles as the prototype. Well-established mouse epithelial JB6 cells, sensitive to neoplastic transformation, were used as the experimental model. We demonstrate that alumina was internalized and maintained its physicochemical composition inside the cells. Alumina increased cell proliferation (53%), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) levels, cell viability and growth in soft agar. The level of manganese superoxide dismutase, a key mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme, was elevated, suggesting a redox signaling event. In addition, the levels of reactive oxygen species and the activities of the redox sensitive transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1) and a longevity-related protein, sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), were increased. SIRT1 knockdown reduces DNA synthesis, cell viability, PCNA levels, AP-1 transcriptional activity and protein levels of its targets, JunD, c-Jun and BcL-xl, more than controls do. Immunoprecipitation studies revealed that SIRT1 interacts with the AP-1 components c-Jun and JunD but not with c-Fos. The results identify SIRT1 as an AP-1 modulator and suggest a novel mechanism by which alumina nanoparticles may function as a potential carcinogen.

  4. The diagnostic approach to ectopic ureterocele and the renal duplication complex

    SciTech Connect

    Geringer, A.M.; Berdon, W.E.; Seldin, D.W.; Hensle, T.W.

    1983-03-01

    The child with ectopic ureterocele frequently presents a diagnostic challenge. The use of standard excretory urography combined with newer modalities, such as ultrasonography and radionuclide renal scanning, provides an orderly diagnostic approach to ectopic ureterocele. This integrated approach should ensure the highest yield in a diagnostic sense and aid in assessing upper tract function, thus, helping with the selection of the proper surgical management.

  5. Risk of ectopic pregnancy following day-5 embryo transfer compared with day-3 transfer.

    PubMed

    Smith, Laura P; Oskowitz, Selwyn P; Dodge, Laura E; Hacker, Michele R

    2013-10-01

    The incidence of ectopic pregnancy after IVF is increased approximately 2.5-5-fold compared with natural conceptions; however, the aetiology for this increased risk remains unclear. One proposed practice change to decrease the incidence of ectopic pregnancy is blastocyst embryo transfer on day 5 rather than cleavage-stage embryo transfer on day 3. A retrospective cohort study was conducted to compare the risk of ectopic pregnancy following fresh day-5 embryo transfer with day-3 embryo transfer among women who underwent IVF and achieved pregnancy from 1998 to 2011. There were 13,654 eligible pregnancies; 277 were ectopic. The incidence of ectopic pregnancy was 2.1% among day-3 pregnancies and 1.6% among day-5 pregnancies. The adjusted risk ratio for ectopic pregnancy from day-5 compared with day-3 transfer was 0.71 (95% confidence interval 0.46-1.10). Although this analysis included 13,654 cycles, with a two-sided significance level of 0.05, it had only 21.9% power to detect a difference between the low incidence of ectopic pregnancy among both day-3 and day-5 transfers. In conclusion, this study was not able to demonstrate a difference in the risk of ectopic pregnancy among day-3 compared with day-5 transfers.

  6. Coexisiting adenoma and granuloma involving the right inferior parathyroid gland with adjacent ectopic thymic tissue

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Mayank; Kandasamy, Subramaniam

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory lesions, particularly granulomas, involving adenoma of the parathyroid gland are rare. Ectopic thymic tissue is commonly associated with the thyroid and/or parathyroid gland due to their close embryonic relationship. We report a rare case of coexisting adenoma and granuloma of the parathyroid gland with adjacent ectopic thymic tissue. PMID:24957592

  7. 42 CFR 441.207 - Drugs and devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... pregnancies. 441.207 Section 441.207 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF... APPLICABLE TO SPECIFIC SERVICES Abortions § 441.207 Drugs and devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies... and for medical procedures necessary for the termination of an ectopic pregnancy. ...

  8. 42 CFR 441.207 - Drugs and devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... pregnancies. 441.207 Section 441.207 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF... APPLICABLE TO SPECIFIC SERVICES Abortions § 441.207 Drugs and devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies... and for medical procedures necessary for the termination of an ectopic pregnancy. ...

  9. 42 CFR 441.207 - Drugs and devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... pregnancies. 441.207 Section 441.207 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF... APPLICABLE TO SPECIFIC SERVICES Abortions § 441.207 Drugs and devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies... and for medical procedures necessary for the termination of an ectopic pregnancy. ...

  10. 42 CFR 441.207 - Drugs and devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... pregnancies. 441.207 Section 441.207 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF... APPLICABLE TO SPECIFIC SERVICES Abortions § 441.207 Drugs and devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies... and for medical procedures necessary for the termination of an ectopic pregnancy. ...

  11. 42 CFR 441.207 - Drugs and devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... pregnancies. 441.207 Section 441.207 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF... APPLICABLE TO SPECIFIC SERVICES Abortions § 441.207 Drugs and devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies... and for medical procedures necessary for the termination of an ectopic pregnancy. ...

  12. Coexisiting adenoma and granuloma involving the right inferior parathyroid gland with adjacent ectopic thymic tissue.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Mayank; Kandasamy, Subramaniam

    2014-06-23

    Inflammatory lesions, particularly granulomas, involving adenoma of the parathyroid gland are rare. Ectopic thymic tissue is commonly associated with the thyroid and/or parathyroid gland due to their close embryonic relationship. We report a rare case of coexisting adenoma and granuloma of the parathyroid gland with adjacent ectopic thymic tissue. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  13. Analysis of heart rate variability in the presence of ectopic beats using the heart timing signal.

    PubMed

    Mateo, Javier; Laguna, Pablo

    2003-03-01

    The time-domain signals representing the heart rate variability (HRV) in the presence of an ectopic beat exhibit a sharp transient at the position of the ectopic beat, which corrupts the signal, particularly the power spectral density (PSD) of the HRV. Consequently, there is a need for correction of this type of beat prior to any HRV analysis. This paper deals with the PSD estimation of the HRV by means of the heart timing (HT) signal when ectopic beats are present. These beat occurrence times are modeled from a generalized, continuous time integral pulse frequency modulation model and, from this point of view, a specific method for minimizing the effect of the presence of ectopic beats is presented to work together with the HT signal. By using both, a white noise driven autoregressive model of the HRV signal with artificially introduced ectopic beats and actual heart rate series including ectopic beats, the more usual methods of HRV spectral estimation are compared. Results of the PSD estimation error function of the number of ectopic beats are presented. These results demonstrate that the proposed method has one order of magnitude lower error than usual ectopic beats removal strategies in preserving PSD, thus, this strategy better recovers the original clinical indexes of interest.

  14. Ventricular activity morphological characterization: ectopic beats removal in long term atrial fibrillation recordings.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Arturo; Alcaraz, Raúl; Rieta, José J

    2013-03-01

    Ectopic beats are early heart beats remarkably different to the normal beat morphology that provoke serious disturbances in electrocardiographic analysis. These beats are very common in atrial fibrillation (AF), causing important residua when ventricular activity has to be removed for atrial activity (AA) analysis. In this work, a method is proposed to cancel out ectopics by discriminating between normal and abnormal beats, with an accuracy higher than 99%, through QRS morphological delineation and characterization. The most similar ectopics to the one under cancellation are clustered to provide a very precise cancellation template. Simulated and real AF recordings were used to validate the method. A new index, able to estimate the presence of ventricular residue after ectopics cancellation, was defined. Results by using the 2, 4, 6, …, 30 most similar ectopics to the one under study yielded optimal cancellation for templates composed of 10 beats. Furthermore, these beats were very likely located close to the ectopic under cancellation, which could facilitate the algorithm implementation. As conclusion, the proposed method is an effective way to remove ectopics from long term AF recordings and get them ready for the application of any QRST cancellation technique able to extract the AA in optimal conditions. Moreover, it could also detect, characterize and remove ectopics in any other type of non-AF recordings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Incidence, diagnosis and management of tubal and nontubal ectopic pregnancies: a review.

    PubMed

    Panelli, Danielle M; Phillips, Catherine H; Brady, Paula C

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic pregnancy is a potentially life-threatening condition occurring in 1-2 % of all pregnancies. The most common ectopic implantation site is the fallopian tube, though 10 % of ectopic pregnancies implant in the cervix, ovary, myometrium, interstitial portion of the fallopian tube, abdominal cavity or within a cesarean section scar. Diagnosis involves a combination of clinical symptoms, serology, and ultrasound. Medical management is a safe and effective option in most clinically stable patients. Patients who have failed medical management, are ineligible, or present with ruptured ectopic pregnancy or heterotopic pregnancy are most often managed with excision by laparoscopy or, less commonly, laparotomy. Management of nontubal ectopic pregnancies may involve medical or surgical treatment, or a combination, as dictated by ectopic pregnancy location and the patient's clinical stability. Following tubal ectopic pregnancy, the rate of subsequent intrauterine pregnancy is high and independent of treatment modality. This review describes the incidence, risk factors, diagnosis, and management of tubal and non-tubal ectopic and heterotopic pregnancies, and reviews the existing data regarding recurrence and future fertility.

  16. Salpingotomy or salpingectomy in tubal ectopic pregnancy: what do women prefer?

    PubMed

    van Mello, N M; Mol, F; Opmeer, B C; de Bekker-Grob, E W; Essink-Bot, M L; Ankum, W M; Mol, B W; van der Veen, F; Hajenius, P J

    2010-11-01

    There is an ongoing debate whether tubal ectopic pregnancy should be treated by salpingotomy or salpingectomy. It is unknown which treatment women prefer in view of the potentially better fertility outcome but disadvantages of salpingotomy. This study investigated women surgically treated for tubal ectopic pregnancy and subfertile women desiring pregnancy and their preferences for salpingotomy relative to salpingectomy by means of a web-based discrete choice experiment consisting of 16 choice sets. Scenarios representing salpingotomy differed in three attributes: intrauterine pregnancy (IUP) chance, risk of persistent trophoblast and risk of repeat ectopic pregnancy. An 'opt out' alternative, representing salpingectomy, was similar for every choice set. A multinomial logistic regression model was used to analyse relative importance of the attributes. This study showed that the negative effect of repeat ectopic pregnancy was 1.6 times stronger on the preference of women compared with the positive effect of the spontaneous IUP rate. For all women, the risk of persistent trophoblast was acceptable if compensated by a small rise in the spontaneous IUP rate. The conclusion was that women preferred avoiding a repeat ectopic pregnancy to a higher probability of a spontaneous IUP in the surgical treatment of tubal ectopic pregnancy. An ectopic pregnancy occurs when a fertilized egg gets stuck inside the Fallopian tube where it starts growing instead of passing on to the uterus. This may lead to serious problems, such as internal bleeding and pain. Therefore, in the majority of women, it is necessary to remove the ectopic pregnancy by means of an operation. Two types of surgery are being used in removing the ectopic pregnancy. A conservative approach, salpingotomy, preserves the tube but bears the risk of incomplete removal of the pregnancy tissue (persistent trophoblast), which then needs additional treatment, and of a repeat ectopic pregnancy in the same tube in the

  17. Electrochemical promotion of catalysis over Pd nanoparticles for CO2 reduction† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6sc04966d Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Fan; Gao, Dunfeng; Zhou, Hu; He, Ting; Gong, Huimin; Miao, Shu; Yang, Fan; Wang, Jianguo

    2017-01-01

    Electrochemical promotion of catalysis (EPOC) has been shown to accelerate the rate of many heterogeneous catalytic reactions; however, it has rarely been reported in low-temperature aqueous electrochemical reactions. Herein, we report a significant EPOC effect for the CO2 reduction to generate formate over Pd nanoparticles (NPs) in a 1 M KHCO3 aqueous solution. By applying a negative potential over differently-sized Pd NPs, the rate of formate production is greatly improved as compared to that at an open-circuit voltage, with a rate enhancement ratio ranging from 10 to 143. The thermocatalytic and electrocatalytic reduction of CO2 compete with each other and are promoted by the applied negative potential and H2 in the feeds, respectively. Inspired by the EPOC effect, a composite electrode containing Pd/C and Pt/C catalysts on different sides of a carbon paper was constructed for catalyzing the CO2 reduction without adding H2 to the feeds. Water electrolysis over Pt NPs generates H2, which then effectively promotes formate production over Pd NPs. PMID:28553489

  18. Salvage of amputated upper extremities with temporary ectopic implantation followed by replantation at a second stage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiang-Ning; Tong, Zhi-Hong; Zhang, Tie-Hui; Wang, Shou-Yu; Zhang, Hong-Quan; Zhao, Gui-Qing; Zhang, Feng

    2006-01-01

    Salvage of the complex amputation of extremities, such as combined with devastating segmental injuries, extensive soft tissue defect, and multiple important organ injuries, continues to be a challenge for plastic surgeons. Temporary ectopic implantation of the amputated part to a healthy recipient site allows the patient to recover from critical combined injuries, radical debridements, and soft tissue repair. In this article, the authors report two cases of temporary ectopic implantation of complexly amputated forearms, followed by successful replantation to their anatomic positions at a second stage. The contralateral upper extremity is an acceptable recipient site for temporary ectopic implantation. In secondary replantation, a cross-arm flap can be designed to carry the vascular pedicle from the ectopic implantation recipient to improve blood supply to the replanted part when the second blood supply is established. The authors validated that temporary ectopic implantation of amputated parts provides an alternative procedure for the salvage of amputated extremities under special circumstances.

  19. Virtual cell and tissue dynamics of ectopic activation of the ventricles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, Alan P.; Halley, Graeme; Li, Pan; Tong, Wing C.; Holden, Arun V.

    2007-03-01

    Cardiac ventricular cells and tissues are normally excitable, and are activated by propagating waves of excitation that are initiated in the specialized pacemaking region of the heart. However, isolated or repetitive activity can be initiated at abnormal (ectopic) sites in the ventricles. To trigger an endogenous ectopic beat, there must be a compact focus of cells with changed membrane excitation parameters and kinetics, which initiate activity by after-depolarizations triggered by propagating activity, or that have bifurcated into autorhythmicity. This ectopic focus needs to be large enough, and adequately coupled, to drive the surrounding tissue. We investigate the initiation of ectopic excitation in computational models of human ventricular cells triggered by after-depolarizations and by up/down regulation of specific membrane conductance systems, and the propagation and evolution of ectopic activity in homogeneous or heterogeneous and isotropic, anisotropic, or orthotropic tissues.

  20. Ectopic hepatic parenchyma attached to the diaphragm: simulating a pulmonary mass in a cat.

    PubMed

    Dhaliwal, Ravinder S; Lacey, Janice K

    2009-01-01

    A case of an ectopic lobe of the liver connected to a normal diaphragm is described. A 9-year-old, castrated male cat underwent thoracotomy for a pulmonary mass. The removed mass was attached to the diaphragm that histologically was ectopic liver. The ectopic liver had no connection with the main liver. Because the occurrence of ectopic supradiaphragmatic hepatic tissue is a possibility, this should be considered as a differential diagnosis for caudal pulmonary or caudal mediastinal masses in a cat. This report describes, to the authors' knowledge, the first case of ectopic hepatic tissue attached to the diaphragm of a cat. The authors also characterize the asymptomatic clinical presentation and radiographic findings of this cat and suggest further imaging with computed tomography in unusual case presentations.

  1. Association of Helicobacter Pylori Infection and Ectopic Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Nanbakhsh, Fariba; Behrouzi-Lak, Tahereh; Tabean, Mahsa; Oshnouei, Sima; Mazlumi, Pooya

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the importance of cytokine type in embryo implantation in uterus specified and activated macrophages interfere the tube movements and embryo retention in uterine tubes by smooth muscle relaxation and disrupting ciliary function. Therefore, increased risk of infection with HP during pregnancy, we investigated relation between Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection and prevalence of ectopic pregnancy (EP) in this study. This is cross-sectional study from March 2012 to May 2013. Totally 207 women were enrolled randomly from which 101 had EP (Case group) and 106 were selected as control group with normal pregnancy. A 2-cc blood sample was taken from each patient to evaluate the specific IgG titer by ELISA method. All results of samples with positive H. pylori IgG were assayed for anti-CagA, IgG antibodies. A questionnaire was filled for each subject. The associations between CagA positive cases with odds of Ectopic pregnancy incidence were analyzed by using SPSS software, ver. 19 (Chicago, IL, USA). Mean (± SD) of age were 21.0 ± 5.78 and 30.78 ± 5.10 years for cases and controls group respectively. These groups didn't show any significance difference in age and parity.H. pylori IgG antibodies were positive among 99 and 103 (98.2% vs. 97.2%) in women with EP and normal pregnancy respectively. Relationship between IgG status and EP was not significant (OR = 1.31: 95% CI = 0.7-2.52, Pvalue = 0.37). In particular anti-CagA antibodies were positive among 45 and 39(45.92% vs. 36.97%) in women with EP and normal pregnancy respectively. Among women with CagA positive strains had higher odds of Ep (OR = 1.46: 95% CI = 0.8-2.65, Pvalue = 0.18), but it wasn't significant. According to the result of this study there was not any association between HP infection and Ectopic pregnancy. We recommend more studies with larger sample size for determining the effect of CagA positive strains on EP.

  2. Ectopic pregnancy with use of progestin-only injectables and contraceptive implants: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Rebecca; Yacobson, Irina; Halpern, Vera; Nanda, Kavita

    2015-12-01

    Use of contraception lowers a woman's risk of experiencing an ectopic pregnancy. In the case of method failure, however, progestin-only contraceptives may be more likely to result in ectopic pregnancies than some other methods such as combined hormonal and barrier contraceptives. To describe ectopic pregnancy risk associated with use of implants and progestin-only injectable contraceptives through a systematic review of published studies. We searched electronic databases for articles in any language published through May 2015 describing studies of progestin-only injectables and implants. We also searched bibliographies and review articles for additional studies. Studies that reported any pregnancies were included in the review. Independent data extraction was performed by two authors based on predefined data fields, and where possible, we calculated the proportion of pregnancies that were ectopic and the ectopic pregnancy incidence rate per 1000 woman-years. Fifty-three studies of implants and 28 studies of injectables were identified; 79% reported pregnancy location. The proportion of ectopic pregnancy ranged from 0 to 100% with an incidence of 0-2.9 per 1000 woman-years in studies of marketed levonorgestrel implants. Studies of etonogestrel implants and the injectables, depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate and norethisterone enanthate, reported few ectopic pregnancies. Progestin-only contraceptive implants and injectables protect against ectopic pregnancy by being highly effective in preventing pregnancy overall; however, the absolute risk of ectopic pregnancy varies by type of progestin. Risk of ectopic pregnancy should not be a deterrent for use or provision of these methods. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Two Cases of Ectopic Hamartomatous Thymoma Masquerading as Sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Takahito; Sato, Yukiko; Tanaka, Hiroko; Sasaki, Toru; Kawabata, Kazuyoshi; Mitani, Hiroki; Yonekawa, Hiroyuki; Fukushima, Hirofumi; Shimbashi, Wataru

    2017-01-01

    Ectopic hamartomatous thymoma (EHT) is an extremely rare benign tumor. EHTs are difficult to differentiate from sarcomas, especially synovial sarcomas. We encountered two cases of EHT that were referred from other hospitals because sarcoma was suspected. In these cases, fusion gene detection via polymerase chain reaction or fluorescence in situ hybridization was useful for differentiating EHT from synovial sarcoma. EHT requires accurate diagnosis before surgery to avoid excessive treatment. Both tumor location and the presence of fat inside the tumor are important imaging findings for EHT, and confirmation of spindle cells, epithelial cells, and mature adipose cells in the tumor is an important pathological finding. It is important to exclude synovial sarcoma from the differential diagnosis via fusion gene analysis.

  4. An ectopic hamartomatous thymoma compressing left jugular vein.

    PubMed

    Huang, L; Zhao, L; Chai, Y

    2014-01-01

    Ectopic hamartomatous thymoma (EHT) is an extremely rare benign neoplasm. It is usually found at the root of the neck (frequently on the left) and does not usually impact adjacent tissues in clinically significant ways. While EHT manifests distinct pathological features, the lesion is either asymptomatic or may show nonspecific clinical features. We report one case of EHT which was assumed to be of low malignant potential since it severely compressed the inlet of left internal jugular vein as seen by computed tomography scan. To the best of our knowledge, this clinical finding of EHT is very rare. After the diagnosis and treatment of this patient, we believe that EHT or suspected EHT should be treated less invasively.

  5. A rare sequel following cornual ectopic pregnancy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Jayanta; Abdullah, Asma; Sanusi, Fatai Ade; Irvine, Laurie; Griffin, David

    2009-01-01

    One of the major concerns following cornual ectopic pregnancy, as shown in this case, is uterine rupture in future pregnancies. Uterine rupture has been described at 20 weeks gestation in a woman who had a cornual pregnancy treated by salpingectomy at 24 weeks, and as such it has been suggested by some experts that suturing the uterine wall to reinforce the defective area is advisable. Conversely, term deliveries have been described in patients with laparoscopic treatment of cornual pregnancies without reinforcing sutures. There is general agreement that suturing the uterine wall should be performed in cases where the cornual pregnancy sac extends into the endometrial cavity. Long-term follow-up of patients treated with cornual pregnancies with endometrial involvement may reveal the optimum treatment technique. In addition to surgical technique, patient counselling and appropriate debriefing regarding increasing interpregnancy interval is paramount in reducing maternal and fetal morbidity. Proper documentation in operative notes is vitally important for future reference.

  6. Two Cases of Ectopic Hamartomatous Thymoma Masquerading as Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Yukiko; Tanaka, Hiroko; Sasaki, Toru; Kawabata, Kazuyoshi; Mitani, Hiroki; Yonekawa, Hiroyuki; Fukushima, Hirofumi; Shimbashi, Wataru

    2017-01-01

    Ectopic hamartomatous thymoma (EHT) is an extremely rare benign tumor. EHTs are difficult to differentiate from sarcomas, especially synovial sarcomas. We encountered two cases of EHT that were referred from other hospitals because sarcoma was suspected. In these cases, fusion gene detection via polymerase chain reaction or fluorescence in situ hybridization was useful for differentiating EHT from synovial sarcoma. EHT requires accurate diagnosis before surgery to avoid excessive treatment. Both tumor location and the presence of fat inside the tumor are important imaging findings for EHT, and confirmation of spindle cells, epithelial cells, and mature adipose cells in the tumor is an important pathological finding. It is important to exclude synovial sarcoma from the differential diagnosis via fusion gene analysis. PMID:28168073

  7. Intratracheal ectopic thyroid tissue: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Byrd, Michael C; Thompson, Lester D R; Wieneke, Jacqueline A

    2003-07-01

    We discuss a case of intratracheal ectopic thyroid tissue (ETT) that was retrieved from the files of the Otorhinolaryngic--Head and Neck Pathology Registry at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology. The patient was a 54-year-old man who had a history of papillary thyroid carcinoma, which had been treated with a subtotal thyroidectomy. During routine follow-up 4 years later, the patient's primary care physician detected an elevated thyroglobulin level. Further referrals and evaluations revealed that the patient had intratracheal ETT. The patient refused to undergo surgical excision and remains without evidence of recurrent carcinoma. In a MEDLINE literature review, we found only 13 other well-documented cases of intratracheal ETT since 1966; in all but two cases, patients had benign disease. Once the possibility of thyroid carcinoma has been eliminated by histologic examination, intratracheal ETT can be managed by complete surgical excision with the prospect of an excellent long-term clinical outcome.

  8. Fatal case of ectopic enterobiasis: Enterobius vermicularis in the kidneys.

    PubMed

    Serpytis, Mindaugas; Seinin, Dmitrij

    2012-02-01

    Enterobius vermicularis is one of the most common intestinal parasites found in humans. They commonly infest the terminal ileum and large intestine, and are usually considered an innocuous parasite that can be easily eradicated with proper treatment. However, extraintestinal migration of worms, although very rare, may lead to severe health disorders or even death. This article, reports the first fatal case of ectopic enterobiasis known to the authors, which developed in an adult patient with E. vermicularis infection, causing perforation of the large intestine and generalized bacterial peritonitis. Despite emergency laparotomy, the patient died from septic shock on the day after surgery. During pathological examination, worms were found not only in the large intestine, but also in the renal parenchyma; worm eggs were found deposited in the lungs as well.

  9. Ectopic calcification in lambs from feeding the plant Cestrum diurnum.

    PubMed

    Simpson, C F; Bruss, M L

    1979-01-01

    Hypercalcemia and ectopic calcification were induced in 5 lambs by supplementing the diet with the dried leaves of the plant Cestrum diurnum, for 8 to 9 weeks. Lambs developed mineralization of blood vessels, heart, kidneys, and lungs. These tissues were examined by light and electron microscopy. In the vascular tissue there was calcification of elastic fibers in the hyperplastic intima and the media, along with mineralization of mitochondria of aortic smooth muscle cells. Myocardial cells and their mitochondria were mineralized. In the kidney, there was calcification of the epithelium of the distal convoluted tubules and collecting tubules, Bowman's capsule, and the mesangial cells of the glomeruli. In the lung, there was mineralization of the alveolar septal walls and the bronchi and bronchioles. Feeding of the calcinogenic plant to lambs caused extensive soft tissue calcification. Results of the study indicated that degeneration was the early soft tissue lesion in this plant toxicity.

  10. Phenotypic alterations of petal and sepal by ectopic expression of a rice MADS box gene in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Kang, H G; Noh, Y S; Chung, Y Y; Costa, M A; An, K; An, G

    1995-10-01

    Floral organ development is controlled by a group of regulatory factors containing the MADS domain. In this study, we have isolated and characterized a cDNA clone from rice, OsMADS3, which encodes a MADS-domain containing protein. The OsMADS3 amino acid sequence shows over 60% identity to AG of Arabidopsis, PLE of Antirrhinum majus, and AG/PLE homologues of petunia, tobacco, tomato, Brassica napus, and maize. Homology in the MADS box region is most conserved. RNA blot analysis indicated that the rice MADS gene was preferentially expressed in reproductive organs, especially in stamen and carpel. In situ localization studies showed that the transcript was present primarily in stamen and carpel. The function of the rice OsMADS3 was elucidated by ectopic expression of the gene under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter in a heterologous tobacco plant system. Transgenic plants exhibited an altered morphology and coloration of the perianth organs. Sepals were pale green and elongated. Limbs of the corolla were split into sections which in some plants became antheroid structures attached to tubes that resembled filaments. The phenotypes mimic the results of ectopic expression of dicot AG gene or AG homologues. These results indicate that the OsMADS3 gene is possibly an AG homologue and that the AG genes appear to be structurally and functionally conserved between dicot and monocot.

  11. Addition of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells to Mesenchymal Stem Cell Sheets Improves Bone Formation at an Ectopic Site.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhifa; Li, Zhijin; Dai, Taiqiang; Zong, Chunlin; Liu, Yanpu; Liu, Bin

    2016-02-02

    To determine the effect of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) added to bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) sheets on bone formation at an ectopic site. We isolated MSCs and ADSCs from the same rabbits. We then prepared MSC sheets for implantation with or without ADSCs subcutaneously in the backs of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. We assessed bone formation at eight weeks after implantation by micro-computed tomography and histological analysis. In osteogenic medium, MSCs grew to form multilayer sheets containing many calcium nodules. MSC sheets without ADSCs formed bone-like tissue; although neo-bone and cartilage-like tissues were sparse and unevenly distributed by eight weeks after implantation. In comparison, MSC sheets with ADSCs promoted better bone regeneration as evidenced by the greater density of bone, increased mineral deposition, obvious formation of blood vessels, large number of interconnected ossified trabeculae and woven bone structures, and greater bone volume/total volume within the composite constructs. Our results indicate that although sheets of only MSCs have the potential to form tissue engineered bone at an ectopic site, the addition of ADSCs can significantly increase the osteogenic potential of MSC sheets. Thus, the combination of MSC sheets with ADSCs may be regarded as a promising therapeutic strategy to stimulate bone regeneration.

  12. Expression Profile of Ectopic Olfactory Receptors Determined by Deep Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Flegel, Caroline; Manteniotis, Stavros; Osthold, Sandra; Hatt, Hanns; Gisselmann, Günter

    2013-01-01

    Olfactory receptors (ORs) provide the molecular basis for the detection of volatile odorant molecules by olfactory sensory neurons. The OR supergene family encodes G-protein coupled proteins that belong to the seven-transmembrane-domain receptor family. It was initially postulated that ORs are exclusively expressed in the olfactory epithelium. However, recent studies have demonstrated ectopic expression of some ORs in a variety of other tissues. In the present study, we conducted a comprehensive expression analysis of ORs using an extended panel of human tissues. This analysis made use of recent dramatic technical developments of the so-called Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technique, which encouraged us to use open access data for the first comprehensive RNA-Seq expression analysis of ectopically expressed ORs in multiple human tissues. We analyzed mRNA-Seq data obtained by Illumina sequencing of 16 human tissues available from Illumina Body Map project 2.0 and from an additional study of OR expression in testis. At least some ORs were expressed in all the tissues analyzed. In several tissues, we could detect broadly expressed ORs such as OR2W3 and OR51E1. We also identified ORs that showed exclusive expression in one investigated tissue, such as OR4N4 in testis. For some ORs, the coding exon was found to be part of a transcript of upstream genes. In total, 111 of 400 OR genes were expressed with an FPKM (fragments per kilobase of exon per million fragments mapped) higher than 0.1 in at least one tissue. For several ORs, mRNA expression was verified by RT-PCR. Our results support the idea that ORs are broadly expressed in a variety of tissues and provide the basis for further functional studies. PMID:23405139

  13. Regulation of BMP-induced ectopic bone formation by Ahsg.

    PubMed

    Rittenberg, B; Partridge, E; Baker, G; Clokie, C; Zohar, R; Dennis, J W; Tenenbaum, H C

    2005-05-01

    alpha2-HS-glycoprotein (Ahsg), also known as fetuin is a serum and bone resident glycoprotein, which binds to TGF-beta superfamily members including bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) and inhibits dexamethasone-induced osteogenesis in bone marrow cultures in vitro. Here we demonstrate that Ahsg reduces cytokine binding to its cognate receptor in HOS osteocyte cells and suppresses intracellular signaling, while in vivo, we test the hypothesis that Ahsg-deficient mice are hyper-responsive to BMP-induced osteogenesis. Human native BMP was implanted into the hindquarter muscles of Ahsg(+/+), Ahsg(+/-) and Ahsg(-/-) mice and 4 weeks later, ossicle formation was analyzed by radiography, bone density scanning (DEXA) and histomorphometry. Alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity was measured in ossicles as a marker for bone cell differentiation, and was significantly higher in Ahsg(-/-) versus Ahsg(+/-) and/or Ahsg(+/+) mice. Ectopic ossicle size in the Ahsg(+/-) mouse was 4-fold greater than that in the wild type (Ahsg(+/+)), and intermediate to that shown in Ahsg(-/-) mouse. Bone mineral density (BMD) was lower in the Ahsg(-/+) and Ahsg(-/-) mice compared to Ahsg(+/+) littermates. The ratio of cortical to cancellous bone was found to be >2-fold higher in Ahsg(-/-) mouse in comparison to the Ahsg(+/+) mice with no significant change in the Ahsg(-/+) mouse. Finally, a significantly higher incidence of satellite ossification; small islands of immature bone, was shown in Ahsg(-/-) mice as compared to Ahsg(+/+) mice. Although Ahsg binds to TGF-beta/BMP and blocks receptor signalling, it may also sequester cytokines in matrix, thereby acting as a reservoir of osteoinductive activity when released. This may explain the non-linear relationship between ectopic bone formation characteristics and Ahsg(+/+), Ahsg(+/-) and Ahsg(-/-) genotypes, although the increase in satellite bone formation might also explain this phenomenon. Our results suggest that Ahsg may be useful for prevention of

  14. Ectopic hippocampal neurogenesis in adolescent male rats following alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    McClain, Justin A; Morris, Stephanie A; Marshall, S Alexander; Nixon, Kimberly

    2014-07-01

    The adolescent hippocampus is highly vulnerable to alcohol-induced damage, which could contribute to their increased susceptibility to alcohol use disorder. Altered adult hippocampal neurogenesis represents one potential mechanism by which alcohol (ethanol) affects hippocampal function. Based on the vulnerability of the adolescent hippocampus to alcohol-induced damage, and prior reports of long-term alcohol-induced effects on adult neurogenesis, we predicted adverse effects on adult neurogenesis in the adolescent brain following abstinence from alcohol dependence. Thus, we examined neurogenesis in adolescent male rats during abstinence following a 4-day binge model of alcohol dependence. Bromodeoxyuridine and Ki67 immunohistochemistry revealed a 2.2-fold increase in subgranular zone cell proliferation after 7 days of abstinence. Increased proliferation was followed by a 75% increase in doublecortin expression and a 56% increase in surviving bromodeoxyuridine-labeled cells 14 and 35 days post-ethanol exposure, respectively. The majority of newborn cells in ethanol and control groups co-localized with NeuN, indicating a neuronal phenotype and therefore a 1.6-fold increase in hippocampal neurogenesis during abstinence. Although these results mirror the magnitude of reactive neurogenesis described in adult rat studies, ectopic bromodeoxyuridine and doublecortin positive cells were detected in the molecular layer and hilus of adolescent rats displaying severe withdrawal symptoms, an effect that has not been described in adults. The presence of ectopic neuroblasts suggests that a potential defect exists in the functional incorporation of new neurons into the existing hippocampal circuitry for a subset of rats. Age-related differences in functional incorporation could contribute to the increased vulnerability of the adolescent hippocampus to ethanol.

  15. [Ventricular pump function under ectopic excitation of the frog heart].

    PubMed

    Kibler, N A; Belogolova, A S; Vaĭkshnoraĭte, M A; Azarov, Ia E; Shmakov, D N

    2008-02-01

    The ventricular pump function under ectopic excitation of the heart was studied in decapitated and pithed adult frogs Rana temporaria (n = 21) at 18-19 degrees C. The intraventricular pressure was recorded with a catheter via ventricular wall. During pacing of the ventricular base and apex, the systolic pressure decreased (6.1 +/- 4.5 mm Hg and 8.9 +/- 5.0 mm Hg, respectively) as compared to the supraventricular rhythm (8.9 +/- 5.0 mm Hg, p < 0.05). The end-diastolic pressure decreased insignificantly both under basal and apical pacing. The systolic rate of pressure rise during dP/dtmax decreased under ventricular pacing, especially during pacing of the ventricular apex, as compared to the supraventricular rhythm (14.4 +/- 6/9 mm Hg/s and 22.1 +/- 11.2 mm Hg/s, respectively, p < 0.003). The isovolumetric relaxation (dP/dtmin) slowed during apical pacing as compared to the supraventricular rhythm (-25.1 +/- 13.6 and -35.6 +/- 18.3 mm Hg/s, respectively, p < 0.03). Ectopic excitation of the ventricular base and apex resulted in increase of the QRS duration (93 +/- 33 ms and 81 +/- 30 ms, respectively) as compared to the supraventricular rhythm (63 +/- 13 ms, p < 0.05). Thus, pacing of different ventricular areas ventricular myocardium with the ventricular pump function being reduced more obviously during the apical pacing compared to the pacing of ventricular base.

  16. Iron oxide nanoparticles and magnetic field exposure promote functional recovery by attenuating free radical-induced damage in rats with spinal cord transection

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Ajay; Singh, Anand; Nag, Tapas C; Chattopadhyay, Parthaprasad; Mathur, Rashmi; Jain, Suman

    2013-01-01

    Background Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) can attenuate oxidative stress in a neutral pH environment in vitro. In combination with an external electromagnetic field, they can also facilitate axon regeneration. The present study demonstrates the in vivo potential of IONPs to recover functional deficits in rats with complete spinal cord injury. Methods The spinal cord was completely transected at the T11 vertebra in male albino Wistar rats. Iron oxide nanoparticle solution (25 μg/mL) embedded in 3% agarose gel was implanted at the site of transection, which was subsequently exposed to an electromagnetic field (50 Hz, 17.96 μT for two hours daily for five weeks). Results Locomotor and sensorimotor assessment as well as histological analysis demonstrated significant functional recovery and a reduction in lesion volume in rats with IONP implantation and exposure to an electromagnetic field. No collagenous scar was observed and IONPs were localized intracellularly in the immediate vicinity of the lesion. Further, in vitro experiments to explore the cytotoxic effects of IONPs showed no effect on cell survival. However, a significant decrease in H2O2-mediated oxidative stress was evident in the medium containing IONPs, indicating their free radical scavenging properties. Conclusion These novel findings indicate a therapeutic role for IONPs in spinal cord injury and other neurodegenerative disorders mediated by reactive oxygen species. PMID:23818782

  17. Targeting of metastasis-promoting tumor-associated fibroblasts and modulation of pancreatic tumor-associated stroma with a carboxymethylcellulose-docetaxel nanoparticle.

    PubMed

    Ernsting, Mark J; Hoang, Bryan; Lohse, Ines; Undzys, Elijus; Cao, Pinjiang; Do, Trevor; Gill, Bethany; Pintilie, Melania; Hedley, David; Li, Shyh-Dar

    2015-05-28

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas are characterized by the desmoplastic reaction, a dense fibrous stroma that has been shown to be supportive of tumor cell growth, invasion, and metastasis, and has been associated with resistance to chemotherapy and reduced patient survival. Here, we investigated targeted depletion of stroma for pancreatic cancer therapy via taxane nanoparticles. Cellax-DTX polymer is a conjugate of docetaxel (DTX), polyethylene glycol (PEG), and acetylated carboxymethylcellulose, a construct which condenses into well-defined 120nm particles in an aqueous solution, and is suitable for intravenous injection. We examined Cellax-DTX treatment effects in highly stromal primary patient-derived pancreatic cancer xenografts and in a metastatic PAN02 mouse model of pancreatic cancer, focusing on specific cellular interactions in the stroma, pancreatic tumor growth and metastasis. Greater than 90% of Cellax-DTX particles accumulate in smooth muscle actin (SMA) positive cancer-associated fibroblasts which results in long-term depletion of this stromal cell population, an effect not observed with Nab-paclitaxel (Nab-PTX). The reduction in stromal density leads to a >10-fold increase in tumor perfusion, reduced tumor weight and a reduction in metastasis. Consentingly, Cellax-DTX treatment increased survival when compared to treatment with gemcitabine or Nab-PTX in a metastatic PAN02 mouse model. Cellax-DTX nanoparticles interact with the tumor-associated stroma, selectively interacting with and depleting SMA positive cells and macrophage, effects of which are associated with significant changes in tumor progression and metastasis.

  18. Novel phosphate-activated macrophages prevent ectopic calcification by increasing extracellular ATP and pyrophosphate

    PubMed Central

    Villa-Bellosta, Ricardo; Hamczyk, Magda R.; Andrés, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Phosphorus is an essential nutrient involved in many pathobiological processes. Less than 1% of phosphorus is found in extracellular fluids as inorganic phosphate ion (Pi) in solution. High serum Pi level promotes ectopic calcification in many tissues, including blood vessels. Here, we studied the effect of elevated Pi concentration on macrophage polarization and calcification. Macrophages, present in virtually all tissues, play key roles in health and disease and display remarkable plasticity, being able to change their physiology in response to environmental cues. Methods and results High-throughput transcriptomic analysis and functional studies demonstrated that Pi induces unpolarized macrophages to adopt a phenotype closely resembling that of alternatively-activated M2 macrophages, as revealed by arginine hydrolysis and energetic and antioxidant profiles. Pi-induced macrophages showed an anti-calcifying action mediated by increased availability of extracellular ATP and pyrophosphate. Conclusion We conclude that the ability of Pi-activated macrophages to prevent calcium-phosphate deposition is a compensatory mechanism protecting tissues from hyperphosphatemia-induced pathologic calcification. PMID:28362852

  19. An Activated Form of UFO Alters Leaf Development and Produces Ectopic Floral and Inflorescence Meristems

    PubMed Central

    Risseeuw, Eddy; Venglat, Prakash; Xiang, Daoquan; Komendant, Kristina; Daskalchuk, Tim; Babic, Vivijan; Crosby, William; Datla, Raju

    2013-01-01

    Plants are unique in their ability to continuously produce new meristems and organ primordia. In Arabidopsis, the transcription factor LEAFY (LFY) functions as a master regulator of a gene network that is important for floral meristem and organ specification. UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) is a co-activator of LEAFY and is required for proper activation of APETALA3 in the floral meristem during the specification of stamens and petals. The ufo mutants display defects in other parts of the flower and the inflorescence, suggestive of additional roles. Here we show that the normal determinacy of the developing Arabidopsis leaves is affected by the expression of a gain-of-function UFO fusion protein with the VP16 transcriptional activator domain. In these lines, the rosette and cauline leaf primordia exhibit reiterated serration, and upon flowering produce ectopic meristems that develop into flowers, bract leaves and inflorescences. These striking phenotypes reveal that developing leaves maintain the competency to initiate flower and inflorescence programs. Furthermore, the gain-of-function phenotypes are dependent on LFY and the SEPALLATA (SEP) MADS-box transcription factors, indicative of their functional interactions with UFO. The findings of this study also suggest that UFO promotes the establishment of the lateral meristems and primordia in the peripheral zone of the apical and floral meristems by enhancing the activity of LFY. These novel phenotypes along with the mutant phenotypes of UFO orthologs in other plant species suggest a broader function for UFO in plants. PMID:24376756

  20. An activated form of UFO alters leaf development and produces ectopic floral and inflorescence meristems.

    PubMed

    Risseeuw, Eddy; Venglat, Prakash; Xiang, Daoquan; Komendant, Kristina; Daskalchuk, Tim; Babic, Vivijan; Crosby, William; Datla, Raju

    2013-01-01

    Plants are unique in their ability to continuously produce new meristems and organ primordia. In Arabidopsis, the transcription factor LEAFY (LFY) functions as a master regulator of a gene network that is important for floral meristem and organ specification. UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) is a co-activator of LEAFY and is required for proper activation of APETALA3 in the floral meristem during the specification of stamens and petals. The ufo mutants display defects in other parts of the flower and the inflorescence, suggestive of additional roles. Here we show that the normal determinacy of the developing Arabidopsis leaves is affected by the expression of a gain-of-function UFO fusion protein with the VP16 transcriptional activator domain. In these lines, the rosette and cauline leaf primordia exhibit reiterated serration, and upon flowering produce ectopic meristems that develop into flowers, bract leaves and inflorescences. These striking phenotypes reveal that developing leaves maintain the competency to initiate flower and inflorescence programs. Furthermore, the gain-of-function phenotypes are dependent on LFY and the SEPALLATA (SEP) MADS-box transcription factors, indicative of their functional interactions with UFO. The findings of this study also suggest that UFO promotes the establishment of the lateral meristems and primordia in the peripheral zone of the apical and floral meristems by enhancing the activity of LFY. These novel phenotypes along with the mutant phenotypes of UFO orthologs in other plant species suggest a broader function for UFO in plants.

  1. Ectopic expression of C/EBPalpha in the lung epithelium disrupts late lung development.

    PubMed

    Berg, Tove; Didon, Lukas; Nord, Magnus

    2006-10-01

    The lung develops from the endoderm through a process of branching morphogenesis. This process is highly active during the pseudoglandular stage of lung development and continues into the canalicular stage, resulting in the formation of terminal sacs. CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/EBPs) are transcription factors regulating central aspects of differentiation and proliferation. We report here the developmental expression of C/EBPalpha, -beta, and -delta in the lung. C/EBPalpha exhibits a dynamic expression pattern and is first detected during the late pseudoglandular stage. At this stage, expression is observed in a subset of epithelial cells in the distal parts of the branching tubules. The expression of C/EBPalpha is confined to nonproliferating cells. To examine the role of C/EBPalpha in lung development, we generated transgenic mice ectopically expressing C/EBPalpha in the lung epithelium using the human surfactant protein C promoter. Lungs from these mice were of normal size but exhibited a phenotype characterized by fewer and larger developing epithelial tubules, indicating that the branching process was affected. No effects on overall proliferation or cellular differentiation were observed. When this phenotype was compared with that of mice carrying a targeted mutation of the Cebpa gene, the Cebpa-/- mice exhibited a similar developmental phenotype. In conclusion, our results show a role for C/EBPalpha in lung development and suggest a function in the later stages of lung branching morphogenesis.

  2. Aire unleashes stalled RNA polymerase to induce ectopic gene expression in thymic epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Giraud, Matthieu; Yoshida, Hideyuki; Abramson, Jakub; Rahl, Peter B; Young, Richard A; Mathis, Diane; Benoist, Christophe

    2012-01-10

    Aire is a transcriptional regulator that induces expression of peripheral tissue antigens (PTA) in thymic medullary epithelial cells (MECs), driving immunological self-tolerance in differentiating T cells. To elucidate its mechanistic pathways, we examined its transcriptional impact in MECs in vivo by microarray analysis with mRNA-spanning probes. This analysis revealed initiation of Aire-activated genes to be comparable in Aire-deficient and wild-type MECs, but with a block to elongation after 50-100 bp in the absence of Aire, suggesting activation by release of stalled polymerases by Aire. In contrast, patterns of activation by transcription factors such as Klf4 were consistent with regulation of initiation. Mapping of Aire and RNA polymerase-II (Pol-II) by ChIP and high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) revealed that Aire bound all Pol-II-rich transcriptional start sites (TSS), irrespective of its eventual effect. However, the genes it preferentially activated were characterized by a relative surfeit of stalled polymerases at the TSS, which resolved once Aire was introduced into cells. Thus, transcript mapping and ChIP-seq data indicate that Aire activates ectopic transcription not through specific recognition of PTA gene promoters but by releasing stalled polymerases.

  3. Ectopic expression of EFFECTOR OF TRANSCRIPTION perturbs gibberellin-mediated plant developmental processes.

    PubMed

    Ellerström, M; Reidt, W; Ivanov, R; Tiedemann, J; Melzer, M; Tewes, A; Moritz, T; Mock, H-P; Sitbon, F; Rask, L; Bäumlein, H

    2005-11-01

    The plant hormone gibberellin (GA) is known to modulate various aspects of plant cell differentiation and development. The current model of GA-mediated regulation is based on a de-repressible system and includes specific protein modification and degradation. HRT, a zinc finger protein from barley has been shown to have GA-dependent transcriptional repressing activity on the seed-specific alpha-amylase promoter [Raventos, D., Skriver, K., Schlein, M., Karnahl, K., Rogers, S.W., Rogers, J.C. and Mundy, J. 1998. J. Biol. Chem. 273: 23313-23320]. Here we report the characterization of a dicot homologue from Brassica napus (BnET) and provide evidence for its role in GA response modulation suggesting that this could be a conserved feature of this gene family. When BnET is ectopically expressed in either Arabidopsis or tobacco the phenotypes include dwarfism due to shorter internodes and late flowering, reduced germination rate, increased anthocyanin content and reduced xylem lignification as a marker for terminal cell differentiation. Transient expression in protoplasts supports the notion that this most likely is due to a transcriptional repression of GA controlled genes. Finally, histological analysis showed that in contrast to other GA deficient mutants the shorter internodes were due to fewer but not smaller cells, suggesting a function of BnET in GA-mediated cell division control.

  4. Excess NF-κB induces ectopic odontogenesis in embryonic incisor epithelium.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, J; Kawasaki, K; Porntaveetus, T; Kawasaki, M; Otsuka-Tanaka, Y; Miake, Y; Ota, M S; Watanabe, M; Hishinuma, M; Nomoto, T; Oommen, S; Ghafoor, S; Harada, F; Nozawa-Inoue, K; Maeda, T; Peterková, R; Lesot, H; Inoue, J; Akiyama, T; Schmidt-Ullrich, R; Liu, B; Hu, Y; Page, A; Ramírez, Á; Sharpe, P T; Ohazama, A

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling plays critical roles in many physiological and pathological processes, including regulating organogenesis. Down-regulation of NF-κB signaling during development results in hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia. The roles of NF-κB signaling in tooth development, however, are not fully understood. We examined mice overexpressing IKKβ, an essential component of the NF-κB pathway, under keratin 5 promoter (K5-Ikkβ). K5-Ikkβ mice showed supernumerary incisors whose formation was accompanied by up-regulation of canonical Wnt signaling. Apoptosis that is normally observed in wild-type incisor epithelium was reduced in K5-Ikkβ mice. The supernumerary incisors in K5-Ikkβ mice were found to phenocopy extra incisors in mice with mutations of Wnt inhibitor, Wise. Excess NF-κB activity thus induces an ectopic odontogenesis program that is usually suppressed under physiological conditions. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2014.

  5. Prevalence of ectopic intrathyroidal thymus in Japan: the Fukushima health management survey.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Toshihiko; Suzuki, Satoru; Ohira, Tetsuya; Shimura, Hiroki; Midorikawa, Sanae; Ohtsuru, Akira; Sakai, Akira; Abe, Masafumi; Yamashita, Shunichi; Suzuki, Shinichi

    2015-05-01

    Ectopic intrathyroidal thymus is thought to be a rare entity, often discovered incidentally, and is due to aberrant thymic migration during embryogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of ectopic intrathyroidal thymus in children using ultrasound screening. This study was cross-sectional and was conducted with the initial preliminary survey of the Fukushima Health Management Survey between October 9, 2011, and March 31, 2012, after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. A total of 37,816 children were examined in the survey. Diagnostic criteria are based on the ultrasonographic appearance of ectopic intrathyroidal thymus, which were round, oval, or polygonal hypoechoic or hyperechoic areas, with multiple granular and punctate echogenic foci. A total of 375 (0.99%) cases (164 girls) with ectopic intrathyroidal thymus were observed. The mean age was 7.0 years (range 0-18 years). Ectopic intrathyroidal thymus was located in the right (n=180), left (n=178), or bilateral (n=17) thyroid lobes. The incidence of ectopic intrathyroidal thymus was inversely correlated with age and body mass index. The results reflect the prevalence of ectopic intrathyroidal thymus using ultrasonography in the general population. Further examination will be needed by way of longitudinal follow-up.

  6. Spontaneous live recurrent ectopic pregnancy after ipsilateral partial salpingectomy leading to tubal rupture

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Cynthia; Seethappan, Vanitha

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Ectopic pregnancy accounts for 1–2% of all pregnancies in the United States. The most common site of implantation for an ectopic pregnancy is the fallopian tube. We present the first case describing a recurrent ectopic pregnancy with a fetal heartbeat after ipsilateral salpingectomy that led to tubal rupture. Presentation of case The patient presented with abdominal pain approximately six weeks after her last menstrual period. Seven years prior to presentation, a laparoscopic partial right salpingectomy had been performed for a tubal ectopic pregnancy. Physical exam was significant for diffuse abdominal tenderness and guarding. Ultrasonography revealed a right tubal pregnancy with a fetal pole and a fetal heart rate that was calculated to be 108 beats per minute. Free fluid was also noted. 1.5 l of hemoperitoneum was subsequently evacuated and the right fallopian tube remnant with the ectopic pregnancy was removed. Pathology of the tubal remnant showed immature chorionic villi and fetal parts. Discussion The mechanism by which a recurrent ectopic pregnancy after ipsilateral salpingectomy occurs is unclear, but is theorized to be secondary to contralateral fertilization and/or tubal recanalization that may occur due to inadequate diathermy. Conclusion Physicians should be aware that ectopic pregnancies may not only occur repeatedly but may also present a typically. We recommend when performing a salpingectomy that efforts be undertaken to minimize the length of the tubal remnant and to assure adequate coagulation of tissue so as to reduce the risk of recurrence. PMID:25594734

  7. Ectopic Atoh1 expression drives Merkel cell production in embryonic, postnatal and adult mouse epidermis

    PubMed Central

    Ostrowski, Stephen M.; Wright, Margaret C.; Bolock, Alexa M.; Geng, Xuehui; Maricich, Stephen M.

    2015-01-01

    Merkel cells are mechanosensitive skin cells whose production requires the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Atoh1. We induced ectopic Atoh1 expression in the skin of transgenic mice to determine whether Atoh1 was sufficient to create additional Merkel cells. In embryos, ectopic Atoh1 expression drove ectopic expression of the Merkel cell marker keratin 8 (K8) throughout the epidermis. Epidermal Atoh1 induction in adolescent mice similarly drove widespread K8 expression in glabrous skin of the paws, but in the whisker pads and body skin ectopic K8+ cells were confined to hair follicles and absent from interfollicular regions. Ectopic K8+ cells acquired several characteristics of mature Merkel cells in a time frame similar to that seen during postnatal development of normal Merkel cells. Although ectopic K8+ cell numbers decreased over time, small numbers of these cells remained in deep regions of body skin hair follicles at 3 months post-induction. In adult mice, greater numbers of ectopic K8+ cells were created by Atoh1 induction during anagen versus telogen and following disruption of Notch signaling by conditional deletion of Rbpj in the epidermis. Our data demonstrate that Atoh1 expression is sufficient to produce new Merkel cells in the epidermis, that epidermal cell competency to respond to Atoh1 varies by skin location, developmental age and hair cycle stage, and that the Notch pathway plays a key role in limiting epidermal cell competency to respond to Atoh1 expression. PMID:26138479

  8. Localization of Presynaptic Plasticity Mechanisms Enables Functional Independence of Synaptic and Ectopic Transmission in the Cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Dobson, Katharine L.; Bellamy, Tomas C.

    2015-01-01

    In the cerebellar molecular layer parallel fibre terminals release glutamate from both the active zone and from extrasynaptic “ectopic” sites. Ectopic release mediates transmission to the Bergmann glia that ensheathe the synapse, activating Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors and glutamate transporters. Parallel fibre terminals exhibit several forms of presynaptic plasticity, including cAMP-dependent long-term potentiation and endocannabinoid-dependent long-term depression, but it is not known whether these presynaptic forms of long-term plasticity also influence ectopic transmission to Bergmann glia. Stimulation of parallel fibre inputs at 16 Hz evoked LTP of synaptic transmission, but LTD of ectopic transmission. Pharmacological activation of adenylyl cyclase by forskolin caused LTP at Purkinje neurons, but only transient potentiation at Bergmann glia, reinforcing the concept that ectopic sites lack the capacity to express sustained cAMP-dependent potentiation. Activation of mGluR1 caused depression of synaptic transmission via retrograde endocannabinoid signalling but had no significant effect at ectopic sites. In contrast, activation of NMDA receptors suppressed both synaptic and ectopic transmission. The results suggest that the signalling mechanisms for presynaptic LTP and retrograde depression by endocannabinoids are restricted to the active zone at parallel fibre synapses, allowing independent modulation of synaptic transmission to Purkinje neurons and ectopic transmission to Bergmann glia. PMID:26171253

  9. Ectopic pancreatic tissue in the wall of the small intestine: Two rare case reports.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiannan; Huang, Haibin; Huo, Sibo; Liu, Ying; Xu, Guangmeng; Gao, Hongwen; Zhang, Kai; Liu, Tongjun

    2017-09-01

    Ectopic pancreas, which is a kind of rare congenital disease, forms during embryonic development. It can occur throughout the whole gastrointestinal tract, but has a low tendency to develop in the wall of the small intestine. It is easy for patients with ectopic pancreases to be misdiagnosed because the symptoms are untypical and can vary. In the present study, we reported two rare cases of ectopic pancreatic tissue in the wall of the small intestine, which presented with obvious abdominal pain and distention. The laboratory tests and computed tomography (CT) scans didn't reveal any evidence of ectopic pancreas. The two patients received small intestine masses resection and intestinal anastomosis. During surgery, an intestinal mass with a diameter of 4.0 cm was found in the first patient. An intestinal mass with a diameter of 0.8 cm, jejunum perforation, and diffuse peritonitis were found in the second patient. Histological analyses of the dissected intestinal masses confirmed them as ectopic pancreatic tissue. Interestingly, for the second patient, the intestinal perforation and diffuse peritonitis were not induced by the ectopic pancreas, but by a jujube pit that was found in the perforated site of the intestine. Our study demonstrated that an ectopic pancreas should be considered in cases of untypical abdominal symptoms with intestinal masses.

  10. Diagnostic significance of IL-6 and IL-8 in tubal ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Rajendiran, Soundravally; Senthil Kumar, G P; Nimesh, Archana; Dhiman, Pooja; Shivaraman, K; Soundararaghavan, S

    2016-10-01

    As there are no specific non-invasive markers for the diagnosis of tubal ectopic pregnancy, our objective in the present study was to explore the role of inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 in the diagnosis of ruptured tubal ectopic pregnancy. Twenty-eight women with tubal ectopic pregnancy, 31 patients with intrauterine abortion and 29 gestational age matched women having normal intrauterine pregnancy were included in the study. Five millilitre of blood was collected at the time of admission, serum was separated and stored at -70 °C for subsequent analysis of β hCG, IL-6 and IL-8 levels. The level of IL-6 was a significant increase in the women with tubal ectopic pregnancy compared to intrauterine abortion and normal pregnancy. IL-8 levels decrease significantly in the tubal ectopic pregnancy and in intrauterine abortion patients when compared with the normal pregnancy group. At the cutoff of 26.48 pg/ml IL-6 level predicted the tubal ectopic pregnancy with moderate accuracy. Therefore, it can be concluded that measurement of IL-6 may have relevance in the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy as a novel inflammatory serum biomarkers.

  11. Ectopic thyroid tissue in the adrenal gland: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Casadei, Gian Piero; Bertarelli, Claudia; Giorgini, Eleonora; Cremonini, Nadia; de Biase, Dario; Tallini, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    Foci of ectopic thyroid tissue are uncommon. Most sites of thyroid ectopia are confined to the neck region. The presence of ectopic thyroid tissue outside the migration pathway of the primitive thyroid in other locations is exceptional. Given that any disease of the thyroid gland may also affect ectopic thyroid tissue, pathologists has to recognize benign or malignant conditions that may develop in the ectopic focus. We present the case of a 32-year-old woman with ectopic thyroid parenchyma in the adrenal gland. Clinically, postoperative thyroid ultrasound echography and computed tomography scans did not reveal any thyroid tumor. The ectopic tissue was a cyst bordered by mature follicular thyroid structures and was histologically benign, without the molecular alterations associated with malignant tumors of follicular cell derivation (BRAFV600E, N-RAS, H-RAS, K-RAS). Review of the literature reveals that adrenal ectopic thyroid tissue is nearly always cystic and has distinctive pathologic features. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Spontaneous live recurrent ectopic pregnancy after ipsilateral partial salpingectomy leading to tubal rupture.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Cynthia; Seethappan, Vanitha

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic pregnancy accounts for 1-2% of all pregnancies in the United States. The most common site of implantation for an ectopic pregnancy is the fallopian tube. We present the first case describing a recurrent ectopic pregnancy with a fetal heartbeat after ipsilateral salpingectomy that led to tubal rupture. The patient presented with abdominal pain approximately six weeks after her last menstrual period. Seven years prior to presentation, a laparoscopic partial right salpingectomy had been performed for a tubal ectopic pregnancy. Physical exam was significant for diffuse abdominal tenderness and guarding. Ultrasonography revealed a right tubal pregnancy with a fetal pole and a fetal heart rate that was calculated to be 108 beats per minute. Free fluid was also noted. 1.5l of hemoperitoneum was subsequently evacuated and the right fallopian tube remnant with the ectopic pregnancy was removed. Pathology of the tubal remnant showed immature chorionic villi and fetal parts. The mechanism by which a recurrent ectopic pregnancy after ipsilateral salpingectomy occurs is unclear, but is theorized to be secondary to contralateral fertilization and/or tubal recanalization that may occur due to inadequate diathermy. Physicians should be aware that ectopic pregnancies may not only occur repeatedly but may also present a typically. We recommend when performing a salpingectomy that efforts be undertaken to minimize the length of the tubal remnant and to assure adequate coagulation of tissue so as to reduce the risk of recurrence. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Increased incidence of ectopic pregnancy after in vitro fertilization in women with decreased ovarian reserve.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shengli; Yang, Rui; Chi, Hongbin; Lian, Ying; Wang, Jiejing; Huang, Shuo; Lu, Cuiling; Liu, Ping; Qiao, Jie

    2017-02-28

    The incidence of ectopic pregnancy after assisted reproductive technology is increased approximately 2.5-5-fold compared with natural conceptions.Strategies were used to decrease the incidence of ectopic pregnancy, but ectopic pregnancy still occurs. In the present study, women were selected with decreased ovarian reserve (defined as FSH > 10 IU/L) aged 20 to 38 years who underwent IVF-ET between 2009 and 2014. These 2,061 women were age-matched with an equal number of women with normal ovarian reserve (defined as FSH ≤ 10 IU/L). During cycles following fresh embryo transfer, 93 patients were diagnosed with ectopic pregnancy. The incidence of ectopic pregnancy in clinical pregnancies was significantly higher in the decreased ovarian reserve than in the normal ovarian reserve group (5.51% vs. 2.99%). After adjusting for confounding factors, the incidence of ectopic pregnancy was significantly associated with decreased ovarian reserve. Our results showed that decreased ovarian reserve is an independent risk factor for ectopic pregnancy after in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer.

  14. Ectopic beats in approximate entropy and sample entropy-based HRV assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Butta; Singh, Dilbag; Jaryal, A. K.; Deepak, K. K.

    2012-05-01

    Approximate entropy (ApEn) and sample entropy (SampEn) are the promising techniques for extracting complex characteristics of cardiovascular variability. Ectopic beats, originating from other than the normal site, are the artefacts contributing a serious limitation to heart rate variability (HRV) analysis. The approaches like deletion and interpolation are currently in use to eliminate the bias produced by ectopic beats. In this study, normal R-R interval time series of 10 healthy and 10 acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients were analysed by inserting artificial ectopic beats. Then the effects of ectopic beats editing by deletion, degree-zero and degree-one interpolation on ApEn and SampEn have been assessed. Ectopic beats addition (even 2%) led to reduced complexity, resulting in decreased ApEn and SampEn of both healthy and AMI patient data. This reduction has been found to be dependent on level of ectopic beats. Editing of ectopic beats by interpolation degree-one method is found to be superior to other methods.

  15. Ectopic pregnancy rates and racial disparities in the Medicaid population, 2004-2008.

    PubMed

    Stulberg, Debra B; Cain, Loretta R; Dahlquist, Irma; Lauderdale, Diane S

    2014-12-01

    To assess 2004-2008 ectopic pregnancy rates among Medicaid recipients in 14 states and 2000-2008 time trends in three states and to identify differences in rate by race/ethnicity. Secondary analysis of Medicaid administrative claims data. Not applicable. Women ages 15-44 enrolled in Medicaid in Arizona, California, Colorado, Florida, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, New York, or Texas in 2004-2008 (n = 19,135,106) and in California, Illinois, and New York in 2000-2003. None. Number of ectopic pregnancies divided by the number of total pregnancies (spontaneous abortions, induced abortions, ectopic pregnancies, and all births). The 2004-2008 Medicaid ectopic pregnancy rate for all 14 states combined was 1.40% of all reported pregnancies. Adjusted for age, the rate was 1.47%. Ectopic pregnancy incidence was 2.3 per 1,000 woman-years. In states for which longer term data were available (California, Illinois, and New York), the rate declined significantly in 2000-2008. In all 14 states, black women were more likely to experience an ectopic pregnancy compared with whites (relative risk, 1.46; 95% confidence interval, 1.45-1.47). Ectopic pregnancy remains an important health risk for women enrolled in Medicaid. Black women are at consistently higher risk than whites. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Ectopic Atoh1 expression drives Merkel cell production in embryonic, postnatal and adult mouse epidermis.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, Stephen M; Wright, Margaret C; Bolock, Alexa M; Geng, Xuehui; Maricich, Stephen M

    2015-07-15

    Merkel cells are mechanosensitive skin cells whose production requires the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Atoh1. We induced ectopic Atoh1 expression in the skin of transgenic mice to determine whether Atoh1 was sufficient to create additional Merkel cells. In embryos, ectopic Atoh1 expression drove ectopic expression of the Merkel cell marker keratin 8 (K8) throughout the epidermis. Epidermal Atoh1 induction in adolescent mice similarly drove widespread K8 expression in glabrous skin of the paws, but in the whisker pads and body skin ectopic K8+ cells were confined to hair follicles and absent from interfollicular regions. Ectopic K8+ cells acquired several characteristics of mature Merkel cells in a time frame similar to that seen during postnatal development of normal Merkel cells. Although ectopic K8+ cell numbers decreased over time, small numbers of these cells remained in deep regions of body skin hair follicles at 3 months post-induction. In adult mice, greater numbers of ectopic K8+ cells were created by Atoh1 induction during anagen versus telogen and following disruption of Notch signaling by conditional deletion of Rbpj in the epidermis. Our data demonstrate that Atoh1 expression is sufficient to produce new Merkel cells in the epidermis, that epidermal cell competency to respond to Atoh1 varies by skin location, developmental age and hair cycle stage, and that the Notch pathway plays a key role in limiting epidermal cell competency to respond to Atoh1 expression.

  17. Upregulation of neurovascular communication through filamin abrogation promotes ectopic periventricular neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Houlihan, Shauna L; Lanctot, Alison A; Guo, Yan; Feng, Yuanyi

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal fate-restricted intermediate progenitors (IPs) are derived from the multipotent radial glia (RGs) and serve as the direct precursors for cerebral cortical neurons, but factors that control their neurogenic plasticity remain elusive. Here we report that IPs’ neuron production is enhanced by abrogating filamin function, leading to the generation of periventricular neurons independent of normal neocortical neurogenesis and neuronal migration. Loss of Flna in neural progenitor cells (NPCs) led RGs to undergo changes resembling epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) along with exuberant angiogenesis that together changed the microenvironment and increased neurogenesis of IPs. We show that by collaborating with β-arrestin, Flna maintains the homeostatic signaling between the vasculature and NPCs, and loss of this function results in escalated Vegfa and Igf2 signaling, which exacerbates both EMT and angiogenesis to further potentiate IPs’ neurogenesis. These results suggest that the neurogenic potential of IPs may be boosted in vivo by manipulating Flna-mediated neurovascular communication. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17823.001 PMID:27664421

  18. Fibroadenoma in an ectopic vulvar breast gland: a common neoplasm in an uncommon site.

    PubMed

    Ayadi-Kaddour, A; Khadhar, A; Mlika, M; Braham, E; Ismail, O; Zegal, D; El Mezni, F

    2014-03-01

    Ectopic breast tissue is defined as glands located outside of the breast. It can be found anywhere along the milk line extending from the axilla to the groin, and can occur in the vulva. Ectopic breast tissue should be excised because it may develop benign or malignant pathologic processes. Less than 40 cases of fibroadenoma in the vulva have been reported in the literature. We report a case of a 37-year-old woman presenting a solitary vulvar mass. The mass was excised completely, and histology demonstrated an ectopic breast fibroadenoma. This is one of the few reports on the benign pathologies of vulvar mammary glands.

  19. Primary Ectopic Mediastinal Goiter in a Patient With Crohn's Disease Presenting as Myasthenia Gravis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil; Sultania, Mahesh; Vatsal, Shivam; Sharma, M C

    2015-12-01

    Mediastinum is an uncommon location for ectopic goiter. Primary ectopic mediastinal goiter has been reported to present mostly with compressive symptoms. We report a case of a 62-year-old man with history of Crohn's disease, who presented with symptoms of myasthenia gravis and was found to have an anterior mediastinal mass. The mass was resected completely with successful outcome. On histopathologic examination this mass turned out to be colloid goiter. This is an extremely rare presentation of a primary ectopic mediastinal goiter.

  20. Surgical correction of ectopic penis and scrotum associated with bilateral orchidopexy

    PubMed Central

    Sobral, Daniel Santos Rocha; da Silva, Helder Damásio; Damázio, Eulálio

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ectopic penis is usually associated with penoscrotal transposition, and it is rarely observed in isolation. We report a surgical approach for an extremely rare case. A 10-year-old male patient with bilateral cryptorchidism and ectopic penis and scrotum in perineal area, with no penoscrotal transposition, representing an association not yet described in literature. A previous orchiopexy failed due to ectopic scrotum. By means of an inverted Y incision, the penis was mobilized and a perineal skin flap in form of a testicular sac was prepared. Finally orchiopexy was performed. The surgery was essential to treat cryptorchidism and to improve the self-image of the patient. PMID:28767923

  1. Case Report of Ectopic Liver on Gallbladder Serosa with a Brief Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Farooq, Mohammad S.; Soni, Utsav; Kalabin, Aleksandr; Rajabalan, Ajai S.; Ahmed, Leaque

    2016-01-01

    This case describes an intraoperative incidental finding and surgical removal of ectopic liver tissue attached to the gallbladder during a standard laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis. These anomalies are rare, with interesting associations and possible clinically relevant complications. The details of the case, along with a brief literature review of embryology, common ectopic sites, and associations/complications, are presented in this paper. Since laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a very common procedure, it is important to increase vigilance of ectopic liver tissues during surgeries to minimize complications and provide optimal management. PMID:27803835

  2. Ectopic ureter associated with uterine didelphys and obstructed hemivagina: preoperative diagnosis by MRI.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen J; Daldrup-Link, Heike; Coakley, Fergus V; Yeh, Benjamin M

    2010-03-01

    Uterine didelphys with obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal anomalies is a rare congenital malformation of the female urogenital tract. While the urinary anomalies almost always involve renal agenesis, we report a rare case of a 17-year-old girl with the malformation associated with ectopic ureteral insertion into the obstructed hemivagina, which was diagnosed preoperatively by MR imaging. To the best of our knowledge, preoperative MR imaging diagnosis of the ectopic ureter associated with this syndrome has not been previously reported. Accurate preoperative diagnosis of ectopic ureteral insertion associated with this syndrome is important for surgical planning.

  3. Primary tooth radicular resorption as a consequence of self-corrected ectopic eruption: 2 unusual cases.

    PubMed

    Guzeler, Irem; Sara, Sezgi; Cehreli, Zafer C; Uysal, Serdar; Musselman, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    Resorption of the distal root of primary second molars is a common consequence of ectopically erupting permanent first molars. Here, we report 2 unusual cases of primary molar root resorption caused by reversible (self-correcting) ectopic eruption of premolar and canine teeth. In both cases, severe pathological resorption of the mesial roots of primary molars was detected on routine dental radiographs, and the affected molars remained asymptomatic until exfoliation. The purpose of this paper was, using 2 case studies, to highlight the possibility of primary root resorption as a sequel of self-corrected ectopic eruption in locations not frequently diagnosed or reported.

  4. P(VDF-TrFE)/BaTiO3 Nanoparticle Composite Films Mediate Piezoelectric Stimulation and Promote Differentiation of SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Genchi, Giada Graziana; Ceseracciu, Luca; Marino, Attilio; Labardi, Massimiliano; Marras, Sergio; Pignatelli, Francesca; Bruschini, Luca; Mattoli, Virgilio; Ciofani, Gianni

    2016-07-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene, P(VDF-TrFE)) and P(VDF-TrFE)/barium titanate nanoparticle (BTNP) films are prepared and tested as substrates for neuronal stimulation through direct piezoelectric effect. Films are characterized in terms of surface, mechanical, and piezoelectric features before in vitro testing on SH-SY5Y cells. In particular, BTNPs significantly improve piezoelectric properties of the films (4.5-fold increased d31 ). Both kinds of films support good SH-SY5Y viability and differentiation. Ultrasound (US) stimulation is proven to elicit Ca(2+) transients and to enhance differentiation in cells grown on the piezoelectric substrates. For the first time in the literature, this study demonstrates the suitability of polymer/ceramic composite films and US for neuronal stimulation through direct piezoelectric effect. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Updated Estimates of Ectopic Pregnancy among Commercially and Medicaid-Insured Women in the United States, 2002-2013.

    PubMed

    Tao, Guoyu; Patel, Chirag; Hoover, Karen W

    2017-01-01

    To update trends in the rates of ectopic pregnancy, to compare rates of ectopic pregnancy between commercially insured and Medicaid-insured women, and to assess the differences in rates of ectopic pregnancy by different measures of ectopic pregnancy. We analyzed data from 2002 to 2013 using the Truven Health MarketScan Commercial and Medicaid Claims Database. We limited the study population to women aged 15 to 44 years with any pregnancy in each year. Pregnancy and ectopic pregnancy were identified by clinical services with diagnostic or procedural codes. Ectopic pregnancy was measured in two ways: diagnosed and treated compared with diagnosed only; pregnancy was measured in two ways: any pregnancy compared with pregnancy with delivery. We did not observe a substantial trend in the rate of ectopic pregnancy from 2002 to 2013. The rate of diagnosed and treated ectopic pregnancy substantially increased by age: 0.29% in women aged 15 to 19 years and 0.89% in women aged 40 to 44 years among the commercially insured population and 0.23% and 0.85% among the Medicaid-insured population, respectively. The rate of ectopic pregnancy also varied by the different methodologies used to estimate rates. The rate of ectopic pregnancy is relatively low and stable for women of reproductive age in the United States. Our findings highlight that it is important to clearly define the numerator and denominator in the measure of ectopic pregnancy rates.

  6. Fertility after ectopic pregnancy: the DEMETER randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Hervé; Capmas, Perrine; Lucot, Jean Philippe; Resch, Benoit; Panel, Pierre; Bouyer, Jean

    2013-05-01

    Does treatment for the resolution of ectopic pregnancy (EP) affect subsequent spontaneous fertility [occurrence of an intrauterine pregnancy (IUP)]? There is no significant difference in 2 years subsequent fertility neither between methotrexate and conservative surgery for less active EP nor between conservative and radical surgery for the most active EP. No randomized trial has compared radical and conservative surgery treatments. A recent review of the Cochrane database did not conclude about fertility due to insufficient data. Prospective studies from EP registries in two regions of France (Auvergne and Greater Lille) have suggested that fertility is similar after medical treatment and conservative surgery and lower after radical surgery. This randomized controlled trial included all women with an ultrasound-confirmed EP. Women were divided into two arms according to the activity of the EP (defined by Fernandez's score). In arm 1 (less active ectopic pregnancies, i.e. Fernandez's score <13 and no haemodynamic failure), medical treatment was considered practicable, and women were randomly allocated to conservative surgery with a systematic post-operative i.m. methotrexate injection within 24 h or to an i.m. methotrexate injection alone. In arm 2 (active ectopic pregnancies), medical treatment was considered impracticable, and, thus, all women had to undergo surgery; they were randomly allocated to either a radical or conservative procedure, the latter including a post-operative methotrexate injection. Sample sizes (n = 210 in arm 1 and n = 230 in arm 2) were computed to provide a statistical power of 80% to detect a 20% difference in subsequent cumulative fertility rates between treatments in each arm. The total duration of the trial was 5 years. The trial took place in 17 centres in France from 2005 to 2009. Two hundred and seven women were included in arm 1 and 199 in arm 2. Cumulative fertility curves were drawn with the Kaplan-Meier method and compared with

  7. Ectopic Fat Deposition in Prediabetic Overweight and Obese Minority Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Toledo-Corral, Claudia M.; Alderete, Tanya L.; Hu, Houchun H.; Nayak, Krishna; Esplana, Sherryl; Liu, Ting; Goran, Michael I.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Optimizing effective prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes in youth is limited by incomplete understanding of its pathophysiology and how this varies across ethnicities with high risk. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of visceral adipose tissue (VAT), hepatic fat fraction (HFF), and pancreatic fat fraction (PFF) to prediabetes in overweight/obese African American (AA) and Latino youth. Design and Setting: We conducted a cross-sectional study in an academic pediatric care facility. Subjects: A total of 148 healthy, overweight/obese adolescents (56 AA, 92 Latino; 72 males, 76 females; age, 15.5 ± 1.2 y; BMI z-score, 2.1 ± 0.5) participated in the study. They were normal glucose tolerant (n = 106) and prediabetic (n = 42), based on fasting glucose of 100–125 mg/dL and/or 2-hour glucose of 140–199 mg/dL, and/or hemoglobin A1C 6.0–6.4%. Main Outcome Measures: We measured sc abdominal adipose tissue, VAT, HFF, and PFF by 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging and measured total body fat by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Results: Adolescents with prediabetes had 30% higher HFF (P = .001) and 31% higher PFF (P = .042), compared to those with normal glucose tolerance after controlling for age, sex, pubertal stage, ethnicity, total percentage body fat, and VAT. Logistic regression showed that PFF predicted prediabetes in AAs and HFF predicted prediabetes in Latinos, with the odds of having prediabetes increased by 66% for every 1% increase in PFF in African Americans, and increased by 22% for every 1% increase in HFF in Latinos. Conclusion: These data demonstrate that ectopic fat phenotypes associated with prediabetes are established by adolescence. Ethnic differences in the deposition of ectopic fat in adolescents with prediabetes may differ, with pancreatic fat in AAs, vs hepatic fat in Latino adolescents, being associated with diabetes risk. PMID:23386647

  8. Considering the Ectopic Pituitary Gland in Evaluation of the Nasopharyngeal Mass.

    PubMed

    Sioshansi, Pedrom C; Vezina, Gilbert; Yaun, Amanda L; Miller, Marijean M; Bauman, Nancy M

    2015-07-01

    Extracranial pituitary ectopia is an uncommon finding characterized by all or a portion of the pituitary gland situated in an aberrant location. Often these lesions come to clinical attention only once they begin to function abnormally or increase in size significantly. We describe an incidentally noted, asymptomatic pedunculated nasopharyngeal lesion in a 13-month-old girl that may be an extracranial pituitary gland. Consideration of this rare anomaly cautioned against performing a biopsy and may have prevented inadvertent removal of functional pituitary tissue. We describe the embryologic origins of ectopic pituitary tissue, discuss the differential diagnosis for nasopharyngeal lesions in children, and emphasize physical and radiologic findings suggestive of ectopic pituitary tissue to prevent potential inadvertent removal of this rare anomaly. We report this unusual case to review embryologic origins of ectopic pituitary tissue and to alert otolaryngologists of the need to consider ectopic pituitary tissue in the diagnosis of nasopharyngeal lesions in children.

  9. Follicular variant of papillary carcinoma in submandibular ectopic thyroid with no orthotopic thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Guerrissi, Jorge O

    2012-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid tissue with no orthotopic gland is extremely rare; malign transformation of ectopic thyroid is also an uncommon event, and rarer is the follicular variant of papillary carcinoma. In this clinical report, a case with submandibular ectopic thyroid without orthotropic thyroid gland is presented. Treatment was a complete resection of tumor, and histologic findings reveal follicular variant of papillary carcinoma. The patient had an uneventful postoperative recovery, and a substitution treatment with thyroxine was maintained. Physicians should be aware of the possibility that a lingual, submandibular, or lateral neck swelling could be an ectopic thyroid gland. This entity poses specific diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties, and definitive diagnosis is histologic. Computed tomographic scan, radioactive scan, and ultrasonography are necessary in revealing the presence of normal thyroid gland. Recommended treatment is primarily surgical, sometimes associated with radioiodine I 131 therapy and a substitution treatment with thyroxine.

  10. Combined use of serum HCG and sonography in the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy

    SciTech Connect

    Kadar, N.; Taylor, K.J.W.; Rosenfield, A.T.; Romero, R.

    1983-09-01

    During an 18 month period, 320 patients were referred with clinical suspicion of an ectopic pregnancy. This study is based on 19 patients with ectopic pregnancy who had both a sonographic examination of the pelvis and determination of serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) before surgery. Emphasis is focused on the spectrum of sonographic appearances that may occur in ectopic gestation. These are illustrated, and the sonographic criteria that have been used both for a positive diagnosis and for the exclusion of ectopic pregnancy in the past are analyzed. It is suggested that the accuracy of sonography can be increased by determining the serum HCG level on the day of the scan and by interpreting the findings with reference to the discriminatory HCG zone.

  11. Ruptured ectopic pregnancy: the long and tortuous journey to the theatre.

    PubMed

    Ugboma, Henry Aa; Oputa, Victory Oa; Ugboma, E W

    2014-07-01

    Ectopic pregnancy is a common gynaecological emergency in Nigeria, West Africa. Here we present a case that brings to light some of the problems facing the health sector in reducing the high maternal mortality rate.

  12. A Third Surgically Managed Ectopic Pregnancy after Two Salpingectomies Involving the Opposite Tube

    PubMed Central

    Deguchi, Yoko; Horiuchi, Yuko; Ino, Kazuhiko; Furukawa, Kenichi

    2017-01-01

    Recurrent ectopic pregnancy in a remnant fallopian tube after ipsilateral salpingectomy is clinically rare. We report the extremely rare case of a third recurrent ectopic pregnancy after two previous salpingectomy procedures involving the opposite tube. A 26-year-old woman, gravida 3 para 0, experienced three ectopic pregnancies brought about by natural conception, all of which were treated surgically (right partial salpingectomy, right remnant tube resection, and left total salpingectomy). During the two salpingectomy procedures involving the right tube, the patency of the intact left tube was intraoperatively confirmed with indigo carmine. The most appropriate surgical intervention should be discussed when managing recurrent ectopic pregnancies. It might be necessary to perform total salpingectomy to reduce the risk of future recurrence on the remaining tube. PMID:28116193

  13. Rare Site of Ectopic Pregnancy in a Patient with Bicornuate Uterus

    PubMed Central

    El Namoury, Mohamed; Heider, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic pregnancy occurs in about 1-2% in normal cycles but in IVF cycles the rate jumps to 4%. No definite cause for ectopic pregnancy was detected, but many risk factors were described as abnormal tube, pelvic infection, or surgery. In this case report we found 2 abnormalities in eight-year infertile woman; the first abnormality was bicornuate uterus and the second abnormality was the site of ectopic pregnancy which was in between the two horns of uterus. ‎This is the only case reported with primary abdominal pregnancy with bicornuate uterus and both healthy ovaries and tubes.‎ The case was unstable and managed by laparotomy and repair of ectopic site after enucleation of sac using Vicryl 2/0. The case was discharged 24 hours after operation in good health. PMID:28042488

  14. Viable intrauterine pregnancy after spontaneous bilateral tubal ectopics in a multiparous woman: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Bilateral ectopic pregnancies are increasing due to an increase in the incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease and increase in assisted reproductive techniques. Spontaneous conception after bilateral ectopic pregnancies is extremely rare. Case presentation A 33-year-old Indian woman presented with ruptured ectopic pregnancy associated with hemoperitoneum for which she underwent a laparotomy. The diagnosis of bilateral ectopic pregnancies was made during surgery. Salpingectomy was done on one side and the other tube was conserved with salpingostomy. Six months after surgery, she conceived spontaneously and a transvaginal ultrasound examination revealed a 5-weeks live intrauterine pregnancy. Conclusion A meticulous surgical technique conserving one fallopian tube resulted in subsequent viable intrauterine pregnancy. The approach to such a case along with steps to minimize tubal damage is presented. PMID:23786635

  15. Post-Traumatic Ectopic Nail: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Tushar Subhadarshan; Sasmal, Prakash Kumar; Rout, Bikram; Sharma, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic nail or Onychoheterotopia is an uncommon clinical entity. They are usually congenital; the acquired variety is very rare. The exact pathogenesis of the disease is not clear. They present as a nail like outgrowth, distinct from the classic nail units which is usually asymptomatic. The dorsal aspect of fingers and toes are mostly affected. We present a case of a 24-year-old male with post-traumatic ectopic nail of right middle finger. Complete surgical excision of the ectopic nail was done with its germinal matrix. The patient didn’t have any evidence of recurrence after one year of follow-up, with satisfactory cosmetic outcome. This article highlights the classic presentation of a case of ectopic nail with its surgical management and brief review of literature. PMID:28050430

  16. [Acute pancreatitis after bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy in patients with ectopic ACTH syndrome].

    PubMed

    Cougard, P; Peix, J L; Peschaud, F; Goudet, P

    2001-05-01

    Two cases of acute necrotizing pancreatitis after bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy were observed in patients with an ectopic ACTH syndrome. Two reasons may be suspected: the difficulty of dissection in such patients and the specific morbidity in relation to hypercorticism.

  17. B cell repertoire expansion occurs in meningeal ectopic lymphoid tissue

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann-Horn, Klaus; Wang, Sheng-zhi; Sagan, Sharon A.; Zamvil, Scott S.

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic lymphoid tissues (ELT) can be found in multiple sclerosis (MS) and other organ-specific inflammatory conditions. Whether ELT in the meninges of central nervous system (CNS) autoimmune disease exhibit local germinal center (GC) activity remains unknown. In an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model of CNS autoimmunity, we found activation-induced cytidine deaminase, a GC-defining enzyme, in meningeal ELT (mELT) densely populated by B and T cells. To determine GC activity in mELT, we excised meningeal lymphoid aggregates using laser capture microscopy and evaluated B cell repertoires in mELT and secondary lymphoid organs by next-generation immune repertoire sequencing. We found immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region sequences that were unique to mELT and had accumulated functionally relevant somatic mutations, together indicating localized antigen-driven affinity maturation. Our results suggest that B cells in mELT actively participate in CNS autoimmunity, which may be relevant to mELT in MS and ELT in other chronic inflammatory conditions. PMID:27942581

  18. Prevalence, diagnosis and management of ectopic thyroid glands.

    PubMed

    Santangelo, Giuseppe; Pellino, Gianluca; De Falco, Nadia; Colella, Giuseppe; D'Amato, Salvatore; Maglione, M Grazia; De Luca, Roberto; Canonico, Silvestro; De Falco, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    Ectopic thyroid tissue (ETT) is an uncommon entity that may be found anywhere along the line of the obliterated thyroglossal duct, usually from the tongue to the diaphragm. We performed a retrospective analysis of patients undergoing surgical treatment for thyroid disease between January 2000 and December 2013, seeking for ETT All patients with prior neck surgery or trauma were excluded. The clinic-pathologic features, prevalence and diagnosis of the lesions were collected and analyzed. Out of 3092 included patients, 28 ETT were identified (0.9%). The anatomical site of ETT was as follows: lateral cervical in 6 (21.4%), along the thyroglossal duct in 6 (21.4%), mediastinal in 5 (17.9%), lingual in 5 (17.9%), sublingual in 3 (10.7%), and submandibular in 3 (10.7%). Histopathology revealed 27 benign lesions and 1 (3.6%) papillary carcinoma. ETT is found in less than 1% of patients receiving thyroid surgery. Diagnosis of ETT requires clinical imaging. Surgery is a prudent choice due to the potential of malignant evolution of ETT.

  19. Ectopic splenic autotransplantation following traumatic injury: A case report

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, JINHE; YIN, JILIN; WANG, XINLU; LING, YINGCHEN; QUAN, JIANGTAO

    2015-01-01

    A 41-year-old male patient was admitted to the General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command due to upper abdominal pain persisting for 12 h. Computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography/CT scans revealed multiple soft-tissue shadows in the abdominal cavity, peritoneum and Glisson's capsule, but the metabolic activity was at normal levels. A small area of low-density shadows near the tail of the pancreas and multiple shadows of enlarged lymph nodes were identified around the porta hepatis and the pancreas, with a mildly increased metabolic activity. On the basis of the CT images the patient was diagnosed with pancreatitis. Radionuclide imaging showed the absence of the spleen from its normal position (following splenectomy), but abnormal phagocytosis of multiple red blood cells was observed in the abdomen, which was diagnosed as ectopic splenic autotransplantation (ESAT). The patient subsequently recovered well following symptomatic treatment. ESAT in trauma patients requires urgent surgery in order to remove the damaged spleen and artificially cultivate partial splenic tissue. PMID:26640582

  20. Ectopic pregnancy as contraceptive failure in patient with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Radaković, Branko; Goldstajn, Marina Sprem

    2012-12-01

    Epilepsy is a common neurologic condition which includes many women's health issues. Menstrual disorders, reproductive endocrinological disturbances, ovulatory dysfunction and infertility appear to be relatively frequent in women with epilepsy. Clinical decision making which contraceptive regimen is optimal for an individual woman with epilepsy is one of the most challenging tasks when taking care of women with epilepsy. A higher incidence of breakthrough bleeding and contraceptive failure was determined among women using antiepileptic drugs. There is the increased risk for contraceptive failure with the use of P450 3A4 enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) such as phenobarbital, carbamazepine, phenytoin, felbamate, topiramate and oxcarbazepine. Therefore, it is recommended to use noninducing AEDs, or for those who use inducing AEDs, the use of oral hormonal contraceptive pills which contained equal or more than 50 microg of estrogen, or intrauterine devices. The aim of the article is to present woman with epilepsy who was used combined low dose oral contraceptive pills containing 20 microg of ethinyl estradiol which in interaction with carbamazepine resulted with ectopic tubar pregnancy.

  1. Ectopic Six3 expression in the dragon eye goldfish.

    PubMed

    Ma, Dong-Mei; Zhu, Hua-Ping; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2008-02-01

    For goldfish (Carassius auratus), there are many varieties with different eye phenotypes due to artificial selection and adaptive evolution. Dragon eye is a variant eye characterized by a large-size eyeball protruding out of the socket similar to the eye of dragon in Chinese legends. In this study, anatomical structure of the goldfish dragon eye was compared with that of the common eye, and a stretching of the retina was observed in the enlarged dragon eye. Moreover, the homeobox-containing transcription factor Six3 cDNAs were cloned from the two types of goldfish, and the expression patterns were analyzed in both normal eye and dragon eye goldfish. No amino acid sequence differences were observed between the two deduced peptides, and the expression pattern of Six3 protein in dragon eye is quite similar to common eye during embryogenesis, but from 2 days after hatching, ectopic Six3 expression began to occur in the dragon eye, especially in the outer nuclear layer cells. With eye development, more predominant Six3 distribution was detected in the outer nuclear layer cells of dragon eye than that of normal eye, and fewer cell-layers in outer nuclear layer were observed in dragon eye retina than in normal eye retina. The highlight of this study is that higher Six3 expression occurs in dragon eye goldfish than in normal eye goldfish during retinal development of larvae.

  2. Virus-encoded ectopic CD74 enhances poxvirus vaccine efficacy.

    PubMed

    Walline, Crystal C; Deffit, Sarah N; Wang, Nan; Guindon, Lynette M; Crotzer, Victoria L; Liu, Jianyun; Hollister, Kristin; Eisenlohr, Laurence C; Brutkiewicz, Randy R; Kaplan, Mark H; Blum, Janice S

    2014-04-01

    Vaccinia virus (VV) has been used globally as a vaccine to eradicate smallpox. Widespread use of this viral vaccine has been tempered in recent years because of its immuno-evasive properties, with restrictions prohibiting VV inoculation of individuals with immune deficiencies or atopic skin diseases. VV infection is known to perturb several pathways for immune recognition including MHC class II (MHCII) and CD1d-restricted antigen presentation. MHCII and CD1d molecules associate with a conserved intracellular chaperone, CD74, also known as invariant chain. Upon VV infection, cellular CD74 levels are significantly reduced in antigen-presenting cells, consistent with the observed destabilization of MHCII molecules. In the current study, the ability of sustained CD74 expression to overcome VV-induced suppression of antigen presentation was investigated. Viral inhibition of MHCII antigen presentation could be partially ameliorated by ectopic expression of CD74 or by infection of cells with a recombinant VV encoding murine CD74 (mCD74-VV). In contrast, virus-induced disruptions in CD1d-mediated antigen presentation persisted even with sustained CD74 expression. Mice immunized with the recombinant mCD74-VV displayed greater protection during VV challenge and more robust anti-VV antibody responses. Together, these observations suggest that recombinant VV vaccines encoding CD74 may be useful tools to improve CD4⁺ T-cell responses to viral and tumour antigens. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Ectopically tethered CP190 induces large-scale chromatin decondensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahanger, Sajad H.; Günther, Katharina; Weth, Oliver; Bartkuhn, Marek; Bhonde, Ramesh R.; Shouche, Yogesh S.; Renkawitz, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Insulator mediated alteration in higher-order chromatin and/or nucleosome organization is an important aspect of epigenetic gene regulation. Recent studies have suggested a key role for CP190 in such processes. In this study, we analysed the effects of ectopically tethered insulator factors on chromatin structure and found that CP190 induces large-scale decondensation when targeted to a condensed lacO array in mammalian and Drosophila cells. In contrast, dCTCF alone, is unable to cause such a decondensation, however, when CP190 is present, dCTCF recruits it to the lacO array and mediates chromatin unfolding. The CP190 induced opening of chromatin may not be correlated with transcriptional activation, as binding of CP190 does not enhance luciferase activity in reporter assays. We propose that CP190 may mediate histone modification and chromatin remodelling activity to induce an open chromatin state by its direct recruitment or targeting by a DNA binding factor such as dCTCF.

  4. First trimester caesarean scar ectopic pregnancy evaluation using MRI.

    PubMed

    Peng, K-W; Lei, Z; Xiao, T-H; Jia, F-G; Zhong, W-X; Gao, Y; Shen, B-X; Xie, J-W

    2014-02-01

    To determine the features of caesarean scar ectopic pregnancy (CSP) by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the first trimester. Thirty-nine women with CSP in the first trimester were initially selected and underwent transvaginal ultrasound and MRI examinations. Thirty-five patients with CSP were finally included in this study. The CSPs were categorized into three groups: type I, in which a thin-walled diverticulum is present at the caesarean section scar (CSS) defect and the gestational sac (GS) is embedded in the diverticulum; type II, in which a thin-walled diverticulum is present at the CSS defect and the GS is partially embedded in the diverticulum; type III, in which a niche is present in the CSS defect and the GS is mainly embedded in the isthmus. Types I, II, and III CSP occurred in 40, 46, and 14% of the women, respectively. There was no significant difference between the three types in the minimum thickness of the CSS defect. In types I and II, there was a positive correlation in the maximum inlet diameter of the CSS defect and the approximate area of the GS. Using MRI, most CSPs present as a diverticulum at the CSS defect, and the CSS defect becomes weaker with the growth of the GS. MRI showed detailed features of the CSP. Copyright © 2013 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Risk of Ectopic Pregnancy Associated With Assisted Reproductive Technology in the United States, 2001–2011

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, Kiran M.; Boulet, Sheree L.; Kissin, Dmitry M.; Jamieson, Denise J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess national trends in ectopic pregnancy incidence among assisted reproductive technology users and identify risk factors associated with ectopic pregnancy. METHODS We identified 553,577 pregnancies reported to the National ART Surveillance System between 2001 and 2011. Of those, 9,480 were ectopic, of which 485 were heterotopic. As a result of small numbers, ectopic and heterotopic pregnancies were combined for analysis. We assessed temporal trends in annual ectopic pregnancy rates using Poisson regression. We used log-binomial regression models with generalized estimating equations for correlated outcomes within clinics to calculate unadjusted and adjusted risk ratios for the association between ectopic pregnancy and selected patient characteristics and treatment factors. RESULTS The rate of ectopic pregnancy declined from 2.0% (n5735, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.9–2.2) in 2001 to 1.6% (n=968, 95% CI 1.5–1.7) in 2011 (P for trend ,.001). The ectopic pregnancy rate ranged from 2.0% (n=7,469, 95% CI 1.9–2.0) for fresh, nondonor cycles to 1.0% (n=641, 95% CI 0.9–1.1) for fresh, donor cycles. Among fresh, nondonor cycles, the rate of ectopic pregnancy was 1.6% (95% CI 1.4–1.7) when one embryo was transferred compared with 1.7% (95% CI 1.7–1.8), 2.2% (95% CI 2.1–2.3), and 2.5% (95% CI 2.4–2.6) when two, three, or four or more embryos were transferred, respectively (adjusted risk ratios 1.11, 95% CI 0.94–0.30; 1.33, 95% CI 1.12–1.56; and 1.49, 95% CI 1.25–1.78). CONCLUSION Ectopic pregnancy incidence after assisted reproductive technology has decreased over time, but factors such as multiple embryo transfer increase the risk of ectopic pregnancy. PMID:25560107

  6. Evaluation of cystoscopic-guided laser ablation of intramural ectopic ureters in female dogs.

    PubMed

    Berent, Allyson C; Weisse, Chick; Mayhew, Philipp D; Todd, Kimberly; Wright, Monika; Bagley, Demetrius

    2012-03-15

    To describe and evaluate the short- and long-term outcomes in female dogs after cystoscopic-guided laser ablation of ectopic ureters (CLA-EU). Prospective case series. 32 incontinent female dogs with intramural ectopic ureters. A diagnosis of intramural ectopic ureters was made via cystoscopy and fluoroscopy in all patients. Transurethral CLA-EU (via diode laser [n = 27] or Holmium:yttrium aluminum garnet laser [3]) was performed to relocate the ectopic ureteral orifice cranially into the urinary bladder. All vaginal anomalies were treated with the laser concurrently. Follow-up evaluation was standardized and included urinary continence scoring, serial bacteriologic culture of urine samples, and a follow-up cystoscopy 6 to 8 weeks after CLA-EU. Ectopic ureteral orifices of all dogs were initially located in the urethra. Eighteen of 30 dogs had bilateral ectopic ureters, and 12 had unilateral ectopic ureters. All dogs had other concurrent urinary anomalies. At the time of last follow-up (median, 2.7 years after CLA-EU, [range, 12 to 62 months]), 14 of 30 (47%) dogs did not require any additional treatments following CLA-EU to maintain urinary continence. For the 16 residually incontinent dogs, the addition of medical management, transurethral bulking-agent injection, or placement of a hydraulic occluder was effective in 3, 2, and 4 dogs, respectively, improving the overall urinary continence rate to 77% (23/30 dogs). One dog had evidence of polypoid cystitis at the neoureteral orifice 6 weeks after CLA-EU that was resolved at 3 months. CLA-EU provided an effective, safe, and minimally invasive alternative to surgery for intramural ectopic ureters in female dogs.

  7. Race, socioeconomic status, and response to methotrexate treatment of ectopic pregnancy in an urban population

    PubMed Central

    Butts, Samantha F.; Gibson, Erika; Sammel, Mary D.; Shaunik, Alka; Rudick, Brianna; Barnhart, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of the documented racial disparities in ectopic pregnancy incidence and mortality we hypothesized that African-American women with ectopic pregnancy would be more likely than white women to have treatment failure with methotrexate. In this retrospective cohort study, a racial disparity in methotrexate effectiveness was not found, but a significant relationship between low socioeconomic status and methotrexate failure was demonstrated. PMID:20674907

  8. Cerebellopontine angle arachnoid cyst containing ectopic choroid plexus--case report.

    PubMed

    Singleton, William G B; Lawrence, Tim; Green, Alex L; Jeans, Alex; Kerr, Richard S C

    2010-05-01

    We present a rare and interesting case of a cerebellopontine angle cyst containing ectopic choroid plexus tissue in a 26 year-old female. Surgical resection was performed, and histological examination confirmed the presence of choroid plexus in the cyst wall. This is the first reported case of ectopic choroid plexus at the cerebellopontine angle in an adult. We present the case and review the literature.

  9. Ruptured Ectopic Pregnancy with Contralateral Ovarian Serous Cyst Adenoma Torsion: Laparoscopic Management of Double Trouble

    PubMed Central

    Rajkumar, Anirudh; Rajkumar, J. S.; Guru, Venkatesan

    2016-01-01

    Adnexal torsion is responsible for 2.7% of all gynecological emergencies. Ectopic pregnancy is relatively common, occurring in 2% of all pregnancies. We report the second case of ruptured right tubal ectopic gestation with torsion of serous cystadenoma of left ovary. This was diagnosed after emergency laparoscopy done for acute abdomen. Right salpingectomy and left ovarian detorsion followed by cystectomy were done laparoscopically. PMID:27840755

  10. Cushing syndrome due to ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion in a 3-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Matarazzo, Patrizia; Tuli, Gerdi; Tessaris, Daniele; Verna, Francesca; Rabbone, Ivana; Lezo, Antonella; Brunati, Andrea; Salizzoni, Mauro; Carbonaro, Giulia; Terzolo, Massimo; Reimondo, Giuseppe; Papotti, Mauro; Lala, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Ectopic adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) secretion is a rare cause of Cushing syndrome in paediatric age, due to tumours arising from different tissues. To date, only 11 reports of ACTH-secreting pancreatic tumours in children and adolescents exist in the literature. We present a paediatric case of Cushing syndrome caused by ectopic ACTH secretion. This was caused by a large acinar cell carcinoma that developed in the pancreas of a 3-year-old girl.

  11. Unusual ectopic eruption of a permanent central incisor following an intrusion injury to the primary tooth.

    PubMed

    Canoglu, Ebru; Akcan, Cenk Ahmet; Baharoglu, Erdinç; Gungor, H Cem; Cehreli, Zafer C

    2008-10-01

    Intrusive luxation of primary teeth carries a high risk of damage to underlying permanent tooth germs. Ectopic eruption of permanent incisors is an unusual outcome of traumatic injury to their predecessors. In this case report, we describe the multidisciplinary management of the consequences of a primary tooth intrusion that led to severe ectopic eruption of the permanent left central incisor in a horizontal position at the level of the labial sulcus.

  12. MRI appearances of an ectopic pituitary adenoma: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Slonim, S M; Haykal, H A; Cushing, G W; Freidberg, S R; Lee, A K

    1993-01-01

    MR images of an ectopic pituitary adenoma have been published in only a single case, a suprasellar mass. We present a patient with Cushing's disease in whom MRI revealed a pituitary adenoma within the sphenoid sinus. Radiologic characteristics of ectopic pituitary adenomas are reviewed, with emphasis on MRI, which demonstrates a soft tissue mass, isointense with gray matter on T1-weighted images, which enhances in a heterogeneous manner.

  13. Laparoscopic Management of Interstitial Ectopic Using Simple and Safe Technique: Case Series and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Said, Tamer Hanafy

    2016-10-01

    To determine the safety and sustainability of operative laparoscopy in surgical management of cornual and interstitial ectopic pregnancy using a simple and practical method. Case series of five consecutive cases. Endoscopy unit in Alexandria University Hospital and Alexandria New Medical Center. Between July 2013 and May 2015, five women with interstitial and cornual ectopic pregnancies were admitted for laparoscopic surgical treatment. Full medical and surgical histories were taken. We explained all alternatives for both partners before informed. Patients underwent laparoscopy for management of the corneal ectopic. All surgeries were done by the same surgeon (T.S.) with different assistants. We gave different uterotonics drugs to devascularize the uterus. Two or more devascularization sutures were done on each end of the corneal ectopic. We used monopolar and bipolar electrocoagulation when indicated. We did linear cut of the interstitial ectopic with evacuation of the fetus and placental tissues. Extraction of the conceptus was performed through 10 mm port. Follow-up of the beta-hCG was done weekly till negative results were obtained. The devascularization sutures together with uterotonics make the surgical treatment of interstitial ectopic easy and safe. This simple technique minimizes blood loss and decreases necrosis that follows excessive use of diathermy. This was demonstrated successfully in different types of interstitial ectopic. We did not remove any part of the uterus during surgery. Clinical criteria of the study cases were discussed. Type, size, blood loss and complications, and duration of the surgery were documented. Operative laparoscopy using sutures and uterotonics is safe and sustainable approach in treatment of interstitial ectopic pregnancy.

  14. Wenshen Xiaozheng Tang induces apoptosis and inhibits migration of ectopic endometriotic stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenzhen; Cheng, Xiaolan; Gui, Tao; Tao, Jia; Huang, Meihua; Zhu, Li; Luo, Mei; Cao, Peng; Wan, Guiping

    2016-12-24

    Wenshen Xiaozheng Tang (WXT), a traditional Chinese medicine prescription, exerted a good therapeutic effect on endometriosis. However, the underlying mechanism is unclear. In the present study, we sought to evaluate the effect of WXT on the proliferation and migration of ectopic endometriotic stromal cells and explore the potential molecular mechanism. Primary stromal cells derived from ectopic endometriotic lesions of patients with endometriosis were isolated and cultured. The inhibition effect of WXT on cell proliferation was determined by MTT. Apoptosis of ectopic endometriotic cells treated with WXT was analyzed with Annexin V-FITC/7-AAD staining. The activation of caspases was detected by western blot analysis. The influence of WXT on migration of ectopic endometriotic cells was measured by scratch wound healing assay and Transwell assay. The DNA binding activity of NF-κB and the expression of nuclear p65 protein were determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and western blot analysis, respectively. The impact of WXT on the expression of NF-κB regulated gene products involved in apoptosis and migration was determined by western blot analysis. WXT inhibited the proliferation of ectopic endometriotic cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In addition, WXT treatment resulted in significant induction of apoptosis through the activation of caspases and inhibition of migration in ectopic endometriotic cells. WXT notably suppressed constitutive NF-κB-DNA-binding activity as well as TNF-α induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 subunit in ectopic endometriotic cells. Moreover, WXT diminished the expression of NF-κB regulated gene products involved in apoptosis and migration, including c-IAP1, c-IAP2, XIAP, survivin, Mcl-1, COX-2 and MMP-9. Our results indicate that WXT induces apoptosis and inhibits migration of ectopic endometriotic stromal cells. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  15. Developing a knowledge base to support the annotation of ultrasound images of ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Dhombres, Ferdinand; Maurice, Paul; Friszer, Stéphanie; Guilbaud, Lucie; Lelong, Nathalie; Khoshnood, Babak; Charlet, Jean; Perrot, Nicolas; Jauniaux, Eric; Jurkovic, Davor; Jouannic, Jean-Marie

    2017-01-31

    Ectopic pregnancy is a frequent early complication of pregnancy associated with significant rates of morbidly and mortality. The positive diagnosis of this condition is established through transvaginal ultrasound scanning. The timing of diagnosis depends on the operator expertise in identifying the signs of ectopic pregnancy, which varies dramatically among medical staff with heterogeneous training. Developing decision support systems in this context is expected to improve the identification of these signs and subsequently improve the quality of care. In this article, we present a new knowledge base for ectopic pregnancy, and we demonstrate its use on the annotation of clinical images. The knowledge base is supported by an application ontology, which provides the taxonomy, the vocabulary and definitions for 24 types and 81 signs of ectopic pregnancy, 484 anatomical structures and 32 technical elements for image acquisition. The knowledge base provides a sign-centric model of the domain, with the relations of signs to ectopic pregnancy types, anatomical structures and the technical elements. The evaluation of the ontology and knowledge base demonstrated a positive feedback from a panel of 17 medical users. Leveraging these semantic resources, we developed an application for the annotation of ultrasound images. Using this application, 6 operators achieved a precision of 0.83 for the identification of signs in 208 ultrasound images corresponding to 35 clinical cases of ectopic pregnancy. We developed a new ectopic pregnancy knowledge base for the annotation of ultrasound images. The use of this knowledge base for the annotation of ultrasound images of ectopic pregnancy showed promising results from the perspective of clinical decision support system development. Other gynecological disorders and fetal anomalies may benefit from our approach.

  16. Brassinazole resistant 1 (BZR1)-dependent brassinosteroid signalling pathway leads to ectopic activation of quiescent cell division and suppresses columella stem cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hak-Soo; Kim, Yoon; Pham, Giang; Kim, Ju Won; Song, Ji-Hye; Lee, Yew; Hwang, Yong-Sic; Roux, Stanley J; Kim, Soo-Hwan

    2015-08-01

    Previous publications have shown that BRI1 EMS suppressor 1 (BES1), a positive regulator of the brassinosteroid (BR) signalling pathway, enhances cell divisions in the quiescent centre (QC) and stimulates columella stem cell differentiation. Here, it is demonstrated that BZR1, a BES1 homologue, also promotes cell divisions in the QC, but it suppresses columella stem cell differentiation, opposite to the action of BES1. In addition, BR and its BZR1-mediated signalling pathway are shown to alter the expression/subcellular distribution of pin-formed (PINs), which may result in changes in auxin movement. BR promotes intense nuclear accumulation of BZR1 in the root tip area, and the binding of BZR1 to the promoters of several root development-regulating genes, modulating their expression in the root stem cell niche area. These BZR1-mediated signalling cascades may account for both the ectopic activation of QC cell divisions as well as the suppression of the columella stem cell differentiation. They could also inhibit auxin-dependent distal stem cell differentiation by antagonizing the auxin/WOX5-dependent pathway. In conclusion, BZR1-/BES1-mediated BR signalling pathways show differential effects on the maintenance of root apical meristem activities: they stimulate ectopic QC division while they show opposite effects on the differentiation of distal columella stem cells in a BR concentration- and BZR1-/BES1-dependent manner. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  17. Tissue-Autonomous Function of Drosophila Seipin in Preventing Ectopic Lipid Droplet Formation

    PubMed Central

    Shui, Guanghou; Liu, Zhonghua; Xiang, Yanhui; Liu, Yuan; Wenk, Markus R.; Yang, Hongyuan; Huang, Xun

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is characterized by accumulation of excess body fat, while lipodystrophy is characterized by loss or absence of body fat. Despite their opposite phenotypes, these two conditions both cause ectopic lipid storage in non-adipose tissues, leading to lipotoxicity, which has health-threatening consequences. The exact mechanisms underlying ectopic lipid storage remain elusive. Here we report the analysis of a Drosophila model of the most severe form of human lipodystrophy, Berardinelli-Seip Congenital Lipodystrophy 2, which is caused by mutations in the BSCL2/Seipin gene. In addition to reduced lipid storage in the fat body, dSeipin mutant flies accumulate ectopic lipid droplets in the salivary gland, a non-adipose tissue. This phenotype was suppressed by expressing dSeipin specifically within the salivary gland. dSeipin mutants display synergistic genetic interactions with lipogenic genes in the formation of ectopic lipid droplets. Our data suggest that dSeipin may participate in phosphatidic acid metabolism and subsequently down-regulate lipogenesis to prevent ectopic lipid droplet formation. In summary, we have demonstrated a tissue-autonomous role of dSeipin in ectopic lipid storage in lipodystrophy. PMID:21533227

  18. Drosophila enhancer-Gal4 lines show ectopic expression during development

    PubMed Central

    Arnés, Mercedes; Ferrús, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster the most widely used technique to drive gene expression is the binary UAS/Gal4 system. We show here that a set of nervous system specific enhancers (elav, D42/Toll-6, OK6/RapGAP1) display ectopic activity in epithelial tissues during development, which is seldom considered in experimental studies. This ectopic activity is variable, unstable and influenced by the primary sequence of the enhancer and the insertion site in the chromosome. In addition, the ectopic activity is independent of the protein expressed, Gal4, as it is reproduced also with the expression of Gal80. Another enhancer, LN2 from the sex lethal (Sxl) gene, shows sex-dependent features in its ectopic expression. Feminization of LN2 expressing males does not alter the male specific pattern indicating that the sexual dimorphism of LN2 expression is an intrinsic feature of this enhancer. Other X chromosome enhancers corresponding to genes not related to sex determination do not show sexual dimorphism in their ectopic expressions. Although variable and unstable, the ectopic activation of enhancer-Gal4 lines seems to be regulated in terms of tissue and intensity. To characterize the full domain of expression of enhancer-Gal4 constructs is relevant for the design of transgenic animal models and biotechnology tools, as well as for the correct interpretation of developmental and behavioural studies in which Gal4 lines are used. PMID:28405401

  19. Diagnostic work-up and laparoscopic correction of an ectopic ureter.

    PubMed

    Cezarino, B N; Lopes, R I; Oliveira, L M; Dénes, F T; Srougi, M

    2015-10-01

    A duplex renal collecting system is a common congenital anomaly in children. Continuous dribbling (especially if after the toilet-training period) should raise suspicion of the presence of an ectopic ureter, which is most often associated with ureteral duplication. This video will demonstrate the complete diagnostic work-up necessary in these cases. A 10-year-old girl presented with continuous dribbling. Ultrasonography and computerized tomography depicted a duplex system on the left side, with the upper pole ureter ectopically inserting into the vaginal cavity and good upper pole renal parenchyma. A careful urethrocystoscopy showed a topic right ureteral orifice and a topic lower pole left ureteral orifice. Retrograde pyelography was performed and displayed normal left lower pole anatomy. A vaginography was performed, which showed reflux to the ectopic ureter. Vaginoscopy clearly identified the ectopic ureteral orifice. A guide wire was introduced through this meatus and retrograde contrast injection confirmed the diagnosis of an ectopic ureter. At laparoscopy, a larger upper pole ureter and a normal lower pole ureter on the left side were identified. A termino-lateral ureteroureteral anastomosis was performed. After the procedure, the child reported immediate resolution of urinary dribbling. In order to optimize its surgical correction, efforts should be made to appropriate localization of the ectopic ureter. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ectopic KNOX Expression Affects Plant Development by Altering Tissue Cell Polarity and Identity.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Annis Elizabeth; Rebocho, Alexandra B; Coen, Enrico S

    2016-08-23

    Plant development involves two polarity types: tissue cell (asymmetries within cells are coordinated across tissues) and regional (identities vary spatially across tissues) polarity. Both appear altered in the barley (Hordeum vulgare) Hooded mutant, in which ectopic expression of the KNOTTED1-like Homeobox (KNOX) gene, BKn3, causes inverted polarity of differentiated hairs and ectopic flowers, in addition to wing-shaped outgrowths. These lemma-specific effects allow the spatiotemporal analysis of events following ectopic BKn3 expression, determining the relationship between KNOXs, polarity, and shape. We show that tissue cell polarity, based on localization of the auxin transporter SISTER OF PINFORMED1 (SoPIN1), dynamically reorients as ectopic BKn3 expression increases. Concurrently, ectopic expression of the auxin importer LIKE AUX1 and boundary gene NO APICAL MERISTEM is activated. The polarity of hairs reflects SoPIN1 patterns, suggesting that tissue cell polarity underpins oriented cell differentiation. Wing cell files reveal an anisotropic growth pattern, and computational modeling shows how polarity guiding growth can account for this pattern and wing emergence. The inverted ectopic flower orientation does not correlate with SoPIN1, suggesting that this form of regional polarity is not controlled by tissue cell polarity. Overall, the results suggest that KNOXs trigger different morphogenetic effects through interplay between tissue cell polarity, identity, and growth.

  1. Serological investigation of the role of selected sexually transmitted infections in the aetiology of ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Karaer, Abdullah; Mert, Ismail; Cavkaytar, Sabri; Batioglu, Sertac

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the association between selected sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and the later occurrence of ectopic pregnancy. A total of 125 women with ectopic pregnancy and 125 pregnant controls were recruited between January 2003 and February 2005 at Dr. Zekai Tahir Burak Women's Health Education and Research Hospital, in Ankara, Turkey. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine the prevalence of serum antibodies to Chlamydia (C.) trachomatis and to Herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2 IgG and, indirect immunofluorescence test was used to determine the prevalence of serum antibodies to Mycoplasma (M.) hominis and Ureaplasma (U.) urealyticum. The prevalence of C. trachomatis Ig G antibody in women with ectopic pregnancy (31/125; 25%) was significantly higher than in controls (12/125; 9.6%) (crude Odds Ratio [OR]: 3.1, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.51-6.38; p = 0.001). However, there was no significant association between C. trachomatis IgM; M. hominis IgG, IgM; U. urealyticum IgG, IGM; and HSV-2 IgG, and ectopic pregnancy. Previous chlamydial infection plays an important role in the aetiology of ectopic pregnancy. There was no association between M. hominis, U. urealyticum and HSV-2 infections, and ectopic pregnancy.

  2. Spontaneous Bilateral Tubal Ectopic Pregnancy: Incidental Finding During Laparoscopy – Brief Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, S.; Abele, H.; Bachmann, C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Bilateral tubal ectopic pregnancies are rare; the reported incidence is only 1 in 200 000 pregnancies. Detecting bilateral tubal ectopic pregnancy is urgent because of the associated morbidity and mortality. The appropriate fertility-preserving surgery must also be considered, as preservation of both tubes is presumed to offer better fertility prospects. Case Report: A 39-year-old gravida 2, para 1 presented with vaginal bleeding at 8 + 4 weeks of gestation. An approximately 18 mm adnexal mass in the right fallopian tube was detected on ultrasound. Laparoscopy was performed because ectopic pregnancy was suspected. This suspicion was confirmed during laparoscopy; the right fallopian tube was found to contain a mass measuring 20 mm in the isthmic part. Ultrasound of the left fallopian tube also showed a mass in the ampullary region (diameter: 10 mm), also suspicious for ectopic pregnancy. Bilateral salpingotomy was performed laparoscopically. Pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis. Conclusions for Practice: Although ectopic tubal pregnancy is seen more often after assisted reproductive techniques, bilateral spontaneous ectopic pregnancies must also be considered in other cases. Laparoscopic surgery is effective to confirm the diagnosis and treat heterotopic pregnancies. Further studies will be needed to confirm whether unilateral or bilateral conservative fertility-preserving surgery is more appropriate. PMID:27134298

  3. Automatic computerized analysis of heart rate variability with digital filtering of ectopic beats.

    PubMed

    Storck, N; Ericson, M; Lindblad, L; Jensen-Urstad, M

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) has been used in studies of autonomic function and risk assessment in different patient groups such as in patients with diabetes mellitus, after myocardial infarction (MI) and other cardiovascular disease. Ectopic beats can, however, interfere with HRV analysis and give erroneous results. We have therefore studied the impact of ectopic beats on HRV analysis and the ability of a filter algorithm to correct this. Power spectral analysis of synthetic data with an increasing proportion of ectopic beats and 24-h Holter recordings from 98 healthy subjects and 93 post MI patients was done with and without digital filtering and interpolation of errors in the data stream. The analysis of HRV was seriously hampered by less than 1% of ectopic beats. A filter algorithm based on detection and linear interpolation of ectopic beats and other noise in the data stream corrected effectively for this in the synthetic data employed. In the healthy subjects and the post MI patients, filtering markedly reduced the extra variability related to non-normal beats. The software could automatically analyse over one hundred 24-h files in one batch. HRV analysis should include filtering for ectopic beats even with a small number of such beats. It is possible to make a fast analysis automatically even in huge clinical series, which makes it possible to use the method both clinically and in epidemiological studies.

  4. Spontaneous Bilateral Tubal Ectopic Pregnancy: Incidental Finding During Laparoscopy - Brief Report and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, S; Abele, H; Bachmann, C

    2016-04-01

    Objective: Bilateral tubal ectopic pregnancies are rare; the reported incidence is only 1 in 200 000 pregnancies. Detecting bilateral tubal ectopic pregnancy is urgent because of the associated morbidity and mortality. The appropriate fertility-preserving surgery must also be considered, as preservation of both tubes is presumed to offer better fertility prospects. Case Report: A 39-year-old gravida 2, para 1 presented with vaginal bleeding at 8 + 4 weeks of gestation. An approximately 18 mm adnexal mass in the right fallopian tube was detected on ultrasound. Laparoscopy was performed because ectopic pregnancy was suspected. This suspicion was confirmed during laparoscopy; the right fallopian tube was found to contain a mass measuring 20 mm in the isthmic part. Ultrasound of the left fallopian tube also showed a mass in the ampullary region (diameter: 10 mm), also suspicious for ectopic pregnancy. Bilateral salpingotomy was performed laparoscopically. Pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis. Conclusions for Practice: Although ectopic tubal pregnancy is seen more often after assisted reproductive techniques, bilateral spontaneous ectopic pregnancies must also be considered in other cases. Laparoscopic surgery is effective to confirm the diagnosis and treat heterotopic pregnancies. Further studies will be needed to confirm whether unilateral or bilateral conservative fertility-preserving surgery is more appropriate.

  5. dBRWD3 Regulates Tissue Overgrowth and Ectopic Gene Expression Caused by Polycomb Group Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Hsueh-Tzu; Chen, Wei-Yu; Liu, Kwei-Yan; Shih, Zong-Siou; Chen, Yi-Jyun; Hsieh, Paul-Chen; Kuo, Kuan-Lin; Huang, Kuo-How; Hsu, Pang-Hung; Liu, Ya-Wen; Tsai, Yu-Chen; Wu, June-Tai

    2016-01-01

    To maintain a particular cell fate, a unique set of genes should be expressed while another set is repressed. One way to repress gene expression is through Polycomb group (PcG) proteins that compact chromatin into a silent configuration. In addition to cell fate maintenance, PcG proteins also maintain normal cell physiology, for example cell cycle. In the absence of PcG, ectopic activation of the PcG-repressed genes leads to developmental defects and malignant tumors. Little is known about the molecular nature of ectopic gene expression; especially what differentiates expression of a given gene in the orthotopic tissue (orthotopic expression) and the ectopic expression of the same gene due to PcG mutations. Here we present that ectopic gene expression in PcG mutant cells specifically requires dBRWD3, a negative regulator of HIRA/Yemanuclein (YEM)-mediated histone variant H3.3 deposition. dBRWD3 mutations suppress both the ectopic gene expression and aberrant tissue overgrowth in PcG mutants through a YEM-dependent mechanism. Our findings identified dBRWD3 as a critical regulator that is uniquely required for ectopic gene expression and aberrant tissue overgrowth caused by PcG mutations. PMID:27588417

  6. Abscisic acid induces ectopic outgrowth in epidermal cells through cortical microtubule reorganization in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Takatani, Shogo; Hirayama, Takashi; Hashimoto, Takashi; Takahashi, Taku; Motose, Hiroyasu

    2015-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates seed maturation, germination and various stress responses in plants. The roles of ABA in cellular growth and morphogenesis, however, remain to be explored. Here, we report that ABA induces the ectopic outgrowth of epidermal cells in Arabidopsis thaliana. Seedlings of A. thaliana germinated and grown in the presence of ABA developed ectopic protrusions in the epidermal cells of hypocotyls, petioles and cotyledons. One protrusion was formed in the middle of each epidermal cell. In the hypocotyl epidermis, two types of cell files are arranged alternately into non-stoma cell files and stoma cell files, ectopic protrusions being restricted to the non-stoma cell files. This suggests the presence of a difference in the degree of sensitivity to ABA or in the capacity of cells to form protrusions between the two cell files. The ectopic outgrowth was suppressed in ABA insensitive mutants, whereas it was enhanced in ABA hypersensitive mutants. Interestingly, ABA-induced ectopic outgrowth was also suppressed in mutants in which microtubule organization was compromised. Furthermore, cortical microtubules were disorganized and depolymerized by the ABA treatment. These results suggest that ABA signaling induces ectopic outgrowth in epidermal cells through microtubule reorganization. PMID:26068445

  7. Multiple ectopic calcifications in subcutaneous tissues with chronic renal failure: A case report.

    PubMed

    Zhang, RongKai; Li, GuoWei; Yang, LuKun; Li, YingQin; Ou, Jinghuan; Zhang, DaWei; Chen, Tao; Feng, Shaoyan

    2016-01-01

    Multiple tumor-like ectopic calcifications is a rare syndrome characterized by subcutaneous mass deposits of calcium phosphate in periarticular tissues. Although several cases of the surgical treatment of tumoral calcinosis have been reported, the present case is unique in that multiple ectopic calcifications in subcutaneous tissues were found in a hemodialysis patient who had been operated on a total of five times within a period of 1.5 years. A hemodialysis 60-year-old male presented with multiple tumor-like ectopic calcifications bilateral in the shoulders, right buttock and right thigh. He had been operated on a total of five times within a period of 1.5 years; the operations included a subtotal parathyroidectomy with parathyroid autotransplantation in the right forearm. Complete excisions of the ectopic calcifications were performed in the left shoulder, right buttock and right thigh, without signs of recurrence in the same sites at follow-up. Incomplete excision of the ectopic calcification in the right shoulder resulted in recurrence in the same site, and the patient was operated on two more times 1.5 years following the initial surgery. Subtotal parathyroidectomy with parathyroid autotransplantation decreased serum levels of PTH, but the levels of serum calcium and phosphorus remained unchanged post-surgery, which appeared not to inhibit the recurrence of ectopic calcification in patients with CRF. If conservative therapy failed, then early and complete surgical excision may be a good therapeutic option. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Prospective comparison of single port versus conventional laparoscopic surgery for ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Kyung; Kim, Jeong Jin; Choi, Joong Sub; Eom, Jeong Min; Lee, Jung Hun

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the feasibility and safety of single port laparoscopic surgery (SP-LS) for ectopic pregnancy, irrespective of type of ectopic pregnancy and hemodynamic stability. A prospective case-control study of 106 women who underwent SP-LS or conventional LS for a suspected ectopic pregnancy was performed at a university teaching hospital from January 2009 to March 2012. Twenty-six women underwent SP-LS (SP-LS group) and 80 women underwent conventional LS (conventional LS group). There were no statistical differences between the groups in terms of demographic characteristics, operating time, hemoglobin change, return of bowel activity, hospital stay or complication rate. There were no cases of additional trocar use or conversion to laparotomy. Of five women with heterotopic pregnancy, one underwent SP-LS, and three underwent conventional LS for tubal pregnancy, which all resulted in vaginal delivery without obstetric complication; one woman received SP-LS for cornual pregnancy and had an ongoing pregnancy. SP-LS for ectopic pregnancy is feasible and safe regardless of the type of ectopic pregnancy and hemodynamic stability. However, further work is needed to confirm this conclusion and to demonstrate any advantage of SP-LS for ectopic pregnancy. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  9. Bowel obstruction secondary to an ectopic pancreas in the small bowels: About 2 cases.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Haydar A; Sleiman, Youssef A; Hassoun, Ziad A; Elzaatari, Mohamad; Berjawi, Tarek; Hamdan, Wajdi; Allouch, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    Ectopic pancreas is most commonly found in the jejunum and stomach. Most patients remain asymptomatic, and the diagnosis is usually made at autopsy or incidentally. We report here 2 cases of intestinal occlusion, secondary to an ectopic pancreatic tissue. Both cases were managed successfully by laparoscopy and laparotomy with subsequent segmental intestinal resection. Case 1 - An elderly patient presented to the ER because of intestinal occlusion. Paraclinical investigations were consistent with occlusion, with ileal suffering signs on CT-scan. After laparotomy and segmental intestinal resection were done, histopathalogy showed evidence of ectopic pancreas obstructing the intestinal lumen. Case 2 - A young man presented to the ER with acute onset of epigastric pain. signs of peritoneal irritation. Ct-scan showed evidence of small bowel intussusception. Exploratory laparoscopy was done, and confirmed the diagnosis. The intussusceptum was at the level of the proximal jejunum. The suffering intestinal part was exteriorized and then resected. Histopathology was consistent with an ectopic pancreas. Symptomatic ectopic pancreas is extremely rare. Symptoms may include, bleeding, intestinal occlusion and intussusception. Few similar cases have been reported in the literature, and the current ones are to be added. As mentioned above, ectopic pancreatic tissue rarely causes symptoms. We presented 2 cases that presented 2 possible complications secondary to this pathology. Both cases were managed successfully. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Ectopic KNOX Expression Affects Plant Development by Altering Tissue Cell Polarity and Identity[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Rebocho, Alexandra B.

    2016-01-01

    Plant development involves two polarity types: tissue cell (asymmetries within cells are coordinated across tissues) and regional (identities vary spatially across tissues) polarity. Both appear altered in the barley (Hordeum vulgare) Hooded mutant, in which ectopic expression of the KNOTTED1-like Homeobox (KNOX) gene, BKn3, causes inverted polarity of differentiated hairs and ectopic flowers, in addition to wing-shaped outgrowths. These lemma-specific effects allow the spatiotemporal analysis of events following ectopic BKn3 expression, determining the relationship between KNOXs, polarity, and shape. We show that tissue cell polarity, based on localization of the auxin transporter SISTER OF PINFORMED1 (SoPIN1), dynamically reorients as ectopic BKn3 expression increases. Concurrently, ectopic expression of the auxin importer LIKE AUX1 and boundary gene NO APICAL MERISTEM is activated. The polarity of hairs reflects SoPIN1 patterns, suggesting that tissue cell polarity underpins oriented cell differentiation. Wing cell files reveal an anisotropic growth pattern, and computational modeling shows how polarity guiding growth can account for this pattern and wing emergence. The inverted ectopic flower orientation does not correlate with SoPIN1, suggesting that this form of regional polarity is not controlled by tissue cell polarity. Overall, the results suggest that KNOXs trigger different morphogenetic effects through interplay between tissue cell polarity, identity, and growth. PMID:27553356

  11. Fabrication of barium- and strontium-doped silica/titania hollow nanoparticles and their synergetic effects on promoting neuronal differentiation by activating ERK and p38 pathways.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sojin; Jang, Yoonsun; Oh, Wan-Kyu; Kim, Chanhoi; Jang, Jyongsik

    2014-07-01

    Pristine, barium-doped, and strontium-doped hollow nanoparticles (p-HNPs, Ba-HNP, and Sr-HNP; HNPs) are prepared by sonication-mediated etching and redeposition (SMER) method and alkali-earth-metal hydroxide solution treatment. The HNPs are investigated to facilitate synergetic neuronal differentiation through alkali-earth-metal doping and in conjunction with nerve growth factor (NGF). PC12 cells are used as model cells for neuronal differentiation. The differentiation efficiency is improved in the presence of the HNPs+NGF, and the neurite length is in the order of Sr-HNP+NGF > Ba-HNP+NGF > p-HNP+NGF > NGF. Silica/titania have increasing effect on both differentiation efficiency and neurite length, and doped barium/strontium influences additional elongation of the average neurite length. Take advantage of hollow structure, NGF is encapsulated into HNPs, and they are further applied for directly inducing differentiation. The maximum differentiation efficiency is 67% in presence of the NGF-encapsulated Sr-HNP, which was 1.3 times higher than previous research. Furthermore, the neurite length is also 2.7 times higher than MnO2 decorated poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) nanoellipsoids. Ba- and Sr-HNP may offer a possibility for novel application of metal-hybrid nanomaterials for cell differentiation, and can be expanded to other cellular applications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Main Risk Factors for Ectopic Pregnancy: A Case-Control Study in A Sample of Iranian Women

    PubMed Central

    Parashi, Shayesteh; Moukhah, Somayeh; Ashrafi, Mahnaz

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the risk factors of ectopic pregnancy have been determined in previous studies, the main risk factors of ectopic pregnancy are different in various countries due to different cultural and social characteristics. Determination of main risk factors of ectopic pregnancy leads to a rapid diagnosis and an improvement in strategies for its prevention. The purpose of this study was to determine the main risk factors of ectopic pregnancy in a sample of Iranian women. Materials and Methods We designed a case-control study to include 150 cases and 300 controls and to compare them by the following factors: socio-demographic characteristics, contraceptive methods, prior tubal surgery, tubal pathology, prior ectopic pregnancy, prior caesarean section, prior abortion, prior infertility, and prior abdominal/pelvic surgery. Results The case and control groups were significantly similar in term of education and parity. There was an association between ectopic pregnancy and age which was disappeared after controlling for the main risk factors (adjusted OR=2.45, 95% CI: 0.86-6.97). There was no statistically significant relation between ectopic pregnancy and prior tubal surgery, tubal pathology, prior abortion, prior infertility, assisted reproductive technology, and oral contraceptive method (p>0.05). However, there was a significant association between prior ectopic pregnancy, prior tubal ligation, use of intrauterine device, and prior abdominal/pelvic surgery with ectopic pregnancy (p<0.05). The risk of ectopic pregnancy increased with the use of intrauterine device and tubal ligation, whereas decreased with use of oral contraception. Conclusion This study identified prior ectopic pregnancy, prior tubal ligation, use of intrauterine device, and prior pelvic/abdominal surgery as the main risk factors for ectopic pregnancy in a sample of Iranian women. Our findings can be useful for early diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy and for improvement in strategies of its

  13. Ectopic pregnancy following in vitro fertilization with embryo transfer: A single-center experience during 15 years.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ling-Yun; Lin, Pin-Yao; Huang, Fu-Jen; Kung, Fu-Tsai; Chiang, Hsin-Ju; Lin, Yu-Ju; Lan, Kuo-Chung

    2015-10-01

    Ectopic pregnancy is an obstetrical disease that is potentially associated with maternal death in the first trimester. It is one of the well-known complications following in vitro fertilization (IVF) with embryo transfer (ET). The incidence of ectopic pregnancy is estimated to be 2.1-8.6% of clinical pregnancy after IVF-ET, which is higher than natural conceptions (incidence rate 2%). This study aimed to re-evaluate the ectopic pregnancy rate in patients undergoing IVF-ET and to investigate the effects of embryo stage and frozen-thawed blastocyst transfer and ET during full bladder distention on ectopic pregnancy rate. This retrospective study reviewed women who achieved a clinical pregnancy after IVF-ET at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital between 1999 and 2013. We compared ectopic pregnancy rate following Day 3 ET with Day 5 ET, and after fresh ET with thawed ET. Besides, multivariate analysis was used to clarify the factors affecting ectopic pregnancy after IVF-ET. Of the total 1213 clinical pregnancies after fresh ET, 18 (1.5%) were verified as ectopic, which is similar to the rate following natural conception. The ectopic pregnancy rates were similar for Day 3 (1.2%) and Day 5 (1.7%) ETs. The incidence of ectopic pregnancy in thawed ET cycles (0.6%) was not significantly reduced than fresh ET cycles (1.5%). Tubal ET (TET) and ET under full bladder distention had a significant effect on ectopic pregnancy. Thawed ET was not associated with a lower incidence of ectopic pregnancy than fresh ET, and embryo stage did not affect the rate of ectopic pregnancy. In addition, TET and ET under conditions of full bladder distention may increase the ectopic pregnancy rate. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Axon terminal hyperexcitability associated with epileptogenesis in vitro. I. Origin of ectopic spikes.

    PubMed

    Stasheff, S F; Hines, M; Wilson, W A

    1993-09-01

    1. Intracellular and extracellular recording techniques were used to study the increase in ectopic (i.e., nonsomatic) action-potential generation occurring among CA3 pyramidal cells during the kindling-like induction of electrographic seizures (EGSs) in this subpopulation of the hippocampal slice. Kindling-like stimulus trains (60 Hz, 2 s) were delivered to s. radiatum of CA3 at 10-min intervals. As EGSs developed, the frequency of ectopic firing increased markedly (by 10.33 +/- 3.29 spikes/min, mean +/- SE, P < 0.01). Several methods were applied to determine the initiation site for these action potentials within the cell (axons vs. dendrites). 2. Collision tests were conducted between known antidromic and orthodromic action potentials in CA3 cells to determine the critical period, c, for collision. Attempts were then made to collide ectopic spikes with known antidromic action potentials. At intervals less than c, ectopic spikes failed to collide with antidromic ones, in 5 of 10 cases. In these cells, this clearly indicates that the ectopic spikes were themselves of axonal origin. In the remaining five cases, ectopic spikes collided with antidromic action potentials at intervals approximately equal to c, most likely because of interactions within the complex system of recurrent axon collaterals in CA3. 3. Action potentials of CA3 pyramidal cells were simulated with the use of a compartmental computer model, NEURON. These simulations were based on prior models of CA3 pyramidal neurons and of the motoneuron action potential. Simulated action potentials generated in axonal compartments possessed a prominent inflection on their rising phase (IS-SD break), which was difficult to appreciate in those spikes generated in somatic or dendritic compartments. 4. An analysis of action potentials recorded experimentally from CA3 pyramidal cells also showed that antidromic spikes possess a prominent IS-SD break that is not present in orthodromic spikes. In addition to identified

  15. Sphenoid sinus ectopic pituitary adenomas: CT and MRI findings

    PubMed Central

    Yang, B T; Chong, V F H; Wang, Z C; Xian, J F; Chen, Q H

    2010-01-01

    Ectopic pituitary adenomas (EPAs) are rare lesions. The purpose of this study was to describe the CT and MRI features of sphenoid sinus EPAs. Eight patients with histology-proven EPAs in the sphenoid sinus, all of whom underwent CT and MRI, were reviewed retrospectively. The following imaging features were analysed: (i) size, (ii) margin, (iii) CT attenuation characteristics and (iv) MRI signal intensity. In addition, the involvement of adjacent structures and the time–intensity curve (TIC) of dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI were analysed. All EPAs had well-defined margins and showed no relationship to the intrasellar pituitary gland. The mean size was 28 mm (range, 20–46 mm). On non-enhanced CT, the lesions appeared isodense to grey matter in 7 (88%) patients and hypodense in 1 (12%) patient. Only two patients underwent post-contrast CT, and they showed moderate enhancement. On T1 weighted images, EPAs appeared isointense in 6 (75%) patients and hypointense in 2 (25%). On T2 weighted images, the lesions appeared hyperintense in 2 (25%) patients and isointense in 6 (75%). EPAs showed mild to moderate heterogeneous contrast enhancement and exhibited a cribriform-like appearance. Two patients underwent DCE MRI; the TIC showed a rapidly enhancing and slow washout pattern. The following features were also seen: an empty sella, bone changes and involvement of the cavernous sinus (5 patients; 62.5%). In conclusion, a high index of suspicion for EPA and a familiarity with the imaging findings may help to diagnose this rare entity accurately. PMID:19651706

  16. Ectopic pregnancy morbidity and mortality in low-income women, 2004-2008.

    PubMed

    Stulberg, D B; Cain, L; Dahlquist, I H; Lauderdale, D S

    2016-03-01

    Does the risk of adverse outcomes at the time of ectopic pregnancy vary by race/ethnicity among women receiving Medicaid, the public health insurance program for low-income people in the USA? Among Medicaid beneficiaries with ectopic pregnancy, 11% experienced at least one complication, and women from all racial/ethnic minority groups were significantly more likely than whites to experience complications. In this population of Medicaid recipients, African American women are significantly more likely than whites to experience ectopic pregnancy, but the risk of adverse outcomes has not previously been assessed. We conducted a cross-sectional observational study of all women (n = 19 135 106) ages 15-44 enrolled in Medicaid for any amount of time during 2004-2008 who lived in one of the following 14 US states: Arizona; California; Colorado; Florida; Illinois; Indiana; Iowa; Louisiana; Massachusetts; Michigan; Minnesota; Mississippi; New York; and Texas. We analyzed Medicaid claims records for inpatient and outpatient encounters and identified ectopic pregnancies with a principal diagnosis code for ectopic pregnancy from 2004-2008. We calculated the ectopic pregnancy complication rate as the number of ectopic pregnancies with at least one complication (blood transfusion, hysterectomy, any sterilization, or length-of-stay (LOS) > 2 days) divided by the total number of ectopic pregnancies. We used Poisson regression to assess the risk of ectopic pregnancy complication by race/ethnicity. Secondary outcomes were each individual complication, and ectopic pregnancy-related death. We calculated the ectopic pregnancy mortality ratio as the number of deaths divided by live births. Ectopic pregnancy-associated complications occurred in 11% of cases. Controlling for age and state, the risk of any complication was significantly higher among women who were black (incidence risk ratio [IRR] 1.47, 95% CI 1.43-1.53, P < 0.0001), Hispanic (IRR 1.16, 95% CI 1.12-1.21, P < 0.0001), Asian

  17. Ectopic pregnancy morbidity and mortality in low-income women, 2004–2008

    PubMed Central

    Stulberg, D.B.; Cain, L.; Dahlquist, I.H.; Lauderdale, D.S.

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Does the risk of adverse outcomes at the time of ectopic pregnancy vary by race/ethnicity among women receiving Medicaid, the public health insurance program for low-income people in the USA? SUMMARY ANSWER Among Medicaid beneficiaries with ectopic pregnancy, 11% experienced at least one complication, and women from all racial/ethnic minority groups were significantly more likely than whites to experience complications. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY In this population of Medicaid recipients, African American women are significantly more likely than whites to experience ectopic pregnancy, but the risk of adverse outcomes has not previously been assessed. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, AND DURATION We conducted a cross-sectional observational study of all women (n = 19 135 106) ages 15–44 enrolled in Medicaid for any amount of time during 2004–2008 who lived in one of the following 14 US states: Arizona; California; Colorado; Florida; Illinois; Indiana; Iowa; Louisiana; Massachusetts; Michigan; Minnesota; Mississippi; New York; and Texas. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTINGS, METHODS We analyzed Medicaid claims records for inpatient and outpatient encounters and identified ectopic pregnancies with a principal diagnosis code for ectopic pregnancy from 2004–2008. We calculated the ectopic pregnancy complication rate as the number of ectopic pregnancies with at least one complication (blood transfusion, hysterectomy, any sterilization, or length-of-stay (LOS) > 2 days) divided by the total number of ectopic pregnancies. We used Poisson regression to assess the risk of ectopic pregnancy complication by race/ethnicity. Secondary outcomes were each individual complication, and ectopic pregnancy-related death. We calculated the ectopic pregnancy mortality ratio as the number of deaths divided by live births. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Ectopic pregnancy-associated complications occurred in 11% of cases. Controlling for age and state, the risk of any complication was

  18. Risk of ectopic pregnancy lowest with transfer of single frozen blastocyst.

    PubMed

    Li, Z; Sullivan, E A; Chapman, M; Farquhar, C; Wang, Y A

    2015-09-01

    What type of transferred embryo is associated with a lower rate of ectopic pregnancy? The lowest risk of ectopic pregnancy was associated with the transfer of blastocyst, frozen and single embryo compared with cleavage stage, fresh and multiple embryos. Ectopic pregnancy is a recogn