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Sample records for nanopowders opredelenie soderzhaniya

  1. Fluidization of nanopowders: a review.

    PubMed

    van Ommen, J Ruud; Valverde, Jose Manuel; Pfeffer, Robert

    2012-03-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are applied in a wide range of processes, and their use continues to increase. Fluidization is one of the best techniques available to disperse and process NPs. NPs cannot be fluidized individually; they fluidize as very porous agglomerates. The objective of this article is to review the developments in nanopowder fluidization. Often, it is needed to apply an assistance method, such as vibration or microjets, to obtain proper fluidization. These methods can greatly improve the fluidization characteristics, strongly increase the bed expansion, and lead to a better mixing of the bed material. Several approaches have been applied to model the behavior of fluidized nanopowders. The average size of fluidized NP agglomerates can be estimated using a force balance or by a modified Richardson and Zaki equation. Some first attempts have been made to apply computational fluid dynamics. Fluidization can also be used to provide individual NPs with a thin coating of another material and to mix two different species of nanopowder. The application of nanopowder fluidization in practice is still limited, but a wide range of potential applications is foreseen. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11051-012-0737-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  2. Nanopowder Metal Oxide for Photoluminescent Gas Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhyrovetsky, V. M.; Popovych, D. I.; Savka, S. S.; Serednytski, A. S.

    2017-02-01

    Gas sensing properties of metal oxide nanopowders (ZnO, TiO2, WO3, SnO2) with average diameters of 40-60 nm were analyzed by room-temperature photoluminescence spectroscopy. The influence of gas environment (O2, N2, H2, CO, CO2) on the emission intensity was investigated for metal oxide nanopowders with surface doped by impurities (Pt, Ag, Au, Sn, Ni or Cu). Established physicochemical regularities of modification of surface electronic states of initial and doped nanopowders during gas adsorption. The nature of metal oxide nanopowder gas-sensing properties (adsorption capacity, sensitivity, selectivity) has been established and the design and optimal materials for the construction of the multi-component sensing matrix have been selected.

  3. Method for forming energetic nanopowders

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Kien-Yin; Asay, Blaine W.; Kennedy, James E.

    2013-10-15

    A method for the preparation of neat energetic powders, having nanometer dimensions, is described herein. For these neat powder, a solution of a chosen energetic material is prepared in an aprotic solvent and later combined with liquid hexane that is miscible with such solvent. The energetic material chosen is less soluble in the liquid hexane than in the aprotic solvent and the liquid hexane is cooled to a temperature that is below that of the solvent solution. In order to form a precipitate of said neat powders, the solvent solution is rapidly combined with the liquid hexane. When the resulting precipitate is collected, it may be dried and filtered to yield an energetic nanopowder material.

  4. Microwave hybrid synthesis of silicon carbide nanopowders

    SciTech Connect

    Ebadzadeh, Touradj Marzban-Rad, Ehsan

    2009-01-15

    Nanosized silicon carbide powders were synthesised from a mixture of silica gel and carbon through both the conventional and microwave heating methods. Reaction kinetics of SiC formation were found to exhibit notable differences for the samples heated in microwave field and furnace. In the conventional method SiC nanopowders can be synthesised after 105 min heating at 1500 deg. C in a coke-bed using an electrical tube furnace. Electron microscopy studies of these powders showed the existence of equiaxed SiC nanopowders with an average particle size of 8.2 nm. In the microwave heating process, SiC powders formed after 60 min; the powder consisted of a mixture of SiC nanopowders (with two average particle sizes of 13.6 and 58.2 nm) and particles in the shape of long strands (with an average diameter of 330 nm)

  5. Synthesis of carbon nanostructures on iron nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshanova, A.; Partizan, G.; Mansurov, B.; Medyanova, B.; Mansurova, M.; Aliev, B.; Jiang, Xin

    2016-08-01

    This work presents the results of experiments on synthesis of carbon nanostructures (CNs) by the method of thermal chemical vapor deposition using iron nanopowders obtained by the method of electrical explosion of wires as catalysts. To study the process of nucleation and growth of individual carbon nanostructures, experiments were conducted not only on nanopowders, but also on the separated clusters. To determine the optimum conditions of the carbon nanostructures synthesis and lower temperature limit, experiments were performed at different temperatures (300-700°C) and pressures (100-400 mbar). The experiments have shown that the lower temperature limit for carbon nanostructures synthesis on the iron nanopowders is 350°C and in this process the growth of carbon nanostructures is not so massive. Stable growth of carbon nanostructures for nanopowders began from 400°C during the entire range of pressures. The analysis of Raman spectroscopy showed that the most optimum conditions for obtaining nanotubes of high quality are P = 100 mbar and T = 425°C.

  6. Production and properties of electrosprayed sericin nanopowder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazeri, Najmeh; Tavanai, Hossein; Moradi, Ali Reza

    2012-06-01

    Sericin is a proteinous substrate that envelops fibroin (silk) fiber, and its recovery provides significant economical and social benefits. Sericin is an antibacterial agent that resists oxidation and absorbs moisture and UV light. In powder form, sericin has a wide range of applications in food, cosmetics and drug delivery. Asides from other techniques of producing powder, such as precipitation and spray drying, electrospraying can yield solid nanoparticles, particularly in the submicron range. Here, we report the production of sericin nanopowder by electrospraying. Sericin sponge was recovered from Bombyx mori cocoons through a high-temperature, high-pressure process, followed by centrifugation and freeze drying of the sericin solution. The electrospraying solution was prepared by dissolving the sericin sponge in dimethyl sulfoxide. We demonstrate that electrospraying is capable of producing sericin nanopowder with an average particle size of 25 nm, which is by far smaller than the particles produced by other techniques. The electrosprayed sericin nanopowder consists of small crystallites and exhibits a high moisture absorbance.

  7. Spray freeze drying of YSZ nanopowder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghupathy, Bala P. C.; Binner, J. G. P.

    2012-07-01

    Spray freeze drying of yttria stabilised zirconia nanopowders with a primary particle size of 16 nm has been undertaken using different solids content starting suspensions, with the effect of the latter on the flowability and crushability of the granules being investigated. The flowability and fill density of the granules increased with an increase in the solid content of the starting suspension, whilst the crushability decreased. The powder flowability, measured using a Hall flowmeter and model shoe-die filling tests, showed that the flowability of otherwise poorly flowable nanopowders can be improved to match that of the commercial spray dried submicron powder. The 5.5 vol.% solid content based suspension yielded soft agglomerates whilst a 28 vol.% solid content suspension formed hard agglomerates on spray freeze drying; the granule relics were visible in the fracture surface of the die pressed green compact in the latter case. The increase in granule strength is explained by the reduction in inter-particle distance based on the theories developed by Rumpf and Kendall. The flaw sizes computed using the Kendall model are comparable with those seen in the micrographs of the granule. With an optimum solid content, it is possible to have a granulated nanopowder with reasonable flowability and compactability resulting in homogeneous green bodies with 54 % of theoretical density.

  8. Characterization of aluminum nanopowders after long-term storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarenko, O. B.; Amelkovich, Yu. A.; Sechin, A. I.

    2014-12-01

    The characteristics of aluminum nanopowders obtained by electrical explosion of wires, passivated by air and stored for a long time under natural conditions are analyzed. The aluminum nanopowder produced in hydrogen had been stored for 27 years; the nanopowders produced in argon and nitrogen had been stored for 10 years. The powders were studied using X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry (TG) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR). The influence of the obtaining conditions and storage period of nanopowders on their thermal stability under heating in air is shown. The aluminum nanopowders after long-term storage in air under ambient conditions are found to be extremely active.

  9. Characterization of spark plasma sintered Ag nanopowders.

    PubMed

    Fu, Y Q; Shearwood, C; Xu, B; Yu, L G; Khor, K A

    2010-03-19

    The low temperature sintering behaviour of nanocrystalline Ag powder (with an average size of 70 nm) was characterized. Using spark plasma sintering (SPS), the Ag nanopowders can be successfully sintered at low pressure for only 5 min without external heating, and the sintering density increases and porosity decreases significantly with increase in the sintering temperature. Nanoindentation has been used to characterize the SPS sintered Ag samples. The mechanisms of the low sintering temperature behaviour of the nano-Ag powder and the nanoscale mechanical performance have been discussed. Compression tests were also used to characterize the mechanical properties of the sintered Ag sample with a maximum strain up to 15%.

  10. Growth model of binary alloy nanopowders for thermal plasma synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Shigeta, Masaya; Watanabe, Takayuki

    2010-08-15

    A new model is developed for numerical analysis of the entire growth process of binary alloy nanopowders in thermal plasma synthesis. The model can express any nanopowder profile in the particle size-composition distribution (PSCD). Moreover, its numerical solution algorithm is arithmetic and straightforward so that the model is easy to use. By virtue of these features, the model effectively simulates the collective and simultaneous combined process of binary homogeneous nucleation, binary heterogeneous cocondensation, and coagulation among nanoparticles. The effect of the freezing point depression due to nanoscale particle diameters is also considered in the model. In this study, the metal-silicon systems are particularly chosen as representative binary systems involving cocondensation processes. In consequence, the numerical calculation with the present model reveals the growth mechanisms of the Mo-Si and Ti-Si nanopowders by exhibiting their PSCD evolutions. The difference of the materials' saturation pressures strongly affects the growth behaviors and mature states of the binary alloy nanopowder.

  11. Hydrogen generation from water using Si nanopowder fabricated from swarf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imamura, Kentaro; Kimura, Katsuya; Fujie, Shunta; Kobayashi, Hikaru

    2016-05-01

    Si nanopowder is fabricated from Si swarf by the simple beads milling method. Si nanopowder possesses the maximum crystallite size distribution at 7 nm and the average diameter of 12 nm. Fabricated Si nanopowder easily reacts with water, resulting in generation of hydrogen. The hydrogen generation rate strongly depends on pH value of the solutions and the temperature. When the pH value and the reaction temperature are set at 13.0 and 50 °C, respectively, the hydrogen evolution rate in the initial 1 min reaches to ˜580 mL/min g, i.e., more than 1000 mL hydrogen is generated from 1 g Si nanopowder in 2 min. Hydrogen generation stops when a thick SiO2 layer is formed on the surface of Si nanopowder. Analysis of evolved hydrogen volume versus the reaction time shows that in the initial reaction period, dissolution of Si by OH- ions to form soluble H2SiO4 2- ions and hydrogen molecules is the dominant reaction, while in the subsequent period, the reaction of Si nanopowder with OH- ions forms SiO2, leading to generation of hydrogen molecules and electrons in the SiO2 conduction band. Generated electrons are accepted by water molecules, resulting in formation of hydrogen and OH- ions.

  12. Alumina lightweight ceramics modified with plasma synthesized nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zake, I.; Svinka, R.; Svinka, V.; Palcevskis, E.

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study is to clarify possibilities of using plasma synthesized Al2O3 and SiC nanopowders as additives in alumina lightweight ceramics prepared by slip casting. Each plasma synthesized nanopowder (PSNP) was incorporated in the material by a different method, because of their diverse influence on the properties of slip. Al2O3 PSNP was introduced in the matrix in form of aqueous suspension. SiC nanopowder was added directly to raw materials. Bending strength, bulk density, apparent porosity and thermal shock resistance were determined to evaluate the influence of these additives. The effect of Al2O3 PSNP addition on the properties of material depends on the initial sintering temperature. SiC particles during sintering oxidize into SiO2 and then in the reaction with alumina form mullite. Addition of SiC considerably improves bending strength and thermal shock resistance.

  13. Si-substituted hydroxyapatite nanopowders: Synthesis, thermal stability and sinterability

    SciTech Connect

    Bianco, Alessandra Cacciotti, Ilaria; Lombardi, Mariangela Montanaro, Laura

    2009-02-04

    Synthetic hydroxyapatites incorporating small amounts of Si have shown improved biological performances in terms of enhanced bone apposition, bone in-growth and cell-mediated degradation. This paper reports a systematic investigation on Si-substituted hydroxyapatite (Si 1.40 wt%) nanopowders produced following two different conventional wet methodologies: (a) precipitation of Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}.4H{sub 2}O and (b) titration of Ca(OH){sub 2}. The influence of the synthesis process on composition, thermal behaviour and sinterability of the resulting nanopowders is studied. Samples were characterised by electron microscopy, induced coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy, N{sub 2} adsorption measurements, X-ray diffraction and dilatometry. Semicrystalline Si-substituted hydroxyapatite powders made up of needle-like nanoparticles were obtained, the specific surface area ranged between 84 and 110 m{sup 2}/g. Pure and Si-substituted hydroxyapatite nanopowders derived from Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}.4H{sub 2}O decomposed around 1000 deg. C. Si-substituted hydroxyapatite nanopowders obtained from Ca(OH){sub 2} were thermally stable up to 1200 deg. C and showed a distinct decreased thermal stability with respect to the homologous pure sample. Si-substituted hydroxyapatites exhibited higher sintering temperature and increased total shrinkage with respect to pure powders. Nanostructured dense ceramics were obtained by sintering at 1100 deg. C Si-substituted hydroxyapatites derived from Ca(OH){sub 2}.

  14. Laser transfer of diamond nanopowder induced by metal film blistering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kononenko, T. V.; Alloncle, P.; Konov, V. I.; Sentis, M.

    2009-03-01

    Blister-based laser induced forward transfer (BB-LIFT) is a promising technique to produce surface microstructures of various advanced materials including inorganic and organic micro/nanopowders, suspensions and biological micro-objects embedded in life sustaining medium. The transferred material is spread over a thin metal film irradiated from the far side by single laser pulses through a transparent support. Interaction of the laser pulse with the metal-support interface under optimized conditions causes formation of a quickly expanding blister. Fast movement of the free metal surface provides efficient material transfer, which has been investigated for the case of diamond nanopowder and diamond-containing suspension. The unique features of the given technique are universality, simplicity and efficient isolation of the transferred material from the ablation products and laser heating.

  15. Low-temperature synthesis of carbon nanotubes on iron nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partizan, G.; Mansurov, B. Z.; Medyanova, B. S.; Koshanova, А B.; Mansurova, M. E.; Aliyev, B. А; Jiang, Xin

    2016-11-01

    This work presents the results of experiments on synthesis of carbon nanostructures by the method of thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using iron nanopowders obtained by the method of electrical explosion of wires as catalysts. The process parameters that are optimal for low-temperature growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been identified during performed experiments. Results of Raman spectroscopy and x-ray analysis showed that samples grown at temperatures below the normally used have the highest crystallinity. Studies by scanning electron microscopy using SE2 mode and results of transmission electron microscopy indicate that the synthesized structures are multi-walled CNTs with the metal clusters inside the channel of the tube. The experimental modes of synthesis of CNTs by low-temperature CVD using iron nanopowders as catalyst have been found for the first time.

  16. Functionalized diamond nanopowder for phosphopeptides enrichment from complex biological fluids.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Dilshad; Najam-ul-Haq, Muhammad; Jabeen, Fahmida; Ashiq, Muhammad N; Athar, Muhammad; Rainer, Matthias; Huck, Christian W; Bonn, Guenther K

    2013-05-02

    Diamond is known for its high affinity and biocompatibility towards biomolecules and is used exclusively in separation sciences and life science research. In present study, diamond nanopowder is derivatized as Immobilized Metal Ion Affinity Chromatographic (IMAC) material for the phosphopeptides enrichment and as Reversed Phase (C-18) media for the desalting of complex mixtures and human serum profiling through MALDI-TOF-MS. Functionalized diamond nanopowder is characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Diamond-IMAC is applied to the standard protein (β-casein), spiked human serum, egg yolk and non-fat milk for the phosphopeptides enrichment. Results show the selectivity of synthesized IMAC-diamond immobilized with Fe(3+) and La(3+) ions. To comprehend the elaborated use, diamond-IMAC is also applied to the serum samples from gall bladder carcinoma for the potential biomarkers. Database search is carried out by the Mascot program (www.matrixscience.com) for the assignment of phosphorylation sites. Diamond nanopowder is thus a separation media with multifunctional use and can be applied to cancer protein profiling for the diagnosis and biomarker identification.

  17. Raman scattering and luminescence of yttria nanopowders and ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipov, V. V.; Solomonov, V. I.; Spirina, A. V.; Vovkotrub, E. G.; Strekalovskii, V. N.

    2014-06-01

    We have studied Raman scattering in yttria nanopowders and ceramics that was excited by radiation at wavelengths of 514.5 and 632.8 nm. We show that, in undoped nanopowders and cubic phase of doped yttria ceramics, only the Raman scattering by phonons is observed, with no other Raman scattering centers having been revealed. In nanopowders of the monoclinic phase, we have observed an additional Raman line with a Raman shift of 1093 ± 4 cm-1. If all the objects under investigation are excited by the radiation at a wavelength of 514.5 nm, their spectra exhibit four series of photoluminescence lines, two of which (at λ = 521-523 and 538-564 nm) are emitted by Er3+ ions, "impurity" dopants, while the other two lines (at λ = 607-635 and 644-684 nm) are emitted by intrinsic centers. Under excitation by the radiation at a wavelength of 632.8 nm, only a series of bands at λ = 644-684 nm is emitted. In addition to these photoluminescence bands, neodymium-doped ceramics show photoluminescence bands of Nd3+ ions. We have shown that intrinsic luminescence centers, which occur in all the examined specimens, are capable of acting as acceptors with respect to neodymium ions excited to the upper laser level.

  18. Zirconia nanoceramic via redispersion of highly agglomerated nanopowder and spark plasma sintering.

    PubMed

    Suárez, Gustavo; Borodianska, Hanna; Sakka, Yoshio; Aglietti, Esteban F; Vasylkiv, Oleg

    2010-10-01

    A 2.7 mol% yttria stabilizing tetragonal zirconia (2.7Y-TZP) nanopowder was synthesized and stored for five years. Humidity and unsatisfactory storage conditions gradually caused heavy agglomeration. Within a few months, 2.7Y-TZP nanopowder became useless for any technological application. A bead-milling deagglomeration technique was applied to recover the heavily agglomerated yttria-stabilized zirconia nanopowder. Low-temperature sintering and spark plasma sintering (SPS) were performed, resulting in fully dense nanostructured ceramics. Compacts formed with heavily agglomerated powder present low sinterability and poor mechanical properties. Bead-milling suspension formed compacts exhibit mechanical properties in the range of the values reported for nanostructured zirconia. This observation confirms the effectiveness of bead-milling in the deagglomeration of highly agglomerated nanopowders. The high value of Vickers hardness of 13.6 GPa demonstrates the success of the processing technique for recovering long-time-stored oxide nanopowders.

  19. Synthesis of AlNiCo core/shell nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genc, A. M.; Akdeniz, M. V.; Ozturk, T.; Kalay, Y. E.

    2016-11-01

    Magnetic core/shell nanostructures have been recently received much interest owing to their utmost potential in permanent magnetic applications. In the present work, AlNiCo permanent magnet powders were synthesized by ball milling and a core/shell nanostructure was obtained using RF induced plasma. The effects of particle size and nanoshell structure on the magnetic properties were investigated in details. The coercivity of AlNiCo powders was found to increase with decreasing particle size, exclusively nanopowders encapsulated with Fe3O4 shell showed the highest coercivity values. The shell structure produced during plasma reaction was found to form a resistant layer against oxidation of metallic nanoparticles.

  20. Thermal Plasma Synthesis of Crystalline Gallium Nitride Nanopowder from Gallium Nitrate Hydrate and Melamine

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Hee; Choi, Sooseok; Park, Dong-Wha

    2016-01-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) nanopowder used as a blue fluorescent material was synthesized by using a direct current (DC) non-transferred arc plasma. Gallium nitrate hydrate (Ga(NO3)3∙xH2O) was used as a raw material and NH3 gas was used as a nitridation source. Additionally, melamine (C3H6N6) powder was injected into the plasma flame to prevent the oxidation of gallium to gallium oxide (Ga2O3). Argon thermal plasma was applied to synthesize GaN nanopowder. The synthesized GaN nanopowder by thermal plasma has low crystallinity and purity. It was improved to relatively high crystallinity and purity by annealing. The crystallinity is enhanced by the thermal treatment and the purity was increased by the elimination of residual C3H6N6. The combined process of thermal plasma and annealing was appropriate for synthesizing crystalline GaN nanopowder. The annealing process after the plasma synthesis of GaN nanopowder eliminated residual contamination and enhanced the crystallinity of GaN nanopowder. As a result, crystalline GaN nanopowder which has an average particle size of 30 nm was synthesized by the combination of thermal plasma treatment and annealing.

  1. Incorporation of chromium into TiO{sub 2} nanopowders

    SciTech Connect

    Kollbek, Kamila; Sikora, Marcin; Kapusta, Czesław; Szlachetko, Jakub; Radecka, Marta; Lyson-Sypien, Barbara; Zakrzewska, Katarzyna

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Nanopowders of TiO{sub 2}:Cr with different amount of Cr dopant were obtained by flame spray synthesis, FSS. • Increase in the optical absorption and a shift of the absorption edge were observed upon Cr doping. • HERFD-XANES measurements indicated that the average valence state of titanium ions was preserved. • Increasing magnetic susceptibility of a paramagnetic character was observed upon Cr doping. - Abstract: The paper reports on the results of a study of optical, electronic and magnetic properties of TiO{sub 2} nanopowders doped with Cr ions. Diffused reflectance spectra reveal an increase in the optical absorption and a shift of the absorption edge towards lower energies upon Cr doping. Direct information on the Ti electronic state and the symmetry of its nearest environment is obtained from XANES Ti K-edge spectra. Magnetic behaviour is probed by means of the temperature dependence of DC magnetic susceptibility. Increasing magnetic susceptibility of a paramagnetic character is observed upon increasing chromium doping. The Curie constant of TiO{sub 2}:10 at.% Cr sample (0.12 emu K/mol Oe) is lower than that expected for Cr{sup 3+} (0.1875 emu K/mol Oe) possibly due to the appearance of Cr{sup 4+} or the presence of the orbital contribution to the magnetic moment.

  2. Spark plasma sintering of alumina nanopowders produced by electrical explosion of wires.

    PubMed

    An, Vladimir; Khasanov, Alexey; de Izarra, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Alumina nanopowders produced by electrical explosion of wires were sintered using the spark plasma sintering technique. The results of XRD analysis show that the main phase in the compacted nanopowders is α-Al2O3. According to the SEM observations, the sintered alumina nanopowder consists of micron-sized faceted grains and nano-sized necked grains. The increase in sintering temperature resulted in a higher density of the sintered powders: from 78.44 to 98.21 % of theoretical density.

  3. Effect of Saturation Pressure Difference on Metal–Silicide Nanopowder Formation in Thermal Plasma Fabrication

    PubMed Central

    Shigeta, Masaya; Watanabe, Takayuki

    2016-01-01

    A computational investigation using a unique model and a solution algorithm was conducted, changing only the saturation pressure of one material artificially during nanopowder formation in thermal plasma fabrication, to highlight the effects of the saturation pressure difference between a metal and silicon. The model can not only express any profile of particle size–composition distribution for a metal–silicide nanopowder even with widely ranging sizes from sub-nanometers to a few hundred nanometers, but it can also simulate the entire growth process involving binary homogeneous nucleation, binary heterogeneous co-condensation, and coagulation among nanoparticles with different compositions. Greater differences in saturation pressures cause a greater time lag for co-condensation of two material vapors during the collective growth of the metal–silicide nanopowder. The greater time lag for co-condensation results in a wider range of composition of the mature nanopowder.

  4. Effect of gamma radiation on morphological & optical properties of ZnO nanopowder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qindeel, Rabia

    Gamma radiation is the most energetic, highly penetrating electromagnetic radiation with extremely high frequency. In this light, the influence of gamma irradiation on the morphological and the optical properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanopowder is investigated for different applications. In particular, the zinc oxide (ZnO) nanopowder is prepared by the homogenous precipitation method with the post-oxidation annealing taking place in air atmosphere. The optical properties of the ZnO nanopowder are observed using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer in the wavelength range of 200-800 nm, while scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used for surface analysis. Samples are irradiated using a Co60 gamma source with high and low dose. The energy band gap of ZnO nanopowder is calculated before and after gamma radiation.

  5. YBa2Cu3O7-δ-based ceramic materials manufactured from nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadzhimagomedov, S. Kh.; Palchaev, D. K.; Rabadanov, M. Kh.; Murlieva, Zh. Kh.; Shabanov, N. S.; Palchaev, N. A.; Murliev, E. K.; Emirov, R. M.

    2016-01-01

    The results of studying the structure and electrical resistance of nanostructured YBa2Cu3O7-δ-based superconducting ceramics of various density optimally saturated by oxygen and fabricated from nanopowders are given.

  6. Nanopowder Synthesis & Associated Safety Precautions at ARDEC: Partnering with NIOSH

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-28

    e.g. molybdenum  and  tantalum ), which depend on particulate processing technology  Alternate materials for kinetic energy penetrators (tungsten) can...dealing with nanopowders  All powders handled in a fume hood unless in a solvent/solution  Clean‐up of any residual powders should be done  wet  using...should be made to keep the material  wet  when cleaning out the glovebox. In fact,  rinsing the glovebox with water may be a better option, provided the

  7. Chemical vapor synthesis and characterization of aluminum nanopowder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jin Won; Sohn, Hong Yong; Choi, Young Joon; Fang, Zhigang Zak

    Aluminum is a component in many promising hydrogen storage materials such as aluminum hydride and complex aluminum hydrides. In this research, Al and TiAl 3-containing Al nanopowders were prepared by a chemical vapor synthesis (CVS) process using Mg as the reducing agent. XRD and EDS results indicated that the produced powder was composed of Al or Al with TiAl 3. The shape of the powder was spherical with the average size in the range of 10-50 nm measured by SEM, TEM, BET and ZetaPALS compared with the typically larger than 100 nm for commercially available fine Al powders. In addition, the effects of the operating conditions such as Ar flow rate, precursor feed rate and reaction temperature on the properties of the product powder were investigated.

  8. Effect of deposition parameters on the structural properties of ZnO nanopowders prepared by microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis.

    PubMed

    Caglar, Yasemin; Gorgun, Kamuran; Aksoy, Seval

    2015-03-05

    ZnO nanopowders were synthesized via microwave-assisted hydrothermal method at different deposition (microwave irradiation) times and pH values. The effects of pH and deposition (microwave irradiation) time on the crystalline structure and orientation of the ZnO nanopowders have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) study. XRD observations showed that the crystalline quality of ZnO nanopowders increased with increasing pH value. The crystallite size and texture coefficient values of ZnO nanopowders were calculated. The structural quality of ZnO nanopowder was improved by deposition parameters. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) was used to analyze the surface morphology of the ZnO nanopowders. Microwave irradiation time and pH value showed a significant effect on the surface morphology.

  9. Effect of deposition parameters on the structural properties of ZnO nanopowders prepared by microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caglar, Yasemin; Gorgun, Kamuran; Aksoy, Seval

    2015-03-01

    ZnO nanopowders were synthesized via microwave-assisted hydrothermal method at different deposition (microwave irradiation) times and pH values. The effects of pH and deposition (microwave irradiation) time on the crystalline structure and orientation of the ZnO nanopowders have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) study. XRD observations showed that the crystalline quality of ZnO nanopowders increased with increasing pH value. The crystallite size and texture coefficient values of ZnO nanopowders were calculated. The structural quality of ZnO nanopowder was improved by deposition parameters. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) was used to analyze the surface morphology of the ZnO nanopowders. Microwave irradiation time and pH value showed a significant effect on the surface morphology.

  10. Antibacterial activity evaluation of bioactive glass and biphasic calcium phosphate nanopowders mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazemi, Zahra; Mehdikhani-Nahrkhalaji, Mehdi; Haghbin-Nazarpak, Masoumeh; Staji, Hamid; Kalani, Mohammad Mehdi

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of bioactive glass (BG) and biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) nanopowders mixtures for the first time. 37S BG and BCP (50% HA-50% β-TCP) nanopowders were prepared via sol-gel technique. Characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transition electron microscopy, and X-ray fluorescent. The antibacterial activity was studied using Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi as gram-negative, and Staphylococcus aureus as gram-positive bacteria. The antibacterial effect of BG, BCP nanopowders, and their mixtures was evaluated at different concentrations. The 37S BG nanopowders showed minimum bactericidal concentration at 25 mg/ml. At broth concentrations below 300 mg/ml, BCP showed no antibacterial activity. BCP and BG nanopowders mixture (M2) with 60/40 ratio of BCP/BG showed noticeable antibacterial effect. It was concluded that BCP and 37S BG nanopowders mixture could be used as a good candidate for dental and orthopedic applications.

  11. Microstructural and antibacterial properties of zinc-substituted cobalt ferrite nanopowders synthesized by sol-gel methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanpo, Noppakun; Berndt, Christopher C.; Wang, James

    2012-10-01

    Zinc-substituted cobalt ferrite nanopowders were prepared via a sol-gel route using citric acid as a chelating agent. The influence of zinc concentration on the microstructure, crystal structure, surface wettability, surface roughness, and antibacterial property of zinc-substituted cobalt ferrite nanopowders was investigated systematically. The substitution of zinc influences slightly the microstructure, surface wettability, surface roughness, and crystal structure but strongly affects the antibacterial property of the cobalt ferrite nanopowders.

  12. Influence of different ions doping on the antibacterial properties of MgO nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Yuanyuan; Wang, Wei; Tan, Fatang; Cai, Yuncheng; Lu, Junwen; Qiao, Xueliang

    2013-11-01

    Compared with other inorganic antibacterial agents, magnesium oxide (MgO) nanopowders exhibit a unique antibacterial mechanism and various advantages in applications, having attracted extensive attention. In this study, MgO nanopowders doped with different ions (Li+, Zn2+ and Ti4+) were synthesized by a sol-gel method, respectively. The structures and morphologies of the as-obtained precursors and nanopowders were characterized and confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The influence of three metal ions doping on the antibacterial properties of MgO nanopowders was also investigated by their bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli, ATCC 25922) using the broth microdilution method and the agar method. The results show that Li-doped MgO exhibits better antibacterial activity, Zn-doped and Ti-doped MgO display poorer antibacterial activity than pure MgO. It can be concluded that the influence of different ions doping on the antibacterial properties of MgO mainly lies on oxygen vacancies and basicity of nanopowders.

  13. Synthesis and spectral characterizations of trivalent ions (Cr3+, Fe3+) doped CdO nanopowders.

    PubMed

    Aswani, T; Babu, B; Manjari, V Pushpa; Stella, R Joyce; Rao, G Thirumala; Krishna, Ch Rama; Ravikumar, R V S S N

    2014-01-01

    Trivalent transition metal ions (Cr(3+), Fe(3+)) doped CdO nanopowders via sonication in the presence of Sodium lauryl sulfate as stabilizing agent were synthesized and characterized. Powder XRD studies indicate that the obtained CdO has a cubic phase and concluded that the trivalent ions doping induced the lattice constants to change some extent. Optical absorption spectra exhibited the characteristic bands of Cr(3+) and Fe(3+) ions in octahedral site symmetry. Crystal field (Dq) and inter-electronic repulsion (B and C) parameters are evaluated for Cr(3+) doped CdO nanopowders as Dq=1540, B=619 and C=3327 cm(-1) and for Fe(3+) doped CdO nanopowders Dq=920, B=690, C=2750 cm(-1). EPR spectra of the Cr(3+) and Fe(3+) doped CdO nanopowders exhibited resonances at g=1.973 and g=2 respectively which indicate distorted octahedral site for both ions with the host. Photoluminescence spectra shows the emission bands in violet and bluish green regions for Cr(3+) doped CdO, ultraviolet and blue emissions for Fe(3+) doped CdO nanopowders. The CIE chromaticity coordinates were also evaluated from the emission spectrum. FT-IR spectra indicate the presence of various functional groups of host lattice.

  14. Plasma-chemical reactor based on a low-pressure pulsed arc discharge for synthesis of nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpov, I. V.; Ushakov, A. V.; Lepeshev, A. A.; Fedorov, L. Yu.

    2017-01-01

    A reactor for producing nanopowders in the plasma of a low-pressure arc discharge has been developed. As a plasma source, a pulsed cold-cathode arc evaporator has been applied. The design and operating principle of the reactor have been described. Experimental data on how the movement of a gaseous mixture in the reactor influences the properties of nanopowders have been presented.

  15. Role of Rare Earth Ions on Structural and Optical Properties of ZnO Nanopowder: A Case of Ce3+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, N. R.; Acharya, B. S.

    2011-07-01

    ZnO nanopowder doped with cerium prepared by the method of ultrasonication is reported. The structural and optical properties of the nanopowders were investigated by different characterization techniques like X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical absorption studies (OAS), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL).

  16. Nd:Y 2O 3 nanopowders for laser ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopylov, Yu. L.; Kravchenko, V. B.; Komarov, A. A.; Lebedeva, Z. M.; Shemet, V. V.

    2007-06-01

    Nanopowders of Nd-doped yttrium oxide were obtained by chemical co-precipitation method using nitrate salts solutions and different precipitant agents - urea, ammonium carbonate and oxalic acid. Precursor and oxide particles agglomeration, particle form, particle size and specific surface area depend critically upon experimental conditions. Plates and rods were formed with hydroxycarbonate and oxalates precipitation correspondingly, whereas hydroxynitrates gave more uniform spherical particles' shapes. Calcination at 900-1200 °C gave oxide powders with specific area in the range 15-50 m 2/g. High energy ball milling was used to decrease grain agglomeration. Powders with around 100 nm size were used to prepare pellets by slip casting into porous moulds using PMMA or PAA additives to reduce viscosity of the slurries with high powder contents. The pellets density around 0.48-0.52 of the theoretical value was obtained. Vacuum sintering of the pellets at 1700-1800 °C gave transparent ceramic samples with grain size between 10 and 50 μm. The most serious defects in the ceramics are closed pores which reduce their transparency.

  17. A System to Create Stable Nanoparticle Aerosols from Nanopowders

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yaobo; Riediker, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticle aerosols released from nanopowders in workplaces are associated with human exposure and health risks. We developed a novel system, requiring minimal amounts of test materials (min. 200 mg), for studying powder aerosolization behavior and aerosol properties. The aerosolization procedure follows the concept of the fluidized-bed process, but occurs in the modified volume of a V-shaped aerosol generator. The airborne particle number concentration is adjustable by controlling the air flow rate. The system supplied stable aerosol generation rates and particle size distributions over long periods (0.5-2 hr and possibly longer), which are important, for example, to study aerosol behavior, but also for toxicological studies. Strict adherence to the operating procedures during the aerosolization experiments ensures the generation of reproducible test results. The critical steps in the standard protocol are the preparation of the material and setup, and the aerosolization operations themselves. The system can be used for experiments requiring stable aerosol concentrations and may also be an alternative method for testing dustiness. The controlled aerosolization made possible with this setup occurs using energy inputs (may be characterized by aerosolization air velocity) that are within the ranges commonly found in occupational environments where nanomaterial powders are handled. This setup and its operating protocol are thus helpful for human exposure and risk assessment. PMID:27501179

  18. Nanopowder production by gas-embedded electrical explosion of wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Xiao-Bing; Mao, Zhi-Guo; Wang, Xin-Xin; Jiang, Wei-Hua

    2013-04-01

    A small electrical explosion of wire (EEW) setup for nanopowder production is constructed. It consists of a low inductance capacitor bank of 2 μF-4 μF typically charged to 8 kV-30 kV, a triggered gas switch, and a production chamber housing the exploding wire load and ambient gas. With the EEW device, nanosize powders of titanium oxides, titanium nitrides, copper oxides, and zinc oxides are successfully synthesized. The average particle size of synthesized powders under different experimental conditions is in a range of 20 nm-80 nm. The pressure of ambient gas or wire vapor can strongly affect the average particle size. The lower the pressure, the smaller the particle size is. For wire material with relatively high resistivity, such as titanium, whose deposited energy Wd is often less than sublimation energy Ws due to the flashover breakdown along the wire prematurely ending the Joule heating process, the synthesized particle size of titanium oxides or titanium nitrides increases with overheat coefficient k (k = Wd/Ws) increasing.

  19. Bio-ecological consequences of crop seeds treatment with metal nano-powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churilov, G.

    2015-11-01

    As a result of our investigations we have determined the optimal concentrations of ferrum, cobalt and cuprum nano-powders recommended to be used as micro-fertilizers increasing the yield and feed value of crops at the expense of accumulating biologically active combinations by 25-35%. In unfavorable climate conditions, for example in a case of excess moisture or heat and drought, the plants development and ripening suffer. Our investigations have shown that the stimulating effect of nano-powders has lowered the effect of stress situations on plants development and simultaneously increased the rape seeds yield and quality. Treating the seeds with the drugs being studied has provided the high crop protection. If consider that the maximum efficiency of protectants Chinuk, SK (20 kg/t of seeds) and Cruiser, KS (10 kg/t of seeds) then for the same effect one needs nano-powders 0.1 g per hectare norm of seeds planting.

  20. Copper and Graphene activated ZnO nanopowders for enhanced photocatalytic and antibacterial activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravichandran, K.; Chidhambaram, N.; Gobalakrishnan, S.

    2016-06-01

    ZnO, ZnO:Cu and ZnO:Cu:Graphene nanopowders were synthesized via a facile wet chemical method. The XRD studies show that the synthesized samples have hexagonal wurtzite structure. It is found that graphene addition induces a decrease in crystallite size. UV-vis absorption spectra of the samples show sharp absorption edges around 380 nm. Photoluminescence studies reveal that the incorporation of copper and graphene in ZnO facilitates the efficient photo generated electron-hole pair separation. It is found that the ZnO:Cu and ZnO:Cu:Graphene nanopowder exhibit improved photocatalytic efficiency for the photodegradation of Methylene Blue (MB) under visible light irradiation. Moreover, improved antibacterial activity of ZnO:Cu:Graphene nanopowder against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria is observed.

  1. Photocatalytic reduction of nitrate in wastewater using ZnO nanopowder synthesized by solution combustion method.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung; Kim, Hee-Joon; Kim, Jong Soo; Yoo, Kang; Lee, Jae Chun; Anderson, W A; Lee, Ju-Hyeon

    2007-11-01

    ZnO nanopowder was synthesized by a unique method which is called solution combustion method (SCM). This nanopowder was used for a photocatalyst to decompose nitrate that is a toxic pollutant in wastewater. It has been known that TiO2, the most popular photocatalyst, does not decompose the nitrate. In this paper, however, the SCM ZnO nanopowder decomposed about 13% of nitrate. Furthermore, adding methanol as a hole scavenger, the decomposition rate was enhanced by about 5 times. On the other hand, it has been reported that the photocatalytic reduction reaction of nitrate produces ammonia as a final product. The present results, however, suggest that the final product is non-toxic nitrogen gas rather than the toxic ammonia. These results would be very valuable for drinking water purification.

  2. Radiation stability of SiO2 micro- and nanopowders under electron and proton exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chundong; Mikhailov, M. M.; Neshchimenko, V. V.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of proton and electron (E = 100 keV, F = 5 × 1015 сm-2) exposure on the reflective spectra of SiO2 micro- and nanopowders in wavelength range from 250 to 2500 nm have been investigated. It has been established that the reflectance and radiation stability of nanopowders is less than that of micropowders. This effect is caused by the high concentration of radiation defects, which act as surface absorption centers (Es‧ centers) near the energies 5.47 and 4.45 eV, and peroxide silicon defects (tbnd Sisbnd Osbnd Osbnd Sitbnd) near the energy 3.84 eV.

  3. Corundum ceramic materials modified with silica nanopowders: structure and mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostytsyn, M. A.; Muratov, D. S.; Lysov, D. V.; Chuprunov, K. O.; Yudin, A. G.; Leybo, D. V.

    2016-01-01

    Filtering elements are often used in the metallurgy of rare earth metals. Corundum ceramic is one of the most suitable materials for this purpose. The process of formation and the properties of nanomodified ceramic materials, which are proposed as filtering materials with tunable effective porosity, are described. A silica nanopowder is used as a porosity-increasing agent. Vortex layer apparatus is used for mixing of precursor materials. The obtained results show that nanomodification with the vortex layer apparatus using 0.04 wt. % silica nanopowder as a modifying agent leads to an increase in the compression strength of corundum ceramic by the factor of 1.5.

  4. Synthesis and Characterization of Rutile TiO2Nanopowders Doped with Iron Ions

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Titanium dioxide nanopowders doped with different amounts of Fe ions were prepared by coprecipitation method. Obtained materials were characterized by structural (XRD), morphological (TEM and SEM), optical (UV/vis reflection and photoluminescence, and Raman), and analytical techniques (XPS and ICP-OES). XRD analysis revealed rutile crystalline phase for doped and undoped titanium dioxide obtained in the same manner. Diameter of the particles was 5–7 nm. The presence of iron ions was confirmed by XPS and ICP-OES. Doping process moved absorption threshold of TiO2into visible spectrum range. Photocatalytic activity was also checked. Doped nanopowders showed normal and up-converted photoluminescence. PMID:20596442

  5. High-performance field emission of carbon nanotube paste emitters fabricated using graphite nanopowder filler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yuning; Yun, Ki Nam; Leti, Guillaume; Lee, Sang Heon; Song, Yoon-Ho; Lee, Cheol Jin

    2017-02-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) paste emitters were fabricated using graphite nanopowder filler. The CNT paste emitters consist of CNTs as the emitting material, graphite nanopowder as the filler and a graphite rod as the cathode. Rather than metal or inorganic materials, graphite nanopowder was adapted as a filler material to make the CNT paste emitters. After fabricating the emitters, sandpaper treatment was applied to increase the density of emission sites. The CNT paste emitters showed a high field emission performance, for example a high emission current of 8.5 mA from a cylindrical emitter with a diameter of 0.7 mm (corresponding to a current density of 2.2 A cm-2) and an extremely stable emission current at 1 mA (260 mA cm-2 for 20 h). Interestingly, after a number of electrical arcing events, the emitters still showed a high emission current of 5-8 mA (higher than 1 A cm-2). In addition to the sound electrical and thermal properties of the graphite filler, effective mechanical adhesion of the CNTs onto the graphite cathode induced by the use of the graphite nanopowder filler contributed the excellent field emission properties of the CNT paste emitters.

  6. Evaluation of Hydroxyapatite-Forsterite Glass Composite Nanopowder Prepared via Sol-Gel Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazrooei Sebdani, Maryam; Fathi, Mohammadhossein

    In spite of attractive bioactivity of bioactive ceramics i.e. hydroxyapatite and bioactive glasses, their poor mechanical properties have restricted their clinical applications. To overcome these limitations, an alternative approach suggested is preparation a composite including these bioactive ceramics with others. It is expected that a ceramic reinforcement with reduced grain size below 100 nm promotes theirs. The aim of this work was fabrication and characterization of hydroxyapatite-forsterite-bioglass composite nanopowder. Novel hydroxyapatite-forsterite-bioglass composite nanopowder was synthesized by incorporation of the forsterite and bioactive glass in hydroxyapatite matrix via a sol-gel process. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy techniques were utilized in order to evaluate the phase composition, agglomerates size distribution, morphology and particle size and functional groups of synthesized. The effects of sintering temperature and time were also investigated. Results showed that the appropriate temperature for calcination was 600°C and the particle size of composite nanopowder was about 60-70nm. The decomposition of hydroxyapatite was increased with the increase of the sintering temperature and sintering time. Obtained results indicate that prepared composite nanopowder could be a good candidate for medical applications.

  7. Workplace Exposure to Titanium Dioxide Nanopowder Released from a Bag Filter System

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Jun Ho; Kim, Jong Bum; Lee, Gwangjae; Noh, Jung-Hun; Yook, Se-Jin; Cho, So-Hye; Bae, Gwi-Nam

    2015-01-01

    Many researchers who use laboratory-scale synthesis systems to manufacture nanomaterials could be easily exposed to airborne nanomaterials during the research and development stage. This study used various real-time aerosol detectors to investigate the presence of nanoaerosols in a laboratory used to manufacture titanium dioxide (TiO2). The TiO2 nanopowders were produced via flame synthesis and collected by a bag filter system for subsequent harvesting. Highly concentrated nanopowders were released from the outlet of the bag filter system into the laboratory. The fractional particle collection efficiency of the bag filter system was only 20% at particle diameter of 100 nm, which is much lower than the performance of a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter. Furthermore, the laboratory hood system was inadequate to fully exhaust the air discharged from the bag filter system. Unbalanced air flow rates between bag filter and laboratory hood systems could result in high exposure to nanopowder in laboratory settings. Finally, we simulated behavior of nanopowders released in the laboratory using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). PMID:26125024

  8. Workplace Exposure to Titanium Dioxide Nanopowder Released from a Bag Filter System.

    PubMed

    Ji, Jun Ho; Kim, Jong Bum; Lee, Gwangjae; Noh, Jung-Hun; Yook, Se-Jin; Cho, So-Hye; Bae, Gwi-Nam

    2015-01-01

    Many researchers who use laboratory-scale synthesis systems to manufacture nanomaterials could be easily exposed to airborne nanomaterials during the research and development stage. This study used various real-time aerosol detectors to investigate the presence of nanoaerosols in a laboratory used to manufacture titanium dioxide (TiO2). The TiO2 nanopowders were produced via flame synthesis and collected by a bag filter system for subsequent harvesting. Highly concentrated nanopowders were released from the outlet of the bag filter system into the laboratory. The fractional particle collection efficiency of the bag filter system was only 20% at particle diameter of 100 nm, which is much lower than the performance of a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter. Furthermore, the laboratory hood system was inadequate to fully exhaust the air discharged from the bag filter system. Unbalanced air flow rates between bag filter and laboratory hood systems could result in high exposure to nanopowder in laboratory settings. Finally, we simulated behavior of nanopowders released in the laboratory using computational fluid dynamics (CFD).

  9. High-performance field emission of carbon nanotube paste emitters fabricated using graphite nanopowder filler.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuning; Yun, Ki Nam; Leti, Guillaume; Lee, Sang Heon; Song, Yoon-Ho; Lee, Cheol Jin

    2017-02-10

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) paste emitters were fabricated using graphite nanopowder filler. The CNT paste emitters consist of CNTs as the emitting material, graphite nanopowder as the filler and a graphite rod as the cathode. Rather than metal or inorganic materials, graphite nanopowder was adapted as a filler material to make the CNT paste emitters. After fabricating the emitters, sandpaper treatment was applied to increase the density of emission sites. The CNT paste emitters showed a high field emission performance, for example a high emission current of 8.5 mA from a cylindrical emitter with a diameter of 0.7 mm (corresponding to a current density of 2.2 A cm(-2)) and an extremely stable emission current at 1 mA (260 mA cm(-2) for 20 h). Interestingly, after a number of electrical arcing events, the emitters still showed a high emission current of 5-8 mA (higher than 1 A cm(-2)). In addition to the sound electrical and thermal properties of the graphite filler, effective mechanical adhesion of the CNTs onto the graphite cathode induced by the use of the graphite nanopowder filler contributed the excellent field emission properties of the CNT paste emitters.

  10. In situ transmission electron microscopy observations of lithiation of spherical silicon nanopowder produced by induced plasma atomization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblanc, Dominic; Wang, Chongmin; He, Yang; Bélanger, Daniel; Zaghib, Karim

    2015-04-01

    Composite Li-ion anode can be fabricated using silicon nanopowders synthesized by induced plasma atomization. Properties of such nanopowder were characterized by physical and electrochemical methods. Primary particles were crystalline with spherical shape and the typical diameter ranging from 50 to 200 nm. The Si nanopowder showed a high gravimetric capacity (4900 mAh/g) at first discharge and around 12% irreversible loss of lithium. In addition, observations of a single silicon particle made by in situ TEM permitted to compare the volume change during lithiation with other silicon anode nanomaterials.

  11. The Study of Complex (Ti, Zr, Cs) Nanopowder Influencing the Effective Ionization Potential of Arc Discharge When Mma Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapozhkov, S. B.; Burakova, E. M.

    2016-08-01

    Strength is one of the most important characteristics of a weld joint. Mechanical properties of a weld metal can be improved in a variety of ways. One of the possibilities is to add a nanopowder to the weld metal. Authors of the paper suggest changing the production process of MMA welding electrodes via adding nanopowder Ti, Zr, Cs to electrode components through liquid glass. Theoretical research into the nanopowder influence on the effective ionization potential (Ueff) of welding arc discharge is also necessitated. These measures support arcing stability, improve strength of a weld joint, as the consequence, ensure quality enhancing of a weld joint and the structure on the whole.

  12. Liquid-feed flame spray pyrolysis synthesis of oxide nanopowders for the processing of ceramic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Nathan John

    In the liquid-feed flame spray pyrolysis (LF-FSP) process, alcohol solutions of metalloorganic precursors are aerosolized by O2 and combusted. The metal oxide combustion products are rapidly quenched (< 10 ms) from flame temperatures of 1500°C to temperatures < 400° C, limiting particle growth. The resulting nanopowders are typically agglomerated but unaggregated. Here, we demonstrate two processing approaches to dense materials: nanopowders with the exact composition, and mixed single metal oxide nanopowders. The effect of the initial degree of phase separation on the final microstructures was determined by sintering studies. Our first studies included the production of yttrium aluminum garnet, Y3Al5O12 (YAG), tubes which we extruded from a thermoplastic/ceramic blend. At equivalent final densities, we found finer grain sizes in the from the mixed Y2O3 and Al2 O3 nanopowders, which was attributed to densification occurring before full transformation to the YAG phase. The enhanced densification in production of pure YAG from the reactive sintering process led us to produce composites in the YAG/alpha-Al 2O3 system. Finally, a third Y2O3 stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ) phase was added to further refine grain sizes using the same two processing approaches. In a separate study, single-phase metastable Al2O3 rich spinels with the composition MO•3Al 2O3 where M = Mg, Ni, and Co were sintered to produce dense MAl2O4/alpha-Al2O3 composites. All of these studies provide a test of the bottom-up approach; that is, how the initial length scale of mixing affects the final composite microstructure. Overall, the length scale of mixing is highly dependent upon the specific oxide composites studied. This work provides a processing framework to be adopted by other researchers to further refine microstructural size. LF-FSP flame temperatures were mapped using different alcohols with different heats of combustion: methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, and n-butanol. The effect of different

  13. High elastic modulus nanopowder reinforced resin composites for dental applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yijun

    2007-12-01

    Dental restorations account for more than $3 billion dollars a year on the market. Among them, all-ceramic dental crowns draw more and more attention and their popularity has risen because of their superior aesthetics and biocompatibility. However, their relatively high failure rate and labor-intensive fabrication procedure still limit their application. In this thesis, a new family of high elastic modulus nanopowder reinforced resin composites and their mechanical properties are studied. Materials with higher elastic modulus, such as alumina and diamond, are used to replace the routine filler material, silica, in dental resin composites to achieve the desired properties. This class of composites is developed to serve (1) as a high stiffness support to all-ceramic crowns and (2) as a means of joining independently fabricated crown core and veneer layers. Most of the work focuses on nano-sized Al2O3 (average particle size 47 nm) reinforcement in a polymeric matrix with 50:50 Bisphenol A glycidyl methacrylate (Bis-GMA): triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) monomers. Surfactants, silanizing agents and primers are examined to obtain higher filler levels and enhance the bonding between filler and matrix. Silane agents work best. The elastic modulus of a 57.5 vol% alumina/resin composite is 31.5 GPa compared to current commercial resin composites with elastic modulus <15 GPa. Chemical additives can also effectively raise the hardness to as much as 1.34 GPa. Besides>alumina, diamond/resin composites are studied. An elastic modulus of about 45 GPa is obtained for a 57 vol% diamond/resin composite. Our results indicate that with a generally monodispersed nano-sized high modulus filler, relatively high elastic modulus resin-based composite cements are possible. Time-dependent behavior of our resin composites is also investigated. This is valuable for understanding the behavior of our material and possible fatigue testing in the future. Our results indicate that with

  14. TiO2-based nanopowders and thin films for photocatalytical applications.

    PubMed

    Radecka, M; Rekas, M; Kusior, E; Zakrzewska, K; Heel, A; Michalow, K A; Graule, T

    2010-02-01

    TiO2-based nanopowders are elaborated by flame spray synthesis, FSS from organic precursors of titanium and chromium with the Cr content changing from 0 to 15 at.%. Well-crystallized nanopowders with high specific surface area SSA reaching 107 m2/g for undoped TiO2 and 177 m2/g for TiO2 + 15 at.% Cr are obtained. Thin films are deposited by rf reactive sputtering from metallic Ti and Ti-Cr targets in Ar + O2 flow controlled atmosphere. The adjustable area of Cr/Ti allows to obtain up to 16 at.% Cr in TiO2 thin films. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron spectroscopy, TEM, atomic force microscopy, AFM and optical spectrophotometry over the ultraviolet UV and visible VIS range of the light spectrum have been performed in order to characterize the nanomaterials. The particle size of nanopowders is within the range of 5-42 nm. Anatase is the predominating polymorphic form while the amount of rutile increases with Cr content to reach of about 25 wt.% at 15 at.% Cr. The post-deposition annealing of thin films in air at temperatures from 770 K to 1280 K modifies the phase composition, leads to irreversible transformation from anatase to rutile and affects the surface roughness. Structural and optical properties of TiO2-based nanopowders and thin films are compared. The effect of grain size and the level of chromium doping on the band gap E(g) is discussed. Photocatalytic activity of the nanopowders is tested for degradation of methylene blue, MB.

  15. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanopowders prepared by a thermal plasma process for water oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Dongeun; Choi, Yong-Wook; Na, Ye-Seul; Choi, Soo-Suk; Park, Dong-Wha; Choi, Jinsub

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Hematite nanopowders with a high purity were synthesized by a DC thermal plasma process. • Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} is formed during the formation of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} by thermal plasma with iron and oxygen sources. • Hematite nanopowders with a high purity show higher PEC performance compared to mixed oxides. - Abstract: Hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanopowders were synthesized from commercially available micro-sized iron powders by a DC thermal plasma process at atmospheric pressure. The micro-sized iron powders were vaporized in the plasma region, after which the plasma processing equipment was rapidly quenched, resulting in the formation of iron nanopowders with a size of less than 100 nm. Subsequently, the iron nanopowders were heated to convert hematite with a high purity, which was then formed into a thin film with a binder for preparation of electrodes for photoelectrochemical water oxidation. Iron oxide nanopowders were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), particle size analysis (PSA) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The photoelectrochemical properties of the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} film were characterized in 1 M NaOH under AM 1.5 conditions.

  16. Permeability, drying, and sintering of pressure filtered ceramic nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, Sean M.

    2002-01-01

    point of drying (when fracture is most likely during drying). Agreement between maximum safe drying stresses and measured sample strengths is found to be good (to within better than a factor of 2) for boehmite samples, but not very good (off by a factor of ˜7) for nanocrystalline 3Y-TZP samples. Sub-critical crack growth is indicated as the source of this deviation in nanocrystalline 3Y-TZP samples. Literature studies of the sintering of chloride-derived 3Y-TZP nanopowders have documented numerous sintering problems including inability to reach full density, desintering, cracking, and the formation of a dense shell with less dense interior. To explain the poor sintering behavior of samples of one nanocrystalline 3Y-TZP powder, the origin of such a dense shell microstructure is determined. Three possible reasons for a dense shell microstructure are examined and rejected: exothermic reactions with the sintering atmosphere, pre-existing density gradients in the green compact, and thermal gradients occurring during sintering. A combination of gas flow/diffusion, thermodynamic, and sintering calculations are used to show that the evolution of a structure-coarsening gas (hydrogen chloride) during sintering causes the formation of a dense shell microstructure, and explains the poor densification behavior of this system. Two solutions to the problem are compared: (1) a thermal treatment composed of an extended hold at 1000°C to allow HCl gas removal before the onset of closed porosity (at about 90-93% of theoretical density), and (2) a chemical treatment performed by washing pre-sintered (500°C/30 min) samples at room temperature using a concentrated ammonium hydroxide solution to remove chlorides. The thermal treatment is found to be superior for removing residual chlorine and allowing full density to be achieved during sintering.

  17. Reverse micelle mediated synthesis, processing, mechanical and biological characterization of hydroxyapatite nanopowders for bone graft application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Ashis

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is the most widely used bioceramic material in bone graft applications because of its compositional similarity with natural bone. However, synthetic HA does not show similar mechanical and biological properties to the inorganic component of bone. Properties of ceramic material depend on starting materials, processing techniques, densification and microstructure of the final product. The objective of this research was to process HA whisker reinforced HA composite using HA nanopowders and whiskers. HA nanopowders with different length scale and morphology were synthesized by reverse micelle system using NP5 and NP12 as surfactants and cyclohexane as organic solvent. The lowest average aspect ratio was 1.357+/-0.39 with average particle size of 66 nm and the highest average aspect ratio was 7.277+/-3.227 with average length of 150 nm and width of 20 nm, were synthesized. Micron sized HA whiskers with aspect ratio between 20 and 50, average particle length of 15 mum and width of 400 nm was synthesized using urea as a precipitating agent. Desired microstructure was obtained after sintering with spherical HA nanopowder and whiskers along with dopants. Addition of whiskers decreased density of the sintered compacts. However, at 10 wt% whisker content sample showed microhardness and fracture toughness of 3.6 GPa and 1.5 MPa.m1/2, respectively, and a compressive strength of 80 MPa was obtained. Mineralization study in simulated body fluid (SBF) showed formation of apatite layer on the dense HA compacts indicating a good tendency of bond formation with natural bone. Cytotoxicity results showed excellent cell attachment on the HA surface. In the Appendices, 3 journal articles have been attached which describe synthesis, processing and characterization of undoped and doped PZT nanopowders. Free standing and agglomerated PZT nanopowders were synthesized by the sucrose templated method and the citrate nitrate autocombustion method. Particle size in the range

  18. Multiple nano-blast synthesis of PT/8Y-ZP composite nanopowders.

    PubMed

    Vasylkiv, Oleg; Sakka, Yoshio; Skorokhod, Valeriy V

    2006-06-01

    We demonstrate a processing technique based on the synthesis of ceramic nanopowders and simultaneous impregnation with metallic nanoparticles by multiple 'nano-blasts' of embeded cyclotrimethylene trinitramine in preliminary engineered multi-component nano-reactors. 'Nano-blasts' of impregnated cyclotrimethylene trinitramine deagglomerate the nanopowder due to the high energetic impacts of the blast waves, while the decomposition of compounds and their solid-solubility is enhanced by the extremely high local temperature generated during the nano-explosions. We applied this technique to produce nanosized agglomerate-free 8 mol% yttria-doped cubic zirconia aggregates with an average size of 53 nm impregnated with 10 mass% of platinum particles of 2-14 nm.

  19. Structural and Optical Characterization of Synthesized TiO2 Nanopowder Using Sol-Gel Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lourduraj, S.; Williams, R. Victor

    2016-02-01

    The nanocrystalline TiO2 powder was synthesized by sol-gel method. The XRD analysis reveals that TiO2 powder was highly crystalline (anatase phase) and nanostructured with tetragonal system. The average crystallite size after calcined at 673K is found to be 7.7nm. The surface morphological studies using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) exhibit that the formation of nanosized TiO2 particles with less densification nature. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) topography exhibits the uniform distribution of spherical-shaped particles. The energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) confirms the presence of Titanium and Oxygen in synthesized TiO2 nanopowder. The value of optical bandgap of TiO2 nanopowder calculated from UV-Visible spectrum is 3.45eV. The presence of TiO2 particles is confirmed from the dominant fourier transform infrared (FTIR) peaks at 621cm-1 and 412cm-1.

  20. Computational fluid dynamic modeling of the flame spray pyrolysis process for silica nanopowder synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivas-Martinez, Miguel; Sohn, Hong Yong; Jang, Hee Dong; Rhee, Kang-In

    2015-07-01

    A computational fluid dynamic model that couples the fluid dynamics with various processes involving precursor droplets and product particles during the flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) synthesis of silica nanopowder from volatile precursors is presented. The synthesis of silica nanopowder from tetraethylorthosilicate and tetramethylorthosilicate in bench- and pilot-scale FSP reactors, with the ultimate purpose of industrial-scale production, was simulated. The transport and evaporation of liquid droplets are simulated from the Lagrangian viewpoint. The quadrature method of moments is used to solve the population balance equation for particles undergoing homogeneous nucleation and Brownian collision. The nucleation rate is computed based on the rates of thermal decomposition and oxidation of the precursor with no adjustable parameters. The computed results show that the model is capable of reproducing the magnitude as well as the variations of the average particle diameter with different experimental conditions using a single value of the collision efficiency factor α for a given reactor size.

  1. Thermal and Mechanical Characteristics of Polymer Composites Based on Epoxy Resin, Aluminium Nanopowders and Boric Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarenko, O. B.; Melnikova, T. V.; Visakh, P. M.

    2016-01-01

    The epoxy polymers are characterized by low thermal stability and high flammability. Nanoparticles are considered to be effective fillers of polymer composites for improving their thermal and functional properties. In this work, the epoxy composites were prepared using epoxy resin ED-20, polyethylene polyamine as a hardener, aluminum nanopowder and boric acid fine powder as flame-retardant filler. The thermal characteristics of the obtained samples were studied using thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The mechanical characteristics of epoxy composites were also studied. It was found that an addition of all fillers enhances the thermal stability and mechanical characteristics of the epoxy composites. The best thermal stability showed the epoxy composite filled with boric acid. The highest flexural properties showed the epoxy composite based on the combination of boric acid and aluminum nanopowder.

  2. Role of Plasma Temperature and Residence Time in Stagnation Plasma Synthesis of c-BN Nanopowders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    downstream of the bubbler; (8) Set the RF plasma power to ~500-1400W; (9) Open MFCs simultaneously; (10) Once the flow reaches steady state, spark ...ROLE OF PLASMA TEMPERATURE AND RESIDENCE TIME IN STAGNATION PLASMA SYNTHESIS OF c-BN NANOPOWDERS by JONATHAN M DOYLE A Thesis submitted to the...TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Role of Plasma Temperature And Residence Time In Stagnation Plasma Synthesis

  3. Subcutaneous connective tissue reactions to three types of bioactive glass nanopowders.

    PubMed

    Mehdikhani-Nahrkhalajil, M; Fathi, M H; Mortazavi, V; Mousavi, S B; Razavi, S M

    2011-06-01

    Silica-based bioactive glasses are considered promising bone substitutes and tissue regeneration matrices, because of their bioactivity, biocompatibility, osteoconductivity, and possibly even osteoinductivity. The aim of this work was to evaluate the subcutaneous connective tissue reactions to 58S, 63S, and 72S bioactive glass nanopowders. Our previous study showed the antibacterial activities of 58S and 63S bioactive glass nanopowders on aerobic bacteria, while 72S showed no antibacterial effects at all. Bioactive glass nanopowders were prepared via the sol-gel technique. Characterization techniques such as X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and X-ray fluorescent (XRF) were utilized to carry out the phase analysis, study of the structure, particle size and the composition of the synthesized bioactive glasses. To evaluate the subcutaneous connective tissue reactions, the specimens were placed in polyethylene tubes and implanted into the dorsal connective tissue of rats. Empty polyethylene tubes were used as the control and bioactive glass micropowders (NovaBone) was used as a FDA approved bone graft. The evaluation of inflammatory reactions was performed 3, 7, 15, and 28 days after implantation. Results showed a particle size of below 100 nm for samples with amorphous structure. The samples were well tolerated by the tissues over a 28-day evaluation period. The extra tissue reactions of the 72S specimen in comparison with 58S and 63S specimens could be attributed to its higher silica content. It may be concluded that biocompatible 58S and 63S bioactive glass nanopowders with antibacterial activities can be synthesized for the treatment of osseous defects.

  4. Irradiation creep of nano-powder sintered silicon carbide at low neutron fluences

    SciTech Connect

    Koyanagi, Takaaki; Shimoda, Kazuya; Kondo, Sosuke; Hinoki, Tatsuya; Ozawa, Kazumi; Katoh, Yutai

    2014-12-01

    The irradiation creep behavior of nano-powder sintered silicon carbide was investigated using the bend stress relaxation method under neutron irradiation up to 1.9 dpa. The creep deformation was observed at all temperatures ranging from 380 to 1180 °C mainly from the irradiation creep but with the increasing contributions from the thermal creep at higher temperatures. Microstructural observation and data analysis were performed.

  5. Photoluminescent BaMoO{sub 4} nanopowders prepared by complex polymerization method (CPM)

    SciTech Connect

    Azevedo Marques, Ana Paula de . E-mail: apamarques@liec.ufscar.br; Melo, Dulce M.A. de; Paskocimas, Carlos A.; Pizani, Paulo S.; Joya, Miryam R.; Leite, Edson R.; Longo, Elson

    2006-03-15

    The BaMoO{sub 4} nanopowders were prepared by the Complex Polymerization Method (CPM). The structure properties of the BaMoO{sub 4} powders were characterized by FTIR transmittance spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectra, photoluminescence spectra (PL) and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM). The XRD, FTIR and Raman data showed that BaMoO{sub 4} at 300 deg. C was disordered. At 400 deg. C and higher temperature, BaMoO{sub 4} crystalline scheelite-type phases could be identified, without the presence of additional phases, according to the XRD, FTIR and Raman data. The calculated average crystallite sizes, calculated by XRD, around 40 nm, showed the tendency to increase with the temperature. The crystallite sizes, obtained by HR-SEM, were around of 40-50 nm. The sample that presented the highest intensity of the red emission band was the one heat treated at 400 deg. C for 2 h, and the sample that displayed the highest intensity of the green emission band was the one heat treated at 700 deg. C for 2 h. The CPM was shown to be a low cost route for the production of BaMoO{sub 4} nanopowders, with the advantages of lower temperature, smaller time and reduced cost. The optical properties observed for BaMoO{sub 4} nanopowders suggested that this material is a highly promising candidate for photoluminescent applications.

  6. Spectroscopic studies of undoped and Mn2+-doped calcium borophosphate phosphor (CaBP) nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, M. R.; Raja, B. J.; Manjari, V. P.; Avinash, M.; Krishna, C. R.; Ravikumar, R. V. S. S. N.

    2016-02-01

    Undoped and Mn2+-doped Ca6BP5O20 nanopowders (CaBP) have been prepared by modified solid-state synthesis and characterized by spectroscopic investigations like X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope with EDX, optical absorption, electron paramagnetic resonance, photoluminescence and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. From powder XRD patterns, the crystal structure is confirmed to be triclinic. Unit cell parameters, average crystal size, strain and dislocation densities have been calculated by using powder XRD data. Field emission scanning electron micrograph with EDX images, taken at different magnifications, shows that the prepared samples contain Ca, B, P, O, Mn species and micrographs exhibit irregular shaped spheres with agglomeration. By using optical absorption and electron paramagnetic resonance data, crystal field, inter-electronic repulsion and spin-Hamiltonian parameters have been evaluated. The site symmetry of Mn2+ ions is ascribed as octahedral sites with ligands. Fourier transform infrared spectra show the specific vibrations of phosphate and inorganic molecules. Photoluminescence spectra of undoped and Mn2+-doped CaBP nanopowders exhibit pale yellow to white emission under the excitation wavelength of 325 nm. The CIE chromaticity coordinates have been also calculated from emission spectrum for undoped and Mn2+-doped CaBP nanopowders.

  7. Solar physical vapor deposition: A new approach for preparing magnesium titanate nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostol, Irina; Saravanan, K. Venkata; Monty, Claude J. A.; Vilarinho, Paula M.

    2013-11-01

    Solar energy is a major factor in the equation of energy, because of the unlimited potential of the sun that eclipses all other renewable sources of energy. Solar physical vapor deposition (SPVD) is a core innovative, original and environmentally friendly process to prepare nanocrystalline materials in a powder form. The principle of this process is to melt the material under concentrated solar radiation, which evaporates and condenses as nanopowders on a cold surface. We synthesized nanopowders of magnesium titanate by the SPVD process at PROMES Laboratory in Odeillo-Font Romeu, France. The SPVD system consists of a parabolic mirror concentrator, a mobile plane mirror ("heliostat") tracking the sun and a solar reactor "heliotron". The synthesized nanopowders were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) to know their crystalline structure and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used for determining the surface morphology. We have shown that the characteristics of obtained nanotitanates were determined by the targets' composition and SPVD process parameters such as the working pressure inside the solar reactor and evaporation duration (process time).

  8. Photoluminescent BaMoO 4 nanopowders prepared by complex polymerization method (CPM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Azevedo Marques, Ana Paula; de Melo, Dulce M. A.; Paskocimas, Carlos A.; Pizani, Paulo S.; Joya, Miryam R.; Leite, Edson R.; Longo, Elson

    2006-03-01

    The BaMoO 4 nanopowders were prepared by the Complex Polymerization Method (CPM). The structure properties of the BaMoO 4 powders were characterized by FTIR transmittance spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectra, photoluminescence spectra (PL) and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM). The XRD, FTIR and Raman data showed that BaMoO 4 at 300 °C was disordered. At 400 °C and higher temperature, BaMoO 4 crystalline scheelite-type phases could be identified, without the presence of additional phases, according to the XRD, FTIR and Raman data. The calculated average crystallite sizes, calculated by XRD, around 40 nm, showed the tendency to increase with the temperature. The crystallite sizes, obtained by HR-SEM, were around of 40-50 nm. The sample that presented the highest intensity of the red emission band was the one heat treated at 400 °C for 2 h, and the sample that displayed the highest intensity of the green emission band was the one heat treated at 700 °C for 2 h. The CPM was shown to be a low cost route for the production of BaMoO 4 nanopowders, with the advantages of lower temperature, smaller time and reduced cost. The optical properties observed for BaMoO 4 nanopowders suggested that this material is a highly promising candidate for photoluminescent applications.

  9. High productive laser synthesis of composite nanopowders in certain stoichiometric ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipov, V. V.; Lisenkov, V. V.; Platonov, V. V.

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, the possibility of composite nanopowders production using laser evaporation method has been investigated. For this purpose, the three-dimensional thermohydrodynamical model of interaction process between the substance and laser radiation was developed. With its help, the dynamics of evaporation, movement, and crystallization of melt in Nd3+:Y3Al5O12 target have been investigated numerically. It has been established that the difference between vapor and target compositions is caused by more intensive evaporation of the components with lower boiling temperature and displacement of melt under the vapor overpressure. This difference has been obtained as a result of calculations. For the first time, the composite nanopowders in certain stoichiometric ratio have been obtained via the usage of long pulses (>300 μs). This synthesis had high productivity (>20 g/h). The Nd3+:Y3Al5O12 high transparent ceramics have been obtained after the compaction of these nanopowders and vacuum sintering of the compacts at 1700°C.

  10. Ultrasonic deagglomeration of aluminum nanopowders with multi-walled carbon nanotube mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Kozulin, Alexander A. Vorozhtsov, Sergey A. Kulkov, Sergey S.; Kulkov, Sergey N.; Teipel, U.

    2015-10-27

    Comprehensive investigations of aluminum nanopowders, multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and aluminum mixtures with multi-walled carbon nanotubes subjected to ultrasonic deagglomeration in a liquid medium were performed, using microstructural, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric, and calorimetric analyses, and specific surface area measurements. The regime of ultrasonic deagglomeration of aluminum nanopowders with multi-walled carbon nanotubes in a liquid medium is described, during which the division of large agglomerates and creation of homogeneous distribution of mixtures components in the volume takes place. It was determined that ultrasonic treatment influences the morphology and crystalline structure of investigated mixtures, contributes to the appearance of X-ray amorphous phase, decreases the specific surface area of the aluminum nanopowder from 13 to 12 m{sup 2}/g, and increases the pore volume and average size from 0.04 to 0.06 cm{sup 3}/g and from 12 to 19 nm, respectively. The size of coherently-diffracting domain was determined by the X-ray diffraction analysis is close to that estimated from the specific surface area and corresponds to average crystallites size in the materials under study.

  11. Structural, morphological, and optical study of titania-based nanopowders suitable for photocatalytic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šćepanović, M.; Grujić-Brojčin, M.; Abramović, B.; Golubović, A.

    2017-01-01

    Systematic investigation of the relationship between structural, morphological, optical and photocatalytic properties of the titania-based nanopowders is presented. A series of pure and doped titania catalysts with various (anatase and brookite) phase compositions have been prepared by sol–gel or hydrothermal route. The crystal structure and composition of the synthesized samples have been extensively characterised by XRD and Raman scattering measurements. The nanopowder morphology has been studied using microscopic methods (SEM, AFM, and STM), whereas the porous structure has been revealed by the analysis of nitrogen sorption data. The optical and electronic properties have been studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry. All investigated properties have been correlated to photocatalytic activity, tested in degradation of the pharmaceutically active substances (such as metoprolol and alprazolam) induced by UVA or visible radiation. Based on this correlation, the physical properties which contribute most to the increase in photocatalytic activity of synthesized nanopowders have been determined, in order to optimize the synthesis conditions which could lead to the maximal efficiency in degradation of particular pollutant.

  12. Synthesis of bismuth titanate (BTO) nanopowder and fabrication of microstrip rectangular patch antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiruramanathan, P.; Sharma, Sanjeev K.; Sankar, S.; Sankar Ganesh, R.; Marikani, A.; Kim, Deuk Young

    2016-12-01

    The bismuth titanate (Bi4Ti3O12) or BTO nanopowder was synthesized from the combustion method and fabricated a microstrip rectangular patch antenna (MPA). The crystal structure and lattice spacing of BTO were evaluated from XRD, TEM, and SAED analysis. The crystal structure of BTO (annealed at 900 °C) was observed to be the orthorhombic phase with fcc lattice. The microstructure of BTO nanoparticles was confirmed the spherical and hexagonal shapes, which were slightly agglomerated due to the lack of stabilizing surfactants. The presence of weak and wide bands in Raman spectrum quantified the mechanical compressions to the uniform directions of elongated lattice constants and tensions to the lattice constriction of crystalline bismuth titanate. To fabricate the MPA, pellets of BTO nanopowder were prepared by applying the uniaxial pressure in the dimension of 1.5 mm thickness and 8 mm diameter. These pellets were formed a densely packed structure close to the theoretical density. The coercivity and remanence polarization of BTO ceramics increased as the applied field increased. The inexpensive combustion synthesis method of BTO nanopowder showed the high dielectric constant (ɛ' = 450) and low dielectric loss (tan δ = 0.98), which has a potential implication of the cost-effectiveness in the field of miniaturized microelectronics. The synthesis and measurements of BTO ceramics are found to be suitable for wireless communication systems.

  13. Characteristic of nanoparticles generated from different nano-powders by using different dispersion methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Chuen-Jinn; Lin, Guan-Yu; Liu, Chun-Nan; He, Chi-En; Chen, Chun-Wan

    2012-03-01

    A standard rotating drum with a modified sampling train (RD), a vortex shaker (VS), and a SSPD (small-scale powder disperser) were used to investigate the emission characteristics of nano-powders, including nano-titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2, primary diameter: 21 nm), nano-zinc oxide (nano-ZnO, primary diameter: 30-50 nm), and nano-silicon dioxide (nano-SiO2, primary diameter: 10-30 nm). A TSI SMPS (scanning mobility particle sizer), a TSI APS (aerodynamic particle sizer), and a MSP MOUDI (micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor) were used to measure the number and mass distributions of generated particles. Significant differences in specific number and mass concentration or distributions were found among different methods and nano-powders with the most specific number and mass concentration and the smallest particles being generated by the most energetic SSPD, followed by VS and RD. Near uni-modal number or mass distributions were observed for the SSPD while bi-modal number or mass distributions existed for nano-powders except nano-SiO2 which also exhibited bimodal mass distributions. The 30-min average results showed that the mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) and number median diameter (NMD) of the SSPD ranged 1.1-2.1 μm and 166-261 nm, respectively, for all three nano-powders, which were smaller than those of the VS (MMAD: 3.3-6.0 μm and NMD: 156-462 nm), and the RD (MMAD: 5.2-11.2 μm and NMD: 198-479 nm). For nano-particles (electric mobility diameter < 100 nm), specific mass concentrations were nearly negligible for all three nano-powders and test methods. Specific number concentrations of nano-particles were low for the RD tester but were elevated when more energetic VS and SSPD testers were used. The quantitative size and concentration data obtained in this study is useful to elucidate the field emission and personal exposure data in the future provided that particle loss in the generation system is carefully assessed.

  14. Synthesis of hollow cobalt oxide nanopowders by a salt-assisted spray pyrolysis process applying nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion and their electrochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Ju, Hyeon Seok; Cho, Jung Sang; Kim, Jong Hwa; Choi, Yun Ju; Kang, Yun Chan

    2015-12-21

    A new concept for preparing hollow metal oxide nanopowders by salt-assisted spray pyrolysis applying nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion is introduced. The composite powders of metal oxide and indecomposable metal salt are prepared by spray pyrolysis. Post-treatment under a reducing atmosphere and subsequent washing using distilled water produce aggregation-free metal nanopowders. The metal nanopowders are then transformed into metal oxide hollow nanopowders by nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion. Co3O4 hollow nanopowders are prepared as first target materials. A cobalt oxide-NaCl composite powder prepared by spray pyrolysis transforms into several Co3O4 hollow nanopowders by several treatment processes. The discharge capacities of the Co3O4 nanopowders with filled and hollow structures at a current density of 1 A g(-1) for the 150th cycle are 605 and 775 mA h g(-1), respectively. The hollow structure formed by nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion improves the lithium-ion storage properties of Co3O4 nanopowders.

  15. Effect of uniform magnetic and electric fields on microstructure and substructure characteristics of combustion products of aluminum nanopowder in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Il'in, A. P.; Mostovshchikov, A. V.; Pak, A. Ya.

    2016-12-01

    We have analyzed the effect of constant electric and magnetic fields on the micro- and substructure characteristics of the combustion products of aluminum nanopowder in air. It has been found that the combustion of aluminum nanopowder in a magnetic field leads to the formation of single crystals of the hexagonal habitus, while the combustion in an electric field results in the formation of faceted crystallites with layered morphology. The fields noticeably affect the crystal lattice parameters of aluminum oxide and nitride (reduce the coherent scattering regions in aluminum nitride and increase such regions in aluminum γ-oxide). At the same time, the displacement of atoms relative to the equilibrium position becomes noticeably smaller for all crystal phases under the action of the fields (except for aluminum nitride in a magnetic field). These results have been explained by the orienting and stabilizing actions of the fields on the combustion products of aluminum nanopowder in air.

  16. Microwave absorption properties of multiwalled carbon nanotube/FeNi nanopowders as light-weight microwave absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Fusheng; Zhang, Fang; Xiang, Jianyong; Hu, Wentao; Yuan, Shijun; Liu, Zhongyuan

    2013-10-01

    Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and FeNi nanopowders have been facilely synthesized by a simple chemical method. Excellent microwave absorption properties have been obtained due to a proper combination of complex permittivity and permeability which result from the high resistivity of the sintered composite of MWCNTs and the magnetic FeNi nanopowders. The minimum reflection loss (RL) is less than -20 dB at 2.72-18.0 GHz with a thickness between 1.21 and 6.00 mm for 40 wt% MWCNT/FeNi composites, and a minimum RL value of -47.6 dB is observed at 12.09 GHz on a specimen with a matching thickness of 1.79 mm. The frequency of microwave absorption complies with the quarter-wavelength (λ/4) matching model. The MWCNT/FeNi nanopowders are a promising candidate for lightweight microwave absorption materials.

  17. The effect of annealing on properties of europium doped ZnO nanopowders obtained by a microwave hydrothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolska-Kornio, E.; Kaszewski, J.; Witkowski, B. S.; Wachnicki, Ł.; Godlewski, M.

    2016-09-01

    Europium doped ZnO nanopowders made by microwave hydrothermal method are investigated. As zinc oxide precursor zinc nitrate(V) hexahydrate (Zn(NO3)2·6H2O) was used. Two types of nanopowder samples are examined: as grown and annealed at 750 °C in air atmosphere. We investigate the structural, morphological and optical prosperities of europium doped ZnO. Results of scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, photo- and cathodoluminescence investigations and also CIE1961 chromaticity diagram are presented.

  18. Antimicrobial properties of silver-doped hydroxyapatite nano-powders and thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sygnatowicz, Michael; Keyshar, Kunttal; Tiwari, Ashutosh

    2010-07-01

    Silver-doped hydroxyapatite nanopowders were prepared using a solution based sol-gel method and thoroughly characterized using x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Antibacterial tests showed silver-doped HAP powders prevented the growth and reproduction of bacteria. Silver-doped HAP powders were pressed into pellets and on these pellets a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique was employed to grow amorphous and crystalline thin films on sapphire substrates. Crystalline films had silver nano-particles present within the HAP matrix. Film stability tests showed crystalline films to be far more stable in prolonged solution submersion than their amorphous counterparts.

  19. Optical properties and radiation stability of submicro- and nanopowders titanium dioxide measured in situ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, M. M.; Neshchimenko, V. V.; Yuryev, S. A.

    2016-04-01

    This study carried out an in situ and external investigation on the reflective spectra of micro- and nanopowders titanium dioxide before and after irradiation by 30 keV electrons. The particle sizes range from 60-240 nm. It was established that the decrease in the particle size leads to an increase in intrinsic defects. The particles with intrinsic defects are then transformed into absorption centers during irradiation as a result of optical degradation of TiO2 powders. High radiation stability has particle sizes range from 80-160 nm.

  20. Characterization and mechanical properties of solar grade silicon in granular and nanopowder form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zbib, Mohamad B.

    Polycrystalline silicon is mainly used for solar cell applications, structures in micro-electromechanical systems, and production of single crystal Si. One of the relatively new methods for producing large quantities of polysilicon is fluidized bed reactor (FBR), where two main morphologies are produced, granular solid (1-3 mm) and nanopowders (30-300 nm). Grinding and fracture occurs in the granular solid during shipping and handling which can affect the final product properties and create safety issues. The microstructure and the morphology of both the granular and the nanopowder forms of Si were examined using scanning and transmission electron microscopes (SEM and TEM). The fracture toughness of the granular silicon was studied, using microindentation and nanoindentation techniques, at different annealing processes, and with different hydrogen concentrations during production. Hydrogen defects in silicon were analyzed using infrared spectroscopy to develop a new relationship between hydrogen and toughness. Based on the microstructural analysis it was shown that the granular Si are mostly crystalline with some amorphous regions linked to small pores, while the nanopowders are mostly amorphous with some crystalline bits; the porosity in the granular Si ranges between 1-4 volume percentage. It was proposed that the primary mechanism in FBR for the granular Si formation is chemical vapor deposition with minor agglomeration associated with pores. It was found that the lower the hydrogen in the production, the higher the fracture toughness where it can be improved up to 45% (from 0.6 to 0.86 MPa.m0.5), and lead for less dust during physical contact. New attrition parameters were proposed in order to better understand the fracture mechanisms of Si granules and other brittle microspheres. These parameters provide a relationship between the mechanical properties (indentation techniques), fracture behavior and failure mechanisms using both crushing tests and impact tests

  1. Synthesis and characterization of Eu3+:YAG nanopowder by precipitation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaji, D.; Thangaraju, D.; Durairajan, A.; Babu, S. Moorthy

    2013-02-01

    Eu3+:Y3Al5O12 (Eu3+:YAG) nanopowder has been synthesized by reverse co-precipitation method. Cubic YAG structure was obtained at 850 °C calcination. FE-SEM micrographs confirm that YAG:Eu3+ particles are homogeneous sphere like morphology with average particle size of 50-70 nm. The crystalline phosphors showed orange - red emission with magnetic dipole transition 5D0→7F1 (590 nm) as most prominent group than forced electric dipole transition 5D0→7F2 (610nm).

  2. Plasma Synthesized Doped Boron Nanopowder for MgB2 Superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    James V. Marzik

    2012-03-26

    Under this program, a process to synthesize nano-sized doped boron powder by a plasma synthesis process was developed and scaled up from 20 gram batches at program start to over 200 grams by program end. Over 75 batches of boron nanopowder were made by RF plasma synthesis. Particle sizes were typically in the 20-200 nm range. The powder was synthesized by the reductive pyrolysis of BCl{sub 3} in hydrogen in an RF plasma. A wide range of process parameters were investigated including plasma power, torch geometry, gas flow rates, and process pressure. The powder-in-tube technique was used to make monofilament and multifilament superconducting wires. MgB{sub 2} wire made with Specialty Materials plasma synthesized boron nanopowder exhibited superconducting properties that significantly exceeded the program goals. Superconducting critical currents, J{sub c}, in excess of 10{sup 5} A cm{sup -2} at magnetic fields of 8 tesla were reproducibly achieved. The upper critical magnetic field in wires fabricated with program boron powder were H{sub c2}(0) = 37 tesla, demonstrating the potential of these materials for high field magnet applications. T{sub c} in carbon-doped MgB{sub 2} powder showed a systematic decrease with increasing carbon precursor gas flows, indicating the plasma synthesis process can give precise control over dopant concentrations. Synthesis rates increased by a factor of 400% over the course of the program, demonstrating the scalability of the powder synthesis process. The plasma synthesis equipment at Specialty Materials has successfully and reproducibly made high quality boron nanopowder for MgB{sub 2} superconductors. Research and development from this program enabled Specialty Materials to successfully scale up the powder synthesis process by a factor of ten and to double the size of its powder pilot plant. Thus far the program has been a technical success. It is anticipated that continued systematic development of plasma processing parameters, dopant

  3. Aluminum doped zirconia nanopowders: Wet-chemical synthesis and structural analysis by Rietveld refinement

    SciTech Connect

    Srdic, Vladimir V. Rakic, Srdan; Cvejic, Zeljka

    2008-10-02

    Alumina/zirconia nanopowders, with up to 20 mol% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, were prepared by wet-chemical synthesis technique, using controlled hydrolysis of alkoxides. The as-synthesized powders are amorphous, have very high specific surface area and the corresponding particle size smaller than 4 nm. Amorphous powders with 0, 10 and 20 mol% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystallize at 460, 692 and 749 deg. C, respectively, as a single-phase tetragonal zirconia, without any traces of alumina phases. Rietvled refinement of X-ray diffraction data, used for the detailed structural analysis of annealed nanopowders, showed that the high-temperature zirconia phase is stabilized due to the formation of ZrO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} solid solutions. High solubility of alumina in the tetragonal zirconia (up to 28.6 at% Al{sup 3+}) and stabilization of tetragonal zirconia solid solution up to high temperature (as high as 1150 deg. C) were also confirmed.

  4. EGCG assisted green synthesis of ZnO nanopowders: Photodegradative, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, D.; Udayabhanu; Nethravathi, P. C.; Lingaraju, K.; Rajanaika, H.; Sharma, S. C.; Nagabhushana, H.

    2015-02-01

    Zinc oxide nanopowders were synthesized by solution combustion method using Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) a tea catechin as fuel. The structure and morphology of the product was characterized by Powder X-ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, photoluminescence and UV-Visible spectroscopy. The nanopowders (Nps) were subjected to photocatalytic and biological activities such as antimicrobial and antioxidant studies. PXRD patterns demonstrate that the formed product belongs to hexagonal wurtzite system. SEM images show that the particles are agglomerated to form sponge like structure and the average crystallite sizes were found to be ∼10-20 nm. PL spectra exhibit broad and strong peak at 590 nm due to the Zn-vacancies, and O-vacancies. The prepared ZnO Nps exhibit excellent photocatalytic activity for the photodegradation of malachite green (MG) and methylene blue (MB) indicating that the ZnO NPs are potential photocatalytic semiconductor materials. ZnO NPs exhibit significant bactericidal activity against Klebsiella aerogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus using the agar well diffusion method. Furthermore, the ZnO nano powders show good antioxidant activity by potentially scavenging DPPH radicals. The study successfully demonstrates synthesis of ZnO NPs by simple ecofriendly route employing EGCG as fuel that exhibit superior photodegradative, antibacterial and antioxidant activities.

  5. Dependence of viscosity of suspensions of ceramic nanopowders in ethyl alcohol on concentration and temperature

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This work presents results of measurements of viscosity of suspensions including yttrium oxide (Y2O3), yttrium aluminum garnet (Y3Al5O12) and magnesium aluminum spinel (MgAl2O4) nanopowders in ethanol. Nanoparticles used in our research were either commercially available (Baikowski) or nanopowders newly developed in the Institute of Ceramics and Building Materials in Warsaw, Poland. The study was conducted in a wide range of shear rates (0.01 to 2,000 s−1) and temperature interval from -15°C to 20°C. A Haake Mars 2 rheometer from Thermo Fisher, Germany, was used in the Biophysics Laboratory at Rzeszów University of Technology. Most of the samples show a non-Newtonian behaviour. It was confirmed with a Rheo-NMR system from Bruker that 10% by weight of Y2O3 suspension is a non-Newtonian fluid. In this work, we also report an unexpected behaviour of the viscosity of some samples (Y2O3 and Y3Al5O12) due to sedimentation effect. PMID:22824064

  6. [Effects of silver and silicon dioxide nanopowders on the development of herpesvirus infection in vitro].

    PubMed

    Sopova, E A; Baranov, V I; Gankovskaia, O A; Lavrov, V F; Zverev, V V

    2010-01-01

    Estimation of the potential ability of nanoparticles (NP) to affect human health has generated a need for developing rapid, sensitive, and efficient laboratory tests of the toxicity of nanomaterials. The purpose of the investigation was to study the cytotoxic effect of NP of silver (Ag) and silicon dioxide (SiO2). The transplantable Vero cells treated with NP at different concentrations were used as target cells. Some experiments examined the combined effects of nanopowders and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) on Vero cell viability and the direct effect of NP on the reproductive potential of HSV-2 in the culture. SiO2 NPs at concentrations of 1.0 to 0.1 mg/ml were found to cause a marked cytotoxic effect that was in the complete destruction of the cell monolayer. Ag HPs were more toxic than silicon nanopowders and induced a complete degradation of the cell monolayer at substantially lower concentrations. The results of the study formed the basis for the development of a rapid (24-48-hour), reliable, and efficient test for the toxicity of nanomaterials, by using the cultured cells in the laboratory setting. It was also shown that silicon NPs did not noticeably affect the reproductive potential of HSV-2 while nano silver suppressed the capacity of HSV-2 for multiplication, by significantly reducing viral progeny titer in the cell culture.

  7. Structural, magnetic and electrical properties of CuZn ferrite nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Le-Zhong; Peng, Long; Zhong, Xiao-Xi; Wang, Rui; Tu, Xiao-Qiang

    2016-12-01

    Zn-substituted Cu ferrite nanopowders, Cu1-xZnxFe2O4 (0≤x≤1.0), were synthesized by the sol-gel auto-combustion method. The effect of Zn substitution on the structural, magnetic and electrical properties have been investigated. The DTA and TG results indicate that there are three steps of combustion process. The X-ray diffraction patterns show that there are Fe2O3, CuO and CuFeO2 secondary phases and tetragonal structure when x=0.0. Furthermore, the lattice parameter and the average crystallite size decrease, and the X-ray density increases with the increase of Zn substitution. The saturation magnetization increases with the increase of Zn substitution when x≤0.40, and decreases when x>0.40. Meanwhile, the coercivity monotonically decreases with the increase of Zn substitution. The polarization behavior for all the samples in the test frequency range of 100 Hz to 10 MHz obeys the charge polarization mechanism. Electrical transport behavior of the ferrites nanopowders is same with the impurity semiconductor, and the effect of Zn substitution on the temperature dependence of dc resistivity is observed.

  8. Bulk synthesis of monodisperse magnetic FeNi3 nanopowders by flow levitation method.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shanjun; Chen, Yan; Kang, Xiaoli; Li, Song; Tian, Yonghong; Wu, Weidong; Tang, Yongjian

    2013-10-01

    In this work, a novel bulk synthesis method for monodisperse FeNi3 nanoparticles was developed by flow levitation method (FL). The Fe and Ni vapours ascending from the high temperature levitated droplet was condensed by cryogenic Ar gas under atmospheric pressure. X-ray diffraction was used to identify and characterize the crystal phase of prepared powders exhibiting a FeNi3 phase. The morphology and size of nanopowders were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The chemical composition of the nanoparticles was determined with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The results indicated that the FeNi3 permalloy powders are nearly spherical-shaped with diameter about 50-200 nm. Measurement of the magnetic property of nanopowders by a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID, Quantum Design MPMS-7) showed a symmetric hysteresis loop of ferromagnetic behavior with coercivity of 220 Oe and saturation magnetization of 107.17 emu/g, at 293 K. At 5 K, the obtained saturation magnetization of the sample was 102.16 emu/g. The production rate of FeNi3 nanoparticles was estimated to be about 6 g/h. This method has great potential in mass production of FeNi3 nannoparticles.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of NiO nanopowder by sol-gel process

    SciTech Connect

    Ningsih, Sherly Kasuma Warda

    2015-09-30

    Preparation of nickel oxide (NiO) nanopowder by sol-gel process has been studied. NiO nanopowders were obtained by sol-gel method by using nickel nitrate hexahydrate and sodium hydroxide and aquadest were used as precursor, agent precipitator and solvent, respectively. The powders were formed by drying at 110°C and followed by heating in the furnace at 400°C for 1.5 hours. The product was obtained black powder. The product was characterized by Energy Dispesive X-ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The ED-XRF pattern shows the composition of NiO produced was 97.1%. The XRD pattern showed NiO forms were produced generally in monoclinic stucture. The crystalline size of NiO was obtained in the range 40-85 nm. SEM micrograph clearly showed that powder had a spherical with uniform distribution size is 0.1-1.0 µm approximately.

  10. Tough yttria-stabilized zirconia ceramic by low-temperature spark plasma sintering of long-term stored nanopowders.

    PubMed

    Bezdorozhev, Oleksii; Borodianska, Hanna; Sakka, Yoshio; Vasylkiv, Oleg

    2011-09-01

    Weakly agglomerated 1.75 and 3 mol% yttria stabilized zirconia nanopowders were used in this study after six years of storage in vacuum-processed plastic containers. The proper storage conditions of the Y-TZP nanopowders avoided the hard agglomeration. Untreated and bead-milled nanopowders were used to obtain dense ceramics by slip casting and subsequent low-temperature sintering. Fully dense nanostructured 1.75Y-TZP and 3Y-YZP ceramics with and without doping of 1 wt% Al2O3 were produced by an optimized spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique at the temperatures of 1050-1150 degrees C at a pressure of 100 MPa. The SPS has revealed the clear advantage of consolidation of the weakly agglomerated nanopowders without preliminary deagglomeration. The Vickers hardness of both the low-temperature and spark plasma sintered samples was found to lie in the range of 10.98-13.71 GPa. A maximum fracture toughness of 15.7 MPa m(1/2) (average 14.23 MPa m(1/2)) was achieved by SPS of the 1.75Y-TZP ceramic doped with 1 wt% Al2O3 whereas the toughness of the 3Y-TZP ceramics with and without alumina doping was found to vary between 3.55 and 5.5 MPa m(1/2).

  11. Surface properties of calcium and magnesium oxide nanopowders grafted with unsaturated carboxylic acids studied with inverse gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Maciejewska, Magdalena; Krzywania-Kaliszewska, Alicja; Zaborski, Marian

    2012-09-28

    Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) was applied at infinite dilution to evaluate the surface properties of calcium and magnesium oxide nanoparticles and the effect of surface grafted unsaturated carboxylic acid on the nanopowder donor-acceptor characteristics. The dispersive components (γ(s)(D)) of the free energy of the nanopowders were determined by Gray's method, whereas their tendency to undergo specific interactions was estimated based on the electron donor-acceptor approach presented by Papirer. The calcium and magnesium oxide nanoparticles exhibited high surface energies (79 mJ/m² and 74 mJ/m², respectively). Modification of nanopowders with unsaturated carboxylic acids decreased their specific adsorption energy. The lowest value of γ(s)(D) was determined for nanopowders grafted with undecylenic acid, approximately 55 mJ/m². The specific interactions were characterised by the molar free energy (ΔG(A)(SP)) and molar enthalpy (ΔH(A)(SP)) of adsorption as well as the donor and acceptor interaction parameters (K(A), K(D)).

  12. Effect of solution combusted TiO2 nanopowder within commercial BaTiO3 dielectric layer on the photoelectric properties for AC powder electroluminescence devices.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung; Choi, Gil Rak; Kim, Youn Cheol; Lee, Jae Chun; Lee, Ju Hyeon

    2013-05-01

    A unique synthesis method was developed, which is called solution combustion method (SCM). TiO2 nanopowder was synthesized by this method. This SCM TiO2 nanopowder (-35 nm) was added to the dielectric layer of AC powder electroluminescence (EL) device. The dielectric layer was made of commercial BaTiO3 powder (-1.2 microm) and binding polymer. 0, 5, 10 and 15 wt% of SCM TiO2 nanopowder was added to the dielectric layer during fabrication of AC powder EL device respectively. Dielectric constant of these four kinds of dielectric layers was measured. The brightness and current density of AC powder EL device were also measured. When 10 wt% of SCM TiO2 nanopowder was added, dielectric constant and brightness were increased by 30% and 101% respectively. Furthermore, the current density was decreased by 71%. This means that the brightness was double and the power consumption was one third.

  13. Nanopowders M{sub 2}O{sub 3} (M = Y, La, Yb, Nd) with spherical particles and laser ceramics based on them

    SciTech Connect

    Bagayev, Sergei N; Kaminskii, Alexandr A; Kopylov, Yu L; Kravchenko, V B; Tolmachev, A V; Shemet, V V; Yavetskii, R P

    2013-03-31

    We have considered the problems of agglomeration of yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG) nanopowders prepared by chemical co-precipitation of precursors from aqueous solutions and subsequent calcination. To fabricate YAG and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} laser ceramic samples with high optical transmittance and reproducible characteristics, we have developed a method for producing non-agglomerated nanopowders of pure and doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} by homogeneous chemical precipitation. Nanopowders Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} with La and Yb as well as mixtures of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} : Nd and several commercial nanopowders of aluminium oxide have been compacted; optimised compacting technique have been selected; ceramic samples (Y, La, Yb){sub 2}O{sub 3} and YAG : Nd with high optical transmittance at a wavelength of 1 {mu}m have been produced by solid-phase synthesis. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  14. Acetone Sensing Properties of a Gas Sensor Composed of Carbon Nanotubes Doped With Iron Oxide Nanopowder

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Qiulin; Fang, Jiahua; Liu, Wenyi; Xiong, Jijun; Zhang, Wendong

    2015-01-01

    Iron oxide (Fe2O3) nanopowder was prepared by a precipitation method and then mixed with different proportions of carbon nanotubes. The composite materials were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. A fabricated heater-type gas sensor was compared with a pure Fe2O3 gas sensor under the influence of acetone. The effects of the amount of doping, the sintering temperature, and the operating temperature on the response of the sensor and the response recovery time were analyzed. Experiments show that doping of carbon nanotubes with iron oxide effectively improves the response of the resulting gas sensors to acetone gas. It also reduces the operating temperature and shortens the response recovery time of the sensor. The response of the sensor in an acetone gas concentration of 80 ppm was enhanced, with good repeatability. PMID:26569253

  15. Molten salt synthesis and localized surface plasmon resonance study of vanadium dioxide nanopowders

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Fu; Liu Yun; Liu Chunyan

    2009-12-15

    Rutile-type vanadium dioxide nanopowders with four different sizes were successfully synthesized by carbothermal reducing V{sub 2}O{sub 5} in KCl-LiCl molten salt. XRD and TEM characterizations suggested that vanadium dioxide particles formed by a broken and reunited process of vanadium oxide. Molten salt and organic carbon sources are crucial to the size of final particles. In the presence of the molten salt, the organic carbon with a shorter chain length would induce smaller particles. The UV-VIS-IR spectral measurements for as-prepared vanadium dioxide announced an obvious localized surface plasmon resonance band in the near infrared region at 90 deg. C. - Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration of the formation mechanism of VO{sub 2}(M) nanoparticles in molten salt, particles size can be controlled by choosing organic carbon sources with different chain length.

  16. Preparation and Characterization of Fine-Particle NTO and Its Formulation with Al Nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, K.-Y.; Kennedy, J. E.; Asay, B. W.; Son, S. F.; Martin, E. S.

    2004-07-01

    We have initiated study of the effect of nano-aluminum on the detonation performance of NTO. A novel method for the preparation of both fine-particle NTO (UF-NTO) and its formulation with Al nanopowder has been developed. Results from small-scale sensitivity tests on both the UF-NTO and aluminized NTO composite indicated that they are insensitive to impact, friction and HESD. The performance of both UF-NTO and NTO/Al mix was evaluated by detonation-spreading floret tests. At the same pressed density, it was found that, when initiated by a 3-mm-diameter flyer plate, the aluminized NTO composite produced a shallower dent on a copper witness plate than neat UF-NTO and thus was inferior to UF-NTO in detonation spreading.

  17. A study of tungsten nanopowder formation by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Nersisyan, H.H.; Won, C.W.; Lee, J.H.

    2005-08-01

    Molten salt-assisted self-propagating high-temperature synthesis of nanocrystalline W powder was studied experimentally. The technique involves the reduction of WO{sub 3} in the presence of sodium chloride using three different reducing agents: magnesium (Mg), sodium azide (NaN{sub 3}), and sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}). The effects of the mole fraction of sodium chloride on temperature distributions, combustion parameters, phase compositions, and morphology of the final products were determined. The sodium chloride-assisted method reported here has been found to be effective for lowering combustion temperature and producing uniform and spherical W nanopowders of average particle size around 20-200, 100-200, and 20-50 nm. The effect of combustion temperature on tungsten particle size is discussed, and a sketch describing the chemistry of combustion is proposed.

  18. Ferromagnetic order in aged Co-doped TiO2 anatase nanopowders.

    PubMed

    Silvestre, A J; Pereira, L C J; Nunes, M R; Monteiro, O C

    2012-08-01

    This paper reports on the ferromagnetic properties of aged Ti(1-x)CoxO(2-delta) anatase nanopowders with different Co contents (0.03 < or = x < or = 0.10). It is shown for the first time that aged Co:TiO2 anatase samples retain rather high values of magnetization (M), remanence (Mr) and coercivity (Hc) which provide strong evidence for a preserved long-range ferromagnetic order. Room temperature M, Mr and Hc values were measured in the ranges of [0.05, 0.79] microB/Co, [0.044, 0.096] microB/Co and [366.7,494.8]Oe, respectively, which are in the same range as in general reported either for newly prepared thin films or nanoparticles.

  19. The effect of calcination temperature on the crystallinity of TiO 2 nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yung-Fang; Lee, Chi-Young; Yeng, Ming-Yu; Chiu, Hsin-Tien

    2003-01-01

    TiO 2 nanopowders have been prepared using 0.1 M titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) in varied pH aqueous solution containing TMC and NP-204 surfactants. Only the powder acquired from a solution of pH=2 has a regular particle size distribution. Anatase phase powders are obtained by calcination in nitrogen in the 250-500°C temperature range. When calcined at 400°C, the diameter of the nanoparticles is approximately 10 nm with a specific surface area of 106.9 m 2/g. As the calcination temperature is increased, the particle size increases. Rutile phase powders are formed at calcination temperatures above 600°C.

  20. Preparation, structural and optical characterization of ZnO, ZnO: Al nanopowder

    SciTech Connect

    Mohan, R. Raj; Rajendran, K.; Sambath, K.

    2014-01-28

    In this paper, ZnO and ZnO:Al nanopowders have been synthesized by low cost hydrothermal method. Zinc nitrate, hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) and aluminium nitrate are used as precursors for ZnO and AZO with different molar ratios. The structural and optical characterization of doped and un-doped ZnO powders have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX), photoluminescence (PL) and ultra violet visible (UV-Vis) absorption studies. The SEM results show that the hydrothermal synthesis can be used to obtain nanoparticles with different morphology. It is observed that the grain size of the AZO nanoparticles increased with increasing of Al concentration. The PL measurement of AZO shows that broad range of green emission around 550nm with high intensity. The green emission resulted mainly because of intrinsic defects.

  1. Preparation, structural and optical characterization of ZnO, ZnO: Al nanopowder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, R. Raj; Rajendran, K.; Sambath, K.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, ZnO and ZnO:Al nanopowders have been synthesized by low cost hydrothermal method. Zinc nitrate, hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) and aluminium nitrate are used as precursors for ZnO and AZO with different molar ratios. The structural and optical characterization of doped and un-doped ZnO powders have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX), photoluminescence (PL) and ultra violet visible (UV-Vis) absorption studies. The SEM results show that the hydrothermal synthesis can be used to obtain nanoparticles with different morphology. It is observed that the grain size of the AZO nanoparticles increased with increasing of Al concentration. The PL measurement of AZO shows that broad range of green emission around 550nm with high intensity. The green emission resulted mainly because of intrinsic defects.

  2. Nanopowder molding method for creating implantable high-aspect-ratio electrodes on thin flexible substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Zhiyu; Thundat, Thomas George

    2006-03-01

    Metal nanoparticles and a nanopowder molding process were used to fabricate 2D and 3D patternable structures having a height-to-width ratio of up to 10:1. By means of this process, an entire neural stimulation circuit, including stimulating electrode, connection trace, and contact pad, can be fused into one continuous, integrated structure where different sections can have different heights, widths, and shapes. The technique is suitable for mass production, and the fabricated electrode is robust and very flexible. More importantly for biomedical applications, the entire fabricated structure can be packed at room temperature onto a biocompatible flexible substrate, such as polydimethylsiloxane, parylene, and polyimide as well as other temperature-sensitive or vacuum-sensitive materials. The electrodes and wires have about the same electrical resistivities as bulk materials and desirable electrochemical properties, including low impedance.

  3. Green approach for the synthesis and characterization of ZrSnO4 nanopowder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athar, Taimur; Vishwakarma, Sandeep Kumar; Bardia, Avinash; Alabass, Razzaq; Alqarlosy, Ahmed; Khan, Aleem Ahmed

    2016-06-01

    Well-defined structural framework of ZrSnO4 nanopowder has been synthesized for the fabrications of cost-effective and sensitive devices which give final reproducible result with reliability under ideal conditions. The synthesis was carried out at moderate temperature and then finally dried in the laboratory oven and then followed with calcination at 1000 °C for 4 h to get phase selective product. It was observed that gelation time depends on the concentration of reactants and temperature. The characterization of ZrSnO4 was carried out with XRD, SEM, TEM, UV, thermal analysis, DLS and FT-IR techniques. With adjustment of reaction parameters, the systematic tuning of the particle size, shape and functional properties can be controlled. It was concluded that self-assembly is an integral part for the synthesis and opens a new exciting opportunity for better understanding the formation of nanostructure framework from micro- to nanoscale along with mechanistic via wet chemical approach. ZrSnO4 has vital role in identifying its potential cytotoxicity in the biological systems. The cytotoxicity effects of ZrSnO4 nanopowder in vitro were evaluated in three different human cell types (hepatocytes, mesenchymal stem cells and neuronal cells). Acute exposure of nanoparticles was found to have greater cytotoxic effect at higher concentration (30 µg/ml). However, partial detoxification was observed during nanoparticles exposure at day 6. The study concluded that an initial stress from nanoparticles incorporates sealing or detoxification of nanoparticles which may help to recover cell viability.

  4. Combustion synthesis, characterization and Raman studies of ZnO nanopowders.

    PubMed

    Reddy, A Jagannatha; Kokila, M K; Nagabhushana, H; Rao, J L; Shivakumara, C; Nagabhushana, B M; Chakradhar, R P S

    2011-10-15

    Spherical shaped ZnO nanopowders (14-50 nm) were synthesized by a low temperature solution combustion method in a short time <5 min. Rietveld analysis show that ZnO has hexagonal wurtzite structure with lattice constants a=3.2511(1) Å, c=5.2076(2) Å, unit cell volume (V)=47.66(5) (Å)(3) and belongs to space group P63mc. SEM micrographs reveal that the particles are spherical in shape and the powders contained several voids and pores. TEM results also confirm spherical shape, with average particle size of 14-50 nm. The values are consistent with the grain sizes measured from Scherrer's method and Williamson-Hall (W-H) plots. A broad UV-vis absorption spectrum was observed at ∼375 nm which is a characteristic band for the wurtzite hexagonal pure ZnO. The optical energy band gap of 3.24 eV was observed for nanopowder which is slightly lower than that of the bulk ZnO (3.37 eV). The observed Raman peaks at 438 and 588 cm(-1) were attributed to the E(2) (high) and E(1) (LO) modes respectively. The broad band at 564 cm(-1) is due to disorder-activated Raman scattering for the A(1) mode. These bands are associated with the first-order Raman active modes of the ZnO phase. The weak bands observed in the range 750-1000 cm(-1) are due to small defects.

  5. Study on the Effect of Different Amount of Titanium Dioxide Nano-Powder to the Nano-Structured Titanium Dioxide Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, M. K.; Rusop, M.

    2009-06-01

    Nanostructured Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) thin film with additional various amount of TiO2 nanopowder has been successfully prepared using sol-gel spin coating method. The amounts of TiO2 nanopowders are varied at 0.02 g, 0.04 g, 0.06 g, 0.08 g, 0.10 g and 0.12 g, respectively. The effects of different amount of Titanium Dioxide nanopowder to the structural, electrical and optical properties have been studied. The effects of different amount of nano-powder TiO2 were characterized using X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD), 2-point probe I-V measurement and UV-Vis-NIR Spectrophotometer. For electrical properties, O.1 g of TiO2 nanopowder gives the lowest sheet resistance among other nanostructured TiO2 thin film. As for XRD data, all thin films are in crystalline anatase form which can observe at 2θ degree 25.6° for [101]. As the amount TiO2 nanopowder increased at 0.10 g and 0.12 g, new crystalline anatase phase can be observed at 2θ degree 48.6° for [200]. All TiO2 thin films also exhibited optical transmittance over 69% with wavelength range from 200 nm to 1000 nm.

  6. Influence of precipitant solution pH on the structural, morphological and upconversion luminescent properties of Lu 2O 3:2%Yb, 0.2%Tm nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li; Xiaochun, Wang; xiantao, Wei; Yonghu, Chen; Changxin, Guo; Min, Yin

    2011-02-01

    Lutetium oxide nanopowders codoped with Tm 3+ and Yb 3+ were synthesized by the reverse-strike co-precipitation method. Effects of precipitant solution pH on the structural, morphological and upconversion luminescent properties of Lu 2O 3:2%Yb, 0.2%Tm nanopowders had been investigated. The results show that pH value of the precipitant (NH 4HCO 3) solution has a significant effect on the particle size, morphology and upconversion emission intensity of the Lu 2O 3:2%Yb, 0.2%Tm nanopowders. All the samples obtained from different pH value of precipitant solution can be readily indexed to pure cubic phase of Lu 2O 3, indicating good crystallinity. The upconversion emission intensity of Lu 2O 3:2%Yb, 0.2%Tm nanopowders obtained from the precipitant solution with pH=11 is the strongest. The enhancement of the upconversion luminescence is suggested to be the consequence of reducing the number of OH - groups and the enlarged nanopowder size. The strong blue, weak red and near infrared emissions from the prepared nanopowders were observed under 980 nm laser excitation, and attributed to the 1G 4→ 3H 6, 1G 4→ 3F 4 and 3H 4→ 3H 6 transitions of Tm 3+ ion, respectively.

  7. Comparison of the luminescent properties of LuAG:Pr nanopowders, crystals and films using synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbenko, V.; Zych, E.; Voznyak, T.; Nizankovskiy, S.; Zorenko, T.; Zorenko, Yu.

    2017-04-01

    Comparison of the luminescent properties of nanopowder, single crystal and single crystalline film of Pr3+ doped Pr-doped Lu3Al5O12 garnet (LuAG:Pr) prepared by the different technological methods is performed in this work using the time-resolved emission spectroscopy under excitation by synchrotron radiation with an energy of 3.7-25 eV at 300 K and 10 K. The notable differences in the properties of the Pr3+ luminescence are observed in LuAG:Pr crystals and films caused by involving the LuAl antisite defects and oxygen vacancies in crystals and Pb2+ flux related dopant in films in the excitation processes of the Pr3+ luminescence. At the same time, we have also found that the influence of host defects on the Pr3+ luminescence is significantly smaller in the LuAG:Pr nanopowders.

  8. The Preventive Effects of Nanopowdered Peanut Sprout-added Caciocavallo Cheese on Collagen-induced Arthritic Mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Hwi; Chang, Yoon Hyuk; Kwak, Hae-Soo

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of nanopowdered peanut sprout-added Caciocavallo cheese (NPCC) on the prevention and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in DBA/IJ mice immunized with type II collagen. After the induction of arthritis, the mice were being divided into five groups: (1) normal, no immunization; (2) CIA, collagen-induced arthritis; (3) MTX, collagen-induced arthritis treated with methotrexate (0.3 mg/kg body weight); (4) CC, collagen-induced arthritis treated with Caciocavallo cheese (0.6 g/d); (5) NPCC, collagen-induced arthritis treated with nanopowdered peanut sprout-added Caciocavallo cheese (0.6 g/d). Nanopowdered peanut sprout was ranged from 300 to 350 nm, while regular powdered peanut sprouts were ranged from 50 to 150 μm. The NPCC group had considerable reductions of clinical scores and paw thicknesses at the end of experiment as compared to the CIA group. In the serum analysis, the TNF-α, IL-1β, IL- 6 and IgG1 levels in the NPCC group have decreased by 69.4, 75.9, 66.6, and 61.9%, respectively, when compared to the CIA group. The histological score and spleen index of the NPCC group were significantly lower than the CIA group. In conclusion, the feeding NPCC method could delay and/or prevent the rheumatoid arthritis in the collagen-induced arthritis mouse model. Based on this study, nanopowdered peanut sprouts could be applied to various functional cheeses.

  9. The Preventive Effects of Nanopowdered Peanut Sprout-added Caciocavallo Cheese on Collagen-induced Arthritic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yoon Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of nanopowdered peanut sprout-added Caciocavallo cheese (NPCC) on the prevention and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in DBA/IJ mice immunized with type II collagen. After the induction of arthritis, the mice were being divided into five groups: (1) normal, no immunization; (2) CIA, collagen-induced arthritis; (3) MTX, collagen-induced arthritis treated with methotrexate (0.3 mg/kg body weight); (4) CC, collagen-induced arthritis treated with Caciocavallo cheese (0.6 g/d); (5) NPCC, collagen-induced arthritis treated with nanopowdered peanut sprout-added Caciocavallo cheese (0.6 g/d). Nanopowdered peanut sprout was ranged from 300 to 350 nm, while regular powdered peanut sprouts were ranged from 50 to 150 μm. The NPCC group had considerable reductions of clinical scores and paw thicknesses at the end of experiment as compared to the CIA group. In the serum analysis, the TNF-α, IL-1β, IL- 6 and IgG1 levels in the NPCC group have decreased by 69.4, 75.9, 66.6, and 61.9%, respectively, when compared to the CIA group. The histological score and spleen index of the NPCC group were significantly lower than the CIA group. In conclusion, the feeding NPCC method could delay and/or prevent the rheumatoid arthritis in the collagen-induced arthritis mouse model. Based on this study, nanopowdered peanut sprouts could be applied to various functional cheeses. PMID:26760745

  10. Ammonia sensing properties of V-doped ZnO:Ca nanopowders prepared by sol–gel synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Fazio, E.; Hjiri, M.; Dhahri, R.; El Mir, L.; Sabatino, G.; Barreca, F.; Neri, F.; Leonardi, S.G.; Pistone, A.; Neri, G.

    2015-03-15

    V-doped ZnO:Ca nanopowders with different V loading were prepared by sol–gel synthesis and successive drying in ethanol under supercritical conditions. Characterization data of nanopowders annealed at 700 °C in air, revealed that they have the wurtzite structure. Raman features of V-doped ZnO:Ca samples were found to be substantially modified with respect to pure ZnO or binary ZnO:Ca samples, which indicate the substitution of vanadium ions in the ZnO lattice. The ammonia sensing properties of V-doped ZnO:Ca thick films were also investigated. The results obtained demonstrate the possibility of a fine tuning of the sensing characteristics of ZnO-based sensors by Ca and V doping. In particular, their combined effect has brought to an enhanced response towards NH{sub 3} compared to bare ZnO and binary V-ZnO and Ca-ZnO samples. Raman investigation suggested that the presence of Ca play a key role in enhancing the sensor response in these ternary composite nanomaterials. - Graphical abstract: V-doped ZnO:Ca nanopowders prepared by sol–gel synthesis possess enhanced sensing characteristics towards NH{sub 3} compared to bare ZnO. - Highlights: • V-doped ZnO:Ca nanopowders with different V loading were prepared by sol–gel synthesis. • Raman features of V-doped ZnO:Ca samples indicate the substitution of V ions in the ZnO lattice. • Combined effects of dopants have brought to an enhanced response to NH{sub 3} compared to ZnO. • Ca play a key role in enhancing the sensor response of ternary V-doped ZnO:Ca composites.

  11. A study on the production of titanium carbide nano-powder in the nanostate and its properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiryaeva, L. S.; Rudneva, S. V.; Galevsky, G. V.; Garbuzova, A. K.

    2016-09-01

    The plasma synthesis of titanium carbide nano-powder in the conditions close to industrial was studied. Titanium carbide TiC is a wear- and corrosion-resistant, hard, chemically inert material, demanded in various fields for the production of hard alloys, metal- ceramic tools, heat-resistant products, protective metal coatings. New perspectives for application titanium carbide in the nanostate can be found in the field of alloys modification with different composition and destination.

  12. Scalable preparation and characterization of GaN nanopowders with high crystallinity by soluble salts-assisted route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Yingying; Yu, Leshu; Ai, Wenwen; Li, Chungen

    2014-11-01

    By using Na3PO4 as a dispersant, soluble salt-assisted route has been further developed to prepare high-crystalline GaN nanoparticles powder on a large scale through the direct nitridation of Ga-Na3PO4 mixture at 750-950 °C and followed by washing with water. The systematical characterizations including XRD, Raman, IR, TEM, XPS, and PL spectrum showed that the as-prepared nanopowders were composed of nanoparticles in diameters of 8-18 nm, hexagonal phase, pure GaN, and had a broad UV centered at 388 nm and blue emissions band centered at around 547 nm. Because of the utilization of the simple reaction between metallic Ga and NH3, the preparation of pure GaN nanopowders becomes very easy, economical, and scalable, suggesting broad application in optoelectronic device material. The interesting results indicate the wide range of soluble salt-assisted route for promising industrial production of GaN nanopowders.

  13. [Spectroscopic properties of Er3+ : Ba0.65Sr0.35TiO nanopowders].

    PubMed

    Wu, Ji-qing; Zhang, Tian-jin; Wang, Jing-yang; Yu, Lin; Pan, Rui-kun

    2010-11-01

    Ba0.65Sr0.35TiO2 (BST) nanopowders doped with Er3+ were prepared by sol-gel method. The absorption spectrum and photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of Er3+ : BST nanopowders was measured at room temperature. Based on the Judd-Ofelt theory, the intensity parameters of Er3+ in BST nanopowders were determined, omega2 = 0.993 x 10(-20) cm2, omega4 = 1.665 x 10(-20) cm2 and omega = 0.540 x 10(-20) cm2, and then the values of the line strengths, radiative transition probabilities and branching ratios of Er3+ were calculated. According to the PL spectrum, the emission bands centered at about 522, 545, 654 and 851 nm corresponding to 2H(11/2)-->4S(3/2-->4I(15/2), 4F(9/2)-->4I(15/2), and 4S(3/2-->4I(13/2) transition were observed, and the emission properties were also discussed. The results show that the Er3+ : BST nanomaterials are prospective candidates for applications in new photoelectric devices.

  14. Tuning the combined magnetic and antibacterial properties of ZnO nanopowders through Mn doping for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravichandran, K.; Karthika, K.; Sakthivel, B.; Jabena Begum, N.; Snega, S.; Swaminathan, K.; Senthamilselvi, V.

    2014-05-01

    Manganese (Mn) doped ZnO nanopowders (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 at%) were synthesized using a simple soft chemical route and their structural, optical, surface morphological, magnetic and antibacterial properties were investigated. Structural studies show that the nanopowders exhibit hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO. No other secondary phases like MnO2, MnO, Mn3O4 and Mn2O3 are observed. The blue shift observed in the photoluminescence spectra beyond the Mn doping level of 6 at% shows that there is an increase in the carrier concentration, caused by the interstitial incorporation of Zn and Mn in the ZnO matrix. From the antibacterial studies, it is found that ZnO:Mn nanopowders with higher Mn doping level (8 and 10 at%) exhibit good antibacterial efficiency against Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria. The magnetization curves obtained using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) show a sign of strong room temperature ferromagnetic behavior when the Mn doping level is 6 at% and a weak room temperature ferromagnetic behavior, when the Mn doping level is below 6 at%. Beyond 6 at% they are found to exhibit antiferromagnetic and paramagnetic properties, when the Mn doping levels are 8 and 10 at%, respectively. The SEM images indicate that there is a gradual decrease in the grain size with increase in the Mn doping level. The EDAX profile clearly confirms the presence of expected elements in the final product, in appropriate proportions.

  15. Synthesis of nanostructured framework of novel ZnBaO2 nanopowder via wet chemical approach and hepatocytotoxicity response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athar, Taimur; Vishwakarma, Sandeep Kumar; Alabass, Razzaq; Alqaralosy, Ahmed; Khan, Aleem Ahmed

    2016-08-01

    Wet synthetic process is an effective and facile method at low cost, environmentally benign process for easy scaling-up and then used for fabrication of multi-utility devices. Self-assembling of nanobrick leads to architecture framework with new functional properties which help to make its vast applications as nanodevices with their intrinsic shape, size and functional properties. The bimetallic oxide nanostructure with phase structure was characterized by FTIR, UV-visible electronic absorption, XRD, thermal studies, SEM, TEM, DLS and fluorescence. Nanocrystalline ZnBaO2 powder can be used due to its chemical stability and excellent transmission in the visible region. It was observed that the annealing rate plays an important role to redefine the structural and other physicochemical properties which finally help to change gel into crystalline functional properties with porosity. Wet chemical approach can be used for the synthesis of other metal oxide nanopowders which can be easily scale up for production level. Along with synthesis and characterization, we also assessed biological responses of human hepatocytes exposed to ZnBaO2 nanopowder. Cell membrane permeability and ammonia detoxification were investigated against various concentrations of nanoparticles on in vitro cultured hepatocytes. Our results suggest that low concentrations (<40 μg/ml) of ZnBaO2 nanopowder have no cytotoxic effect on hepatocytes viability, proliferation and detoxification, whereas concentrations above 40 μg/ml depict significant toxicity on cells.

  16. Selective recovery of pure copper nanopowder from indium-tin-oxide etching wastewater by various wet chemical reduction process: Understanding their chemistry and comparisons of sustainable valorization processes.

    PubMed

    Swain, Basudev; Mishra, Chinmayee; Hong, Hyun Seon; Cho, Sung-Soo

    2016-05-01

    Sustainable valorization processes for selective recovery of pure copper nanopowder from Indium-Tin-Oxide (ITO) etching wastewater by various wet chemical reduction processes, their chemistry has been investigated and compared. After the indium recovery by solvent extraction from ITO etching wastewater, the same is also an environmental challenge, needs to be treated before disposal. After the indium recovery, ITO etching wastewater contains 6.11kg/m(3) of copper and 1.35kg/m(3) of aluminum, pH of the solution is very low converging to 0 and contain a significant amount of chlorine in the media. In this study, pure copper nanopowder was recovered using various reducing reagents by wet chemical reduction and characterized. Different reducing agents like a metallic, an inorganic acid and an organic acid were used to understand reduction behavior of copper in the presence of aluminum in a strong chloride medium of the ITO etching wastewater. The effect of a polymer surfactant Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), which was included to prevent aggregation, to provide dispersion stability and control the size of copper nanopowder was investigated and compared. The developed copper nanopowder recovery techniques are techno-economical feasible processes for commercial production of copper nanopowder in the range of 100-500nm size from the reported facilities through a one-pot synthesis. By all the process reported pure copper nanopowder can be recovered with>99% efficiency. After the copper recovery, copper concentration in the wastewater reduced to acceptable limit recommended by WHO for wastewater disposal. The process is not only beneficial for recycling of copper, but also helps to address environment challenged posed by ITO etching wastewater. From a complex wastewater, synthesis of pure copper nanopowder using various wet chemical reduction route and their comparison is the novelty of this recovery process.

  17. Characterization and Bioavailability Study of Baicalin-mesoporous Carbon Nanopowder Solid Dispersion

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Li; Sune, E; Song, Jie; Wang, Jing; Jia, Xiao-bin; Zhang, Zhen-hai

    2016-01-01

    Background: Baicalin is the main bioactive constitute of the dried roots of Scutellaria baicalensis and possesses various biological activities. However, the poor water solubility and low oral bioavailability limit its efficacy. Objective: The present study was conducted to enhance the dissolution and oral bioavailability of baicalin (BA) through a novel mesoporous carbon nanopowder (MCN) drug carrier. Materials and Methods: Solid dispersions (SDs) of BA with MCN were prepared using a solvent evaporation method. The physical state of the formulations was investigated using SEM, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). The pharmaceutical performance of pure BA, physical mixture (PM) and SDs was evaluated by performing an in-vitro dissolution test. The pharmacokinetic studies were conducted in SD rats and the analysis of the biological samples was performed on an Acquity UPLC–MS system. The intestinal and renal toxicity test of MCN was also evaluated. Results: The drug release profile indicated that the BA dissolution rate from SDs with a BA/MCN ratio of 1:6 greatly increased in comparison with that of the pure crystalline drug. Furthermore, a pharmacokinetic analysis in rats showed that the BA area under the concentration–time curve for SDs of MCN/BA was 1.83 times larger than that of pure BA. In comparison with the pure drug, the MCN–BA system significantly shortened the time to Tmax and generated higher Cmax. There was no intestinal and renal toxicity of MCN. Conclusion: These results indicated that the oral bioavailability of BA was remarkably improved by the MCN carrier. Additionally, intestinal toxicity test showed that MCN produced no toxicity in the gastrointestinal tract. Our results show that MCN-based SDs could be used to enhance the bioavailability of drugs with poor water solubility. SUMMARY The drug release profile indicated that the BA dissolution rate from SDs with a BA/MCN ratio of 1:6 greatly increased in

  18. Structure, nanohardness and photoluminescence of ZnO ceramics based on nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muktepavela, Faina; Grigorjeva, Larisa; Kundzins, Karlis; Gorokhova, Elena; Rodnyi, Piotr

    2015-09-01

    ZnO ceramics obtained from grained powders with different grain size by hot pressing and ceramics from tetrapods nanopowders obtained by press-less sintering have been investigated under identical conditions. Ceramics obtained by hot pressing were optically transparent but were composed of large inhomogeneous grains (d = 8-35 μm) exhibiting a substructure. Decreased values of elastic modulus within a grain and a wide defect-associated (‘green’) photoluminescence (PL) band at 2.2-2.8 eV in conjunction with a weak excitonic band indicate a high concentration of residual point defects in hot pressed ZnO ceramics. Utilization of more small-grained powders contributes to the formation of more uniform microstructure (d = 5-15 μm) and extraction of point defects. This reflects as a substantially decreased defect PL band and increased excitonic band. Ceramics obtained by press-less sintering from tetrapods had fine-grained structure (d = 1-4 μm) with no signs of a substructure. PL spectrum has a narrow excitonic band with phonon replicas (1LO_ExD0), whereas the defect ‘green’ luminescence is negligible. The effects of powders morphologies have been explained in terms of a hereditary influence of interaction processes between initial particles on the formation of a microstructure and kinetic of defect distribution on the grain growth stages during the sintering of ZnO ceramics.

  19. Chemically processed BaZrO3 nanopowders as artificial pinning centres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciontea, L.; Celentano, G.; Augieri, A.; Ristoiu, T.; Suciu, R.; Gabor, M. S.; Rufoloni, A.; Vannozzi, A.; Galluzzi, V.; Petrisor, T.

    2008-02-01

    This work reports on the preparation of a BaZrO3 (BZO) nanopowder by the chemical decomposition of an oxalate precursor starting from barium acetate and zirconium oxychloride. The X-ray peak profile analyses and the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have indicated that the mean powder size ranges from 30nm to 340 nm for the thermal treatment temperature varying from 700°C to 1200°C, respectivelly. The as prepared powder has been used to manufacture YBCO-5 mol. % BZO composite targets from which epitaxial YBCO thin films on (100)SrTiO3 substrate were ablated. The X-ray analysis have revealed that the BZO nanoislands are epitaxially grown throughout the YBCO film, having the same epitaxial relationship as YBCO. Moreover, as revealed by SEM, the presence of BZO considerably improves the morphology of the YBCO film. The critical temperature (Tc) registered a slight decrease with the BZO concentration. Nevertheless, the BZO addition resulted in an improvement of the critical current density, Jc. The JcvsB curve exihibits a large plateau extended up to about 2.5 Tesla. The YBCO-BZO composite films showed pinning forces with a c-axis correlated character, as revealed by the angular behaviour of Jc.

  20. When Halides Come to Lithium Niobate Nanopowders Purity and Morphology Assistance.

    PubMed

    Lamouroux, Emmanuel; Badie, Laurent; Miska, Patrice; Fort, Yves

    2016-03-07

    The preparation of pure lithium niobate nanopowders was carried out by a matrix-mediated synthesis approach. Lithium hydroxide and niobium pentachloride were used as precursors. The influence of the chemical environment was studied by adding lithium halide (LiCl or LiBr). After thermal treatment of the precursor mixture at 550 °C for 30 min, the morphology of the products was obtained from transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering, whereas the crystallinity and phase purity were characterized by X-ray diffraction and UV-visible and Raman spectroscopies. Our results point out that the chemical environment during lithium niobate formation at 550 °C influences the final morphology. Moreover, direct and indirect band-gap energies have been determined from UV-visible spectroscopy. Their values for the direct-band-gap energies range from 3.97 to 4.36 eV with a slight dependence on the Li/Nb ratio, whereas for the indirect-band-gap energies, the value appears to be independent of this ratio and is 3.64 eV. No dependence of the band-gap energies on the average crystallite and nanoparticle sizes is observed.

  1. Effect of annealing on ESR characteristics of zirconia nanopowders with different impurity compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bykov, I. P.; Brik, A. B.; Bagmut, N. N.; Kalinichenko, A. M.; Bevz, V. V.; Vereshchak, V. G.; Yastrabik, L.

    2009-06-01

    An ESR study is performed for four groups of zirconia nanopowder samples: nominally pure ZrO2 powders (first group), zirconia samples with Y2O3 and Sc2O3 impurities (second group), samples with different amounts of Cr2O3 (third group), and samples containing both Y2O3 and Cr2O3 (fourth group). The effect of annealing on ESR signals due to Zr3+ ions (sample groups 1 and 2) and Cr5+ ions (groups 3 and 4) is studied. It is established that, although the Zr3+ and Cr5+ ions have similar ESP characteristics, the annealing exerts different effects on ESR signals of these ions. Annealing in the temperature range 200-900°C leads to a monotonic increase in the amount of Zr3+ ions. Interestingly, the annealing temperature at which Zr3+ ions begin to generate ESR signals is different for samples with different impurity compositions. Unlike the Zr3+ ions, the annealing curves of the ESR signals due to the Cr5+ ions pass through an extremum at T = 500-600°C.

  2. The evaluation of linear and planar defects in W-doped ZnO nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soleimanian, Vishtasb; Chenari, Hossein Mahmoudi

    2017-02-01

    Nanocrystalline tungsten doped zinc oxide (Zn1-xWx O where, x=0.01, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06) was synthesized by the sol-gel method. the bright and dark field modes of TEM have been used to characterize the grains and sub-grains of nanopowders, respectively. The planar defects of samples were studied by using the DiffaX software. To do this, the X-ray diffraction patterns at different twinning and stacking faults probability were simulated. The Williamson-Hall plot of simulated patterns were compared with those extracted from W-doped samples. It was found that among the various compressive and tensile twins, only the behavior of broadening in { 11.1 } < 1 bar 1 bar .6 > tensile twins is similar to Williamson-Hall plot of doped samples. The results of DiffaX simulation were incorporated into the eCMWP fitting procedure and the impact of microstructure parameters including crystallite size, size distribution function, twin boundary frequency, dislocation density and outer cut-off radius of dislocation were studied as a function of W doping concentration.

  3. Microwave sintering of nanopowder ZnNb2O6: Densification, microstructure and microwave dielectric properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bafrooei, H. Barzegar; Nassaj, E. Taheri; Hu, C. F.; Huang, Q.; Ebadzadeh, T.

    2014-12-01

    High density ZnNb2O6 ceramics were successfully fabricated by microwave sintering of ZnO-Nb2O5 and ZnNb2O6 nanopowders. Phase formation, microstructure and microwave electrical properties of the microwave sintered (MS) and microwave reaction sintered (MRS) specimens were examined using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy and microwave dielectric properties measurement. Specimens were sintered in a temperature range from 950 to 1075 °C for 30 min at an interval of 25 °C using a microwave furnace operated at 2.45 GHz frequency, 3 kW power. XRD pattern revealed the formation of pure columbite phase of ZnNb2O6. The SEM micrographs show grain growth and reduction in porosity of specimens with the increase in sintering temperature. Good combination of microwave dielectric properties (εr~23.6, Qf~64,300 GHz and τf~-66 ppm/°C and εr~24, Qf~75,800 GHz and τf~-64 ppm/°C) was obtained for MS- and MRS-prepared samples at 1000 °C and 1050 °C for 30 min, respectively.

  4. Synthesis and in vitro investigation of sol-gel derived bioglass-58S nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joughehdoust, S.; Manafi, S.

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this research is the synthesis of bioglass-58S nanopowders by sol-gel method. Also, the effect of aging time of parent sols on the morphology, structure and particle size was investigated. Bioglass-58S powders were analyzed by X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), zetasizer instrument, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The XRD results showed that the powder is amorphous and glassy. According to FTIR spectroscopy, silicate bonds were formed in all powders. Zetasizer curves proved that the particle sizes of the powders and agglomerates have increased with aging time. The SEM images confirmed these results, too. Additionally, the TEM observations revealed that the increase of aging time caused the growth of grains with the size between 50-200 nm. The in vitro biological behavior of bioglass-58S powders were investigated by immersing the bioglass discs (made from the powders) in the simulated body fluid (SBF). The XRD patterns and SEM images confirmed the formation of the hydroxyapatite (HA) phase.

  5. Electrochemical sensor based on polystyrene sulfonate-carbon nanopowders composite for Cu (II) determination.

    PubMed

    Cantalapiedra, Alberto; Gismera, M Jesús; Procopio, Jesús R; Sevilla, M Teresa

    2015-07-01

    A differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetric (DPASV) method, with an open circuit (OC) approach in the pre-concentration step has been developed for copper ion determination at very low concentration level using a sensor based on a polystyrene sulfonate-carbon nanopowders (PSS-CnP) composite. This composite material is easily prepared from ultrasonic assisted dispersions of CnP in aqueous solution of PSS. For preparation of sensor devices, a reproducible and inexpensive drop coating procedure of the surface of home-made pencil graphite electrodes (PGEs) using a CnP dispersion in PSS was performed. At the optimal conditions for accumulation (0.01molL(-1) KNO3 at pH 3) and measurement steps (a reduction potential of -0.5V for 60s and then, an anodic DPV scan) and using a pre-concentration time of 300s, the limit of detection was 0.11µgL(-1) (1.73nM). This OC-DPASV method using the PSS-CnP-PGE sensor was successfully employed for Cu(II) determination in mineral, river and sea water samples.

  6. ZnO and ZnTiO3 nanopowders for antimicrobial stone coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffolo, S. A.; La Russa, M. F.; Malagodi, M.; Oliviero Rossi, C.; Palermo, A. M.; Crisci, G. M.

    2010-09-01

    In the past a great variety of biocidal compounds and persistent organic pesticides were applied on a large scale for preventive measures aimed at the long-term preservation of our cultural heritage. Only recently, public and expert attention has started to focus increasingly on the risks resulting from these treatments on human health, works of art and environment in general. The work done in this field demonstrated that the most effective way for inactivation can be achieved by using highly efficient photocatalysts with the illumination of UV radiation. Following this direction our group focused its attention on well-known photocatalysts, ZnO and ZnTiO3, in the degradation and complete mineralisation of environmental pollutants. This explorative work deals with an experimental investigation on biocidal efficient of ZnO and ZnTiO3. In particular micro-quantities of the two nanopowdered photocatalysts were spread on plated dishes. They were filled by the MEA (Malt Extract Agar) medium containing given quantities of Aspergillus Niger (a chromogen filamentous fungus involved in biodeterioration). At the same time the two oxides were dispersed in different polymeric matrices, acrylic and fluorinated, in order to obtain a new coating technology, with hydrophobic, consolidant and biocidal properties for the restoration of building stone material. The mixtures obtained were applied on marble samples and capillary water absorption, simulated solar ageing, colourimetric measurements and contact angle measurements have been performed to evaluate its properties.

  7. Plasma column and nano-powder generation from solid titanium by localized microwaves in air

    SciTech Connect

    Popescu, Simona; Jerby, Eli Meir, Yehuda; Ashkenazi, Dana; Barkay, Zahava; Mitchell, J. Brian A.; Le Garrec, Jean-Luc; Narayanan, Theyencheri

    2015-07-14

    This paper studies the effect of a plasma column ejected from solid titanium by localized microwaves in an ambient air atmosphere. Nanoparticles of titanium dioxide (titania) are found to be directly synthesized in this plasma column maintained by the microwave energy in the cavity. The process is initiated by a hotspot induced by localized microwaves, which melts the titanium substrate locally. The molten hotspot emits ionized titanium vapors continuously into the stable plasma column, which may last for more than a minute duration. The characterization of the dusty plasma obtained is performed in-situ by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), optical spectroscopy, and microwave reflection analyses. The deposited titania nanoparticles are structurally and morphologically analyzed by ex-situ optical and scanning-electron microscope observations, and also by X-ray diffraction. Using the Boltzmann plot method combined with the SAXS results, the electron temperature and density in the dusty plasma are estimated as ∼0.4 eV and ∼10{sup 19 }m{sup −3}, respectively. The analysis of the plasma product reveals nanoparticles of titania in crystalline phases of anatase, brookite, and rutile. These are spatially arranged in various spherical, cubic, lamellar, and network forms. Several applications are considered for this process of titania nano-powder production.

  8. Novel microwave assisted synthesis of highly doped phase pure Nd:YAG nanopowder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiranmala, L.; Rekha, M.; Neelam, M.

    2011-09-01

    For the first time, the studies on 2 to 10 at.% neodymium (Nd3+) ion doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Nd:YAG) nanopowders obtained by microwave assisted citrate nitrate gel combustion synthesis is described in this work. This paper reports on high doping of Nd3+ ions with retaining the cubic garnet structure of YAG as evidenced from XRD, except the case of 8 at.% doped Nd:YAG. Phase pure YAG formation with 8 at.% Nd3+ doping was explored by using urea and alanine as alternative to citric acid complexing agents. Complete crystallization of YAG as a result of 2 hour thermal treatment at 900 °C under oxygen supply was studied by using Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) techniques. With an increase in the dopant concentration a red shift in the FTIR peaks was observed. Using the XRD data, the cell parameter of Nd3+ (2 to 6 and 10 at.%) YAG was found to increase with an increase in the dopant concentration. The average primary particle size calculated using Scherrer's equation was ˜25 nm which was additionally supported by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) results yielding particle sizes in the range of ˜25 to 30 nm for all the cases.

  9. Structural study and phase transition investigation in a simple synthesis of porous architected-ZnO nanopowder

    SciTech Connect

    Shang, C.; Barnabé, A.

    2013-12-15

    In this work, zinc oxide powder with a rectangular-shaped porous architecture, made of numerous spherical nanometric particles, was obtained. A simple precipitation/decomposition procedure was used comprising a zinc oxalate intermediate, obtained from zinc sulfate and oxalic acid without any additives. Detailed studies on zinc oxalate dehydration, decomposition and zinc oxide formation, were carried out using in-situ temperature X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis. During the investigation, the temperature dependence of particle sizes, lattice parameters and crystal structures of ZnC{sub 2}O{sub 4}·2H{sub 2}O, ZnC{sub 2}O{sub 4} and ZnO nanopowders were analyzed from room temperature to 450 °C. Structural transitions were also discussed. The structure and morphology of the as-prepared ZnO nanopowder were investigated by electron microscopy and compared to the crystalline rectangular shape of ZnC{sub 2}O{sub 4}·2H{sub 2}O. The calcination temperature, counter ion and precipitate agent were found to be related to the product's shape and diameter. Spherical ZnO nanoparticles with diameters of less than 20 nm and a maximum specific surface of 53 m{sup 2}/g were obtained using this method. Highlights: • ZnO nanopowders with porous architecture were synthesized by a simple method. • Spherical ZnO nanoparticles confined in submicronic rectangular shape are obtained. • Crystal structures are determined temperature in-situ XRD up to 450 °C. • Structural transitions were analyzed.

  10. Autogenic synthesis of green- and red-emitting single-phase Pr(2)O(2)CO(3) and PrO(1.833) luminescent nanopowders.

    PubMed

    Calderon Moreno, Jose M; Pol, Vilas G; Suh, Soong-Hyuck; Popa, Monica

    2010-11-01

    This Article reveals a rare synthesis of pure Pr(2)O(2)CO(3) (POC) nanopowder by thermolysis (700 °C) of a single chemical precursor in an autogenic reaction. The autogenic thermolysis of praseodymium acetate is a solvent-free, efficient, and straightforward approach yielding luminescent POC nanoparticles. The as-prepared POC nanopowder converted to PrO(1.833) (PO) powder via combustion. Methodical morphological, structural, and compositional characterizations of POC and PO powders are carried out, supported by mechanistic elucidation and the photoluminescent properties.

  11. Intrinsic and Ce 3+-related luminescence of YAG and YAG:Ce single crystals, single crystalline films and nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorenko, Yu.; Zych, E.; Voloshinovskii, A.

    2009-10-01

    A comparative analysis of the luminescent properties of YAG and YAG:Ce nanopowders (NP) in comparison with single crystalline film (SCF) and single crystal (SC) analogues was performed under excitation by a pulsed synchrotron and X-ray radiation. It was shown that the natural defects concentration in NP was between the SC with a large (˜0.18-0.19 at.%) concentration of Y Al antisite defects (AD) and SCF of these garnets where Y Al AD were completely absent. At the same time, Ce 3+ doped YAG NP showed luminescent properties close to those of YAG:Ce SCF.

  12. Physicochemical, microbial, and sensory properties of nanopowdered eggshell-supplemented yogurt during storage.

    PubMed

    Al Mijan, Mohammad; Choi, Kyung-Hoon; Kwak, Hae-Soo

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the possibility of adding nanopowdered eggshell (NPES) into yogurt to improve the functionality of yogurt and the effects of adding NPES on the physicochemical, microbial, and sensory properties of the products during storage. The pH and mean lactic acid bacteria counts of NPES-added (0.15-0.45%, wt/vol) yogurt ranged from 4.31 to 4.66 and from 6.56 × 10(8) to 8.56 × 10(8)cfu/mL, respectively, whereas these values ranged from 4.13 to 4.44 and 8.46 × 10(8) to 1.39 × 10(9), respectively, for the control samples during storage at 5 °C for 16d, which indicates a prolonged shelf-life with NPES-supplemented yogurt. Color analysis showed that the lightness (L*) and position between red and green (a*) values were not significantly influenced by the addition of NPES. However, the position between yellow and blue (b*) value significantly increased with the addition of the concentration (0.45%, wt/vol) of NPES at d 16 of storage. Sensory evaluation revealed that NPES-added yogurts showed a notably less sourness score and a higher astringency score than the control. An earthy flavor was higher in 0.45% NPES-supplemented yogurt compared with the control. Based on the results obtained from the current study, the concentration (0.15 to 0.30%, wt/vol) of NPES can be used to formulate NPES-supplemented yogurt without any significant adverse effects on the physicochemical, microbial, and sensory properties.

  13. Reverse micelle synthesis of oxide nanopowders: mechanisms of precipitate formation and agglomeration effects.

    PubMed

    Graeve, Olivia A; Fathi, Hoorshad; Kelly, James P; Saterlie, Michael S; Sinha, Kaustav; Rojas-George, Gabriel; Kanakala, Raghunath; Brown, David R; Lopez, Enrique A

    2013-10-01

    We present an analysis of reverse micelle stability in four model systems. The first two systems, composed of unstable microemulsions of isooctane, water, and Na-AOT with additions of either iron sulfate or yttrium nitrate, were used for the synthesis of iron oxide or yttrium oxide powders. These oxide powders were of nanocrystalline character, but with some level of agglomeration that was dependent on calcination temperature and cleaning procedures. Results show that even though the reverse micellar solutions were unstable, nanocrystalline powders with very low levels of agglomeration could be obtained. This effect can be attributed to the protective action of the surfactant on the surfaces of the powders that prevents neck formation until after all the surfactant has volatilized. A striking feature of the IR spectra collected on the iron oxide powders is the absence of peaks in the ~1715 cm(-1) to 1750 cm(-1) region, where absorption due to the symmetric C=O (carbonyl) stretching occurs. The lack of such peaks strongly suggests the carbonyl group is no longer free, but is actively participating in the surfactant-precipitate interaction. The final two microemulsion systems, containing CTAB as the surfactant, showed that loss of control of the reverse micelle synthesis process can easily occur when the amount of salt in the water domains exceeds a critical concentration. Both model systems eventually resulted in agglomerated powders of broad size distributions or particles that were large compared to the sizes of the reverse micelles, consistent with the notion that the microemulsions were not stable and the powders were precipitated in an uncontrolled fashion. This has implications for the synthesis of nanopowders by reverse micelle synthesis and provides a benchmark for process control if powders of the highest quality are desired.

  14. Ultrasound assisted dispersal of a copper nanopowder for electroless copper activation.

    PubMed

    Graves, John E; Sugden, Mark; Litchfield, Robert E; Hutt, David A; Mason, Timothy J; Cobley, Andrew J

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes the ultrasound assisted dispersal of a low wt./vol.% copper nanopowder mixture and determines the optimum conditions for de-agglomeration. A commercially available powder was added to propan-2-ol and dispersed using a magnetic stirrer, a high frequency 850 kHz ultrasonic cell, a standard 40 kHz bath and a 20 kHz ultrasonic probe. The particle size of the powder was characterized using dynamic light scattering (DLS). Z-Average diameters (mean cluster size based on the intensity of scattered light) and intensity, volume and number size distributions were monitored as a function of time and energy input. Low frequency ultrasound was found to be more effective than high frequency ultrasound at de-agglomerating the powder and dispersion with a 20 kHz ultrasonic probe was found to be very effective at breaking apart large agglomerates containing weakly bound clusters of nanoparticles. In general, the breakage of nanoclusters was found to be a factor of ultrasonic intensity, the higher the intensity the greater the de-agglomeration and typically micron sized clusters were reduced to sub 100 nm particles in less than 30 min using optimum conditions. However, there came a point at which the forces generated by ultrasonic cavitation were either insufficient to overcome the cohesive bonds between smaller aggregates or at very high intensities decoupling between the tip and solution occurred. Absorption spectroscopy indicated a copper core structure with a thin oxide shell and the catalytic performance of this dispersion was demonstrated by drop coating onto substrates and subsequent electroless copper metallization. This relatively inexpensive catalytic suspension has the potential to replace precious metal based colloids used in electronics manufacturing.

  15. Probing the microstructural evolution of polyviologen-silica hybrid nanopowders during intermediate processing using X-ray microtomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gundogdu, O.; Jenneson, P. M.; Tuzun, U.; Gray, G. M.; Hay, J. N.

    2006-11-01

    Polyviologen polymers are potential template agents for hydrolytic sol-gel processing of silica particles. The resultant polyviologen-silica hybrid nanopowders are amorphous aggregates of roughly spherical shape, which can be harvested from the sol-gel solution and processed to green body products under different environmental conditions. A bench-top X-ray microtomography system, with a spatial resolution of 5 μm is used to produce three-dimensional images of the dynamic processing of the nanopowders. Various processing routes are imaged using a custom built environmental chamber where the temperature, atmospheric pressure, and compaction force can be controlled. This allows processes such as vacuum sintering and microwave sintering to be studied. The three-dimensional images reveal the axial and radial distributions of the molten polyviologen polymer within a matrix of agglomerates of the silica nanoparticles. Such observations are crucial to the optimisation of the processes that are used to produce the green body products so as to preserve desirable nano-intensive properties.

  16. In vitro fabrication of dental filling nanopowder by green route and its antibacterial activity against dental pathogens.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Ho; Velmurugan, Palanivel; Park, Jung-Hee; Lee, Kui-Jae; Jin, Jong-Sik; Park, Yool-Jin; Bang, Keuk-Soo; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to introduce novel Sn, Cu, Hg, and Ag nanopowders (NPs) and a composite nanopowder (NP) synthesized using Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (SM) root extract as a reducing and capping agent to improve the antibacterial property of dental filling materials. All of the NPs obtained were characterized using a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM), and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrum imaging was performed to map the elemental distributions of the NP composite. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was performed to identify the role of various functional groups in all of the obtained NPs and the phyto-compound responsible for the reduction of various metal ions. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns clearly illustrated the crystalline phase of the synthesized NP. The antibacterial properties of the synthesized Sn, Cu, Hg, Ag, composite NP, SM root extract, and commercial amalgam powder were evaluated. The Cu, composite NP, SM root extract and Ag NP displayed excellent antibacterial activity against dental bacteria Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus. The results of this study require further evaluation for signs of metal toxicity in appropriate animal models. However, the results are encouraging for the application of metal NPs as suitable alternatives for antibiotics and disinfectants, especially in dental filling materials.

  17. Effects of size-controlled TiO2 nanopowders synthesized by chemical vapor condensation process on conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Woo-Byoung; Lee, Jai-Sung

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the microstructural effects of the synthesized TiO2 nanopowders such as particle size, specific surface area, pore size and pore distributions for the application of an anode material of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC), size-controlled and well-dispersed TiO2 nanopowders were synthesized by chemical vapor condensation (CVC) process in the range of 800-1000 degreesC under a pressure of 50 mbar. The average particle size of synthesized TiO2 nanopowders was increased with increasing temperature from 13 nm for 800 degreesC, 15 nm for 900 degreesC and 26 nm. The specific surface area of synthesized nanoparticles were measured as 119.1 m2/g for 800 degreesC, 104.7 m2/g for 900 degreesC and 59.5 m2/g for 1000 degreesC, respectively. The conversion efficiency values (eta%) of DSSC with the synthesized TiO2 nanopowders at 800 degreesC, 900 degreesC, and 1000 degreesC were 2.59%, 5.96% and 3.66%, respectively. The highest conversion efficiency obtained in the 900 degreesC (5.96%) sample is thought to be attributable to homogeneous particle size and pore distributions, large specific surface area, and high transmittance in regions of dye absorption wavelength.

  18. Synthesis of 8YSZ-LSGM Composite Thick Film Ceramics for Solid Electrolyte From Nanopowder Utilizing Local Zircon Prepared Using Sol Gel Process

    SciTech Connect

    Syarif, Dani Gustaman; Soepriyanto, Syoni; Korda, Akhmad; Ismunandar

    2010-10-24

    Thick film ceramics of 8% mol Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} doped-ZrO{sub 2}(8YSZ)-La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.2}Mg{sub 0.8}O{sub 3}(LSGM) composite for solid electrolyte have been synthesized from nanopowder. Concentration of LSGM was 0 and 10% weight. A paste for the thick films was made from 8YSZ nanopowder prepared using sol gel method and LSGM powder prepared by solid state reaction. Precursors for the 8YSZ nanopowder preparation were ZrOCl{sub 2{center_dot}}8H{sub 2}O derived from local zircon as byproduct of Tin processing at Bangka Island using caustic fusion method, and Y(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}. The thick films were produced by screen printing technique on alumina substrates. The films were sintered at 1500 deg. C for 2 hours in air. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data showed that the nanopowder of 8YSZ was well produced with broad peaks. The particle size of the 8YSZ powder was about 12 nm as calculated using Debye Scherrer method. The thick films of 8YSZ and 8YSZ-LSGM (90:10 in weight %) composite could be produced, however, the films still contain voids. The ionic conductance of the YSZ-10LSGM films was smaller than that of the YSZ films.

  19. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis for the chemical impact of solvent addition rate on electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of HCl-doped polyaniline nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tantawy, Hesham Ramzy; Kengne, Blaise-Alexis F.; McIlroy, David N.; Nguyen, Tai; Heo, Deukhyoun; Qiang, You; Aston, D. Eric

    2015-11-01

    An in-depth analysis of the chemical functionality in HCl-doped polyaniline (PANI) nanopowders is discussed through interpretations of x-ray photoelectron spectra. The distinctions between three PANI sample types, produced under varied synthesis conditions, are compared on the basis correlations between newly collected electron spectra for chemical analysis (or also x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and electromagnetic (EM) shielding effectiveness (SE) within two frequency bands (100-1500 MHz and ˜2-14 GHz). The findings are discussed with reference to previous data analysis of electrical conductivities and Raman and UV-vis spectra analyzed from replicates of the same PANI nanopowders, where only the 8-12 GHz range for SE was tested. They further corroborate previous results for limited-solvent conditions that enhance EM shielding. The three nanopowder types show distinctive differences in polaron, bipolaron, and polar lattice contributions. The collective findings describe the chemical connections between controlling and, most importantly, limiting the available solvent for polymerization with simultaneously doping and how it is that the newly developed solvent-limited approach for HCl-PANI nanopowders provides better shielding than traditionally solvent-rich methods by having more extended and perhaps even faster polaron delocalization than other PANI-based products. The maximum oxidation (50%) and doping (49%) levels obtained in the solvent-free nanopowders also produced the highest SE values of 37.3 ± 3.7 dB (MHz band) and 68.6 ± 4.6 dB (GHz band).

  20. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis for the chemical impact of solvent addition rate on electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of HCl-doped polyaniline nanopowders

    SciTech Connect

    Tantawy, Hesham Ramzy; Aston, D. Eric; Kengne, Blaise-Alexis F.; McIlroy, David N.; Qiang, You; Nguyen, Tai; Heo, Deukhyoun

    2015-11-07

    An in-depth analysis of the chemical functionality in HCl-doped polyaniline (PANI) nanopowders is discussed through interpretations of x-ray photoelectron spectra. The distinctions between three PANI sample types, produced under varied synthesis conditions, are compared on the basis correlations between newly collected electron spectra for chemical analysis (or also x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and electromagnetic (EM) shielding effectiveness (SE) within two frequency bands (100–1500 MHz and ∼2–14 GHz). The findings are discussed with reference to previous data analysis of electrical conductivities and Raman and UV-vis spectra analyzed from replicates of the same PANI nanopowders, where only the 8–12 GHz range for SE was tested. They further corroborate previous results for limited-solvent conditions that enhance EM shielding. The three nanopowder types show distinctive differences in polaron, bipolaron, and polar lattice contributions. The collective findings describe the chemical connections between controlling and, most importantly, limiting the available solvent for polymerization with simultaneously doping and how it is that the newly developed solvent-limited approach for HCl-PANI nanopowders provides better shielding than traditionally solvent-rich methods by having more extended and perhaps even faster polaron delocalization than other PANI-based products. The maximum oxidation (50%) and doping (49%) levels obtained in the solvent-free nanopowders also produced the highest SE values of 37.3 ± 3.7 dB (MHz band) and 68.6 ± 4.6 dB (GHz band)

  1. Formation of a thin-layer electrolyte for SOFC by magnetic pulse compaction of tapes cast of nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, V. V.; Lipilin, A. S.; Kotov, Yu. A.; Khrustov, V. R.; Shkerin, S. N.; Paranin, S. N.; Spirin, A. V.; Kaygorodov, A. S.

    From the analysis of the scientific and technical literature it is possible to determine the trend of development of technologies for preparation of thin films of solid electrolytes for SOFC as the most promising one. The use of powder compaction technologies and weakly agglomerated nanosized powders for this purpose has some advantages. The present study deals with physicochemical properties of electrolytes based on zirconia and ceria and electrochemical cells loaded with these electrolytes. Weakly agglomerated nanopowders with particles about 15 nm in size were produced by laser sputtering. Films 15-25 μm thick were obtained from nanopowders of the electrolytes by butyral resin slip casting. Uniaxial and radial magnetic pulse compaction of the cast films was performed at 0.1-1.6 GPa. The apparent density of the compacts accounted for 0.5-0.7 of the theoretical value. Sintering at temperatures of 900-1250 °C provided electrolytes having the relative density of 0.92-0.98. The analysis of the structure and the conductivity of the solid electrolytes, which was performed using samples shaped as flat thin disks 15-30 mm in diameter and 10 μm to 2 mm thick, and the examination of the electrochemical characteristics of the cells made of an ultrafine solid electrolyte in the form of tubes having the diameter of about 10 mm and walls 80-250 μm thick confirmed that the ceramic samples were gas-tight and had not laminations. The conductivity of, e.g. the YSZ electrolyte was 0.08-0.112 S cm -1. The electrochemical cells, which were tested in the regime of a fuel cell with a solid electrolyte synthesized using the proposed technologies, provided the specific power of about 1 W cm -2 at 800-850 °C even without optimization of the electrodes. Thus, the ultrafine solid electrolytes met the requirements imposed on SOFC ceramics.

  2. Synthesis and characterisation of La 1-xMnO 3± δ nanopowders prepared by acrylamide polymerisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dezanneau, G.; Sin, A.; Roussel, H.; Vincent, H.; Audier, M.

    2002-01-01

    La 1-xMnO 3± δ (x=-0.02 to 0.35) nanocrystalline powders were prepared by a new sol-gel method. It is used the acrylamide gelification to form an organic 3D tangled network where a solution of the respective cations is soaked. This method was adapted to cover a broad range of high impact electro-ceramic oxides, which a particular example is the CMR nanopowders reported in this work. The acrylamide sol-gel process is a fast, cheaper and easy to scale-up method for obtaining fine powders of complex oxides. This synthesis method allows performing 100 g of highly pure nanopowders in one run with simple laboratory scale. The sponge like powder obtained consists of thin sheets composed of nanocrystallites whose size varies from 66 nm to 30 nm, depending on composition. The oxygen content of the manganite powder is shown to decrease with vacancy-doping on lanthanum site. Such a evolution can be explained for La/Mn<0.9 by considering a demixtion of the powder into La 0.9MnO 3 and Mn 3O 4 phases, while for La/Mn>0.9, the high oxygen excess leads to consider vacancies on both lanthanum and manganese sites. Both hypotheses are supported by magnetic measurements, which show a constant Curie temperature of 295 K for La/Mn<0.9, while for La/Mn>0.9, the occurrence of vacancies on manganese sites progressively impedes the ferromagnetic interactions, leading to a cluster-glass behaviour in the case of the highly manganese-deficient La 0.94Mn 0.92O 3 compound.

  3. CARBON NANOPOWDER ACTS AS A TROJAN-HORSE FOR BENZO(α)PYRENE IN Danio rerio EMBRYOS.

    PubMed

    Binelli, A; Del Giacco, L; Santo, N; Bini, L; Magni, S; Parolini, M; Madaschi, L; Ghilardi, A; Maggioni, D; Ascagni, M; Armini, A; Prosperi, L; Landi, C; La Porta, C; Della Torre, C

    2017-03-13

    Carbon-based nanoparticles are largely distributed worldwide due to fossil fuel combustion and their presence in many consumer products. In addition to their proven toxicological effects in several biological models, attention in recent years has focused on the role played by carbon-based nanoparticles as Trojan-horse carriers for adsorbed environmental pollutants. This role has not been conclusively determined to date because carbon-based nanoparticles can decrease the bioavailability of contaminants or represent an additional source of intake. Herein, we evaluated the intake, transport and distribution of one of the carbon-based powders, the so-called carbon nanopowder, and benzo(α)pyrene, when administered alone and in co-exposure to Danio rerio embryos. Data obtained by means of advanced microscopic techniques illustrated that the "particle-specific" effect induced a modification in the accumulation of benzo(α)pyrene, which is forced to follow the distribution of the physical pollutant instead of its natural bioaccumulation. The combined results from functional proteomics and gene transcription analysis highlighted the different biochemical pathways involved in the action of the two different contaminants administered alone and when bound together. In particular, we observed a clear change in several proteins involved in the homeostatic response to hypoxia only after exposure to the carbon nanopowder or co-exposure to the mixture, whereas exposure to benzo(α)pyrene alone mainly modified structural proteins. The entire dataset suggested a Trojan-horse mechanism involved in the biological impacts on Danio rerio embryos especially due to different bioaccumulation pathways and cellular targets.

  4. Porous hydroxyapatite-TiO2 nanocomposites from natural phosphates and their decolorization properties. Photoactive hydroxyapatite-TiO2 nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouyarmane, H.; Saoiabi, S.; El Hanbali, I.; El Karbane, M.; Rami, A.; Masse, S.; Laghzizil, A.; Coradin, T.

    2015-07-01

    Titanium dioxide-hydroxyapatite nanopowders were prepared by the simultaneous gelation of a titanium alkoxide and precipitation of a redisolved natural phosphate mineral. Evolution of the crystallinity, porous features and surface reactivity of these powders as a function of Ti content and heating was studied. Optimal conditions were found for the preparation of a low-cost nanocomposite powder that was as effective as pure titania for the decolorization of methylene blue solutions.

  5. Temperature-mediated phase transformation, pore geometry and pore hysteresis transformation of borohydride derived in-born porous zirconium hydroxide nanopowders

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Nadiya B.; Nayak, Bibhuti B.

    2016-01-01

    Development of in-born porous nature of zirconium hydroxide nanopowders through a facile hydrogen (H2) gas-bubbles assisted borohydride synthesis route using sodium borohydride (NaBH4) and novel information on the temperature-mediated phase transformation, pore geometry as well as pore hysteresis transformation of in-born porous zirconium hydroxide nanopowders with the help of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) isotherm and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) images are the main theme of this research work. Without any surfactants or pore forming agents, the borohydride derived amorphous nature of porous powders was stable up to 500 °C and then the seed crystals start to develop within the loose amorphous matrix and trapping the inter-particulate voids, which led to develop the porous nature of tetragonal zirconium oxide at 600 °C and further sustain this porous nature as well as tetragonal phase of zirconium oxide up to 800 °C. The novel hydrogen (H2) gas-bubbles assisted borohydride synthesis route led to develop thermally stable porous zirconium hydroxide/oxide nanopowders with an adequate pore size, pore volume, and surface area and thus these porous materials are further suggested for promising use in different areas of applications. PMID:27198738

  6. Wavelength-sensitive photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange in aqueous suspension over iron(III)-doped TiO2 nanopowders under UV and visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Wang, X H; Li, J-G; Kamiyama, H; Moriyoshi, Y; Ishigaki, T

    2006-04-06

    Well-crystallized iron(III)-doped TiO2 nanopowders with controlled Fe3+ doping concentration and uniform dopant distribution, have been synthesized with plasma oxidative pyrolysis. The photocatalytic reactivity of the synthesized TiO2 nanopowders with a mean particle size of 50-70 nm was quantified in terms of the degradation rates of methyl orange (MO) in aqueous TiO2 suspension under UV (mainly 365 and 316 nm) and visible light irradiation (mainly 405 and 436 nm). The photodecomposition of MO over TiO2 nanopowders followed a distinct two-stage pseudo first order kinetics. Interestingly, the photocatalytic reactivity depends not only on the iron doping concentration but also on the wavelength of the irradiating light. Under UV irradiation, nominally undoped TiO2 had much higher reactivity than Fe3+ -doped TiO2, suggesting that Fe3+ doping (> 0.05 at. %) in TiO2 with a mean particle size of approximately 60 nm was detrimental to the photocatalytic decomposition of methyl orange. Whereas, under visible light irradiation, the Fe3+ -doped TiO2 with an intermediate iron doping concentration of approximately 1 at. % had the highest photocatalytic reactivity due to the narrowing of band gap so that it could effectively absorb the light with longer wavelength. A strategy for improving the photocatalytic reactivity of Fe3+ -doped TiO2 used in the visible light region is also proposed.

  7. Preparation of silicon carbide SiC-based nanopowders by the aerosol-assisted synthesis and the DC thermal plasma synthesis methods

    SciTech Connect

    Czosnek, Cezary; Bućko, Mirosław M.; Janik, Jerzy F.; Olejniczak, Zbigniew; Bystrzejewski, Michał; Łabędź, Olga; Huczko, Andrzej

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Make-up of the SiC-based nanopowders is a function of the C:Si:O ratio in precursor. • Two-stage aerosol-assisted synthesis offers conditions close to equilibrium. • DC thermal plasma synthesis yields kinetically controlled SiC products. - Abstract: Nanosized SiC-based powders were prepared from selected liquid-phase organosilicon precursors by the aerosol-assisted synthesis, the DC thermal plasma synthesis, and a combination of the two methods. The two-stage aerosol-assisted synthesis method provides at the end conditions close to thermodynamic equilibrium. The single-stage thermal plasma method is characterized by short particle residence times in the reaction zone, which can lead to kinetically controlled products. The by-products and final nanopowders were characterized by powder XRD, infrared spectroscopy FT-IR, scanning electron microscopy SEM, and {sup 29}Si MAS NMR spectroscopy. BET specific surface areas of the products were determined by standard physical adsorption of nitrogen at 77 K. The major component in all synthesis routes was found to be cubic silicon carbide β-SiC with average crystallite sizes ranging from a few to tens of nanometers. In some cases, it was accompanied by free carbon, elemental silicon or silica nanoparticles. The final mesoporous β-SiC-based nanopowders have a potential as affordable catalyst supports.

  8. Optical emission spectroscopy of microwave-plasmas at atmospheric pressure applied to the growth of organosilicon and organotitanium nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilicaslan, A.; Levasseur, O.; Roy-Garofano, V.; Profili, J.; Moisan, M.; Côté, C.; Sarkissian, A.; Stafford, L.

    2014-03-01

    An atmospheric-pressure plasma sustained by an electromagnetic surface wave (SW) in the microwave regime combined with a bubbler/flash evaporator for the injection of liquid precursors was used to produce organosilicon and organotitanium nanopowders. Following the addition of hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) vapors in the nominally pure argon plasma, optical emission spectra revealed the apparition of strong C2 molecular bands along with Si and Balmer H emission lines. Such features were not observed in our atmospheric-pressure Ar/HMDSO discharges controlled by dielectric barriers, indicating that microwave plasmas are characterized by much higher fragmentation levels of the precursors due to much higher electron densities. Emission spectra from the Ar/HMDSO SW plasma further showed a high-intensity continuum, the intensity of which decreased with time as powders started to form on the discharge tube walls. In presence of titanium isopropoxide (TTIP) vapors in the nominally pure Ar plasma, the emission was dominated by Ar and Ti lines, with no trace of carbon and no continuum. Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy of the powders formed in Ar/HMDSO plasmas showed very strong Si-(CH3)x and O-Si-(CH3)x bands, which is consistent with the formation of silicon oxycarbide. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) further showed tube and sheet-like nanofeatures as well as larger structures consisting of agglomerated primary clusters. On the other hand, introduction of O2 in Ar/HMDSO plasmas produced only round-like nanoparticles with strong Si-O-Si bands and no trace of carbon, consistent with the formation of SiOx. The average size of the silica nanoparticles was 50 nm. FTIR spectra of powders formed in Ar/TTIP plasmas showed strong Ti-O signals, even without the addition of O2 in the gas phase. Corresponding TEM analysis showed nano- and agglomerated features comparable to those obtained in Ar/HMDSO although the average size of the titanate nanoparticles was smaller

  9. Optical emission spectroscopy of microwave-plasmas at atmospheric pressure applied to the growth of organosilicon and organotitanium nanopowders

    SciTech Connect

    Kilicaslan, A.; Levasseur, O.; Roy-Garofano, V.; Profili, J.; Moisan, M.; Stafford, L.; Côté, C.; Sarkissian, A.

    2014-03-21

    An atmospheric-pressure plasma sustained by an electromagnetic surface wave (SW) in the microwave regime combined with a bubbler/flash evaporator for the injection of liquid precursors was used to produce organosilicon and organotitanium nanopowders. Following the addition of hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) vapors in the nominally pure argon plasma, optical emission spectra revealed the apparition of strong C{sub 2} molecular bands along with Si and Balmer H emission lines. Such features were not observed in our atmospheric-pressure Ar/HMDSO discharges controlled by dielectric barriers, indicating that microwave plasmas are characterized by much higher fragmentation levels of the precursors due to much higher electron densities. Emission spectra from the Ar/HMDSO SW plasma further showed a high-intensity continuum, the intensity of which decreased with time as powders started to form on the discharge tube walls. In presence of titanium isopropoxide (TTIP) vapors in the nominally pure Ar plasma, the emission was dominated by Ar and Ti lines, with no trace of carbon and no continuum. Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy of the powders formed in Ar/HMDSO plasmas showed very strong Si-(CH{sub 3}){sub x} and O-Si-(CH{sub 3}){sub x} bands, which is consistent with the formation of silicon oxycarbide. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) further showed tube and sheet-like nanofeatures as well as larger structures consisting of agglomerated primary clusters. On the other hand, introduction of O{sub 2} in Ar/HMDSO plasmas produced only round-like nanoparticles with strong Si-O-Si bands and no trace of carbon, consistent with the formation of SiO{sub x}. The average size of the silica nanoparticles was 50 nm. FTIR spectra of powders formed in Ar/TTIP plasmas showed strong Ti-O signals, even without the addition of O{sub 2} in the gas phase. Corresponding TEM analysis showed nano- and agglomerated features comparable to those obtained in Ar/HMDSO although the

  10. Effect of Ni doping on structural and optical properties of Zn{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}O nanopowder synthesized via low cost sono-chemical method

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Budhendra; Kaushal, Ajay; Bdikin, Igor; Venkata Saravanan, K.; Ferreira, J.M.F.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Pure and Ni doped ZnO nanopowders were synthesized by low cost sonochemical method. • The optical properties of Zn{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}O nanopowders can be tuned by varying Ni content. • The results reveal the solubility limit of Ni into ZnO matrix as below 8%. - Abstract: Zn{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}O nanopowders with different Ni contents of x = 0.0, 0.04 and 0.08 were synthesized via cost effective sonochemical reaction method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern reveals pure wurtzite phase of prepared nanostructures with no additional impurity peaks. The morphology and dimensions of nanoparticles were investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM). A sharp and strong peak for first order optical mode for wurtzite zinc oxide (ZnO) structure was observed at ∼438 cm{sup −1} in Raman spectra. The calculated optical band gap (E{sub g}) from UV–vis transmission data was found to decrease with increase in Ni content. The observed red shift in E{sub g} with increasing Ni content in ZnO nanopowders were in agreement with band gap behaviours found in their photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The synthesised ZnO nanopowders with controlled band gap on Ni doping reveals their potential for use in various electronic and optical device applications. The results were discussed in detail.

  11. Role of paramagnetic defects in light emission processes in Y-doped ZrO2 nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korsunska, N.; Baran, M.; Zhuk, A.; Polishchuk, Yu; Stara, T.; Kladko, V.; Bacherikov, Yu; Venger, Ye; Konstantinova, T.; Khomenkova, L.

    2014-12-01

    Luminescence and structural properties of pure and Y-doped ZrO2 nanopowders with different Y content synthesized by co-precipitation of Zr and Y salts were investigated by x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and photoluminescence (PL) methods. It was found that at constant calcination temperature (700 °С), the increase of Y content stimulates the transformation of crystalline phase from monoclinic through the tetragonal to the cubic one. Generally, room temperature PL emission was found to be similar for the samples with different Y content, demonstrating the same overlapped PL components in visible spectral range under extrinsic excitation. The relative contribution of each PL component was found to be affected by calcination time. In EPR spectra of as-prepared samples no signals were observed. The annealing in N2 or H2 flow results in the appearance of the signal from surface Zr3+ defects. In the latter the signal assigned to F-center also arises. The anti-correlation observed between the PL intensity and the value of the Zr3+ EPR signal allows us to conclude that the Zr3+ center is the center of fast non-radiative recombination. At the same time, interrelation between the intensity of the EPR signal assigned to F-centers and observed PL bands was not found.

  12. Preparation and scintillating properties of Sol-Gel Eu(3+), TB(3+) co-doped Lu(2)O(3) nanopowders.

    PubMed

    de Jesús Morales Ramírez, Angel; Murillo, Antonieta García; de Jesús Carrillo Romo, Felipe; Hernández, Margarita García; Palmerin, Joel Moreno; Guerrero, Rosario Ruiz

    2011-01-01

    Nanocrystalline Eu(3+), Tb(3+) co-doped Lu(2)O(3) powders with a maximum size of 25.5 nm were prepared by the sol-gel process, using lutetium, europium and terbium nitrates as precursors, and ethanol as a solvent. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) and infrared spectroscopy (IR) were used to study the chemical changes during the xerogel annealing. After the sol evaporation at 100 °C, the formed gel was annealed from 300 to 900 °C for 30 min under a rich O(2) atmosphere, and the yielded product was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) to characterize the microstructural behavior and confirm the crystalline structure. The results showed that Lu(2)O(3) nanopowders start to crystallize at 400 °C and that the crystallite size increases along with the annealing temperature. A transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study of samples annealed at 700 and 900 °C was carried out in order to analyze the microstructure, as well as the size, of crystallites. Finally, in regard to scintillating properties, Eu(3+) dopant (5 mol%), Tb(3+) codoped Lu(2)O(3) exhibited a typical red emission at 611 nm (D(°)→(7)F(2)), furthermore, the effect of Tb(3+) molar content (0.01, 0.015 and 0.02% mol) on the Eu(3+) radioluminiscence was analyzed and it was found that the higher emission intensity corresponds to the lower Tb(3+) content.

  13. Application of 8YSZ Nanopowder Synthesized by the Modified Solvothermal Process for Anode Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.

    PubMed

    Meepho, Malinee; Wattanasiriwech, Suthee; Angkavatana, Pavadee; Wattanasiriwech, Darunee

    2015-03-01

    Thin electrolyte yttria-stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) films were coated on the porous solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode substrates for the use at an intermediate temperature range. Nano-8YSZ powder with a particle size of about 5 nm was synthesized using the modified solvothermal process. The electrolyte suspension was prepared by dispersion the synthesized 8YSZ nanopowder in ethanol, with PVB and 1,3-propanediol as a binder and a charging agent respectively. The 8YSZ suspension was subsequently deposited on the pre-sintered NiO-YSZ porous substrates by the electrophoretic deposition (EPD) technique. In order to obtain high quality electrolyte films, preparation process was optimized through two strategic approaches; (i) adjustment of suspension's rheological property and (ii) compatibility of anode-electrolyte sintering shrinkage. Rheological property of the suspension was improved with an addition of 1,3-propanediol. The zeta potential of this suspension was increased and reached the value of +24 mV so the well-dispersed slurry was finally obtained. The second approach was achieved by using a proper composite anode powders. Dense and uniform 8YSZ electrolyte films with a thickness of about 1 thickness successfully be formed on the NiO-YSZ porous substrates after co-sintering at 1400 °C for 2 h.

  14. Temperature dependence of Er³⁺ ionoluminescence and photoluminescence in Gd₂O₃:Bi nanopowder.

    PubMed

    Boruc, Zuzanna; Gawlik, Grzegorz; Fetliński, Bartosz; Kaczkan, Marcin; Malinowski, Michał

    2014-06-01

    Ionoluminescence (IL) and photoluminescence (PL) of trivalent erbium ions (Er(3+)) in Gd2O3 nanopowder host activated with Bi(3+) ions has been studied in order to establish the link between changes in luminescent spectra and temperature of the sample material. IL measurements have been performed with H2 (+) 100 keV ion beam bombarding the target material for a few seconds, while PL spectra have been collected for temperatures ranging from 20 °C to 700 °C. The PL data was used as a reference in determining the temperature corresponding to IL spectra. The collected data enabled the definition of empirical formula based on the Boltzmann distribution, which allows the temperature to be determined with a maximum sensitivity of 9.7 × 10(-3) °C(-1). The analysis of the Er(3+) energy level structure in terms of tendency of the system to stay in thermal equilibrium, explained different behaviors of the line intensities. This work led to the conclusion that temperature changes during ion excitation can be easily defined with separately collected PL spectra. The final result, which is empirical formula describing dependence of fluorescence intensity ratio on temperature, raises the idea of an application of method in temperature control, during processes like ion implantation and some nuclear applications.

  15. The Influence of Carbonaceous Matrices and Electrocatalytic MnO2 Nanopowders on Lithium-Air Battery Performances

    PubMed Central

    Minguzzi, Alessandro; Longoni, Gianluca; Cappelletti, Giuseppe; Pargoletti, Eleonora; Di Bari, Chiara; Locatelli, Cristina; Marelli, Marcello; Rondinini, Sandra; Vertova, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report new gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs) prepared by mixing two different pore size carbonaceous matrices and pure and silver-doped manganese dioxide nanopowders, used as electrode supports and electrocatalytic materials, respectively. MnO2 nanoparticles are finely characterized in terms of structural (X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX)), morphological (SEM, high-angle annular dark field (HAADF)-scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM)/TEM), surface (Brunauer Emmet Teller (BET)-Barrett Joyner Halenda (BJH) method) and electrochemical properties. Two mesoporous carbons, showing diverse surface areas and pore volume distributions, have been employed. The GDE performances are evaluated by chronopotentiometric measurements to highlight the effects induced by the adopted materials. The best combination, hollow core mesoporous shell carbon (HCMSC) with 1.0% Ag-doped hydrothermal MnO2 (M_hydro_1.0%Ag) allows reaching very high specific capacity close to  1400 mAh·g−1. Considerably high charge retention through cycles is also observed, due to the presence of silver as a dopant for the electrocatalytic MnO2 nanoparticles. PMID:28344267

  16. Variations in Physicochemical Properties of a Traditional Mercury-Based Nanopowder Formulation: Need for Standard Manufacturing Practices

    PubMed Central

    Kamath, S. U.; Pemiah, B.; Rajan, K. S.; Krishnaswamy, S.; Sethuraman, S.; Krishnan, U. M.

    2014-01-01

    Rasasindura is a mercury-based nanopowder synthesized using natural products through mechanothermal processing. It has been used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine since time immemorial for various therapeutic purposes such as rejuvenation, treatment of syphilis and in genital disorders. Rasasindura is said to be composed of mercury, sulphur and organic moieties derived from the decoction of plant extracts used during its synthesis. There is little scientific understanding of the preparation process so far. Though metallic mercury is incorporated deliberately for therapeutic purposes, it certainly raises toxicity concerns. The lack of gold standards in manufacturing of such drugs leads to a variation in the chemical composition of the final product. The objective of the present study was to assess the physicochemical properties of Rasasindura samples of different batches purchased from different manufacturers and assess the extent of deviation and gauge its impact on human health. Modern characterization techniques were employed to analyze particle size and morphology, surface area, zeta potential, elemental composition, crystallinity, thermal stability and degradation. Average particle size of the samples observed through scanning electron microscope ranged from 5-100 nm. Mercury content was found to be between 84 and 89% from elemental analysis. Despite batch-to-batch and manufacturer-to-manufacturer variations in the physicochemical properties, all the samples contained mercury in the form of HgS. These differences in the physicochemical properties may ultimately impact its biological outcome. PMID:25593382

  17. Azide SHS of aluminium nitride nanopowder and its application for obtaining Al-Cu-AlN cast nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titova, Y. V.; Sholomova, A. V.; Kuzina, A. A.; Maidan, D. A.; Amosov, A. P.

    2016-11-01

    Method of azide self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS-Az), using sodium azide (NaN3) as a nitriding reagent, was used for obtaining the nanopowder of aluminum nitride (AlN) from precursor that was sodium hexafluoroaluminate (Na3AlF6). The product of burning the mixture of Na3AlF6 + 3NaN3 after water rinsing consisted of micro - and nanoparticles of AlN (65%) and the residue of salt Na3AlF6 (35%). This product of SHS-Az was mixed with copper powder and pressed into a briquette of nanopowdery master alloy Cu- 4%(65%AlN+35%Na3AlF6), which was successfully introduced into aluminium melt at a temperature of 850°C. The salt Na3AlF6 in the product of combustion played a role of flux during introducing into the aluminum melt and was not included in the final composition of the composite alloy. The microstructure of the obtained cast composite aluminum alloy with the calculated composition of Al-1.2%Cu-0.035%AlN showed that the reinforcing particles of AlN of different sizes, including nanoparticles, were distributed mainly along the grain boundaries of the aluminum alloy.

  18. Structural, FTIR and photoluminescence studies of Fe doped ZnO nanopowder by co-precipitation method.

    PubMed

    Raja, K; Ramesh, P S; Geetha, D

    2014-10-15

    An investigation on Fe-doped ZnO (Zn1-xFexO, x=0, 0.03, 0.06 and 0.09mM) nanopowder have been synthesized by co-precipitated method annealed at 550°C were reported. The structural, morphological and optical properties of the samples were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectra (EDS) analysis, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), UV-Visible spectroscopy, and photoluminescence (PL) techniques, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The XRD spectrum shows all the samples are hexagonal wurtzite structure. The presence of functional groups and chemical bonding are confirmed by FT-IR. The PL spectra of the Zn1-xFexxO systems show that the shift in near band edge (NBE) UV emission from 344.54 to 364.21nm and a shift in green band (GB) emission from 484 to 540nm which conforms the substitution of Fe into the ZnO lattice. UV-Visible measurement showed a decrease in the energy gap with increasing Fe content, probably due to an increase in the lattice parameters. It is also found that these results are in good agreement with other calculated and experimental results.

  19. Magnetic properties and cation ordering of nanopowders of the synthetic analogue of kuramite, Cu3SnS4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetto, Francesco Di; Borrini, Daniele; Caneschi, Andrea; Fornaciai, Gabriele; Innocenti, Massimo; Lavacchi, Alessandro; Massa, Carlo Andrea; Montegrossi, Giordano; Oberhauser, Werner; Pardi, Luca A.; Romanelli, Maurizio

    2011-06-01

    An extensive characterisation of the magnetic properties of synthetic powders of kuramite, with formal composition Cu3SnS4, was performed. Powders were investigated through superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), scanning and transmission electron microscopies (SEM and TEM) and microanalysis. SEM and TEM reveal the presence of nanodimensioned particles. XRPD clearly shows that Cu3SnS4 crystallised in a cubic sphalerite-type structural model, in spite of the stannite-type tetragonal structure described for the natural phase. This difference arises from a full random distribution of cations. Synthetic kuramite nanopowders exhibit a marked paramagnetism, originated by the presence of Cu(II), definitely assessed by EPR measurements. Moreover, the overall magnetic behaviour of the sample cannot be simply ascribed to diluted paramagnetism, and this suggests the presence of strong superexchange interactions among Cu(II) ions even at room temperature. The main consequences of these results are the definitive assessment of the chemical formula Cu(I)2Cu(II)SnS4 and of a random distribution of Cu(II), Cu(I) and Sn(IV) ions within the available tetrahedral sites.

  20. Diffusion Processes in Water on Oxide Surfaces: Quasielastic Neutron Scattering Study of Hydration Water in Rutile Nano-Powder

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Xiang-Qiang; Ehlers, Georg; Mamontov, Eugene; Podlesnyak, Andrey A; Wang, Wei; Wesolowski, David J

    2011-01-01

    Quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) was used to investigate the diffusion dynamics of hydration water on the surface of rutile (TiO{sub 2}) nanopowder. The dynamics measurements utilizing two inelastic instruments, a backscattering spectrometer and a disk chopper spectrometer, probed the fast, intermediate, and slow motions of the water molecules on the time scale of picoseconds to more than a nanosecond. We employed a model-independent analysis of the data collected at each value of the scattering momentum transfer to investigate the temperature dependence of several diffusion components. All of the probed components were present in the studied temperature range of 230-320 K, providing, at a first sight, no evidence of discontinuity in the hydration water dynamics. However, a qualitative change in the elastic scattering between 240 and 250 K suggested a surface freezing-melting transition, when the motions that were localized at lower temperatures became delocalized at higher temperatures. On the basis of our previous molecular dynamics simulations of this system, we argue that interpretation of QENS data from such a complex interfacial system requires at least qualitative input from simulations, particularly when comparing results from spectrometers with very different energy resolutions and dynamic ranges.

  1. Shape tailored green synthesis of CeO2:Ho3+ nanopowders, its structural, photoluminescence and gamma radiation sensing properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malleshappa, J.; Nagabhushana, H.; Kavyashree, D.; Prashantha, S. C.; Sharma, S. C.; Premkumar, H. B.; Shivakumara, C.

    2015-06-01

    CeO2:Ho3+ (1-9 mol%) nanopowders have been prepared by efficient and environmental friendly green combustion method using Aloe vera gel as fuel for the first time. The final products are well characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fourier transform infrared (FTIR). Bell, urchin, core shell and flower like morphologies are observed with different concentrations of the A. vera gel. It is apparent that by adjusting the concentration of the gel, considerable changes in the formation of CeO2:Ho3+ nano structures can be achieved. Photoluminescence (PL) studies show green (543, 548 nm) and red (645, 732 nm) emissions upon excited at 400 nm wavelength. The emission peaks at ∼526, 548, 655 and 732 nm are associated with the transitions of 5F3 → 5I8, 5S2 → 5I8, 5F5 → 5I8 and 5S2 → 5I7, respectively. Three TL glow peaks are observed at 118, 267 and 204 °C for all the γ irradiated samples which specify the surface and deeper traps. Linear TL response in the range 0.1-2 kGy shows that phosphor is fairly useful as γ radiation dosimeter. Kinetic parameters associated with the glow peaks are estimated using Chen's half width method. The CIE coordinate values show that phosphor is quite useful for the possible applications in WLEDs as orange red phosphor.

  2. Sono-assisted adsorption of a textile dye on milk vetch-derived charcoal supported by silica nanopowder.

    PubMed

    Jorfi, Sahand; Darvishi Cheshmeh Soltani, Reza; Ahmadi, Mehdi; Khataee, Alireza; Safari, Mahdi

    2017-02-01

    This study was performed to assess the efficiency of silica nanopowder (SNP)/milk vetch-derived charcoal (MVDC) nanocomposite coupled with the ultrasonic irradiation named sono-adsorption process for treating water-contained Basic Red 46 (BR46) dye. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were performed for the characterization of as-prepared adsorbent. The sono-assisted adsorption process was optimized using response surface optimization on the basis of central composite design by the application of quadratic model. Accordingly, the color removal can be retained more than 93% by an initial BR46 concentration of 8 mg/L, sonication time of 31 min, adsorbent dosage of 1.2 g/L and initial pH of 9. The pseudo-second order kinetic model described the sono-assisted adsorption of BR46 reasonably well (R(2) > 0.99). The intra-particular diffusion kinetic model pointed out that the sono-assisted adsorption of BR46 onto SNP/MVDC nanocomposite was diffusion controlled as well as that ultrasonication enhanced the diffusion rate.

  3. Effect of synthesis route on the uptake of Ni and Cd by MgFe2O4 nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Najar, B.; Khezami, L.; Judith Vijaya, J.; Lemine, O. M.; Bououdina, M.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, MgFe2O4 nanopowders were synthesized through two different methods, sol-gel method (SG) and modified sol-gel with Ammonia (MSG-A). The influence of synthesis route was investigated in terms of phase stability, pores size and surface area, magnetic properties and uptake of Ni and Cd metals from aqueous solution. Rietveld refinements of x-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the formation of single spinel phase for SG sample, while minor impurity was detected for SGM-A sample (few amount of MgO). The crystallite size was found to be sensitive to the preparation method; it ranges from 4 nm for SG to 15 nm for MSG-A. Magnetization experiment at room temperature showed ferromagnetic behavior with a saturation magnetization ( M s) ranging from 5.39 emu/g for SG to 9.93 emu/g for MSG-A. Preliminary results showed that SG and MSG-A samples are efficient adsorbent for Ni and Cd metal ions from aqueous solution. Maximum quantity of 62.67 and 61.2 mg of Ni(II) and 36.49 and 32.84 mg of Cd(II) was adsorbed per gram of MgFe2O4 synthesized by SG and MSG-A, respectively.

  4. Preparation and Scintillating Properties of Sol-Gel Eu3+, Tb3+ Co-Doped Lu2O3 Nanopowders

    PubMed Central

    de Jesús Morales Ramírez, Ángel; Murillo, Antonieta García; de Jesús Carrillo Romo, Felipe; Hernández, Margarita García; Palmerin, Joel Moreno; Guerrero, Rosario Ruiz

    2011-01-01

    Nanocrystalline Eu3+, Tb3+ co-doped Lu2O3 powders with a maximum size of 25.5 nm were prepared by the sol-gel process, using lutetium, europium and terbium nitrates as precursors, and ethanol as a solvent. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) and infrared spectroscopy (IR) were used to study the chemical changes during the xerogel annealing. After the sol evaporation at 100 °C, the formed gel was annealed from 300 to 900 °C for 30 min under a rich O2 atmosphere, and the yielded product was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) to characterize the microstructural behavior and confirm the crystalline structure. The results showed that Lu2O3 nanopowders start to crystallize at 400 °C and that the crystallite size increases along with the annealing temperature. A transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study of samples annealed at 700 and 900 °C was carried out in order to analyze the microstructure, as well as the size, of crystallites. Finally, in regard to scintillating properties, Eu3+ dopant (5 mol%), Tb3+ codoped Lu2O3 exhibited a typical red emission at 611 nm (D°→7F2), furthermore, the effect of Tb3+ molar content (0.01, 0.015 and 0.02% mol) on the Eu3+ radioluminiscence was analyzed and it was found that the higher emission intensity corresponds to the lower Tb3+ content. PMID:22016655

  5. The Crystal Structure of Micro- and Nanopowders of ZnS Studied by EPR of Mn2+ and XRD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosenko, Valentyna; Vorona, Igor; Grachev, Valentyn; Ishchenko, Stanislav; Baran, Nikolai; Becherikov, Yurii; Zhuk, Anton; Polishchuk, Yuliya; Kladko, Vasyl; Selishchev, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    The crystal structure of micro- and nanopowders of ZnS doped with different impurities was analyzed by the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of Mn2+ and XRD methods. The powders of ZnS:Cu, ZnS:Mn, ZnS:Co, and ZnS:Eu with the particle sizes of 5-7 μm, 50-200 nm, 7-10 μm, and 5-7 nm, respectively, were studied. Manganese was incorporated in the crystal lattice of all the samples as uncontrolled impurity or by doping. The Mn2+ ions were used as EPR structural probes. It is found that the ZnS:Cu has the cubic structure, the ZnS:Mn has the hexagonal structure with a rhombic distortion, the ZnS:Co is the mixture of the cubic and hexagonal phases in the ratio of 1:10, and the ZnS:Eu has the cubic structure and a distorted cubic structure with stacking defects in the ratio 3:1. The EPR technique is shown to be a powerful tool in the determination of the crystal structure for mixed-polytype ZnS powders and powders with small nanoparticles. It allows observation of the stacking defects, which is revealed in the XRD spectra.

  6. Improved compaction of ZnO nano-powder triggered by the presence of acetate and its effect on sintering

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Julian, Jesus; Guillon, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    The retention of nanocrystallinity in dense ceramic materials is still a challenge, even with the application of external pressure during sintering. The compaction behavior of high purity and acetate enriched zinc oxide (ZnO) nano-powders was investigated. It was found that acetate in combination with water plays a key role during the compaction into green bodies at moderate temperatures. Application of constant pressure resulted in a homogeneous green body with superior packing density (86% of theoretical value) at moderate temperature (85 °C) in the presence of water. In contrast, no improvement in density could be achieved if pure ZnO powder was used. This compaction behavior offers superior packing of the particles, resulting in a high relative density of the consolidated compact with negligible coarsening. Dissolution accompanying creep diffusion based matter transport is suggested to strongly support reorientation of ZnO particles towards densities beyond the theoretical limit for packing of ideal monosized spheres. Finally, the sintering trajectory reveals that grain growth is retarded compared to conventional processing up to 90% of theoretical density. Moreover, nearly no radial shrinkage was observed after sinter-forging for bodies performed with this advanced processing method. PMID:27877777

  7. Comparison of structural and luminescence properties of Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanopowders synthesized by co-precipitation and green combustion routes

    SciTech Connect

    Chandrasekhar, M.; Nagabhushana, H.; Sudheerkumar, K.H.; Dhananjaya, N.; Sharma, S.C.; Kavyashree, D.; Shivakumara, C.; Nagabhushana, B.M.

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanopowders were prepared by co-precipitation and eco-friendly green combustion route using plant latex. • Both the products show excellent chromaticity coordinates in the white region, which were quite useful for white LED’s. • Thermoluminescence response of the Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} product prepared by green synthesis was higher when compared to co-precipitation route. • Structural parameters of Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} were estimated using Rietveld refinement. • The development of nanosize materials using eco-friendly resources was an attractive non-hazardous chemical route. - Abstract: Dysprosium oxide (Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanopowders were prepared by co-precipitation (CP) and eco-friendly green combustion (GC) routes. SEM micrographs prepared by CP route show smooth rods with various lengths and diameters while, GC route show porous, agglomerated particles. The results were further confirmed by TEM. Thermoluminescence (TL) responses of the nanopowder prepared by both the routes were studied using γ-rays. A well resolved glow peak at 353 °C along with less intense peak at 183 °C was observed in GC route while, in CP a single glow peak at 364 °C was observed. The kinetic parameters were estimated using Chen’s glow peak route. Photoluminescence (PL) of Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} shows peaks at 481, 577, 666 and 756 nm which were attributed to Dy{sup 3+} transitions of {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}⟶{sup 6}H{sub 15/2}, {sup 6}H{sub 13/2}, {sup 6}H{sub 11/2} and {sup 6}H{sub 9/2}, respectively. Color co-ordinate values were located in the white region as a result the product may be useful for the fabrication of WLED’S.

  8. Effect of heat treatment on the structural parameters and magnetic properties of copper ferrite nanopowders obtained by the sol-gel combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuravlev, V. A.; Naiden, E. P.; Minin, R. V.; Itin, V. I.; Ufimtsev, M. R.

    2016-02-01

    Phase composition, structure parameters and basic magnetic characteristics obtained by the sol-gel combustion nanopowders of ferrospinel CuFe2O4 are investigated. A comparison of the properties of synthesized materials: first sample - immediately after the combustion of the gel and second sample - after annealing at 1073 K for 4 hours are performed. Annealing leads to an increase in the concentration of the phase with tetragonal crystal structure. Particle sizes and the value of anisotropy field of this phase also increased.

  9. Ferromagnetism and optical properties of La1 − x Al x FeO3 nanopowders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    La1 − x Al x FeO3 (x = 0.0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5) nanopowders were prepared by polymerization complex method. All prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and UV-vis spectrophotometry (UV-vis). The magnetic properties were investigated using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The X-ray results of all samples show the formation of an orthorhombic phase with the second phase of α-Fe2O3 in doped samples. The crystallite sizes of nanoparticles decreased with increasing Al content, and they are found to be in the range of 58.45 ± 5.90 to 15.58 ± 4.64 nm. SEM and TEM images show the agglomeration of nanoparticles with average particle size in the range of 60 to 75 nm. The FT-IR spectra confirm the presence of metal oxygen bonds of O-Fe-O and Fe-O in the FeO6 octahedra. The UV-vis spectra show strong absorption peaks at approximately 285 nm, and the calculated optical band gaps are found to be in the range of 2.05 to 2.09 eV with increasing Al content. The M-H loop of the pure sample is antiferromagnetic, whereas those of the doped samples tend to be ferromagnetic with increasing Al content. The magnetization, remanent magnetization, and coercive field of the Al-doped sample with x = 0.5 are enhanced to 1.665 emu/g, 0.623 emu/g, and 4,087.0 Oe, respectively. PMID:25246876

  10. Synthesis and magnetization studies of nanopowder Fe₇₀Ni₂₀Cr₁₀ alloys prepared by high energy milling

    SciTech Connect

    Chater, R.; Bououdina, M.; Chaanbi, D.; Abbas, H.

    2013-05-01

    Nanocrystalline Fe{sub 1–x–y}NixCry (x=20, y=10% in Wt)) alloy samples were prepared by mechanical alloying process. Fe, Ni and Cr elemental powders have been ball milled in a planetary mill for various periods of time, up to 27 h. XRD analysis allowed the determination of the structure of the mixture, the average crystallite size and the lattice parameter as a function of milling time. The complete formation of FeNiCr is observed after 27 h milling. With increasing milling time from 0 to 27 h, it is observed that the lattice parameter increases from 0.3515 to 0.3593 nm as well as an increase of microstrain from 0.15 to 0.40%, whereas the grain size decreases from 48 to 13 nm. Grain morphology of the powders at different formation stages was examined using SEM. Saturation magnetization and coercive fields derived from the hysteresis curves are discussed as a function of milling time. - Graphical abstract: Fe₇₀Ni₂₀Cr₁₀ nanopowders were prepared using a planetary ball mill. The structure and microstructure vary with milling time; thereby important modifications of the magnetic properties were observed and discussed. Highlights: • Nanocrystalline Fe₇₀Ni₂₀Cr₁₀ alloy were prepared by the mechanical alloying process. • The complete formation of Fe₇₀Ni₂₀Cr₁₀ is observed after 24 h milling. • With increasing milling time, the grain size decreases, while the strain increases. • The SEM images allowed following the morphology of the materials at different stages. • Ms and HC derived from the hysteresis are discussed as a function of milling time.

  11. Spectral investigations on undoped and Cu²⁺ doped ZnO-CdS composite nanopowders.

    PubMed

    Rao, G Thirumala; Babu, B; Stella, R Joyce; Manjari, V Pushpa; Ravikumar, R V S S N

    2015-03-15

    Undoped and Cu(2+) doped ZnO-CdS composite nanopowders were synthesized by simple chemical precipitation method. Structural and spectroscopic properties of the prepared samples have been characterized by XRD, SEM with EDS, TEM, FT-IR, UV-Vis, EPR and Photoluminescence studies. X-ray diffraction pattern contains a series of peaks corresponds to hexagonal phase of ZnO and CdS. The average crystallite sizes of undoped and Cu(2+) doped samples are determined and are in the range of 25-30 nm. SEM and TEM micrographs reveal that the samples show spherical like structures with little agglomeration. FT-IR spectra show the fundamental mode of vibrations of ZnO at 515 cm(-1), CdS at 621 cm(-1) and other functional groups. Optical absorption spectrum of Cu(2+) doped sample consists of three bands at 665, 823 and 1192 nm attributed to the transitions (2)B1g→(2)Eg, (2)B2g and (2)A1g respectively. Crystal field and tetragonal field parameters are evaluated as Dq=1214, Ds=1610 and Dt=389 cm(-1). From EPR, spin-Hamiltonian and hyperfine splitting parameters are evaluated for Cu(2+) doped sample as g‖=2.3391, g⊥=2.0550 and A‖=130×10(-4) cm(-1), A⊥=36×10(-4) cm(-1). The optical and EPR data suggests that Cu(2+) entered into host lattice as tetragonally distorted octahedral site symmetry. PL spectra consists two emission bands at 367, 380 nm in UV region. A sharp blue emission peak at 425 nm and a broad green emission peak in the range of 450-570 nm are observed. The enhanced visible emission is observed after doping.

  12. Optical properties of Eu and Er doped LaAlO{sub 3} nanopowders prepared by low-temperature method

    SciTech Connect

    Maczka, Miroslaw; Bednarkiewicz, Artur; Mendoza-Mendoza, Esmeralda; Fuentes, Antonio F.; Kepinski, Leszek

    2012-10-15

    LaAlO{sub 3} nanoparticles doped with Eu{sup 3+} and Er{sup 3+} ions were synthesized at 500 Degree-Sign C in a two-step process by combining a mechanically induced metathesis reaction and molten salt synthesis. The obtained samples were characterized by XRD and TEM methods, which showed that the mean crystallite size is {approx}45 and {approx}57 nm, respectively. Furthermore, excitation and luminescence spectra as well as decay profiles were measured for the synthesized samples. These studies suggested that the Eu{sup 3+} ions are located at three different local sites without inversion symmetry. Our studies also showed up-conversion emission in the samples doped with Er{sup 3+} ions. The up-conversion mechanism has been discussed. - Graphical abstract: The example up-conversion spectra of 1% and 2% Er{sup 3+}-doped samples under 980 nm photoexcitation (a) and energy transfer scheme (b) in Er{sup 3+}-doped LaAlO{sub 3} nanopowders. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Er and Eu doped LaAlO{sub 3} samples were synthesized at remarkably low temperatures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mean crystallite size of the obtained samples is 45-57 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Luminescence and excitation spectra as well as decay profiles were measured. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Eu{sup 3+} ions are located at three different local sites without inversion symmetry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We discuss mechanism of the up-conversion mechanism in Er{sup 3+} doped samples.

  13. Structural, FTIR and photoluminescence studies of Cu doped ZnO nanopowders by co-precipitation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthukumaran, S.; Gopalakrishnan, R.

    2012-09-01

    Cu doped ZnO (Zn1-xCuxO, x = 0, 0.02, 0.04 and 0.06) nanopowders have been synthesized by co-precipitation method and annealed at 500 °C for 2 h under Ar atmosphere. The synthesized samples have been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive analysis X-ray (EDAX) spectra, UV-Visible spectrophotometer and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The XRD measurement reveals that the prepared nanoparticles have different microstructure without changing a hexagonal wurtzite structure. The calculated average crystalline size decreases from 22.24 to 15.93 nm for x = 0 to 0.04 then reaches 26.54 nm for x = 0.06 which is confirmed by SEM micrographs. The change in lattice parameters, micro-strain, a small shift and broadening in XRD peaks and the reduction in the energy gap from 3.49 to 3.43 eV reveals the substitution of Cu2+ ions into the ZnO lattice. Hydrogenation effect improves the crystal quality and optical properties. It is proposed that Cu doping concentration limit is below 6% (0.06) molar fraction which is supported by the detailed XRD analysis and the derived structural parameters. This Cu concentration limit was proposed as below 5% by previous studies. The presence of functional groups and the chemical bonding is confirmed by FTIR spectra. PL spectra of the Zn1-xCuxO system show that the shift in near band edge (NBE) UV emission from 398 to 403 nm and a shift in green band (GB) emission from 527 to 522 nm which confirms the substitution of Cu into the ZnO lattice.

  14. Microleakage and antibacterial properties of ZnO and ZnO:Ag nanopowders prepared via a sol-gel method for endodontic sealer application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shayani Rad, M.; Kompany, A.; Khorsand Zak, A.; Javidi, M.; Mortazavi, S. M.

    2013-09-01

    One of the most important problems in dentistry is the microleakage, whether apical or coronal, which may cause failure of root canal therapy. The aim of this study is to prepare suitable sealer to decrease the microleakage of the root canals as well as having good antibacterial property. Pure ZnO and ZnO:Ag nanopowders were synthesized via sol gel method using gelatin as polymerization agent calcined at different temperatures of 500, 600, and 700 °C for 8 h. The prepared samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction and transition electron microscopy. The microleakage and antibacterial properties of the prepared samples were investigated and compared with zinc oxide eugenol (ZOE) and epoxy resin sealer (AH26), which are commonly used in dentistry as sealers. The results showed that the synthesized pure ZnO and ZnO:Ag nanopowders exhibit better microleakage and antibacterial properties in comparison with ZOE and AH26 sealers, and therefore are more suitable filling materials to be used as sealer in root canal treatment.

  15. Preparation of UO2, ThO2 and (Th,U)O2 pellets from photochemically-prepared nano-powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavelková, Tereza; Čuba, Václav; de Visser-Týnová, Eva; Ekberg, Christian; Persson, Ingmar

    2016-02-01

    Photochemically-induced preparation of nano-powders of crystalline uranium and/or thorium oxides and their subsequent pelletizing has been investigated. The preparative method was based on the photochemically induced formation of amorphous solid precursors in aqueous solution containing uranyl and/or thorium nitrate and ammonium formate. The EXAFS analyses of the precursors shown that photon irradiation of thorium containing solutions yields a compound with little long-range order but likely "ThO2 like" and the irradiation of uranium containing solutions yields the mixture of U(IV) and U(VI) compounds. The U-containing precursors were carbon free, thus allowing direct heat treatment in reducing atmosphere without pre-treatment in the air. Subsequent heat treatment of amorphous solid precursors at 300-550 °C yielded nano-crystalline UO2, ThO2 or solid (Th,U)O2 solutions with high purity, well-developed crystals with linear crystallite size <15 nm. The prepared nano-powders of crystalline oxides were pelletized without any binder (pressure 500 MPa), the green pellets were subsequently sintered at 1300 °C under an Ar:H2 (20:1) mixture (UO2 and (Th,U)O2 pellets) or at 1600 °C in ambient air (ThO2 pellets). The theoretical density of the sintered pellets varied from 91 to 97%.

  16. Structural and magnetic properties of pure and Ca-doped LaCoO3 nanopowders obtained by a sol-gel route.

    PubMed

    Armelao, Lidia; Barreca, Davide; Bottaro, Gregorio; Maragno, Cinzia; Tondello, Eugenio; Caneschi, Andrea; Sangregorio, Claudio; Gialanella, Stefano

    2006-04-01

    Pure and Ca-doped LaCoO3 nanopowders were prepared by a non-alkoxidic sol-gel route using cobalt(II) acetate, lanthanum(III) nitrate and calcium(II) acetate as oxide precursors. The structural evolution and magnetic properties of the samples were studied as a function of thermal treatments in air up to 1273 K. In particular, the microstructure and composition of the systems were analyzed by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Both pure and calcium-doped samples annealing at 973 K resulted in the formation of cubic LaCoO3 (average crystallite size <30 nm). This phase was fully retained in the calcium-doped materials even after annealing at higher temperatures, whereas a transition to the rhomboedral polymorph was detected in the pure samples at 1073 K. The magnetic behavior of the nanopowders was investigated as a function of temperature and applied field using both dynamic and static susceptibility measurements. Pure lanthanum cobaltite samples underwent a transition to an ordered state at 88 K, and their magnetic properties changed as a function of thermal treatments. As concerns calcium-doped samples, they ordered ferromagnetically at 171 and 185 K depending on the annealing temperature and displayed open hysteresis loops with coercive fields as large as 1.75 T at low temperatures.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of ZnO-TiO2 nanopowders doped with fe via sol-gel method and their application in photocatalytic degradation of anionic surfactant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giahi, M.; Saadat Niavol, S.; Taghavi, H.; Meskinfam, M.

    2015-12-01

    ZnO and 0, 5, and 10 mol % Fe-doped ZnO-TiO2 nanopowders were synthesized by the sol-gel Pechini method. The successful synthesis of coupled ZnO-TiO2 nanopowders was evident by XRD. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the Fe ions were well incorporated into the ZnO-TiO2 crystal lattice. The photocatalytic degradation of anionic surfactant (linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LABS), was investigated in aqueous solution using ZnO and Fe-doped ZnO-TiO2 nanoparticles. The degradation was studied under different conditions such as the Fe3+ concentration, amount of photocatalyst, irradiation time, pH, initial concentration and presence of electron acceptor. The results showed that photocatalytic degradation of LABS was strongly influenced by these parameters. The best conditions for the photocatalytic degradation of LABS were obtained. It is found that under UV light irradiation, Fe-doping of ZnO-TiO2 increases the efficiency of its photocatalytic activity in degradation of LABS than pure ZnO and ZnO-TiO2.

  18. Deformation band-like defects as possible precursors to microfracture planes, resulting in the generation of nanopowders on simulated fault planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toy, V. G.; Wirth, R.; Mitchell, T. M.

    2013-12-01

    The development of at least partially ';amorphous' and/or ';nanocrystalline' materials within fault principal slip zones has been shown to reduce frictional shear resistance during fault slip. Thus it is proposed generation of these materials facilitates shear localization and possibly even seismic slip. The generation of such materials has been demonstrated experimentally, both in high velocity friction experiments at ambient conditions (e.g. silica gels reported by Goldsby & Tullis, 2002: GRL 29, 1844; Di Toro et al., 2004: Nature 427, 436), and very low velocity shear experiments at higher temperatures and confining pressures (e.g. apparent pseudotachylytes reported by Pec et al, 2012: EPSL 355-356, 299). They have also been reported in natural fault zones (e.g. natural silica gel from the Corona Fault described by Kirkpatrick et al., in press: Geology). These materials commonly comprise some proportion of randomly-oriented nanocrystals embedded in a non-crystalline matrix that displays no TEM diffraction contrast or lattice fringes. Proposed generation mechanisms include: irradiation damage, deformation, application of pressure, and chemical reactions. In particular, Pec et al., (2012) proposed that micro-comminution processes precede the generation of lattice defects. In this study we show that partially-amorphous silica material can be generated experimentally on a saw-cut surface in novaculite during shear at ~8 x 10-4m/s, in a Griggs apparatus under Pconf ~0.5 GPa, T = 450 and 600°C. The material comprises angular nanocrystals ranging from 2-10 nm diameter in a entirely non-crystalline matrix,has variable density that increases with decreasing proportion of nanocrystal remnants, suggesting it is a partially compacted nanopowder. This material is restricted to a zone <50 μm wide between the sawcut sliders. We infer an origin by micro-comminution, wherein repeated microfracturing results in formation of a very high proportion of non-crystalline surfaces

  19. Photocatalitic Properties of Tio2 and ZnO Nanopowders / Tio2 un Zno Nanopulveru Fotokatalitiskās Īpašības

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigorjeva, L.; Rikveilis, J.; Grabis, J.; Jankovica, Dz.; Monty, C.; Millers, D.; Smits, K.

    2013-08-01

    Photocatalytic activity of TiO2 and ZnO nanopowders is studied depending on the morphology, grain sizes and method of synthesizing. Photocatalysis of the prepared powders was evaluated by degradation of the methylene blue aqueous solution. Absorbance spectra (190-100 nm) were measured during exposure of the solution to UV light. The relationships between the photocatalytic activity and the particle size, crystal polymorph phases and grain morphology were analyzed. The photocatalytic activity of prepared TiO2 nanopowders has been found to depend of the anatase-to-rutile phase ratio. Comparison is given for the photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanopowders prepared by sol-gel and solar physical vapour deposition (SPVD) methods Darbā pētīta fotokatalīzes efektivitāte ar dažādām metodēm sintezētiem TiO2 and ZnO nanopulveriem, kuriem ir atšķirīga morfoloģija un grauda izmērs. Foto katalīzes process raksturots ar metilenzilā sagraušanu ūdens šķīdumā, to apstarojot ar UV gaismu. Analizēta fotokatalīzes efektivitātes atkarība no grauda izmēra, nanokristālu graudu morfoloģijas, TiO2 nanopulveru anatasa-rutīla fāžu svara attiecībām. Parādīts, ka fotokatalītiskā efektivitāte ir atšķirīga TiO2 nanopulveriem sintezētiem ar dažādām metodēm: sola-gēla un tvaicēšanu-kondensēšanu saules reaktorā. Salīdzināta fotokatalīzes efektivitāte ZnO un TiO2 nanopulveriem un secināts, ka ZnO nanopulveri ar tetrapodu morfoloģiju ir labs fotokatalizators

  20. La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} nanopowders prepared by the hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect

    Putjuso, Thanin; Maensiri, Santi; Hunpratub, Sitchai; Swatsitang, Ekaphan

    2012-09-15

    Graphical abstract: LRTEM image of the single-phase La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} particles. It is seen from the figure that the product has a plate-like morphology with average particles sizes in the range of 100–300 nm. In addition, the SAED data taken from an individual particle (lower inset) shows the presence of sharp diffraction rings, which are indicative of polycrystalline La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} formation. The high-resolution TEM image (upper inset) shows for further confirmation of a crystalline structure of La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} powder. This image shows a clearly resolved crystalline domain with uniform interplanar spacing of 0.276 nm. Highlights: ► La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} nanopowder is prepared in 2 M KOH solution by hydrothermal method. ► The solution is heat treated at 220 °C for 24 h in air. ► LRTEM reveals a plate-like morphology of particle with average size of 100–300 nm. ► HRTEM image shows a crystalline domain with interplanar spacing of 0.276 nm. -- Abstract: La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} nanopowders were prepared by the hydrothermal method. The influence of processing parameters, including KOH concentration, reaction temperature and reaction time on the obtained products were studied. The structure and morphology of the obtained products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The XRD results show that pure phase La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} nanopowders can be successfully synthesized with 2 M KOH concentration at a low temperature of 220 °C for 24 h. In addition, the product has a plate-like shape with particle sizes in the range of 25–100 nm as estimated by TEM.

  1. Role of heat on the development of electrochemical sensors on bare and modified Co3O4/CuO composite nanopowder carbon paste electrodes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Mohan; Kumara Swamy, B E

    2016-01-01

    The Co3O4/CuO composite nanopowder (NP) was synthesized by a mechanochemical method and characterized by using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The synthesized Co3O4/CuO NP was used as a modified carbon paste electrode (MCPE) and further the bare carbon paste and Co3O4/CuO NP modified carbon paste was heated at different temperatures (100, 150, 200 and 250 °C) for 10 min. The Co3O4/CuO NP MCPE was used to study the consequences of scan rate and dopamine concentration. Furthermore the preheated modified electrodes were used to study the electrochemical response to dopamine (DA), ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA).

  2. Radiation preparation of nano-powdered styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) and its toughening effect for polystyrene and high-impact polystyrene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Daishuang; Xia, Haibing; Peng, Jing; Zhai, Maolin; Wei, Genshuan; Li, Jiuqiang; Qiao, Jinliang

    2007-11-01

    Nano-powdered styrene-butadiene rubber (NPSBR) was synthesized based on the styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) latex via gamma radiation crosslinking followed by spray drying. Two functional monomers, 2-ethyl hexyl acrylate (2-EHA) and trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) were used as crosslinking agents. It was found that both 2-EHA and TMPTA can improve the radiation crosslinking of SBR latex. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) revealed that the NPSBR has a particle size similar to that of SBR latex with a diameter of 100 nm due to the high degree of crosslinking of SBR. Mechanical testing results showed that NPSBR could toughen polystyrene (PS) and high-impact polystyrene (HIPS) effectively. In addition, NPSBR is more suitable to toughen HIPS than PS at low rubber content.

  3. Preparation of monolithic cu(In0.7Ga0.3)Se2 nanopowders and subsequent fabrication of sintered CIGS films.

    PubMed

    Song, Bong-Geun; Jung, Jae Hee; Bae, Gwi-Nam; Park, Hyung-Ho; Park, Jong-Ku; Cho, So-Hye

    2013-09-01

    Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) is a compound semiconductor and is one of the most attractive light-absorbing materials for use in thin film solar cells. Among the various approaches to prepare CIGS thin films, the powder process offers an extremely simple and materials-efficient method. Here, we report the mechano-chemical preparation of CIGS compound powders suitable for fabrication of CIGS films by a powder process. We found that the CIGS phase was formed from the elemental powders of Cu, In, and Se and liquid Ga using high energy milling process with a milling time as short as 40 min at 200 rpm due to a self-accelerating exothermic reaction. The morphology and size of the CIGS powders changed with a function of the milling speed (100-300 rpm), leading to an optimal condition of milling at 200 rpm for 120 min. We also found that it was difficult to obtain a monolithic phase of the CIGS powders without severe particle aggregation by mechano-chemical milling alone. Therefore, in combination with the milling, subsequent heat-treatment at 300 degrees C was performed, which successfully provided monolithic CIGS nanopowders suitable for powder process. When a thin film was fabricated from the monolithic CIGS nanopowders, a highly dense film with large crystalline grains was obtained. The CIGS film preserved its chemical composition of CuIn0.7Ga0.3Se2 after sintering as evidenced by Raman spectroscopy, EDS and SAED pattern of transmission electron microscopy. The film was also found suitable for a light absorbing layer of CIGS solar cells with its band gap energy of 1.14 eV evaluated by transmittance spectroscopy.

  4. Effect of different fuels on structural, photo and thermo luminescence properties of solution combustion prepared Y(2)SiO(5) nanopowders.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishna, G; Nagabhushana, H; Sunitha, D V; Prashantha, S C; Sharma, S C; Nagabhushana, B M

    2014-06-05

    Y(2)SiO(5) nanopowders are prepared by solution combustion method using DFH, sugar and urea as fuels. The final product was well characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The average crystallite size was estimated using Debye-Scherer's formula and Williamson-Hall plots and are found to be in the range 34-40nm for DFH, 45-50nm for urea and 35-42nm for sugar respectively. X1-X2 type YSO phase was obtained for all the samples calcined from 1200 to 1400°C. The optical energy band gaps (Eg) of the samples were estimated from Tauc relation and varies from 5.58 to 5.60eV. SEM micrographs of sugar and urea used Y(2)SiO(5) show agglomerated particles with porous morphology. However, for the sample prepared using DFH fuel observed to be almost spherical in shape. Thermoluminescence (TL) properties of γ-irradiated (1-5kGy) and UV irradiated (1-30min) Y(2)SiO(5) nanopowder at a heating rate of 2.5°Cs(-1) was studied. The samples prepared by using urea and sugar fuels show a broad TL glow peak at 189°C. However, DFH used Y(2)SiO(5) show a well resolved peak at 196°C with shouldered peak at 189°C. Among the fuels, DFH used Y(2)SiO(5) show simple glow peak structure which perhaps useful in radiation dosimetry. This may be due to fuel and particle size effect. The kinetic parameters such as activation energy (E), frequency factor (s) and order of kinetics are estimated by Chens glow peak shape method.

  5. Synthesis of YAG nanopowder by the co-precipitation method: Influence of pH and study of the reaction mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Marlot, Caroline; Barraud, Elodie; Le Gallet, Sophie; Eichhorn, Marc; Bernard, Frederic

    2012-07-15

    YAG nanopowders with an average grain size of 30 nm have been successfully synthesized by the co-precipitation method using nitrates with precipitant of ammonium hydrogen carbonate. The influence of precipitation conditions such as pH, aging time and calcination temperature on the formation of secondary phases has been studied. The accurate control of pH value at every stage of precipitation process is crucial to avoid the presence of YAM (Yttrium Aluminium Monoclinic, Y{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9}) and yttrium oxide (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) after calcination. The reaction mechanisms have been investigated using different techniques such as infrared spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and thermal analyses. The YAG phase is formed around 1050 Degree-Sign C passing through an intermediate phase called YAP (Yttrium Aluminium Perovskite, YAlO{sub 3}). Local chemical heterogeneities are responsible for the deviation of the Y:Al ratio and the formation of YAP during heat treatment. - Graphical abstract: Synthesis of YAG nanopowder by the co-precipitation method: Influence of pH and study of the reaction mechanisms, Marlot et al. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis of pure YAG nanoparticles by the co-precipitation method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Influence of pH value on the formation of secondary phases all along the process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Study of the importance of pH using titration method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemical evolution of the precursor during calcinations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proposition for reaction mechanisms.

  6. Photoactive porous silicon nanopowder.

    PubMed

    Meekins, Benjamin H; Lin, Ya-Cheng; Manser, Joseph S; Manukyan, Khachatur; Mukasyan, Alexander S; Kamat, Prashant V; McGinn, Paul J

    2013-04-24

    Bulk processing of porous silicon nanoparticles (nSi) of 50-300 nm size and surface area of 25-230 m(2)/g has been developed using a combustion synthesis method. nSi exhibits consistent photoresponse to AM 1.5 simulated solar excitation. In confirmation of photoactivity, the films of nSi exhibit prompt bleaching following femtosecond laser pulse excitation resulting from the photoinduced charge separation. Photocurrent generation observed upon AM 1.5 excitation of these films in a photoelectrochemical cell shows strong dependence on the thickness of the intrinsic silica shell that encompasses the nanoparticles and hinders interparticle electron transfer.

  7. Study of the relation between oxygen vacancies and ferromagnetism in Fe-doped TiO{sub 2} nano-powders

    SciTech Connect

    Mudarra Navarro, Azucena M.; Rodríguez Torres, Claudia E. Fabiana Cabrera, A.; Bilovol, Vitaliy; Errico, L. A.; Weissmann, M.

    2014-06-14

    In this work, we present an experimental and theoretical study of structural and magnetic properties of Fe doped rutile TiO{sub 2} nanopowders. We show that Fe-doping induces the formation of oxygen vacancies in the first-sphere coordination of iron ions, which are in +2 and +3 oxidation states. We found that Fe ions form dimers that share one oxygen vacancy in the case of Fe{sup 3+} and two oxygen vacancies in the case of Fe{sup 2+}. The saturation magnetization is almost independent of iron concentration and slightly increases with the relative fraction of Fe{sup 2+}. Ab initio calculations show that two Fe ions sharing an oxygen vacancy are coupled ferromagnetically, forming a bound magnetic polaron (BMP), but two neighbor BMPs are aligned antiparallel to each other. Extra electron doping plays a fundamental role mediating the magnetic coupling between the ferromagnetic entities: carriers, possibly concentrated at grain boundaries, mediate between the BMP to produce ferromagnetic alignment.

  8. Temperature dependence of Er{sup 3+} ionoluminescence and photoluminescence in Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Bi nanopowder

    SciTech Connect

    Boruc, Zuzanna Fetliński, Bartosz; Kaczkan, Marcin; Malinowski, Michał; Gawlik, Grzegorz

    2014-06-15

    Ionoluminescence (IL) and photoluminescence (PL) of trivalent erbium ions (Er{sup 3+}) in Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanopowder host activated with Bi{sup 3+} ions has been studied in order to establish the link between changes in luminescent spectra and temperature of the sample material. IL measurements have been performed with H{sub 2}{sup +} 100 keV ion beam bombarding the target material for a few seconds, while PL spectra have been collected for temperatures ranging from 20 °C to 700 °C. The PL data was used as a reference in determining the temperature corresponding to IL spectra. The collected data enabled the definition of empirical formula based on the Boltzmann distribution, which allows the temperature to be determined with a maximum sensitivity of 9.7 × 10{sup −3} °C{sup −1}. The analysis of the Er{sup 3+} energy level structure in terms of tendency of the system to stay in thermal equilibrium, explained different behaviors of the line intensities. This work led to the conclusion that temperature changes during ion excitation can be easily defined with separately collected PL spectra. The final result, which is empirical formula describing dependence of fluorescence intensity ratio on temperature, raises the idea of an application of method in temperature control, during processes like ion implantation and some nuclear applications.

  9. Photo-catalytic inactivation of an Enterococcus biofilm: the anti-microbial effect of sulphated and europium-doped titanium dioxide nanopowders.

    PubMed

    Dworniczek, Ewa; Plesch, Gustav; Seniuk, Alicja; Adamski, Ryszard; Michal, Róbert; Čaplovičová, Mária

    2016-04-01

    The control and prevention of biofilm-related infections is an important public healthcare issue. Given the increasing antibiotic resistance among bacteria and fungi that cause serious infections in humans, promotion of new strategies combating microorganisms has been essential. One attractive approach to inactivate microorganisms is the use of semiconductor photo-catalysis, which has become the subject of extensive research. In this study, the bactericidal properties of four photo-catalysts, TiO₂, TiO₂-S, TiO₂-Eu and TiO₂-Eu-S, were investigated against established 24, 48, 72 and 96 h biofilms of Enterococcus The exposure of biofilms to the catalysts induced the production of superoxide radical anions. The best photo-catalytic inactivation was achieved with the TiO₂-Eu-S and TiO₂-S nanopowders and 24 h biofilms. Transmission electron microscopy images showed significant changes in the structure of the biofilm cells following photo-inactivation. The results suggest that doping with europium and modifying the surface with sulphate groups enhanced the bactericidal activity of the TiO₂ nanoparticles against enterococcal biofilms.

  10. Spark Plasma Sintering of Aluminum-Magnesium-Matrix Composites with Boron Carbide and Tungsten Nano-powder Inclusions: Modeling and Experimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvilis, E. S.; Khasanov, O. L.; Gulbin, V. N.; Petyukevich, M. S.; Khasanov, A. O.; Olevsky, E. A.

    2016-03-01

    Spark-plasma sintering (SPS) is used to fabricate fully-dense metal-matrix (Al/Mg) composites containing hard ceramic (boron carbide) and refractory metal (tungsten) inclusions. The study objectives include the modeling (and its experimental verification) of the process of the consolidation of the composites consisted of aluminum-magnesium alloy AMg6 (65 wt.%), B4C powder (15 wt.%), and W nano-powder (20 wt.%), as well as the optimization of the composite content and of the SPS conditions to achieve higher density. Discrete element modeling of the composite particles packing based on the particle size distribution functions of real powders is utilized for the determination of the powder compositions rendering maximum mixture packing densities. Two models: a power-law creep model of the high temperature deformation of powder materials, and an empirical logarithmic pressure-temperature-relative density relationship are successfully applied for the description of the densification of the aluminum-magnesium metal matrix powder composite subjected to spark-plasma sintering. The elastoplastic properties of the sintered composite samples are assessed by nanoindentation.

  11. The luminescent characterization of (Sr, Ca)2SiO4:Eu2+ nanopowders synthesized by a co-precipitation method.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Seong; Kim, Young Jin

    2013-05-01

    (Sr, Ca)2SiO4:Eu2+ nanopowders were prepared by a co-precipitation method, and then the effects of Ca2+ ions on the structural and luminescent properties were investigated. The pure Sr2SiO4:Eu2+ powders were perfectly composed of the beta-phase, whereas the substitution of Ca2+ ions led to the beta --> alpha' phase transition. The photoluminescence spectra of Sr2SiO4:Eu2+ exhibited two excitation bands at around 330 and 375 nm assigned to Eu(I) and (II) sites, respectively, resulting in two emission bands at around 473 and 543 nm. Meanwhile, the dominant peak wavelengths of the emission spectra of (Sr, Ca)2SiO4:Eu2+ could be tuned, depending on the cation ratio of Ca2+ to Sr2+. The substitution of Ca2+ ions for Sr2+ ions caused the red-shift of the emission peaks of Sr(2-x)Ca(x)SiO4:Eu2+ powders with increasing Ca2+ content (x = 0-1.0) due to the increase in the crystal field strength.

  12. Properties of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+} nanopowders obtained by sol-gel process

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, A. de J. Morales; Murillo, A. Garcia; Romo, F. de J. Carrillo; Hernandez, M. Garcia; Vigueras, D. Jaramillo

    2010-01-15

    A significant practical application for nanostructured materials is X-ray medical imagery, because it is necessary to use dense materials in order to enable absorption of high energy photons. An important requirement of these materials is UV-vis range emission produced by X-ray excitation, which can be influenced by the particle size. Europium doped gadolinium oxide is a well known red phosphor. Moreover, nanophosphors of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} codoped with Tb{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+} increase their light yield by energy transfer between Tb{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+}. In this study, Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanopowders codoped with Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} (2.5 at.% Eu{sup 3+}, and 0.005 and 0.01 at.% Tb{sup 3+}) were obtained via a sol-gel process using gadolinium pentanedionate as precursor and europium and terbium nitrates as doping sources. In this paper, we report the influence of annealing temperature on the structure, morphology and luminescent properties of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+} by means of TGA, XRD, TEM and X-ray emission measurements.

  13. Tunable optical properties of some rare earth elements-doped mayenite Ca12Al14O33 nanopowders elaborated by oxalate precursor route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashad, Mohamed M.; Mostafa, Ahmed G.; Mwakikunga, Bonex W.; Rayan, Diaa A.

    2017-01-01

    Rare earth (RE) ions-doped mayenite Ca12Al14- x RE x O33 nanopowders (where RE = La and Gd and x = 0-1.0) were synthesized using the oxalate precursor technique. The as-prepared precursors were calcined at 800 °C for 2 h. Obviously, all RE-doped Ca12Al14- x RE x O33 possessed a well-crystalline cubic mayenite phase till RE content of 0.8. The crystallo-chemical aspects including crystallite size, lattice parameters, theoretical X-ray density and bulk density were robustly on RE nature and ratio. The microstructure and the average grain size were significantly influenced by the RE kind and content. The high transparency of Ca12Al14- x RE x O33 over 80% was found to be evinced in the visible wavelength range of 400-800 nm. Besides, the incorporation of RE cation minimized the direct band gap energy from 4.42 eV for pure mayenite to 3.85 and 3.59 eV with x value 1.0 of La3+ and Gd3+ ions. The photoluminescence spectra of pure mayenite nanoparticles showed that the band edge emission ( λ exc = 248 nm) with an intense visible emission band at 360 nm was detected. Otherwise, the band edge emission showed a slight shift toward short wavelength due to the substitution Al3+ by RE3+ ions. Such results open a new avenue for application of mayenite as a good candidate for transparent low-temperature electron conductor for optoelectronics applications.

  14. Thermo-stimulated evolution of crystalline structure and dopant distribution in Cu-doped Y-stabilized ZrO2 nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korsunska, N.; Polishchuk, Yu; Kladko, V.; Portier, X.; Khomenkova, L.

    2017-03-01

    This work deals with the effect of Cu doping on thermal stability of the structural properties of Y-stabilized ZrO2 nanopowders and dopants’ spatial distribution. The powders were synthesized by a co-precipitation technique, calcinated at T c  =  500–1100 °C during 2 h and studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy. Calcination at T c  =  500 °C results in the formation of ZrO2 nanocrystals with tetragonal phase predominantly. The shifts of XRD peak positions of Cu-doped powders to larger angles in comparison with those of Cu-free ones testify to the Cu presence inside nanocrystals. The T c increase results in two main processes: (i) the non-monotonic shift of XRD peak positions and (ii) the phase transformation (tetragonal to cubic and both of them to monoclinic). This observation was explained by, at first, Cu atoms incorporation into the nanocrystal volume from the surface complexes (T c  =  500–700 °C) and then their outward diffusion followed by the formation of crystalline CuO (T c  >  700 °C). Phase transformation sets in at T c  =  700 °C, when monoclinic phase appears. Its contribution rises till T c  =  1000 °C. The mechanism of monoclinic phase formation is supposed to be consisted of the out-diffusion of interstitial Cu ions due to their shift from lattice sites. This promotes an appearance of the channels for Y out-diffusion via cation vacancies and results in phase transformation. The sintering process stimulated by CuO formation is proposed to be responsible for appearance of cubic phase at 1000–1100 °C.

  15. Effects of processing parameters on the synthesis of (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 nanopowders by reactive high-energy ball milling method.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Duc Van

    2014-01-01

    The effects of ball milling parameters, namely, the ball-to-powder mass ratio and milling speed, on the synthesis of (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 nanopowders by high-energy ball milling method from a stoichiometric mixture containing Na2CO3, K2CO3, and Nb2O5 were investigated in this paper. The results indicated that the single crystalline phase of (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 was received in as-milled samples synthesized using optimized ball-to-powder mass ratio of 35 : 1 and at a milling speed of 600 rpm for 5 h. In the optimized as-milled samples, no remaining alkali carbonates that can provide the volatilizable potassium-containing species were found and (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 nanopowders were readily obtained via the formation of an intermediate carbonato complex. This complex was mostly transformed into (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 at temperature as low as 350°C and its existence was no longer detected at spectroscopic level when calcination temperature crossed over 700°C.

  16. Effects of Processing Parameters on the Synthesis of (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 Nanopowders by Reactive High-Energy Ball Milling Method

    PubMed Central

    Duc Van, Nguyen

    2014-01-01

    The effects of ball milling parameters, namely, the ball-to-powder mass ratio and milling speed, on the synthesis of (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 nanopowders by high-energy ball milling method from a stoichiometric mixture containing Na2CO3, K2CO3, and Nb2O5 were investigated in this paper. The results indicated that the single crystalline phase of (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 was received in as-milled samples synthesized using optimized ball-to-powder mass ratio of 35 : 1 and at a milling speed of 600 rpm for 5 h. In the optimized as-milled samples, no remaining alkali carbonates that can provide the volatilizable potassium-containing species were found and (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 nanopowders were readily obtained via the formation of an intermediate carbonato complex. This complex was mostly transformed into (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 at temperature as low as 350°C and its existence was no longer detected at spectroscopic level when calcination temperature crossed over 700°C. PMID:24592146

  17. Low-temperature synthesis, luminescence and phonon properties of Er and/or Dy doped LaAlO{sub 3} nanopowders

    SciTech Connect

    Maczka, MirosLaw; Mendoza-Mendoza, Esmeralda; Fuentes, Antonio F.; Lemanski, Karol; Deren, PrzemysLaw

    2012-03-15

    LaAlO{sub 3}, La{sub 0.9}Dy{sub 0.1}AlO{sub 3}, La{sub 0.9}Er{sub 0.1}AlO{sub 3} and La{sub 0.8}Dy{sub 0.1}Er{sub 0.1}AlO{sub 3} nanocrystalline powders were synthesized in a two-step process by combining a mechanically induced metathesis reaction and molten salt synthesis. The proposed two-step methodology easily allows obtaining pure and/or doped perovskite-type LaAlO{sub 3} nanopowders at remarkably low temperatures, i.e., already at 350 Degree-Sign C although firing at 500 Degree-Sign C is needed in order to get pure phases. The obtained samples were characterized by XRD, TEM, Raman, IR and luminescence methods. These methods showed that the mean crystallite size is near 50-60 nm and the LaAlO{sub 3} nanocrystallites have R3{sup Macron }c structure, the same as bulk LaAlO{sub 3}. Raman spectrum of nanocrystalline LaAlO{sub 3} is very similar to that of bulk. In contrast to this behavior, IR spectra of the synthesized compounds are significantly different from the IR spectrum of bulk LaAlO{sub 3}. Origin of this behavior is discussed. Luminescence study showed that the cross-relaxation processes quench emission intensity of the samples doped with Dy{sup 3+} and Er{sup 3+}. - Graphical abstract: TEM image of La{sub 0.9}Er{sub 0.1}AlO{sub 3} (left panel) and histogram showing the particle size distribution (right panel). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pure and Er or Dy doped LaAlO3 samples were synthesized at remarkably low temperatures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mean crystallite size of the obtained samples is 40-60 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanocrystallites have R3{sup Macron }c structure, the same as bulk LaAlO3. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IR spectra are significantly different from the IR spectrum of bulk. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We discuss origin of this behavior.

  18. One-Pot Polyol Synthesis of Pt/CeO2 and Au/CeO2 Nanopowders as Catalysts for CO Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Pilger, Frank; Testino, Andrea; Lucchini, Mattia Alberto; Kambolis, Anastasios; Tarik, Mohammed; El Kazzi, Mario; Arroyo, Yadira; Rossell, Marta D; Ludwig, Christian

    2015-05-01

    The facile one-pot synthesis of CeO2-based catalysts has been developed to prepare a relatively large amount of nanopowders with relevant catalytic activity towards CO oxidation. The method consists of a two-steps process carried out in ethylene glycol: in the first step, 5 nm well-crystallized pure CeO2 is prepared. In a subsequent second step, a salt of a noble metal is added to the CeO2 suspension and the deposition of the noble metal on the nanocrystalline CeO2 is induced by heating. Two catalysts were prepared: Pt/CeO2 and Au/CeO2. The as-prepared catalysts, the thermally treated catalysts, as well as the pure CeO2, are characterized by XRD, TGA, XPS, FTIR, HR-TEM, STEM, particle size distribution, and N2-physisorption. In spite of the identical preparation protocol, Au and Pt behave in a completely different way: Au forms rather large particles, most of them with triangular shape, easily identifiable and dispersed in the CeO2 matrix. In contrast, Pt was not identified as isolated particles. The high resolution X-ray diffraction carried out on the Pt/CeO2 thermally treated sample (500 degrees C for 1 h) shows a significant CeO2 lattice shrinkage, which can be interpreted as an at least partial incorporation of Pt into the CeO2 crystal lattice. Moreover, only Pt2+ and Pt4+ species were identified by XPS. In literature, the incorporation of Pt into the CeO2 lattice is supported by first-principle calculations and experimentally demonstrated only by combustion synthesis methods. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report where ionically dispersed Pt into the CeO2 lattice is obtained via a liquid synthesis method. The thermally treated Pt/CeO2 sample revealed good activity with 50% CO conversion at almost room temperature.

  19. The effects of different polymerization agents on structural and optical properties of (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 nanopowders synthesized by a facile green route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorrami, Gh. H.; Kompany, A.; Zak, A. Khorsand

    2014-11-01

    (K0.5N0.5)NbO3 lead-free nanopowders were synthesized by a modified sol-gel method in different media: gelatin, starch and chitosan, as polymerization and stabilizer agents. The proper temperature needed for calcinating the prepared gel was obtained using thermogravometric analysis (TGA). Structural and optical properties of the prepared powders were investigated and compared using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-Vis diffused reflectance spectroscopy. The XRD patterns of the synthesized samples confirmed the formation of the orthorhombic structure at 600°C calcination temperature with no remarkable extra peaks. TEM images showed that the morphologies of the particles prepared in the three different media are cubic with the average size of about 69, 34 and 49 nm for gelatin, starch and chitosan, respectively. The value of the energy band gap of the samples was calculated by diffused reflectance spectroscopy, using Kubelka-Munk method. Our results showed that the type of the polymerization agent is important in preparing KNN nanoparticles and affects the structural and optical properties of the synthesized samples.

  20. Effects of magnetic pre-alignment of nano-powders on formation of high textured barium hexa-ferrite quasi-single crystals via a magnetic forming and liquid participation sintering route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junliang; Zeng, Yanwei; Zhang, Xingkai; Zhang, Ming

    2015-05-01

    Highly textured barium hexa-ferrite quasi-single crystal with narrow ferromagnetic resonance line-width is believed to be a potential gyromagnetic material for self-biased microwave devices. To fabricate barium hexa-ferrite quasi-single crystal with a high grain orientation degree, a magnetic forming and liquid participation sintering route has been developed. In this paper, the effects of the pre-alignment of the starting nano-powders on the formation of barium quasi-single crystal structures have been investigated. The results indicated that: the crystallites with large sizes and small specific surfaces were easily aligned for they got higher driving forces and lower resistances during magnetic forming. The average restricting magnetic field was about 4.647 kOe to overcome the average friction barrier between crystallites. The pre-aligned crystallites in magnetic forming acted as the "crystal seeds" for oriented growth of the un-aligned crystallites during liquid participation sintering to achieve a high grain orientation. To effectively promote the grain orientation degrees of the sintered pellets, the grain orientation degrees of the green compacts must be higher than a limited value of 15.0%. Barium hexa-ferrite quasi-single crystal with a high grain orientation degree of 98.6% was successfully fabricated after sintering the green compact with its grain orientation degree of 51.1%.

  1. Combustion Synthesis of Sm0.5Sr0.5CoO3-x and La0.6Sr0.4CoO3-x Nanopowders for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Zhong, zhimin

    2005-01-01

    Nanopowders of Sm0.5Sr0.5CoO(3-x) (SSC) and La0.6Sr0.4CoO(3-x) (LSC) compositions, which are being investigated as cathode materials for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells, were synthesized by a solution-combustion method using metal nitrates and glycine as fuel. Development of crystalline phases in the as-synthesized powders after heat treatments at various temperatures was monitored by x-ray diffraction. Perovskite phase in LSC formed more readily than in SSC. Single phase perovskites were obtained after heat treatment of the combustion synthesized LSC and SSC powders at 1000 and 1200 C, respectively. The as-synthesized powders had an average particle size of 12 nm as determined from x-ray line broadening analysis using the Scherrer equation. Average grain size of the powders increased with increase in calcination temperature. Morphological analysis of the powders calcined at various temperatures was done by scanning electron microscopy.

  2. Sol-Gel Synthesis of La(0.6)Sr(0.4)CoO(3-x) and Sm(0.5)Sr(0.5)CoO(3-x) Cathode Nanopowders for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Wise, Brent

    2011-01-01

    Nanopowders of La(0.6)Sr(0.4)CoO(3-x) (LSC) and Sm(0.5)Sr(0.5)CoO(3-x) (SSC) compositions, which are being investigated as cathode materials for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFC) with La(Sr)Ga(Mg)O(3-x) (LSGM) as the electrolyte, were synthesized by low-temperature sol-gel method using metal nitrates and citric acid. Thermal decomposition of the citrate gels was followed by simultaneous DSC/TGA methods. Development of phases in the gels, on heat treatments at various temperatures, was monitored by x-ray diffraction. Solgel powders calcined at 550 to 1000 C consisted of a number of phases. Single perovskite phase La(0.6)Sr(0.4)CoO(3-x) or Sm(0.5)Sr(0.5)CoO(3-x) powders were obtained at 1200 and 1300 C, respectively. Morphological analysis of the powders calcined at various temperatures was done by scanning electron microscopy. The average particle size of the powders was approx.15 nm after 700 C calcinations and slowly increased to 70 to 100 nm after heat treatments at 1300 to 1400 C.

  3. Chemical-physical properties of spinel CoMn2O4 nano-powders and catalytic activity in the 2-propanol and toluene combustion: Effect of the preparation method.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Seyed Ali; Salari, Dariush; Niaei, Aligholi; Deganello, Francesca; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Hojati, Pejman

    2011-01-01

    Spinel-type CoMn(2)O(4)nano-powders are prepared using sol-gel auto combustion (SGC) and co-precipitation (CP) methods and their catalytic activities are evaluated in combustion of 2-propanol and toluene. The chemical-physical properties of the oxides are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), N(2)-adsorption-desorption, temperature programmed reduction (TPR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). After calcination at 700°C, CoMn(2)O(4)-SGC shows higher amounts of the normal-type spinel phase and is more crystalline than CoMn(2)O(4)-CP. Higher calcination temperatures (850°C) do not affect very much the weight percentage of the normal-type spinel phase; although the crystal size slightly increased. The TPR analysis evidences a large number of Mn(3+) cations in CoMn(2)O(4)-SGC compared to CoMn(2)O(4)-CP. This difference, together with the higher surface area, could justify the higher activity of CoMn(2)O(4)-SGC in both the investigated reactions.

  4. Radioprotective materials with tungsten nanopowder additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrish, V.; Baranov, G.; Chayka, T.; Derbasova, N.

    2017-01-01

    There’s been studied influence of submicron powder additives obtained by processing hardmetal waste TTK (TiC-WC-TaC-Co), on strength properties of cement. This modified cement is used as a structural material for containers at transportation and storage of radioactive waste.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of hematite nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharmila Justus, J.; Dharma Roy, S. Dawn; Ezhil Raj, A. Moses

    2016-10-01

    A facile solution approach was employed to synthesize hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanoparticles by using starting precursor iron (III) chloride (FeCl3) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as reducing agent without templates at low temperature. The growth and solubility of iron oxide particle was controlled by adjusting the pH of the solution using ammonium hydroxide. As-prepared powders were subsequently calcined in air for 3 h at three different temperatures ranging from 400 to 800 °C. The precursor and the synthesized particles were characterized using TGA-DTA thermal analysis to study the decomposition pattern. X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique confirmed the nanocrystal formation of α-Fe2O3 and Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectral information identified the metal-oxide phase formation. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was engaged to study the morphology and the purity of the sample was evaluated from the energy dispersive spectrum (EDS). The optical band gap of the particles and its variations with calcination temperature (2.32-2.49 eV) was obtained from the constructed Tauc plot using the optical absorption data. The electrical parameters of the samples were obtained from two probe measuring technique and the effect of temperature on the electrical properties of α-Fe2O3 was discussed.

  6. Preparation and Characterization of VO 2 Nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Chenmou; Zhang, Xinmin; Zhang, Jianhui; Liao, Kairong

    2001-02-01

    VO2 powders with sizes of <30 nm were successfully synthesized by pyrolysis of the precursor, [NH4]5[(VO)6(CO3)4(OH)9]·10H2O. The effects of various pyrolysis conditions on VO2 stoichiometries and crystal states were investigated in detail. The results of IR measurements show that for the stoichiometric VO2, from micro- to nanocrystals and to amorphous state, the absorptions shifted to lower wavenumbers, the numbers of bands decreased gradually, and the widths of the bands broadened. Moreover, the IR spectra of nanocrystals were obviously different from those of microcrystals and amorphism. In comparison with stoichiometric VO2 crystals, the IR absorptions of oxygen-rich VO2 crystals clearly were blue shift, and those of oxygen-deficient VO2 crystals lightly red shift. The heats and temperatures of phase transition from VO1.96 to VO2.07 were determined. The results indicate that the phase transition temperature of VO2.02 is 70.1°C and has the maximum phase transition heat.

  7. Magnetic anisotropy properties of \\mathbf{C}{{\\mathbf{o}}_{\\mathbf{1}.\\mathbf{2}}}\\mathbf{F}{{\\mathbf{e}}_{\\mathbf{1}.\\mathbf{8}-\\mathbf{x}}}\\mathbf{M}{{\\mathbf{n}}_{\\mathbf{x}}}{{\\mathbf{O}}_{\\mathbf{4}}} (\\mathbf{0}.\\boldsymbol{0}\\leqslant \\boldsymbol{x}\\leqslant \\mathbf{0}.\\mathbf{3} ) nanopowders: theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, T. M. L.; Amorim, B. F.; Medeiros, S. N.; Bezerra, C. G.

    2017-02-01

    We perform a theoretical and experimental investigation of the magnetic properties of a series of Mn-substituted non-stoichiometric cobalt ferrite nanopowders. We propose a theoretical approach based on the Stoner–Wohlfarth model of coherent rotation of single-domains, considering mean-field interactions between the nanograins. In particular, we provide a detailed description of the magnetic anisotropy behavior, considering tetragonal distortions of the cubic spinel structure of the system. Our model shows that the effects of the tetragonal distortion of the cubic structure may be modeled by a superposition of uniaxial and cubic magnetocrystalline anisotropies. We obtain the uniaxial and cubic anisotropy constants and the mean-field parameters by fitting numerically the experimental magnetic hysteresis curves. Thus, the agreement between theory and experiment provides support to confirm the validity of our theoretical approach, in addition our results corroborate experimental works found in the literature reporting that cobalt ferrites present tetragonal distortion of the well-known cubic spinel structure.

  8. Synthesis, structural and luminescence studies of magnesium oxide nanopowder.

    PubMed

    Devaraja, P B; Avadhani, D N; Prashantha, S C; Nagabhushana, H; Sharma, S C; Nagabhushana, B M; Nagaswarupa, H P

    2014-01-24

    Nanoparticles of magnesium oxide (MgO) have been prepared by low temperature solution combustion and hydrothermal method respectively. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) patterns of MgO samples prepared by both the methods show cubic phase. The Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) studies reveal, the combustion derived product show highly porous, foamy and fluffy in nature than hydrothermally derived sample. The optical absorption studies of MgO show surface defects in the range 250-300 nm. The absorption peak at ∼290 nm might be due to F-centre. Photoluminescence (PL) studies were carried upon exciting at 290 nm. The sample prepared via combustion method show broad emission peak centred at ∼395 nm in the bluish-violet (3.14 eV) region. However, in hydrothermal prepared sample show the emission peaks at 395 and 475 nm. These emission peaks were due to surface defects present in the sample since nanoparticles exhibits large surface to volume ratio and quantum confinement effect.

  9. Photocatalytically active titanium dioxide nanopowders: Synthesis, photoactivity and magnetic separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikkanen, J.-P.; Heinonen, S.; Huttunen Saarivirta, E.; Honkanen, M.; Levänen, E.

    2013-12-01

    Two approaches were used to obtain nanocrystalline titanium dioxide (TiO2) photocatalyst powders. Firstly, low-temperature synthesis method and secondly liquid flame spraying. The structural properties of the produced powders were determined with X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption tests. The photocatalytic properties of the powders were studied with methylene blue (MB) discoloration tests. After discolorations tests, TiO2 was coagulated with magnetite particles using FeCl3·6 H2O at a fixed pH value. Magnetic separation of coagulated TiO2 and magnetite was carried out by a permanent magnet. The obtained results showed that the particle size of the powders synthesized at low-temperature was very small and the specific surface area high. The phase content of the powder was also shown to depend greatly on the acidity of the synthesis solution. Powder synthesized by liquid flame spraying was mixture of anatase and rutile phases with essentially larger particle size and lower specific surface area than those of low-temperature synthesized powders. The MB discoloration test showed that photocatalytic activity depends on the phase structure as well as the specific surface area of the synthesized TiO2 powder. The magnetic separation of TiO2-magnetite coagulate from solution proved to be efficient around pH:8.

  10. Influence of Oxidation on Electrical Properties of Compacted Cu Nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadutov, Volodymyr; Perekos, Anatoliy; Kokorin, Volodymyr; Konoplyuk, Sergiy; Kabantsev, Taras

    2016-10-01

    The phase composition and electrical transport properties of Cu powder obtained by electric spark dispersion and the pellets manufactured from this powder were studied by X-ray phase analysis and electric resistance measurements. The compacted powders were annealed in pure Ar atmosphere. It was shown that electrical resistance of the compacted Cu specimens essentially depends on the annealing temperature. In particular, the electrical resistance of the pellet after annealing at 873 K decreases on heating at low temperatures (semiconducting mechanism). As the temperature is increased, semiconducting behavior of resistivity is altered for metallic one. This change of conductivity type is ascribed to formation of metallic oxide and modification of its content during annealing.

  11. Influence of Oxidation on Electrical Properties of Compacted Cu Nanopowders.

    PubMed

    Nadutov, Volodymyr; Perekos, Anatoliy; Kokorin, Volodymyr; Konoplyuk, Sergiy; Kabantsev, Taras

    2016-12-01

    The phase composition and electrical transport properties of Cu powder obtained by electric spark dispersion and the pellets manufactured from this powder were studied by X-ray phase analysis and electric resistance measurements. The compacted powders were annealed in pure Ar atmosphere. It was shown that electrical resistance of the compacted Cu specimens essentially depends on the annealing temperature. In particular, the electrical resistance of the pellet after annealing at 873 K decreases on heating at low temperatures (semiconducting mechanism). As the temperature is increased, semiconducting behavior of resistivity is altered for metallic one. This change of conductivity type is ascribed to formation of metallic oxide and modification of its content during annealing.

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of Zirconium Substituted Cobalt Ferrite Nanopowders

    SciTech Connect

    Rus, S. F.; Vlazan, P.; Herklotz, A.

    2016-01-01

    Nanocrystalline ferrites; CoFe2O4 (CFO) and CoFe1.9Zr0.1O4 (CFZO) have been synthesized through chemical coprecipitation method. Moreover, the role played by the zirconium ions in improving the magnetic and structural properties is analyzed. X-ray diffraction revealed a single-phase cubic spinel structure for both materials, where the crystallite size increases and the lattice parameter decreases with substitution of Zr. The average sizes of the nanoparticles are estimated to be 16-19 nm. These sizes are small enough to achieve the suitable signal to noise ratio in the high density recording media. An increase in the saturation magnetization with the substitution of Zr suggests the preferential occupation of Zr4+ ions in the tetrahedral sites. A decrease in the coercivity values indicates the reduction of magneto-crystalline anisotropy. We investigated spinel ferrites can be used also in recoding media due to the large value of coercivity 1000 Oe which is comparable to those of hard magnetic materials.

  13. EPR, thermo and photoluminescence properties of ZnO nanopowders.

    PubMed

    Jagannatha Reddy, A; Kokila, M K; Nagabhushana, H; Rao, J L; Shivakumara, C; Nagabhushana, B M; Chakradhar, R P S

    2011-10-15

    Nanocrystalline ZnO powders have been synthesized by a low temperature solution combustion method. The photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of as-formed and heat treated ZnO shows strong violet (402, 421, 437, 485 nm) and weak green (520 nm) emission peaks respectively. The PL intensities of defect related emission bands decrease with calcinations temperature indicating the decrease of Zn(i) and V(o)(+) caused by the chemisorptions of oxygen. The results are correlated with the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies. Thermoluminescence (TL) glow curves of gamma irradiated ZnO nanoparticles exhibit a single broad glow peak at ∼343°C. This can be attributed to the recombination of charge carriers released from the surface states associated with oxygen defects, mainly interstitial oxygen ion centers. The trapping parameters of ZnO irradiated with various γ-doses are calculated using peak shape method. It is observed that the glow peak intensity increases with increase of gamma dose without changing glow curve shape. These two characteristic properties such as TL intensity increases with gamma dose and simple glow curve structure is an indication that the synthesized ZnO nanoparticles might be used as good TL dosimeter for high temperature application.

  14. EPR, thermo and photoluminescence properties of ZnO nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagannatha Reddy, A.; Kokila, M. K.; Nagabhushana, H.; Rao, J. L.; Shivakumara, C.; Nagabhushana, B. M.; Chakradhar, R. P. S.

    2011-10-01

    Nanocrystalline ZnO powders have been synthesized by a low temperature solution combustion method. The photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of as-formed and heat treated ZnO shows strong violet (402, 421, 437, 485 nm) and weak green (520 nm) emission peaks respectively. The PL intensities of defect related emission bands decrease with calcinations temperature indicating the decrease of Zn i and V o+ caused by the chemisorptions of oxygen. The results are correlated with the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies. Thermoluminescence (TL) glow curves of gamma irradiated ZnO nanoparticles exhibit a single broad glow peak at ˜343 °C. This can be attributed to the recombination of charge carriers released from the surface states associated with oxygen defects, mainly interstitial oxygen ion centers. The trapping parameters of ZnO irradiated with various γ-doses are calculated using peak shape method. It is observed that the glow peak intensity increases with increase of gamma dose without changing glow curve shape. These two characteristic properties such as TL intensity increases with gamma dose and simple glow curve structure is an indication that the synthesized ZnO nanoparticles might be used as good TL dosimeter for high temperature application.

  15. Property evaluation on the spontaneous polarity for nanopowders.

    PubMed

    Meng, Junping; Liang, Jinsheng; Ding, Yan; Han, Yilin; Yuan, Youde

    2011-11-01

    For the tourmaline fine powders, in view of their low polarized charge density and easily occurred neutralization, a new evaluation model on the spontaneous polarity was proposed. By adjusting the temperature and applying electric field, the polarized charge could be measured. On this basis, a portable evaluation device was designed and assembled into four parts: Voltage Input Unit, Temperature Control Unit, Sample Loading Unit, and Charge Detection Unit. Using the designed device, the property evaluation on the spontaneous polarity of tourmaline fine powders was carried out. The spontaneous polarization intensity was finally achieved. After experimental verification, the method had the characteristics of easy operation and high accuracy.

  16. Greener syntheses of metallic nanoparticles and zinc oxide nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samson, Jacopo

    In recent years, nanotechnology and nanomaterials synthesis have attracted a great deal of attention in the scientific community. Nanomaterials display size and morphology-related optical properties that differ from their bulk counterparts and therefore can be used for many applications in different fields such as biomedicine, electronics, antibacterial agents, and energy. Attempts to fabricate different morphologies of metallic and metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) have successfully yielded attractive nanostructures such as particles, rods, helices, combs, tetra-pods, and flowers, all displaying properties mainly related to their enhanced surface area and/or aspect ratios. Most of the above mentioned nanomaterials productions have employed harsh synthetic routes such as high temperatures, low pressures, and the use of costly equipments. Here we show how a greener approach to nanomaterials synthesis is feasible with both minimization of aqueous precursors, energy and employment of a multi-block heater for temperature control. We present in this thesis several methods for the preparation of NPs of several materials that focus on minimizing the environmental impact of the synthesis itself. First, we describe the use of the toroidal form of plasmid DNA as a rigid narrowly dispersed bio-polymeric nanocavity, which mold the formation of disc-shaped nanoparticles of several types of metals. This approach exploits several properties of plasmid DNA: (a) DNA affinity for metal cations, (b) toroidal plasmid DNA structures which are favored by metal ionic binding, and (c) the ability to vary plasmid size. Herein, we present a complementary synthetic method based on a kinetic approach wherein the plasmid DNA acts as a template to initiate and control the formation of Au and other metallic NPs by incubation at elevated temperatures. Also reported herein is a simple, scalable hydrothermal method to make ZnO NPs that exploits temperature to precisely control the range of pH values of an organic amine buffer. The presence or absence of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in the tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane buffer further modulates the morphology of the ZnO nanomaterials since both compounds can serve as nucleating sites, and as stabilizing agents that prevents agglomeration.

  17. Heat transfer enhancement by application of nano-powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosavian, M. T. Hamed; Heris, S. Zeinali; Etemad, S. Gh.; Esfahany, M. Nasr

    2010-09-01

    In this investigation, laminar flow heat transfer enhancement in circular tube utilizing different nanofluids including Al2O3 (20 nm), CuO (50 nm), and Cu (25 nm) nanoparticles in water was studied. Constant wall temperature was used as thermal boundary condition. The results indicate enhancement of heat transfer with increasing nanoparticle concentrations, but an optimum concentration for each nanofluid suspension can be found. Based on the experimental results, metallic nanoparticles show better enhancement of heat transfer coefficient in comparison with oxide particles. The promotions of heat transfer due to utilizing nanoparticles are higher than the theoretical correlation prediction.

  18. Problems of YAG nanopowders compaction for laser ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagayev, S. N.; Kaminskii, A. A.; Kopylov, Yu. L.; Kravchenko, V. B.

    2011-03-01

    Slip casting and colloidal slip casting at high pressure of yttrium aluminum garnet powders were investigated. It was found that the presence of residual pores in laser oxide ceramics was determined mainly by big size pores in the compact. The size of pore in compact is critical when it is greater than the mean size of initial particles. It was shown that formation of pores' structure in compact was controlled by appearance of quasi-particles in heavy loaded slurry. Pores concentration is critical for ceramics optical transmittance.

  19. Dynamic of Nanopowder Production During Laser Target Evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigub, M. V.; Platonov, V. V.; Fedorov, K. V.; Evtushenko, G. S.; Osipov, V. V.

    2016-12-01

    The paper presents the results of research focusing on the processes occurring when powerful laser radiation interacts with refractory oxide targets. To visualize formation of the nanoparticle cloud and large fragments, the authors used laser illumination and laser monitor methods. Image analysis allowed studying the dynamic of cloud formation from nanoparticles and determining the nature of its interaction with surrounding air. It was established that it is possible to mostly avoid the formation and ejection of a multitude of drops from the crater, if the target is evaporated by fiber laser radiation pulses with duration of no more than 200 μs. With pulse duration of 120 μs, peak power of 600 W and radiation power density of 0.4 MW/cm2, mass nanoparticle output was 30 mass%, which is 1.4 more than when the target is affected by continuous radiation of the same power.

  20. Laser synthesized nanopowders for polymer-based composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrila-Florescu, Lavinia; Sandu, Ion; Stan, Ana; Dutu, Elena; Voicu, Ion

    2012-09-01

    The paper presents the different laser-synthesized carbon and silicon carbide nanostructures used as fillers for composites with epoxy or phenol resin matrix reinforced with glass or carbon fiber. The effect of nanoadditives on the composites' mechanic and tribologic characteristics is presented. The addition of 2% nanocarbon or 5% SiC has led to the improvement of tensile strength and tensile modulus with 10-15% and 15-20%, respectively. The dry friction coefficient for nanocarbon-containing composites was decreased up to 25% for composites containing nanocarbon, whereas for carbon-carbon composites filled with silicon carbide, this parameter has increased with more than 50%.

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of Zirconium Substituted Cobalt Ferrite Nanopowders

    DOE PAGES

    Rus, S. F.; Vlazan, P.; Herklotz, A.

    2016-01-01

    Nanocrystalline ferrites; CoFe2O4 (CFO) and CoFe1.9Zr0.1O4 (CFZO) have been synthesized through chemical coprecipitation method. Moreover, the role played by the zirconium ions in improving the magnetic and structural properties is analyzed. X-ray diffraction revealed a single-phase cubic spinel structure for both materials, where the crystallite size increases and the lattice parameter decreases with substitution of Zr. The average sizes of the nanoparticles are estimated to be 16-19 nm. These sizes are small enough to achieve the suitable signal to noise ratio in the high density recording media. An increase in the saturation magnetization with the substitution of Zr suggests themore » preferential occupation of Zr4+ ions in the tetrahedral sites. A decrease in the coercivity values indicates the reduction of magneto-crystalline anisotropy. We investigated spinel ferrites can be used also in recoding media due to the large value of coercivity 1000 Oe which is comparable to those of hard magnetic materials.« less

  2. Nanoreactor engineering and spark plasma sintering of Gd20Ce80O1.90 nanopowders.

    PubMed

    Borodianska, H; Vasylkiv, O; Sakka, Y

    2008-06-01

    The concept of the in situ engineering of nanoreactors - morphologically homogeneous aggregates of synthesized complex intermediate metastable products has been realized. The nanoblast calcination technique was applied and the final composition was synthesized within the preliminary localized volumes of each single nanoreactor. Such technique provided the heredity of the final structure of nanosize product, and allowed the prevention of the uncontrolled agglomeration and production of Gd20Ce80O1.90 powder consisting of approximately 50 nm nano-aggregates of approximately 7 nm crystallites with a remarkably homogeneous composition and uniform morphology. Finally, the SPS consolidation of nanosized aggregates of Gd20Ce80O1.90 was analyzed. The CGO nanoceramics with average grain sizes of 32 nm and 16 nm were obtained by low-temperature SPS at 1050 degrees C and 970 degrees C, respectively under the pressures of 90-150 MPa.

  3. Studying dispersions of ferroelectric nanopowders in dioctyl phthalate as dielectric media for capacitive electronic components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorokhovskii, A. V.; Gorshkov, N. V.; Burmistrov, I. N.; Goffman, V. G.; Tret'yachenko, E. V.; Sevryugin, A. V.; Fedorov, F. S.; Kovyneva, N. N.

    2016-06-01

    The electrical properties of dispersions of a powdered ferroelectric nanocomposite based on ilmenite (FeTiO3) and hollandite (K1.46Ti7.2Fe0.8O16) in dioctyl phthalate have been studied by impedance spectroscopy techniques in a frequency range of 10-1-106 Hz. The influence of stabilizing additives of cationic and anionic surfactants and iron acetylacetonate on the permittivity, conductivity, and dielectric losses was determined for dispersions containing 40 mass % of the solid composite. The influence of composition on the mechanisms of relaxation processes in the system is discussed.

  4. Template-free hydrothermal derived cobalt oxide nanopowders: Synthesis, characterization, and removal of organic dyes

    SciTech Connect

    Nassar, Mostafa Y.; Ahmed, Ibrahim S.

    2012-09-15

    Graphical abstract: XRD patterns of the products obtained by hydrothermal treatment at 160 °C for 24 h, and at different [Co{sup 2+}]/[CO{sub 3}{sup 2−}] ratios: (a) 1:6, (b) 1:3, (c) 1:1.5, (d) 1:1, (e) 1:0.5. Highlights: ► Spinel cobalt oxide nanoparticles with different morphologies were prepared by hydrothermal approach. ► The optical characteristics of the as-prepared cobalt oxide revealed the presence of two band gaps. ► Adsorption of methylene blue dye on Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} was investigated and the percent uptake was found to be >99% in 24 h. -- Abstract: Pure spinel cobalt oxide nanoparticles were prepared through hydrothermal approach using different counter ions. First, the pure and uniform cobalt carbonate (with particle size of 21.8–29.8 nm) were prepared in high yield (94%) in an autoclave in absence unfriendly organic surfactants or solvents by adjusting different experimental parameters such as: pH, reaction time, temperature, counter ions, and (Co{sup 2+}:CO{sub 3}{sup 2−}) molar ratios. Thence, the spinel Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} (with mean particle size of 30.5–47.35 nm) was produced by thermal decomposition of cobalt carbonate in air at 500 °C for 3 h. The products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and thermal analysis (TA). Also, the optical characteristics of the as-prepared Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles revealed the presence of two band gaps (1.45–1.47, and 1.83–1.93 eV). Additionally, adsorption of methylene blue dye on Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles was investigated and the uptake% was found to be >99% in 24 h.

  5. Influence of Lanthanum Doping on the Structural and Optical Properties of Hematite Nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Justus, J. Sharmila; Dharma Roy, S. Dawn; Raj, A. Moses Ezhil

    2016-10-01

    Rare-earth elements are an attractive class of dopant elements, as they give easily trivalent cations that possibly altering the structure and other properties of the parent nanoparticles and creating multifunctional materials because of their f-electronic configurations. Herein, experimental evidence has been given for a better understanding of the factors that dictate the interactions of La doping on the structure and optical properties of iron oxide nanoparticles. For that, lanthanum doped hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanoparticles were prepared by a facile solution method using iron (III) chloride (FeCl3) as starting precursor and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as reducing agent without templates at low temperature. As-prepared powders were subsequently calcined in air for 3 hr at 800 °C. Xray diffraction (XRD) technique was used to study the nanocrystal formation of α-Fe2O3 and Fourier Transform Raman (FT-Raman) spectral information identified the chemical bond structure of the nanoparticles. Morphology study of the nanoparticles was identified using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and the incorporated La content was recognized from the Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. The optical absorption spectrum was recorded in the wavelength range of 200-2000 nm and the optical parameters such as absorption coefficient and optical band gap energy of pure and doped Fe2O3 nanoparticles were determined. Obtained results are interpreted by considering the impregnation of trivalent La cations that replaced Fe cations of the host structure.

  6. Combinatorial Production and Processing of Oxide Nanopowders for Transparent, Ceramic Lasers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    and blue light in an "inverse planetarium " format to pro- vide 3-D images. To realize such a display, one of the key steps must be the ability to...e.g. 662 nm for Er doped material) and offer the potential to serve as pixel materials for the proposed "inverted planetarium " 3-D display. [*]Dr...achieved with very fine-grained ceramics, the potential exists to create three-dimensional emissive displays[ II] using the "inverted planetarium

  7. Influence of autogenous seeding on densification and microstructure in processing of γ-alumina nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodabakhshi, F.; Maleksaeedi, S.; Paydar, M. H.; Saadat, S.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of α-Al2O3 seeds and MgO on the densification behavior and microstructure of the nanocrystalline γ-Al2O3 powder was investigated. The required α-Al2O3 seeds were produced by 'autogenous seeding' where the seeds were obtained by calcination of the initial nanosized γ-Al2O3 powders above its transformation temperature and incorporated into γ-Al2O3 matrix. The seeds were characterized by means of laser particle size analyzer, X-ray diffraction, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface analyzer. The simultaneous influence of α-Al2O3 seeds and MgO on γ-Al2O3 behavior was evaluated by differential thermal analysis, densitometry, and electron microscopy. The results showed that simultaneous presence of MgO and seeds in γ-Al2O3 matrix has a great impact on densification and microstructural evolution. The main role of MgO and the seeds are densification enhancement and grain refinement, respectively. The grain morphology is more equiaxed and desirably finer by using smaller seeds prepared using shorter calcination times.

  8. Luminescence Spectra of ZnAl 2 O 4 {:}Cr 3+ Spinel Nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luc, H. H.; Nguyen, T. K.; Nguyen, V. M.; Suchocki, A.; Kamiñska, A.; Le, V. K.; Nguyen, V. H.; Luong, T. T.

    2002-12-01

    The synthetic ZnAl 2 O 4 spinels doped with Cr 3+ ions are prepared from ZnSO,dwi{4}>, Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 , and Cr 2 (SO 4 ) 3 . The spinel single phase is detected from X-ray diffraction. Luminescence properties of Cr 3+ in ZnAl 2 O 4 were studied by low temperature luminescence and decay measurements. Four luminescence lines at 14570, 14520, 14460, and 14330 cm -1 were found to originate from structure distortion and the line at 14175 cm -1 - from chromium pairs. The broad emission band at about 13540 cm -1 is considered to arise from a new Cr 3+ center in ZnCr 2 O 4 .

  9. Millimeter-Wave Absorption as a Quality Control Tool for M-Type Hexaferrite Nanopowders

    SciTech Connect

    McCloy, John S.; Korolev, Konstantin A.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Afsar, Mohammed N.

    2013-01-01

    Millimeter wave (MMW) absorption measurements have been conducted on commercial samples of large (micrometer-sized) and small (nanometer-sized) particles of BaFe12O19 and SrFe12O19 using a quasi-optical MMW spectrometer and a series of backwards wave oscillators encompassing the 30-120 GHz range. Effective anisotropy of the particles calculated from the resonant absorption frequency indicates lower overall anisotropy in the nano-particles. Due to their high magnetocrystalline anisotropy, both BaFe12O19 and SrFe12O19 are expected to have spin resonances in the 45-55 GHz range. Several of the sampled BaFe12O19 powders did not have MMW absorptions, so they were further investigated by DC magnetization and x-ray diffraction to assess magnetic behavior and structure. The samples with absent MMW absorption contained primarily iron oxides, suggesting that MMW absorption could be used for quality control in hexaferrite powder manufacture.

  10. Novel paint design based on nanopowder to protection against X and gamma rays

    PubMed Central

    Movahedi, Mohammad Mehdi; Abdi, Adibe; Mehdizadeh, Alireza; Dehghan, Naser; Heidari, Emad; Masumi, Yusef; Abbaszadeh, Mojtaba

    2014-01-01

    Background: Lead-based shields are the standard method of intraoperative radiation protection in the radiology and nuclear medicine department. Human lead toxicity is well documented. The lead used is heavy, lacks durability, is difficult to launder, and its disposal is associated with environmental hazards. The aim of this study was to design a lead free paint for protection against X and gamma rays. Materials and Methods: In this pilot st we evaluated several types of nano metal powder that seemed to have good absorption. The Monte Carlo code, MCNP4C, was used to model the attenuation of X-ray photons in paints with different designs. Experimental measurements were carried out to assess the attenuation properties of each paint design. Results: Among the different nano metal powder, nano tungsten trioxide and nano tin dioxide were the two most appropriate candidates for making paint in diagnostic photon energy range. Nano tungsten trioxide (15%) and nano tin dioxide (85%) provided the best protection in both simulation and experiments. After this step, attempts were made to produce appropriate nano tungsten trioxide-nano tin dioxide paints. The density of this nano tungsten trioxide-nano tin dioxide paint was 4.2 g/cm3. The MCNP simulation and experimental measurements for HVL (Half-Value Layer) values of this shield at 100 kVp were 0.25 and 0.23 mm, respectively. Conclusions: The results showed the cost-effective lead-free paint can be a great power in absorbing the X-rays and gamma rays and it can be used instead of lead. PMID:24591777

  11. [Raman spectra analysis of Nd : YAG single crystal and its nano-powder].

    PubMed

    Su, Jing; Zhang, Qing-Li; Yin, Shao-Tang; Sun, Dun-Lu; Shao, Shu-Fang

    2009-06-01

    In the present paper, the authors measured the Raman spectra of YAG/Nd : YAG single crystal, Nd : YAG precursor and the powder sintered at different temperatures. The bands of these Raman spectra were assigned and analyzed. The results show that there is a structure transformation process in the course of sintering Nd : YAG precursor. The powder sintered at 700 degrees C was amorphous and it is of AlO4 tetrahedron structure. With the increase in sintering temperatures, the Raman spectra varied mainly in two respects. One is the decrease in FWHM with the increase in the bands intensity; the other is the bands shift. These should be due to the increase in the order degree of the interface component. Additionally, the difference in the lattice vibration modes between the powders sintered at 800 degrees C and the Nd : YAG single crystal powder was caused by the contribution of the interface component.

  12. In situ photoexcitation of silver-doped titania nanopowders for activity against bacteria and yeasts.

    PubMed

    Kowal, Katarzyna; Wysocka-Król, Katarzyna; Kopaczyńska, Marta; Dworniczek, Ewa; Franiczek, Roman; Wawrzyńska, Magdalena; Vargová, Melinda; Zahoran, Miroslav; Rakovský, Erik; Kuš, Peter; Plesch, Gustav; Plecenik, Andrej; Laffir, Fathima; Tofail, Syed A M; Podbielska, Halina

    2011-10-01

    Photocatalytic and in situ microbial activity of the amorphous and annealed states of Ag-doped and un-doped titania were examined. Studies on their structure, morphology, composition, and the photo-absorption characteristics of these materials were performed. These results were correlated with the photocatalytic and microbial activity against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus K324 (MRSA), methicillin susceptible S. aureus ATCC 25923 (MSSA), Escherichia coli PA 170, and yeasts Candida albicans ATCC 90028. The annealed powders containing anatase form of titania exhibited relatively higher photocatalytic activity,corresponding to activity against MRSA,when exposed to UV-A radiation. In comparison, amorphous powders exhibited low photoactivity and showed poor antibacterial performance against MRSA under UV-A exposure. Doping of amorphous titania with Ag resulted in an anti-MRSA effect without exposure to UV radiation. In the Ag-doped crystalline anatase samples, the size of Ag primary nanocrystallites increased, which led to the decrease in the surface concentration of Ag and detriment anti-MRSA activity.

  13. Dispersion of ZrO2 and Y2O3 nanopowders in physiological suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godymchuk, A.; Arzamastseva, E.; Kuznetsov, D.; Milyaeva, S.

    2011-07-01

    The dispersion of suspensions based on nanostructured powders (ZrO2 and Y2O3) and the simplest physiological fluids (phosphate buffering saline, glucose solution, water) in terms of their use in ecotoxicological tests was studied. Using the scanning electron microscopy and laser diffraction, an increase in the size of particles and agglomerates in the suspensions in 2-11 times was shown. The particle size distribution in the suspensions was characterized by a single peak, but its magnitude and width varied ambiguously upon standing suspensions in time. It was shown experimentally that the average size of the dispersed phase could rapidly grow in the DW-suspension, could be stabilized in PBS-suspension and might decrease with time in Gl-suspension. By electro-acoustic method it was shown that the Zeta-potential on the solid/liquid boundary in the study varied over a wide range of values from - 200 to + 200, and the nature of change - a jump. This demonstrated the instability of the suspensions based on NP-ZrO2 and NP-Y2O3.

  14. Structural and magnetic properties of Gd3+ ion substituted magnesium ferrite nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkady, Ashraf S.; Hussein, Shaban I.; Rashad, Mohamed M.

    2015-07-01

    Nanocrystalline MgGdxFe2-xO4 powders (where x=0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.25, 0.3) have been synthesized by the ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA)-based sol-gel combustion method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) were applied in order to study the effect of variation of Gd3+ ion substitution and its impact on crystal structure, crystallite size, lattice parameters, nanostructure and magnetic properties of the formed powders. XRD indicated that, after doping and calcination at 400 °C for 2 h, all samples have two spinel ferrite structures namely cubic and tetragonal phases, which are dependent on Gd3+ ion concentration. The cubic phase is found to increase with increasing the Gd3+ ion molar ratio up to 0.1, compared to pure MgFe2O4 and higher Gd3+ content samples. Indeed, with increasing Gd3+ ion, the crystallite size was almost unchanged whereas the lattice parameter was found to increase. FT-IR spectrum showed broadening of the ν2 band and the presence of another band in the range (465-470 cm-1) upon adding Gd3+ ion, which confirm the presence of Gd3+ ion in addition to Fe3+ ion at octahedral site. Besides, these bands were assigned to the formation of (Gd3+-O2-) complexes at B-sites. HRTEM images showed that the studied samples consist of nanocrystallites having average particle sizes around 9 nm for pure MgFe2O4 up to 27 and 42 nm for the Gd3+ ion substituted MgFe2O4 of molar ratio 0.05 and 0.30, respectively. An examination of the magnetic properties revealed an increase in saturation magnetization with increasing Gd concentration incorporation up to x=0.1, as a result of the change of cubic and tetragonal spinel ratio and lattice parameters. Meanwhile, the formed powders exhibited superparamagnetic characteristics. Therefore, such newly synthesized superparamagnetic nanoparticles, containing Gd3+ ion can be considered as a promising candidate for use in several potential applications including neutron capture therapy (NCT), magnetic hyperthermia, ferrofluids and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

  15. Development of multi-substituted hydroxyapatite nanopowders as biomedical materials for bone tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Baba Ismail, Yanny M; Wimpenny, Ian; Bretcanu, Oana; Dalgarno, Kenneth; El Haj, Alicia J

    2017-02-15

    Ionic substitutions have been proposed as a tool to control the functional behavior of synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA), particularly for Bone Tissue Engineering (BTE) applications. The effect of simultaneous substitution of different levels of carbonate (CO3 ) and silicon (Si) ions in the HA lattice was investigated. Furthermore, human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were cultured on multi-substituted HA (SiCHA) to determine if biomimetic chemical compositions were osteoconductive. Of the four different compositions investigates, SiCHA-1 (0.58wt% Si) and SiCHA-2 (0.45wt% Si) showed missing bands for CO3 and Si using FTIR analysis, indicating competition for occupation of the phosphate site in the HA lattice. 500°C was considered the most favourable calcination temperature as: (i) the powders produced possessed a similar amount of CO3 (2-8wt%) and Si (<1.0wt%) as present in native bone; and (ii) there was a minimal loss of CO3 and Si from the HA structure to the surroundings during calcination. Higher Si content in SiCHA-1 led to lower cell viability and at most hindered proliferation, but no toxicity effect occurred. While, lower Si content in SiCHA-2 showed the highest ALP/DNA ratio after 21 days culture with hMSCs, indicating that the powder may stimulate osteogenic behaviour to a greater extent than other powders. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Extraction and characterization of alumina nanopowders from aluminum dross by acid dissolution process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarker, Md. Saifur Rahman; Alam, Md. Zahangir; Qadir, Md. Rakibul; Gafur, M. A.; Moniruzzaman, Mohammad

    2015-04-01

    A significant amount of aluminum dross is available as a waste in foundry industries in Bangladesh. In this study, alumina was extracted from aluminum dross collected from two foundry industries situated in Dhamrai and Manikgang, near the capital city, Dhaka. Aluminum dross samples were found to approximately contain 75wt% Al2O3 and 12wt% SiO2. An acid dissolution process was used to recover the alumina value from the dross. The effects of various parameters, e.g., temperature, acid concentration, and leaching time, on the extraction of alumina were studied to optimize the dissolution process. First, Al(OH)3 was produced in the form of a gel. Calcination of the Al(OH)3 gel at 1000°C, 1200°C, and 1400°C for 2 h produced γ-Al2O3, (α+γ)-Al2O3, and α-alumina powder, respectively. Thermal characterization of the Al(OH)3 gel was performed by thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The phases and crystallite size of the alumina were determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. The dimensions of the alumina were found to be on the nano level. The chemical compositions of the aluminum dross and alumina were determined by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy. The microstructure and morphology of the alumina were studied with scanning electron microscopy. The purity of the alumina extracted in this study was found to be 99.0%. Thus, it is expected that the obtained alumina powders can be potentially utilized as biomaterials.

  17. Thermal stability of a modified sol-gel derived hydroxyapatite nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herradi, S.; El Bali, B.; Khaldi, M.; Lachkar, M.

    2017-03-01

    Hydroxyapatite Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 (HA) powder was successfully synthesized by a modified sol-gel method using a solution of calcium nitrate in ethanol, along with a solution of diammonium hydrogen phosphate in water and NH4OH as starting materials. The Ca/P molar ratio was maintained at 1.67. The powder was subjected to furnace and microwave heating to compare the decomposition of HA and study the crystallite sizes. It was found that microwave heated powders were pure HAP up to 230°C with absence of secondary phases. However, XRD patterns show that furnace heated powders convert completely to β-TCP when treated at 750°C and 1000°C. This result was confirmed by the absence of hydroxyl bands in the FT-IR spectra for these temperatures.

  18. Diversity of TiO2 nanopowders' characteristics relevant to toxicity testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Saša; Lorenzetti, Martina; Drame, Anja; Vidmar, Janja; Ščančar, Janez; Filipič, Metka

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the physicochemical properties of several commercial ultrafine TiO2 powders and their behaviour in the as-received form and colloidal suspensions were analysed. Besides the particle size, the morphology and agglomeration state of the dry powders, dispersibility, ζ-potential and sedimentation in water and in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) were studied. Also, leaching of ions from the powders during ageing in physiological solution and the ability of the photoactivated powders to decompose organic substances were evaluated. The examined TiO2 powders revealed diversified characteristics when dispersed in water. In general, while in dry conditions the particle size appeared in the nano-range (down to 32 nm), the particles were agglomerated in aqueous suspensions at pH 7 and only a minor amount showed dimensions below 200 nm, but none below 100 nm. The inherent pH of the 3 % suspensions varies from 3.7 to 7.5 and the surface charge at these pH values varied from highly positive to highly negative values. In PBS, the surface charge is negative and relatively low for all the samples, which resulted in agglomeration. Five out of six powders exhibited significant photocatalytic activity when exposed to UV irradiation. This also includes one cosmetic-grade powder. Furthermore, during the immersion in aqueous media at physiological temperature, the powders released foreign ions, which might also contribute to the results of cytotoxicity tests. The results revealed the major role of the particle surface charge and its impact on particle dispersion or agglomeration. Due to the high ionic strength in the liquids relevant for cell-surface interaction tests, for all the examined titania powders the nanoparticulate character was lost. However, the presence of impurities and photocatalysis might further contribute to the results of cytotoxicity tests.

  19. Preparation and characterization of PbSe nanopowder and quasi-ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Shimko, A. N. Malashkevich, G. E. Belkov, M. V.; Osipovich, N. P.

    2013-01-15

    By means of the reduction of Pb(II) and Se(IV) with hydrazine, oval monodispersed PbSe nanoparticles characterized by sizes {approx}100 nm and the cubic symmetry were obtained. Their compaction and sintering into quasi-ceramic state were performed. The samples were investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and FTIR spectroscopy. The results obtained are discussed.

  20. New synthesis of nanopowders of proton conducting materials. A route to densified proton ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Khani, Zohreh; Taillades-Jacquin, Melanie; Taillades, Gilles; Marrony, Mathieu; Jones, Deborah J.; Roziere, Jacques

    2009-04-15

    Low temperature routes have been developed for the preparation of BaCe{sub 0.9}Y{sub 0.1}O{sub 2.95} (BCY10) and BaZr{sub 0.9}Y{sub 0.1}O{sub 2.95} (BZY10) in the form of nanoparticulate powders for use after densification as ceramic membranes for a proton ceramic fuel cell. These methods make use on the one hand of the chelation of metal (II), (III) and (IV) ions by acrylates (hydrogelation route) and on the other of the destabilisation and precipitation of micro-emulsions. Both routes lead to single phase yttrium doped barium cerate or zirconate perovskites, as observed by X-ray diffraction, after thermal treatment at 900 deg. C for 4 h for BCY10 and 800 deg. C for BZY10. These temperatures, lower than those usually used for preparation of barium cerate or zirconate, lead to oxide nanoparticles of size <40 nm. Dense ceramics (>=95%) are obtained by sintering BCY10 pellets at 1350 deg. C and BZY10 pellets at 1500 deg. C for 10 h. The water uptake of compacted samples at 500 deg. C is 0.14 wt% for BCY10 and 0.26 wt% for BZY10. Total conductivities in the range 300-600 deg. C were determined using impedance spectroscopy in a humidified nitrogen atmosphere. The total conductivity was 1.8x10{sup -2} S/cm for BCY10 and 2x10{sup -3} S/cm for BZY10 at 600 deg. C. The smallest perovskite nanoparticles and highest conductivities were obtained by hydrogelation of precursor barium, zirconium, cerium and yttrium acrylates. - Graphical Abstract: Low temperature hydrogelation and micro-emulsion routes have been developed for the preparation of rare earth doped barium and zirconium cerates in the form of nanoparticulate powders for use after densification as ceramic membranes for a proton ceramic fuel cell.

  1. Synthesis of antimicrobial monophase silver-doped hydroxyapatite nanopowders for bone tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanić, Vojislav; Janaćković, Djordje; Dimitrijević, Suzana; Tanasković, Sladjana B.; Mitrić, Miodrag; Pavlović, Mirjana S.; Krstić, Aleksandra; Jovanović, Dragoljub; Raičević, Slavica

    2011-02-01

    Monophase silver-doped hydroxyapatite (AgxCa10-x(PO4)6(OH)2; 0.002 ≤ x ≤ 0.04) nanoparticles were prepared using a neutralization method and investigated with respect to potential medical applications. This method consists of dissolving Ag2O in solution of H3PO4, and the slow addition to suspension of Ca(OH)2 was applied for the purpose of homogenous distribution of silver ions. Characterization studies from XRD, TEM and FTIR spectra showed that obtained crystals are monophase hydroxyapatites and that particles of all samples are of nano size, with average length of 70 nm and about 15-25 nm in diameter. Antimicrobial studies have demonstrated that all silver-doped hydroxyapatite samples exhibit excellent antimicrobial activity in vitro against the following pathogens: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The hydroxyapatite sample with the highest content of silver has shown the highest antimicrobial activity; killed all cells of E. coli and brought to more than 99% reduction in viable counts of S. aureus and C. albicans. The atomic force microscopic studies illustrate that silver-doped hydroxyapatite sample causes considerable morphological changes of microorganism cells which might be the cause of cells' death. Hemolysis ratios of the silver-doped hydroxyapatite samples were below 3%, indicating good blood compatibility and that are promising as biomaterials.

  2. Radiation Stability of Zinc Oxide Pigment Modified by Zirconium Oxide and Aluminum Oxide Nanopowders

    SciTech Connect

    Mikhailov, M. M.; Neshchimenko, V. V.; Li Chundong

    2009-01-05

    The effect on the reflective spectra of heat treatment and modification of ZnO pigments by 1-30 wt.%ZrO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles has been investigated before and after irradiation by 100 keV protons with a fluence of 5x10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}. It is established that with the optimum concentration of 5 wt.% nanoparticles and the temperature of 800 deg. C a 20% increase in the radiation stability is observed for the modified ZnO pigment in comparison with the not modified pigment. The decrease of absorption in the modified pigments is determined by the decrease of the intensity of the absorption bands of the zinc vacancies (V{sub zn}{sup -}), oxygen vacancies (V{sub o}{sup +}) and donor-acceptor couples (V{sub zn}-{sup -}Zn{sub i}{sup 0})

  3. Densification and Sintering of a Microwave-Plasma-Synthesized Iron Nanopowder

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    R.J., "Nanoparticulate Materials Densification," Nanostr . Mater. 7 [7], 749-768 (1996). 8. Goetzel, C.G., Treatise on Powder Metallurg,, Vol. 1, Interscience Publishers, Inc., New York, NY, 515 (1949). 204

  4. Ternary and coupled binary zinc tin oxide nanopowders: Synthesis, characterization, and potential application in photocatalytic processes

    SciTech Connect

    Ivetić, T.B.; Finčur, N.L.; Đačanin, Lj. R.; Abramović, B.F.; Lukić-Petrović, S.R.

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Mechanochemically synthesized nanocrystalline zinc tin oxide (ZTO) powders. • Photocatalytic degradation of alprazolam in the presence of ZTO water suspensions. • Coupled binary ZTO exhibits enhanced photocatalytic activity compared to ternary ZTO. - Abstract: In this paper, ternary and coupled binary zinc tin oxide nanocrystalline powders were prepared via simple solid-state mechanochemical method. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Raman and reflectance spectroscopy were used to study the structure and optical properties of the obtained powder samples. The thermal behavior of zinc tin oxide system was examined through simultaneous thermogravimetric-differential scanning calorimetric analysis. The efficiencies of ternary (Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} and ZnSnO{sub 3}) and coupled binary (ZnO/SnO{sub 2}) zinc tin oxide water suspensions in the photocatalytic degradation of alprazolam, short-acting anxiolytic of the benzodiazepine class of psychoactive drugs, under UV irradiation were determined and compared with the efficiency of pure ZnO and SnO{sub 2}.

  5. Characterization and Consolidation of Tungsten Nanopowders Produced by Salt-Assisted Combustion Synthesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    PROJECT NUMBER 1L162618AH8 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) U.S. Army Research...Boylston, MA. The amount of sulfur and carbon was determined by combustion infrared detection, oxygen content was measured by inert gas fusion, and...intervals at each pulsing step. The temperature of the sample was monitored at the outside surface of the die with an optical pyrometer , although

  6. Effect of SiO2 layer intermediation on direct carbothermal synthesis of SiC nanopowders.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Yeon; Riu, Doh-Hyung; An, Ju-Hyun; Chun, Dongil; Kim, Youngseok

    2013-09-01

    Beta-SiC was synthesized by direct carbothermal reaction using silicon and SiO2-layer-coated carbon powders. It is usually difficult to control the rate of the direct carbothermal reaction of silicon because the reaction rapidly progresses. Therefore coarse powders are obtained although it has the advantage of low synthesis temperature. To evade the above difficulty we tried to insert SiO2 layers between carbon and silicon powders, and the effect of SiO2 layer intermediation on the SiC synthesis was examined. SiO2 was coated on carbon black powders by using a 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) solution. The mixture of silicon and SiO2-coated carbon powders was reacted at 1200-1500 degrees C for 1 h in an Ar gas atmosphere. The morphologies of SiO2-coated carbon and synthesized SiC powders were observed. Thermal and phase evolution during the synthesis of SiC powders were analyzed. We obtained beta-SiC powders with a particle size of around 100 nm at the synthesis temperature of more than 1400 degrees C, which is a considerably lower reaction temperature than that of a usual carbothermal reaction.

  7. Microwave and millimeter wave dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability of epsilon-gallium-iron-oxide nano-powders

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, Liu Afsar, Mohammed N.; Ohkoshi, Shin-ichi

    2015-05-07

    In millimeter wave frequency range, hexagonal ferrites with high uniaxial anisotropic magnetic fields are used as absorbers. These ferrites include M-type barium ferrite (BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}) and strontium ferrite (SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}), which have natural ferromagnetic resonant frequency range from 40 GHz to 60 GHz. However, the higher frequency range lacks suitable materials that support the higher frequency ferromagnetic resonance. A series of gallium-substituted ε-iron oxides (ε-Ga{sub x}Fe{sub 2−x}O{sub 3}) are synthesized, which have ferromagnetic resonant frequencies appearing over the frequency range of 30 GHz to 150 GHz. The ε-Ga{sub x}Fe{sub 2−x}O{sub 3} is synthesized by the sol-gel method. The particle sizes are observed to be smaller than 100 nm. In this paper, in-waveguide transmission and reflection method and the free space magneto-optical approach have been employed to study these newly developed ε-Ga{sub x}Fe{sub 2−x}O{sub 3} particles in millimeter waves. These techniques enable to obtain precise transmission spectra to determine the dielectric and magnetic properties of both isotropic and anisotropic ferrites in the microwave and millimeter wave frequency range from single set of direct measurements. The complex dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability spectra of ε-Ga{sub x}Fe{sub 2−x}O{sub 3} are shown in this paper. Strong ferromagnetic resonances at different frequencies determined by the x parameter are found.

  8. Synthesis of fluorine substituted hydroxyapatite nanopowders and application of the central composite design for determination of its antimicrobial effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanić, Vojislav; Dimitrijević, Suzana; Antonović, Dušan G.; Jokić, Bojan M.; Zec, Slavica P.; Tanasković, Sladjana T.; Raičević, Slavica

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic biomaterials based on fluorine substituted hydroxyapatite are potentially attractive for orthopedic and dental implant applications. The new synthesis of fluorine substituted hydroxyapatite samples were done by neutralization, which consists of adding the solution of HF and H3PO4 in suspension of Ca(OH)2. Characterization studies from XRD, SEM and FTIR spectra showed that crystals are obtained with apatite structure and those particles of all samples are nano size, with an average length of 80 nm and about 15-25 nm in diameter. The central composite design was used in order to determine the optimal conditions for the antimicrobial activity of the synthesized samples. In order to evaluate the influence of operating parameters on the percent of viable cell reduction of Streptococcus mutans, three independent variables were chosen: exposure time, pH of saline and floride concentration in apatite samples. The experimental and predicted antimicrobial activities were in close agreement. Antimicrobial activity of the samples increases with the increase of fluoride concentration and the decreased pH of saline. The maximum antimicrobial activity was achieved at the initial pH of 4.

  9. Electrochemical properties of Sn-based nanopowders synthesized by a pulsed wire evaporation method and effect of binder coating

    SciTech Connect

    Ha, Jong-Keun; Song, Ju-Seok; Cho, Gyu-Bong; Ahn, Jou-Hyeon; Ahn, Hyo-Jun; Cho, Kwon-Koo

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Sn-based nanoparticles are fabricated by using the pulsed wire evaporation method. • The electrodes are prepared by mixing the graphene and coating the surface. • Coating the surface of electrode is used with brushing of simple and facile method. • The electrochemical measurements are performed with galvanostatic experiments. • The coating electrode maintains capacity nearly of 501 mAh g{sup −1} up to 100 cycles. - Abstract: Sn-based nanoparticles are prepared with the O{sub 2} concentrations in chamber of Ar atmosphere (by v/v) by using the pulsed wire evaporation (PWE) method. The prepared electrodes are only Sn-based powder electrode, its binder coating electrode and Sn-based powder/graphene nanocomposite electrode. Morphology and structure of the synthesized powders and electrodes are investigated with a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and an X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The electrochemical measurements were performed with galvanostatic cycling experiments using a coin type cell of CR2032 (Ø20, T3.2 mm). The binder coating electrode is superior to others and maintains delithiation capacity nearly of 501 mAh g{sup −1} as 58.3% of first delithiation capacity at 0.2 C-rate up to 100 cycles.

  10. The role of nanopowder particle surfaces and grain boundary defects in the sintering of ZnO ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muktepavela, F.; Zabels, R.; Sursajeva, V.; Grigorjeva, L.; Kundzins, K.

    2012-08-01

    This work focuses on the characteristics of sintered ZnO ceramics and explores the role of source powder morphology in the process of sintering. The source ZnO powders had grained (d = 100 nm) and tetrapod-like (d=50-100 nm, l=3-10 μm) morphologies, they were compacted and sintered at 1200° C. The results have shown that ceramics sintered from the grained powder exhibit relatively high (8%) porosity at grain boundaries and as cavities within grains, which facilitates brittleness. Photoluminescence spectra for these ceramics besides a narrow exitonic band contain a broad "green" luminescence band attributed to defect states. The second ceramics sintered from the tetrapod-like powder has lower porosity (<2 %) Photoluminescence spectrum at 12 K revealed a narrow exitonic band with satellite peaks (1LO_Ex states) and almost negligible "green" band which is an indication of high quality of this ceramics. Experiments on bicrystals have shown that in the stage of grain growth the motion of grain boundaries is directly correlated to triple-junction mobility. The obtained results have been discussed from the point of contact phenomenon and evolution processes of the grain boundary microstructure at different sintering stages.

  11. Luminescence characteristics of Pr3+ ion doped CaTiO3 nanopowder phosphors synthesized by solvothermal method.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jong Won; Yang, Hyun Kyoung; Moon, Byung Kee; Choi, Byung Chun; Jeong, Jung Hyun; Kim, Jung Hwan

    2011-07-01

    In display applications, each displays technique needs different phosphors according to its applications. So, in this paper, nano-sized red emitting CaTiO3:Pr3+ powder phosphors were prepared by solvothermal reaction method. The phase purity and the structure of the phosphors were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). The particles show the spherical morphology, which indicates the good luminescent characteristics. The luminescent properties of CaTiO3:Pr3+ powder phosphors have been carried out by the measurement of their phototluminescence (PL) and phototluminescence excitation (PLE) spectra. The PL spectra shows the strong red emission due to 1D2 --> 3H4 transition. The emissions of intra-4f transitions from the excited states (1D2) to the ground state (3H4) of Pr3+ are mainly observed around from 612 to 618 nm. The effect of the Pr3+ concentration on their photoluminescent properties was investigated extensively. These luminescent powders are expected to find potential applications such as optical display systems.

  12. Magnetization damping in two-component metal oxide micropowder and nanopowder compacts by broadband ferromagnetic resonance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youssef, Jamal Ben; Brosseau, Christian

    2006-12-01

    The microwave damping mechanisms in magnetic inhomogeneous systems have displayed a richness of phenomenology that has attracted widespread interest over the years. Motivated by recent experiments, we report an extensive experimental study of the Gilbert damping parameter of multicomponent metal oxides micro- and nanophases. We label the former by M samples, and the latter by N samples. The main thrust of this examination is the magnetization dynamics in systems composed of mixtures of magnetic (γ-Fe2O3) and nonmagnetic (ZnO and epoxy resin) materials fabricated via powder processing. Detailed ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) measurements on N and M samples are described so to determine changes in the microwave absorption over the 6-18GHz frequency range as a function of composition and static magnetic field. The FMR linewidth and the field dependent resonance were measured for the M and N samples, at a given volume fraction of the magnetic phase. The asymmetry in the form and change in the linewidth for the M samples are caused by the orientation distribution of the local anisotropy fields, whereas the results for the N samples suggest that the linewidth is very sensitive to details of the spatial magnetic inhomogeneities. For N samples, the peak-to-peak linewidth increases continuously with the volume content of magnetic material. The influence of the volume fraction of the magnetic phase on the static internal field was also investigated. Furthermore, important insights are gleaned through analysis of the interrelationship between effective permeability and Gilbert damping constant. Different mechanisms have been considered to explain the FMR linewidth: the intrinsic Gilbert damping, the broadening induced by the magnetic inhomogeneities, and the extrinsic magnetic relaxation. We observed that the effective Gilbert damping constant of the series of N samples are found to be substantially smaller in comparison to M samples. This effect is attributed to the surface anisotropy contribution to the anisotropy of Fe2O3 nanoparticles. From these measurements, the characteristic intrinsic damping dependent on the selected material and the damping due to surface/interface effects and interparticle interaction were estimated. The inhomogeneous linewidth (damping) due to surface/interface effects decreases with diminishing particle size, whereas the homogeneous linewidth (damping) due to interactions increases with increasing volume fraction of magnetic particles (i.e., reducing the separation between neighboring magnetic phases) in the composite.

  13. Gamma-resonance study of nanopowders with different dispersion and quasicrystalline phases in the Al-Cu-Fe system

    SciTech Connect

    Frolov, K. V. Mikheeva, M. N.; Lyubutin, I. S.; Nikonov, A. A.; Teplov, A. A.; Shaitura, D. S.; Abuzin, Yu. A.

    2007-11-15

    {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy has been used to monitor synthesis of quasicrystals in the Al-Cu-Fe system and study the influence of the size of quasicrystalline particles in powder samples of the Al{sub 63.1}Cu{sub 25.6}Fe{sub 11.3} alloy on the properties of synthesized materials. Quasicrystalline samples of different dispersion with particle sizes from 0.3 to 15 {mu}m have been studied in the temperature range 80-295 K. It is established that iron atoms in an Al{sub 63.1}Cu{sub 25.6}Fe{sub 11.3} quasicrystals occupy four types of structural positions, which differ in the atomic composition of the nearest environment. The results of the analysis suggest the dependence of the hyperfine-interaction parameters on the degree of sample dispersion. The components corresponding to iron atoms in both the surface layer and bulk of microparticles are isolated in the Moessbauer spectra. No magnetic hyperfine splitting has been found in the Moessbauer spectra in the entire temperature range. This fact suggests that a localized magnetic moment is absent in iron atoms.

  14. Synthesis of Black and Red Mercury Sulfide Nano-Powder by Traditional Indian Method for Biomedical Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padhi, Payodhar; Sahoo, G.; Das, K.; Ghosh, Sudipto; Panigrahi, S. C.

    2008-10-01

    The use of metals and minerals in the traditional Indian system of medicine known as aired is very common and is practiced since seventh century B.C. Metals were reduced to calcined powder form for medicinal purpose. For detoxification, a further step of purification of the metals and minerals with different vegetable extracts was practiced. The people of East India were using mercury and its sulfide as medicine. Gradually this secret was leaked to Arabic physicians who used mercury in skin ointment. Subsequently Italian Physicians adopted Arabic prescriptions of mercurial ointments for skin diseases. In the olden days, metals and minerals were impregnated with decoction and juice of vegetables and animal products like milk and fat for purification. These were then reduced to fine particles by milling with a pestle and mortar. It was known by then that the fineness of the powder had a significant influence on the color, texture, and medicinal properties as is cited by Charak. Nagarjun studied in detail the processing of metals and minerals, particularly mercury and the influence of the processing parameters on the medicinal values. Mercury is unique in many aspects. Indian alchemy developed a wide variety a chemical processes for the ostensible transmutation of metals and preparation of elixir of life, in which mercury occupied a prime position .The present investigation attempts to use the traditional methods as prescribed in the ancient texts to prepare mercury sulfide in both red and black form for medicinal use. XRD, SEM and HRTEM investigations of the sulfides obtained shows that the ancient Indians were able to produce nano-sized powders. Possibly this may be taken as the earliest application of the production and use of nano powder. The study proves that even in ancient time the knowledge of nano particle synthesis was prevalent and used to enhance effectiveness of medicines. Further mercury in the free form is not acceptable in medicines. The ancient physicians could get rid of free mercury by milling and proper choice of the ratio of ingredients as is shown in the investigation by X-ray diffraction studies. In the traditional method for synthesis of mercury sulfide, mercury and pure sulfur were taken and milled in a mortar and pastel. During milling process, the white mercury and yellow sulfur yielded to a gray black colored sulfide. Synthesis of red sulfide of mercury required additional steps of heating and subsequent milling. For therapeutically application, the sulfide thus obtained needed detoxification, which was done using organic extracts. In the present investigation, the same method was followed to synthesize the sapphires and the product was characterized using modern methods like XRD, SEM and HRTEM. With increase in milling time the fineness of the powder increases, which increases the efficacy of the medicine, and free mercury, which is not desirable for medicinal application is found to decrease. The powder obtained at the end of 48 hours of milling is found to be of a size finer than l0nm.

  15. TiO2 nanopowder co-doped with iodine and boron to enhance visible-light photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jianqiang; Yuan, Yali; Xu, Jinsheng; Deng, Jian; Guo, Jianbo

    2009-10-01

    An iodine and boron co-doped TiO2 photocatalyst was prepared by the hydrolyzation-precipitation method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis DRS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were applied to characterize the crystalline structure, light absorbing ability, and the chemical state of iodine and boron in the photocatalysts. The results of photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange demonstrated that the I-B-TiO2 catalyst prepared at 400 degrees C for 3 h exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity with a methyl orange degradation ratio of 61% under visible-light (lambda > or = 420 nm) irradiation for 120 min. The characterization results revealed that I-B-TiO2 is in conformity with the anatase TiO2 and that the doping of iodine and boron ions could efficiently inhibit the grain growth. Doped iodine was present in the multivalent forms of 17+, I- and I5+. Doped boron was present as B3+ in an as-prepared sample, forming a possible chemical environment such as B-O-Ti. Overall, the doping of I and B enhanced the ability of TiO2 to absorb visible-light, and it was observed that the photocatalytic activity of I-B-TiO2 was enhanced by the synergistic effect of I and B.

  16. Noble-Metal-Free Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution Activity: The Impact of Ball Milling Anatase Nanopowders with TiH2.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuemei; Liu, Ning; Schmidt, Jochen; Kahnt, Axel; Osvet, Andres; Romeis, Stefan; Zolnhofer, Eva M; Marthala, Venkata Ramana Reddy; Guldi, Dirk M; Peukert, Wolfgang; Hartmann, Martin; Meyer, Karsten; Schmuki, Patrik

    2017-02-01

    Ball milling TiO2 anatase together with TiH2 can create an effective photocatalyst. The process changes the lattice and electronic structure of anatase. Lattice deformation created by mechanical impact combined with hydride incorporation yield electronic gap-states close to the conduction band of anatase. These provide longer lifetimes of photogenerated charge carriers and lead to an intrinsic cocatalytic activation of anatase for H2 evolution.

  17. Synthesis of Black and Red Mercury Sulfide Nano-Powder by Traditional Indian Method for Biomedical Application

    SciTech Connect

    Padhi, Payodhar; Sahoo, G.; Das, K.; Ghosh, Sudipto; Panigrahi, S. C.

    2008-10-23

    The use of metals and minerals in the traditional Indian system of medicine known as aired is very common and is practiced since seventh century B.C. Metals were reduced to calcined powder form for medicinal purpose. For detoxification, a further step of purification of the metals and minerals with different vegetable extracts was practiced. The people of East India were using mercury and its sulfide as medicine. Gradually this secret was leaked to Arabic physicians who used mercury in skin ointment. Subsequently Italian Physicians adopted Arabic prescriptions of mercurial ointments for skin diseases. In the olden days, metals and minerals were impregnated with decoction and juice of vegetables and animal products like milk and fat for purification. These were then reduced to fine particles by milling with a pestle and mortar. It was known by then that the fineness of the powder had a significant influence on the color, texture, and medicinal properties as is cited by Charak. Nagarjun studied in detail the processing of metals and minerals, particularly mercury and the influence of the processing parameters on the medicinal values. Mercury is unique in many aspects. Indian alchemy developed a wide variety a chemical processes for the ostensible transmutation of metals and preparation of elixir of life, in which mercury occupied a prime position .The present investigation attempts to use the traditional methods as prescribed in the ancient texts to prepare mercury sulfide in both red and black form for medicinal use. XRD, SEM and HRTEM investigations of the sulfides obtained shows that the ancient Indians were able to produce nano-sized powders. Possibly this may be taken as the earliest application of the production and use of nano powder. The study proves that even in ancient time the knowledge of nano particle synthesis was prevalent and used to enhance effectiveness of medicines. Further mercury in the free form is not acceptable in medicines. The ancient physicians could get rid of free mercury by milling and proper choice of the ratio of ingredients as is shown in the investigation by X-ray diffraction studies. In the traditional method for synthesis of mercury sulfide, mercury and pure sulfur were taken and milled in a mortar and pastel. During milling process, the white mercury and yellow sulfur yielded to a gray black colored sulfide. Synthesis of red sulfide of mercury required additional steps of heating and subsequent milling. For therapeutically application, the sulfide thus obtained needed detoxification, which was done using organic extracts. In the present investigation, the same method was followed to synthesize the sapphires and the product was characterized using modern methods like XRD, SEM and HRTEM. With increase in milling time the fineness of the powder increases, which increases the efficacy of the medicine, and free mercury, which is not desirable for medicinal application is found to decrease. The powder obtained at the end of 48 hours of milling is found to be of a size finer than l0nm.

  18. Parametric study of CO2 laser drilling of carbon nanopowder/vinylester/glass nanocomposites using design of experiments and grey relational analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagesh, S.; Narasimha Murthy, H. N.; Krishna, M.; Basavaraj, H.

    2013-06-01

    Research efforts are concentrated on improving the quality of laser drilled holes in thermoset based composites. Heat affected zone is one of the major quality factors in laser drilled holes of polymer composites. One of the promising methods to reduce heat affected zone is to disperse thermally conductive nanofillers in polymer composites to improve the heat transfer characteristics during laser drilling. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of carbon black along with laser parameters such as laser power, pulse frequency and scanning speed on the heat affected zone and taper angle of laser drilled holes based on L16 orthogonal array lay-out. Both heat affected zone and taper angle significantly reduced with the addition of carbon black. The results showed that heat affected zone is reduced by employing lower laser power and taper angle is reduced by adopting higher laser power. Grey relational analysis was used to identify the optimal combination of laser drilling parameters for multiple responses. Multiple regression models were developed for predicting heat affected zone and taper angle.

  19. Influence of synthesis conditions on microstructure and phase transformations of annealed Sr2FeMoO6-x nanopowders formed by the citrate-gel method.

    PubMed

    Yarmolich, Marta; Kalanda, Nikolai; Demyanov, Sergey; Terryn, Herman; Ustarroz, Jon; Silibin, Maksim; Gorokh, Gennadii

    2016-01-01

    The sequence of phase transformations during Sr2FeMoO6-x crystallization by the citrate-gel method was studied for powders synthesized with initial reagent solutions with pH values of 4, 6 and 9. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the as-produced and annealed powders had the largest Sr2FeMoO6-x agglomerates with diameters in the range of 0.7-1.2 µm. The average grain size of the powders in the dispersion grows from 250 to 550 nm with increasing pH value. The X-ray diffraction analysis of the powders annealed at different temperatures between 770 and 1270 K showed that the composition of the initially formed Sr2FeMoO6-x changes and the molybdenum content increases with further heating. This leads to a change in the Sr2FeMoO6-x crystal lattice parameters and a contraction of the cell volume. An optimized synthesis procedure based on an initial solution of pH 4 allowed a single-phase Sr2FeMoO6-x compound to be obtained with a grain size in the range of 50-120 nm and a superstructural ordering of iron and molybdenum cations of 88%.

  20. Green engineered ZnO nanopowders by Banyan Tree and E. tirucalli plant latex: auto ignition route, photoluminescent and photocatalytic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anilkumar, M. R.; Nagaswarupa, H. P.; Anantharaju, K. S.; Gurushantha, K.; Pratapkumar, C.; Prashantha, S. C.; Shashi Shekhar, T. R.; Nagabhushana, H.; Sharma, S. C.; Vidya, Y. S.; Prasad, Daruka

    2015-03-01

    A simple and eco-friendly solution combustion route was used to prepare ZnO nanoparticles (ZNPs) using Banyan Tree (BT) and Euphorbia tirucalli (ET) plant latexes as fuels. The final products were characterized by powder x-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-visible, scanning electron microcopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The PXRD result reveals the formation of hexagonal phase with Wurtzite structure. The crystallite size obtained from TEM was found to be ˜20-25 nm. SEM results reveal rose-like morphology with BT latex and hexagonal shaped with ET latex. The energy band gap of ZNPs obtained by BT and ET latex were found to be 3.20 and 3.38 eV, respectively. Photoluminescence (PL) emission peaks at ˜421, 458, 505, 522, 628 and 695 nm were observed in both the samples when excited at 383 nm. These emission peaks were mainly attributed to deep level oxygen (blue-green) defect and exciton (UV) defects, respectively. The international commission on illumination (CIE) chromaticity co-ordinates, as well as co-ordinated color temperature (CCT), were estimated from the emission spectra; the values (x, y) were very close to national television system committee (NTSC) standard values of pure white emission. Photocatalytic activity (PCA) of ZNPs prepared was studied in detail. The ZNPs prepared using BT latex showed highest PCA under sunlight. The results demonstrate that the synthesized product could be quite useful for display applications as well as photocatalyst. Further, the material prepared by this route was found to be non-toxic, environmentally friendly and could be a potential alternative to economical routes.

  1. The obtaining of high-density specimens and analysis of mechanical strength characteristics of a composite based on ZrO2-WC nanopowders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The structures, processes of shrinkage, and phase composition of the compact system ZrO2-WC, obtained by hot pressing with the transmission of high current, are considered in the article. We found that as a result of compaction, the ZrO2-WC-ceramics have uniform density distribution, with the following optimal mode consolidation values T = 1,350°C, P = 30 MPa and t = 2 min. These conditions allow us to achieve the best combination of ceramic properties by criteria density and strength. PMID:25114647

  2. Effect of sputtering power on the electrical and optical properties of Ca-doped ZnO thin films sputtered from nanopowders compacted target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdhi, H.; Ben Ayadi, Z.; Gauffier, J. L.; Djessas, K.; Alaya, S.

    2015-07-01

    In the present work, we have deposited calcium doped zinc oxide thin films by magnetron sputtering technique using nanocrystalline particles elaborated by sol-gel method as a target material. In the first step, the nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel method using supercritical drying in ethyl alcohol. The structural properties studied by X-ray diffractometry indicates that Ca doped ZnO has a polycrystalline hexagonal wurzite structure with a grain size of about 30 nm. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements have shown that the synthesized CZO is a nanosized powder. Then, thin films were deposited onto glass substrates by rf-magnetron sputtering at ambient temperature. The influence of RF sputtering power on structural, morphological, electrical, and optical properties were investigated. It has been found that all the films deposited were polycrystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite structure and preferentially oriented in the (0 0 2) crystallographic direction. They have a typical columnar structure and a very smooth surface. The as-deposited films show a high transmittance in the visible range over 85% and low electrical resistivity at room temperature.

  3. Synthesis, characterization, and dielectric properties of Ba(Ti{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x})O{sub 3} nanopowders and ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Du Fengtao; Cui Bin; Cheng Hualei; Niu Ruiyuan; Chang Zhuguo

    2009-09-15

    We prepared Ba(Ti{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x})O{sub 3} powders and ceramics by means of the sol-gel process, with dibutyltin dilaurate as the Sn precursor. The samples were characterized by means of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy, and also determined the dielectric properties of the ceramics. The powders synthesized by means of the sol-gel process had a grain size on the nanometer scale, with the grains mainly composed of a cubic BaTiO{sub 3} phase. Sn can disperse into BaTiO{sub 3} more uniformly in the sol-gel technique using dibutyltin dilaurate as the Sn precursor. With increasing Sn concentration, the grain size of the Ba(Ti{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x})O{sub 3} ceramics increased and the maximum dielectric constant ({epsilon}{sub max}) first increased and then decreased. At a Sn concentration of 5 mol%, {epsilon}{sub max} reached its maximum value (19,235).

  4. Synthesis and luminescence mechanism of multicolor-emitting g-C3N4 nanopowders by low temperature thermal condensation of melamine

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuanhao; Pan, Qiwen; Chai, Guanqi; Liang, Minru; Dong, Guoping; Zhang, Qinyuan; Qiu, Jianrong

    2013-01-01

    Graphite like C3N4 (g-C3N4) was synthesized facilely via the low temperature thermal condensation of melamine between 300–650°C. The results showed that the products maintained as melamine when the temperature is below 300°C. With the increase of temperature, the products were transformed into carbon nitride and amorphous g-C3N4 successively. The morphology of products was changed from spherical nanoparticles of melamine into layer carbon nitride and g-C3N4 with the increase of temperature. The photoluminescence spectra showed that the carbon nitride products have continuous tunable photoluminescence properties in the visible region with increasing temperature. With the help of steady state, transient state time-resolved photoluminescence spectra and Raman microstructural characterization, a novel tunable photoluminescence mechanism was founded systematically, which is mainly related to the two dimensional π-conjugated polymeric network and the lone pair of the carbon nitride. PMID:23735995

  5. Effect of synthesis conditions on the nanopowder properties of Ce{sub 0.9}Zr{sub 0.1}O{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Zimicz, M.G.; Fabregas, I.O.; Lamas, D.G.; Larrondo, S.A.

    2011-06-15

    Graphical abstract: . The synthesis of nanocrystalline Ce{sub 0.9}Zr{sub 0.1}O{sub 2} powders via the gel-combustion method, using different fuels, and following either stoichiometric or non-stoichiometric pH-controlled routes is investigated. Research highlights: {yields} All samples exhibited the fluorite-type crystal structure, nanometric average crystallite size and negligible carbon content. {yields} Synthesis conditions strongly affect the average crystallite size, the degree of agglomeration, the specific surface area and the pore volume. {yields} Our results indicate that, by controlling the synthesis conditions it is possible to obtain solids with custom-made morphological properties. -- Abstract: In this work, the synthesis of nanocrystalline Ce{sub 0.9}Zr{sub 0.1}O{sub 2} powders via the gel-combustion method, using different fuels, and following either stoichiometric or non-stoichiometric pH-controlled routes is investigated. The objective is to evaluate the effect of synthesis conditions on the textural and morphological properties, and the crystal structure of the synthesized materials. The solids were characterized by nitrogen physisorption, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XPD), and Carbon-Hydrogen-Nitrogen Elemental Analysis (CHN). All the powders exhibited nanometric crystallite size, fluorite-type structure and negligible carbon content. Synthesis conditions strongly affect the average crystallite size, the degree of agglomeration, the specific surface area and the pore volume. Our results indicate that, by controlling the synthesis conditions it is possible to obtain solids with custom-made morphological properties.

  6. Interfacial Design of Ternary Mixed Matrix Membranes Containing Pebax 1657/Silver-Nanopowder/[BMIM][BF4] for Improved CO2 Separation Performance.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi Estahbanati, Ehsan; Omidkhah, Mohammadreza; Ebadi Amooghin, Abtin

    2017-03-08

    In this research, Pebax1657 as an organic phase and silver nanoparticles as an inorganic phase were used for preparation of binary mixed matrix membranes (MMMs). Silver nanoparticles as a filler could enter the polymer chains and enhance the gas permeability by increasing the fractional free volume of membranes. Afterward, ternary MMMs were fabricated by addition of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM][BF4]) ionic liquid, in order to have better polymer/filler adhesion and eliminate interfacial defects and nonselective voids. In addition, positively polarized silver nanoparticles in the presence of the IL could interact with PEO segment of the polymer and increase the CO2 affinity of membranes, which results in increasing the CO2/light gases permselectivity of MMMs. Gas permeation properties of MMMs were studied at a temperature of 35 °C and operating pressures from 2 to 10 bar. Moreover, fabricated membranes were characterized by fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The analysis revealed that there is a proper adhesion between positively charged surface of nanoparticles and the polymer, and both filler and IL decrease the crystallinity of the membranes, which could enhance the polar gas transport properties. Gas permeation results showed significant enhancement in CO2 permeability (325 Barrer) for binary membrane (Pebax 1657/1%Ag) at 35 °C and 10 bar. Moreover, ternary MMM (Pebax 1657/0.5%Ag/50%IL) encountered significant increase in both permeability and selectivity in comparison with neat membrane. Indeed, the CO2 permeability increased from 110 Barrer to 180 (about 64%). Moreover, the related CO2/CH4 and CO2/N2 selectivities were increased from 20.8 to 61.0 (more than 193%) and from 78.6 to 187.5 (about 139%), respectively.

  7. Effect of Ga(3+) and Gd(3+) ions substitution on the structural and optical properties of Ce(3+) -doped yttrium aluminium garnet phosphor nanopowders.

    PubMed

    Wako, A H; Dejene, F B; Swart, H C

    2016-11-01

    The structural and optical properties of commercially obtained Y3 Al5 O12 :Ce(3)(+) phosphor were investigated by replacing Al(3)(+) with Ga(3)(+) and Y(3)(+) with Gd(3)(+) in the Y3 Al5 O12 :Ce(3)(+) structure to form Y3 (Al,Ga)5 O12 :Ce(3)(+) and (Y,Gd)3 Al5 O12 :Ce(3)(+) . X-Ray diffraction (XRD) results showed slight 2-theta peak shifts to lower angles when Ga(3)(+) was used and to higher angles when Gd(3)(+) was used, with respect to peaks from Y3 Al5 O12 :Ce(3)(+) and JCPDS card no. 73-1370. This could be attributed to induced crystal-field effects due to the different ionic sizes of Ga(3)(+) and Gd(3)(+) compared with Al(3)(+) and Y(3)(+) . The photoluminescence (PL) spectra showed broad excitation from 350 to 550 nm with a maximum at 472 nm, and broad emission bands from 500 to 650 nm, centred at 578 nm for Y3 Al5 O12 :Ce(3)(+) arising from the 5d → 4f transition of Ce(3)(+) . PL revealed a blue shift for Ga(3)(+) substitution and a red shift for Gd(3)(+) substitution. UV-Vis showed two absorption peaks at 357 and 457 nm for Y3 Al5 O12 :Ce(3)(+) , with peaks shifting to 432 nm for Ga(3)(+) and 460 nm for Gd(3)(+) substitutions. Changes in the trap levels or in the depth and number of traps due to Ce(3)(+) were analysed using thermoluminescence (TL) spectroscopy. This revealed the existence of shallow and deep traps. It was observed that Ga(3)(+) substitution contributes to the shallowest traps at 74 °C and fewer deep traps at 163 °C, followed by Gd(3)(+) with shallow traps at 87 °C and deep traps at 146 °C. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Effect of particle size distribution on the structure, hyperfine, and magnetic properties of Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, Kaustav; Pati, Satya P.; Das, G. C.; Das, D.; Chattopadhyay, K. K.

    2014-12-01

    Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nano powders were synthesized by an auto combustion method and then heat treated at different temperatures in air for a fixed time. As a consequence, a distribution in particle size and strain was incorporated within the specimens, as estimated from the Rietveld refinement analysis of the powder x-ray diffraction data. The changes in the microstructure and crystal structure parameters were carefully extracted through the refinement analysis. Thermal annealing causes increment in the dispersion and mean of the size distribution. Reallocation of cations in the lattice sites occur as a consequence of the heat treatment which was manifested in their altered unit cell length (a), r.m.s. strain (⟨ɛ2⟩1/2), oxygen positional parameter (u), metal-oxygen bond lengths ( RO A and RO B ), and the band positions (ν1and ν2) in the vibrational spectroscopy. We also investigate the hyperfine and magnetic properties of the samples using different instrumental techniques (with different operating time scales) like Mössbauer spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry. Results show that the effect of particle size distribution was manifested in their hyperfine field distribution profile, paramagnetic resonance spectra, and magnetic anisotropy energy distribution profile. Co-existence of superparamagnetic and ferrimagnetic phase was recorded at room temperature in the samples when annealed at lower temperature. However, with increase in annealing temperature, the nature of the size distribution changes and ferrimagnetic ordering predominates for the larger size nanoparticles. Thus, the effect of particle size distribution on the structural, hyperfine, and magnetic properties of various Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles was investigated herein which hitherto has not been discussed in the literature.

  9. Surfactant modified MgFe 2O 4 nanopowders by reverse micelle processing: Effect of water to surfactant ratio ( R) on the particle size and magnetic property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandradass, J.; Jadhav, Arvind H.; Kim, Hern

    2012-01-01

    Nanoparticles of surfactant modified MgFe2O4 have been synthesized by reverse micelle processing using tertiary system of heptane/Igepal CO 520/H2O. The effect of water to surfactant ratio on the particle size and magnetic property has been studied. X-ray diffraction analysis confirms that MgFe2O4 nanoparticles are crystalline in nature with cubic spinel structure. The average particle size increases with increase in water to surfactant ratio. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis confirms that the surface of MgFe2O4 nanoparticles was coated with surfactants. The saturation magnetization ranged from 14.4 to 40.05 emu/g was measured by Superconducting Quantum Interference Device Magnetometry (SQUID).

  10. Preparation and characterization of new photoluminescent nano-powder based on Eu3+:La2Ti2O7 and dispersed into silica matrix for latent fingerprint detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saif, M.; Alsayed, N.; Mbarek, A.; El-Kemary, M.; Abdel-Mottaleb, M. S. A.

    2016-12-01

    Pure lanthanum titanate doped with europium metal ions (La2Ti2O7:Eu3+) and dispersed in silica matrix phosphor powder was prepared by sol-gel process followed by thermal treatment. The prepared nanophosphors were characterized by powder X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDX), and Photoluminescence Spectroscopy (PL). The effects of silica, thermal treatment, Eu3+ ion, and surfactant (CTAB) concentrations on the crystal, morphology, and photoluminescence properties were investigated. The present work found that dispersion of La2Ti2O7:Eu3+ into silica matrix significantly altered the morphology of La2Ti2O7:Eu3+ from high crystalline micro-plate like shape into amorphous aggregated Nano-spherical shape. The high separated spherical shape with intense red PL emission and long lifetime was obtained from 10 mol% Eu3+:La2Ti2O7:Eu3+, dispersed into silica matrix, and prepared in the presence of CTAB. The high PL Nano-phosphor has been successfully used in developing latent fingerprint from various forensic relevant materials.

  11. Preparation and characterizations of SnO2 nanopowder and spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV-Visible and NMR) analysis using HF and DFT calculations.

    PubMed

    Ayeshamariam, A; Ramalingam, S; Bououdina, M; Jayachandran, M

    2014-01-24

    In this work, pure and singe phase SnO2 Nano powder is successfully prepared by simple sol-gel combustion route. The photo luminescence and XRD measurements are made and compared the geometrical parameters with calculated values. The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra are recorded and the fundamental frequencies are assigned. The optimized parameters and the frequencies are calculated using HF and DFT (LSDA, B3LYP and B3PW91) theory in bulk phase of SnO2 and are compared with its Nano phase. The vibrational frequency pattern in nano phase gets realigned and the frequencies are shifted up to higher region of spectra when compared with bulk phase. The NMR and UV-Visible spectra are simulated and analyzed. Transmittance studies showed that the HOMO-LUMO band gap (Kubo gap) is reduced from 3.47 eV to 3.04 eV while it is heated up to 800°C. The Photoluminescence spectra of SnO2 powder showed a peak shift towards lower energy side with the change of Kubo gap from 3.73 eV to 3.229 eV for as-prepared and heated up to 800°C.

  12. Characterization of La(0.8)Sr(0.2)MnO(3 +/-delta) nanopowders synthesized by aerosol flame synthesis for SOFC cathode.

    PubMed

    Jung, Young-Geul; Choi, Jinyi; Yoon, Yongsub; Shin, Dongwook

    2011-08-01

    Lanthanum strontium manganite (La(0.8)Sr(0.2)MnO(3 +/- delta), LSM) powders with a high specific surface area (55.26 m2/g) were successfully synthesized by aerosol flame synthesis (AFS) technique. The crystallinity and morphology of the synthesized powders sintered at various temperatures were studied by XRD, TEM and BET. The synthesized powders exhibited spherical shape mostly in a few nanometer ranges with a relatively high crystallinity due to thermal plasma reactions in a high temperature of oxy-hydrogen flame. To analyze electrochemical performances of synthesized LSM powders, impedance spectroscopy (IS) was carried out with the symmetric cells prepared by slurry based electrostatic spray deposition (ESD) onto the YSZ electrolyte pellet. The interfacial polarization resistances were 3.04 ohms cm2 at 750 degrees C which is relatively lower than that of micro-porous film (7.24 ohms cm2) applying micro-sized powders deposited on same condition.

  13. Photocatalytic thin films containing TiO2:N nanopowders obtained by the layer-by-layer self-assembling method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas-Blanco, L.; Urzúa, M. D.; Ramírez-Bon, R.; Espinoza Beltrán, F. J.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, TiO2-N powders were synthesized by high-energy ball milling, using commercial titanium dioxide (TiO2) in the anatase phase and urea to introduce nitrogen into TiO2 in order to enhance their photocatalytic properties in the visible spectral region. Several samples were prepared by milling a mixture of TiO2-urea during 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 h and characterized by spectroscopic and analytical techniques. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed the coexistence of anatase and high-pressure srilankite TiO2 crystalline phases in the samples. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the grain size of the powder samples decreases to 200 nm at 24 h milling time. UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopic data showed a clear red-shift in the onset of light absorption from 387 to 469 nm as consequence of nitrogen doping in the samples. The photocatalytic activity of the TiO2-N samples was evaluated by methylene blue degradation under visible light irradiation. It was found that TiO2-N samples had higher photocatalytic activity than undoped TiO2 samples, which could be assigned to the effect of introducing N atoms and XPS results confirm it. Using polyethylenimine (PEI), transparent thin films of TiO2-N nanoparticles were prepared by layer-by-layer self assembly method. UV-visible spectrophotometry was employed in a quantitative manner to monitor the adsorbed mass of TiO2 and PEI after each dip cycle. The adsorption of both TiO2 and PEI showed a saturation dip time of 15 min.

  14. Immobilization of TiO2 nanopowder on glass beads for the photocatalytic decolorization of an azo dye C.I. Direct Red 23.

    PubMed

    Daneshvar, N; Salari, D; Niaei, A; Rasoulifard, M H; Khataee, A R

    2005-01-01

    TiO2 supported on glass beads was prepared and its photocatalytic activity was determined by photooxidation of the commercial textile dye, C.I. Direct Red 23, in aqueous solution illuminated by a UV-C lamp (30 W). The progress of photocatalytic decolorization of the C.I. Direct Red 23 was studied by measuring the absorbance at lambda(max) = 507 nm by UV Vis spectrophotometer. The experiments indicated that both UV light and TiO2 were needed for the effective destruction of the dye. The effect of pH on the rate of decolorization efficiency was followed in the pH range 2-12. Acidic pH range was found to favor the decolorization rate. The addition of a proper amount of hydrogen peroxide improved the decolorization, whereas the excess hydrogen peroxide quenched the formation of hydroxyl radicals (*OH). The electrical energy consumption per order of magnitude for photocatalytic decolorization of the dye was lower in the UV/TiO2/H2O2 process than that in the UV/TiO2 process. In the real wastewater sample the efficiency of the method was determined by measuring the changes in the absorption spectra of the dye solution during photodegradation. Our results indicated that during the photooxidation process, the decolorization efficiency was more than 80% at irradiation time of 3 h.

  15. Exchange bias effect and glassy-like behavior of EuCrO{sub 3} and CeCrO{sub 3} nano-powders

    SciTech Connect

    Taheri, M. Razavi, F. S.; Kremer, R. K.; Trudel, S.

    2015-09-28

    The magnetic properties of nano-sized EuCrO{sub 3} and CeCrO{sub 3} powders, synthesized by a solution combustion method, were investigated using DC/AC magnetization measurements. An exchange bias effect, magnetization irreversibility and AC susceptibility dispersion in these samples provided evidence for the presence of the spin disorder magnetic phase. The exchange bias phenomenon, which is assigned to the exchange coupling between the glassy-like shell and canted antiferromagnetic core, showed the opposite sign in EuCrO{sub 3} and CeCrO{sub 3} at low temperatures, suggesting different exchange interactions at the interfaces in these compounds. We also observed a sign reversal of exchange bias in CeCrO{sub 3} at different temperatures.

  16. Preparation and characterization of n-type conductive (Al, Co) co-doped ZnO thin films deposited by sputtering from aerogel nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Mir, L.; Ayadi, Z. Ben; Saadoun, M.; Djessas, K.; von Bardeleben, H. J.; Alaya, S.

    2007-11-01

    Highly transparent, n-type conducting ZnO thin films were obtained by low temperature magnetron sputtering of (Co, Al) co-doped ZnO nanocrystalline aerogels. The nanoparticles of ˜30 nm size were synthesized by a sol-gel method using supercritical drying in ethyl alcohol. The structural, optical and electrical properties of the films were investigated. The ZnO films were polycrystalline textured, preferentially oriented with the (0 0 2) crystallographic direction normal to the film plane. The films show within the visible wavelength region an optical transmittance of more than 90% and a low electrical resistivity of 3.5 × 10 -4 Ω cm at room temperature.

  17. Nanostructured catalyst supports

    DOEpatents

    Zhu, Yimin; Goldman, Jay L.; Qian, Baixin; Stefan, Ionel C.

    2012-10-02

    The present invention relates to SiC nanostructures, including SiC nanopowder, SiC nanowires, and composites of SiC nanopowder and nanowires, which can be used as catalyst supports in membrane electrode assemblies and in fuel cells. The present invention also relates to composite catalyst supports comprising nanopowder and one or more inorganic nanowires for a membrane electrode assembly.

  18. Nanostructured catalyst supports

    DOEpatents

    Zhu, Yimin; Goldman, Jay L.; Qian, Baixin; Stefan, Ionel C.

    2015-09-29

    The present invention relates to SiC nanostructures, including SiC nanopowder, SiC nanowires, and composites of SiC nanopowder and nanowires, which can be used as catalyst supports in membrane electrode assemblies and in fuel cells. The present invention also relates to composite catalyst supports comprising nanopowder and one or more inorganic nanowires for a membrane electrode assembly.

  19. Plasma Processed Nanosized-Powders of Refractory Compounds for Obtaining Fine-Grained Advanced Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    I, Zalite; J, Grabis; E, Palcevskis; M, Herrmann

    2011-10-01

    One of the ways for the production of ceramic materials with a fine-grained structure is the use of nanopowders. Different methods are used for the production of nanopowders. One of them is the method of plasmachemical synthesis. Different nanopowders of refractory materials can be obtained by this method. The preparation of nanosized powders of nitrides and oxides and their composites by the method of plasmachemical synthesis, the possibilities to receive nanopowders with different particle size and the potential advantages of nanopowders were investigated.

  20. Sol-gel process for the manufacture of high power switches

    DOEpatents

    Landingham, Richard L.; Satcher, Jr, Joe; Reibold, Robert

    2016-09-27

    According to one embodiment, a photoconductive semiconductor switch includes a structure of nanopowder of a high band gap material, where the nanopowder is optically transparent, and where the nanopowder has a physical characteristic of formation from a sol-gel process. According to another embodiment, a method includes mixing a sol-gel precursor compound, a hydroxy benzene and an aldehyde in a solvent thereby creating a mixture, causing the mixture to gel thereby forming a wet gel, drying the wet gel to form a nanopowder, and applying a thermal treatment to form a SiC nanopowder.

  1. Influence of synthesis conditions on microstructure and phase transformations of annealed Sr2FeMoO6−x nanopowders formed by the citrate–gel method

    PubMed Central

    Yarmolich, Marta; Kalanda, Nikolai; Demyanov, Sergey; Terryn, Herman; Ustarroz, Jon; Silibin, Maksim

    2016-01-01

    Summary The sequence of phase transformations during Sr2FeMoO6−x crystallization by the citrate–gel method was studied for powders synthesized with initial reagent solutions with pH values of 4, 6 and 9. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the as-produced and annealed powders had the largest Sr2FeMoO6−x agglomerates with diameters in the range of 0.7–1.2 µm. The average grain size of the powders in the dispersion grows from 250 to 550 nm with increasing pH value. The X-ray diffraction analysis of the powders annealed at different temperatures between 770 and 1270 K showed that the composition of the initially formed Sr2FeMoO6−x changes and the molybdenum content increases with further heating. This leads to a change in the Sr2FeMoO6−x crystal lattice parameters and a contraction of the cell volume. An optimized synthesis procedure based on an initial solution of pH 4 allowed a single-phase Sr2FeMoO6−x compound to be obtained with a grain size in the range of 50–120 nm and a superstructural ordering of iron and molybdenum cations of 88%. PMID:27826494

  2. Preparation of cobalt-zinc ferrite (Co{sub 0.8}Zn{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) nanopowder via combustion method and investigation of its magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Yousefi, M.H.; Manouchehri, S.; Arab, A.; Mozaffari, M.; Amiri, Gh. R.; Amighian, J.

    2010-12-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Cobalt-zinc ferrite was prepared by combustion method. {yields} Properties of the sample were characterized by several techniques. {yields} Curie temperature was determined to be 350 {sup o}C. -- Abstract: Cobalt-zinc ferrite (Co{sub 0.8}Zn{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) was prepared by combustion method, using cobalt, zinc and iron nitrates. The crystallinity of the as-burnt powder was developed by annealing at 700 {sup o}C. Crystalline phase was investigated by XRD. Using Williamson-Hall method, the average crystallite sizes for nanoparticles were determined to be about 27 nm before and 37 nm after annealing, and residual stresses for annealed particles were omitted. The morphology of the annealed sample was investigated by TEM and the mean particle size was determined to be about 30 nm. The final stoichiometry of the sample after annealing showed good agreement with the initial stoichiometry using atomic absorption spectrometry. Magnetic properties of the annealed sample such as saturation magnetization, remanence magnetization, and coercivity measured at room temperature were 70 emu/g, 14 emu/g, and 270 Oe, respectively. The Curie temperature of the sample was determined to be 350 {sup o}C using AC-susceptibility technique.

  3. Analyses of the modulatory effects of antibacterial silver doped calcium phosphate-based ceramic nano-powder on proliferation, survival, and angiogenic capacity of different mammalian cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bostancıoğlu, R Beklem; Peksen, Ceren; Genc, Hatice; Gürbüz, Mevlüt; Karel, Filiz Bayrakçı; Koparal, A Savas; Dogan, Aydin; Kose, Nusret; Koparal, A Tansu

    2015-08-26

    In this study, the antibacterial, cytotoxic, and angiogenic activities of silver doped calcium phosphate-based inorganic powder (ABT or PAG) were systematically investigated. ABT powders containing varying silver content were fabricated using a wet chemical manufacturing method. Antibacterial efficiencies of the ABT powders were investigated using a standard test with indicator bacteria and yeast. The cytotoxic effects of ABT on three different fibroblast cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were assessed using MTT assay. ABT powder exhibits concentration-related cytotoxicity characteristics. Apoptotic activity, attachment capability, and wound healing effects were examined on fibroblasts. The angiogenic activity of ABT was investigated by tube formation assay in HUVECs; 10 μg ml(-1) and 100 μg ml(-1) concentrations of the highest metal ion content of ABT did not disrupt the tube formation of HUVECs. All these tests showed that ABT does not compromise the survival of the cells and might impose regeneration ability to various cell types. These results indicate that silver doped calcium phosphate-based inorganic powder with an optimal silver content has good potential for developing new biomaterials for implant applications.

  4. Effect of particle size distribution on the structure, hyperfine, and magnetic properties of Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanopowders

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharjee, Kaustav; Das, G. C.; Pati, Satya P.; Das, D.

    2014-12-21

    Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nano powders were synthesized by an auto combustion method and then heat treated at different temperatures in air for a fixed time. As a consequence, a distribution in particle size and strain was incorporated within the specimens, as estimated from the Rietveld refinement analysis of the powder x-ray diffraction data. The changes in the microstructure and crystal structure parameters were carefully extracted through the refinement analysis. Thermal annealing causes increment in the dispersion and mean of the size distribution. Reallocation of cations in the lattice sites occur as a consequence of the heat treatment which was manifested in their altered unit cell length (a), r.m.s. strain (〈ε{sup 2}〉{sup 1/2}), oxygen positional parameter (u), metal-oxygen bond lengths (R{sub OA} and R{sub OB}), and the band positions (ν{sub 1}and ν{sub 2}) in the vibrational spectroscopy. We also investigate the hyperfine and magnetic properties of the samples using different instrumental techniques (with different operating time scales) like Mössbauer spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry. Results show that the effect of particle size distribution was manifested in their hyperfine field distribution profile, paramagnetic resonance spectra, and magnetic anisotropy energy distribution profile. Co-existence of superparamagnetic and ferrimagnetic phase was recorded at room temperature in the samples when annealed at lower temperature. However, with increase in annealing temperature, the nature of the size distribution changes and ferrimagnetic ordering predominates for the larger size nanoparticles. Thus, the effect of particle size distribution on the structural, hyperfine, and magnetic properties of various Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles was investigated herein which hitherto has not been discussed in the literature.

  5. Spectral characterization and white light generation by yttrium silicate nanopowders undoped and doped with Ytterbium(III) at different concentrations when excited by a laser diode at 975 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cinkaya, Hatun; Eryurek, Gonul; Bilir, Gokhan; Collins, John; Di Bartolo, Baldassare

    2017-01-01

    We have studied nanophosphors of yttrium silicate (YSO) undoped and doped with different concentration of ytterbium (Yb3+) synthesized by using the sol-gel method. Structural and luminescence properties of the nanophosphors were studied experimentally by using different analytical techniques. For the structural analysis, we performed X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (EDS) measurements. Upconversion (UC) and the white light (WL) emission properties were investigated by using the near infrared cw laser excitation of 975 nm. The spectral properties have been found to depend on several physical parameters.

  6. Synthesis and magnetic properties of Co1-xZnxFe2O4 (x=0÷1) nanopowders by thermal decomposition of Co(II), Zn(II) and Fe(III) carboxylates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanescu, Mircea; Bozdog, Marius; Muntean, Cornelia; Stefanescu, Oana; Vlase, Titus

    2015-11-01

    Nanoparticles of cobalt-zinc ferrite Co1-xZnxFe2O4 with x varying from 0 to 1.0 were prepared by a new method, the thermal decomposition of carboxylates of Fe(III), Co(II) and Zn(II). The obtained carboxylate precursor was characterized by thermal analysis and FT-IR spectroscopy. The precursor was annealed at 350, 600 and 1000 °C. It was found that the spinel cobalt-zinc ferrite was formed starting at 350 °C, but in mixture with simple oxides γ-Fe2O3, Co3O4 and ZnO. At 1000 °C Co1-xZnxFe2O4 was formed quantitatively as a single, well-crystallized phase. The saturation magnetization of the samples annealed at 1000 °C decreased significantly with increasing Zn2+ content from 83.93 emu/g (x=0) to 4.92 emu/g (x=1.0). At 350 and 600 °C the saturation magnetization had the same trend, even if there were contributions of other magnetic phases. Obtaining of spinel ferrite was evidenced by X-ray diffractometry and FT-IR spectrometry. Powder morphology was determined by scanning electron microscopy. Magnetic properties of the synthesized ferrites were investigated employing a conventional induction method.

  7. Specific features of aluminum nanoparticle water and wet air oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Lozhkomoev, Aleksandr S. Glazkova, Elena A. Svarovskaya, Natalia V. Bakina, Olga V. Kazantsev, Sergey O. Lerner, Marat I.

    2015-10-27

    The oxidation processes of the electrically exploded aluminum nanopowders in water and in wet air are examined in the paper. The morphology of the intermediate reaction products of aluminum oxidation has been studied using the transmission electron microscopy. It was shown that the aluminum nanopowder water oxidation causes the formation of the hollow spheres with mesoporous boehmite nanosheets coating. The wedge-like bayerite particles are formed during aluminum nanopowder wet air oxidation.

  8. Preparation of a dense, polycrystalline ceramic structure

    SciTech Connect

    Cooley, Jason; Chen, Ching-Fong; Alexander, David

    2010-12-07

    Ceramic nanopowder was sealed inside a metal container under a vacuum. The sealed evacuated container was forced through a severe deformation channel at an elevated temperature below the melting point of the ceramic nanopowder. The result was a dense nanocrystalline ceramic structure inside the metal container.

  9. Metastable Tetragonal CdWO4 Nanoparticles Synthesized with a Solvothermal Method

    SciTech Connect

    Rondinone, Adam Justin; Travaglini, Dustin H; Pawel, Michelle D; Mahurin, Shannon Mark; Dai, Sheng

    2007-01-01

    CdWO{sub 4} has only previously been reported in the monoclinic, or wolframite, phase. Here we report the first metastable, tetragonal or scheelite, CdWO4 nanopowder. The tetragonal CdWO{sub 4} was synthesized by a propylene glycol solvothermal method. The scheelite phase is stabilized by a combination of high surface area and surface complexation by the propylene glycol. The CdWO{sub 4} is stable at 1 bar to 300 C, and converts back to the monoclinic wolframite phase between 300 and 500 C. The nanopowder exhibits cubic morphology and the average particle size of the nanopowder is around 50 nm.

  10. Three-dimensional boron particle loaded thermal neutron detector

    DOEpatents

    Nikolic, Rebecca J.; Conway, Adam M.; Graff, Robert T.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Reinhardt, Catherine; Voss, Lars F.; Cheung, Chin Li; Heineck, Daniel

    2014-09-09

    Three-dimensional boron particle loaded thermal neutron detectors utilize neutron sensitive conversion materials in the form of nano-powders and micro-sized particles, as opposed to thin films, suspensions, paraffin, etc. More specifically, methods to infiltrate, intersperse and embed the neutron nano-powders to form two-dimensional and/or three-dimensional charge sensitive platforms are specified. The use of nano-powders enables conformal contact with the entire charge-collecting structure regardless of its shape or configuration.

  11. The Traps of Using Conventional Methodology of Evaluation of Powder Diffractograms for Determination of the Lattice Parameters of Nanocrystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palosz, Bogdan; Grzanka, Ewa; Stelmach, Svetlana; Gierlotka, Stanislaw; Palosz, Witold; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The inherent errors introduced by the algorithm of standard procedures of evaluation of powder diffractograms of nanopowders are shown. The implications of the errors are discussed and illustrated based on the results reported in the literature.

  12. Effect of precursor concentrations on structural, microstructural and optical properties of nanocrystalline ZnO powder synthesized by an ultrasonic atomization technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, L. A.; Bari, A. R.; Shinde, M. D.; Deo, Vinita; Kaushik, M. P.

    2010-09-01

    In this paper, we report on the effect of concentration on nanocrystalline ZnO powder prepared by an ultrasonic atomization technique, which is a promising method because of its simplicity, inexpensiveness and safety. The morphology and size of ZnO nanocrystallites associated with nanopowder were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It revealed that the powder consisted of nanocrystallites with grain sizes between 8 and 15 nm. These values match the grain sizes (8-14 nm) calculated from x-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD and TEM studies of ZnO nanopowder showed that crystallite sizes were observed to increase with an increase in the concentration of solution. The d values calculated from electron diffraction patterns (TEM) of ZnO nanopowder were also in agreement with the d values calculated from XRD. The synthesized nanopowders exhibited a direct band gap (Eg) in the range of 3.36-3.42 eV.

  13. Preparation of Hollow Fe2O3 Nanorods and Nanospheres by Nanoscale Kirkendall Diffusion, and Their Electrochemical Properties for Use in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Jung Sang; Park, Jin-Sung; Kang, Yun Chan

    2016-12-01

    A novel process for the preparation of aggregate-free metal oxide nanopowders with spherical (0D) and non-spherical (1D) hollow nanostructures was introduced. Carbon nanofibers embedded with iron selenide (FeSe) nanopowders with various nanostructures are prepared via the selenization of electrospun nanofibers. Ostwald ripening occurs during the selenization process, resulting in the formation of a FeSe-C composite nanofiber exhibiting a hierarchical structure. These nanofibers transform into aggregate-free hollow Fe2O3 powders via the complete oxidation of FeSe and combustion of carbon. Indeed, the zero- (0D) and one-dimensional (1D) FeSe nanocrystals transform into the hollow-structured Fe2O3 nanopowders via a nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion process, thus conserving their overall morphology. The discharge capacities for the 1000th cycle of the hollow-structured Fe2O3 nanopowders obtained from the FeSe-C composite nanofibers prepared at selenization temperatures of 500, 800, and 1000 °C at a current density of 1 A g‑1 are 932, 767, and 544 mA h g‑1, respectively; and their capacity retentions from the second cycle are 88, 92, and 78%, respectively. The high structural stabilities of these hollow Fe2O3 nanopowders during repeated lithium insertion/desertion processes result in superior lithium-ion storage performances.

  14. Preparation of Hollow Fe2O3 Nanorods and Nanospheres by Nanoscale Kirkendall Diffusion, and Their Electrochemical Properties for Use in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jung Sang; Park, Jin-Sung; Kang, Yun Chan

    2016-01-01

    A novel process for the preparation of aggregate-free metal oxide nanopowders with spherical (0D) and non-spherical (1D) hollow nanostructures was introduced. Carbon nanofibers embedded with iron selenide (FeSe) nanopowders with various nanostructures are prepared via the selenization of electrospun nanofibers. Ostwald ripening occurs during the selenization process, resulting in the formation of a FeSe-C composite nanofiber exhibiting a hierarchical structure. These nanofibers transform into aggregate-free hollow Fe2O3 powders via the complete oxidation of FeSe and combustion of carbon. Indeed, the zero- (0D) and one-dimensional (1D) FeSe nanocrystals transform into the hollow-structured Fe2O3 nanopowders via a nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion process, thus conserving their overall morphology. The discharge capacities for the 1000th cycle of the hollow-structured Fe2O3 nanopowders obtained from the FeSe-C composite nanofibers prepared at selenization temperatures of 500, 800, and 1000 °C at a current density of 1 A g−1 are 932, 767, and 544 mA h g−1, respectively; and their capacity retentions from the second cycle are 88, 92, and 78%, respectively. The high structural stabilities of these hollow Fe2O3 nanopowders during repeated lithium insertion/desertion processes result in superior lithium-ion storage performances. PMID:27958368

  15. Doped titanium dioxide nanocrystalline powders with high photocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, A.L.; Jumas, J.-C.; Costa, F.M.

    2009-07-15

    Doped titanium dioxide nanopowders (M:TiO{sub 2}; M=Fe, Co, Nb, Sb) with anatase structure were successfully synthesized through an hydrothermal route preceded by a precipitation doping step. Structural and morphological characterizations were performed by powder XRD and TEM. Thermodynamic stability studies allowed to conclude that the anatase structure is highly stable for all doped TiO{sub 2} prepared compounds. The photocatalytic efficiency of the synthesized nanopowders was tested and the results showed an appreciable enhancement in the photoactivity of the Sb:TiO{sub 2} and Nb:TiO{sub 2}, whereas no photocatalytic activity was detected for the Fe:TiO{sub 2} and Co:TiO{sub 2} nanopowders. These results were correlated to the doping ions oxidation states, determined by Moessbauer spectroscopy and magnetization data. - Graphical abstract: Doped titanium dioxide nanopowders (M:TiO{sub 2}; M=Fe, Co, Nb, Sb) with highly stable anatase structure were successfully synthesized through an hydrothermal route. The photocatalytic efficiencies of the synthesized nanopowders were tested and the results show an appreciable enhancement in the photoactivity of the Sb:TiO{sub 2} and Nb:TiO{sub 2}.

  16. Preparation of Nanocomposite GDC/LSCF Cathode Material for IT-SOFC by Induction Plasma Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yan; Almeida, Veronica Alexandra B.; Gitzhofer, François

    2011-01-01

    Homogeneous mixtures of Ce0.8Gd0.2O1.9 (GDC) and La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3 (LSCF) nanopowders were successfully synthesized using induction plasma by axial injection of a solution. The resulting nanocomposite powders consisted of two kinds of nanopowders with different mass ratio of GDC/LSCF, such as 3/7 and 6/4. The morphological features, crystallinity, and the phases of the synthesized powders were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), local energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis, and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The nanopowders are almost globular in shape with a diameter smaller than 100 nm and their BET specific areas are around 20 m2 g-1. The GDC and LSCF phases are well distributed in the nanopowders. In addition, suspensions, made with the as-synthesized composite nanopowders and ethanol, were used to deposit cathode coatings using suspension plasma spray (SPS). Micro-nanostructures of the coatings are discussed. The coatings are homogeneous and porous (51% porosity) with cauliflower structures.

  17. Preparation of Hollow Fe2O3 Nanorods and Nanospheres by Nanoscale Kirkendall Diffusion, and Their Electrochemical Properties for Use in Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jung Sang; Park, Jin-Sung; Kang, Yun Chan

    2016-12-13

    A novel process for the preparation of aggregate-free metal oxide nanopowders with spherical (0D) and non-spherical (1D) hollow nanostructures was introduced. Carbon nanofibers embedded with iron selenide (FeSe) nanopowders with various nanostructures are prepared via the selenization of electrospun nanofibers. Ostwald ripening occurs during the selenization process, resulting in the formation of a FeSe-C composite nanofiber exhibiting a hierarchical structure. These nanofibers transform into aggregate-free hollow Fe2O3 powders via the complete oxidation of FeSe and combustion of carbon. Indeed, the zero- (0D) and one-dimensional (1D) FeSe nanocrystals transform into the hollow-structured Fe2O3 nanopowders via a nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion process, thus conserving their overall morphology. The discharge capacities for the 1000(th) cycle of the hollow-structured Fe2O3 nanopowders obtained from the FeSe-C composite nanofibers prepared at selenization temperatures of 500, 800, and 1000 °C at a current density of 1 A g(-1) are 932, 767, and 544 mA h g(-1), respectively; and their capacity retentions from the second cycle are 88, 92, and 78%, respectively. The high structural stabilities of these hollow Fe2O3 nanopowders during repeated lithium insertion/desertion processes result in superior lithium-ion storage performances.

  18. Biomedical nanocomposites of poly(lactic acid) and calcium phosphate hybridized with modified carbon nanotubes for hard tissue implants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hae-Hyoung; Sang Shin, Ueon; Lee, Jae-Ho; Kim, Hae-Won

    2011-08-01

    Degradable polymer-based materials are attractive in orthopedics and dentistry as an alternative to metallic implants for use as bone fixatives. Herein, a degradable polymer poly(lactic acid) (PLA) was combined with novel hybrid nanopowder of carbon nanotubes (CNTs)-calcium phosphate (CP) for this application. In particular, CNTs-CP hybrid nanopowders (0.1 and 0.25% CNTs) were prepared from the solution of ionically modified CNTs (mCNTs), which was specifically synthesized to be well-dispersed and thus to effectively adsorb onto the CP nanoparticles. The mCNTs-CP hybrid nanopowders were then mixed with PLA (up to 50%) to produce mCNTs-CP-PLA nanocomposites. The mechanical tensile strength of the nanocomposites was significantly improved by the addition of mCNTs-CP hybrid nanopowders. Moreover, nanocomposites containing low concentration of mCNTs (0.1%) showed significantly stimulated biological responses including cell proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation in terms of gene and protein expressions. Based on this study, the addition of novel mCNT-CP hybrid nanopowders to PLA biopolymer may be considered a new material choice for developing hard tissue implants.

  19. Comparison of physical and electrochemical properties of ZnO prepared via different surfactant-assisted precipitation routes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Arun; Srivastava, Pankaj; Bahadur, Lal; Amalnerkar, D. P.; Chauhan, Ratna

    2014-11-01

    The flakes-, hexagons-, nanoparticle-, and flower-like ZnO nanostructures have been synthesized via different surfactant-assisted precipitation routes. The XRD of all ZnO nanostructures is hexagonal single crystalline in nature and the UV-Vis absorption spectra showed blue shift in wavelength corresponding to bulk. The synthesized zinc-oxide nanopowders were used to fabricate dye solar cells sensitized by N719 dye. The comparative study of cells prepared by above ZnO nanopowders has been done. The highest conversion efficiency (2.48 %) for the cell is shown by flower-like ZnO than the others. The difference in photovoltaic parameters for the ZnO nanopowders is due to the difference in surfactants which directly correlate with surface area and dye loading.

  20. Tungsten nanoparticles influence on radiation protection properties of polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrish, V. M.; Baranov, G. A.; Chayka, T. V.; Derbasova, N. M.; Lvov, A. V.; Matsuk, Y. M.

    2016-02-01

    In the presented article the results of the study of metal-polymer composites based on the ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene GUR 4122 with the addition of superdispersed tungsten nanopowders with 5, 10, 20, 40, and 50 mass percent content levels are given, their thermophysical, radiation-shielding, and mechanical properties are shown, and the influence of content levels of tungsten superdispersed nanopowders on these properties is analyzed. The conducted studies have shown the increase in the listed properties depending on the content level of tungsten superdispersed and nanopowders in the ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene GUR 4122. Owing to their properties, the obtained materials may be used in various fields, such as aviation, space technologies, mechanical engineering, etc.

  1. Adsorption and photocatalytic degradation of malachite green by vanadium doped zinc oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Khezami, L; Taha, Kamal K; Ghiloufi, Imed; El Mir, Lassaad

    2016-01-01

    Herein the degradation of malachite green (MG) dye from aqueous medium by vanadium doped zinc oxide (ZnO:V3%) nanopowder was investigated. The specific surface area and pore volume of the nanopowder was characterized by nitrogen adsorption method. Batch experimental procedures were conducted to investigate the adsorption and photocatalytic degradation of MG dye. Adsorption kinetics investigations were performed by varying the amount of the catalyst and the initial dye concentrations. Adsorption and photocatalytic degradation data were modeled using the Lagergren pseudo-first-order and second-order kinetic equation. The results showed that the ZnO:V3% nanopowder was particularly effective for the removal of MG and data were found to comply with Lagergreen pseudo-first-order kinetic model.

  2. Density and particle size of cubic niobium carbide NbC y nanocrystalline powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurlov, A. S.; Gusev, A. I.

    2017-01-01

    The density of coarse-crystalline and nanocrystalline powders of niobium carbide NbC y (0.77 ≤ y ≤ 0.96) (with a different average particle sizes of 3-5 μm and 60-30 nm, respectively) was measured by helium pycnometry. The nanopowders were obtained via the high-energy ball milling of initial coarse-crystalline niobium carbide powders. The particle size of niobium carbide powders was estimated by X-ray diffraction and the Brunauer-Emmet-Taylor (BET) method. The nanopowder density measured by helium pycnometry was shown to be underestimated in comparison with the true density due to the adsorption of helium by the highly developed surface of carbide nanopowders.

  3. Properties of transparent Re3+: Y2O3 ceramics doped with tetravalent additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipov, V. V.; Shitov, V. A.; Maksimov, R. N.; Solomonov, V. I.

    2015-12-01

    Neodymium or ytterbium-doped transparent yttrium oxide ceramics with different tetravalent sintering additives (ZrO2, HfO2, or CeO2) were fabricated from nanopowders produced by laser ablation method. Phase composition and distribution of dopants in the synthesized nanopowders and ceramics were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) spectroscopy. The tetravalent additives led to a decrease in grain size and an improvement in transmittance at the lasing wavelengths. However, an excess of tetravalent ions led to the formation of dispersed scattering volumes. We observed particles with modulated composition for nanopowder of Nd:Y2O3 doped by 10 mol% HfO2. The estimations based on Rayleigh light scattering showed that the maximum size of the dispersed scattering volume is below 20 nm.

  4. Explosion risks from nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouillard, Jacques; Vignes, Alexis; Dufaud, Olivier; Perrin, Laurent; Thomas, Dominique

    2009-05-01

    Emerging nanomanufactured products are being incorporated in a variety of consumer products ranging from closer body contact products (i.e. cosmetics, sunscreens, toothpastes, pharmaceuticals, clothing) to more remote body-contact products (electronics, plastics, tires, automotive and aeronautical), hence posing potential health and environmental risks. The new field of nanosafety has emerged and needs to be explored now rather than after problems becomes so ubiquitous and difficult to treat that their trend become irreversible. Such endeavour necessitates a transdisciplinary approach. A commonly forgotten and/or misunderstood risk is that of explosion/detonation of nanopowders, due to their high specific active surface areas. Such risk is emphasized and illustrated with the present development of an appropriate risk analysis. For this particular risk, a review of characterization methods and their limitations with regard to nanopowders is presented and illustrated for a few organic and metallic nanopowders.

  5. Monte Carlo Simulation of Nanoparticle Encapsulation in Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Z.; Huertas, J. I.; Axelbaum, R. L.

    1999-01-01

    Two critical challenges facing the application of flames for synthesis of nanopowder materials are: (1) overcoming formation of agglomerates and (2) ensuring that the highly reactive nanopowders that are synthesized in flames can be produced in such a manner that their purity is maintained during subsequent processing. Agglomerates are produced in flames because particle formation occurs in a high temperature and high number density environment. They are undesirable in most advanced applications of powders. For example, agglomerates have a deleterious effect on compaction density, leading to voids when nanopowders are consolidated. Efforts to avoid agglomeration in flames without substantially reducing particle number density and, consequently, production rate, have had limited success. Powder purity must also be maintained during subsequent handling of nanopowders and this poses a significant challenge for any synthesis route because nanopowders, particularly metals and non-oxide ceramic powders, are inherently reactive. Impurities acquired during handling of nanopowders have slowed the advancement of the nanostructured materials industry. One promising approach that has been proposed to address these problems is nano-encapsulation. In this approach, the core particles are encapsulated in a removable material while they are within the flame but before excessive agglomeration has occurred. Condensation can be very rapid so that core particles are trapped within the condensed material and agglomeration is limited. Nano-encapsulation also addresses the handling concerns for post-synthesis processing. Results have shown that when nano-encapsulated powders are exposed to atmosphere the core particles are protected from oxidation and/or hydrolysis. Thus, handling of the powders does not require extreme care. If, for example, at the time of consolidation the encapsulation material is removed by vacuum annealing, the resulting powder remains unagglomerated and free of

  6. The Possibility of Using Composite Nanoparticles in High Energy Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komarova, M. V.; Vorozhtsov, A. B.; Wakutin, A. G.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of nanopowders on the burning rate varying with the metal content in mixtures of different high energy composition is investigated. Experiments were performed on compositions based on an active tetrazol binder and electroexplosive nanoaluminum with addition of copper, nickel, or iron nanopowders, and of Al-Ni, Al-Cu, or Al-Fe composite nanoparticles produced by electrical explosion of heterogeneous metal wires. The results obtained from thermogravimetric analysis of model metal-based compositions are presented. The advantages of the composite nanoparticles and the possibility of using them in high energy materials are discussed.

  7. Influence of the type of electric discharge on the properties of the produced aluminium nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiyan, L. N.; Yavorovskii, N. A.; Pustovalov, A. V.; Gryaznova, E. N.

    2015-04-01

    The effect of the method of aluminum nanopowder production on the aluminum products with water reaction is described. It has been established that the interaction of aluminum nanopowder prepared by the electric wire explosion, the phase composition of the reaction products mainly consists of boehmite (AlOOH) and has a fibrous structure. Therefore, that boehmite (AlOOH) can be used for modification of polymer membranes. The modified membranes can be used as water treatment from the impurity of formed true solutions according to adsorptive mechanism, and from colloidal nanometer and micron particles according to the mechanism of mechanical separation of particles depending on sizes.

  8. An experimental study for enhancing the catalytic effects of various copper forms on the oxidation of ferrous iron.

    PubMed

    Babak, Manizhe Moradi Shahre; Goharrizi, Ataallah Soltani; Mirzaei, Mohammad; Roayaei, Emad

    2013-01-01

    In this research the catalytic effect of copper compounds (ionic, oxide and oxide nanopowder) on the oxidation of ferrous iron by aeration was studied experimentally. When copper exists in solution, the oxidation rate of iron(II) will increase. The experimental results showed that the oxidation rate increases with an increasing copper concentration. From the experimental data it can be determined that the copper oxide nanopowder is the most effective for the oxidation reaction among the used copper forms. Aeration is the most economical oxidation method when water exhibits a high ferrous iron concentration.

  9. Stabilization of the high-temperature phases in ceramic coatings on zirconium alloy produced by plasma electrolytic oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apelfeld, A. V.; Betsofen, S. Y.; Borisov, A. M.; Vladimirov, B. V.; Savushkina, S. V.; Knyazev, E. V.

    2016-09-01

    The composition and structure of ceramic coatings obtained on Zr-1%Nb alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) in aqueous electrolyte comprising 2 g/L KOH, 6 g/L NaAlO2 and 2 g/L Na2SiO3 with addition of yttria nanopowder, have been studied. The PEO coatings of thickness ∼⃒20 μm were studied using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray microanalysis and X-ray phase analysis. Additives in the electrolyte of yttria nanopowder allowed stabilizing the high-temperature tetragonal and cubic zirconia in the coating.

  10. Preparation of tungsten oxide

    DOEpatents

    Bulian, Christopher J.; Dye, Robert C.; Son, Steven F.; Jorgensen, Betty S.; Perry, W. Lee

    2009-09-22

    Tungsten trioxide hydrate (WO.sub.3.H.sub.2O) was prepared from a precursor solution of ammonium paratungstate in concentrated aqueous hydrochloric acid. The precursor solution was rapidly added to water, resulting in the crash precipitation of a yellow white powder identified as WO.sub.3.H.sub.2O nanosized platelets by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Annealing of the powder at 200.degree. C. provided cubic phase WO.sub.3 nanopowder, and at 400.degree. C. provided WO.sub.3 nanopowder as a mixture of monoclinic and orthorhombic phases.

  11. Thermal Conductivity of Size-Controlled Bulk Silicon Nanocrystals Using Self-Limiting Oxidation and HF Etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Takayuki; Ohishi, Yuji; Kurosaki, Ken; Muta, Hiroaki; Yamanaka, Shinsuke

    2012-08-01

    We propose a new method of obtaining low thermal conductivity in bulk Si. In this method, which we call “HF-etching nanosize-controlling process for powder” (HNPP), self-limiting oxidation coupled with HF etching is applied to nanopowder Si. The application of HNPP to nanopowder Si reduces the average diameter from 58 to 35 nm. The thermal conductivity is reduced from 25.7 to 13.5 W m-1 K-1 at 300 K. Theoretical calculation including grain boundary transmission and frequency-dependent grain boundary scattering shows that these thermal conductivity reductions can be attributed to phonon scattering at grain boundaries.

  12. Synthesis, analysis and processing of novel materials in the yttrium oxide-aluminum oxide system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchal, Julien Claudius

    In the current work, liquid feed flame spray pyrolysis (LF-FSP) was used to create three novel nanopowders in the Y2O3-Al 2O3 system: alpha-Al2O3, YAG (garnet Y3Al5O12) and hexagonal Y3Al 5O12. For example, LF-FSP combustion of metalloorganic yttrium and aluminum precursors in a 3/5 ratio forms hexagonal Y3Al5O 12, a newly discovered crystalline phase detailed in this work. The resulting 15-35 nm average particle size, single crystal nanopowders were characterized by TGA-DTA, XRD, HR-TEM, electron diffraction and FTIR. The data was used to establish a model for the crystal structure of this new phase (hexagonal, with crystal parameter of a = 0.736 nm, c = 1.052) consisting of a superlattice of substituted hexagonal YAlO3. YAG has been extensively investigated for its applications as scintillators, phosphors and as a laser host. Fully dispersible, unaggregated single crystal YAG nanopowders with average particle sizes of 35-50 nm were obtained from hexagonal Y3Al5O12 after annealing at 850°C-1200°C (for 2h-8d). The resulting YAG nanopowder was processed into green bodies using cold isostatic pressing after adding binders. 99%+ dense monoliths were obtained after sintering at 1400°C in vacuum (6-8 h), while maintaining grain sizes < 500 nm. The ability to sinter while keeping sub-micron grains differs from present techniques (where translucency is obtained through exaggerated grain growth to 5-10 microns) reported in the literature for sintering polycrystalline YAG, and is the first step for improving polycrystalline YAG laser host optical properties. LF-FSP processing of transition Al2O3 nanopowders converts them to single crystal alpha-Al2O3 nanopowders, previously thought impossible to obtain. The alpha-Al2O 3 nanopowders thus obtained, consist of unaggregated 30-40 nm single particles. These nanopowders were characterized by XRD, HR-TEM, SEM, DLS, FTIR. Green bodies of alpha-Al2O3 nanopowders were sintered to 99% density without sintering aids at 1400°C (6

  13. Annealed Ce3+-doped ZnO flower-like morphology synthesized by chemical bath deposition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koao, Lehlohonolo F.; Dejene, Francis B.; Tsega, Moges; Swart, Hendrik C.

    2016-01-01

    We have successfully synthesized ZnO:xmol% Ce3+ (0≤x≤10 mol%) doped nanopowders via the chemical bath deposition method (CBD) technique at low temperature (80 °C) and annealed in air at 700 °C. The X-ray diffraction patterns showed that all the undoped and Ce-doped ZnO nanopowders have a hexagonal wurtzite polycrystalline structure with an average crystallite size of about 46 nm. Weak diffraction peaks related mainly to cerium oxide were also detected at higher concentrations of Ce3+ (x=5-10 mol%). The scanning electron microscopy study revealed that the nanopowder samples were assembled in flower-shaped undoped ZnO and pyramid-shaped Ce3+-doped ZnO nanostructures. The UV-vis spectra showed that the absorption edges shifted slightly to the longer wavelengths with the increase in the Ce3+ ions concentration. Moreover, the photoluminescence (PL) results showed a relative weak visible emission for the Ce3+-doped ZnO nanoparticles compared to the undoped ZnO. The effects of Ce3+-doping on the structure and PL of ZnO nanopowders are discussed in detail.

  14. Comparative effects of macro-sized aluminum oxide and aluminum oxide nanoparticles on erythrocyte hemolysis: influence of cell source, temperature, and size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinardell, M. P.; Sordé, A.; Díaz, J.; Baccarin, T.; Mitjans, M.

    2015-02-01

    Al2O3 is the most abundantly produced nanomaterial and has been used in diverse fields, including the medical, military, and industrial sectors. As there are concerns about the health effects of nanoparticles, it is important to understand how they interact with cells, and specifically with red blood cells. The hemolysis induced by three commercial nano-sized aluminum oxide particles (nanopowder 13 nm, nanopowder <50 nm, and nanowire 2-6 × 200-400 nm) was compared to aluminum oxide and has been studied on erythrocytes from humans, rats, and rabbits, in order to elucidate the mechanism of action and the influence of size and shape on hemolytic behavior. The concentrations inducing 50 % hemolysis (HC50) were calculated for each compound studied. The most hemolytic aluminum oxide particles were of nanopowder 13, followed by nanowire and nanopowder 50. The addition of albumin to PBS induced a protective effect on hemolysis in all the nano-forms of Al2O3, but not on Al2O3. The drop in HC50 correlated to a decrease in nanomaterial size, which was induced by a reduction of aggregation. Aluminum oxide nanoparticles are less hemolytic than other oxide nanoparticles and behave differently depending on the size and shape of the nanoparticles. The hemolytic behavior of aluminum oxide nanoparticles differs from that of aluminum oxide.

  15. Earthquake lubrication and healing explained by amorphous nanosilica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, C. D.; Lamothe, K. G.; Rempe, M.; Andrews, M.; Mitchell, T. M.; Di Toro, G.; White, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Earthquake slip and rupture propagation require fault strength to decrease during slip. Extreme shear weakening observed in laboratory friction experiments on silica-rich rocks has been explained by the formation of a hydrated amorphous 'silica gel' on the slip surface, but the mode of formation and deformation behavior of this material are not known. In addition, the wear material displays time-dependent strengthening on timescales of hours to days. We performed shearing experiments on chert rocks and analyzed the wear material formed at a range of slip rates from 10-4 - 10-1 m/s. We show by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction that silica lubrication is the result of the formation of amorphous nanopowder rather than a gel. The nanopowder has distinct structure and properties when compared to commercially available amorphous silica nanoparticles, which result from the degree and distribution of hydration and the style of bond strain within particles (observed by Raman spectroscopy and FTIR). The lubrication effect is due to intra-particle plasticity, even at low temperature and interparticle lubrication caused by trapping of water layers between hydrated surfaces. The hours to days timescale of healing may be explained by the natural time-dependent sintering between the hydrated surfaces of the nanopowder. Formation of amorphous silica nanopowders during slip can explain the general characteristics of earthquake ruptures, including the timescales of coseismic weakening and post-seismic healing.

  16. Nano-cerium vanadate: a novel inorganic ion exchanger for removal of americium and uranium from simulated aqueous nuclear waste.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Chayan; Dudwadkar, Nilesh; Tripathi, Subhash Chandra; Gandhi, Pritam Maniklal; Grover, Vinita; Kaushik, Chetan Prakash; Tyagi, Avesh Kumar

    2014-09-15

    Cerium vanadate nanopowders were synthesized by a facile low temperature co-precipitation method. The product was characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy and found to consist of ∼25 nm spherical nanoparticles. The efficiency of these nanopowders for uptake of alpha-emitting radionuclides (233)U (4.82 MeV α) and (241)Am (5.49 MeV α, 60 keV γ) has been investigated. Thermodynamically and kinetically favorable uptake of these radionuclides resulted in their complete removal within 3h from aqueous acidic feed solutions. The uptake capacity was observed to increase with increase in pH as the zeta potential value decreased with the increase in pH but effect of ionic strength was insignificant. Little influence of the ions like Sr(2+), Ru(3+), Fe(3+), etc., in the uptake process indicated CeVO4 nanopowders to be amenable for practical applications. The isotherms indicated predominant uptake of the radioactive metal ions in the solid phase of the exchanger at lower feed concentrations and linear Kielland plots with positive slopes indicated favorable exchange of the metal ions with the nanopowder. Performance comparison with the other sorbents reported indicated excellent potential of nano-cerium vanadate for removing americium and uranium from large volumes of aqueous acidic solutions.

  17. Influence of additions of nanoparticles TaC on a microstructure laser cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murzakov, M. A.; Petrovskiy, V. N.; Polski, V. I.; Mironov, V. D.; Prokopova, N. M.; Tret'yakov, E. V.

    2015-03-01

    The features of a laser cladding of nickel-based powders with TaC nanopowder additives have been experimentally investigated. The minimum depth of pro-melting of a basis, microhardness distribution over the cross section of the substrate, and the saturation of the metal of the cladding with basis components has been determined in the experiments.

  18. Formulation of nano-zinc oxide into biocomposite beads for dye decolorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkady, M. F.; Hassan, H. Shokry; El-Shazly, A. H.

    2015-03-01

    Zinc oxide nano-powder was prepared using sol-gel technique to be encapsulated onto polymeric blend composed from alginate and polyvinyl alcohol to fabricate novel bio-composite beads of nano-zinc oxide. The XRD patterns of both zinc oxide nano-powder and its polymeric hybrid were crystalline in their nature. The FTIR analysis of the fabricated ZnO polymeric hybrid confirms the binding between zinc oxide and the polymeric matrix. The BET analysis demonstrated that the calculated specific surface area of the formulated ZnO beads that equal to 22.8 m2/g is comparatively less than that of the free ZnO nano-powdered that equivalent to 64.9 m2/g. The thermal stability of ZnO nano-powdered dramatically decreased with its immobilization into the polymeric alginate and PVA matrix. The formulated beads had very strong mechanical strength and they are difficult to be broken up to 1500rpm. Moreover, this hybrid beads are chemically stable at the acidic media. The formulated ZnO hybrid beads verified to be good adsorbent material for C.I basic blue 41 (CB41).

  19. Inhomogeneous depletion of oxygen ions in metal oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vykhodets, Vladimir B.; Jarvis, Emily A. A.; Kurennykh, Tatiana E.; Beketov, Igor V.; Obukhov, Sviatoslav I.; Samatov, Oleg M.; Medvedev, Anatoly I.; Davletshin, Andrey E.; Whyte, Travis H.

    2016-02-01

    Zirconia and yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) have multiple uses, including catalysis, fuel cells, dental applications, and thermal coatings. We employ nuclear reaction analysis to determine elemental composition of YSZ nanoparticles synthesized by laser evaporation including 18O studies to distinguish between oxide and adsorbed oxygen content as a function of surface area. We see dramatic deviation from stoichiometry that can be traced to loss of oxygen from the oxide near the surface of these nanopowders. Density functional calculations are coupled with these experimental studies to explore the electronic structure of nonstoichiometric surfaces achieved through depletion of oxygen. Our results show oxygen-depleted surfaces present under oxygen potentials where stoichiometric, oxygen-terminated surfaces would be favored thermodynamically for crystalline systems. Oxygen depletion at nanopowder surfaces can create effective two-dimensional surface metallic states while maintaining stoichiometry in the underlying nanoparticle core. This insight into nanopowder surfaces applies to dissimilar oxides of aluminum and zirconium indicating synthesis conditions may be more influential than the inherent oxide properties and displaying need for distinct models for nanopowders of these important engineering materials where surface chemistry dominates performance.

  20. A Novel Device for Measuring Respirable Dustiness Using Low Mass Powder Samples

    PubMed Central

    O’Shaughnessy, Patrick T.; Kang, Mitchell; Ellickson, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Respirable dustiness represents the tendency of a powder to generate respirable airborne dust during handling and therefore indicates the propensity for a powder to become an inhalation hazard. The dustiness of fourteen powders, including ten different nanopowders, was evaluated with the use of a novel low mass dustiness tester (LMDT) designed to minimize the use of the test powder. The aerosol created from 15-mg powder samples falling down a tube were measured with an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS). Particle counts integrated throughout the pulse of aerosol created by the falling powder were used to calculate a respirable dustiness mass fraction (D, mg/kg). An amorphous silicon dioxide nanopowder produced a respirable D of 121.4 mg/kg which was significantly higher than all other powders (p<0.001). Many nanopowders produced D values of that were not significantly different from large-particle powders such as Arizona Road Dust and Bentonite clay. In general, fibrous nanopowders and powders with primary particles > 100 nm are not as dusty as those containing granular, nano-sized primary particles. The method used here, incorporating an APS, represents a deviation from a standard method but resulted in dustiness values comparable to other standard methods. PMID:22335240

  1. In Vitro Toxicity of Aluminum Nanoparticles in Rat Alveolar Macrophages

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-03-01

    the vehicle ( Palaszewski , 2003). "* The US Army Research Lab is investigating metallic nanopowders e.g., Aluminum nanoparticles in explosives (Miziolek... Palaszewski B. (2002) Nanotechnology Investigated for Future Gelled and Metallized Gell Fuels. Acquired from http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/RT2002/5000

  2. Kinetic effect of Pd additions on the hydrogen uptake of chemically activated, ultramicroporous carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, Vinay V; Contescu, Cristian I; Gallego, Nidia C

    2010-01-01

    The effect of mixing chemically-activated ultramicroporous carbon (UMC) with Pd nanopowder is investigated. Results show that Pd addition doubles the rate of hydrogen uptake, but does not enhance the hydrogen capacity or improve desorption kinetics. The effect of Pd on the rate of hydrogen adsorption supports the occurrence of the hydrogen spillover mechanism in the Pd - UMC system.

  3. Powdered Hexagonal Boron Nitride Reducing Nanoscale Wear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chkhartishvili, L.; Matcharashvili, T.; Esiava, R.; Tsagareishvili, O.; Gabunia, D.; Margiev, B.; Gachechiladze, A.

    2013-05-01

    A morphology model is suggested for nano-powdered hexagonal boron nitride that can serve as an effective solid additive to liquid lubricants. It allows to estimate the specific surface, that is a hard-to-measure parameter, based on average size of powder particles. The model can be used also to control nanoscale wear processes.

  4. Biosafety of the application of biogenic nanometal powders in husbandry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anatolievna Nazarova, Anna; Dmitrievna Polischuk, Svetlana; Anatolievna Stepanova, Irina; Ivanovich Churilov, Gennady; Chau Nguyen, Hoai; Buu Ngo, Quoc

    2014-03-01

    Effects of iron and copper nanopowders (particle size of 20-40 nm) were investigated on rabbits of 1 month age and heifers of 6 months. For introduction of nanometals into the animal's ration, the mixed fodder was treated with the nanometal powder suspension in such a way: 0.08 mg of nanoiron per kg of animal's body weight and 0.04 mg kg-1 for nanocopper. The weight gain of the heifers who received nanoiron and nanocopper after 8 months was 22.4 and 10.7% higher than that of the control, respectively. For the rabbits who received nano Fe and Cu after 3 months, the weight gain was 11.7 and 7.3% compared to the control, respectively. Under the action of metal nanopowders morphological indices of blood were changed in comparison with the control: after 8 months the quantity of erythrocytes increased by 19.6%, hemoglobin by 17.1% and leukocytes by 7.6%. There was a realignment in leukocytic formula: the quantity of lymphocytes increased by 9% compared to the control. Biogenic metals in superdispersive state were able to stimulate immune, enzymatic and humoral systems of the animal's organism, promoting metabolism. Adding Co and Cu metal nanopowders to the bull-calves’ fodder rations increased content of Ca by 31.8 and 0%, Fe by 38.8 and 37.5%, K by 19.2 and 15.3%, Mg by 17.6 and 23.5%, Mn by 9.8 and 45% and Na by 20.5 and 8.8%, respectively, compared to control. Metal nanopowders improved the quality indices and meat productivity of black-white bull-calves, expressed in intensive growth of muscle, tissue and more nutritious meat. The conducted veterinary-sanitary expertise showed that the supplements based on iron, cobalt and copper nanopowders can be used as safe bioactive supplements in animal husbandry.

  5. Host thin films incorporating nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qureshi, Uzma

    The focus of this research project was the investigation of the functional properties of thin films that incorporate a secondary nanoparticulate phase. In particular to assess if the secondary nanoparticulate material enhanced a functional property of the coating on glass. In order to achieve this, new thin film deposition methods were developed, namely use of nanopowder precursors, an aerosol assisted transport technique and an aerosol into atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition system. Aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) was used to deposit 8 series of thin films on glass. Five different nanoparticles silver, gold, ceria, tungsten oxide and zinc oxide were tested and shown to successfully deposit thin films incorporating nanoparticles within a host matrix. Silver nanoparticles were synthesised and doped within a titania film by AACVD. This improved solar control properties. A unique aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) into atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition (APCVD) system was used to deposit films of Au nanoparticles and thin films of gold nanoparticles incorporated within a host titania matrix. Incorporation of high refractive index contrast metal oxide particles within a host film altered the film colour. The key goal was to test the potential of nanopowder forms and transfer the suspended nanopowder via an aerosol to a substrate in order to deposit a thin film. Discrete tungsten oxide nanoparticles or ceria nanoparticles within a titanium dioxide thin film enhanced the self-cleaning and photo-induced super-hydrophilicity. The nanopowder precursor study was extended by deposition of zinc oxide thin films incorporating Au nanoparticles and also ZnO films deposited from a ZnO nanopowder precursor. Incorporation of Au nanoparticles within a VO: host matrix improved the thermochromic response, optical and colour properties. Composite VC/TiC and Au nanoparticle/V02/Ti02 thin films displayed three useful

  6. Cistanche tubulosa Protects Dopaminergic Neurons through Regulation of Apoptosis and Glial Cell-Derived Neurotrophic Factor: in vivo and in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qian; Fan, Wen; Ye, Shui-Fen; Cong, Yi-Bo; Qin, Wei; Chen, Shi-Ya; Cai, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease with the pathological hallmark of reduced nigrostriatal dopamine. In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) clinical practice, the nanopowder of Cistanche tubulosa has therapeutic effects on PD. To identify the therapeutic mechanism, this study tested the protective effect of different doses of MPP+-induced toxicity in MES23.5 cells using the MTT assay and in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD mice (vehicles). Immunohistochemistry was used to assess cytomorphology and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression. Behavioral tests in vehicles, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) tests in dopamine, immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis were used to detect the expression of TH, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and its receptors. Our results demonstrated that the C. tubulosa nanopowder improved the viability of MPP+-treated cells, increased TH expression and reduced the number of apoptotic cells. It also increased Bcl2 protein expression and suppressed Bax protein expression in MPP+-treated cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, C. tubulosa nanopowder improved the behavioral deficits in vehicle mice, reduced the stationary duration of swimming, enhanced the ability for spontaneous activity and increased the expression of GDNF, the GDNF family receptor alpha (GFRα1) and Ret in cells of the substantia nigra (SN). Furthermore, the protein expression of GDNF, GFRα1 and Ret increased after treatment with different doses of C. tubulosa nanopowder, with a significant difference between the high-dose and vehicle groups. The protein expression of Bcl2 and Bax were similar in the in vivo and in vitro, which suggested that C. tubulosa nanopowder has anti-apoptotic effects in neurons. PMID:28018211

  7. Nanoscale charcoal powder induced saturable absorption and mode-locking of a low-gain erbium-doped fiber-ring laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yung-Hsiang; Chi, Yu-Chieh; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2013-05-01

    Triturated charcoal nano-powder directly brushed on a fiber connector end-face is used for the first time as a fast saturable absorber for a passively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber-ring laser (EDFL). These dispersant-free charcoal nano-powders with a small amount of crystalline graphene phase and highly disordered carbon structure exhibit a broadened x-ray diffraction peak and their Raman spectrum shows the existence of a carbon related D-band at 1350 cm-1 and the disappearance of the 2D-band peak at 2700 cm-1. The charcoal nano-powder exhibits a featureless linear absorbance in the infrared region with its linear transmittance of 0.66 nonlinearly saturated at 0.73 to give a ΔT/T of 10%. Picosecond mode-locking at a transform-limited condition of a low-gain EDFL is obtained by using the charcoal nano-powder. By using a commercial EDFA with a linear gain of only 17 dB at the saturated output power of 17.5 dB m required to initiate the saturable absorption of the charcoal nano-powder, the EDFL provides a pulsewidth narrowing from 3.3 to 1.36 ps associated with its spectral linewidth broadening from 0.8 to 1.83 nm on increasing the feedback ratio from 30 to 90%. This investigation indicates that all the carbon-based materials containing a crystalline graphene phase can be employed to passively mode-lock the EDFL, however, the disordered carbon structure inevitably induces a small modulation depth and a large mode-locking threshold, thus limiting the pulsewidth shortening. Nevertheless, the nanoscale charcoal passively mode-locked EDFL still shows the potential to generate picosecond pulses under a relatively low cavity gain. An appropriate cavity design can be used to compensate this defect-induced pulsewidth limitation and obtain a short pulsewidth.

  8. Surface modification of sol–gel synthesized TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles induced by La-doping

    SciTech Connect

    Grujić-Brojčin, M.; Armaković, S.; Tomić, N.; Abramović, B.; Golubović, A.; Stojadinović, B.; Kremenović, A.; Babić, B.; Dohčević-Mitrović, Z.; Šćepanović, M.

    2014-02-15

    The influence of La-doping in the range of 0.5–6.0 mol% on structural and morphological properties of TiO{sub 2} nanopowders synthesized by sol–gel routine has been investigated by XRPD, AFM, EDS and BET measurements, as well as Raman spectroscopy. The XRPD and Raman measurements have revealed the anatase phase as dominant in all nanopowders, with crystallite size decreasing from ∼ 15 nm in pure TiO{sub 2} to ∼ 12 nm in La-doped samples. The BET data suggest that all samples are fully mesoporous, with mean pore diameters in the range of ∼ 6–8 nm. The specific surface area and the complexity of pore structure are greater in doped samples than in pure TiO{sub 2} sample. The spectroscopic ellipsometry has apparently shown that the band gap has been gradually increased with the increase of La content. The STM and STS techniques have been used successfully to evaluate the surface morphology and electronic properties of La-doped nanopowders. All investigated properties have been related to photocatalytic activity, tested in degradation of a metoprolol tartrate salt (0.05 mM), and induced by UV-radiation. All doped samples showed increased photocatalytic activity compared to pure TiO{sub 2}, among which the 0.65 mol% La-doped sample appeared to be the most efficient. - Highlights: • Effects of La-doping on structural, morphological and electronic properties of TiO{sub 2} nanopowders. • Surface morphology and electronic properties of La-doped nanopowders evaluated by STM/STS. • Spectroscopic ellipsometry shown gradual increase of bandgap with the increase of La content. • Photocatalytic activity of samples was tested in degradation of MET under UV light.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of strontium-substituted hydroxyapatite nanoparticles for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Frasnelli, Matteo; Cristofaro, Francesco; Sglavo, Vincenzo M; Dirè, Sandra; Callone, Emanuela; Ceccato, Riccardo; Bruni, Giovanna; Cornaglia, Antonia Icaro; Visai, Livia

    2017-02-01

    The production of stable suspensions of strontium-substituted hydroxyapatite (Sr-HA) nanopowders, as Sr ions vector for bone tissue regeneration, was carried out in the present work. Sr-HA nanopowders were synthesized via aqueous precipitation methods using Sr(2+) amount from 0 to 100mol% and were characterized by several complementary techniques such as solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Infrared spectroscopy, N2 physisorption and Transmission Electron Microscopy. The substitution of Ca(2+) with Sr(2+) in HA is always isomorphic with gradual evolution between the two limit compositions (containing 100% Ca and 100% Sr), this pointing out the homogeneity of the synthesized nanopowders and the complete solubility of strontium in HA lattice. Strontium addition is responsible for an increasing c/a ratio in the triclinic unit cell. A significant variation of the nanopowders shape and dimension is also observed, a preferential growth along the c-axis direction being evident at higher strontium loads. Modifications in the local chemical environment of phosphate and hydroxyl groups in the apatite lattice are also observed. Stable suspensions were produced by dispersing the synthesized nanopowders in bovine serum albumin. Characterization by Dynamic Light Scattering and ζ-potential determination allowed to show that Ca(2+)→Sr(2+) substitution influences the hydrodynamic diameter, which is always twice the particles size determined by TEM, the nanoparticles being always negatively charged as a result from the albumin rearrangement upon the interaction with nanoparticles surface. The biocompatibility of the suspensions was studied in terms of cell viability, apoptosis, proliferation and morphology, using osteosarcoma cell line SAOS-2. The data pointed out an increased cell proliferation for HA nanoparticles containing larger Sr(2+) load, the cells morphology remaining essentially unaffected.

  10. Properties of magnetic iron oxides used as materials for wastewater treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matei, E.; Predescu, A.; Vasile, E.; Predescu, A.

    2011-07-01

    The paper describes the properties of some nanopowders obtained by coprecipitation and used as adsorbent for wastewater treatment. The Fe3O4 and γ-Fe2O3 nanopowders were obtained using iron salts and NaOH as precipitation agents. D-sorbitol was used to prevent the agglomeration between the nanoparticles. The particle size and distribution were detected using a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with dispersive analyze system in X radiation energy (EDS). The structure of the iron oxide nanoparticles was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction. Thus, the nanoparticles were characterized and compare in terms of particle size and chemical composition and used for adsorption studies in order to removal hexavalent chromium from waste waters.

  11. Low-Cost Protective Layer Coatings on Thermal Barrier Coatings via CCVD. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrick, Michelle

    2003-09-18

    MicroCoating Technologies, Inc., investigated the use of the Combustion Chemical Vapor Deposition (CCVD) process to deposit oxygen or sintering barrier coatings for thermal barrier coating (TBC) applications. In addition, it looked at the use of its nanopowders by the NanoSpray process for developing smoothing layers on TBCs. Testing and analysis of coated substrates included heat treatments, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and profilometry. Coatings on TBC-coated superalloy coupons were tested by an outside collaborator. Results from the investigations indicated that the thin film coatings were not well-suited as barrier layers on the rough bond coat or TBC. Subsequent investigations considered smoothing layers on the TBC, as suggested by the collaborator, using nanopowder-based coatings. Smoothing of substrate surfaces by 50% was observed by profilometry.

  12. A comparison of methods for determining optical properties of thin samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yust, Brian G.; Sardar, Dhiraj K.; Tsin, Andrew

    2010-02-01

    The near-infrared (NIR) optical properties of human retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells and rare earth nanopowders were studied using a double-integrating sphere setup. The Kubelka-Munk and Inverse Adding-Doubling techniques were applied to obtain absorption and scattering coefficients. These are compared with the coefficients obtained through the Representative Layer Theory described by the Dahm equation. Retinal pigmented epithelial monolayers were cultured from an ARPE19 line in thin cell culture windows, and the nanopowders were pressed into samples of varying thickness. Samples were optically characterized as a function of wavelength. A brief discussion of the shortcomings of existing techniques for computing optical properties when applied to physically thin samples is provided, followed by a comparison between the optical properties of the samples returned by the different techniques.

  13. Optical properties of self-assembled TiO2-SiO2 double-layered photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Oh, Yong Taeg; Koo, Bo Ra; Shin, Dong Chan

    2013-01-01

    The optical properties of self-assembled TiO2/SiO2 double-layered photonic crystals were examined using SiO2 and TiO2 nanopowders. The SiO2 and TiO2 nanopowders were fabricated using the well-known Stöber process, and the double-layered structure was self-assembled by an evaporation method. Self-assembled TiO2 thin film was coated at a 1.2 mm thickness by the evaporation process, and 3 atomic layers of the SiO2 layer was coated onto the TiO2 thin film. The relative reflectance peak intensity of the photonic bandgap in the specimen was 13% before thermal treatment. The peak value was increased by sequential heat-treatments and reached the highest value of 21% at 400 degrees C.

  14. Hydrothermal corrosion of silicon carbide joints without radiation

    DOE PAGES

    Koyanagi, Takaaki; Katoh, Yutai; Terrani, Kurt A.; ...

    2016-09-28

    In this paper, hydrothermal corrosion of four types of the silicon carbide (SiC) to SiC plate joints were investigated under pressurized water reactor and boiling water reactor relevant chemical conditions without irradiation. The joints were formed by metal diffusion bonding using molybdenum or titanium interlayer, reaction sintering using Ti—Si—C system, and SiC nanopowder sintering. Most of the joints withstood the corrosion tests for five weeks. The recession of the SiC substrates was limited. Based on the recession of the bonding layers, it was concluded that all the joints except for the molybdenum diffusion bond are promising under the reducing environmentsmore » without radiation. Finally, the SiC nanopowder sintered joint was the most corrosion tolerant under the oxidizing environment among the four joints.« less

  15. Ultrasonically assisted hydrothermal synthesis of nanocrystalline ZrO2, TiO2, NiFe2O4 and Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 powders.

    PubMed

    Meskin, Pavel E; Ivanov, Vladimir K; Barantchikov, Alexander E; Churagulov, Bulat R; Tretyakov, Yury D

    2006-01-01

    Ultrasonic-hydrothermal and hydrothermal treatment was used for synthesis of nanocrystalline zirconia, titania, nickel and nickel-zinc ferrites powders from precipitated amorphous zirconyl, titanyl, binary nickel-iron and ternary nickel-zinc-iron hydroxides, respectively. Resulted nanopowders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nitrogen adsorption (BET), and magnetic susceptibility measurements. It was established that ultrasonically assisted hydrothermal treatment of amorphous zirconyl and titanyl gels results in significant rise of the rate of ZrO2 and TiO2 crystallization and promotes formation of thermodynamically stable monoclinic zirconia, but does not affect the microstructure and mean particles size of resulting nanopowders. Ultrasonic-hydrothermal processing of co-precipitated amorphous nickel, zinc and iron hydroxides favours formation of nanocrystalline ferrite powders with narrower particle size distribution.

  16. Microwave assisted synthesis & properties of nano HA-TCP biphasic calcium phosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghomash Pasand, E.; Nemati, A.; Solati-Hashjin, M.; Arzani, K.; Farzadi, A.

    2012-05-01

    Biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) nanopowders were synthesized by using microwave and non-microwave irradiation assisted processes. The synthesized powders were pressed under a pressure of 90 MPa, and then were sintered at 1000-1200°C for 1 h. The mechanical properties of the samples were investigated. The formed phases and microstructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the synthesis time was shorter, along with a more homogeneous microstructure, when the microwave irradiation assisted method was applied. The compression strength and the Young's modulus of the samples synthesized with microwave irradiation were about 60 MPa and 3 GPa, but those of the samples synthesized without microwave irradiation were about 30 MPa and 2 GPa, respectively. XRD patterns of the microwave irradiation assisted and non-microwave irradiation assisted nanopowders showed the coexistence of hydroxyapatite (HA) and tricalcium phosphate (TCP) phases in the system.

  17. Positron annihilation studies of zirconia doped with metal cations of different valence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prochazka, I.; Cizek, J.; Melikhova, O.; Konstantinova, T. E.; Danilenko, I. A.; Yashchishyn, I. A.; Anwand, W.; Brauer, G.

    2013-06-01

    New results obtained by applying positron annihilation spectroscopy to the investigation of zirconia-based nanomaterials doped with metal cations of different valence are reported. The slow-positron implantation spectroscopy combined with Doppler broadening measurements was employed to study the sintering of pressure-compacted nanopowders of tetragonal yttria-stabilised zirconia (t-YSZ) and t-YSZ with chromia additive. Positronium (Ps) formation in t-YSZ was proven by detecting 3γ-annihilations of ortho-Ps and was found to gradually decrease with increasing sintering temperature. A subsurface layer with enhanced 3γ-annihilations, compared to the deeper regions, could be identified. Addition of chromia was found to inhibit Ps formation. In addition, first results of positron lifetime measurements on nanopowders of zirconia phase-stabilised with MgO and CeO2 are presented.

  18. Precise calculations in simulations of the interaction of low energy neutrons with nano-dispersed media

    SciTech Connect

    Artem’ev, V. A.; Nezvanov, A. Yu.; Nesvizhevsky, V. V.

    2016-01-15

    We discuss properties of the interaction of slow neutrons with nano-dispersed media and their application for neutron reflectors. In order to increase the accuracy of model simulation of the interaction of neutrons with nanopowders, we perform precise quantum mechanical calculation of potential scattering of neutrons on single nanoparticles using the method of phase functions. We compare results of precise calculations with those performed within first Born approximation for nanodiamonds with the radius of 2–5 nm and for neutron energies 3 × 10{sup -7}–10{sup -3} eV. Born approximation overestimates the probability of scattering to large angles, while the accuracy of evaluation of integral characteristics (cross sections, albedo) is acceptable. Using Monte-Carlo method, we calculate albedo of neutrons from different layers of piled up diamond nanopowder.

  19. Hydrothermal corrosion of silicon carbide joints without radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyanagi, Takaaki; Katoh, Yutai; Terrani, Kurt A.; Kim, Young-Jin; Kiggans, James O.; Hinoki, Tatsuya

    2016-12-01

    Hydrothermal corrosion of four types of the silicon carbide (SiC) to SiC plate joints were investigated under pressurized water reactor and boiling water reactor relevant chemical conditions without irradiation. The joints were formed by metal diffusion bonding using molybdenum or titanium interlayer, reaction sintering using Ti-Si-C system, and SiC nanopowder sintering. Most of the joints withstood the corrosion tests for five weeks. The recession of the SiC substrates was limited. Based on the recession of the bonding layers, it was concluded that all the joints except for the molybdenum diffusion bond are promising under the reducing environments without radiation. The SiC nanopowder sintered joint was the most corrosion tolerant under the oxidizing environment among the four joints.

  20. Fabrication of transparent ceramic laser media for high energy laser applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serivalsatit, Karn

    Sesquioxides of yttrium, scandium, and lutetium, i.e., Y2O 3, Sc2O3, and Lu2O3, have received a great deal of recent attention as potential high power solid state laser hosts. These oxides are receptive to lanthanide doping, including trivalent Er, Ho and Tm which have well known emissions at eye-safe wavelengths that can be excited using commercial diode lasers. These sesquioxides are considered superior to the more conventional yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) due to their higher thermal conductivity, which is critical for high power laser system. Unfortunately, these oxides possess high melting temperatures, which make the growth of high purity and quality crystals using melt techniques difficult. Transparent ceramics are an attractive alternative route to laser hosts since the processing by-passes many of the challenges of refractory crystal melt growth. Moreover, transparent ceramics can possess added benefits relative to single crystals including faster production rates, the fabrication of larger sizes and composite laser structures, uniform doping concentrations, and better mechanical behavior. In order to fabricate highly transparent ceramics, the starting powders must have good dispersion and high reactivity. In this work, sesquioxide nanopowders with high sinterability were synthesized by solution precipitation techniques. For Y2O3, the nanopowders were prepared using yttrium nitrate and ammonium hydroxide with the addition of a small amount of ammonium sulfate. Doping sulfate ions was found to reduce the agglomeration of Y 2O3 nanopowders. The Y2O3 nanopowders with average particle size about 40 nm were obtained by calcining at 1050°C for 4 hours. Unfortunately, this method failed to prepare well-dispersed Sc 2O3 and Lu2O3 nanopowders. For Sc 2O3 and Lu2O3, the nanopowders were synthesized by using scandium or lutetium sulfate and hexamethylenetetramine (HMT). The precipitate precursors were calcined at 1100°C for 4 hours to yielded Sc2O3 and Lu2O3

  1. Frequency dependence and fuel effect on optical properties of nano TiO2-based structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemifard, Mahdi; Ghamari, Misagh; Iziy, Meysam

    2016-06-01

    TiO2-(Ti0.5Si0.5)O2 nanopowders (TS-NPs) with average particle size around 90 nm were successfully synthesized by controlled auto-combustion method by using citric acid/nitric acid (AC:NA) and urea/metal cation (U:MC). The structure of powders was studied based on their X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns. The XRD of TS-NPs shows that rutile and anatase are the main phases of TS-NPs for AC:NA and U:MC, respectively. Particle size and histogram of nanopowders were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Optical properties of TS-NPs were calculated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Kramers-Kroning (KK) relation. Plasma frequencies of TS-NPs obtained from energy loss functions depend on fuels as a result of changes in crystal structure, particle size distribution, and morphology.

  2. Thermoluminescence property of nano scale Al2O3: C by combustion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharthasaradhi, R.; Nehru, L. C.

    2016-05-01

    In this study, thermoluminescence dosimetry material of carbon doped aluminium oxide by combustion method using Aluminium nitrate and Glycine. The Structure of the prepared Sample was carried out by XRD. The sample was nano crystalline in nature. Having hexagonal structure with unit cell parameters a=4.75Å, C=12.99Å. The surface morphology of the prepared nanopowder was carried out through (SEM). The morphology of the prepared sample is platelet structure and functional group analysis carried out through FT-IR Spectrum. The prepared sample was irradiated through γ-ray CO60 (100Gy) was used as γ-ray source. The thermoluminescence glow curve of the irradiated sample showed an isolated peak at around 200°C. The result suggest the prepared nanopowder is suitable for medical radiation dosimetry.

  3. Flame-Spray-Made Undoped Zinc Oxide Films for Gas Sensing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Tamaekong, Nittaya; Liewhiran, Chaikarn; Wisitsoraat, Anurat; Phanichphant, Sukon

    2010-01-01

    Using zinc naphthenate dissolved in xylene as a precursor undoped ZnO nanopowders were synthesized by the flame spray pyrolysis technique. The average diameter and length of ZnO spherical and hexagonal particles were in the range of 5 to 20 nm, while ZnO nanorods were found to be 5–20 nm wide and 20–40 nm long, under 5/5 (precursor/oxygen) flame conditions. The gas sensitivity of the undoped ZnO nanopowders towards 50 ppm of NO2, C2H5OH and SO2 were found to be 33, 7 and 3, respectively. The sensors showed a great selectivity towards NO2 at high working temperature (at 300 °C), while small resistance variations were observed for C2H5OH and SO2, respectively. PMID:22163630

  4. Structural Study of SiC Nanoparticles Grown by Inductively Coupled Plasma and Laser Pyrolysis for Nano-structured Ceramics Elaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Leconte, Yann; Portier, Xavier; Herlin-Boime, Nathalie; Reynaud, Cecile

    2008-07-01

    Refractory carbide nano-structured ceramics as SiC constitute interesting materials for high temperature applications and particularly for fourth generation nuclear plants. To elaborate such nano-materials, weighable amounts of SiC nano-powders have to be synthesized first with an accurate control of the grain size and stoichiometry. The inductively coupled plasma and the laser pyrolysis techniques, respectively developed at EMPA Thun and CEA Saclay, allow meeting these requirements. Both techniques are able to produce dozens of grams per hour of silicon carbide nano-powders. The particle size can be adjusted down to around 20 nm for the plasma synthesis and even down to 5-10 nm for the laser pyrolysis. The stoichiometry Si/C can be tuned by the addition of methane into the plasma and acetylene for the laser process. (authors)

  5. Inelastic neutron scattering study of phonon density of states in nanostructured Si1 xGex thermoelectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Dhital, Chetan; Abernathy, Douglas L; Zhu, Gaohua; Ren, Zhifeng; Broido, D.; Wilson, Stephen D

    2012-01-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering measurements are utilized to explore relative changes in the generalized phonon density of states of nanocrystalline Si1 xGex thermoelectric materials prepared via ball-milling and hot-pressing techniques. Dynamic signatures of Ge clustering can be inferred from the data by referencing the resulting spectra to a density functional theoretical model assuming homogeneous alloying via the virtual-crystal approximation. Comparisons are also presented between as-milled Si nanopowder and bulk, polycrystalline Si where a preferential low-energy enhancement and lifetime broadening of the phonon density of states appear in the nanopowder. Negligible differences are however observed between the phonon spectra of bulk Si andhot-pressed, nanostructured Si samples suggesting that changes to the single-phonon dynamics above 4 meV play only a secondary role in the modified heat conduction of this compound.

  6. Investigation of the Effect of Yttrium Oxide Nanoparticles Doped with Cerium and Neodymium on Electro-Optics of Liquid Crystal Polymer Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zharkova, G. M.; Osipov, V. V.; Platonov, V. V.; Podkin, A. V.; Strel'tsov, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    Morphology and properties of liquid crystal polymer composites doped with inorganic nanoparticles are described. These composites comprised nematic liquid crystal 5CB, polyvinyl acetate, and nanoparticles of oxides (Y2O3, CeO2:Y2O3, and Nd2O3:Y2O3). Nanopowders were synthesized by the laser method of vaporization of a solid target under CO2-laser or fiber ytterbium laser irradiation. The effect of oxides on the electro-optical properties of the composites and times of response to an electrical pulse is investigated. It is shown that incorporation of CeO2:Y2O3 nanopowder in liquid crystal polymer composites affects the decrease of the control field and the increase of light transmission in an electric field stronger than incorporation of Nd2O3:Y2O3 nanoparticles.

  7. Precise calculations in simulations of the interaction of low energy neutrons with nano-dispersed media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artem'ev, V. A.; Nezvanov, A. Yu.; Nesvizhevsky, V. V.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss properties of the interaction of slow neutrons with nano-dispersed media and their application for neutron reflectors. In order to increase the accuracy of model simulation of the interaction of neutrons with nanopowders, we perform precise quantum mechanical calculation of potential scattering of neutrons on single nanoparticles using the method of phase functions. We compare results of precise calculations with those performed within first Born approximation for nanodiamonds with the radius of 2-5 nm and for neutron energies 3 × 10-7-10-3 eV. Born approximation overestimates the probability of scattering to large angles, while the accuracy of evaluation of integral characteristics (cross sections, albedo) is acceptable. Using Monte-Carlo method, we calculate albedo of neutrons from different layers of piled up diamond nanopowder.

  8. Growth and optical properties of partially transparent Eu doped CaF{sub 2} ceramic

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Manoranjan Sen, Shashwati Pitale, S. S. Goutam, U. K. Shinde, Seema Patra, G. D. Gadkari, S. C.

    2014-04-24

    Partially transparent ceramic of 2 at.% Eu doped CaF{sub 2} have been grown preferentially towards [111] direction. For this purpose, Eu doped CaF{sub 2} nanoparticles (size∼12 nm) obtained by a low temperature solution growth method has been pressed at 1000°C under vacuum. The preferentially grown ceramic shows 15% transparency within the visible range of spectrum. As confirmed by the X-ray diffraction result, the hot pressed ceramic exhibits reduced lattice volume than the nanopowder. It indicates Eu{sup 3+} as the dominant substituting ions at the Ca{sup 2+} sites of CaF{sub 2} lattice in the hot pressed ceramic material. It is corroborated by the photoluminescence results of hot pressed ceramic which shows strong red emission corresponding to Eu{sup 3+} sites. However, photoluminescence of nanopowder exhibits intense peak in the blue region of the spectrum which is characteristics of Eu2+ sites.

  9. Activation of consolidation processes of alumina ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matrenin, S. V.; Zenin, B. S.; Tayukin, R. V.

    2016-02-01

    The methods for activating sintering ceramics based on Al2O3 by mechanical activation in the planetary mill, by adding in the mixture of nanopowders (NP) Al, Al2O3, and submicron powder TiO2, and by applying the technology of spark plasma sintering (SPS) are developed. It has been shown that adding the nanopowder up to 20 wt. % Al2O3 in a coarse powder α-Al2O3 activates the sintering process resulting in increased density and hardness of the sintered alumina ceramics. Substantial effect of increasing density of alumina ceramics due to adding the submicron powder TiO2 in the compound of initial powder mixtures has been established.

  10. Shock-Wave Consolidation of Nanostructured Bismuth Telluride Powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Jan; Alvarado, Manuel; Nemir, David; Nowell, Mathew; Murr, Lawrence; Prasad, Narasimha

    2012-06-01

    Nanostructured thermoelectric powders can be produced using a variety of techniques. However, it is very challenging to build a bulk material from these nanopowders without losing the nanostructure. In the present work, nanostructured powders of the bismuth telluride alloy system are obtained in kilogram quantities via a gas atomization process. These powders are characterized using a variety of methods including scanning electron microscopy, transition electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction analysis. Then the powders are consolidated into a dense bulk material using a shock-wave consolidation technique whereby a nanopowder-containing tube is surrounded by explosives and then detonated. The resulting shock wave causes rapid fusing of the powders without the melt and subsequent grain growth of other techniques. We describe the test setup and consolidation results.

  11. Suppression of Grain Growth by Additive in Nanostructured P-type Bismuth Antimony Tellurides

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Qinyong; Chen, S.; Liu, W S; Lukas, K; Yan, X; Wang, H; Wang, D.; Opeil, C; Chen, Gang; Ren, Z. F.

    2011-01-01

    Grain growth is a major issue in the preparation of nanostructured bismuth-antimony-tellurides during hot pressing the nanopowders into dense bulk samples. To prevent grain agglomeration during ball milling and growth during hot pressing, organic agent (Oleic Acid, OA) as additive was added into the materials at the beginning of the ball milling process. With different concentrations of OA (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 wt%), grains with different sizes are obtained. Structural analysis clearly shows that it is the particle size of the nanopowders that determines the final grain size in the densely compacted bulk samples. A combination of small grains ~200–500 nm and nanopores leads to effective phonon scattering, which results in the decrease of lattice thermal conductivity, and ZT of ~1.3 at 373 K for the sample with 2.0 wt% OA.

  12. M3FT-16OR020202112 - Report on viability of hydrothermal corrosion resistant SiC/SiC Joint development

    SciTech Connect

    Katoh, Yutai; Koyanagi, Takaaki; Kiggans Jr, James O.; Terrani, Kurt A.

    2016-06-30

    Hydrothermal corrosion of four types of the silicon carbide (SiC) to SiC plate joints were investigated under PWR and BWR relevant chemical conditions without irradiation. The joints were formed by metal diffusion bonding using molybdenum or titanium interlayer, reaction sintering using Ti-Si-C system, and SiC nanopowder sintering. Most of the formed joints withstood the corrosion tests for five weeks. The recession of the SiC substrates was limited. Based on the recession rate of the bonding layers, it was concluded that all the joints except for the molybdenum diffusion bond are promising under the reducing activity environments. The SiC nanopowder sintered joint was the most corrosion tolerant under the oxidizing activity environment among the four joints.

  13. Hydrothermal corrosion of silicon carbide joints without radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Koyanagi, Takaaki; Katoh, Yutai; Terrani, Kurt A.; Kim, Young-Jin; Kiggans, James O.; Hinoki, Tatsuya

    2016-09-28

    In this paper, hydrothermal corrosion of four types of the silicon carbide (SiC) to SiC plate joints were investigated under pressurized water reactor and boiling water reactor relevant chemical conditions without irradiation. The joints were formed by metal diffusion bonding using molybdenum or titanium interlayer, reaction sintering using Ti—Si—C system, and SiC nanopowder sintering. Most of the joints withstood the corrosion tests for five weeks. The recession of the SiC substrates was limited. Based on the recession of the bonding layers, it was concluded that all the joints except for the molybdenum diffusion bond are promising under the reducing environments without radiation. Finally, the SiC nanopowder sintered joint was the most corrosion tolerant under the oxidizing environment among the four joints.

  14. Synthesis of Zn1- x Co x Al2O4 Spinel Nanoparticles by Liquid-Feed Flame Spray Pyrolysis: Ceramic Pigments Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betancur Granados, Natalia; Yi, Eongyu; Laine, Richard M.; Restrepo Baena, Oscar Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Zn1- x Co x Al2O4 ( x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0) spinel nanoparticles were synthesized by a liquid-feed flame spray pyrolysis (LF-FSP) method by combusting metallorganic precursor solutions to produce nanopowders with precise composition control. The precursor solutions were aerosolized into a methane/oxygen flame where it was combusted in an oxygen-rich environment to result in nanopowders at a single step. The nanopowders were analyzed by x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, colorimetry, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and BET (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller) N2 adsorption. Results show formation of spherical nanopowders with specific surface areas of 42 m2/g to 50 m2/g, which correspond to average particle sizes of 26 nm to 31 nm. Single-phase materials were obtained with a high control of composition, which indicates that LF-FSP is an excellent method to produce mixed-metal oxides for applications in which powder homogeneity is crucial. The products were evaluated for ceramic pigment application, where the ratio of Zn to Co was gradually changed to observe the color change in the structure with the increase of cobalt concentration. The resulting pigments were calcined at 1200°C, which aimed to identify the color stability after a high-temperature process, whereby the colors were measured using the color space CIE L*a*b* under standardized light, D65. Finally, the powders were tested for ceramic decoration using transparent glazes and ceramic bodies. The application was carried out at 1250°C to evaluate the color performance after a decoration process.

  15. Fabrication of Sn-Ag/CeO2 Electro-Composite Solder by Pulse Electrodeposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ashutosh; Bhattacharya, Sumit; Das, Siddhartha; Das, Karabi

    2013-12-01

    The Sn-Ag/CeO2 nanocomposite solders have been pulse electrodeposited from an aqueous citrate bath containing varying concentrations of CeO2 nanopowders (1 to 30 g/L). Microstructural characterization, hardness, melting point, electrical conductivity, wear resistance, and residual stress measurement of the composite coatings indicate that the composite deposited from an electrolyte containing 15 g/L CeO2 possesses the optimum properties and thus can have potential applications in solder joints and packaging.

  16. Preparation of meta-stable phases of barium titanate by Sol-hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect

    Selvaraj, Mahalakshmi; Venkatachalapathy, V.; Karazhanov, S.; Pearce, J. M. E-mail: jeyanthinath@yahoo.co.in

    2015-11-15

    Two low-cost chemical methods of sol–gel and the hydrothermal process have been strategically combined to fabricate barium titanate (BaTiO{sub 3}) nanopowders. This method was tested for various synthesis temperatures (100 °C to 250 °C) employing barium dichloride (BaCl{sub 2}) and titanium tetrachloride (TiCl{sub 4}) as precursors and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as mineralizer for synthesis of BaTiO{sub 3} nanopowders. The as-prepared BaTiO{sub 3} powders were investigated for structural characteristics using x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The overall analysis indicates that the hydrothermal conditions create a gentle environment to promote the formation of crystalline phase directly from amorphous phase at the very low processing temperatures investigated. XRD analysis showed phase transitions from cubic - tetragonal - orthorhombic - rhombohedral with increasing synthesis temperature and calculated grain sizes were 34 – 38 nm (using the Scherrer formula). SEM and TEM analysis verified that the BaTiO{sub 3} nanopowders synthesized by this method were spherical in shape and about 114 - 170 nm in size. The particle distribution in both SEM and TEM shows that as the reaction temperature increases from 100 °C to 250 °C, the particles agglomerate. Selective area electron diffraction (SAED) shows that the particles are crystalline in nature. The study shows that choosing suitable precursor and optimizing pressure and temperature; different meta-stable (ferroelectric) phases of undoped BaTiO{sub 3} nanopowders can be stabilized by the sol-hydrothermal method.

  17. Non-equilibrium effects in the processing of materials using plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Mangolini, Lorenzo

    2016-06-02

    We have provided experimental evidence that nanoparticles in plasma are heated to temperatures that are significantly higher than that of the background gas. This result gives experimental confirmation to a number of theoretical/computational studies that predicted this behavior. Moreover, this study has provided with the first measurement of the temperature of nanoparticles in a processing dusty plasma, i.e. under conditions that are relevant for the growth and modification of nanopowders.

  18. Polyfibroblast: A Self-Healing and Galvanic Protection Additive

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-23

    more OTS is available to passivate the exposed steel. Moisture resistance results comparing last year’s data to this year’s data are given in Figure 1...as an anti- caking agent. GPS-loaded microcapsules appear to cake irreversibly even with the added nanopowder. This discrepancy may be due to the fact...that OTS does not polymerize as readily as IPDI. The OTS-rich microcapsules may break during filtration , but the OTS does not glue the microcapsules

  19. Synthesis of Ultradisperse Carbon Dioxide Powder with Plasma-Dynamic Method in the Coaxial Magneto-Plasma Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golyanskaya, Evgeniya. O.; Sivkov, Aleksandr A.; Anikina, Zhanna S.

    2016-02-01

    One of the most promising trends in modern physics is the high-temperature superconductivity. Analysis of high-temperature superconductors revealed that almost all of them are complex copper-based oxides. Studies have shown the possibility of using them for the synthesis of coaxial magneto accelerator. Studies have identified the products synthesized soot: Cu, Cu2O, CuO, their shape and size. Also been deciphered and electron microscopy confirmed the composition of the nanopowder obtained in laboratory conditions.

  20. Metal-ceramic composite development based on its modelling results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvilis, E. S.; Khasanov, O. L.; Khasanov, A. O.; Petyukevich, M. S.

    2016-02-01

    The modeling (and its experimental verification) of packing and deformation of the composites consisted of aluminum-magnesium alloy AMg6, B4C powder and W nano-powder has been performed. The powder compositions were determined using discrete element modeling of the composite particles packing based on the particle size distribution functions of real powders. The models of maximum mixture packing densities have been rendered.

  1. Synthesis, characterization, and cytotoxicity of the plasmid EGFP-p53 loaded on pullulan-spermine magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eslaminejad, Touba; Nematollahi-Mahani, Seyed Noureddin; Ansari, Mehdi

    2016-03-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles have been used as effective vehicles for the targeted delivery of therapeutic agents that can be controlled in their concentration and distribution to a desired part of the body by using externally driven magnets. This study focuses on the synthesis, characterization, and functionalization of pullulan-spermine (PS) magnetic nanoparticles for medical applications. Magnetite nanopowder was produced by thermal decomposition of goethite (FeOOH) in oleic acid and 1-octadecene; pullulan-spermine was deposited on the magnetite nanoparticles in the form of pullulan-spermine clusters. EGFP-p53 plasmid was loaded on functionalized iron oleate to transfer into cells. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), dynamic light scattering (DLS), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The encapsulation efficiency and drug loading efficiency of the nanocomplexes were tested. FTIR studies showed the presence of oleic acid and 1-octadecene in the iron oleate nanopowder and verified the interaction between spermine and pullulan. The characteristic bands of PS in the spectrum of the pullulan-spermine-coated iron oleate (PSCFO) confirmed that PS covered the surface of the iron oleate particles. TEM studies showed the average size of the iron oleate nanopowder, the PSCFO, and the plasmid-carrying PSCFO (PSCFO/pEGFP-p53) to be 34±12 nm, 100±50 nm and 172±3 nm, respectively. Magnetic measurements revealed that magnetic saturation of the PSCFO was lower in comparison with the iron oleate nanopowder due to the presence of organic compounds in the former. In cytotoxicity tests performed using U87 cells as glioblastoma cells, a 92% survival rate was observed at 50 μg/μl of the plasmid-carrying PSCFO, with an IC50 value of 189 μg/μl.

  2. Host-mediated synthesis of cobalt aluminate/γ-alumina nanoflakes: a dispersible composite pigment with high catalytic activities.

    PubMed

    Dandapat, Anirban; De, Goutam

    2012-01-01

    Cobalt aluminate/γ-alumina (CoAl(2)O(4)/γ-Al(2)O(3)) nanocomposite pigment with mesoporous structure has been synthesized. The method simply involves adsorption of Co(2+) ion on the surface of a commercially available boehmite (AlOOH) powder followed by the reaction of Co(2+) and AlOOH at relatively low temperature (500 °C) to obtain CoAl(2)O(4)/γ-Al(2)O(3) composite nanopowders. The formation of γ-Al(2)O(3) from boehmite induces the in situ generation of isostructural CoAl(2)O(4) (both crystallize as cubic spinel) at such a low temperature. The obtained intense blue powder of optimal composition (53.6 wt % CoAl(2)O(4) in γ-Al(2)O(3)) can be dispersed in glycerol and characterized by UV-visible, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, TEM, and nitrogen sorption analyses. Raman studies confirm the formation of CoAl(2)O(4) phase in γ-Al(2)O(3). TEM studies reveal the formation of flake shaped (5-10 nm in width and 10-25 nm in length) nanopowders, and these flakes are assembled to form mesoporous structure. The specific surface area, total pore volume and average pore diameter of this powder are estimated to be ~118 m(2) g(-1), 0.1375 cm(3) g(-1), and 4.65 nm, respectively. This composite nanopowder has been used as an active catalyst for the decomposition of H(2)O(2) at room temperature and the decomposition follows the first order kinetics with rate constant value close to 2.3 × 10(-2) min(-1). This pigment nanopowder can be reused for several cycles without noticeable degradation of its original catalytic activity.

  3. Dissolution and storage stability of nanostructured calcium carbonates and phosphates for nutrition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posavec, Lidija; Knijnenburg, Jesper T. N.; Hilty, Florentine M.; Krumeich, Frank; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.; Zimmermann, Michael B.

    2016-10-01

    Rapid calcium (Ca) dissolution from nanostructured Ca phosphate and carbonate (CaCO3) powders may allow them to be absorbed in much higher fraction in humans. Nanosized Ca phosphate and CaCO3 made by flame-assisted spray pyrolysis were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. As-prepared nanopowders contained both CaCO3 and CaO, but storing them under ambient conditions over 130 days resulted in a complete transformation into CaCO3, with an increase in both crystal and particle sizes. The small particle size could be stabilized against such aging by cation (Mg, Zn, Sr) and anion (P) doping, with P and Mg being most effective. Calcium phosphate nanopowders made at Ca:P ≤ 1.5 were XRD amorphous and contained γ-Ca2P2O7 with increasing hydroxyapatite content at higher Ca:P. Aging of powders with Ca:P = 1.0 and 1.5 for over 500 days gradually increased particle size (but less than for CaCO3) without a change in phase composition or crystallinity. In 0.01 M H3PO4 calcium phosphate nanopowders dissolved ≈4 times more Ca than micronsized compounds and about twice more Ca than CaCO3 nanopowders, confirming that nanosizing and/or amorphous structuring sharply increases Ca powder dissolution. Because higher Ca solubility in vitro generally leads to greater absorption in vivo, these novel FASP-made Ca nanostructured compounds may prove useful for nutrition applications, including supplementation and/or food fortification.

  4. NiO Nanofibers as a Candidate for a Nanophotocathode

    PubMed Central

    Macdonald, Thomas J.; Xu, Jie; Elmas, Sait; Mange, Yatin J.; Skinner, William M.; Xu, Haolan; Nann, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    p-type NiO nanofibers have been synthesized from a simple electrospinning and sintering procedure. For the first time, p-type nanofibers have been electrospun onto a conductive fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) surface. The properties of the NiO nanofibers have been directly compared to that of bulk NiO nanopowder. We have observed a p-type photocurrent for a NiO photocathode fabricated on an FTO substrate.

  5. Understanding the effect of flower extracts on the photoconducting properties of nanostructured TiO2.

    PubMed

    Ansari, S G; Bhayana, Laitka; Umar, Ahmad; Al-Hajry, A; Al-Deyab, Salem S; Ansari, Z A

    2012-10-01

    Here we report an easy method to improve the optoelectronic properties of commercially available TiO2 nanopowder using extracts of various flowers viz. Calendula Orange (CO), Calendula Yellow (CY), Dahlia Violet (DV), Dahlia Yellow (DY), Rabbit flower (RF), Sweet Poppy (SP), Sweet Williams (SW) and their Mixed Extracts (ME). Various analysis techniques such as UV-Vis, FTIR, FESEM, XRD, and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize for elemental, structural and morphological properties of the unmixed/mixed TiO2 nanopowder. TiO2 nanopowder was also calcined at 550 degrees C. Thick films of the these unmixed/mixed powder were printed, using conventional screen printing method, on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate with organic binders and dried at 45 degrees C. The photoconducting properties are investigated as a function of wavelength from ultra-violet (UV) to infra-red (IR) region at a constant illumination intensity. Photocurrent gradually decreases when irradiated from UV to IR region. In case of unmixed and uncalcined TiO2, conductance decreased continuously whereas when extracts are added, a flat region of conductance is observed. The overall effect of extracts (colour pigments) is seen as an increase in the photoconductance. Highest photoconductance is observed in case of DY flower extract. Anthocyanins, present in flowers are known to have antioxidative properties and hence can contribute in photoconduction by reducing the surface adsorbed oxygen. This investigation indicates the potential use of flower extracts for dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC).

  6. Densification of nano-yttria powders for IR window applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willingham, Charles B.; Wahl, Joseph M.; Hogan, Patrick K.; Kupferberg, Lenn C.; Wong, Thomas Y.; De, Alok M.

    2003-09-01

    Commerically available yttrium oxide nanopowders were evaluated as starting materials for preparation of transparent materials. The objective is an yttria optical ceramic exhibiting approximately one micrometer grain size to provide increased strength and thermal shock resistance. Three vendors were selected to provide nanoscale powders for testing and evaluation. They were compared to a conventional (5 μm) powder previously used to prepare optical quality ceramic yttria. While all of the selected nanopowders had impurity levels that were too high to allow processing to full transparency, two of the samples were processed to full density and moderate transparency was produced in one. In preparation for processing via Hot Isostatic Press (HIP) samples were sintered to a closed pore state at temperatures as low as 1400 °C, and with soak times as short as 12 minutes at 1550 °C. The use of ultrasonic attenuation as a technique for measuring particle size distributions in slurries was explored and found to be an invaluable tool when colloidally processing nanopowders. Finally, the areas most important for continued improvements were identified.

  7. The result of synthesis analysis of the powder TiO2/ZnO as a layer of electrodes for dye sensitized solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retnaningsih, Lilis; Muliani, Lia

    2016-04-01

    This study has been conducted synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticle powders and ZnO nanoparticle powder into a paste to be in this research, dye-sensitive solar cells (DSSC) was produced by TiO2 nanopowder and ZnO nanopowder synthesis to make paste that is applied as electrode. This electrode works based on photon absorbed by dye and transferred to different composition of TiO2/ ZnO particle. Properties of DSSC are affected by fabrication method, parameter and dimension of TiO2 / ZnO nanoparticles, technique and composition of TiO2 / ZnO paste preparation is important to get the higher performance of DSSC. Doctor blade is a method for electrode coating on glass substrate. The electrode was immersed into dye solution of Z907 and ethanol. From the experiment, the effect of TiO2 and ZnO nanopowder mixture for electrode was investigated. XRD characterization show anatase and rutile phase, which sintered TiO2/ZnO has intensity more than 11,000. SEM characterization shows the composition of 20% TiO2 / 80% ZnO has better porosity. Higher efficiency that is investigated by I-V measurement using Sun Simulator.

  8. The size confinement effect for Ln3+ (Ln = Tm or Eu) concentration quenching and energy transfer in Y2O3 nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changwen; Meng, Qingyu

    2014-05-01

    Y2O3:Ln (Ln = Tm or Eu) nano-powders with different particle sizes and various doping concentrations were prepared by using a combustion method. The bulk powders doped with the same concentrations were obtained by annealing the nano-powders at high temperatures. Emission spectra of the phosphors were measured. The crystal structure and morphology of the phosphors were characterized by XRD (X-ray diffraction) and FE-SEM (field emission scanning electron microscopy), respectively. The concentration quenching of luminescent centers and energy transfer between luminescent centers in Y2O3:Ln nanocrystal powders were investigated. It is found that the behavior of luminescent concentration quenching for Eu3+ 5D0 --> 7F2 in nano-powders is similar to that in bulk powders. On the contrary, the quenching concentration for Tm3+ 1D2 --> 3H4 is distinctly higher than that in bulk powders. This owes to the size confinement effect which will restrain the electric dipole-dipole interaction as a long-rang interaction (e.g., energy transfer between Tm3+ ions), and will hardly affect the exchange interaction which is a short-rang interaction (e.g., energy transfer between Eu3+ ions).

  9. Antibacterial effects of sol-gel-derived bioactive glass nanoparticle on aerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Mortazavi, V; Nahrkhalaji, M Mehdikhani; Fathi, M H; Mousavi, S B; Esfahani, B Nasr

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the antibacterial effect of bioactive glass nanopowders. The 58S, 63S, and 72S compositions were prepared via the sol-gel technique. Characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Zetasizer, and X-ray fluorescent were used. The antibacterial activity was studied using Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, and Staphylococcus aureus. Cytotoxicity of the samples was evaluated using mouse fibroblast L929 cell line. The chemical compositions of the prepared samples were as predicted, and the particle size of the samples with an amorphous structure mainly ranged over 20-90 nm. At broth concentrations below 50 mg/mL, they showed no antibacterial activity. The 58S showed the highest antibacterial activity with the minimum bactericidal concentrations of 50 and 100 mg/mL for E. coli plus S. aureus and for P. aeruginosa, respectively. The 63S exhibited bactericidal and bacteriostatic effects on E. coli and S. aureus at concentrations of 100 and 50 mg/mL, respectively, at an minimum bactericidal concentrations of 100 mg/mL. However, 72S bioactive glass nanopowder showed no antibacterial effect. They showed no cytotoxicity. It was concluded that bioactive glass nanopowders could be considered as good candidates for the treatment of oral bone defects and root canal disinfection. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res, 2010.

  10. Stable zinc oxide nanoparticle dispersions in ionic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittmar, Alexandra; Gautam, Devendraprakash; Schilling, Carolin; Dörfler, Udo; Mayer-Zaika, Wolfgang; Winterer, Markus; Ulbricht, Mathias

    2014-05-01

    The influence of the hydrophilicity and length of the cation alkyl chain in imidazolium-based ionic liquids on the dispersability of ZnO nanoparticles by ultrasound treatment was studied by dynamic light scattering and advanced rheology. ZnO nanopowder synthesized by chemical vapor synthesis was used in parallel with one commercially available material. Before preparation of the dispersion, the nanoparticles characteristics were determined by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption with BET analysis, and FT-IR spectroscopy. Hydrophilic ionic liquids dispersed all studied nanopowders better and in the series of hydrophilic ionic liquids, an improvement of the dispersion quality with increasing length of the alkyl chain of the cation was observed. Especially, for ionic liquids with short alkyl chain, additional factors like nanoparticle concentration in the dispersion and the period of the ultrasonic treatment had significant influence on the dispersion quality. Additionally, nanopowder characteristics (crystallite shape and size as well as the agglomeration level) influenced the dispersion quality. The results indicate that the studied ionic liquids are promising candidates for absorber media at the end of the gas phase synthesis reactor allowing the direct preparation of non-agglomerated nanoparticle dispersions without supplementary addition of dispersants and stabilizers.

  11. Preparation of hydroxyapatite/zirconia bioceramic nanocomposites for orthopaedic and dental prosthesis applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Yun-Mo; Shin, Young-Keun; Ryu, Jae-Jun

    2007-02-01

    Homogeneous mixtures of hydroxyapatite (HAp) and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) nanoparticles were successfully synthesized using chemical co-precipitation and subsequent calcination. For the synthesis of HAp/YSZ nanopowder, the Ca/P atomic ratio was 1.73 to obtain high-content stoichiometric hydroxyapatite phase and to suppress β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) formation. The agglomerated crystalline powders were milled using YSZ ball media to obtain well-separated nanoparticles. The final particle size of the HAp and YSZ was ~50-70 and ~15-30 nm, respectively. The crystallinity and morphological feature of the nanopowder was analysed using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analyses. The ball-milled nanopowder mixture was hot pressed at 1100 °C for 1 h under 20 MPa in vacuum atmosphere. The sintered HAp/YSZ nanocomposites exhibited approximately 99% of the theoretical density, due not only to the fine nanoscale of the particles, but also to the homogeneous distribution of the nanoparticle mixture. They also showed fine grain structures of the HAp phase due to the suppressed grain growth by YSZ particles. The nanocomposites showed improved mechanical properties, flexural strength of ~155 MPa and fracture toughness of ~2.1 MP m1/2, due to the YSZ contribution to the HAp matrix.

  12. Biological evaluation of nanosilver incorporated cellulose pulp for hygiene products.

    PubMed

    Kavitha Sankar, P C; Ramakrishnan, Reshmi; Rosemary, M J

    2016-04-01

    Cellulose pulp has a visible market share in personal hygiene products such as sanitary napkins and baby diapers. However it offers good surface for growth of microorganisms. Huge amount of research is going on in developing hygiene products that do not initiate microbial growth. The objective of the present work is to produce antibacterial cellulose pulp by depositing silver nanopowder on the cellulose fiber. The silver nanoparticles used were of less than 100 nm in size and were characterised using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction studies. Antibacterial activity of the functionalized cellulose pulp was proved by JIS L 1902 method. The in-vitro cytotoxicity, in-vivo vaginal irritation and intracutaneous reactivity studies were done with silver nanopowder incorporated cellulose pulp for introducing a new value added product to the market. Cytotoxicity evaluation suggested that the silver nanoparticle incorporated cellulose pulp is non-cytotoxic. No irritation and skin sensitization were identified in animals tested with specific extracts prepared from the test material in the in-vivo experiments. The results indicated that the silver nanopowder incorporated cellulose pulp meets the requirements of the standard practices recommended for evaluating the biological reactivity and has good biocompatibility, hence can be classified as a safe hygiene product.

  13. Luminescence properties of LaF{sub 3}:Ce nanoparticles encapsulated by oleic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jaewoo; Lee, Jun-Hyung; An, Hyejin; Lee, Jungkuk; Park, Seong-Hee; Seo, Young-Soo; Miller, William H.

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • In-situ hydrophobization of water dispersible LaF{sub 3}:Ce nanoparticles was achieved. • Oleic acid surface modification of the nanoparticles was verified by IR spectra. • Quantum yields of LaF{sub 3}:Ce and OA-LaF{sub 3}:Ce nanoparticles were evaluated. • Quantum yields of LaF{sub 3}:Ce are strongly dependent on OA surface modification. - Abstract: Cerium ions doped lanthanum fluoride (LaF{sub 3}:Ce) nanopowder as well as LaF{sub 3}:Ce nanopowder whose surfaces was modified by oleic acid (OA) were synthesized by using an in-situ hydrothermal process under the various doping concentrations. Based on the XRD spectra and TEM images, it was confirmed that the crystalline structured hexagonal LaF{sub 3}:Ce nanopowder was synthesized. Oleic acid was efficient for conversion of the water dispersible LaF{sub 3}:Ce nanoparticles to hydrophobic ones. Surface modification was verified by FTIR absorption spectrum as well as TEM images, showing no agglomeration between 5 and 10 nm scaled particles. Photoluminescence based on 5d ⟶ 4f electronic transition of cerium ions excited at λ{sub ex} ∼256 nm for both neat and OA encapsulated LaF{sub 3}:Ce nanoparticles decreases as the cerium concentration increases, while the quantum yields of OA encapsulated nanoparticles were much lower than the neat particles due to low photon transmittance of OA at the range longer than ∼350 nm.

  14. Improvement of mechanical and thermal properties of high energy electron beam irradiated HDPE/hydroxyapatite nano-composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, M.; Ziaie, F.; Majdabadi, A.; Akhavan, A.; Shafaei, M.

    2017-01-01

    In this research work, the nano-composites of high density polyethylene/hydroxyapatite samples were manufactured via two methods: In the first method, the granules of high density polyethylene and nano-structure hydroxyapatite were processed in an internal mixer to prepare the nano-composite samples with a different weight percentage of the reinforcement phase. As for the second one, high density polyethylene was prepared in nano-powder form in boiling xylene. During this procedure, the hydroxyapatite nano-powder was added with different weight percentages to the solvent to obtain the nano-composite. In both of the procedures, the used hydroxyapatite nano-powder was synthesized via hydrolysis methods. The samples were irradiated under 10 MeV electron beam in 70-200 kGy of doses. Mechanical, thermal and morphological properties of the samples were investigated and compared. The results demonstrate that the nano-composites which we have prepared using nano-polyethylene, show better mechanical and thermal properties than the composites prepared from normal polyethylene granules, due to the better dispersion of nano-particles in the polymer matrix.

  15. High-throughput screening of nanoparticle catalysts made by flame spray pyrolysis as hydrocarbon/NO oxidation catalysts.

    PubMed

    Weidenhof, B; Reiser, M; Stöwe, K; Maier, W F; Kim, M; Azurdia, J; Gulari, E; Seker, E; Barks, A; Laine, R M

    2009-07-08

    We describe here the use of liquid-feed flame spray pyrolysis (LF-FSP) to produce high surface area, nonporous, mixed-metal oxide nanopowders that were subsequently subjected to high-throughput screening to assess a set of materials for deNO(x) catalysis and hydrocarbon combustion. We were able to easily screen some 40 LF-FSP produced materials. LF-FSP produces nanopowders that very often consist of kinetic rather than thermodynamic phases. Such materials are difficult to access or are completely inaccessible via traditional catalyst preparation methods. Indeed, our studies identified a set of Ce(1-x)Zr(x)O(2) and Al(2)O(3)-Ce(1-x)Zr(x)O(2) nanopowders that offer surprisingly good activities for both NO(x) reduction and propane/propene oxidation both in high-throughput screening and in continuous flow catalytic studies. All of these catalysts offer activities comparable to traditional Pt/Al(2)O(3) catalysts but without Pt. Thus, although Pt-free, they are quite active for several extremely important emission control reactions, especially considering that these are only first generation materials. Indeed, efforts to dope the active catalysts with Pt actually led to lower catalytic activities. Thus the potential exists to completely change the materials used in emission control devices, especially for high-temperature reactions as these materials have already been exposed to 1500 degrees C; however, much research must be done before this potential is verified.

  16. Effect of small particle sizes on the measured density of nanocrystalline powders of nonstoichiometric tantalum carbide TaC y

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurlov, A. S.; Gusev, A. I.

    2016-08-01

    Nanocrystalline powders of the nonstoichiometric tantalum carbide TaC y (0.81 ≤ y ≤ 0.96) with an average particle size in the range from 45 to 20 nm have been prepared using high-energy ball milling of coarse-grained powders. The density of the initial coarse-grained and prepared nanocrystalline powders of TaC y has been measured by helium pycnometry. The sizes of particles in tantalum carbide powders have been estimated using the X-ray diffraction analysis and the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method. The density of TaC y nanopowders measured by helium pycnometry is underestimated as compared to the true density due to the adsorption of helium by the highly developed surface of the nanocrystalline powders. It has been shown that the difference between the true and measured densities is proportional to the specific surface area or is inversely proportional to the average particle size of the nanopowders. The large difference between the true and measured pycnometric densities indicates a superhydrophobicity of the tantalum carbide nanopowders.

  17. Solar physical vapor deposition preparation and microstructural characterization of TiO2 based nanophases for dye-sensitized solar cell applications.

    PubMed

    Negrea, Denis; Ducu, Catalin; Moga, Sorin; Malinovschi, Viorel; Monty, Claude J A; Vasile, Bogdan; Dorobantu, Dorel; Enachescu, Marian

    2012-11-01

    Titanium dioxide exists in three crystalline phases: anatase, rutile and brookite. Although rutile is thermodynamically more stable, anatase is considered as the most favorable phase for photocatalysis and solar energy conversion. Recent studies have shown a significant improvement of light harvesting and overall solar conversion efficiency of anatase nanoparticles in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) when using a mixture of anatase and rutile phases (10-15% rutile). TiO2 nanopowders have been prepared by a solar physical vapor deposition process (SPVD). This method has been developed in Odeillo-Font Romeu France using "heliotron" solar reactors working under concentrated sunlight in 2 kW solar furnaces. By controlling reactor's atmosphere type (air/argon) and gas pressure, several types of anatase/rutile nanophases have been obtained with slightly different microstructural properties and morphological characteristics. X-ray diffraction analyses (XRD) were performed on precursor and on the SPVD obtained nanopowders. Information concerning their phase composition and coherence diffraction domain (crystallites size and strain) was obtained. Nanopowders morphology has been studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  18. Reduction of silver (I) using defatted cashew nut shell starch and its structural comparison with commercial product.

    PubMed

    Velmurugan, Palanivel; Park, Jung-Hee; Lee, Sang-Myeong; Jang, Jum-Suk; Yi, Young-Joo; Han, Sang-Sub; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Cho, Kwang-Min; Cho, Min; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2015-11-20

    In this current study, we report on the reduction of noble metal silver into silver nanoparticles using defatted cashew nut shell (CNS) starch as both the reducing and capping agents. Furthermore, it was compared with commercially available silver nanopowder for the first time. Color changes, ultraviolet-visible spectra (433.76nm), X-ray diffraction peaks (2θ=37.8, 46.3, 66.2, and 77.92) revealed the face-centered cubic (fcc) geometry of silver nanoparticles, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy confirmed the presence of elemental silver nanoparticles and the defatted CNS starch silver nanoparticle structures was in accordance to commercial silver nanopowder. The size of both the nanoparticles was found to be similar in the range of 10-50nm as analyzed using high resolution-transmission electron micrographs. The FT-IR spectroscopy revealed the shifting of NH and OH of defatted CNS starch, starch based silver nanoparticle and commercial silver nanopowder has parallel functional groups. The use of environmentally benign and renewable materials like defatted CNS starch offers an alternative to large scale synthesis of silver nanoparticle and includes numerous benefits like eco-friendly and compatibility for pharmaceutical and biomedical applications.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of magnetite/silver/antibiotic nanocomposites for targeted antimicrobial therapy.

    PubMed

    Ivashchenko, Olena; Lewandowski, Mikołaj; Peplińska, Barbara; Jarek, Marcin; Nowaczyk, Grzegorz; Wiesner, Maciej; Załęski, Karol; Babutina, Tetyana; Warowicka, Alicja; Jurga, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    The article is devoted to preparation and characterization of magnetite/silver/antibiotic nanocomposites for targeted antimicrobial therapy. Magnetite nanopowder was produced by thermochemical technique; silver was deposited on the magnetite nanoparticles in the form of silver clusters. Magnetite/silver nanocomposite was investigated by XRD, SEM, TEM, AFM, XPS, EDX techniques. Adsorptivity of magnetite/silver nanocomposite towards seven antibiotics from five different groups was investigated. It was shown that rifampicin, doxycycline, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime and doxycycline may be attached by physical adsorption to magnetite/silver nanocomposite. Electrostatic surfaces of antibiotics were modeled and possible mechanism of antibiotic attachment is considered in this article. Raman spectra of magnetite, magnetite/silver and magnetite/silver/antibiotic were collected. It was found that it is difficult to detect the bands related to antibiotics in the magnetite/silver/antibiotic nanocomposite spectra due to their overlap by the broad carbon bands of magnetite nanopowder. Magnetic measurements revealed that magnetic saturation of the magnetite/silver/antibiotic nanocomposites decreased on 6-19 % in comparison with initial magnetite nanopowder. Pilot study of antimicrobial properties of the magnetite/silver/antibiotic nanocomposites were performed towards Bacillus pumilus.

  20. Synthesis and performance of antifouling and self-cleaning polyethersulfone/graphene oxide composite membrane functionalized with photoactive semiconductor catalyst.

    PubMed

    Dizge, Nadir; Gonuldas, Hakan; Ozay, Yasin; Ates, Hasan; Ocakoglu, Kasim; Harputlu, Ersan; Yildirimcan, Saadet; Unyayar, Ali

    2017-02-01

    This study was performed to synthesize membranes of polyethersulfone (PES) blended with graphene oxide (GO) and PES blended with GO functionalized with photoactive semiconductor catalyst (TiO2 and ZnO). The antifouling and self-cleaning properties of composite membranes were also investigated. The GO was prepared from natural graphite powder by oxidation method at low temperature. TiO2 and ZnO nanopowders were synthesized by anhydrous sol-gel method. The surface of TiO2 and ZnO nanopowders was modified by a surfactant (myristic acid) to obtain a homogeneously dispersed mixture in a solvent, and then GO was functionalized by loading with these metal oxide nanopowders. The PES membranes blended with GO and functionalized GO into the casting solution were prepared via phase inversion method and tested for their antifouling as well as self-cleaning properties. The composite membranes were synthesized as 14%wt. of PES polymer with three different concentrations (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0%wt.) of GO, GO-TiO2, and GO-ZnO. The functionalization of membranes improved hydrophilicity property of membranes as compared to neat PES membrane. However, the lowest flux was obtained by functionalized membranes with GO-TiO2. The results showed that functionalized membranes demonstrated better self-cleaning property than neat PES membrane. Moreover, the flux recovery rate of functionalized membranes over five cycles was higher than that of neat membrane.

  1. New Coll-HA/BT composite materials for hard tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Zanfir, Andrei Vlad; Voicu, Georgeta; Busuioc, Cristina; Jinga, Sorin Ion; Albu, Madalina Georgiana; Iordache, Florin

    2016-05-01

    The integration of ceramic powders in composite materials for bone scaffolds can improve the osseointegration process. This work was aimed to the synthesis and characterization of new collagen-hydroxyapatite/barium titanate (Coll-HA/BT) composite materials starting from barium titanate (BT) nanopowder, hydroxyapatite (HA) nanopowder and collagen (Coll) gel. BT nanopowder was produced by combining two wet-chemical approaches, sol-gel and hydrothermal methods. The resulting materials were characterized in terms of phase composition and microstructure by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, the biocompatibility and bioactivity of the composite materials were assessed by in vitro tests. The synthesized BT particles exhibit an average size of around 35 nm and a spherical morphology, with a pseudo-cubic or tetragonal symmetry. The diffraction spectra of Coll-HA and Coll-HA/BT composite materials indicate a pronounced interaction between Col and the mineral phases, meaning a good mineralization of Col fibres. As well, the in vitro tests highlight excellent osteoinductive properties for all biological samples, especially for Coll-HA/BT composite materials, fact that can be attributed to the ferromagnetic properties of BT.

  2. Synthesis of Er-doped Lu2O3 nanoparticles and transparent ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serivalsatit, K.; Wasanapiarnpong, T.; Kucera, C.; Ballato, J.

    2013-05-01

    Transparent rare earth-doped Lu2O3 ceramics have received much attention for use in solid-state scintillator and laser applications. The fabrication of these ceramics, however, requires ultrafine and uniform powders as precursors. Presented here is the synthesis of Er-doped Lu2O3 nanopowders by a solution precipitation method using Er-doped lutetium sulfate solution and hexamethylenetetramine as a precipitant and the fabrication of Er-doped Lu2O3 transparent ceramics from these nanopowders. The precipitated precursors were calcined at 1100 °C for 4 h in order to convert the precursors into Lu2O3 nanoparticles with an average particle size of 60 nm. Thermal decomposition and phase evolution of the precursors were studied by simultaneous thermal analysis (STA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Er-doped Lu2O3 transparent ceramics were fabricated from these nanopowders using vacuum sintering followed by hot isostatic pressing at 1700 °C for 8 h. The transparent ceramics exhibit an optical transmittance of 78% at a wavelength of 1.55 μm.

  3. Development of Nanomaterials for Nuclear Energetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrunin, V. F.

    Structure and properties peculiarities of the nanocrystalline powders give the opportunity to design new and to develop a modernization of nuclear energy industry materials. It was shown experimentally, that addition of 5-10% uranium dioxide nanocrystalline powder to traditional coarse powder allows to decrease the sintering temperature or to increase the fuel tablets size of grain. Similar perspectives for the technology of neutron absorbing tablets of control-rod modernization are shown by nanopowder of dysprosium hafnate changing instead now using boron carbide. It is powders in nanocrystalline state get an opportunity to sinter them and to receive compact tablet with 8,2-8,4 g/cm2 density for automatic defence system of nuclear reactor. Resource of dysprosium hafnate ceramics can be 18-20 years instead 4-5 years for boron carbide. To step up the radiation-damage stability of fuel element jacket material was suggested to strengthen a heat-resistant ferrite-martensite steel by Y2O3 nanocrystalline powder addition. Nanopowder with size of particles 560 nm and crystallite size 9 nm was prepeared by chemical coprecipitation method. To make lighter the container for transport and provisional disposal of exposed fuel from nuclear reactor a new boron-aluminium alloy called as boral was developed. This composite armed with nanopowders of boron-containing materials and heavy metals oxides can replace succesburnt-up corrosion-resistant steels.

  4. Evaluation of antibacterial properties of Barium Zirconate Titanate (BZT) nanoparticle.

    PubMed

    Mohseni, Simin; Aghayan, Mahdi; Ghorani-Azam, Adel; Behdani, Mohammad; Asoodeh, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    So far, the antibacterial activity of some organic and inorganic compounds has been studied. Barium zirconate titanate [Ba(ZrxTi₁-x)O₃] (x = 0.05) nanoparticle is an example of inorganic materials. In vitro studies have provided evidence for the antibacterial activity of this nanoparticle. In the current study, the nano-powder was synthesized by sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction showed that the powder was single-phase and had a perovskite structure at the calcination temperature of 1000 °C. Antibacterial activity of the desired nanoparticle was assessed on two gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus PTCC1431 and Micrococcus luteus PTCC1625) and two gram-negative (Escherichia coli HP101BA 7601c and clinically isolated Klebsiella pneumoniae) bacteria according to Radial Diffusion Assay (RDA). The results showed that the antibacterial activity of BZT nano-powder on both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria was acceptable. The minimum inhibitory concentration of this nano-powder was determined. The results showed that MIC values for E. coli, K. pneumoniae, M. luteus and S. aureus were about 2.3 μg/mL, 7.3 μg/mL, 3 μg/mL and 12 μg/mL, respectively. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was also evaluated and showed that the growth of E. coli, K. pneumoniae, M. luteus and S. aureus could be decreased at 2.3, 14, 3 and 18 μg/mL of BZT. Average log reduction in viable bacteria count in time-kill assay ranged between 6 Log₁₀ cfu/mL to zero after 24 h of incubation with BZT nanoparticle.

  5. Evaluation of antibacterial properties of Barium Zirconate Titanate (BZT) nanoparticle

    PubMed Central

    Mohseni, Simin; Aghayan, Mahdi; Ghorani-Azam, Adel; Behdani, Mohammad; Asoodeh, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    So far, the antibacterial activity of some organic and inorganic compounds has been studied. Barium zirconate titanate [Ba(ZrxTi1-x)O3] (x = 0.05) nanoparticle is an example of inorganic materials. In vitro studies have provided evidence for the antibacterial activity of this nanoparticle. In the current study, the nano-powder was synthesized by sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction showed that the powder was single-phase and had a perovskite structure at the calcination temperature of 1000 °C. Antibacterial activity of the desired nanoparticle was assessed on two gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus PTCC1431 and Micrococcus luteus PTCC1625) and two gram-negative (Escherichia coli HP101BA 7601c and clinically isolated Klebsiella pneumoniae) bacteria according to Radial Diffusion Assay (RDA). The results showed that the antibacterial activity of BZT nano-powder on both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria was acceptable. The minimum inhibitory concentration of this nano-powder was determined. The results showed that MIC values for E. coli, K. pneumoniae, M. luteus and S. aureus were about 2.3 μg/mL, 7.3 μg/mL, 3 μg/mL and 12 μg/mL, respectively. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was also evaluated and showed that the growth of E. coli, K. pneumoniae, M. luteus and S. aureus could be decreased at 2.3, 14, 3 and 18 μg/mL of BZT. Average log reduction in viable bacteria count in time-kill assay ranged between 6 Log10 cfu/mL to zero after 24 h of incubation with BZT nanoparticle. PMID:25763046

  6. Nanocrystalline Ce1- x La x O2- δ Solid Solutions Synthesized by Hydrolyzing and Oxidizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Xueling; Xue, Yun; Han, Ning; Lu, Qianqian; Wang, Xiaochen; Phan, Manh-Huong; Zhong, Yunbo

    2016-05-01

    We undertook a novel batch production approach for the synthesis of CeO2 nanopowders doped with rare earth elements. Solid solution nanopowders of Ce1- x La x O2- δ ( x = 0.15) were successfully synthesized in a large-scale and low-cost production by hydrolyzing and oxidizing Ce-La-C alloys at room temperature and subsequent calcining of their powders at different temperatures (873-1073 K) for 1 h. The Ce-La-C alloys were prepared in a vacuum induction melting furnace. The final products were characterized by x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Brunner-Emmet-Teller (BET) surface area analyzer, and Raman spectroscopy. The calculated lattice parameters of the cubic fluorite-type phase of CeO2 tended to increase when La3+ was incorporated into CeO2. The F 2g band shift and the absence of a peak corresponding to La2O3 in the Raman spectra consistently confirmed the incorporation of the La3+ ion into CeO2, and the formation of Ce1- x La x O2- δ solid solutions as manifested by increased oxygen vacancy defects. High-quality Ce1- x La x O2- δ nanopowders of ~10-15 nm diameter with a high BET surface area of ~77 m2 g-1 were obtained. The average crystallite size of Ce1- x La x O2- δ was found to be smaller than that of CeO2 for the same calcination temperature of 1073 K, demonstrating that the introduction of La3+ into CeO2 can stabilize the host lattice and refine the grain size at high temperatures.

  7. Application of magnetic iron-based nanosorbents for water cleaning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedeva, Irina; Bakhteeva, Iuliia; Revvo, Anastasya; Byzov, Ilya; Baerner, Klaus

    2014-05-01

    Iron-based magnetic nanopowders (Fe, γ-Fe2O3, γ-Fe3O4) are effective sorbents for the cleaning of water from heavy metal ions, radionuclides, organic and biological materials. The sorption capacity of the powder is defined by the specific surface which for particle diameter in nanosized range comes up to hundreds of m2/g. However, the small particle size creates difficulties to separate the solid phase from the water suspension using conventional mechanical filtration and sedimentation methods without additional reagents. If the nanoparticles have magnetic moments, their separation from aqueous solution can be enhanced in gradient magnetic fields. This will help to avoid a secondary water pollution by coagulants and flocculants. The sedimentation dynamics of the magnetite (Fe3O4) nanopowders with different particle sizes (10-100 nm) in water in gradient magnetic fields of different configurations ( radial and strip), with the strengths H = 0.5-6 kOe, and gradients up to dH/dz= 2 kOe/cm was studied by optical and by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) methods. . In the gravitation field the suspensions of the small particles (~ 10-20 nm) remain stable for over 20 hours. The sedimentation process can be greatly accelerated by the action of a vertical gradient magnetic field, and the sedimentation time is reduced down to several minutes. In a gradient magnetic field enhanced by a steel grid the sedimentation of the nanopowder (c0= 0.1 g/l) for 180 minutes resulted in the reduction of the iron concentration in water down to 0.4 mg/l. In the flowing water regime the residual iron concentration in water 0.3 mg/l is reached after 80 minutes. This corresponds to the hygienic and environmental standards for drinking water and fishery.

  8. Re-examination of safety parameters using kinetic theory of nano-granular flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouillard, Jacques Xavier; Marchal, Philippe; Henry, François; Vignes, Alexis; Dufaud, Olivier; Perrin, Laurent; Plasari, Edouard

    2011-07-01

    The origin of the kinetic theory of granular flow was originally credited to Bagnold [1]. By using a very primitive expression of the particle collision frequency, he derived an expression for the repulsive pressure of the particles in uniform shear flows. His repulsive pressure was proportional to the square of the velocity gradient and the particle diameter and directly proportional to the particle density. This theory was later extended by Savage [2] and Gidaspow [3]. Such theories provide insight on the dependence of the viscosity, and various moduli (elastic, non elastic, viscous...) in terms of the granular temperature and the associated shear-rates. Until recently, such parameters were difficult to measure because of the lack of specifically designed equipment. This challenge was successfully taken up and resolved by P. Marchal of ENSIC who designed a new rheometer for powders (figure 1). This equipment can put in evidence the importance of the granular temperature on the elastic and viscous behaviors of the granular flows. Such rheological behavior is important in risk analysis for nanopowders, because as the nanopowder may be subjected to process shear rates and stresses, its structural and topological changes, in terms of the transformation of agglomerates into primary nanoparticles, have strong impacts on emission factors of nanosized particles that can be released in the environment or into a workplace from such dense-phase nanopowder processes. Such transformation can be analyzed by studying the nano-granular rheological signature of the system. Such risk assessment approach using these new fundamental rheological safety parameters is described in this paper.

  9. Recent progress in the synthesis of magnetic titania/iron-based, composite nanoparticles manufactured by laser pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleaca, C. T.; Scarisoreanu, M.; Morjan, I.; Alexandrescu, R.; Dumitrache, F.; Luculescu, C.; Morjan, I. P.; Birjega, R.; Niculescu, A.-M.; Filoti, G.; Kuncser, V.; Vasile, E.; Danciu, V.; Popa, M.

    2014-05-01

    We report the continuous, single step synthesis of titania/iron-based magnetic nanocomposites in a single step using gas-phase laser pyrolysis technique by separately and simultaneously introducing the precursors (together with C2H4 sensitizer) in the reaction zone: Fe(CO)5 on the central flow and, using air as carrier, TiCl4 on the annular coflow. The laser power and, for the last experiment, the injection geometry were modified in order to change the Fe/Ti ratio in the resulted nanopowders. Due to the specific geometry, the reaction zone (visible as a flame) have a reductive inner central zone surrounded by and oxidative environment, allowing the formation of the metallic-carbidic iron and/or iron-doped titania and iron oxide nanophases. The raw Fe-containing nanopowders have a ferromagnetic behavior, those synthesized at higher laser power and gas velocities show significant saturation magnetization Ms values (10-12 emu/g), whereas those obtained (with higher yield and carbon content) at lower laser power and gas velocities (using wider central nozzle cross-section) have a very weak magnetization (Ms ∼ 0.05 emu/g) in spite of the higher ethylene carried Fe(CO)5 flow. The powders were annealed in air at 400 °C show lower carbon content and, for those highly Fe-doped, the hematite phase formation. Preliminary tests using UV light confirm the photocatalytic action of the annealed nanopowders in salicylic acid degradation process in solution.

  10. Influence of silicon and carbon excesses on the aqueous dispersion of SiC nanocrystals for optical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouclé, J.; Herlin-Boime, N.; Kassiba, A.

    2005-06-01

    The dispersion behaviour of laser-synthesized silicon carbide nanoparticles (npSiC) in water is investigated by photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS). With regard to previous studies and due to an application in the processing of optical materials, this paper concerns low npSiC contents (from 0.05 to 10 wt.%). The role played by the particle surface state is be pointed out through the consideration of stochiometric (C/Si = 1), carbon-rich (C/Si > 1) and silicon-rich (C/Si < 1) nanopowders. Suspensions made from stoichiometric and silicon-rich nanopowders are easily dispersed and stable with time. The PCS measurements reveal in this case more than 95% of isolated nanoparticles, pointing out the key role of the oxidized layer covering the grain of silicon-rich samples. At the opposite, the carbon-rich powders are hardly dispersed in pure water, correlated with the presence of a relatively inert graphitic carbon layer at the grain surface. However, by addition of a commercial polymeric dispersant, all nanopowders induce high quality suspensions. In particular, the carbon-rich samples are easily dispersed, and possible dispersion mechanisms of npSiC in presence of a polymeric surfactant are discussed. The influence of the npSiC loading and the time evolution of the suspension are also presented. By considering stoichiometric, as well as carbon- and silicon-rich samples, this paper demonstrates the possibility to achieve high quality dispersions of SiC nanoparticles, whatever the chemical composition of the powder, as an easy step for optical material processing.

  11. PCL-forsterite nanocomposite fibrous membranes for controlled release of dexamethasone.

    PubMed

    Kharaziha, Mahshid; Fathi, Mohammad Hossein; Edris, Hossein; Nourbakhsh, Nosrat; Talebi, Ardeshir; Salmanizadeh, Sharareh

    2015-01-01

    The well-known treatment of the alveolar bone defects is guided tissue regeneration (GTR). Engineered membranes combined with osteo-differentiation factors have been offered a promising strategy for GTR application. Recently, poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)-forsterite (PCL-F) nanocomposite fibrous membranes have been developed. However, PCL-F membranes could not promote bone tissue regeneration. The aim of this research is to encapsulate an osteogenic factor [dexamethasone (DEX)] in PCL-F membranes and evaluate the effects of forsterite nanopowder (particle size = 25-45 nm) and fiber organization on DEX delivery for GTR application. The hypothesis is that the release kinetic and profile of DEX could be controlled through variation of forsterite content (0, 5 and 10 wt%) and fiber arrangement (aligned and random). Results demonstrated while DEX release was sustained over a period of 4 weeks, its kinetic was governed by the membrane architecture and composition. For example, aligned PCL-F nanocomposite fibrous membrane consisting of 10 %(w/v) forsterite nanopowder exhibited the least initial burst release (13 % release in the first 12 h) and allowed sustained release of DEX. Additionally, forsterite nanopowder inclusion changed the kinetic of DEX release from Fickian diffusion to an anomalous transport. The bioactivity of released DEX was estimated using culturing the stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) on the membranes. Results demonstrated that proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of SHED could be governed by DEX release process. While DEX release from the membranes decreased SHED proliferation, stimulated the matrix mineralization. Our finding indicated that aligned PCL-F/DEX membrane could be used as a carrier for the sustained release of drugs relevant for GTR trophy.

  12. Facile one step synthesis of novel TiO2 nanocoral by sol-gel method using Aloe vera plant extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesh, K. S.; Krishnamoorthi, S. R.; Palani, N. S.; Thirumal, V.; Jose, Sujin P.; Wang, Fu-Ming; Ilangovan, R.

    2015-05-01

    Titanium oxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by sol gel method using Aloe vera plant extract as a biological capping agent and a cauliflower-nanocoral morphology was observed in this technique. The assynthesized TiO2 nanopowder was calcined at a range of temperatures (300-600 °C) for 1 h. The influence of A. vera plant extract on the thermal, structural and morphological properties of TiO2 nanopowder was evaluated. Thermogravimetric analysis/differential thermal analysis was employed to study the thermal properties of the assynthesized TiO2 nanopowder. The crystallinity, phase transformation and the crystallite size of the calcined samples were studied by X-ray diffraction technique. XRD result confirmed the presence of TiO2 with anatase phase. FT Raman spectra showed the Raman active modes pertaining to the TiO2 anatase phase and Raman band shift was also observed with respect to particle size variation. The different functional group vibrations of as dried pure A. vera plant extract were compared with the mixture of TiO2 and A. vera plant extract by FT-IR analysis. The scanning electron microscopy images apparently showed the formation of spherical shaped NPs and also it demonstrated the effect of A. vera plant extract on the reduction of particles size. The surface area of the TiO2 NPs was measured through Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis. Transmission electron microscopy images ascertained that the spherical shaped TiO2 NPs were formed with cauliflower-nanocoral morphology decorated with nanopolyps with the size range between 15 and 30 nm.

  13. Structural, morphological and steady state photoluminescence spectroscopy studies of red Eu(3+)-doped Y2O3 nanophosphors prepared by the sol-gel method.

    PubMed

    Lamiri, Lyes; Guerbous, Lakhdar; Samah, Madani; Boukerika, Allaoua; Ouhenia, Salim

    2015-12-01

    Europium trivalent (Eu(3+))-doped Y2O3 nanopowders of different concentrations (0.5, 2.5, 5 or 7 at.%) were synthesized by the sol-gel method, at different pH values (pH 2, 5 or 8) and annealing temperatures (600 °C, 800 °C or 1000 °C). The nanopowders samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and steady state photoluminescence spectroscopy. The effect of pH of solution and annealing temperatures on structural, morphological and photoluminescence properties of Eu(3+)-doped Y2O3 were studied and are discussed. It was found that the average crystallite size of the nanopowders increased with increasing pH and annealing temperature values. The Y2O3:Eu(3+) material presented different morphology and its evolution depended on the pH value and the annealing temperature. Activation energies at different pH values were determined and are discussed. Under ultraviolet (UV) light excitation, Y2O3:Eu(3+) showed narrow emission peaks corresponding to the (5)D0- (7) FJ (J = 0, 1, 2 and 3) transitions of the Eu(3+) ion, with the most intense red emission at 611 assigned to forced electric dipole (5)D0 → (7)F2. The emission intensity became more intense with increasing annealing temperature and pH values, related to the improvement of crystalline quality. For the 1000 °C annealing temperature, the emission intensity presented a maximum at pH 5 related to the uniform cubic-shaped particles. It was found that for lower annealing temperatures (small crystallite size) the CTB (charge transfer band) position presented a red shift.

  14. Zr doped anatase supported reticulated ceramic foams for photocatalytic water purification

    SciTech Connect

    Plesch, G.; Vargová, M.; Vogt, U.F.; Gorbár, M.; Jesenák, K.

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: ► Thick photocatalytic anatase films on macroporous reticulated ceramic foams. ► Alumina and alumina–mullite macroporous reticulated foams as photocatalyst support. ► Zr doping significantly improves the TiO{sub 2} film activity in phenol photomineralization. ► Comparison of photocatalytic activity of thick films and powder suspensions. -- Abstract: Titanium dioxide films were deposited on macroporous reticulated Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and alumina–mullite foams with pore sizes of 15 ppi (pores per inch). Coatings were prepared from suspensions of precursor powders of Aeroxide{sup ®} P25 nanopowder and precipitated TiO{sub 2} by using a dip coating process. The TiO{sub 2} forms films with a thickness of ∼2–20 μm. The photocatalytic activity was characterized as the mineralization rate of an aqueous phenol solution under UVA irradiation by the TOC technique. Precipitated TiO{sub 2} films have nearly the same photocatalytic activity as a titania suspension, in which powder aggregates have a size comparable with the thickness of the films. Samples made of Aeroxide{sup ®} P25 nanopowder, in which the size of aggregates is ∼0.1 μm show higher efficiency of photodecomposition in suspensions with films. The doping of precipitated anatase with Zr(IV) in the atomic ratio Zr/Ti = 0.008 significantly improves the photocatalytic activity of the foam supported titania. Zr doped anatase films show better performance as the films prepared only from Aeroxide{sup ®} P25 nanopowder.

  15. Morphology and electrochemical behavior of Ag-Cu nanoparticle-doped amalgams.

    PubMed

    Chung, Kwok-Hung; Hsiao, Li-Yin; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Duh, Jenq-Gong

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this study was to introduce Ag-Cu phase nanopowder as an additive to improve the corrosion behavior of dental amalgams. A novel Ag-Cu nanopowder was synthesized by the precipitation method. An amalgam alloy powder (World-Cap) was added and mixed with 5 wt.% and 10 wt.% of Ag-Cu nanopowders, respectively, to form experimental amalgam alloy powders. The original alloy powder was used as a control. Alloy powders were examined using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalysis. Amalgam disk specimens of metallurgically prepared were tested in 0.9% NaCl solution using electrochemical methods. The changes in the corrosion potential and anodic polarization characteristics were determined. Corrosion potential data were analyzed statistically (n=3, analysis of variance, Tukey's test, p<0.05). The diameters of lamellar structure Ag-Cu nanoparticles were measured to be approximately 30 nm. The composition of the Ag-Cu nanoparticles determined by TEM-energy-dispersive spectroscopy was 56.28 at.% Ag-43.72 at.% Cu. A light-shaded phase was found mixing with dark Cu-Sn reaction particles in the reaction zones of Ag-Cu nanoparticle-doped amalgams. The Ag-Cu nanoparticle-doped amalgams exhibited zero current potentials more positive than the control (p<0.05) and no current peak was observed at -325mV that related to Ag-Hg phase and Cu6Sn5 phase in anodic polarization curves. The results indicated that the corrosion resistance of high-copper single-composition amalgam could be improved by Ag-Cu nanoparticle-doping.

  16. Luminescence of Y3Al5O12:Eu3+ nanophosphors in blood and organic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesnikov, I. E.; Povolotskiy, A. V.; Tolstikova, D. V.; Manshina, A. A.; Mikhailov, M. D.

    2015-02-01

    Lanthanide-doped nanoparticles characterized by their large Stokes’ shifts, narrow emission bands, long lifetimes and high photostability are promising candidates for luminescent labels in biological research. That is why investigation of lanthanide-doped nanoparticles’ fluorescence in complex biological media (like blood and Intralipid) is of great importance from the standpoint of applicability in medicine and biology. Nanopowder of yttrium aluminum garnet doped with Eu3+ was synthesized by the Pechini method. X-ray diffraction data demonstrated formation of cubic crystalline phase without any impurities. The synthesized sample was found to be well-defined 20-50 nm nanoparticles agglomerated to clusters no bigger than 200 nm in diameter. The emission spectrum of nanocrystalline powder consists of characteristic narrow lines attributed to 5D0-7FJ transitions. It was found that the long lifetime of 5D0 level (4.13 ms) allows using time-resolved techniques to eliminate fluorescence of the biological background. The possibility of the luminescence signal detection of Y3Al5O12:Eu3+ nanopowder (0.14 mg per 1 ml) against the background of blood auto-luminescence was demonstrated. Y3Al5O12:Eu3+ phosphors luminescence in blood media showed timing stability whereas fluorescein luminescence dropped down by a factor of 3 after 20 min. It was found that the luminescence signal of Y3Al5O12:Eu3+ phosphors could be detected through 5 mm of biological tissue. The possibility of independent registration of nanopowders doped with different REI-ions (Eu3+ and Nd3+) was investigated.

  17. Chemical Processing of Nanostructured Coatings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    synthesis conditions, coatings, porous solids, powders, fibers, bulk materials may be prepared. From solution, coatings may be applied to a substrate, or...fibers may be drawn if the viscosity of the sol is high enough. If the sol is allowed to start to gel, a porous solid or a powder can be formed from...the gel. The porous solid or nanopowder can also be used as a starting material for some coating techniques. There are many types of sol-gel coatings

  18. Structure Formation and Properties of Weld Overlay Produced by Laser Cladding under the Influence of Nanoparticles of High-melting Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murzakov, M.; Petrovskiy, V.; Birukov, V.; Dzhumaev, P.; Polski, V.; Markushov, Y.; Bykovskiy, D.

    Researches of flat samples using laser cladding technology were carried out. Nickel-based powders with the addition of nanopowders of tantalum carbide and tungsten carbide with water-based hydroxyethylcellulose as the binder, were used for slip cladding. Powders are fused on under local argon protection. The experiments were carried out to determine minimal base metal penetration depth, microhardness distribution over cross section of substrate and deposited layers, enrichment level of cladding metal with base components depending on power density and deposition rate. Metallographic studies of obtained overlays were conducted using a high-precision analytical equipment.

  19. Developing porous ceramics on the base of zirconia oxide with thin and permeable pores by crystallization of organic additive method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamyshnaya, K. S.; Khabas, T. A.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper porous ceramics on the base of ZrO2 nanopowders and micropowders has been developed by freeze-casting method. A zirconia/carbamide slurry was frozen in mold and dehydrated in CaCl2 at room temperature. This simple process enabled the formation of porous ceramics with highly aligned pores as a replica of the carbamide crystals. The samples showed higher porosity of 47.9%. In addition, these materials could be used as membrane for air cleaning.

  20. The influence of restricted geometry of diamagnetic nanoporous media on 3He relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alakshin, E. M.; Gazizulin, R. R.; Zakharov, M. Yu.; Klochkov, A. V.; Morozov, E. V.; Salikhov, T. M.; Safin, T. R.; Safiullin, K. R.; Tagirov, M. S.; Shabanova, O. B.

    2015-01-01

    This is an experimental study of the spin kinetics of 3He in contact with diamagnetic samples of inverse opals SiO2, and LaF3 nanopowder. It is demonstrated that the nuclear magnetic relaxation of the absorbed 3He occurs due to the modulation of dipole-dipole interaction by the quantum motion in the two-dimensional film. It is found that the relaxation of liquid 3He occurs through a spin diffusion to the absorption layer, and that the restricted geometry of diamagnetic nanoporous media has an influence on the 3He relaxation.

  1. Nano powders, components and coatings by plasma technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKechnie, Timothy N. (Inventor); Antony, Leo V. M. (Inventor); O'Dell, Scott (Inventor); Power, Chris (Inventor); Tabor, Terry (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Ultra fine and nanometer powders and a method of producing same are provided, preferably refractory metal and ceramic nanopowders. When certain precursors are injected into the plasma flame in a reactor chamber, the materials are heated, melted and vaporized and the chemical reaction is induced in the vapor phase. The vapor phase is quenched rapidly to solid phase to yield the ultra pure, ultra fine and nano product. With this technique, powders have been made 20 nanometers in size in a system capable of a bulk production rate of more than 10 lbs/hr. The process is particularly applicable to tungsten, molybdenum, rhenium, tungsten carbide, molybdenum carbide and other related materials.

  2. Nanoparticles of spinel and perovskite ferromagnets and prospects for their application in medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Belous, A. G. E-mail: solopan@ukr.net Solopan, S. O. E-mail: solopan@ukr.net Yelenich, O. V. E-mail: solopan@ukr.net; Tovstolytkin, A. I.; Kolodiazhnyi, T. V.; Osinsky, S. P. E-mail: bybnovskayal@ukr.net; Bubnovskaya, L. N. E-mail: bybnovskayal@ukr.net

    2014-11-05

    In this work, nanoparticles of La{sub 0.75}Sr{sub 0.25}MnO{sub 3} compounds with perovskite structure and AFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (A = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn) with spinel structure have been synthesized by precipitation from diethylene glycol and microemulsion using Triton X-100 surfactant. Comparative X-ray diffraction and magnetic studies of the synthesized nanoparticles have been carried out. Magnetic fluids prepared from synthesized nanopowders have been characterized by calorimetric measurements of specific loss power (SLP)

  3. Synthesis, morphology and optical properties of LaFeO{sub 3} nanospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, R. Dhinesh; Jayavel, R.

    2014-04-24

    LaFeO{sub 3} nanospheres have been successively synthesized via hydrothermal method. Structural, morphological and optical properties of the prepared nanopowder were analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy. The UV–Vis shows strong absorption at 475 nm which has excellent visible light absorption ability. Band gap energy of the prepared nanosphere was found to be 2.60 eV. The results indicate that the LaFeO{sub 3} nanospheres prepared by this method could be a kind of photocatalytic material.

  4. Visible luminescence from triethanolamine-modified zinc oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karak, N.; Barik, P.; Kundu, T. K.

    2013-06-01

    We report sol-gel synthesis of ZnO NPs in support of Triethanolamine (TEA) molecules. The particle sizes lie in the range of 23 nm - 43 nm. The blue-shift in absorption spectra for all powders is attributed to the quantum confinement effect. ZnO nanopowder annealed at higher temperature shows an enhanced visible luminescence. In comparison, ZnO specimens having large grain size which are prepared without using TEA do not show any emission with significant intensity. An energy band diagram of nanostructured ZnO specimens explains the luminescence results.

  5. Structures Formation on the Y-TZP-AI2O3 Ceramic Composites Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkov, Sergei; Sevostyanova, Irina; Sablina, Tatiana; Buyakova, Svetlana; Pshenichnyy, Artem; Savchenko, Nickolai

    2016-07-01

    The paper discusses the structure of Y-TZP-Al2O3 ceramics produced from nanopowders and friction surface, wear resistance, friction coefficient of Y-TZP-AEO3 composites rubbed against a steel disk counterface at a pressure of 5 MPa in a range of sliding speeds from 0.2 to 47 m/s. Analysis by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy showed that the high wear resistance of Y-TZP-Al2O3 composites at high sliding speeds is due to high-temperature phase transitions and protective film formation on the friction surface.

  6. Re{sup 3+} : YAG laser ceramics: synthesis, optical properties and laser characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Bagayev, S N; Vatnik, S M; Vedin, I A; Kurbatov, P F; Osipov, V V; Shitov, V A; Luk'yashin, K E; Maksimov, R N; Solomonov, V I; Shteinberg, I Sh; Tverdokhleb, P E

    2015-05-31

    Highly transparent yttrium aluminium garnet ceramics doped with holmium or ytterbium or neodymium are synthesised. The ceramics were made of a mixture of nanopowders synthesised by laser ablation. The structural and spectral characteristics of ceramics are studied. In the samples with holmium Ho{sup 3+} and neodymium Nd{sup 3+} ions, lasing was achieved with a slope efficiency of 40% and 35.3%, respectively; the maximum laser power exceeded 4 W. The internal absorption and scattering losses for 1% Nd : YAG ceramics are estimated to be 1.6 × 10{sup -2} cm{sup -1}. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  7. Oxidation of fine aluminum powders with water and air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antipina, S. A.; Zmanovskii, S. V.; Gromov, A. A.; Konovalov, A. S.

    2017-01-01

    Fine aluminum powders (RA20-RA60 grades, SUAL-PM) with specific surface area from 0.37 to 0.73 m2/g and high aluminum contents (95-98 wt %) are studied. The powders are found to be waterwettable without additions of surfactants and characterized by high rates of gas liberation in reacting with a calcium hydroxide solution under normal conditions. All RA20-RA60 powders are shown to be highly reactive upon oxidation with air and close to aluminum nanopowders in the parameters of their activity when heated in air. Their stability in water could prevent active (metallic) aluminum losses during their storage.

  8. Fullerene Derivatives and Aluminum-based Nanothermites as Potential New Ammunition Primers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    infrared (785 nm) as well as green light (540.5 nm) and blue light (488 nm) at intensities as low as 100W/cm2. The fullerene derivative compound that...with a blue laser (445 nm) at a power of 1.7W. The results are identical for both samples. There is no propagation of the ignition outside the area...the specifications of the supplier. Among the different types of metal oxide nanopowders available, copper oxide (CuO), molybdenum oxide (MoO3) and

  9. Nano-CuFe2O4 as a magnetically separable and reusable catalyst for the synthesis of diaryl/aryl alkyl sulfides via cross-coupling process under ligand-free conditions.

    PubMed

    Swapna, Kokkirala; Murthy, Sabbavarapu Narayana; Jyothi, Mocharla Tarani; Nageswar, Yadavalli Venkata Durga

    2011-09-07

    An efficient protocol was developed for the CuFe(2)O(4) nanopowder-catalyzed aryl-sulfur bond formation between aryl halide and thiol/disulfide. A variety of aryl sulfides were synthesized in impressive yields with good chemoselectivity and functional group tolerance in the presence of a catalytic amount of CuFe(2)O(4), Cs(2)CO(3) as base, in nitrogen atmosphere, under ligand-free conditions, in DMSO as solvent at 100 °C. The catalyst is air-stable, inexpensive, magnetically separable and recyclable up to four cycles.

  10. Effects of several nano-carbon materials on the microstructure and properties of copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huanchao; Wu, Xiangwei; Geng, Haoran; Teng, Xinying

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, copper matrix composites reinforced by nano-carbon materials were fabricated by mechanical alloying followed by cold-pressing. The influences of carbon nano-tubes, graphene, carbon nano-powder, the added content of nano-carbon and milling time on the composite materials were studied with orthogonal experiment method. Ultimately, the results indicate that the combined optimum condition are: additive graphene, added content 0.1 wt.%, milling time 4 h. When the optimum paramenters have been used, the hardness of the sample is 41.17 HB, IACS is 83.62%, the thermal conductivity is 292 W(m · k)‑1.

  11. Control of Particle Size and Morphology of Cobalt-Ferrite Nanoparticles by Salt-Matrix during Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizi, A.; Sadrnezhaad, S. K.; Mostafavi, M.

    Salt-matrix annealing of mechanically alloyed Co-ferrite nanopowder was used to modify its particle size and morphology. Efficiency improvement due to suppression of sintering and growth resulted in reduction of average particle size from 100nm for salt-less to 40nm for salt-full annealing procedure. Nanosized single-phase cobalt-ferrite particles were observed after 2h annealing at 750°C in the samples milled for 20 hours both with and without NaCl. NaCl:CoFe2O4 ratio of 10:1 resulted in cabbage-like clusters containing particles smaller than 50 nm.

  12. Nano powders, components and coatings by plasma technique

    DOEpatents

    McKechnie, Timothy N.; Antony, Leo V. M.; O'Dell, Scott; Power, Chris; Tabor, Terry

    2009-11-10

    Ultra fine and nanometer powders and a method of producing same are provided, preferably refractory metal and ceramic nanopowders. When certain precursors are injected into the plasma flame in a reactor chamber, the materials are heated, melted and vaporized and the chemical reaction is induced in the vapor phase. The vapor phase is quenched rapidly to solid phase to yield the ultra pure, ultra fine and nano product. With this technique, powders have been made 20 nanometers in size in a system capable of a bulk production rate of more than 10 lbs/hr. The process is particularly applicable to tungsten, molybdenum, rhenium, tungsten carbide, molybdenum carbide and other related materials.

  13. Biomechanical characteristics of polymeric UHMWPE composites with hybrid matrix and dispersed fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panin, Sergey; Kornienko, Lyudmila; Shilko, Sergey; Thuc, Nguyen Xuan; Korchagin, Mikhail; Chaikina, Marina

    2015-11-01

    In order to develop artificial joint implants some biomechanical properties of composites with UHMWPE and hybrid (polymer-polymeric) "UHMWPE+PTFE" matrix with dispersed fillers were studied. A comparative analysis of the effectiveness of adding hydroxyapatite micron- and nanopowders as a biocompatible filler was carried out. It was shown that under dry sliding friction the wear rate of nanocomposites with the hybrid matrix is lower as compared with composites with the non-hybrid one. Mechanical activation of components further enhances the durability of nano- and microcomposites to almost double it without any significant reduction in the strength characteristics.

  14. Luminescent properties of alumina ceramics doped with chromium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kortov, V.; Kiryakov, A.; Pustovarov, V.

    2016-08-01

    Ceramics doped with chromium oxide were synthesized from alumina nanopowder at high heating and cooling rates. XRD analysis of the obtained samples shows that they consist mainly of Al2O3 α-phase. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra in the visible spectral region and thermoluminescence (TL) curves were measured. An effect of the dopant concentration on the intensity and shape of the PL bands as well as on the TL yield was found. Annealing of the quenching defects which emerged during the synthesis changed the PL spectra. The centers responsible for PL and TL in the synthesized ceramics were identified.

  15. Effect of mechanical milling on photoluminescence of gamma-alumina nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jinsong; Liu, Shufeng; Wang, Lidan; Fan, Yi; Zhang, Ligong; Zhang, Peiping; An, Linan

    2008-03-01

    The effect of mechanical alloying on the photoluminescence behavior of gamma-Al2O3 nanopowder was studied. Two emission peaks centered at 343 and 378 nm and a broad emission band ranging between 400-600 nm have been observed. It is found that the intensity of the two emission peaks decreases with ball-milling time, while that the broad band remains un-change. These results suggested that the two peaks are resulted from the surface defects that analogs of F+ centers, while the broad band is resulted from impurity.

  16. Efficient lasing in Yb:(YLa){sub 2}O{sub 3} ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Snetkov, I L; Mukhin, I B; Palashov, O V; Balabanov, S S; Permin, D A

    2015-02-28

    A high-optical-quality sample of Yb{sub 0.1}Y{sub 1.7}La{sub 0.2}O{sub 3} ceramics is prepared using a recently developed technique of selfpropagating high-temperature synthesis of rare-earth-doped yttrium oxide nanopowder from acetate – nitrates of metals. Its optical and spectral characteristics are studied, and quasi-cw lasing at a wavelength of 1033 nm is achieved with a power of 7 W and a slope efficiency of 25%. (lasers)

  17. IEEE Sensors 2004 Conference

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-10-27

    simulate real world conditions it is open to the environment where laboratory air is pulled through a large PVC pipe in which the CWA simulants (DCP...sensors based on nanoparticle W03 thick films They used commercial W03 nanopowder from Aldrich, this was mixed with InCl3 or BiCI3 and screen printed onto...through a large PVC pipe in which the CWA simulants each stage. In the first stage we wish to eliminate any con- (DCP (I,5-dichloropentane) - mustard

  18. Reversible switching of room temperature ferromagnetism in CeO2-Co nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacanell, J.; Paulin, M. A.; Ferrari, V.; Garbarino, G.; Leyva, A. G.

    2012-04-01

    We investigated the reversible ferromagnetic (FM) behavior of pure and Co doped CeO2 nanopowders. The as-sintered samples displayed an increasing paramagnetic contribution upon Co doping. Room temperature FM is obtained simply by performing thermal treatments in vacuum at temperatures as low as 500 °C and it can be switched off by performing thermal treatments in oxidizing conditions. The FM contribution is enhanced as we increase the time of the thermal treatment in vacuum. Those systematic experiments establish a direct relation between ferromagnetism and oxygen vacancies and open a path for developing materials with tailored properties.

  19. Synthesis of YSZ@Ni Nanoparticle by Modified Electroless Plating Process.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ping; Zheng, Haizhong; Li, Guifa; Xiong, Lingling; Luo, Qinhao

    2015-12-01

    Ni-YSZ (Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2) composites with core-shell structure (YSZ@Ni) were produced by modified electroless plating process. It was found that YSZ nanoparticles were well encapsulated by nickel powders at 65 degrees C with pH = 12. The spherical nanopowders had core-shell structure and the shell layer was less than 20 nm. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis inferred the production was composed of YSZ and Ni crystals. In the end, the formation mechanism was discussed.

  20. Enhancing figure-of-merit of n-type Bi2Te3-xSex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xiao; Yang, Jian; Ma, Yi; Poudel, Bed; Lan, Yucheng; Wang, Dezhi; Ren, Zhifeng; Hao, Qing; Chen, Gang

    2008-03-01

    Themoelectric materials with high dimensionless figure-of-merit (ZT) are greatly demanded in energy industry, among which bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) exhibits decent ZT around room temperature. However, thermal conductivity of Bi2Te3 is still high which limits its wider use for low temperature cooling devices. Here we investigate nanostructured bulk n-type Bi2Te3-xSex by reducing the thermal conductivity via increased phonon scattering of the significantly increased grain boundaries due to nano size grains. We first make alloyed nanopowders by mechanical alloying a mixture of elements with the right ratio and then 100% nanostructured samples by hot press.

  1. Nanocomposite scintillator, detector, and method

    DOEpatents

    Cooke, D. Wayne; McKigney, Edward A.; Muenchausen, Ross E.; Bennett, Bryan L.

    2009-04-28

    A compact includes a mixture of a solid binder and at least one nanopowder phosphor chosen from yttrium oxide, yttrium tantalate, barium fluoride, cesium fluoride, bismuth germanate, zinc gallate, calcium magnesium pyrosilicate, calcium molybdate, calcium chlorovanadate, barium titanium pyrophosphate, a metal tungstate, a cerium doped nanophosphor, a bismuth doped nanophosphor, a lead doped nanophosphor, a thallium doped sodium iodide, a doped cesium iodide, a rare earth doped pyrosilicate, or a lanthanide halide. The compact can be used in a radiation detector for detecting ionizing radiation.

  2. Nanostructured lead sulfide: synthesis, structure and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadovnikov, S. I.; Gusev, A. I.; Rempel, A. A.

    2016-07-01

    The theoretical and experimental results of recent studies dealing with nanostructured lead sulfide are summarized and analyzed. The key methods for the synthesis of nanostructured lead sulfide are described. The crystal structure of PbS in nanopowders and nanofilms is discussed. The influence of the size of nanostructure elements on the optical and thermal properties of lead sulfide is considered. The dependence of the band gap of PbS on the nanoparticle (crystallite) size for powders and films is illustrated. The bibliography includes 222 references.

  3. Novel synthesis of copper nanoparticles: influence of the synthesis conditions on the particle size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Haitao; Zhang, Canying; Yin, Yansheng

    2005-12-01

    This paper presents a novel method for the preparation of copper nanoparticles by reducing CuSO4 with hydrazine in ethylene glycol under microwave irradiation. The influences of reaction parameters such as molar ratios of N2H4·H2O /CuSO4 and NaOH/CuSO4, heating method and reaction temperature on the particle size and composition of powder were investigated by x-ray diffractometry (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and particle size analysis. Well-dispersed copper nanopowder with a diameter of about 15 nm was obtained in the absence of a protective polymer.

  4. Investigation of lasing characteristics of domestic Yb : YAG laser ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snetkov, I. L.; Palashov, O. V.; Osipov, V. V.; Mukhin, I. B.; Maksimov, R. N.; Shitov, V. A.; Luk'yashin, K. E.

    2016-07-01

    We report on the synthesis and laser characteristics of Yb3+-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Y3Al5O12) optical ceramics. The ceramics was produced by solid-phase reactive sintering of a mixture of Yb (5 at %) : Y2O3 and Al2O3 nanopowders synthesised by laser ablation, using additional calcination of the mixture before compaction. In a thin disk geometry, multiwatt laser oscillation was obtained at a wavelength of 1030 nm with a power of 5.2 W and a slope efficiency of 37.0% at a pump pulse period-toduration ratio of 5.72.

  5. A novel route for processing cobalt–chromium–molybdenum orthopaedic alloys

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Bhairav; Inam, Fawad; Reece, Mike; Edirisinghe, Mohan; Bonfield, William; Huang, Jie; Angadji, Arash

    2010-01-01

    Spark plasma sintering has been used for the first time to prepare the ASTM F75 cobalt–chromium–molybdenum (Co–Cr–Mo) orthopaedic alloy composition using nanopowders. In the preliminary work presented in this report, the effect of processing variables on the structural features of the alloy (phases present, grain size and microstructure) has been investigated. Specimens of greater than 99.5 per cent theoretical density were obtained. Carbide phases were not detected in the microstructure but oxides were present. However, harder materials with finer grains were produced, compared with the commonly used cast/wrought processing methods, probably because of the presence of oxides in the microstructure. PMID:20200035

  6. Influence of nanofillers on the quality of CO2 laser drilling in vinylester/glass using Orthogonal Array Experiments and Grey Relational Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagesh, S.; Narasimha Murthy, H. N.; Pal, Ratna; Krishna, M.; Satyanarayana, B. S.

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents the influence of nanofillers on the CO2 laser drilling of vinylester/glass based on L9 Orthogonal Array Experiments and Grey Relational Analysis. Three nanofillers such as nickel nanopowder, carbon black and Closite 15-A were studied. Multiple responses such as Damage Width, Surface Damage Width and Taper Angle were optimised using the Grey-Taguchi method for laser power, cutting speed, air pressure and nanofiller content. Heat affected zone along with char due to the complete burning of the matrix was largest and caving through the depth of the hole was observed in vinylester/glass. Nickel nanopowder effectively reduced the heat affected zone and improved the quality of the hole due to the absence of char. Closite 15-A reduced the surface damage and the char was thicker and distributed as globules. Carbon black caused greater surface damage at the entry of the hole due to the burning of the fibres and very thin char covered the fibres through the length of the hole. Regression models were developed to predict the laser drilling responses.

  7. Surface modified TiO2 nanostructure with 3D urchin-like morphology for dye-sensitized solar cell application.

    PubMed

    Shin, Seong Sik; Kim, Dong Wook; Lee, Sangwook; Cho, In-Sun; Kim, Dong Hoe; Park, Jong Hoon; Hong, Kug Sun

    2012-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) urchin-like rutile TiO2 powders were synthesized by a mild hydrothermal method without any templates. An individual urchin-like TiO2 powder consists of self-assembled nanorods with a length of about 150 nm and width of about 10 nm. Additionally, the urchin-like TiO2 nanopowders were coated with an ultra-thin ZnO layer in order to modify the surface properties of the nanopowders, and the ZnO layer was confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The ZnO-modified TiO2 was used as a photoelectrode of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) and the solar cell performances were investigated. In comparison with bare TiO2, ZnO-modified TiO2 improved the photovoltaic performances, i.e., energy conversion efficiency, open circuit voltage, and short circuit current were increased. The higher DSSC performance of ZnO-modified TiO2 was attributed to its higher dye loading and lower charge recombination rate.

  8. Effect of co-solvent on structural and morphological properties of ZnO aerogel prepared by a modified sol-gel process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meddouri, Malaaz; Djouadi, Djamel; Chelouche, Azeddine; Touam, Tahar; Chergui, Abdelhamid

    2014-04-01

    Nanocrystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) aerogel powders were synthesized using a modified sol-gel process. Ethanol, acetone and methanol were used as supercritical drying fluids. Effects of co-solvent on morphological and structural properties were investigated. The as prepared powders were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The XRD results show that drying in solvents mixture affects the crystalline quality and acts as a compression agent by exerting stress on the lattice parameters. SEM micrographs demonstrate that co-solvent plays a key role in controlling ZnO nucleation and favors the particles agglomeration with increasing the pressure and the temperature. The EDAX analysis shows that the obtained ZnO nanopowder with ethanol and acetone as co-solvent is pure with different stoichiometries (an excess of oxygen (O) with ethanol and zinc (Zn) atoms with acetone). However, when methanol is used as supercritical drying fluid, the obtained nanopowder contains an excess of carbon (C) atoms. FTIR absorption bands are more intense for aerogel synthesized by drying in methanol indicating the presence of more C-H bounds responsible of the low rate agglomeration of the ZnO crystallites.

  9. Applying Nanoscale Kirkendall Diffusion for Template-Free, Kilogram-Scale Production of SnO2 Hollow Nanospheres via Spray Drying System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Jung Sang; Ju, Hyeon Seok; Kang, Yun Chan

    2016-04-01

    A commercially applicable and simple process for the preparation of aggregation-free metal oxide hollow nanospheres is developed by applying nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion to a large-scale spray drying process. The precursor powders prepared by spray drying are transformed into homogeneous metal oxide hollow nanospheres through a simple post-treatment process. Aggregation-free SnO2 hollow nanospheres are selected as the first target material for lithium ion storage applications. Amorphous carbon microspheres with uniformly dispersed Sn metal nanopowder are prepared in the first step of the post-treatment process under a reducing atmosphere. The post-treatment of the Sn-C composite powder at 500 °C under an air atmosphere produces carbon- and aggregation-free SnO2 hollow nanospheres through nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion. The hollow and filled SnO2 nanopowders exhibit different cycling performances, with their discharge capacities after 300 cycles being 643 and 280 mA h g‑1, respectively, at a current density of 2 A g‑1. The SnO2 hollow nanospheres with high structural stability exhibit superior cycling and rate performances for lithium ion storage compared to the filled ones.

  10. Fabrication and Spark plasma sintering of nanostructured bismuth telluride (Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3})

    SciTech Connect

    Saleemi, Mohsin; Toprak, Muhammet S.; Li, Shanghua; Johnsson, Mats; Muhammed, Mamoun

    2012-06-26

    Thermoelectric (TE) devices can harvest residual low-grade waste heat energy. Bismuth telluride (Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}) and its alloys are mostly used TE materials in the bulk form for making TE modules. We report a simple, fast and very high yield synthetic process for the bulk Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanopowders with hexagonal plate like morphology. Spark plasma sintering (SPS) process has been optimized in order to preserve nanostructure while achieving a high compaction density of the pellets. Electron microscopy analysis was used to determine the effect of SPS parameters during compaction on the grain growth. Optimal conditions for the fabricated nanopowder was determined as 673 K, 70 MPa pressure with no holding time, which resulted in average lateral grain size in the range of 165-190 nm for a compact density of 98%. About 50% reduction of thermal conductivity was observed as compared to its bulk counterparts, revealing the feasibility of suggested route in the preservation of nanostructure and enhanced phonon scattering.

  11. Influence of Nitrogen Doping on Device Operation for TiO₂-Based Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Photo-Physics from Materials to Devices.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin; Tapio, Kosti; Habert, Aurélie; Sorgues, Sebastien; Colbeau-Justin, Christophe; Ratier, Bernard; Scarisoreanu, Monica; Toppari, Jussi; Herlin-Boime, Nathalie; Bouclé, Johann

    2016-02-23

    Solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ssDSSC) constitute a major approach to photovoltaic energy conversion with efficiencies over 8% reported thanks to the rational design of efficient porous metal oxide electrodes, organic chromophores, and hole transporters. Among the various strategies used to push the performance ahead, doping of the nanocrystalline titanium dioxide (TiO₂) electrode is regularly proposed to extend the photo-activity of the materials into the visible range. However, although various beneficial effects for device performance have been observed in the literature, they remain strongly dependent on the method used for the production of the metal oxide, and the influence of nitrogen atoms on charge kinetics remains unclear. To shed light on this open question, we synthesized a set of N-doped TiO₂ nanopowders with various nitrogen contents, and exploited them for the fabrication of ssDSSC. Particularly, we carefully analyzed the localization of the dopants using X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS) and monitored their influence on the photo-induced charge kinetics probed both at the material and device levels. We demonstrate a strong correlation between the kinetics of photo-induced charge carriers probed both at the level of the nanopowders and at the level of working solar cells, illustrating a direct transposition of the photo-physic properties from materials to devices.

  12. Gum Tragacanth-Mediated Synthesis of Nanocrystalline ZnO Powder for Use in Varistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ting-Ting; Wang, Mao-Hua; Su, Hang; Chen, Xi; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Ruo-Chen

    2015-10-01

    Zinc oxide nanopowders were synthesized by a sol-gel method with gum tragacanth and zinc nitrate as raw materials. Gum tragacanth was used as stabilizer to control the mobility of zinc cations and the growth of the nanopowders. Thermo-gravimetric analysis, x-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the as-prepared samples. Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles calcined at different temperatures had a hexagonal wurtzite structure with average particle size ranging from 32.29 nm to 42.83 nm. The crystallinity of ZnO nanoparticles was improved by increasing the calcination temperature. The density of ZnO varistor ceramics sintered at 1150°C for 2 h in air was 5.46 g/cm3, which was 97.5% of the theoretical density, their breakdown voltage was 4572 V/cm, and their nonlinear coefficient was ~16.8. This method can be used as an excellent alternative method for synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles with a plant extract as a raw material. Our experimental results show our method had the advantage of improving the electrical performance of ZnO varistors.

  13. Hydrogenation tuned the created ferromagnetic properties of Ni-doped nano-ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dakhel, A. A.

    2017-03-01

    Zn1- x Ni x O solid solution nanopowders were synthesised by thermal co-decomposition of Zn and Ni organic complexes method. The samples were characterised by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and optical diffuse reflection spectroscopy. The XRD confirmed the formation of single phase of ZnO structure. The host unit-cell volume ( V cell) slightly decreased with Ni doping referring to the total doping of Ni ions. The hydrogenation increased the V cell of Ni-doped ZnO. The redshift of the bandgap of Ni-doped ZnO under hydrogenation is attributed to the formation of lattice strain defects through the creation of structural O-vacancies, which plays principle role of enhancing the room-temperature ferromagnetic (FM) properties. Therefore, the major objective of the present study is to investigate the significant effect of hydrogenation on the magnetic properties of Ni-doped ZnO. The appealing combined effect of doping and hydrogenation was discussed based on the Bound Magnetic Polarons (BMP) theory, as the O-vacancies are believed to be responsible for the enhancement of RT-FM properties with the presence of H-H interstitials (Hydrogenation). Therefore, hydrogenated Ni-doped ZnO nanopowders, owning these amazingly tunable magnetic manners, can be considered as a potential candidate for many applications such as optoelectronics and dilute magnetic semiconductors.

  14. Production of mono- and bimetallic nanoparticles of noble metals by pyrolysis of organic extracts on silicon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serga, V.; Kulikova, L.; Cvetkov, A.; Krumina, A.; Kodols, M.; Chornaja, S.; Dubencovs, K.; Sproge, E.

    2013-12-01

    In the present work the influence of the tri-n-octylammonium (Oct3NH+) salt anion (PtCl62-, PdCl42-, AuCl4-) nature on the phase composition and mean size of crystallites of the extract pyrolysis products on the SiO2 nanopowder has been studied. The XRD phase analysis of the composites (metal loading 2.4 wt.%) made under the same conditions, at the pyrolysis of Pt- and Au-containing extracts has shown the formation of nanoparticles of Pt (dPt = 15 nm) and Au (dAu = 33 nm), respectively. The end-product of the pyrolysis of the Pd-containing extract has an admixture phase of PdO along with the main metal phase (dPd = 21 nm). At the preparation of bimetallic particles (Pt-Pd, Pt-Au, Pd-Au) on the SiO2 nanopowder it has been found that the nanoparticles of the PtPd alloy, Pt and Au or Pd and Au nanoparticles are the products of the thermal decomposition of two-component mixtures of extracts. The investigation of catalytic properties of the produced composites in the reaction of glycerol oxidation by molecular oxygen in alkaline aqueous solutions has shown that all bimetallic composites exhibit catalytic activity in contrast to monometallic ones.

  15. Effects of surface modification on the mechanical and structural properties of nanofibrous poly(ε-caprolactone)/forsterite scaffold for tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Kharaziha, M; Fathi, M H; Edris, H

    2013-12-01

    Composite scaffolds consisting of polymers reinforced with ceramic nanoparticles are widely applied for hard tissue engineering. However, due to the incompatible polarity of ceramic nanoparticles with polymers, they tend to agglomerate in the polymer matrix which results in undesirable effects on the integral properties of composites. In this research, forsterite (Mg2SiO4) nanoparticles was surface esterified by dodecyl alcohol and nanofibrous poly(ε-caprolactone)(PCL)/modified forsterite scaffolds were developed through electrospinning technique. The aim of this research was to investigate the properties of surface modified forsterite nanopowder and PCL/modified forsterite scaffolds, before and after hydrolytic treatment, as well as the cellular attachment and proliferation. Results demonstrated that surface modification of nanoparticles significantly enhanced the tensile strength and toughness of scaffolds upon 1.5- and 4-folds compared to unmodified samples, respectively, due to improved compatibility between matrix and filler. Hydrolytic treatment of scaffolds also modified the bioactivity and cellular attachment and proliferation due to greatly enhanced hydrophilicity of the forsterite nanoparticles after this process compared to surface modified samples. Results suggested that surface modification of forsterite nanopowder and hydrolytic treatment of the developed scaffolds were effective approaches to address the issues in the formation of composite fibers and resulted in development of bioactive composite scaffolds with ideal mechanical and structural properties for bone tissue engineering applications.

  16. Microwave technique applied to the hydrothermal synthesis and sintering of calcia stabilized zirconia nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzuti, Antonino; Corradi, Anna; Leonelli, Cristina; Rosa, Roberto; Pielaszek, Roman; Lojkowski, Witold

    2010-01-01

    This study is focused on the synthesis of zirconia nanopowders stabilized by 6%mol calcia prepared under hydrothermal conditions using microwave technology. Sodium hydroxide-based hydrolysis of zirconyl chloride solution containing calcium nitrate followed by microwave irradiation at the temperature of 220 °C for 30 min was sufficient to obtain white powders of crystalline calcia stabilized zirconia. By means of X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, it was shown that tetragonal zirconia nanocrystallites with a size of ca 7 nm and diameter/standard deviation ratio of 0.10 were formed. The effects of the [Ca2+] and [NaOH] as well as temperature and time of microwave irradiation on the density and specific surface area were evaluated. Sintering test of the tetragonal nanopowders at 1,300 °C in air was performed in a monomode microwave applicator. The sample was sintered to the density of 95% and the grain size, analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscopy, was in the range from 90 to 170 nm.

  17. Low-power-Consumption metal oxide NO2 gas sensor based on micro-heater and screen printing technology.

    PubMed

    Moon, S E; Lee, H K; Choi, N J; Lee, J; Yang, W S; Kim, J; Jong, J J; Yoo, D J

    2012-07-01

    An NO2 micro gas sensor was fabricated based on a micro-heater using tin oxide nano-powders for effective gas detection and monitoring system with low power consumption and high sensitivity. The processes of the fabrication were acceptable to the conventional CMOS processes for mass-production. Semiconducting SnO2 nano-powders were synthesized via the co-precipitation method; and to increase the sensitivity of the NO2 gas rare metal dopants were added. In the structure of the micro-heater, the resistances of two semi-circular Pt heaters were connected to the spreader for thermal uniformity. The resistance of each heater becomes an electrically equal Wheatstone-bridge, which was divided in half by the heat spreading structure. Based on the aforementioned design, a low-power-consumption micro-heater was fabricated using the CMOS-compatible MEMS processes. A bridge-type micro-heater based on the Si substrate was fabricated via surface micro-machining. The NO2 sensing properties of a screen-printed tin oxide thick film device were measured The micro gas sensors showed substantial sensitivity down to 0.5 ppm NO2 at a low power consumption (34.2 mW).

  18. Synthesis and characterization of magnetic of Ni/ABS nanocomposites by electrical explosion of wire in liquid and solution blending methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thuyet-Nguyen, Minh; Hai-Nguyen, Hong; Kim, Won Joo; Kim, Ho Yoon; Kim, Jin-Chun

    2017-03-01

    Nanomaterials have attracted great attention from chemists, physicists and materials scientists because of their application benefits and special properties. Thermoplastics have been used in many applications such as molding of non-electrical components, conducting, magnetic field and 3D printing. Nanocomposites are known as a material which blends the best properties of components, a high performance material exhibits unusual property combinations and unique design possibilities. In this research, we focused to investigate and report primary results in the synthesis of magnetic nanocomposites based on acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), which are useful and important thermoplastics. Nickel nanopowder was prepared by electrical explosion of wire in a liquid were used as magnetic component. The composites were prepared by following steps, first the obtained Ni nanopowders were incorporated into the ABS matrix via a solution blending method (drop-casting), and then the solvent was evaporated. The characterizations of obtaining composites were analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-Ray Diffraction analysis and vibrating sample magnetometer.

  19. TEM and XPS studies on the faceted nanocrystals of Ce{sub 0.8}Zr{sub 0.2}O{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Prusty, Debadutta; Pathak, Abhishek; Mukherjee, Manabendra; Mukherjee, Bratindranath; Chowdhury, Anirban

    2015-02-15

    Faceted nanocrystals of Ce{sub 0.8}Zr{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} synthesised by co-precipitation method were characterised by X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetry–differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques. The nanocrystals were highly faceted and exhibited a cubic phase. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses confirmed the presence of vacancy related defects and revealed the presence of ~ 22% of Ce{sup 3} {sup +} in the nanopowders. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy results confirmed that the nanocrystal sizes are around 31 ± 5 nm and the obtained hexagonal cross-section shape is bound by hexagonal (111) and square (100) facets. The shape-controlled nanocrystals were synthesised without using any surfactants or complexing agents and retained their morphology beyond 800 °C. This is a simple and easy method for producing shape-controlled Ce{sub 0.8}Zr{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} nanoparticles which can be used for catalytic conversion and other related advanced technological areas. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Synthesis of Ce{sub 0.8}Zr{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} faceted nanocrystal of hexagonal morphology. • Nanopowders synthesised without any surfactant; retained morphology beyond 800 °C. • XPS analyses confirm the potential of these powders for catalytic applications.

  20. Influence of the synthesis method on the porosity, microstructure and electrical properties of La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} cathode materials

    SciTech Connect

    Conceicao, Leandro da; Silva, Camila R.B.

    2009-12-15

    Lanthanum strontium manganite (La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3}, LSM) has been studied as a promising material for application as a cathode in solid oxide fuel cells. In the present work La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} nanopowders were synthesized by three different methods (combustion, citrate and solid-state) and characterized by thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, physical adsorption of N{sub 2} and scanning electron microscopy. All powders exhibited single LSM phase formation with crystallite sizes in the range of 12-20 nm. Nanopowders were sintered at 1100 deg. C to produce porous pellets. The porosity, particle size and microstructure of LSM sintered bodies are strongly dependent on the preparation methodology. The samples synthesized by combustion and citrate methods presented smaller particle sizes and higher porosity after sintering than that derived from solid-state synthesis. However, the electrical conductivity, measured by two-probe technique, was very similar for all three samples.

  1. Toward hydrogen detection at room temperature with printed ZnO nanoceramics films activated with halogen lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Van Son; Jubera, Véronique; Garcia, Alain; Debéda, Hélène

    2015-12-01

    Though semiconducting properties of ZnO have been extensively investigated under hazardous gases, research is still necessary for low-cost sensors working at room temperature. Study of printed ZnO nanopowders-based sensors has been undertaken for hydrogen detection. A ZnO paste made with commercial nanopowders is deposited onto interdigitated Pt electrodes and sintered at 400 °C. The ZnO layer structure and morphology are first examined by XRD, SEM, AFM and emission/excitation spectra prior to the study of the effect of UV-light on the electrical conduction of the semiconductor oxide. The response to hydrogen exposure is subsequently examined, showing that low UV-light provided by halogen lighting enhances the gas response and allows detection at room temperature with gas responses similar to those obtained in dark conditions at 150 °C. A gas response of 44% (relative change in current) under 300 ppm is obtained at room temperature. Moreover, it is demonstrated that very low UV-light power (15 μW/mm2) provided by the halogen lamp is sufficient to give sensitivities as high as those for much higher powers obtained with a UV LED (7.7 mW/mm2). These results are comparable to those obtained by others for 1D or 2D ZnO nanostructures working at room temperature or at temperatures up to 250 °C.

  2. Sb-Doped SnO2 Nanoparticles Synthesized by Sonochemical-Assisted Precipitation Process.

    PubMed

    Noonuruk, Russameeruk; Vittayakorn, Naratip; Mekprasart, Wanichaya; Sritharathikhun, Jaran; Pecharapa, Wisanu

    2015-03-01

    Sb-doped SnO2 nanopowders were synthesized by sonochemical-assisted precipitation process using stannic chloride pentahydrate (SnCl4.5H2O) and antimony chloride (SbC3) as starting precursors. Effect of sonication and Sb doping concentrations on physical structures and electrical properties of Sb-doped SnO2 nanoparticles were investigated by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and two-point probe method. The results indicated that the good dispersion with less agglomeration of particles in SnO2 phase can be obtained by single step sonochemical-assisted process. Moreover, XRD results indicated that the crystallinity of Sb-doped SnO2 nanopowders deteriorated with increasing Sb content, suggesting that Sb dopant significantly prevent SnO2 crystallite growth. The XPS spectra of Sb-doped SnO2 obviously confirmed the existence of Sb ion incorporated into SnO2 matrix. These results revealed that incorporation of Sb ions into SnO2 lattice with specific concentration has significant influence on formation and crystallization and can dramatically enhance the conductivity of tin oxide.

  3. Biodegradable nanocomposite magnetite stent for implant-assisted magnetic drug targeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangual, Jan O.; Li, Shigeng; Ploehn, Harry J.; Ebner, Armin D.; Ritter, James A.

    2010-10-01

    This study shows, for the first time, the fabrication of a biodegradable polymer nanocomposite magnetic stent and the feasibility of its use in implant-assisted-magnetic drug targeting (IA-MDT). The nanocomposite magnetic stent was made from PLGA, a biodegradable copolymer, and iron oxide nanopowder via melt mixing and extrusion into fibers. Degradation and dynamic mechanical thermal analyses showed that the addition of the iron oxide nanopowder increased the polymer's glass transition temperature ( Tg) and its modulus but had no notable effect on its degradation rate in PBS buffer solution. IA-MDT in vitro experiments were carried out with the nanocomposite magnetic fiber molded into a stent coil. These stent prototypes were used in the presence of a homogeneous magnetic field of 0.3 T to capture 100 nm magnetic drug carrier particles (MDCPs) from an aqueous solution. Increasing the amount of magnetite in the stent nanocomposite (0, 10 and 40 w/w%) resulted in an increase in the MDCP capture efficiency (CE). Reducing the MDCP concentrations (0.75 and 1.5 mg/mL) in the flowing fluid and increasing the fluid velocities (20 and 40 mL/min) both resulted in decrease in the MDCP CE. These results show that the particle capture performance of PLGA-based, magnetic nanocomposite stents are similar to those exhibited by a variety of different non-polymeric magnetic stent materials studied previously.

  4. Applying Nanoscale Kirkendall Diffusion for Template-Free, Kilogram-Scale Production of SnO2 Hollow Nanospheres via Spray Drying System

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jung Sang; Ju, Hyeon Seok; Kang, Yun Chan

    2016-01-01

    A commercially applicable and simple process for the preparation of aggregation-free metal oxide hollow nanospheres is developed by applying nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion to a large-scale spray drying process. The precursor powders prepared by spray drying are transformed into homogeneous metal oxide hollow nanospheres through a simple post-treatment process. Aggregation-free SnO2 hollow nanospheres are selected as the first target material for lithium ion storage applications. Amorphous carbon microspheres with uniformly dispersed Sn metal nanopowder are prepared in the first step of the post-treatment process under a reducing atmosphere. The post-treatment of the Sn-C composite powder at 500 °C under an air atmosphere produces carbon- and aggregation-free SnO2 hollow nanospheres through nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion. The hollow and filled SnO2 nanopowders exhibit different cycling performances, with their discharge capacities after 300 cycles being 643 and 280 mA h g−1, respectively, at a current density of 2 A g−1. The SnO2 hollow nanospheres with high structural stability exhibit superior cycling and rate performances for lithium ion storage compared to the filled ones. PMID:27033088

  5. Synthesis of a complex nanostructure of CuO via a coupled chemical route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabeeh, Sabah H.; Abed Hussein, Hashim; Kadhim Judran, Hadia

    2016-12-01

    In the present study, we report the preparation of CuO nanopowder by using a coupled chemical method, namely sol-gel/hydrothermal processes. The product of the first stage process (i.e. sol-gel) was a nanocomposite of Cu(OH)2/SDS, while the product of the second stage (i.e. hydrothermal) was a pure phase of CuO nanopowder. The structure and morphology of the prepared samples was characterized using x-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and energy dispersive x-ray analysis. The CuO nanostructure assemblies obtained are similar to flower-like structures with intricate geometry. The size of CuO prolate spheroids ranges from 500 nm to 700 nm when they are measured according to a major axis, while they range from 120 nm to 450 nm when the measurement is carried out according to a minor axis. The mechanism growth was explained on the basis of chemical reactions and the role of each reactant in the formation the CuO nanostructure.

  6. Contact mechanics of highly porous oxide nanoparticle agglomerates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabre, Andrea; Salameh, Samir; Ciacchi, Lucio Colombi; Kreutzer, Michiel T.; van Ommen, J. Ruud

    2016-07-01

    Efficient nanopowder processing requires knowledge of the powder's mechanical properties. Due to the large surface area to volume ratio, nanoparticles experience relatively strong attractive interactions, leading to the formation of micron-size porous structures called agglomerates. Significant effort has been directed towards the development of models and experimental procedures to estimate the elasticity of porous objects such as nanoparticle agglomerates; however, none of the existing models has been validated for solid fractions below 0.1. Here, we measure the elasticity of titania (TiO_2, 22 nm), alumina (Al_2O_3, 8 nm), and silica (SiO_2, 16 nm) nanopowder agglomerates by Atomic Force Microscopy, using a 3.75 μm glass colloid for the stress-strain experiments. Three sample preparations with varying degree of powder manipulation are assessed. The measured Young's moduli are in the same order of magnitude as those predicted by the model of Kendall et al., thus validating it for the estimation of the Young's modulus of structures with porosity above 90 %.

  7. Influence of processing parameters on the thermoelectric properties of (Bi0.2Sb0.8)2Te3 sintered by ECAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceresara, S.; Fanciulli, C.; Passaretti, F.; Vasilevskiy, D.

    2012-06-01

    Equal Channel Angular Extrusion (ECAE) has been recognized as one of the most successful process for nanopowder consolidation. By operating at lower temperatures than needed for Hot Pressing, it allows a better control of the competition between powder consolidation and coarsening. In this work, we report preliminary results on the influence of ECAE parameters on the thermoelectric properties of p-type (Bi0.2Sb0.8)2Te3 nanopowders. The latter, prepared by ball milling elemental chunks, were compacted at room temperature under Ar atmosphere, and encapsulated into a Cu can for ECAE processing. The so called route C was used, with a punch speed of 5 mm min-1. Two ECAE passes at 300 °C were sufficient to consolidate the material; however, the electrical conductivity was depressed, because of the introduction of n-type defects at this temperature. A satisfactory compromise among α, λ, and σ, was achieved by operating at 385 °C, both with two and four ECAE passes. A value of ZT close to 1, from room temperature to 95 °C, was reached. Enhancement of the figure of merit is expected by further increasing the number of ECAE passes at this temperature (material texturing improvement), provided the total processing time is substantially shortened, in order to preserve the nanograined structure.

  8. Broadband and Microwave Dielectric Studies on Ba5Nb4O15 Ceramics Supplemented with Its Nanoparticles for Cryogenic Electronic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anil Kumar, C.; Pamu, D.

    2017-02-01

    Ba5Nb4O15 (BNO) nanopowders were prepared by sol-gel process. The effect of BNO nanopowders ( x = 1 wt.%, 2 wt.%, and 3 wt.%) on micron-sized BNO polycrystalline powders were studied systematically. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images of BNO nanoparticles revealed spherical and cylindrical shapes with average particle sizes of 45 nm and 60 nm, respectively. Further, the dielectric response of BNO ceramics with x wt.% of nanosized particles ( x = 1-3) measured in the temperature range of 80°C to 200°C showed relaxation behaviour and is described by using Havriliak-Negami equation. The best microwave dielectric properties of ɛ r and Q × f 0 values of 39.2 GHz and 59,000 GHz, at 6.52 GHz are obtained for the x = 3 wt.% sample, sintered at 1100°C, and is attributed to maximum density, large and uniform microstructure. The acquired static dielectric response of BNO ceramics with x wt.% of nanosized particles ( x = 1-3) are suitable for cryogenic electronic and dielectric resonator applications.

  9. 2-Aminoethanol-mediated wet chemical synthesis of ZnO nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naz, Tehmina; Afzal, Adeel; Siddiqi, Humaira M.; Akhtar, Javeed; Habib, Amir; Banski, Mateusz; Podhorodecki, Artur

    2015-04-01

    The synthesis of ZnO nanostructures via co-precipitation of Zn(NO3)2·2H2O in 2-aminoethanol under different reaction conditions is presented. The effect of temperature and time on crystal structure, size, morphology, and optical properties of ZnO nanopowders is studied. XRD analyses demonstrate that single crystalline wurtzite ZnO nanostructures are instantaneously formed at higher temperature, or at low temperature with growth times equal to 2 h. However, the mean crystallite size increases as a function of reaction temperature and growth time. XRD and SEM results reveal that ZnO nuclei grow along favored crystallographic planes [wurtzite (101)] in 2-aminoethanol to form single crystalline nanorods. The optical band-gap energies of ZnO crystallites measured from their UV absorption spectra increase from 3.31 to 3.52 eV with decreasing particle size. ZnO nanopowders also exhibit good photoluminescent characteristics with strong UV and weak visible (violet, blue) light emissions corresponding to surface defects and oxygen vacancies in ZnO products.

  10. Influence of Nitrogen Doping on Device Operation for TiO2-Based Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Photo-Physics from Materials to Devices

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin; Tapio, Kosti; Habert, Aurélie; Sorgues, Sebastien; Colbeau-Justin, Christophe; Ratier, Bernard; Scarisoreanu, Monica; Toppari, Jussi; Herlin-Boime, Nathalie; Bouclé, Johann

    2016-01-01

    Solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ssDSSC) constitute a major approach to photovoltaic energy conversion with efficiencies over 8% reported thanks to the rational design of efficient porous metal oxide electrodes, organic chromophores, and hole transporters. Among the various strategies used to push the performance ahead, doping of the nanocrystalline titanium dioxide (TiO2) electrode is regularly proposed to extend the photo-activity of the materials into the visible range. However, although various beneficial effects for device performance have been observed in the literature, they remain strongly dependent on the method used for the production of the metal oxide, and the influence of nitrogen atoms on charge kinetics remains unclear. To shed light on this open question, we synthesized a set of N-doped TiO2 nanopowders with various nitrogen contents, and exploited them for the fabrication of ssDSSC. Particularly, we carefully analyzed the localization of the dopants using X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS) and monitored their influence on the photo-induced charge kinetics probed both at the material and device levels. We demonstrate a strong correlation between the kinetics of photo-induced charge carriers probed both at the level of the nanopowders and at the level of working solar cells, illustrating a direct transposition of the photo-physic properties from materials to devices. PMID:28344292

  11. Synthesis and characterization of nanometric zinc oxide for a stationary phase in liquid chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordillo-Delgado, F.; Soto-Barrera, C. C.; Plazas-Saldaña, J.

    2017-01-01

    The increasing demand for equipment to remove organic compounds in industry and research activity has led to evaluate nanometric zinc oxide (ZnO). In this work, we present the ZnO nanoparticles synthesis for reusing of discarded columns, as a low-cost alternative. The compound was obtained by sol-gel technique using zinc chloride and sodium hydroxide as precursors and a drying temperature of 169°C. An X-ray diffractometer was used to estimate the average particle size at 20.3±0.2nm the adsorption capacity was 0.0144L/g and the chemical resistance was tested with HCl and NaOH. The ZnO nanopowder was packed with 100psi pressure in an empty C-18 column cavity. The column packing resolution was evaluated using a high performance liquid chromatographer (HPLC-Thermo Scientific Dionex UltiMate 3000); using a caffeine standard, the following parameters were established: solvent flow: 1.2mL/min, average column temperature: 40°C, running time: 10 minutes, mobile phase acetonitrile-water composition (9:1). These results validate the potential of ZnO nanopowder as a column packing material in HPLC technique.

  12. Origin of spin-glass and exchange bias in La{sub 1∕3}Sr{sub 2∕3}FeO{sub 3−γ} nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, R. B. da; Araújo, J. H. de; Soares, J. M.; Machado, F. L. A.

    2014-03-21

    The structure and the magnetic properties of nanopowdered samples of La{sub 1∕3}Sr{sub 2∕3}FeO{sub 3−γ} with average particles size d in the range of 67-367 nm prepared by a sol-gel method were investigated in detail. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, specific heat, Mössbauer spectroscopy, ac susceptibility, and magnetization measurements. Exchange bias with vertical magnetization shift was found in all samples. Charge ordering and antiferromagnetism were observed close to 200 K for large particles (d ≥ 304 nm) samples, while for particles with intermediated and smaller values (d ≤ 156 nm) a cluster-glass like behaviour and a short range charge ordering were seen near 115 K and 200 K, respectively. The spin-glass like and exchange bias behaviour in nanopowdered samples of La{sub 1∕3}Sr{sub 2∕3}FeO{sub 3−γ} are associated to compact Fe{sup 3+} antiferromagnetic (AF) clusters caused by an oxygen deficiency, which was found to be higher in the samples with the smallest average particles sizes. The effect of exchange bias and vertical magnetization shifts are explained by a simple model involving the interaction of one AF phase with a canted AF phase.

  13. The Speciation of Silver Nanoparticles in Antimicrobial Fabric Before and After Exposure to a Hypochlorite/Detergent Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Impellitteri, Christopher A.; Tolaymat, Thabet M.; Scheckel, Kirk G.; EPA

    2009-07-14

    Because of their antibacterial properties, silver nanoparticles are often used in consumer products. To assess environmental and/or human health risks from these nanoparticles, there is a need to identify the chemical transformations that silver nanoparticles undergo in different environments. Thus an antimicrobial sock material containing Ag nanoparticles was examined by X-ray absorption spectroscopy to identify the speciation of Ag. The material was exposed to a hypochlorite/detergent solution and subjected to agitation. An elemental Ag nanopowder was also exposed to the hypochlorite/detergent solution or to a 1 mol L{sup -1} NaCl solution. Results showed that the sock material nanoparticles consisted of elemental Ag. After exposure to the hypochlorite/detergent solution, a significant portion (more than 50%) of the sock nanoparticles were converted, in situ, to AgCl. Results from exposures to elemental Ag nanopowder suggest that an oxidation step is necessary for the elemental Ag nanoparticles to transform into AgCl as there was no evidence of AgCl formation in the presence of chloride alone. As a result, if Ag ions leach from consumer products, any chloride present may quickly scavenge the ions. In addition, the efficacy of Ag, as an antimicrobial agent in fabrics, may be limited, or even negated, after washing in solutions containing oxidizers as AgCl is much less reactive than Ag ion.

  14. Rapid synthesis of tin (IV) oxide nanoparticles by microwave induced thermohydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jouhannaud, J. Rossignol, J.; Stuerga, D.

    2008-06-15

    Tin oxide nanopowders, with an average size of 5 nm, were prepared by microwave flash synthesis. Flash synthesis was performed in aqueous solutions of tin tetrachloride and hydrochloric acid using a microwave autoclave (RAMO system) specially designed by the authors. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis, nitrogen adsorption isotherm analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), were used to characterize these nanoparticles. Compared with conventional synthesis, nanopowders can be produced in a short period (e.g. 60 s). In addition, high purity and high specific surface area are obtained. These characteristics are fundamental for gas sensing applications. - Graphical abstract: Tin oxide-based gas sensors have been extensively studied in recent years in order to understand and improve their sensing properties to a large variety of gaseous species. As is well known, high specific surface area increase the responses of gas sensors. Microwave-induced thermohydrolysis appears as an efficient way to produce nanoparticles in a very short time, with controlled size (4-5 nm) and high-specific area (160-190 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}). Pictogram represents our original microwave reactor, the RAMO (French acronym of Reacteur Autoclave Micro-Onde), containing the reactants and submitted to the microwave irradiation (multicolour candy represent obtained material), and a typical TEM image of the as-prepared SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles.

  15. Ferromagnetic and multiferroic interfaces in granular perovskite composite xLa0.5Sr0.5CoO3-(1-x)BiFeO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohr, Javier H.; López, Carlos A.; Saleta, Martín E.; Sánchez, Rodolfo D.

    2016-08-01

    Nanopowder of ferromagnetic La0.5Sr0.5CoO3 (LSCO) and multiferroic BiFeO3 (BFO) were synthesized by spray pyrolysis method. Different compositions of multiferroic xLSCO-(1-x)BFO composites were synthesized at 800 °C for 2 h. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy elemental mapping were performed to study the morphology of composites. Ferri/ferromagnetic responses above TC (LSCO) are observed, which are associated with the interfaces LSCO/BFO. This interface presents a different behavior compared to the original perovskites, and the magnitude of the magnetization depends on x. Electrical DC conductivity as a function of temperature for LSCO nanopowder (x = 1) presents a different behavior than that reported in bulk material. For x = 1 and 0.9, the model by Glazman and Matveev [Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 94, 332 (1988)] is proposed to describe the electrical conductivity. On the other hand, x = 0, 0.1, and 0.5 present a variable range hopping behavior. Complex impedance spectroscopy as a function of frequency indicates a pure resistive behavior for x ≥ 0.5 compositions, while a complex resistive-capacitive behavior is observed for low x values (0, 0.1). In these samples, low values of magnetoelectric coupling were measured with an AC lock-in technique.

  16. Synthesis and optimization of the magnetic properties of aligned strontium ferrite nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Ebrahimi, Fatemeh; Bakhshi, Saeed Reza; Ashrafizadeh, Fakhreddin; Ghasemi, Ali

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Dip coating method was used to synthesize strontium ferrite nanowires in template. • Size of nanowires was controlled via anodization parameters. • Fe/Sr ratio was optimized in precursor. • Magnetic properties of nanowires and nanopowders were compared. - Abstract: High aspect ratio strontium hexaferrite nanowires were fabricated by dip coating in alumina template. Fe/Sr ratio was changed from 10 to 12 in precursor, and the samples were annealed at a range of temperatures 500–900 °C in order to optimize the magnetic properties of strontium ferrite in the form of nanowires. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) proved the formation of nanowires in the templates, while TEM images revealed a high degree of crystallinity. The ferrites were further characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). Magnetic properties of the specimens were studied by a SQUID at 10–300 K. The results showed that the coercivity of packed density nanowires in the template was much less than that of the nanopowders. On the other hand, the coercivity of nanowires at ambient temperature was less than low temperature coercivity.

  17. A solar-powered microbial electrolysis cell with a platinum catalyst-free cathode to produce hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Chae, Kyu-Jung; Choi, Mi-Jin; Kim, Kyoung-Yeol; Ajayi, Folusho F; Chang, In-Seop; Kim, In S

    2009-12-15

    This paper reports successful hydrogen evolution using a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC)-powered microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) without a Pt catalyst on the cathode, indicating a solution for the inherent drawbacks of conventional MECs, such as the need for an external bias and catalyst. DSSCs fabricated by assembling a ruthenium dye-loaded TiO(2) film and platinized FTO glass with an I(-)/I(3)(-) redox couple were demonstrated as an alternative bias (V(oc) = 0.65 V). Pt-loaded (0.3 mg Pt/cm(2)) electrodes with a Pt/C nanopowder showed relatively faster hydrogen production than the Pt-free electrodes, particularly at lower voltages. However, once the applied photovoltage exceeded a certain level (0.7 V), platinum did not have any additional effect on hydrogen evolution in the solar-powered MECs: hydrogen conversion efficiency was almost comparable for either the plain (71.3-77.0%) or Pt-loaded carbon felt (79.3-82.0%) at >0.7 V. In particular, the carbon nanopowder-coated electrode without Pt showed significantly enhanced performance compared to the plain electrode, which indicates efficient electrohydrogenesis, even without Pt by enhancing the surface area. As the applied photovoltage was increased, anodic methanogenesis decreased gradually, resulting in increasing hydrogen yield.

  18. Defects in Microwave Solvothermally Grown Phospho-Olivine Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Bridges, Craig A; Harrison, Katharine L; Unocic, Raymond R; Idrobo Tapia, Juan C; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2013-01-01

    Microwave solvothermally (MW-ST) synthesized crystalline nanopowders of LiFePO4 have been structurally characterized using a combination of high resolution powder neutron diffraction, synchrotron X-ray diffraction and HAADF STEM images. The presence of a significant level of defects has been verified for the samples prepared at 255 oC and 275 oC. These temperatures are significantly higher than what has previously been suggested to be the maximum temperature for defect formation in LiFePO4, and their presence likely relates to the rapid synthesis provided by the MW-ST approach. A defect model has been tentatively proposed, though it has been shown that powder diffraction data alone cannot conclusively determine the precise defect distribution in LiFePO4 samples. The model is consistent with other literature reports on nanopowders synthesized at low temperatures, in which the unit cell volume is significantly reduced relative to defect-free, micron-sized LiFePO4 powders.

  19. Fungus mediated biosynthesis and characterization of zinc oxide nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesh, K. S.; Palani, N. S.; Krishnamoorthi, S. R.; Thirumal, V.; Ilangovan, R.

    2013-06-01

    Recently nanomaterials have been synthesized through biological approach due to its biocompatibility, inexpensive, eco friendly and it offers easiest experimental protocol and so on. ZnO can be potentially used in various applications. This present study reports the fungus mediated extra-cellular bio synthesis of ZnO nanorods using Fusarium Solani. The dried powder was calcined at 350°C for 1 hour in air. The thermal property of the as synthesized ZnO nanopowder was analyzed through Thermo gravimetric /Differential Thermo gravimetric (TGA / DTG) analysis. The structural and morphological properties of the calcined ZnO nanopowder were studied by XRD and SEM analysis respectively. X ray diffraction result revealed that a peak located at 2θ = 36.2° with (101) plane confirms the presence of Zinc oxide with Hexagonal crystal system. The morphology of the calcined ZnO powder was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy and it clearly indicates the presence of ZnO nanorods. The diameter of the nanorods is in the range of 60 to 95 nm.

  20. The Influence of Sintering Temperature on the Microstructure and Thermoelectric Properties of n-Type Bi2Te3- x Se x Nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Y.; Cai, K. F.; Li, H.; An, B. J.

    2011-05-01

    Pure Bi2Te3 and Bi2Se3 nanopowders were hydrothermally synthesized, and n-type Bi2Te3- x Se x bulk samples were prepared by hot pressing a mixture of Bi2Te3 and Bi2Se3 nanopowders at 623 K, 648 K or 673 K and 80 MPa in vacuum. The phase composition of the powders and bulk samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction. The morphology of the powders was examined by transmission electron microscopy. The microstructure and composition of the bulk samples were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, respectively. The density of the samples increased with sintering temperature. The samples were somewhat oxidized, and the amount of oxide (Bi2TeO5) present increased with sintering temperature. The samples consisted of sheet-like grains with a thickness less than 100 nm. Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity, and thermal conductivity of the samples were measured from room temperature up to 573 K. Throughout the temperature range investigated, the sample sintered at 623 K had a higher power factor than the samples sintered at 648 K or 673 K.

  1. Tuning the thermal diffusivity of silver based nanofluids by controlling nanoparticle aggregation.

    PubMed

    Agresti, Filippo; Barison, Simona; Battiston, Simone; Pagura, Cesare; Colla, Laura; Fedele, Laura; Fabrizio, Monica

    2013-09-13

    With the aim of preparing stable nanofluids for heat exchange applications and to study the effect of surfactant on the aggregation of nanoparticles and thermal diffusivity, stable silver colloids were synthesized in water by a green method, reducing AgNO₃ with fructose in the presence of poly-vinylpyrollidone (PVP) of various molecular weights. A silver nanopowder was precipitated from the colloids and re-dispersed at 4 vol% in deionized water. The Ag colloids were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, combined dynamic light scattering and ζ-potential measurements, and laser flash thermal diffusivity. The Ag nanopowders were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis. It was found that the molecular weight of PVP strongly affects the ζ-potential and the aggregation of nanoparticles, thereby affecting the thermal diffusivity of the obtained colloids. In particular, it was observed that on increasing the molecular weight of PVP the absolute value of the ζ-potential is reduced, leading to increased aggregation of nanoparticles. A clear relation was identified between thermal diffusivity and aggregation, showing higher thermal diffusivity for nanofluids having higher aggregation. A maximum improvement of thermal diffusivity by about 12% was found for nanofluids prepared with PVP having higher molecular weight.

  2. Magnetic studies of cobalt doped barium hexaferrite nanoparticles prepared by modified sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalini, M. Govindaraj; Sahoo, Subasa C.

    2016-05-01

    M-type barium hexaferrite (BaFe12O19) and cobalt doped barium hexaferrite (BaFe11CoO19) nanopowders were synthesized by modified sol-gel auto-combustion technique and were annealed at 900°C in air for 4 hours. The annealed powders were studied in the present work and X-ray diffraction studies showed pure phase formation after annealing. The average grain size in the nanopowder sample was decreased after doping. Magnetization value of 60 emu/g was observed at 300K for the barium hexaferrite and was reduced to 54 emu/g after doping. The coercivity of 5586 Oe was observed at 300K for the undoped sample and was found to be decreased in the doped sample. As the measurement temperature was decreased from 300K to 60K, magnetization value was increased in both the samples compared to those at 300K. The coercivity of the undoped sample was found to decrease whereas it was increased for the doped sample at 60K. The observed magnetic properties may be understood on the basis of modified exchange interaction and anisotropy in the doped sample compared to that of pure barium hexaferrite.

  3. Study of DNA interaction with cobalt ferrite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pershina, A G; Sazonov, A E; Novikov, D V; Knyazev, A S; Izaak, T I; Itin, V I; Naiden, E P; Magaeva, A A; Terechova, O G

    2011-03-01

    Interaction of cobalt ferrite nanopowder and nucleic acid was investigated. Superparamagnetic cobalt ferrite nanoparticles (6-12 nm) were prepared by mechanochemical synthesis. Structure of the nanopowder was characterized using X-ray diffraction. It was shown that cobalt ferrite nanoparticles were associated with ssDNA and dsDNA in Tris-buffer resulting in bionanocomposite formation with mass weight relation nanoparticles: DNA 1:(0.083 +/- 0.003) and 1:(0.075 +/- 0.003) respectively. The mechanism of interaction between a DNA and cobalt ferrite nanoparticles was considered basing on the whole set of obtained data: FTIR-spectroscopy, analyzing desorption of DNA from the surface of the particles while changing the chemical content of the medium, and on the modeling interaction of specific biomolecule fragments with surface of a inorganic material. It was supposed that the linkage was based on coordination interaction of the phosphate groups and oxygen atoms heterocyclic bases of DNA with metal ions on the particle surface. These data can be used to design specific magnetic DNA-nanoparticles hybrid structures.

  4. Optical, luminescent and laser properties of highly transparent ytterbium doped yttrium lanthanum oxide ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, M.; Kopylov, Yu.; Kravchenko, V.; Li, Jiang; Pan, Yubai; Kynast, U.; Leznina, M.; Strek, W.; Marciniak, Lukasz; Palashov, O.; Snetkov, I.; Mukhin, I.; Spassky, D.

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes the fabrication and investigation of highly transparent Yb-doped yttrium lanthanum oxide ceramics. For sintering of the ceramics we used a technology, which consists of several consecutive steps: (a) synthesis of weakly agglomerated nanopowder by laser ablation, (b) compacting of the green body with cold isostatic pressing (CIP), and (c) sintering in vacuum. After calcinations of the synthesized nanopowder at 1200 °C, a pure single-phase solid solution Yb3+:(LaxY1-x)2O3 was formed. The lanthanum ions proved to be a good aid to sinter yttria ceramics doped with Yb3+ at comparatively moderate temperatures of about 1650 °C. The ceramics have a relative density higher than 99.99% and grain sizes around 40 μm. The absorption coefficient of 3.2 mm thick Yb0.12La0.27Y1.61O3 ceramics is 0.01 cm-1 at 1150 nm. Laser oscillation at a wavelength of 1033 nm is demonstrated.

  5. Phase composition and the structure of (1- x)KNO3 + xAl2O3 nanocomposites by X-ray diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ataev, M. B.; Gafurov, M. M.; Emirov, R. M.; Rabadanov, K. Sh.; Amirov, A. M.

    2016-12-01

    The phase composition and the structural properties of potassium nitrate KNO3 and its heterogeneous composites with nanometer-sized powder of aluminum oxide Al2O3 have been studied by X-ray diffraction at various concentrations of an Al2O3 nanopowder. It is found that, in the (1- x)KNO3 + xAl2O3 nanocomposites, additional high-temperature rhombohedral phase of potassium nitrate (phase III) with lattice parameters a = 5.4644 Å and c = 9.0842 Å. With increasing concentration of Al2O3 nanopowder, the content of the main potassium nitrate phase (phase II) is found to significantly decrease, and the relative fraction of the phase III in the total content of the nitrate in the composite composition increases. This phase is assumed to be "frozen" in the nanocomposite at the KNO3-Al2O3 interface. The estimated size of KNO3 crystallites in the phase III is more than 20 nm.

  6. Systematic approach on the fabrication of Co doped ZnO semiconducting nanoparticles by mixture of fuel approach for Antibacterial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajendar, V.; Dayakar, T.; Shobhan, K.; Srikanth, I.; Venkateswara Rao, K.

    2014-11-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a wide band gap semiconductor (3.2 eV) with a high exciton binding energy (60 meV), where it has wide applications in advanced spintronic devices. The theoretical prediction of room temperature ferromagnetism and also antibacterial activity will be possible through the investigation of diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS), such as transition metal doped ZnO, especially Cobalt doped ZnO. The aim of the work is the synthesis of Cobalt (Co) doped ZnO nanopowders were prepared Zn1-xCoxO (0 ⩽ x ⩾ 0.09) nanopowders from Sol-Gel auto combustion method have been synthesized with precursors such as Zinc and Cobalt nitrates with the assistance Ammonium acetate & Urea as fuel by increasing the cobalt concentration in zinc oxide and their structural, morphological, optical, Thermal, magnetic and antibacterial properties were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), Transmission Electron microscope (TEM), UV-visible spectroscopy, thermo gravimetric/differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA) and vibrating sample magneto meter (VSM). From the antibacterial studies, against gram positive Bacillus subtilis bacteria is most abundant bacteria in soil and indoor atmosphere, which affects the stored spintronic devices so that the devices should be made with antibacterial activity of DMS like Co doped ZnO. In this article is found that ZnO:Co nanopowders with higher Co doping level (0.07 and 0.09 wt%) exhibit good antibacterial efficiency. The magnetization curves obtained using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) show a sign of strong room temperature ferromagnetic behavior when the Co doping level is 0.05 wt% and a weak room temperature ferromagnetic behavior Co doping level is below 0.07 wt%, and also they found to exhibit antiferromagnetic and paramagnetic properties, when the Co doping levels are 0.07 and 0.09 wt%, respectively, to enhance and increase the special magnetic and antibacterial property for

  7. Controlling the sol–gel process of nano-crystalline lithium-mica glass-ceramic by its chemical composition and synthesis parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Tohidifar, M.R.; Alizadeh, P.; Aghaei, A.R.

    2015-01-15

    This paper aims to explore the impact of the parameters such as pH of the system, refluxing temperature, water quantity and chemical composition on the sol–gel synthesis of lithium-mica glass-ceramic nano-powder. The synthesis process was accomplished using two chemical composition formula (Li{sub (1+x)}Mg{sub 3}AlSi{sub 3(1+x)}O{sub 10+6.5x}F{sub 2} and LiMg{sub 3}AlSi{sub 3(1+x)}O{sub 10+6x}F{sub 2}). X-ray diffraction, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area measurement and scanning electron microscopy techniques were applied to evaluate a variety of as-synthesized samples. Consequently, a transparent homogeneous sol was obtained under the conditions as pH ≤ 4, synthesis temperature ≤ 50 °C, and mol ratio of water to chemicals ≤ 2. The prepared nano-powders under such conditions were in the range of 60–100 nm. The results also revealed that the mica glass-ceramics prepared based on the composition Li{sub (1+x)}Mg{sub 3}AlSi{sub 3(1+x)}O{sub 10+6.5x}F{sub 2} possessed finer powders due to their slow hydrolysis process. Moreover, any reduction in the stoichiometric deviation of lithium mica (x) leads to acquiring finer powders. - Highlights: • A transparent homogeneous sol leads to prepare nanopowders in the range of 60–100 nm. • The particles synthesized at lower temperatures possess finer sizes. • The acquired product which is prepared with excessive water offers larger sizes. • Any reduction in stoichiometric deviation leads to acquiring finer powders. • Taking synthesis composition as Li{sub (1+x)}Mg{sub 3}AlSi{sub 3(1+x)}O{sub 10+6.5x}F{sub 2} offers finer powders.

  8. Novel bioactive Co-based alloy/FA nanocomposite for dental applications

    PubMed Central

    Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Ahmadian, Mehdi; Bahrami, Mojgan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Dental cobalt base alloys are biocompatible dental materials and have been widely used in dentistry. However, metals are bioinert and may not present bioactivity in human body. Bioactivity is the especial ability to interact with human body and make a bonding to soft and hard tissues. The aim of the present research was fabrication and bioactivity evaluation of novel cobalt alloy/Fluorapatite nanocomposite (CoA/FaNC) with different amounts of Fluorapatite (FA) nanopowder. Materials and Methods: Co-Cr-Mo alloy (ASTM F75) powder was prepared and mixed in a planetary ball mill with different amounts of FA nanopowders (10, 15, 20% wt). Prepared composite powders were cold pressed and sintered at 1100°C for 4 h. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and transition electron microscopy techniques were used for phase analysis, crystallite size determination of FA and also for phase analysis and evaluation of particle distribution of composites. Bioactivity behavior of prepared nanocomposites was evaluated in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 1 up to 28 days. Materials and Methods: Co-Cr-Mo alloy (ASTM F75) powder was prepared and mixed in a planetary ball mill with different amounts of FA nanopowders (10, 15, 20% wt). Prepared composite powders were cold pressed and sintered at 1100°C for 4 h. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and transition electron microscopy techniques were used for phase analysis, crystallite size determination of FA and also for phase analysis and evaluation of particle distribution of composites. Bioactivity behavior of prepared nanocomposites was evaluated in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 1 up to 28 days. Results: Results showed that nucleus of apatite were formed on the surface of the prepared CoA/FaNC during 1 up to 28 days immersion in the SBF solution. On the other hand, CoA/FaNC unlike Co-base alloy possessed bone-like apatite-formation ability. Conclusion: It was concluded that bioinert Co

  9. Enhanced efficiency of dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cells (DSSC) by doping of metal ions.

    PubMed

    Ko, Kyung Hyun; Lee, Young Cheol; Jung, Young Jin

    2005-03-15

    Doped TiO(2) semiconductor powders were synthesized using Al and W as photovoltaic property-enhancing impurities. Al-doped TiO(2) electrodes increased open-circuit voltage (V(oc)), but reduced short-circuit current (I(sc)). In contrast, W-doped TiO(2) had an opposite effect. However, dye-sensitized solar cell efficiency fabricated with doped TiO(2) was remarkably better than that of undoped TiO(2). It seems that these phenomena were related to electrical surface-state modifications induced by metal-ion dopants. These modifications led to significant changes in powder aggregation, charge transfer kinetics, and dye adsorption characteristics. The highest efficiency was found by using (Al+W)-doped TiO(2) nanopowders.

  10. Ethanol dehydrogenation on copper catalysts with ytterbium stabilized tetragonal ZrO2 support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuklina, S. G.; Pylinina, A. I.; Podzorova, L. I.; Mikhailina, N. A.; Mikhalenko, I. I.

    2016-12-01

    The physicochemical and catalytic properties of Cu-containing crystalline zirconia, obtained via sol-gel synthesis in the presence of Yb3+ ions and polyvinylpyrrolidone, are studied. DTG/DSC, TEM, XRD and BET methods are used to analyze the crystallization, texture, phase uniformity, surface and porosity of ZrO2 nanopowders. It is shown that increasing the copper content (1, 3, and 5 wt % from ZrO2) raises the dehydrogenation activity in the temperature range of 100-400°C and lowers the activation energy of acetaldehyde formation. It is found that the activity of all Cu/ t-ZrO2 catalysts grows under the effects of the reaction medium, due to the migration and redispersion of copper.

  11. Spark-plasma-sintering magnetic field assisted compaction of Co{sub 80}Ni{sub 20} nanowires for anisotropic ferromagnetic bulk materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ouar, Nassima; Schoenstein, Frédéric; Mercone, Silvana; Farhat, Samir; Jouini, Noureddine; Villeroy, Benjamin; Leridon, Brigitte

    2013-10-28

    We developed a two-step process showing the way for sintering anisotropic nanostructured bulk ferromagnetic materials. A new reactor has been optimized allowing the synthesis of several grams per batch of nanopowders via a polyol soft chemistry route. The feasibility of the scale-up has been successfully demonstrated for Co{sub 80}Ni{sub 20} nanowires and a massic yield of ∼97% was obtained. The thus obtained nanowires show an average diameter of ∼6 nm and a length of ∼270 nm. A new bottom-up strategy allowed us to compact the powder into a bulk nanostructured system. We used a spark-plasma-sintering technique under uniaxial compression and low temperature assisted by a permanent magnetic field of 1 T. A macroscopic pellet of partially aligned nanowire arrays has been easily obtained. This showed optimized coercive properties along the direction of the magnetic field applied during compaction (i.e., the nanowires' direction)

  12. Microstructure and mechanical properties of thermoelectric nanostructured n-type silicon-germanium alloys synthesized employing spark plasma sintering

    SciTech Connect

    Bathula, Sivaiah; Gahtori, Bhasker; Tripathy, S. K.; Tyagi, Kriti; Srivastava, A. K.; Dhar, Ajay; Jayasimhadri, M.

    2014-08-11

    Owing to their high thermoelectric (TE) figure-of-merit, nanostructured Si{sub 80}Ge{sub 20} alloys are evolving as a potential replacement for their bulk counterparts in designing efficient radio-isotope TE generators. However, as the mechanical properties of these alloys are equally important in order to avoid in-service catastrophic failure of their TE modules, we report the strength, hardness, fracture toughness, and thermal shock resistance of nanostructured n-type Si{sub 80}Ge{sub 20} alloys synthesized employing spark plasma sintering of mechanically alloyed nanopowders of its constituent elements. These mechanical properties show a significant enhancement, which has been correlated with the microstructural features at nano-scale, delineated by transmission electron microscopy.

  13. Magnetization and Magnetocaloric Effect in Sol-Gel Derived Nanocrystalline Copper-Zinc Ferrite.

    PubMed

    Anwar, M S; Ahmed, Faheem; Koo, Bon Heun

    2015-02-01

    We report the sol-gel synthesis and magnetocaloric effect in nanocrystalline copper-zinc ferrite (Cu0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4). The synthesized powder was characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and magnetization measurements. The XRD results confirm the formation of single phase spinel structure. The average particle size was found to be ~58 nm. FE-SEM results suggested that the nanoparticles are agglomerated and spherical in shape. Magnetization measurement reveals that Cu0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles exhibit transition temperature (Tc) above room temperature. The maximum magnetic entropy change (ΔSM)max shows interesting behaviour and was found to vary with the applied magnetic field. This nanopowder can be considered as potential material for magnetic refrigeration above room temperature.

  14. The behavior of delaminations in composite materials - experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chermoshentseva, A. S.; Pokrovskiy, A. M.; Bokhoeva, L. A.

    2016-02-01

    Delamination is one of the most common failure modes of composite materials. It may occur as a consequence of imperfections in the production process or the effects of external factors during the operational life of the composite laminates, such as the impact by foreign objects. This paper presents the results of mechanical tests and the optimum degrees of filling the composite materials (CM) with hydrophobic powder (Tarkosil T-20) depending on the latter mass concentration. The results present test samples of the CM with the underlying interlayer defects. The samples were fabricated of twenty-ply pre-preg (fiberglass or carbon fiber). The industrial grade glass is T-25 (VM) specification 6-11-380-76. The composite materials have nanosized additives in structure. The volume concentration of nanopowders is varying from 0.1% to 0.5%. This kind of research has been done for the first time.

  15. Differentiation of human endometrial stem cells into endothelial-like cells on gelatin/chitosan/bioglass nanofibrous scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Shamosi, Atefeh; Mehrabani, Davood; Azami, Mahmoud; Ebrahimi-Barough, Somayeh; Siavashi, Vahid; Ghanbari, Hossein; Sharifi, Esmaeel; Roozafzoon, Reza; Ai, Jafar

    2017-02-01

    The capacity of gelatin/chitosan/bioactive glass nanopowders (GEL/CS/BGNPs) scaffolds was investigated for increasing human endometrial stem cells (hEnSCs) differentiation into the endothelial cells in the presence of angiogenic factors. GEL/CS nanofibrous scaffold with different contents of BGNPs were fabricated and assessed. Expression of endothelial markers (CD31, vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin), and KDR) in differentiated cells was evaluated. Results showed the diameter of nanofiber increases with decreasing the BG content in GEL/CS scaffolds. Moreover, in vitro study indicated that the GEL/CS/BGNPs scaffold with 1.5% BGNPs content provided a suitable three-dimensional structure for endothelial cells differentiation. Thus, the GEL/CS/BGNPs scaffold can be recommended for blood vessels repair.

  16. Reflection and transmission coefficient of yttrium iron garnet filled polyvinylidene fluoride composite using rectangular waveguide at microwave frequencies.

    PubMed

    Soleimani, Hassan; Abbas, Zulkifly; Yahya, Noorhana; Shameli, Kamyar; Soleimani, Hojjatollah; Shabanzadeh, Parvaneh

    2012-01-01

    The sol-gel method was carried out to synthesize nanosized Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG). The nanomaterials with ferrite structure were heat-treated at different temperatures from 500 to 1000 °C. The phase identification, morphology and functional groups of the prepared samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), respectively. The YIG ferrite nanopowder was composited with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) by a solution casting method. The magnitudes of reflection and transmission coefficients of PVDF/YIG containing 6, 10 and 13% YIG, respectively, were measured using rectangular waveguide in conjunction with a microwave vector network analyzer (VNA) in X-band frequencies. The results indicate that the presence of YIG in polymer composites causes an increase in reflection coefficient and decrease in transmission coefficient of the polymer.

  17. Virus inactivation by silver doped titanium dioxide nanoparticles for drinking water treatment.

    PubMed

    Liga, Michael V; Bryant, Erika L; Colvin, Vicki L; Li, Qilin

    2011-01-01

    Photocatalytic inactivation of viruses and other microorganisms is a promising technology that has been increasingly utilized in recent years. In this study, photocatalytic silver doped titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nAg/TiO(2)) were investigated for their capability of inactivating Bacteriophage MS2 in aqueous media. Nano-sized Ag deposits were formed on two commercial TiO(2) nanopowders using a photochemical reduction method. The MS2 inactivation kinetics of nAg/TiO(2) was compared to the base TiO(2) material and silver ions leached from the catalyst. The inactivation rate of MS2 was enhanced by more than 5 fold depending on the base TiO(2) material, and the inactivation efficiency increased with increasing silver content. The increased production of hydroxyl free radicals was found to be responsible for the enhanced viral inactivation.

  18. STUDY ON SYNTHESIS AND EVOLUTION OF NANOCRYSTALLINE Mg4Ta2O9 BY AQUEOUS SOL-GEL PROCESS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, H. T.; Yang, C. H.; Wu, W. B.; Yue, Y. L.

    2012-06-01

    Nanosized and highly reactive Mg4Ta2O9 were successfully synthesized by aqueous sol-gel method compared with conventional solid-state method. Ta-Mg-citric acid solution was first formed and then evaporated resulting in a dry gel for calcination in the temperature ranging from 600°C to 800°C for crystallization in oxygen atmosphere. The crystallization process from the gel to crystalline Mg4Ta2O9 was identified by thermal analysis and phase evolution of powders was studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique during calcinations. Particle size and morphology were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM). The results revealed that sol-gel process showed great advantages over conventional solid-state method and Mg4Ta2O9 nanopowders with the size of 20-30 nm were obtained at 800°C.

  19. Carbon-coated SnO2 nanobelts and nanoparticles by single catalytic step

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carreño, Neftali L. V.; Nunes, Michael R.; Garcia, Irene T. S.; Orlandi, Marcelo O.; Fajardo, Humberto V.; Longo, Elson

    2009-05-01

    Several types of carbon nanostructures (amorphous and graphitic), for the coating of SnO2 nanobelts and nanoparticles were obtained by a single catalytic process, during methane, natural gas, and methanol decomposition using the reactivity of surface-modified SnO2 nanostructure as a nanotemplate. The nanostructured catalyst templates were based on transition metal nanoparticles supported on SnO2 nanobelts previously prepared by a carbothermal reduction process. Carbon-coated SnO2 nanopowders were also successfully synthesized for the fabrication of carbon spheres. The carbon coating process and yield, along with the nature of the nanostructured carbon, are strongly influenced by the chemically modified surface of the SnO2 nanostructure template and the chemical reaction gas composition. The preliminary catalytic activity and gas-sensing properties of these novel materials based on metal nanoparticles and carbon-coated SnO2 were determined.

  20. Mechanisms of acoustic processing of a metal melt containing nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryashova, O.; Vorozhtsov, S.; Dubkova, Ya.; Stepkina, M.

    2016-11-01

    Wave processing with the frequencies from subsound (vibration) to ultrasound is used to produce nanopowder-modified composite alloys. This work considers mechanisms of such processing of metal melts, which lead to deagglomeration and wettability of particles of a metal melt and to the destruction of growing crystals during solidification. The main dependences for the threshold of the turbulence and cavitation were obtained. Resonance phenomena that contribute to positive changes in the melt are discussed. Possible mechanisms of the destruction of growing crystals and agglomerates of particles at the high-frequency processing of the melt are considered, including the destruction of agglomerates in the front of an acoustic wave and the destruction of crystals by oscillating solid particles.

  1. On the Mechanism of Ultrasound-Driven Deagglomeration of Nanoparticle Agglomerates in Aluminum Melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryashova, Olga; Vorozhtsov, Sergey

    2016-05-01

    One of the promising directions in the technology of composite alloys with improved mechanical properties is reinforcement of the metallic matrix with nanopowders introduced in the liquid metal. Ultrasonic processing is known to significantly improve the introduction of submicrone particles to the metallic melt. This study focuses on the mechanisms of deagglomeration and wettability of such particles by the melt under the action of ultrasound. The suggested mechanism involves the penetration of the liquid metal into the pores and cracks of the agglomerates under the excess pressure created by imploding cavitation bubbles and further destruction of the agglomerate by the sound wave. The main dependences connecting the acoustic parameters and processing time with the physical and chemical properties of particles and the melt are obtained through analytical modeling. The mathematical description of the ultrasonic deagglomeration in liquid metal is presented; a dependence of the threshold intensity of ultrasound for the break-up of agglomerates on their size is reported.

  2. Comparative studies on electrochemical cycling behavior of two different silica-based ionogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuang; Hsia, Ben; Alper, John P.; Carraro, Carlo; Wang, Zhe; Maboudian, Roya

    2016-01-01

    We report a comparative study of two silica-based ionogel electrolytes for electrochemical cycling applications. The ionogels considered represent two classes of gel networks, a covalently formed network generated by the polymerization of tetramethoxysilane catalyzed by formic acid, and a network formed by weak intermolecular forces obtained by mixing fumed silica nanopowder with ionic liquid. In both cases, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide is utilized as the ion conductor in the gel network. With increasing temperature it is shown that the electrochemical stability window is reduced, the conductivity of the electrolyte is increased, and the double layer capacitance is increased for both types of ionogels. Long-term stability of the two ionogels is excellent, with 90% capacitance retained after 10,000 repetitive CV cycles at 100 °C. Our results indicate that both of these ionogel electrolytes are promising for application in solid-state electrochemical systems at high temperature.

  3. Microstructural and magnetic properties of CoCu nanoparticles prepared by wet chemistry.

    PubMed

    García, Ignacio; Pomposo, José A; Echeberria, Jon; Ollo, Jaione; Ilyn, Maxim; Guslienko, Konstantin Y; González, Julián M

    2010-07-01

    Co(10)Cu(90) nanopowder alloys have been prepared by the sonochemical wet method. In this way, Cu/Co bimetallic nanocrystallites with average diameter of 10-20 nm, presenting a homogeneous metastable solid solution of Co in Cu, were produced. Their structural characterization by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and inductive coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry techniques has been used. Temperature dependences of the sample magnetization show two characteristic (blocking) temperatures associated to the typical deviation of the zero-field cooling and field-cooling magnetization curves at T1 approximately 15 and T2 approximately 310 K, respectively. This effect can be attributed to the fact that the samples consist of either superparamagnetic and/or ferromagnetic nanoparticles of different sizes. The samples were annealed at 300 degrees C and 450 degrees C and the observed evolution of their magnetic properties was explained in relation to decomposition of the metastable Co/Cu solid solution.

  4. Structural transformations in nanosized zirconium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouanne, M.; Morhange, J. F.; Kanehisa, M. A.; Haro-Poniatowski, E.; Fuentes, G. A.; Torres, E.; Hernández-Tellez, E.

    2001-10-01

    Structural properties of calcined ZrO2 nanopowders having various sizes were investigated by Raman spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. For grain sizes of the order of a few nanometers the Raman spectrum is typical of an amorphous material as is the corresponding x-ray diffractogram. As the size of the grains increases, the spectra progressively evolve towards that of a crystallized sample, furthermore, two regimes of growth, vitreous and crystalline, are evidenced. As opposed to the acoustical, the optical branches exhibit a strong discontinuity near the amorphous-crystalline transition. From the analysis of the Raman spectra as a function of size one can infer the phonon dispersion curves that has so far been inaccessible by neutron diffraction. A simple analysis using a classic elastic model shows that the Raman frequencies of the acoustical phonon bands of the nanograins are linearly dependent upon their size.

  5. Processing and synthesis of multi-metallic nano oxide ceramics via liquid-feed flame spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azurdia, Jose Antonio

    The liquid-feed flame spray pyrolysis (LF-FSP) process aerosolizes metal-carboxylate precursors dissolved in alcohol with oxygen and combusts them at >1500°C. The products are quenched rapidly (˜10s msec) to < 400°C. By selecting the appropriate precursor mixtures, the compositions of the resulting oxide nanopowders can be tailored easily, which lends itself to combinatorial studies of systems facilitating material property optimization. The resulting nanopowders typically consist of single crystal particles with average particle sizes (APS) < 35 nm, specific surface areas (SSA) of 20-60 m2/g and spherical morphology. LF-FSP provides access to novel single phase nanopowders, known phases at compositions outside their published phase diagrams, intimate mixing at nanometer length scales in multi metallic oxide nanopowders, and control of stoichiometry to ppm levels. The materials produced may exhibit unusual properties including structural, catalytic, and photonic ones and lower sintering temperatures. Prior studies used LF-FSP to produce MgAl2O4 spinel for applications in transparent armor and IR radomes. In these studies, a stable spinel structure with a (MgO)0.1(Al2O3)0.9 composition well outside the known phase field was observed. The work reported here extends this observation to two other spinel systems: Al2O3-NiO, Al2O3-CoOx; followed by three series of transition metal binary oxides, NiO-CoO, NiO-MoO3, NiO-CuO. The impetus to study spinels derives both from the fact that a number of them are known transparent ceramics, but also others offer high SSAs coupled with unusual phases that suggest potentially novel catalytic materials. Because LF-FSP provides access to any composition, comprehensive studies of the entire tie-lines were conducted rather than just compositions of value for catalytic applications. Initial efforts established baseline properties for the nano aluminate spinels, then three binary transition metal oxide sets (Ni-Co, Ni-Mo and Ni

  6. Microwave assisted synthesis of copper oxide and its application in electrochemical sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felix, S.; Bala Praveen Chakkravarthy, R.; Nirmala Grace, A.

    2015-02-01

    Copper oxide nanopowders were prepared using copper acetate as the precursor and polyethylene glycol (PEG) as stabilizer in ethanol medium. The mixture containing copper acetate, sodium hydroxide and PEG was irradiated with microwave and nanometric copper oxide particles were formed within 8 min. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized using x-ray diffraction, UV-vis spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The average particle size was found to be ~ 4 nm. This was used to modify glassy carbon electrode with PVDF & DMF as binder and used for sensing of carbohydrates (glucose and sucrose) and H2O2. The copper oxide nanoparticles showed excellent sensitivity in the range of 0.1 mM to 1 mM when choronoamperometry was carried out at 0.6 V Vs. Ag/AgCl. The observed sensitivity is much higher when compared with conventional micron sized copper oxide particles.

  7. Photocatalytic degradation of monoethanolamine in wastewater using nanosized TiO2 loaded on clinoptilolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodadoust, Saeid; Sheini, Azarmidokht; Armand, Nezam

    2012-06-01

    The use of titanium dioxide (TiO2) as photocatalyst to degrade the organic compounds is an effective method of oxidation process and has been widely studied in environmental engineering. In this investigation photocatalytic degradation of monoethanolamine (MEA) using TiO2 (in form of anatase) loaded on surface of clinoptilolite (CP) (TiO2-CP) in wastewater was studied. The surface interaction between TiO2 and CP was investigated by means of transmission electron microscope (TEM), atom force microscope (AFM), IR and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Then the effects of some parameters such as pH, amount of photocatalyst, and initial concentration of MEA on degradation percentage of MEA were examined. The obtained results show that the TiO2-CP is an active photocatalyst as compared with TiO2 nanopowders. All these results indicated that this proposed method can be useful for the development of wastewater treatment applications.

  8. Characterization of ZnO nanoparticle suspension in water: Effectiveness of ultrasonic dispersion

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, S.J.; Leonard, J.P.; Nettleship, I.; Lee, J.K.; Soong, Y.; Martello, D.V.; Chyu, M.K.

    2009-08-01

    Suspensions of ZnO nanoparticles in water were prepared with the two-step powder dispersion process using several methods of ultrasonication. The dispersion of ZnO was found to proceed by a fragmentation process. with minimum achievable particle size in the range 50 to 300 nm. This is consistent with other oxide nanopowder systems, in which most primary particulates still remain in hardened aggregates that cannot be further reduced. A submersible accelerometer probe was developed and used to measure the relative ultrasonic energy held in the liquid for the various ultrasonication methods. oscillation at the expected frequencies was identified in each case, with strong variability at different locations in the liquid volume.

  9. X-ray absorption fine structure and X-ray excited optical luminescence studies of II-VI semiconducting nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Michael Wayne

    2010-06-01

    Various II-VI semiconducting nanomaterials such as ZnO-ZnS nanoribbons (NRs), CdSxSe1-x nanostructures, ZnS:Mn NRs, ZnS:Mn,Eu nanoprsims (NPs), ZnO:Mn nanopowders, and ZnO:Co nanopowders were synthesized for study. These materials were characterized by techniques such as scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, element dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, selected area electron diffraction, and X-ray diffraction. The electronic and optical properties of these nanomaterials were studied by X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy and X-ray excited optical luminescence (XEOL) techniques, using tuneable soft X-rays from a synchrotron light source. The complementary nature ofthe XAFS and XEOL techniques give site, element and chemical specific measurements which allow a better understanding of the interplay and role of each element in the system. Chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of ZnS powder in a limited oxygen environment resulted in side-by-side biaxial ZnO-ZnS NR heterostructures. The resulting NRs contained distinct wurtzite ZnS and wurtzite ZnO components with widths of 10--100 nm and 20 --500 nm, respectively and a uniform interface region of 5-15 nm. XAFS and XEOL measurements revealed the luminescence of ZnO-ZnS NRs is from the ZnO component. The luminescence of CdSxSe1-x nanostructures is shown to be dependent on the S to Se ratio, with the band-gap emission being tunable between that of pure CdS and CdSe. Excitation of the CdSxSe 1-x nanostructures by X-ray in XEOL has revealed new de-excitation channels which show a defect emission band not seen by laser excitation. CVD of Mn2+ doped ZnS results in nanostructures with luminescence dominated by the yellow Mn2+ emission due to energy transfer from the ZnS host to the Mn dopant sites. The addition of EuCl3 to the reactants in the CVD process results in a change in morphology from NR to NP. Zn1-xMnxO and Zn1-xCOxO nanopowders were prepared by sol-gel methods at dopant concentrations

  10. Synthesis of nano-titanium dioxide by sol-gel route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaler, Vandana; Duchaniya, R. K.; Pandel, U.

    2016-04-01

    Nanosized titanium dioxide powder was synthesised via sol-gel route by hydrolysis of titanium tetraisopropoxide with ethanol and water mixture in high acidic medium. The synthesized nanopowder was further characterized by X-ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, and Ultraviolet Visible Spectroscopy in order to determine size, morphology and crystalline structure of the material. The synthesis of nano-TiO2 powder in anatase phase was realized by XRD. The optical studies of nano-TiO2 powder was carried out by UV-Vis spectroscopy and band gap was calculated as 3.5eV, The SEM results with EDAX confirmed that prepared nano-TiO2 particles were in nanometer range with irregular morphology. The FTIR analysis showed that only desired functional groups were present in sample. These nano-TiO2 particles have applications in solar cells, chemical sensors and paints, which are thrust areas these days.

  11. Sonochemical synthesis of calcium phosphate powders.

    PubMed

    de Campos, M; Müller, F A; Bressiani, A H A; Bressiani, J C; Greil, P

    2007-05-01

    beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) and biphasic calcium phosphate powders (BCP), consisting of hydroxyapatite (HA) and beta-TCP, were synthesized by thermal decomposition of precursor powders obtained from neutralization method. The precursor powders with a Ca/P molar ratio of 1.5 were prepared by adding an orthophosphoric acid (H(3)PO(4)) solution to an aqueous suspension containing calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)(2)). Mixing was carried out by vigorous stirring and under sonochemical irradiation at 50 kHz, respectively. Glycerol and D-glucose were added to evaluate their influence on the precipitation of the resulting calcium phosphate powders. After calcination at 1000 degrees C for 3 h BCP nanopowders of various HA/beta-TCP ratio were obtained.

  12. Visible luminescence of Al2O3 nanoparticles embedded in silica glass host matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Mir, L.; Amlouk, A.; Barthou, C.

    2006-11-01

    This paper deals with the sol gel elaboration and defects photoluminescence (PL) examination of Al2O3 nanocrystallites (size ˜30 nm) confined in glass based on silica aerogel. Aluminium oxide aerogels were synthesized using esterification reaction for hydrolysis of the precursor and supercritical conditions of ethyl alcohol for drying. The obtained nanopowder was incorporated in SiO2 host matrix. After heating under natural atmosphere at 1150 °C for 2 h, the composite Al2O3/SiO2 (AS) exhibited a strong PL bands at 400 600 and 700 900 nm in 78 300 K temperature range. PL excitation (PLE) measurements show different origins of the emission. It was suggested that OH-related radiative centres and non-bridging oxygen hole centres (NBOHCs) were responsible for the bands at 400 600 and 700 900 nm, respectively.

  13. Nano-Composite Material Development for 3-D Printers

    SciTech Connect

    Satches, Michael Randolph

    2015-12-01

    Graphene possesses excellent mechanical properties with a tensile strength that may exceed 130 GPa, excellent electrical conductivity, and good thermal properties. Future nano-composites can leverage many of these material properties in an attempt to build designer materials for a broad range of applications. 3-D printing has also seen vast improvements in recent years that have allowed many companies and individuals to realize rapid prototyping for relatively low capital investment. This research sought to create a graphene reinforced, polymer matrix nano-composite that is viable in commercial 3D printer technology, study the effects of ultra-high loading percentages of graphene in polymer matrices and determine the functional upper limit for loading. Loadings varied from 5 wt. % to 50 wt. % graphene nanopowder loaded in Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) matrices. Loaded sample were characterized for their mechanical properties using three point bending, tensile tests, as well as dynamic mechanical analysis.

  14. A study of structural, optical and dielectric properties of crystalline Sr2Nb2O7 nanoparticles synthesized by a modified combustion technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathai, K. C.; Vidya, S.; Solomon, Sam; Thomas, J. K.

    2014-01-01

    Nanocrystalline Strontium Pyroniobate is synthesized by a novel auto-igniting combustion technique. The X-Ray diffraction studies reveal that Strontium Niobate possesses orthorhombic structure. Phase purity and structure of the nanopowder is further examined using Fourier-Transform Infrared and Raman spectroscopy. The average particle size of the as prepared nanoparticles from the Transmission Electron Microscopy is 30 nm. Sr2Nb2O7 is a photoluminescent material and the optical band gap determined from the UV-DRS spectrum is 2.7eV. The sample is sintered at an optimized temperature of 1350°C for 2 hours and obtained maximum density. The dielectric constant and loss factor values obtained at 5MHz for a well-sintered Strontium Niobate pellet is found to be 40 and 3.9×10-3 respectively, at room temperature.

  15. Ternary systems based on PVDF, BaTiO{sub 3} and MWCNTs: Fabrication, characterization, electromagnetic simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Cacciotti, Ilaria; Valentini, Manlio; Nanni, Francesca

    2015-03-10

    In this work, ternary bulk systems based on polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), synthesised barium titanate (BaTiO{sub 3}, BT) nanopowder and multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were fabricated by film stacking technique, starting from solvent cast films. The main purpose was to investigate the influence of BT and MWCNTs addition to the polymeric matrix on its microstructural and dielectrical properties. In order to achieve it, different BT concentrations, ranging between the 60 and 75 %wt, were tested, whereas a MWCNTs content of 2 %wt was maintained constant. The morphology was studied by observation at scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the microstructure and crystalline phases investigated by X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and the electromagnetic properties measured in the microwave region (8-12 GHz). The electromagnetic response of the investigated bulk systems was also simulated as function of the sample thickness.

  16. Improvement of device performance by using zinc oxide in hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayakawa, Akinobu; Sagawa, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanopowder was applied to hybrid solar cells in combination with poly(3-hexylthiophene). Stability tests of the hybrid solar cell with or without encapsulation with glass and UV cut-off films were performed under 1 sun at 63 °C at a relative humidity of 50%. It was found that the sealed cell showed worse device performance in terms of the loss of the open-circuit voltage (Voc), whereas the unsealed cell exposed to air retained an almost constant Voc for more than 3 d under dark and atmospheric conditions. Placement in O2 atmosphere in the dark led to the recovery of Voc. Cation (Sn4+) doping into ZnO was performed, and the loss of Voc was effectively suppressed through the restraint of the supply of the excited electron from the valence band to the conduction band.

  17. In-situ fabrication of nanostructured cobalt oxide powders by spray pyrolysis technique.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Z W; Konstantinov, K; Yuan, L; Liu, H K; Dou, S X

    2004-09-01

    Nano-crystalline Co3O4 and CoO powders have been prepared by a spray pyrolysis approach. The effects of the reaction temperature and initial salts on the crystallinity and phase composition have been studied. Based on the TEM and XRD results, the crystal sizes were in the range of 1-10 nm. SEM and TEM observations also reveal that the nano-powders easily create micron-scale spherical agglomerates. The Co3O4 powders obtained by spraying nitrate solution at 500 degrees C show high specific surface area, which according to the BET method is 82.37 m2/g. The time/temperature phase diagram of cobalt oxides developed from XRD and DTA/TGA analyses shows the existence of a CoO phase at low and high temperature ranges when some specific preparation conditions are applied.

  18. Synthesis of ZnO, SnO2 nanoparticles and preparation of ZnO-SnO2 nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Gultekin, Deniz; Alaf, Mirac; Guler, Mehmet Oguz; Akbulut, Hatem

    2012-12-01

    This article reports the preparation of ZnO-SnO2 nanocomposites from ZnO and SnO2 nanoparticles produced by homogenous precipitation route. Zinc acetate dihydrate (Zn(CH3COO)2 x 2H2O) and tin(II) chloride dehydrates (SnCl2. 2H2O) have been used as precursors. Distilled water was used as a solvent, monoethanolamine (MEA) is used as sol stabilizer. Precursors individually dissolved and stirred at 60 degrees C for 1 h. Certain amount of MEA were added to solution and stirred for 2 h. Then solution was cooled to room temperature and gets precipitated. The collected nanosized precipitates were mixed together and deposited on glass substrates by drain coating and post-heated at different temperatures. X-ray diffractometer was used to determine preferred crystal orientation and particle size of the thin films. Morphologies of nanopowders were examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM).

  19. Titanate nanotubes as a promising absorbent for high effective radioactive uranium ions uptake.

    PubMed

    Xu, Mingze; Weil, Guodong; Li, Shuang; Niu, Xiaowei; Chen, Haifeng; Zhang, He; Chubik, M; Gromov, A; Han, Wei

    2012-08-01

    In this study, titanate nanotubes with a layered structure were investigated for the uptake of radioactive uranium ions for the first time. The nanotubes have been successfully prepared with a reaction of Ti metal nanopowders and NaOH mixed solution by a novel and effective ultrasonic-assisted hydrothermal method. As the absorbent of radioactive ions, they have the ability to selectively adsorb radioactive U ions from water via ion exchange process and subsequently immobilize these ions in the nanotube sorbents without the need of further treatment after absorption. Sorption induces considerable deformation of the layer structures, resulting in the structures changing from the nanotubes to sheets and having the ability of permanent entrapment of the radioactive cations in these as-grown sheets. Our results have proved that titanate nanotubes can be used as a promising absorbent for the removal of nuclear leaking water at the first time.

  20. Optimisation of the Photonic Efficiency of TiO2 Decorated on MWCNTs for Methylene Blue Photodegradation

    PubMed Central

    Abdullahi, Nura; Saion, Elias; Shaari, Abdul Halim; Al-Hada, Naif Mohammed; Keiteb, Aysar

    2015-01-01

    MWCNTs/TiO2 nanocomposite was prepared by oxidising MWCNT in H2SO4/HNO3 then decorating it with TiO2-p25 nanopowder. The composites were characterised using XRD, TEM, FT-IR PL and UV−vis spectroscopy. The TEM images have shown TiO2 nanoparticles immobilised onto the sidewalls of the MWCNTs. The UV-vis spectrum confirms that the nanocomposites can significantly absorb more light in the visible regions compared with the commercial TiO2 (P25). The catalytic activity of these nanocomposites was determined by photooxidation of MB aqueous solution in the presence of visible light. The MWCNTs/TiO2 (1:3) mass ratio showed maximum degradation efficiency. However, its activity was more favourable in alkaline and a neutral pH than an acidic medium. PMID:25993127