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Sample records for nanorod arrays tailored

  1. Tailoring terahertz plasmons with silver nanorod arrays

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Wei; Song, Chunyuan; Lanier, Thomas E.; Singh, Ranjan; O'Hara, John F.; Dennis, William M.; Zhao, Yiping; Zhang, Weili

    2013-01-01

    Plasmonic materials that strongly interact with light are ideal candidates for designing subwavelength photonic devices. We report on direct coupling of terahertz waves in metallic nanorods by observing the resonant transmission of surface plasmon polariton waves through lithographically patterned films of silver nanorod (100 nm in diameter) micro-hole arrays. The best enhancement in surface plasmon resonant transmission is obtained when the nanorods are perfectly aligned with the electric field direction of the linearly polarized terahertz wave. This unique polarization-dependent propagation of surface plasmons in structures fabricated from nanorod films offers promising device applications. We conclude that the anisotropy of nanoscale metallic rod arrays imparts a material anisotropy relevant at the microscale that may be utilized for the fabrication of plasmonic and metamaterial based devices for operation at terahertz frequencies.

  2. The Silver Nanorod Array SERS Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yiping; Liu, Yongjun

    2010-08-01

    The fabrication of large area, uniform and high enhancement substrates for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) based sensing is a bottle-neck for practical applications of SERS. Recently using oblique angle deposition (OAD) method, we have fabricated silver nanorod arrays with SERS enhancement factor >108, and SERS intensity variation <14%. The SERS spectra from those substrates have been demonstrated to be able to distinguish different viruses and virus strains, bacteria, microRNAs, or other chemical and biological molecules. We have performed a detailed characterization on those Ag nanorod substrates. The SERS enhancement factor depends strongly on the nanorod length and the fabrication conditions. For different deposition angle, there is an optimal nanorod length that gives the maximum enhancement. The SERS enhancement seems to directly depend on the reflectivity of the Ag nanorod substrates at the excitation wavelength regardless of the deposition angles and rod length. The SERS performance also depends strongly on the configurations of the excitation laser beam: the incident angle, the polarization, and the reflectance of the underlayer substrates. A simple modified Greenler's model is proposed to qualitatively explain those effects. The possible origin for the high enhancement of the Ag nanorod substrates has been studied by placing the Raman probe molecules on different locations of the substrates, and we have found that the side surfaces of the nanorod arrays contributes more to the SERS enhancement compared to the ends. We propose that this is due to the anisotropic absorbance nature of the Ag nanorod substrates.

  3. Antibacterial activity of ordered gold nanorod arrays.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yuejing; Ramasamy, Mohankandhasamy; Yi, Dong Kee

    2014-09-10

    Well-packed two- and three-dimensional (2D and 3D) gold nanorod (AuNR) arrays were fabricated using confined convective arraying techniques. The array density could be controlled by changing the concentration of the gold nanorods solution, the velocity of the moving substrate, and the environment air-temperature. The hydrophilic behavior of glass substrates before and after surface modification was studied through contact angle measurements. The affinity and alignment of the AuNR arrays with varying nanorod concentrations and the resulting different array densities were studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Under stable laser intensity irradiation, the photothermal response of the prepared arrays was measured using a thermocouple and the results were analyzed quantitatively. Synthesized AuNR arrays were added to Escherichia coli (E. coli) suspensions and evaluated for photothermal bactericidal activity before and after laser irradiation. The results showed promising bactericidal effect. The severity of pathogen destruction was measured and quantified using fluorescence microscopy, bioatomic force microscopy (Bio-AFM) and flow cytometry techniques. These results indicated that the fabricated AuNR arrays at higher concentrations were highly capable of complete bacterial destruction by photothermal effect compared to the low concentration AuNR arrays. Subsequent laser irradiation of the AuNR arrays resulted in rapid photoheating with remarkable bactericidal activity, which could be used for water treatment to produce microbe-free water. PMID:25148531

  4. Spectroscopy and imaging of arrays of nanorods toward nanopolarimetry.

    PubMed

    Lereu, A L; Passian, A; Farahi, R H; Abel-Tiberini, L; Tetard, L; Thundat, T

    2012-02-01

    The polarization dependence of the optical scattering properties of two-dimensional arrays of metal nanostructures with sub-wavelength dimensions (nanoantennas) has been investigated. Arrays of 500 nm × 100 nm gold nanorods covering a 100 × 100 µm(2) area were fabricated with varying orientations on an electrically conductive substrate. The experimental and computational analysis of the angularly organized nanorods suggest potential use toward the development of an integrated polarimeter. Using the gold nanorods on a transparent substrate as a preliminary system, we show that in the proper spectral range the scattering properties of the structures may be tuned for such an application. PMID:22214608

  5. Rapid fabrication of ZnO nanorod arrays with controlled spacing by micelle-templated solvothermal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelligra, Candice I.; Toth, Kristof; Hu, Hanqiong; Osuji, Chinedum O.

    2015-12-01

    We present a facile method for the synthesis of nanorod arrays over large areas with fine control over the average rod-rod spacing. Block copolymer micelles are used to template solvothermal synthesis of ZnO nanorods by preferentially enabling reactant diffusion through the micelle cores to an underlying seed layer. The distance between nanorod centers is defined by the micelle number density which is in turn controlled by the molecular weight of the block copolymer, and the block copolymer concentration in a templating film. We demonstrate the ability to control the resulting nanorod number density from ~100 μm-2 down to ~10 μm-2 with high fidelity. Correspondingly, the distance between nanorod surfaces was varied from ~60 nm to 230 nm. The method developed here provides a viable approach for rapidly fabricating large-area nanostructured electrodes comprised of nanorod arrays with controlled geometries. The ability to tailor nanorod spacing over a broad range suggests applications in photovoltaics and sensors based on optical resonances can be readily addressed.We present a facile method for the synthesis of nanorod arrays over large areas with fine control over the average rod-rod spacing. Block copolymer micelles are used to template solvothermal synthesis of ZnO nanorods by preferentially enabling reactant diffusion through the micelle cores to an underlying seed layer. The distance between nanorod centers is defined by the micelle number density which is in turn controlled by the molecular weight of the block copolymer, and the block copolymer concentration in a templating film. We demonstrate the ability to control the resulting nanorod number density from ~100 μm-2 down to ~10 μm-2 with high fidelity. Correspondingly, the distance between nanorod surfaces was varied from ~60 nm to 230 nm. The method developed here provides a viable approach for rapidly fabricating large-area nanostructured electrodes comprised of nanorod arrays with controlled geometries

  6. One-Dimensional Nanorod Arrays: Independent Control of Composition, Length, and Interparticle Spacing with Nanometer Precision

    SciTech Connect

    Osberg, Kyle D; Schmucker, Abrin L; Senesi, Andrew J; Mirkin, Chad

    2011-02-09

    We report the synthesis of solution dispersible, one-dimensional metal nanostructure arrays as small as 35 nm in diameter using on-wire lithography, wherein feature thickness and spacing in the arrays is tailorable down to approximately 6 and 1 nm, respectively. Using this unique level of control, we present solution-averaged extinction spectra of 35 nm diameter Au nanorod dimers with varying gap sizes to illustrate the effect of gap size on plasmon coupling between nanorods. Additionally, we demonstrate control over the composition of the arrays with Au, Ni, and Pt segments, representing important advances in controlling the ordering of sub-100 nm nanostructures that are not available with current synthesis or assembly methods.

  7. Highly Uniform Epitaxial ZnO Nanorod Arrays for Nanopiezotronics

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Highly uniform and c-axis-aligned ZnO nanorod arrays were fabricated in predefined patterns by a low temperature homoepitaxial aqueous chemical method. The nucleation seed patterns were realized in polymer and in metal thin films, resulting in, all-ZnO and bottom-contacted structures, respectively. Both of them show excellent geometrical uniformity: the cross-sectional uniformity according to the scanning electron micrographs across the array is lower than 2%. The diameter of the hexagonal prism-shaped nanorods can be set in the range of 90–170 nm while their typical length achievable is 0.5–2.3 μm. The effect of the surface polarity was also examined, however, no significant difference was found between the arrays grown on Zn-terminated and on O-terminated face of the ZnO single crystal. The transmission electron microscopy observation revealed the single crystalline nature of the nanorods. The current–voltage characteristics taken on an individual nanorod contacted by a Au-coated atomic force microscope tip reflected Schottky-type behavior. The geometrical uniformity, the designable pattern, and the electrical properties make the presented nanorod arrays ideal candidates to be used in ZnO-based DC nanogenerator and in next-generation integrated piezoelectric nano-electromechanical systems (NEMS). PMID:20596319

  8. Broadband resonances in indium-tin-oxide nanorod arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Shi-Qiang E-mail: r-chang@northwestern.edu; Sakoda, Kazuaki; Ketterson, John B.; Chang, Robert P. H. E-mail: r-chang@northwestern.edu

    2015-07-20

    There is currently much discussion within the nanophotonics community regarding the origin of wavelength selective absorption/scattering of light by the resonances in nanorod arrays. Here, we report a study of resonances in ordered indium-tin-oxide nanorod arrays resulting from waveguide-like modes. We find that with only a 2.4% geometrical coverage, micron-length nanorod arrays interact strongly with light across a surprisingly wide band from the visible to the mid-infrared, resulting in less than 10% transmission. Simulations show excellent agreement with our experimental observations. The field profile in the vicinity of the rods obtained from simulations shows that the electric field is mainly localized on the surfaces of the nanorods for all resonances. Based on our analysis, the resonances in the visible are different in character from those in the infrared. When light is incident on the array, part of it propagates in the space between the rods and part of it is guided within the rods. The phase difference (interference) at the ends of the rods forms the basis for the resonances in the visible region. The resonances in the infrared are Fabry-Perot-like resonances involving standing surface waves between the opposing ends of the rods. Simple analytical formulae predict the spectral positions of these resonances. It is suggested that these phenomena can be utilized for wavelength-selective photodetectors, modulators, and nanorod-based solar cells.

  9. Tin Oxide Nanorod Array-Based Electrochemical Hydrogen Peroxide Biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinping; Li, Yuanyuan; Huang, Xintang; Zhu, Zhihong

    2010-07-01

    SnO2 nanorod array grown directly on alloy substrate has been employed as the working electrode of H2O2 biosensor. Single-crystalline SnO2 nanorods provide not only low isoelectric point and enough void spaces for facile horseradish peroxidase (HRP) immobilization but also numerous conductive channels for electron transport to and from current collector; thus, leading to direct electrochemistry of HRP. The nanorod array-based biosensor demonstrates high H2O2 sensing performance in terms of excellent sensitivity (379 μA mM-1 cm-2), low detection limit (0.2 μM) and high selectivity with the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant estimated to be as small as 33.9 μM. Our work further demonstrates the advantages of ordered array architecture in electrochemical device application and sheds light on the construction of other high-performance enzymatic biosensors.

  10. Metallic nanorods array for magnified subwavelength imaging (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohashi, Yoshiro; Ranjan, Bikas; Saito, Yuika; Verma, Prabhat

    2015-08-01

    Earlier, our group proposed a lens made of metallic nanorods, stacked in 3D arrays tapered in a conical shape. This nanolens could theoretically realize super-resolution color imaging in the visible range. The image could be magnified and transferred through metallic nanorods array. Lithography or self-assembly are common ways to fabricate such nanostructured devices. However, to precisely arrange nanorods is challenging due to the limitations to scale down components, and to increase accuracy of assembling particles in large area. Here we experimentally demonstrated 2D nanolens with long chains of metallic nanorods placed at tapered angles in a fan-like shape to magnify images. In the fabrication, we chemically synthesized gold nanorods coated with CTAB surfactant to ensure a 10 nm gap between the rods for the resonance control of nanolens. And we prepared trenches patterned by FIB lithography on a PMMA coated glass substrate. The different hydrophobicity of PMMA and CTAB coats enabled to optimize capillary force in gold nanorod solution and selectively assemble nanorods into hydrophilic trenches. Finally, we obtained 2D nanolens after lift-off of the PMMA layer. We numerically estimated the resonance property of nanorods chain and found a broad peak in the visible range located at a wavelength of 727 nm. The broadness of this peak (~178 nm) confirms that a broad range of wavelength can be resonant with this structure. This phenomenon was also confirmed experimentally by optical measurements. These results show that the combination of lithography and self-assembly has the potential to realize plasmonic nanolens.

  11. Ordered silicon nanorod arrays with controllable geometry and robust hydrophobicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zi-Wen, Wang; Jia-Qi, Cai; Yi-Zhi, Wu; Hui-Jie, Wang; Xiao-Liang, Xu

    2015-01-01

    Highly ordered silicon nanorod (SiNR) arrays with controllable geometry are fabricated via nanosphere lithography and metal-assisted chemical etching. It is demonstrated that the key to achieving a high-quality metal mask is to construct a non-close-packed template that can be removed with negligible damage to the mask. Hydrophobicity of SiNR arrays of different geometries is also studied. It is shown that the nanorod structures are effectively quasi-hydrophobic with a contact angle as high as 142°, which would be useful in self-cleaning nanorod-based device applications. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51272246) and the Scientific and Technological Research Foundation of Anhui Province, China (Grant No. 12010202035).

  12. Infrared spectroscopy of molecules with nanorod arrays: a numerical study.

    PubMed

    Tardieu, Clément; Vincent, Grégory; Haïdar, Riad; Collin, Stéphane

    2016-04-15

    Nanorod arrays with diameters much smaller than the wavelength exhibit sharp resonances with strong electric-field enhancement and angular dependence. They are investigated for enhanced infrared spectroscopy of molecular bonds. The molecule 3-cyanopropyldimethylchlorosilane (CS) is taken as a reference, and its complex permittivity is determined experimentally in the 3-5 μm wavelength range. When grafted on silicon nitride nanorods, we show numerically that its weak absorption bands due to chemical bond vibrations can be enhanced by several orders of magnitude compared with unstructured thin film. We propose a figure of merit (FoM) to assess the performance of this spectroscopic scheme, and we study the impact of the nanorod cross section on the FoM.

  13. Large hexagonal arrays of aligned ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, D.; Rybczynski, J.; Huang, J. Y.; Wang, D. Z.; Kempa, K.; Ren, Z. F.

    2005-02-01

    Large-scale truly periodic arrays of vertically aligned zinc oxide nanorods were grown on pre-patterned and pre-annealed gold dots on a-plane sapphire substrates via the vapor liquid solid mechanism. Periodic arrays of triangular gold islands were first patterned on the a-plane sapphire substrates by the nanosphere self-assembly technique. Zinc has been found to be an effective interfacial modifier between gold and sapphire to form single catalytic dots from triangular islands. The successful fabrication of zinc oxide nanowires in truly periodic arrays opens up the possibility of achieving enhanced room-temperature ultraviolet lasing and photonic crystal based devices and sensors.

  14. Polycyanurate nanorod arrays for optical-waveguide-based biosensing.

    PubMed

    Gitsas, Antonis; Yameen, Basit; Lazzara, Thomas Dominic; Steinhart, Martin; Duran, Hatice; Knoll, Wolfgang

    2010-06-01

    We demonstrate high-sensitivity biosensing by optical waveguide spectroscopy (OWS) at visible wavelengths using aligned polycyanurate thermoset nanorods (PCNs) arranged in extended arrays as waveguides. The PCNs formed by thermal polymerization of a cyanate ester monomer in self-ordered nanoporous alumina templates were 60 nm in diameter and 650 nm in length. Subtle refractive index changes of the medium surrounding the nanorods could be detected by monitoring the angular shifts of waveguiding modes. The sensing figure of merit thus achieved amounted to 196 reciprocal refractive index units and is, therefore, higher than that of other sensors based on angular modulation, while the configuration used here is eligible for further surface functionalization. Kinetics of the binding of taurine to the surface cyanate groups of the PCNs was monitored by OWS. Thus, modified PCNs bearing sulfonic acid groups at their surfaces were obtained. PCN arrays may represent a versatile platform for the design of biosensors. PMID:20527931

  15. Copper nanorod array assisted silicon waveguide polarization beam splitter.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangsik; Qi, Minghao

    2014-04-21

    We present the design of a three-dimensional (3D) polarization beam splitter (PBS) with a copper nanorod array placed between two silicon waveguides. The localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of a metal nanorod array selectively cross-couples transverse electric (TE) mode to the coupler waveguide, while transverse magnetic (TM) mode passes through the original input waveguide without coupling. An ultra-compact and broadband PBS compared to all-dielectric devices is achieved with the LSPR. The output ports of waveguides are designed to support either TM or TE mode only to enhance the extinction ratios. Compared to silver, copper is fully compatible with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology.

  16. Copper nanorod array assisted silicon waveguide polarization beam splitter

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sangsik; Qi, Minghao

    2014-01-01

    We present the design of a three-dimensional (3D) polarization beam splitter (PBS) with a copper nanorod array placed between two silicon waveguides. The localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of a metal nanorod array selectively cross-couples transverse electric (TE) mode to the coupler waveguide, while transverse magnetic (TM) mode passes through the original input waveguide without coupling. An ultra-compact and broadband PBS compared to all-dielectric devices is achieved with the LSPR. The output ports of waveguides are designed to support either TM or TE mode only to enhance the extinction ratios. Compared to silver, copper is fully compatible with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. PMID:24787839

  17. Silica nanorod-array films with very low refractive indices.

    PubMed

    Xi, J Q; Kim, Jong Kyu; Schubert, E F

    2005-07-01

    The refractive-index contrast is an important figure of merit for dielectric multilayer structures, optical resonators, and photonic crystals. This represents a strong driving force for novel materials that have refractive indices lower than those of conventional optically transparent materials. Silica nanorod-array dielectric films with unprecedented low refractive indices of 1.08 are demonstrated and shown to have viable optical properties including enhanced reflectivity of a single-pair distributed Bragg reflector.

  18. Aligned Silver Nanorod Array as SERS Substrates for Viral Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yiping; Shanmukh, Saratchandra; Chaney, Stephen B.; Jones, Les; Dluhy, Richard A.; Tripp, Ralph A.

    2006-03-01

    The aligned silver nanorod array substrates prepared by the oblique angle deposition method are capable of providing extremely high enhancement factors (˜10^9) at near-infrared wavelengths (785 nm) for a standard reporter molecule 1,2 trans-(bis)pyridyl-ethene (BPE). The enhancement factor depends strongly on the length of the Ag nanorods, the substrate coating, as well as the polarization of the excitation laser beam. With the current optimum structure, we demonstrate that the detection limit for BPE can be lower than 0.1 fM. The applicability of this substrate to the detection of bioagents has been investigated by looking several viruses, such as Adenovirus, HIV, Rhinovirus and Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), at low quantities (˜0.5uL). Different viruses have different fingerprint Raman spectrum. The detection of virus presented in infected cells has also been demonstrated.

  19. Aligned silver nanorod arrays for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Teng; Zhang, Wenjun; Chu, Paul K.

    2009-05-01

    A convenient nanotechnique is used to place analyte molecules between closely spaced silver nanorods for investigating surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The route involves letting absorption of saturated AgNO 3 solution in the pores of the porous anodic alumina templates, followed by drying and decomposition of the salt at high temperatures. The silver nanorod arrays boast a high SERS enhancement and large dynamic range. The interrod-coupling-induced enhancement was attributed to the broadening of the plasmon resonance peak because the probability of the resonance covering both the excitation wavelength and the Raman peak increases with its width. The method will be useful in the development of plasmon-based analytical devices, specifically SERS-based biosensors.

  20. Infrared plasmonics with indium-tin-oxide nanorod arrays.

    PubMed

    Li, Shi Qiang; Guo, Peijun; Zhang, Lingxiao; Zhou, Wei; Odom, Teri W; Seideman, Tamar; Ketterson, John B; Chang, Robert P H

    2011-11-22

    This article reports the study of infrared plasmonics with both random and periodic arrays of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) nanorods (NR). A description is given on the synthesis, patterning, and characterization of physical properties of the ITO NR arrays. A classical scattering model, along with a 3-D finite-element-method and a 3-D finite-difference-time-domain numerical simulation method has been used to interpret the unique light scattering phenomena. It is also shown that the intrinsic plasma frequency can be varied through careful postsynthesis processing of the ITO NRs. Examples are given on how coupled plasmon resonances can be tuned through patterning of the ITO NR arrays. In addition, environment dielectric sensing has been demonstrated through the shift of the resonances as a result of index change surrounding the NRs. These initial results suggest potential for further improvement and opportunities to develop a good understanding of infrared plasmonics using ITO and other transparent conducting oxide semiconducting materials.

  1. Tailorable chiroptical activity of metallic nanospiral arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Junhong; Fu, Junxue; Ng, Jack; Huang, Zhifeng

    2016-02-01

    The engineering of the chiroptical activity of the emerging chiral metamaterial, metallic nanospirals, is in its infancy. We utilize glancing angle deposition (GLAD) to facilely sculpture the helical structure of silver nanospirals (AgNSs), so that the scope of chiroptical engineering factors is broadened to include the spiral growth of homochiral AgNSs, the combination of left- and right-handed helical chirality to create heterochiral AgNSs, and the coil-axis alignment of the heterochiral AgNSs. It leads to flexible control over the chiroptical activity of AgNS arrays with respect to the sign, resonance wavelength and amplitude of circular dichroism (CD) in the UV and visible regime. The UV chiroptical mode has a distinct response from the visible mode. Finite element simulation together with LC circuit theory illustrates that the UV irradiation is mainly adsorbed in the metal and the visible is preferentially scattered by the AgNSs, accounting for the wavelength-related chiroptical distinction. This work contributes to broadening the horizons in understanding and engineering chiroptical responses, primarily desired for developing a wide range of potential chiroplasmonic applications.The engineering of the chiroptical activity of the emerging chiral metamaterial, metallic nanospirals, is in its infancy. We utilize glancing angle deposition (GLAD) to facilely sculpture the helical structure of silver nanospirals (AgNSs), so that the scope of chiroptical engineering factors is broadened to include the spiral growth of homochiral AgNSs, the combination of left- and right-handed helical chirality to create heterochiral AgNSs, and the coil-axis alignment of the heterochiral AgNSs. It leads to flexible control over the chiroptical activity of AgNS arrays with respect to the sign, resonance wavelength and amplitude of circular dichroism (CD) in the UV and visible regime. The UV chiroptical mode has a distinct response from the visible mode. Finite element simulation

  2. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on ZnO nanorod arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yu; Li, Shaoyan; Zhang, Ting; Joshi, Prakash; Fong, Hao; Ropp, Mike; Galipeau, David; Qiao, Qiquan

    2008-08-01

    A series of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were fabricated using ZnO nanorod arrays as the anode electrode. The ZnO nanorod arrays were grown on the fluorine doped tin dioxide (FTO) substrates by a hydrothermal method. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images indicated that the ZnO nanorod arrays were highly oriented on FTO substrates with an average diameter of ~40 nm and an average length of ~1 μm. After sensitized by Z-907 dye via impregnation in solution, ZnO nanorod arrays changed the color from white to pink. This indicated that the dye had been successfully attached to ZnO nanorods. The high-aspect-ratio (~25) ZnO nanorod arrays are expected to improve charge transport through the formation of continuous channels along the nanorods. We fabricated photovoltaic cells based on these ZnO nanorod arrays and found the deposition time and effective area were two important factors affecting short circuit current densities and cell efficiencies. The device performance (Voc = 0.48 V, Jsc = 5.39 mA/cm2, η = 0.73 %) showed a great potential for solar energy conversion.

  3. High-density Au nanorod optical field-emitter arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, R. G.; Yang, Y.; Keathley, P. D.; Swanwick, M. E.; Velásquez-García, L. F.; Kärtner, F. X.; Graves, W. S.; Berggren, K. K.

    2014-11-01

    We demonstrate the design, fabrication, characterization, and operation of high-density arrays of Au nanorod electron emitters, fabricated by high-resolution electron beam lithography, and excited by ultrafast femtosecond near-infrared radiation. Electron emission characteristic of multiphoton absorption has been observed at low laser fluence, as indicated by the power-law scaling of emission current with applied optical power. The onset of space-charge-limited current and strong optical field emission has been investigated so as to determine the mechanism of electron emission at high incident laser fluence. Laser-induced structural damage has been observed at applied optical fields above 5 GV m-1, and energy spectra of emitted electrons have been measured using an electron time-of-flight spectrometer.

  4. Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells Depending on TiO2 Nanorod Arrays.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Dai, Si-Min; Zhu, Pei; Deng, Lin-Long; Xie, Su-Yuan; Cui, Qian; Chen, Hong; Wang, Ning; Lin, Hong

    2016-08-24

    Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) with TiO2 materials have attracted much attention due to their high photovoltaic performance. Aligned TiO2 nanorods have long been used for potential application in highly efficient perovskite solar cells, but the previously reported efficiencies of perovskite solar cells based on TiO2 nanorod arrays were underrated. Here we show a solvothermal method based on a modified ketone-HCl system with the addition of organic acids suitable for modulation of the TiO2 nanorod array films to fabricate highly efficient perovskite solar cells. Photovoltaic measurements indicated that efficient nanorod-structured perovskite solar cells can be achieved with the length of the nanorods as long as approximately 200 nm. A record efficiency of 18.22% under the reverse scan direction has been optimized by avoiding direct contact between the TiO2 nanorods and the hole transport materials, eliminating the organic residues on the nanorod surfaces using UV-ozone treatment and tuning the nanorod array morphologies through addition of different organic acids in the solvothermal process. PMID:27480286

  5. Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells Depending on TiO2 Nanorod Arrays.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Dai, Si-Min; Zhu, Pei; Deng, Lin-Long; Xie, Su-Yuan; Cui, Qian; Chen, Hong; Wang, Ning; Lin, Hong

    2016-08-24

    Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) with TiO2 materials have attracted much attention due to their high photovoltaic performance. Aligned TiO2 nanorods have long been used for potential application in highly efficient perovskite solar cells, but the previously reported efficiencies of perovskite solar cells based on TiO2 nanorod arrays were underrated. Here we show a solvothermal method based on a modified ketone-HCl system with the addition of organic acids suitable for modulation of the TiO2 nanorod array films to fabricate highly efficient perovskite solar cells. Photovoltaic measurements indicated that efficient nanorod-structured perovskite solar cells can be achieved with the length of the nanorods as long as approximately 200 nm. A record efficiency of 18.22% under the reverse scan direction has been optimized by avoiding direct contact between the TiO2 nanorods and the hole transport materials, eliminating the organic residues on the nanorod surfaces using UV-ozone treatment and tuning the nanorod array morphologies through addition of different organic acids in the solvothermal process.

  6. Temperature dependence of the growth of ZnO nanorod arrays by electrochemical deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyunghoon; Moon, Jin Young; Lee, Ho Seong

    2011-03-01

    ZnO nanorod arrays were prepared by the electrochemical deposition route on conductive Au/Si substrates. The effect of the bath temperature on the growth of the ZnO nanorod arrays was investigated. With an increase in bath temperature from 30°C to 80°C, the deposited ZnO changed from an amorphous structure to a hexagonal crystal structure. The ZnO nanorod arrays grown above 50°C were dense and vertically well-aligned. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy results showed that the diameter of the hexagon-shaped ZnO nanorod arrays ranged from 100 nm to 180 nm and the length was about 500 nm. On the basis of the characteristics of the ZnO crystal structure and the effect of the bath temperature, the growth mechanism is described.

  7. Multiplexed gold nanorod array biochip for multi-sample analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanyan; Tang, Liang

    2015-05-15

    Optical transduction of biological bindings based on localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of gold nanorods (GNRs) is attractive for label-free biosensing. The aspect ratio (AR) dependence of LSPR band maxima inherently provides an ideal multiplex mechanism. GNRs of selected sizes can be combined to ensure distinct plasmon peaks in absorption spectrum. Monitoring the spectral shift at the dedicated peaks allows for simultaneous detection of the specific analyte. Here, we first transformed the GNR's multiplexed biosensing capability to a robust chip-based format. Specifically, nanorods of AR 2.6 and 4.5 were assembled onto thiol-terminated substrates, followed by functionalization of respective antibodies to construct a GNR multiplex biochip. As a model system, concentrations of human IgG and rabbit IgG were simultaneously measured by correlating red-shifts at distinct resonance peaks caused by specific target binding. The calibration curves exhibited linear relationship between the spectral shift and analyte amount. The sensing performance in multi-analyte mode correlated nicely with those for single analyte detection with minimal cross-reactivity. Moreover, mixed GNRs can be deposited in controllable array pattern on the glass chip to analyze numerous samples at the same time. Each GNRs dot functioned independently as a multiplexed plamonic sensor. Coupled with microplate reader, this GNR nanoarray chip can potentially result in large scale assay of samples concurrently while for each sample, a multi-analyte detection simultaneously if desired. The concept shown in this work is simple and versatile that will definitely be a new paradigm in high-throughput protein biochip development in the era of nano-biosensing. PMID:25127486

  8. Heterostructured TiO2 Nanorod@Nanobowl Arrays for Efficient Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenhui; Dong, Jingya; Ye, Xiaozhou; Li, Yang; Ma, Yurong; Qi, Limin

    2016-03-01

    Heterostructured TiO2 nanorod@nanobowl (NR@NB) arrays consisting of rutile TiO2 nanorods grown on the inner surface of arrayed anatase TiO2 nanobowls are designed and fabricated as a new type of photoanodes for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting. The unique heterostructures with a hierarchical architecture are readily fabricated by interfacial nanosphere lithography followed by hydrothermal growth. Owing to the two-dimensionally arrayed structure of anatase nanobowls and the nearly radial alignment of rutile nanorods, the TiO2 NR@NB arrays provide multiple scattering centers and hence exhibit an enhanced light harvesting ability. Meanwhile, the large surface area of the NR@NB arrays enhances the contact with the electrolyte while the nanorods offer direct pathways for fast electron transfer. Moreover, the rutile/anatase phase junction in the NR@NB heterostructure improves charge separation because of the facilitated electron transfer. Accordingly, the PEC measurements of the TiO2 NR@NB arrays on the fluoride-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate show significantly enhanced photocatalytic properties for water splitting. Under AM1.5G solar light irradiation, the unmodified TiO2 NR@NB array photoelectrode yields a photocurrent density of 1.24 mA cm(-2) at 1.23 V with respect to the reversible hydrogen electrode, which is almost two times higher than that of the TiO2 nanorods grown directly on the FTO substrate. PMID:26779803

  9. Heterostructured TiO2 Nanorod@Nanobowl Arrays for Efficient Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenhui; Dong, Jingya; Ye, Xiaozhou; Li, Yang; Ma, Yurong; Qi, Limin

    2016-03-01

    Heterostructured TiO2 nanorod@nanobowl (NR@NB) arrays consisting of rutile TiO2 nanorods grown on the inner surface of arrayed anatase TiO2 nanobowls are designed and fabricated as a new type of photoanodes for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting. The unique heterostructures with a hierarchical architecture are readily fabricated by interfacial nanosphere lithography followed by hydrothermal growth. Owing to the two-dimensionally arrayed structure of anatase nanobowls and the nearly radial alignment of rutile nanorods, the TiO2 NR@NB arrays provide multiple scattering centers and hence exhibit an enhanced light harvesting ability. Meanwhile, the large surface area of the NR@NB arrays enhances the contact with the electrolyte while the nanorods offer direct pathways for fast electron transfer. Moreover, the rutile/anatase phase junction in the NR@NB heterostructure improves charge separation because of the facilitated electron transfer. Accordingly, the PEC measurements of the TiO2 NR@NB arrays on the fluoride-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate show significantly enhanced photocatalytic properties for water splitting. Under AM1.5G solar light irradiation, the unmodified TiO2 NR@NB array photoelectrode yields a photocurrent density of 1.24 mA cm(-2) at 1.23 V with respect to the reversible hydrogen electrode, which is almost two times higher than that of the TiO2 nanorods grown directly on the FTO substrate.

  10. Dimensional Tailoring of Hydrothermally Grown Zinc Oxide Nanowire Arrays.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jayce J; Nicaise, Samuel M; Berggren, Karl K; Gradečak, Silvija

    2016-01-13

    Hydrothermally synthesized ZnO nanowire arrays are critical components in a range of nanostructured semiconductor devices. The device performance is governed by relevant nanowire morphological parameters that cannot be fully controlled during bulk hydrothermal synthesis due to its transient nature. Here, we maintain homeostatic zinc concentration, pH, and temperature by employing continuous flow synthesis and demonstrate independent tailoring of nanowire array dimensions including areal density, length, and diameter on device-relevant length scales. By applying diffusion/reaction-limited analysis, we separate the effect of local diffusive transport from the c-plane surface reaction rate and identify direct incorporation as the c-plane growth mechanism. Our analysis defines guidelines for precise and independent control of the nanowire length and diameter by operating in rate-limiting regimes. We validate its utility by using surface adsorbents that limit reaction rate to obtain spatially uniform vertical growth rates across a patterned substrate. PMID:26708095

  11. GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays with a nearly constant electroluminescent peak wavelength.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng-Yin; Chen, Liang-Yi; Chen, Cheng-Pin; Cheng, Yun-Wei; Ke, Min-Yung; Hsieh, Min-Yann; Wu, Han-Ming; Peng, Lung-Han; Huang, JianJang

    2008-07-01

    A practical process to fabricate InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes (LEDs) with a self-organized nanorod structure is demonstrated. The nanorod array is realized by using nature lithography of surface patterned silica spheres followed by dry etching. A layer of spin-on-glass (SOG), which intervening the rod spacing, serves the purpose of electric isolation to each of the parallel nanorod LED units. The electroluminescence peak wavelengths of the nanorod LEDs nearly remain as constant for an injection current level between 25mA and 100mA, which indicates that the quantum confined stark effect is suppressed in the nanorod devices. Furthermore, from the Raman light scattering analysis we identify a strain relaxation mechanism for lattice mismatch layers in the nanostructure. PMID:18607469

  12. A Multiscale TiO2 Nanorod Array for Ultrasensitive Capture of Circulating Tumor Cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Na; Li, Xinpan; Wang, Zhili; Zhang, Ruihua; Wang, Jine; Wang, Kewei; Pei, Renjun

    2016-05-25

    In this work, a uniform multiscale TiO2 nanorod array is fabricated to provide a "multi-scale interacting platform" for cell capture, which exhibits excellent capture specificity and sensitivity of the target cells after modification with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and DNA aptamer. After studying the capture performance of the BSA-aptamer TiO2 nanorod substrates and other nanostructured substrates, we can conclude that the multisacle TiO2 nanorod substrates could indeed effectively enhance the capture yields of target cancer cells. The capture yield of artificial blood samples on the BSA-aptamer TiO2 nanorod substrates is up to 85%-95%, revealing the potential application of the TiO2 nanorods on efficient and sensitive capture of rare circulating tumor cells. PMID:27176724

  13. Pt surface modification of SnO2 nanorod arrays for CO and H2 sensors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui; Ong, C Y; Guo, J; White, T; Tse, M S; Tan, O K

    2010-07-01

    Uniform SnO(2) nanorod arrays were deposited on a 4 inch SiO(2)/Si wafer by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PEVCD) at low deposition temperature of around 300 degrees C. The SnO(2) nanorods were connected at the roots, thus the nanorod sensors could be fabricated by a feasible way compatible with microelectronic processes. The surface of the sensors was modified by Pt nanoparticles deposited by dip coating and sputtering, respectively. The sensing properties of the Pt-modified SnO(2) nanorod sensors to CO and H(2) gases were comparatively studied. After surface modification of Pt, the sensing response to CO and H(2) gases increased dramatically. The 2 nm Pt-modified SnO(2) nanorod sensors by sputtering showed the best sensing performance. By increasing Pt thickness from 2 nm up to 20 nm, the optimal working temperature decreased by 30 degrees C while the sensing response also decreased by about 4 times. Comparing these two Pt modification approaches by dip coating and sputtering, both could achieve comparable promotion effect if the Pt thickness can be controlled around its optimal value. The deposition technique of SnO(2) nanorod arrays by PECVD has good potential for scale-up and the fabrication process of nanorod sensors possesses simplicity and good compatibility with contemporary microelectronics-based technology. PMID:20648350

  14. Effect of growth time on ZnO nanorod arrays by a facile sonicated sol-gel immersion technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malek, M. F.; Mamat, M. H.; Musa, M. Z.; Ishak, A.; Saurdi, I.; Alrokayan, Salman A. H.; Khan, Haseeb A.; Rusop, M.

    2016-07-01

    A facile sonicated sol-gel immersion technique has been presented for synthesizing ZnO nanorod arrays with controllable diameter and lengths on glass substrates. A sol-gel dip-coating deposition was first used to grow a thin layer of ZAO nanocrystals on substrate serving as seeds for the subsequent growth of the nanorod arrays. The effect of growth time of the ZnO nanorod arrays on the ZAO seed layer were investigated. The optical transmission properties of the ZnO nanorods has been investigated. The thickness of the nanorods can be controlled by the growth time. These highly oriented ZnO nanorod arrays are potential for the creation of functional materials, such as the electrode of the solar cells, optoelectronic devices and etc.

  15. Ultrafast switching of tunable infrared plasmons in indium tin oxide nanorod arrays with large absolute amplitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Peijun; Schaller, Richard D.; Ketterson, John B.; Chang, Robert P. H.

    2016-04-01

    All-optical control of plasmons can enable optical switches with high speeds, small footprints and high on/off ratios. Here we demonstrate ultrafast plasmon modulation in the near-infrared (NIR) to mid-infrared (MIR) range by intraband pumping of indium tin oxide nanorod arrays (ITO-NRAs). We observe redshifts of localized surface plasmon resonances arising from a change of the plasma frequency of ITO, which is governed by the conduction band non-parabolicity. We generalize the plasma frequency for non-parabolic bands, quantitatively model the fluence-dependent plasma frequency shifts, and show that different from noble metals, the lower electron density in ITO enables a remarkable change of electron distributions, yielding a significant plasma frequency modulation and concomitant large transient bleaches and induced absorptions, which can be tuned spectrally by tailoring the ITO-NRA geometry. The low electron heat capacity explains the sub-picosecond kinetics that is much faster than noble metals. Our work demonstrates a new scheme to control infrared plasmons for optical switching, telecommunications and sensing.

  16. Growth of Si nanorods in honeycomb and hexagonal-closed-packed arrays using glancing angle deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Patzig, Christian; Rauschenbach, Bernd; Fuhrmann, Bodo; Leipner, Hartmut S.

    2008-01-15

    Regular arrays of Si nanorods with a circular cross section in hexagonal-closed-packed and triangular cross section in honeycomblike arrangements were grown using glancing angle deposition on Si(100) and fused silica substrates that were patterned with Au dots using self-assembled mono- and double layers of polystyrene nanospheres as an evaporation mask. The Au dots were used as an etching mask for the underlying silica substrates in a reactive ion beam etching process, which greatly enhanced the height of the seeding spaces for the subsequent glancing angle deposition. An elongated shadowing length l of the prepatterned nucleation sites and less growth of Si structures between the surface mounds could be achieved this way. Differences in form, height, and diameter of the Si nanorods grown on either hcp or honeycomb arrays are explained by purely geometrical arguments. Different seed heights and interseed distances are found to be the main reasons for the strong distinctions between the grown nanorod arrays.

  17. Vapor phase growth and photoluminescence of oriented-attachment Zn2GeO4 nanorods array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Haiping; Zhu, Xingda; He, Haiping

    2016-10-01

    We carry out one-step vapor phase growth of high quality Zn2GeO4 nanorods array to provide insights into the growth mechanism of such ternary oxide nanostructures. The morphology and microstructure of these nanorods are investigated carefully. Under certain conditions, the nanorods follow the oriented-attachment growth which is unusual in vapor-based growth. Each nanorod consists of many nanocrystals aligned along the [110] direction. The nanorods show strong deep ultraviolet absorption around 260 nm and broad longlife green luminescence around 490 nm.

  18. Crystallographic, luminescence and photoconductive characteristics of chemically tailored ZnO nanorods

    SciTech Connect

    Bayan, Sayan Chakraborty, Purushottam

    2014-04-24

    The optoelectronic properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods synthesized using two different chemical methods have been explored in the light of microstructural features. The presence/absence of band edge emission in the luminescence spectra of the nanorods is found to be governed by the crystallographic properties. Moreover, we observed a pronounced effect of variation in crystallite size on the UV photoconductivity of the nanorods. Understanding the influence of microstructural aspects on the optical and electronic properties of the nanostructures may help in the fabrication of prototype, miniaturized optoelectronic devices.

  19. Site-specific multi-stage CVD of large-scale arrays of ultrafine ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. X.; Zhao, D.; Gao, M.; Dong, H. B.; Zhou, W. Y.; Xie, S. S.

    2011-04-01

    Multi-stage growth of ZnO nanorod arrays has been carried out by Au-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) in order to better understand and more precisely control the growth behaviors. It is evidenced that Au-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth only dominates the initial site-specific nucleation of the nanorods, while the subsequent growth is governed by a vapor-solid (VS) epitaxy mechanism. The sequential VLS and VS behaviors permit the fabrication of large-scale highly ordered arrays of ZnO nanorods with precisely tunable diameters and embedded junctions by controlling reactant concentration and nanorod top morphology. Based on the above results, two routes to fabricate ultrafine ZnO nanorod arrays are proposed and stepwise nanorod arrays with ultrafine top segment (~10 nm in diameter) have been achieved. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) and spatial resolved PL were carried out on the nanorod arrays and on individual nanorods, indicating high quality optical properties and tunable light emission along the length of the stepwise nanorods.

  20. The effects of nanocavity and photonic crystal in InGaN/GaN nanorod LED arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Qianqian; Chen, Zhizhong; Feng, Yulong; Li, Shunfeng; Jiang, Shengxiang; Li, Junze; Chen, Yifan; Yu, Tongjun; Kang, Xiangning; Shen, Bo; Zhang, Guoyi

    2016-07-01

    InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diode (LED) arrays were fabricated using nanoimprint and reactive ion etching. The diameters of the nanorods range from 120 to 300 nm. The integral photoluminescence (PL) intensity for 120 nm nanorod LED array is enhanced as 13 times compared to that of the planar one. In angular-resolved PL (ARPL) measurements, there are some strong lobes as resonant regime appeared in the far-field radiation patterns of small size nanorod array, in which the PL spectra are sharp and intense. The PL lifetime for resonant regime is 0.088 ns, which is 40 % lower than that of non-resonant regime for 120 nm nanorod LED array. At last, three dimension finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulation is performed. The effects of guided modes coupling in nanocavity and extraction by photonic crystals are explored.

  1. Electrochemical Properties of Rutile TiO2 Nanorod Array in Lithium Hydroxide Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yan; Sun, Dan; Wang, Haibo; Wang, Haiyan

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, rutile TiO2 nanorod arrays are fabricated by a template-free method and proposed as a promising anode for aqueous Li-ion battery. The as-prepared TiO2 nanorod arrays exhibited reversible Li-ion insertion/extraction ability in aqueous LiOH electrolyte. Moreover, galvanostatic charge/discharge test results demonstrated that the reversible capacity of TiO2 nanorods could reach about 39.7 mC cm-2, and 93.8 % of initial capacity was maintained after 600 cycles at a current density of 1 mA cm-2 (=240 C rate), indicating excellent cycling stability and rate capability.

  2. Characteristics of zinc oxide nanorod array/titanium oxide film heterojunction prepared by aqueous solution deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ming-Kwei; Hong, Min-Hsuan; Li, Bo-Wei

    2016-07-01

    The characteristics of a ZnO nanorod array/TiO2 film heterojunction were investigated. A TiO2 film was prepared on glass by aqueous solution deposition with precursors of ammonium hexafluorotitanate and boric acid at 40 °C. Then, a ZnO seed layer was prepared on a TiO2 film/glass substrate by RF sputtering. A vertically oriented ZnO nanorod array was grown on a ZnO seed layer/TiO2 film/glass substrate by aqueous solution deposition with precursors of zinc nitrate and hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) at 70 °C. After thermal annealing in N2O ambient at 300 °C, this heterojunction used as an oxygen gas sensor shows much better rise time, decay time, and on/off current ratio than as-grown and annealed ZnO nanorods.

  3. A facile method for the synthesis of tapered ZnO:Cu nanorod arrays and its secondary growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jun; Hu, Liang; Zhang, Honghai; Zhang, Jie; Yang, Xiaopeng; Li, Dehui; Zhu, Liping; Ye, Zhizhen

    2012-07-01

    A facile thermal diffusion method has been employed to synthesize tapered ZnO:Cu nanorod arrays. The plain hexagonal ZnO nanorods gradually turned into round cylinder and then tapered nanorods during thermal treatment. The shape evolution was explained by the terrace-ledge-kink model. Moreover, a small amount of copper has been incorporated into the nanorods during high temperature thermal treatment. Both X-ray photoelectron spectrum and photoluminescence results indicated that a number of oxygen vacancies exist in copper diffused samples. In addition, a catalyst free secondary growth was achieved on the tapered ZnO:Cu nanorod arrays. High resolution transmission electron microscope result showed that the tapered nanorods after secondary growth remained as a single crystal and the thinner section was epitaxially grown on the tip.

  4. The use of silver nanorod array based surface enhanced Raman scattering sensor for food safety applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For the advancement of preventive strategies, it is critical to develop rapid and sensitive detection methods with nanotechnology for food safety applications. This article reports the recent development on the use of aligned silver nanorod (AgNR) arrays prepared by oblique angle deposition, as surf...

  5. Hydrogen peroxide generation and photocatalytic degradation of estrone by microstructural controlled ZnO nanorod arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yangsi; Han, Jie; Qiu, Wei; Gao, Wei

    2012-12-01

    The strong oxidant, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), generated by ZnO nanorod arrays under UV light irradiation was monitored by fluorescence analysis. The ZnO nanorod arrays were synthesized via a low temperature hydrothermal method and their dimensions, i.e., diameter and height, can be controlled by adjusting the concentration of zinc nitrate (Zn(NO3)2·6H2O) and hexamethylenetetramine (HMT). The morphology, nanostructure, surface roughness and optical property were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmittance spectra, respectively. The ZnO nanorod arrays were applied in the degradation of estrone, which is an emerging steroid estrogen contaminant. The results revealed that the ZnO nanorod array produced from 25 mM Zn2+ and HMT had the highest aspect ratio, the largest surface roughness and the lowest band gap energy, which was beneficial to the efficiency of UV light utilization, photocatalytic degradation of estrone and H2O2 generation.

  6. Uniform SiGe/Si quantum well nanorod and nanodot arrays fabricated using nanosphere lithography

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This study fabricates the optically active uniform SiGe/Si multiple quantum well (MQW) nanorod and nanodot arrays from the Si0.4Ge0.6/Si MQWs using nanosphere lithography (NSL) combined with the reactive ion etching (RIE) process. Compared to the as-grown sample, we observe an obvious blueshift in photoluminescence (PL) spectra for the SiGe/Si MQW nanorod and nanodot arrays, which can be attributed to the transition of PL emission from the upper multiple quantum dot-like SiGe layers to the lower MQWs. A possible mechanism associated with carrier localization is also proposed for the PL enhancement. In addition, the SiGe/Si MQW nanorod arrays are shown to exhibit excellent antireflective characteristics over a wide wavelength range. These results indicate that SiGe/Si MQW nanorod arrays fabricated using NSL combined with RIE would be potentially useful as an optoelectronic material operating in the telecommunication range. PMID:23924368

  7. Facile synthesis of ZnO/CuInS2 nanorod arrays for photocatalytic pollutants degradation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yawei; Que, Wenxiu; Zhang, Xinyu; Xing, Yonglei; Yin, Xingtian; Du, Yaping

    2016-11-01

    Vertically-aligned ZnO nanorod arrays on a fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrate were homogeneously coated with visible light active CuInS2 quantum dots by using a controllable electrophoretic deposition strategy. Compared with the pure ZnO nanorod arrays, the formation of high-quality ZnO/CuInS2 heterojunction with well-matched band energy alignment expanded the light absorption from ultraviolet to visible region and facilitated efficient charge separation and transportation, thus yielding remarkable enhanced photoelectrochemical performance and photocatalytic activities for methyl orange and 4-chlorophenol degradation. The ZnO/CuInS2 film with the deposition duration of 80min showed the highest degradation rate and photocurrent density (0.95mA/cm(2)), which was almost 6.33 times higher than that of the pure ZnO nanorod arrays film. The CuInS2 QDs sensitized ZnO nanorod arrays film was proved to be a superior structure for photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic applications due to the optimized CuInS2 loading and well-maintained one-dimensional nanostructure. PMID:27322900

  8. Fabrication of Hetero-Structured Three-Dimensional Nanorod Arrays by Dynamic Shadowing Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yiping

    2007-11-01

    Multilayered heterogeneous one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures are important building blocks for nanodevice applications. A practical nanofabrication technique to produce heterogeneous nanostructures with arbitrary materials must meet the following criteria: (1) The ability to fabricate heterogeneous nanostructures with arbitrarily selected materials; (2) The ability to control the dimensions and uniformity of the heterogeneous nanostructures; (3) The ability to control the alignment of the heterogeneous nanostructures; (4) The ability to control the interfacial properties of the heterogeneous nanostructures. Here, we demonstrate a simple but versatile method to fabricate three-dimensional heterogeneous nanorod structures by multilayer dynamic shadowing growth (DSG). DSG is based on geometric shadowing effect and substrate rotation in a physical vapor deposition system. By programming the azimuthal rotation of the substrate, different shapes of aligned nanorod arrays, such as zig-zag, c-shape, spirals, etc, can be fabricated. With the change of the source materials during the deposition, we demonstrate that complicated heterostructured nanorod arrays, such as Si/Ni multilayer nanosprings, can be easily produced, and they exhibit particular magnetic anisotropic behavior. We also use DSG technique to design catalytic nanomotors with different geometries that are capable of performing different and desired motions in a fuel solution. Using the shadowing effect, a thin catalyst layer can be coated asymmetrically on the side of a nanorod backbone. Catalytic nanomotors such as rotary Si/Pt nanorods, rotary L-shaped Si/Pt and Si/Ag nanorods, and rolling Si/Ag nanosprings, have been fabricated, and their autonomous motions have been demonstrated in a diluted hydrogen peroxide solution. We observed that the catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide on the surface of catalyst generated a propelling force to push the nanorod from the catalyst side. This fabrication method

  9. HIPS-GLAD core shell nanorod array photodetectors with enhanced photocurrent and reduced dark current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keles, Filiz; Cansizoglu, Hilal; Badraddin, Emad O.; Brozak, Matthew P.; Watanabe, Fumiya; Karabacak, Tansel

    2016-10-01

    Vertically aligned core/shell nanorod array photodetectors were fabricated by high pressure sputter (HIPS) deposition of copper indium sulfide (CIS) films on glancing angle deposited (GLAD) indium sulfide (In2S3) nanorods. For comparison, we also studied nanorod photodetectors with conventional low pressure sputtered (LPS) CIS film coatings and counterpart thin film devices incorporating HIPS or LPS-CIS on In2S3 films. HIPS-GLAD core/shell photodetectors have shown a superior photocurrent density response along with lowest dark current density. Photoresponsivity defined with the photocurrent density/dark current density ratio γ = |J ph/J dark| was about ∼1820 for HIPS-GLAD nanorod devices, which is several orders of magnitude higher compared to those of LPS-CIS thin film (γ ∼ 2) and HIPS-CIS thin film (γ ∼ 9) devices, and also about four-fold higher than LPS-CIS nanorod devices (γ ∼ 490). Enhanced photoresponsivity is attributed to the porous microstructure and improved conformality of HIPS-CIS film around the In2S3 nanorods confirmed by SEM and EDS measurements. Due to randomization of the sputtered flux at higher working gas pressures, HIPS can provide a more conformal while at the same time a voidy low-density film around nanostructured surfaces. Reduced interelectrode distance and improved p–n junction interface due to the more uniform conformality of HIPS-CIS result in a higher photocurrent in our HIPS-GLAD devices. In addition, the voids in HIPS-CIS film as a result of its porous nature can behave as highly resistive spots that lower the dark current. Therefore, we have demonstrated that by utilizing a simple and low-temperature HIPS-GLAD method, high-photocurrent and low-dark-current photodetectors can be achieved by controlling the conformality and microstructure of a shell layer around nanorod arrays. HIPS shell coating method can be extended to almost any type of nanostructured substrate.

  10. Preparation N-F-codoped TiO{sub 2} nanorod array by liquid phase deposition as visible light photocatalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Lv, Yan; Fu, Zhengping; Yang, Beifang; Xu, Jiao; Wu, Min; Zhu, Changqiong; Zhao, Yongxun

    2011-03-15

    Research highlights: {yields} The formation of N, F-codoped TiO{sub 2} nanorod arrays via the LPD. {yields} Calcination temperature greatly effects the incorporation of N and F into TiO{sub 2}. {yields} TNRAs calcined at 450 {sup o}C showed highest visible light photocatalytic activity. {yields} A synergetic effect of 1D nanorod arrays and appropriate amount of N and F codoping. -- Abstract: An efficient method for the preparation of N-F-codoped visible light active TiO{sub 2} nanorod arrays is reported. In the process, simultaneous nitrogen and fluorine doped TiO{sub 2} nanorod arrays on the glass substrates were achieved by liquid phase deposition method using ZnO nanorod arrays as templates with different calcination temperature. The as-prepared samples were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV-vis absorption spectra measurements. It was found that calcination temperature is an important factor influencing the microstructure and the amount of N and F in TiO{sub 2} nanorod arrays samples. The visible light photocatalytic properties were investigated using methylene blue (MB) dye as a model system. The results showed that N-F-codoped TiO{sub 2} nanorod arrays sample calcined at 450 {sup o}C demonstrated the best visible light activity in all samples, much higher than that of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and P25 particles films.

  11. Tailoring the surface of ZnO nanorods into corrugated nanorods via a selective chemical etch method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Xiangyang; Chen, Guangde; Li, Chu; Yin, Yuan; Jin, Wentao; Guo, Lu'an; Ye, Honggang; Zhu, Youzhang; Wu, Yelong

    2016-07-01

    Using the chemical vapour deposition method, we successfully converted smooth ZnO nanorods (NRs) into corrugated NRs by simply increasing the reaction time. The surface morphology and crystallographic structure of the corrugated NRs were investigated. The corrugated NRs were decorated by alternant (11\\bar{2}1) and (11\\bar{2}\\bar{1}) planes at the exposed side surfaces while the conventional \\{10\\bar{1}0\\} planes disappeared. No twinning boundaries were found in the periodically corrugated structures, indicating that they were type II corrugated NRs. Further investigation told us that they were selectively etched. We introduced a hydrothermal method to synthesize the smooth ZnO NRs and then etched them in a tube furnace at 950 °C with a flow of carbon monoxide. By separating the growth stage and the selective etching stage, we explicitly demonstrated a successfully selective etching effect on ZnO NRs with a carbon monoxide reducing atmosphere for the first time. An etching mechanism based on the selective reaction between carbon monoxide and the different exposed surfaces was proposed. Our results will improve the understanding of the growth mechanism on coarse or corrugated NRs and provide a new strategy for the application of surface controlled nanostructured materials.

  12. Tailoring the surface of ZnO nanorods into corrugated nanorods via a selective chemical etch method.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xiangyang; Chen, Guangde; Li, Chu; Yin, Yuan; Jin, Wentao; Guo, Lu'an; Ye, Honggang; Zhu, Youzhang; Wu, Yelong

    2016-07-22

    Using the chemical vapour deposition method, we successfully converted smooth ZnO nanorods (NRs) into corrugated NRs by simply increasing the reaction time. The surface morphology and crystallographic structure of the corrugated NRs were investigated. The corrugated NRs were decorated by alternant [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] planes at the exposed side surfaces while the conventional [Formula: see text] planes disappeared. No twinning boundaries were found in the periodically corrugated structures, indicating that they were type II corrugated NRs. Further investigation told us that they were selectively etched. We introduced a hydrothermal method to synthesize the smooth ZnO NRs and then etched them in a tube furnace at 950 °C with a flow of carbon monoxide. By separating the growth stage and the selective etching stage, we explicitly demonstrated a successfully selective etching effect on ZnO NRs with a carbon monoxide reducing atmosphere for the first time. An etching mechanism based on the selective reaction between carbon monoxide and the different exposed surfaces was proposed. Our results will improve the understanding of the growth mechanism on coarse or corrugated NRs and provide a new strategy for the application of surface controlled nanostructured materials. PMID:27276661

  13. Hydroxyapatite coatings with oriented nanoplate and nanorod arrays: Fabrication, morphology, cytocompatibility and osteogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Tian, Bo; Lei, Yong; Ke, Qin-Fei; Zhu, Zhen-An; Guo, Ya-Ping

    2016-10-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals exhibit rod-like shape with c-axis orientation and plate-like shape with a(b)-axis orientation in vertebrate bones and tooth enamel surfaces, respectively. Herein, we report the synthesis of HA coatings with the oriented nanorod arrays (RHACs) and HA coatings with oriented nanoplate arrays (PHACs) by using bioglass coatings as sacrificial templates. After soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 120°C, the bioglass coatings are hydrothermally converted into the HA coatings via a dissolution-precipitation reaction. If the Ca/P ratios in SBF are 2.50 and 1.25, the HA crystals on the coatings are oriented nanorod arrays and oriented nanoplate arrays, respectively. Moreover, the bioglass coatings are treated with SBF at 37°C, plate-like HA coatings with a low crystallinity (SHACs) are prepared. As compared with the Ti6Al4V and SHACs, the human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) on the RHACs and PHACs have better cell adhesion, spreading, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation because of their moderately hydrophilic surfaces and similar chemical composition, morphology and crystal orientation to human hard tissues. Notably, the morphologies of HA crystals have no obvious effects on cytocompatibility and osteogenic differentiation. Hence, the HA coatings with oriented nanoplate arrays or oriented nanorod arrays have a great potential for orthopedic applications. PMID:27287136

  14. ZnO nanorod arrays for photoelectrochemical cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qiang; Cao, Chuanbao

    2012-05-01

    The splitting of water using photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells to produce hydrogen is one of the most sustainable forms of energy production and more and more 1-D nanostructrues semiconductors used as photoelectrodes have been studied extensively. However, it is not clear whether the photoconversion efficiencies of such nanostructure devices are limited by the architectures of the 1-D electrodes. Here, we explore the effect of the architecture like the length and width of ZnO nanorods on the PEC cells performance for the first time. The as-prepared nanorods have diameters of 40-50 nm and lengths of 400-800 nm. Preliminary measurements exhibit that the resulting electrodes have promising PEC properties. Mott-Schottky measurements give a flat-band potential of +0.10 V, a carrier density of 3.7 x 10(17) cm(-3), and a space-charge layer of 26 nm. The photocurrent of 800 nm-long nanorods shows 10 times higher than that of 400 nm-long ones, and an encouraging maximum photoconversion efficiency of 0.25% is obtained under illumination of 100 mW/cm2 (AM 1.5), which is among the highest reported for an undoped ZnO photoelectrode to date.

  15. Ultra-violet Sensing Characteristic and Field Emission Properties of Vertically Aligned Aluminum Doped Zinc Oxide Nanorod Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Mamat, M. H.; Malek, M. F.; Musa, M. Z.; Khusaimi, Z.; Rusop, M.

    2011-05-25

    Ultra-violet (UV) sensing behavior and field emission characteristic have been investigated on vertically aligned aluminum (Al) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod arrays prepared using sol-gel immersion method. Uniform and high coverage density of ZnO nanorod arrays have been successfully deposited on seeded-catalyst coated substrates. The synthesized nanorods have diameter sizes between 50 nm to 150 nm. The XRD spectra show Al doped ZnO nanorod array has high crystallinity properties with the dominancy of crystal growth along (002) plane or c-axis. UV photoresponse measurement indicates that Al doped ZnO nanorod array sensitively detects UV light as shown by conductance increment after UV illumination exposure. The nanorod array shows good field emission properties with low turn on field and threshold field at 2.1 V/{mu}m and 5.6 V/{mu}m, respectively. The result suggested that Al doped ZnO nanorod arrays prepared by low-cost sol-gel immersion method show promising result towards fabrication of multi applications especially in UV photoconductive sensor and field emission displays.

  16. Low-temperature growth of well-aligned zinc oxide nanorod arrays on silicon substrate and their photocatalytic application

    PubMed Central

    Azam, Ameer; Babkair, Saeed Salem

    2014-01-01

    Well-aligned and single-crystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod arrays were grown on silicon (Si) substrate using a wet chemical route for the photodegradation of organic dyes. Structural analysis using X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and selected area electron diffraction confirmed the formation of ZnO nanorods grown preferentially oriented in the (001) direction and with a single phase nature with a wurtzite structure. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy micrographs showed that the length and diameter of the well-aligned rods were about ~350–400 nm and ~80–90 nm, respectively. Raman scattering spectra of ZnO nanorod arrays revealed the characteristic E2 (high) mode that is related to the vibration of oxygen atoms in the wurtzite ZnO. The photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) using ZnO nanorod arrays was performed under ultraviolet light irradiation. The results of photodegradation showed that ZnO nanorod arrays were capable of degrading ~80% of MB within 60 minutes of irradiation, whereas ~92% of degradation was achieved in 120 minutes. Complete degradation of MB was observed after 270 minutes of irradiation time. Owing to enhanced photocatalytic degradation efficiency and low-temperature growth method, prepared ZnO nanorod arrays may open up the possibility for the successful utilization of ZnO nanorod arrays as a future photocatalyst for environmental remediation. PMID:24812511

  17. Controlled growth of standing Ag nanorod arrays on bare Si substrate using glancing angle deposition for self-cleaning applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Dhruv P.; Singh, J. P.

    2014-03-01

    A facile approach to manipulate the hydrophobicity of surface by controlled growth of standing Ag nanorod arrays is presented. Instead of following the complicated conventional method of the template-assisted growth, the morphology or particularly average diameter and number density (nanorods cm-2) of nanorods were controlled on bare Si substrate by simply varying the deposition rate during glancing angle deposition. The contact angle measurements showed that the evolution of Ag nanorods reduces the surface energy and makes an increment in the apparent water contact angle compared to the plain Ag thin film. The contact angle was found to increase for the Ag nanorod samples grown at lower deposition rates. Interestingly, the morphology of the nanorod arrays grown at very low deposition rate (1.2 Å sec-1) results in a self-cleaning superhydrophobic surface of contact angle about 157° and a small roll-off angle about 5°. The observed improvement in hydrophobicity with change in the morphology of nanorod arrays is explained as the effect of reduction in solid fraction within the framework of Cassie-Baxter model. These self-cleaning Ag nanorod arrays could have a significant impact in wide range of applications such as anti-icing coatings, sensors and solar panels.

  18. Preparation and Photoluminescence of ZnO Comb-Like Structure and Nanorod Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Song; Chen, Yi-qing; Su, Yong; Zhou, Qing-tao

    2007-06-01

    A large quantity of Zinc oxide (ZnO) comb-like structure and high-density well-aligned ZnO nanorod arrays were prepared on silicon substrate via thermal evaporation process without any catalyst. The morphology, growth mechanism, and optical properties of the both structures were investigated using XRD, SEM, TEM and PL. The resulting comb-teeth, with a diameter about 20 nm, growing along the [0001] direction have a well-defined epitaxial relationship with the comb ribbon. The ZnO nanorod arrays have a diameter about 200 nm and length up to several micrometers growing approximately vertical to the Si substrate. A ZnO film was obtained before the nanorods growth. A growth model is proposed for interpreting the growth mechanism of comb-like zigzag-notch nanostructure. Room temperature photoluminescence measurements under excitation wavelength of 325 nm showed that the ZnO comb-like nanostructure has a weak UV emission at around 384 nm and a strong green emission around 491 nm, which correspond to a near band-edge transition and the singly ionized oxygen vacancy, respectively. In contrast, a strong and sharp UV peak and a weak green peak was obtained from the ZnO nanorod arrays.

  19. Optical performance of top-down fabricated InGaN/GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Qiming; Westlake, Karl R.; Crawford, Mary H.; Lee, Stephen R.; Koleske, Daniel D.; Figiel, Jeffery J.; Cross, Karen C.; Fathololoumi, Saeed; Mi, Zetian; Wang, George T.

    2011-12-05

    Vertically aligned InGaN/GaN nanorod light emitting diode (LED) arrays were created from planar LED structures using a new top-down fabrication technique consisting of a plasma etch followed by an anisotropic wet etch. The wet etch results in straight, smooth, well-faceted nanorods with controllable diameters and removes the plasma etch damage. 94% of the nanorod LEDs are dislocation-free and a reduced quantum confined Stark effect is observed due to reduced piezoelectric fields. Despite these advantages, the IQE of the nanorod LEDs measured by photoluminescence is comparable to the planar LED, perhaps due to inefficient thermal transport and enhanced nonradiative surface recombination.

  20. Synthesis and photoluminescence of quasi-arrayed ZnMgO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fazhan; Zhao, Chao; Liu, Bo; Yuan, Sicong

    2009-06-01

    Quasi-arrayed ZnMgO single-crystal nanorods with different Mg concentrations have been fabricated by thermal evaporation of Zn and Mg on a Si substrate using Au as a catalyst. The synthesized ZnMgO nanorods had uniform flat hexagonal crystallorgraphic planes with diameters of about 300 nm. It was found that with the increase in the dopant concentration, the peak position of (0 0 2) was shifted towards the high-angle side (from 34.40° to 34. 54°) and the near-band-edge emission was blue-shifted to 364 nm (3.41 eV) from 385 nm (3.22 eV) in comparison with that of pure ZnO. The direct modulation of the band-gap caused by Mg substitution was responsible for the blue shift. The possible growth mechanism of the ZnMgO nanorods was discussed.

  1. Surface Engineered Doping of Hematite Nanorod Arrays for Improved Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Shaohua; Zhou, Jigang; Dong, Chung-Li; Hu, Yongfeng; Tseng, Eric Nestor; Guo, Penghui; Guo, Liejin; Mao, Samuel S.

    2014-01-01

    Given the narrow band gap enabling excellent optical absorption, increased charge carrier density and accelerated surface oxidation reaction kinetics become the key points for improved photoelectrochemical performances for water splitting over hematite (α-Fe2O3) photoanodes. In this study, a facile and inexpensive method was demonstrated to develop core/shell structured α-Fe2O3 nanorod arrays. A thin, Ag-doped overlayer of ~2–3 nm thickness was formed along α-Fe2O3 nanorods via ultrasonication treatment of solution-based β-FeOOH nanorods in Ag precursor solution followed by high temperature annealing. The obtained α-Fe2O3/AgxFe2−xO3 core/shell nanorod films demonstrated much higher photoelectrochemical performances as photoanodes than the pristine α-Fe2O3 nanorod film, especially in the visible light region; the incident photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE) at 400 nm was increased from 2.2% to 8.4% at 1.23 V vs. RHE (Reversible hydrogen electrode). Mott-Schottky analysis and X-ray absorption spectra revealed that the Ag-doped overlayer not only increased the carrier density in the near-surface region but also accelerated the surface oxidation reaction kinetics, synergistically contributing to the improved photoelectrochemical performances. These findings provide guidance for the design and optimization of nanostructured photoelectrodes for efficient solar water splitting. PMID:25316219

  2. Selective growth of hierarchical ZnO nanorod arrays on the graphene nanosheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hui; Li, Lan; Li, Jinliang; Mo, Zhaojun

    2016-01-01

    We report directly selective-area grown (SAG) high-quality hierarchical ZnO nanorod arrays on the graphene nanosheets without invoking damage or introducing a catalyst. The SAG behavior in the non-catalytic growth mechanism is attributed to dangling bonds on the boundary edges of graphene nanosheets, which serve as the preferential adsorption and nucleation sites of ZnO nanorod. High densities of hierarchical ZnO nanorods show single-crystalline hexagonal wurtzite structure and are vertically well-aligned on the graphene nanosheets, with the diameter and the density strongly dependent on the growth temperature. Furthermore, no carbon impurity can be seen in the tips of the ZnO nanorods and also no carbon-related defect peak in the 10 K PL spectrum of ZnO nanorods. Our approach using a graphene-nanosheet substrate provides an efficient route for the growth of high-quality ZnO with a one-dimensional (1D) hierarchical nanostructure, which is highly desirable for fabricating 1D ZnO hybrid optoelectronic devices, particularly for a fast-response UV photodetector and highly-sensitive gas sensor.

  3. Zinc Oxide Nanorods Shielded with an Ultrathin Nickel Layer: Tailoring of Physical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Mudusu, Devika; Nandanapalli, Koteeswara Reddy; Dugasani, Sreekantha Reddy; Park, Sung Ha; Tu, Charles W.

    2016-01-01

    We report on the development of Ni-shielded ZnO nanorod (NR) structures and the impact of the Ni layer on the ZnO NR properties. We developed nickel-capped zinc oxide nanorod (ZnO/Ni NR) structures by e-beam evaporation of Ni and the subsequent annealing of the ZnO/Ni core/shell nanostructures. The core/shell NRs annealed at 400 °C showed superior crystalline and emission properties. More interestingly, with the increase of annealing temperature, the crystallinity of the Ni shells over the ZnO NRs gradually changed from polycrystalline to single crystalline. The presence of the Ni layer as a polycrystalline shell completely hindered the light emission and transmission of the ZnO NR cores. Further, the band gap of ZnO NRs continuously decreased with the increase of annealing temperature. PMID:27334555

  4. Zinc Oxide Nanorods Shielded with an Ultrathin Nickel Layer: Tailoring of Physical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudusu, Devika; Nandanapalli, Koteeswara Reddy; Dugasani, Sreekantha Reddy; Park, Sung Ha; Tu, Charles W.

    2016-06-01

    We report on the development of Ni-shielded ZnO nanorod (NR) structures and the impact of the Ni layer on the ZnO NR properties. We developed nickel-capped zinc oxide nanorod (ZnO/Ni NR) structures by e-beam evaporation of Ni and the subsequent annealing of the ZnO/Ni core/shell nanostructures. The core/shell NRs annealed at 400 °C showed superior crystalline and emission properties. More interestingly, with the increase of annealing temperature, the crystallinity of the Ni shells over the ZnO NRs gradually changed from polycrystalline to single crystalline. The presence of the Ni layer as a polycrystalline shell completely hindered the light emission and transmission of the ZnO NR cores. Further, the band gap of ZnO NRs continuously decreased with the increase of annealing temperature.

  5. Field emission from zinc oxide nanorod bundles grown on silicon nanoporous pillar array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ling Li; Gong, Shang Dong; Wu, Li Hong; Li, Xin Jian

    2013-04-01

    A large-area zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod bundle array was grown on a silicon nanoporous pillar array (Si-NPA) substrate by a chemical vapor deposition method, and its field-emission properties was studied. The structural characterization disclosed that the bundles were composed of hexagonal ZnO nanorods growing along c-axis and taking roots into the silicon pillars of Si-NPA. The average diameter and length of the ZnO nanorods were ∼145 nm and ∼10 μm, respectively. The field-emission measurements showed that the turn-on field of ZnO/Si-NPA was 4.6 V/μm with an emission current density (ECD) of 1 μA/cm2, and an ECD of 420 μA/cm2 was achieved at an applied field of 8.89 V/μm. The field enhancement factor was calculated to be ∼1700 based on the Fowler-Nordheim theory. According to the obtained charge coupled device (CCD) image, the density and brightness of the emission dots increased with the applied field, and the high emission dot density was attributed to the formation of a large number of ZnO nanorod emitting tips. Our results indicated that ZnO/Si-NPA might be a promising electron emission source.

  6. Enhanced photocurrent and dynamic response in vertically aligned In₂S₃/Ag core/shell nanorod array photoconductive devices.

    PubMed

    Cansizoglu, Hilal; Cansizoglu, Mehmet F; Watanabe, Fumiya; Karabacak, Tansel

    2014-06-11

    Enhanced photocurrent values were achieved through a semiconductor-core/metal-shell nanorod array photoconductive device geometry. Vertically aligned indium sulfide (In2S3) nanorods were formed as the core by using glancing angle deposition technique (GLAD). A thin silver (Ag) layer is conformally coated around nanorods as the metallic shell through a high pressure sputter deposition method. This was followed by capping the nanorods with a metallic blanket layer of Ag film by utilizing a new small angle deposition technique combined with GLAD. Radial interface that was formed by the core/shell geometry provided an efficient charge carrier collection by shortening carrier transit times, which led to a superior photocurrent and gain. Thin metal shells around nanorods acted as a passivation layer to decrease surface states that cause prolonged carrier lifetimes and slow recovery of the photocurrent in nanorods. A combination of efficient carrier collection with surface passivation resulted in enhanced photocurrent and dynamic response at the same time in one device structure. In2S3 nanorod devices without the metal shell and with relatively thicker metal shell were also fabricated and characterized for comparison. In2S3 nanorods with thin metal shell showed the highest photosensitivity (photocurrent/dark current) response compared to two other designs. Microstructural, morphological, and electronic properties of the core/shell nanorods were used to explain the results observed.

  7. Fabrication of porous TiO2 nanorod array photoelectrodes with enhanced photoelectrochemical water splitting by helium ion implantation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yichao; Shen, Shaohua; Ren, Feng; Chen, Jianan; Fu, Yanming; Zheng, Xudong; Cai, Guangxu; Xing, Zhuo; Wu, Hengyi; Jiang, Changzhong

    2016-05-19

    Porous photoelectrodes show high efficiency in hydrogen production by water splitting. However, fabrication of porous nanorods is usually difficult. Here, we report a simple approach to fabricate a kind of novel porous rutile titanium dioxide nanorod array by an advanced ion implantation method using multiple-energy helium ion implantation and subsequent annealing. The porous nanostructure enhances the photoelectrochemical performance of the titanium dioxide nanorod array photoelectrodes under Uv-visible light illumination, where the highest photocurrent density was relatively about 10 times higher than that of the pristine titanium dioxide nanorod array. The formation of nanocavities mainly contributes to the enhancement of the photocurrent density by trapping holes inside to separate the charge carriers. The study demonstrates that ion implantation could be an effective approach to develop novel porous nanostructural photoelectrodes for the application of hydrogen production.

  8. Synthesis of CdS nanorod arrays and their applications in flexible piezo-driven active H2S sensors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Penglei; Deng, Ping; Nie, Yuxin; Zhao, Yayu; Zhang, Yan; Xing, Lili; Xue, Xinyu

    2014-02-21

    A flexible piezo-driven active H2S sensor has been fabricated from CdS nanorod arrays. By coupling the piezoelectric and gas sensing properties of CdS nanorods, the piezoelectric output generated by CdS nanorod arrays acts not only as a power source, but also as a response signal to H2S. Under externally applied compressive force, the piezoelectric output of CdS nanorod arrays is very sensitive to H2S. Upon exposure to 600 ppm H2S, the piezoelectric output of the device decreased from 0.32 V (in air) to 0.12 V. Such a flexible device can be driven by the tiny mechanical energy in our living environment, such as human finger pinching. Our research can stimulate a research trend on designing new material systems and device structures for high-performance piezo-driven active gas sensors.

  9. Synthesis of CdS nanorod arrays and their applications in flexible piezo-driven active H2S sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Penglei; Deng, Ping; Nie, Yuxin; Zhao, Yayu; Zhang, Yan; Xing, Lili; Xue, Xinyu

    2014-02-01

    A flexible piezo-driven active H2S sensor has been fabricated from CdS nanorod arrays. By coupling the piezoelectric and gas sensing properties of CdS nanorods, the piezoelectric output generated by CdS nanorod arrays acts not only as a power source, but also as a response signal to H2S. Under externally applied compressive force, the piezoelectric output of CdS nanorod arrays is very sensitive to H2S. Upon exposure to 600 ppm H2S, the piezoelectric output of the device decreased from 0.32 V (in air) to 0.12 V. Such a flexible device can be driven by the tiny mechanical energy in our living environment, such as human finger pinching. Our research can stimulate a research trend on designing new material systems and device structures for high-performance piezo-driven active gas sensors.

  10. Ag nanoparticles-decorated ZnO nanorod array on a mechanical flexible substrate with enhanced optical and antimicrobial properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi; Tse, Wai Hei; Chen, Longyan; Zhang, Jin

    2015-03-01

    Heteronanostructured zinc oxide nanorod (ZnO NR) array are vertically grown on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) through a hydrothermal method followed by an in situ deposition of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) through a photoreduction process. The Ag-ZnO heterostructured nanorods on PDMS are measured with an average diameter of 160 nm and an average length of 2 μm. ZnO NRs measured by high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) shows highly crystalline with a lattice fringe of 0.255 nm, which corresponds to the (0002) planes in ZnO crystal lattice. The average diameter of the Ag NPs in situ deposited on the ZnO NRs is estimated at 22 ± 2 nm. As compared to the bare ZnO NRs, the heterostructured Ag-ZnO nanorod array shows enhanced ultraviolet (UV) absorption at 440 nm, and significant emission in the visible region (λem = 542 nm). In addition, the antimicrobial efficiency of Ag-ZnO heterostructured nanorod array shows obvious improvement as compared to bare ZnO nanorod array. The cytotoxicity of ZnO nanorod array with and without Ag NPs was studied by using 3 T3 mouse fibroblast cell line. No significant toxic effect is imposed on the cells.

  11. Tailoring the optical and hydrophobic property of zinc oxide nanorod by coating with amorphous graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahari, D.; Das, N. S.; Das, B.; Chattopadhyay, K. K.; Banerjee, D.

    2016-09-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods were synthesized at room temperature on potassium permanganate activated silicon and glass substrate by simple chemical method using zinc acetate as precursor. To modify the surface energy of the as prepared ZnO thin films the samples were coated with amorphous graphene (a-G) synthesized by un-zipping of chemically synthesized amorphous carbon nanotubes (a-CNTs). All the pure and coated samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscope, Raman spectroscopy, and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy. The roughness analysis of the as prepared samples was done by atomic force microscopic analysis. The detail optical properties of all the samples were studied with the help of a UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The surface energy of the as prepared pure and coated samples was calculated by measuring the contact angle of two different liquids. It is seen that the water repellence of ZnO nanorods got increased after they are being coated with a-Gs. Also even after UV irradiation the contact angle remain same unlike the case for the uncoated sample where the contact angle gets decreased significantly after UV irradiation. Existing Cassie-Wenzel model has been employed along with the Owen's approach to determine the different components of surface energy.

  12. Carbon-Coated SnO2 Nanorod Array for Lithium-Ion Battery Anode Material

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Carbon-coated SnO2 nanorod array directly grown on the substrate has been prepared by a two-step hydrothermal method for anode material of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The structural, morphological and electrochemical properties were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electrochemical measurement. When used as anodes for LIBs with high current density, as-obtained array reveals excellent cycling stability and rate capability. This straightforward approach can be extended to the synthesis of other carbon-coated metal oxides for application of LIBs. PMID:20672094

  13. Fabrication of highly ordered Ta2O5 and Ta3N5 nanorod arrays by nanoimprinting and through-mask anodization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanbo; Nagato, Keisuke; Delaunay, Jean-Jacques; Kubota, Jun; Domen, Kazunari

    2014-01-01

    Using highly ordered porous anodic alumina membrane fabricated with the aid of nanoimprinting as a mask, Ta2O5 nanorod array with uniform diameter, length, and distribution is grown in situ on a Ta substrate by through-mask anodization. The Ta2O5 nanorod array is further transformed into Ta3N5 nanorod array without damaging the nanorod structure by nitridation. Solar-driven photoelectrochemical water splitting with a maximum solar energy conversion efficiency of 0.36% is demonstrated with the Ta3N5 nanorod array after modifying the surface with cobalt-phosphate as a co-catalyst. The Ta2O5 and Ta3N5 nanorod arrays have potential applications in catalysis, photonics, UV photodetection and solar energy conversion.

  14. Position controlled and seed/catalyst free growth of ZnO nanorod arrays on reduced graphene oxide nanosheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hui; Li, Jinliang; Li, Lan; Mo, Zhaojun

    2016-09-01

    A new type of seed/catalyst-free and selective-growth process is developed for in situ grown vertically-aligned ZnO nanorods on the reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets. The dense and single-crystalline ZnO nanorods have been successfully grow on rGO nanosheets with the position- and size-controlled. The effect of rGO layer on the ZnO nanorods and the growth mechanism were investigated. The position of ZnO nanorod arrays correlates well with the size and position of rGO nanosheets, which is determined by dangling bonds such as oxygen-containing groups on rGO surface. Meanwhile, ZnO nanorods could grow laterally to form a continuous arrays with a large coverage on rGO substrates, which is mainly due to the step edges in rGO boundaries. The diameter and density of ZnO nanorods were readily determined by the growth temperature, and the length was easily controlled by the growth time. The absorption and PL spectrums suggest that ZnO nanorods/rGO have a strong UV absorption ranging from 330 to 375 nm and no obvious UV PL emission at room temperature, which indicates that the ZnO nanorods/rGO nanohybrids could be an excellent candidate for application in UV photodetectors. This work represents the success in seed/catalyst-free fabrication of aligned ZnO nanorod arrays directly on rGO nanosheets and the process can be readily scaled up for industrial applications of optoelectronic devices.

  15. Parallel collective resonances in arrays of gold nanorods.

    PubMed

    Vitrey, Alan; Aigouy, Lionel; Prieto, Patricia; García-Martín, José Miguel; González, María U

    2014-01-01

    In this work we discuss the excitation of parallel collective resonances in arrays of gold nanoparticles. Parallel collective resonances result from the coupling of the nanoparticles localized surface plasmons with diffraction orders traveling in the direction parallel to the polarization vector. While they provide field enhancement and delocalization as the standard collective resonances, our results suggest that parallel resonances could exhibit greater tolerance to index asymmetry in the environment surrounding the arrays. The near- and far-field properties of these resonances are analyzed, both experimentally and numerically. PMID:24645987

  16. Parallel collective resonances in arrays of gold nanorods.

    PubMed

    Vitrey, Alan; Aigouy, Lionel; Prieto, Patricia; García-Martín, José Miguel; González, María U

    2014-01-01

    In this work we discuss the excitation of parallel collective resonances in arrays of gold nanoparticles. Parallel collective resonances result from the coupling of the nanoparticles localized surface plasmons with diffraction orders traveling in the direction parallel to the polarization vector. While they provide field enhancement and delocalization as the standard collective resonances, our results suggest that parallel resonances could exhibit greater tolerance to index asymmetry in the environment surrounding the arrays. The near- and far-field properties of these resonances are analyzed, both experimentally and numerically.

  17. Photoelectrochemical Properties of Vertically Aligned CuInS2 Nanorod Arrays Prepared via Template-Assisted Growth and Transfer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wooseok; Oh, Yunjung; Kim, Jimin; Kim, Hyunchul; Shin, Hyunjung; Moon, Jooho

    2016-01-13

    Although copper-based chalcopyrite materials such as CuInS2 have been considered promising photocathodes for solar water splitting, the fabrication route for a nanostructure with vertical orientation has not yet been developed. Here, a fabrication route for vertically aligned CuInS2 nanorod arrays from an aqueous solution using anodic aluminum oxide template-assisted growth and transfer is presented. The nanorods exhibit a phase-pure CuInS2 chalcopyrite structure and cathodic photocurrent response without co-catalyst loading. Small particles of CdS and ZnS were conformally decorated onto CuInS2 nanorods using a successive ion layer adsorption and reaction method. With surface modification of CdS/ZnS, the photoelectrochemical properties of CuInS2 nanorod arrays are enhanced via flat-band potential shift, as determined by analyses of onset potential and Mott-Schottky plots. PMID:26645722

  18. Morphological and structural characterization of single-crystal ZnO nanorod arrays on flexible and non-flexible substrates

    PubMed Central

    Farhat, Omar F; Halim, Mohd M; Abdullah, Mat J; Ali, Mohammed K M

    2015-01-01

    Summary We report a facile synthesis of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod arrays using an optimized, chemical bath deposition method on glass, PET and Si substrates. The morphological and structural properties of the ZnO nanorod arrays were investigated using various techniques such as field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, which revealed the formation of dense ZnO nanorods with a single crystal, hexagonal wurtzite structure. The aspect ratio of the single-crystal ZnO nanorods and the growth rate along the (002) direction was found to be sensitive to the substrate type. The lattice constants and the crystallite size of the fabricated ZnO nanorods were calculated based on the XRD data. The obtained results revealed that the increase in the crystallite size is strongly associated with the growth conditions with a minor dependence on the type of substrate. The Raman spectroscopy measurements confirmed the existence of a compressive stress in the fabricated ZnO nanorods. The obtained results illustrated that the growth of high quality, single-crystal ZnO nanorods can be realized by adjusting the synthesis conditions. PMID:25821712

  19. Bunched akaganeite nanorod arrays: Preparation and high-performance for flexible lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Shaomin; Yu, Lin; Sun, Ming; Cheng, Gao; Lin, Ting; Mo, Yudi; Li, Zishan

    2015-11-01

    Significant effort has been made to explore high-performance anode materials for flexible lithium-ion batteries. We report a facile hydrothermal route to synthesis self-organized bunched akaganeite (β-FeOOH) nanorod arrays directly grown on carbon cloth (CC/β-FeOOH NRAs). Interestingly, the single nanorod is assembled by numerous small nanowires. A possible growth mechanism for this unique structure is proposed. Owning to the essential crystal structure of β-FeOOH (body-centered cubic), porous morphology, high surface area and direct growth on current collector, the prepared CC/β-FeOOH NRAs manifest a very high reversible capacity of ≈2840 mAh g-1 (2.21 mAh cm-2), remarkable rate capability 568 mAh g-1 (0.43 mAh cm-2) at 10C, stable cycling performance and greater mechanical strength.

  20. Surface diffusion driven morphological instability in free-standing nickel nanorod arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Alrashid, Ebtihaj; Ye, Dexian

    2014-07-28

    Metallic nanostructures are thermodynamically unstable due to the excess of energy of large numbers of surface atoms. Morphological instability, such as Rayleigh breakup, sintering, and coalescence, can be observed at a temperature much lower than the bulk melting point of the metal. We study the morphological and crystalline evolution of well-aligned free-standing nickel nanorod arrays at elevated temperatures up to 600 °C. The as-deposited nickel nanorods are faceted with sharp nanotips, which are deformed at annealing temperatures higher than 400 °C due to strong surface diffusion. A mud-crack like pattern is formed in the samples annealed above 400 °C, leading to the generation of interconnected porous structure. Meanwhile, the X-ray diffraction reveals the recrystallization of nickel nanocrystals when annealed from 300 to 600 °C.

  1. Fabrication of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube or Zinc Oxide Nanorod Arrays for Optical Diffraction Gratings.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong; Kim, Sun Il; Cho, Seong-Ho; Hwang, Sungwoo; Lee, Young Hee; Hur, Jaehyun

    2015-11-01

    We report on new fabrication methods for a transparent, hierarchical, and patterned electrode comprised of either carbon nanotubes or zinc oxide nanorods. Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes or zinc oxide nanorod arrays were fabricated by either chemical vapor deposition or hydrothermal growth, in combination with photolithography. A transparent conductive graphene layer or zinc oxide seed layer was employed as the transparent electrode. On the patterned surface defined using photoresist, the vertically grown carbon nanotubes or zinc oxides could produce a concentrated electric field under applied DC voltage. This periodic electric field was used to align liquid crystal molecules in localized areas within the optical cell, effectively modulating the refractive index. Depending on the material and morphology of these patterned electrodes, the diffraction efficiency presented different behavior. From this study, we established the relationship between the hierarchical structure of the different electrodes and their efficiency for modulating the refractive index. We believe that this study will pave a new path for future optoelectronic applications.

  2. Hydrothermal synthesis of highly crystalline ZnO nanorod arrays: Dependence of morphology and alignment on growth conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzez, Shrook A.; Hassan, Z.; Hassan, J. J.; Alimanesh, M.; Rasheed, Hiba S.; Sabah, Fayroz A.; Abdulateef, Sinan A.

    2016-07-01

    Highly oriented zinc oxide nanorod were successfully grown on seeded p-type silicone substrate by hydrothermal methode. The morphology and the crystallinty of ZnO c-axis (002) arrays were systematically studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods. The effect of seed layer pre-annealing on nanorods properties was explained according to the nucleation site of ZnO nanoparticles on silicon substrate. In addition, the variation of the equal molarity of zinc nitrate hexahydrate and hexamine concentrations in the reaction vessel play a crucial role related to the ZnO nanorods.

  3. Structure-thermal property correlation of aligned silicon dioxide nanorod arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jie; Zhu, Yu; Wu, Xuewang; Song, Helun; Zhang, Yaohui; Wang, Xiaojia

    2016-06-01

    Quantitative characterization of thermal properties of nanorod (NR) arrays appears to be challenging due to the complex combination of high volume of air voids, anisotropy, and structural non-uniformity. This work investigates the structure-thermal property correlation of arrays consisting of either vertically aligned or slanted silicon dioxide (SiO2) NRs, fabricated by the dynamic shadowing growth technique. We apply the frequency-dependent time-domain thermoreflectance method to quantify the thermal properties of SiO2 NR arrays that may possess inhomogeneity along the depth direction. The effective thermal conductivities of four SiO2 NR array films and one reference capping layer for the SiO2 NR array are obtained. The impact of the structure on the effective thermal conductivities of the SiO2 NR array is discussed. The lowest effective thermal conductivity among all samples in this work is found to be 0.13 W m-1 K-1 for the slanted NR array. We attribute the reduction in the effective thermal conductivity of the NR array to the discontinuous nature of SiO2 NRs, which reduces the density of the thermal transport channels and thus prevents heat flux from propagating downwards along the through-plane direction. The results from this work facilitate the potential applications of NR-array-based thermal insulators for micro-thermal devices.

  4. Microfluidic-based metal enhanced fluorescence for capillary electrophoresis by Ag nanorod arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Chenyu; Cao, Zhen; Deng, Junhong; Huang, Zhifeng; Xu, Zheng; Fu, Junxue; Yobas, Levent

    2014-06-01

    As metal nanorods show much higher metal enhanced fluorescence (MEF) than metal nanospheres, microfluidic-based MEF is first explored with Ag nanorod (ND) arrays made by oblique angle deposition. By measuring the fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) solution sandwiched between the Ag NDs and a piece of cover slip, the enhancement factors (EFs) are found as 3.7 ± 0.64 and 6.74 ± 2.04, for a solution thickness at 20.8 μm and 10 μm, respectively. Because of the strong plasmonic coupling between the adjacent Ag NDs, only the emission of the fluorophores present in the three-dimensional NDs array gets enhanced. Thus, the corresponding effective enhancement factors (EEFs) are revealed to be relatively close, 259 ± 92 and 340 ± 102, respectively. To demonstrate the application of MEF in microfluidic systems, a multilayer of SiO2 NDs/Ag NDs is integrated with a capillary electrophoresis device. At a microchannel depth of 10 μm, an enhancement of 6.5 fold is obtained for amino acids separation detection. These results are very encouraging and open the possibility of MEF applications for the Ag ND arrays decorated microchannels. With the miniaturization of microfluidic devices, microfluidic-based MEF by Ag ND arrays will likely find more applications with further enhancement.

  5. Direct growth of tellurium nanorod arrays on Pt/FTO/glass through a surfactant-assisted chemical reduction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongmei; Zeng, Boming; Jia, Falong

    2011-07-29

    Uniform tellurium nanorod arrays (TNA) have been successfully deposited directly on Pt/FTO (F-doped SnO(2))/glass substrate through a facile surfactant-assisted approach, which involved chemical reduction of TeO(3)(2-) ions by hydrazine hydrate. The whole synthesis process is highly repeatable and performed simply by immersing the Pt/FTO/glass in the solution for a certain time. During the growth of TNA, Pt catalyzed the reduction of TeO(3)(2-) ions by hydrazine hydrate and Te nanoparticles were deposited firmly on the substrate at first. Then, under the regulation of the surfactant (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTAB), the deposited Te grew into nanorod arrays and adhered firmly to the substrate. Similar Te nanorod arrays could also grow on a Pd substrate which has the same catalytic performance as that of Pt. The as-synthesized TNA could be used as a good template to synthesize platinum-and gold-coated nanorods through convenient galvanic replacement. As a demonstration of potential application, the gold/tellurium nanorods showed uniform surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) using rhodamine 6G (Rh6G) as the analyte. This approach provides a simple route for the growth of standing Te nanorods on a substrate, which may be used for the synthesis of other standing one-dimensional materials through a similar mechanism. PMID:21719969

  6. Direct growth of tellurium nanorod arrays on Pt/FTO/glass through a surfactant-assisted chemical reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongmei; Zeng, Boming; Jia, Falong

    2011-07-01

    Uniform tellurium nanorod arrays (TNA) have been successfully deposited directly on Pt/FTO (F-doped SnO2)/glass substrate through a facile surfactant-assisted approach, which involved chemical reduction of TeO32 - ions by hydrazine hydrate. The whole synthesis process is highly repeatable and performed simply by immersing the Pt/FTO/glass in the solution for a certain time. During the growth of TNA, Pt catalyzed the reduction of TeO32 - ions by hydrazine hydrate and Te nanoparticles were deposited firmly on the substrate at first. Then, under the regulation of the surfactant (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTAB), the deposited Te grew into nanorod arrays and adhered firmly to the substrate. Similar Te nanorod arrays could also grow on a Pd substrate which has the same catalytic performance as that of Pt. The as-synthesized TNA could be used as a good template to synthesize platinum-and gold-coated nanorods through convenient galvanic replacement. As a demonstration of potential application, the gold/tellurium nanorods showed uniform surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) using rhodamine 6G (Rh6G) as the analyte. This approach provides a simple route for the growth of standing Te nanorods on a substrate, which may be used for the synthesis of other standing one-dimensional materials through a similar mechanism.

  7. Phased laser array with tailored spectral and coherence properties

    DOEpatents

    Messerly, Michael J; Dawson, Jay W; Beach, Raymond J

    2014-05-20

    Architectures for coherently combining an array of fiber-based lasers are provided. By matching their lengths to within a few integer multiples of a wavelength, the spatial and temporal properties of a single large laser are replicated, while extending the average or peak pulsed power limit.

  8. Phased laser array with tailored spectral and coherence properties

    DOEpatents

    Messerly, Michael J; Dawson, Jay W; Beach, Raymond J

    2011-03-29

    Architectures for coherently combining an array of fiber-based lasers are provided. By matching their lengths to within a few integer multiples of a wavelength, the spatial and temporal properties of a single large laser are replicated, while extending the average or peak pulsed power limit.

  9. Periodic ZnO nanorod arrays defined by polystyrene microsphere self-assembled monolayers.

    PubMed

    Liu, D F; Xiang, Y J; Wu, X C; Zhang, Z X; Liu, L F; Song, L; Zhao, X W; Luo, S D; Ma, W J; Shen, J; Zhou, W Y; Wang, G; Wang, C Y; Xie, S S

    2006-10-01

    We demonstrate a low-cost and effective method to fabricate hexagonally patterned, vertically aligned ZnO nanorod arrays. Selective wet-etching is used to develop the catalyzing gold particle hexagonal pattern with the aid of a polystyrene microsphere self-assembled monolayer. The gold particles have tunable sizes independent of the polystyrene microsphere's diameter and are inherently round in shape. Each ZnO rod is grown individually from a catalyzing site via catalyst-initiated epitaxy, and the original hexagonal periodicity is well-preserved. The rods have flat ends, and the diameters of the rods can be controlled well by the amount of source materials. This method provides a promising way to create ZnO one-dimensional nanostructures for applications as two-dimensional photonic crystal, sensor arrays, nanolaser arrays, and optoelectronic devices. PMID:17034114

  10. A self-powered UV photodetector based on TiO2 nanorod arrays

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Large-area vertical rutile TiO2 nanorod arrays (TNAs) were grown on F/SnO2 conductive glass using a hydrothermal method at low temperature. A self-powered ultraviolet (UV) photodetector based on TiO2 nanorod/water solid–liquid heterojunction is designed and fabricated. These nanorods offer an enlarged TiO2/water contact area and a direct pathway for electron transport simultaneously. By connecting this UV photodetector to an ammeter, the intensity of UV light can be quantified using the output short-circuit photocurrent without a power source. A photosensitivity of 0.025 A/W and a quick response time were observed. At the same time, a high photosensitivity in a wide range of wavelength was also demonstrated. This TNA/water UV detector can be a particularly suitable candidate for practical applications for its high photosensitivity, fast response, excellent spectral selectivity, uncomplicated low-cost fabrication process, and environment-friendly feature. PMID:23618012

  11. Slanted n-ZnO/p-GaN nanorod arrays light-emitting diodes grown by oblique-angle deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ya-Ju; Yang, Zu-Po; Lo, Fang-Yuh; Siao, Jhih-Jhong; Xie, Zhong-Han; Chuang, Yi-Lun; Lin, Tai-Yuan; Sheu, Jinn-Kong

    2014-05-01

    High-efficient ZnO-based nanorod array light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were grown by an oblique-angle deposition scheme. Due to the shadowing effect, the inclined ZnO vapor-flow was selectively deposited on the tip surfaces of pre-fabricated p-GaN nanorod arrays, resulting in the formation of nanosized heterojunctions. The LED architecture composed of the slanted n-ZnO film on p-GaN nanorod arrays exhibits a well-behaving current rectification of junction diode with low turn-on voltage of 4.7 V, and stably emits bluish-white luminescence with dominant peak of 390 nm under the operation of forward injection currents. In general, as the device fabrication does not involve passivation of using a polymer or sophisticated material growth techniques, the revealed scheme might be readily applied on other kinds of nanoscale optoelectronic devices.

  12. All-optical, polarization-insensitive light tuning properties in silver nanorod arrays covered with photoresponsive liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Si, Guangyuan; Leong, Eunice S P; Jiang, Xiaoxiao; Lv, Jiangtao; Lin, Jiao; Dai, Haitao; Liu, Yan Jun

    2015-05-28

    Active plasmonics has been an interesting and important topic recently. Here we demonstrate the all-optical, polarization-insensitive tunable manipulation of a hybrid system that integrates a silver nanorod array with photoresponsive liquid crystals. The large-area plasmonic nanorod arrays are fabricated by laser interference lithography and ion milling. By covering a layer of photoresponsive liquid crystals, tunable control of plasmon resonance is achieved under an external light pump. The silver nanorod array also enables the homeotropic alignment of the liquid crystals, which makes the all-optical tuning behavior polarization-insensitive. With its advantages of cost-effective fabrication, easy integration, all-optical control, and polarization-insensitivity, the hybrid system could be valuable in many nanophotonic applications. PMID:25758775

  13. a High-Performance Glucose Biosensor Based on Zno Nanorod Arrays Modified with AU Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Gong; Lei, Yang; Yan, Xiaoqin

    2012-08-01

    An amperometric glucose biosensor based on vertically aligned ZnO nanorod (NR) arrays modified with Au nanoparticles (NPs) was constructed in a channel-limited way. Au NPs with diameters in the range of 8-10 nm have been successfully synthesized by photoreduction method and were uniformly loaded onto the surface of ZnO NRs that was hydrothermally deposited on the Fluorine doped SnO2 conductive glass (FTO) via electrostatic self-assembly technique. The morphology and structure of Au/ZnO NR arrays were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectrum analyzer (XPS). The electrocatalytic properties of glucose oxidase (GOD)- immobilized Au/ZnO NR arrays were evaluated by amperometry. Compared with the biosensor based on ZnO NR arrays, the resulting Au/ZnO NR arrays modified biosensor exhibited an expanded linear range from 3 μM to 3 mM with the detection limit of 30 nM and a smaller Michaelis-Menten constant of 0.7836 mM. All these results suggest that the Au NPs can greatly improve the biosensing properties of ZnO NR arrays and therefore Au/ZnO NR arrays provide a promising material for the biosensor designs and other biological applications.

  14. Bi-directional-bi-dimensionality alignment of self-supporting Mn3O4 nanorod and nanotube arrays with different bacteriostasis and magnetism.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qun; Wei, Chengzhen; Gao, Feng; Pang, Huan; Lu, Qingyi

    2013-12-21

    Self-supported Mn3O4 patterns of aligned nanorods and nanotubes were synthesized through a bi-directional-bi-dimensionality growth model by using sodium gluconate and urea as additives under mild hydrothermal conditions without the use of any substrates. In one direction, Mn3O4 grows to form one-dimensional nanorods or nanotubes, while in the other direction Mn3O4 grows into two-dimensional nanoplates to support the nanorods or nanotubes to align into arrays. These two kinds of new nanostructures, a nanotube pattern and a nanorod pattern, show similar and good bacteriostasis for Gram positive bacteria, but for Gram negative bacteria the nanotube pattern shows much better bacterial restraint than the nanorod pattern. Magnetic studies show that the nanorod arrays display similar magnetic properties to the commercial Mn3O4, while the nanotube arrays show different ferromagnetic behaviors with enhanced remnant magnetization and saturation magnetization (Ms) at low temperature.

  15. Self-organized TiO2 nanorod arrays on glass substrate for self-cleaning antireflection coatings.

    PubMed

    Mu, Qinghui; Li, Yaogang; Wang, Hongzhi; Zhang, Qinghong

    2012-01-01

    Herein we report the direct fabrication of TiO(2) subwavelength structures with 1-dimensional TiO(2) nanorods on glass substrate through solvothermal process to form self-cleaning antireflection coatings. TiO(2) precursor solutions with different solvent constituents create TiO(2) nanorods with much different morphologies grown on glass substrates. Apiculate TiO(2) nanorods with vertical orientation are grown on the glass substrate which is solvothermally treated in the precursor solution containing ethylene glycol. This glass substrate exhibit the highest transmittance of 70-85% in the range of 520-800 nm and negligible absorption in visible light region (400-800 nm). Furthermore, the TiO(2) nanorod arrays show high hydrophobicity and photocatalytic degradation ability which offer the glass substrate self-cleaning properties for both hydrophilic and oily contaminants.

  16. One-pot hydrothermal synthesis of heterostructured ZnO/ZnS nanorod arrays with high ethanol-sensing properties.

    PubMed

    Gao, Peng; Wang, Longqiang; Wang, Ying; Chen, Yujin; Wang, Xiaona; Zhang, Guoli

    2012-04-10

    ZnO/ZnS heterostructured nanorod arrays with uniform diameter and length were synthesized from zinc substrates in a one-pot procedure by using a simple hydrothermal method. Structural characterization by HRTEM indicated that the heterostructured nanorods were composed of parallel segments of wurtzite-type ZnO and zinc-blende ZnS, with a distinct interface along the axial direction, which revealed the epitaxial relationship, ZnO (1010) and ZnS (111). The as-prepared ZnO/ZnS nanorods showed only two green emissions at around 523 nm and 576 nm. We also found that the nanorods exhibited high sensitivity to ethanol at relatively low temperatures, owing to their smaller size and structure.

  17. Silver-Overgrowth-Induced Changes in Intrinsic Optical Properties of Gold Nanorods: From Noninvasive Monitoring of Growth Kinetics to Tailoring Internal Mirror Charges

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the effect of surfactant-mediated, asymmetric silver overgrowth of gold nanorods on their intrinsic optical properties. From concentration-dependent experiments, we established a close correlation of the extinction in the UV/vis/NIR frequency range and the morphological transition from gold nanorods to Au@Ag cuboids. Based on this correlation, a generic methodology for in situ monitoring of the evolution of the cuboid morphology was developed and applied in time-dependent experiments. We find that growth rates are sensitive to the substitution of the surfactant headgroup by comparison of benzylhexadecyldimethylammonium chloride (BDAC) with hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC). The time-dependent overgrowth in BDAC proceeds about 1 order of magnitude slower than in CTAC, which allows for higher control during silver overgrowth. Furthermore, silver overgrowth results in a qualitatively novel optical feature: Upon excitation inside the overlap region of the interband transition of gold and intraband of silver, the gold core acts as a retarding element. The much higher damping of the gold core compared to the silver shell in Au@Ag cuboids induces mirror charges at the core/shell interface as shown by electromagnetic simulations. Full control over the kinetic growth process consequently allows for precise tailoring of the resonance wavelengths of both modes. Tailored and asymmetric silver-overgrown gold nanorods are of particular interest for large-scale fabrication of nanoparticles with intrinsic metamaterial properties. These building blocks could furthermore find application in optical sensor technology, light harvesting, and information technology. PMID:26113885

  18. The monolithic lawn-like CuO-based nanorods array used for diesel soot combustion under gravitational contact mode.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yifu; Meng, Ming; Dai, Fangfang

    2013-02-01

    A simple and feasible contact mode called gravitational contact mode (GCM) was developed for the first time to imitate the practical state between soot and catalyst. By simulating rainwater adsorption on a lawn in nature, we synthesized a lawn-like CuO nanorods array, which exhibited rather good catalytic activity for diesel soot combustion under GCM. Moreover, the CuO nanorods array could serve as a support for composite catalysts through a sequential chemical bath deposition method and exhibited higher catalytic activity than a traditional supported catalyst. The monolithic macroscopic structure of such a catalyst shows its potential for large-scale preparation and application. PMID:23254389

  19. Controlling cell growth with tailorable 2D nanoholes arrays.

    PubMed

    Fragal, Vanessa H; Cellet, Thelma Sley P; Fragal, Elizângela H; Pereira, Guilherme M; Garcia, Francielle P; Nakamura, Celso V; Asefa, Tewodros; Rubira, Adley F; Silva, Rafael

    2016-03-15

    A facile and reproducible route that can lead to two-dimensional arrays of nanopores in thin polymer films is demonstrated. The formation of the pores in the polymer films involves breath figure phenomenon and occurs during the film deposition by spin coating. The formation of nanoporous thin films takes only few seconds, and the method does not require complex equipment or expensive chemicals. This method also constitutes a straightforward approach to control the size of the pores formed in thin films. Besides allowing control over the average pore size of the porous films, the use of dynamic deposition with the breath figure phenomenon causes the reduction in the pore size to nanometer scale. The nanoporous arrays obtained by the breath figure are applied as substrates for cell growth, and the effect of their nanopore size on cell growth was evaluated. Notably, it is found that cell viability is related to pore size, where 2D nanoporous structure is more beneficial for cell culture than 2D microporous structures. The change in the average pore size of the polymer films from 1.22 μm to 346 nm results in a threefold increase in cell viability. PMID:26722796

  20. Output power enhancement from ZnO nanorods piezoelectric nanogenerators by Si microhole arrays.

    PubMed

    Baek, Seong-Ho; Hasan, Md Roqibul; Park, Il-Kyu

    2016-02-12

    We demonstrate the enhancement of output power from a ZnO nanorod (NR)-based piezoelectric nanogenerator by using Si microhole (Si-μH) arrays. The depth-controlled Si-μH arrays were fabricated by using the deep reactive ion etching method. The ZnO NRs were grown along the Si-μH surface, in holes deeper than 20 μm. The polymer layer, polydimethylsiloxane, which acts a stress diffuser and electrical insulator, was successfully penetrated into the deep Si-μH arrays. Optical investigations show that the crystalline quality of the ZnO NRs on the Si-μH arrays was not degraded, even though they were grown on the deeper Si-μH arrays. As the depth of the Si-μH arrays increase from 0 to 20 μm, the output voltage was enhanced by around 8.1 times while the current did not increase. Finally, an output power enhancement of ten times was obtained. This enhancement of the output power was consistent with the increase in the surface area, and was mainly attributed to the accumulation of the potentials generated by the series-connected ZnO NR-based nanogenerators, whose number increases as the depth of the Si-μH increases.

  1. Two-step wetting transition on ZnO nanorod arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, H.; Ma, J.; Wang, P.; Bai, J.; Jing, G.

    2015-08-01

    Transition between superhydrophilicity and superhydrophobicity is primarily important in the modification of the wettability of the material surface. The significant transition between the superhydrophilicity and the superhydrophobicity is realized from the surface made up of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod arrays on a silicon substrate with different annealing temperatures by the post-annealing process. Surprisingly, a critical temperature (300 °C) existed for ZnO nanorod arrays to achieve the transition from the increase in contact angle to its reduction. As the annealing temperature increases, the initial hydrophilic surface is gradually converted to the superhydrophobic one, whereas the surface property reverses back to the hydrophilic one as the critical annealing temperature is surpassed. Oxygen vacancies and carbon adsorptions are examined to be responsible for this extraordinary wettability variation. We establish a simple theoretical model to describe the novel mechanism of the transition between the superhydrophilicity and the superhydrophobicity. The facile method to achieve the transition reported here will supply the great facile applications to control the wetting properties of materials, without employing the destroyable chemical coating or external stimulation by electrowetting and ultra-violet (UV) illumination.

  2. Electromagnetic enhancement of ordered silver nanorod arrays evaluated by discrete dipole approximation

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Guoke; Wang, Jinliang

    2015-01-01

    Summary The enhancement factor (EF) of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) from two-dimensional (2D) hexagonal silver nanorod (AgNR) arrays were investigated in terms of electromagnetic (EM) mechanism by using the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) method. The dependence of EF on several parameters, i.e., structure, length, excitation wavelength, incident angle and polarization, and gap size has been investigated. “Hotspots” were found distributed in the gaps between adjacent nanorods. Simulations of AgNR arrays of different lengths revealed that increasing the rod length from 374 to 937 nm (aspect ratio from 2.0 to 5.0) generated more “hotspots” but not necessarily increased EF under both 514 and 532 nm excitation. A narrow lateral gap (in the incident plane) was found to result in strong EF, while the dependence of EF on the diagonal gap (out of the incident plane) showed an oscillating behavior. The EF of the array was highly dependent on the angle and polarization of the incident light. The structure of AgNR and the excitation wavelength were also found to affect the EF. The EF of random arrays was stronger than that of an ordered one with the same average gap of 21 nm, which could be explained by the exponential dependence of EF on the lateral gap size. Our results also suggested that absorption rather than extinction or scattering could be a good indicator of EM enhancement. It is expected that the understanding of the dependence of local field enhancement on the structure of the nanoarrays and incident excitations will shine light on the optimal design of efficient SERS substrates and improved performance. PMID:25821708

  3. Facile synthesis of ZnO nanorod arrays and hierarchical nanostructures for photocatalysis and gas sensor applications.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shuaishuai; Li, Rong; Lv, Changpeng; Xu, Wei; Gou, Xinglong

    2011-08-30

    A facile one-step hydrothermal route was demonstrated to grow ZnO nanorod arrays and hierarchical nanostructures on arbitrary substrates without any catalysts and seeds coated before the reaction, which are prerequisite in the current two-step protocol. Meanwhile, ZnO nanoflowers composed of nanorods were obtained at the bottom of the autoclaves in the absence of substrates. An in situ spontaneous-seeds-assisted growth mechanism was tentatively proposed on the basis of the experimental data to explain the growth process of ZnO nanostructures. Moreover, the obtained ZnO nanorod arrays exhibited superior photocatalytic activity for decomposing methyl orange, and the nanoflowers showed better gas sensing performance towards some flammable gases and corrosive vapors with high sensitivity, rapid response-recovery characteristics, good selectivity and long-term stability.

  4. Fabrication and properties of a branched (NH₄)xWO₃ nanowire array film and a porous WO3 nanorod array film.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ya; Zhao, Liang; Su, Jinzhan; Li, Mingtao; Guo, Liejin

    2015-02-18

    We describe the successful fabrication of a three-dimensional branched (NH4)xWO3 nanowire array film on fluorine-doped tin oxide coated glass by a facile one-step hydrothermal method. The porous WO3 nanorod array film formed after heat treatment and recrystallization. Specifically, the branched (NH4)xWO3 nanowire array film has very thin nanowires that were about 10 nm in diameter. The results of an optical and photoelectrochemical test show that the branched (NH4)xWO3 nanowire array film could be used as a near-infrared shielder, while the porous WO3 nanorod array film can be used as a photoanode for water splitting. Moreover, the morphology, structure, and composition of the as-prepared films are revealed, and the related changes caused by heat treatment are discussed in detail. PMID:25623076

  5. Fe2O3–TiO2 core–shell nanorod arrays for visible light photocatalytic applications

    DOE PAGES

    Yao, Kun; Basnet, Pradip; Sessions, Henry; Larsen, George K.; Murph, Simona E. Hunyadi; Zhao, Yiping

    2015-11-11

    By using the glancing angle deposition technique and post-deposition annealing, Fe2O3–TiO2 core-shell nanorod arrays with specific crystalline states can be designed and fabricated. The Fe2O3–TiO2 core-shell samples annealed at temperatures greater than 450°C formed α-Fe2O3 and anatase TiO2, and showed higher catalytic efficiency for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) under visible light illumination when compared with pure anatase TiO2 or α-Fe2O3 nanorod arrays. Solar conversion of carbon dioxide and water vapor in the presence of Fe2O3–TiO2 core-shell nanorod arrays was also investigated. Carbon monoxide, hydrogen, methane, and methanol along with other hydrocarbons were produced after only several hours’ exposuremore » under ambient sunlight. It was determined that the core-shell structure showed greater efficiency for solar CO2 conversion than the pure TiO2 nanorod arrays.« less

  6. Regularly-patterned nanorod light-emitting diode arrays grown with metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Charng-Gan; Su, Chia-Ying; Liao, Che-Hao; Hsieh, Chieh; Yao, Yu-Feng; Chen, Hao-Tsung; Lin, Chun-Han; Chen, Horng-Shyang; Kiang, Yean-Woei; Yang, C. C.

    2015-07-01

    The growth and fabrication of GaN nanorod (NR) light-emitting diode (LED) arrays have attracted much attention because of their advantages of higher crystal quality, larger sidewall emission area, and non-polar or semi-polar quantum well (QW) formation. In this paper, we review the development of regularly-patterned GaN NR LED arrays grown with metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy. Such an array device is expected to be useful for practical lighting application. A regularly-patterned NR array is grown on a patterned template with either continuous or pulsed growth mode. Usually, with the pulsed growth mode, by switching group-III and V sources on and off alternatively, the NR geometry can be more uniform over an array. InGaN/GaN QWs can be deposited on the c-plane top face, m-plane sidewalls, and { 1 1 bar 0 1 } -plane slant facets on a c-axis-oriented NR with the highest (lowest) growth rate in the c-plane ({ 1 1 bar 0 1 } -plane). After the overgrowth of p-GaN on an NR with n-GaN core and QW deposition, an NR LED array can be implemented by covering the NRs with a transparent conductor. It has been demonstrated that the optical and electrical performances of an NR LED array can be comparable to those of a planar LED. Further developments in NR LED growth and process techniques can lead to an outperforming LED device with the NR structure.

  7. Fabrication of Magnetically Actuated Polymeric Nanorod Arrays to Mimic Biological Cilia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, A. R.; Evans, B. A.; Carroll, R. L.; Superfine, R.

    2006-11-01

    We report on successful fabrication of free-standing polymer nanorod arrays capable of actuation via externally applied magnetic fields. Our primary motivation is to mimic the ability of epithelial lung cilia to promote microscale fluid transport. Additionally, nanoscale actuator arrays of this nature have a wide variety of possible applications including microfluidics, sensing, and photonics. To fabricate these structures we utilize porous polycarbonate track-etched membranes as templates for a dispersion of a magnetic nanoparticle ferrofluid in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Crosslinking of the polymer followed by subsequent dissolution of the membrane releases the rod array. With this method we have successfully fabricated rods with diameters down to 200 nanometers and lengths of 10-25 microns. Rods of various sizes have been successfully actuated with permanent magnets as well as an integrated magnetic force microscope that was developed in-house. We have demonstrated that actuation induces local fluid flow and are currently developing increased control over the array's actuation pattern to more closely resemble that of biological cilia.

  8. Ti nanorod arrays with a medium density significantly promote osteogenesis and osteointegration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Chengyun; Wang, Shuangying; Zhu, Ye; Zhong, Meiling; Lin, Xi; Zhang, Yu; Tan, Guoxin; Li, Mei; Yin, Zhaoyi; Yu, Peng; Wang, Xiaolan; Li, Ying; He, Tianrui; Chen, Wei; Wang, Yingjun; Mao, Chuanbin

    2016-01-01

    Ti implants are good candidates in bone repair. However, how to promote bone formation on their surface and their consequent perfect integration with the surrounding tissue is still a challenge. To overcome such challenge, we propose to form Ti nanorods on their surface to promote the new bone formation around the implants. Here Ti nanorod arrays (TNrs) with different densities were produced on pure Ti surfaces using an anodizing method. The influence of TNr density on the protein adsorption as well as on the adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblastic cells were assessed. The TNrs were also implanted into the bone defects in rabbits to test their application in promoting bone formation and osteointegration at the implant-bone interface. TNrs with the medium density were found to show the best capability in promoting the protein adsorption from surrounding medium, which in turn efficiently enhanced osteogenic differentiation in vitro and osteointegration in vivo. Our work suggests that growing TNrs with a medium density on the surface of traditional Ti implants is an efficient and facile method for promoting bone formation and osteointegration in bone repair.

  9. Ti nanorod arrays with a medium density significantly promote osteogenesis and osteointegration

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Chengyun; Wang, Shuangying; Zhu, Ye; Zhong, Meiling; Lin, Xi; Zhang, Yu; Tan, Guoxin; Li, Mei; Yin, Zhaoyi; Yu, Peng; Wang, Xiaolan; Li, Ying; He, Tianrui; Chen, Wei; Wang, Yingjun; Mao, Chuanbin

    2016-01-01

    Ti implants are good candidates in bone repair. However, how to promote bone formation on their surface and their consequent perfect integration with the surrounding tissue is still a challenge. To overcome such challenge, we propose to form Ti nanorods on their surface to promote the new bone formation around the implants. Here Ti nanorod arrays (TNrs) with different densities were produced on pure Ti surfaces using an anodizing method. The influence of TNr density on the protein adsorption as well as on the adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblastic cells were assessed. The TNrs were also implanted into the bone defects in rabbits to test their application in promoting bone formation and osteointegration at the implant-bone interface. TNrs with the medium density were found to show the best capability in promoting the protein adsorption from surrounding medium, which in turn efficiently enhanced osteogenic differentiation in vitro and osteointegration in vivo. Our work suggests that growing TNrs with a medium density on the surface of traditional Ti implants is an efficient and facile method for promoting bone formation and osteointegration in bone repair. PMID:26743328

  10. Fabrication of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube or Zinc Oxide Nanorod Arrays for Optical Diffraction Gratings.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong; Kim, Sun Il; Cho, Seong-Ho; Hwang, Sungwoo; Lee, Young Hee; Hur, Jaehyun

    2015-11-01

    We report on new fabrication methods for a transparent, hierarchical, and patterned electrode comprised of either carbon nanotubes or zinc oxide nanorods. Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes or zinc oxide nanorod arrays were fabricated by either chemical vapor deposition or hydrothermal growth, in combination with photolithography. A transparent conductive graphene layer or zinc oxide seed layer was employed as the transparent electrode. On the patterned surface defined using photoresist, the vertically grown carbon nanotubes or zinc oxides could produce a concentrated electric field under applied DC voltage. This periodic electric field was used to align liquid crystal molecules in localized areas within the optical cell, effectively modulating the refractive index. Depending on the material and morphology of these patterned electrodes, the diffraction efficiency presented different behavior. From this study, we established the relationship between the hierarchical structure of the different electrodes and their efficiency for modulating the refractive index. We believe that this study will pave a new path for future optoelectronic applications. PMID:26726580

  11. Perovskite nanoparticle-sensitized Ga2O3 nanorod arrays for CO detection at high temperature

    DOE PAGES

    Lin, Hui -Jan; Baltrus, John P.; Gao, Haiyong; Ding, Yong; Nam, Chang -Yong; Ohodnicki, Paul; Gao, Pu -Xian

    2016-04-04

    Here, noble metal nanoparticles are extensively used for sensitizing metal oxide chemical sensors through the catalytic spillover mechanism. However, due to earth-scarcity and high cost of noble metals, finding replacements presents a great economic benefit. Besides, high temperature and harsh environment sensor applications demand material stability under conditions approaching thermal and chemical stability limits of noble metals. In this study, we employed thermally stable perovskite-type La0.8Sr0.2FeO3 (LSFO) nanoparticle surface decoration on Ga2O3 nanorod array gas sensors and discovered an order of magnitude enhanced sensitivity to carbon monoxide at 500 °C. The LSFO nanoparticle catalysts was of comparable performance to thatmore » achieved by Pt nanoparticles, with a much lower weight loading than Pt. Detailed electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies suggested the LSFO nanoparticle sensitization effect is attributed to a spillover-like effect associated with the gas-LSFO-Ga2O3 triple-interfaces that spread the negatively charged surface oxygen ions from LSFO nanoparticles surfaces over to β-Ga2O3 nanorod surfaces with faster surface CO oxidation reactions.« less

  12. Plasmonic nanorod arrays of a two-segment dimer and a coaxial cable with 1 nm gap for large field confinement and enhancement.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zi-Qiang; Nan, Fan; Yang, Da-Jie; Zhong, Yu-Ting; Ma, Liang; Hao, Zhong-Hua; Zhou, Li; Wang, Qu-Quan

    2015-01-28

    Seeking plasmonic nanostructures with large field confinement and enhancement is significant for photonic and electronic nanodevices with high sensitivity, reproducibility, and tunability. Here, we report the synthesis of plasmonic arrays composed of two-segment dimer nanorods and coaxial cable nanorods with ∼1 nm gap insulated by a self-assembled Raman molecule monolayer. The gap-induced plasmon coupling generates an intense field in the gap region of the dimer junction and the cable interlayer. As a result, the longitudinal plasmon resonance of nanorod arrays with high tunability is obviously enhanced. Most interestingly, the field enhancement of dimer nanorod arrays can be tuned by the length ratio L1/L2 of the two segments, and the maximal enhancement appears at L1/L2 = 1. In that case, the two-photon luminescence (TPL) of dimer nanorod arrays and the Raman intensity in the dimer junction is enhanced by 27 and 30 times, respectively, under resonant excitation. In the same way, the Raman intensity in the gap region is enhanced 16 times for the coaxial cable nanorod arrays. The plasmonic nanorod arrays synthesized by the facile method, having tunable plasmon properties and large field enhancement, indicate an attractive pathway to the photonic nanodevices.

  13. Strong light coupling effect for a glancing-deposited silver nanorod array in the Kretschmann configuration.

    PubMed

    Jen, Yi-Jun; Liu, Wei-Chih; Chao, Jung-Hui; Huang, Jyong-Wei; Chang, Yuan-Tai

    2014-01-01

    In this work, three slanted silver nanorod arrays (NRAs) with different thicknesses are fabricated using the glancing angle deposition method. Each silver NRA in the Kretschmann configuration is arranged to form a prism/NRA/air system. Attenuated total reflection occurs over the visible wavelengths and wide incident angles of both s- and p-polarization states. The extinctance is inversely proportional to the thickness of the Ag NRA. The thinnest NRA, with a thickness of 169 nm, exhibits strong extinctance of more than 80% over the visible wavelengths. The associated forward scatterings from the three NRAs are measured and compared under illumination with a laser beam with a wavelength of 632.8 nm.

  14. Immobilization of a Molecular Ruthenium Catalyst on Hematite Nanorod Arrays for Water Oxidation with Stable Photocurrent.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ke; Li, Fusheng; Wang, Lei; Daniel, Quentin; Chen, Hong; Gabrielsson, Erik; Sun, Junliang; Sun, Licheng

    2015-10-12

    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells for light-driven water splitting are prepared using hematite nanorod arrays on conductive glass as the photoanode. These devices improve the photocurrent of the hematite-based photoanode for water splitting, owing to fewer surface traps and decreased electron recombination resulting from the one-dimensional structure. By employing a molecular ruthenium co-catalyst, which contains a strong 2,6-pyridine-dicarboxylic acid anchoring group at the hematite photoanode, the photocurrent of the PEC cell is enhanced with high stability for over 10 000 s in a 1 m KOH solution. This approach can pave a route for combining one-dimensional nanomaterials and molecular catalysts to split water with high efficiency and stability. PMID:26315677

  15. Enhanced polarization of (11–22) semi-polar InGaN nanorod array structure

    SciTech Connect

    Athanasiou, M.; Smith, R. M.; Hou, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Gong, Y.; Wang, T.

    2015-10-05

    By means of a cost effective nanosphere lithography technique, an InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structure grown on (11–22) semipolar GaN has been fabricated into two dimensional nanorod arrays which form a photonic crystal (PhC) structure. Such a PhC structure demonstrates not only significantly increased emission intensity, but also an enhanced polarization ratio of the emission. This is due to an effective inhibition of the emission in slab modes and then redistribution to the vertical direction, thus minimizing the light scattering processes that lead to randomizing of the optical polarization. The PhC structure is designed based on a standard finite-difference-time-domain simulation, and then optically confirmed by detailed time-resolved photoluminescence measurements. The results presented pave the way for the fabrication of semipolar InGaN/GaN based emitters with both high efficiency and highly polarized emission.

  16. Chemical growth of ZnO nanorod arrays on textured nanoparticle nanoribbons and its second-harmonic generation performance

    SciTech Connect

    Gui Zhou . E-mail: zgui@ustc.edu.cn; Wang Xian; Liu Jian; Yan Shanshan; Ding Yanyan; Wang Zhengzhou; Hu Yuan

    2006-07-15

    On the basis of the highly oriented ZnO nanoparticle nanoribbons as the growth seed layer (GSL) and solution growth technique, we have synthesized vertical ZnO nanorod arrays with high density over a large area and multi-teeth brush nanostructure, respectively, according to the density degree of the arrangement of nanoparticle nanoribbons GSL on the glass substrate. This controllable and convenient technique opens the possibility of creating nanostructured film for industrial fabrication and may represent a facile way to get similar structures of other compounds by using highly oriented GSL to promote the vertical arrays growth. The growth mechanism of the formation of the ordered nanorod arrays is also discussed. The second-order nonlinear optical coefficient d {sub 31} of the vertical ZnO nanorod arrays measured by the Maker fringes technique is 11.3 times as large as that of d {sub 36} KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} (KDP). - Graphical abstract: SEM images of the arrays at different locations and magnifications. These images are representatives of the entire surface.

  17. Metal enhanced fluorescence improved protein and DNA detection by zigzag Ag nanorod arrays.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiaofan; Xiao, Chenyu; Lau, Wai-Fung; Li, Jianping; Fu, Junxue

    2016-08-15

    As metal nano-arrays show great potential on metal enhanced fluorescence (MEF) than random nanostructures, MEF of Ag zigzag nanorod (ZNR) arrays made by oblique angle deposition has been studied for biomolecule-protein interaction and DNA hybridization. By changing the folding number and the deposition substrate temperature, a 14-fold enhancement factor (EF) is obtained for biotin-neutravidin detection. The optimal folding number is decided as Z=7, owing to the high scattering intensity of Ag ZNRs. The substrate temperature T=25°C and 0°C slightly alters the morphology of Ag ZNRs but has no big difference in EF. Further, Ag ZNRs deposited on a layer of Ag film have been introduced to the DNA hybridization and a significant signal enhancement has been observed through the fluorescence microscope. Through a detailed quantitative EF analysis, which excludes the enhancing effect from the increased surface area of ZNRs and only considers the contribution of MEF, an EF of 28 is achieved for the hybridization of two single-stranded oligonucleotides with 33 bases. Furthermore, a limit of detection is determined as 0.01pM. We believe that the Ag ZNR arrays can serve as a universal and sensitive bio-detection platform. PMID:27088369

  18. Plasmon-Driven Dynamic Response of a Hierarchically Structural Silver-Decorated Nanorod Array for Sub-10 nm Nanogaps.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Yuyang; Shen, Yanting; Xu, Shuping; Xu, Weiqing

    2016-06-22

    Plasmonic nanogaps serve as a useful configuration for light concentration and local field amplification owing to the extreme localization of surface plasmons. Here, a smart plasmonic nanogap device is fabricated by the dynamic response of an Ag decorated hierarchically structural vertical polymer nanorod array under the light irradiation. Seven nanorods in one unit bend because of plasmonic heating effect and they are centrally collected due to the attraction of the plasmon-induced polaritons, leading to the significantly enhanced local electromagnetic field at the sub-10 nm gaps among the constricted nanorod tops. Compared with tuning capillarity in microscale by wetting and drying, using light as external stimuli is much easier and more tunable in nanoscale. This plasmonic nanogap device is used for a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate. Its hydrophobic surface with a contact angle of 142 degree can make the probed aqueous solution only access to the Ag tips of nanorods. Thus, the analytes can be driven to the "hot spot" regions where located at the tops of nanorods during the solvent evaporation process, which is beneficial to SERS detection. Discovery of this smart plasmon-driven process broadens the scope for further functionality of both the dynamic nanostructure design and the smart plasmonic devices in the communities of chemistry, biomedicine, and microfluidic engineering. PMID:27250862

  19. Growing vertical ZnO nanorod arrays within graphite: efficient isolation of large size and high quality single-layer graphene.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ling; E, Yifeng; Fan, Louzhen; Yang, Shihe

    2013-07-18

    We report a unique strategy for efficiently exfoliating large size and high quality single-layer graphene directly from graphite into DMF dispersions by growing ZnO nanorod arrays between the graphene layers in graphite.

  20. Template based precursor route for the synthesis of CuInSe2 nanorod arrays for potential solar cell applications

    PubMed Central

    Pashchanka, Mikhail; Balog, Ildiko; Hoffmann, Rudolf C

    2013-01-01

    Summary Polycrystalline CuInSe2 (CISe) nanorods are promising for the fabrication of highly efficient active layers in solar cells. In this work we report on a nanocasting approach, which uses track-etched polycarbonate films as hard templates for obtaining three-dimensionally (3D) arranged CISe nanorod arrays. Copper and indium ketoacidoximato complexes and selenourea were employed as molecular precursors. Arrays of parallel isolated cylindrical pores of 100 nm nominal diameter and 5 μm length were used for the infiltration of the precursor solution under inert atmosphere, followed by drying, thermal conversion into a preceramic ‘green body’, a subsequent dissolution of the template, and a final thermal treatment at 450 °C. The nanorods that where synthesised in this way have dimensions equal to the pore sizes of the template. Investigation of the CuInSe2 nanorod samples by spectroscopic and diffraction methods confirmed a high purity and crystallinity, and a stoichiometric composition of the CISe ternary semiconductor compound. PMID:24367756

  1. Sequential growth of zinc oxide nanorod arrays at room temperature via a corrosion process: application in visible light photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Danish; Kostka, Aleksander; Bashir, Asif; Sarfraz, Adnan; Chen, Ying; Wieck, Andreas D; Erbe, Andreas

    2014-11-12

    Many photocatalyst systems catalyze chemical reactions under ultraviolet (UV) illumination, because of its high photon energies. Activating inexpensive, widely available materials as photocatalyst using the intense visible part of the solar spectrum is more challenging. Here, nanorod arrays of the wide-band-gap semiconductor zinc oxide have been shown to act as photocatalysts for the aerobic photo-oxidation of organic dye Methyl Orange under illumination with red light, which is normally accessible only to narrow-band semiconductors. The homogeneous, 800-1000-nm-thick ZnO nanorod arrays show substantial light absorption (absorbances >1) throughout the visible spectral range. This absorption is caused by defect levels inside the band gap. Multiple scattering processes by the rods make the nanorods appear black. The dominantly crystalline ZnO nanorod structures grow in the (0001) direction, i.e., with the c-axis perpendicular to the surface of polycrystalline zinc. The room-temperature preparation route relies on controlled cathodic delamination of a weakly bound polymer coating from metallic zinc, an industrially produced and cheaply available substrate. Cathodic delamination is a sequential synthesis process, because it involves the propagation of a delamination front over the base material. Consequently, arbitrarily large sample surfaces can be nanostructured using this approach.

  2. Standing gold nanorod arrays as reproducible SERS substrates for measurement of pesticides in apple juice and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhong; Yu, Qingsong; Li, Hao; Mustapha, Azlin; Lin, Mengshi

    2015-02-01

    There is an increasing interest in recent years in using novel nanomaterials as cost-effective, sensitive, and reproducible substrate for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) applications. In this study, a novel SERS substrate was developed by assembling gold nanorods into standing arrays on a gold-coated silicon slide. The standing nanorod arrays were closely packed on the gold film, generating strong electromagnetic field and uniformly distributed SERS "hot-spots" on the array surface. The as-prepared SERS substrates were used to detect a widely used pesticide (that is, carbaryl) in acetonitrile-water solution, apple juice, and cabbage. Results demonstrate that the actual concentrations of carbaryl in apple juice and cabbage were linearly correlated with the concentrations predicted by the multiple linear regression models (R > 0.97). The detection limits of carbaryl in apple juice and cabbage were both 2.5 ppm, meeting the maximum residue limits set by US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). SERS can detect as low as 0.1 ppm of carbaryl in acetonitrile-water solution. In addition, satisfactory recoveries were obtained for carbaryl in both apple juice and cabbage. These results indicate that SERS coupled with the standing gold nanorod array substrates is a sensitive and reproducible method and can accurately detect pesticides in foods.

  3. Vertically aligned ZnO nanorod core-polypyrrole conducting polymer sheath and nanotube arrays for electrochemical supercapacitor energy storage

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Nanocomposite electrodes having three-dimensional (3-D) nanoscale architecture comprising of vertically aligned ZnO nanorod array core-polypyrrole (PPy) conducting polymer sheath and the vertical PPy nanotube arrays have been investigated for supercapacitor energy storage. The electrodes in the ZnO nanorod core-PPy sheath structure are formed by preferential nucleation and deposition of PPy layer over hydrothermally synthesized vertical ZnO nanorod array by controlled pulsed current electropolymerization of pyrrole monomer under surfactant action. The vertical PPy nanotube arrays of different tube diameter are created by selective etching of the ZnO nanorod core in ammonia solution for different periods. Cyclic voltammetry studies show high areal-specific capacitance approximately 240 mF.cm-2 for open pore and approximately 180 mF.cm-2 for narrow 30-to-36-nm diameter PPy nanotube arrays attributed to intensive faradic processes arising from enhanced access of electrolyte ions through nanotube interior and exterior. Impedance spectroscopy studies show that capacitive response extends over larger frequency domain in electrodes with PPy nanotube structure. Simulation of Nyquist plots by electrical equivalent circuit modeling establishes that 3-D nanostructure is better represented by constant phase element which accounts for the inhomogeneous electrochemical redox processes. Charge-discharge studies at different current densities establish that kinetics of the redox process in PPy nanotube electrode is due to the limitation on electron transport rather than the diffusive process of electrolyte ions. The PPy nanotube electrodes show deep discharge capability with high coulomb efficiency and long-term charge-discharge cyclic studies show nondegrading performance of the specific areal capacitance tested for 5,000 cycles. PMID:25246867

  4. Vertically aligned ZnO nanorod core-polypyrrole conducting polymer sheath and nanotube arrays for electrochemical supercapacitor energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidhu, Navjot Kaur; Rastogi, Alok C.

    2014-08-01

    Nanocomposite electrodes having three-dimensional (3-D) nanoscale architecture comprising of vertically aligned ZnO nanorod array core-polypyrrole (PPy) conducting polymer sheath and the vertical PPy nanotube arrays have been investigated for supercapacitor energy storage. The electrodes in the ZnO nanorod core-PPy sheath structure are formed by preferential nucleation and deposition of PPy layer over hydrothermally synthesized vertical ZnO nanorod array by controlled pulsed current electropolymerization of pyrrole monomer under surfactant action. The vertical PPy nanotube arrays of different tube diameter are created by selective etching of the ZnO nanorod core in ammonia solution for different periods. Cyclic voltammetry studies show high areal-specific capacitance approximately 240 mF.cm-2 for open pore and approximately 180 mF.cm-2 for narrow 30-to-36-nm diameter PPy nanotube arrays attributed to intensive faradic processes arising from enhanced access of electrolyte ions through nanotube interior and exterior. Impedance spectroscopy studies show that capacitive response extends over larger frequency domain in electrodes with PPy nanotube structure. Simulation of Nyquist plots by electrical equivalent circuit modeling establishes that 3-D nanostructure is better represented by constant phase element which accounts for the inhomogeneous electrochemical redox processes. Charge-discharge studies at different current densities establish that kinetics of the redox process in PPy nanotube electrode is due to the limitation on electron transport rather than the diffusive process of electrolyte ions. The PPy nanotube electrodes show deep discharge capability with high coulomb efficiency and long-term charge-discharge cyclic studies show nondegrading performance of the specific areal capacitance tested for 5,000 cycles.

  5. Vertically aligned ZnO nanorod core-polypyrrole conducting polymer sheath and nanotube arrays for electrochemical supercapacitor energy storage.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, Navjot Kaur; Rastogi, Alok C

    2014-01-01

    Nanocomposite electrodes having three-dimensional (3-D) nanoscale architecture comprising of vertically aligned ZnO nanorod array core-polypyrrole (PPy) conducting polymer sheath and the vertical PPy nanotube arrays have been investigated for supercapacitor energy storage. The electrodes in the ZnO nanorod core-PPy sheath structure are formed by preferential nucleation and deposition of PPy layer over hydrothermally synthesized vertical ZnO nanorod array by controlled pulsed current electropolymerization of pyrrole monomer under surfactant action. The vertical PPy nanotube arrays of different tube diameter are created by selective etching of the ZnO nanorod core in ammonia solution for different periods. Cyclic voltammetry studies show high areal-specific capacitance approximately 240 mF.cm(-2) for open pore and approximately 180 mF.cm(-2) for narrow 30-to-36-nm diameter PPy nanotube arrays attributed to intensive faradic processes arising from enhanced access of electrolyte ions through nanotube interior and exterior. Impedance spectroscopy studies show that capacitive response extends over larger frequency domain in electrodes with PPy nanotube structure. Simulation of Nyquist plots by electrical equivalent circuit modeling establishes that 3-D nanostructure is better represented by constant phase element which accounts for the inhomogeneous electrochemical redox processes. Charge-discharge studies at different current densities establish that kinetics of the redox process in PPy nanotube electrode is due to the limitation on electron transport rather than the diffusive process of electrolyte ions. The PPy nanotube electrodes show deep discharge capability with high coulomb efficiency and long-term charge-discharge cyclic studies show nondegrading performance of the specific areal capacitance tested for 5,000 cycles. PMID:25246867

  6. Island nucleation, optical and ferromagnetic properties of vertically aligned secondary growth ZnO : Cu nanorod arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jun; Zhu, Liping; Hu, Liang; Liu, Shijiang; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Honghai; Yang, Xiaopeng; Sun, Luwei; Li, Dehui; Ye, Zhizhen

    2012-02-01

    The paper reports an island nucleation and secondary growth of aligned ZnO : Cu nanorod arrays via thermal vapor phase transport. Results analysis indicates that the secondary segment is epitaxially grown on the ZnO : Cu nanorods with the radius strongly dependent on temperature and the concentration of zinc vapor. The modified characteristic radius (Rc) model is used to explain the nucleation and secondary growth process. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence spectra indicate that the band gap emission of the secondary growth nanorods is greatly restrained. A controversial 3.31 eV emission (A line) and two different donor-acceptor pair (DAP) recombinations at 3.24 eV and 2.48 eV are observed at 13 K. The A line shows a different behavior from the two DAP emissions during the heat-up process. Intrinsic room temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM) is observed in the secondary growth ZnO : Cu nanorods and it can be explained by oxygen vacancy and copper defects related to bound magnetic polar (BMP) or double exchange mechanism.The paper reports an island nucleation and secondary growth of aligned ZnO : Cu nanorod arrays via thermal vapor phase transport. Results analysis indicates that the secondary segment is epitaxially grown on the ZnO : Cu nanorods with the radius strongly dependent on temperature and the concentration of zinc vapor. The modified characteristic radius (Rc) model is used to explain the nucleation and secondary growth process. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence spectra indicate that the band gap emission of the secondary growth nanorods is greatly restrained. A controversial 3.31 eV emission (A line) and two different donor-acceptor pair (DAP) recombinations at 3.24 eV and 2.48 eV are observed at 13 K. The A line shows a different behavior from the two DAP emissions during the heat-up process. Intrinsic room temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM) is observed in the secondary growth ZnO : Cu nanorods and it can be explained by oxygen vacancy and copper

  7. Tragacanth gum biopolymer as reducing and stabilizing agent in biosonosynthesis of urchin-like ZnO nanorod arrays: A low cytotoxic photocatalyst with antibacterial and antifungal properties.

    PubMed

    Ghayempour, Soraya; Montazer, Majid; Mahmoudi Rad, Mahnaz

    2016-01-20

    Tragacanth, a natural gum, has been used for centuries as emulsifier, thickener, stabilizer and binder in various fields such as food, medical and cosmetic industries. In this study, Tragacanth gum was used as a clean and natural reducing and stabilizing agent for preparation of urchin-like ZnO nanorod arrays at low-temperature using ultrasonic irradiation. The morphology and structure of urchin-like ZnO nanorod arrays was investigated by XRD, FESEM images, EDX, UV-vis and FT-IR spectroscopy. The hexagonal zinc oxide nanorods were synthesized with the average diameter of 55-80 nm and length of 240 nm. The peak appeared in 447 cm(-1) in FTIR spectra and the peak around 362.3 nm in UV-vis spectra of ZnO nanorods confirmed the successful synthesis of ZnO nanorods. The urchin-like ZnO nanorod arrays indicated a good photocatalytic activity through degradation of methylene blue with 92.2% efficiency and rate constant of 0.0027 min(-1) at 120 min. Finally, the synthesized urchin-like ZnO nanorod arrays indicated 100% antibacterial activity against S. aureus and E. coli and 93% antifungal activity against C. albicans with a low cytotoxicity.

  8. Tragacanth gum biopolymer as reducing and stabilizing agent in biosonosynthesis of urchin-like ZnO nanorod arrays: A low cytotoxic photocatalyst with antibacterial and antifungal properties.

    PubMed

    Ghayempour, Soraya; Montazer, Majid; Mahmoudi Rad, Mahnaz

    2016-01-20

    Tragacanth, a natural gum, has been used for centuries as emulsifier, thickener, stabilizer and binder in various fields such as food, medical and cosmetic industries. In this study, Tragacanth gum was used as a clean and natural reducing and stabilizing agent for preparation of urchin-like ZnO nanorod arrays at low-temperature using ultrasonic irradiation. The morphology and structure of urchin-like ZnO nanorod arrays was investigated by XRD, FESEM images, EDX, UV-vis and FT-IR spectroscopy. The hexagonal zinc oxide nanorods were synthesized with the average diameter of 55-80 nm and length of 240 nm. The peak appeared in 447 cm(-1) in FTIR spectra and the peak around 362.3 nm in UV-vis spectra of ZnO nanorods confirmed the successful synthesis of ZnO nanorods. The urchin-like ZnO nanorod arrays indicated a good photocatalytic activity through degradation of methylene blue with 92.2% efficiency and rate constant of 0.0027 min(-1) at 120 min. Finally, the synthesized urchin-like ZnO nanorod arrays indicated 100% antibacterial activity against S. aureus and E. coli and 93% antifungal activity against C. albicans with a low cytotoxicity. PMID:26572351

  9. ZnO nanorod array polydimethylsiloxane composite solid phase micro-extraction fiber coating: fabrication and extraction capability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Wang, Qingtang; Zhang, Zhuomin; Chen, Guonan

    2012-01-21

    ZnO nanorod array coating is a novel kind of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber coating which shows good extraction capability due to the nanostructure. To prepare the composite coating is a good way to improve the extraction capability. In this paper, the ZnO nanorod array polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite SPME fiber coating has been prepared and its extraction capability for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has been studied by headspace sampling the typical volatile mixed standard solution of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX). Improved detection limit and good linear ranges have been achieved for this composite SPME fiber coating. Also, it is found that the composite SPME fiber coating shows good extraction selectivity to the VOCs with alkane radicals.

  10. Plasmon enhanced fluorescence studies from aligned gold nanorod arrays modified with SiO{sub 2} spacer layers

    SciTech Connect

    Damm, Signe; Fedele, Stefano; Rice, James H.; Murphy, Antony; Holsgrove, Kristina; Arredondo, Miryam; Pollard, Robert; Barry, James N.; Dowling, Denis P.

    2015-05-04

    Here, we demonstrate that quasi self-standing Au nanorod arrays prepared with plasma polymerisation deposited SiO{sub 2} dielectric spacers support surface enhanced fluorescence (SEF) while maintaining high signal reproducibility. We show that it is possible to find a balance between enhanced radiative and non-radiative decay rates at which the fluorescent intensity is maximized. The SEF signal optimised with a 30 nm spacer layer thickness showed a 3.5-fold enhancement with a signal variance of <15% thereby keeping the integrity of the nanorod array. We also demonstrate the decreased importance of obtaining resonance conditions when localized surface plasmon resonance is positioned within the spectral region of Au interband transitions. Procedures for further increasing the SEF enhancement factor are also discussed.

  11. Surface-roughness-assisted formation of large-scale vertically aligned CdS nanorod arrays via solvothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Minmin; Yan, Shancheng; Shi, Yi; Yang, Meng; Sun, Huabin; Wang, Jianyu; Yin, Yao; Gao, Fan

    2013-05-01

    Large-scale cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanorod arrays were successfully synthesized on several different substrates through solvothermal reaction. During the growth experiments, we observed that the adhesion strength of the CdS nanorod arrays to different substrates differed dramatically, causing some of the CdS coating being easily flushed away by deionized water (DI water). With doubts and suspicions, we seriously investigate the original morphology of all the substrates by using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The phase, morphology, crystal structure and photoelectric property of all the products were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy and current-voltage (I-V) probe station. The growth mechanism of solvothermal reaction was proposed on the basis of all the characterizations. Our approach presents a universal method of liquid phase epitaxy of 1D material on a wide range of substrates of any shape.

  12. Plasmon-enhanced Electrically Light-emitting from ZnO Nanorod Arrays/p-GaN Heterostructure Devices

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Junfeng; Shi, Zengliang; Wang, Yueyue; Lin, Yi; Zhu, Qiuxiang; Tian, Zhengshan; Dai, Jun; Wang, Shufeng; Xu, Chunxiang

    2016-01-01

    Effective and bright light-emitting-diodes (LEDs) have attracted broad interests in fundamental research and industrial application, especially on short wavelength LEDs. In this paper, a well aligned ZnO nanorod arrays grown on the p-GaN substrate to form a heterostructured light-emitting diode and Al nanoparticles (NPs) were decorated to improve the electroluminescence performance. More than 30-folds enhancement of the electroluminescence intensity was obtained compared with the device without Al NPs decoration. The investigation on the stable and transient photoluminescence spectraof the ZnO nanorod arrays before and after Al NPs decoration demonstrated that the metal surface plasmon resonance coupling with excitons of ZnO leads to the enhancement of the internal quantum efficiency (IQE). Our results provide aneffective approach to design novel optoelectronic devices such as light-emitting diodes and plasmonic nanolasers. PMID:27181337

  13. Strong photonic crystal behavior in regular arrays of core-shell and quantum disc InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Lewins, C. J. Le Boulbar, E. D.; Lis, S. M.; Shields, P. A.; Allsopp, D. W. E.; Edwards, P. R.; Martin, R. W.

    2014-07-28

    We show that arrays of emissive nanorod structures can exhibit strong photonic crystal behavior, via observations of the far-field luminescence from core-shell and quantum disc InGaN/GaN nanorods. The conditions needed for the formation of directional Bloch modes characteristic of strong photonic behavior are found to depend critically upon the vertical shape of the nanorod sidewalls. Index guiding by a region of lower volume-averaged refractive index near the base of the nanorods creates a quasi-suspended photonic crystal slab at the top of the nanorods which supports Bloch modes. Only diffractive behavior could be observed without this region. Slab waveguide modelling of the vertical structure shows that the behavioral regime of the emissive nanorod arrays depends strongly upon the optical coupling between the nanorod region and the planar layers below. The controlled crossover between the two regimes of photonic crystal operation enables the design of photonic nanorod structures formed on planar substrates that exploit either behavior depending on device requirements.

  14. LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanorod arrays: A potential three-dimensional cathode for lithium-ion microbatteries

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Xiao; Lin, Binghui; Ge, Yong; Ge, Yao; Lu, Changjie; Savilov, Serguei V.; Aldoshin, Serguei M.; Xia, Hui

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Self-supported LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanorod arrays are prepared on the Pt substrates. • LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanorod array cathode exhibits a large areal capacity of 0.25 mAh cm{sup −2}. • LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanorod array cathode exhibits good cycle performance and rate capability. • LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanorod arrays are potential cathodes for 3D microbatteries. - Abstract: Although three-dimensional (3D) microbatteries represent great advantage compared to their two-dimensional counterparts, the fabrication of 3D cathode is still a challenge, which holds back the further development of 3D microbatteries. In this work, we present a novel approach for fabrication of LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanorod arrays as 3D cathode for microbatteries. α-MnO{sub 2} nanotube arrays are firstly grown on the Pt substrate as the template, and LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanorod arrays are then prepared by lithiation of α-MnO{sub 2} nanotube arrays in molten salt followed by 800 °C annealing in air. In the half cell test, the 3D LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanorod arrays exhibit both high gravimetric capacity (∼130 mAh g{sup −1}) and areal capacity (∼0.25 mAh cm{sup −2}), while maintaining good cycling stability and rate capability. The facile synthesis and superior electrochemical performance of the three-dimensional LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cathode make it promising for application in microbatteries.

  15. Structure and magnetic properties of three-dimensional (La,Sr)MnO{sub 3} nanofilms on ZnO nanorod arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Haiyong; Gao Puxian; Shimpi, Paresh; Guo Yanbing; Cai Wenjie; Lin Huijan; Staruch, M.; Jain, Menka

    2011-03-21

    Three-dimensional (3D) cubic perovskite (La,Sr)MnO{sub 3} (LSMO) nanofilms have been deposited on ZnO nanorod arrays with controlled dimensionality and crystallinity by radio frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering and post thermal annealing. Compared to the two-dimensional (2D) LSMO nanofilm on flat Si, the structure and magnetic properties of 3D LSMO nanofilms on ZnO nanorod arrays have a strong anisotropic morphology and thickness dependence. Ferromagnetic property has been observed in both 2D and 3D LSMO nanofilms while a ferromagnetic-superparamagnetic transition was revaled in 3D LSMO nanofilms on ZnO nanorod array with decreasing nanofilm thickness, due to a large surface dispersion effect. The LSMO/ZnO nanofilm/nanorod structures could open up new avenues for intriguing magnetic properties studies and applications of nanoscale perovskites.

  16. Photodeposition of Ag2S on TiO2 nanorod arrays for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Ag2S quantum dots were deposited on the surface of TiO2 nanorod arrays by a two-step photodeposition. The prepared TiO2 nanorod arrays as well as the Ag2S deposited electrodes were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, and transmission electron microscope, suggesting a large coverage of Ag2S quantum dots on the ordered TiO2 nanorod arrays. UV–vis absorption spectra of Ag2S deposited electrodes show a broad absorption range of the visible light. The quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) based on these electrodes were fabricated, and the photoelectrochemical properties were examined. A high photocurrent density of 10.25 mA/cm2 with a conversion efficiency of 0.98% at AM 1.5 solar light of 100 mW/cm2 was obtained with an optimal photodeposition time. The performance of the QDSSC at different incident light intensities was also investigated. The results display a better performance at a lower incident light level with a conversion efficiency of 1.25% at 47 mW/cm2. PMID:23286551

  17. Dense arrays of cobalt nanorods as rare-earth free permanent magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anagnostopoulou, E.; Grindi, B.; Lacroix, L.-M.; Ott, F.; Panagiotopoulos, I.; Viau, G.

    2016-02-01

    allowed a quantitative assessment of the (BH)max values. The highest (BH)max of 165 kJ m-3 was obtained for a sample combining a high magnetic volume fraction and a very large M(H) loop squareness. This study shows that this bottom-up approach is very promising to get new hard magnetic materials that can compete in the permanent magnet panorama and fill the gap between the ferrites and the NdFeB magnets. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Transmission electron microscopy images of the cobalt nanorods; thermogravimetric analysis of a dense array of cobalt nanorods; Table S1 details on the rod washing and alignment procedure. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr07143g

  18. Effect of thermal implying during ageing process of nanorods growth on the properties of zinc oxide nanorod arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, A. S.; Mamat, M. H.; Malek, M. F.; Abdullah, M. A. R.; Sin, M. D.; Rusop, M.

    2016-07-01

    Undoped and Sn-doped Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures have been fabricated using a simple sol-gel immersion method at 95°C of growth temperature. Thermal sourced by hot plate stirrer was supplied to the solution during ageing process of nanorods growth. The results showed significant decrement in the quality of layer produced after the immersion process where the conductivity and porosity of the samples reduced significantly due to the thermal appliance. The structural properties of the samples have been characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) electrical properties has been characterized using current voltage (I-V) measurement.

  19. General Route to ZnO Nanorod Arrays on Conducting Substrates via Galvanic-cell-based approach

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhaoke; Lim, Zhi Shiuh; Peng, Yuan; You, Lu; Chen, Lang; Wang, Junling

    2013-01-01

    Wurtzite ZnO nanorod exhibits many unique properties, which make it promising for various optoelectronic applications. To grow well-aligned ZnO nanorod arrays on various substrates, a seed layer is usually required to improve the density and vertical alignment. The reported works about seedless hydrothermal synthesis either require special substrates, or require external electrical field to enhance the ZnO nucleation. Here, we report a general method for the one-pot synthesis of homogenous and well-aligned ZnO nanorods on common conducting substrates without a seed layer. This method, based on the galvanic-cell structure, makes use of the contact potential between different materials as the driving force for ZnO growth. It is applicable to different conducting substrates at low temperature. More importantly, the as-grown ZnO nanorods show enhanced photoelectric response. This unique large scale low-temperature processing method could be of great importance for the application of ZnO nanostructures. PMID:23942316

  20. General route to ZnO nanorod arrays on conducting substrates via galvanic-cell-based approach.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhaoke; Lim, Zhi Shiuh; Peng, Yuan; You, Lu; Chen, Lang; Wang, Junling

    2013-01-01

    Wurtzite ZnO nanorod exhibits many unique properties, which make it promising for various optoelectronic applications. To grow well-aligned ZnO nanorod arrays on various substrates, a seed layer is usually required to improve the density and vertical alignment. The reported works about seedless hydrothermal synthesis either require special substrates, or require external electrical field to enhance the ZnO nucleation. Here, we report a general method for the one-pot synthesis of homogenous and well-aligned ZnO nanorods on common conducting substrates without a seed layer. This method, based on the galvanic-cell structure, makes use of the contact potential between different materials as the driving force for ZnO growth. It is applicable to different conducting substrates at low temperature. More importantly, the as-grown ZnO nanorods show enhanced photoelectric response. This unique large scale low-temperature processing method could be of great importance for the application of ZnO nanostructures.

  1. General Route to ZnO Nanorod Arrays on Conducting Substrates via Galvanic-cell-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zhaoke; Lim, Zhi Shiuh; Peng, Yuan; You, Lu; Chen, Lang; Wang, Junling

    2013-08-01

    Wurtzite ZnO nanorod exhibits many unique properties, which make it promising for various optoelectronic applications. To grow well-aligned ZnO nanorod arrays on various substrates, a seed layer is usually required to improve the density and vertical alignment. The reported works about seedless hydrothermal synthesis either require special substrates, or require external electrical field to enhance the ZnO nucleation. Here, we report a general method for the one-pot synthesis of homogenous and well-aligned ZnO nanorods on common conducting substrates without a seed layer. This method, based on the galvanic-cell structure, makes use of the contact potential between different materials as the driving force for ZnO growth. It is applicable to different conducting substrates at low temperature. More importantly, the as-grown ZnO nanorods show enhanced photoelectric response. This unique large scale low-temperature processing method could be of great importance for the application of ZnO nanostructures.

  2. Enhanced piezoelectric properties of vertically aligned single-crystalline NKN nano-rod arrays.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min-Gyu; Oh, Seung-Min; Jung, Woo-Suk; Moon, Hi Gyu; Baek, Seung-Hyub; Nahm, Sahn; Yoon, Seok-Jin; Kang, Chong-Yun

    2015-05-08

    Piezoelectric materials capable of converting between mechanical and electrical energy have a great range of potential applications in micro- and nano-scale smart devices; however, their performance tends to be greatly degraded when reduced to a thin film due to the large clamping force by the substrate and surrounding materials. Herein, we report an effective method for synthesizing isolated piezoelectric nano-materials as means to relax the clamping force and recover original piezoelectric properties of the materials. Using this, environmentally friendly single-crystalline NaxK1-xNbO3 (NKN) piezoelectric nano-rod arrays were successfully synthesized by conventional pulsed-laser deposition and demonstrated to have a remarkably enhanced piezoelectric performance. The shape of the nano-structure was also found to be easily manipulated by varying the energy conditions of the physical vapor. We anticipate that this work will provide a way to produce piezoelectric micro- and nano-devices suitable for practical application, and in doing so, open a new path for the development of complex metal-oxide nano-structures.

  3. Controllable synthesis of branched hierarchical ZnO nanorod arrays for highly sensitive hydrazine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jie; Zhao, Zhenting; Sun, Yongjiao; Wang, Ying; Li, Pengwei; Zhang, Wendong; Lian, Kun

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, three different kinds of ZnO nanostructures were successfully synthesized on Au/Glass (Au/G) substrate by electrochemical deposition method. The morphology and crystalline structures of the obtained samples were characterized using SEM, XRD and HRTEM. Electrochemical responses of the as-prepared ZnO based sensors to hydrazine in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (PBS, pH 7.4) were analyzed by cyclic voltammetry and single-potential amperometry. The results confirmed that the electrochemical performances of ZnO sensors are strongly dependent on the specific surface area. Especially, the branched hierarchical ZnO nanorod arrays shows the highest sensitivity of 5.35 μA μM-1 cm-2, a short response time of 3 s, a low detection limit of 0.08 μM with a linear hydrazine concentration response range from 0.8 μM to 101 μM, and it also exhibits excellent anti-interference, stability and reproducibility abilities, which provide great potential method of ZnO branched hierarchical structures in the development of high-performance electrochemical sensor.

  4. Gigahertz Acoustic Vibrations of Elastically Anisotropic Indium-Tin-Oxide Nanorod Arrays.

    PubMed

    Guo, Peijun; Schaller, Richard D; Ocola, Leonidas E; Ketterson, John B; Chang, Robert P H

    2016-09-14

    Active control of light is important for photonic integrated circuits, optical switches, and telecommunications. Coupling light with acoustic vibrations in nanoscale optical resonators offers optical modulation capabilities with high bandwidth and small footprint. Instead of using noble metals, here we introduce indium-tin-oxide nanorod arrays (ITO-NRAs) as the operating media and demonstrate optical modulation covering the visible spectral range (from 360 to 700 nm) with ∼20 GHz bandwidth through the excitation of coherent acoustic vibrations in ITO-NRAs. This broadband modulation results from the collective optical diffraction by the dielectric ITO-NRAs, and a high differential transmission modulation up to 10% is achieved through efficient near-infrared, on-plasmon-resonance pumping. By combining the frequency signatures of the vibrational modes with finite-element simulations, we further determine the anisotropic elastic constants for single-crystalline ITO, which are not known for the bulk phase. This technique to determine elastic constants using coherent acoustic vibrations of uniform nanostructures can be generalized to the study of other inorganic materials.

  5. Gigahertz Acoustic Vibrations of Elastically Anisotropic Indium-Tin-Oxide Nanorod Arrays.

    PubMed

    Guo, Peijun; Schaller, Richard D; Ocola, Leonidas E; Ketterson, John B; Chang, Robert P H

    2016-09-14

    Active control of light is important for photonic integrated circuits, optical switches, and telecommunications. Coupling light with acoustic vibrations in nanoscale optical resonators offers optical modulation capabilities with high bandwidth and small footprint. Instead of using noble metals, here we introduce indium-tin-oxide nanorod arrays (ITO-NRAs) as the operating media and demonstrate optical modulation covering the visible spectral range (from 360 to 700 nm) with ∼20 GHz bandwidth through the excitation of coherent acoustic vibrations in ITO-NRAs. This broadband modulation results from the collective optical diffraction by the dielectric ITO-NRAs, and a high differential transmission modulation up to 10% is achieved through efficient near-infrared, on-plasmon-resonance pumping. By combining the frequency signatures of the vibrational modes with finite-element simulations, we further determine the anisotropic elastic constants for single-crystalline ITO, which are not known for the bulk phase. This technique to determine elastic constants using coherent acoustic vibrations of uniform nanostructures can be generalized to the study of other inorganic materials. PMID:27526053

  6. Enhanced piezoelectric properties of vertically aligned single-crystalline NKN nano-rod arrays

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Min-Gyu; Oh, Seung-Min; Jung, Woo-Suk; Gyu Moon, Hi; Baek, Seung-Hyub; Nahm, Sahn; Yoon, Seok-Jin; Kang, Chong-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Piezoelectric materials capable of converting between mechanical and electrical energy have a great range of potential applications in micro- and nano-scale smart devices; however, their performance tends to be greatly degraded when reduced to a thin film due to the large clamping force by the substrate and surrounding materials. Herein, we report an effective method for synthesizing isolated piezoelectric nano-materials as means to relax the clamping force and recover original piezoelectric properties of the materials. Using this, environmentally friendly single-crystalline NaxK1-xNbO3 (NKN) piezoelectric nano-rod arrays were successfully synthesized by conventional pulsed-laser deposition and demonstrated to have a remarkably enhanced piezoelectric performance. The shape of the nano-structure was also found to be easily manipulated by varying the energy conditions of the physical vapor. We anticipate that this work will provide a way to produce piezoelectric micro- and nano-devices suitable for practical application, and in doing so, open a new path for the development of complex metal-oxide nano-structures. PMID:25955763

  7. Synthesis and electrochemical capacitance of long tungsten oxide nanorod arrays grown vertically on substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sun Hwa; Kim, Young Heon; Lee, Tae Geol; Shon, Hyun Kyong; Park, Hyun Min; Song, Jae Yong

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: ► Growth of long amorphous tungsten oxide nanorods on a substrate. ► Formation of single-crystalline tungsten oxide nanorods by a heat-treatment. ► High electrochemical pseudocapacitance of 2.8 mF cm{sup −2}. ► Excellent cyclability of psuedocapacitance up to 1000 cycles. -- Abstract: Long tungsten oxide nanorods are vertically grown on Al/W/Ti coated silicon substrates using a two-step anodization process. The first anodization of the Al film forms a mesh-like mask of anodic aluminum oxide, and the second anodization of the W film results in the formation of a buffer layer, a bottom nanorod, and a top nanorod of amorphous tungsten oxide. A pore-widening process prior to the second anodization leads to the enhancement of nanorod length above approximately 500 nm. After a heat-treatment, the tungsten oxide nanorods are crystallized to form a single crystalline structure while the buffer layer forms a polycrystalline structure. The crystalline tungsten oxide nanorods show a cyclic voltammogram retaining the quasi-rectangular shape of an electrochemically reversible faradaic redox reaction, i.e., a typical pseudocapacitive behavior. The maximum electrochemical capacitance per apparent surface area reaches approximately 2.8 mF cm{sup −2} at the voltage scan rate of 20 mV s{sup −1}, and the excellent cyclability of charge–discharge process is maintained up to 1000 cycles.

  8. UV light sensing properties of Sm doped vertically aligned ZnO nanorod arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, D. Ranjith; Ranjith, K. S.; Rajendrakumar, R. T.

    2015-06-24

    Samarium doped ZnO nanorods were grown on silicon substrate by using vapor phase transport method (VPT) with the growth temperature of 950°C. The synthesized nanorods were characterized by XRD, field emission scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectra, and photocurrent measurements. The XRD result revealed that Sm was successfully doped into lattice plane of hexagonal ZnO nanorods. The FESEM result confirms the pure ZnO has nanorod like morphology with an average diameter and length of 130nm and 10µm respectively. The above observation is supported by the Micro-Raman spectroscopy result. The photocurrent in the visible region has been significantly enhanced due to deposition of Sm on the surface of the ZnO nanorods. Sm acts as a visible sensitizer because of its lower band gap compared to ZnO.

  9. Influence of TiO2 Nanorod Arrays on the Bilayered Photoanode for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Ya; Li, Zhen; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Tao; Li, Yinchang; Liu, Xueqin; Li, Fei

    2016-10-01

    A TiO2 bilayered structure consisting of TiO2 nanoparticles (TiO2NP) as an overlayer and single-crystal rutile TiO2 nanorods (TiO2 NRs) as an underlayer on a transparent conductive fluorine-doped tin oxide substrate was designed as the photoanode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) through a facile hydrothermal treatment followed by a doctor-blade method. DSSCs based on the hierarchical TiO2 nano-architecture photoelectrode shows a power conversion efficiency of 7.39% because the relatively large specific surface area of TiO2NP increased the dye absorption, and oriented one-dimensional TiO2 NRs enhanced the light harvesting capability, accelerating interfacial electron transport. In particular, we observed the growth morphology of the TiO2 nanorod arrays in the bilayered photoanode and the influence of the whole solar cell. The result indicated that the TiO2 NRs layer clearly impacted the photoelectron chemical properties, while the vertical and intensive nanorod arrays significantly increased their performance.

  10. Well-Aligned Arrays of Vertically Oriented ZnO Nanorod Films for Photocatalytic Degradation of Textile Dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasr-Esfahani, Mojtaba; Nekoubin, Amin

    2011-05-01

    Well-aligned hexagonal ZnO nanorods arrays were synthesized via mild hydrothermal method under different conditions. A two-step approach was employed for the epitaxial growth of ZnO. First a ZnO seed layer was prepared by spin-coating process and then ZnO nanorods were deposited on it. The influences of growth time on the surface morphology, length, diameters and phase structure of ZnO rods films were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The photocatalytic degradation of X6G an anionic monoazo dye, in aqueous solutions, was investigated and the effects of hydrothermal process time were examined. The results showed that the ZnO nonorods film hydrothermal treated for 4 h have a very high photocatalytic performance.

  11. Constructing n-ZnO@Au heterogeneous nanorod arrays on p-Si substrate as efficient photocathode for water splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Zhijia; Xu, Xiaoyong; Zhou, Gang; Hu, Jingguo

    2016-07-01

    Developing ingenious heterostructure photoelectrodes in photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells to both harvest more solar photons and steer desired charge separation flow is a prerequisite challenge for PEC water splitting. Herein a hierarchical p-Si/n-ZnO@Au heterostructure was constructed via large-area growth of one-dimensional (1D) ZnO nanorod arrays (NRAs) on p-Si substrate followed by decorating with Au nanoparticles (NPs), which exhibited remarkably improved photocathode activity for PEC water splitting relative to the bare Si and Si/ZnO NRAs photocathodes. In addition to structural superiorities of 1D NRAs, a series of dynamic contributions from complementary band-gap structure, p–n heterojunctions and Au plasmon towards photon harvesting and charge separation were demonstrated to ensure a well-steered collection of photoelectrons at the exposed ZnO nanorods and Au NPs, enabling substantially improved photocathode performance.

  12. Constructing n-ZnO@Au heterogeneous nanorod arrays on p-Si substrate as efficient photocathode for water splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Zhijia; Xu, Xiaoyong; Zhou, Gang; Hu, Jingguo

    2016-07-01

    Developing ingenious heterostructure photoelectrodes in photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells to both harvest more solar photons and steer desired charge separation flow is a prerequisite challenge for PEC water splitting. Herein a hierarchical p-Si/n-ZnO@Au heterostructure was constructed via large-area growth of one-dimensional (1D) ZnO nanorod arrays (NRAs) on p-Si substrate followed by decorating with Au nanoparticles (NPs), which exhibited remarkably improved photocathode activity for PEC water splitting relative to the bare Si and Si/ZnO NRAs photocathodes. In addition to structural superiorities of 1D NRAs, a series of dynamic contributions from complementary band-gap structure, p-n heterojunctions and Au plasmon towards photon harvesting and charge separation were demonstrated to ensure a well-steered collection of photoelectrons at the exposed ZnO nanorods and Au NPs, enabling substantially improved photocathode performance.

  13. Combining 3-D plasmonic gold nanorod arrays with colloidal nanoparticles as a versatile concept for reliable, sensitive, and selective molecular detection by SERS.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Mehmet; Senlik, Erhan; Biskin, Erhan; Yavuz, Mustafa Selman; Tamer, Ugur; Demirel, Gokhan

    2014-03-28

    The detection of molecules at an ultralow level by Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) has recently attracted enormous interest for various applications especially in biological, medical, and environmental fields. Despite the significant progress, SERS systems are still facing challenges for practical applications related to their sensitivity, reliability, and selectivity. To overcome these limitations, in this study, we have proposed a simple yet facile concept by combining 3-D anisotropic gold nanorod arrays with colloidal gold nanoparticles having different shapes for highly reliable, selective, and sensitive detection of some hazardous chemical and biological warfare agents in trace amounts through SERS. The gold nanorod arrays were created on the BK7 glass slides or silicon wafer surfaces via the oblique angle deposition (OAD) technique without using any template material or lithography technique and their surface densities were adjusted by manipulating the deposition angle (α). It is found that gold nanorod arrays fabricated at α = 10° exhibited the highest SERS enhancement in the absence of colloidal gold nanoparticles. Synergetic enhancement was obviously observed in SERS signals when combining gold nanorod arrays with colloidal gold nanoparticles having different shapes (i.e., spherical, rod, and cage). Due to their ability to produce localized surface plasmons (LSPs) in transverse and longitudinal directions, utilization of colloidal gold nanorods as a synergetic agent led to an increase in the enhancement factor by about tenfold compared to plain gold nanorod arrays. Moreover, we have tested our approach to detect some chemical and biological toxins namely dipicolinic acid (DIP), methyl parathion (MP), and diethyl phosphoramidate (DP). For all toxins, Raman spectra with high signal-to-noise ratios and reproducibility were successfully obtained over a broad concentration range (5 ppm-10 ppb). Our results suggest that the slightly tangled and

  14. Controllable hydrothermal synthesis of rutile TiO{sub 2} hollow nanorod arrays on TiCl{sub 4} pretreated Ti foil for DSSC application

    SciTech Connect

    Xi, Min; Zhang, Yulan; Long, Lizhen; Li, Xinjun

    2014-11-15

    Rutile TiO{sub 2} nanorod arrays (TNRs) were achieved by hydrothermal process on TiCl{sub 4} pretreated Ti foil. Subsequently, TNRs were hydrothermally etched in HCl solution to form hollow TiO{sub 2} nanorod arrays (H-TNRs). The TiCl{sub 4} pretreatment plays key roles in enhancement of Ti foil corrosion resistance ability and crystal nucleation introduction for TNRs growth. TNRs with desired morphology can be obtained by controlling TiCl{sub 4} concentration and the amount of tetrabutyl titanate (TTB) accordingly. TNRs with the length of ∼1.5 μm and diameter of ∼200 nm, obtained on 0.15 M TiCl{sub 4} pretreated Ti foil with 0.6 mL TTB, exhibits relatively higher photocurrent. The increased pore volume of the H-TNRs has contributed to the increased surface area which is benefit for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC) application. And the 180 °C-H-TNRs photoanode obtained from the 0.15-TiCl{sub 4}-TNRs sample demonstrated 128.9% enhancement of photoelectric efficiency of DSSC compared to that of the original TNR photoanode. - Graphical abstract: Rutile hollow TiO{sub 2} nanorod array photoanode obtained from original TiO{sub 2} nanorod array photoanode by hydrothermal etching demonstrates enhanced photoelectric efficiency of DSSC. - Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} nanorods are prepared via hydrothermal process on TiCl{sub 4}-pretreated Ti foil. • Hollow TiO{sub 2} nanorods are obtained by hydrothermal etching of TiO{sub 2} nanorods. • TiCl{sub 4} pretreatment plays a key role in protecting Ti foil from chemical corrosion. • Hollow TiO{sub 2} nanorods photoanode shows enhanced photoelectric efficiency for DSSC.

  15. Cu-doped ZnO nanorod arrays: the effects of copper precursor and concentration.

    PubMed

    Babikier, Musbah; Wang, Dunbo; Wang, Jinzhong; Li, Qian; Sun, Jianming; Yan, Yuan; Yu, Qingjiang; Jiao, Shujie

    2014-01-01

    Cu-doped ZnO nanorods have been grown at 90°C for 90 min onto a quartz substrate pre-coated with a ZnO seed layer using a hydrothermal method. The influence of copper (Cu) precursor and concentration on the structural, morphological, and optical properties of ZnO nanorods was investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the nanorods grown are highly crystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure grown along the c-axis. The lattice strain is found to be compressive for all samples, where a minimum compressive strain of -0.114% was obtained when 1 at.% Cu was added from Cu(NO3)2. Scanning electron microscopy was used to investigate morphologies and the diameters of the grown nanorods. The morphological properties of the Cu-doped ZnO nanorods were influenced significantly by the presence of Cu impurities. Near-band edge (NBE) and a broad blue-green emission bands at around 378 and 545 nm, respectively, were observed in the photoluminescence spectra for all samples. The transmittance characteristics showed a slight increase in the visible range, where the total transmittance increased from approximately 80% for the nanorods doped with Cu(CH3COO)2 to approximately 90% for the nanorods that were doped with Cu(NO3)2.

  16. Synthesis of novel AuPd nanoparticles decorated one-dimensional ZnO nanorod arrays with enhanced photoelectrochemical water splitting activity.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yan; Zhang, Junlong; Ge, Lei; Han, Changcun; Qiu, Ping; Fang, Siman

    2016-12-01

    The vertically aligned one-dimensional (1D) ZnO nanorod arrays decorated with AuPd alloy nanoparticles have been synthesized with ZnO nanorod arrays as template via a mild hydrothermal method. In this work, the as-prepared AuPd/ZnO nanorod arrays demonstrated high light-harvesting efficiency. The microstructures, morphologies and chemical properties of the obtained AuPd/ZnO composite photocatalyst were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The photoelectrochemical (PEC) performances of as-obtained AuPd/ZnO nanorod arrays were examined, and the photocurrent density was up to 0.98mAcm(-2) at 0.787V versus Ag/AgCl, which was about 2.4 times higher than the pure ZnO sample. A possible photocatalytic mechanism of the AuPd/ZnO hybrid nanostructures under the simulated sunlight irradiation was proposed to guide further improvement of other desirable materials. According to the above experiment results, it can be clearly found that AuPd/ZnO composite nanorod arrays showed excellent PEC performance and had promising applications in the utilization of solar energy. PMID:27552423

  17. Directed Nanorod Assembly Using Block Copolymer-Based Supramolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorkelsson, Kari; Mastroianni, Alexander; Ercius, Peter; Xu, Ting

    2013-03-01

    Nanorods display many unique electrical, mechanical, and optical properties unavailable in traditional bulk materials, and are attractive building blocks toward functional materials. The collective properties of anisotropic building blocks often depend strongly on their spatial arrangements, interparticle ordering, and macroscopic alignment. We have systematically investigated the phase behavior of nanocomposites composed of nanorods and block copolymer (BCP)-based supramolecules forming spherical, cylindrical and lamellar morphologies. Initial exploration showed that the nanorods can be readily dispersed in polymeric matrix and the overall morphology of nanorod-containing supramolecular nanocomposite depends on the nanorod-polymer interactions, inter-rod interactions and entropy associated with polymer chain deformation. The energetic contributions from the components of the system can be tailored to disperse nanorods with control over inter-rod ordering and the alignment of nanorods within BCP microdomains. By varying the supramolecular morphology and composition, arrays, sheets, and interconnected networks of nanorods are demonstrated that may prove useful for fabrication of optically and electrically active nanodevices.

  18. Efficient fabrication of carbon nanotube micro tip arrays by tailoring cross-stacked carbon nanotube sheets.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yang; Liu, Peng; Zhu, Feng; Jiang, Kaili; Li, Qunqing; Fan, Shoushan

    2012-04-11

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) micro tip arrays with hairpin structures on patterned silicon wafers were efficiently fabricated by tailoring the cross-stacked CNT sheet with laser. A blade-like structure was formed at the laser-cut edges of the CNT sheet. CNT field emitters, pulled out from the end of the hairpin by an adhesive tape, can provide 150 μA intrinsic emission currents with low beam noise. The nice field emission is ascribed to the Joule-heating-induced desorption of the emitter surface by the hairpin structure, the high temperature annealing effect, and the surface morphology. The CNT emitters with hairpin structures will greatly promote the applications of CNTs in vacuum electronic devices and hold the promises to be used as the hot tips for thermochemical nanolithography. More CNT-based structures and devices can be fabricated on a large scale by this versatile method. PMID:22433000

  19. Dendritic Au/TiO2 nanorod arrays for visible-light driven photoelectrochemical water splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Fengli; Wang, Tuo; Lv, Rui; Zhang, Jijie; Zhang, Peng; Lu, Jianwei; Gong, Jinlong

    2013-09-01

    This paper describes the synthesis of TiO2 branched nanorod arrays (TiO2 BNRs) with plasmonic Au nanoparticles attached on the surface. Such Au/TiO2 BNR composites exhibit high photocatalytic activity in photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting. The unique structure of Au/TiO2 BNRs shows enhanced activity with a photocurrent of 0.125 mA cm-2 under visible light (>=420 nm) and 2.32 +/- 0.1 mA cm-2 under AM 1.5 G illumination (100 mW cm-2). The obtained photocurrent is comparable to the highest value ever reported. Furthermore, the Au/TiO2 BNRs achieve the highest efficiency of ~1.27% at a low bias of 0.50 V vs. RHE, indicating elevated charge separation and transportation efficiencies. The high PEC performance is mainly due to the plasmonic effect of Au nanoparticles, which enhances the visible light absorption, together with the large surface area, efficient charge separation and high carrier mobility of the TiO2 BNRs. The carrier density of Au/TiO2 BNRs is nearly 6 times higher than the pristine TiO2 BNRs as calculated by the Mott-Schottky plot. Based on the analysis by UV-Vis spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and photoluminescence, a mechanism was proposed to explain the high activity of Au/TiO2 BNRs in PEC water splitting. The capability of synthesizing highly visible light active Au/TiO2 BNR based photocatalysts is useful for solar conversion applications, such as PEC water splitting, dye-sensitized solar cells and photovoltaic devices.This paper describes the synthesis of TiO2 branched nanorod arrays (TiO2 BNRs) with plasmonic Au nanoparticles attached on the surface. Such Au/TiO2 BNR composites exhibit high photocatalytic activity in photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting. The unique structure of Au/TiO2 BNRs shows enhanced activity with a photocurrent of 0.125 mA cm-2 under visible light (>=420 nm) and 2.32 +/- 0.1 mA cm-2 under AM 1.5 G illumination (100 mW cm-2). The obtained photocurrent is comparable to the highest value ever

  20. Tuning of defects in ZnO nanorod arrays used in bulk heterojunction solar cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    With particular focus on bulk heterojunction solar cells incorporating ZnO nanorods, we study how different annealing environments (air or Zn environment) and temperatures impact on the photoluminescence response. Our work gives new insight into the complex defect landscape in ZnO, and it also shows how the different defect types can be manipulated. We have determined the emission wavelengths for the two main defects which make up the visible band, the oxygen vacancy emission wavelength at approximately 530 nm and the zinc vacancy emission wavelength at approximately 630 nm. The precise nature of the defect landscape in the bulk of the nanorods is found to be unimportant to photovoltaic cell performance although the surface structure is more critical. Annealing of the nanorods is optimum at 300°C as this is a sufficiently high temperature to decompose Zn(OH)2 formed at the surface of the nanorods during electrodeposition and sufficiently low to prevent ITO degradation. PMID:23186280

  1. Tunable Lattice Coupling of Multipole Plasmon Modes and Near-Field Enhancement in Closely Spaced Gold Nanorod Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yu; Zhang, Xian; Ringe, Emilie; Hou, Mengjing; Ma, Lingwei; Zhang, Zhengjun

    2016-01-01

    Considering the nanogap and lattice effects, there is an attractive structure in plasmonics: closely spaced metallic nanoarrays. In this work, we demonstrate experimentally and theoretically the lattice coupling of multipole plasmon modes for closely spaced gold nanorod arrays, offering a new insight into the higher order cavity modes coupled with each other in the lattice. The resonances can be greatly tuned by changes in inter-rod gaps and nanorod heights while the influence of the nanorod diameter is relatively insignificant. Experimentally, pronounced suppressions of the reflectance are observed. Meanwhile, the near-field enhancement can be further enhanced, as demonstrated through surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). We then confirm the correlation between the near-field and far-field plasmonic responses, which is significantly important for maximizing the near-field enhancement at a specific excitation wavelength. This lattice coupling of multipole plasmon modes is of broad interest not only for SERS but also for other plasmonic applications, such as subwavelength imaging or metamaterials. PMID:26983501

  2. CuInS2 quantum dot-sensitized TiO2 nanorod array photoelectrodes: synthesis and performance optimization

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    CuInS2 quantum dots (QDs) were deposited onto TiO2 nanorod arrays for different cycles by using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The effect of SILAR cycles on the light absorption and photoelectrochemical properties of the sensitized photoelectrodes was studied. With optimization of CuInS2 SILAR cycles and introduction of In2S3 buffer layer, quantum dot-sensitized solar cells assembled with 3-μm thick TiO2 nanorod film exhibited a short-circuit current density (Isc) of 4.51 mA cm−2, an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.56 V, a fill factor (FF) of 0.41, and a power conversion efficiency (η) of 1.06%, respectively. This study indicates that SILAR process is a very promising strategy for preparing directly anchored semiconductor QDs on TiO2 nanorod surface in a straightforward but controllable way without any complicated fabrication procedures and introduction of a linker molecule. PMID:23181940

  3. Highly Transparent and UV-Resistant Superhydrophobic SiO2-Coated ZnO Nanorod Arrays

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Highly transparent and UV-resistant superhydrophobic arrays of SiO2-coated ZnO nanorods are prepared in a sequence of low-temperature (<150 °C) steps on both glass and thin sheets of PET (2 × 2 in.2), and the superhydrophobic nanocomposite is shown to have minimal impact on solar cell device performance under AM1.5G illumination. Flexible plastics can serve as front cell and backing materials in the manufacture of flexible displays and solar cells. PMID:24495100

  4. ZnO nanorod-templated well-aligned ZrO2 nanotube arrays for fibroblast adhesion and proliferation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhisong; Zhu, Zhihong; Liu, Jinping; Hu, Weihua; Li, Chang Ming

    2014-05-01

    Cellular responses to porous tubular structures have recently been investigated in highly ordered ZrO2 nanotube arrays fabricated with anodization. However, the potential applications of the nanotube arrays are hindered by instrument requirements and substrate limitations, as well as by the complicated processes needed for synthesis. In this work, ZrO2 nanotube arrays were synthesized by in situ hydrolysis of zirconium propoxide with a zinc oxide nanorod array-based template. Fibroblast cells were able to grow on the nanotube array surface with produced elongated filopodia. Studies of the capability of cell growth and the expression of adhesion- and proliferation-related genes reveal that ZrO2 nanotube arrays may provide a better environment for cell adhesion and growth than a flat titanium surface. These findings not only provide fundamental insight into cell response to nanostructures but also provide an opportunity to use a unique approach to fabricate ZrO2 nanotube array structures for potential implant applications.

  5. Hydrothermal growth of TiO2 nanorod arrays and in situ conversion to nanotube arrays for highly efficient quantum dot-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui; Pan, Lei; Lim, Chiew Keat; Gong, Hua; Guo, Jun; Tse, Man Siu; Tan, Ooi Kiang

    2013-09-23

    TiO2 nanorod (NR) and nanotube (NT) arrays grown on transparent conductive substrates are attractive electrode for solar cells. In this paper, TiO2 NR arrays are hydrothermally grown on FTO substrate, and are in situ converted into NT arrays by hydrothermally etching. The TiO2 NR arrays are reported as single crystalline, but the TiO2 NR arrays are demonstrated to be polycrystalline with a bundle of 2-5 nm single crystalline nanocolumns grown along [001] throughout the whole NR from bottom to top. TiO2 NRs can be converted to NTs by hydrothermal selective etching of the (001) core and remaining the inert sidewall of (110) face. A growth mechanism of the NR and NT arrays is proposed. Quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs) are fabricated by coating CdSe QDs on to the TiO2 arrays. After conversion from NRs to NTs, more QDs can be filled in the NTs and the energy conversion efficiency of the QDSCs almost double.

  6. Direct growth of MnOOH nanorod arrays on a carbon cloth for high-performance non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide sensing.

    PubMed

    Xu, Weina; Liu, Jianlin; Wang, Mingjun; Chen, Lin; Wang, Xue; Hu, Chenguo

    2016-03-24

    Novel MnOOH nanorod arrays directly growing on a flexible carbon cloth substrate (MnOOH/CC) is first synthesized through a facile hydrothermal technique and utilized as an electrocatalyst for non-enzymatic detection of hydrogen peroxide. The as-prepared MnOOH nanorods are uniformly distributed on the carbon cloth with a 3D porous network structure, which provides a high specific surface area and numerous electroactive sites. The electrode based on the carbon cloth-supported MnOOH nanorod arrays exhibits a higher sensitivity (692.42 μA mM(-1) cm(-2)) and a wider linear range (20 μm-9.67 mM) with a detection limit of 3.2 μM (S/N = 3) compared with the electrode based on the rigid graphite substrate supported the random distributed MnOOH nanorods. Further, the MnOOH/CC possesses an outstanding flexibility and can conveniently be assembled into the required shape for a specific use, thus the arc-shaped MnOOH/CC electrodes are fabricated whose electrocatalytic activity toward the hydrogen peroxide reduction remains nearly unchanged in comparison with the unbent state. Due to its excellent sensitivity, reproducibility, anti-interference and stability, the electrode based on the carbon cloth-supported MnOOH nanorod arrays is believed to be promising for applications in high efficiency flexible hydrogen peroxide sensing.

  7. Copper-ion-assisted growth of gold nanorods in seed-mediated growth: significant narrowing of size distribution via tailoring reactivity of seeds.

    PubMed

    Wen, Tao; Hu, Zhijian; Liu, Wenqi; Zhang, Hui; Hou, Shuai; Hu, Xiaona; Wu, Xiaochun

    2012-12-18

    In the well-developed seed-mediated growth of gold nanorods (GNRs), adding the proper amount of Cu(2+) ions in the growth solution leads to significant narrowing in the size distribution of the resultant GNRs, especially for those with shorter aspect ratios (corresponding longitudinal surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) peaks shorter than 750 nm). Cu(2+) ions were found to be able to catalyze the oxidative etching of gold seeds by oxygen, thus mediating subsequent growth kinetics of the GNRs. At proper Cu(2+) concentrations, the size distribution of the original seeds is greatly narrowed via oxidative etching. The etched seeds are highly reactive and grow quickly into desired GNRs with significantly improved size distribution. A similar mechanism can be employed to tune the end cap of the GNRs. Except for copper ions, no observable catalytic effect is observed from other cations presumably due to their lower affinity to oxygen. Considering the widespread use of seed-mediated growth in the morphology-controlled synthesis of noble metal nanostructures, the tailoring in seed reactivity we presented herein could be extended to other systems. PMID:23173599

  8. Strongly coupled metal oxide nanorod arrays with graphene nanoribbons and nanosheets enable novel solid-state hybrid cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Junwu; Xi, Jiangbo; Xu, Yangyang; Yang, Shihe; Jin, Yunxia; Xiao, Fei; Wang, Shuai

    2015-06-01

    Electrochemical capacitors and rechargeable batteries are still limited in applications by the low energy and power densities they can deliver, respectively, holding back their deployment in electric vehicles. Here we develop a type of solid-state hybrid cells (SHCs) composed of graphene nanoribbons and nanosheets-coated metal oxide nanorod arrays ((MOx/GNR)@GNS). GNR and GNS are deposited on the surface of MOx nanorod arrays to improve the electron transport characteristic, and thus enhance the energy storage performance. The (MOx/GNR)@GNS-based SHCs can achieve a maximum volumetric energy density of 0.9 mWh cm-3, and still retain 0.4 mWh cm-3 even at 0.1 W cm-3. The energy storage performance is much better than the electrochemical capacitors reported previously, and can even rival the commercial Li thin-film battery but with a significantly higher power density, lower cost and higher safety. Also demonstrated is the good long-term cycle life with only ∼17% loss after 2500 cycles. These salient features make the (MOx/GNR)@GNS composites-based SHCs a strong contender for electrochemical energy storage.

  9. Effect of TiO2 blocking layer on TiO2 nanorod arrays based dye sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivakumar, R.; Paulraj, M.

    2016-05-01

    Highly ordered rutile titanium dioxide nanorod (TNR) arrays (1.2 to 6.2 μm thickness) were grown on TiO2 blocking layer chemically deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate and were used as photo-electrodes to fabricate dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC's). Homogeneous layer of TiO2 on FTO was achieved by using aqueous peroxo- titanium complex (PTC) solutions via chemical bath deposition. Structural and morphological properties of the prepared samples were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements. TNR arrays (6.2 μm) with TiO2 blocking layer showed higher energy conversion efficiency (1.46%) than that without TiO2 blocking layer. The reason can be ascertained to the suppression of electron-hole recombination at the semiconductor/electrolyte interface by the effect of TiO2 blocking layer.

  10. The use of PEEK nanorod arrays for the fabrication of nanoporous surfaces under high temperature: SiNx example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín, Jaime; Martín-González, Marisol

    2012-08-01

    Large area silicon nitride (SiNx) nanoporous surfaces are fabricated using poly(ether-ether-ketone) (PEEK) nanorod arrays as a template. The procedure involves manipulation of nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates in order to form an ordered array of PEEK nanopillars with high temperature resistant characteristics. In this context, self-ordered AAO templates are infiltrated with PEEK melts via the ``precursor film'' method. Once the melts have been crystallized in the porous structure of AAO, the basis alumina layer is removed, yielding an ordered array of PEEK nanopillars. The resulting structure is a high temperature and chemical resistant polymeric nanomold, which can be utilized in the synthesis of nanoporous materials under aggressive conditions. Such conditions are high temperatures (up to 320 °C), vacuum, or extreme pH. For example, SiNx nanopore arrays have been grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition at 300 °C, which can be of interest as mold for nanoimprint lithography, due to its hardness and low surface energy. The SiNx nanopore array portrays the same characteristics as the original AAO template: 120 nm diameter pores and an interpore distance of 430 nm. Furthermore, the aspect ratio of the SiNx nanopores can be tuned by selecting an AAO template with appropriate conditions. The use of PEEK as a nanotemplate extends the applicability of polymeric nanopatterns into a temperature regime up to now not accessible and opens up the simple fabrication of novel nanoporous inorganic surfaces.

  11. Synthesis and optical characteristics of yttrium-doped zinc oxide nanorod arrays grown by hydrothermal method.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyunggil; Kim, Younggyu; Ji, Iksoo; Lee, Sang-Heon; Kim, Jin Soo; Kim, Jin Soo; Leem, Jae-Young

    2014-11-01

    Yttrium-doped ZnO (YZO) nanorods were synthesized by hydrothermal growth on a quartz substrate with various post-annealing temperatures. To investigate the effects of post-annealing on the optical properties and parameters of the nanorods, X-ray diffractometry (XRD), photoluminescence (PL) measurement, and ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectroscopy were used. From the XRD investigation, the full width at half maximum (FWHM) and the dislocation density of the nanorods was found to increase with an increase in the post-annealing temperature. In the PL spectra, the intensity of the near band edge (NBE) emission peak in the UV region also increases with an increase in the temperature of post-annealing. The deep level emission (DLE) peak in the visible region changes with various post-annealing temperatures, and its intensity increases remarkably with post-annealing at 800 degrees C. In this paper, changes in the optical parameters of the nanorods caused by variation in the behavior of Y during post-annealing was investigated, with properties such as absorption coefficients, refractive indices, and dispersion parameters being obtained from transmittance and reflectance analysis.

  12. Highly efficient photometrics tailoring by means of optimized bell-shaped lens arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manca, Michele; Quercetti, Francesco; Gattari, Massimo; Cingolani, Roberto; Gigli, Giuseppe

    2008-09-01

    An innovative optical panel provided with an hexagonal array of refractive lenses having a properly optimized doublecurvature profile has been simulated by ray-tracing and fabricated by injection-moulding. Such lenses are constituted by a concave profile (having negative curvature radius) on their bottom and a convex profile (having positive curvature radius) on their top. We demonstrate that, if compared to refractive elements with conventional geometry, bell-shaped microlenses allow to collect incident rays within a wider angular range (so reducing the number of rays lost by TIR ) and to properly re-direct them. When installed on fluorescent tubes-based professional lighting systems, such refractive elements allow to reduce undesirable glare as prescribed by EN12464-1 Interior Lighting Design Standards and to finely control photometric outputs of luminaries. Besides, bell-shaped microlenses-based films were also simulated to be applied onto a bottom-emitting lambertian OLED. We demonstrate that, by properly tailoring both concave and convex profile shape, it is possible to increase the outcoupling efficiency, as well as the luminous flux emitted by the exit surface, by a factor up to 1.95 and, at the same time, to produce far-field photometric outputs characterized by uniform isocandela distribution maps with an aperture angle up to 60°.

  13. Tailoring magnetic properties in arrays of pulse-electrodeposited Co nanowires: The role of Cu additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmaeili, A.; Almasi Kashi, M.; Ramazani, A.; Montazer, A. H.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aim to report the role of Cu additive in arrays of pulse-electrodeposited Co nanowires (NWs) with diameters from 30 to 75 nm, embedded in porous aluminum oxide templates. This features the role of Cu additive in composition and crystalline characteristics as well as in the magnetic properties of Co NWs. Increasing the duration of off-time between pulses during the electrodeposition of Co NWs made it possible to increase the amount of Cu content, so that Co-rich CoCu NWs were obtained. The parallel coercivity and squareness values increased up to 1500 Oe and 0.8 for 30 nm diameter Co94Cu6 NWs, starting from 500 Oe and 0.3 for pure Co NWs. On the other hand, although there was a substantial difference between the crystalline characteristics of 75 nm diameter pure Co and CoCu NWs, no considerable change in their magnetic properties was observed using hysteresis loop measurements. In this respect, the first-order reversal curve (FORC) analysis revealed strong inter-wire magnetostatic interactions for the CoCu NWs. Moreover, we studied the effect of thermal annealing, which resulted in an increase in the coercivity of CoCu NWs with different diameters up to 15%. As a result, the addition of small amount of Cu provides an alternative approach to tailoring the magnetic properties of Co NWs.

  14. TiO2 Nanorod Array Constructed Nanotopography for Regulation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Fate and the Realization of Location-Committed Stem Cell Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jichuan; Li, Jianhua; Wang, Shu; Ma, Baojin; Zhang, Shan; Guo, Weibo; Zhang, Xiaodi; Tang, Wei; Sang, Yuanhua; Liu, Hong

    2016-04-01

    As a physical cue for controlling the fate of stem cells, surface nanotopography has attracted much attention to improve the integration between implants and local host tissues and cells. A biocompatible surface TiO2 nanorod array is proposed to regulate the fate of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). TiO2 substrates with different surface nanotopographies: a TiO2 nanorod array and a polished TiO2 ceramic are built by hydrothermal and sintering processes, respectively. The assessment of morphology, viability, gene expression, and protein characterization of the MSCs cultured on the different TiO2 substrates proves that a TiO2 nanorod array promotes the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs, while a TiO2 ceramic with a smooth surface suppresses it. Periodically assembled TiO2 nanorod array stripes on the smooth TiO2 ceramic are constructed by a combination of microfabrication and a chemical synthesis process, which realizes the location-committed osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. A route to control the differentiation of MSCs by a nanostructured surface, which can also control the location and direction of MSCs on the surface of biomaterials with micro-nano scale surface engineering, is demonstrated.

  15. Hydrogen treatment-improved uniform deposition of Ag nanoparticles on ZnO nanorod arrays and their visible-light photocatalytic and surface-enhanced Raman scattering properties

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    ZnO nanorod arrays were synthesized by chemical bath deposition. After heat treatment in hydrogen or air, Ag nanoparticles were deposited on ZnO nanorod arrays by photo-reduction method. The size of Ag nanoparticles as well as the surface morphology, structure, composition, and optical property of ZnO nanorod arrays before and after the deposition of Ag nanoparticles were characterized by SEM, XRD, EDS, and UV/VIS/NIR spectrophotometer. As compared to the samples with heat treatment in air or without heat treatment, the ZnO nanorod arrays after heat treatment in hydrogen allowed Ag nanoparticles to be deposited more uniformly, densely, and numerously. Also, they exhibited higher efficiency for the visible light-driven photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine 6G (R6G) dye. The effects of the amount of Ag nanoparticles, initial dye concentration, and temperature on the photocatalytic degradation efficiency were investigated. Furthermore, they also exhibited better surface-enhanced Raman scattering property for the detection of R6G dyes. PMID:23866904

  16. Fe2O3–TiO2 core–shell nanorod arrays for visible light photocatalytic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Kun; Basnet, Pradip; Sessions, Henry; Larsen, George K.; Murph, Simona E. Hunyadi; Zhao, Yiping

    2015-11-11

    By using the glancing angle deposition technique and post-deposition annealing, Fe2O3–TiO2 core-shell nanorod arrays with specific crystalline states can be designed and fabricated. The Fe2O3–TiO2 core-shell samples annealed at temperatures greater than 450°C formed α-Fe2O3 and anatase TiO2, and showed higher catalytic efficiency for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) under visible light illumination when compared with pure anatase TiO2 or α-Fe2O3 nanorod arrays. Solar conversion of carbon dioxide and water vapor in the presence of Fe2O3–TiO2 core-shell nanorod arrays was also investigated. Carbon monoxide, hydrogen, methane, and methanol along with other hydrocarbons were produced after only several hours’ exposure under ambient sunlight. It was determined that the core-shell structure showed greater efficiency for solar CO2 conversion than the pure TiO2 nanorod arrays.

  17. CdS nanorods/organic hybrid LED array and the piezo-phototronic effect of the device for pressure mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Rongrong; Wang, Chunfeng; Dong, Lin; Shen, Changyu; Zhao, Kun; Pan, Caofeng

    2016-04-01

    As widely applied in light-emitting diodes and optical devices, CdS has attracted the attention of many researchers due to its nonlinear properties and piezo-electronic effect. Here, we demonstrate a LED array composed of PEDOT:PSS and CdS nanorods and research the piezo-photonic effect of the array device. The emission intensity of the device depends on the electron-hole recombination at the interface of the p-n junction which can be adjusted using the piezo-phototronic effect and can be used to map the pressure applied on the surface of the device with spatial resolution as high as 1.5 μm. A flexible LED device array has been prepared using a CdS nanorod array on a Au/Cr/kapton substrate. This device may be used in the field of strain mapping using its high pressure spatial-resolution and flexibility.As widely applied in light-emitting diodes and optical devices, CdS has attracted the attention of many researchers due to its nonlinear properties and piezo-electronic effect. Here, we demonstrate a LED array composed of PEDOT:PSS and CdS nanorods and research the piezo-photonic effect of the array device. The emission intensity of the device depends on the electron-hole recombination at the interface of the p-n junction which can be adjusted using the piezo-phototronic effect and can be used to map the pressure applied on the surface of the device with spatial resolution as high as 1.5 μm. A flexible LED device array has been prepared using a CdS nanorod array on a Au/Cr/kapton substrate. This device may be used in the field of strain mapping using its high pressure spatial-resolution and flexibility. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr00431h

  18. Enhanced Bulk and Interfacial Charge Transfer Dynamics for Efficient Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting: The Case of Hematite Nanorod Arrays.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Feng, Bo; Su, Jinzhan; Guo, Liejin

    2016-09-01

    Charge transport in the bulk and across the semiconductor/electrolyte interface is one of the major issues that limits photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance in hematite photoelectrodes. Efficient charge transport in the entire hematite is of great importance to obtaining high photoelectrochemical properties. Herein, to reach this goal, we employed both TiO2 underlayer and overlayer deposition on hematite nanorod films, followed by a fast annealing treatment. The TiO2 underlayer and overlayer not only serve as dopant sources for carrier density increase but also reduce charge recombination at the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)/hematite interface and accelerate charge transfer across the hematite/electrolyte interface. This synergistic doping and interface modifying effects give rise to an enhanced photoelectrochemical water oxidation performance of hematite nanorod arrays, generating an impressive photocurrent density of 1.49 mA cm(-2) at 1.23 V vs RHE. This is the first report on using both underlayer and overlayer modification with the same material to improve charge transport through the entire electron transport path in hematite, which provides a novel way to manipulate charge transfer across the semiconductor interface for a high-performance photoelectrode. PMID:27508404

  19. High-Performance Self-powered Photodetectors Based on ZnO/ZnS Core-Shell Nanorod Arrays.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hailing; Wei, Lin; Wu, Cuncun; Chen, Yanxue; Yan, Shishen; Mei, Liangmo; Jiao, Jun

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, there is an urgent demand for high-performance ultraviolet photodetectors with high photosensitivity, fast responsivity, and excellent spectral selectivity. In this letter, we report a self-powered photoelectrochemical cell-type UV detector using the ZnO/ZnS core-shell nanorod array as the active photoanode and deionized water as the electrolyte. This photodetector demonstrates an excellent spectral selectivity and a rapid photoresponse time of about 0.04 s. And the maximum responsivity is more than 0.056 (A/W) at 340 nm, which shows an improvement of 180 % compared to detectors based on the bare ZnO nanorods. This improved photoresponsivity can be understood from the step-like band energy alignment of the ZnO/ZnS interface, which will accelerate the separation of photoexcited electron-hole pairs and improve the efficiency of the photodetector. Considering its uncomplicated low-cost fabrication process, and environment-friendly feature, this self-powered device is a promising candidate for UV detector application. PMID:27654280

  20. High-Performance Self-powered Photodetectors Based on ZnO/ZnS Core-Shell Nanorod Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hailing; Wei, Lin; Wu, Cuncun; Chen, Yanxue; Yan, Shishen; Mei, Liangmo; Jiao, Jun

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, there is an urgent demand for high-performance ultraviolet photodetectors with high photosensitivity, fast responsivity, and excellent spectral selectivity. In this letter, we report a self-powered photoelectrochemical cell-type UV detector using the ZnO/ZnS core-shell nanorod array as the active photoanode and deionized water as the electrolyte. This photodetector demonstrates an excellent spectral selectivity and a rapid photoresponse time of about 0.04 s. And the maximum responsivity is more than 0.056 (A/W) at 340 nm, which shows an improvement of 180 % compared to detectors based on the bare ZnO nanorods. This improved photoresponsivity can be understood from the step-like band energy alignment of the ZnO/ZnS interface, which will accelerate the separation of photoexcited electron-hole pairs and improve the efficiency of the photodetector. Considering its uncomplicated low-cost fabrication process, and environment-friendly feature, this self-powered device is a promising candidate for UV detector application.

  1. ZnO/Ag composite nanorod arrays for surface-plasmon-enhanced emission study

    SciTech Connect

    Pal, Anil Kumar E-mail: d.bharathimohan@gmail.com; Mohan, D. Bharathi E-mail: d.bharathimohan@gmail.com

    2014-04-24

    The surface plasmon resonance enhanced emission through coupling of surface plasmons and exciton band energies is studied in hybrid ZnO/Ag nanostructure. The catalytic growth of ZnO nanorods is controlled in seed mediated growth by altering size distribution of Ag nanoislands. X-ray diffraction shows a predominant (002) crystal plane confirming the preferential growth of ZnO nanorods on as-deposited Ag. Increase of surface roughness in Ag film by post deposition annealing process enhances the light emission due to momentum matching between surface plasmons and excitons as well as a red shift of 32 meV occurs due to multi phonon and phonon-exciton interaction.

  2. Low-temperature growth and characterization of single crystalline ZnO nanorod arrays using a catalyst-free inductively coupled plasma-metal organic chemical vapor deposition.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Sang-Hun; Lee, Chang-Bae; Moon, Won-Jin; Song, Ho-Jun

    2008-10-01

    Vertically aligned ZnO nanorod arrays have been synthesized on c-plane sapphires at a low temperature of 400 degrees C using catalyst-free inductively coupled plasma (ICP) metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique by varying the ICP powers. Diameters of the ZnO nanorods changed from 200 nm to 400 nm as the ICP power increased from 200 to 400 Watt. TEM and XRD investigations indicated that the ZnO nanorod arrays grown at ICP powers above 200 Watt had a homogeneous in-plane alignment and single crystalline nature. PL study at room temperature (RT) and 6 K confirmed that the ZnO nanorod arrays in the present study are of high optical quality as well as good crystalline quality, showing only exciton-related emission peaks without any trace of defect-related deep level emissions in visible range. The blueshift of exciton emission peak in RTPL spectra was also found as rod diameter decreased and it is deduced that this shift in emission energy may be due to the surface resonance effect resulted from the increased surface-to-volume ratio, based on the observation and behavior of the surface exciton (SX) emission in the high-resolution 6 K PL spectra. PMID:19198399

  3. Low-temperature growth and characterization of single crystalline ZnO nanorod arrays using a catalyst-free inductively coupled plasma-metal organic chemical vapor deposition.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Sang-Hun; Lee, Chang-Bae; Moon, Won-Jin; Song, Ho-Jun

    2008-10-01

    Vertically aligned ZnO nanorod arrays have been synthesized on c-plane sapphires at a low temperature of 400 degrees C using catalyst-free inductively coupled plasma (ICP) metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique by varying the ICP powers. Diameters of the ZnO nanorods changed from 200 nm to 400 nm as the ICP power increased from 200 to 400 Watt. TEM and XRD investigations indicated that the ZnO nanorod arrays grown at ICP powers above 200 Watt had a homogeneous in-plane alignment and single crystalline nature. PL study at room temperature (RT) and 6 K confirmed that the ZnO nanorod arrays in the present study are of high optical quality as well as good crystalline quality, showing only exciton-related emission peaks without any trace of defect-related deep level emissions in visible range. The blueshift of exciton emission peak in RTPL spectra was also found as rod diameter decreased and it is deduced that this shift in emission energy may be due to the surface resonance effect resulted from the increased surface-to-volume ratio, based on the observation and behavior of the surface exciton (SX) emission in the high-resolution 6 K PL spectra.

  4. Well-integrated ZnO nanorod arrays on conductive textiles by electrochemical synthesis and their physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Yeong Hwan; Kim, Myung Sub; Park, Wook; Yu, Jae Su

    2013-01-01

    We reported well-integrated zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod arrays (NRAs) on conductive textiles (CTs) and their structural and optical properties. The integrated ZnO NRAs were synthesized by cathodic electrochemical deposition on the ZnO seed layer-coated CT substrate in ultrasonic bath. The ZnO NRAs were regularly and densely grown as well as vertically aligned on the overall surface of CT substrate, in comparison with the grown ZnO NRAs without ZnO seed layer or ultrasonication. Additionally, their morphologies and sizes can be efficiently controlled by changing the external cathodic voltage between the ZnO seed-coated CT substrate and the counter electrode. At an external cathodic voltage of -2 V, the photoluminescence property of ZnO NRAs was optimized with good crystallinity and high density.

  5. Facile fabrication of superhydrophobic Cu(OH)2 nanorod and CuO nanosheet arrays on copper surface.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yonggang; Wu, Haihong; Li, Yongxiang; Jiang, Cheng; Wang, Qihua; Wang, Tingmei

    2012-03-01

    Cu(OH)2 nanorod and CuO nanosheet arrays have been successfully grown on the copper surfaces by a simple one-step solution-immersion process at ambient temperature and pressure. After the chemical modification with 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-Perfluorodecyltriethoxysilane, the wettability of the copper substrate changed from superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic. Meanwhile, the sliding angle of the superhydrophobic surface is less than 5 degrees. It is confirmed that both the synergic effect of the surface morphology and the surface free energy contribute to this unique surface water repellence. Furthermore, the as-prepared surfaces were stable even after a long-term storage, and retained good superhydrophobicity for corrosive liquids. Such special superhydrophobic properties will greatly extend the applications of copper in many other important industrial fields.

  6. Preparation of SiO2@ Au nanorod array as novel surface enhanced Raman substrate for trace pollutants detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Meng-Jing; Zhang, Xian; Cui, Xiao-Yang; Liu, Can; Li, Zheng-Cao; Zhang, Zheng-Jun

    2015-03-01

    An effective surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate is designed and fabricated by synthesis of SiO2 nanorods array via glancing angle deposition, followed by coating Au nanoparticles onto SiO2 surface in order to create numerous “hot spots”. The detecting sensitivity of such substrate could be optimized by simply adjusting the deposition time of Au. Thus, it can be used for detection of Rhodamine 6G at concentration as low as 10-9 M. Furthermore, our SERS substrate is applied to detect 5 μg/g polychlorinated biphenyls in soil sample, which proves its potential for trace environmental pollutants detection. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB934301), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 50931002), the Research Project of Chinese Ministry of Education (Grant No. 113007A), and the Initiative Scientific Research Program of Tsinghua University, China

  7. Optical study and ruthenizer (II) N3 dye-sensitized solar cell application of ZnO nanorod-arrays synthesized by combine two-step process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parra, Mohammad Ramzan; Haque, Fozia Z.

    2015-10-01

    Highly dense ZnO nanorod-arrays were successfully synthesized with uniform c-axis growth by using combine two-step process: sol-gel spin coating followed by the aqueous solution growth method. Structural and optical properties of ZnO nanorod-arrays were investigated. The X-ray diffraction results revealed that ZnO nanorod arrays exhibit wurtzite hexagonal crystal structure with a dominant (002) peak with high crystallinity. Nanorods of 3-4 μm length and 500 nm diameter, with surface roughness ˜20 nm were observed. Furthermore, Raman spectroscopic results revealed the presence of E 2 peak ˜438 cm-1 which again corroborated the existence of wurtzite crystal structures assigned to ZnO. The optical transmittance spectrum indicated that the transmittance of more than 80% was observed in the visible and infrared (IR) regions with the optical band-gap energy ˜3.35 eV. Photoluminescence spectrum showed peaks in ultra-violet (382.0 nm) and green region (524.9 nm), which specified good-quality crystallite formation containing high density of surface defects, zinc interstitials and oxygen-vacancies. Ruthenizer (II) N3-dye loaded sensitized solar cell test illustrated that the uniform ZnO nanorod-arrays as working electrode with a short circuit current density of 3.99 mA/cm2, fill factor ˜50% and overall power conversion efficiency (η) ˜1.36% might be a promising electrode material of dye sensitized solar cell application.

  8. Resistive switching characteristics of a compact ZnO nanorod array grown directly on an Al-doped ZnO substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, E. J.; Shin, J. Y.; Yoon, T. S.; Kang, C. J.; Choi, Y. J.

    2016-07-01

    ZnO’s resistive switching properties have drawn much attention because ZnO has a simple chemical composition and is easy to manipulate. The propulsion mechanism for resistive switching in ZnO is based on a conducting filament that consists of oxygen vacancies. In the case of film structure, the random formation of the conducting filaments occasionally leads to unstable switching characteristics. Limiting the direction in which the conducting filaments are formed is one way to solve this problem. In this study, we demonstrate reliable resistive switching behavior in a device with an Au/compact ZnO nanorod array/Al-doped ZnO structure with stable resistive switching over 105 cycles and a long retention time of 104 s by confining conducting filaments along the boundaries between ZnO nanorods. The restrictive formation of conducting filaments along the boundaries between ZnO nanorods is observed directly using conductive atomic force microscopy.

  9. Color tunable light-emitting diodes based on p+-Si/p-CuAlO2/n-ZnO nanorod array heterojunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Bo; Zhao, Jun Liang; Sun, Xiao Wei; Tan, Swee Tiam; Kyaw, Aung Ko Ko; Divayana, Yoga; Dong, Zhi Li

    2010-07-01

    Wide-range color tuning from red to blue was achieved in phosphor-free p+-Si/p-CuAlO2/n-ZnO nanorod light-emitting diodes at room temperature. CuAlO2 films were deposited on p+-Si substrates by sputtering followed by annealing. ZnO nanorods were further grown on the annealed p+-Si/p-CuAlO2 substrates by vapor phase transport. The color of the p-CuAlO2/n-ZnO nanorod array heterojunction electroluminescence depended on the annealing temperature of the CuAlO2 film. With the increase of the annealing temperature from 900 to 1050 °C, the emission showed a blueshift under the same forward bias. The origin of the blueshift is related to the amount of Cu concentration diffused into ZnO.

  10. Enhanced field electron emission from aligned diamond-like carbon nanorod arrays prepared by reactive ion beam etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yong; Qin, Shi-Qiao; Zhang, Xue-Ao; Chang, Sheng-Li; Li, Hui-Hui; Yuan, Ji-Ren

    2016-05-01

    Homogeneous diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were deposited on Si supports by a pulsed filtered cathodic vacuum arc deposition system. Using DLC films masked by Ni nanoparticles as precursors, highly aligned diamond-like carbon nanorod (DLCNR) arrays were fabricated by the etching of inductively coupled radio frequency oxygen plasma. The as-prepared DLCNR arrays exhibit excellent field emission properties with a low turn-on field of 2.005 V μm‑1 and a threshold field of 4.312 V μm‑1, respectively. Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were employed to determine the chemical bonding structural change of DLC films before and after etching. It is confirmed that DLC films have good connection with Si supports via the formation of the SiC phase, and larger conductive sp2 domains are formed in the as-etched DLC films, which play essential roles in the enhanced field emission properties for DLCNR arrays.

  11. The use of PEEK nanorod arrays for the fabrication of nanoporous surfaces under high temperature: SiNx example.

    PubMed

    Martín, Jaime; Martín-González, Marisol

    2012-09-21

    Large area silicon nitride (SiN(x)) nanoporous surfaces are fabricated using poly(ether-ether-ketone) (PEEK) nanorod arrays as a template. The procedure involves manipulation of nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates in order to form an ordered array of PEEK nanopillars with high temperature resistant characteristics. In this context, self-ordered AAO templates are infiltrated with PEEK melts via the "precursor film" method. Once the melts have been crystallized in the porous structure of AAO, the basis alumina layer is removed, yielding an ordered array of PEEK nanopillars. The resulting structure is a high temperature and chemical resistant polymeric nanomold, which can be utilized in the synthesis of nanoporous materials under aggressive conditions. Such conditions are high temperatures (up to 320 °C), vacuum, or extreme pH. For example, SiN(x) nanopore arrays have been grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition at 300 °C, which can be of interest as mold for nanoimprint lithography, due to its hardness and low surface energy. The SiN(x) nanopore array portrays the same characteristics as the original AAO template: 120 nm diameter pores and an interpore distance of 430 nm. Furthermore, the aspect ratio of the SiN(x) nanopores can be tuned by selecting an AAO template with appropriate conditions. The use of PEEK as a nanotemplate extends the applicability of polymeric nanopatterns into a temperature regime up to now not accessible and opens up the simple fabrication of novel nanoporous inorganic surfaces. PMID:22854871

  12. The use of PEEK nanorod arrays for the fabrication of nanoporous surfaces under high temperature: SiNx example.

    PubMed

    Martín, Jaime; Martín-González, Marisol

    2012-09-21

    Large area silicon nitride (SiN(x)) nanoporous surfaces are fabricated using poly(ether-ether-ketone) (PEEK) nanorod arrays as a template. The procedure involves manipulation of nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates in order to form an ordered array of PEEK nanopillars with high temperature resistant characteristics. In this context, self-ordered AAO templates are infiltrated with PEEK melts via the "precursor film" method. Once the melts have been crystallized in the porous structure of AAO, the basis alumina layer is removed, yielding an ordered array of PEEK nanopillars. The resulting structure is a high temperature and chemical resistant polymeric nanomold, which can be utilized in the synthesis of nanoporous materials under aggressive conditions. Such conditions are high temperatures (up to 320 °C), vacuum, or extreme pH. For example, SiN(x) nanopore arrays have been grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition at 300 °C, which can be of interest as mold for nanoimprint lithography, due to its hardness and low surface energy. The SiN(x) nanopore array portrays the same characteristics as the original AAO template: 120 nm diameter pores and an interpore distance of 430 nm. Furthermore, the aspect ratio of the SiN(x) nanopores can be tuned by selecting an AAO template with appropriate conditions. The use of PEEK as a nanotemplate extends the applicability of polymeric nanopatterns into a temperature regime up to now not accessible and opens up the simple fabrication of novel nanoporous inorganic surfaces.

  13. Strong coupling in molecular exciton-plasmon Au nanorod array systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedele, Stefano; Hakami, Manal; Murphy, Antony; Pollard, Robert; Rice, James

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate here a strong coupling between localized surface plasmon modes in self-standing nanorods with excitons in a molecular J-aggregate layer through angular tuning. The enhanced exciton-plasmon coupling creates a Fano like line shape in the differential reflection spectra associated with the formation of hybrid states, leading to anti-crossing of the upper and lower polaritons with a Rabi frequency of 125 meV. The recreation of a Fano like line shape was found in photoluminescence demonstrating changes in the emission spectral profile under strong coupling.

  14. Honeycomb pattern array of vertically standing core-shell nanorods: Its application to Li energy electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Youn-Su; Nam, Sang Hoon; Lee, Sang Ho; Shim, Hee-Sang; Kim, Won Bae; Ahn, Hyo-Jin

    2008-09-08

    An energy storage electrode system is fabricated via a template method with one-dimensional nanostructures that are hexagonally patterned in a honeycomblike fashion and vertically standing nanorods made of a gold-coated carbon nanotube core and a V{sub 2}O{sub 5} shell layer. The performance of this system for Li insertion and extraction shows an increased capacity along with an enhanced rate performance, which could be attributed to the aligned nanostructures having increased reaction sites, facilitated charge transport, and improved stability in the face of mechanical stress.

  15. A novel electrochemiluminescent immunosensor based on CdS-coated ZnO nanorod arrays for HepG2 cell detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Danqing; Wang, Lei; Ma, Shenghua; Jiang, Zhaohua; Yang, Bin; Han, Xiaojun; Liu, Shaoqin

    2015-02-01

    In this work, the highly oriented CdS-coated-ZnO nanorod arrays have been fabricated. The CdS-coated-ZnO nanorod arrays show high electrochemiluminescence intensity, fast response and good stability. All of the desirable properties spur the development of an ECL immunosensor for the detection of the liver cancer cell line (HepG2 cells). Two successive modification steps of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane and gold nanoparticles onto the CdS-coated-ZnO nanorod arrays not only offer the substrates for conjugation of antibody, but also effectively enhance the ECL signal, resulting in production of the high performance ECL immunosensor. The ECL immunosensor exhibits a sensitive response to HepG2 cells in a linear range of 300-10 000 cells mL-1 with a detection limit of 256 cells mL-1. The proposed sensor characteristics of high specificity, good reproducibility and remarkable stability will provide a sensitive, selective, and convenient approach for the clinical detection of cancer cells.In this work, the highly oriented CdS-coated-ZnO nanorod arrays have been fabricated. The CdS-coated-ZnO nanorod arrays show high electrochemiluminescence intensity, fast response and good stability. All of the desirable properties spur the development of an ECL immunosensor for the detection of the liver cancer cell line (HepG2 cells). Two successive modification steps of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane and gold nanoparticles onto the CdS-coated-ZnO nanorod arrays not only offer the substrates for conjugation of antibody, but also effectively enhance the ECL signal, resulting in production of the high performance ECL immunosensor. The ECL immunosensor exhibits a sensitive response to HepG2 cells in a linear range of 300-10 000 cells mL-1 with a detection limit of 256 cells mL-1. The proposed sensor characteristics of high specificity, good reproducibility and remarkable stability will provide a sensitive, selective, and convenient approach for the clinical detection of cancer cells

  16. Large-scale fabrication of polymer/Ag core-shell nanorod array as flexible SERS substrate by combining direct nanoimprint and electroless deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Sisi; Xu, Zhimou; Sun, Tangyou; Zhao, Wenning; Wu, Xinghui; Ma, Zhichao; Xu, Haifeng; He, Jian; Chen, Cunhua

    2014-06-01

    We demonstrate a highly sensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate, which consists of Ag nanoparticles (NPs) assembled on the surface of a nanopatterned polymer film. The fabrication route of a polymer/Ag core-shell nanorod (PACSN) array employed a direct nanoimprint technique to create a high-resolution polymer nanorod array. The obtained nanopatterned polymer film was subjected to electroless deposition to form a sea-cucumber-like Ag shell over the surface of the polymer nanorod. The morphology and structures of PACSNs were analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The as-synthesized PACSNs exhibited a remarkable SERS activity and Raman signal reproducibility to rhodamine 6G, and a concentration down to 10-12 M can be identified. The effect of electroless deposition time of Ag NPs onto the polymer nanorod surface was investigated. It was found that the electroless deposition time played an important role in SERS activity. Our results revealed that the combination of direct nanoimprint and electroless deposition provided a convenient and cost-effective way for large-scale fabrication of reliable SERS substrates without the requirement of expensive instruments.

  17. Broadband and wide angle light absorption for an aluminum nanorod array in a prism-coupling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jen, Yi-Jun; Dai, Jia-Wei; Chao, Jung-Hui

    2013-09-01

    Traditional optical thin films exhibit low absorption when light is incident obliquely because the optical path decreases with increasing angle of incidence [1]. A thin film absorber is also a challenge to perform high absorption at oblique incidence. Under the condition of total reflection, a thin metal film with thickness around 40nm in a Kretschmann configuration (prism / metal film / air) enables to absorb light at an extremely small angle range by exciting surface plasmon at the interface of metal/air [2]. In this work, a metamaterial thin film composed of aluminum nanorods is fabricated and used to absorb light in high efficiency. An aluminum nanorod array (Al NRA) deposited obliquely is arranged in a prism-coupling system to observed the reflection under the condition of total reflection of the system: BK7 prism/ Al NRA/ Air. The Al NRA is 184nm thick and tilted at an angle of 35° with respect to the surface normal. The deposition plane defined by the directions of rod and surface normal is orientated at angles of φ=0° and φ=180° with respect to the plane of incidence to measure the reflectance versus incident angles from 45° to 70° and wavelengths from 400nm to 700nm. The definition of the NRAs orientation is shown in Fig. 3. When the deposition plane is the same with the plane of incidence, the reflectance spectra indicate that the Al NRA exhibits strong absorptance over 80% at angles of incidence from 45° to 55° for both p-polarization and s-polarization. The enhanced p-polarized absorptance is extended from 45° to 70°. At φ=90°, the absorptance is weaker at angles of incidence from 55° to 70° compared with other two cases measured at φ=0° and φ=180°°.

  18. Enhanced reversible lithium storage in germanium nano-island coated 3D hexagonal bottle-like Si nanorod arrays.

    PubMed

    Yue, Chuang; Yu, Yingjian; Wu, ZhenGuo; He, Xu; Wang, JianYuan; Li, JunTao; Li, Cheng; Wu, Suntao; Li, Jing; Kang, Junyong

    2014-01-01

    The rapid development of numerous microscale electronic devices, such as smart dust, micro or nano bio-sensors, medical implants and so on, has induced an urgent demand for integratable micro or nano battery supplies with high energy and power densities. In this work, 3D hexagonal bottle-like Si/Ge composite nanorod (NR) array electrodes with good uniformity and mechanical stability potentially used in micro or nano rechargeable Li-ion batteries (LIBs) were fabricated on Si substrates by a cost-effective, wafer scale and Si-compatible process. The optimized Ge nano-islands coated Si NR composite arrays as anode materials exhibit superior areal capacities and cycling performances by virtue of their favourable structural and improved conductivity features. The unique Si-based composite electrode in nanostructures can be technically and fundamentally employed to configurate all-solid-state Li-ion micro-batteries as on-chip power systems integrated into micro-electronic devices such as M/NEMS devices or autonomous wireless microsystems.

  19. Branched zinc oxide nanorods arrays modified paper electrode for electrochemical immunosensing by combining biocatalytic precipitation reaction and competitive immunoassay mode.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guoqiang; Yang, Hongmei; Zhang, Yan; Yu, Jinghua; Ge, Shenguang; Yan, Mei; Song, Xianrang

    2015-12-15

    Branched zinc oxide nanorods (BZR) arrays, an array with high charge carries collection efficiency and specific surface area, are grown on the reduced graphene oxide-paper working electrode for the first time to construct a paper-based electrochemical (EC) immunosensor. Typically, the BZR are fabricated via a simple hydrothermal process, which can provide abundant sites for antibodies loading. By combining the large surface area of porous zinc oxide (PZS) and good biocompatibility of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), PZS-AuNPs (PZS@Au) nanocomposites are designed to label horseradish peroxide (HRP) and antigens. After a competitive reaction between antigens and PZS@Au nanocomposites labeled antigens, the signal labels are introduced into the immunosensor, in which, HRP participate in biocatalytic precipitation process. The produced precipitate reduces the electrode surface area and hinders the electron transfer. With the increase of concentration of antigens, the signal labels introduced into the sensor decrease, thus, a signal-on immunoassay for α-fetoprotein detection is constructed. The proposed paper-based EC immunosensor combines enzymatic biocatalytic precipitation reaction and competitive immunoassay mode for the first time, and possesses a wide linear range from 0.2 pg mL(-1) to 500 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.08 pg mL(-1). In addition, the proposed method is simple, sensitive and specific and can be a promising platform for other protein detection.

  20. Vertical La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 nanorods tailored by high magnetic field assisted pulsed laser deposition

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kejun; Dai, Jianming; Zhu, Xuebin; Zhu, Xiaoguang; Zuo, Xuzhong; Zhang, Peng; Hu, Ling; Lu, Wenjian; Song, Wenhai; Sheng, Zhigao; Wu, Wenbin; Sun, Yuping; Du, Youwei

    2016-01-01

    La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 (LCMO) thin films on (LaAlO3)0.3(Sr2AlTaO6)0.7 (001) [LSAT (001)] single crystal substrates have been prepared by high magnetic field assisted pulsed laser deposition (HMF-PLD) developed by ourselves. Uniformly sized and vertically aligned nanorod structures can be obtained under an applied high magnetic field above 5 T, and the dimension size of the nanorods can be manipulated by varying the applied magnetic field. It is found that the magnetic anisotropy is strongly correlated to the dimension size of the nanorods. A significantly enhanced low-field magnetoresistance (LFMR) of −36% under 0.5 T at 100 K can be obtained due to the enhanced carrier scattering at the vertical grain boundaries between the nanorods for the LCMO films. The growth mechanism of the nanorods has been also discussed, which can be attributed to the variation of deposition rate, adatom surface diffusion, and nucleation induced by the application of a high magnetic field in the film processing. The successful achievements of such vertical nanorod structures will provide an instructive route to investigate the physical nature of these nanostructures and achieve nanodevice manipulation. PMID:26778474

  1. Photoelectrochemical cell/dye-sensitized solar cell tandem water splitting systems with transparent and vertically aligned quantum dot sensitized TiO2 nanorod arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Kahee; Yoo, Ji-Beom; Park, Jong Hyeok

    2013-03-01

    The present work reports fabrication of vertically aligned CdS sensitized TiO2 nanorod arrays grown on transparent conducting oxide substrate with high transparency as a photoanode in photoelectrochemical cell for water splitting. To realize an unassisted water splitting system, the photoanode and dye-sensitized solar cell tandem structures are tried and their electrochemical behaviors are also investigated. The hydrothermally grown TiO2 nanorod arrays followed by CdS nanoparticle decoration can improve the light absorption of long wavelength light resulting in increased photocurrent density. Two different techniques (electrodeposition and spray pyrolysis deposition) of CdS nanoparticle sensitization are carried out and their water splitting behaviors in the tandem cell are compared.

  2. Optical and photoelectrochemical performance study based on n-ZnO nanorod arrays/p-CuAlO2 laminar films/Ni heterojunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Juan; Yang, Haibin; Deng, Weiwen

    2014-06-01

    A novel ZnO nanorod arrays (NRs)/CuAlO2 laminar films heterojunction nanostructure was grown on the substrate of Ni plates using sol-gel synthesis for laminar films and subsequent hydrothermal reaction for nanorod arrays. The surface morphology, structure, optical and photoelectrochemical behaviors of this heterojunction were considered. Two significant absorption peaks of UV-vis spectra and a favorable forward current to reverse current ratio at applied voltage of -0.7 V to +2 V were observed in this heterojunction. Furthermore, the photoelectrochemical property was indicated that the highest photocurrent of 0.67 mA/cm2 was obtained under AM 1.5 illumination (vs Ag/AgCl). This heterojunction will play an important role in the optoelectronic fields and can be extended to other binary or ternary oxide compositions for optoelectronic applications.

  3. Highly ordered Pb(Zr₀.₅₂ Ti₀.₄₈)O₃ piezoelectric nanorod arrays.

    PubMed

    Yang, Su Chul; Sanghadasa, Mohan; Priya, Shashank

    2013-06-01

    One-dimensional (1D) piezoelectric nanostructures have attracted significant attention for a broad range of applications including optoelectronics, thermoelectrics, electrochemical and electromechanical converters. We demonstrate the synthesis of 1D nanostructures based upon Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) on conductive substrates via sol-gel template synthesis. The vertically aligned PZT nanostructures with heights around one micron were synthesized by vacuum infiltration of sol-gel precursors into highly ordered cylindrical pores of anodized aluminum oxide templates. The 1D nanostructures were developed on large scale platinized silicon wafers and exhibited dense rod-like structure with a uniform diameter of 90 nm and an aspect ratio of 10. Scanning probe microscopy conducted on individual nanorods demonstrated good electromechanical properties with a high piezoelectric magnitude of 41 pm V(-1). We believe that this study opens the possibility of developing high performance nanoscale piezoelectric sensors and transducers. PMID:23637024

  4. Highly ordered Pb(Zr₀.₅₂ Ti₀.₄₈)O₃ piezoelectric nanorod arrays.

    PubMed

    Yang, Su Chul; Sanghadasa, Mohan; Priya, Shashank

    2013-06-01

    One-dimensional (1D) piezoelectric nanostructures have attracted significant attention for a broad range of applications including optoelectronics, thermoelectrics, electrochemical and electromechanical converters. We demonstrate the synthesis of 1D nanostructures based upon Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) on conductive substrates via sol-gel template synthesis. The vertically aligned PZT nanostructures with heights around one micron were synthesized by vacuum infiltration of sol-gel precursors into highly ordered cylindrical pores of anodized aluminum oxide templates. The 1D nanostructures were developed on large scale platinized silicon wafers and exhibited dense rod-like structure with a uniform diameter of 90 nm and an aspect ratio of 10. Scanning probe microscopy conducted on individual nanorods demonstrated good electromechanical properties with a high piezoelectric magnitude of 41 pm V(-1). We believe that this study opens the possibility of developing high performance nanoscale piezoelectric sensors and transducers.

  5. Transparent, 3-dimensional light-collected, and flexible fiber-type dye-sensitized solar cells based on highly ordered hierarchical anatase TiO2 nanorod arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jia; Zhang, Gengmin; Yin, Jianbo; Yang, Yingchao

    2014-12-01

    Two kinds of hierarchical anatase TiO2 structures are synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method in this report. A new transparent, 3D light-collected, and flexible fiber-type dye-sensitized solar cell (FF-DSSC) with such hierarchical TiO2 structures is developed. The conversion efficiency of the FF-DSSC based on a TiCl4-treated TiO2 nanorod array (hierarchical structure I) exhibits about 4 times higher than that based on a HCl-treated TiO2 nanorod array, and further rises to 4.4% when the TiCl4-treated TiO2 nanorod array is treated in a mixed solution of (NH4)2TiF6 and H3BO3 three times (hierarchical structure II). The obvious enhancement in conversion efficiency can be ascribed to the dye adsorption promotion benefiting from their hierarchical structures. Beyond the attractive conversion efficiency, the new designed FF-DSSC possesses several advantages including good flexibility, excellent stability, and 3D light-collection. The conversion efficiencies of the FF-DSSCs can still keep 85%-90% even the FF-DSSCs are bent for 1000 times. The maximum power outputs of the FF-DSSCs characterized by Diffuse Illumination Mode using home-made Al reflector exhibit about 3 times higher than that done by Standard Illumination Mode due to 3D light-collections. The FF-DSSCs based on highly ordered hierarchical anatase TiO2 nanorod arrays hold great promise in future energy harvest.

  6. Improving photoelectrochemical performance by building Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} heterostructure on TiO{sub 2} nanorod arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Chunlan; Hu, Chenguo; Shen, Weidong; Wang, Shuxia; Song, Sihong; Wang, Mingjun

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@TiO{sub 2} heterostructure was fabricated by two-step method. • The photoelectrochemical properties were studied upon visible light irradiation. • Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@TiO{sub 2} heterostructure shows superior photoelectrochemical property. • A possible mechanism for enhanced photoelectrochemical property was put forward. - Abstract: Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@TiO{sub 2} heterostructure nanorod arrays were synthesized on a fluorine-doped tin oxide conductive (FTO) glass substrate via two-step method for improving photoelectrochemical activity of TiO{sub 2}. The TiO{sub 2} nanorod arrays on FTO substrate were first prepared by hydrothermal method and then Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles were coated onto the surface of TiO{sub 2} nanorod arrays through chemical bath deposition. The heterojunction yielded a photocurrent density of 39.75 μA cm{sup −2} at a bias potential of 0 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) under visible light irradiation, which is 2.2 times as much as that produced by the pure TiO{sub 2} nanorod arrays. The enhanced photoelectrochemical activity is attributed to the extension of the light response range and efficient separation of photogenerated carriers. Our results have demonstrated the advantage of the novel Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@TiO{sub 2} heterojunction and will provide a new path to the fabrication of heterostructural materials.

  7. Facile construction of vertically aligned EuS-ZnO hybrid core shell nanorod arrays for visible light driven photocatalytic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Ranjith, K. S.; Kumar, D. Ranjith; Kumar, R. T. Rajendra

    2015-06-24

    We demonstrated the development of coupled semiconductor in the form of hybrid heterostructures for significant advancement in catalytic functional materials. In this article, we report the preparation of vertically aligned core shell ZnO-EuS nanorod photocatalyst arrays by a simple chemical solution process followed by sulfudation process. The XRD pattern confirmed formation of the hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO and cubic nature of the EuS. Cross sectional FESEM images show vertical rod array structure, and the size of the nanorods ranges from 80 to 120 nm. UV-Vis DRS spectra showed that the optical absorption of ZnO was significantly enhanced to the visible region by modification with EuS surfaces. TEM study confirmed that the surface of ZnO was drastically improved by the modification with EuS nanoparticle. The catalytic activity of EuS−ZnO core shell nanorod arrays were evaluated by the photodegradation of Methylene Blue (MB) dye under visible irradiation. The results revealed that the photocatalytic activity of EuS−ZnO was much higher than that of ZnO under natural sunlight. EuS−ZnO was found to be stable and reusable without appreciable loss of catalytic activity up to four consecutive cycles.

  8. Flexible coaxial-type fiber solid-state asymmetrical supercapacitor based on Ni3S2 nanorod array and pen ink electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Jian; Li, Songzhan; Zhou, Kai; Song, Zengcai; Li, Borui; Chen, Zhao; Chen, Tian; Guo, Yaxiong; Fang, Guojia

    2016-08-01

    Fiber supercapacitors have attracted public attentions because of their merits of relatively high capacitance density, flexibility and easy integration with various electronic devices. In this work, a flexible coaxial-type fiber solid-state asymmetrical supercapacitor (ASC) based on Ni3S2 nanorod array electrode and pen ink electrode was successfully fabricated. The Ni3S2 nanorod array electrode was synthesized by directly growing Ni3S2 nanorod arrays on a nickel wire through a facile hydrothermal method and the pen ink electrode as negative electrode was synthesized by a simple dip-coating method. The solid-state ASC device presents a stable voltage window of 1.4 V and behaves a high specific capacitance of 34.9 F g-1 (87.25 F cm-1) at a scan rate of 10 mV s-1. Compared with the symmetric supercapacitor (SSC) based on Ni3S2 electrodes, the ASC device provide an increased energy density of 8.2 Wh kg-1 (0.81 mWh cm-3) at the power density of 214.6 W kg-1 (21.12 mW cm-3). In addition, the ASC device also exhibits excellent electrochemical stability with 93.1% of initial specific capacitance after 3000 consecutive cycles and good mechanical stability. These encouraging results present its great potential in flexible solid-state energy storage devices.

  9. Flexible coaxial-type fiber solid-state asymmetrical supercapacitor based on Ni3S2 nanorod array and pen ink electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Jian; Li, Songzhan; Zhou, Kai; Song, Zengcai; Li, Borui; Chen, Zhao; Chen, Tian; Guo, Yaxiong; Fang, Guojia

    2016-08-01

    Fiber supercapacitors have attracted public attentions because of their merits of relatively high capacitance density, flexibility and easy integration with various electronic devices. In this work, a flexible coaxial-type fiber solid-state asymmetrical supercapacitor (ASC) based on Ni3S2 nanorod array electrode and pen ink electrode was successfully fabricated. The Ni3S2 nanorod array electrode was synthesized by directly growing Ni3S2 nanorod arrays on a nickel wire through a facile hydrothermal method and the pen ink electrode as negative electrode was synthesized by a simple dip-coating method. The solid-state ASC device presents a stable voltage window of 1.4 V and behaves a high specific capacitance of 34.9 F g-1 (87.25 F cm-1) at a scan rate of 10 mV s-1. Compared with the symmetric supercapacitor (SSC) based on Ni3S2 electrodes, the ASC device provide an increased energy density of 8.2 Wh kg-1 (0.81 mWh cm-3) at the power density of 214.6 W kg-1 (21.12 mW cm-3). In addition, the ASC device also exhibits excellent electrochemical stability with 93.1% of initial specific capacitance after 3000 consecutive cycles and good mechanical stability. These encouraging results present its great potential in flexible solid-state energy storage devices.

  10. Tailoring the morphology of carbon nanotube arrays: from spinnable forests to undulating foams.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingying; Zou, Guifu; Doorn, Stephen K; Htoon, Han; Stan, Liliana; Hawley, Marilyn E; Sheehan, Chris J; Zhu, Yuntian; Jia, Quanxi

    2009-08-25

    Directly spinning carbon nanotube (CNT) fibers from vertically aligned CNT arrays is a promising way for the application of CNTs in the field of high-performance materials. However, most of the reported CNT arrays are not spinnable. In this work, by controlling catalyst pretreatment conditions, we demonstrate that the degree of spinnability of CNTs is closely related to the morphology of CNT arrays. Shortest catalyst pretreatment time led to CNT arrays with the best spinnability, while prolonged pretreatment resulted in coarsening of catalyst particles and nonspinnable CNTs. By controlling the coalescence of catalyst particles, we further demonstrate the growth of undulating CNT arrays with uniform and tunable waviness. The CNT arrays can be tuned from well-aligned, spinnable forests to uniformly wavy, foam-like films. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first systematical study on the correlation between catalyst pretreatment, CNT morphology, and CNT spinnability. PMID:19640000

  11. Tailoring surface plasmon resonance and dipole cavity plasmon modes of scattering cross section spectra on the single solid-gold/gold-shell nanorod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou Chau, Yuan-Fong; Lim, Chee Ming; Lee, Chuanyo; Huang, Hung Ji; Lin, Chun-Ting; Kumara, N. T. R. N.; Yoong, Voo Nyuk; Chiang, Hai-Pang

    2016-09-01

    Tunable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and dipole cavity plasmon modes of the scattering cross section (SCS) spectra on the single solid-gold/gold-shell nanorod have been numerically investigated by using the finite element method. Various effects, such as the influence of SCS spectra under x- and y-polarizations on the surface of the single solid-gold/gold-shell nanorod, are discussed in detail. With the single gold-shell nanorod, one can independently tune the relative SCS spectrum width by controlling the rod length and rod diameter, and the surface scattering by varying the shell thickness and polarization direction, as well as the dipole peak energy. These behaviors are consistent with the properties of localized SPRs and offer a way to optically control and produce selected emission wavelengths from the single solid-gold/gold-shell nanorod. The electric field and magnetic distributions provide us a qualitative idea of the geometrical properties of the single solid-gold/gold-shell nanorod on plasmon resonance.

  12. Polyethylenimine-assisted growth of high-aspect-ratio nitrogen-doped ZnO (NZO) nanorod arrays and their effect on performance of dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Khalid; Swain, Bhabani Sankar; Han, Gill-Sang; Kim, Byeong-Jo; Jung, Hyun Suk

    2014-07-01

    The realization of arrays of high-aspect-ratio nitrogen-doped ZnO (NZO) nanorod is critical to the development of high-quality nanostructure-based optoelectronic and electronic devices. In this study, we used a solution-based method to grow arrays of vertically aligned high-aspect-ratio NZO nanorods on ZnO seed layer covered fluorine-doped tin oxide substrates. We investigated whether the diameters and aspect ratios of the nanorods were affected by the addition of polyethylenimine (PEI) to the precursor solution used as well as by variations in the growth temperature and the concentration of the precursor solution. The performances of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) in which the synthesized high-aspect-ratio NZO nanorods were used as the photoanode material were also studied. That the dopant, nitrogen, was introduced into the ZnO lattice was confirmed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. It was seen that after the addition of PEI, the NZO and ZnO nanorod arrays increased in length and their diameters became smaller (i.e., their aspect ratios increased). This resulted in an increase in the amount of dye absorbed by them, leading to improvements in the DSSCs based on the nanorods. The structural, morphological, optical, and photovoltaic characteristics of ZnO and NZO nanorod arrays synthesized using different precursor concentrations and growth temperatures (160-190 °C) were also examined. We also investigated the effect of the use of PEI on these characteristics. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of DSSCs fabricated using the NZO nanorod arrays was found to be significantly higher than that of DSSCs based on the pure ZnO nanorod arrays. This increase in efficiency could be attributed to the combined effects of the increase in the charge-carrier concentration, change in morphology, and increase in the Fermi energy levels of the nanorods, which resulted because of N doping. A PCE of 5.0% was obtained for a DSSC based

  13. Impurity induced crystallinity and optical emissions in ZnO nanorod arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, N. R.; Acharya, B. S.

    2015-01-01

    We report the growth of ZnO nanocrystallites doped with impurities such as B, N and S by green chemistry route using ultrasound. The effect of intrinsic defects and impurity doping on the structural and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures has been studied and discussed. Characterization studies carried out using x-ray diffraction (XRD) reveal the change in lattice parameters and crystallinity of ZnO in the presence of dopant. This has been explained on the basis of the dopant substitution at regular anion and interstitial sites. Study on surface morphology by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) shows a change from particle-like structure to aligned nanorods nucleated at definite sites. Elemental analysis such as x-ray photon electron spectroscopy (XPS) has been carried out to ascertain the dopant configuration in ZnO. This has been corroborated by the results obtained from FTIR and Raman studies. UV-vis light absorption and PL studies show an expansion of the band gap which has been explained on the basis of Moss-Burstein shift in the electronic band gap of ZnO by impurity incorporation. The optical emissions corresponding to excitonic transition and defect centres present in the band gap of ZnO is found to shift towards lower/higher wavelength sides. New PL bands observed have been assigned to the transitions related to the impurity states present in the band gap of ZnO along with intrinsic defects.

  14. Cobalt-phosphate-assisted photoelectrochemical water oxidation by arrays of molybdenum-doped zinc oxide nanorods.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yan-Gu; Hsu, Yu-Kuei; Chen, Ying-Chu; Lee, Bing-Wei; Hwang, Jih-Shang; Chen, Li-Chyong; Chen, Kuei-Hsien

    2014-09-01

    We report the first demonstration of cobalt phosphate (Co-Pi)-assisted molybdenum-doped zinc oxide nanorods (Zn(1-x)Mo(x)O NRs) as visible-light-sensitive photofunctional electrodes to fundamentally improve the performance of ZnO NRs for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting. A maximum photoconversion efficiency as high as 1.05% was achieved, at a photocurrent density of 1.4 mA cm(-2). More importantly, in addition to achieve the maximum incident photon to current conversion efficiency (IPCE) value of 86%, it could be noted that the IPCE of Zn(1-x)Mo(x)O photoanodes under monochromatic illumination (450 nm) is up to 12%. Our PEC performances are comparable to those of many oxide-based photoanodes in recent reports. The improvement in photoactivity of PEC water splitting may be attributed to the enhanced visible-light absorption, increased charge-carrier densities, and improved interfacial charge-transfer kinetics due to the combined effect of molybdenum incorporation and Co-Pi modification, contributing to photocatalysis. The new design of constructing highly photoactive Co-Pi-assisted Zn(1-x)Mo(x)O photoanodes enriches knowledge on doping and advances the development of high-efficiency photoelectrodes in the solar-hydrogen field.

  15. Dense arrays of cobalt nanorods as rare-earth free permanent magnets.

    PubMed

    Anagnostopoulou, E; Grindi, B; Lacroix, L-M; Ott, F; Panagiotopoulos, I; Viau, G

    2016-02-21

    We demonstrate in this paper the feasibility to elaborate rare-earth free permanent magnets based on cobalt nanorods assemblies with energy product (BH)max exceeding 150 kJ m(-3). The cobalt rods were prepared by the polyol process and assembled from wet suspensions under a magnetic field. Magnetization loops of dense assemblies with remanence to a saturation of 0.99 and squareness of 0.96 were measured. The almost perfect M(H) loop squareness together with electron microscopy and small angle neutron scattering demonstrate the excellent alignment of the rods within the assemblies. The magnetic volume fraction was carefully measured by coupling magnetic and thermogravimetric analysis and found in the range from 45 to 55%, depending on the rod diameter and the alignment procedure. This allowed a quantitative assessment of the (BH)max values. The highest (BH)max of 165 kJ m(-3) was obtained for a sample combining a high magnetic volume fraction and a very large M(H) loop squareness. This study shows that this bottom-up approach is very promising to get new hard magnetic materials that can compete in the permanent magnet panorama and fill the gap between the ferrites and the NdFeB magnets.

  16. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence spectra of ZnO nanorod arrays grown on transparent conducting substrates by hydrothermal routes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S. P.; Gu, X. Q.

    2016-06-01

    Ordered ZnO nanorod (NR) arrays have been prepared on transparent conducting oxide (TCO) substrates by a facile seed-assisted hydrothermal route. The optical properties of the samples were investigated by temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) spectra. Two sharp peaks were clearly identified in the ultraviolet (UV) band, located at 3.34 and 3.26 eV in 10 K spectrum, and were labeled as peaks A and B. Both the peaks exhibited different quenching behaviors, although their red-shift characteristics were almost the same with temperature rising. Something gave rise to a possible mechanism to explain such a behavior. Specifically, peaks A and B were assigned to the bound excitons and carrier transitions from shallow donor levels to the valence band, respectively. The detailed analysis will be illustrated in this study. It is hoped that this work could render guided information for understanding the carrier recombination and dynamics behavior in single-crystal ZnO nanostructures.

  17. Fabrication and Optimization of Vertically Aligned ZnO Nanorod Array-Based UV Photodetectors via Selective Hydrothermal Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Yeong Hwan; Nagaraju, Goli; Yu, Jae Su

    2015-08-01

    Vertically aligned ZnO nanorod array (NRA)-based ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors (PDs) were successfully fabricated and optimized via a facile hydrothermal process. Using a shadow mask technique, the thin ZnO seed layer was deposited between the patterned Au/Ti electrodes to bridge the electrodes. Thus, both the Au electrodes could be connected by the ZnO seed layer. As the sample was immersed into growth solution and heated at 90 °C, the ZnO NRAs were crystallized and vertically grown on the ZnO seed layer, thus creating a metal-semiconductor-metal PD structure. To investigate the size effect of ZnO NRAs on photocurrent, the PDs were readily prepared with different concentrations of growth solution. For the ZnO NRAs grown at 25 mM of concentration, the PD with 10 μm of channel width (i.e., gap distance between two electrodes) exhibited a high photocurrent of 1.91 × 10-4 A at an applied bias of 10 V under 365 nm of UV light illumination. The PD was optimized by adjusting the channel width. For 15 μm of channel width, a relatively high photocurrent on-off ratio of 37.4 and good current transient characteristics were observed at the same applied bias. These results are expected to be useful for cost-effective and practical UV PD applications.

  18. Fabrication and photoelectrochemical characteristics of In2S3 nano-flower films on TiO2 nanorods arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Minmin; Yu, Limin; Chen, Wenyuan; Wang, Wenzhen; Jia, Junhong

    2016-04-01

    The In2S3 nano-flower films on TiO2/FTO (Fluorine-doped tin oxide) substrates were synthesized via hydrothermal method and the photoelectrochemical performances of In2S3/TiO2 photoelectrodes were characterized. The roles of PSS (poly(sodium-p-styrenesul-fonate)) and PEG (polyethylene glycol) on the structure controlling of In2S3 films were also discussed. The results show that the In2S3 nano-flower films consisted of ultrathin nanoflakes with a thickness of 5 nm are successfully grew on the surface of TiO2 nanorod arrays. PEG could play a role as the morphology-directing agent by confining crystal growth in certain directions, while PSS could provide coordination sites with long chains and lead to the formation of spherical structure. The energy conversion efficiency of In2S3 nano-flower/TiO2 photoelectrodes enhances thrice compared with that of bare TiO2 photoelectrode. This research presents further insight for improving the efficiency of semiconductors by using the suitable electron transfer channels, which may be promising for rational construction of solar conversion and storage devices.

  19. ZnO nanorod array/CuAlO2 nanofiber heterojunction on Ni substrate: synthesis and photoelectrochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Ding, Juan; Sui, Yongming; Fu, Wuyou; Yang, Haibin; Zhao, Bo; Li, Minghui

    2011-07-22

    A novel ZnO nanorod array (NR)/CuAlO(2) nanofiber (NF) heterojunction nanostructure was grown on a substrate of Ni plates using sol-gel synthesis for the NFs and hydrothermal reaction for the NRs. Compared with a traditional ZnO/CuAlO(2) laminar film nanostructure, the photocurrent of this fibrous network heterojunction is significantly increased. A significant blue-shift of the absorption edge and a favorable forward current to reverse current ratio at applied voltages of -2 to +2 V were observed in this heterojunction with the increase of Zn(2+) ion concentration in the hydrothermal reaction. Furthermore, the photoelectrochemical properties were investigated and the highest photocurrent of 3.1 mA cm(-2) was obtained under AM 1.5 illumination with 100 mW cm(-2) light intensity at 0.71 V (versus Ag/AgCl). This novel 3D fibrous network nanostructure plays an important role in the optoelectronic field and can be extended to other binary or ternary oxide compositions for various applications. PMID:21677371

  20. ZnO nanorod array/CuAlO2 nanofiber heterojunction on Ni substrate: synthesis and photoelectrochemical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Juan; Sui, Yongming; Fu, Wuyou; Yang, Haibin; Zhao, Bo; Li, Minghui

    2011-07-01

    A novel ZnO nanorod array (NR)/CuAlO2 nanofiber (NF) heterojunction nanostructure was grown on a substrate of Ni plates using sol-gel synthesis for the NFs and hydrothermal reaction for the NRs. Compared with a traditional ZnO/CuAlO2 laminar film nanostructure, the photocurrent of this fibrous network heterojunction is significantly increased. A significant blue-shift of the absorption edge and a favorable forward current to reverse current ratio at applied voltages of - 2 to + 2 V were observed in this heterojunction with the increase of Zn2 + ion concentration in the hydrothermal reaction. Furthermore, the photoelectrochemical properties were investigated and the highest photocurrent of 3.1 mA cm - 2 was obtained under AM 1.5 illumination with 100 mW cm - 2 light intensity at 0.71 V (versus Ag/AgCl). This novel 3D fibrous network nanostructure plays an important role in the optoelectronic field and can be extended to other binary or ternary oxide compositions for various applications.

  1. Regularly patterned multi-section GaN nanorod arrays grown with a pulsed growth technique.

    PubMed

    Tu, Charng-Gan; Su, Chia-Ying; Liao, Che-Hao; Hsieh, Chieh; Yao, Yu-Feng; Chen, Hao-Tsung; Lin, Chun-Han; Weng, Chi-Ming; Kiang, Yean-Woei; Yang, C C

    2016-01-15

    The growth of regularly patterned multi-section GaN nanorod (NR) arrays based on a pulsed growth technique with metalorganic chemical vapor deposition is demonstrated. Such an NR with multiple sections of different cross-sectional sizes is formed by tapering a uniform cross section to another through stepwise decreasing of the Ga supply duration to reduce the size of the catalytic Ga droplet. Contrast line structures are observed in either a scanning electron microscopy or transmission electron microscopy image of an NR. Such a contrast line-marker corresponds to a thin Ga-rich layer formed at the beginning of GaN precipitation of a pulsed growth cycle and illustrates the boundary between two successive growth cycles in pulsed growth. By analyzing the geometry variation of the contrast line-markers, the morphology evolution in the growth of a multi-section NR, including a tapering process, can be traced. Such a morphology variation is controlled by the size of the catalytic Ga droplet and its coverage range on the slant facets at the top of an NR. The comparison of emission spectra between single-, two-, and three-section GaN NRs with sidewall InGaN/GaN quantum wells indicates that a multi-section NR can lead to a significantly broader sidewall emission spectrum.

  2. Self Powered Highly Enhanced Dual Wavelength ZnO@CdS Core-Shell Nanorod Arrays Photodetector: An Intelligent Pair.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Sanjit; Basak, Durga

    2015-08-01

    On the face of the impending energy crisis, developing low-energy or even zero-energy photoelectronic devices is extremely important. A multispectral photosensitivity feature of a self-powered device provides an additional powerful tool. We have developed an unprecedented high performance dual wavelength self-powered ZnO@CdS/PEDOT:PSS core-shell nanorods array photodetector through a simple aqueous chemical method wherein a suitable band alignment between an intelligent material pair, i.e. ZnO and CdS, has been utilized. Besides a noteworthy advantage of the devices being that they show a very sharp and prominent dual wavelength photosensitivity, both the ultraviolet and visible light sensitivity (ratio of current under illumination (Iphoto)/current under dark (Idark)) of the device are two orders of higher magnitude than those of pristine ZnO, attaining values of 2.8 × 10(3) and 1.07 × 10(3), respectively. At the same time, temporal responses faster than 20 ms could be achieved with these solution-processed photodetectors. The present study provides a very important direction to engineer core-shell nanostructured devices for dual wavelength high photosensitivity.

  3. Regularly patterned non-polar InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod light-emitting diode array.

    PubMed

    Tu, Charng-Gan; Liao, Che-Hao; Yao, Yu-Feng; Chen, Horng-Shyang; Lin, Chun-Han; Su, Chia-Ying; Shih, Pei-Ying; Chen, Wei-Han; Zhu, Erwin; Kiang, Yean-Woei; Yang, C C

    2014-12-15

    The growth and process of a regularly patterned nanorod (NR)- light-emitting diode (LED) array with its emission from sidewall non-polar quantum wells (QWs) are demonstrated. A pyramidal un-doped GaN structure is intentionally formed at the NR top for minimizing the current flow through this portion of the NR such that the injection current can be effectively guided to the sidewall m-plane InGaN/GaN QWs for emission excitation by a conformal transparent conductor (GaZnO). The injected current density at a given applied voltage of the NR LED device is similar to that of a planar c-plane or m-plane LED. The blue-shift trend of NR LED output spectrum with increasing injection current is caused by the non-uniform distributions of QW width and indium content along the height on a sidewall. The photoluminescence spectral shift under reversed bias confirms that the emission of the fabricated NR LED comes from non-polar QWs. PMID:25607494

  4. CdS and CdS/CdSe sensitized ZnO nanorod array solar cells prepared by a solution ions exchange process

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Ling; Gong, Haibo; Zheng, Xiaopeng; Zhu, Min; Zhang, Jun; Yang, Shikuan; Cao, Bingqiang

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • CdS and CdS/CdSe quantum dots are assembled on ZnO nanorods by ion exchange process. • The CdS/CdSe sensitization of ZnO effectively extends the absorption spectrum. • The performance of ZnO/CdS/CdSe cell is improved by extending absorption spectrum. - Abstract: In this paper, cadmium sulfide (CdS) and cadmium sulfide/cadmium selenide (CdS/CdSe) quantum dots (QDs) are assembled onto ZnO nanorod arrays by a solution ion exchange process for QD-sensitized solar cell application. The morphology, composition and absorption properties of different photoanodes were characterized with scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrum and Raman spectrum in detail. It is shown that conformal and uniform CdS and CdS/CdSe shells can grow on ZnO nanorod cores. Quantum dot sensitized solar cells based on ZnO/CdS and ZnO/CdS/CdSe nanocable arrays were assembled with gold counter electrode and polysulfide electrolyte solution. The CdS/CdSe sensitization of ZnO can effectively extend the absorption spectrum up to 650 nm, which has a remarkable impact on the performance of a photovoltaic device by extending the absorption spectrum. Preliminary results show one fourth improvement in solar cell efficiency.

  5. Hierarchically branched Fe2O3@TiO2 nanorod arrays for photoelectrochemical water splitting: facile synthesis and enhanced photoelectrochemical performance.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuangang; Wei, Xiaoliang; Zhu, Bowen; Wang, Hua; Tang, Yuxin; Sum, Tze Chien; Chen, Xiaodong

    2016-06-01

    Highly photoactive and durable photoanode materials are the key to photoelectrochemical water splitting. In this paper, hierarchically branched Fe2O3@TiO2 nanorod arrays (denoted as Fe2O3@TiO2 BNRs) composed of a long Fe2O3 trunk and numerous short TiO2 nanorod branches were fabricated and used as photoanodes for water splitting. Significant improvement of photoelectrochemical water splitting performance was observed based on Fe2O3@TiO2 BNRs. The photocurrent density of Fe2O3@TiO2 BNRs reaches up to 1.3 mA cm(-2) at 1.23 V versus RHE, which is 10 times higher than that of pristine Fe2O3 nanorod arrays under the same conditions. Furthermore, an obvious cathodic shift in the onset potential of photocurrent was observed in the Fe2O3@TiO2 BNRs. More significantly, the Fe2O3@TiO2 BNRs are quite stable even after 3600 s continuous illumination, and the photocurrent density shows almost no decay. Finally, a tentative mechanism was proposed to explain the superior performance of Fe2O3@TiO2 BNRs for PEC water splitting and discussed in detail on the basis of our experimental results.

  6. Synergistic Effect of Surface Plasmonic particles and Surface Passivation layer on ZnO Nanorods Array for Improved Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yichong; Yan, Xiaoqin; Kang, Zhuo; Li, Yong; Shen, Yanwei; Sun, Yihui; Wang, Li; Zhang, Yue

    2016-07-01

    One-dimensional zinc oxide nanorods array exhibit excellent electron mobility and thus hold great potential as photoanode for photoelelctrochemical water splitting. However, the poor absorption of visible light and the prominent surface recombination hider the performance improvement. In this work, Au nanoparticles and aluminium oxide were deposited onto the surface of ZnO nanorods to improve the PEC performance. The localized surface plasmon resonance of Au NPs could expand the absorption spectrum to visible region. Simultaneously, the surface of passivation with Au NPs and Al2O3 largely suppressed the photogenerated electron-hole recombination. As a result, the optimal solar-to-hydrogen efficiency of ZnO/Au/Al2O3 with 5 cycles was 6.7 times that of pristine ZnO, ascribed to the synergistic effect of SPR and surface passivation. This research reveals that the synergistic effect could be used as an important method to design efficient photoanodes for photoelectrochemical devices.

  7. Direct Nanorod Assembly Using Block Copolymer-Based Supramolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorkelsson, Kari; Mastroianni, Alexander; Ercius, Peter; Xu, Ting

    2012-02-01

    One-dimensional nanomaterials with high aspect ratios, such as nanorods, exhibit unique and useful anisotropic optical, magnetic, and electrical properties. The collective properties of 1-D nanomaterials depend on their spatial arrangements, interparticle ordering, and macroscopic alignment. Developing routes to control their organization with high precision is critical to generate functional materials. We have investigated the co-assemblies of nanorods and block copolymer (BCP)-based supramolecules that self-assemble into spherical, lamellar and cylindrical morphologies. By varying energetic contributions from the rod-rod interactions and the deformation of the supramolecule, a wide library of nanorod assemblies including highly aligned arrays, continuous networks, and clusters can be readily accessed. Since macroscopic alignment of BCP microdomains can be obtained by application of external fields, present studies open up a new route to manipulate macroscopic alignments of nanorods. Fundamentally, these studies have demonstrated that in these blends, the energetic contributions from the polymer chain deformation and rod-rod interactions are comparable and can be tailored to disperse nanorods with control over inter-rod ordering and their relative alignment.

  8. Tailored Height Gradients in Vertical Nanowire Arrays via Mechanical and Electronic Modulation of Metal-Assisted Chemical Etching.

    PubMed

    Otte, M A; Solis-Tinoco, V; Prieto, P; Borrisé, X; Lechuga, L M; González, M U; Sepulveda, B

    2015-09-01

    In current top-down nanofabrication methodologies the design freedom is generally constrained to the two lateral dimensions, and is only limited by the resolution of the employed nanolithographic technique. However, nanostructure height, which relies on certain mask-dependent material deposition or etching techniques, is usually uniform, and on-chip variation of this parameter is difficult and generally limited to very simple patterns. Herein, a novel nanofabrication methodology is presented, which enables the generation of high aspect-ratio nanostructure arrays with height gradients in arbitrary directions by a single and fast etching process. Based on metal-assisted chemical etching using a catalytic gold layer perforated with nanoholes, it is demonstrated how nanostructure arrays with directional height gradients can be accurately tailored by: (i) the control of the mass transport through the nanohole array, (ii) the mechanical properties of the perforated metal layer, and (iii) the conductive coupling to the surrounding gold film to accelerate the local electrochemical etching process. The proposed technique, enabling 20-fold on-chip variation of nanostructure height in a spatial range of a few micrometers, offers a new tool for the creation of novel types of nano-assemblies and metamaterials with interesting technological applications in fields such as nanophotonics, nanophononics, microfluidics or biomechanics. PMID:26033973

  9. Tailored Height Gradients in Vertical Nanowire Arrays via Mechanical and Electronic Modulation of Metal-Assisted Chemical Etching.

    PubMed

    Otte, M A; Solis-Tinoco, V; Prieto, P; Borrisé, X; Lechuga, L M; González, M U; Sepulveda, B

    2015-09-01

    In current top-down nanofabrication methodologies the design freedom is generally constrained to the two lateral dimensions, and is only limited by the resolution of the employed nanolithographic technique. However, nanostructure height, which relies on certain mask-dependent material deposition or etching techniques, is usually uniform, and on-chip variation of this parameter is difficult and generally limited to very simple patterns. Herein, a novel nanofabrication methodology is presented, which enables the generation of high aspect-ratio nanostructure arrays with height gradients in arbitrary directions by a single and fast etching process. Based on metal-assisted chemical etching using a catalytic gold layer perforated with nanoholes, it is demonstrated how nanostructure arrays with directional height gradients can be accurately tailored by: (i) the control of the mass transport through the nanohole array, (ii) the mechanical properties of the perforated metal layer, and (iii) the conductive coupling to the surrounding gold film to accelerate the local electrochemical etching process. The proposed technique, enabling 20-fold on-chip variation of nanostructure height in a spatial range of a few micrometers, offers a new tool for the creation of novel types of nano-assemblies and metamaterials with interesting technological applications in fields such as nanophotonics, nanophononics, microfluidics or biomechanics.

  10. MOF-5 decorated hierarchical ZnO nanorod arrays and its photoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yinmin; Lan, Ding; Wang, Yuren; Cao, He; Jiang, Heng

    2011-04-01

    The strategy to manipulate nanoscale materials into well-organized hierarchical architectures is very important to both material synthesis and nanodevice applications. Here, nanoscale MOF-5 crystallites were successfully fabricated onto ordered hierarchical ZnO arrays based on aqueous chemical synthesis and molecule self-assembly technology guided room temperature diffusion method, which has the advantages of energy saving and simple operation. The structures and morphologies of the samples were performed by X-ray powder diffraction and field emission scanning electronic microscopy. The MOF-5 crystallites have good quality and bind well to the hexagonal-patterned ZnO arrays. The photoluminescence spectrum shows that the emission of hybrid MOF-5-ZnO films displays a blue shift in green emission and intensity reduction in UV emission. This ordered hybrid semiconductor material is expected to exploit the great potentiality in sensors, micro/nanodevices, and screen displays.

  11. Friction characteristics of polymeric nanofiber arrays against substrates with tailored geometry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yongkwan; Claus, Robert K; Limanto, Francesca; Fearing, Ronald S; Maboudian, Roya

    2013-07-01

    We present a study on macroscale friction of polyethylene nanofibrillar arrays against patterned rough surfaces with various asperity heights, spacings, and area fractions. These surfaces are prepared by utilizing colloidal lithography and silica evaporation, which allows the independent control of geometric parameters. While the nanofiber arrays exhibit high friction on a smooth surface, much lower friction is observed when the asperity height becomes larger than can be compensated by fiber compliance, or when the asperity spacing becomes small enough to prevent fiber penetration for contact. The observed behavior is discussed with simple mechanical models and summarized to provide some criteria to maintain high friction against rough surfaces.

  12. Specificity and Strain-Typing Capabilities of Nanorod Array-Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy for Mycoplasma pneumoniae Detection.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Kelley C; Benitez, Alvaro J; Ratliff, Amy E; Crabb, Donna M; Sheppard, Edward S; Winchell, Jonas M; Dluhy, Richard A; Waites, Ken B; Atkinson, T Prescott; Krause, Duncan C

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a cell wall-less bacterial pathogen of the human respiratory tract that accounts for > 20% of all community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). At present the most effective means for detection and strain-typing is quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), which can exhibit excellent sensitivity and specificity but requires separate tests for detection and genotyping, lacks standardization between available tests and between labs, and has limited practicality for widespread, point-of-care use. We have developed and previously described a silver nanorod array-surface enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (NA-SERS) biosensing platform capable of detecting M. pneumoniae with statistically significant specificity and sensitivity in simulated and true clinical throat swab samples, and the ability to distinguish between reference strains of the two main genotypes of M. pneumoniae. Furthermore, we have established a qualitative lower endpoint of detection for NA-SERS of < 1 genome equivalent (cell/μl) and a quantitative multivariate detection limit of 5.3 ± 1 cells/μl. Here we demonstrate using partial least squares- discriminatory analysis (PLS-DA) of sample spectra that NA-SERS correctly identified M. pneumoniae clinical isolates from globally diverse origins and distinguished these from a panel of 12 other human commensal and pathogenic mycoplasma species with 100% cross-validated statistical accuracy. Furthermore, PLS-DA correctly classified by strain type all 30 clinical isolates with 96% cross-validated accuracy for type 1 strains, 98% cross-validated accuracy for type 2 strains, and 90% cross-validated accuracy for type 2V strains. PMID:26121242

  13. Specificity and Strain-Typing Capabilities of Nanorod Array-Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy for Mycoplasma pneumoniae Detection

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Kelley C.; Benitez, Alvaro J.; Ratliff, Amy E.; Crabb, Donna M.; Sheppard, Edward S.; Winchell, Jonas M.; Dluhy, Richard A.; Waites, Ken B.; Atkinson, T. Prescott; Krause, Duncan C.

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a cell wall-less bacterial pathogen of the human respiratory tract that accounts for > 20% of all community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). At present the most effective means for detection and strain-typing is quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), which can exhibit excellent sensitivity and specificity but requires separate tests for detection and genotyping, lacks standardization between available tests and between labs, and has limited practicality for widespread, point-of-care use. We have developed and previously described a silver nanorod array-surface enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (NA-SERS) biosensing platform capable of detecting M. pneumoniae with statistically significant specificity and sensitivity in simulated and true clinical throat swab samples, and the ability to distinguish between reference strains of the two main genotypes of M. pneumoniae. Furthermore, we have established a qualitative lower endpoint of detection for NA-SERS of < 1 genome equivalent (cell/μl) and a quantitative multivariate detection limit of 5.3 ± 1 cells/μl. Here we demonstrate using partial least squares- discriminatory analysis (PLS-DA) of sample spectra that NA-SERS correctly identified M. pneumoniae clinical isolates from globally diverse origins and distinguished these from a panel of 12 other human commensal and pathogenic mycoplasma species with 100% cross-validated statistical accuracy. Furthermore, PLS-DA correctly classified by strain type all 30 clinical isolates with 96% cross-validated accuracy for type 1 strains, 98% cross-validated accuracy for type 2 strains, and 90% cross-validated accuracy for type 2V strains. PMID:26121242

  14. Specificity and Strain-Typing Capabilities of Nanorod Array-Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy for Mycoplasma pneumoniae Detection.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Kelley C; Benitez, Alvaro J; Ratliff, Amy E; Crabb, Donna M; Sheppard, Edward S; Winchell, Jonas M; Dluhy, Richard A; Waites, Ken B; Atkinson, T Prescott; Krause, Duncan C

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a cell wall-less bacterial pathogen of the human respiratory tract that accounts for > 20% of all community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). At present the most effective means for detection and strain-typing is quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), which can exhibit excellent sensitivity and specificity but requires separate tests for detection and genotyping, lacks standardization between available tests and between labs, and has limited practicality for widespread, point-of-care use. We have developed and previously described a silver nanorod array-surface enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (NA-SERS) biosensing platform capable of detecting M. pneumoniae with statistically significant specificity and sensitivity in simulated and true clinical throat swab samples, and the ability to distinguish between reference strains of the two main genotypes of M. pneumoniae. Furthermore, we have established a qualitative lower endpoint of detection for NA-SERS of < 1 genome equivalent (cell/μl) and a quantitative multivariate detection limit of 5.3 ± 1 cells/μl. Here we demonstrate using partial least squares- discriminatory analysis (PLS-DA) of sample spectra that NA-SERS correctly identified M. pneumoniae clinical isolates from globally diverse origins and distinguished these from a panel of 12 other human commensal and pathogenic mycoplasma species with 100% cross-validated statistical accuracy. Furthermore, PLS-DA correctly classified by strain type all 30 clinical isolates with 96% cross-validated accuracy for type 1 strains, 98% cross-validated accuracy for type 2 strains, and 90% cross-validated accuracy for type 2V strains.

  15. Controllable growth of vertically aligned Bi-doped TiO2 nanorod arrays for all-oxide solid-state DSSCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asemi, Morteza; Ghanaatshoar, Majid

    2016-09-01

    In this study, vertically aligned Bi-doped TiO2 nanorod arrays as photoanodes were successfully grown on the fluorine-doped tin oxide by hydrothermal method. Structural analysis showed that bismuth was successfully incorporated into the TiO2 lattice at low concentration, but at higher concentration, phase segregation of Bi2O3 in the TiO2 matrix was occurred. TiO2 nanorods with 3 % bismuth concentration had minimum electrical resistivity. As the solid-state electrolyte, Mg-doped CuCrO2 nanoparticles with p-type conductivity were synthesized by sol-gel method. The fabricated all-oxide solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells with Bi-doped TiO2 nanorods displayed better photovoltaic performance due to the presence of Bi. The improved cell performance was correlated with the higher dye loading, slower charge recombination rate and the higher electrical conductivity of the photoanodes. After mechanical pressing, the all-oxide solid-state DSSC exhibited enhanced photovoltaic performance due to the formation of the large neck between adjacent nanoparticles by mechanical sintering. The open-circuit photovoltage decay measurement of the devices and electrical conductivity of the nanoparticles before and after pressing revealed that the mechanical pressing technique reduces charge recombination rate and facilitates electron transport through the interconnected nanoparticles.

  16. Real-time monitoring of the solution growth of ZnO nanorods arrays by quartz microbalances and in-situ temperature sensors

    PubMed Central

    Orsini, Andrea; Falconi, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Wet-chemistry methods have crucial advantages for the synthesis of nanostructures, including simple, low-cost, large-area, and low-temperature deposition on almost arbitrary substrates. Nevertheless, the rational design of improved wet-chemistry procedures is extremely difficult because, in practice, only post-synthesis characterization is possible. In fact, the only methods for on-line monitoring the growth of nanostructures in liquids are complex, expensive and introduce intricate artifacts. Here we demonstrate that electro-mechanically resonating substrates and in-situ temperature sensors easily enable an accurate real-time investigation of reaction kinetics and, in combination with conventional SEM imaging, greatly facilitate the rational design of optimized synthesis procedures; in particular, such a simple approach provides useful insight for the development of processes where one or more key parameters are dynamically adjusted. As a proof-of-concept, first, we accurately characterize a process for fabricating arrays of ZnO nanorods; afterwards, we design a dynamic-temperature process that, in comparison with the corresponding constant-temperature procedure, is almost-ideally energy efficient and results in ZnO nanorods with improved characteristics in terms of length, aspect ratio, and total deposited nanorods mass. This is a major step towards the rational design of dynamic procedures for the solution growth of nanostructures. PMID:25190110

  17. TiO{sub 2} nanorods branched on fast-synthesized large clearance TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays for dye-sensitized solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Anzheng; Li Haina; Jia Zhiyong; Xia Zhengcai

    2011-11-15

    A large clearance TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays (LTAs) has been synthesized by a not more than 12 h anodization duration and based on this a branched TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays (BLTs) has been achieved through TiO{sub 2} nanorods branch-like grown on the LTAs. Some key factors and probable mechanisms of the fabrication processes on two novel nanoarchitectures are discussed. Exhilaratingly, it is found that the obtained LTAs has demonstrated large pore diameter and void spaces (pore diameter {approx}350 nm; void spaces {approx}160 nm; and tube length {approx}3.5 {mu}m), and the synthesized hierarchical BLTs, compared with conventional TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays, has shown a much stronger dye absorption performance and an approximately double of the solar cell efficiency (in our case from 1.62% to 3.18% under simulated AM 1.5 conditions). - Graphical Abstract: The schematic diagram of synthesis process for LTAs and BLTs is on the above and the corresponding FESEM images of obtained photoanodes samples are shown below. Highlights: > Large clearance TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays (LTAs) was synthesized by a fast anodization process of 12 h. > Anodization time of 12 h is just 10% of about 120 h reported in the previous references. > Branch-like TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays (BLTs) was achieved by growing TiO{sub 2} nanorods on the LTAs. > Obtained BLTs and LTAs show impressive morphology and noticeable improvement of surface area. > BLTs shows about more than 1 times higher solar cell efficiency than that of TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays.

  18. Optimization of carbothermic synthesis of zinc-oxide micro- and nanorod arrays and their morphometric parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyanguzov, N. V.; Kaydashev, E. M.; Zakharchenko, I. N.; Bunina, O. A.

    2013-09-01

    The influence of argon-buffer pressure and distance from the material source on morphometric parameters of arrays of vertically aligned ZnO nano- and microrods was studied. The rods were grown by the carbothermic method on Si(100) substrates with a ZnO thin-film sublayer. Systematic studies of catalyst-free growth, as well as of the effect of growth catalysts Au and Cu on the rods' formation process and their sizes, were performed. It was found that a catalyst plays a role only on the initial stage and does not participate in the consequent rods' growth under the applied synthesis conditions. The possibility of controlling the average diameters, lengths, and densities of superficial distribution of the rods within the ranges of 100-300 nm, 1.5-9 μm, and (2.8-5.3) × 108 cm-2, respectively, was demonstrated.

  19. Technological Aspects in Fabrication of Micro- and Nano-Sized Carbon Based Features: Nanorods, Periodical Arrays and Self-Standing Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ižák, Tibor; Domonkos, Mária; Babchenko, Oleg; Varga, Marián; Rezek, Bohuslav; Jurka, Vlastimil; Hruška, Karel; Kromka, Alexander

    2015-09-01

    Diamond and/or carbon thin films are in the center of interest due to their variability and extraordinary combination of intrinsic properties. However, some applications require fabrication of films with tailored properties. Especially, fabrication of periodic structures is highly attractive due to their increased surface area. In this contribution we point out the key technological aspects for fabrication of micro- and nano-sized carbon-based structures. Three representative structures are presented: diamond nanorods, self-assembled templates and self-standing diamond membranes. We found that the diameter of diamond nanorods can be controlled in a broad range from 10 to 200 nm by the masking material (Au vs Ni) and its initial thickness (from few to tens of nanometers). The assembly of polystyrene microspheres in mono- or multi-layer with square or hexagonal periodicities was controlled by the spin-coating parameters. The diamond porous membrane was selectively grown on Si substrate with an interdigital or mesh like geometry. Advantages of each structure as well as the fabrication limitations are discussed more in detail and finally their representative applications are pointed out.

  20. Tailoring the parameters of nanohole arrays in gold films for sensing applications.

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, J. M.; Schatz, G. C.; Gray, S. K.; Northwestern Univ.

    2007-01-01

    Subwavelength hole arrays in metal films have the potential to exhibit narrow and high refractive index (RI) sensitive transmission features. We have previously demonstrated that such features can arise from the coupling between Wood anomalies (WAs) and surface Plasmon polaritons (SPPs) on opposite sides of the metal film, the 'WA-SPP' effect. Rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) calculations on a 2D model, which are shown to give WA-SPP features very similar to that of 3D Finite-Difference Time- Domain (FDTD) calculations, are performed to determine how system parameters influence the strength of the WA-SPP effect. Herein we show that the optimum values for the film thickness and hole diameter are 45 and 175 nm, respectively.

  1. Controlled growth of high-density CdS and CdSe nanorod arrays on selective facets of two-dimensional semiconductor nanoplates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xue-Jun; Chen, Junze; Tan, Chaoliang; Zhu, Yihan; Han, Yu; Zhang, Hua

    2016-05-01

    The rational synthesis of hierarchical three-dimensional nanostructures with specific compositions, morphologies and functionalities is important for applications in a variety of fields ranging from energy conversion and electronics to biotechnology. Here, we report a seeded growth approach for the controlled epitaxial growth of three types of hierarchical one-dimensional (1D)/two-dimensional (2D) nanostructures, where nanorod arrays of II–VI semiconductor CdS or CdSe are grown on the selective facets of hexagonal-shaped nanoplates, either on the two basal facets of the nanoplate, or on one basal facet, or on the two basal facets and six side facets. The seed engineering of 2D hexagonal-shaped nanoplates is the key factor for growth of the three resulting types of 1D/2D nanostructures. The wurtzite- and zinc-blende-type polymorphs of semiconductors are used to determine the facet-selective epitaxial growth of 1D nanorod arrays, resulting in the formation of different hierarchical three-dimensional (3D) nanostructures.

  2. Controlled growth of high-density CdS and CdSe nanorod arrays on selective facets of two-dimensional semiconductor nanoplates.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xue-Jun; Chen, Junze; Tan, Chaoliang; Zhu, Yihan; Han, Yu; Zhang, Hua

    2016-05-01

    The rational synthesis of hierarchical three-dimensional nanostructures with specific compositions, morphologies and functionalities is important for applications in a variety of fields ranging from energy conversion and electronics to biotechnology. Here, we report a seeded growth approach for the controlled epitaxial growth of three types of hierarchical one-dimensional (1D)/two-dimensional (2D) nanostructures, where nanorod arrays of II-VI semiconductor CdS or CdSe are grown on the selective facets of hexagonal-shaped nanoplates, either on the two basal facets of the nanoplate, or on one basal facet, or on the two basal facets and six side facets. The seed engineering of 2D hexagonal-shaped nanoplates is the key factor for growth of the three resulting types of 1D/2D nanostructures. The wurtzite- and zinc-blende-type polymorphs of semiconductors are used to determine the facet-selective epitaxial growth of 1D nanorod arrays, resulting in the formation of different hierarchical three-dimensional (3D) nanostructures. PMID:27102681

  3. Hierarchical three-dimensional branched hematite nanorod arrays with enhanced mid-visible light absorption for high-efficiency photoelectrochemical water splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Degao; Chang, Guoliang; Zhang, Yuying; Chao, Jie; Yang, Jianzhong; Su, Shao; Wang, Lihua; Fan, Chunhai; Wang, Lianhui

    2016-06-01

    Herein, we presented hierarchical three-dimensional (3D) branched hematite nanorod arrays (NAs) on transparent fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) conductive glass substrates, which exhibited high PEC water splitting performance due to the enhancement of mid-visible light harvesting as well as charge separation and transfer. The introduction of a TiO2 underlayer made the as-prepared 3D branched hematite NAs achieve a photocurrent density of 0.61 mA cm-2 at 1.23 V vs. reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE) without high-temperature activation.Herein, we presented hierarchical three-dimensional (3D) branched hematite nanorod arrays (NAs) on transparent fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) conductive glass substrates, which exhibited high PEC water splitting performance due to the enhancement of mid-visible light harvesting as well as charge separation and transfer. The introduction of a TiO2 underlayer made the as-prepared 3D branched hematite NAs achieve a photocurrent density of 0.61 mA cm-2 at 1.23 V vs. reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE) without high-temperature activation. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr03855g

  4. PbS Quantum-Dot Depleted Heterojunction Solar Cells Employing CdS Nanorod Arrays as the Electron Acceptor with Enhanced Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xudong; Liu, Shangjing; Chang, Yajing; Li, Guopeng; Mi, Longfei; Wang, Xiaoming; Jiang, Yang

    2015-10-21

    Depleted heterojunction (DH) solar cells have shown great potential in power conversion. A 3-D DH structure was first designed and fabricated through a layer-by-layer spin-coating technique to increase the interfacial contact of p-type PbS quantum dots (QDs) and n-type CdS nanorod arrays. As a result, a decent power conversion efficiency of 4.78% in this structure was achieved, which is five times the efficiency of a planar heterojunction structure of a similar thickness. In the 3-D DH structure, n-type CdS nanorod arrays (NRs) were grown vertically as electron acceptors, on which p-type PbS quantum dots were deposited as absorbing materials in a layer-by-layer spin-coating fashion. The results are discussed in view of effective transportation of electrons through CdS NRs than the hopping transportation in large nanoparticle-based CdS film, the enlarged interfacial area, and shortened carrier diffusion distance.

  5. Controlled growth of high-density CdS and CdSe nanorod arrays on selective facets of two-dimensional semiconductor nanoplates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xue-Jun; Chen, Junze; Tan, Chaoliang; Zhu, Yihan; Han, Yu; Zhang, Hua

    2016-05-01

    The rational synthesis of hierarchical three-dimensional nanostructures with specific compositions, morphologies and functionalities is important for applications in a variety of fields ranging from energy conversion and electronics to biotechnology. Here, we report a seeded growth approach for the controlled epitaxial growth of three types of hierarchical one-dimensional (1D)/two-dimensional (2D) nanostructures, where nanorod arrays of II-VI semiconductor CdS or CdSe are grown on the selective facets of hexagonal-shaped nanoplates, either on the two basal facets of the nanoplate, or on one basal facet, or on the two basal facets and six side facets. The seed engineering of 2D hexagonal-shaped nanoplates is the key factor for growth of the three resulting types of 1D/2D nanostructures. The wurtzite- and zinc-blende-type polymorphs of semiconductors are used to determine the facet-selective epitaxial growth of 1D nanorod arrays, resulting in the formation of different hierarchical three-dimensional (3D) nanostructures.

  6. Theory of tailorable optical response of two-dimensional arrays of plasmonic nanoparticles at dielectric interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikdar, Debabrata; Kornyshev, Alexei A.

    2016-09-01

    Two-dimensional arrays of plasmonic nanoparticles at interfaces are promising candidates for novel optical metamaterials. Such systems materialise from ‘top–down’ patterning or ‘bottom–up’ self-assembly of nanoparticles at liquid/liquid or liquid/solid interfaces. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of an extended effective quasi-static four-layer-stack model for the description of plasmon-resonance-enhanced optical responses of such systems. We investigate in detail the effects of the size of nanoparticles, average interparticle separation, dielectric constants of the media constituting the interface, and the nanoparticle position relative to the interface. Interesting interplays of these different factors are explored first for normally incident light. For off-normal incidence, the strong effects of the polarisation of light are found at large incident angles, which allows to dynamically tune the reflectance spectra. All the predictions of the theory are tested against full-wave simulations, proving this simplistic model to be adequate within the quasi-static limit. The model takes seconds to calculate the system’s optical response and makes it easy to unravel the effect of each system parameter. This helps rapid rationalization of experimental data and understanding of the optical signals from these novel ‘metamaterials’, optimised for light reflection or harvesting.

  7. Tailoring plasmonic properties of gold nanohole arrays for surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Peng; Cushing, Scott K.; Suri, Savan; Wu, Nianqiang

    2015-01-01

    The wide plasmonic tuning range of nanotriangle and nanohole array patterns fabricated by nanosphere lithography makes them promising in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensors. Unfortunately, it is challenging to optimize these patterns for SERS sensing because their optical response is a complex mixture of localized and propagating surface plasmons. In this paper, transmission and reflection measurements are combined with finite difference time domain simulations to identify and separate each plasmonic mode, discerning which resonance leads to the electromagnetic field enhancement. The SERS enhancement is found to be dominated by the absorption, which is shifted from the transmission and reflection dips usually used as tuning points, and by the ‘gap’ defects formed within the pattern. These effects have different spectral and geometric dependences, forming two optimization curves which can be used to predict the best performance for a given excitation wavelength. The developed model is verified with experimental SERS measurements for several nanohole sizes and periodicities, and then used to give optimal fabrication parameters for a range of measurement conditions. The results will promote the application of two-dimensional plasmonic nanoarrays in SERS sensors. PMID:25586930

  8. Tailoring plasmonic properties of gold nanohole arrays for surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Peng; Cushing, Scott K; Suri, Savan; Wu, Nianqiang

    2015-09-01

    The wide plasmonic tuning range of nanotriangle and nanohole array patterns fabricated by nanosphere lithography makes them promising in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensors. Unfortunately, it is challenging to optimize these patterns for SERS sensing because their optical response is a complex mixture of localized surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and propagating surface plasmon polariton (SPP). In this paper, transmission and reflection measurements are combined with finite difference time domain simulations to identify and separate each plasmonic mode, discerning which resonance leads to the electromagnetic field enhancement. The SERS enhancement is found to be dominated by the absorption, which is shifted from the transmission and reflection dips usually used as tuning points, and by the 'gap' defects formed within the pattern. These effects have different spectral and geometric dependences, forming two optimization curves which can be used to predict the best performance for a given excitation wavelength. The developed model is verified with experimental SERS measurements for several nanohole sizes and periodicities, and then used to give optimal fabrication parameters for a range of measurement conditions. The results will promote the application of two-dimensional plasmonic nanoarrays in SERS sensors. PMID:25586930

  9. Tailoring Anisotropic Interactions between Soft Nanospheres Using Dense Arrays of Smectic Liquid Crystal Edge Dislocations.

    PubMed

    Coursault, Delphine; Blach, Jean-Francois; Grand, Johan; Coati, Alessandro; Vlad, Alina; Zappone, Bruno; Babonneau, David; Lévi, Georges; Félidj, Nordin; Donnio, Bertrand; Gallani, Jean-Louis; Alba, Michel; Garreau, Yves; Borensztein, Yves; Goldmann, Michel; Lacaze, Emmanuelle

    2015-12-22

    We investigated composite films of gold nanoparticles (NPs)/liquid crystal (LC) defects as a model system to understand the key parameters, which allow for an accurate control of NP anisotropic self-assemblies using soft templates. We combined spectrophotometry, Raman spectroscopy, and grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering with calculations of dipole coupling models and soft sphere interactions. We demonstrate that dense arrays of elementary edge dislocations can strongly localize small NPs along the defect cores, resulting in formation of parallel chains of NPs. Furthermore, we show that within the dislocation cores the inter-NP distances can be tuned. This phenomenon appears to be driven by the competition between "soft (nano)sphere" attraction and LC-induced repulsion. We evidence two extreme regimes controlled by the solvent evaporation: (i) when the solvent evaporates abruptly, the spacing between neighboring NPs in the chains is dominated by van der Waals interactions between interdigitated capping ligands, leading to chains of close-packed NPs; (ii) when the solvent evaporates slowly, strong interdigitation between the is avoided, leading to a dominating LC-induced repulsion between NPs associated with the replacement of disordered cores by NPs. The templating of NPs by topological defects, beyond the technological inquiries, may enable creation, investigation, and manipulation of unique collective features for a wide range of nanomaterials.

  10. Theory of tailorable optical response of two-dimensional arrays of plasmonic nanoparticles at dielectric interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Sikdar, Debabrata; Kornyshev, Alexei A.

    2016-01-01

    Two-dimensional arrays of plasmonic nanoparticles at interfaces are promising candidates for novel optical metamaterials. Such systems materialise from ‘top–down’ patterning or ‘bottom–up’ self-assembly of nanoparticles at liquid/liquid or liquid/solid interfaces. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of an extended effective quasi-static four-layer-stack model for the description of plasmon-resonance-enhanced optical responses of such systems. We investigate in detail the effects of the size of nanoparticles, average interparticle separation, dielectric constants of the media constituting the interface, and the nanoparticle position relative to the interface. Interesting interplays of these different factors are explored first for normally incident light. For off-normal incidence, the strong effects of the polarisation of light are found at large incident angles, which allows to dynamically tune the reflectance spectra. All the predictions of the theory are tested against full-wave simulations, proving this simplistic model to be adequate within the quasi-static limit. The model takes seconds to calculate the system’s optical response and makes it easy to unravel the effect of each system parameter. This helps rapid rationalization of experimental data and understanding of the optical signals from these novel ‘metamaterials’, optimised for light reflection or harvesting. PMID:27652788

  11. Enhanced photoresponse of conformal TiO{sub 2}/Ag nanorod array-based Schottky photodiodes fabricated via successive glancing angle and atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Haider, Ali; Biyikli, Necmi; Cansizoglu, Hilal; Cansizoglu, Mehmet Fatih; Karabacak, Tansel; Okyay, Ali Kemal

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the authors demonstrate a proof of concept nanostructured photodiode fabrication method via successive glancing angle deposition (GLAD) and atomic layer deposition (ALD). The fabricated metal-semiconductor nanorod (NR) arrays offer enhanced photoresponse compared to conventional planar thin-film counterparts. Silver (Ag) metallic NR arrays were deposited on Ag-film/Si templates by utilizing GLAD. Subsequently, titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) was deposited conformally on Ag NRs via ALD. Scanning electron microscopy studies confirmed the successful formation of vertically aligned Ag NRs deposited via GLAD and conformal deposition of TiO{sub 2} on Ag NRs via ALD. Following the growth of TiO{sub 2} on Ag NRs, aluminum metallic top contacts were formed to complete the fabrication of NR-based Schottky photodiodes. Nanostructured devices exhibited a photo response enhancement factor of 1.49 × 10{sup 2} under a reverse bias of 3 V.

  12. Great enhancement in the excitonic recombination and light extraction of highly ordered InGaN/GaN elliptic nanorod arrays on a wafer scale.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Zhe; Guo, Xu; Liu, Bin; Hu, Fengrui; Dai, Jiangping; Zhang, Yun; Li, Yi; Tao, Tao; Zhi, Ting; Xie, Zili; Ge, Haixiong; Wang, Xiaoyong; Xiao, Min; Wang, Tao; Shi, Yi; Zheng, Youdou; Zhang, Rong

    2016-01-01

    A series of highly ordered c-plane InGaN/GaN elliptic nanorod (NR) arrays were fabricated by our developed soft UV-curing nanoimprint lithography on a wafer. The photoluminescence (PL) integral intensities of NR samples show a remarkable enhancement by a factor of up to two orders of magnitude compared with their corresponding as-grown samples at room temperature. The radiative recombination in NR samples is found to be greatly enhanced due to not only the suppressed non-radiative recombination but also the strain relaxation and optical waveguide effects. It is demonstrated that elliptic NR arrays improve the light extraction greatly and have polarized emission, both of which possibly result from the broken structure symmetry. Green NR light-emitting diodes have been finally realized, with good current-voltage performance and uniform luminescence.

  13. Zinc oxide nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chik, Hope Wuming

    Non-lithographic, bottom-up techniques have been developed to advance the state of the art and contribute to the development of new material structures, fabrication methods, devices, and applications using the Zinc Oxide material system as a demonstration vehicle. The novel low temperature catalytic vapour-liquid-solid growth process developed is technologically simple, inexpensive, and a robust fabrication technique offering complete control over the physical dimensions of the nanorod such as its diameter and length, and over the positioning of the nanorods for site-selective growth. By controlling the distribution of the Au catalysts with the use of a self-organized anodized aluminum oxide nanopore membrane as a template, we have been able to synthesize highly ordered, hexagonally packed, array of ZnO nanorods spanning a large area. These nanorods are single crystal, hexagonally shaped, indicative of the wurtzite structure, and are vertically aligned to the substrate. By pre-patterning the template, arbitrary nanorod patterns can be formed. We have also demonstrated the assembly of the nanorods into functional devices using controlled methods that are less resource intensive, easily scalable, and adaptable to other material systems, without resorting to the manipulation of each individual nanostructures. Examples of these devices include the random network device that exploits the common attributes of the nanorods, and those formed using an external field to control the nanorod orientation. Two and three terminal device measurements show that the as-grown nanorods are n-type doped, and that by controlling the external optical excitation and its test environment, the photoconductivity can be altered dramatically. Self assemble techniques such as the spontaneous formation of nanodendrites into complex networks of interconnects were studied. Controlled formation of interconnects achieved by controlling the placement of the catalyst is demonstrated by growing the

  14. CdS nanoparticles sensitization of Al-doped ZnO nanorod array thin film with hydrogen treatment as an ITO/FTO-free photoanode for solar water splitting

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) nanorod array thin film with hydrogen treatment possesses the functions of transparent conducting oxide thin film and 1-D nanostructured semiconductor simultaneously. To enhance the absorption in the visible light region, it is sensitized by cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles which efficiently increase the absorption around 460 nm. The CdS nanoparticles-sensitized AZO nanorod array thin film with hydrogen treatment exhibits significantly improved photoelectrochemical property. After further heat treatment, a maximum short current density of 5.03 mA cm−2 is obtained under illumination. They not only are much higher than those without CdS nanoparticles sensitization and those without Al-doping and/or hydrogen treatment, but also comparable and even slightly superior to some earlier works for the CdS-sensitized zinc oxide nanorod array thin films with indium tin oxide (ITO) or fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) as substrates. This demonstrated successfully that the AZO nanorod array thin film with hydrogen treatment is quite suitable as an ITO/FTO-free photoanode and has great potentials in solar water splitting after sensitization by quantum dots capable of visible light absorption. PMID:23098050

  15. Enhancement of the Luminescence of ZnO Nanorod Arrays by SILAR Coating with a CdS Nanocrystalline Shell Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnaveni, M.; Devadason, Suganthi

    2015-02-01

    ZnO/CdS core/shell-type nanorod arrays (NRAs) have been synthesized by a simple chemical method. The thickness of the CdS shell layers was controlled by varying the number of successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction cycles. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the ZnO had a hexagonal crystal structure and the CdS had a cubic crystal structure. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed that a highly conforming CdS shell layer ˜5 nm thick had been deposited on the ZnO nanorods. High-resolution scanning electron microscopy revealed the presence of hexagonal ZnO nanorods entirely coated with a nanocrystalline CdS shell. The ultraviolet-visible-near infrared absorption spectra of the films were red shifted and the calculated optical energy band gap decreased from 3.25 to 2.46 eV with progressive increase of CdS shell layer thickness. Photoluminescence spectra revealed enhancement of the near-band-edge emission centered at 380 nm of the ZnO NRAs after coating with the CdS shell layer. The observed shift in deep level emissions from yellow to green in the ZnO/CdS core/shell heterostructures has been explained. The measured electrical resistivity of bare ZnO and ZnO/CdS core/shell NRAs was 5.43 × 10-3 Ω cm and 1.25 × 10-3 Ω cm, respectively, when the films were illuminated with visible light.

  16. Preparation of thin hexagonal highly-ordered anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template onto silicon substrate and growth ZnO nanorod arrays by electrodeposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chahrour, Khaled M.; Ahmed, Naser M.; Hashim, M. R.; Elfadill, Nezar G.; Qaeed, M. A.; Bououdina, M.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates of Aluminum thin films onto Ti-coated silicon substrates were prepared for growth of nanostructure materials. Hexagonally highly ordered thin AAO templates were fabricated under controllable conditions by using a two-step anodization. The obtained thin AAO templates were approximately 70 nm in pore diameter and 250 nm in length with 110 nm interpore distances within an area of 3 cm2. The difference between first and second anodization was investigated in details by in situ monitoring of current-time curve. A bottom barrier layer of the AAO templates was removed during dropping the voltage in the last period of the anodization process followed by a wet etching using phosphoric acid (5 wt%) for several minutes at ambient temperature. As an application, Zn nanorod arrays embedded in anodic alumina (AAO) template were fabricated by electrodeposition. Oxygen was used to oxidize the electrodeposited Zn nanorods in the AAO template at 700 °C. The morphology, structure and photoluminescence properties of ZnO/AAO assembly were analyzed using Field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Atomic force microscope (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL).

  17. Synergistic Effect of Surface Plasmonic particles and Surface Passivation layer on ZnO Nanorods Array for Improved Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yichong; Yan, Xiaoqin; Kang, Zhuo; Li, Yong; Shen, Yanwei; Sun, Yihui; Wang, Li; Zhang, Yue

    2016-01-01

    One-dimensional zinc oxide nanorods array exhibit excellent electron mobility and thus hold great potential as photoanode for photoelelctrochemical water splitting. However, the poor absorption of visible light and the prominent surface recombination hider the performance improvement. In this work, Au nanoparticles and aluminium oxide were deposited onto the surface of ZnO nanorods to improve the PEC performance. The localized surface plasmon resonance of Au NPs could expand the absorption spectrum to visible region. Simultaneously, the surface of passivation with Au NPs and Al2O3 largely suppressed the photogenerated electron-hole recombination. As a result, the optimal solar-to-hydrogen efficiency of ZnO/Au/Al2O3 with 5 cycles was 6.7 times that of pristine ZnO, ascribed to the synergistic effect of SPR and surface passivation. This research reveals that the synergistic effect could be used as an important method to design efficient photoanodes for photoelectrochemical devices. PMID:27443692

  18. Synergistic Effect of Surface Plasmonic particles and Surface Passivation layer on ZnO Nanorods Array for Improved Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yichong; Yan, Xiaoqin; Kang, Zhuo; Li, Yong; Shen, Yanwei; Sun, Yihui; Wang, Li; Zhang, Yue

    2016-01-01

    One-dimensional zinc oxide nanorods array exhibit excellent electron mobility and thus hold great potential as photoanode for photoelelctrochemical water splitting. However, the poor absorption of visible light and the prominent surface recombination hider the performance improvement. In this work, Au nanoparticles and aluminium oxide were deposited onto the surface of ZnO nanorods to improve the PEC performance. The localized surface plasmon resonance of Au NPs could expand the absorption spectrum to visible region. Simultaneously, the surface of passivation with Au NPs and Al2O3 largely suppressed the photogenerated electron-hole recombination. As a result, the optimal solar-to-hydrogen efficiency of ZnO/Au/Al2O3 with 5 cycles was 6.7 times that of pristine ZnO, ascribed to the synergistic effect of SPR and surface passivation. This research reveals that the synergistic effect could be used as an important method to design efficient photoanodes for photoelectrochemical devices. PMID:27443692

  19. Low-Temperature Growth of Well-Aligned ZnO Nanorod Arrays by Chemical Bath Deposition for Schottky Diode Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Zhaolin

    2015-04-01

    A well-aligned ZnO nanorod array (ZNRA) was successfully grown on an indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate by chemical bath deposition at low temperature. The morphology, crystalline structure, transmittance spectrum and photoluminescence spectrum of as-grown ZNRA were investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and spectrophotometer, respectively. The results of these measurements showed that the ZNRA contained densely packed, aligned nanorods with diameters from 30 nm to 40 nm and a wurtzite structure. The ZNRA exhibited good optical transparency within the visible spectral range, with >80% transmission. Gold (Au) was deposited on top of the ZNRA, and the current-voltage characteristics of the resulting ITO/ZNRA/Au device in the dark were evaluated in detail. The ITO/ZNRA/Au device acted as a Schottky barrier diode with rectifying behaviour, low turn-on voltage (0.6 V), small reverse-bias saturation current (3.73 × 10-6 A), a high ideality factor (3.75), and a reasonable barrier height (0.65 V) between the ZNRA and Au.

  20. Hydrothermal Etching Treatment to Rutile TiO2 Nanorod Arrays for Improving the Efficiency of CdS-Sensitized TiO2 Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Wan, Jingshu; Liu, Rong; Tong, Yuzhu; Chen, Shuhuang; Hu, Yunxia; Wang, Baoyuan; Xu, Yang; Wang, Hao

    2016-12-01

    Highly ordered TiO2 nanorod arrays (NRAs) were directly grown on an F:SnO2 (FTO) substrate without any seed layer by hydrothermal route. For a larger surface area, the second-step hydrothermal treatment in hydrochloric acid was carried out to the as-prepared TiO2 NRAs. The results showed that the center portion of the TiO2 nanorods were dissolved in the etching solution to form a nanocave at the initial etching process. As the etching time extended, the tip parts of the nanocave wall split into lots of nanowires with a reduced diameter, giving rise to a remarkable increase of specific surface area for the TiO2 NRAs. The TiO2 films after etching treatment were sensitized by CdS quantum dots (QDs) to fabricate quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs), which exhibited a significant improvement in the photocurrent density in comparison with that of the un-treated device, this mainly attributed to the enhancement of QD loading and diffused reflectance ability. Through modifying the etching TiO2 films with TiCl4, a relatively high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.14 % was obtained after optimizing the etching time.

  1. Hydrothermal Etching Treatment to Rutile TiO2 Nanorod Arrays for Improving the Efficiency of CdS-Sensitized TiO2 Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Jingshu; Liu, Rong; Tong, Yuzhu; Chen, Shuhuang; Hu, Yunxia; Wang, Baoyuan; Xu, Yang; Wang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Highly ordered TiO2 nanorod arrays (NRAs) were directly grown on an F:SnO2 (FTO) substrate without any seed layer by hydrothermal route. For a larger surface area, the second-step hydrothermal treatment in hydrochloric acid was carried out to the as-prepared TiO2 NRAs. The results showed that the center portion of the TiO2 nanorods were dissolved in the etching solution to form a nanocave at the initial etching process. As the etching time extended, the tip parts of the nanocave wall split into lots of nanowires with a reduced diameter, giving rise to a remarkable increase of specific surface area for the TiO2 NRAs. The TiO2 films after etching treatment were sensitized by CdS quantum dots (QDs) to fabricate quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs), which exhibited a significant improvement in the photocurrent density in comparison with that of the un-treated device, this mainly attributed to the enhancement of QD loading and diffused reflectance ability. Through modifying the etching TiO2 films with TiCl4, a relatively high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.14 % was obtained after optimizing the etching time.

  2. Efficient and stable CH3NH3PbI3-sensitized ZnO nanorod array solid-state solar cells.

    PubMed

    Bi, Dongqin; Boschloo, Gerrit; Schwarzmüller, Stefan; Yang, Lei; Johansson, Erik M J; Hagfeldt, Anders

    2013-12-01

    We report for the first time the use of a perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) absorber in combination with ZnO nanorod arrays (NRAs) for solar cell applications. The perovskite material has a higher absorption coefficient than molecular dye sensitizers, gives better solar cell stability, and is therefore more suited as a sensitizer for ZnO NRAs. A solar cell efficiency of 5.0% was achieved under 1000 W m(-2) AM 1.5 G illumination for a solar cell with the structure: ZnO NRA/CH3NH3PbI3/spiro-MeOTAD/Ag. Moreover, the solar cell shows a good long-term stability. Using transient photocurrent and photovoltage measurements it was found that the electron transport time and lifetime vary with the ZnO nanorod length, a trend which is similar to that in dye-sensitized solar cells, DSCs, suggesting a similar charge transfer process in ZnO NRA/CH3NH3PbI3 solar cells as in conventional DSCs. Compared to CH3NH3PbI3/TiO2 solar cells, ZnO shows a lower performance due to more recombination losses.

  3. A centimeter-scale sub-10 nm gap plasmonic nanorod array film as a versatile platform for enhancing light-matter interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhang-Kai; Xue, Jiancai; Zheng, Zebo; Li, Jiahua; Ke, Yanlin; Yu, Ying; Han, Jun-Bo; Xie, Weiguang; Deng, Shaozhi; Chen, Huanjun; Wang, Xuehua

    2015-09-01

    Strongly coupled plasmonic nanostructures with sub-10 nm gaps can enable intense electric field enhancements which greatly benefit the various light-matter interactions. From the point view of practical applications, such nanostructures should be of low-cost, facile fabrication and processing, large-scale with high-yield of the ultrasmall gaps, and easy for integration with other functional components. However, nowadays techniques for reliable fabrication of these nanostructures usually involve complex, time-consuming, and expensive lithography procedures, which are limited either by their low-throughput or the small areas obtained. On the other hand, so far most of the studies on the sub-10 nm gap nanostructures mainly focused on the surface-enhanced Raman scattering and high-harmonic generations, while leaving other nonlinear optical properties unexplored. In this work, using a scalable process without any lithography procedures, we demonstrated a centimeter-scale ordered plasmonic nanorod array film (PNRAF) with well-defined sub-10 nm interparticle gaps as a versatile platform for strongly enhanced light-matter interactions. Specifically, we showed that due to its plasmon-induced localized electromagnetic field enhancements, the Au PNRAF could exhibit extraordinary intrinsic multi-photon avalanche luminescence (MAPL) and nonlinear saturable absorption (SA). Furthermore, the PNRAF can be easily integrated with semiconductor quantum dots (SQDs) as well as wide bandgap semiconductors to strongly enhance their fluorescence and photocurrent response, respectively. Our method can be easily generalized to nanorod array films consisting of other plasmonic metals and even semiconductor materials, which can have multiple functionalities derived from different materials. Overall, the findings in our study have offered a potential strategy for design and fabrication of nanostructures with ultrasmall gaps for future photonic and optoelectronic applications.Strongly coupled

  4. Pulsed laser deposition of CuInS2 quantum dots on one-dimensional TiO2 nanorod arrays and their photoelectrochemical characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Minmin; Chen, Wenyuan; Guo, Hongjian; Yu, Limin; Li, Bo; Jia, Junhong

    2016-06-01

    In the typical solution-based synthesis of colloidal quantum dots (QDs), it always resorts to some surface treatment, ligand exchange processing or post-synthesis processing, which might involve some toxic chemical regents injurious to the performance of QD sensitized solar cells. In this work, the CuInS2 QDs are deposited on the surface of one-dimensional TiO2 nanorod arrays by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. The CuInS2 QDs are coated on TiO2 nanorods without any ligand engineering, and the performance of the obtained CuInS2 QD sensitized solar cells is optimized by adjusting the laser energy. An energy conversion efficiency of 3.95% is achieved under one sun illumination (AM 1.5, 100 mW cm-2). The improved performance is attributed to enhanced absorption in the longer wavelength region, quick interfacial charge transfer and few chance of carrier recombination with holes for CuInS2 QD-sensitized solar cells. Moreover, the photovoltaic device exhibits high stability in air without any specific encapsulation. Thus, the PLD technique could be further applied for the fabrication of QDs or other absorption materials.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of Cr-doped ZnO nanorod-array photocatalysts with improved activity

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Chi-Jung Yang, Tsung-Lin; Weng, Yu-Ching

    2014-06-01

    Immobilized photocatalysts with high catalytic activity under UV light were prepared by growing Cr-doped ZnO nanorods on glass substrates by a hydrothermal method. The effects of Cr dopant on the surface texture, crystallinity, surface chemistry, and photoinduced charge separation and their relation with the photocatalytic degradation of Cr-doped ZnO were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, diffuse reflectance spectra, photoelectrochemical scanning electrochemical microscopy, and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. Adding the appropriate amount of Cr dopant is a powerful way to enhance the separation of charge carriers in ZnO photocatalyst. The photocatalytic activity was improved due to the increase in surface oxygen vacancies, the separation of charge carriers, modification of the band gap, and the large surface area of the doped ZnO nanorod photocatalyst. - Graphical abstract: Photoinduced charge separation and its relation with the photocatalytic degradation activity of Cr-doped ZnO were investigated by photoelectrochemical scanning electrochemical microscopy. - Highlights: • Cr dopant enhances separation of charge carries in ZnO nanorod photocatalyst. • Photoinduced charge carries separation monitored by PEC-SECM. • The higher the photocurrent is, the higher the photocatalytic activity is. • Degradation of DB86 dye solutions under visible light finished within 50 min. • Higher activity due to more oxygen vacancy, tuned band gap and more surface area.

  6. Facet Control of Gold Nanorods.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingfeng; Han, Lili; Jing, Hao; Blom, Douglas A; Lin, Ye; Xin, Huolin L; Wang, Hui

    2016-02-23

    While great success has been achieved in fine-tuning the aspect ratios and thereby the plasmon resonances of cylindrical Au nanorods, facet control with atomic level precision on the highly curved nanorod surfaces has long been a significantly more challenging task. The intrinsic structural complexity and lack of precise facet control of the nanorod surfaces remain the major obstacles for the atomic-level elucidation of the structure-property relationships that underpin the intriguing catalytic performance of Au nanorods. Here we demonstrate that the facets of single-crystalline Au nanorods can be precisely tailored using cuprous ions and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as a unique pair of surface capping competitors to guide the particle geometry evolution during nanorod overgrowth. By deliberately maneuvering the competition between cuprous ions and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, we have been able to create, in a highly controllable and selective manner, an entire family of nanorod-derived anisotropic multifaceted geometries whose surfaces are enclosed by specific types of well-defined high-index and low-index facets. This facet-controlled nanorod overgrowth approach also allows us to fine-tune the particle aspect ratios while well-preserving all the characteristic facets and geometric features of the faceted Au nanorods. Taking full advantage of the combined structural and plasmonic tunability, we have further studied the facet-dependent heterogeneous catalysis on well-faceted Au nanorods using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy as an ultrasensitive spectroscopic tool with unique time-resolving and molecular finger-printing capabilities. PMID:26795706

  7. Facet control of gold nanorods

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Qingfeng; Han, Lili; Jing, Hao; Blom, Douglas A.; Lin, Ye; Xin, Huolin L.; Wang, Hui

    2016-01-21

    While great success has been achieved in fine-tuning the aspect ratios and thereby the plasmon resonances of cylindrical Au nanorods, facet control with atomic level precision on the highly curved nanorod surfaces has long been a significantly more challenging task. The intrinsic structural complexity and lack of precise facet control of the nanorod surfaces remain the major obstacles for the atomic-level elucidation of the structure–property relationships that underpin the intriguing catalytic performance of Au nanorods. Here we demonstrate that the facets of single-crystalline Au nanorods can be precisely tailored using cuprous ions and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as a unique pair ofmore » surface capping competitors to guide the particle geometry evolution during nanorod overgrowth. By deliberately maneuvering the competition between cuprous ions and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, we have been able to create, in a highly controllable and selective manner, an entire family of nanorod-derived anisotropic multifaceted geometries whose surfaces are enclosed by specific types of well-defined high-index and low-index facets. This facet-controlled nanorod overgrowth approach also allows us to fine-tune the particle aspect ratios while well-preserving all the characteristic facets and geometric features of the faceted Au nanorods. Furthermore, taking full advantage of the combined structural and plasmonic tunability, we have further studied the facet-dependent heterogeneous catalysis on well-faceted Au nanorods using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy as an ultrasensitive spectroscopic tool with unique time-resolving and molecular finger-printing capabilities.« less

  8. Role of Ag2S coupling on enhancing the visible-light-induced catalytic property of TiO2 nanorod arrays

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhengcao; Xiong, Shan; Wang, Guojing; Xie, Zheng; Zhang, Zhengjun

    2016-01-01

    In order to obtain a better photocatalytic performance under visible light, Ag2S-coupled TiO2 nanorod arrays (NRAs) were prepared through the electron beam deposition with glancing angle deposition (GLAD) technique, annealing in air, followed by the successive ionic layer absorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The properties of the photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange (MO) were thus conducted. The presence of Ag2S on TiO2 NRAs was observed to have a significant improvement on the response to visible light. It’s resulted from that Ag2S coupling can improve the short circuit photocurrent density and enhance the photocatalytic activity remarkably. PMID:26790759

  9. A centimeter-scale sub-10 nm gap plasmonic nanorod array film as a versatile platform for enhancing light-matter interactions.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhang-Kai; Xue, Jiancai; Zheng, Zebo; Li, Jiahua; Ke, Yanlin; Yu, Ying; Han, Jun-Bo; Xie, Weiguang; Deng, Shaozhi; Chen, Huanjun; Wang, Xuehua

    2015-10-01

    Strongly coupled plasmonic nanostructures with sub-10 nm gaps can enable intense electric field enhancements which greatly benefit the various light-matter interactions. From the point view of practical applications, such nanostructures should be of low-cost, facile fabrication and processing, large-scale with high-yield of the ultrasmall gaps, and easy for integration with other functional components. However, nowadays techniques for reliable fabrication of these nanostructures usually involve complex, time-consuming, and expensive lithography procedures, which are limited either by their low-throughput or the small areas obtained. On the other hand, so far most of the studies on the sub-10 nm gap nanostructures mainly focused on the surface-enhanced Raman scattering and high-harmonic generations, while leaving other nonlinear optical properties unexplored. In this work, using a scalable process without any lithography procedures, we demonstrated a centimeter-scale ordered plasmonic nanorod array film (PNRAF) with well-defined sub-10 nm interparticle gaps as a versatile platform for strongly enhanced light-matter interactions. Specifically, we showed that due to its plasmon-induced localized electromagnetic field enhancements, the Au PNRAF could exhibit extraordinary intrinsic multi-photon avalanche luminescence (MAPL) and nonlinear saturable absorption (SA). Furthermore, the PNRAF can be easily integrated with semiconductor quantum dots (SQDs) as well as wide bandgap semiconductors to strongly enhance their fluorescence and photocurrent response, respectively. Our method can be easily generalized to nanorod array films consisting of other plasmonic metals and even semiconductor materials, which can have multiple functionalities derived from different materials. Overall, the findings in our study have offered a potential strategy for design and fabrication of nanostructures with ultrasmall gaps for future photonic and optoelectronic applications.

  10. Core-Shell Vanadium Modified Titania@β-In2S3 Hybrid Nanorod Arrays for Superior Interface Stability and Photochemical Activity.

    PubMed

    Mumtaz, Asad; Mohamed, Norani Muti; Mazhar, Muhammad; Ehsan, Muhammad Ali; Mohamed Saheed, Mohamed Shuaib

    2016-04-13

    Core-shell rutile TiO2@β-In2S3 and modified V-TiO2@β-In2S3 were synthesized to develop bilayer systems to uphold charge transport via an effective and stable interface. Morphological studies revealed that β-In2S3 was deposited homogeneously on V-TiO2 as compared to unmodified TiO2 nanorod arrays. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electron energy loss spectrometry studies verified the presence of various oxidation states of vanadium in rutile TiO2 and the vanadium surface was utilized for broadening the charge collection centers in host substrate layer and hole quencher window. Subsequently, X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and Raman spectra confirmed the rutile phases of TiO2 and modified V-TiO2 along with the phases of crystalline β-In2S3. XPS valence band study explored the interaction of valence band quazi Fermi levels of β-In2S3 with the conduction band quazi Fermi levels of modified V-TiO2 for enhanced charge collection at the interface. Photoelectrochemical studies show that the photocurrent density of V-TiO2@β-In2S3 is 1.42 mA/cm(2) (1.5AM illumination). Also, the frequency window for TiO2 was broadened by the vanadium modification in rutile TiO2 nanorod arrays, and the lifetime of the charge carrier and stability of the interface in V-TiO2@β-In2S3 were enhanced compared to the unmodified TiO2@β-In2S3. These findings highlight the significance of modifications in host substrates and interfaces, which have profound implications on interphase stability, photocatalysis and solar-fuel-based devices.

  11. Two novel hierarchical homogeneous nanoarchitectures of TiO2 nanorods branched and P25-coated TiO2 nanotube arrays and their photocurrent performances

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We report here for the first time the synthesis of two novel hierarchical homogeneous nanoarchitectures of TiO2 nanorods branched TiO2 nanotube arrays (BTs) and P25-coated TiO2 nanotube arrays (PCTs) using two-step method including electrochemical anodization and hydrothermal modification process. Then the photocurrent densities versus applied potentials of BTs, PCTs, and pure TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNTAs) were investigated as well. Interestingly, at -0.11 V and under the same illumination condition, the photocurrent densities of BTs and PCTs show more than 1.5 and 1 times higher than that of pure TNTAs, respectively, which can be mainly attributed to significant improvement of the light-absorbing and charge-harvesting efficiency resulting from both larger and rougher surface areas of BTs and PCTs. Furthermore, these dramatic improvements suggest that BTs and PCTs will achieve better photoelectric conversion efficiency and become the promising candidates for applications in DSSCs, sensors, and photocatalysis. PMID:21711607

  12. Layered-metal-hydroxide nanosheet arrays with controlled nanostructures to assist direct electronic communication at biointerfaces.

    PubMed

    An, Zhe; Lu, Shan; Zhao, Liwei; He, Jing

    2011-10-18

    In this work, ordered vertical arrays of layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanosheets have been developed to achieve electron transfer (eT) at biointerfaces in electrochemical devices. It is found that tailoring the gap size of LDH nanosheet arrays could significantly promote the eT rate. This research has successfully extended nanomaterials for efficient modifications of electrode surfaces from nanoparticles, nanowires, nanorods, and nanotubes to nanosheets.

  13. Changes in tumorigenesis- and angiogenesis-related gene transcript abundance profiles in ovarian cancer detected by tailored high density cDNA arrays.

    PubMed Central

    Martoglio, A. M.; Tom, B. D.; Starkey, M.; Corps, A. N.; Charnock-Jones, D. S.; Smith, S. K.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Complementary DNA array analysis of gene expression has a potential application for clinical diagnosis of disease processes. However, accessibility, affordability, reproducibility of results, and management of the data generated remain issues of concern. Use of cDNA arrays tailored for studies of specific pathways, tissues, or disease states may render a cost- and time-effective method to define potential hallmark genotype alterations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We produced a 332-membered human cDNA array on nylon membranes tailored for studies of angiogenesis and tumorigenesis in reproductive disease. We tested the system for reproducibility using a novel statistical approach for analysis of array data and employed the arrays to investigate gene expression alterations in ovarian cancer. RESULTS: Intra-assay analysis and removal of agreement outliers was shown to be a critical step prior to interpretation of cDNA array data. The system revealed highly reproducible results, with intermembrane coefficient of reproducibility of +/- 0.98. Comparison of placental and ovarian sample data confirmed expected differences in angiogenic profiles and tissue-specific markers, such as human placental lactogen (hPL). Analysis of expression profiles of five normal ovary and four poorly differentiated serous papillary ovarian adenocarcinoma samples revealed an overall increase in angiogenesis-related markers, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoietin-1 in the diseased tissue. These were accompanied by increases in immune response mediators (e.g. HLA-DR, Ron), apoptotic and neoplastic markers (e.g. BAD protein, b-myb), and novel potential markers of ovarian cancer, such as cofilin, moesin, and neuron-restrictive silencer factor (REST) protein. CONCLUSIONS: In-house production of tailored cDNA arrays, coupled to comprehensive analysis of resulting hybridization profiles, provides an accessible, reliable, and highly effective method of applying array

  14. Ag-nanoparticles-decorated NiO-nanoflakes grafted Ni-nanorod arrays stuck out of porous AAO as effective SERS substrates.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qitao; Meng, Guowen; Huang, Qing; Zhu, Chuhong; Tang, Haibin; Qian, Yiwu; Chen, Bin; Chen, Bensong

    2014-02-28

    NiO-nanoflakes (NiO-NFs) grafted Ni-nanorod (Ni-NR) arrays stuck out of the porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template are achieved by a combinatorial process of AAO-confined electrodeposition of Ni-NRs, selectively etching part of the AAO template to expose the Ni-NRs, wet-etching the exposed Ni-NRs in ammonia to obtain Ni(OH)2-NFs grafted onto the cone-shaped Ni-NRs, and annealing to transform Ni(OH)2-NFs in situ into NiO-NFs. By top-view sputtering, Ag-nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are decorated on each NiO-NFs grafted Ni-NR (denoted as NiO-NFs@Ni-NR). The resultant Ag-NPs-decorated NiO-NFs@Ni-NR (denoted as Ag-NPs@NiO-NFs@Ni-NR) arrays exhibit not only strong surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity but also reproducible SERS-signals over the whole array. It is demonstrated that the strong SERS-activity is mainly ascribed to the high density of sub-10 nm gaps (hot spots) between the neighboring Ag-NPs, the semiconducting NiO-NFs induced chemical enhancement effect, and the lightning rod effect of the cone-shaped Ni-NRs. The three-level hierarchical nanostructure arrays stuck out of the AAO template can be utilized to probe polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, a kind of global environmental hazard) with a concentration as low as 5 × 10(-6) M, showing promising potential in SERS-based rapid detection of organic environmental pollutants. PMID:24419246

  15. High Stability Induced by the TiN/Ti Interlayer in Three-Dimensional Si/Ge Nanorod Arrays as Anode in Micro Lithium Ion Battery.

    PubMed

    Yue, Chuang; Yu, Yingjian; Wu, Zhenguo; Sun, Shibo; He, Xu; Li, Juntao; Zhao, Libo; Wu, Suntao; Li, Jing; Kang, Junyong; Lin, Liwei

    2016-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) Si/Ge-based micro/nano batteries are promising lab-on-chip power supply sources because of the good process compatibility with integrated circuits and Micro/Nano-Electro-Mechanical System technologies. In this work, the effective interlayer of TiN/Ti thin films were introduced to coat around the 3D Si nanorod (NR) arrays before the amorphous Ge layer deposition as anode in micro/nano lithium ion batteries, thus the superior cycling stability was realized by reason for the restriction of Si activation in this unique 3D matchlike Si/TiN/Ti/Ge NR array electrode. Moreover, the volume expansion properties after the repeated lithium-ion insertion/extraction were experimentally investigated to evidence the superior stability of this unique multilayered Si composite electrode. The demonstration of this wafer-scale, cost-effective, and Si-compatible fabrication for anodes in Li-ion micro/nano batteries provides new routes to configurate more efficient 3D energy storage systems for micro/nano smart semiconductor devices. PMID:26954851

  16. Enhanced Photoelectrochemical Performance of TiO2 Nanorod Arrays by a 500°C Annealing in Air: Insights into the Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuang; Gu, Xiuquan; Zhao, Yulong; Qiang, Yinghuai

    2016-01-01

    Oriented, single-crystal TiO2 nanorod arrays (NRAs) were synthesized for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water-splitting by a facile hydrothermal route. It was observed that a 500°C annealing process facilitated enhancing the PEC activity of TiO2 NRAs, in agreement with our previous reports on NRA-related solar cells. Further, electrochemical impedance measurements were employed to investigate the underlying mechanism. Compared with pristine TiO2 NRAs, the 500°C sintered samples showed a positive flat-band shifting of ˜0.12 V as well as a suppression of the donor density. Thus, suggesting that the enhanced PEC performance might be attributed to the widening of depletion layer regions due to the reduction of crystal defects after sintering. The mechanism was also expanded to explain why the dye-sensitized solar cells made with sintered TiO2 NRAs exhibited an 11-times higher power conversion efficiency than those consisting of pristine arrays.

  17. High Stability Induced by the TiN/Ti Interlayer in Three-Dimensional Si/Ge Nanorod Arrays as Anode in Micro Lithium Ion Battery.

    PubMed

    Yue, Chuang; Yu, Yingjian; Wu, Zhenguo; Sun, Shibo; He, Xu; Li, Juntao; Zhao, Libo; Wu, Suntao; Li, Jing; Kang, Junyong; Lin, Liwei

    2016-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) Si/Ge-based micro/nano batteries are promising lab-on-chip power supply sources because of the good process compatibility with integrated circuits and Micro/Nano-Electro-Mechanical System technologies. In this work, the effective interlayer of TiN/Ti thin films were introduced to coat around the 3D Si nanorod (NR) arrays before the amorphous Ge layer deposition as anode in micro/nano lithium ion batteries, thus the superior cycling stability was realized by reason for the restriction of Si activation in this unique 3D matchlike Si/TiN/Ti/Ge NR array electrode. Moreover, the volume expansion properties after the repeated lithium-ion insertion/extraction were experimentally investigated to evidence the superior stability of this unique multilayered Si composite electrode. The demonstration of this wafer-scale, cost-effective, and Si-compatible fabrication for anodes in Li-ion micro/nano batteries provides new routes to configurate more efficient 3D energy storage systems for micro/nano smart semiconductor devices.

  18. Vertically aligned ZnO@CuS@PEDOT core@shell nanorod arrays decorated with MnO₂ nanoparticles for a high-performance and semi-transparent supercapacitor electrode.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Moreno, Jorge; Navarrete-Astorga, Elena; Dalchiele, Enrique A; Schrebler, Ricardo; Ramos-Barrado, José R; Martín, Francisco

    2014-05-30

    Hybrid nano-architectures with high electrochemical performance for supercapacitors have been designed by growing hierarchical ZnO NRs@CuS@PEDOT@MnO2 core@shell heterostructured nanorod arrays on ITO/glass substrates. This hybrid nano-structured electrode exhibits excellent electrochemical performance, with a high specific areal capacitance of 19.85 mF cm(-2), good rate capability, cycling stability and diffused coloured transparency.

  19. Vertically aligned ZnO@CuS@PEDOT core@shell nanorod arrays decorated with MnO₂ nanoparticles for a high-performance and semi-transparent supercapacitor electrode.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Moreno, Jorge; Navarrete-Astorga, Elena; Dalchiele, Enrique A; Schrebler, Ricardo; Ramos-Barrado, José R; Martín, Francisco

    2014-05-30

    Hybrid nano-architectures with high electrochemical performance for supercapacitors have been designed by growing hierarchical ZnO NRs@CuS@PEDOT@MnO2 core@shell heterostructured nanorod arrays on ITO/glass substrates. This hybrid nano-structured electrode exhibits excellent electrochemical performance, with a high specific areal capacitance of 19.85 mF cm(-2), good rate capability, cycling stability and diffused coloured transparency. PMID:24756158

  20. A CdSe thin film: a versatile buffer layer for improving the performance of TiO2 nanorod array:PbS quantum dot solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Furui; Wang, Zhijie; Qu, Shengchun; Cao, Dawei; Liu, Kong; Jiang, Qiwei; Yang, Ying; Pang, Shan; Zhang, Weifeng; Lei, Yong; Wang, Zhanguo

    2016-05-01

    To fully utilize the multiple exciton generation effects in quantum dots and improve the overall efficiency of the corresponding photovoltaic devices, nanostructuralizing the electron conducting layer turns out to be a feasible strategy. Herein, PbS quantum dot solar cells were fabricated on the basis of morphologically optimized TiO2 nanorod arrays. By inserting a thin layer of CdSe quantum dots into the interface of TiO2 and PbS, a dramatic enhancement in the power conversion efficiency from 4.2% to 5.2% was realized and the resulting efficiency is one of the highest values for quantum dot solar cells based on nanostructuralized buffer layers. The constructed double heterojunction with a cascade type-II energy level alignment is beneficial for promoting photogenerated charge separation and reducing charge recombination, thereby responsible for the performance improvement, as revealed by steady-state analyses as well as ultra-fast photoluminescence and photovoltage decays. Thus this paper provides a good buffer layer to the community of quantum dot solar cells.To fully utilize the multiple exciton generation effects in quantum dots and improve the overall efficiency of the corresponding photovoltaic devices, nanostructuralizing the electron conducting layer turns out to be a feasible strategy. Herein, PbS quantum dot solar cells were fabricated on the basis of morphologically optimized TiO2 nanorod arrays. By inserting a thin layer of CdSe quantum dots into the interface of TiO2 and PbS, a dramatic enhancement in the power conversion efficiency from 4.2% to 5.2% was realized and the resulting efficiency is one of the highest values for quantum dot solar cells based on nanostructuralized buffer layers. The constructed double heterojunction with a cascade type-II energy level alignment is beneficial for promoting photogenerated charge separation and reducing charge recombination, thereby responsible for the performance improvement, as revealed by steady

  1. Differentiation and classification of bacteria using vancomycin functionalized silver nanorods array based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and chemometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaomeng; Huang, Yao-Wen; Park, Bosoon; Tripp, Ralph A; Zhao, Yiping

    2015-07-01

    Twenty seven different bacteria isolates from 12 species were analyzed using intrinsic surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra with recently developed vancomycin coated silver nanorod (VAN AgNR) substrates. The VAN AgNR substrates could generate reproducible SERS spectra of the bacteria with little to no interference from the environment or bacterial by-products as compared to the pristine substrates. By taking advantage of the structural composition of the cellular wall which varies from species to species, the differentiation of bacterial species is demonstrated by using chemometric analyses on those spectra. A second chemometric analysis step within the species cluster is able to differentiate serotypes and strains. The spectral features used for serotype differentiation arises from the surface proteins, while Raman peaks from adenine dominate the differentiation of strains. In addition, due to the intrinsic structural differences in the cell walls, the SERS spectra can distinguish Gram-positive from Gram-negative bacteria with high sensitivity and specificity, as well as 100% accuracy on predicting test samples. Our results provide important insights for using SERS as a bacterial diagnostic tool and further guide the design of a SERS-based detection platform.

  2. High performance of Mn-doped CdSe quantum dot sensitized solar cells based on the vertical ZnO nanorod arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Juan; Zhao, Haifeng; Huang, Fei; Jing, Qun; Cao, Haibin; Wu, Qiang; Peng, Shanglong; Cao, Guozhong

    2016-09-01

    Doping transition metal ions Mn2+ to semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are extremely interesting for the development of photovoltaic devices. Quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSCs) are able to show promising power conversion efficiencies (PCE) by employing Mn2+ doped QDs. Herein we achieve effective CdS/Mnsbnd CdSe/ZnS QDs co-sensitized vertical ZnO nanorod arrays film that provides an appreciable enhancement in photovoltaic performance. The measured PCE of the solar cells with Mn2+ doped CdSe QDs is 4.14%, which is higher than the efficiency of 2.91% for the solar cells without Mn2+ or a ∼42% increase. The improvement in PCE is ascribed to a higher open-circuit voltage (Voc = 0.74 V) and a superior short-circuit current density (Jsc = 12.6 mA cm-2) with the introduction of Mn2+ into CdSe QDs. The enhancement seen with Mn2+ doped CdSe QDs are investigated and explained by the fact that the enhanced light absorption and reduced charge recombination by the formation of Mnsbnd CdSe passivation layer covering the QDs.

  3. Enhancing the performance of poly(3-hexylthiophene)/ZnO nanorod arrays based hybrid solar cells through incorporation of a third component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Peng; Que, WenXiu; Zhang, Jin; Yuan, Yuan; Liao, YuLong; Yin, XingTian; Kong, LingBing; Hu, Xiao

    2014-07-01

    Sparse ZnO nanorod arrays (NRAs) are fabricated on transparent conducting oxide coated glass substrates by using a modified liquid phase epitaxial growth method. By adjusting the polymer concentrations and the spin-coating parameters, full infiltration of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) into the as-prepared ZnO NRAs is achieved at 130°C in vacuum. A third component is incorporated into the P3HT/ZnO NRAs ordered bulk heterojunctions (BHJs) either through ZnO surface modification with N719 dye or CdS shell layer or by inclusion of a fullerene derivative into the P3HT matrix. Experimental results indicate that performances of the hybrid solar cells are improved greatly with the incorporation of a third component. However, the working principles of these third components differ from one another, according to morphology, structure, optical property, charge transfer and interfacial properties of the composite structures. An ideal device architecture for hybrid solar cells based on P3HT/ZnO NRAs ordered BHJs is proposed, which can be used as a guidance to further increase the power conversion efficiency of such solar cells.

  4. ZnO nanorod arrays and direct wire bonding on GaN surfaces for rapid fabrication of antireflective, high-temperature ultraviolet sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    So, Hongyun; Senesky, Debbie G.

    2016-11-01

    Rapid, cost-effective, and simple fabrication/packaging of microscale gallium nitride (GaN) ultraviolet (UV) sensors are demonstrated using zinc oxide nanorod arrays (ZnO NRAs) as an antireflective layer and direct bonding of aluminum wires to the GaN surface. The presence of the ZnO NRAs on the GaN surface significantly reduced the reflectance to less than 1% in the UV and 4% in the visible light region. As a result, the devices fabricated with ZnO NRAs and mechanically stable aluminum bonding wires (pull strength of 3-5 gf) showed higher sensitivity (136.3% at room temperature and 148.2% increase at 250 °C) when compared with devices with bare (uncoated) GaN surfaces. In addition, the devices demonstrated reliable operation at high temperatures up to 300 °C, supporting the feasibility of simple and cost-effective UV sensors operating with higher sensitivity in high-temperature conditions, such as in combustion, downhole, and space exploration applications.

  5. Vertically aligned carbon-coated titanium dioxide nanorod arrays on carbon paper with low platinum for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Shangfeng; Yi, Baolian; Zhang, Changkun; Liu, Sa; Yu, Hongmei; Shao, Zhigang

    2015-02-01

    Carbon-coated titanium dioxide (TiO2-C) has received much attention as a catalyst support in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. In this study, TiO2 nanorod arrays (NRs) are hydrothermally grown on carbon paper and converted into TiO2-C NRs by heat treatment at 900 °C under methane atmosphere. Then, platinum nanoparticles are sputtered onto the TiO2 NRs by physical vapor deposition to produce Pt-TiO2-C. The as-prepared Pt-TiO2-C exhibits high stability during accelerated durability tests. As compared with the commercial gas diffusion electrode (GDE, 34.4% decrease), a minor reduction in the electrochemically active surface area of the Pt-TiO2-C electrode after 1500 cycles (10.6% decrease) is observed. When the as-prepared electrode with ultra-low platinum content (Pt loading: 28.67 μg cm-2) is employed as the cathode of a single cell, the electrode generates power that is 4.84 × that of the commercial GDE (Pt loading: 400 μg cm-2). An electrode that generates power of 11.9 kW gPt-1 (as the cathode) is proposed. The fabricated Pt-TiO2-C electrode can be used in proton exchange membrane fuel cells.

  6. Enhanced photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic behaviors of MFe2O4 (M = Ni, Co, Zn and Sr) modified TiO2 nanorod arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xin; Liu, Xiangxuan; Zhu, Zuoming; Wang, Xuanjun; Xie, Zheng

    2016-07-01

    Modified TiO2 nanomaterials are considered to be promising in energy conversion and ferrites modification may be one of the most efficient modifications. In this research, various ferrites, incorporated with various cations (MFe2O4, M = Ni, Co, Zn, and Sr), are utilized to modify the well aligned TiO2 nanorod arrays (NRAs), which is synthesized by hydrothermal method. It is found that all MFe2O4/TiO2 NRAs show obvious red shift into the visible light region compared with the TiO2 NRAs. In particular, NiFe2O4 modification is demonstrated to be the best way to enhance the photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 NRAs. Furthermore, the separation and transfer of charge carriers after MFe2O4 modification are clarified by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. Finally, the underlying mechanism accounting for the enhanced photocatalytic activity of MFe2O4/TiO2 NRAs is proposed. Through comparison among different transition metals modified TiO2 with the same synthesis process and under the same evaluating condition, this work may provide new insight in designing modified TiO2 nanomaterials as visible light active photocatalysts.

  7. Enhanced photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic behaviors of MFe2O4 (M = Ni, Co, Zn and Sr) modified TiO2 nanorod arrays.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xin; Liu, Xiangxuan; Zhu, Zuoming; Wang, Xuanjun; Xie, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Modified TiO2 nanomaterials are considered to be promising in energy conversion and ferrites modification may be one of the most efficient modifications. In this research, various ferrites, incorporated with various cations (MFe2O4, M = Ni, Co, Zn, and Sr), are utilized to modify the well aligned TiO2 nanorod arrays (NRAs), which is synthesized by hydrothermal method. It is found that all MFe2O4/TiO2 NRAs show obvious red shift into the visible light region compared with the TiO2 NRAs. In particular, NiFe2O4 modification is demonstrated to be the best way to enhance the photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 NRAs. Furthermore, the separation and transfer of charge carriers after MFe2O4 modification are clarified by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. Finally, the underlying mechanism accounting for the enhanced photocatalytic activity of MFe2O4/TiO2 NRAs is proposed. Through comparison among different transition metals modified TiO2 with the same synthesis process and under the same evaluating condition, this work may provide new insight in designing modified TiO2 nanomaterials as visible light active photocatalysts. PMID:27464888

  8. Unique Core-Shell Nanorod Arrays with Polyaniline Deposited into Mesoporous NiCo2O4 Support for High-Performance Supercapacitor Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Jabeen, Nawishta; Xia, Qiuying; Yang, Mei; Xia, Hui

    2016-03-01

    Polyaniline (PANI), one of the most attractive conducting polymers for supercapacitors, demonstrates a great potential as high performance pseudocapacitor materials. However, the poor cycle life owing to structural instability remains as the major hurdle for its practical application; hence, making the structure-to-performance design on the PANI-based supercapacitors is highly desirable. In this work, unique core-shell NiCo2O4@PANI nanorod arrays (NRAs) are rationally designed and employed as the electrode material for supercapacitors. With highly porous NiCo2O4 as the conductive core and strain buffer support and nanoscale PANI layer as the electrochemically active component, such a heterostructure achieves favorably high capacitance while maintaining good cycling stability and rate capability. By adopting the optimally uniform and intimate coating of PANI, the fabricated electrode exhibits a high specific capacitance of 901 F g(-1) at 1 A g(-1) in 1 M H2SO4 electrolyte and outstanding capacitance retention of ∼91% after 3000 cycles at a high current density of 10 A g(-1), which is superior to the electrochemical performance of most reported PANI-based pseudocapacitors in literature. The enhanced electrochemical performance demonstrates the complementary contributions of both componential structures in the hybrid electrode design. Also, this work propels a new direction of utilizing porous matrix as the highly effective support for polymers toward efficient energy storage.

  9. One-step solvothermal deposition of ZnO nanorod arrays on a wood surface for robust superamphiphobic performance and superior ultraviolet resistance

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Qiufang; Wang, Chao; Fan, Bitao; Wang, Hanwei; Sun, Qingfeng; Jin, Chunde; Zhang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper, uniformly large-scale wurtzite-structured ZnO nanorod arrays (ZNAs) were deposited onto a wood surface through a one-step solvothermal method. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetry (TG), and differential thermal analysis (DTA). ZNAs with a diameter of approximately 85 nm and a length of approximately 1.5 μm were chemically bonded onto the wood surface through hydrogen bonds. The superamphiphobic performance and ultraviolet resistance were measured and evaluated by water or oil contact angles (WCA or OCA) and roll-off angles, sand abrasion tests and an artificially accelerated ageing test. The results show that the ZNA-treated wood demonstrates a robust superamphiphobic performance under mechanical impact, corrosive liquids, intermittent and transpositional temperatures, and water spray. Additionally, the as-prepared wood sample shows superior ultraviolet resistance. PMID:27775091

  10. Enhanced photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic behaviors of MFe2O4 (M = Ni, Co, Zn and Sr) modified TiO2 nanorod arrays

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xin; Liu, Xiangxuan; Zhu, Zuoming; Wang, Xuanjun; Xie, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Modified TiO2 nanomaterials are considered to be promising in energy conversion and ferrites modification may be one of the most efficient modifications. In this research, various ferrites, incorporated with various cations (MFe2O4, M = Ni, Co, Zn, and Sr), are utilized to modify the well aligned TiO2 nanorod arrays (NRAs), which is synthesized by hydrothermal method. It is found that all MFe2O4/TiO2 NRAs show obvious red shift into the visible light region compared with the TiO2 NRAs. In particular, NiFe2O4 modification is demonstrated to be the best way to enhance the photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 NRAs. Furthermore, the separation and transfer of charge carriers after MFe2O4 modification are clarified by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. Finally, the underlying mechanism accounting for the enhanced photocatalytic activity of MFe2O4/TiO2 NRAs is proposed. Through comparison among different transition metals modified TiO2 with the same synthesis process and under the same evaluating condition, this work may provide new insight in designing modified TiO2 nanomaterials as visible light active photocatalysts. PMID:27464888

  11. Towards high efficiency air-processed near-infrared responsive photovoltaics: bulk heterojunction solar cells based on PbS/CdS core-shell quantum dots and TiO2 nanorod arrays.

    PubMed

    Gonfa, Belete Atomsa; Kim, Mee Rahn; Delegan, Nazar; Tavares, Ana C; Izquierdo, Ricardo; Wu, Nianqiang; El Khakani, My Ali; Ma, Dongling

    2015-06-14

    Near infrared (NIR) PbS quantum dots (QDs) have attracted significant research interest in solar cell applications as they offer several advantages, such as tunable band gaps, capability of absorbing NIR photons, low cost solution processability and high potential for multiple exciton generation. Nonetheless, reports on solar cells based on NIR PbS/CdS core-shell QDs, which are in general more stable and better passivated than PbS QDs and thus more promising for solar cell applications, remain very rare. Herein we report high efficiency bulk heterojunction QD solar cells involving hydrothermally grown TiO2 nanorod arrays and PbS/CdS core-shell QDs processed in air (except for a device thermal annealing step) with a photoresponse extended to wavelengths >1200 nm and with a power conversion efficiency (PCE) as high as 4.43%. This efficiency was achieved by introducing a thin, sputter-deposited, uniform TiO2 seed layer to improve the interface between the TiO2 nanorod arrays and the front electrode, by optimizing TiO2 nanorod length and by conducting QD annealing treatment to enhance charge carrier transport. It was found that the effect of the seed layer became more obvious when the TiO2 nanorods were longer. Although photocurrent did not change much, both open circuit voltage and fill factor clearly changed with TiO2 nanorod length. This was mainly attributed to the variation of charge transport and recombination processes, as evidenced by series and shunt resistance studies. The optimal PCE was obtained at the nanorod length of ∼450 nm. Annealing is shown to further increase the PCE by ∼18%, because of the improvement of charge carrier transport in the devices as evidenced by considerably increased photocurrent. Our results clearly demonstrate the potential of the PbS/CdS core-shell QDs for the achievement of high PCE, solution processable and NIR responsive QD solar cells.

  12. Using carbon nanotubes-gold nanocomposites to quench energy from pinnate titanium dioxide nanorods array for signal-on photoelectrochemical aptasensing.

    PubMed

    Deng, Wenping; Shen, Lei; Wang, Xiu; Yang, Chunlei; Yu, Jinghua; Yan, Mei; Song, Xianrang

    2016-08-15

    On the basis of the absorption and emission spectra overlap, an enhanced resonance energy transfer caused by excition-plasmon resonance between carbon nanotubes-gold nanoparticles (CNTs-Au) and pinnate titanium dioxide nanorods array (P-TiO2 NA) was obtained. Three-dimensional single crystalline P-TiO2 were prepared successfully on fluorine-doped tin oxide conducting glass (FTO glass), and its optical absorption properties and photoelectrochemical (PEC) properties were investigated. With the synergy of CNTs-Au as energy acceptor, it resulted in the enhancement of energy transfer between excited P-TiO2 NA and CNTs-Au. Upon the novel sandwichlike structure formed via DNA hybridization, the exciton produced in P-TiO2 NA was annihilated and a damped photocurrent was obtained. With the use of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as a model which bonded to its specific aptamer and destroyed the sandwichlike structure, the energy transfer efficiency was lowered, leading to PEC response augment. Thus a signal-on PEC aptasensor was constructed. Under the optimal conditions, the PEC aptasensor for CEA determination exhibited a linear range from 0.001 to 2.5ngmL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.39pgmL(-1) and was satisfactory for clinical sample detection. Furthermore, the proposed aptasensor shows satisfying performance, such as easy preparation, rapid detection and so on. Moreover, since different aptamer can specifically bind to different target molecules, the designed strategy has an expansive application for the construction of versatile PEC platforms.

  13. The multivariate detection limit for Mycoplasma pneumoniae as determined by Nanorod Array-Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy and comparison with limit of detection by qPCR

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Kelley C.; Sheppard, Edward S.; Rivera-Betancourt, Omar E.; Choi, Joo-Young; Dluhy, Richard A.; Thurman, Kathleen A.; Winchell, Jonas M.; Krause, Duncan C.

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a cell wall-less bacterial pathogen of the human respiratory tract that accounts for up to 20% of community-acquired pneumonia. At present, the standard for detection and genotyping is quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), which can exhibit excellent sensitivity but lacks standardization and has limited practicality for widespread, point-of-care use. We previously described a Ag nanorod array-surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (NA-SERS) biosensing platform capable of detecting M. pneumoniae in simulated and true clinical throat swab samples with statistically significant specificity and sensitivity. We report here that differences in sample preparation influence the integrity of mycoplasma cells for NA-SERS analysis, which in turn impacts the resulting spectra. We have established a multivariate detection limit (MDL) using NA-SERS for M. pneumoniae intact-cell sample preparations. Using an adaptation of International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC)-recommended methods for analyzing multivariate data sets, we found that qPCR had roughly 10× better detection limits than NA-SERS when expressed in CFU/ml and DNA concentration (fg). However, the NA-SERS MDL for intact M. pneumoniae was 5.3 ± 1.0 genome equivalents (cells/μl). By comparison, qPCR of a parallel set of samples yielded a limit of detection of 2.5 ± 0.25 cells/μl. Therefore, for certain standard metrics NA-SERS provides a multivariate detection limit for M. pneumoniae that is essentially identical to that determined via qPCR. PMID:25335653

  14. All-angle self-collimation in two-dimensional square array photonic crystals based on index contrast tailoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noori, Mina; Soroosh, Mohammad; Baghban, Hamed

    2015-03-01

    A comprehensive study has been performed to achieve all-angle self-collimation in basic two-dimensional square array photonic crystals with cylindrical scatterers. Based on plane wave expansion and finite difference time domain analysis for both rod- and hole-type structures, we report on all-angle self-collimation (SC) in the first band of the structure, which results in loss suppression due to out-of-plane scatterings. A lower threshold for index contrast has been obtained to achieve all-angle SC, which offers more design flexibility regarding structural parameters. Furthermore, it has been shown that a minimum and maximum coupling efficiency enhancement of ˜40% and 80% can be achieved for the proposed structure, respectively, by introducing a row of scatterers with proper radius at the input and the output air/photonic crystal interfaces.

  15. Guided plasmonic modes in nanorod assemblies: strong electromagnetic coupling regime.

    PubMed

    Wurtz, G A; Dickson, W; O'Connor, D; Atkinson, R; Hendren, W; Evans, P; Pollard, R; Zayats, A V

    2008-05-12

    We demonstrate that the coupling between plasmonic modes of oriented metallic nanorods results in the formation of an extended (guided) plasmonic mode of the nanorod array. The electromagnetic field distribution associated to this mode is found to be concentrated between the nanorods within the assembly and propagates normally to the nanorod long axes, similar to a photonic mode waveguided by an anisotropic slab. This collective plasmonic mode determines the optical properties of nanorod assemblies and can be tuned in a wide spectral range by changing the nanorod array geometry. This geometry represents a unique opportunity for light guiding applications and manipulation at the nanoscale as well as sensing applications and development of molecular plasmonic devices.

  16. Tailored surface-enhanced Raman nanopillar arrays fabricated by laser-assisted replication for biomolecular detection using organic semiconductor lasers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Lebedkin, Sergei; Besser, Heino; Pfleging, Wilhelm; Prinz, Stephan; Wissmann, Markus; Schwab, Patrick M; Nazarenko, Irina; Guttmann, Markus; Kappes, Manfred M; Lemmer, Uli

    2015-01-27

    Organic semiconductor distributed feedback (DFB) lasers are of interest as external or chip-integrated excitation sources in the visible spectral range for miniaturized Raman-on-chip biomolecular detection systems. However, the inherently limited excitation power of such lasers as well as oftentimes low analyte concentrations requires efficient Raman detection schemes. We present an approach using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates, which has the potential to significantly improve the sensitivity of on-chip Raman detection systems. Instead of lithographically fabricated Au/Ag-coated periodic nanostructures on Si/SiO2 wafers, which can provide large SERS enhancements but are expensive and time-consuming to fabricate, we use low-cost and large-area SERS substrates made via laser-assisted nanoreplication. These substrates comprise gold-coated cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) nanopillar arrays, which show an estimated SERS enhancement factor of up to ∼ 10(7). The effect of the nanopillar diameter (60-260 nm) and interpillar spacing (10-190 nm) on the local electromagnetic field enhancement is studied by finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) modeling. The favorable SERS detection capability of this setup is verified by using rhodamine 6G and adenosine as analytes and an organic semiconductor DFB laser with an emission wavelength of 631.4 nm as the external fiber-coupled excitation source.

  17. Micromechanical model for self-organized secondary phase oxide nanorod arrays in epitaxial YBa2Cu3O7-δ films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jack J.; Wu, Judy Z.

    2012-08-01

    A micromechanical model based on the theory of elasticity has been developed to study the configuration of self-assembled secondary phase oxide nanostructures in high-temperature superconducting YBa2Cu3O7-δ films. With the calculated equilibrium strain and elastic energy of the impurity doped film, a phase diagram of lattice mismatches vs. elastic constants of the dopant was obtained that predicts the energetically preferred orientation of secondary phase nanorods. The calculation of the nanorod orientation and the film lattice deformation has yielded excellent agreement with experimental measurements.

  18. Effects of calcination treatment on the morphology, crystallinity, and photoelectric properties of all-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells assembled by TiO2 nanorod arrays.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xianmiao; Sun, Qiong; Li, Yang; Sui, Lina; Dong, Lifeng

    2013-11-14

    TiO2 has been extensively investigated due to its unique photoelectric properties. In this study, oriented single-crystal rutile TiO2 nanorod arrays were synthesized and then calcined at different temperatures in the atmosphere. The morphology and crystalline characterization indicated that the length of TiO2 nanorods increased rapidly and the nanorods became aggregated and fragile after calcination, yet the sintering treatment seemed to have almost no effect on the crystallinity. To obtain the all-solid-state, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), a newly reported solid inorganic semiconductor, CsSnI2.95F0.05, was employed as the electrolyte, and the Pt deposited on the conductive side of the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate was used as the counter-electrode. The effects of the calcination treatment on the photoelectric properties of the solar cells, including external quantum efficiency (EQE), open circuit voltage (V(OC)), short-circuit current (J(SC)), and photoelectric conversion efficiency (η), were investigated under the illumination of a solar simulator. As a result, all of the EQE, V(OC), J(SC), and η values of the cells first increased and then declined with the increase of calcination temperatures, and the highest η of 2.81% was obtained by the cell assembled with its TiO2 electrode sintered at 450 °C for 3 h, a value almost 2.5 times that of the non-sintered sample (1.1%).

  19. Faceted Gold Nanorods: Nanocuboids, Convex Nanocuboids, and Concave Nanocuboids.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingfeng; Zhou, Yadong; Villarreal, Esteban; Lin, Ye; Zou, Shengli; Wang, Hui

    2015-06-10

    Au nanorods are optically tunable anisotropic nanoparticles with built-in catalytic activities. The state-of-the-art seed-mediated nanorod synthesis offers excellent control over the aspect ratios of cylindrical Au nanorods, which enables fine-tuning of plasmon resonances over a broad spectral range. However, facet control of Au nanorods with atomic-level precision remains significantly more challenging. The coexistence of various types of low-index and high-index facets on the highly curved nanorod surfaces makes it extremely challenging to quantitatively elucidate the atomic-level structure-property relationships that underpin the catalytic competence of Au nanorods. Here we demonstrate that cylindrical Au nanorods undergo controlled facet evolution during their overgrowth in the presence of Cu(2+) and cationic surfactants, resulting in the formation of anisotropic nanostructures enclosed by well-defined facets, such as low-index faceting nanocuboids and high-index faceting convex nanocuboids and concave nanocuboids. These faceted Au nanorods exhibit enriched optical extinction spectral features, broader plasmonic tuning range, and enhanced catalytic tunability in comparison to the conventional cylindrical Au nanorods. The capabilities to both fine-tailor the facets and fine-tune the plasmon resonances of anisotropic Au nanoparticles open up unique opportunities for us to study, in great detail, the facet-dependent interfacial molecular transformations on Au nanocatalysts using surface-enhanced Raman scattering as a time-resolved spectroscopic tool. PMID:25927399

  20. Improved Photoresponse of Hybrid ZnO/P3HT Bilayered Photodetector Obtained Through Oriented Growth of ZnO Nanorod Arrays and the Use of Hole Injection Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilgaiyan, Anubha; Dixit, Tejendra; Palani, I. A.; Singh, Vipul

    2015-08-01

    We report highly oriented one-dimensional (1-D) growth of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod arrays (NRA) which were later utilized to fabricate hybrid photodiodes having the typical photodiode configuration of indium tin oxide (ITO)/ZnO/poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/Ag. These functional hybrid bilayered photodiodes were found to have high rectification ratio under dark conditions and demonstrated enhanced responsivity under light illumination. Further, we studied the effect of an intermediate electron blocking layer of poly(ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) on the photodiode characteristics and demonstrated ITO/ZnO/P3HT/PEDOT:PSS/Ag photodiodes, reporting very high rectification ratio and responsivity in this bilayered configuration. The observed results are explained on the basis of the increased surface area of contact between the ZnO nanorods and the P3HT, and also the efficient hole injection into the P3HT layer from the top Ag electrode.

  1. Interfacial effects of the Cu2O nano-dots decorated Co3O4 nanorods array and its photocatalytic activity for cleaving organic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, X. P.; Yu, J. S.; Xu, H. M.; Chen, W. X.; Hu, W.; Chen, G. L.

    2016-09-01

    A heterogeneous nanocomposite catalyst constructed by the Co3O4 nanorods decorated with the Cu2O quantum dots (QDs) were successfully synthesized via a simple hydrothermal method followed by an oxidation-reduction processing. The fabricated Cu2O/Co3O4 nanocomposite was characterized by the SEM, TEM, XPS, XRD, UV-vis and PL, and the (2 2 0) and (3 1 1) facets of the Co3O4 were exposed. Compared with the original Co3O4 nanorods with an average diameter of 350 nm, a substantial decrease in the band gap was observed after doping the nanorods with the Cu2O QDs (average diameter of 5 nm). Such a dramatic decrease in the band gap indicated a significant enhancement of the photocatalytic activities under visible light. The methylene blue (MB) dye and the phenol were used as model organic pollutants, and the Cu2O/Co3O4 nanocomposite catalyst exhibited both high catalytic activity and good recycling stability. The catalytic activities of the Cu2O/Co3O4/potassium monopersulfate triple salt (PMS) system for cleaving the MB and the phenol were dependent on the dosages of the Cu2O QDs, and the calculated degradation rates achieved by 7.0 wt% Cu2O/Co3O4 nanocomposite catalyst were about 11.3 and 1.8 times than that of the pristine Co3O4 nanorod catalyst for the MB and the phenol, respectively. The reactive species of rad O2- and the holes were determined to be the main active species for the phenol photocatalytic degradation by the 7 wt% Cu2O/Co3O4/PMS system and the 7 wt% Cu2O/Co3O4/H2O2 system, respectively.

  2. Synergistic effect of dual interfacial modifications with room-temperature-grown epitaxial ZnO and adsorbed indoline dye for ZnO nanorod array/P3HT hybrid solar cell.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dian-Wei; Wang, Ting-Chung; Liao, Wen-Pin; Wu, Jih-Jen

    2013-09-11

    ZnO nanorod (NR)/poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) hybrid solar cells with interfacial modifications are investigated in this work. The ZnO NR arrays are modified with room-temperature (RT)-grown epitaxial ZnO shells or/and D149 dye molecules prior to the P3HT infiltration. A synergistic effect of the dual modifications on the efficiency of the ZnO NR/P3HT solar cell is observed. The open-circuit voltage and fill factor are considerable improved through the RT-grown ZnO and D149 modifications in sequence on the ZnO NR array, which brings about a 2-fold enhancement of the efficiency of the ZnO NR/P3HT solar cell. We suggested that the more suitable surface of RT-grown ZnO for D149 adsorption, the chemical compatibility of D149 and P3HT, and the elevated conduction band edge of the RT-grown ZnO/D149-modified ZnO NR array construct the superior interfacial morphology and energetics in the RT-grown ZnO/D149-modified ZnO NR/P3HT hybrid solar cell, resulting in the synergistic effect on the cell efficiency. An efficiency of 1.16% is obtained in the RT-grown ZnO/D149-modified ZnO NR/P3HT solar cell. PMID:23937447

  3. Functionalized ZnO@TiO2 nanorod array film loaded with ZnIn0.25Cu0.02S1.395 solid-solution: synthesis, characterization and enhanced visible light driven water splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ruosong; Xu, Xiaoxue; Zhang, Yi; Chang, Zhimin; Sun, Zaicheng; Dong, Wen-Fei

    2015-06-01

    We have designed a novel semiconductor core/layer nanostructure of a uniform ZnO@TiO2 nanorod array modified with a ZnIn0.25Cu0.02S1.395 solid-solution on the surface via a facile hydrothermal synthesis. This novel nanostructure combines the merits of all components and meets the requirements of photovoltaic system application. An intimate PN heterojunction is formed from the ZnO@TiO2 nanorod and polymetallic sulphide solid-solution, which is remarkably beneficial for the effective visible light absorption and rapid charge carrier separation. The nanostructures exhibit higher photocurrent and incident photon to electron conversion efficiency (IPCE) under no bias potential versus the Ag/AgCl electrode. We also analyzed the interface and photoelectrochemical characteristics of the nanostructure and revealed the kinetic process of the electron and hole transmission. In addition, the photoanode test shows the hydrogen production capability of the nanostructures from solar water splitting. These results verified that the ZnO and TiO2 can be sensitized by the polymetallic sulfide for UV-Vis light driven energy conversion. Importantly, the approach we used to design the photoanode enables the development of micro-nano electronic devices with enhanced performance.We have designed a novel semiconductor core/layer nanostructure of a uniform ZnO@TiO2 nanorod array modified with a ZnIn0.25Cu0.02S1.395 solid-solution on the surface via a facile hydrothermal synthesis. This novel nanostructure combines the merits of all components and meets the requirements of photovoltaic system application. An intimate PN heterojunction is formed from the ZnO@TiO2 nanorod and polymetallic sulphide solid-solution, which is remarkably beneficial for the effective visible light absorption and rapid charge carrier separation. The nanostructures exhibit higher photocurrent and incident photon to electron conversion efficiency (IPCE) under no bias potential versus the Ag/AgCl electrode. We also

  4. High Light Absorption and Charge Separation Efficiency at Low Applied Voltage from Sb-Doped SnO2/BiVO4 Core/Shell Nanorod-Array Photoanodes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lite; Zhao, Chenqi; Giri, Binod; Allen, Patrick; Xu, Xiaowei; Joshi, Hrushikesh; Fan, Yangyang; Titova, Lyubov V; Rao, Pratap M

    2016-06-01

    BiVO4 has become the top-performing semiconductor among photoanodes for photoelectrochemical water oxidation. However, BiVO4 photoanodes are still limited to a fraction of the theoretically possible photocurrent at low applied voltages because of modest charge transport properties and a trade-off between light absorption and charge separation efficiencies. Here, we investigate photoanodes composed of thin layers of BiVO4 coated onto Sb-doped SnO2 (Sb:SnO2) nanorod-arrays (Sb:SnO2/BiVO4 NRAs) and demonstrate a high value for the product of light absorption and charge separation efficiencies (ηabs × ηsep) of ∼51% at an applied voltage of 0.6 V versus the reversible hydrogen electrode, as determined by integration of the quantum efficiency over the standard AM 1.5G spectrum. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the highest ηabs × ηsep efficiencies achieved to date at this voltage for nanowire-core/BiVO4-shell photoanodes. Moreover, although WO3 has recently been extensively studied as a core nanowire material for core/shell BiVO4 photoanodes, the Sb:SnO2/BiVO4 NRAs generate larger photocurrents, especially at low applied voltages. In addition, we present control experiments on planar Sb:SnO2/BiVO4 and WO3/BiVO4 heterojunctions, which indicate that Sb:SnO2 is more favorable as a core material. These results indicate that integration of Sb:SnO2 nanorod cores with other successful strategies such as doping and coating with oxygen evolution catalysts can move the performance of BiVO4 and related semiconductors closer to their theoretical potential.

  5. Electronic Structure Engineering of Cu2O Film/ZnO Nanorods Array All-Oxide p-n Heterostructure for Enhanced Photoelectrochemical Property and Self-powered Biosensing Application

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Zhuo; Yan, Xiaoqin; Wang, Yunfei; Bai, Zhiming; Liu, Yichong; Zhang, Zheng; Lin, Pei; Zhang, Xiaohui; Yuan, Haoge; Zhang, Xueji; Zhang, Yue

    2015-01-01

    We have engineered the electronic structure at the interface between Cu2O and ZnO nanorods (NRs) array, through adjusting the carrier concentration of Cu2O. The electrodeposition of Cu2O at pH 11 acquired the highest carrier concentration, resulting in the largest interfacial electric field between Cu2O and ZnO, which finally led to the highest separation efficiency of photogenerated charge carriers. The optimized Cu2O/ZnO NRs array p-n heterostructures exhibited enhanced PEC performance, such as elevated photocurrent and photoconversion efficiency, as well as excellent sensing performance for the sensitive detection of glutathione (GSH) in PBS buffer even at applied bias of 0 V which made the device self-powered. Besides, the favorable selectivity, high reproducibility and extremely wide detection range, make such heterostructure a promising candidate for PEC biosensing applications, probably for the extended field of PEC water splitting or other solar photovoltaic beacons. PMID:25600940

  6. Improved size-tunable synthesis of monodisperse gold nanorods through the use of aromatic additives.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xingchen; Jin, Linghua; Caglayan, Humeyra; Chen, Jun; Xing, Guozhong; Zheng, Chen; Doan-Nguyen, Vicky; Kang, Yijin; Engheta, Nader; Kagan, Cherie R; Murray, Christopher B

    2012-03-27

    We report an improved synthesis of colloidal gold nanorods (NRs) by using aromatic additives that reduce the concentration of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide surfactant to ~0.05 M as opposed to 0.1 M in well-established protocols. The method optimizes the synthesis for each of the 11 additives studied, allowing a rich array of monodisperse gold NRs with longitudinal surface plasmon resonance tunable from 627 to 1246 nm to be generated. The gold NRs form large-area ordered assemblies upon slow evaporation of NR solution, exhibiting liquid crystalline ordering and several distinct local packing motifs that are dependent upon the NR's aspect ratio. Tailored synthesis of gold NRs with simultaneous improvements in monodispersity and dimensional tunability through rational introduction of additives will not only help to better understand the mechanism of seed-mediated growth of gold NRs but also advance the research on plasmonic metamaterials incorporating anisotropic metal nanostructures. PMID:22376005

  7. Enhanced waveguide-type ultraviolet electroluminescence from ZnO/MgZnO core/shell nanorod array light-emitting diodes via coupling with Ag nanoparticles localized surface plasmons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Cen; Marvinney, Claire Elizabeth; Xu, Hai Yang; Liu, Wei Zhen; Wang, Chun Liang; Zhang, Li Xia; Wang, Jian Nong; Ma, Jian Gang; Liu, Yi Chun

    2014-12-01

    Localized surface plasmon (LSP) enhanced waveguide-type ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were fabricated by sputtering Ag nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) onto ZnO/MgZnO core/shell nanorod array (CS-NRA)/p-GaN heterostructures. A ~9-fold enhancement of ZnO ultraviolet electroluminescence (EL) was demonstrated by the Ag-NPs decorated LED compared with the device without Ag-NPs. Angle-dependent EL measurements, as well as finite-difference time-domain simulations of the EL intensity spatial distribution, confirmed the waveguide-type EL transmission mode along the NR's axial direction. The increased spontaneous emission rate observed in time-resolved spectroscopy suggested that the ZnO EL enhancement was attributed to LSP-exciton/polariton coupling. However, a direct coupling is very difficult to achieve between Ag-LSPs and electron-hole pairs in the active region due to their ``remote'' separation. Thereby, two possible models involving the dynamic process of interactions among excitons, photons, and LSPs, were established to understand the selective enhancement of ZnO EL.Localized surface plasmon (LSP) enhanced waveguide-type ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were fabricated by sputtering Ag nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) onto ZnO/MgZnO core/shell nanorod array (CS-NRA)/p-GaN heterostructures. A ~9-fold enhancement of ZnO ultraviolet electroluminescence (EL) was demonstrated by the Ag-NPs decorated LED compared with the device without Ag-NPs. Angle-dependent EL measurements, as well as finite-difference time-domain simulations of the EL intensity spatial distribution, confirmed the waveguide-type EL transmission mode along the NR's axial direction. The increased spontaneous emission rate observed in time-resolved spectroscopy suggested that the ZnO EL enhancement was attributed to LSP-exciton/polariton coupling. However, a direct coupling is very difficult to achieve between Ag-LSPs and electron-hole pairs in the active region due to their ``remote'' separation

  8. Buffer layer effect on ZnO nanorods growth alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dongxu; Andreazza, Caroline; Andreazza, Pascal; Ma, Jiangang; Liu, Yichun; Shen, Dezhen

    2005-06-01

    Vertical aligned ZnO nanorods array was fabricated on Si with introducing a ZnO thin film as a buffer layer. Two different nucleation mechanisms were found in growth process. With using Au catalyst, Zn vapor could diffuse into Au nanoclusters with forming a solid solution. Then the ZnO nucleation site is mainly on the catalyst by oxidation of Au/Zn alloy. Without catalyst, nucleation could occur directly on the surface of buffer layer by homoepitaxy. The density and the size of ZnO nanorods could be governed by morphological character of catalyst and buffer layer. The nanorods growth is followed by vapor-solid mechanism.

  9. Enhanced waveguide-type ultraviolet electroluminescence from ZnO/MgZnO core/shell nanorod array light-emitting diodes via coupling with Ag nanoparticles localized surface plasmons.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cen; Marvinney, Claire Elizabeth; Xu, Hai Yang; Liu, Wei Zhen; Wang, Chun Liang; Zhang, Li Xia; Wang, Jian Nong; Ma, Jian Gang; Liu, Yi Chun

    2015-01-21

    Localized surface plasmon (LSP) enhanced waveguide-type ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were fabricated by sputtering Ag nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) onto ZnO/MgZnO core/shell nanorod array (CS-NRA)/p-GaN heterostructures. A ∼9-fold enhancement of ZnO ultraviolet electroluminescence (EL) was demonstrated by the Ag-NPs decorated LED compared with the device without Ag-NPs. Angle-dependent EL measurements, as well as finite-difference time-domain simulations of the EL intensity spatial distribution, confirmed the waveguide-type EL transmission mode along the NR's axial direction. The increased spontaneous emission rate observed in time-resolved spectroscopy suggested that the ZnO EL enhancement was attributed to LSP-exciton/polariton coupling. However, a direct coupling is very difficult to achieve between Ag-LSPs and electron-hole pairs in the active region due to their "remote" separation. Thereby, two possible models involving the dynamic process of interactions among excitons, photons, and LSPs, were established to understand the selective enhancement of ZnO EL. PMID:25475883

  10. Structural and optical study of core-shell InGaN layers of nanorod arrays with multiple stacks of InGaN/GaN superlattices for absorption of longer solar spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Si-Young; Jung, Byung Oh; Lekhal, Kaddour; Lee, Dong-Seon; Deki, Manato; Honda, Yoshio; Amano, Hiroshi

    2016-05-01

    We report on the material and optical properties of core-shell InGaN layers grown on GaN nanorod arrays. The core-shell InGaN layers were well grown on polarization-reduced surfaces such as semipolar pyramids and nonpolar sidewalls. In addition, to compensate the biaxial strain between GaN and InGaN layers, we grew interlayers underneath a thick InGaN layer. Here, the interlayers were composed of multiple superlattice structures. We could observe that the indium composition of core-shell InGaN structures increased with the number of interlayers. This indicates that the absorption energy band of InGaN alloys can be better matched to the spectral irradiance of the solar spectrum in nature. We also implemented a simulation of Ga-polar and nonpolar InGaN-based solar cells based on the indium composition obtained from the experiments. The result showed that nonpolar InGaN solar cells had a much higher efficiency than Ga-polar InGaN solar cells with the same thickness of the absorption layer.

  11. Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and nanorod barcodes

    DOEpatents

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Scher, Erik C.; Manna, Liberato

    2013-03-26

    Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and shapped nanorods are disclosed comprising Group II-VI, Group III-V and Group IV semiconductors and methods of making the same. Also disclosed are nanorod barcodes using core/shell nanorods where the core is a semiconductor or metal material, and with or without a shell. Methods of labeling analytes using the nanorod barcodes are also disclosed.

  12. Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and nanorod barcodes

    DOEpatents

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Scher, Erik C.; Manna, Liberato

    2010-12-14

    Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and shaped nanorods are disclosed comprising Group II-VI, Group III-V and Group IV semiconductors and methods of making the same. Also disclosed are nanorod barcodes using core/shell nanorods where the core is a semiconductor or metal material, and with or without a shell. Methods of labeling analytes using the nanorod barcodes are also disclosed.

  13. An array of highly flexible electrodes with a tailored configuration locked by gelatin during implantation—initial evaluation in cortex cerebri of awake rats

    PubMed Central

    Agorelius, Johan; Tsanakalis, Fotios; Friberg, Annika; Thorbergsson, Palmi T.; Pettersson, Lina M. E.; Schouenborg, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Background: A major challenge in the field of neural interfaces is to overcome the problem of poor stability of neuronal recordings, which impedes long-term studies of individual neurons in the brain. Conceivably, unstable recordings reflect relative movements between electrode and tissue. To address this challenge, we have developed a new ultra-flexible electrode array and evaluated its performance in awake non-restrained animals. Methods:An array of eight separated gold leads (4 × 10 μm), individually flexible in 3D, were cut from a gold sheet using laser milling and insulated with Parylene C. To provide structural support during implantation into rat cortex, the electrode array was embedded in a hard gelatin based material, which dissolves after implantation. Recordings were made during 3 weeks. At termination, the animals were perfused with fixative and frozen to prevent dislocation of the implanted electrodes. A thick slice of brain tissue, with the electrode array still in situ, was made transparent using methyl salicylate to evaluate the conformation of the implanted electrode array. Results: Median noise levels and signal/noise remained relatively stable during the 3 week observation period; 4.3–5.9 μV and 2.8–4.2, respectively. The spike amplitudes were often quite stable within recording sessions and for 15% of recordings where single-units were identified, the highest-SNR unit had an amplitude higher than 150 μV. In addition, high correlations (>0.96) between unit waveforms recorded at different time points were obtained for 58% of the electrode sites. The structure of the electrode array was well preserved 3 weeks after implantation. Conclusions: A new implantable multichannel neural interface, comprising electrodes individually flexible in 3D that retain its architecture and functionality after implantation has been developed. Since the new neural interface design is adaptable, it offers a versatile tool to explore the function of various brain

  14. An Au/Si hetero-nanorod-based biosensor for Salmonella detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Junxue; Park, Bosoon; Siragusa, Greg; Jones, Les; Tripp, Ralph; Zhao, Yiping; Cho, Yong-Jin

    2008-04-01

    We present a novel and effective food-borne bacteria detection method. A hetero-structured silicon/gold nanorod array fabricated by the glancing angle deposition method is functionalized with anti-Salmonella antibodies and organic dye molecules. Due to the high aspect ratio nature of the Si nanorods, dye molecules attached to the Si nanorods produce an enhanced fluorescence upon capture and detection of Salmonella. This bio-functional hetero-nanorod detection method has great potential in the food safety industry as well as in biomedical diagnostics.

  15. Nanorods of Co/Pd multilayers fabricated by glancing angle deposition for advanced media

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Hao; Gupta, Subhadra; Natarajarathinam, Anusha

    2013-05-28

    Perpendicular anisotropy magnetic nanorods composed of Co/Pd multilayers have been successfully fabricated by glancing angle deposition (GLAD) in a planetary sputtering system. Co and Pd layer thickness, ratio, and bilayer number were optimized for both normal and GLAD depositions. Scanning electron micrographs estimated the nanorods to be about 12 nm in diameter. M-H loops showed that the coercivity for the GLAD nanorods increased from 1.3 kOe for the normally deposited continuous films to 2.9 kOe for the GLAD nanorod array, a 123% increase.

  16. Colloidal luminescent silicon nanorods.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaotang; Hessel, Colin M; Yu, Yixuan; Bogart, Timothy D; Korgel, Brian A

    2013-07-10

    Silicon nanorods are grown by trisilane decomposition in hot squalane in the presence of tin (Sn) nanocrystals and dodecylamine. Sn induces solution-liquid-solid nanorod growth with dodecylamine serving as a stabilizing ligand. As-prepared nanorods do not luminesce, but etching with hydrofluoric acid to remove residual surface oxide followed by thermal hydrosilylation with 1-octadecene induces bright photoluminescence with quantum yields of 4-5%. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that the ligands prevent surface oxidation for months when stored in air. PMID:23731184

  17. Shape-induced separation of nanospheres and aligned nanorods.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, I; Zandvliet, H J W; Kooij, E S

    2014-07-15

    We studied the phase separation and spatial arrangement of gold nanorods and nanospheres after evaporative self-assembly from aqueous suspension. Depending on the position relative to the contact line of the drying droplet, spheres and rods separate into various liquid-crystalline phases. Nanorods exhibit a strong preference for side-by-side alignment, giving rise to smectic phases; spheres in solution are forced out of these regions and form close-packed arrays. We discuss this self-separation into nanorod- and sphere-rich phases in terms of various interactions, including electrostatic, van der Waals, and deplection interactions forces. The experimental results are compared to quantitative calculations of the colloidal interaction energies. We also describe and discuss the role of the surfactant on the different crystal facets of the nanorods on the assembly process.

  18. Electrochemical deposition of zinc oxide nanorods for hybrid solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres Damasco Ty, Jennifer; Yanagi, Hisao

    2015-04-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod arrays for inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells were electrochemically deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates with a rotating disk electrode setup. The addition of a ZnO seed layer on the ITO prior to electrochemical deposition improved the morphology of the nanorods, resulting in nanorods with smaller and homogenous diameters as well as a higher degree of vertical orientation on to the substrate. The ZnO films deposited on the seeded ITO substrates had higher optical transmittance and lower concentration of defects. Chronoamperometric transient curves show that nucleation and coalescence occurred later for bare ITO substrates, indicating lower densities of initial nuclei, resulting in the growth of nanorods with larger diameters. The solar cell characteristics of the devices fabricated from the seeded ITO substrates were better. The seed layer also acts as a hole-blocking layer, preventing the direct contact between the hole-transporting polymer material and the ITO.

  19. Optical forces in nanorod metamaterial

    PubMed Central

    Bogdanov, Andrey A.; Shalin, Alexander S.; Ginzburg, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Optomechanical manipulation of micro and nano-scale objects with laser beams finds use in a large span of multidisciplinary applications. Auxiliary nanostructuring could substantially improve performances of classical optical tweezers by means of spatial localization of objects and intensity required for trapping. Here we investigate a three-dimensional nanorod metamaterial platform, serving as an auxiliary tool for the optical manipulation, able to support and control near-field interactions and generate both steep and flat optical potential profiles. It was shown that the ‘topological transition’ from the elliptic to hyperbolic dispersion regime of the metamaterial, usually having a significant impact on various light-matter interaction processes, does not strongly affect the distribution of optical forces in the metamaterial. This effect is explained by the predominant near-fields contributions of the nanostructure to optomechanical interactions. Semi-analytical model, approximating the finite size nanoparticle by a point dipole and neglecting the mutual re-scattering between the particle and nanorod array, was found to be in a good agreement with full-wave numerical simulation. In-plane (perpendicular to the rods) trapping regime, saddle equilibrium points and optical puling forces (directed along the rods towards the light source), acting on a particle situated inside or at the nearby the metamaterial, were found. PMID:26514667

  20. Core-Shell Nanorod Columnar Array Combined with Gold Nanoplate-Nanosphere Assemblies Enable Powerful In Situ SERS Detection of Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Li; Wang, WeiQiang; Zhang, AiWen; Zhang, NanNan; Lemma, Tibebe; Ge, HongHua; Toppari, J Jussi; Hytönen, Vesa P; Wang, Jin

    2016-09-21

    Development of a label-free ultrasensitive nanosensor for detection of bacteria is presented. Sensitive assay for Gram-positive bacteria was achieved via electrostatic attraction-guided plasmonic bifacial superstructure/bacteria/columnar array assembled in one step. Dynamic optical hotspots were formed in the hybridized nanoassembly under wet-dry critical state amplifying efficiently the weak vibrational modes of three representative food-borne Gram-positive bacteria, that is, Staphylococcus xylosus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Enterococcus faecium. These three bacteria with highly analogous Raman spectra can be effectively differentiated through droplet wet-dry critical SERS approach combined with 3D PCA statistical analysis so that highly sensitive discrimination of bacterial species and samples containing mixtures of bacteria can be achieved. PMID:27574829

  1. Core-Shell Nanorod Columnar Array Combined with Gold Nanoplate-Nanosphere Assemblies Enable Powerful In Situ SERS Detection of Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Li; Wang, WeiQiang; Zhang, AiWen; Zhang, NanNan; Lemma, Tibebe; Ge, HongHua; Toppari, J Jussi; Hytönen, Vesa P; Wang, Jin

    2016-09-21

    Development of a label-free ultrasensitive nanosensor for detection of bacteria is presented. Sensitive assay for Gram-positive bacteria was achieved via electrostatic attraction-guided plasmonic bifacial superstructure/bacteria/columnar array assembled in one step. Dynamic optical hotspots were formed in the hybridized nanoassembly under wet-dry critical state amplifying efficiently the weak vibrational modes of three representative food-borne Gram-positive bacteria, that is, Staphylococcus xylosus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Enterococcus faecium. These three bacteria with highly analogous Raman spectra can be effectively differentiated through droplet wet-dry critical SERS approach combined with 3D PCA statistical analysis so that highly sensitive discrimination of bacterial species and samples containing mixtures of bacteria can be achieved.

  2. Effective PEGylation of gold nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, F.; Friedrich, W.; Hoppe, K.; Vossmeyer, T.; Weller, H.; Lange, H.

    2016-03-01

    Standard procedures to coat gold nanorods (AuNR) with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based ligands are not reliable and high PEG-grafting densities are not achieved. In this work, the ligand exchange of AuNR with PEGMUA, a tailored PEG-ligand bearing a C10 alkylene spacer, is studied. PEGMUA provides AuNR with very high stability against oxidative etching with cyanide. This etching reaction is utilized to study the ligand exchange in detail. Ligand exchange is faster, less ligand consuming and more reproducible with assisting chloroform extraction. Compared to PEG ligands commonly used, PEGMUA provides much higher colloidal and chemical stability. Further analyses based on NMR-, IR- and UV/Vis-spectroscopy reveal that significantly higher PEG-grafting densities, up to ~3 nm-2, are obtained with PEGMUA. This demonstrates how the molecular structure of the PEG ligand can be used to dramatically improve the ligand exchange and to synthesize PEGylated AuNR with high chemical and colloidal stability and high PEG grafting densities. Such AuNR are especially interesting for applications in nanomedicine.Standard procedures to coat gold nanorods (AuNR) with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based ligands are not reliable and high PEG-grafting densities are not achieved. In this work, the ligand exchange of AuNR with PEGMUA, a tailored PEG-ligand bearing a C10 alkylene spacer, is studied. PEGMUA provides AuNR with very high stability against oxidative etching with cyanide. This etching reaction is utilized to study the ligand exchange in detail. Ligand exchange is faster, less ligand consuming and more reproducible with assisting chloroform extraction. Compared to PEG ligands commonly used, PEGMUA provides much higher colloidal and chemical stability. Further analyses based on NMR-, IR- and UV/Vis-spectroscopy reveal that significantly higher PEG-grafting densities, up to ~3 nm-2, are obtained with PEGMUA. This demonstrates how the molecular structure of the PEG ligand can be used to

  3. Watching single gold nanorods grow.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhongqing; Qi, Hua; Li, Min; Tang, Bochong; Zhang, Zhengzheng; Han, Ruiling; Wang, Jiaojiao; Zhao, Yuliang

    2012-05-01

    The consecutive evolution process of single gold nanorods is monitored using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The single-crystal gold nanorods investigated are grown directly on surfaces to which gold seed particles are covalently linked. The growth kinetics for single nanorods is derived from the 3D information recorded by AFM. A better understanding of the seed-mediated growth mechanism may ultimately lead to the direct growth of aligned nanorods on surfaces. PMID:22378704

  4. Eight-channel transceiver RF coil array tailored for ¹H/¹⁹F MR of the human knee and fluorinated drugs at 7.0 T.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yiyi; Waiczies, Helmar; Winter, Lukas; Neumanova, Pavla; Hofmann, Daniela; Rieger, Jan; Mekle, Ralf; Waiczies, Sonia; Niendorf, Thoralf

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of an eight-channel dual-tuned transceiver surface RF coil array for combined (1)H/(19)F MR of the human knee at 7.0 T following application of (19)F-containing drugs. The (1)H/(19)F RF coil array includes a posterior module with two (1)H loop elements and two anterior modules, each consisting of one (1)H and two (19)F elements. The decoupling of neighbor elements is achieved by a shared capacitor. Electromagnetic field simulations were performed to afford uniform transmission fields and to be in accordance with RF safety guidelines. Localized (19)F MRS was conducted with 47 and 101 mmol/L of flufenamic acid (FA) – a (19)F-containing non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug – to determine T1 and T2 and to study the (19)F signal-to-dose relationship. The suitability of the proposed approach for (1)H/(19)F MR was examined in healthy subjects. Reflection coefficients of each channel were less than -17 dB and coupling between channels was less than -11 dB. Q(L)/Q(U) was less than 0.5 for all elements. MRS results demonstrated signal stability with 1% variation. T1 and T2 relaxation times changed with concentration of FA: T1 /T2 = 673/31 ms at 101 mmol/L and T1 /T2 = 616/26 ms at 47 mmol/L. A uniform signal and contrast across the patella could be observed in proton imaging. The sensitivity of the RF coil enabled localization of FA ointment administrated to the knee with an in-plane spatial resolution of (1.5 × 1.5) mm(2) achieved in a total scan time of approximately three minutes, which is well suited for translational human studies. This study shows the feasibility of combined (1)H/(19)F MRI of the knee at 7.0 T and proposes T1 and T2 mapping methods for quantifying fluorinated drugs in vivo. Further technological developments are necessary to promote real-time bioavailability studies and quantification of (19)F-containing medicinal compounds in vivo.

  5. Ultrasensitive, Real-time and Discriminative Detection of Improvised Explosives by Chemiresistive Thin-film Sensory Array of Mn2+ Tailored Hierarchical ZnS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chaoyu; Wu, Zhaofeng; Guo, Yanan; Li, Yushu; Cao, Hongyu; Zheng, Xuefang; Dou, Xincun

    2016-05-01

    A simple method combing Mn2+ doping with a hierarchical structure was developed for the improvement of thin-film sensors and efficient detection of the explosives relevant to improvised explosive devices (IEDs). ZnS hierarchical nanospheres (HNs) were prepared via a solution-based route and their sensing performances were manipulated by Mn2+ doping. The responses of the sensors based on ZnS HNs towards 8 explosives generally increase firstly and then decrease with the increase of the doped Mn2+ concentration, reaching the climate at 5% Mn2+. Furthermore, the sensory array based on ZnS HNs with different doping levels achieved the sensitive and discriminative detection of 6 analytes relevant to IEDs and 2 military explosives in less than 5 s at room temperature. Importantly, the superior sensing performances make ZnS HNs material interesting in the field of chemiresistive sensors, and this simple method could be a very promising strategy to put the sensors based on thin-films of one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures into practical IEDs detection.

  6. Ultrasensitive, Real-time and Discriminative Detection of Improvised Explosives by Chemiresistive Thin-film Sensory Array of Mn(2+) Tailored Hierarchical ZnS.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chaoyu; Wu, Zhaofeng; Guo, Yanan; Li, Yushu; Cao, Hongyu; Zheng, Xuefang; Dou, Xincun

    2016-05-10

    A simple method combing Mn(2+) doping with a hierarchical structure was developed for the improvement of thin-film sensors and efficient detection of the explosives relevant to improvised explosive devices (IEDs). ZnS hierarchical nanospheres (HNs) were prepared via a solution-based route and their sensing performances were manipulated by Mn(2+) doping. The responses of the sensors based on ZnS HNs towards 8 explosives generally increase firstly and then decrease with the increase of the doped Mn(2+) concentration, reaching the climate at 5% Mn(2+). Furthermore, the sensory array based on ZnS HNs with different doping levels achieved the sensitive and discriminative detection of 6 analytes relevant to IEDs and 2 military explosives in less than 5 s at room temperature. Importantly, the superior sensing performances make ZnS HNs material interesting in the field of chemiresistive sensors, and this simple method could be a very promising strategy to put the sensors based on thin-films of one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures into practical IEDs detection.

  7. Ultrasensitive, Real-time and Discriminative Detection of Improvised Explosives by Chemiresistive Thin-film Sensory Array of Mn2+ Tailored Hierarchical ZnS

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chaoyu; Wu, Zhaofeng; Guo, Yanan; Li, Yushu; Cao, Hongyu; Zheng, Xuefang; Dou, Xincun

    2016-01-01

    A simple method combing Mn2+ doping with a hierarchical structure was developed for the improvement of thin-film sensors and efficient detection of the explosives relevant to improvised explosive devices (IEDs). ZnS hierarchical nanospheres (HNs) were prepared via a solution-based route and their sensing performances were manipulated by Mn2+ doping. The responses of the sensors based on ZnS HNs towards 8 explosives generally increase firstly and then decrease with the increase of the doped Mn2+ concentration, reaching the climate at 5% Mn2+. Furthermore, the sensory array based on ZnS HNs with different doping levels achieved the sensitive and discriminative detection of 6 analytes relevant to IEDs and 2 military explosives in less than 5 s at room temperature. Importantly, the superior sensing performances make ZnS HNs material interesting in the field of chemiresistive sensors, and this simple method could be a very promising strategy to put the sensors based on thin-films of one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures into practical IEDs detection. PMID:27161193

  8. Photoactive area modification in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells using optimization of electrochemically synthesized ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehdi, Ahmadi; Sajjad Rashidi, Dafeh

    2015-11-01

    In this work, ZnO nanorod arrays grown by an electrochemical deposition method are investigated. The crucial parameters of length, diameter, and density of the nanorods are optimized over the synthesize process and nanorods growth time. Crystalline structure, morphologies, and optical properties of ZnO nanorod arrays are studied by different techniques such as x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscope, and UV-visible transmission spectra. The ZnO nanorod arrays are employed in an inverted bulk heterojunction organic solar cell of Poly (3-hexylthiophene):[6-6] Phenyl-(6) butyric acid methyl ester to introduce more surface contact between the electron transporter layer and the active layer. Our results show that the deposition time is a very important factor to achieve the aligned and uniform ZnO nanorods with suitable surface density which is required for effective infiltration of active area into the ZnO nanorod spacing and make a maximum interfacial surface contact for electron collection, as overgrowing causes nanorods to be too dense and thick and results in high resistance and lower visible light transmittance. By optimizing the thickness of the active layer on top of ZnO nanorods, an improved efficiency of 3.17% with a high FF beyond 60% was achieved.

  9. Growth of vertically aligned ZnO nanorods using textured ZnO films

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    A hydrothermal method to grow vertical-aligned ZnO nanorod arrays on ZnO films obtained by atomic layer deposition (ALD) is presented. The growth of ZnO nanorods is studied as function of the crystallographic orientation of the ZnO films deposited on silicon (100) substrates. Different thicknesses of ZnO films around 40 to 180 nm were obtained and characterized before carrying out the growth process by hydrothermal methods. A textured ZnO layer with preferential direction in the normal c-axes is formed on substrates by the decomposition of diethylzinc to provide nucleation sites for vertical nanorod growth. Crystallographic orientation of the ZnO nanorods and ZnO-ALD films was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. Composition, morphologies, length, size, and diameter of the nanorods were studied using a scanning electron microscope and energy dispersed x-ray spectroscopy analyses. In this work, it is demonstrated that crystallinity of the ZnO-ALD films plays an important role in the vertical-aligned ZnO nanorod growth. The nanorod arrays synthesized in solution had a diameter, length, density, and orientation desirable for a potential application as photosensitive materials in the manufacture of semiconductor-polymer solar cells. PACS 61.46.Hk, Nanocrystals; 61.46.Km, Structure of nanowires and nanorods; 81.07.Gf, Nanowires; 81.15.Gh, Chemical vapor deposition (including plasma-enhanced CVD, MOCVD, ALD, etc.) PMID:21899743

  10. Tailored Precone Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantay, Wayne R.; Farley, Gary L.

    1995-01-01

    Concept of tailored precone rotor (TPR) provides for changes in precone deflection in helicopter rotor blade when such changes needed for enhancement of stability and loads. Involves use of device described in "Structurally-Tailorable, Nonlinear Snap-Through Spring," (LAR-13729). Satifies requirements in both rotor states in tailored, passive manner. Also applicable to complex blades of high-speed fans or turbines.

  11. Gold Nanobipyramid-Directed Growth of Length-Variable Silver Nanorods with Multipolar Plasmon Resonances.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Xiaolu; Zhu, Xingzhong; Li, Qian; Yang, Zhi; Wang, Jianfang

    2015-07-28

    We report on a method for the preparation of uniform and length-variable Ag nanorods through anisotropic Ag overgrowth on high-purity Au nanobipyramids. The rod diameters can be roughly tailored from ∼20 nm to ∼50 nm by judicious selection of differently sized Au nanobipyramids. The rod lengths can be tuned from ∼150 nm to ∼550 nm by varying the Ag precursor amount during the overgrowth process and/or by anisotropic shortening through mild oxidation. The controllable aspect ratios, high purity, and high dimensional uniformity of these Ag nanorods enable the observation of Fabry-Pérot-like multipolar plasmon resonance modes in the colloidal suspensions at the ensemble level, which has so far been demonstrated only on Au nanorods prepared electrochemically with anodic aluminum oxide templates. Depending on the mode order and geometry of the Ag nanorods, the multipolar plasmon wavelengths can be readily tailored over a wide spectral range from the visible to near-infrared region. We have further elucidated the relationships between the multipolar plasmon wavelengths and the geometric dimensions of the Ag nanorods at both the ensemble and single-particle levels. Our results indicate that the Au nanobipyramid-directed, dimensionally controllable Ag nanorods will be an attractive and promising candidate for developing multipolar plasmon-based devices and applications.

  12. Gold Nanobipyramid-Directed Growth of Length-Variable Silver Nanorods with Multipolar Plasmon Resonances.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Xiaolu; Zhu, Xingzhong; Li, Qian; Yang, Zhi; Wang, Jianfang

    2015-07-28

    We report on a method for the preparation of uniform and length-variable Ag nanorods through anisotropic Ag overgrowth on high-purity Au nanobipyramids. The rod diameters can be roughly tailored from ∼20 nm to ∼50 nm by judicious selection of differently sized Au nanobipyramids. The rod lengths can be tuned from ∼150 nm to ∼550 nm by varying the Ag precursor amount during the overgrowth process and/or by anisotropic shortening through mild oxidation. The controllable aspect ratios, high purity, and high dimensional uniformity of these Ag nanorods enable the observation of Fabry-Pérot-like multipolar plasmon resonance modes in the colloidal suspensions at the ensemble level, which has so far been demonstrated only on Au nanorods prepared electrochemically with anodic aluminum oxide templates. Depending on the mode order and geometry of the Ag nanorods, the multipolar plasmon wavelengths can be readily tailored over a wide spectral range from the visible to near-infrared region. We have further elucidated the relationships between the multipolar plasmon wavelengths and the geometric dimensions of the Ag nanorods at both the ensemble and single-particle levels. Our results indicate that the Au nanobipyramid-directed, dimensionally controllable Ag nanorods will be an attractive and promising candidate for developing multipolar plasmon-based devices and applications. PMID:26135608

  13. Effect of thicknesses of copper catalyst and oxide sublayer on morphology of ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyanguzov, N. V.; Kaydashev, V. E.; Kaidashev, E. M.; Abdulvakhidov, K. G.

    2011-03-01

    The influence of thicknesses of a ZnO sublayer and a copper catalyst film on the morphology of ZnO nanorods grown by carbothermal synthesis on α-Al2O3(11-20) substrates has been studied. An increase in the Cu catalyst film thickness leads to a growth in the diameters, heights, and surface density of nanorods. As the ZnO sublayer thickness is increased, the average diameter of nanorods also increases, while their lengths and surface density decrease. The effect of elevated temperatures on the thermal decomposition of ultrathin Cu films deposited on α-Al2O3 substrates has been studied. The photoluminescence characteristics of nanorod arrays have been measured at high levels of optical pumping. An increase in the pumping level to 250-280 kW/cm2 leads to superluminescence of the nanorods.

  14. Synthesis of Absorption-Dominant Small Gold Nanorods and Their Plasmonic Properties.

    PubMed

    Jia, Henglei; Fang, Caihong; Zhu, Xiao-Ming; Ruan, Qifeng; Wang, Yi-Xiang J; Wang, Jianfang

    2015-07-01

    Absorption-dominant small Au nanorods with diameters of less than 10 nm are prepared using a facile seed-mediated growth method. The diameters of the small gold nanorods range from 6 to 9 nm, and their lengths vary from 16 to 45 nm. Their aspect ratios can be tailored from 2.7 to 4.7. As a result, the longitudinal plasmon resonance wavelengths are readily tunable from ∼720 nm to ∼830 nm by changing the seed-to-Au(III) molar ratio in the growth solution. The fractions of the scattering in the total extinction of the small Au nanorods are found to be in the range of 0.005 to 0.025 with finite-difference time-domain simulations, confirming that the extinction values of these small Au nanorods are dominantly contributed to by the light absorption. Moreover, the small Au nanorod sample is coated with a dense silica layer for photothermal therapy with three cell lines. It shows improved photothermal therapy performance compared to a large Au nanorod sample for the same cellular Au contents. Our study suggests that small Au nanorods are promising light absorbers and photothermal therapy agents. PMID:26079391

  15. Photochemical synthesis of gold nanorods.

    PubMed

    Kim, Franklin; Song, Jae Hee; Yang, Peidong

    2002-12-01

    Gold nanorods have been synthesized by photochemically reducing gold ions within a micellar solution. The aspect ratio of the rods can be controlled with the addition of silver ions. This process reported here is highly promising for producing uniform nanorods, and more importantly it will be useful in resolving the growth mechanism of anisotropic metal nanoparticles due to its simplicity and the relatively slow growth rate of the nanorods. PMID:12452700

  16. Investigating the optical XNOR gate using plasmonic nano-rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhlaghi, Majid; Kaboli, Milad

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, a coherent perfect absorption (CPA)-type XNOR gate based on plasmonic nano particle is proposed. It consists of two plasmonic nano rod arrays on top of two parallel arms with quartz substrate. The operation principle is based on the absorbable formation of a conductive path in the dielectric layer of a plasmonic nano-particles waveguide. Since the CPA efficiency depends strongly on the number of plasmonic nano-rod and the nano rod location, an efficient binary optimization method based the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm is used to design an optimized array of the plasmonic nano-rod in order to achieve the maximum absorption coefficient in the 'off' state and the minimum absorption coefficient in the 'on' state. In Binary PSO (BPSO), a group of birds consists a matrix with binary entries, control the presence ('1‧) or the absence ('0‧) of nano rod in the array.

  17. Directed self-assembly of nanorod networks: bringing the top down to the bottom up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Einsle, Joshua F.; Scheunert, Gunther; Murphy, Antony; McPhillips, John; Zayats, Anatoly V.; Pollard, Robert; Bowman, Robert M.

    2012-12-01

    Self-assembled electrodeposited nanorod materials have been shown to offer an exciting landscape for a wide array of research ranging from nanophotonics through to biosensing and magnetics. However, until now, the scope for site-specific preparation of the nanorods on wafers has been limited to local area definition. Further there is little or no lateral control of nanorod height. In this work we present a scalable method for controlling the growth of the nanorods in the vertical direction as well as their lateral position. A focused ion beam pre-patterns the Au cathode layer prior to the creation of the anodized aluminium oxide (AAO) template on top. When the pre-patterning is of the same dimension as the pore spacing of the AAO template, lines of single nanorods are successfully grown. Further, for sub-200 nm wide features, a relationship between the nanorod height and distance from the non-patterned cathode can be seen to follow a quadratic growth rate obeying Faraday’s law of electrodeposition. This facilitates lateral control of nanorod height combined with localized growth of the nanorods.

  18. Vertically aligned self-assembled gold nanorods as low turn-on, stable field emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apte, Amey; Joshi, Padmashree; Bhaskar, Prashant; Joag, Dilip; Kulkarni, Sulabha

    2015-11-01

    In this work we have investigated field emission from self-assembled, vertically aligned, gold nanorod arrays, which were synthesized via a colloidal growth method. A field emission current density of ∼1 mA/cm2 was measured for these gold nanorod arrays using an anode-cathode separation of ∼3.5 mm. The field emission investigation of these gold nanorod arrays was carried out at a base pressure of ∼10-8 mbar. The turn on field, defined as the electric field required to obtain a current density of 1 μA/cm2, is observed to be 1.9 V/μm. Assuming a work function value of 5.3 eV, the field enhancement factor β is estimated to be ∼2931, which is higher than the reported values for other gold nanostructures/arrays.

  19. Tailored Porous Materials

    SciTech Connect

    BARTON,THOMAS J.; BULL,LUCY M.; KLEMPERER,WALTER G.; LOY,DOUGLAS A.; MCENANEY,BRIAN; MISONO,MAKOTO; MONSON,PETER A.; PEZ,GUIDO; SCHERER,GEORGE W.; VARTULI,JAMES C.; YAGHI,OMAR M.

    1999-11-09

    Tailoring of porous materials involves not only chemical synthetic techniques for tailoring microscopic properties such as pore size, pore shape, pore connectivity, and pore surface reactivity, but also materials processing techniques for tailoring the meso- and the macroscopic properties of bulk materials in the form of fibers, thin films and monoliths. These issues are addressed in the context of five specific classes of porous materials: oxide molecular sieves, porous coordination solids, porous carbons, sol-gel derived oxides, and porous heteropolyanion salts. Reviews of these specific areas are preceded by a presentation of background material and review of current theoretical approaches to adsorption phenomena. A concluding section outlines current research needs and opportunities.

  20. Semiconductor nanorod liquid crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Liang-shi; Walda, Joost; Manna, Liberato; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2002-01-28

    Rodlike molecules form liquid crystalline phases with orientational order and positional disorder. The great majority of materials in which liquid crystalline phases have been observed are comprised of organic molecules or polymers, even though there has been continuing and growing interest in inorganic liquid crystals. Recent advances in the control of the sizes and shapes of inorganic nanocrystals allow for the formation of a broad class of new inorganic liquid crystals. Here we show the formation of liquid crystalline phases of CdSe semiconductor nanorods. These new liquid crystalline phases may have great importance for both application and fundamental study.

  1. Active modulation of nanorod plasmons.

    PubMed

    Khatua, Saumyakanti; Chang, Wei-Shun; Swanglap, Pattanawit; Olson, Jana; Link, Stephan

    2011-09-14

    Confining visible light to nanoscale dimensions has become possible with surface plasmons. Many plasmonic elements have already been realized. Nanorods, for example, function as efficient optical antennas. However, active control of the plasmonic response remains a roadblock for building optical analogues of electronic circuits. We present a new approach to modulate the polarized scattering intensities of individual gold nanorods by 100% using liquid crystals with applied voltages as low as 4 V. This novel effect is based on the transition from a homogeneous to a twisted nematic phase of the liquid crystal covering the nanorods. With our method it will be possible to actively control optical antennas as well as other plasmonic elements.

  2. Horizontally assembled green InGaN nanorod LEDs: scalable polarized surface emitting LEDs using electric-field assisted assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hoo Keun; Yoon, Seong Woong; Eo, Yun Jae; Chung, Won Woo; Yoo, Gang Yeol; Oh, Ji Hye; Lee, Keyong Nam; Kim, Woong; Do, Young Rag

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we report the concerted fabrication process, which is easy to transform the size of active emitting area and produce polarized surface light, using the electric-field-assisted assembly for horizontally assembled many tiny nanorod LEDs between two metal electrodes. We fabricate the millions of individually separated 1D nanorod LEDs from 2D nanorod arrays using nanosphere lithography, etching and cutting process of InGaN/GaN LED structure on a flat sapphire substrate. The horizontally assembled InGaN-based nanorods LED device shows bright (~2,130 cd/m2) and uniform polarized (polarization ratio, ρ = ~0.61) green emissions from large area (0.7 cm × 0.6 cm) planar surface. The realization of a horizontally assembled nanorod LED device can prove the concept of an innovative idea to fabricate formable and scalable polarized surface LED lighting.

  3. Horizontally assembled green InGaN nanorod LEDs: scalable polarized surface emitting LEDs using electric-field assisted assembly

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hoo Keun; Yoon, Seong Woong; Eo, Yun Jae; Chung, Won Woo; Yoo, Gang Yeol; Oh, Ji Hye; Lee, Keyong Nam; Kim, Woong; Do, Young Rag

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we report the concerted fabrication process, which is easy to transform the size of active emitting area and produce polarized surface light, using the electric-field-assisted assembly for horizontally assembled many tiny nanorod LEDs between two metal electrodes. We fabricate the millions of individually separated 1D nanorod LEDs from 2D nanorod arrays using nanosphere lithography, etching and cutting process of InGaN/GaN LED structure on a flat sapphire substrate. The horizontally assembled InGaN-based nanorods LED device shows bright (~2,130 cd/m2) and uniform polarized (polarization ratio, ρ = ~0.61) green emissions from large area (0.7 cm × 0.6 cm) planar surface. The realization of a horizontally assembled nanorod LED device can prove the concept of an innovative idea to fabricate formable and scalable polarized surface LED lighting. PMID:27324568

  4. Horizontally assembled green InGaN nanorod LEDs: scalable polarized surface emitting LEDs using electric-field assisted assembly.

    PubMed

    Park, Hoo Keun; Yoon, Seong Woong; Eo, Yun Jae; Chung, Won Woo; Yoo, Gang Yeol; Oh, Ji Hye; Lee, Keyong Nam; Kim, Woong; Do, Young Rag

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we report the concerted fabrication process, which is easy to transform the size of active emitting area and produce polarized surface light, using the electric-field-assisted assembly for horizontally assembled many tiny nanorod LEDs between two metal electrodes. We fabricate the millions of individually separated 1D nanorod LEDs from 2D nanorod arrays using nanosphere lithography, etching and cutting process of InGaN/GaN LED structure on a flat sapphire substrate. The horizontally assembled InGaN-based nanorods LED device shows bright (~2,130 cd/m(2)) and uniform polarized (polarization ratio, ρ = ~0.61) green emissions from large area (0.7 cm × 0.6 cm) planar surface. The realization of a horizontally assembled nanorod LED device can prove the concept of an innovative idea to fabricate formable and scalable polarized surface LED lighting. PMID:27324568

  5. Synthesis and characterization of Cu-doped ZnO nanorods chemically grown on flexible substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabannia, R.

    2016-08-01

    Vertically aligned undoped and Cu-doped ZnO nanorods array were successfully grown on flexible substrate by chemical bath deposition method at a low 0074emperature. The fabricated materials were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. XRD analysis showed that Cu doping improves the crystallinity of the fabricated ZnO nanorods. The mean diameter and bending of the ZnO nanorods increase with an increase of Cu doping, but the density of Cu-doped ZnO nanorods almost unchanged. Room temperature PL measurement displayed increased intensity in UV peak and decreased visible peak after Cu doping.

  6. Zinc oxide nanorod growth on gold islands prepared by microsphere lithography on silicon and quartz.

    PubMed

    Blackledge, Charles W; Szarko, Jodi M; Dupont, Aurélie; Chan, George H; Read, Elizabeth L; Leone, Stephen R

    2007-09-01

    Gold islands, vapor deposited on silicon and quartz by microsphere lithography patterning, are used to nucleate arrays of ZnO nanorods. ZnO is grown on approximately 0.32 microm2 Au islands by carbothermal reduction in a tube furnace. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive atomic X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) confirm that the gold effectively controls the sites of nucleation of ZnO. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) shows that approximately 30 nm diameter nanorods grow horizontally, along the surface. Alloy droplets that are characteristic of the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism are observed at the tips of the nanorods. The spatial growth direction of VLS catalyzed ZnO nanorods is along the substrate when they nucleate from gold islands on silicon and quartz. The energy of adhesion of the VLS droplet to the surface can account for the horizontal growth. PMID:18019171

  7. Plasmonic Fano resonances in metallic nanorod complexes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhong-Jian; Hao, Zhong-Hua; Lin, Hai-Qing; Wang, Qu-Quan

    2014-05-21

    Plasmonic Fano resonances (FRs) in nanostructures have been extensively studied in recent years. Nanorod-based complexes for FRs have also attracted much attention. The basic optical properties and fabrication technology of different kinds of plasmonic nanorods have been greatly developed over the last several years. The mutipole plasmon resonances and their flexible adjustment ranges on nanorods make them promising for FR modifications and structure diversity. In this paper, we review some recently studied plasmonic nanorod based nanostructures for FRs, including single nanorods, dimers, mutipole rods and nanorod-nanoparticle hybrids. The corresponding applications of the FRs are also briefly discussed.

  8. Gold nanorods dispersed in homopolymer films: optical properties controlled by self-assembly and percolation of nanorods.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guoqian; Hore, Michael J A; Gam, Sangah; Composto, Russell J

    2012-02-28

    In this paper, polymer nanocomposite films containing gold nanorods (AuNRs) and poly(2-vinyl pyridine) (P2VP) have been investigated for their structure-optical property relationship. Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the assembly of AuNRs (7.9 nm × 28.4 nm) grafted with a P2VP brush in P2VP films is examined as a function of the AuNR volume fraction Ø(AuNRs) and film thickness h. For h ∼ 40 nm, AuNRs are confined to align parallel to the film and uniformly dispersed at low Ø(AuNRs). Upon increasing Ø(AuNRs), nanorods form discrete aggregates containing mainly side-by-side arrays due to depletion-attraction forces. For Ø(AuNRs) = 2.7%, AuNRs assemble into a 2D network where the discrete aggregates are connected by end-to-end linked nanorods. As Ø(AuNRs) further increases, the polymer-rich regions of the network fill in with nanorods and rod overlap is observed. Monte Carlo simulations capture the experimentally observed morphologies. The effect of film thickness is investigated at Ø(AuNRs) = 2.7%, where thicker films (40 and 70 nm) show a dense array of percolated nanorods and thinner films (20 nm) exhibit mainly isolated nanorods. Using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), the AuNRs are observed to segregate near the substrate during spin-casting. Optically, the longitudinal surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) peaks are correlated with the local orientation of the AuNRs, where side-by-side and end-to-end alignments induce blue and red shifts, respectively. The LSPR undergoes a red shift up to 51 nm as Ø(AuNRs) increases from 1.6 to 2.7%. These studies indicate that the optical properties of polymer nanocomposite films containing gold nanorods can be fine-tuned by changing Ø(AuNRs) and h. These results are broadly applicable and provide guidelines for dispersing other functional nanoparticles, such as quantum dots and carbon nanotubes. PMID:22283716

  9. Growth of Cu2ZnSnS4 Nanocrystallites on TiO2 Nanorod Arrays as Novel Extremely Thin Absorber Solar Cell Structure via the Successive-Ion-Layer-Adsorption-Reaction Method.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuoran; Demopoulos, George P

    2015-10-21

    Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) is an environmentally benign semiconductor with excellent optoelectronic properties that attracts a lot of interest in thin film photovoltaics. In departure from that conventional configuration, we fabricate and test a novel absorber-conductor structure featuring in situ successive-ion-layer-adsorption-reaction (SILAR)-deposited CZTS nanocrystallites as a light absorber on one-dimensional TiO2 (rutile) nanorods as an electron conductor. The effectiveness of the nanoscale heterostructure in visible light harvesting and photoelectron generation is demonstrated with an initial short circuit current density of 3.22 mA/cm(2) and an internal quantum efficiency of ∼60% at the blue light region, revealing great potential in developing CZTS extremely thin absorber (ETA) solar cells. PMID:26422062

  10. Facile fabrication of core-shell ZnO/Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 nanorods: Enhanced photoluminescence through electron charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Shengfei; Gao, Hongli; Deng, Yuan; Wang, Yao; Qu, Shengchun

    2016-01-01

    Surface decoration techniques are emerging as promising strategy to improve the optical properties of the ZnO based materials. The core-shell ZnO/Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 nanorods were grown on a FTO substrate through a facile hydrothermal and magnetron sputtering combined approach. The microstructure of the core-shell nanorod arrays were investigated by the X-ray diffraction (XRD), a field emission Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HTEM). The optical properties of the core-shell nanorod arrays were investigated through the diffuse reflectance absorption spectra and photoluminescence emission. The visible light absorption and especially the photoluminescence emission of the ZnO nanorods are enhanced markedly with the Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 grains coating the ZnO nanorods through the electron charge.

  11. Multifunctional transparent ZnO nanorod films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Geunjae; Jung, Sungmook; Yong, Kijung

    2011-03-01

    Transparent ZnO nanorod (NR) films that exhibit extreme wetting states (either superhydrophilicity or superhydrophobicity through surface chemical modification), high transmittance, UV protection and antireflection have been prepared via the facile ammonia hydrothermal method. The periodic 1D ZnO NR arrays showed extreme wetting states as well as antireflection properties due to their unique surface structure and prevented the UVA region from penetrating the substrate due to the unique material property of ZnO. Because of the simple, time-efficient and low temperature preparation process, ZnO NR films with useful functionalities are promising for fabrication of highly light transmissive, antireflective, UV protective, antifogging and self-cleaning optical materials to be used for optical devices and photovoltaic energy devices.

  12. The preparation of concentric-tubular composite microstructures and nanorod sols using template synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cepak, Veronica Marie

    1998-12-01

    Membrane-based template synthesis has been employed in the fabrication of concentric-tubular composite microstructures and nanorod organosols of two materials, metals and semiconductors. This type of template synthesis is unique because the cylindrical pores of filtration membranes were used as templates to prepare these materials. Insulating polymer nanofibrils and microtubules were prepared by template-assisted deposition. This method entailed filtering a polymer solution through a filtration membrane. Insulating microtubules that were obtained were further used to prepare concentric-tubular composite microstructure arrays consisting of an outer tubule of polystyrene surrounding an inner fibril of the conductive polymer, polypyrrole. The preparation and characterization of insulating polymer structures along with this microcomposite array was discussed. In addition, template synthesis has also been used to prepare a variety of other types of concentric-tubular microcomposite structures. Examples prepared consisted of Au/poly(phenylene oxide)/polypyrrole, Au/TiO2, and Au/ZnO to demonstrate the versatility of this method. These examples used the following chemistries: the electroless deposition of Au, electrochemical deposition of conductive and insulating polymers, electrodeposition of semiconductors, and sol-gel methods. Membrane-based template synthesis has also been used to prepare metal and semiconductor nanorod sols in organic solvents. Nanorods were prepared in the polycarbonate membrane's pores by electrochemical deposition of metals or semiconductors. The nanorod organosols were then prepared by immersing a nanorod/membrane composite into either CHCl3 or hexafluoroisopropanol. These organic solvents dissolved the template membrane and simultaneously dispersed the nanorods to form a sol. Ag, Au, CdS, and ZnO nanorod sols were prepared in this fashion. The metal nanorod sols were investigated by visible absorption spectroscopy. The position of the plasmon

  13. Cathodoluminescence spectra of gallium nitride nanorods

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Gallium nitride [GaN] nanorods grown on a Si(111) substrate at 720°C via plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy were studied by field-emission electron microscopy and cathodoluminescence [CL]. The surface topography and optical properties of the GaN nanorod cluster and single GaN nanorod were measured and discussed. The defect-related CL spectra of GaN nanorods and their dependence on temperature were investigated. The CL spectra along the length of the individual GaN nanorod were also studied. The results reveal that the 3.2-eV peak comes from the structural defect at the interface between the GaN nanorod and Si substrate. The surface state emission of the single GaN nanorod is stronger as the diameter of the GaN nanorod becomes smaller due to an increased surface-to-volume ratio. PMID:22168896

  14. Sputtering nickel-molybdenum nanorods as an excellent hydrogen evolution reaction catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li; Xiong, Kun; Nie, Yao; Wang, Xiaoxue; Liao, Jianhua; Wei, Zidong

    2015-11-01

    We report a novel fabrication of nickel-molybdenum alloy nanorods catalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), which is prepared by co-deposition of pure nickel and molybdenum in a multisource sputtering system on the surface of Ni foam substrate. The Ni-Mo alloy film exhibits favorable vertical nanorods structure and presents the most efficient activity for HER compared to the film only including one metal element. The remarkably enhanced catalytic activity is attributed to its ordered array geometry as well as the synergistic interaction between Ni and Mo. Meanwhile, the open space within nanorod arrays facilitates the electrolyte penetration and diffusion of ionic species, allowing high utilization efficiency of active species as well as rapidly release of evolved hydrogen gas from the electrode surface.

  15. Nanoheteroepitaxy of GaN on AlN/Si(111) nanorods fabricated by nanosphere lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Donghyun; Shin, In-Su; Jin, Lu; Kim, Donghyun; Park, Yongjo; Yoon, Euijoon

    2016-06-01

    Nanoheteroepitaxy (NHE) of GaN on an AlN/Si(111) nanorod structure was investigated by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Silica nanosphere lithography was employed to fabricate a periodic hexagonal nanorod array with a narrow gap of 30 nm between the nanorods. We were successful in obtaining a fully coalesced GaN film on the AlN/Si(111) nanorod structure. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that threading dislocation (TD) bending and termination by stacking faults occurred near the interface between GaN and the AlN/Si(111) nanorods, resulting in the reduction of TD density for the NHE GaN layer. The full width at half-maximum of the X-ray rocking curve for (102) plane of the NHE GaN was found to decrease down to 728 arcsec from 1005 arcsec for the GaN layer on a planar AlN/Si(111) substrate, indicating that the crystalline quality of the NHE GaN was improved. Also, micro-Raman measurement showed that tensile stress in the NHE GaN layer was reduced significantly as much as 70% by introducing air voids between the nanorods.

  16. Optoelectrical and magnetic characteristics of Mn doped Zn1-xSnxO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Tsung-Yin; Lai, Shang-Hung; Hsieh, Hui-Huang; Lan, Ming-Der; Su, Chih-Chuan; Ho, Mon-Shu

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a new method of fabricating Mn doped Zn1-xSnxO nanorod arrays on a silicon (111) substrate. The proposed method is a gold catalytic vapor-liquid-solid mechanism in a multi-layer deposition process using nanosphere lithographic patterning. Each step of the growth process was monitored using atomic force microscopy to ensure uniformity in the patterns and nanorods. The crystal structure and characteristics of the Mn doped Zn1-xSnxO nanaorods were determined using the X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, and electron diffraction patterns corresponding to the selected area. The lattice constant along the Z-axis was calculated from the indexed pattern, as approximately 5.1 Å. This differs slightly from what was expected for undoped ZnO nanorods. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry provided information related to the chemistry of the ZnO nanorods and electro-optical properties at 363 nm were determined from photoluminescence emissions. Using conductive AFM, the band gap for single doped-ZnO nanorods was determined to be 3-3.45 eV. The magnetic properties were characterized by the measurement of a hysteresis loop. This investigation demonstrates the outstanding potential of patterned Mn doped Zn1-xSnxO nanorods for applications requiring dilute magnetic semiconductors in the future.

  17. TAILOR: A FORTRAN Procedure for Interactive Tailored Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cudeck, Robert A.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    TAILOR, a FORTRAN computer program for tailored testing, is described. The procedure for a joint ordering of persons and items with no pretesting as the basis for the tailored test is given, and a brief discussion of the computer program is included. (Author/JKS)

  18. Fabrication of ZnO nanorods and assessment of changes in optical and gas sensing properties by increasing their lengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrabian, Masood; Mirabbaszadeh, Kavoos; Afarideh, Hossein

    2013-12-01

    We report a low-temperature process to synthesize highly oriented arrays of ZnO nanorods, based on the epitaxial growth of the ZnO seed layer at a low temperature of 70 °C. The ZnO seed layer was deposited by sol-gel process under mild conditions on the glass substrates. The morphologies and crystal structures of the film and nanorods were characterized by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. ZnO nanorods were grown on ZnO seed layers by hydrothermal method. The effect of growth period on the morphology and optical characteristics (e.g. optical transmission and band-gap energy), hydrophilicity and gas sensing properties of the grown ZnO seed layer (film) and nanorods were investigated. The long nanorods on the seed layer were observed. The increase in the length of the nanorods resulted in a significant reduction in the optical band-gap energy of the nanorods, which was attributed to the formation of further defects in the nanorods during their fast growth. The surface of the ZnO nanorods grown for 6 h was relatively hydrophilic (with a water contact angle of 18°). The fabricated sensors were used to gauge different concentrations of ethanol vapor in the air at different temperatures and evaluated the surface resistance of the sensors as a function of operating temperature and ethanol concentrations. The results showed that the sensitivity of the nanorods changed from 1.3 to 6 (at 300 °C) by increasing the growth period.

  19. Spectral tailoring device

    DOEpatents

    Brager, H.R.; Schenter, R.E.; Carter, L.L.; Karnesky, R.A.

    1987-08-05

    A spectral tailoring device for altering the neutron energy spectra and flux of neutrons in a fast reactor thereby selectively to enhance or inhibit the transmutation rate of a target metrical to form a product isotope. Neutron moderators, neutron filters, neutron absorbers and neutron reflectors may be used as spectral tailoring devices. Depending on the intended use for the device, a member from each of these four classes of materials could be used singularly, or in combination, to provide a preferred neutron energy spectra and flux of the neutrons in the region of the target material. In one embodiment of the invention, an assembly is provided for enhancing the production of isotopes, such as cobalt 60 and gadolinium 153. In another embodiment of the invention, a spectral tailoring device is disposed adjacent a target material which comprises long lived or volatile fission products and the device is used to shift the neutron energy spectra and flux of neutrons in the region of the fission products to preferentially transmute them to produce a less volatile fission product inventory. 6 figs.

  20. VLS-like growth and characterizations of dense ZnO nanorods grown by e-beam process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, D. C.; Chauhan, R. S.; Avasthi, D. K.; Sulania, I.; Kabiraj, D.; Thakur, P.; Chae, K. H.; Chawla, Amit; Chandra, R.; Ogale, S. B.; Pellegrini, G.; Mazzoldi, P.

    2009-02-01

    We present a new approach to produce ZnO nanorods in a reproducible manner at a temperature lower than other physical vapour deposition techniques, such as the vapour-liquid-solid mechanism. Arrays of well-aligned ZnO nanorods of uniform diameter have been synthesized on the Si substrate precoated with Au, using a simple electron beam evaporation method without the flow of any carrier gas. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy characterizations show that as-grown nanorods are well aligned and uniform in diameter. X-ray diffraction measurements and clear lattice fringes in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy image show the growth of good quality polycrystalline hexagonal ZnO nanorods and a lang0 0 2rang growth direction. The polarization-dependent studies of near edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) are performed to investigate the electronic structure of the zinc and oxygen ions. The analysis of NEXAFS spectra at different angles of incidence of photon flux indicates the formation of ZnO nanorods having anisotropic behaviour of O and Zn states. The photoluminescence spectrum exhibits strong ultraviolet emission at 385 nm and the UV-visible spectrum also shows a band-gap transition around 390 nm indicating the good quality of nanorods. The catalytic growth mechanism of the ZnO nanorods is discussed on the basis of experimental results in this work.

  1. High performance superconducting devices enabled by three dimensionally ordered nanodots and/or nanorods

    SciTech Connect

    Goyal, Amit

    2013-09-17

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate same with self-assembled nanodots and/or nanorods of a single or multicomponent material within another single or multicomponent material for use in electrical, electronic, magnetic, electromagnetic and electrooptical devices is disclosed. Self-assembled nanodots and/or nanorods are ordered arrays wherein ordering occurs due to strain minimization during growth of the materials. A simple method to accomplish this when depositing in-situ films is also disclosed. Device applications of resulting materials are in areas of superconductivity, photovoltaics, ferroelectrics, magnetoresistance, high density storage, solid state lighting, non-volatile memory, photoluminescence, thermoelectrics and in quantum dot lasers.

  2. High performance devices enabled by epitaxial, preferentially oriented, nanodots and/or nanorods

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit

    2011-10-11

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate same with self-assembled nanodots and/or nanorods of a single or multicomponent material within another single or multicomponent material for use in electrical, electronic, magnetic, electromagnetic, superconducting and electrooptical devices is disclosed. Self-assembled nanodots and/or nanorods are ordered arrays wherein ordering occurs due to strain minimization during growth of the materials. A simple method to accomplish this when depositing in-situ films is also disclosed. Device applications of resulting materials are in areas of superconductivity, photovoltaics, ferroelectrics, magnetoresistance, high density storage, solid state lighting, non-volatile memory, photoluminescence, thermoelectrics and in quantum dot lasers.

  3. High performance electrical, magnetic, electromagnetic and electrooptical devices enabled by three dimensionally ordered nanodots and nanorods

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit , Kang; Sukill

    2012-02-21

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate same with self-assembled nanodots and/or nanorods of a single or multicomponent material within another single or multicomponent material for use in electrical, electronic, magnetic, electromagnetic and electrooptical devices is disclosed. Self-assembled nanodots and/or nanorods are ordered arrays wherein ordering occurs due to strain minimization during growth of the materials. A simple method to accomplish this when depositing in-situ films is also disclosed. Device applications of resulting materials are in areas of superconductivity, photovoltaics, ferroelectrics, magnetoresistance, high density storage, solid state lighting, non-volatile memory, photoluminescence, thermoelectrics and in quantum dot lasers.

  4. A rational route to synthesize BiS nanorods in large scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Duoli; Yuan, XinSong; Yang, BaoJun; Qian, Yitai

    2008-12-01

    Bismuth sulfide nanorods were synthesized on a large scale via a simple self-sacrificing template route, by the direct reaction between the pre-prepared precursor metallic bismuth NT arrays and thiourea (Tu) in air at 100 ∘C for 16 h. XRD, TEM, SEM and HRTEM characterizations show that the prepared Bi 2S 3 samples are all phase pure and the Bi 2S 3 nanorods have uniform diameters of approximately 30-50 nm and lengths up to several micrometers.

  5. Zinc oxide nanowires and nanorods fabricated by vapour-phase transport at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, C. X.; Sun, X. W.; Dong, Z. L.; Yu, M. B.; My, T. D.; Zhang, X. H.; Chua, S. J.; White, T. J.

    2004-07-01

    Using zinc chloride as source material, zinc oxide nanowires and nanorods were fabricated by a vapour-phase transport method at low temperature. The nanowires grown on gold-coated silicon showed a uniform diameter of about 40 nm, and the nanorods on copper-coated silicon grew upwards to form flower-like arrays. The x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy analyses demonstrated that the nanostructural zinc oxide grew along the [0001] direction. The growth process was attributed to a vapour-liquid-solid mechanism. Distinct photoluminescent behaviours were observed for zinc oxide nanostructures grown on gold-coated and copper-coated silicon wafers.

  6. Tailored reflectors for illumination.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, D; Winston, R

    1996-04-01

    We report on tailored reflector design methods that allow the placement of general illumination patterns onto a target plane. The use of a new integral design method based on the edge-ray principle of nonimaging optics gives much more compact reflector shapes by eliminating the need for a gap between the source and the reflector profile. In addition, the reflectivity of the reflector is incorporated as a design parameter. We show the performance of design for constant irradiance on a distant plane, and we show how a leading-edge-ray method may be used to achieve general illumination patterns on nearby targets. PMID:21085288

  7. Influence of the absorber layer thickness and rod length on the performance of three-dimensional nanorods thin film hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Chung-I.; Liang, Wei-Chieh; Yeh, Dan-Ju; Su, Vin-Cent; Yang, Po-Chuan; Chen, Shih-Yen; Yang, Tsai-Ting; Lee, Jeng-Han; Kuan, Chieh-Hsiung; Cheng, I.-Chun; Lee, Si-Chen

    2013-04-01

    Performance of substrate-configured hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells based on ZnO nanorod arrays prepared by hydrothermal method has been investigated. The light harvest ability of three-dimensional nanorods solar cells is a compromise between the absorber layer thickness and the nanorods geometry. By optimizing the intrinsic a-Si:H absorber layer thickness from 75 to 250 nm and varying the length of the nanorods from 600 to 1800 nm, the highest energy conversion efficiency of 6.07% is obtained for the nanorods solar cell having thin absorber layer thickness of 200 nm with the rod length of 600 nm. This represents up to 28% enhanced efficiency compared to the conventional flat reference cell with similar absorber layer thickness.

  8. Selective photochemical synthesis of Ag nanoparticles on position-controlled ZnO nanorods for the enhancement of yellow-green light emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyeong-Ho; Zhang, Xin; Lee, Keun Woo; Sohn, Ahrum; Kim, Dong-Wook; Kim, Joondong; Song, Jin-Won; Choi, Young Su; Lee, Hee Kwan; Jung, Sang Hyun; Lee, In-Geun; Cho, Young-Dae; Shin, Hyun-Beom; Sung, Ho Kun; Park, Kyung Ho; Kang, Ho Kwan; Park, Won-Kyu; Park, Hyung-Ho

    2015-12-01

    A novel technique for the selective photochemical synthesis of silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) on ZnO nanorod arrays is established by combining ultraviolet-assisted nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL) for the definition of growth sites, hydrothermal reaction for the position-controlled growth of ZnO nanorods, and photochemical reduction for the decoration of Ag NPs on the ZnO nanorods. During photochemical reduction, the size distribution and loading of Ag NPs on ZnO nanorods can be tuned by varying the UV-irradiation time. The photochemical reduction is hypothesized to facilitate the adsorbed citrate ions on the surface of ZnO, allowing Ag ions to preferentially form Ag NPs on ZnO nanorods. The ratio of visible emission to ultraviolet (UV) emission for the Ag NP-decorated ZnO nanorod arrays, synthesized for 30 min, is 20.5 times that for the ZnO nanorod arrays without Ag NPs. The enhancement of the visible emission is believed to associate with the surface plasmon (SP) effect of Ag NPs. The Ag NP-decorated ZnO nanorod arrays show significant SP-induced enhancement of yellow-green light emission, which could be useful in optoelectronic applications. The technique developed here requires low processing temperatures (120 °C and lower) and no high-vacuum deposition tools, suitable for applications such as flexible electronics.A novel technique for the selective photochemical synthesis of silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) on ZnO nanorod arrays is established by combining ultraviolet-assisted nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL) for the definition of growth sites, hydrothermal reaction for the position-controlled growth of ZnO nanorods, and photochemical reduction for the decoration of Ag NPs on the ZnO nanorods. During photochemical reduction, the size distribution and loading of Ag NPs on ZnO nanorods can be tuned by varying the UV-irradiation time. The photochemical reduction is hypothesized to facilitate the adsorbed citrate ions on the surface of ZnO, allowing Ag ions to

  9. An efficient methodology for measurement of the average electrical properties of single one-dimensional NiO nanorods.

    PubMed

    Patil, Ranjit A; Devan, Rupesh S; Lin, Jin-Han; Liou, Yung; Ma, Yuan-Ron

    2013-01-01

    We utilized a metal tantalum (Ta) ball-probe to measure the electrical properties of vertical-aligned one-dimensional (1D) nickel-oxide (NiO) nanorods. The 1D NiO nanorods (on average, ~105 nm wide and ~700 nm long) are synthesized using the hot-filament metal-oxide vapor deposition (HFMOVD) technique, and they are cubic phased and have a wide bandgap of 3.68 eV. When the 1D NiO nanorods are arranged in a large-area array in ohmic-contact with the Ta ball-probe, they acted as many parallel resistors. By means of a rigorous calculation, we can easily acquire the average resistance RNR and resistivity ρNR of a single NiO nanorod, which were approximately 3.1 × 10(13) Ω and 4.9 × 10(7) Ω.cm, respectively.

  10. Controllable synthesis of ZnxCd1-xS@ZnO core-shell nanorods with enhanced photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Xie, Shilei; Lu, Xihong; Zhai, Teng; Gan, Jiayong; Li, Wei; Xu, Ming; Yu, Minghao; Zhang, Yuan-Ming; Tong, Yexiang

    2012-07-17

    We report the synthesis of Zn(x)Cd(1-x)S@ZnO nanorod arrays via a facile two-step process and the implementation of these core-shell nanorods as an environmental friendly and recyclable photocatalyst for methyl orange degradation. The band gap of Zn(x)Cd(1-x)S@ZnO core-shell nanorods can be readily tunable by adjusting the ratio of Zn/Cd during the synthesis. These Zn(x)Cd(1-x)S@ZnO core-shell nanorods exhibit a high photocatalytic activity and good stability in the degradation of the methyl orange. Moreover, these films grown on FTO substrates make the collection and recycle of the photocatalyst easier. These findings may open new opportunities for the design of effective, stable, and easy-recyclable photocatalytic materials.

  11. Size dependence of gold nanorod stability: the need for customized surface chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SoRelle, Elliott; Liba, Orly; Hussain, Zeshan; Gambhir, Milan; de la Zerda, Adam

    2015-03-01

    Nanoparticles can be synthesized in a wide array of shapes and sizes to suit specific biomedical applications in therapy and imaging. Prerequisite to such applications are particle stability in biological environments, non-toxicity, and facile conjugation of the particle surface with targeting biological moieties (such as antibodies). Here we report significant flaws in the common methods used to functionalize the surface of gold nanorods (GNRs) of larger-than-usual sizes. We find that while GNRs of sizes smaller than 50 x 15 nm can be effectively stabilized by polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based methods, larger GNRs form major aggregates and crash under similar functionalization conditions. Large GNRs may provide enhanced imaging sensitivity in biological applications due to greater optical extinction cross sections, provided that the GNRs can be made biostable. In this study, GNRs of sizes up to 90 x 30 nm were synthesized using two different published methods. Particle morphology and size distributions were characterized using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and optical spectra were measured by Vis-NIR Spectrometry. The colloidal stability of different-sized GNRs was assayed at various stages of functionalization using zeta potential and Vis-NIR measurements. The results of these experiments indicate that large GNRs functionalized with PEG undergo irreversible aggregation after minimal washing. We find that coating large GNRs with polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) instead of PEG vastly improves GNR stability in water and serum. Moreover, we provide a novel platform for conjugating biomolecules of interest to PSS-coated large GNRs. We show that larger GNRs produce stronger photoacoustic signal than commonly used smaller GNRs, indicating an advantage of using large GNRs for biomedical imaging. Our observations underscore that the biomedical advantages of novel nanoparticle synthesis methods may not be realized without tailored surface functionalization methods. More

  12. Spatiotemporal Temperature Distribution and Cancer Cell Death in Response to Extracellular Hyperthermia Induced by Gold Nanorods

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Huang-Chiao; Rege, Kaushal; Heys, Jeffrey J.

    2010-01-01

    Plasmonic nanoparticles have shown promise in hyperthermic cancer therapy, both in vitro and in vivo. Previous reports have described hyperthermic ablation using targeted and non-targeted nanoparticles internalized by cancer cells, but most reports do not describe a theoretical analysis for determining optimal parameters. The focus of the current research was first to evaluate the spatiotemporal temperature distribution and cell death induced by extracellular hyperthermia in which gold nanorods (GNRs) were maintained in the dispersion outside human prostate cancer cells. The nanorod dispersion was irradiated with near infrared (NIR) laser and the spatiotemporal distribution of temperature was determined experimentally. This information was employed to develop and validate theoretical models of spatiotemporal temperature profiles for gold nanorod dispersions undergoing laser irradiation, and the impact of the resulting heat generation on the viability of human prostate cancer cells. A cell injury/death model was then coupled to the heat transfer model to predict spatial and temporal variations in cell death and injury. The model predictions agreed well with experimental measurements of both, temperature and cell death profiles. Finally, the model was extended to examine the impact of selective binding of gold nanorods to cancer cells compared to non-malignant cells, coupled with a small change in cell injury activation energy. The impact of these relatively minor changes results in a dramatic change in the overall cell death rate. Taken together, extracellular hyperthermia using gold nanorods is a promising strategy and tailoring the cellular binding efficacy of nanorods can result in varying therapeutic efficacies using this approach. PMID:20387828

  13. Fabrication and characterization of plasmonic nanorods with high aspect ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiaoxiao; Hu, Sheng; Li, Zhigang; Lv, Jiangtao; Si, Guangyuan

    2016-08-01

    Metallic nanostructures with high aspect ratios are important for developing devices in photonics and integrated optics. However, fabricating well-aligned plasmonic arrays is challenging due to the difficulties of etching metals. In this work, we investigate the feasibility of constructing high aspect ratio nanorods with desired shapes and controllable geometric parameters using direct focused ion beam etching. The whole fabrication process only involves a metal-deposition step and a single milling of designed patterns. Detailed characterizations of the fabricated devices are also experimentally demonstrated.

  14. Tuning near-field enhancements on an off-resonance nanorod dimer via temporally shaped femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Guangqing; Yang, Qing; Chen, Feng; Lu, Yu; Wu, Yanmin; Ou, Yan; Hou, Xun

    2015-11-01

    We theoretically investigated ultrafast thermal dynamics tuning of near-field enhancements on an off-resonance gold nanorod dimer via temporally shaped femtosecond (fs) laser double pulses. The nonequilibrium thermal excitation is self-consistently coupled into a near-field scattering model for exploring the ultrafast near-field enhancement effects. It is revealed that the near electric-field localized within the gold nanorod dimer can be largely promoted via optimizing the temporal separation and the pulse energy ratio of temporally shaped femtosecond laser double pulses. The results are explained as thermal dynamics manipulation of plasmon resonances in the nanorod dimer via tailoring temporally shaped femtosecond laser. This study provides basic understanding for tuning near-field properties on poorly fabricated metallic nano-structures via temporally shaped femtosecond laser, which can find potential applications in the fields such as fs super-resolution near-field imaging, near-field optical tweezers, and fs photothermal therapy.

  15. Physiological investigation of gold nanorods toward watermelon.

    PubMed

    Wan, Yujie; Li, Junli; Ren, Hongxuan; Huang, Jin; Yuan, Hong

    2014-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the phytotoxicity and oxidant stress of the gold nanorods toward watermelon, and hence give a quantitative risk assessment of both seeds and plants phase. The seed germination, the activity of antioxidant enzymes, and the contents of soluble protein and malondialdehyde (MDA) have been measured while the plant roots were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was found that the gold nanorods significantly promoted the root elongation. Furthermore, the results on the enzymes activities of plant indicated that oxidative stress happened in the plant treated with gold nanorods. However, the gold nanorods resulted in the phytotoxicity toward plant especially at high concentration. The TEM images of the plant roots with and without the treatment of gold nanorods showed the significant different size of starch granules. In conclusion, significant physiological changes of plant occurred after treatment with the gold nanorods. PMID:25936063

  16. Challenges in Tailored Intervention Research

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Cornelia; McSweeney, Jean C.; Richards, Kathy C.; Roberson, Paula K.; Tsai, Pao-Feng; Souder, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    Summary Although individuals and nurses value tailored health interventions, incorporating tailored interventions into research is fraught with pitfalls. This manuscript provides guidance on addressing challenges on developing, implementing, and evaluating tailored interventions (TI). The initial step in designing TI involves selecting the individual characteristics on which to tailor the intervention. After selecting critical characteristics for tailoring, researchers must decide how to assess these characteristics. Then researchers can use manuals, algorithms, or computer programs to tailor an intervention and maintain treatment fidelity. If desired outcomes are not achieved, focus groups or individual interviews may be conducted to gather information to improve the intervention for specific individuals/groups. Then, incorporating study arms of TI in intervention studies, investigators may compare TI with standardized interventions statistically and clinically. We believe TI may have better outcomes, promote better adherence, and be more cost efficient. PMID:20362779

  17. Mica sheets with embedded metal nanorods: Chemical imaging in a topographically smooth structure

    SciTech Connect

    Graca, Malgorzata; Turner, Jeff; Marshall, Michael; Granick, Steve

    2007-09-15

    We demonstrate the concept to combine topographical smoothness and plasmonic properties to produce flat substrates with surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy activity--properties that may find use in nanotribology and other thin film applications. Preliminary findings to this end are described. A dual-beam focused ion beam (FIB) system is used to drill large arrays of small pores in single crystals of mica, 2-6 {mu}m thick, yielding controlled cross sections (squares, triangles, and circles), sizes (100 nm to many microns), and arrangements (square, hexagonal, and random). When filled with metals, arrays result to embedded nanorods with their long axis oriented normal to the surface. As an extension of this method, arrays of nanorods standing perpendicular to a supporting surface can also be produced.

  18. Single inorganic-organic hybrid photovoltaic nanorod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Sang-Hoon; Liu, Lichun; Ku, Tea-Woong; Hong, Soonchang; Whang, Dongmok; Park, Sungho

    2013-09-01

    We demonstrate that single photovoltaic (PV) nanorods can be readily fabricated by electrochemical processing in solution-phase under ambient conditions. A porous Au nanorod electrode in the core of the PV nanorod was central to both its structural formation and superior performance. We examined an intrinsically conducting polymer (polypyrrole) and an inorganic semiconductor (cadmium selenide) as precursor materials. Through an extremely simple and cost-effective fashioning process (solution-phase, room temperature), unadorned PV nanorods with up to 1.1% power conversion efficiency were obtained.

  19. Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and nanorod barcodes

    DOEpatents

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Scher, Erik C.; Manna, Liberato

    2009-05-19

    Disclosed herein is a graded core/shell semiconductor nanorod having at least a first segment of a core of a Group II-VI, Group III-V or a Group IV semiconductor, a graded shell overlying the core, wherein the graded shell comprises at least two monolayers, wherein the at least two monolayers each independently comprise a Group II-VI, Group III-V or a Group IV semiconductor.

  20. Tailoring Biointerfaces for Electrocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Milton, Ross D; Wang, Tao; Knoche, Krysti L; Minteer, Shelley D

    2016-03-15

    Bioelectrocatalysis is an expanding research area due to the use of this type of electrocatalysis in electrochemical biosensors, biofuel cells, bioelectrochemical cells, and biosolar cells. This feature article discusses recent advancements in tailoring the biointerface between electrodes and biocatalysts for facile electrocatalysis. This includes the design of pyrene moieties for directing the orientation of biocatalysts on electrode surfaces and mediation as well as the rational design of redox polymers for self-exchange-based electron transport to/from biocatalysts and the electrode and the use of bioscaffolding techniques for designing the bioelectrode structure. However, recent advances in the past decade have shown the importance of hybrid bioelectrocatalytic systems, and future work will be needed to use these same pyrene, redox polymer, and bioscaffolding techniques for hybrid bioelectrocatalysis. PMID:26898265

  1. Near-field coupling and resonant cavity modes in plasmonic nanorod metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Song, Haojie; Zhang, Junxi; Fei, Guangtao; Wang, Junfeng; Jiang, Kang; Wang, Pei; Lu, Yonghua; Iorsh, Ivan; Xu, Wei; Jia, Junhui; Zhang, Lide; Kivshar, Yuri S; Zhang, Lin

    2016-10-14

    Plasmonic resonant cavities are capable of confining light at the nanoscale, resulting in both enhanced local electromagnetic fields and lower mode volumes. However, conventional plasmonic resonant cavities possess large Ohmic losses at metal-dielectric interfaces. Plasmonic near-field coupling plays a key role in a design of photonic components based on the resonant cavities because of the possibility to reduce losses. Here, we study the plasmonic near-field coupling in the silver nanorod metamaterials treated as resonant nanostructured optical cavities. Reflectance measurements reveal the existence of multiple resonance modes of the nanorod metamaterials, which is consistent with our theoretical analysis. Furthermore, our numerical simulations show that the electric field at the longitudinal resonances forms standing waves in the nanocavities due to the near-field coupling between the adjacent nanorods, and a new hybrid mode emerges due to a coupling between nanorods and a gold-film substrate. We demonstrate that this coupling can be controlled by changing the gap between the silver nanorod array and gold substrate.

  2. Near-field coupling and resonant cavity modes in plasmonic nanorod metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Haojie; Zhang, Junxi; Fei, Guangtao; Wang, Junfeng; Jiang, Kang; Wang, Pei; Lu, Yonghua; Iorsh, Ivan; Xu, Wei; Jia, Junhui; Zhang, Lide; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Zhang, Lin

    2016-10-01

    Plasmonic resonant cavities are capable of confining light at the nanoscale, resulting in both enhanced local electromagnetic fields and lower mode volumes. However, conventional plasmonic resonant cavities possess large Ohmic losses at metal-dielectric interfaces. Plasmonic near-field coupling plays a key role in a design of photonic components based on the resonant cavities because of the possibility to reduce losses. Here, we study the plasmonic near-field coupling in the silver nanorod metamaterials treated as resonant nanostructured optical cavities. Reflectance measurements reveal the existence of multiple resonance modes of the nanorod metamaterials, which is consistent with our theoretical analysis. Furthermore, our numerical simulations show that the electric field at the longitudinal resonances forms standing waves in the nanocavities due to the near-field coupling between the adjacent nanorods, and a new hybrid mode emerges due to a coupling between nanorods and a gold-film substrate. We demonstrate that this coupling can be controlled by changing the gap between the silver nanorod array and gold substrate.

  3. One-dimensional copper hydroxide nitrate nanorods and nanobelts for radiochemical applications.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin

    2012-11-21

    I report a facile wet-chemical method for the synthesis of one-dimensional copper hydroxide nitrate nanostructures in 2-propanol under solvothermal conditions. Single-crystalline nearly monodispersed copper hydroxide nitrate nanorods and nanobelts with selected breadths in the range of 100 nm to 1 μm have been successfully prepared by a solvothermal method through controlling the experimental parameters, including initial concentrations of reagents, reaction temperature, solvent and reaction time. The resultant nanorods and nanobelts were characterized using FESEM, TEM, XRD, FTIR and TGA techniques. Upon thermal calcination, the copper hydroxide nitrate nanorods and nanobelts self-assemble into one-dimensional arrays (rods, belts or tubes) of copper oxide nanoparticles. The as-prepared copper hydroxide nitrate nanorods and nanobelts were tested as ion exchangers for removal of long-lived radioactive anions such as (129)I(-) and (99)TcO(4)(-). The copper hydroxide nitrate nanorods or nanobelts were over two times more active in the removal of anion species than copper hydroxide nitrate nanoplatelets. PMID:23070067

  4. Near-field coupling and resonant cavity modes in plasmonic nanorod metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Song, Haojie; Zhang, Junxi; Fei, Guangtao; Wang, Junfeng; Jiang, Kang; Wang, Pei; Lu, Yonghua; Iorsh, Ivan; Xu, Wei; Jia, Junhui; Zhang, Lide; Kivshar, Yuri S; Zhang, Lin

    2016-10-14

    Plasmonic resonant cavities are capable of confining light at the nanoscale, resulting in both enhanced local electromagnetic fields and lower mode volumes. However, conventional plasmonic resonant cavities possess large Ohmic losses at metal-dielectric interfaces. Plasmonic near-field coupling plays a key role in a design of photonic components based on the resonant cavities because of the possibility to reduce losses. Here, we study the plasmonic near-field coupling in the silver nanorod metamaterials treated as resonant nanostructured optical cavities. Reflectance measurements reveal the existence of multiple resonance modes of the nanorod metamaterials, which is consistent with our theoretical analysis. Furthermore, our numerical simulations show that the electric field at the longitudinal resonances forms standing waves in the nanocavities due to the near-field coupling between the adjacent nanorods, and a new hybrid mode emerges due to a coupling between nanorods and a gold-film substrate. We demonstrate that this coupling can be controlled by changing the gap between the silver nanorod array and gold substrate. PMID:27607837

  5. Discrete dipole approximation simulations of gold nanorod optical properties: Choice of input parameters and comparison with experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungureanu, Constantin; Rayavarapu, Raja Gopal; Manohar, Srirang; van Leeuwen, Ton G.

    2009-05-01

    Gold nanorods have interesting optical properties due to surface plasmon resonance effects. A variety of biomedical applications of these particles have been envisaged and feasibilities demonstrated in imaging, sensing, and therapy based on the interactions of light with these particles. In order to correctly interpret experimental data and tailor the nanorods and their environments for optimal use in these applications, simulations of the optical properties of the particles under various conditions are essential. Of various numerical methods available, the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) approach implemented in the publicly available DDSCAT code is a powerful method that had proved popular for studying gold nanorods. However, there is as yet no universal agreement on the shape used to represent the nanorods and on the dielectric function of gold required for the simulations. We systematically study the influence of these parameters on simulated results. We find large variations in the position of plasmon resonance peaks, their amplitudes, and shapes of the spectra depending on the choice of the parameters. We discuss these in the light of experimental optical extinction spectra of gold nanorods synthesized in our laboratory. We show that much care should be taken and prudence applied before DDA results be used to interpret experimental data and to help characterize nanoparticles synthesized.

  6. Optoelectronic properties of cauliflower like ZnO-ZnO nanorod/p-Si heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajabi, M.; Dariani, R. S.; Iraji zad, A.; Zahedi, F.

    2013-02-01

    The cauliflower like ZnO nanostructures are grown on ZnO nanorods using spray pyrolysis method. First, ZnO nanorod arrays are grown on p-type silicon substrate without catalyst by chemical vapor transport and condensation method in a horizontal tube furnace. Afterwards, the cauliflower like ZnO nanostructures is deposited on top of the ZnO nanorod array. The PL spectra of cauliflower like ZnO nanostructures consist of UV emission bands around 387 nm and a visible emission at ˜440 nm. The current-voltage (I-V) measurement under dark and UV illumination condition are performed to study photodetection of the cauliflower like ZnO-ZnO nanorod/p-Si heterostructure. The experimental data of dark I-V curve show that the tunneling-recombination model is the dominant current transport mechanism in our device heterostructure below 2 V. It is observed that UV photons are absorbed in ZnO and device exhibit 0.07 A/W responsivity at 5 V reverse bias which correspond to quantum efficiency of 26%.

  7. Assembling single gold nanorods into large-scale highly aligned nanoarrays via vacuum-enhanced capillarity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiaojiao; Li, Min; Tang, Bochong; Xie, Peng; Ma, Lei; Hu, Zhongbo; Zhao, Yuliang; Wei, Zhongqing

    2014-01-01

    We report a simple, straightforward, and efficient approach to assemble single gold nanorods (AuNRs) into highly aligned arrays, via a unique vacuum-enhanced capillarity. The assembled AuNR arrays demonstrate both an excellently unidirectional ordering and a wonderful single-rod resolution. The key role of vacuum in this approach enables high-aspect-ratio (10 to 22) AuNR alignment and efficiently facilitates large-area alignment. Further investigation of one- and two-dimensional AuNR arrays would undoubtedly be beneficial to their potential applications.

  8. Assembling single gold nanorods into large-scale highly aligned nanoarrays via vacuum-enhanced capillarity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We report a simple, straightforward, and efficient approach to assemble single gold nanorods (AuNRs) into highly aligned arrays, via a unique vacuum-enhanced capillarity. The assembled AuNR arrays demonstrate both an excellently unidirectional ordering and a wonderful single-rod resolution. The key role of vacuum in this approach enables high-aspect-ratio (10 to 22) AuNR alignment and efficiently facilitates large-area alignment. Further investigation of one- and two-dimensional AuNR arrays would undoubtedly be beneficial to their potential applications. PMID:25313304

  9. Large scale solution assembly of quantum dot-gold nanorod architectures with plasmon enhanced fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Nepal, Dhriti; Drummy, Lawrence F; Biswas, Sushmita; Park, Kyoungweon; Vaia, Richard A

    2013-10-22

    Tailoring the efficiency of fluorescent emission via plasmon-exciton coupling requires structure control on a nanometer length scale using a high-yield fabrication route not achievable with current lithographic techniques. These systems can be fabricated using a bottom-up approach if problems of colloidal stability and low yield can be addressed. We report progress on this pathway with the assembly of quantum dots (emitter) on gold nanorods (plasmonic units) with precisely controlled spacing, quantum dot/nanorod ratio, and long-term colloidal stability, which enables the purification and encapsulation of the assembled architecture in a protective silica shell. Overall, such controllability with nanometer precision allows one to synthesize stable, complex architectures at large volume in a rational and controllable manner. The assembled architectures demonstrate photoluminescent enhancement (5×) useful for applications ranging from biological sensing to advanced optical communication.

  10. Binary mixed homopolymer brushes grafted on nanorod particles: A self-consistent field theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xin; Yang, Yingzi; Zhu, Lei; Zhao, Bin; Tang, Ping; Qiu, Feng

    2013-12-01

    We employ the self-consistent field theory to study phase structures of brush-rod systems composed of two chemically distinct linear homopolymers. The polymer chains are uniformly grafted on the surface of a nanorod particle of finite length and comparable radius to the polymer radius of gyration. A "masking" technique treating the cylindrical boundary is introduced to solve the modified diffusion equations with an efficient and high-order accurate pseudospectral method involving fast Fourier transform on an orthorhombic cell. A rich variety of structures for the phase separated brushes is predicted. Phase diagrams involving a series of system parameters, such as the aspect ratio of the nanorod, the grafting density, and the chain length are constructed. The results indicate that the phase structure of the mixed brush-rod system can be tailored by varying the grafted chain length and/or the aspect ratio of the rod to benefit the fabrication of polymeric nanocomposites.

  11. Template-free formation of vertically oriented TiO2 nanorods with uniform distribution for organics-sensing application.

    PubMed

    Mu, Qinghui; Li, Yaogang; Zhang, Qinghong; Wang, Hongzhi

    2011-04-15

    High-density arrays of vertically oriented TiO(2) nanorods with uniform distribution on Ti foil have been formed through template-free oxidation of Ti in hydrogen peroxide solutions. Subsequent thermal treatment was applied for growing mixed crystal structures to pursue higher performance. Morphology characterization using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) shows a nanorod diameter in the range of 20-50 nm with a length of 1.5 μm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement demonstrates the crystallization of the TiO(2) nanorods prior to thermal treatment and the formation of anatase and rutile mixed phase after thermal treatment. The mixed crystal TiO(2) nanorods show a much higher performance than pure anatase in photoelectrochemical experiments. Steady-state photocurrent resulted from photocatalytic oxidation of organic compounds by TiO(2) nanorods is employed as response signal in determination of the organics to yield a linear range of 0-1.1mM for glucose. For other organics, an excellent linear relationship between the net steady-state photocurrent and the concentration of electrons transferred in exhaustive oxidation for these organics is obtained, which empowers the mixed crystal TiO(2) nanorods to serve as versatile material in organics-sensing application.

  12. Tailored coatings for hardfacing

    SciTech Connect

    Dustoor, M.R.; Moskowitz, L.N.

    1984-01-01

    An update on Conforma Clad coatings, first presented at the 1982 National Powder Metallurgy Conference in Montreal, Canada, is presented. The major advantage is the ability to offer selective-area coatings in a wide range of thicknesses and material choices while retaining dimensional and edge control of the coating. Complex geometries can be coated with a high materials utilization and with coating properties tailored to the end application. Porosity and bond strength values can match or exceed those seen with the best commercially available thermal sprayed coatings. The ability of the process to balance abrasion resistance and toughness requirements for a specific wear mode, is illustrated by microstructural control of the size, shape and density of carbide particles contained in the coatings. Dry sand abrasive test data are provided on Conforma Clad coatings and competitive processes. Ongoing developments of non-furnace fusion techniques, such as laser cladding, are presented and the microstructures compared with those obtained with conventional coating processes. Commercial applications for these coatings are highlighted with some typical examples.

  13. Hierarchical organization and molecular diffusion in gold nanorod/silica supercrystal nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamon, Cyrille; Sanz-Ortiz, Marta N.; Modin, Evgeny; Hill, Eric H.; Scarabelli, Leonardo; Chuvilin, Andrey; Liz-Marzán, Luis M.

    2016-04-01

    Hierarchical organization of gold nanorods was previously obtained on a substrate, allowing precise control over the morphology of the assemblies and macroscale spatial arrangement. Herein, a thorough description of these gold nanorod assemblies and their orientation within supercrystals is presented together with a sol-gel technique to protect the supercrystals with mesoporous silica films. The internal organization of the nanorods in the supercrystals was characterized by combining focused ion beam ablation and scanning electron microscopy. A mesoporous silica layer is grown both over the supercrystals and between the individual lamellae of gold nanorods inside the structure. This not only prevented the detachment of the supercrystal from the substrate in water, but also allowed small molecule analytes to infiltrate the structure. These nanocomposite substrates show superior Raman enhancement in comparison with gold supercrystals without silica owing to improved accessibility of the plasmonic hot spots to analytes. The patterned supercrystal arrays with enhanced optical and mechanical properties obtained in this work show potential for the practical implementation of nanostructured devices in spatially resolved ultradetection of biomarkers and other analytes.Hierarchical organization of gold nanorods was previously obtained on a substrate, allowing precise control over the morphology of the assemblies and macroscale spatial arrangement. Herein, a thorough description of these gold nanorod assemblies and their orientation within supercrystals is presented together with a sol-gel technique to protect the supercrystals with mesoporous silica films. The internal organization of the nanorods in the supercrystals was characterized by combining focused ion beam ablation and scanning electron microscopy. A mesoporous silica layer is grown both over the supercrystals and between the individual lamellae of gold nanorods inside the structure. This not only prevented the

  14. Surfactant controlled synthesis of crystalline phosphovanadate nanorods

    SciTech Connect

    Asnani, Minakshi; Thomas, Jency; Sen, Prasenjit; Ramanan, Arunachalam . E-mail: aramanan@chemistry.iitd.ac.in

    2007-04-12

    Phosphovanadate nanorods were obtained in a reaction of vanadium (V) oxide as a precursor and a cationic surfactant, dodecylpyridinium chloride, as structure directing template at pH {approx}3 at room temperature. The composition and morphology of the nanorods was established by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The obtained nanorods have diameters of 40-60 nm with lengths up to 1 {mu}m. The effect of reaction parameters such as concentration of surfactant and pH of the solution on the growth of nanorods has been investigated. A plausible mechanism involving the coalescence of nanoparticle 'seeds' leading to one-dimensional nanorods is also discussed. The same reaction when performed under hydrothermal condition, keeping other reaction parameters unchanged, resulted in the formation of phosphovanadate nanospheres of diameter 10-15 nm.

  15. Structural and Morphology of ZnO Nanorods Synthesized Using ZnO Seeded Growth Hydrothermal Method and Its Properties as UV Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Ridhuan, Nur Syafinaz; Abdul Razak, Khairunisak; Lockman, Zainovia; Abdul Aziz, Azlan

    2012-01-01

    In this study, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod arrays were synthesized using a simple hydrothermal reaction on ZnO seeds/n-silicon substrate. Several parameters were studied, including the heat-treatment temperature to produce ZnO seeds, zinc nitrate concentration, pH of hydrothermal reaction solution, and hydrothermal reaction time. The optimum heat-treatment temperature to produce uniform nanosized ZnO seeds was 400°C. The nanorod dimensions depended on the hydrothermal reaction parameters. The optimum hydrothermal reaction parameters to produce blunt tip-like nanorods (770 nm long and 80 nm in top diameter) were 0.1 M zinc nitrate, pH 7, and 4 h of growth duration. Phase analysis studies showed that all ZnO nanorods exhibited a strong (002) peak. Thus, the ZnO nanorods grew in a c-axis preferred orientation. A strong ultraviolet (UV) emission peak was observed for ZnO nanorods grown under optimized parameters with a low, deep-level emission peak, which indicated high optical property and crystallinity of the nanorods. The produced ZnO nanorods were also tested for their UV-sensing properties. All samples responded to UV light but with different sensing characteristics. Such different responses could be attributed to the high surface-to-volume ratio of the nanorods that correlated with the final ZnO nanorods morphology formed at different synthesis parameters. The sample grown using optimum synthesis parameters showed the highest responsivity of 0.024 A/W for UV light at 375 nm under a 3 V bias. PMID:23189199

  16. Fabrication and characterization of silicon wire solar cells having ZnO nanorod antireflection coating on Al-doped ZnO seed layer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we have fabricated and characterized the silicon [Si] wire solar cells with conformal ZnO nanorod antireflection coating [ARC] grown on a Al-doped ZnO [AZO] seed layer. Vertically aligned Si wire arrays were fabricated by electrochemical etching and, the p-n junction was prepared by spin-on dopant diffusion method. Hydrothermal growth of the ZnO nanorods was followed by AZO film deposition on high aspect ratio Si microwire arrays by atomic layer deposition [ALD]. The introduction of an ALD-deposited AZO film on Si wire arrays not only helps to create the ZnO nanorod arrays, but also has a strong impact on the reduction of surface recombination. The reflectance spectra show that ZnO nanorods were used as an efficient ARC to enhance light absorption by multiple scattering. Also, from the current-voltage results, we found that the combination of the AZO film and ZnO nanorods on Si wire solar cells leads to an increased power conversion efficiency by more than 27% compared to the cells without it. PMID:22222067

  17. Fabrication and characterization of silicon wire solar cells having ZnO nanorod antireflection coating on Al-doped ZnO seed layer.

    PubMed

    Baek, Seong-Ho; Noh, Bum-Young; Park, Il-Kyu; Kim, Jae Hyun

    2012-01-05

    In this study, we have fabricated and characterized the silicon [Si] wire solar cells with conformal ZnO nanorod antireflection coating [ARC] grown on a Al-doped ZnO [AZO] seed layer. Vertically aligned Si wire arrays were fabricated by electrochemical etching and, the p-n junction was prepared by spin-on dopant diffusion method. Hydrothermal growth of the ZnO nanorods was followed by AZO film deposition on high aspect ratio Si microwire arrays by atomic layer deposition [ALD]. The introduction of an ALD-deposited AZO film on Si wire arrays not only helps to create the ZnO nanorod arrays, but also has a strong impact on the reduction of surface recombination. The reflectance spectra show that ZnO nanorods were used as an efficient ARC to enhance light absorption by multiple scattering. Also, from the current-voltage results, we found that the combination of the AZO film and ZnO nanorods on Si wire solar cells leads to an increased power conversion efficiency by more than 27% compared to the cells without it.

  18. Role of ZnO thin film in the vertically aligned growth of ZnO nanorods by chemical bath deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Nguyen Thanh; Noh, Jin-Seo; Park, Sungho

    2016-08-01

    The effect of ZnO thin film on the growth of ZnO nanorods was investigated. ZnO thin films were sputter-deposited on Si substrate with varying the thickness. ZnO nanorods were grown on the thin film using a chemical bath deposition (CBD) method at 90 °C. The ZnO thin films showed granular structure and vertical roughness on the surface, which facilitated the vertical growth of ZnO nanorods. The average grain size and the surface roughness of ZnO film increased with an increase in film thickness, and this led to the increase in both the average diameter and the average length of vertically grown ZnO nanorods. In particular, it was found that the average diameter of ZnO nanorods was very close to the average grain size of ZnO thin film, confirming the role of ZnO film as a seed layer for the vertical growth of ZnO nanorods. The CBD growth on ZnO seed layers may provide a facile route to engineering vertically aligned ZnO nanorod arrays.

  19. Efficient nanorod-based amorphous silicon solar cells with advanced light trapping

    SciTech Connect

    Kuang, Y.; Lare, M. C. van; Polman, A.; Veldhuizen, L. W.; Schropp, R. E. I.; Rath, J. K.

    2015-11-14

    We present a simple, low-cost, and scalable approach for the fabrication of efficient nanorod-based solar cells. Templates with arrays of self-assembled ZnO nanorods with tunable morphology are synthesized by chemical bath deposition using a low process temperature at 80 °C. The nanorod templates are conformally coated with hydrogenated amorphous silicon light absorber layers of 100 nm and 200 nm thickness. An initial efficiency of up to 9.0% is achieved for the optimized design. External quantum efficiency measurements on the nanorod cells show a substantial photocurrent enhancement both in the red and the blue parts of the solar spectrum. Key insights in the light trapping mechanisms in these arrays are obtained via a combination of three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulations, optical absorption, and external quantum efficiency measurements. Front surface patterns enhance the light incoupling in the blue, while rear side patterns lead to enhanced light trapping in the red. The red response in the nanorod cells is limited by absorption in the patterned Ag back contact. With these findings, we develop and experimentally realize a further advanced design with patterned front and back sides while keeping the Ag reflector flat, showing significantly enhanced scattering from the back reflector with reduced parasitic absorption in the Ag and thus higher photocurrent generation. Many of the findings in this work can serve to provide insights for further optimization of nanostructures for thin-film solar cells in a broad range of materials.

  20. Electron beam induced THz emissions from nanotube array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Pawan

    2016-10-01

    A new scheme of terahertz radiation generation by passing an ultrashort electron bunch over a planar array of nanotube/nanorod across their lengths is proposed and analyzed. The beam pulse exerts a repulsive impulse on the free electron cylinder of each nanorod and displaces them with respect to ion cylinder. After the passage of the pulse, the electron cylinders oscillate at their natural frequency ω p / √{ 2 } (where ω p is the plasma frequency of electrons in each carbon nanotube) acting as phased array dipole antennae, emitting THz radiation.

  1. Plasmonics of Gold Nanorods. Considerations for Biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liz-Marzán, Luis M.; Pérez-Juste, Jorge; Pastoriza-Santos, Isabel

    In this chapter, we explore the sensitivity of gold nanorods toward changes in the dielectric constant of the surrounding medium. Experimental data for pure and silica-coated nanorods with varying shell thickness are compared to calculations based on the boundary element method (BEM). They indicate that anisotropy and sharp tips make nanoparticles more environmentally sensitive. We also find that sensitivity decreases as silica shell thickness increases, as expected from a dielectric screening effect. Even when coated with thin shells, gold nanorods are found to be excellent candidates for biosensing applications.

  2. Miniaturized pH Sensors Based on Zinc Oxide Nanotubes/Nanorods

    PubMed Central

    Fulati, Alimujiang; Ali, Syed M.Usman; Riaz, Muhammad; Amin, Gul; Nur, Omer; Willander, Magnus

    2009-01-01

    ZnO nanotubes and nanorods grown on gold thin film were used to create pH sensor devices. The developed ZnO nanotube and nanorod pH sensors display good reproducibility, repeatability and long-term stability and exhibit a pH-dependent electrochemical potential difference versus an Ag/AgCl reference electrode over a large dynamic pH range. We found the ZnO nanotubes provide sensitivity as high as twice that of the ZnO nanorods, which can be ascribed to the fact that small dimensional ZnO nanotubes have a higher level of surface and subsurface oxygen vacancies and provide a larger effective surface area with higher surface-to-volume ratio as compared to ZnO nanorods, thus affording the ZnO nanotube pH sensor a higher sensitivity. Experimental results indicate ZnO nanotubes can be used in pH sensor applications with improved performance. Moreover, the ZnO nanotube arrays may find potential application as a novel material for measurements of intracellular biochemical species within single living cells. PMID:22291545

  3. Gold coated ZnO nanorod biosensor for glucose detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Anuradha; Jain, Chhavi; Rao, V. Padmanapan; Banerjee, S.

    2012-06-01

    Gold coated ZnO nanorod based biosensor has been fabricated for its glucose detecting abilities and compared with that of ZnO nanorod based biosensor. SEM images of electrochemically grown ZnO nanorods show hexagonally grown ZnO nanorods on an ITO substrate. Electrochemical analysis show that gold coated ZnO based biosensors have higher sensitivity, lower limit of detection and a wider linear range for glucose detection. The results demonstrate that gold coated ZnO nanorod based biosensors are a promising material for biosensor applications over single component ZnO nanorod based biosensor.

  4. Photocatalytic paper using zinc oxide nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baruah, Sunandan; Jaisai, Mayuree; Imani, Reza; Nazhad, Mousa M.; Dutta, Joydeep

    2010-10-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods were grown on a paper support prepared from soft wood pulp. The photocatalytic activity of a sheet of paper with ZnO nanorods embedded in its porous matrix has been studied. ZnO nanorods were firmly attached to cellulose fibers and the photocatalytic paper samples were reused several times with nominal decrease in efficiency. Photodegradation of up to 93% was observed for methylene blue in the presence of paper filled with ZnO nanorods upon irradiation with visible light at 963 Wm-2 for 120 min. Under similar conditions, photodegradation of approximately 35% was observed for methyl orange. Antibacterial tests revealed that the photocatalytic paper inhibits the growth of Escherichia coli under room lighting conditions.

  5. Optical trapping of the anisotropic crystal nanorod.

    PubMed

    Bareil, Paul B; Sheng, Yunlong

    2015-05-18

    We observed in the optical tweezers experiment that some anisotropic nanorod was stably trapped in an orientation tiled to the beam axis. We explain this trapping with the T-matrix calculation. As the vector spherical wave functions do not individually satisfy the anisotropic vector wave equation, we expand the incident and scattered fields in the isotropic buffer in terms of E→, and the internal field in the anisotropic nanoparticle in terms of D→, and use the boundary condition for the normal components of D→ to compute the T-matrix. We found that when the optical axes of an anisotropic nanorod are not aligned to the nanorod axis, the nanorod may be trapped stably at a tilted angle, under which the lateral torque equals to zero and the derivative of the torque is negative. PMID:26074566

  6. [The preparation and characterization of 1-D orderly ZnO nanorod arrarys].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ran; Zhang, Ting; Zhao, Su-ling; Xu, Zheng; Zhang, Fu-jun; Yuan, Guang-cai; Xu, Xu-rong

    2008-10-01

    Improving on the sealing and high pressure conditions of traditional hydrothermal method, vertical ZnO nanorod arrays were synthesized on indium tin oxide substrate by employing Zn(NO3)2 x 6H2O, (CH2)4N6 as the starting materials in the presence of polyethylenimine(PEI) at ambient pressure and low temperature (92 degrees). Between the substrate and the nanorods, a layer of ZnO flim was prepared as buffer layer and seed layer. The ZnO film was gained by spin-coating zinc acetate solution on indium tin oxide substrate, then annealed at 350 degrees C for 20 min, which can make zinc acetate decompose into zinc oxide. The zinc acetate spin-coating and decomposition procedure was carried out twice to ensure a complete and uniform coverage of ZnO seeds. The second layer was annealed at 500 degrees C for 30 mini Different spin-coating speeds were adopted, one was 2500 r x min(-1), and the other was 5000 r x min(-1). XRD result indicated that the seed layer with 5000 r x min(-1) has better alignment than the layer with 2500 r x min(-1). The aligned seeds with 5000 r x min(-1) show only a (002) reflection, indicating their complete c-axis texturing, whereas the spin-coated seeds give a powder pattern because they rest at all angles on the substrate. SEM result shows that the layer is made up of grains with an the average size of about 30 nm. Well-aligned ZnO nanorod arrays were synthesized by putting the substrate with ZnO seeds into the precursor solutions vertically for one hour. The nanorod arrays were taken out and rinsed with clean ethanol and pure-water for several times, blown dry with a stream of nitrogen, then annealed at 400 degrees C for 30 min in order to wipe off the organic solvent. At room-temperature, the SEM and XRD were measured. SEM results indicate that the crystal structure of most of ZnO nanorods is hexagonal wurtzite crystallographic phase structure, mainly vertical to the substrate. ZnO nanorods have good crystallization, the diameter of the rods is

  7. Chemical synthesis of CdS onto TiO2 nanorods for quantum dot sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawar, Sachin A.; Patil, Dipali S.; Lokhande, Abhishek C.; Gang, Myeng Gil; Shin, Jae Cheol; Patil, Pramod S.; Kim, Jin Hyeok

    2016-08-01

    A quantum dot sensitized solar cell (QDSSC) is fabricated using hydrothermally grown TiO2 nanorods and successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) deposited CdS. Surface morphology of the TiO2 films coated with different SILAR cycles of CdS is examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy which revealed aggregated CdS QDs coverage grow on increasing onto the TiO2 nanorods with respect to cycle number. Under AM 1.5G illumination, we found the TiO2/CdS QDSSC photoelectrode shows a power conversion efficiency of 1.75%, in an aqueous polysulfide electrolyte with short-circuit photocurrent density of 4.04 mA/cm2 which is higher than that of a bare TiO2 nanorods array.

  8. Nanorod-Based Fast-Response Pressure-Sensitive Paints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bencic, Timothy; VanderWal, Randall

    2007-01-01

    A proposed program of research and development would be devoted to exploitation of nanomaterials in pressuresensitive paints (PSPs), which are used on wind-tunnel models for mapping surface pressures associated with flow fields. Heretofore, some success has been achieved in measuring steady-state pressures by use of PSPs, but success in measuring temporally varying pressures has been elusive because of the inherent slowness of the optical responses of these materials. A PSP contains a dye that luminesces in a suitable wavelength range in response to photoexcitation in a shorter wavelength range. The luminescence is quenched by oxygen at a rate proportional to the partial pressure of oxygen and thus proportional to the pressure of air. As a result, the intensity of luminescence varies inversely with the pressure of air. The major problem in developing a PSP that could be easily applied to a wind-tunnel model and could be useful for measuring rapidly varying pressure is to provide very high gas diffusivity for rapid, easy transport of oxygen to and from active dye molecules. Most PSPs include polymer-base binders, which limit the penetration of oxygen to dye molecules, thereby reducing responses to pressure fluctuations. The proposed incorporation of nanomaterials (somewhat more specifically, nanorods) would result in paints having nanostructured surfaces that, relative to conventional PSP surfaces, would afford easier and more nearly complete access of oxygen molecules to dye molecules. One measure of greater access is effective surface area: For a typical PSP as proposed applied to a given solid surface, the nanometer-scale structural features would result in an exposed surface area more than 100 times that of a conventional PSP, and the mass of proposed PSP needed to cover the surface would be less than tenth of the mass of the conventional PSP. One aspect of the proposed development would be to synthesize nanorods of Si/SiO2, in both tangle-mat and regular- array

  9. Magnetic and optical properties of Mn-doped ZnO vertically aligned nanorods synthesized by hydrothermal technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, J.; Sasmal, I.; Nath, T. K.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we have reported the synthesis of high quality vertically aligned undoped and Mn-doped ZnO single crystalline nanorods arrays on Si (100) substrates using two steps process, namely, initial slow seed layer formation followed by solution growth employing wet chemical hydrothermal method. The shapes of the as grown single crystalline nanorods are hexagonal. The diameter and length of the as grown undoped ZnO nanorods varies in the range of 80-150 nm and 1.0 - 1.4 μm, respectively. Along with the lattice parameters of the hexagonal crystal structure, the diameter and length of Mn doped ZnO nanorods are found to increase slightly as compared to the undoped ZnO nanorods. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the presence of Mn atoms in Mn2+ state in the single crystalline ZnO nanorods. The recorded photoluminescence spectrum contains two emissions peaks having UV exciton emissions along with a green-yellow emission. The green-yellow emissions provide the evidence of singly ionized oxygen vacancies. The magnetic field dependent magnetization measurements [M (H)] and zero field cooled (ZFC) and field cooled (FC) magnetization [M(T)] measurements have been carried out at different isothermal conditions in the temperature range of 5-300 K. The Mn doped ZnO nanorods clearly show room temperature ferromagnetic ordering near room temperature down to 5 K. The observed magnetization may be attributed to the long range ferromagnetic interaction between bound magnetic polarons led by singly charged oxygen vacancies.

  10. Flexible retinal electrode array

    DOEpatents

    Okandan, Murat; Wessendorf, Kurt O.; Christenson, Todd R.

    2006-10-24

    An electrode array which has applications for neural stimulation and sensing. The electrode array can include a large number of electrodes each of which is flexibly attached to a common substrate using a plurality of springs to allow the electrodes to move independently. The electrode array can be formed from a combination of bulk and surface micromachining, with electrode tips that can include an electroplated metal (e.g. platinum, iridium, gold or titanium) or a metal oxide (e.g. iridium oxide) for biocompatibility. The electrode array can be used to form a part of a neural prosthesis, and is particularly well adapted for use in an implantable retinal prosthesis where the electrodes can be tailored to provide a uniform gentle contact pressure with optional sensing of this contact pressure at one or more of the electrodes.

  11. Functionalized CdS nanospheres and nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyeokjin; Yang, Heesun; Holloway, Paul H.

    2009-12-01

    Functionalized nanoparticles are discussed. Surfaces of CdS:Mn/ZnS core/shell nanospheres (Qdots) were converted from hydrophobic to hydrophilic by growth of a SiO 2 shell. The colloidal dispersion was stabilize by adding a surfactant with a negative surface charge, and a cell-penetrating-peptide, TAT, was attached through a primary amine group. The TAT functionalized Qdots were shown to pass the blood-brain-barrier and luminescence in the infused half of the brain. In addition, nanorods of S 2- rich CdS were synthesized by reaction of excess S with Cd precursors in the presence of ethylene diamine. The photoluminescence (PL) peak from the S 2- rich CdS nanorods was broad with a maximum at ∼710 nm, which was 40 nm longer in wavelength than the PL peak from Cd 2+ rich CdS (∼670 nm) nanorods. The influence of surface electron or hole trap states on the luminescent pathway of CdS nanorods were used to explain these shifts in wavelength. Nanocrystals of Au with ∼2 nm diameters were grown on S 2- rich surfaces of CdS nanorods. Significant quenching of photoluminescence was observed from Au nanocrystals on CdS nanorods due to interfacial charge separation. Charge separation by Au nanocrystals on CdS resulted in enhanced UV photocatalytic degradation of Procion red mix-5B (PRB) dye in aqueous solution.

  12. Antifouling properties of zinc oxide nanorod coatings.

    PubMed

    Al-Fori, Marwan; Dobretsov, Sergey; Myint, Myo Tay Zar; Dutta, Joydeep

    2014-01-01

    In laboratory experiments, the antifouling (AF) properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod coatings were investigated using the marine bacterium Acinetobacter sp. AZ4C, larvae of the bryozoan Bugula neritina and the microalga Tetraselmis sp. ZnO nanorod coatings were fabricated on microscope glass substrata by a simple hydrothermal technique using two different molar concentrations (5 and 10 mM) of zinc precursors. These coatings were tested for 5 h under artificial sunlight (1060 W m(-2) or 530 W m(-2)) and in the dark (no irradiation). In the presence of light, both the ZnO nanorod coatings significantly reduced the density of Acinetobacter sp. AZ4C and Tetraselmis sp. in comparison to the control (microscope glass substratum without a ZnO coating). High mortality and low settlement of B. neritina larvae was observed on ZnO nanorod coatings subjected to light irradiation. In darkness, neither mortality nor enhanced settlement of larvae was observed. Larvae of B. neritina were not affected by Zn(2+) ions. The AF effect of the ZnO nanorod coatings was thus attributed to the reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by photocatalysis. It was concluded that ZnO nanorod coatings effectively prevented marine micro and macrofouling in static conditions.

  13. Antifouling properties of zinc oxide nanorod coatings.

    PubMed

    Al-Fori, Marwan; Dobretsov, Sergey; Myint, Myo Tay Zar; Dutta, Joydeep

    2014-01-01

    In laboratory experiments, the antifouling (AF) properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod coatings were investigated using the marine bacterium Acinetobacter sp. AZ4C, larvae of the bryozoan Bugula neritina and the microalga Tetraselmis sp. ZnO nanorod coatings were fabricated on microscope glass substrata by a simple hydrothermal technique using two different molar concentrations (5 and 10 mM) of zinc precursors. These coatings were tested for 5 h under artificial sunlight (1060 W m(-2) or 530 W m(-2)) and in the dark (no irradiation). In the presence of light, both the ZnO nanorod coatings significantly reduced the density of Acinetobacter sp. AZ4C and Tetraselmis sp. in comparison to the control (microscope glass substratum without a ZnO coating). High mortality and low settlement of B. neritina larvae was observed on ZnO nanorod coatings subjected to light irradiation. In darkness, neither mortality nor enhanced settlement of larvae was observed. Larvae of B. neritina were not affected by Zn(2+) ions. The AF effect of the ZnO nanorod coatings was thus attributed to the reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by photocatalysis. It was concluded that ZnO nanorod coatings effectively prevented marine micro and macrofouling in static conditions. PMID:25115521

  14. Oxidation dynamics of aluminum nanorods

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ying; Kalia, Rajiv K.; Nakano, Aiichiro; Vashishta, Priya

    2015-02-23

    Aluminum nanorods (Al-NRs) are promising fuels for pyrotechnics due to the high contact areas with oxidizers, but their oxidation mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, reactive molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study thermally initiated burning of oxide-coated Al-NRs with different diameters (D = 26, 36, and 46 nm) in oxygen environment. We found that thinner Al-NRs burn faster due to the larger surface-to-volume ratio. The reaction initiates with the dissolution of the alumina shell into the molten Al core to generate heat. This is followed by the incorporation of environmental oxygen atoms into the resulting Al-rich shell, thereby accelerating the heat release. These results reveal an unexpectedly active role of the alumina shell as a “nanoreactor” for oxidation.

  15. Citrate-Stabilized Gold Nanorods

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Stable aqueous dispersions of citrate-stabilized gold nanorods (cit-GNRs) have been prepared in scalable fashion by surfactant exchange from cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-stabilized GNRs, using polystyrenesulfonate (PSS) as a detergent. The surfactant exchange process was monitored by infrared spectroscopy, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The latter established the quantitative displacement of CTAB (by PSS) and of PSS (by citrate). The Cit-GNRs are indefinitely stable at low ionic strength, and are conducive to further ligand exchange without loss of dispersion stability. The reliability of the surface exchange process supports the systematic analysis of ligand structure on the hydrodynamic size of GNRs, as described in a companion paper. PMID:25254292

  16. Methods of making functionalized nanorods

    DOEpatents

    Gur, Ilan; Milliron, Delia; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Liu, Haitao

    2012-01-10

    A process for forming functionalized nanorods. The process includes providing a substrate, modifying the substrate by depositing a self-assembled monolayer of a bi-functional molecule on the substrate, wherein the monolayer is chosen such that one side of the bi-functional molecule binds to the substrate surface and the other side shows an independent affinity for binding to a nanocrystal surface, so as to form a modified substrate. The process further includes contacting the modified substrate with a solution containing nanocrystal colloids, forming a bound monolayer of nanocrystals on the substrate surface, depositing a polymer layer over the monolayer of nanocrystals to partially cover the monolayer of nanocrystals, so as to leave a layer of exposed nanocrystals, functionalizing the exposed nanocrystals, to form functionalized nanocrystals, and then releasing the functionalized nanocrystals from the substrate.

  17. Oxidation dynamics of aluminum nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying; Kalia, Rajiv K.; Nakano, Aiichiro; Vashishta, Priya

    2015-02-01

    Aluminum nanorods (Al-NRs) are promising fuels for pyrotechnics due to the high contact areas with oxidizers, but their oxidation mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, reactive molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study thermally initiated burning of oxide-coated Al-NRs with different diameters (D = 26, 36, and 46 nm) in oxygen environment. We found that thinner Al-NRs burn faster due to the larger surface-to-volume ratio. The reaction initiates with the dissolution of the alumina shell into the molten Al core to generate heat. This is followed by the incorporation of environmental oxygen atoms into the resulting Al-rich shell, thereby accelerating the heat release. These results reveal an unexpectedly active role of the alumina shell as a "nanoreactor" for oxidation.

  18. Modulation of physical and photocatalytic properties of (Cr, N) codoped TiO{sub 2} nanorods using soft solution processing

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Wen-Chung; Nguyen, Hoang-Diem; Wu, Chun-Yi; Chang, Kao-Shuo Yoshimura, Masahiro

    2014-04-14

    Facile polymerized complex reactions together with a hydrothermal reaction were implemented to make single crystalline TiO{sub 2} nanorods for the first time. Chromium (Cr) and nitrogen (N{sub 2}) co-doping was performed to tailor the physical properties. Transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction study illustrated that highly reactive facets of (101), (111), and (001) dominated rutile TiO{sub 2} nanorods. A growth model, based on formation of complex species, was proposed to elucidate effectiveness of the soft solution processing in making TiO{sub 2} nanorods. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis and consideration of fundamentals of charge neutrality showed N{sub 2} doping could inhibit formation of Cr{sup 6+} and oxygen vacancies (V{sub O}{sup 2+}). An investigation of the photocatalytic properties exhibited high efficiency of photodegradation of methylene blue in 15 min under pH = 10, using a nanocomposite of (7% Cr, 0.0021% N) codoped and 3% Cr doped TiO{sub 2} nanorods.

  19. Growth of oriented Bi nanorods at graphite step-edges

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Shelley A.; Brown, Simon A.; Kral, Milo V.

    2005-11-15

    We report on the growth of ordered arrays of bismuth nanorods, extending outward from highly oriented pyrolitic-graphite (HOPG) step-edges. The rods grow via adatom diffusion in a multilayer two-dimensional growth mode, with {l_brace}0112{r_brace}{sub Bi} planes parallel to the basal plane of the substrate, and in-plane orientations aligned with the high symmetry directions of the substrate such that <1120>{sub Bi} parallel <1010>{sub HOPG}. The morphologies are characterized with varying particle flux and coverage. It is shown that bismuth aggregates become elongated when the particle flux is reduced. When coupled with an anisotropic diffusion field surrounding step-edge structures, this results in the manifestation of rods in a low flux growth environment. The rods are only {approx}2 nm tall and can extend up to several microns in length.

  20. Bio-Functional Au/Si Nanorods for Pathogen Detection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract Nanotechnology applications for food safety and biosecurity, especially development of nanoscale sensors for foodborne pathogen measurement are emerging. A novel bio-functional nanosensor for Salmonella detection was developed using hetero-nanorods. The silica nanorods were fabr...

  1. InxAl1-xN chiral nanorods mimicking the polarization features of scarab beetles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnusson, R.; Birch, J.; Hsiao, C.-L.; Sandström, P.; Arwin, H.; Järrendahl, K.

    2015-03-01

    The scarab beetle Cetonia aurata is known to reflect light with brilliant colors and a high degree of circular polarization. Both color and polarization effects originate from the beetles exoskeleton and have been attributed to a Bragg reflection of the incident light due to a twisted laminar structure. Our strategy for mimicking the optical properties of the Cetonia aurata was therefore to design and fabricate transparent, chiral films. A series of films with tailored transparent structures of helicoidal InxAl1-xN nanorods were grown on sapphire substrates using UHV magnetron sputtering. The value of x is tailored to gradually decrease from one side to the other in each nanorod normal to its growth direction. This introduces an in-plane anisotropy with different refractive indices in the direction of the gradient and perpendicular to it. By rotating the sample during film growth the in-plane optical axis will be rotated from bottom to top and thereby creating a chiral film. Based on Muellermatrix ellipsometry, optical modeling has been done suggesting that both the exoskeleton of Cetonia aurata and our artificial material can be modeled by an anisotropic film made up of a stack of thin layers, each one with its in-plane optical axis slightly rotated with respect to the previous layer. Simulations based on the optical modeling were used to investigate how pitch and thickness of the film together with the optical properties of the constitutive materials affects the width and spectral position of the Bragg reflection band.

  2. Tailoring lanthanide nanocrystals for nanomedicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan; Tan, Timothy T. Y.

    2013-02-01

    Lanthanide nanocrystals have demonstrated strong potentials in nanomedicine due to its up-conversion and strong magnetic properties, and low toxicity. This talk will focus on strategies in lanthanide nanostructure tailoring to achieve up-conversion color emission tuning, MRI T1 and T2 contrast tuning, and the use of up-conversion fluorescence in drug delivery and cancer cells ablation.

  3. Hydroquinone Based Synthesis of Gold Nanorods.

    PubMed

    Picciolini, Silvia; Mehn, Dora; Ojea-Jiménez, Isaac; Gramatica, Furio; Morasso, Carlo

    2016-08-10

    Gold nanorods are an important kind of nanoparticles characterized by peculiar plasmonic properties. Despite their widespread use in nanotechnology, the synthetic methods for the preparation of gold nanorods are still not fully optimized. In this paper we describe a new, highly efficient, two-step protocol based on the use of hydroquinone as a mild reducing agent. Our approach allows the preparation of nanorods with a good control of size and aspect ratio (AR) simply by varying the amount of hexadecyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and silver ions (Ag(+)) present in the "growth solution". By using this method, it is possible to markedly reduce the amount of CTAB, an expensive and cytotoxic reagent, necessary to obtain the elongated shape. Gold nanorods with an aspect ratio of about 3 can be obtained in the presence of just 50 mM of CTAB (versus 100 mM used in the standard protocol based on the use of ascorbic acid), while shorter gold nanorods are obtained using a concentration as low as 10 mM.

  4. Growth process for gallium nitride porous nanorods

    SciTech Connect

    Wildeson, Isaac Harshman; Sands, Timothy David

    2015-03-24

    A GaN nanorod and formation method. Formation includes providing a substrate having a GaN film, depositing SiN.sub.x on the GaN film, etching a growth opening through the SiN.sub.x and into the GaN film, growing a GaN nanorod through the growth opening, the nanorod having a nanopore running substantially through its centerline. Focused ion beam etching can be used. The growing can be done using organometallic vapor phase epitaxy. The nanopore diameter can be controlled using the growth opening diameter or the growing step duration. The GaN nanorods can be removed from the substrate. The SiN.sub.x layer can be removed after the growing step. A SiO.sub.x template can be formed on the GaN film and the GaN can be grown to cover the SiO.sub.x template before depositing SiN.sub.x on the GaN film. The SiO.sub.x template can be removed after growing the nanorods.

  5. Hydroquinone Based Synthesis of Gold Nanorods.

    PubMed

    Picciolini, Silvia; Mehn, Dora; Ojea-Jiménez, Isaac; Gramatica, Furio; Morasso, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Gold nanorods are an important kind of nanoparticles characterized by peculiar plasmonic properties. Despite their widespread use in nanotechnology, the synthetic methods for the preparation of gold nanorods are still not fully optimized. In this paper we describe a new, highly efficient, two-step protocol based on the use of hydroquinone as a mild reducing agent. Our approach allows the preparation of nanorods with a good control of size and aspect ratio (AR) simply by varying the amount of hexadecyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and silver ions (Ag(+)) present in the "growth solution". By using this method, it is possible to markedly reduce the amount of CTAB, an expensive and cytotoxic reagent, necessary to obtain the elongated shape. Gold nanorods with an aspect ratio of about 3 can be obtained in the presence of just 50 mM of CTAB (versus 100 mM used in the standard protocol based on the use of ascorbic acid), while shorter gold nanorods are obtained using a concentration as low as 10 mM. PMID:27585238

  6. Enhanced thermal stability of Ag nanorods through capping

    SciTech Connect

    Bachenheimer, Lou; Elliott, Paul; Stagon, Stephen; Huang, Hanchen

    2014-11-24

    Ag nanorods may serve as sensors in the detection of trace amounts of chemical agents, even single molecules, through surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). However, thermal coarsening of Ag nanorods near room temperature limits their applications. This letter proposes the use of a thin oxide capping layer to enhance the thermal stability of Ag nanorods beyond 100 °C. Using electron microscopy characterization and SERS tests, the authors show that the proposed method is effective in stabilizing both morphology and sensitivity of Ag nanorods. The results of this work extend the applicability of Ag nanorods as chemical sensors to higher temperatures.

  7. Energy transfer between a biological labelling dye and gold nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racknor, Chris; Singh, Mahi R.; Zhang, Yinan; Birch, David J. S.; Chen, Yu

    2014-03-01

    We have demonstrated energy transfer between a biological labelling dye (Alexa Fluor 405) and gold nanorods experimentally and theoretically. The fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy and density matrix method are used to study a hybrid system of dye and nanorods under one- and two-photon excitations. Energy transfer between dye and nanorods via the dipole-dipole interaction is found to cause a decrease in the fluorescence lifetime change. Enhanced energy transfer from dye to nanorods is measured in the presence of an increased density of nanorods. This study has potential applications in fluorescence lifetime-based intra-cellular sensing of bio-analytes as well as nuclear targeting cancer therapy.

  8. Manufacturing tailored property ceramic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Ewsuk, K.G.; Harrison, L.W.

    1994-11-14

    Composite materials are desirable for many advanced engineering applications where the properties of a single phase material cannot meet all of the service requirements; however, existing process technology has limited the development and commercialization of composites. Lack of reproducible sintering to high density is one of the major obstacles to commercializing ceramic composites. Final-stage, non-reactive liquid phase sintering (NLPS) theory provides metrics for sinterability that can be used as guidelines to design and manufacture dense ceramic-filled-glass (CFG) composites. Additionally, within the constraints defined by the NLPS theory, sum-property models can be used to predict CFG composite properties, and to design composites with properties tailored to specific applications. By integrating composite process models with composite property models, processable, application-tailored CFG composites for microelectronics packaging have been designed and fabricated.

  9. Tailored Ceramics for Laser Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hollingsworth, Joel

    2007-12-10

    Transparent ceramics match or exceed the performance of single-crystal materials in laser applications, with a more-robust fabrication process. Controlling the distribution of optical dopants in transparent ceramics would allow qualitative improvements in amplifier slab design by allowing gain and loss to be varied within the material. My work aims to achieve a controlled pattern or gradient of dopant prior to sintering, in order to produce tailored ceramics.

  10. Nanoparticle Optics of Complex Nanorod Architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Shuford, Kevin L; Park, Sungho

    2009-01-01

    Computational studies on the optical properties of nanorods with unique compositions and exotic surface structure are presented. The distinctive architectures investigated-and compared to smooth Au rods-include Ni/Au multiblock rods and nanoporous Au rods. The surface plasmon resonances are extremely dependent upon the morphology and makeup of the nanorods. For a rod with a given aspect ratio, the resonance structure is sensitive to attributes such as the size of Ni sections of multiblock rods and pore structure of nanoporous rods. These studies indicate that control of the optical properties of nanorods is possible via characteristics other than the aspect ratio and suggest that a broader range of tunability is attainable.

  11. ZERODUR TAILORED for cryogenic application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedamzik, R.; Westerhoff, T.

    2014-07-01

    ZERODUR® glass ceramic from SCHOTT is known for its very low thermal expansion coefficient (CTE) at room temperature and its excellent CTE homogeneity. It is widely used for ground-based astronomical mirrors but also for satellite applications. Many reference application demonstrate the excellent and long lasting performance of ZERODUR® components in orbit. For space application a low CTE of the mirror material is required at cryogenic temperatures together with a good match of the thermal expansion to the supporting structure material. It is possible to optimize the coefficient of thermal expansion of ZERODUR® for cryogenic applications. This paper reports on measurements of thermal expansion of ZERODUR® down to cryogenic temperatures of 10 K performed by the PTB (Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstallt, Braunschweig, Germany, the national metrology laboratory). The ZERODUR® TAILORED CRYO presented in this paper has a very low coefficient of thermal expansion down to 70 K. The maximum absolute integrated thermal expansion down to 10 K is only about 20 ppm. Mirror blanks made from ZERODUR® TAILORED CRYO can be light weighted to almost 90% with our modern processing technologies. With ZERODUR® TAILORED CRYO, SCHOTT offers the mirror blank material for the next generation of space telescope applications.

  12. Collective alignment of nanorods in thin Newtonian films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yu; Burtovyy, Ruslan; Townsend, James; Owens, Jeffery; Luzinov, Igor; Kornev, Konstantin

    2013-11-01

    We provide a complete analytical description of the alignment kinetics of magnetic nanorods in magnetic field. Nickel nanorods were formed by template electrochemical deposition in alumina membranes from a dispersion in a water-glycerol mixture. To ensure uniformity of the dispersion, the surface of the nickel nanorods was covered with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). A 40-70 nm coating prevented aggregation of nanoroda. These modifications allowed us to control alignment of the nanorods in a magnetic field and test the proposed theory. An orientational distribution function of nanorods was introduced. We demonstrated that the 0.04% volume fraction of nanorods in the glycerol-water mixture behaves as a system of non-interacting particles. However, the kinetics of alignment of a nanorod assembly does not follow the predictions of the single-nanorod theory. The distribution function theory explains the kinetics of alignment of a nanorod assembly and shows the significance of the initial distribution of nanorods in the film. It can be used to develop an experimental protocol for controlled ordering of magnetic nanorods in thin films. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Grant numbers FA9550-12-1-0459 and FA8650-09-D-507 5900.

  13. Hyperthermic effects of gold nanorods on tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Huff, Terry B.; Tong, Ling; Zhao, Yan; Hansen, Matthew N.; Cheng, Ji-Xin; Wei, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Summary Plasmon-resonant gold nanorods, which have large absorption cross sections at near-infrared (NIR) frequencies, are excellent candidates as multifunctional agents for image-guided therapies based on localized hyperthermia. The controlled modification of the nanorods' surface chemistry is of critical importance, as issues of cell-specific targeting and nonspecific uptake must be addressed prior to clinical evaluation. Nanorods coated with CTAB (a cationic surfactant used in nanorod synthesis) are internalized within hours into KB cells by a nonspecific uptake pathway, whereas the careful removal of CTAB from nanorods functionalized with folate results in their accumulation on the cell surface over the same time interval. In either case, the nanorods render the tumor cells highly susceptible to photothermal damage when irradiated at the nanorods' longitudinal plasmon resonance, generating extensive blebbing of the cell membrane at laser fluences as low as 44 W/cm2. PMID:17716198

  14. Bio-functional Au/Si nanorods for pathogen detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Bosoon; Fu, Junxue; Zhao, Yiping; Siragusa, Gregory R.; Cho, Yong-Jin; Lawrence, Kurt C.; Windham, William R.

    2007-09-01

    Nanotechnology applications for food safety and biosecurity, especially development of nanoscale sensors for foodborne pathogen measurement are emerging. A novel bio-functional nanosensor for Salmonella detection was developed using hetero-nanorods. The silica nanorods were fabricated by glancing angle deposition method and the gold was sputtered onto the silica nanorods. Alexa488-succinimide dye was immobilized onto the annealed Si nanorods via the attachment between dye ester and primary amine group supplied by the 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane. The anti-Salmonella was conjugated to gold via Dithiobis[succinimidylpropionate] self-assembly monolayer. Due to the high aspect ratio nature of the Si nanorods, hundreds or thousands of dye molecules attached to the Si nanorods produced enhanced fluorescence signal. These biologically functionalized nanorods can be used to detect Salmonella with fluorescent microscopic imaging. This new nanoscale biosensor will be able to detect other foodborne pathogenic bacteria for food safety and security applications.

  15. Nanorods and nanotubes: Synthesis, manipulation and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Eric Warren

    Nanorods and nanotubes represent idealized structures for investigating phenomena associated with reduced dimensionality and are potential building blocks for nanostructured materials. Understanding their synthesis as well as physical properties is crucial if they are to form the basis for future devices. The synthesis of carbide nanotubes and nanorods is described. Also presented is a general method that combines micropatterning techniques with scanning force microscopy (SFM) to probe individual quasi-one-dimensional materials. Polycrystalline TiC and NbC nanorods, with 20-30 nm diameters and lengths exceeding 1 mum, were synthesized by reacting gaseous Ti-I or Nb-I at 550-1100sp°C with carbon nanotubes which served as structural templates. Template growth from nanotubes appears general since polycrystalline BCsb{x} and amorphous Fesb3C nanorods were produced from Bsb2Osb2 and FeClsb3, respectively. However, reaction of Si-I precursors with nanotubes or graphite above 1050sp°C resulted in single crystal SiC nanorods, with 1-20 nm diameters and 1-20 mum lengths, that grew catalytically from MoSisb2 nanoparticles by a vapor-solid mechanism. Above 1200sp°C, single crystal TiC nanorods grew from nanotubes and Ti-I or TiO by an undetermined mechanism. To probe electrical transport in carbon nanotubes, a method was devised where a static gold contact was lithographically formed with one end of a nanotube while a second dynamic contact was made by a conducting SFM probe. The conducting SFM tip can simultaneously map the topography and conductance of the nanotube. The transport properties of a series of structurally distinct nanotubes were studied and shown to sensitively depend on their structure, the presence of defects causing dramatic increases in resistivity. The mechanics of SiC nanorods and carbon nanotubes were studied using an analogous technique. An SFM tip was used to measure the forces required to bend nanobeams. The SiC nanorods had elastic moduli in close

  16. Gold nanorods as nanoadmicelles: 1-naphthol partitioning into a nanorod-bound surfactant bilayer.

    PubMed

    Alkilany, Alaaldin M; Frey, Rebecca L; Ferry, John L; Murphy, Catherine J

    2008-09-16

    As-prepared gold nanorods, stable in aqueous solution, bear a bilayer of the cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). This bilayer provides a approximately 3 nm thick hydrophobic layer that could be used to sequester hydrophobic organic molecules from aqueous solution. We have investigated the uptake of 1-naphthol as a model hydrophobic compound by CTAB-coated gold nanorods using both ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. We find the adsorption isotherm of 1-naphthol partitioning into the CTAB bilayer on gold nanorods fits the Langmuir model. The maximum number of bound 1-naphthol molecules is 14.6 +/- 2.2 x 10(3) molecules per gold nanorod, with an equilibrium binding constant of 1.97 +/- 0.79 x 10(4) M(-1) at room temperature. PMID:18700748

  17. Enhanced photoacoustic neuroimaging with gold nanorods and PEBBLEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witte, Russell S.; Kim, K.; Agarwal, A.; Fan, W.; Kopelman, R.; Kotov, N.; Kipke, D.; O'Donnell, M.

    2008-02-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) imaging provides excellent optical contrast with decent penetration and high spatial resolution, making it attractive for a variety of neural applications. We evaluated optical contrast agents with high absorption in the near infrared (NIR) as potential enhancers for PA neuroimaging: optical dyes, gold nanorods (GNRs) and PEBBLEs loaded with indocyanine green. Two PA systems were developed to test these agents in excised neural tissue and in vivo mouse brain. Lobster nerves were stained with the agents for 30 minutes and placed in a hybrid nerve chamber capable of electrical stimulation and recording, optical spectroscopy and PA imaging. Contrast agents boosted the PA signal by at least 30 dB using NIR illumination from a tunable pulsed laser. Photobleaching may be a limiting factor for optical dyes-the PA signal decreased steadily with laser illumination. The second setup enabled in vivo transcranial imaging of the mouse brain. A custom clinical ultrasound scanner and a 10-MHz linear array provided near real-time images during and after an injection of 2 nM gold nanorods into the tail vein. The peak PA signal from the brain vasculature was enhanced by up to 2 dB at 710 nm. Temporal dynamics of the PA signal were also consistent with mixing of the GNRs in the blood. These studies provide a baseline for enhanced PA imaging in neural tissue. The smart contrast agents employed in this study can be further engineered for molecular targeting and controlled drug delivery with potential treatment for a myriad of neural disorders.

  18. Thermostructural tailoring of fiber composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acquaviva, Thomas H.

    1992-01-01

    A significant area of interest in design of complex structures involves the study of multidisciplined problems. The coordination of several different intricate areas of study to obtain a particular design of a structure is a new and pressing area of research. In the past, each discipline would perform its task consecutively using the appropriate inputs from the other disciplines. This process usually required several time-consuming iterations to obtain a satisfactory design. The alternative pursued here is combining various participating disciplines and specified design requirements into a formal structural computer code. The main focus of this research is to develop a multidiscipline structural tailoring method for select composite structures and to demonstrate its application to specific areas. The development of an integrated computer program involves the coupling of three independent computer programs using an excutive module. This module will be the foundation for integrating a structural optimizer, a composites analyzer and a thermal analyzer. With the completion of the executive module, the first step was taken toward the evolution of multidiscipline software in the field of composite mechanics. Through the use of an array of cases involving a variety of objective functions/constraints and thermal-mechanical load conditions, it became evident that simple composite structures can be designed to a combined loads environment.

  19. High quality boron carbon nitride/ZnO-nanorods p-n heterojunctions based on magnetron sputtered boron carbon nitride films

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, J. C.; Jha, S. K. E-mail: apwjzh@cityu.edu.hk; Wang, B. Q.; Jelenković, E. V.; Bello, I.; Klemberg-Sapieha, J. E.; Martinu, L.; Zhang, W. J. E-mail: apwjzh@cityu.edu.hk

    2014-11-10

    Boron carbon nitride (BCN) films were synthesized on Si (100) and fused silica substrates by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering from a B{sub 4}C target in an Ar/N{sub 2} gas mixture. The BCN films were amorphous, and they exhibited an optical band gap of ∼1.0 eV and p-type conductivity. The BCN films were over-coated with ZnO nanorod arrays using hydrothermal synthesis to form BCN/ZnO-nanorods p-n heterojunctions, exhibiting a rectification ratio of 1500 at bias voltages of ±5 V.

  20. Time series with tailored nonlinearities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Räth, C.; Laut, I.

    2015-10-01

    It is demonstrated how to generate time series with tailored nonlinearities by inducing well-defined constraints on the Fourier phases. Correlations between the phase information of adjacent phases and (static and dynamic) measures of nonlinearities are established and their origin is explained. By applying a set of simple constraints on the phases of an originally linear and uncorrelated Gaussian time series, the observed scaling behavior of the intensity distribution of empirical time series can be reproduced. The power law character of the intensity distributions being typical for, e.g., turbulence and financial data can thus be explained in terms of phase correlations.

  1. New trend for synthesizing of magnetic nanorods with titanomaghemite structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saber, Osama

    2016-07-01

    This research aims at developing magnetic and optical materials through fabrication of uniform nanorods by facile and novel technique. In this trend, titanium and iron were successfully combined together forming nanorods without template or high temperature by urea hydrolysis. TEM images showed uniform and homogeneous nanorods with dimensions; 10 nm in width and 50 nm in length. In the same time, fine nanoparticles were observed around the nanorods. With further treatment for the nanorods at high temperature and pressure, FESEM images revealed that the dimensions of the rods slightly increased to be 70 nm in length and 12 nm in width with a complete disappearance of the nanoparticles. Using X-ray diffraction, thermal analyses and infrared spectra in addition to the results of the electron microscopy, the oriented attachment mechanism was suggested for the formation of titanium iron oxides nanorods. The magnetic measurements revealed that the prepared nanorods possess ferromagnetic behavior and exhibit high saturation magnetization. Also, the optical properties showed that the nanorods have high absorption in the visible region and possess low band gap energy. Finally, we concluded that it is probably the first time to prepare nanorods by urea hydrolysis. The advanced optical and magnetic properties give the prepared nanorods relevance to use as building blocks in functional nanoscale devices.

  2. Femtosecond laser fabrication of gold nanorod/polymer composite microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masui, Kyoko; Shoji, Satoru; Ushiba, Shota; Duan, Xuan-Ming; Kawata, Satoshi

    2012-10-01

    We present a fabrication method of gold nanorod/ polymer composite microstructures by means of a femtosecond near-infrared laser light. The mechanism of this method is based on a cooperation of two optical reactions; two-photon polymerization (TPP) reaction only at the surface of gold nanorods, and optical accumulation of gold nanorods in photo-polymerizable resin. Gold nanorods were mass-produced by seed mediated growth method, and were mono-dispersed in photo-resin. The wavelength of the laser light was tuned resonant to two-photon absorption of the photo-resin, and also close to a longitudinal local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) mode of the gold nanorods. The laser light excited LSPR onto gold nanorods, resulting in the formation of thin polymer layer only at their surface through TPP. Concurrently occurring optical accumulation of gold nanorods by continuous irradiation of laser light, gold nanorods got together into focus spot. The TPP layer at the surface of gold nanorods worked as a glue to stick one another for forming their aggregated structure in micro/nano scale. By controlling the intensity and the exposure time of laser light, an optimal condition was found to induce dominant polymerization without any thermal damages. The scanning of the focus spot makes it possible to create arbitrary micro/nano structures. This method has a potential to create plasmonic optical materials by controlling the alignment of gold nanorods.

  3. GaN based nanorods for solid state lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Li Shunfeng; Waag, Andreas

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, GaN nanorods are emerging as a very promising novel route toward devices for nano-optoelectronics and nano-photonics. In particular, core-shell light emitting devices are thought to be a breakthrough development in solid state lighting, nanorod based LEDs have many potential advantages as compared to their 2 D thin film counterparts. In this paper, we review the recent developments of GaN nanorod growth, characterization, and related device applications based on GaN nanorods. The initial work on GaN nanorod growth focused on catalyst-assisted and catalyst-free statistical growth. The growth condition and growth mechanisms were extensively investigated and discussed. Doping of GaN nanorods, especially p-doping, was found to significantly influence the morphology of GaN nanorods. The large surface of 3 D GaN nanorods induces new optical and electrical properties, which normally can be neglected in layered structures. Recently, more controlled selective area growth of GaN nanorods was realized using patterned substrates both by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Advanced structures, for example, photonic crystals and DBRs are meanwhile integrated in GaN nanorod structures. Based on the work of growth and characterization of GaN nanorods, GaN nanoLEDs were reported by several groups with different growth and processing methods. Core/shell nanoLED structures were also demonstrated, which could be potentially useful for future high efficient LED structures. In this paper, we will discuss recent developments in GaN nanorod technology, focusing on the potential advantages, but also discussing problems and open questions, which may impose obstacles during the future development of a GaN nanorod based LED technology.

  4. Ultrasensitive Characterization of Mechanical Oscillations and Plasmon Energy Shift in Gold Nanorods.

    PubMed

    Soavi, Giancarlo; Tempra, Iacopo; Pantano, Maria F; Cattoni, Andrea; Collin, Stéphane; Biagioni, Paolo; Pugno, Nicola M; Cerullo, Giulio

    2016-02-23

    Mechanical vibrational resonances in metal nanoparticles are intensively studied because they provide insight into nanoscale elasticity and for their potential application to ultrasensitive mass detection. In this paper, we use broadband femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy to study the longitudinal acoustic phonons of arrays of gold nanorods with different aspect ratios, fabricated by electron beam lithography with very high size uniformity. We follow in real time the impulsively excited extensional oscillations of the nanorods by measuring the transient shift of the localized surface plasmon band. Broadband and high-sensitivity detection of the time-dependent extinction spectra enables one to develop a model that quantitatively describes the periodic variation of the plasmon extinction coefficient starting from the steady-state spectrum with only one additional free parameter. This model allows us to retrieve the time-dependent elongation of the nanorods with an ultrahigh sensitivity and to measure oscillation amplitudes of just a few picometers and plasmon energy shifts on the order of 10(-2) meV. PMID:26767699

  5. Role of surface plasmon in second harmonic generation from gold nanorods

    SciTech Connect

    Hubert, C.; Billot, L.; Adam, P.-M.; Bachelot, R.; Royer, P.; Grand, J.; Gindre, D.; Dorkenoo, K. D.; Fort, A.

    2007-04-30

    The role of surface plasmon in second harmonic generation from arrays of gold nanorod particles excited by femtosecond laser pulses is investigated as a function of incident light polarization and irradiation wavelength. In addition to photoluminescence, a peak of second harmonic is observed and is found to depend on the polarization and wavelength of the fundamental frequency laser beam. In particular, the authors found similarities between extinction spectra of the nanoparticles and spectra of emmitted second harmonic. This behavior can be explained by resonant excitation of localized surface plasmon resonances.

  6. Ultrafast carrier dynamics in GaN nanorods

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Chi-Yuan; Chia, Chih-Ta; Chen, Hung-Ying; Gwo, Shangjr; Lin, Kung-Hsuan

    2014-11-24

    We present ultrafast time-resolved optical spectroscopy on GaN nanorods at room temperature. The studied GaN nanorods, with diameters of ∼50 nm and lengths of ∼400 nm, were grown on the silicon substrate. After femtosecond optical pulses excited carriers in the GaN nanorods, the carriers thermalized within a few picoseconds. Subsequently, the electrons are trapped by the surface states on the order of 20 ps. After the surface electric field was reformed in the GaN nanorods, we found the lifetime of the residue carriers in GaN nanorods is longer than 1.7 ns at room temperature, while the lifetime of carriers in GaN thin film is typically a few hundred picoseconds. Our findings indicate that GaN nanorods have higher electrical quality compared with GaN thin film.

  7. In vitro cytotoxicity of gold nanorods in A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ying; Shen, Yafeng; Huang, Libin; Lv, Gaojian; Lei, Changhai; Fan, Xiaoyan; Lin, Fangxing; Zhang, Yuxia; Wu, Lihui; Yang, Yongji

    2015-03-01

    Gold nanoparticles, which have unique physicochemical characteristics, are being used for an increasingly wide range of applications in biomedical research. In this study, gold nanorods (width of 25 nm, length of 52 nm) were found to be internalized by A549 cells and were primarily localized in the lysosomes and membranous vesicles. The integrity of the membranes of A549 cells exposed to gold nanorods for 4h was damaged, as indicated by laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM). Increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage and decreased cell viability further indicated the concentration-dependent cytotoxicity of the gold nanorods to the A549 cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was induced in the A549 cells by the gold nanorods, and this effect was positively correlated with the concentration of the gold nanorods. The results of this study indicated that exposure to gold nanorods caused dose-dependent cytotoxicity in A549 cells and that oxidative stress may be the main factor causing cytotoxicity.

  8. Extraordinary N atom tunneling in formation of InN shell layer on GaN nanorod m-plane sidewall.

    PubMed

    Cai, Duanjun; Lin, Na; Xu, Hongmei; Liao, Che-Hao; Yang, C C

    2014-12-12

    We report the extraordinary tunneling process that finds the lower cohesive energy route for stablizing InN shell layer on m-plane sidewall of GaN nanorod. The [0001] orientated GaN nanorod array is grown on sapphire substrate patterned with Ga nanoparticle by metal-organic vapor deposition method, based on which the simulation structures of c-plane top surface and m-plane sidewall surface is constructed for the first-principles calculations. The results show that the introduction of In wetting monolayer could effectively lower the cohesive energy of adalayers on non-polar GaN surfaces. Most importantly, it is revealed that there exists an extraordinary tunneling process in which the N atoms will drag out the In wetting atoms and tunnel through to form stable InN shell layer on the nanorod sidewall. PMID:25412649

  9. Aeroelastic tailoring - Theory, practice, and promise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirk, M. H.; Hertz, T. J.; Weisshaar, T. A.

    1986-01-01

    Aeroelastic tailoring technology is reviewed with reference to the historical background, the underlying theory, current trends, and specific applications. The specific application discussed include the Transonic Aircraft Technology program, an Advanced Design Composite Aircraft, the Wing/Inlet Advanced Development program, and the forward-swept wing. Finally, the future of aeroelastic tailoring and the development of an aeroelastic tailoring analysis and design tool under the Automated Strength-Aeroelastic Design program are examined.

  10. Electric Field Assisted Assembly of Perpendicular Oriented NanorodSuperlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, Kevin M.; Mastroianni, Alex; Stancil, Kimani A.; Liu,Haitao; Alivisatos, Paul A.

    2006-04-10

    We observe the assembly of CdS nanorod superlattices by thecombination of a DC electric field and solvent evaporation. In eachelectric field (1 V/um) assisted assembly, CdS nanorods (5 x 30 nm)suspended initially in toluene were observed to align perpendicularly tothe substrate. Azimuthal alignment along the nanorod crystal faces andthe presence of stacking faults indicate that both 2D and 3D assemblieswere formed by a process of controlled super crystal growth.

  11. Metamaterials Comprising of Plasmonic Nano-spheres and Nanorods: Modeling Using Dipole Moment and Characteristic Basis Function Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashidi, Arash

    This dissertation presents physical modeling and numerically efficient analyses of the interaction between electromagnetic waves and clusters of metamaterials comprising of core-shell nano-particles and plasmonic nanorods. Chapter 1 is the introduction for this thesis. The main idea of chapter 2 is to design an array of core-shell plasmonic nanoparticles manipulating a desired near-field focusing pattern in optical spectrum. The interactions between the array elements are formulated by using Dyadic Green's Function analysis and by employing the closed-form formula for electric polarizability of each plasmonic particle (Dipolar Mode (DM) approach). In chapter 3 we introduce a set of Macro Basis Functions (MBFs) for efficient representation of the currents induced on metal wires and elements comprising of junctions of wires or strips. The use of these functions leads to a relatively small and well-conditioned matrix, only a 3x3 size for a cross-shaped element. An important advantage of using these basis functions is that the fields they generate can be expressed in close forms. In chapter 4 we introduce a numerically efficient computational technique to model the problem of scattering from plasmonic nanorod antennas. The key to achieving the numerical efficiency is to utilize MBFs to reduce the size of matrix equation. Closed form formulations are presented for computing the fields by the MBFs that enable us to generate the required matrix elements rapidly. The goal of chapter 5 is to present a computational scheme to characterize reflection and transmission coefficients for a periodic array of plasmonic nanorods illuminated by an obliquely incident plane wave. The problem is formulated by using the Characteristic Basis Function Method (CBFM) to reduce the number of unknowns. The concept of progressively expanding rings is employed along with Parseval's theorem to evaluate the Galerkin's integrals for the periodic structure. In chapter 6, by taking advantage of CBFM

  12. Self-assembly of mixtures of nanorods in binary, phase-separating blends

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Li-Tang; Maresov, Egor; Buxton, Gavin A.; Balazs, Anna C.

    2010-01-01

    Aligned nanorod inclusions have the potential to significantly improve both the photovoltaic and mechanical properties of polymeric materials. Establishing facile methods for driving or “corralling” the nanorods to self-assemble into such aligned morphologies could facilitate the fabrication of effective, robust devices. Using a variety of computational methods, we model the self-assembly of a mixture of A-coated and B-coated rods in an AB phase-separating blend. Using dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations, we first show that the steric repulsion between ligands causes the coated rods to preferentially align end-to-end within the minority phase of the binary blend. Using this information, we then utilize a coarse-grained approach, which combines a Cahn–Hilliard (CH) model for the polymer blend with a Brownian dynamics (BD) simulation for the rods, to simulate a larger sample of a rod-filled 30:70 AB thin film. We find that just a small volume fraction of B rods in the majority B phase promotes the percolation of A-like rods within A, so that the percolation threshold for the A-rods is significantly lowered. If, however, the number of Bnanorods in the B phase exceeds a particular volume fraction, the B particles inhibit the percolation of the A rods. Thus, there is an optimal volume fraction of Bnanorods that provides the beneficial effects. The output from these morphological studies then serves as the input to the lattice spring model (LSM) for mechanical behavior of the composite. The results reveal that nanorods oriented along the tensile direction contribute to the enhancement of the macroscopic mechanical properties of the material. This multi-scale approach, integrating techniques that cover the microscopic, mesoscopic and macroscopic, provides a valuable means of determining structure–property relationships in nanocomposites and establishing useful guidelines for tailoring the components to yield optimal materials' properties.

  13. A simple route to synthesize manganese germanate nanorods

    SciTech Connect

    Pei, L.Z. Yang, Y.; Yuan, C.Z.; Duan Taike; Zhang Qianfeng

    2011-06-15

    Manganese germanate nanorods have been synthesized by a simple route using germanium dioxide and manganese acetate as the source materials. X-ray diffraction observation shows that the nanorods are composed of orthorhombic and monoclinic manganese germanate phases. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy observations display that the manganese germanate nanorods have flat tips with the length of longer than 10 micrometers and diameter of 60-350 nm, respectively. The role of the growth conditions on the formation of the manganese germanate nanorods shows that the proper selection and combination of the growth conditions are the key factor for controlling the formation of the manganese germanate nanorods. The photoluminescence spectrum of the manganese germanate nanorods exhibits four fluorescence emission peaks centered at 422 nm, 472 nm, 487 nm and 530 nm showing the application potential for the optical devices. - Research Highlights: {yields} Manganese germanate nanorods have been synthesized by simple hydrothermal process. {yields} The formation of manganese germanate nanorods can be controlled by growth conditions. {yields} Manganese germanate nanorods exhibit good PL emission ability for optical device.

  14. Photoacoustic imaging of early inflammatory response using gold nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kang; Huang, Sheng-Wen; Ashkenazi, Shai; O'Donnell, Matthew; Agarwal, Ashish; Kotov, Nicholas A.; Denny, Michael F.; Kaplan, Mariana J.

    2007-05-01

    Gold nanorods have unusually strong absorption in near infrared, which can be utilized for an optical imaging with nanocolloids. The feasibility of photoacoustic imaging of inflammatory responses using bioconjugated gold nanorods is demonstrated. To target the stimulated cells, gold nanorods were conjugated to anti-intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) which binds to cell surfaces over expressing ICAM-1. A monolayer of stimulated endothelial cells labeled with bioconjugated gold nanorods was scanned using a high frequency transducer. Photoacoustic images differentiated inflamed cells from control cells and matched well with fluorescence images. This technology may permit identification of critical inflammation sites such as blood vessels.

  15. Production of SnO 2 nanorods by redox reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yingkai; Zheng, Chenglin; Wang, Wenzhong; Zhan, Yongjie; Wang, Guanghou

    2001-11-01

    SnO 2 nanorods were prepared by annealing precursor powders produced by mixing three kinds of inverse microemulsions (IμE). The microstructures of the resultant nanorods were studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAD). It has been found that the as-prepared materials have a rod-like shape with lengths of tens of micrometers and diameters of 30-200 nm under different conditions. We discussed the influences of temperature and surfactant on the formation of SnO 2 nanorods and the mechanism of the formation of SnO 2 nanorods.

  16. Crystal Structure Anisotropy Explains Anomalous Elastic Properties of Metal Nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goupalov, Serguei

    2014-03-01

    It is demonstrated that the frequency of the extensional vibrational mode of a nanorod made of an elastically anisotropic crystalline material deviates widely from the predictions of the theories based on the analysis of the long-wavelength limit. The dispersion relation for the fundamental extensional mode of a gold rod grown in the [ 100 ] direction is calculated and found to be in an excellent agreement with experimental data obtained from the transient optical absorption measurements on gold nanorods.[1] This explains an anomaly in the elastic properties of nanorods which was previously attributed to a 26% decrease in Young's modulus for nanorods compared to its bulk value.

  17. Tailored logistics: the next advantage.

    PubMed

    Fuller, J B; O'Conor, J; Rawlinson, R

    1993-01-01

    How many top executives have ever visited with managers who move materials from the factory to the store? How many still reduce the costs of logistics to the rent of warehouses and the fees charged by common carriers? To judge by hours of senior management attention, logistics problems do not rank high. But logistics have the potential to become the next governing element of strategy. Whether they know it or not, senior managers of every retail store and diversified manufacturing company compete in logistically distinct businesses. Customer needs vary, and companies can tailor their logistics systems to serve their customers better and more profitably. Companies do not create value for customers and sustainable advantage for themselves merely by offering varieties of goods. Rather, they offer goods in distinct ways. A particular can of Coca-Cola, for example, might be a can of Coca-Cola going to a vending machine, or a can of Coca-Cola that comes with billing services. There is a fortune buried in this distinction. The goal of logistics strategy is building distinct approaches to distinct groups of customers. The first step is organizing a cross-functional team to proceed through the following steps: segmenting customers according to purchase criteria, establishing different standards of service for different customer segments, tailoring logistics pipelines to support each segment, and creating economics of scale to determine which assets can be shared among various pipelines. The goal of establishing logistically distinct businesses is familiar: improved knowledge of customers and improved means of satisfying them.

  18. Tailored logistics: the next advantage.

    PubMed

    Fuller, J B; O'Conor, J; Rawlinson, R

    1993-01-01

    How many top executives have ever visited with managers who move materials from the factory to the store? How many still reduce the costs of logistics to the rent of warehouses and the fees charged by common carriers? To judge by hours of senior management attention, logistics problems do not rank high. But logistics have the potential to become the next governing element of strategy. Whether they know it or not, senior managers of every retail store and diversified manufacturing company compete in logistically distinct businesses. Customer needs vary, and companies can tailor their logistics systems to serve their customers better and more profitably. Companies do not create value for customers and sustainable advantage for themselves merely by offering varieties of goods. Rather, they offer goods in distinct ways. A particular can of Coca-Cola, for example, might be a can of Coca-Cola going to a vending machine, or a can of Coca-Cola that comes with billing services. There is a fortune buried in this distinction. The goal of logistics strategy is building distinct approaches to distinct groups of customers. The first step is organizing a cross-functional team to proceed through the following steps: segmenting customers according to purchase criteria, establishing different standards of service for different customer segments, tailoring logistics pipelines to support each segment, and creating economics of scale to determine which assets can be shared among various pipelines. The goal of establishing logistically distinct businesses is familiar: improved knowledge of customers and improved means of satisfying them. PMID:10126157

  19. Microfluidic System for Solution Array Based Bioassays

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, G M; Tok, J B; Pannu, S S; Rose, K A

    2006-02-10

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate new enabling technology for multiplex biodetection systems that are flexible, miniaturizable, highly automated, low cost, and high performance. It builds on prior successes at LLNL with particle-based solution arrays, such as those used in the Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) successfully field deployed to multiple locations nationwide. We report the development of a multiplex solution array immunoassay based upon engineered metallic nanorod particles. Nanobarcodes{reg_sign} particles are fabricated by sequential electrodeposition of dissimilar metals within porous alumina templates, yielding optically encoded striping patterns that can be read using standard laboratory microscope optics and PC-based image processing software. The addition of self-assembled monolayer (SAM) coatings and target-specific antibodies allows each encoded class of nanorod particles to be directed against a different antigen target. A prototype assay panel directed against bacterial, viral, and soluble protein targets demonstrates simultaneous detection at sensitivities comparable to state of the art immunoassays, with minimal cross-reactivity. Studies have been performed to characterize the colloidal properties (zeta potential) of the suspended nanorod particles as a function of pH, the ionic strength of the suspending solution, and surface functionalization state. Additional studies have produced means for the non-contact manipulation of the particles, including the insertion of magnetic nickel stripes within the encoding pattern, and control via externally applied electromagnetic fields. Using the results of these studies, the novel Nanobarcodes{reg_sign} based assay was implemented in a prototype automated system with the sample processing functions and optical readout performed on a microfluidic card. The unique physical properties of the nanorod particles enable the development of integrated microfluidic systems for

  20. The interlace of Bi2S3 nanowires with TiO2 nanorods: An effective strategy for high photoelectrochemical performance.

    PubMed

    Han, Minmin; Jia, Junhong

    2016-11-01

    A netlike heterostructure is constructed by interlacing the Bi2S3 nanowires with well-aligned TiO2 nanorod arrays via a facile and effective solvothermal method. The winding Bi2S3 nanowires with several hundred nanometers long and 20-30nm wide are distributed in the interspace of TiO2 nanorods and cross-linked with these nanorods reducing the isolation of nanorods. The photoelectrochemical characterizations show that in addition to the high stability in air without any encapsulation, the netlike heterostructure exhibits an enhanced photoelectrochemical performance compared with TiO2 nanorods and controlled Bi2S3/TiO2 nanoparticle structure. The dual roles of Bi2S3 nanowires (1) as sensitizer for the enlargement of photoresponse range and (2) as multiple electron transport channels facilitating the fast separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs are considered as key factors for the high energy conversion efficiency of 2.96%. This facile synthesis method offers an attractive strategy to further improve the photoelectrochemical performance of semiconductors and undoubtedly shows promising applications in solar conversion and storage devices.

  1. The interlace of Bi2S3 nanowires with TiO2 nanorods: An effective strategy for high photoelectrochemical performance.

    PubMed

    Han, Minmin; Jia, Junhong

    2016-11-01

    A netlike heterostructure is constructed by interlacing the Bi2S3 nanowires with well-aligned TiO2 nanorod arrays via a facile and effective solvothermal method. The winding Bi2S3 nanowires with several hundred nanometers long and 20-30nm wide are distributed in the interspace of TiO2 nanorods and cross-linked with these nanorods reducing the isolation of nanorods. The photoelectrochemical characterizations show that in addition to the high stability in air without any encapsulation, the netlike heterostructure exhibits an enhanced photoelectrochemical performance compared with TiO2 nanorods and controlled Bi2S3/TiO2 nanoparticle structure. The dual roles of Bi2S3 nanowires (1) as sensitizer for the enlargement of photoresponse range and (2) as multiple electron transport channels facilitating the fast separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs are considered as key factors for the high energy conversion efficiency of 2.96%. This facile synthesis method offers an attractive strategy to further improve the photoelectrochemical performance of semiconductors and undoubtedly shows promising applications in solar conversion and storage devices. PMID:27454032

  2. Spatially resolved photoresponse on individual ZnO nanorods: correlating morphology, defects and conductivity.

    PubMed

    Bandopadhyay, K; Mitra, J

    2016-01-01

    Electrically active native point defects have a significant impact on the optical and electrical properties of ZnO nanostructures. Control of defect distribution and a detailed understanding of their physical properties are central to designing ZnO in novel functional forms and architecture, which ultimately decides device performance. Defect control is primarily achieved by either engineering nanostructure morphology by tailoring growth techniques or doping. Here, we report conducting atomic force microscopy studies of spatially resolved photoresponse properties on ZnO nanorod surfaces. The photoresponse for super-band gap, ultraviolet excitations show a direct correlation between surface morphology and photoactivity localization. Additionally, the system exhibits significant photoresponse with sub-bandgap, green illumination; the signature energy associated with the deep level oxygen vacancy states. While the local current-voltage characteristics provide evidence of multiple transport processes and quantifies the photoresponse, the local time-resolved photoresponse data evidences large variations in response times (90 ms-50 s), across the surface of a nanorod. The spatially varied photoconductance and the range in temporal response display a complex interplay of morphology, defects and connectivity that brings about the true colour of these ZnO nanostructures. PMID:27334573

  3. Spatially resolved photoresponse on individual ZnO nanorods: correlating morphology, defects and conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandopadhyay, K.; Mitra, J.

    2016-06-01

    Electrically active native point defects have a significant impact on the optical and electrical properties of ZnO nanostructures. Control of defect distribution and a detailed understanding of their physical properties are central to designing ZnO in novel functional forms and architecture, which ultimately decides device performance. Defect control is primarily achieved by either engineering nanostructure morphology by tailoring growth techniques or doping. Here, we report conducting atomic force microscopy studies of spatially resolved photoresponse properties on ZnO nanorod surfaces. The photoresponse for super-band gap, ultraviolet excitations show a direct correlation between surface morphology and photoactivity localization. Additionally, the system exhibits significant photoresponse with sub-bandgap, green illumination; the signature energy associated with the deep level oxygen vacancy states. While the local current-voltage characteristics provide evidence of multiple transport processes and quantifies the photoresponse, the local time-resolved photoresponse data evidences large variations in response times (90 ms-50 s), across the surface of a nanorod. The spatially varied photoconductance and the range in temporal response display a complex interplay of morphology, defects and connectivity that brings about the true colour of these ZnO nanostructures.

  4. Spatially resolved photoresponse on individual ZnO nanorods: correlating morphology, defects and conductivity

    PubMed Central

    Bandopadhyay, K.; Mitra, J.

    2016-01-01

    Electrically active native point defects have a significant impact on the optical and electrical properties of ZnO nanostructures. Control of defect distribution and a detailed understanding of their physical properties are central to designing ZnO in novel functional forms and architecture, which ultimately decides device performance. Defect control is primarily achieved by either engineering nanostructure morphology by tailoring growth techniques or doping. Here, we report conducting atomic force microscopy studies of spatially resolved photoresponse properties on ZnO nanorod surfaces. The photoresponse for super-band gap, ultraviolet excitations show a direct correlation between surface morphology and photoactivity localization. Additionally, the system exhibits significant photoresponse with sub-bandgap, green illumination; the signature energy associated with the deep level oxygen vacancy states. While the local current-voltage characteristics provide evidence of multiple transport processes and quantifies the photoresponse, the local time-resolved photoresponse data evidences large variations in response times (90 ms–50 s), across the surface of a nanorod. The spatially varied photoconductance and the range in temporal response display a complex interplay of morphology, defects and connectivity that brings about the true colour of these ZnO nanostructures. PMID:27334573

  5. Ranges of applicability for the continuum beam model in the mechanics of carbon nanotubes and nanorods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harik, V. M.

    2001-01-01

    Limitations in the validity of the continuum beam model for carbon nanotubes (NTs) and nanorods are examined. Applicability of all assumptions used in the model is restricted by the two criteria for geometric parameters that characterize the structure of NTs. The key non-dimensional parameters that control the NT buckling behavior are derived via dimensional analysis of the nanomechanical problem. A mechanical law of geometric similitude for NT buckling is extended from continuum mechanics for different molecular structures. A model applicability map, where two classes of beam-like NTs are identified, is constructed for distinct ranges of non-dimensional parameters. Expressions for the critical buckling loads and strains are tailored for two classes of NTs and compared with the data provided by the molecular dynamics simulations. copyright 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cavity-Assisted Manipulation of Freely Rotating Silicon Nanorods in High Vacuum

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Optical control of nanoscale objects has recently developed into a thriving field of research with far-reaching promises for precision measurements, fundamental quantum physics and studies on single-particle thermodynamics. Here, we demonstrate the optical manipulation of silicon nanorods in high vacuum. Initially, we sculpture these particles into a silicon substrate with a tailored geometry to facilitate their launch into high vacuum by laser-induced mechanical cleavage. We manipulate and trace their center-of-mass and rotational motion through the interaction with an intense intracavity field. Our experiments show that the anisotropy of the nanorotors leads to optical forces that are three times stronger than on silicon nanospheres of the same mass. The optical torque experienced by the spinning rods will enable cooling of the rotational motion and torsional optomechanics in a dissipation-free environment. PMID:26167662

  7. Magnetic arrays

    DOEpatents

    Trumper, David L.; Kim, Won-jong; Williams, Mark E.

    1997-05-20

    Electromagnet arrays which can provide selected field patterns in either two or three dimensions, and in particular, which can provide single-sided field patterns in two or three dimensions. These features are achieved by providing arrays which have current densities that vary in the windings both parallel to the array and in the direction of array thickness.

  8. Magnetic arrays

    DOEpatents

    Trumper, D.L.; Kim, W.; Williams, M.E.

    1997-05-20

    Electromagnet arrays are disclosed which can provide selected field patterns in either two or three dimensions, and in particular, which can provide single-sided field patterns in two or three dimensions. These features are achieved by providing arrays which have current densities that vary in the windings both parallel to the array and in the direction of array thickness. 12 figs.

  9. Gold nanorod vaccine for respiratory syncytial virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, John W.; Thornburg, Natalie J.; Blum, David L.; Kuhn, Sam J.; Wright, David W.; Crowe, James E., Jr.

    2013-07-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of pneumonia and wheezing in infants and the elderly, but to date there is no licensed vaccine. We developed a gold nanorod construct that displayed the major protective antigen of the virus, the fusion protein (F). Nanorods conjugated to RSV F were formulated as a candidate vaccine preparation by covalent attachment of viral protein using a layer-by-layer approach. In vitro studies using ELISA, electron microscopy and circular dichroism revealed that conformation-dependent epitopes were maintained during conjugation, and transmission electron microscopy studies showed that a dispersed population of particles could be achieved. Human dendritic cells treated with the vaccine induced immune responses in primary human T cells. These results suggest that this vaccine approach may be a potent method for immunizing against viruses such as RSV with surface glycoproteins that are targets for the human immune response.

  10. Stability of crystal facets in gold nanorods.

    PubMed

    Katz-Boon, Hadas; Walsh, Michael; Dwyer, Christian; Mulvaney, Paul; Funston, Alison M; Etheridge, Joanne

    2015-03-11

    Metal nanocrystals can be grown in a variety of shapes through the modification of surface facet energies via surfactants. However, the surface facets are only a few atoms wide, making it extremely challenging to measure their geometries and energies. Here, we locate and count atoms in Au nanorods at successive time intervals using quantitative scanning transmission electron microscopy. This enables us to determine the atomic-level geometry and the relative stability of the facets and to expound their relationship to the overall three-dimensional nanocrystal shape and size. We reveal coexisting high- and low-index facets with comparable stability and dimensions and find the geometry of the nanorods is remarkably stable, despite significant atom movements. This information provides unique insights into the mechanisms that govern growth kinetics and nanocrystal morphology. PMID:25658226

  11. Nanorod structures for energy conversion applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teki, Ranganath

    The remarkable size-, surface-, and shape-dependence of physical, optical, and electronic properties of nanoscale materials make them compelling components of modern materials applications in a variety of fields. They are currently playing a key role in the development of alternate energy devices like fuel cells and solar cells as well as modern energy storage devices like lithium-ion batteries. Oblique angle deposition (OAD) is a technique which allows for fabrication of unique nanostructures, which cannot be grown by advanced lithographic techniques. OAD is a physical vapor deposition technique in which flux arrives at a large oblique incidence angle from the substrate normal. It is simple, fast, cheap, has high mass production capability and can generate unique two- and thee-dimensional nanostructures with large aspect ratio and controllable porosity, shape and symmetry. The fact that these structures can be integrated onto a substrate platform makes them practical for many realistic applications. We have tried to utilize nanorods grown by OAD in various key device applications of today's energy starved society. We first explained the enhanced photoemissive response of nanostructured topologies, which could result in the development of new photo-multiplier systems with dramatically improved performance. We optimized the growth of single crystalline ZnO nanorods and ITO nanorods by magnetron sputtering at low temperatures and explored their use as enhanced transparent conducting electrodes for polymeric photovoltaic cells. We studied various Pt nanorod based electrode architectures for proton exchange membrane fuel cells and showed that they give higher mass specific performance than conventional Pt-black electrodes. We demonstrated that nanostructured Si thin film based anodes are potentially better than conventional carbon based anodes and can lead to enhanced rechargeable Li-ion batteries with higher capacity.

  12. Nano-porous architecture of N-doped carbon nanorods grown on graphene to enable synergetic effects of supercapacitance.

    PubMed

    Fan, H S; Wang, H; Zhao, N; Xu, J; Pan, F

    2014-12-18

    A novel nano-porous 3D architecture of N-doped carbon nanorods arrays grown on the surface of graphene has been prepared by carbonizing polyaniline/graphene oxide (PANI-GO) composite with PANI nanorod arrays on both sides of GO nanosheets. The obtained carbon materials are entirely composed of regularly grown carbon nanorods on graphene with height of about 100 nm and width about 30 nm, showing porous property due to the decomposition of PANI chains. The morphology of PANI grown on GO at the different growth stages was investigated to demonstrate the mechanism of the finally hierarchical architecture formation. Due to its large specific surface area and incorporation of the nitrogen groups into the carbon matrix, the obtained 3D carbon material enhances the ionic transport and the super-capacitance by synergetic effect of both double-layer and faradaic capacitances. This study provides a controllable approach to fabricate hierarchical carbon material based on conducting polymers and graphene oxide with promising applications in the high-rate electrode material of supercapacitors.

  13. Nano-porous architecture of N-doped carbon nanorods grown on graphene to enable synergetic effects of supercapacitance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, H. S.; Wang, H.; Zhao, N.; Xu, J.; Pan, F.

    2014-12-01

    A novel nano-porous 3D architecture of N-doped carbon nanorods arrays grown on the surface of graphene has been prepared by carbonizing polyaniline/graphene oxide (PANI-GO) composite with PANI nanorod arrays on both sides of GO nanosheets. The obtained carbon materials are entirely composed of regularly grown carbon nanorods on graphene with height of about 100 nm and width about 30 nm, showing porous property due to the decomposition of PANI chains. The morphology of PANI grown on GO at the different growth stages was investigated to demonstrate the mechanism of the finally hierarchical architecture formation. Due to its large specific surface area and incorporation of the nitrogen groups into the carbon matrix, the obtained 3D carbon material enhances the ionic transport and the super-capacitance by synergetic effect of both double-layer and faradaic capacitances. This study provides a controllable approach to fabricate hierarchical carbon material based on conducting polymers and graphene oxide with promising applications in the high-rate electrode material of supercapacitors.

  14. Nano-porous architecture of N-doped carbon nanorods grown on graphene to enable synergetic effects of supercapacitance

    PubMed Central

    Fan, H. S.; Wang, H.; Zhao, N.; Xu, J.; Pan, F.

    2014-01-01

    A novel nano-porous 3D architecture of N-doped carbon nanorods arrays grown on the surface of graphene has been prepared by carbonizing polyaniline/graphene oxide (PANI-GO) composite with PANI nanorod arrays on both sides of GO nanosheets. The obtained carbon materials are entirely composed of regularly grown carbon nanorods on graphene with height of about 100 nm and width about 30 nm, showing porous property due to the decomposition of PANI chains. The morphology of PANI grown on GO at the different growth stages was investigated to demonstrate the mechanism of the finally hierarchical architecture formation. Due to its large specific surface area and incorporation of the nitrogen groups into the carbon matrix, the obtained 3D carbon material enhances the ionic transport and the super-capacitance by synergetic effect of both double-layer and faradaic capacitances. This study provides a controllable approach to fabricate hierarchical carbon material based on conducting polymers and graphene oxide with promising applications in the high-rate electrode material of supercapacitors. PMID:25519206

  15. Assessment of Anisotropic Semiconductor Nanorod and Nanoplatelet Heterostructures with Polarized Emission for Liquid Crystal Display Technology.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Patrick D; Souza, João B; Fedin, Igor; She, Chunxing; Lee, Byeongdu; Talapin, Dmitri V

    2016-06-28

    Semiconductor nanorods can emit linear-polarized light at efficiencies over 80%. Polarization of light in these systems, confirmed through single-rod spectroscopy, can be explained on the basis of the anisotropy of the transition dipole moment and dielectric confinement effects. Here we report emission polarization in macroscopic semiconductor-polymer composite films containing CdSe/CdS nanorods and colloidal CdSe nanoplatelets. Anisotropic nanocrystals dispersed in polymer films of poly butyl-co-isobutyl methacrylate (PBiBMA) can be stretched mechanically in order to obtain unidirectionally aligned arrays. A high degree of alignment, corresponding to an orientation factor of 0.87, was achieved and large areas demonstrated polarized emission, with the contrast ratio I∥/I⊥ = 5.6, making these films viable candidates for use in liquid crystal display (LCD) devices. To some surprise, we observed significant optical anisotropy and emission polarization for 2D CdSe nanoplatelets with the electronic structure of quantum wells. The aligned nanorod arrays serve as optical funnels, absorbing unpolarized light and re-emitting light from deep-green to red with quantum efficiencies over 90% and high degree of linear polarization. Our results conclusively demonstrate the benefits of anisotropic nanostructures for LCD backlighting. The polymer films with aligned CdSe/CdS dot-in-rod and rod-in-rod nanostructures show more than 2-fold enhancement of brightness compared to the emitter layers with randomly oriented nanostructures. This effect can be explained as the combination of linearly polarized luminescence and directional emission from individual nanostructures. PMID:27203222

  16. Zinc-oxide nanorod/copper-oxide thin-film heterojunction for a nitrogen-monoxide gas sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Hwansu; Kim, Hyojin; Kim, Dojin

    2014-11-01

    A novel p- n oxide heterojunction structure was fabricated by employing n-type zinc-oxide (ZnO) nanorods grown on an indium-tin-oxide-coated glass substrate by using the hydrothermal method and a p-type copper-oxide (CuO) thin film deposited onto the ZnO nanorod array by using the sputtering method. The crystallinities and microstructures of the heterojunction materials were examined by using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The observed current-voltage characteristics of the p - n oxide heterojunction showed a nonlinear diode-like rectifying behavior. The effects of an oxidizing or electron acceptor gas, such as nitrogen monoxide (NO), on the ZnO nanorod/CuO thin-film heterojunction were investigated to determine the potential applications of the fabricated material for use in gas sensors. The forward current of the p - n heterojunction was remarkably reduced when NO gas was introduced into dry air at temperatures from 100 to 250 °C. The NO gas response of the oxide heterojunction reached a maximum value at an operating temperature of 180 °C and linearly increased as the NO gas concentration was increased from 5 to 30 ppm. The sensitivity value was observed to be as high as 170% at 180 °C when biased at 2 V in the presence of 20-ppm NO. The ZnO nanorod/CuO thin-film heterojunction also exhibited a stable and repeatable response to NO gas. The experimental results suggest that the ZnO nanorod/CuO thin-film heterojunction structure may be a novel candidate for gas sensors.

  17. Void-containing materials with tailored Poisson's ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goussev, Olga A.; Richner, Peter; Rozman, Michael G.; Gusev, Andrei A.

    2000-10-01

    Assuming square, hexagonal, and random packed arrays of nonoverlapping identical parallel cylindrical voids dispersed in an aluminum matrix, we have calculated numerically the concentration dependence of the transverse Poisson's ratios. It was shown that the transverse Poisson's ratio of the hexagonal and random packed arrays approached 1 upon increasing the concentration of voids while the ratio of the square packed array along the principal continuation directions approached 0. Experimental measurements were carried out on rectangular aluminum bricks with identical cylindrical holes drilled in square and hexagonal packed arrays. Experimental results were in good agreement with numerical predictions. We then demonstrated, based on the numerical and experimental results, that by varying the spatial arrangement of the holes and their volume fraction, one can design and manufacture voided materials with a tailored Poisson's ratio between 0 and 1. In practice, those with a high Poisson's ratio, i.e., close to 1, can be used to amplify the lateral responses of the structures while those with a low one, i.e., close to 0, can largely attenuate the lateral responses and can therefore be used in situations where stringent lateral stability is needed.

  18. Attomolar DNA detection with chiral nanorod assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Wei; Kuang, Hua; Xu, Liguang; Ding, Li; Xu, Chuanlai; Wang, Libing; Kotov, Nicholas A.

    2013-10-01

    Nanoscale plasmonic assemblies display exceptionally strong chiral optical activity. So far, their structural design was primarily driven by challenges related to metamaterials whose practical applications are remote. Here we demonstrate that gold nanorods assembled by the polymerase chain reaction into DNA-bridged chiral systems have promising analytical applications. The chiroplasmonic activity of side-by-side assembled patterns is attributed to a 7-9 degree twist between the nanorod axes. This results in a strong polarization rotation that matches theoretical expectations. The amplitude of the bisignate ‘wave’ in the circular dichroism spectra of side-by-side assemblies demonstrates excellent linearity with the amount of target DNA. The limit of detection for DNA using side-by-side assemblies is as low as 3.7 aM. This chiroplasmonic method may be particularly useful for biological analytes larger than 2-5 nm which are difficult to detect by methods based on plasmon coupling and ‘hot spots’. Circular polarization increases for inter-nanorod gaps between 2 and 20 nm when plasmonic coupling rapidly decreases. Reaching the attomolar limit of detection for simple and reliable bioanalysis of oligonucleotides may have a crucial role in DNA biomarker detection for early diagnostics of different diseases, forensics and environmental monitoring.

  19. Aqueous chemical growth of free standing vertical ZnO nanoprisms, nanorods and nanodiskettes with improved texture co-efficient and tunable size uniformity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram, S. D. Gopal; Ravi, G.; Athimoolam, A.; Mahalingam, T.; Kulandainathan, M. Anbu

    2011-12-01

    Tuning the morphology, size and aspect ratio of free standing ZnO nanostructured arrays by a simple hydrothermal method is reported. Pre-coated ZnO seed layers of two different thicknesses (≈350 nm or 550 nm) were used as substrates to grow ZnO nanostructures for the study. Various parameters such as chemical ambience, pH of the solution, strength of the Zn2+ atoms and thickness of seed bed are varied to analyze their effects on the resultant ZnO nanostructures. Vertically oriented hexagonal nanorods, multi-angular nanorods, hexagonal diskette and popcorn-like nanostructures are obtained by altering the experimental parameters. All the produced nanostructures were analysed by X-ray powder diffraction analysis and found to be grown in the (002) orientation of wurtzite ZnO. The texture co-efficient of ZnO layer was improved by combining a thick seed layer with higher cationic strength. Surface morphological studies reveal various nanostructures such as nanorods, diskettes and popcorn-like structures based on various preparation conditions. The optical property of the closest packed nanorods array was recorded by UV-VIS spectrometry, and the band gap value simulated from the results reflect the near characteristic band gap of ZnO. The surface roughness profile taken from the Atomic Force Microscopy reveals a roughness of less than 320 nm.

  20. Propagation characteristics of silver nanorods based compact waveguides for plasmonic circuitry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillu, Venus; Shruti; Srivastava, Triranjita; Sinha, Ravindra Kumar

    2013-02-01

    We propose ultra-compact waveguides for plasmonic circuitry based on silver nanorods array embedded vertically into silicon on insulator (SOI) substrate for nanoscale guidance of optical frequencies. Silver nanorods array palisade silicon to form core of SOI waveguide and is theoretically modeled for the first time. Propagation characteristics of the structure are obtained using finite difference time domain (FDTD) computations, exposing bandgap in the visible regime for transverse magnetic modes and are verified by the plane wave expansion (PWE) method. Narrow transmission bandwidth of ∼10 nm with quality factor and confinement factor of 97.5% and 92% is achieved respectively, confirming strong confinement of the propagating mode at 633 nm and the losses calculated in decible per micrometer (dB/μm) for the waveguide is found to be .75 dB/μm for straight waveguide. Further, Y-splitter designed from the basis equally bifurcate power and the outputs received at the two ends are in phase yielding a viable 50-50 power splitter. Bend design routing light in nano-dimensions is also implemented successfully, offering components for high density plasmonic circuitry.

  1. 3D highly oriented nanoparticulate and microparticulate array ofmetal oxide materials

    SciTech Connect

    Vayssieres, Lionel; Guo, Jinghua; Nordgren, Joseph

    2006-09-15

    Advanced nano and micro particulate thin films of 3d transition and post-transition metal oxides consisting of nanorods and microrods with parallel and perpendicular orientation with respect to the substrate normal, have been successfully grown onto various substrates by heteronucleation, without template and/or surfactant, from the aqueous condensation of solution of metal salts or metal complexes (aqueous chemical growth). Three-dimensional arrays of iron oxide nanorods and zinc oxide nanorods with parallel and perpendicular orientation are presented as well as the oxygen K-edge polarization dependent x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) study of anisotropic perpendicularly oriented microrod array of ZnO performed at synchrotron radiation source facility.

  2. Memristive switching of ZnO nanorod mesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yevgeniy, Puzyrev; Shen, Xiao; Ni, Kai; Zhang, Xuan; Hachtel, Jordan; Choi, Bo; Chisholm, Matthew; Fleetwood, Daniel; Schrimpf, Ronald; Pantelides, Sokrates

    We present a combined experimental and theoretical study of memristive switching in a self-assembled mesh of ZnO nanorods. A ZnO nanorod mesh spans the area between Ag contacts in a device that exhibits hysteresis with large ON/OFF ratio, reaching ION/IOFF values of 104. We show that switching behavior depends critically on the geometry of the nanorod mesh. We employ density functional theory (DFT) calculations to deduce the mechanism for resistive switching for the nanorod mesh. Redistribution of Ag atoms, driven by an electrical field, leads to the formation and evolution of a conducting path through nanorods. Field-induced migration of Ag atoms changes the doping level of nanorods and modulates their conductivity. Using static DFT and nudged-elastic-band calculations, we investigate the energy of interaction between Ag clusters and a ZnO surface, including migration barriers of Ag atoms. Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics are modeled using percolation theory in a nanorod mesh. To describe the dynamics of SET/RESET phenomena, model parameters include the experimentally observed nanorod geometry and the energetics of Ag on ZnO surfaces, obtained from DFT calculations. This work was supported by NSF Grant DMR-1207241, DOE Grant DE-FG02-09ER46554, and the McMinn Endowment at Vanderbilt University. Computational support was provided by the NSF XSEDE under Grant #DMR TG-DMR130121.

  3. Optimal filling factor of nanorod lenses for subwavelength imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kosulnikov, Sergey Yu.; Yankovskaya, Elizaveta A.; Maslovski, Stanislav I.; Belov, Pavel A.; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2011-12-15

    We analyze the effect of the filling factor on the imaging performance of metallic nanorod lenses. We observe that thicker nanorods allow lower reflection in the canalization regime and we find optimal values of the filling factor to achieve a transfer function with the characteristics of a perfect lens in a wide range of spatial frequencies.

  4. Analysis of the growth process of gold nanorods with time-resolved observation.

    PubMed

    Takenaka, Yoshiko; Kitahata, Hiroyuki

    2009-08-01

    Gold nanorods are generated spontaneously in a surfactant solution. We developed an experimental setup where the growth of gold nanorods can be completely stopped at any instant. With this method, a time series of the growth process of gold nanorods was determined by the direct observation of nanorods with transmission electron microscopy. We estimated the growth rate of nanorods from the change in the average long-axis length over time. To understand the experimental results, we developed a mathematical model for the growth of nanorods. The present results should help to clarify the mechanism of the growth of gold nanorods. PMID:19792064

  5. Analysis of the growth process of gold nanorods with time-resolved observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takenaka, Yoshiko; Kitahata, Hiroyuki

    2009-08-01

    Gold nanorods are generated spontaneously in a surfactant solution. We developed an experimental setup where the growth of gold nanorods can be completely stopped at any instant. With this method, a time series of the growth process of gold nanorods was determined by the direct observation of nanorods with transmission electron microscopy. We estimated the growth rate of nanorods from the change in the average long-axis length over time. To understand the experimental results, we developed a mathematical model for the growth of nanorods. The present results should help to clarify the mechanism of the growth of gold nanorods.

  6. Synthesis and optical properties of gold nanorods with controllable morphology.

    PubMed

    Ye, Tianyu; Dai, Zhigao; Mei, Fei; Zhang, Xingang; Zhou, Yuanming; Xu, Jinxia; Wu, Wei; Xiao, Xiangheng; Jiang, Changzhong

    2016-11-01

    Searching for architectural building blocks with tunable morphology and peculiarity is a prominent challenge for novel diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Here, the aqueous-based seed-mediated methods for preparing highly mono-dispersed Au nanorods with a different aspect ratio are systematically studied by controlling the amounts of Ag ions and seeds. We also explore the effect of pH on the synthesis of gold nanorods. The realization of the overlap of longitudinal plasmon band and excitation source with different degrees is made by changing the aspect ratio of nanorod in order to determine its effect on the overall surface enhancement. In addition, the gold octahedra are prepared by overgrowth on Au nanorods. The SERS effects of Au nanorods are researched and the FDTD simulations are performed to reveal the morphology induced plasmon modes. PMID:27602883

  7. Selective release of multiple DNA oligonucleotides from gold nanorods.

    PubMed

    Wijaya, Andy; Schaffer, Stefan B; Pallares, Ivan G; Hamad-Schifferli, Kimberly

    2009-01-27

    Combination therapy, or the use of multiple drugs, has been proven to be effective for complex diseases, but the differences in chemical properties and pharmacokinetics can be challenging in terms of the loading, delivering, and releasing multiple drugs. Here we demonstrate that we can load and selectively release two different DNA oligonucleotides from two different gold nanorods. DNA was loaded on the nanorods via thiol conjugation. Selective releases were induced by selective melting of gold nanorods via ultrafast laser irradiation at the nanorods' longitudinal surface plasmon resonance peaks. Excitation at one wavelength could selectively melt one type of gold nanorods and selectively release one type of DNA strand. Releases were efficient (50-80%) and externally tunable by laser fluence. Released oligonucleotides were still functional. This proof of concept is potentially a powerful method for multiple-drug delivery strategies.

  8. Synthesis and optical properties of gold nanorods with controllable morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Tianyu; Dai, Zhigao; Mei, Fei; Zhang, Xingang; Zhou, Yuanming; Xu, Jinxia; Wu, Wei; Xiao, Xiangheng; Jiang, Changzhong

    2016-11-01

    Searching for architectural building blocks with tunable morphology and peculiarity is a prominent challenge for novel diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Here, the aqueous-based seed-mediated methods for preparing highly mono-dispersed Au nanorods with a different aspect ratio are systematically studied by controlling the amounts of Ag ions and seeds. We also explore the effect of pH on the synthesis of gold nanorods. The realization of the overlap of longitudinal plasmon band and excitation source with different degrees is made by changing the aspect ratio of nanorod in order to determine its effect on the overall surface enhancement. In addition, the gold octahedra are prepared by overgrowth on Au nanorods. The SERS effects of Au nanorods are researched and the FDTD simulations are performed to reveal the morphology induced plasmon modes.

  9. A simple method for the synthesis of silicon carbide nanorods.

    PubMed

    Kholmanov, I N; Kharlamov, A; Barborini, E; Lenardi, C; Li Bassi, A; Bottani, C E; Ducati, C; Maffi, S; Kirillova, N V; Milani, P

    2002-10-01

    SiC nanorods were synthesized by a reaction at a temperature of 1200 degrees C, under an argon gas atmosphere, from silicon and amorphous carbon powders mixed by ball milling. The reaction product, which contain SiC nanorods and nanoparticles, has been characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The synthesized nanorods are more than 1 micron long with a mean diameter of about 10-30 nm. The nanorods possess a well-defined crystalline structure with a thin layer of amorphous SiO2 on the surface. Raman shifts of SiC nanorods and the role of structural defects are discussed.

  10. Simulation of spectral properties of bundlelike gold nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozaki, Ryotaro; Nagao, Yoshiki; Kadowaki, Kazunori; Kuwahara, Yutaka

    2016-03-01

    Metal nanoparticles have become increasingly important in fields such as electronics, photonics, and biotechnology. In particular, anisotropic gold nanoparticles, such as gold nanorods, exhibit unique properties owing to their anisotropy. Optical properties of isolated gold nanorods and dimers of gold nanorods have been investigated from both experimental and theoretical points of view. We have reported a method for three-dimensional assembly of anisotropic gold nanoparticles by two-phase transfer in which the morphologies of the assemblies can be controlled by the aspect ratio of nanorods. In this study, we numerically calculate extinction spectra to investigate the plasmonic properties of bundlelike assemblies by the finite-element method. Their plasmonic properties depend on not only the three orthogonal directions but also the alignment of the nanorod assembly.

  11. Selective release of multiple DNA oligonucleotides from gold nanorods.

    PubMed

    Wijaya, Andy; Schaffer, Stefan B; Pallares, Ivan G; Hamad-Schifferli, Kimberly

    2009-01-27

    Combination therapy, or the use of multiple drugs, has been proven to be effective for complex diseases, but the differences in chemical properties and pharmacokinetics can be challenging in terms of the loading, delivering, and releasing multiple drugs. Here we demonstrate that we can load and selectively release two different DNA oligonucleotides from two different gold nanorods. DNA was loaded on the nanorods via thiol conjugation. Selective releases were induced by selective melting of gold nanorods via ultrafast laser irradiation at the nanorods' longitudinal surface plasmon resonance peaks. Excitation at one wavelength could selectively melt one type of gold nanorods and selectively release one type of DNA strand. Releases were efficient (50-80%) and externally tunable by laser fluence. Released oligonucleotides were still functional. This proof of concept is potentially a powerful method for multiple-drug delivery strategies. PMID:19206252

  12. Effect of precursor solution dark incubation on gold nanorods morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelrasoul, Gaser N.; Scotto, Marco; Cingolani, Roberto; Diaspro, Alberto; Athanassiou, Athanassia; Pignatelli, Francesca

    2012-12-01

    Gold nanorods were synthesized in an aqueous solution of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide via a combination of chemical reduction and UV photoirradiation. Gold ligand complexes, present in the stock solution, are initially reduced, by ascorbic acid as mild reducing agent. The gold ions nucleation and colloid growth proceeds then by subsequent UV irradiation of the so-obtained precursor solution. We present a systematic study of the effect of incubation of the precursor solution on the dispersion state and aspect ratio of the produced nanorods. Incubation of the precursor solution allows the synthesis of higher aspect ratio nanorods with narrower size distribution compared to those obtained without incubation. We propose a mechanism for the gold nanorods formation including two stages, a nucleation and a diffusive growth. This allows us to explain the synthesis improvement as a consequence of the increase in the size of the gold ligand complexes aggregates, leading to a decrease of the nanorods growth rate.

  13. Kokkos Array

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards Daniel Sunderland, Harold Carter

    2012-09-12

    The Kokkos Array library implements shared-memory array data structures and parallel task dispatch interfaces for data-parallel computational kernels that are performance-portable to multicore-CPU and manycore-accelerator (e.g., GPGPU) devices.

  14. Hybrid artificial pinning centers of elongated-nanorods and segmented-nanorods in YBa2Cu3O7 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horide, Tomoya; Sakamoto, Nobuhiro; Ichinose, Ataru; Otsubo, Koji; Kitamura, Takanori; Matsumoto, Kaname

    2016-10-01

    To control the anisotropy of critical current density (J c), hybrid artificial pinning centers (APCs) of elongated-nanorods and segmented-nanorods were incorporated into YBa2Cu3O7 films. The elongated-nanorods and segmented-nanorods were formed by fabricating multilayer films using YBa2Cu3O7+BaSnO3 targets with a different BaSnO3 content. According to the elastic calculation, the BaSnO3-free YBa2Cu3O7 regions between BaSnO3 segmented-nanorods were highly strained, resulting in their alignment along the c-axis. Pinning of the vortex kinks and straight vortices by the nanorod ends improved J c in a wide range around B//ab. The angular dependence of J c systematically varied with the multilayer structure of layer thickness and BSO content. J c depended on the layer thickness even with keeping the constant average BSO content, showing that the BaSnO3 distribution, as well as the average BaSnO3 content, affected the J c. The hybrid pinning effect of elongated-nanorods and nanorod ends improved the J c anisotropy although the effect was not so large in the present films. The control of strain and interface is expected to lead to further improvement of J c.

  15. Tailoring thermal interfaces with nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seshadri, Indira

    Thermal interfaces are key to ensure the reliable performance of many semiconductor, energy and electronic systems. High thermal conductivity (k), low elastic modulus (E) interface materials are required to dissipate heat and relieve thermo-mechanical stresses. The aim of this thesis is to develop compliant, high k nanocomposite materials for thermal interface applications utilizing nanostructured networks. Realizing high k nanocomposites is a challenge because of difficulties in incorporating high fractions of uniformly dispersed nanofillers and countering low filler-matrix interfacial conductance, while retaining a low elastic modulus. In this thesis, it is demonstrated that these issues are obviated by using < 5 volume % sub-10-nm cold welded gold nanowire fillers to obtain an unprecedented 30-fold increase in polydimethylsiloxane thermal conductivity that is 6-fold higher than previously reported nanocomposites at low nanofiller loadings and exceeds theoretical predictions. The nanowire diameter and aspect ratio are key to obtain cold-welded networks that enhance k at low filler fractions, while fostering low E. Along with high k, tailoring high thermal contact conductance G c is crucial for many applications. This thesis reveals a critical correlation between the rheological behavior of a high k gold-nanowire-filled polydimethylsiloxane nanocomposite and its thermal contact conductance with copper. At a critical filler fraction, an abrupt increase in the nanocomposite k is accompanied by a liquid-solid transition and a multifold decrease in Gc. These concurrent changes are attributed to nanowire percolation network formation and pre-cure polymer gelation that inhibits the formation of conformal void-free interfaces. These findings will be important for designing processing sequences to realize heterointerfaces with nanowire filled high k nanocomposite materials. Another important finding of this thesis is that nanowire networks can result in mechanical

  16. Fabrication and photoluminescence studies of porous ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Min Young; Kim, Min Su; Kim, Soaram; Leem, Jae-Young; Kim, Do Yeob; Kim, Sung-O.; Nam, Giwoong

    2012-07-01

    Zinc-oxide (ZnO) nanorods were grown using the hydrothermal method, and nanosized pores were formed on their surfaces by thermal annealing at 700 °C for 20 min under an argon atmosphere. The structural and the optical properties of the porous ZnO nanorods were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and temperature-dependent photoluminescence. The average diameter and density of the nanosized pores were 32 nm and 7 × 1010 cm-2, respectively. The crystal quality, stoichiometry, and optical properties of the porous ZnO nanorods were enhanced in comparison with those of the as-prepared ZnO nanorods. The activation energies for the exciton with increasing temperature in the as-prepared and the porous ZnO nanorods were 27.0 and 37.8 meV, respectively. At temperatures of 50 K < T < 125 K, the free exciton emission peak energy of the porous ZnO nanorods exhibited an anomalous behavior. The values of the fitting parameters in Varshni's empirical formula were α = 1 × 10-3 eV/K and β = 720 K for the as-prepared ZnO nanorods and α = 1 × 10-3 eV/K and β = 710 K for the porous ZnO nanorods. With increasing temperature, the exciton radiative lifetime of the porous ZnO nanorods exhibited an inverted S-shape while that of the as-prepared ZnO nanorods increased linearly.

  17. Systolic arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, W.R.; McCabe, A.P.H.; Vrquhart, R.B.

    1987-01-01

    Selected Contents of this book are: Efficient Systolic Arrays for the Solution of Toeplitz Systems, The Derivation and Utilization of Bit Level Systolic Array Architectures, an Efficient Systolic Array for Distance Computation Required in a Video-Codec Based Motion-Detection, On Realizations of Least-Squares Estimation and Kalman Filtering by Systolic Arrays, and Comparison of Systolic and SIMD Architectures for Computer Vision Computations.

  18. Nanocylinder arrays

    DOEpatents

    Tuominen, Mark; Schotter, Joerg; Thurn-Albrecht, Thomas; Russell, Thomas P.

    2009-08-11

    Pathways to rapid and reliable fabrication of nanocylinder arrays are provided. Simple methods are described for the production of well-ordered arrays of nanopores, nanowires, and other materials. This is accomplished by orienting copolymer films and removing a component from the film to produce nanopores, that in turn, can be filled with materials to produce the arrays. The resulting arrays can be used to produce nanoscale media, devices, and systems.

  19. Nanocylinder arrays

    DOEpatents

    Tuominen, Mark; Schotter, Joerg; Thurn-Albrecht, Thomas; Russell, Thomas P.

    2007-03-13

    Pathways to rapid and reliable fabrication of nanocylinder arrays are provided. Simple methods are described for the production of well-ordered arrays of nanopores, nanowires, and other materials. This is accomplished by orienting copolymer films and removing a component from the film to produce nanopores, that in turn, can be filled with materials to produce the arrays. The resulting arrays can be used to produce nanoscale media, devices, and systems.

  20. Component conversion from pure Au nanorods to multiblock Ag-Au-Ag nanorods assisted by Pt nanoframe templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sangji; Jang, Hee-Jeong; Jang, Ho Young; Kim, Seong Kyu; Park, Sungho

    2016-06-01

    We developed a new method for synthesizing multiblock Ag-Au-Ag nanorods using Pt nanoframes that had been deposited on the edges of Au nanorod seeds. As a function of Au etching time, the length of the Au nanorod decreased symmetrically starting from the two ends, leading to the formation of empty inner space at the ends. Subsequent reduction of Ag ions could be selectively performed in the inner space confined by Pt nanoframes and the resulting Ag-Au-Ag nanorods exhibited characteristic LSPR modes originating from each block component (in a transverse direction) and SPR coupling (in a longitudinal direction). The high quality of the resulting multiblock nanorods enabled observation of the longitudinal quadrupole mode that was induced by Ag-Au SPR coupling in a long axis. The mode exhibited high sensitivity in accordance with the change in the surrounding media, demonstrating great potential for sensor applications.We developed a new method for synthesizing multiblock Ag-Au-Ag nanorods using Pt nanoframes that had been deposited on the edges of Au nanorod seeds. As a function of Au etching time, the length of the Au nanorod decreased symmetrically starting from the two ends, leading to the formation of empty inner space at the ends. Subsequent reduction of Ag ions could be selectively performed in the inner space confined by Pt nanoframes and the resulting Ag-Au-Ag nanorods exhibited characteristic LSPR modes originating from each block component (in a transverse direction) and SPR coupling (in a longitudinal direction). The high quality of the resulting multiblock nanorods enabled observation of the longitudinal quadrupole mode that was induced by Ag-Au SPR coupling in a long axis. The mode exhibited high sensitivity in accordance with the change in the surrounding media, demonstrating great potential for sensor applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr03484e