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Sample records for nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces

  1. Superhydrophobic Behavior on Nano-structured Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeffer, Daniel

    2008-05-01

    Superhydrophobic behavior is observed in natural occurrences and has been thoroughly studied over the past few years. Water repellant properties on uniform arrays of vertically aligned nano-cones were investigated to determine the highest achievable contact angle (a measure of water drop repellency), which is measured from the reference plane on which the water drop sits to the tangent line of the point at which the drop makes contact with the reference plane. At low aspect ratios (height vs. width of the nano-cones), surface tension pulls the water into the nano-cone array, resulting in a wetted surface. Higher aspect ratios reverse the effect of the surface tension, resulting in a larger contact angle that causes water drops to roll off the surface. Fiber drawing, bundling, and redrawing are used to produce the structured array glass composite surface. Triple-drawn fibers are fused together, annealed, and sliced into thin wafers. The surface of the composite glass is etched to form nano-cones through a differential etching process and then coated with a fluorinated self-assembled monolayer (SAM). Cone aspect ratios can be varied through changes in the chemistry and concentration of the etching acid solution. Superhydrophobic behavior occurs at contact angles >150 and it is predicted and measured that optimal behavior is achieved when the aspect ratio is 4:1, which displays contact angles >=175 .

  2. Jumping-Droplet-Enhanced Condensation on Scalable Superhydrophobic Nanostructured Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Miljkovic, N; Enright, R; Nam, Y; Lopez, K; Dou, N; Sack, J; Wang, E

    2013-01-09

    When droplets coalesce on a superhydrophobic nanostructured surface, the resulting droplet can jump from the surface due to the release of excess surface energy. If designed properly, these superhydrophobic nanostructured surfaces can not only allow for easy droplet removal at micrometric length scales during condensation but also promise to enhance heat transfer performance. However, the rationale for the design of an ideal nanostructured surface as well as heat transfer experiments demonstrating the advantage of this jumping behavior are lacking. Here, we show that silanized copper oxide surfaces created via a simple fabrication method can achieve highly efficient jumping-droplet condensation heat transfer. We experimentally demonstrated a 25% higher overall heat flux and 30% higher condensation heat transfer coefficient compared to state-of-the-art hydrophobic condensing surfaces at low supersaturations (<1.12). This work not only shows significant condensation heat transfer enhancement but also promises a low cost and scalable approach to increase efficiency for applications such as atmospheric water harvesting and dehumidification. Furthermore, the results offer insights and an avenue to achieve high flux superhydrophobic condensation.

  3. Electric-field-enhanced condensation on superhydrophobic nanostructured surfaces.

    PubMed

    Miljkovic, Nenad; Preston, Daniel J; Enright, Ryan; Wang, Evelyn N

    2013-12-23

    When condensed droplets coalesce on a superhydrophobic nanostructured surface, the resulting droplet can jump due to the conversion of excess surface energy into kinetic energy. This phenomenon has been shown to enhance condensation heat transfer by up to 30% compared to state-of-the-art dropwise condensing surfaces. However, after the droplets jump away from the surface, the existence of the vapor flow toward the condensing surface increases the drag on the jumping droplets, which can lead to complete droplet reversal and return to the surface. This effect limits the possible heat transfer enhancement because larger droplets form upon droplet return to the surface, which impedes heat transfer until they can be either removed by jumping again or finally shedding via gravity. By characterizing individual droplet trajectories during condensation on superhydrophobic nanostructured copper oxide (CuO) surfaces, we show that this vapor flow entrainment dominates droplet motion for droplets smaller than R ≈ 30 μm at moderate heat fluxes (q″ > 2 W/cm(2)). Subsequently, we demonstrate electric-field-enhanced condensation, whereby an externally applied electric field prevents jumping droplet return. This concept leverages our recent insight that these droplets gain a net positive charge due to charge separation of the electric double layer at the hydrophobic coating. As a result, with scalable superhydrophobic CuO surfaces, we experimentally demonstrated a 50% higher overall condensation heat transfer coefficient compared to that on a jumping-droplet surface with no applied field for low supersaturations (<1.12). This work not only shows significant condensation heat transfer enhancement but also offers avenues for improving the performance of self-cleaning and anti-icing surfaces as well as thermal diodes.

  4. Superhydrophobic surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Evelyn N; McCarthy, Matthew; Enright, Ryan; Culver, James N; Gerasopoulos, Konstantinos; Ghodssi, Reza

    2015-03-24

    Surfaces having a hierarchical structure--having features of both microscale and nanoscale dimensions--can exhibit superhydrophobic properties and advantageous condensation and heat transfer properties. The hierarchical surfaces can be fabricated using biological nanostructures, such as viruses as a self-assembled nanoscale template.

  5. Biomimetic polymeric superhydrophobic surfaces and nanostructures: from fabrication to applications.

    PubMed

    Wen, Gang; Guo, ZhiGuang; Liu, Weimin

    2017-03-09

    Numerous research studies have contributed to the development of mature superhydrophobic systems. The fabrication and applications of polymeric superhydrophobic surfaces have been discussed and these have attracted tremendous attention over the past few years due to their excellent properties. In general, roughness and chemical composition, the two most crucial factors with respect to surface wetting, provide the basic criteria for yielding polymeric superhydrophobic materials. Furthermore, with their unique properties and flexible configurations, polymers have been one of the most efficient materials for fabricating superhydrophobic materials. This review aims to summarize the most recent progress in polymeric superhydrophobic surfaces. Significantly, the fundamental theories for designing these materials will be presented, and the original methods will be introduced, followed by a summary of multifunctional superhydrophobic polymers and their applications. The principles of these methods can be divided into two categories: the first involves adding nanoparticles to a low surface energy polymer, and the other involves combining a low surface energy material with a textured surface, followed by chemical modification. Notably, surface-initiated radical polymerization is a versatile method for a variety of vinyl monomers, resulting in controlled molecular weights and low polydispersities. The surfaces produced by these methods not only possess superhydrophobicity but also have many applications, such as self-cleaning, self-healing, anti-icing, anti-bioadhesion, oil-water separation, and even superamphiphobic surfaces. Interestingly, the combination of responsive materials and roughness enhances the responsiveness, which allows the achievement of intelligent transformation between superhydrophobicity and superhydrophilicity. Nevertheless, surfaces with poor physical and chemical properties are generally unable to withstand the severe conditions of the outside world

  6. Fabrication of surface micro- and nanostructures for superhydrophobic surfaces in electric and electronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiu, Yonghao

    In our study, the superhydrophobic surface based on biomimetic lotus leave is explored to maintain the desired properties for self-cleaning. Parameters in controlling bead-up and roll-off characteristics of water droplets were investigated on different model surfaces. The governing equations were proposed. Heuristic study is performed. First, the fundamental understanding of the effect of roughness on superhydrophobicity is performed. The effect of hierarchical roughness, i.e., two scale roughness effect on roughness is investigated using systems of (1) monodisperse colloidal silica sphere (submicron) arrays and Au nanoparticle on top and (2) Si micrometer pyramids and Si nanostructures on top from KOH etching and metal assisted etching of Si. The relation between the contact area fraction and water droplet contact angles are derived based on Wenzel and Cassie-Baxter equation for the systems and the two scale effect is explained regarding the synergistic combination of two scales. Previously the microscopic three-phase-contact line is thought to be the key factor in determining contact angles and hystereses. In our study, Laplace pressure was brought up and related to the three-phase-contact line and taken as a key figure of merit in determining superhydrophobicity. In addition, we are one of the first to study the effect of tapered structures (wall inclination). Combining with a second scale roughness on the tapered structures, stable Cassie state for both water and low surface energy oil may be achieved. This is of great significance for designing both superhydrophobicity and superoleophobicity. Regarding the origin of contact angle hysteresis, study of superhydrophobicity on micrometer Si pillars was performed. The relation between the interface work of function and contact angle hysteresis was proposed and derived mathematically based on the Young-Dupre equation. The three-phase-contact line was further related to a secondary scale roughness induced. Based on

  7. Droplet evaporation of pure water and protein solution on nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces of varying heights.

    PubMed

    Choi, Chang-Hwan; Kim, Chang-Jin C J

    2009-07-07

    Evaporation of liquids on substrates is important for many applications including lab-on-a-chip, especially when they are in droplets. Unlike on planar substrates, droplet evaporation on micropatterned substrates has been studied only recently and none so far on nanopatterns. Driven by the applicability of nanostructured surfaces to biomaterials and tissue engineering, we report on the evaporative process of sessile droplets of pure water and a protein solution on superhydrophobic surfaces of sharp-tip post structures in a submicrometer pitch (230 nm) and varying heights (100-500 nm). We find that the nanotopographical three-dimensionalities such as structural height and sidewall profile affect the surface superhydrophobicity in such a way that only tall and slender nanostructures provide the surface with great superhydrophobicity (a contact angle more than 170 degrees). The evaporation process was different between the pure water and the protein solution; unlike pure water, a significant contact-line spreading and pinning effect was observed in a droplet of a protein solution with an intermediate transition from a dewetting (Cassie) to a wetting (Wenzel) state. Enabled by well-defined nanostructures, our results highlight that the surface superhydrophobicity and the droplet evaporation are significantly affected by the three-dimensional nanometric topography and the surface fouling such as protein adsorption.

  8. Superhydrophobicity on nanostructured porous hydrophilic material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Hong-Ren; Chan, Deng-Chi

    2016-04-01

    By applying laser oxidation, ablation, and plasma treatment to modify a surface of polydimethylsiloxane, we show that creating hydrophobic sites on an originally superhydrophilic nanostructured porous surface greatly changes the wetting properties of the surface. The modified surface may even become superhydrophobic while the ratio of added hydrophobic site to the surface is relatively low. The relation between the contact angles and the effect of hydrophobic sites is further tested in blade scraping method and a similar result is also obtained. This method to achieve superhydrophobicity on the hydrophilic nanostructured porous material may open possibilities for achieving superhydrophobicity and enable functional superhydrophobic surfaces with heterogeneous components.

  9. Dropwise condensation on superhydrophobic nanostructured surfaces: literature review and experimental analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisetto, A.; Torresin, D.; Tiwari, M. K.; Del, D., Col; Poulikakos, D.

    2014-04-01

    It is well established that the dropwise condensation (DWC) mode can lead up to significant enhancement in heat transfer coefficients as compared to the filmwise mode (FWC). Typically, hydrophobic surfaces are expected to promote DWC, while hydrophilic ones induce FWC. To this end, superhydrophobic surfaces, where a combination of low surface energy and surface texturing is used to enhance the hydrophobicity, have recently been proposed as a promising approach to promote dropwise condensation. An attractive feature of using superhydrophobic surfaces is to facilitate easy roll-off of the droplets as they form during condensation, thus leading to a significant improvement in the heat transfer associated with the condensation process. High droplet mobility can be obtained acting on the surface chemistry, decreasing the surface energy, and on the surface structure, obtaining a micro- or nano- superficial roughness. The first part of this paper will present a literature review of the most relevant works about DWC on superhydrophobic nanotextured substrates, with particular attention on the fabrication processes. In the second part, experimental data about DWC on superhydrophobic nanotextured samples will be analyzed. Particular attention will be paid to the effect of vapour velocity on the heat transfer. Results clearly highlight the excellent potential of nanostructured surfaces for application in flow condensation applications. However, they highlight the need to perform flow condensation experiments at realistic high temperature and saturation conditions in order to evaluate the efficacy of superhydrophobic surfaces for practically relevant pure vapor condensation applications.

  10. Cassie-State Stability of Metallic Superhydrophobic Surfaces with Various Micro/Nanostructures Produced by a Femtosecond Laser.

    PubMed

    Long, Jiangyou; Pan, Lin; Fan, Peixun; Gong, Dingwei; Jiang, Dafa; Zhang, Hongjun; Li, Lin; Zhong, Minlin

    2016-02-02

    The Cassie-state stability plays a vital role in the applications of metallic superhydrophobic surfaces. Although a large number of papers have reported the superhydrophobic performance of various surface micro/nanostructures, the knowledge of which kind of micro/nanostructure contributes significantly to the Cassie-state stability especially under low temperature and pressure is still very limited. In this article, we fabricated six kinds of typical micro/nanostructures with different topography features on metal surfaces by a femtosecond laser, and these surfaces were modified by fluoroalkylsilane to generate superhydrophobicity. We then systematically studied the Cassie-state stability of these surfaces by means of condensation and evaporation experiments. The results show that some superhydrophobic surfaces, even with high contact angles and low sliding angles under normal conditions, are unstable under low temperature or external pressure. The Cassie state readily transits to a metastable state or even a Wenzel state under these conditions, which deteriorates their superhydrophobicity. Among the six micro/nanostructures, the densely distributed nanoscale structure is important for a stable Cassie state, and the closely packed micrometer-scale structure can further improve the stability. The dependence of the Cassie-state stability on the fabricated micro/nanostructures and the laser-processing parameters is also discussed. This article clarifies optimized micro/nanostructures for stable and thus more practical metallic superhydrophobic surfaces.

  11. Optically transparent, mechanically durable, nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces enabled by spinodally phase-separated glass thin films.

    PubMed

    Aytug, Tolga; Simpson, John T; Lupini, Andrew R; Trejo, Rosa M; Jellison, Gerald E; Ivanov, Ilia N; Pennycook, Stephen J; Hillesheim, Daniel A; Winter, Kyle O; Christen, David K; Hunter, Scott R; Haynes, J Allen

    2013-08-09

    We describe the formation and properties of atomically bonded, optical quality, nanostructured thin glass film coatings on glass plates, utilizing phase separation by spinodal decomposition in a sodium borosilicate glass system. Following deposition via magnetron sputtering, thermal processing and differential etching, these coatings are structurally superhydrophilic (i.e., display anti-fogging functionality) and demonstrate robust mechanical properties and superior abrasion resistance. After appropriate chemical surface modification, the surfaces display a stable, non-wetting Cassie-Baxter state and exhibit exceptional superhydrophobic performance, with water droplet contact angles as large as 172°. As an added benefit, in both superhydrophobic and superhydrophilic states these nanostructured surfaces can block ultraviolet radiation and can be engineered to be anti-reflective with broadband and omnidirectional transparency. Thus, the present approach could be tailored toward distinct coatings for numerous markets, such as residential windows, windshields, specialty optics, goggles, electronic and photovoltaic cover glasses, and optical components used throughout the US military.

  12. Nanostructured Superhydrophobic Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    2009-03-01

    This factsheet describes a research project that deals with the nanostructured superhydrophobic (SH) powders developed at ORNL. This project seeks to (1) improve powder quality; (2) identify binders for plastics, fiberglass, metal (steel being the first priority), wood, and other products such as rubber and shingles; (3) test the coated product for coating quality and durability under operating conditions; and (4) application testing and production of powders in quantity.

  13. Microscopic droplet formation and energy transport analysis of condensation on scalable superhydrophobic nanostructured copper oxide surfaces.

    PubMed

    Li, GuanQiu; Alhosani, Mohamed H; Yuan, ShaoJun; Liu, HaoRan; Ghaferi, Amal Al; Zhang, TieJun

    2014-12-09

    Utilization of nanotechnologies in condensation has been recognized as one opportunity to improve the efficiency of large-scale thermal power and desalination systems. High-performance and stable dropwise condensation in widely-used copper heat exchangers is appealing for energy and water industries. In this work, a scalable and low-cost nanofabrication approach was developed to fabricate superhydrophobic copper oxide (CuO) nanoneedle surfaces to promote dropwise condensation and even jumping-droplet condensation. By conducting systematic surface characterization and in situ environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) condensation experiments, we were able to probe the microscopic formation physics of droplets on irregular nanostructured surfaces. At the early stages of condensation process, the interfacial surface tensions at the edge of CuO nanoneedles were found to influence both the local energy barriers for microdroplet growth and the advancing contact angles when droplets undergo depinning. Local surface roughness also has a significant impact on the volume of the condensate within the nanostructures and overall heat transfer from the vapor to substrate. Both our theoretical analysis and in situ ESEM experiments have revealed that the liquid condensate within the nanostructures determines the amount of the work of adhesion and kinetic energy associated with droplet coalescence and jumping. Local and global droplet growth models were also proposed to predict how the microdroplet morphology within nanostructures affects the heat transfer performance of early-stage condensation. Our quantitative analysis of microdroplet formation and growth within irregular nanostructures provides the insight to guide the anodization-based nanofabrication for enhancing dropwise and jumping-droplet condensation performance.

  14. Multiscale effect of hierarchical self-assembled nanostructures on superhydrophobic surface.

    PubMed

    Passoni, Luca; Bonvini, Giacomo; Luzio, Alessandro; Facibeni, Anna; Bottani, Carlo E; Di Fonzo, Fabio

    2014-11-18

    In this work, we describe self-assembled surfaces with a peculiar multiscale organization, from the nanoscale to the microscale, exhibiting the Cassie-Baxter wetting regime with extremely low water adhesion: floating drops regime with roll-off angles < 5°. These surfaces comprise bundles of hierarchical, quasi-one-dimensional (1D) TiO2 nanostructures functionalized with a fluorinated molecule (PFNA). While the hierarchical nanostructures are the result of a gas-phase self-assembly process, their bundles are the result of the capillary forces acting between them when the PFNA solvent evaporates. Nanometric features are found to influence the hydrophobic behavior of the surface, which is enhanced by the micrometric structures up to the achievement of the superhydrophobic Cassie-Baxter state (contact angle (CA) ≫ 150°). Thanks to their high total and diffuse transmittance and their self-cleaning properties, these surfaces could be interesting for several applications such as smart windows and photovoltaics where light management and surface cleanliness play a crucial role. Moreover, the multiscale analysis performed in this work contributes to the understanding of the basic mechanisms behind extreme wetting behaviors.

  15. Superhydrophobic (low adhesion) and parahydrophobic (high adhesion) surfaces with micro/nanostructures or nanofilaments.

    PubMed

    Diouf, Alioune; Darmanin, Thierry; Dieng, Samba Yandé; Guittard, Frédéric

    2015-09-01

    Controlling the water adhesion is extremely important for various applications such as for water harvesting. Here, superhydrophobic (low adhesion) and parahydrophobic (high adhesion) substrates are both obtained from hydrophilic polymers. We show in the work that a judicious choice in the monomer structure used for electropolymerization can lead to these two properties. Using a phenyl group, parahydrophobic properties are reached due to the formation of nanofilaments. By contrast, using a naphthalene or a biphenyl group, superhydrophobic properties are obtained due the formation of both micro- and nanostructures.

  16. A Thermochromic Superhydrophobic Surface.

    PubMed

    Cataldi, Pietro; Bayer, Ilker S; Cingolani, Roberto; Marras, Sergio; Chellali, Ryad; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2016-06-15

    Highly enhanced solid-state thermochromism is observed in regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene), P3HT, when deposited on a superhydrophobic polymer-SiO2 nanocomposite coating. The conformal P3HT coating on the nanocomposite surface does not alter or reduce superhydrophicity while maintaining its reversible enhanced thermochromism. The polymeric matrix of the superhydrophobic surface is comprised of a blend of poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) copolymer and an acrylic adhesive. Based on detailed X-ray diffraction measurements, this long-lasting, repeatable and hysteresis-free thermochromic effect is attributed to the enhancement of the Bragg peak associated with the d-spacing of interchain directional packing (100) which remains unaltered during several heating-cooling cycles. We propose that the superhydrophobic surface confines π-π interchain stacking in P3HT with uniform d-spacing into its nanostructured texture resulting in better packing and reduction in face-on orientation. The rapid response of the system to sudden temperature changes is also demonstrated by water droplet impact and bounce back on heated surfaces. This effect can be exploited for embedded thin film temperature sensors for metal coatings.

  17. A Thermochromic Superhydrophobic Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cataldi, Pietro; Bayer, Ilker S.; Cingolani, Roberto; Marras, Sergio; Chellali, Ryad; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2016-06-01

    Highly enhanced solid-state thermochromism is observed in regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene), P3HT, when deposited on a superhydrophobic polymer-SiO2 nanocomposite coating. The conformal P3HT coating on the nanocomposite surface does not alter or reduce superhydrophicity while maintaining its reversible enhanced thermochromism. The polymeric matrix of the superhydrophobic surface is comprised of a blend of poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) copolymer and an acrylic adhesive. Based on detailed X-ray diffraction measurements, this long-lasting, repeatable and hysteresis-free thermochromic effect is attributed to the enhancement of the Bragg peak associated with the d-spacing of interchain directional packing (100) which remains unaltered during several heating-cooling cycles. We propose that the superhydrophobic surface confines π–π interchain stacking in P3HT with uniform d-spacing into its nanostructured texture resulting in better packing and reduction in face-on orientation. The rapid response of the system to sudden temperature changes is also demonstrated by water droplet impact and bounce back on heated surfaces. This effect can be exploited for embedded thin film temperature sensors for metal coatings.

  18. A Thermochromic Superhydrophobic Surface

    PubMed Central

    Cataldi, Pietro; Bayer, Ilker S.; Cingolani, Roberto; Marras, Sergio; Chellali, Ryad; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2016-01-01

    Highly enhanced solid-state thermochromism is observed in regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene), P3HT, when deposited on a superhydrophobic polymer-SiO2 nanocomposite coating. The conformal P3HT coating on the nanocomposite surface does not alter or reduce superhydrophicity while maintaining its reversible enhanced thermochromism. The polymeric matrix of the superhydrophobic surface is comprised of a blend of poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) copolymer and an acrylic adhesive. Based on detailed X-ray diffraction measurements, this long-lasting, repeatable and hysteresis-free thermochromic effect is attributed to the enhancement of the Bragg peak associated with the d-spacing of interchain directional packing (100) which remains unaltered during several heating-cooling cycles. We propose that the superhydrophobic surface confines π–π interchain stacking in P3HT with uniform d-spacing into its nanostructured texture resulting in better packing and reduction in face-on orientation. The rapid response of the system to sudden temperature changes is also demonstrated by water droplet impact and bounce back on heated surfaces. This effect can be exploited for embedded thin film temperature sensors for metal coatings. PMID:27301422

  19. Heat Transfer through a Condensate Droplet on Hydrophobic and Nanostructured Superhydrophobic Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Chavan, Shreyas; Cha, Hyeongyun; Orejon, Daniel; Nawaz, Kashif; Singla, Nitish; Yeung, Yip Fun; Park, Deokgeun; Kang, Dong Hoon; Chang, Yujin; Takata, Yasuyuki; Miljkovic, Nenad

    2016-08-09

    Understanding the fundamental mechanisms governing vapor condensation on nonwetting surfaces is crucial to a wide range of energy and water applications. In this paper, we reconcile classical droplet growth modeling barriers by utilizing two-dimensional axisymmetric numerical simulations to study individual droplet heat transfer on nonwetting surfaces (90° < θa < 170°). Incorporation of an appropriate convective boundary condition at the liquid-vapor interface reveals that the majority of heat transfer occurs at the three phase contact line, where the local heat flux can be up to 4 orders of magnitude higher than at the droplet top. Droplet distribution theory is incorporated to show that previous modeling approaches underpredict the overall heat transfer by as much as 300% for dropwise and jumping-droplet condensation. To verify our simulation results, we study condensed water droplet growth using optical and environmental scanning electron microscopy on biphilic samples consisting of hydrophobic and nanostructured superhydrophobic regions, showing excellent agreement with the simulations for both constant base area and constant contact angle growth regimes. Our results demonstrate the importance of resolving local heat transfer effects for the fundamental understanding and high fidelity modeling of phase change heat transfer on nonwetting surfaces.

  20. Self-Organization of Microscale Condensate for Delayed Flooding of Nanostructured Superhydrophobic Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Ölçeroğlu, Emre; McCarthy, Matthew

    2016-03-02

    Superhydrophobic surfaces enhance condensation by inhibiting the formation of an insulating liquid layer. While this produces efficient heat transfer at low supersaturations, superhydrophobicity has been shown to break down at increased supersaturations. As heat transfer increases, the random distribution and high density of nucleation sites produces pinned droplets, which lead to uncontrollable flooding. In this work, engineered variations in wettability are used to promote the self-organization of microscale droplets, which is shown to effectively delay flooding. Virus-templated superhydrophobic surfaces are patterned with an array of superhydrophilic islands designed to minimize surface adhesion while promoting spatial order. By use of optical and electron microscopy, the surfaces are optimized and characterized during condensation. Mixed wettability imparts spatial order not only through preferential nucleation but more importantly through the self-organization of coalescing droplets at high supersaturations. The self-organization of microscale droplets (diameters of <25 μm) is shown to effectively delay flooding and govern the global wetting behavior of larger droplets (diameters of >1 mm) on the surface. As heat transfer increases, the surfaces transition from jumping-mode to shedding-mode removal with no flooding. This demonstrates the ability to engineer surfaces to resist flooding and can act as the basis for developing robust superhydrophobic surfaces for condensation applications.

  1. Fabrication of tunable superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiu, Jau-Ye; Kuo, Chun-Wen; Chen, Peilin

    2004-02-01

    Inspired by the water-repellent behavior of the micro- and nano-structured plant surfaces, superhydrophobic materials, with a water contact larger than 150 degree, have received a lot of research attentions recently. It has been suggested that contamination, oxidation and current conduction can be inhibited on such superhydrophobic surfaces, and the flow resistance in the microfluidic channels can also be reduced using super water-repellent materials. In order to prepare superhydrophobic materials, we have developed two simple approaches for fabricating tunable superhydrophobic surfaces using nanosphere lithography and plasma etching. In the first case, the polystyrene nanospheres were employed to create well-ordered rough surfaces covered by gold and alkylthiols. Using oxygen plasma treatment, the topmost surface area can be modified systematically, as the result the water contact angle on such surfaces can be tuned from 132 to 170 degree. The water contact angles measured on these surfaces can be modeled by the Cassie"s formulation without any adjustable parameter. In the second approach, thin films of Teflon were spin-coated on the substrate surfaces and treated by oxygen plasma. Superhydrophobic surfaces with water contact angle up to 170 degree were obtained by this approach. If the ITO glasses were used as the substrates, the hydrophobicity of the surface can be tuned by applying DC voltage. Water contact angle can be adjusted from 158 degree to 38 degree.

  2. Optically transparent, mechanically durable, nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces enabled by spinodally phase-separated glass thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Aytug, Tolga; Simpson, John T.; Lupini, Andrew R.; Trejo, Rosa M.; Jellison, Gerald E.; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Hillesheim, Daniel A.; Winter, Kyle O.; Christen, David K.; Hunter, Scott R.; Allen Haynes, J.

    2013-07-15

    Inspired by highly non-wetting natural biological surfaces (e.g., lotus leaves and water strider legs), artificial superhydrophobic surfaces that exhibit water droplet contact angles exceeding 150o have previously been constructed by utilizing various synthesis strategies.[ , , ] Such bio-inspired, water-repellent surfaces offer significant potential for numerous uses ranging from marine applications (e.g., anti-biofouling, anti-corrosion), anti-condensation (e.g., anti-icing, anti-fogging), membranes for selective separation (e.g., oil-water, gas-liquid), microfluidic systems, surfaces requiring reduced maintenance and cleaning, to applications involving glasses and optical materials.[ ] In addition to superhydrophobic attributes, for integration into device systems that have extended operational limits and overall improved performance, surfaces that also possess multifunctional characteristics are desired, where the functionality should match to the application-specific requirements.

  3. Superhydrophobic surface of TiO2 hierarchical nanostructures fabricated by Ti anodization.

    PubMed

    Dong, Junye; Ouyang, Xin; Han, Jie; Qiu, Wei; Gao, Wei

    2014-04-15

    A hierarchical structure of TiO2 with disordered nanowires on top of regular nanotubes was fabricated. With organic monolayers, it showed stronger superhydrophobic properties than regular nanotubes. The surface roughness was further enhanced by removing the dense nanowires layer, resulting in 172° water contact angle. The potential application for aquatic devices was explored by the treated Ti mesh which showed striking floating stability.

  4. Developing superhydrophobic and oleophobic nanostructure by a facile chemical transformation of zirconium hydroxide surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Arundhati; Malik, Satya Narayan; Bahadur, D.

    2016-02-01

    Stable hydro/oleo-phobic and superhydrophobic nanopowders, useful for self-cleaning applications, are synthesized at room temperature by modifying Zr(OH)4·nH2O with a very low surface-energy molecule-1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorododecyltrichlorosilane whose long chain {sbnd (CH2)2(CF2)9CF3 moiety (PFD)} serves as surface-protrusion. The PFD-content is varied over 3.6-18.7 wt% in optimizing a hydrophilic to hydro/oleo-phobic or even to superhydrophobic transformation. Two halos in the X-ray diffraction pattern of amorphous Zr(OH)4·nH2O are accompanied by a peak at 2θ = 18.0° which grows in intensity progressively as the PFD-content increases from 5.2 to 18.7 wt%. The peak corresponds to sbnd CF2sbnd CF2sbnd crystalline order (10-20 nm) at the PFD-functionalized surface. The microstructure shows Zr(OH)4·nH2O as a cloud-like phase, bonded to plate-like sheaths (PFD moiety). The Csbnd F stretching bands at 1150 and 1210 cm-1 grow in intensity relative to that of Osbnd H stretching at 3460 cm-1 in proportion to the PFD-content. An 18.7 wt% PFD-functionalized sample exhibits a high contact angle CA = 153° for water (contact angle hysteresis = 4° and roll-off angle <4°), together with CA = 132° for glycerol, CA = 130° for diethylene glycol, and CA = 113° for n-hexadecane, supporting good superhydrophobicity and oleophobicity. Surface-energy reduction due to PFD moiety together with an optimal spacing between the surface-protrusions explains the water/organic liquid repellency.

  5. Recent advances in designing superhydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Celia, Elena; Darmanin, Thierry; Taffin de Givenchy, Elisabeth; Amigoni, Sonia; Guittard, Frédéric

    2013-07-15

    The interest in superhydrophobic surfaces has grown exponentially over recent decades. Since the lotus leaf dual hierarchical structure was discovered, researchers have investigated the foundations of self-cleaning behavior. Generally, surface micro/nanostructuring combined with low surface energy of materials leads to extreme anti-wetting properties. The great number of papers on this subject attests the efforts of scientists in mimicking nature to generate superhydrophobicity. Besides the thirst for knowledge, scientists have been driven by the many possible industrial applications of superhydrophobic materials in several fields. Many methods and techniques have been developed to fabricate superhydrophobic surfaces, and the aim of this paper is to review the recent progresses in preparing manmade superhydrophobic surfaces.

  6. Modification of nanostructured fused silica for use as superhydrophobic, IR-transmissive, anti-reflective surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Darryl A.; Frantz, Jesse A.; Bayya, Shyam S.; Busse, Lynda E.; Kim, Woohong; Aggarwal, Ishwar; Poutous, Menelaos; Sanghera, Jasbinder S.

    2016-04-01

    In order to mimic and enhance the properties of moth eye-like materials, nanopatterned fused silica was chemically modified to produce self-cleaning substrates that have anti-reflective and infrared transmissive properties. The characteristics of these substrates were evaluated before and after chemical modification. Furthermore, their properties were compared to fused silica that was devoid of surface features. The chemical modification imparted superhydrophobic character to the substrates, as demonstrated by the average water contact angles which exceeded 170°. Finally, optical analysis of the substrates revealed that the infrared transmission capabilities of the fused silica substrates (nanopatterned to have moth eye on one side) were superior to those of the regular fused silica substrates within the visible and near-infrared region of the light spectrum, with transmission values of 95% versus 92%, respectively. The superior transmission properties of the fused silica moth eye were virtually unchanged following chemical modification.

  7. Superhydrophobic nanostructured Kapton® surfaces fabricated through Ar + O2 plasma treatment: Effects of different environments on wetting behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barshilia, Harish C.; Ananth, A.; Gupta, Nitant; Anandan, C.

    2013-03-01

    Kapton® [poly (4,4'-oxy diphenylene pyromellitimide)] polyimides have widespread usage in semiconductor devices, solar arrays, protective coatings and space applications, due to their excellent chemical and physical properties. In addition to their inherent properties, imparting superhydrophobicity on these surfaces will be an added advantage. Present work describes the usage of Ar + O2 plasma treatment for the preparation of superhydrophobic Kapton® surfaces. Immediately after the plasma treatment, the surfaces showed superhydrophilicity as a result of high energy dangling bonds and polar group concentration. But the samples kept in low vacuum for 48 h exhibited superhydrophobicity with high water contact angles (>150°). It is found that the post plasma treatment process, called ageing, especially in low vacuum plays an important role in delivering superhydrophobic property to Kapton®. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to probe the physical changes in the surface of the Kapton®. The surfaces showed formation of nano-feathers and nano-tussock microstructures with variation in surface roughness against plasma treatment time. A thorough chemical investigation was performed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy, which revealed changes in the surface of the Ar + O2 plasma treated Kapton®. Surface chemical species of Kapton® were confirmed again by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra for untreated surfaces whereas Ar + O2 plasma treated samples showed the de-bonding and re-organization of structural elements. Creation of surface roughness plays a dominant role in the contribution of superhydrophobicity to Kapton® apart from the surface modifications due to Ar + O2 plasma treatment and ageing in low vacuum.

  8. Superhydrophobic surfaces fabricated by surface modification of alumina particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Edna; Aruna, S. T.; Basu, Bharathibai J.

    2012-10-01

    The fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces has attracted intense interest because of their widespread potential applications in various industrial fields. Recently, some attempts have been carried out to prepare superhydrophobic surfaces using metal oxide nanoparticles. In the present work, superhydrophobic surfaces were fabricated with low surface energy material on alumina particles with different sizes. It was found that particle size of alumina is an important factor in achieving stable superhydrophobic surface. It was possible to obtain alumina surface with water contact angle (WCA) of 156° and a sliding angle of <2°. Superhydrophobicity of the modified alumina is attributed to the combined effect of the micro-nanostructure and low surface energy of fatty acid on the surface. The surface morphology of the alumina powder and coatings was determined by FESEM. The stability of the coatings was assessed by conducting water immersion test. Effect of heat treatment on WCA of the coating was also studied. The transition of alumina from hydrophilic to superhydrophobic state was explained using Wenzel and Cassie models. The method is shown to have potential application for creating superhydrophobic surface on cotton fabrics.

  9. Tuning Superhydrophobic Nanostructures to Enhance Jumping-Droplet Condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulroe, Megan; Srijanto, Bernadeta; Collier, Patrick; Boreyko, Jonathan

    2016-11-01

    It was recently discovered that condensation growing on a nanostructured superhydrophobic surface can spontaneously jump off the surface when two or more droplets coalesce together. The minimum droplet size for jumping to occur is of order 10 microns, but it is unclear whether this is the true lower limit of jumping droplets or simply a limitation of current superhydrophobic surfaces. Here, we analyze the dynamics of jumping droplets on six different superhydrophobic surfaces where the topography of the nanopillars was systematically varied. The critical diameter for jumping to occur was observed to be highly dependent upon the height and diameter of the nanopillars; surfaces with very tall and slender nanopillars enabled jumping droplets at a smaller critical size of order 1 micron. An energetic model of the incipient growth of condensate shows that the nanostructure topology affects the rate of increase of a growing droplet's apparent contact angle, with jumping being enabled at very large angles. These findings indicate that the true upper limit to the performance of jumping-droplet condensers has not yet been reached and can be further improved using advanced nanofabrication techniques.

  10. The design of superhydrophobic stainless steel surfaces by controlling nanostructures: A key parameter to reduce the implantation of pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Bruzaud, Jérôme; Tarrade, Jeanne; Celia, Elena; Darmanin, Thierry; Taffin de Givenchy, Elisabeth; Guittard, Frédéric; Herry, Jean-Marie; Guilbaud, Morgan; Bellon-Fontaine, Marie-Noëlle

    2017-04-01

    Reducing bacterial adhesion on substrates is fundamental for various industries. In this work, new superhydrophobic surfaces are created by electrodeposition of hydrophobic polymers (PEDOT-F4 or PEDOT-H8) on stainless steel with controlled topographical features, especially at a nano-scale. Results show that anti-bioadhesive and anti-biofilm properties require the control of the surface topographical features, and should be associated with a low adhesion of water onto the surface (Cassie-Baxter state) with limited crevice features at the scale of bacterial cells (nano-scale structures).

  11. Thermocapillary flow on superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baier, Tobias; Steffes, Clarissa; Hardt, Steffen

    2010-09-01

    A liquid in Cassie-Baxter state above a structured superhydrophobic surface is ideally suited for surface driven transport due to its large free surface fraction in close contact to a solid. We investigate thermal Marangoni flow over a superhydrophobic array of fins oriented parallel or perpendicular to an applied temperature gradient. In the Stokes limit we derive an analytical expression for the bulk flow velocity above the surface and compare it with numerical solutions of the Navier-Stokes equation. Even for moderate temperature gradients comparatively large flow velocities are induced, suggesting to utilize this principle for microfluidic pumping.

  12. Highly stable superhydrophobic surfaces under flow conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Moonchan; Yim, Changyong; Jeon, Sangmin

    2015-01-01

    We synthesized hydrophobic anodic aluminum oxide nanostructures with pore diameters of 35, 50, 65, and 80 nm directly on quartz crystal microresonators, and the stability of the resulting superhydrophobicity was investigated under flow conditions by measuring changes in the resonance frequency and dissipation factor. When the quartz substrates were immersed in water, their hydrophobic surfaces did not wet due to the presence of an air interlayer. The air interlayer was gradually replaced by water over time, which caused decreases in the resonance frequency (i.e., increases in mass) and increases in the dissipation factor (i.e., increases in viscous damping). Although the water contact angles of the nanostructures increased with increasing pore size, the stability of their superhydrophobicity increased with decreasing pore size under both static conditions (without flow) and dynamic conditions (with flow); this increase can be attributed to an increase in the solid surface area that interacts with the air layer above the nanopores as the pore size decreases. Further, the effects of increasing the flow rate on the stability of the superhydrophobicity were quantitatively determined.

  13. Flow condensation on copper-based nanotextured superhydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Torresin, Daniele; Tiwari, Manish K; Del Col, Davide; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2013-01-15

    Superhydrophobic surfaces have shown excellent ability to promote dropwise condensation with high droplet mobility, leading to enhanced surface thermal transport. To date, however, it is unclear how superhydrophobic surfaces would perform under the stringent flow condensation conditions of saturated vapor at high temperature, which can affect superhydrophobicity. Here, we investigate this issue employing "all-copper" superhydrophobic surfaces with controlled nanostructuring for minimal thermal resistance. Flow condensation tests performed with saturated vapor at a high temperature (110 °C) showed the condensing drops penetrate the surface texture (i.e., attain the Wenzel state with lower droplet mobility). At the same time, the vapor shear helped ameliorate the mobility and enhanced the thermal transport. At the high end of the examined vapor velocity range, a heat flux of ~600 kW m(-2) was measured at 10 K subcooling and 18 m s(-1) vapor velocity. This clearly highlights the excellent potential of a nanostructured superhydrophobic surface in flow condensation applications. The surfaces sustained dropwise condensation and vapor shear for five days, following which mechanical degradation caused a transition to filmwise condensation. Overall, our results underscore the need to investigate superhydrophobic surfaces under stringent and realistic flow condensation conditions before drawing conclusions regarding their performance in practically relevant condensation applications.

  14. Fabrication of superhydrophobic polymethylsilsesquioxane nanostructures on cotton textiles by a solution-immersion process.

    PubMed

    Shirgholami, Mohammad A; Khalil-Abad, Mohammad Shateri; Khajavi, Ramin; Yazdanshenas, Mohammad E

    2011-07-15

    Superhydrophobic cotton textiles are prepared by a simple, one-step and inexpensive phase separation method under ambient conditions by which a layer of polymethylsilsesquioxane (PMSQ) nanostructures is covered onto the cellulose fibers. By changing the silane precursor concentration, PMSQ nanostructures with various shapes, morphologies and sizes were fabricated. Nanostructures were characterized using SEM, EDS, and attenuated total reflectance FTIR. The wettability of the modified cellulose surfaces was characterized with contact-angle goniometry and sliding angle technique, respectively. The water contact angle of modified cotton is measured to be higher than 150°, which is high enough to exhibit the lotus effect as a result of the superhydrophobicity. Tunable water-repellent properties of the fabric are also demonstrated, with sliding contact angles varying from "sticky" to "slippery" depending upon different nanostructures on the surface of the fibers. It is expected that this simple technique will accelerate the large-scale production of superhydrophobic cellulosic materials with new industrial applications.

  15. Current trend in fabrication of complex morphologically tunable superhydrophobic nano scale surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulhussein, Ali T.; Kannarpady, Ganesh K.; Wright, Andrew B.; Ghosh, Anindya; Biris, Alexandru S.

    2016-10-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces are found in nature and possess several fascinating properties, including the ability to self-clean. A typical superhydrophobic surface has micro/nanostructure roughness and low surface energy, which combine to give it its unusual anti-wetting properties. Because of their unique capabilities, these surfaces have interested scientists in research and industry fields for years. In recent decades, researchers have developed a number of synthetic methods for producing novel superhydrophobic surfaces that mimic natural surfaces. These synthetic surfaces have been widely applied on different types of substrates for potential widespread, practical applications. This review article focuses on these advances in fabricating manmade superhydrophobic surfaces.

  16. Superhydrophobicity for antifouling microfluidic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Shirtcliffe, N J; Roach, P

    2013-01-01

    Fouling of surfaces is often problematic in microfluidic devices, particularly when using protein or -enzymatic solutions. Various coating methods have been investigated to reduce the tendency for protein molecules to adsorb, mostly relying on hydrophobic surface chemistry or the antifouling ability of -polyethylene glycol. Here we present the potential use of superhydrophobic surfaces to not only reduce the amount of surface contamination but also to induce self-cleaning under flow conditions. The methodology is presented in order to prepare superhydrophobic surface coatings having micro- and nanoscale feature dimensions, as well as a step-by-step guide to quantify adsorbed protein down to nanogram levels. The fabrication of these surfaces as coatings via silica sol-gel and copper nano-hair growth is presented, which can be applied within microfluidic devices manufactured from various materials.

  17. Robust biomimetic-structural superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy.

    PubMed

    Li, Lingjie; Huang, Tao; Lei, Jinglei; He, Jianxin; Qu, Linfeng; Huang, Peiling; Zhou, Wei; Li, Nianbing; Pan, Fusheng

    2015-01-28

    The following facile approach has been developed to prepare a biomimetic-structural superhydrophobic surface with high stabilities and strong resistances on 2024 Al alloy that are robust to harsh environments. First, a simple hydrothermal treatment in a La(NO3)3 aqueous solution was used to fabricate ginkgo-leaf like nanostructures, resulting in a superhydrophilic surface on 2024 Al. Then a low-surface-energy compound, dodecafluoroheptyl-propyl-trimethoxylsilane (Actyflon-G502), was used to modify the superhydrophilic 2024 Al, changing the surface character from superhydrophilicity to superhydrophobicity. The water contact angle (WCA) of such a superhydrophobic surface reaches up to 160°, demonstrating excellent superhydrophobicity. Moreover, the as-prepared superhydrophobic surface shows high stabilities in air-storage, chemical and thermal environments, and has strong resistances to UV irradiation, corrosion, and abrasion. The WCAs of such a surface almost remain unchanged (160°) after storage in air for 80 days, exposure in 250 °C atmosphere for 24 h, and being exposed under UV irradiation for 24 h, are more than 144° whether in acidic or alkali medium, and are more than 150° after 48 h corrosion and after abrasion under 0.98 kPa for 1000 mm length. The remarkable durability of the as-prepared superhydrophobic surface can be attributed to its stable structure and composition, which are due to the existence of lanthanum (hydr)oxides in surface layer. The robustness of the as-prepared superhydrophobic surface to harsh environments will open their much wider applications. The fabricating approach for such robust superhydrophobic surface can be easily extended to other metals and alloys.

  18. Water droplet impact on elastic superhydrophobic surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Weisensee, Patricia B.; Tian, Junjiao; Miljkovic, Nenad; King, William P.

    2016-01-01

    Water droplet impact on surfaces is a ubiquitous phenomenon in nature and industry, where the time of contact between droplet and surface influences the transfer of mass, momentum and energy. To manipulate and reduce the contact time of impacting droplets, previous publications report tailoring of surface microstructures that influence the droplet - surface interface. Here we show that surface elasticity also affects droplet impact, where a droplet impacting an elastic superhydrophobic surface can lead to a two-fold reduction in contact time compared to equivalent rigid surfaces. Using high speed imaging, we investigated the impact dynamics on elastic nanostructured superhydrophobic substrates having membrane and cantilever designs with stiffness 0.5–7630 N/m. Upon impact, the droplet excites the substrate to oscillate, while during liquid retraction, the substrate imparts vertical momentum back to the droplet with a springboard effect, causing early droplet lift-off with reduced contact time. Through detailed experimental and theoretical analysis, we show that this novel springboarding phenomenon is achieved for a specific range of Weber numbers (We >40) and droplet Froude numbers during spreading (Fr >1). The observation of the substrate elasticity-mediated droplet springboard effect provides new insight into droplet impact physics. PMID:27461899

  19. Anti-icing performance of superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhadi, S.; Farzaneh, M.; Kulinich, S. A.

    2011-05-01

    This article studies the anti-ice performance of several micro/nano-rough hydrophobic coatings with different surface chemistry and topography. The coatings were prepared by spin-coating or dip coating and used organosilane, fluoropolymer or silicone rubber as a top layer. Artificially created glaze ice, similar to the naturally accreted one, was deposited on the nanostructured surfaces by spraying supercooled water microdroplets (average size ˜80 μm) in a wind tunnel at subzero temperature (-10 °C). The ice adhesion strength was evaluated by spinning the samples in a centrifuge at constantly increasing speed until ice delamination occurred. The results show that the anti-icing properties of the tested materials deteriorate, as their surface asperities seem to be gradually broken during icing/de-icing cycles. Therefore, the durability of anti-icing properties appears to be an important point for further research. It is also shown that the anti-icing efficiency of the tested superhydrophobic surfaces is significantly lower in a humid atmosphere, as water condensation both on top and between surface asperities takes place, leading to high values of ice adhesion strength. This implies that superhydrophobic surfaces may not always be ice-phobic in the presence of humidity, which can limit their wide use as anti-icing materials.

  20. Wettability Switching Techniques on Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verplanck, Nicolas; Coffinier, Yannick; Thomy, Vincent; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2007-12-01

    The wetting properties of superhydrophobic surfaces have generated worldwide research interest. A water drop on these surfaces forms a nearly perfect spherical pearl. Superhydrophobic materials hold considerable promise for potential applications ranging from self cleaning surfaces, completely water impermeable textiles to low cost energy displacement of liquids in lab-on-chip devices. However, the dynamic modification of the liquid droplets behavior and in particular of their wetting properties on these surfaces is still a challenging issue. In this review, after a brief overview on superhydrophobic states definition, the techniques leading to the modification of wettability behavior on superhydrophobic surfaces under specific conditions: optical, magnetic, mechanical, chemical, thermal are discussed. Finally, a focus on electrowetting is made from historical phenomenon pointed out some decades ago on classical planar hydrophobic surfaces to recent breakthrough obtained on superhydrophobic surfaces.

  1. Wettability Switching Techniques on Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    The wetting properties of superhydrophobic surfaces have generated worldwide research interest. A water drop on these surfaces forms a nearly perfect spherical pearl. Superhydrophobic materials hold considerable promise for potential applications ranging from self cleaning surfaces, completely water impermeable textiles to low cost energy displacement of liquids in lab-on-chip devices. However, the dynamic modification of the liquid droplets behavior and in particular of their wetting properties on these surfaces is still a challenging issue. In this review, after a brief overview on superhydrophobic states definition, the techniques leading to the modification of wettability behavior on superhydrophobic surfaces under specific conditions: optical, magnetic, mechanical, chemical, thermal are discussed. Finally, a focus on electrowetting is made from historical phenomenon pointed out some decades ago on classical planar hydrophobic surfaces to recent breakthrough obtained on superhydrophobic surfaces.

  2. Dynamics of Defrosting on Hydrophobic and Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Kevin; McClintic, William; Lester, Kevin; Collier, Patrick; Boreyko, Jonathan

    2016-11-01

    It has recently been demonstrated that frost can grow in a suspended Cassie state on nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces, which has implications for enhanced defrosting rates. However, to date there have been no direct comparisons of the defrosting kinetics of Cassie frost versus frost on conventional surfaces. Here, we fabricate a hybrid aluminum plate where half of the top face exhibits a superhydrophobic nanostructure while the other half is smooth and hydrophobic. By growing frost to varying thicknesses and melting at several tilt angles, we reveal the advantages and disadvantages of each surface with regards to the extent and speed of the shedding of melt water. For sufficiently thick frost layers, the Cassie state of frost on the superhydrophobic surface uniquely enabled the rapid and effective shedding of melt water even at low tilt angles. On the other hand, the hydrophobic surface was more effective at removing very thin frost sheets, as the reduced contact angle of water on the surface facilitated the coalescence of droplets to grow the melt water beyond the capillary length for gravitational removal. Therefore, the utilization of superhydrophobic versus hydrophobic surfaces for defrosting applications depends upon the context of the system conditions.

  3. Dynamic contact angle measurements on superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeong-Hyun; Kavehpour, H. Pirouz; Rothstein, Jonathan P.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, the dynamic advancing and receding contact angles of a series of aqueous solutions were measured on a number of hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces using a modified Wilhelmy plate technique. Superhydrophobic surfaces are hydrophobic surfaces with micron or nanometer sized surface roughness. These surfaces have very large static advancing contact angles and little static contact angle hysteresis. In this study, the dynamic advancing and dynamic receding contact angles on superhydrophobic surfaces were measured as a function of plate velocity and capillary number. The dynamic contact angles measured on a smooth hydrophobic Teflon surface were found to obey the scaling with capillary number predicted by the Cox-Voinov-Tanner law, θD3 ∝ Ca. The response of the dynamic contact angle on the superhydrophobic surfaces, however, did not follow the same scaling law. The advancing contact angle was found to remain constant at θA = 160∘, independent of capillary number. The dynamic receding contact angle measurements on superhydrophobic surfaces were found to decrease with increasing capillary number; however, the presence of slip on the superhydrophobic surface was found to result in a shift in the onset of dynamic contact angle variation to larger capillary numbers. In addition, a much weaker dependence of the dynamic contact angle on capillary number was observed for some of the superhydrophobic surfaces tested.

  4. Surfaces with combined microscale and nanoscale structures: a route to mechanically stable superhydrophobic surfaces?

    PubMed

    Groten, Jonas; Rühe, Jürgen

    2013-03-19

    Materials with superhydrophobic properties are usually generated by covering the surfaces with hydrophobic nanoscale rough features. A major problem, however, for any practical application of such strongly water-repellent surfaces is the mechanical fragility of the nanostructures. Even moderate forces caused by touching or rubbing the surfaces are frequently strong enough to destroy the nanostructures and lead to the loss of the superhydrophobic properties. In this article, we study the mechanical stability of superhydrophobic surfaces with three different topographies: nano- and microscale features and surfaces carrying a combination of both. The surfaces are generated by silicon etching and subsequent coating with a monolayer of a fluoropolymer (PFA). We perform controlled wear tests on the different surfaces and discuss the impact of wear on the wetting properties of the different surfaces.

  5. Facile Preparation of Nanostructured, Superhydrophobic Filter Paper for Efficient Water/Oil Separation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianhua; Wong, Jessica X. H.; Kwok, Honoria; Li, Xiaochun; Yu, Hua-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a facile and cost-effective method to obtain superhydrophobic filter paper and demonstrate its application for efficient water/oil separation. By coupling structurally distinct organosilane precursors (e.g., octadecyltrichlorosilane and methyltrichlorosilane) to paper fibers under controlled reaction conditions, we have formulated a simple, inexpensive, and efficient protocol to achieve a desirable superhydrophobic and superoleophilic surface on conventional filter paper. The silanized superhydrophobic filter paper showed nanostructured morphology and demonstrated great separation efficiency (up to 99.4%) for water/oil mixtures. The modified filter paper is stable in both aqueous solutions and organic solvents, and can be reused multiple times. The present study shows that our newly developed binary silanization is a promising method of modifying cellulose-based materials for practical applications, in particular the treatment of industrial waste water and ecosystem recovery. PMID:26982055

  6. Facile Preparation of Nanostructured, Superhydrophobic Filter Paper for Efficient Water/Oil Separation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianhua; Wong, Jessica X H; Kwok, Honoria; Li, Xiaochun; Yu, Hua-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a facile and cost-effective method to obtain superhydrophobic filter paper and demonstrate its application for efficient water/oil separation. By coupling structurally distinct organosilane precursors (e.g., octadecyltrichlorosilane and methyltrichlorosilane) to paper fibers under controlled reaction conditions, we have formulated a simple, inexpensive, and efficient protocol to achieve a desirable superhydrophobic and superoleophilic surface on conventional filter paper. The silanized superhydrophobic filter paper showed nanostructured morphology and demonstrated great separation efficiency (up to 99.4%) for water/oil mixtures. The modified filter paper is stable in both aqueous solutions and organic solvents, and can be reused multiple times. The present study shows that our newly developed binary silanization is a promising method of modifying cellulose-based materials for practical applications, in particular the treatment of industrial waste water and ecosystem recovery.

  7. Mechanically durable superhydrophobic surfaces prepared by abrading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fajun; Yu, Shan; Ou, Junfei; Xue, Mingshan; Li, Wen

    2013-09-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces with both excellent mechanical durability and easy reparability based on polytetrafluoroethylene/room temperature vulcanized silicone rubber (PTFE/RTVSR) composites were prepared by a simple abrading method. The surface energy of RTVSR matrix decreased with the increasing volume fraction of PTFE particles, and the surface rough microstructures of the composites were created by abrading. A water droplet on the surface exhibited a contact angle of about 165° ± 3.4° and a sliding angle of about 7.3° ± 1.9°. Such superhydrophobic surfaces showed strong mechanical durability against sandpaper because the surfaces were prepared in the way of mechanical abrasion, and the fresh exposed surfaces were still superhydrophobic. In addition, the micro-structures on the elastic surface of the composite will be compressed by elastic deformation to avoid being broken during the friction cycles when cotton fabric was used as an abrasion surface. The deformation will rebound to renew the original surface structures when the load is withdrawn. Therefore, the elastic PTFE/RTVSR composites are of advantage to construct superhydrophobic surfaces with better abrasion resistance. More importantly, such superhydrophobicity can be repaired by a simple abrading regeneration process within a few minutes when the surface is damaged or polluted by organic contaminant.

  8. Functional superhydrophobic surfaces made of Janus micropillars

    PubMed Central

    Mammen, Lena; Bley, Karina; Papadopoulos, Periklis; Schellenberger, Frank; Encinas, Noemí; Butt, Hans-Jürgen; Weiss, Clemens K.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces consisting of micropillars with hydrophobic sidewalls and hydrophilic tops, referred to as Janus micropillars. Therefore we first coat a micropillar array with a mono- or bilayer of polymeric particles, and merge the particles together to shield the top faces while hydrophobizing the walls. After removing the polymer film, the top faces of the micropillar arrays can be selectively chemically functionalised with hydrophilic groups. The Janus arrays remain superhydrophobic even after functionalisation as verified by laser scanning confocal microscopy. The robustness of the superhydrophobic behaviour proves that the stability of the entrapped air cushion is determined by the forces acting at the rim of the micropillars. This insight should stimulate a new way of designing super liquid-repellent surfaces with tunable liquid adhesion. In particular, combining superhydrophobicity with the functionalisation of the top faces of the protrusions with hydrophilic groups may have exciting new applications, including high-density microarrays for high-throughput screening of bioactive molecules, cells, or enzymes or efficient water condensation. However, so far chemical attachment of hydrophilic molecules has been accompanied with complete wetting of the surface underneath. The fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces where the top faces of the protrusions can be selectively chemically post-functionalised with hydrophilic molecules, while retaining their superhydrophobic properties, is both promising and challenging. PMID:25415839

  9. Functional superhydrophobic surfaces made of Janus micropillars.

    PubMed

    Mammen, Lena; Bley, Karina; Papadopoulos, Periklis; Schellenberger, Frank; Encinas, Noemí; Butt, Hans-Jürgen; Weiss, Clemens K; Vollmer, Doris

    2015-01-21

    We demonstrate the fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces consisting of micropillars with hydrophobic sidewalls and hydrophilic tops, referred to as Janus micropillars. Therefore we first coat a micropillar array with a mono- or bilayer of polymeric particles, and merge the particles together to shield the top faces while hydrophobizing the walls. After removing the polymer film, the top faces of the micropillar arrays can be selectively chemically functionalised with hydrophilic groups. The Janus arrays remain superhydrophobic even after functionalisation as verified by laser scanning confocal microscopy. The robustness of the superhydrophobic behaviour proves that the stability of the entrapped air cushion is determined by the forces acting at the rim of the micropillars. This insight should stimulate a new way of designing super liquid-repellent surfaces with tunable liquid adhesion. In particular, combining superhydrophobicity with the functionalisation of the top faces of the protrusions with hydrophilic groups may have exciting new applications, including high-density microarrays for high-throughput screening of bioactive molecules, cells, or enzymes or efficient water condensation. However, so far chemical attachment of hydrophilic molecules has been accompanied with complete wetting of the surface underneath. The fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces where the top faces of the protrusions can be selectively chemically post-functionalised with hydrophilic molecules, while retaining their superhydrophobic properties, is both promising and challenging.

  10. Robust hybrid elastomer/metal-oxide superhydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Hoshian, S; Jokinen, V; Franssila, S

    2016-08-21

    We introduce a new type of hybrid material: a nanostructured elastomer covered by a hard photoactive metal-oxide thin film resembling the exoskeleton of insects. It has extreme water repellency and fast self-recovery after damage. A new fabrication method for replicating high aspect ratio, hierarchical re-entrant aluminum structures into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is presented. The method is based on a protective titania layer deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on the aluminum template. The ALD titania transfers to the elastomeric scaffold via sacrificial release etching. The sacrificial release method allows for high aspect ratio, even 100 μm deep and successful release of overhanging structures, unlike conventional peeling. The ALD titania conformally covers the 3D multihierarchical structures of the template and protects the polymer during the release etch. Afterwards it prevents the high aspect ratio nanostructures from elasticity based collapse. The resulting nanostructured hybrid PDMS/titania replicas display robust superhydrophobicity without any further fluoro-coating or modification. Their mechanical and thermal robustness results from a thick nanostructured elastomeric layer which is conformally covered by ceramic titania instead of a monolayer hydrophobic coating. We have demonstrated the durability of these replicas against mechanical abrasion, knife scratches, rubbing, bending, peel tape test, high temperature annealing, UV exposure, water jet impingement and long term underwater storage. Though the material loses its superhydrophobicity in oxygen plasma exposure, a fast recovery from superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic can be achieved after 20 min UV irradiation. UV-assisted recovery is correlated with the high photoactivity of ALD titania film. This novel hybrid material will be applicable to the large area superhydrophobic surfaces in practical outdoor applications.

  11. Water drop friction on superhydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Olin, Pontus; Lindström, Stefan B; Pettersson, Torbjörn; Wågberg, Lars

    2013-07-23

    To investigate water drop friction on superhydrophobic surfaces, the motion of water drops on three different superhydrophobic surfaces has been studied by allowing drops to slide down an incline and capturing their motion using high-speed video. Two surfaces were prepared using crystallization of an alkyl ketene dimer (AKD) wax, and the third surface was the leaf of a Lotus (Nelumbo Nucifera). The acceleration of the water droplets on these superhydrophobic surfaces was measured as a function of droplet size and inclination of the surface. For small capillary numbers, we propose that the energy dissipation is dominated by intermittent pinning-depinning transitions at microscopic pinning sites along the trailing contact line of the drop, while at capillary numbers exceeding a critical value, energy dissipation is dominated by circulatory flow in the vicinity of the contacting disc between the droplet and the surface. By combining the results of the droplet acceleration with a theoretical model based on energy dissipation, we have introduced a material-specific coefficient called the superhydrophobic sliding resistance, b(sh). Once determined, this parameter is sufficient for predicting the motion of water drops on superhydrophobic surfaces of a general macroscopic topography. This theory also infers the existence of an equilibrium sliding angle, β(eq), at which the drop acceleration is zero. This angle is decreasing with the radius of the drop and is in quantitative agreement with the measured tilt angles required for a stationary drop to start sliding down an incline.

  12. Superhydrophobic surfaces developed by mimicking hierarchical surface morphology of lotus leaf.

    PubMed

    Latthe, Sanjay S; Terashima, Chiaki; Nakata, Kazuya; Fujishima, Akira

    2014-04-04

    The lotus plant is recognized as a 'King plant' among all the natural water repellent plants due to its excellent non-wettability. The superhydrophobic surfaces exhibiting the famous 'Lotus Effect', along with extremely high water contact angle (>150°) and low sliding angle (<10°), have been broadly investigated and extensively applied on variety of substrates for potential self-cleaning and anti-corrosive applications. Since 1997, especially after the exploration of the surface micro/nanostructure and chemical composition of the lotus leaves by the two German botanists Barthlott and Neinhuis, many kinds of superhydrophobic surfaces mimicking the lotus leaf-like structure have been widely reported in the literature. This review article briefly describes the different wetting properties of the natural superhydrophobic lotus leaves and also provides a comprehensive state-of-the-art discussion on the extensive research carried out in the field of artificial superhydrophobic surfaces which are developed by mimicking the lotus leaf-like dual scale micro/nanostructure. This review article could be beneficial for both novice researchers in this area as well as the scientists who are currently working on non-wettable, superhydrophobic surfaces.

  13. Spontaneous recovery of superhydrophobicity on nanotextured surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Suruchi; Xi, Erte; Patel, Amish J.

    2016-01-01

    Rough or textured hydrophobic surfaces are dubbed “superhydrophobic” due to their numerous desirable properties, such as water repellency and interfacial slip. Superhydrophobicity stems from an aversion of water for the hydrophobic surface texture, so that a water droplet in the superhydrophobic “Cassie state” contacts only the tips of the rough surface. However, superhydrophobicity is remarkably fragile and can break down due to the wetting of the surface texture to yield the “Wenzel state” under various conditions, such as elevated pressures or droplet impact. Moreover, due to large energetic barriers that impede the reverse transition (dewetting), this breakdown in superhydrophobicity is widely believed to be irreversible. Using molecular simulations in conjunction with enhanced sampling techniques, here we show that on surfaces with nanoscale texture, water density fluctuations can lead to a reduction in the free energetic barriers to dewetting by circumventing the classical dewetting pathways. In particular, the fluctuation-mediated dewetting pathway involves a number of transitions between distinct dewetted morphologies, with each transition lowering the resistance to dewetting. Importantly, an understanding of the mechanistic pathways to dewetting and their dependence on pressure allows us to augment the surface texture design, so that the barriers to dewetting are eliminated altogether and the Wenzel state becomes unstable at ambient conditions. Such robust surfaces, which defy classical expectations and can spontaneously recover their superhydrophobicity, could have widespread importance, from underwater operation to phase-change heat transfer applications. PMID:27140619

  14. Fabrication of Superhydrophobic Surface on Aluminum Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, W. J.; Dou, Q. L.; Wang, X. Y.; Sun, J.; Wang, L. J.

    2011-01-01

    The authors develop a simple and economic method to fabricate the superhydrophobic surface by means of electrochemical machining. The fabrication mechanism is based on the fact that the grain boundaries/dislocations are micro/nano-scale and more likely to be anodic dissolved than that of grain self, so the multi-scale micro/nano-structures surface can be generated by an applied electric field and the chemical solution. The relationship of processing quality, efficiency and conditions is studied in experiments in this paper. The results show that electrochemical processing can be used to fabricate dual-scale micro/nano-structures on aluminum surfaces, and further applying to generate the large size of superhydrophobic surface. The method is easier to control the reaction process than chemical etching meanwhile more economical than other techniques. After modified with low surface energy materials, the surface exhibits superhydrophobic property with water contact angle of 160° and tilt angle less than 5°.

  15. Nanostructured superhydrophobic films synthesized by electrodeposition of fluorinated polyindoles

    PubMed Central

    Ramos Chagas, Gabriela; Darmanin, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Summary Materials with bioinspired superhydrophobic properties are highly desirable for many potential applications. Here, nine novel monomers derived from indole are synthesized to obtain these properties by electropolymerization. These monomers differ by the length (C4F9, C6F13 and C8F17) and the position (4-, 5- and 6-position of indole) of the perfluorinated substituent. Polymeric films were obtained with C4F9 and C6F13 chains and differences in the surface morphology depend especially on the substituent position. The polyindoles exhibited hydrophobic and superhydrophobic properties even with a very low roughness. The best results are obtained with PIndole-6-F 6 for which superhydrophobic and highly oleophobic properties are obtained due to the presence of spherical nanoparticles and low surface energy compounds. PMID:26665079

  16. Nanostructured superhydrophobic films synthesized by electrodeposition of fluorinated polyindoles.

    PubMed

    Ramos Chagas, Gabriela; Darmanin, Thierry; Guittard, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Materials with bioinspired superhydrophobic properties are highly desirable for many potential applications. Here, nine novel monomers derived from indole are synthesized to obtain these properties by electropolymerization. These monomers differ by the length (C4F9, C6F13 and C8F17) and the position (4-, 5- and 6-position of indole) of the perfluorinated substituent. Polymeric films were obtained with C4F9 and C6F13 chains and differences in the surface morphology depend especially on the substituent position. The polyindoles exhibited hydrophobic and superhydrophobic properties even with a very low roughness. The best results are obtained with PIndole-6-F 6 for which superhydrophobic and highly oleophobic properties are obtained due to the presence of spherical nanoparticles and low surface energy compounds.

  17. Preparation of superhydrophobic silicon oxide nanowire surfaces.

    PubMed

    Coffinier, Yannick; Janel, Sébastien; Addad, Ahmed; Blossey, Ralf; Gengembre, Léon; Payen, Edmond; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2007-02-13

    The paper reports on the preparation of superhydrophobic amorphous silicon oxide nanowires (a-SiONWs) on silicon substrates with a contact angle greater than 150 degrees by means of surface roughness and self-assembly. Nanowires with an average mean diameter in the range 20-150 nm and 15-20 microm in length were obtained by the so-called solid-liquid-solid (SLS) technique. The porous nature and the high roughness of the resulting surfaces were confirmed by AFM imaging. The superhydrophobicity resulted from the combined effects of surface roughness and chemical modification with fluorodecyl trichlorosilane.

  18. Ice adhesion on super-hydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulinich, S. A.; Farzaneh, M.

    2009-06-01

    In this study, ice adhesion strength on flat hydrophobic and rough super-hydrophobic coatings with similar surface chemistry (based on same fluoropolymer) is compared. Glaze ice, similar to naturally accreted, was prepared on the surfaces by spraying super-cooled water microdroplets at subzero temperature. Ice adhesion was evaluated by spinning the samples at constantly increasing speed until ice delamination occurred. Super-hydrophobic surfaces with different contact angle hysteresis were tested, clearly showing that the latter, along with the contact angle, also influences the ice-solid adhesion strength.

  19. Drop impact on inclined superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Wonjae; Leclear, Sani; Leclear, Johnathon; Abhijeet, .; Park, Kyoo-Chul

    We report an empirical study and dimensional analysis on the impact patterns of water drops on inclined superhydrophobic surfaces. While the classic Weber number determines the spreading and recoiling dynamics of a water drop on a horizontal / smooth surface, for a superhydrophobic surface, the dynamics depends on two distinct Weber numbers, each calculated using the length scale of the drop or of the pores on the surface. Impact on an inclined superhydrophobic surface is even more complicated, as the velocity that determines the Weber number is not necessarily the absolute speed of the drop but the velocity components normal and tangential to the surface. We define six different Weber numbers, using three different velocities (absolute, normal and tangential velocities) and two different length scales (size of the drop and of the texture). We investigate the impact patterns on inclined superhydrophobic surfaces with three different types of surface texture: (i) posts, (ii) ridges aligned with and (iii) ridges perpendicular to the impact direction. Results suggest that all six Weber numbers matter, but affect different parts of the impact dynamics, ranging from the Cassie-Wenzel transition, maximum spreading, to anisotropic deformation. We acknowledge financial support from the Office of Naval Research (ONR) through Contract 3002453812.

  20. Bulk water freezing dynamics on superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavan, S.; Carpenter, J.; Nallapaneni, M.; Chen, J. Y.; Miljkovic, N.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we elucidate the mechanisms governing the heat-transfer mediated, non-thermodynamic limited, freezing delay on non-wetting surfaces for a variety of characteristic length scales, Lc (volume/surface area, 3 mm < Lc < 6 mm) using carefully designed freezing experiments in a temperature-controlled, zero-humidity environment on thin water slabs. To probe the effect of surface wettability, we investigated the total time for room temperature water to completely freeze into ice on superhydrophilic ( θaapp→ 0°), hydrophilic (0° < θa < 90°), hydrophobic (90° < θa < 125°), and superhydrophobic ( θaapp→ 180°) surfaces. Our results show that at macroscopic length scales, heat conduction through the bulk water/ice layer dominates the freezing process when compared to heat conduction through the functional coatings or nanoscale gaps at the superhydrophobic substrate-water/ice interface. In order to verify our findings, and to determine when the surface structure thermal resistance approaches the water/ice resistance, we fabricated and tested the additional substrates coated with commercial superhydrophobic spray coatings, showing a monotonic increase in freezing time with coating thickness. The added thermal resistance of thicker coatings was much larger than that of the nanoscale superhydrophobic features, which reduced the droplet heat transfer and increased the total freezing time. Transient finite element method heat transfer simulations of the water slab freezing process were performed to calculate the overall heat transfer coefficient at the substrate-water/ice interface during freezing, and shown to be in the range of 1-2.5 kW/m2K for these experiments. The results shown here suggest that in order to exploit the heat-transfer mediated freezing delay, thicker superhydrophobic coatings must be deposited on the surface, where the coating resistance is comparable to the bulk water/ice conduction resistance.

  1. Microtextured superhydrophobic surfaces: a thermodynamic analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, W; Amirfazli, A

    2007-04-28

    Superhydrophobic surfaces with a contact angle (CA) larger than 150 degrees have recently attracted great interest in both academic research and practical applications due to their water-repellent or self-cleaning properties. However, thermodynamic mechanisms responsible for the effects of various factors such as surface geometry and chemistry, liquids, and environmental sources have not been well understood. In this study, a pillar microtexture, which has been intensively investigated in experiments, is chosen as a typical example and thermodynamically analyzed in detail. To gain a comprehensive insight into superhydrophobic behavior, the roles of pillar height, width and spacing (or roughness and solid fraction), intrinsic CA, drop size, and vibrational energy are systematically investigated. Free energy (FE) and free energy barrier (FEB) are calculated using a simple and robust model. Based on the calculations of FE and FEB, various CAs, including apparent, equilibrium (stable), advancing and receding CAs, and contact angle hysteresis (CAH) can be determined. Especially, the design of practical superhydrophobic surfaces is emphasized in connection with the transition between noncomposite and composite states; a criterion for judging such transition is proposed. The theoretical results are consistent with the Wenzel's and the Cassie's equations for equilibrium CA values and experimental observations. Furthermore, based on these results and the proposed criterion, some general principles to achieve superhydrophobic performance are suggested.

  2. Composite, nanostructured, super-hydrophobic material

    DOEpatents

    D'Urso, Brian R.; Simpson, John T.

    2007-08-21

    A hydrophobic disordered composite material having a protrusive surface feature includes a recessive phase and a protrusive phase, the recessive phase having a higher susceptibility to a preselected etchant than the protrusive phase, the composite material having an etched surface wherein the protrusive phase protrudes from the surface to form a protrusive surface feature, the protrusive feature being hydrophobic.

  3. Mimicking natural superhydrophobic surfaces and grasping the wetting process: a review on recent progress in preparing superhydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Yan, Y Y; Gao, N; Barthlott, W

    2011-12-12

    A typical superhydrophobic (ultrahydrophobic) surface can repel water droplets from wetting itself, and the contact angle of a water droplet resting on a superhydrophobic surface is greater than 150°, which means extremely low wettability is achievable on superhydrophobic surfaces. Many superhydrophobic surfaces (both manmade and natural) normally exhibit micro- or nanosized roughness as well as hierarchical structure, which somehow can influence the surface's water repellence. As the research into superhydrophobic surfaces goes deeper and wider, it is becoming more important to both academic fields and industrial applications. In this work, the most recent progress in preparing manmade superhydrophobic surfaces through a variety of methodologies, particularly within the past several years, and the fundamental theories of wetting phenomena related to superhydrophobic surfaces are reviewed. We also discuss the perspective of natural superhydrophobic surfaces utilized as mimicking models. The discussion focuses on how the superhydrophobic property is promoted on solid surfaces and emphasizes the effect of surface roughness and structure in particular. This review aims to enable researchers to perceive the inner principles of wetting phenomena and employ suitable methods for creation and modification of superhydrophobic surfaces.

  4. Integrated three-dimensional photonic nanostructures for achieving near-unity solar absorption and superhydrophobicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Ping; Hsieh, Mei-Li; Lin, Shawn-Yu

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we proposed and realized 3D photonic nanostructures consisting of ultra-thin graded index antireflective coatings (ARCs) and woodpile photonic crystals. The use of the integrated ARC and photonic crystal structure can achieve broadband, broad-angle near unity solar absorption. The amorphous silicon based photonic nanostructure experimentally shows an average absorption of ˜95% for λ = 400-620 nm over a wide angular acceptance of θ = 0°-60°. Theoretical studies show that a Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) based structure can achieve an average absorption of >95% for λ = 400-870 nm. Furthermore, the use of the slanted SiO2 nanorod ARC surface layer by glancing angle deposition exhibits Cassie-Baxter state wetting, and superhydrophobic surface is obtained with highest water contact angle θCB ˜ 153°. These properties are fundamentally important for achieving maximum solar absorption and surface self-cleaning in thin film solar cell applications.

  5. Drag Reduction On Multiscale Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenner, Elliot; Barbier, Charlotte; D'Urso, Brian

    2013-11-01

    Fluid drag reduction is of great interest in a variety of fields, including hull engineering, microfluidics, and drug delivery. We fabricated samples with multi-scale superhydrophobic surfaces, which consist of hexagonally self-ordered microscopic spikes grown via anodization on macroscopic grooves cut in aluminum. The hydrodynamic drag properties were studied with a cone-and-plate rheometer, showing significant drag reduction near 15% in turbulent flow and near 30% in laminar flow. In addition to these experiments, numerical simulations were performed in order to estimate the slip length at high speeds. Furthermore, we will report on the progress of experiments with a new type of surface combining superhydrophobic surfaces like those discussed above with Slippery Liquid Infused Porous Surfaces (SLIPS), which utilize an oil layer to create a hydrophobic self-repairing surface. These ``Super-SLIPS'' may combine the best properties of both superhydrophobic surfaces and SLIPS, by combining a drag reducing air-layer and an oil layer which may improve durability and biofouling resistance. This research was supported by the ORNL Seed Money Program. Oak Ridge National Laboratory is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. Dept. of Energy under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  6. Leidenfrost Vapor Layer Stabilization on Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakarelski, Ivan; Patankar, Neelesh; Marston, Jeremy; Chan, Derek; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur

    2012-11-01

    We have performed experiments to investigate the influence of the wettability of a superheated metallic sphere on the stability of a thin vapor layer during the cooling of a sphere immersed in water. For high enough sphere temperatures, a continuous vapor layer (Leidenfrost regime) is observed on the surface of non-superhydrophobic spheres, but below a critical sphere temperature the layer becomes unstable and explosively switches to nuclear boiling regime. In contrast, when the sphere surface is textured and superhydrophobic, the vapor layer is stable and gradually relaxes to the sphere surface until the complete cooling of the sphere, thus avoiding the nuclear boiling transition altogether. This finding could help in the development of heat exchange devices and of vapor layer based drag reducing technologies.

  7. Dynamic air layer on textured superhydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Vakarelski, Ivan U; Chan, Derek Y C; Marston, Jeremy O; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2013-09-03

    We provide an experimental demonstration that a novel macroscopic, dynamic continuous air layer or plastron can be sustained indefinitely on textured superhydrophobic surfaces in air-supersaturated water by a natural gas influx mechanism. This type of plastron is an intermediate state between Leidenfrost vapor layers on superheated surfaces and the equilibrium Cassie-Baxter wetting state on textured superhydrophobic surfaces. We show that such a plastron can be sustained on the surface of a centimeter-sized superhydrophobic sphere immersed in heated water and variations of its dynamic behavior with air saturation of the water can be regulated by rapid changes of the water temperature. The simple experimental setup allows for quantification of the air flux into the plastron and identification of the air transport model of the plastron growth. Both the observed growth dynamics of such plastrons and millimeter-sized air bubbles seeded on the hydrophilic surface under identical air-supersaturated solution conditions are consistent with the predictions of a well-mixed gas transport model.

  8. Single-step direct fabrication of pillar-on-pore hybrid nanostructures in anodizing aluminum for superior superhydrophobic efficiency.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Chanyoung; Choi, Chang-Hwan

    2012-02-01

    Conventional electrochemical anodizing processes of metals such as aluminum typically produce planar and homogeneous nanopore structures. If hydrophobically treated, such 2D planar and interconnected pore structures typically result in lower contact angle and larger contact angle hysteresis than 3D disconnected pillar structures and, hence, exhibit inferior superhydrophobic efficiency. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that the anodizing parameters can be engineered to design novel pillar-on-pore (POP) hybrid nanostructures directly in a simple one-step fabrication process so that superior surface superhydrophobicity can also be realized effectively from the electrochemical anodization process. On the basis of the characteristic of forming a self-ordered porous morphology in a hexagonal array, the modulation of anodizing voltage and duration enabled the formulation of the hybrid-type nanostructures having controlled pillar morphology on top of a porous layer in both mild and hard anodization modes. The hybrid nanostructures of the anodized metal oxide layer initially enhanced the surface hydrophilicity significantly (i.e., superhydrophilic). However, after a hydrophobic monolayer coating, such hybrid nanostructures then showed superior superhydrophobic nonwetting properties not attainable by the plain nanoporous surfaces produced by conventional anodization conditions. The well-regulated anodization process suggests that electrochemical anodizing can expand its usefulness and efficacy to render various metallic substrates with great superhydrophilicity or -hydrophobicity by directly realizing pillar-like structures on top of a self-ordered nanoporous array through a simple one-step fabrication procedure.

  9. Facile fabrication of superhydrophobic surface with excellent mechanical abrasion and corrosion resistance on copper substrate by a novel method.

    PubMed

    Su, Fenghua; Yao, Kai

    2014-06-11

    A novel method for controllable fabrication of a superhydrophobic surface with a water contact angle of 162 ± 1° and a sliding angle of 3 ± 0.5° on copper substrate is reported in this Research Article. The facile and low-cost fabrication process is composed from the electrodeposition in traditional Watts bath and the heat-treatment in the presence of (heptadecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetradecyl) triethoxysilane (AC-FAS). The superhydrophobicity of the fabricated surface results from its pine-cone-like hierarchical micro-nanostructure and the assembly of low-surface-energy fluorinated components on it. The superhydrophobic surface exhibits high microhardness and excellent mechanical abrasion resistance because it maintains superhydrophobicity after mechanical abrasion against 800 grit SiC sandpaper for 1.0 m at the applied pressure of 4.80 kPa. Moreover, the superhydrophobic surface has good chemical stability in both acidic and alkaline environments. The potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy test shows that the as-prepared superhydrophobic surface has excellent corrosion resistance that can provide effective protection for the bare Cu substrate. In addition, the as-prepared superhydrophobic surface has self-cleaning ability. It is believed that the facile and low-cost method offer an effective strategy and promising industrial applications for fabricating superhydrophobic surfaces on various metallic materials.

  10. Dropwise condensation over superhydrophobic aluminium surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parin, R.; Del, D., Col; Bortolin, S.; Martucci, A.

    2016-09-01

    Superhydrophobic aluminum surfaces have been analyzed being a promising solution to promote dropwise condensation. Superhydrophobicity has been obtained on an aluminum substrate by etching it with two different reagents and by depositing a fluorosilane film over them to lower the surface energy. The samples are characterized by means of contact angle measurements and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Experimental tests of pure steam condensation have been carried out on the samples and DWC has been visualized. Images of the dropwise condensation have been captured with high speed camera and, furthermore, the phenomenon of the jumping droplets has been observed. A heat transfer coefficient higher than 50 kW m-2 K-1 has been measured over the samples.

  11. Effect of superhydrophobic surface morphology on evaporative deposition patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dicuangco, Mercy; Dash, Susmita; Weibel, Justin A.; Garimella, Suresh V.

    2014-05-01

    Prediction and active control of the spatial distribution of particulate deposits obtained from sessile droplet evaporation are vital in printing, nanostructure assembly, biotechnology, and other applications that require localized deposits. This Letter presents surface wettability-based localization of evaporation-driven particulate deposition and the effect of superhydrophobic surface morphology on the distribution of deposits. Sessile water droplets containing suspended latex particles are evaporated on non-wetting textured surfaces with varying microstructure geometry at ambient conditions. The droplets are visualized throughout the evaporation process to track the temporal evolution of contact radius and apparent contact angle. The resulting particle deposits on the substrates are quantitatively characterized. The experimental results show that superhydrophobic surfaces suppress contact-line deposition during droplet evaporation, thereby providing an effective means of localizing the deposition of suspended particles. A correlation between deposit size and surface morphology, explained in terms of the interface pressure balance at the transition between wetting states, reveals an optimum surface morphology for minimizing the deposit coverage area.

  12. Universal wetting transition of an evaporating water droplet on superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Peichun Amy; Bussonnière, Adrien; Bigdeli, Masoud; Chueh, Di-Yen; Liu, Qingxia; Chen, Peilin

    2016-11-01

    An evaporating water droplet on a superhydrophobic surface undergoes a wetting transition from a heterogeneous wetting (Cassie-Baxter) to homogeneous wetting (Wenzel) state. The critical transition is manifested by a sudden decrease of contact angle, when "Fakir" water drop permeates the minute hydrophobic cavities. This breakdown of superhydrophobicity would hinder various applications of self-cleaning, low-frictional, and potentially ice-phobic properties of superhydrophobic materials. In this work, we experimentally investigate such wetting transition using hydrophobic nanostructures. With a theoretical model, we find a universal criterion of the critical contact angle at the transition point. The prediction of critical contact angle, which solely depends on the geometrical parameters of the hydrophobic pillars, agree well with various data for both micro- and nano-structures.

  13. Fabrication of biomimetic superhydrophobic steel surface under an oxygen rich environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Liang; Zhang, Haifeng; Li, Yuyang; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Ruimin; Chen, Weiping; Liu, Xiaowei

    2016-09-01

    A novel and facile approach was proposed to fabricate superhydrophobic surface with similar micro- and nanostructures of lotus leaf on the steel foil. The acidic solution was used to grow Fe3O4 nanosheet films consisted of hydrochloric acid and potassium chloride under an O2 rich environment. The as-prepared superhydrophobic steel surfaces had water CA (contact angle) of 166 ± 2°. The water SA (sliding angle) was less than 2°. In order to estimate the drag reduction property of the as-prepared surface, the experimental setup of the liquid-solid friction drag was proposed. The drag reduction ratio for superhydrophobic surface was 61.3% compare with untreated surface at a flow velocity of 1.66 m s-1.

  14. Capillary origami and superhydrophobic membrane surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraldi, N. R.; Ouali, F. F.; Morris, R. H.; McHale, G.; Newton, M. I.

    2013-05-01

    Capillary origami uses surface tension to fold and shape solid films and membranes into three-dimensional structures. It uses the fact that solid surfaces, no matter how hydrophobic, will tend to adhere to and wrap around the surface of a liquid. In this work, we report that a superhydrophobic coating can be created, which can completely suppress wrapping as a contacting water droplet evaporates. We also show that using a wetting azeotropic solution of allyl alcohol, which penetrates the surface features, can enhance liquid adhesion and create more powerful Capillary Origami. These findings create the possibility of selectively shaping membrane substrates.

  15. Plastron properties of a superhydrophobic surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirtcliffe, Neil J.; McHale, Glen; Newton, Michael I.; Perry, Carole C.; Pyatt, F. Brian

    2006-09-01

    Most insects and spiders drown when submerged during flooding or tidal inundation, but some are able to survive and others can remain submerged indefinitely without harm. Many achieve this by natural adaptations to their surface morphology to trap films of air, creating plastrons which fix the water-vapor interface and provide an incompressible oxygen-carbon dioxide exchange surface. Here the authors demonstrate how the surface of an extremely water-repellent foam mimics this mechanism of underwater respiration and allows direct extraction of oxygen from aerated water. The biomimetic principle demonstrated can be applied to a wide variety of man-made superhydrophobic materials.

  16. Enhanced super-hydrophobic and switching behavior of ZnO nanostructured surfaces prepared by simple solution--immersion successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction process.

    PubMed

    Suresh Kumar, P; Sundaramurthy, J; Mangalaraj, D; Nataraj, D; Rajarathnam, D; Srinivasan, M P

    2011-11-01

    A simple and cost-effective successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method was adopted to fabricate hydrophobic ZnO nanostructured surfaces on transparent indium-tin oxide (ITO), glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates. ZnO films deposited on different substrates show hierarchical structures like spindle, flower and spherical shape with diameters ranging from 30 to 300 nm. The photo-induced switching behaviors of ZnO film surfaces between hydrophobic and hydrophilic states were examined by water contact angle and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. ZnO nanostructured films had contact angles of ~140° and 160°±2 on glass and PET substrates, respectively, exhibiting hydrophobic behavior without any surface modification or treatment. Upon exposure to ultraviolet (UV) illumination, the films showed hydrophilic behavior (contact angle: 15°±2), which upon low thermal stimuli revert back to its original hydrophobic nature. Such reversible and repeatable switching behaviors were observed upon cyclical exposure to ultraviolet radiation. These biomimetic ZnO surfaces exhibit good anti-reflective properties with lower reflectance of 9% for PET substrates. Thus, the present work is significant in terms of its potential application in switching devices, solar coatings and self-cleaning smart windows.

  17. Superhydrophobic and icephobic surfaces prepared by RF-sputtered polytetrafluoroethylene coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafari, R.; Menini, R.; Farzaneh, M.

    2010-12-01

    A superhydrophobic and icephobic surface were investigated on aluminum alloy substrate. Anodizing was used first to create a micro-nanostructured aluminum oxide underlayer on the alloy substrate. In a second step, the rough surface was coated with RF-sputtered polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE or Teflon ®). Scanning electron microscopy images showed a " bird's nest"-like structure on the anodized surface. The RF-sputtered PTFE coating exhibited a high static contact angle of ˜165° with a very low contact angle hysteresis of ˜3°. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results showed high quantities of CF 3 and CF 2 groups, which are responsible for the hydrophobic behavior of the coatings. The performance of this superhydrophobic film was studied under atmospheric icing conditions. These results showed that on superhydrophobic surfaces ice-adhesion strength was 3.5 times lower than on the polished aluminum substrate.

  18. Layers of Porous Superhydrophobic Surfaces for Robust Water Repellency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, Farzad; Boreyko, Jonathan; Nature-Inspired Fluids; Interfaces Team

    2015-11-01

    In nature, birds exhibit multiple layers of superhydrophobic feathers that repel water. Inspired by bird feathers, we utilize porous superhydrophobic surfaces and compare the wetting and dewetting characteristics of a single surface to stacks of multiple surfaces. The superhydrophobic surfaces were submerged in water in a closed chamber. Pressurized gas was regulated to measure the critical pressure for the water to fully penetrate through the surfaces. In addition to using duck feathers, two-tier porous superhydrophobic surfaces were fabricated to serve as synthetic mimics with a controlled surface structure. The energy barrier for the wetting transition was modeled as a function of the number of layers and their orientations with respect to each other. Moreover, after partial impalement into a subset of the superhydrophobic layers, it was observed that a full dewetting transition was possible, which suggests that natural organisms can exploit their multiple layers to prevent irreversible wetting.

  19. Superhydrophobics

    SciTech Connect

    Schaeffer, Daniel; Winter, Kyle

    2013-05-02

    A water repellent developed by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory outperforms nature at its best and could open a floodgate of commercial possibilities. The super-water repellent (superhydrophobic) material, developed by John Simpson, is easy to fabricate and uses inexpensive base materials. The process could lead to the creation of a new class of water repellant products, including windshields, eyewear, clothing, building materials, road surfaces, ship hulls and self-cleaning coatings. The list of likely applications is virtually endless.

  20. Superhydrophobics

    ScienceCinema

    Schaeffer, Daniel; Winter, Kyle

    2016-07-12

    A water repellent developed by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory outperforms nature at its best and could open a floodgate of commercial possibilities. The super-water repellent (superhydrophobic) material, developed by John Simpson, is easy to fabricate and uses inexpensive base materials. The process could lead to the creation of a new class of water repellant products, including windshields, eyewear, clothing, building materials, road surfaces, ship hulls and self-cleaning coatings. The list of likely applications is virtually endless.

  1. Large-area fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces for practical applications: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Chao-Hua; Jia, Shun-Tian; Zhang, Jing; Ma, Jian-Zhong

    2010-01-01

    This review summarizes the key topics in the field of large-area fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces, concentrating on substrates that have been used in commercial applications. Practical approaches to superhydrophobic surface construction and hydrophobization are discussed. Applications of superhydrophobic surfaces are described and future trends in superhydrophobic surfaces are predicted. PMID:27877336

  2. Large-area fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces for practical applications: an overview.

    PubMed

    Xue, Chao-Hua; Jia, Shun-Tian; Zhang, Jing; Ma, Jian-Zhong

    2010-06-01

    This review summarizes the key topics in the field of large-area fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces, concentrating on substrates that have been used in commercial applications. Practical approaches to superhydrophobic surface construction and hydrophobization are discussed. Applications of superhydrophobic surfaces are described and future trends in superhydrophobic surfaces are predicted.

  3. Three-tier rough superhydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yuanzhi; Yuan, Longyan; Hu, Bin; Zhou, Jun

    2015-08-07

    A three-tier rough superhydrophobic surface was fabricated by growing hydrophobic modified (fluorinated silane) zinc oxide (ZnO)/copper oxide (CuO) hetero-hierarchical structures on silicon (Si) micro-pillar arrays. Compared with the other three control samples with a less rough tier, the three-tier surface exhibits the best water repellency with the largest contact angle 161° and the lowest sliding angle 0.5°. It also shows a robust Cassie state which enables the water to flow with a speed over 2 m s(-1). In addition, it could prevent itself from being wetted by the droplet with low surface tension (mixed water and ethanol 1:1 in volume) which reveals a flow speed of 0.6 m s(-1) (dropped from the height of 2 cm). All these features prove that adding another rough tier on a two-tier rough surface could futher improve its water-repellent properties.

  4. Three-tier rough superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yuanzhi; Yuan, Longyan; Hu, Bin; Zhou, Jun

    2015-08-01

    A three-tier rough superhydrophobic surface was fabricated by growing hydrophobic modified (fluorinated silane) zinc oxide (ZnO)/copper oxide (CuO) hetero-hierarchical structures on silicon (Si) micro-pillar arrays. Compared with the other three control samples with a less rough tier, the three-tier surface exhibits the best water repellency with the largest contact angle 161° and the lowest sliding angle 0.5°. It also shows a robust Cassie state which enables the water to flow with a speed over 2 m s-1. In addition, it could prevent itself from being wetted by the droplet with low surface tension (mixed water and ethanol 1:1 in volume) which reveals a flow speed of 0.6 m s-1 (dropped from the height of 2 cm). All these features prove that adding another rough tier on a two-tier rough surface could futher improve its water-repellent properties.

  5. Preparation of polymeric superhydrophobic surfaces and analysis of their wettability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Jian; Huang, Manling; Zhang, Yajun; Wu, Daming; Kuang, Tairong; Xu, Hong; Zhang, Xiaoxu

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we presented three simple, facile and low-cost manufacturing methods—template method, nanoparticle filling method and extrusion stamping forming method—to fabricate the polymeric superhydrophobic surfaces. The stainless steel wire mesh as the template and glass beads was investigated in this study for the first time and low-cost hollow glass beads were rarely used as particles for fabricating the superhydrophobic surface. The water contact angle measurement of polymeric surfaces was used to investigate the effect of mesh count, glass beads and PTFE on fabricating polymeric superhydrophobic surface. It was found that the mesh count significantly affected the hydrophobicity of polymer surface in template method. The addition of glass beads improved the hydrophobicity by nanoparticle filling method. The addition of PTFE was of importance to fabricate the superhydrophobic surface by extrusion stamping forming method. The surface microstructure was also observed by scanning electron microscope.

  6. Superhydrophobic graphene-based materials: surface construction and functional applications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhongxin; Dong, Lei; Yang, Dong; Lu, Hongbin

    2013-10-04

    Many naturally occurring surfaces have superhydrophobicity that fulfils their functional demands, which has inspired considerable interest to develop similar artificial superhydrophobic surfaces with a variety of functionalities. Graphene is an ideal candidate for functional superhydrophobic surfaces due to its exceptional physicochemical properties. The recent advances in this emerging field are summarized, including the wetting behavior of water on graphene and the formation of crumpling/nanoparticle/foam-induced hierarchical structures, with emphasis on fundamental understanding for related processes. The potential applications in energy, environmental remediation, and thermal management are also discussed.

  7. Delayed Frost Growth on Jumping-Drop Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Boreyko, Jonathan B; Collier, Pat

    2013-01-01

    Self-propelled jumping drops are continuously removed from a condensing superhydrophobic surface to enable a micrometric steady-state drop size. Here, we report that subcooled condensate on a chilled superhydrophobic surface are able to repeatedly jump off the surface before heterogeneous ice nucleation occurs. Frost still forms on the superhydrophobic surface due to ice nucleation at neighboring edge defects, which eventually spreads over the entire surface via an inter-drop frost wave. The growth of this inter-drop frost front is shown to be up to three times slower on the superhydrophobic surface compared to a control hydrophobic surface, due to the jumping-drop effect dynamically minimizing the average drop size and surface coverage of the condensate. A simple scaling model is developed to relate the success and speed of inter-drop ice bridging to the drop size distribution. While other reports of condensation frosting on superhydrophobic surfaces have focused exclusively on liquid-solid ice nucleation for isolated drops, these findings reveal that the growth of frost is an inter-drop phenomenon that is strongly coupled to the wettability and drop size distribution of the surface. A jumping-drop superhydrophobic condenser was found to be superior to a conventional dropwise condenser in two respects: preventing heterogeneous ice nucleation by continuously removing subcooled condensate, and delaying frost growth by minimizing the success of interdrop ice bridge formation.

  8. Delayed frost growth on jumping-drop superhydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Boreyko, Jonathan B; Collier, C Patrick

    2013-02-26

    Self-propelled jumping drops are continuously removed from a condensing superhydrophobic surface to enable a micrometric steady-state drop size. Here, we report that subcooled condensate on a chilled superhydrophobic surface are able to repeatedly jump off the surface before heterogeneous ice nucleation occurs. Frost still forms on the superhydrophobic surface due to ice nucleation at neighboring edge defects, which eventually spreads over the entire surface via an interdrop frost wave. The growth of this interdrop frost front is shown to be up to 3 times slower on the superhydrophobic surface compared to a control hydrophobic surface, due to the jumping-drop effect dynamically minimizing the average drop size and surface coverage of the condensate. A simple scaling model is developed to relate the success and speed of interdrop ice bridging to the drop size distribution. While other reports of condensation frosting on superhydrophobic surfaces have focused exclusively on liquid-solid ice nucleation for isolated drops, these findings reveal that the growth of frost is an interdrop phenomenon that is strongly coupled to the wettability and drop size distribution of the surface. A jumping-drop superhydrophobic condenser minimized frost formation relative to a conventional dropwise condenser in two respects: preventing heterogeneous ice nucleation by continuously removing subcooled condensate, and delaying frost growth by limiting the success of interdrop ice bridge formation.

  9. Particle deposition on superhydrophobic surfaces by sessile droplet evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dicuangco, Mercy Grace

    Prediction and active control of the spatial distribution of particulate deposits obtained from sessile droplet evaporation is essential in ink-jet printing, nanostructure assembly, biotechnology, and other applications that require localized deposits. In recent years, sessile droplet evaporation on bio-inspired superhydrophobic surfaces has become an attractive method for depositing materials on a site-specific, localized region, but is less explored compared to evaporative deposition on hydrophilic surfaces. It is therefore of interest to understand particle deposition during droplet evaporation on superhydrophobic surfaces to enable accurate prediction and tunable control of localized deposits on such surfaces. The purpose of the present work is to explore the morphology of particles deposited on superhydrophobic surfaces by the evaporation of sessile water droplets containing suspended latex spheres. Droplet evaporation experiments are performed on non-wetting, textured surfaces with varying geometric parameters. The temporal evolution of the droplet contact radius and contact angle throughout the evaporation process are tracked by visualizing the transient droplet shape and wetting behavior. The droplets are observed to exhibit a combination of the following modes of evaporation: the constant contact radius mode, the constant contact angle mode, and the mixed mode in which the contact angle and the contact radius change simultaneously. After complete dry-out, the remaining particulate deposits are qualitatively and quantitatively characterized to describe their spatial distribution. In the first part of the study, the test surfaces are maintained at different temperatures. Experiments are conducted at ambient conditions and at elevated substrate temperatures of approximately 40°C, 50°C, and 60°C. The results show that droplet evaporation on superhydrophobic surfaces, driven by either mass diffusion at ambient conditions or by substrate heating, suppresses

  10. Fabrication of the micro/nano-structure superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy by sulfuric acid anodizing and polypropylene coating.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ruomei; Liang, Shuquan; Liu, Jun; Pan, Anqiang; Yu, Y; Tang, Yan

    2013-03-01

    The preparation of the superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy by anodizing and polypropylene (PP) coating was reported. Both the different anodizing process and different PP coatings of aluminum alloy were investigated. The effects of different anodizing conditions, such as electrolyte concentration, anodization time and current on the superhydrophobic surface were discussed. By PP coating after anodizing, a good superhydrophobic surface was facilely fabricated. The optimum conditions for anodizing were determined by orthogonal experiments. After the aluminium-alloy was grinded with 600# sandpaper, pretreated by 73 g/L hydrochloric acid solution at 1 min, when the concentration of sulfuric acid was 180 g/L, the concentration of oxalic acid was 5 g/L, the concentration of potassium dichromate was 10 g/L, the concentration of chloride sodium was 50 g/L and 63 g/L of glycerol, anodization time was 20 min, and anodization current was 1.2 A/dm2, anodization temperature was 30-35 degrees C, the best micro-nanostructure aluminum alloy films was obtained. On the other hand, the PP with different concentrations was used to the PP with different concentrations was used to coat the aluminum alloy surface after anodizing. The results showed that the best superhydrophobicity was achieved by coating PP, and the duration of the superhydrophobic surface was improved by modifying the coat the aluminum alloy surface after anodizing. The results showed that the best superhydrophobicity was surface with high concentration PP. The morphologies of micro/nano-structure superhydrophobic surface were further confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The material of PP with the low surface free energy combined with the micro/nano-structures of the surface resulted in the superhydrophobicity of the aluminum alloy surface.

  11. A novel fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces for universal applicability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Su-Wen; Guo, Bo-Long; Wu, Wang-Suo

    2011-12-01

    The present work reports a novel and facile approach to fabricate stable superhydrophobic surfaces for universal applicability in practice. Poly(furfuryl alcohol)/copper composite coatings were prepared on substrates via a brush-painting method; after being immersed in a stearic acid solution, the superhydrophobic surfaces were obtained due to the formation of copper stearate on the substrates. These products were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, X-ray powder diffraction and the X-ray photoelectron spectrum. Results demonstrate that the superhydrophobic surfaces formed originally on copper substrates can also be generated on other substrates without the copper element. Furthermore, this work will provide a simple and universal method to create large-scale superhydrophobic surfaces on various substrates.

  12. Manufacturing of Superhydrophobic Surfaces with Nanoscale and Microscale Features

    SciTech Connect

    2009-06-01

    This factsheet describes a research project that will develop a technology that will enable nanoscale and microscale superhydrophobic (SHP) features to be imaged onto surfaces for the high-volume manufacturing of water-repellent components and coatings.

  13. Evaporation kinetics of sessile water droplets on micropillared superhydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Leeladhar, Rajesh; Kang, Yong Tae; Choi, Chang-Hwan

    2013-05-21

    Evaporation modes and kinetics of sessile droplets of water on micropillared superhydrophobic surfaces are experimentally investigated. The results show that a constant contact radius (CCR) mode and a constant contact angle (CCA) mode are two dominating evaporation modes during droplet evaporation on the superhydrophobic surfaces. With the decrease in the solid fraction of the superhydrophobic surfaces, the duration of a CCR mode is reduced and that of a CCA mode is increased. Compared to Rowan's kinetic model, which is based on the vapor diffusion across the droplet boundary, the change in a contact angle in a CCR (pinned) mode shows a remarkable deviation, decreasing at a slower rate on the superhydrophobic surfaces with less-solid fractions. In a CCA (receding) mode, the change in a contact radius agrees well with the theoretical expectation, and the receding speed is slower on the superhydrophobic surfaces with lower solid fractions. The discrepancy between experimental results and Rowan's model is attributed to the initial large contact angle of a droplet on superhydrophobic surfaces. The droplet geometry with a large contact angle results in a narrow wedge region of air along the contact boundary, where the liquid-vapor diffusion is significantly restricted. Such an effect becomes minor as the evaporation proceeds with the decrease in a contact angle. In both the CCR and CCA modes, the evaporative mass transfer shows the linear relationship between mass(2/3) and evaporation time. However, the evaporation rate is slower on the superhydrophobic surfaces, which is more significant on the surfaces with lower solid fractions. As a result, the superhydrophobic surfaces slow down the drying process of a sessile droplet on them.

  14. Multifunctional polymer nano-composite based superhydrophobic surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maitra, Tanmoy; Asthana, Ashish; Buchel, Robert; Tiwari, Manish K.; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2014-11-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces become desirable in plethora of applications in engineering fields, automobile industry, construction industries to name a few. Typical fabrication of superhydrophobic surface consists of two steps: first is to create rough morphology on the substrate of interest, followed by coating of low energy molecules. However, typical exception of the above fabrication technique would be direct coating of functional polymer nanocomposites on substrate where superhydrophobicity is needed. Also in this case, the use of different nanoparticles in the polymer matrix can be exploited to impart multi-functional properties to the superhydrophobic coatings. Herein, different carbon nanoparticles like graphene nanoplatelets (GNP), carbon nanotubes (CNT) and carbon black (CB) are used in fluropolymer matrix to prepare superhydrophobic coatings. The multi-functional properties of coatings are enhanced by combining two different carbon fillers in the matrix. The aforementioned superhydrophobic coatings have shown high electrical conductivity and excellent droplet meniscus impalement resistance. Simultaneous superhydrophobic and oleophillic character of the above coating is used to separate mineral oil and water through filtration of their mixture. Swiss National Science Foundation (SNF) Grant 200021_135479.

  15. How Water Advances on Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schellenberger, Frank; Encinas, Noemí; Vollmer, Doris; Butt, Hans-Jürgen

    2016-03-01

    Superliquid repellency can be achieved by nano- and microstructuring surfaces in such a way that protrusions entrap air underneath the liquid. It is still not known how the three-phase contact line advances on such structured surfaces. In contrast to a smooth surface, where the contact line can advance continuously, on a superliquid-repellent surface, the contact line has to overcome an air gap between protrusions. Here, we apply laser scanning confocal microscopy to get the first microscopic videos of water drops advancing on a superhydrophobic array of micropillars. In contrast to common belief, the liquid surface gradually bends down until it touches the top face of the next micropillars. The apparent advancing contact angle is 180°. On the receding side, pinning to the top faces of the micropillars determines the apparent receding contact angle. Based on these observations, we propose that the apparent receding contact angle should be used for characterizing superliquid-repellent surfaces rather than the apparent advancing contact angle and hysteresis.

  16. Integrated three-dimensional photonic nanostructures for achieving near-unity solar absorption and superhydrophobicity

    SciTech Connect

    Kuang, Ping; Lin, Shawn-Yu; Hsieh, Mei-Li

    2015-06-07

    In this paper, we proposed and realized 3D photonic nanostructures consisting of ultra-thin graded index antireflective coatings (ARCs) and woodpile photonic crystals. The use of the integrated ARC and photonic crystal structure can achieve broadband, broad-angle near unity solar absorption. The amorphous silicon based photonic nanostructure experimentally shows an average absorption of ∼95% for λ = 400–620 nm over a wide angular acceptance of θ = 0°–60°. Theoretical studies show that a Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) based structure can achieve an average absorption of >95% for λ = 400–870 nm. Furthermore, the use of the slanted SiO{sub 2} nanorod ARC surface layer by glancing angle deposition exhibits Cassie-Baxter state wetting, and superhydrophobic surface is obtained with highest water contact angle θ{sub CB} ∼ 153°. These properties are fundamentally important for achieving maximum solar absorption and surface self-cleaning in thin film solar cell applications.

  17. Fabrication of superhydrophobic and highly oleophobic silicon-based surfaces via electroless etching method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Thi Phuong Nhung; Dufour, Renaud; Thomy, Vincent; Senez, Vincent; Boukherroub, Rabah; Coffinier, Yannick

    2014-03-01

    This study reports on a simple method for the preparation of superhydrophobic and highly oleophobic nanostructured silicon surfaces. The technique relies on metal-assisted electroless etching of silicon in sodium tetrafluoroborate (NaBF4) aqueous solution. Then, silver particles were deposited on the obtained surfaces, changing their overall physical morphology. Finally, the surfaces were coated by either C4F8, a fluoropolymer deposited by plasma, or by SiOx overlayers chemically modified with 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane (PFTS) through silanization reaction. All these surfaces exhibit a superhydrophobic character (large apparent contact angle and low hysteresis with respect to water). In addition, they present high oleophobic properties, i.e. a high repellency to low surface energy liquids with various contact angle hysteresis, both depending on the morphology and type of coating.

  18. Condensation and freezing of droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Oberli, Linda; Caruso, Dean; Hall, Colin; Fabretto, Manrico; Murphy, Peter J; Evans, Drew

    2014-08-01

    Superhydrophobic coatings are reported as promising candidates for anti-icing applications. Various studies have shown that as well as having ultra water repellency the surfaces have reduced ice adhesion and can delay water freezing. However, the structure or texture (roughness) of the superhydrophobic surface is subject to degradation during the thermocycling or wetting process. This degradation can impair the superhydrophobicity and the icephobicity of those coatings. In this review, a brief overview of the process of droplet freezing on superhydrophobic coatings is presented with respect to their potential in anti-icing applications. To support this discussion, new data is presented about the condensation of water onto physically decorated substrates, and the associated freezing process which impacts on the freezing of macroscopic droplets on the surface.

  19. Nano-engineering of superhydrophobic aluminum surfaces for anti-corrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Chanyoung

    Metal corrosion is a serious problem, both economically and operationally, for engineering systems such as aircraft, automobiles, pipelines, and naval vessels. In such engineering systems, aluminum is one of the primary materials of construction due to its light weight compared to steel and good general corrosion resistance. However, because of aluminum's relatively lower resistance to corrosion in salt water environments, protective measures such as thick coatings, paints, or cathodic protection must be used for satisfactory service life. Unfortunately, such anti-corrosion methods can create other concerns, such as environmental contamination, protection durability, and negative impact on hydrodynamic efficiency. Recently, a novel approach to preventing metal corrosion has emerged, using superhydrophobic surfaces. Superhydrophobic surfaces create a composite interface to liquid by retaining air within the surface structures, thus minimizing the direct contact of the liquid environment to the metal surface. The result is a highly non-wetting and anti-adherent surface that can offer other benefits such as biofouling resistance and hydrodynamic low friction. Prior research with superhydrophobic surfaces for corrosion applications was based on irregular surface roughening and/or chemical coatings, which resulted in random surface features, mostly on the micrometer scale. Such microscale surface roughness with poor controllability of structural dimensions and shapes has been a critical limitation to deeper understanding of the anti-corrosive effectiveness and optimized application of this approach. The research reported here provides a novel approach to producing controlled superhydrophobic nanostructures on aluminum that allows a systematic investigation of the superhydrophobic surface parameters on the corrosion resistance and hence can provide a route to optimization of the surface. Electrochemical anodization is used to controllably modulate the oxide layer

  20. Superhydrophobic Surfaces Boost Fibril Self-Assembly of Amyloid β Peptides.

    PubMed

    Accardo, Angelo; Shalabaeva, Victoria; Di Cola, Emanuela; Burghammer, Manfred; Krahne, Roman; Riekel, Christian; Dante, Silvia

    2015-09-23

    Amyloid β (Aβ) peptides are the main constituents of Alzheimer's amyloid plaques in the brain. Here we report how the unique microfluidic flows exerted by droplets sitting on superhydrophobic surfaces can influence the aggregation mechanisms of several Aβ fragments by boosting their fibril self-assembly. Aβ(25-35), Aβ(1-40), and Aβ(12-28) were dried both on flat hydrophilic surfaces (contact angle (CA) = 37.3°) and on nanostructured superhydrophobic ones (CA = 175.8°). By embedding nanoroughened surfaces on top of highly X-ray transparent Si3N4 membranes, it was possible to probe the solid residues by raster-scan synchrotron radiation X-ray microdiffraction (μXRD). As compared to residues obtained on flat Si3N4 membranes, a general enhancement of fibrillar material was detected for all Aβ fragments dried on superhydrophobic surfaces, with a particular emphasis on the shorter ones. Indeed, both Aβ(25-35) and Aβ(12-28) showed a marked crystalline cross-β phase with varying fiber textures. The homogeneous evaporation rate provided by these nanostructured supports, and the possibility to use transparent membranes, can open a wide range of in situ X-ray and spectroscopic characterizations of amyloidal peptides involved in neurodegenerative diseases and for the fabrication of amyloid-based nanodevices.

  1. Nanoengineered Superhydrophobic Surfaces of Aluminum with Extremely Low Bacterial Adhesivity.

    PubMed

    Hizal, Ferdi; Rungraeng, Natthakan; Lee, Junghoon; Jun, Soojin; Busscher, Henk J; van der Mei, Henny C; Choi, Chang-Hwan

    2017-04-05

    Bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation on surfaces are troublesome in many industrial processes. Here, nanoporous and nanopillared aluminum surfaces were engineered by anodizing and postetching processes and made hydrophilic (using the inherent oxide layer) or hydrophobic (applying a Teflon coating) with the aim of discouraging bacterial adhesion. Adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 12600 (Gram-positive, spherically shaped) and Escherichia coli K-12 (Gram-negative, rod-shaped) was evaluated to the nanoengineered surfaces under both static and flow conditions (fluid shear rate of 37 s(-1)). Compared to a nonstructured electropolished flat surface, the nanostructured surfaces significantly reduced the number of adhering colony forming units (CFUs) for both species, as measured using agar plating. For the hydrophilic surfaces, this was attributed to a decreased contact area, reducing bacterial adhesion forces on nanoporous and nanopillared surfaces to 4 and 2 nN, respectively, from 8 nN on flat surfaces. Reductions in the numbers of adhering CFUs were more marked on hydrophobic surfaces under flow, amounting to more than 99.9% and 99.4% for S. aureus and E. coli on nanopillared surfaces, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a few bacteria found on the hydrophobic nanopillared surfaces adhered predominantly to defective or damaged areas, whereas the intact area preserving the original nanopillared morphology was virtually devoid of adhering bacteria. The greater decrease in bacterial adhesion to hydrophobic nanopillared surfaces than to hydrophilic or nanoporous ones is attributed to effective air entrapment in the three-dimensional pillar morphology, rendering them superhydrophobic and slippery, in addition to providing a minimized contact area for bacteria to adhere to.

  2. Collapse of superhydrophobicity on nanopillared surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amabili, Matteo; Giacomello, Alberto; Meloni, Simone; Casciola, Carlo Massimo

    2017-03-01

    The mechanism of the collapse of the superhydrophobic state is elucidated for submerged nanoscale textures forming a three-dimensional interconnected vapor domain. This key issue for the design of nanotextures poses significant simulation challenges as it is characterized by diverse time and length scales. State-of-the-art atomistic rare events simulations are applied for overcoming the long time scales connected with the large free energy barriers. In such interconnected surface cavities wetting starts with the formation of a liquid finger between two pillars. This break of symmetry induces a more gentle bend in the rest of the liquid-vapor interface, which triggers the wetting of the neighboring pillars. This collective mechanism, involving the wetting of several pillars at the same time, could not be captured by previous atomistic simulations using surface models comprising a small number of pillars (often just one). Atomistic results are interpreted in terms of a sharp-interface continuum model which suggests that line tension, condensation, and other nanoscale phenomena play a minor role in the simulated conditions.

  3. Why condensate drops can spontaneously move away on some superhydrophobic surfaces but not on others.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jie; Pang, Yichuan; Qin, Zhaoqian; Ma, Ruiyuan; Yao, Shuhuai

    2012-12-01

    The coalesce-induced condensate drop motion on some superhydrophobic surfaces (SHSs) has attracted increasing attention because of its wide potential applications. However, microscopic mechanism of spontaneous motion has not been discussed thoroughly. In this study, we fabricated two types of superhydrophobic copper surfaces with sisal-like nanoribbon structures and defoliation-like nanosheet structures by different wet chemical oxidation process and followed by same fluorization treatment. With lotus leaf and butterfly wing as control samples, the spontaneous motion phenomenon of condensate drops on these four kinds of SHSs was investigated by using optical microscope under ambient conditions. The results showed that among all four types of SHSs, only superhydrophobic copper surfaces with sisal-like nanoribbon structures showed obvious spontaneous motion of condensate drops, especially when the relative humidity was higher. The microscopic mechanism of spontaneous motion was discussed in relation to the states of condensate drops on different nanostructures. It shows that the instantaneous Cassie state of condensed droplets prior to coalescence plays a key role in determining whether the coalesced drop departs, whereas only SHS possessing nanostructures with small enough Wenzel roughness parameter r (at least <2.1) and nanogaps forming high enough Laplace pressure favors the formation of the instantaneous Cassie state by completing the Wenzel-Cassie transition.

  4. Transparent superhydrophobic surfaces for applications of controlled reflectance.

    PubMed

    Gou, Steven; Mossman, Michele; Whitehead, Lorne

    2012-04-10

    This work involves a new optical application for transparent superhydrophobic materials, which enables low-energy optical contact between a liquid and solid surface. The new technique described here uses this surface property to control the reflectance of a surface using frustration of total internal reflection. Surface chemistry and appropriate micro-scale and nano-scale geometries are combined to produce interfaces with low adhesion to water and the degree to which incident light is reflected at this interface is controlled by the movement of water, thereby modifying the optical characteristics at the interface. The low adhesion of water to superhydrophobic surfaces is particularly advantageous in imaging applications where power use must be minimized. This paper describes the general approach, as well as a proof-of-principle experiment in which the reflectance was controlled by moving a water drop into and out of contact with a superhydrophobic surface by variation of applied electrostatic pressure.

  5. Fabrication of superhydrophobic polyurethane/organoclay nano-structured composites from cyclomethicone-in-water emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayer, I. S.; Steele, A.; Martorana, P. J.; Loth, E.

    2010-11-01

    Nano-structured polyurethane/organoclay composite films were fabricated by dispersing moisture-curable polyurethanes and fatty amine/amino-silane surface modified montmorillonite clay (organoclay) in cyclomethicone-in-water emulsions. Cyclomethicone Pickering emulsions were made by emulsifying decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D 5), dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D 6) and aminofunctional siloxane polymers with water using montmorillonite particles as emulsion stabilizers. Polyurethane and organoclay dispersed emulsions were spray coated on aluminum surfaces. Upon thermosetting, water repellent self-cleaning coatings were obtained with measured static water contact angles exceeding 155° and low contact angle hysteresis (<8°). Electron microscopy images of the coating surfaces revealed formation of self-similar hierarchical micro- and nano-scale surface structures. The surface morphology and the coating adhesion strength to aluminum substrates were found to be sensitive to the relative amounts of dispersed polyurethane and organoclay in the emulsions. The degree of superhydrophobicity was analyzed using static water contact angles as well as contact angle hysteresis measurements. Due to biocompatibility of cyclomethicones and polyurethane, developed coatings can be considered for specific bio-medical applications.

  6. Shrink-induced superhydrophobic and antibacterial surfaces in consumer plastics.

    PubMed

    Freschauf, Lauren R; McLane, Jolie; Sharma, Himanshu; Khine, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Structurally modified superhydrophobic surfaces have become particularly desirable as stable antibacterial surfaces. Because their self-cleaning and water resistant properties prohibit bacteria growth, structurally modified superhydrophobic surfaces obviate bacterial resistance common with chemical agents, and therefore a robust and stable means to prevent bacteria growth is possible. In this study, we present a rapid fabrication method for creating such superhydrophobic surfaces in consumer hard plastic materials with resulting antibacterial effects. To replace complex fabrication materials and techniques, the initial mold is made with commodity shrink-wrap film and is compatible with large plastic roll-to-roll manufacturing and scale-up techniques. This method involves a purely structural modification free of chemical additives leading to its inherent consistency over time and successive recasting from the same molds. Finally, antibacterial properties are demonstrated in polystyrene (PS), polycarbonate (PC), and polyethylene (PE) by demonstrating the prevention of gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria growth on our structured plastic surfaces.

  7. Selectively splitting a droplet using superhydrophobic stripes on hydrophilic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Song, Dong; Song, Baowei; Hu, Haibao; Du, Xiaosong; Zhou, Feng

    2015-06-07

    Superhydrophobic patterns were fabricated on hydrophilic surfaces by selective painting. The impinging process of water droplets on these hybrid surfaces was investigated. The droplet can be split by impinging on the hydrophilic surface with a single stripe at a high velocity. The time to split the droplet is independent of the impact velocity and it is smaller than the contact time of a droplet impinging on the fully superhydrophobic surface. The volume ratios of the split mini-droplets could be precisely controlled by adjusting the landing position of the original droplet. The droplet could be split uniformly into more mini-marbles by increasing the stripe numbers.

  8. Fabrication of superhydrophobic and lyophobic slippery surface on steel substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Nan; Xiong, Dangsheng; Pan, Sai; Deng, Yaling; Shi, Yan

    2016-11-01

    Superhydrophobic/oleophilic coating was prepared on steel via wet chemical etching, and followed by surface modification. Surface grafting was manifested to be realized mainly on the oxidized area. Slippery liquid infused porous surface(s) (SLIPS) was prepared by infusing perfluorinated lubricant into the prepared superhydrophobic coating, to repel water, coffee, kerosene, and even hexane, suggesting a transition from superoleophilicity to lyophobicity. Furthermore, the lyohobicity was accessible only when the substrate is fluorinated. Moreover, the kinematic viscosity was demonstrated to be negatively correlated to the traveling speed of the liquids on the SLIPS.

  9. Reversible switching between superhydrophobic states on a hierarchically structured surface

    PubMed Central

    Verho, Tuukka; Korhonen, Juuso T.; Sainiemi, Lauri; Jokinen, Ville; Bower, Chris; Franze, Kristian; Franssila, Sami; Andrew, Piers; Ikkala, Olli; Ras, Robin H. A.

    2012-01-01

    Nature offers exciting examples for functional wetting properties based on superhydrophobicity, such as the self-cleaning surfaces on plant leaves and trapped air on immersed insect surfaces allowing underwater breathing. They inspire biomimetic approaches in science and technology. Superhydrophobicity relies on the Cassie wetting state where air is trapped within the surface topography. Pressure can trigger an irreversible transition from the Cassie state to the Wenzel state with no trapped air—this transition is usually detrimental for nonwetting functionality and is to be avoided. Here we present a new type of reversible, localized and instantaneous transition between two Cassie wetting states, enabled by two-level (dual-scale) topography of a superhydrophobic surface, that allows writing, erasing, rewriting and storing of optically displayed information in plastrons related to different length scales. PMID:22689952

  10. Super-hydrophobicity of PMMA and PDMS surfaces structured by femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Hong-Myeong; Lee, Woon-Young; Lee, Jin-Ho; Yang, Deok-Cho; Lim, Ki-Soo

    2013-03-01

    Surface wettability depends on both physical surface structure and chemical material. In this report, we demonstrate super-hydrophobic surface of cast polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) sheet by femtosecond laser fabrication. Twodimensional micro-array structures of square-typed pillars with various heights, widths, and intervals were fabricated on the PMMA surface by femtosecond laser irradiation and chemical etching. The Yb:KGW femtosecond laser processing system (λ=1030 nm) delivering 250 fs pulses at a repetition rate 100 kHz was employed for fabrication. The contact angle of PMMA changed 64° (hydrophilic plane) to 150° (super-hydrophobic structure). We also improved superhydrophobicity up to 170° contact angle by spin-coating PMMA surface with PDMS and fabricating regular microstructures including irregular nano-structures. We also coated the structured PMMA surface with a car ash spray material to use another combination of surface morphology and chemistry. All the experimental results were compared with those expected values by Cassie-Baxter model.

  11. Stability of plasma treated superhydrophobic surfaces under different ambient conditions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Faze; Liu, Jiyu; Cui, Yao; Huang, Shuai; Song, Jinlong; Sun, Jing; Xu, Wenji; Liu, Xin

    2016-05-15

    Plasma hydrophilizing of superhydrophobic substrates has become an important area of research, for example, superhydrophobic-(super)hydrophilic patterned surfaces have significant practical applications such as lab-on-chip systems, cell adhesion, and control of liquid transport. However, the stability of plasma-induced hydrophilicity is always considered as a key issue since the wettability tends to revert back to the untreated state (i.e. aging behavior). This paper focuses on the stability of plasma treated superhydrophobic surface under different ambient conditions (e.g. temperature and relative humidity). Water contact angle measurement and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy are used to monitor the aging process. Results show that low temperature and low relative humidity are favorable to retard the aging process and that pre-storage at low temperature (-10°C) disables the treated surface to recover superhydrophobicity. When the aging is performed in water, a long-lasting hydropholicity is obtained. As the stability of plasma-induced hydrophilcity over a desired period of time is a very important issue, this work will contribute to the optimization of storage conditions of plasma treated superhydrophobic surfaces.

  12. Superhydrophobic bio-fibre surfaces via tailored grafting architecture.

    PubMed

    Nyström, Daniel; Lindqvist, Josefina; Ostmark, Emma; Hult, Anders; Malmström, Eva

    2006-09-14

    Superhydrophobic bio-fibre surfaces with a micro-nano-binary surface structure have been achieved via the surface-confined grafting of glycidyl methacrylate, using a branched "graft-on-graft" architecture, followed by post-functionalisation to obtain fluorinated brushes.

  13. High contact angle hysteresis of superhydrophobic surfaces: Hydrophobic defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Feng-Ming; Hong, Siang-Jie; Sheng, Yu-Jane; Tsao, Heng-Kwong

    2009-08-01

    A typical superhydrophobic surface is essentially nonadhesive and exhibits very low water contact angle (CA) hysteresis, so-called Lotus effect. However, leaves of some plants such as scallion and garlic with an advancing angle exceeding 150° show very serious CA hysteresis. Although surface roughness and epicuticular wax can explain the very high advancing CA, our analysis indicates that the unusual hydrophobic defect, diallyl disulfide, is the key element responsible for contact line pinning on allium leaves. After smearing diallyl disulfide on an extended polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) film, which is originally absent of CA hysteresis, the surface remains superhydrophobic but becomes highly adhesive.

  14. Fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces of n-hexatriacontane.

    PubMed

    Tavana, H; Amirfazli, A; Neumann, A W

    2006-06-20

    Superhydrophobic surfaces of n-hexatriacontane were fabricated in a single-step process. The low surface energy of n-hexatriacontane together with the randomly distributed micro- and nanoscale roughness features guarantees very large contact angles and a small roll-off angle for water drops. The advantage of n-hexatriacontane superhydrophobic surfaces is their stability in the sense that they are impervious to chemical reactions and retain their wetting characteristics over a long period of time, as confirmed by XPS analysis and contact angle measurements.

  15. One-step electrodeposition process to fabricate cathodic superhydrophobic surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhi; Li, Feng; Hao, Limei; Chen, Anqi; Kong, Youchao

    2011-12-01

    In this work, a rapid one-step process is developed to fabricate superhydrophobic cathodic surface by electrodepositing copper plate in an electrolyte solution containing manganese chloride (MnCl2·4H2O), myristic acid (CH3(CH2)12COOH) and ethanol. The superhydrophobic surfaces were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The shortest electrolysis time for fabricating a superhydrophobic surface is about 1 min, the measured maximum contact angle is 163° and rolling angle is less than 3°. Furthermore, this method can be easily extended to other conductive materials. The approach is time-saving and cheap, and it is supposed to have a promising future in industrial fields.

  16. Superhydrophobic Surface Coatings for Microfluidics and MEMs.

    SciTech Connect

    Branson, Eric D.; Singh, Seema; Houston, Jack E.; van Swol, Frank B.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    2006-11-01

    Low solid interfacial energy and fractally rough surface topography confer to Lotus plants superhydrophobic (SH) properties like high contact angles, rolling and bouncing of liquid droplets, and self-cleaning of particle contaminants. This project exploits the porous fractal structure of a novel, synthetic SH surface for aerosol collection, its self-cleaning properties for particle concentration, and its slippery nature 3 to enhance the performance of fluidic and MEMS devices. We propose to understand fundamentally the conditions needed to cause liquid droplets to roll rather than flow/slide on a surface and how this %22rolling transition%22 influences the boundary condition describing fluid flow in a pipe or micro-channel. Rolling of droplets is important for aerosol collection strategies because it allows trapped particles to be concentrated and transported in liquid droplets with no need for a pre-defined/micromachined fluidic architecture. The fluid/solid boundary condition is important because it governs flow resistance and rheology and establishes the fluid velocity profile. Although many research groups are exploring SH surfaces, our team is the first to unambiguously determine their effects on fluid flow and rheology. SH surfaces could impact all future SNL designs of collectors, fluidic devices, MEMS, and NEMS. Interfaced with inertial focusing aerosol collectors, SH surfaces would allow size-specific particle populations to be collected, concentrated, and transported to a fluidic interface without loss. In microfluidic systems, we expect to reduce the energy/power required to pump fluids and actuate MEMS. Plug-like (rather than parabolic) velocity profiles can greatly improve resolution of chip-based separations and enable unprecedented control of concentration profiles and residence times in fluidic-based micro-reactors. Patterned SH/hydrophilic channels could induce mixing in microchannels and enable development of microflow control elements

  17. A novel preparation of polystyrene film with a superhydrophobic surface using a template method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Zhiqing; Chen, Hong; Tang, Jianxin; Gong, Huifang; Liu, Yuejun; Wang, Zhengxiang; Shi, Pu; Zhang, Jide; Chen, Xin

    2007-06-01

    Inspired by the self-cleaning superhydrophobic taro leaf, a polystyrene (PS) film with superhydrophobic surface was obtained using a natural taro leaf as template. The water contact angle and the sliding angle of the superhydrophobic PS surface were 158° ± 1.6° and 3°, respectively. The PS surface was still superhydrophobic when contacting with black ink, fresh blood and even viscous glue water. SEM shows that the surface structure comprises many uniform papillae with the diameters ranging from 10 to 15 µm, which is similar to the surface structure of natural taro leaf. Such a special surface morphology may result in the superhydrophobic property.

  18. Bacterial growth on a superhydrophobic surface containing silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinonen, S.; Nikkanen, J.-P.; Laakso, J.; Raulio, M.; Priha, O.; Levänen, E.

    2013-12-01

    The antibacterial effect of silver can be exploited in the food and beverage industry and medicinal applications to reduce biofouling of surfaces. Very small amount of silver ions are enough to destructively affect the metabolism of bacteria. Moreover, superhydrophobic properties could reduce bacterial adhesion to the surface. In this study we fabricated superhydrophobic surfaces that contained nanosized silver particles. The superhydrophobic surfaces were manufactured onto stainless steel as combination of ceramic nanotopography and hydrophobication by fluorosilane. Silver nanoparticles were precipitated onto the surface by a chemical method. The dissolution of silver from the surface was tested in an aqueous environment under pH values of 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 and 13. The pH value was adjusted with nitric acid and ammonia. It was found that dissolution rate of silver increased as the pH of the solution altered from the pH of de-ionized water to lower and higher pH values but dissolution occurred also in de-ionized water. The antimicrobial potential of this coating was investigated using bacterial strains isolated from the brewery equipment surfaces. The results showed that the number of bacteria adhering onto steel surface was significantly reduced (88%) on the superhydrophobic silver containing coating.

  19. Superhydrophobic surface supported bioassay--an application in blood typing.

    PubMed

    Li, Lizi; Tian, Junfei; Li, Miaosi; Shen, Wei

    2013-06-01

    This study presents a new application of superhydrophobic surfaces in conducting biological assays for human blood typing using a liquid drop micro reactor. The superhydrophobic substrate was fabricated by a simple printing technique with Teflon powder. The non-wetting and weak hysteresis characteristics of superhydrophobic surfaces enable the blood and antibody droplets to have a near-spherical shape, making it easy for the haemagglutination reaction inside the droplet to be photographed or recorded by a digital camera and then analyzed by image analysis software. This novel blood typing method requires only a small amount of blood sample. The evaluation of assay results using image analysis techniques offers potential to develop high throughput operations of rapid blood typing assays for pathological laboratories. With the capability of identifying detailed red blood cell agglutination patterns and intensities, this method is also useful for confirming blood samples that have weak red blood cell antigens.

  20. Design and fabrication of microcavity-array superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvadori, M. C.; Cattani, M.; Oliveira, M. R. S.; Teixeira, F. S.; Brown, I. G.

    2010-07-01

    We have modeled, fabricated, and characterized superhydrophobic surfaces with a morphology formed of periodic microstructures which are cavities. This surface morphology is the inverse of that generally reported in the literature when the surface is formed of pillars or protrusions, and has the advantage that when immersed in water the confined air inside the cavities tends to expel the invading water. This differs from the case of a surface morphology formed of pillars or protrusions, for which water can penetrate irreversibly among the microstructures, necessitating complete drying of the surface in order to again recover its superhydrophobic character. We have developed a theoretical model that allows calculation of the microcavity dimensions needed to obtain superhydrophobic surfaces composed of patterns of such microcavities, and that provides estimates of the advancing and receding contact angle as a function of microcavity parameters. The model predicts that the cavity aspect ratio (depth-to-diameter ratio) can be much less than unity, indicating that the microcavities do not need to be deep in order to obtain a surface with enhanced superhydrophobic character. Specific microcavity patterns have been fabricated in polydimethylsiloxane and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and contact angle measurements. The measured advancing and receding contact angles are in good agreement with the predictions of the model.

  1. Designing robust alumina nanowires-on-nanopores structures: superhydrophobic surfaces with slippery or sticky water adhesion.

    PubMed

    Peng, Shan; Tian, Dong; Miao, Xinrui; Yang, Xiaojun; Deng, Wenli

    2013-11-01

    Hierarchical alumina surfaces with different morphologies were fabricated by a simple one-step anodization method. These alumina films were fabricated by a new raw material: silica gel plate (aluminum foil with a low purity of 97.17%). The modulation of anodizing time enabled the formation of nanowires-on-nanopores hybrid nanostructures having controllable nanowires topographies through a self-assembly process. The resultant structures were demonstrated to be able to achieve superhydrophobicity without any hydrophobic coating layer. More interestingly, it is found that the as-prepared superhydrophobic alumina surfaces exhibited high contrast water adhesion. Hierarchical alumina film with nanowire bunches-on-nanopores (WBOP) morphology presents extremely slippery property which can obtain a sliding angle (SA) as low as 1°, nanowire pyramids-on-nanopores (WPOP) structure shows strongly sticky water adhesion with the adhesive ability to support 15 μL inverted water droplet at most. The obtained superhydrophobic alumina surfaces show remarkable mechanical durability even treated by crimping or pressing without impact on the water-repellent performance. Moreover, the created surfaces also show excellent resistivity to ice water, boiling water, high temperature, organic solvent and oil contamination, which could expand their usefulness and efficacy in harsh conditions.

  2. Facile and fast fabrication of superhydrophobic surface on magnesium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhongwei; Li, Qing; She, Zuxin; Chen, Funan; Li, Longqin; Zhang, Xiaoxu; Zhang, Peng

    2013-04-01

    Superhydrophobic surface has many special functions and is widely investigated by researchers. Magnesium alloy is one of the lightest metal materials among the practice metals. It plays an important role in automobile, airplane and digital product for reducing devices weight. But due to the low standard potential, magnesium alloy has a high chemical activity and easily be corroded. That seriously impedes the application of magnesium alloy. In the process of fabrication a superhydrophobic surface on magnesium alloy, there are two ineluctable problems that must be solved: (1) high chemical activity and (2) the chemical activity is inhomogeneous on surface. In this study, we solved those problems by using the two characters to gain a rough surface on magnesium alloy and obtained a superhydrophobic surface after following modification process. The results show that the as-prepared superhydrophobic surface has obvious anti-corrosion effect in typically corrosive solution and naturally humid air. The delay-icing and self-cleaning effects are also investigated. The presented method is low-cost, fast and has great potential value in large-scale industry production.

  3. Droplet evaporation on heated hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, Susmita; Garimella, Suresh V.

    2014-04-01

    The evaporation characteristics of sessile water droplets on smooth hydrophobic and structured superhydrophobic heated surfaces are experimentally investigated. Droplets placed on the hierarchical superhydrophobic surface subtend a very high contact angle (˜160°) and demonstrate low roll-off angle (˜1°), while the hydrophobic substrate supports corresponding values of 120° and ˜10°. The substrates are heated to different constant temperatures in the range of 40-60 °C, which causes the droplet to evaporate much faster than in the case of natural evaporation without heating. The geometric parameters of the droplet, such as contact angle, contact radius, and volume evolution over time, are experimentally tracked. The droplets are observed to evaporate primarily in a constant-contact-angle mode where the contact line slides along the surface. The measurements are compared with predictions from a model based on diffusion of vapor into the ambient that assumes isothermal conditions. This vapor-diffusion-only model captures the qualitative evaporation characteristics on both test substrates, but reasonable quantitative agreement is achieved only for the hydrophobic surface. The superhydrophobic surface demonstrates significant deviation between the measured evaporation rate and that obtained using the vapor-diffusion-only model, with the difference being amplified as the substrate temperature is increased. A simple model considering thermal diffusion through the droplet is used to highlight the important role of evaporative cooling at the droplet interface in determining the droplet evaporation characteristics on superhydrophobic surfaces.

  4. Facile and scalable preparation of highly wear-resistance superhydrophobic surface on wood substrates using silica nanoparticles modified by VTES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Shanshan; Liu, Ming; Wu, Yiqiang; Luo, Sha; Qing, Yan; Chen, Haibo

    2016-11-01

    In this study, an efficient, facile method has been developed for fabricating superhydrophobic surfaces on wood substrates using silica nanoparticles modified by VTES. The as-prepared superhydrophobic wood surface had a water contact angle of 154° and water slide angle close to 0°. Simultaneously, this superhydrophobic wood showed highly durable and robust wear resistance when having undergone a long period of sandpaper abrasion or being scratched by a knife. Even under extreme conditions of boiling water, the superhydrophobicity of the as-prepared wood composite was preserved. Characterizations by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that a typical and tough hierarchical micro/nanostructure was created on the wood substrate and vinyltriethoxysilane contributed to preventing the agglomeration of silica nanoparticles and serving as low-surface-free-energy substances. This superhydrophobic wood was easy to fabricate, mechanically resistant and exhibited long-term stability. Therefore, it is considered to be of significant importance in the industrial production of functional wood, especially for outdoor applications.

  5. Antibacterial Au nanostructured surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Songmei; Zuber, Flavia; Brugger, Juergen; Maniura-Weber, Katharina; Ren, Qun

    2016-01-01

    We present here a technological platform for engineering Au nanotopographies by templated electrodeposition on antibacterial surfaces. Three different types of nanostructures were fabricated: nanopillars, nanorings and nanonuggets. The nanopillars are the basic structures and are 50 nm in diameter and 100 nm in height. Particular arrangement of the nanopillars in various geometries formed nanorings and nanonuggets. Flat surfaces, rough substrate surfaces, and various nanostructured surfaces were compared for their abilities to attach and kill bacterial cells. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-positive bacterial strain responsible for many infections in health care system, was used as the model bacterial strain. It was found that all the Au nanostructures, regardless their shapes, exhibited similar excellent antibacterial properties. A comparison of live cells attached to nanotopographic surfaces showed that the number of live S. aureus cells was <1% of that from flat and rough reference surfaces. Our micro/nanofabrication process is a scalable approach based on cost-efficient self-organization and provides potential for further developing functional surfaces to study the behavior of microbes on nanoscale topographies.We present here a technological platform for engineering Au nanotopographies by templated electrodeposition on antibacterial surfaces. Three different types of nanostructures were fabricated: nanopillars, nanorings and nanonuggets. The nanopillars are the basic structures and are 50 nm in diameter and 100 nm in height. Particular arrangement of the nanopillars in various geometries formed nanorings and nanonuggets. Flat surfaces, rough substrate surfaces, and various nanostructured surfaces were compared for their abilities to attach and kill bacterial cells. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-positive bacterial strain responsible for many infections in health care system, was used as the model bacterial strain. It

  6. Contact-angle hysteresis on super-hydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    McHale, G; Shirtcliffe, N J; Newton, M I

    2004-11-09

    The relationship between perturbations to contact angles on a rough or textured surface and the super-hydrophobic enhancement of the equilibrium contact angle is discussed theoretically. Two models are considered. In the first (Wenzel) case, the super-hydrophobic surface has a very high contact angle and the droplet completely contacts the surface upon which it rests. In the second (Cassie-Baxter) case, the super-hydrophobic surface has a very high contact angle, but the droplet bridges across surface protrusions. The theoretical treatment emphasizes the concept of contact-angle amplification or attenuation and distinguishes between the increases in contact angles due to roughening or texturing surfaces and perturbations to the resulting contact angles. The theory is applied to predicting contact-angle hysteresis on rough surfaces from the hysteresis observable on smooth surfaces and is therefore relevant to predicting roll-off angles for droplets on tilted surfaces. The theory quantitatively predicts a "sticky" surface for Wenzel-type surfaces and a "slippy" surface for Cassie-Baxter-type surfaces.

  7. Durable superhydrophobic PTFE films through the introduction of micro- and nanostructured pores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yao-Yao; Ge, Quan; Yang, Long-Lai; Shi, Xiao-Jun; Li, Jiao-Jiao; Yang, De-Quan; Sacher, Edward

    2015-06-01

    A superhydrophobic surface, highly water repellant and self-cleaning, is typically made by introducing micro- and nanoscale roughness onto the surface of a low surface energy material. Herein, we offer a new process of superhydrophobic film formation, accomplishing the same thing through the production of micro- and nanoscale surface porosities. Such a material is prepared by introducing zinc acetate (ZnAc2) and sodium chloride (NaCl) into a commercially available PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) emulsion. On drying, baking and washing with acetic acid, the PTFE film produced from the emulsion had both micro- and nanoscale surface porosities, and demonstrated superhydrophobic properties, with a static contact angle >150° and a slide angle <10°. From SEM observation, NaCl contributes microscale porosity, while ZnAc2 decomposes to ZnO, contributing nanoscale porosity. Using either ZnAc2 or NaCl alone produces a surface with a static contact angle >150°, but with a slide angle >10°. Based on XPS and SEM data, we explore herein the affect of chemistry and porosity on the mechanism of superhydrophobic surface formation, and the durability of that surface under abrasion.

  8. Design of a superhydrophobic surface using woven structures.

    PubMed

    Michielsen, Stephen; Lee, Hoon J

    2007-05-22

    The relationship between surface tension and roughness is reviewed. The Cassie-Baxter model is restated in its original form, which better describes the most general cases of surface roughness. Using mechanical and chemical surface modification of nylon 6,6 woven fabric, an artificial superhydrophobic surface was prepared. A plain woven fabric mimicking the Lotus leaf was created by further grafting 1H,1H-perfluorooctylamine or octadecylamine to poly(acrylic acid) chains which had previously been grafted onto a nylon 6,6 woven fabric surface. Water contact angles as high as 168 degrees were achieved. Good agreement between the predictions based on the original Cassie-Baxter model and experiments was obtained. The version of the Cassie-Baxter model in current use could not be applied to this problem since the surface area fractions in this form is valid only when the liquid is in contact with a flat, porous surface. The angle at which a water droplet rolls off the surface has also been used to define a superhydrophobic surface. It is shown that the roll-off angle is highly dependent on droplet size. The roll-off angles of these superhydrophobic surfaces were less than 5 degrees when a 0.5 mL water droplet was applied.

  9. Electro-osmotic flow over a charged superhydrophobic surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hui

    2010-06-01

    Bubbles can be trapped inside textured structures such as grooves, forming a superhydrophobic surface. A superhydrophobic surface has a large effective hydrodynamic slip length compared to a smooth hydrophobic surface and holds the promise of enhancing electrokinetic flows that find many interesting applications in microfluidics. However, recent theoretical studies suggested that electro-osmotic flows over a weakly charged superhydrophobic surface [the zeta potential of the surface is smaller than the thermal potential (25 mV)] can only be enhanced when liquid-gas interfaces are charged [T. M. Squires, Phys. Fluids 20, 092105 (2008); Bahga , J. Fluid Mech. 644, 245 (2010)]. So far there is little work reported when the zeta potential of the surface is comparable or even larger than the thermal potential. In this paper we numerically investigate electro-osmotic flows over a periodically striped slip-stick surface by solving the standard Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations. Our results indicate that at large zeta potentials, even if liquid-gas interfaces are charged, the nonuniform surface conduction due to the mismatch between surface conductions over no-shear and no-slip regions leads to electric field lines penetrating the double layer and thus the nonuniform surface conduction weakens the tangential component of the electric field which primarily drives electro-osmotic flows. Our results imply that, in the presence of strong nonuniform surface conduction, enhanced electro-osmotic flows over a superhydrophobic surface are possible only in certain conditions. In particular, the enhancement due to the slip can potentially be lost at large zeta potentials. Similar loss of the enhancement of a charged particle’s electrophoretic mobility due to the slip was reported by Khair and Squires [Phys. Fluids 21, 042001 (2009)].

  10. Drop impact upon superhydrophobic surfaces with regular and hierarchical roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Cunjing; Hao, Pengfei; Zhang, Xiwen; He, Feng

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that roughness and morphologies of the textures play essential roles on the dynamics of water drop impacting onto superhydrophobic substrates. Particularly, significant reduction of contact time has greatly attracted people's attention. We experimentally investigate drop impact dynamics onto three types of superhydrophobic surfaces, consisting of regular micropillars, two-tier textures with nano/micro-scale roughness, and hierarchical textures with random roughness. It shows that the contact time is controlled by the Weber number and the roughness of the surface. Compared with drop impact on regular micropillared surfaces, the contact time can be finely reduced by increasing the Weber number on surfaces with two-tier textures, but can be remarkably reduced on surfaces with hierarchical textures resulting from the prompt splash and fragmentation of liquid lamellae. Our study may shed lights on textured materials fabrication, allowing a rapid drop detachment to realize broad applications.

  11. Effect of surfactants on wetting of super-hydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, R; Wassink, J; Amirfazli, A

    2004-10-26

    The effect of surfactants on wetting behavior of super-hydrophobic surfaces was investigated. Super-hydrophobic surfaces were prepared of alkylketene dimer (AKD) by casting the AKD melt in a specially designed mold. Time-dependent studies were carried out, using the axisymmetric drop shape analysis method for contact angle measurement of pure water on AKD surfaces. The results show that both advancing and receding contact angles of water on the AKD surfaces increase over time ( approximately 3 days) and reach the values of about 164 and 147 degrees , respectively. The increase of contact angles is due to the development of a prickly structure on the surface (verified by scanning electron microscopy), which is responsible for its super-hydrophobicity. Aqueous solutions of sodium acetate, sodium dodecyl sulfate, hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide, and n-decanoyl-n-methylglucamine were used to investigate the wetting of AKD surfaces. Advancing and receding contact angles for various concentrations of different surfactant solutions were measured. The contact angle results were compared to those of a number of pure liquids with surface tensions similar to those of surfactant solutions. It was found that although the surface tensions of pure liquids and surfactant solutions at high concentrations are similar, the contact angles are very different. Furthermore, the usual behavior of super-hydrophobic surfaces that turn super-hydrophilic when the intrinsic contact angle of liquid on a smooth surface (of identical material) is below 90 degrees was not observed in the presence of surfactants. The difference in the results for pure liquids and surfactant solutions is explained using an adsorption hypothesis.

  12. Modeling contact angle hysteresis on chemically patterned and superhydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Kusumaatmaja, H; Yeomans, J M

    2007-05-22

    We investigate contact angle hysteresis on chemically patterned and superhydrophobic surfaces, as the drop volume is quasistatically increased and decreased. We consider both two (cylindrical drops) and three (spherical drops) dimensions using analytical and numerical approaches to minimize the free energy of the drop. In two dimensions, we find, in agreement with other authors, a slip, jump, stick motion of the contact line. In three dimensions, this behavior persists, but the position and magnitude of the contact line jumps are sensitive to the details of the surface patterning. In two dimensions, we identify analytically the advancing and receding contact angles on the different surfaces, and we use numerical insights to argue that these provide bounds for the three-dimensional cases. We present explicit simulations to show that a simple average over the disorder is not sufficient to predict the details of the contact angle hysteresis and to support an explanation for the low contact angle hysteresis of suspended drops on superhydrophobic surfaces.

  13. Mechanically Robust Superhydrophobic Surfaces for Turbulent Drag Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovin, Kevin; Boban, Mathew; Xia, Charlotte; Tuteja, Anish

    2014-11-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces (SHS) resist wetting by keeping a thin air layer within their texture. Such surfaces have been shown to reduce skin friction during laminar and transitional flows. However, turbulent boundary layer flows exhibit high shear stresses that damage the fragile microstructure of most SHS, and it is yet unclear to what extent these surfaces can reduce drag. Moreover, the increasing pressure fluctuations and decreasing wall unit length experienced during turbulent flow makes designing mechanically robust SHS with the correct roughness scales a challenge. In this work we evaluate many different SHS in terms of their hydrophobicity, mechanical durability and roughness. Whereas even commercially available SHS lose their superhydrophobic properties after slight mechanical abrasion, our novel coatings survive up to 200x longer. Moreover, we evaluate how the roughness of such surfaces changes with mechanical abrasion, and we design SHS with the correct roughness to display optimal drag reduction in turbulent boundary layer flows. Funding from ONR.

  14. Dynamic Melting of Freezing Droplets on Ultraslippery Superhydrophobic Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Chu, Fuqiang; Wu, Xiaomin; Wang, Lingli

    2017-03-08

    Condensed droplet freezing and freezing droplet melting phenomena on the prepared ultraslippery superhydrophobic surface were observed and discussed in this study. Although the freezing delay performance of the surface is common, the melting of the freezing droplets on the surface is quite interesting. Three self-propelled movements of the melting droplets (ice- water mixture) were found including the droplet rotating, the droplet jumping, and the droplet sliding. The melting droplet rotating, which means that the melting droplet rotates spontaneously on the superhydrophobic surface like a spinning top, is first reported in this study and may have some potential applications in various engineering fields. The melting droplet jumping and sliding are similar to those occurring during condensation but have larger size scale and motion scale, as the melting droplets have extra-large specific surface area with much more surface energy available. These self-propelled movements make all the melting droplets on the superhydrophobic surface dynamic, easily removed, which may be promising for the anti-icing/frosting applications.

  15. Simple approach to superhydrophobic nanostructured Al for practical antifrosting application based on enhanced self-propelled jumping droplets.

    PubMed

    Kim, Aeree; Lee, Chan; Kim, Hyungmo; Kim, Joonwon

    2015-04-08

    Frost formation can cause operational difficulty and efficiency loss for many facilities such as aircraft, wind turbines, and outdoor heat exchangers. Self-propelled jumping by condensate droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces delays frost formation, so many attempts have been made to exploit this phenomenon. However, practical application of this phenomenon is currently unfeasible because many processes to fabricate the superhydrophobic surfaces are inefficient and because self-propelled jumping is difficult to be achieved in a humid and low-temperature environment because superhydrophobicity is degraded in these conditions. Here, we achieved significantly effective anti-icing superhydrophobic aluminum. Its extremely low adhesive properties allow self-propelled jumping under highly supersaturated conditions of high humidity or low surface temperature. As a result, this surface helps retard frost formation at that condition. The aluminum was made superhydrophobic by a simple and cost-effective process that is adaptable to any shape. Therefore, it has promise for use in practical and industrial applications.

  16. Drop impact and wettability: From hydrophilic to superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonini, Carlo; Amirfazli, Alidad; Marengo, Marco

    2012-10-01

    Experiments to understand the effect of surface wettability on impact characteristics of water drops onto solid dry surfaces were conducted. Various surfaces were used to cover a wide range of contact angles (advancing contact angle from 48° to 166°, and contact angle hysteresis from 5° to 56°). Several different impact conditions were analyzed (12 impact velocities on 9 different surfaces, among which 2 were superhydrophobic). Results from impact tests with millimetric drops show that two different regimes can be identified: a moderate Weber number regime (30 < We < 200), in which wettability affects both drop maximum spreading and spreading characteristic time; and a high Weber number regime (We > 200), in which wettability effect is secondary, because capillary forces are overcome by inertial effects. In particular, results show the role of advancing contact angle and contact angle hysteresis as fundamental wetting parameters to allow understanding of different phases of drop spreading and beginning of recoiling. It is also shown that drop spreading on hydrophilic and superhydrophobic surfaces occurs with different time scales. Finally, if the surface is superhydrophobic, eventual impalement, i.e., transition from Cassie to Wenzel wetting state, which might occur in the vicinity of the drop impact area, does not influence drop maximum spreading.

  17. Self-propelled droplet behavior during condensation on superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Fuqiang; Wu, Xiaomin; Zhu, Bei; Zhang, Xuan

    2016-05-01

    Self-propelled droplet motion has applications in various engineering fields such as self-cleaning surfaces, heat transfer enhancement, and anti-icing methods. A superhydrophobic surface was fabricated using two simultaneous chemical reactions with droplet condensation experiments performed on the horizontal superhydrophobic surface to characterize the droplet behavior. The droplet behavior is classified into three types based on their motion features and leftover marks as immobile droplet coalescence, self-propelled droplet jumping, and self-propelled droplet sweeping. This study focuses on the droplet sweeping that occurs due to the ultra-small rolling angle of the superhydrophobic surface, where the resulting droplet sweeps along the surface, merging with all the droplets it meets and leaving a long, narrow, clear track with a large droplet at the end of the track. An easy method is developed to predict the droplet sweeping direction based on the relative positions of the droplets just before coalescence. The droplet sweeping always absorbs dozens of droplets and is not limited by the surface structures; thus, this sweeping has many useful applications. In addition, the relationships between the droplet behavior and the number of participating droplets are also analyzed statistically.

  18. Drop impact dynamics on liquid-infused superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeong-Hyun; Rothstein, Jonathan

    2015-11-01

    In this talk, we present a series of experiments investigating the drop impact dynamics on hydrophobic, air-infused and lubricant-infused superhydrophobic surfaces. To create the superhydrophobic surfaces, smooth Teflon (PTFE) surfaces were roughened by a 240-grit sandpaper. The immiscible and incompressible silicone oils with different viscosities were infused into features of the superhydrophobic surfaces by a skim coating technique. The spreading and retraction dynamics on a series of the tested surfaces will be presented. We will show that the maximal deformation of the drops on lubricant-infused surfaces grows with increasing viscosity ratio between a water drop and the infused oil. We will show that this increase in the maximal deformation with the viscosity ratio is consistent with increasing the velocity and the viscosity of the drops but the rims of the drops destabilize with increasing the drop velocity. Finally, we will demonstrate that increasing the viscosity of the infused oil induces higher viscous force at the contact line, resulting in reduction in the movement of the drops during retraction and corresponding increase in the final drop size.

  19. Controlling liquid splash on superhydrophobic surfaces by a vesicle surfactant.

    PubMed

    Song, Meirong; Ju, Jie; Luo, Siqi; Han, Yuchun; Dong, Zhichao; Wang, Yilin; Gu, Zhen; Zhang, Lingjuan; Hao, Ruiran; Jiang, Lei

    2017-03-01

    Deposition of liquid droplets on solid surfaces is of great importance to many fundamental scientific principles and technological applications, such as spraying, coating, and printing. For example, during the process of pesticide spraying, more than 50% of agrochemicals are lost because of the undesired bouncing and splashing behaviors on hydrophobic or superhydrophobic leaves. We show that this kind of splashing on superhydrophobic surfaces can be greatly inhibited by adding a small amount of a vesicular surfactant, Aerosol OT. Rather than reducing splashing by increasing the viscosity via polymer additives, the vesicular surfactant confines the motion of liquid with the help of wettability transition and thus inhibits the splash. Significantly, the vesicular surfactant exhibits a distinguished ability to alter the surface wettability during the first inertial spreading stage of ~2 ms because of its dense aggregates at the air/water interface. A comprehensive model proposed by this idea could help in understanding the complex interfacial interactions at the solid/liquid/air interface.

  20. Bioinspired superhydrophobic, self-cleaning and low drag surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhushan, Bharat

    2013-09-01

    Nature has evolved objects with desired functionality using commonly found materials. Nature capitalizes on hierarchical structures to achieve functionality. The understanding of the functions provided by objects and processes found in nature can guide us to produce nanomaterials, nanodevices, and processes with desirable functionality. This article provides an overview of four topics: (1) Lotus Effect used to develop superhydrophobic and self-cleaning/antifouling surfaces with low adhesion, (2) Shark Skin Effect to develop surfaces with low fluid drag and anti-fouling characteristics, and (3-4) Rice Leaf and Butterfly Wing Effect to develop superhydrophobic and self-cleaning surfaces with low drag. Rice Leaf and Butterfly Wings combine the Shark Skin and Lotus Effects.

  1. Superhydrophobic surfaces’ influence on streaming current based energy harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouché, Florent; Dargent, Thomas; Coffinier, Yannick; Treizebré, Anthony; Vlandas, Alexis; Senez, Vincent

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report the design, fabrication and characterization of silicon-based microfluidic channels with superhydrophobic walls for energy harvesting. We present the fabrication step of silicon based streaming current energy harvester and the nanostructuration of the microchannel walls. We characterize the superhydrophobic properties of the surface in a closed system. Our preliminary results on the electrical characterization of the device show a 43% increase of power harvested with our superhydrophobic surface compared to a planar hydrophobic surface.

  2. Computational study of bouncing and non-bouncing droplets impacting on superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bange, Prathamesh G.; Bhardwaj, Rajneesh

    2016-06-01

    We numerically investigate bouncing and non-bouncing of droplets during isothermal impact on superhydrophobic surfaces. An in-house, experimentally validated, finite element method-based computational model is employed to simulate the droplet impact dynamics and transient fluid flow within the droplet. The liquid-gas interface is tracked accurately in Lagrangian framework with dynamic wetting boundary condition at three-phase contact line. The interplay of kinetic, surface and gravitational energies is investigated via systematic variation of impact velocity and equilibrium contact angle. The numerical simulations demonstrate that the droplet bounces off the surface if the total droplet energy at the instance of maximum recoiling exceeds the initial surface and gravitational energy, otherwise not. The non-bouncing droplet is characterized by the oscillations on the free surface due to competition between the kinetic and surface energy. The droplet dimensions and shapes obtained at different times by the simulations are compared with the respective measurements available in the literature. Comparisons show good agreement of numerical data with measurements, and the computational model is able to reconstruct the bouncing and non-bouncing of the droplet as seen in the measurements. The simulated internal flow helps to understand the impact dynamics as well as the interplay of the associated energies during the bouncing and non-bouncing. A regime map is proposed to predict the bouncing and non-bouncing on a superhydrophobic surface with an equilibrium contact angle of 155°, using data of 86 simulations and the measurements available in the literature. We discuss the validity of the computational model for the wetting transition from Cassie to Wenzel state on micro- and nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces. We demonstrate that the numerical simulation can serve as an important tool to quantify the internal flow, if the simulated droplet shapes match the respective

  3. Shrink-Induced Superhydrophobic and Antibacterial Surfaces in Consumer Plastics

    PubMed Central

    Freschauf, Lauren R.; McLane, Jolie; Sharma, Himanshu; Khine, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Structurally modified superhydrophobic surfaces have become particularly desirable as stable antibacterial surfaces. Because their self-cleaning and water resistant properties prohibit bacteria growth, structurally modified superhydrophobic surfaces obviate bacterial resistance common with chemical agents, and therefore a robust and stable means to prevent bacteria growth is possible. In this study, we present a rapid fabrication method for creating such superhydrophobic surfaces in consumer hard plastic materials with resulting antibacterial effects. To replace complex fabrication materials and techniques, the initial mold is made with commodity shrink-wrap film and is compatible with large plastic roll-to-roll manufacturing and scale-up techniques. This method involves a purely structural modification free of chemical additives leading to its inherent consistency over time and successive recasting from the same molds. Finally, antibacterial properties are demonstrated in polystyrene (PS), polycarbonate (PC), and polyethylene (PE) by demonstrating the prevention of gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria growth on our structured plastic surfaces. PMID:22916100

  4. Micro-micro hierarchy replacing micro-nano hierarchy: a precisely controlled way to produce wear-resistant superhydrophobic polymer surfaces.

    PubMed

    Huovinen, Eero; Hirvi, Janne; Suvanto, Mika; Pakkanen, Tapani A

    2012-10-16

    Superhydrophobic polymer surfaces are typically fabricated by combining hierarchical micro-nanostructures. The surfaces have a great technological potential because of their special water-repellent and self-cleaning properties. However, the poor mechanical robustness of such surfaces has severely limited their use in practical applications. This study presents a simple and swift mass production method for manufacturing hierarchically structured polymer surfaces at micrometer scale. Polypropylene surface structuring was done using injection molding, where the microstructured molds were made with a microworking robot. The effect of the micro-microstructuring on the polymer surface wettability and mechanical robustness was studied and compared to the corresponding properties of micro-nanostructured surfaces. The static contact angles of the micro-microstructured surfaces were greater than 150° and the contact angle hysteresis was low, showing that the effect of hierarchy on the surface wetting properties works equally well at micrometer scale. Hierarchically micro-microstructured polymer surfaces exhibited the same superhydrophobic wetting properties as did the hierarchically micro-nanostructured surfaces. Micro-microstructures had superior mechanical robustness in wear tests as compared to the micro-nanostructured surfaces. The new microstructuring technique offers a precisely controlled way to produce superhydrophobic wetting properties to injection moldable polymers with sufficiently high intrinsic hydrophobicity.

  5. Multifunctional superhydrophobic surfaces templated from innately microstructured hydrogel matrix.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yaqun; Shi, Ye; Pan, Lijia; Yang, Meng; Peng, Lele; Zong, Shi; Shi, Yi; Yu, Guihua

    2014-08-13

    Superhydrophobic surfaces are of immense scientific and technological interests for a broad range of applications. However, a major challenge remains in developing scalable methodologies that enable superhydrophobic coatings on versatile substrates with a combination of strong mechanical stability, optical transparency, and even stretchability. Herein, we developed a scalable methodology to versatile hydrophobic surfaces that combine with strong mechanical stability, optical transparency, and stretchability by using a self-assembled hydrogel as the template to in situ generate silica microstructures and subsequent silanization. The superhydrophobic coatings can be enabled on virtually any substrates via large-area deposition techniques like dip coating. Transparent surfaces with optical transmittance as high as 98% were obtained. Moreover, the coatings exhibit superior mechanical flexibility and robustness that it can sustain contact angles ∼ 160° even after 5000 cycles of mechanically stretching at 100% strain. The multifunctional surfaces can be used as screen filters and sponges for the oil/water separation that can selectively absorb oils up to 40× their weight.

  6. Factors affecting the spontaneous motion of condensate drops on superhydrophobic copper surfaces.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jie; Qin, Zhaoqian; Yao, Shuhuai

    2012-04-10

    The coalescence-induced condensate drop motion on some superhydrophobic surfaces (SHSs) has attracted increasing attention because of its potential applications in sustained dropwise condensation, water collection, anti-icing, and anticorrosion. However, an investigation of the mechanism of such self-propelled motion including the factors for designing such SHSs is still limited. In this article, we fabricated a series of superhydrophobic copper surfaces with nanoribbon structures using wet chemical oxidation followed by fluorization treatment. We then systematically studied the influence of surface roughness and the chemical properties of as-prepared surfaces on the spontaneous motion of condensate drops. We quantified the "frequency" of the condensate drop motion based on microscopic sequential images and showed that the trend of this frequency varied with the nanoribbon structure and extent of fluorination. More obvious spontaneous condensate drop motion was observed on surfaces with a higher extent of fluorization and nanostructures possessing sufficiently narrow spacing and higher perpendicularity. We attribute this enhanced drop mobility to the stable Cassie state of condensate drops in the dynamic dropwise condensation process that is determined by the nanoscale morphology and local surface energy.

  7. Superhydrophobic films on glass surface derived from trimethylsilanized silica gel nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Debmita; Medda, Samar Kumar; De, Goutam

    2011-09-01

    The paper deals with the fabrication of sol-gel-derived superhydrophobic films on glass based on the macroscopic silica network with surface modification. The fabricated transparent films were composed of a hybrid -Si(CH(3))(3)-functionalized SiO(2) nanospheres exhibiting the desired micro/nanostructure, water repellency, and antireflection (AR) property. The wavelength selective AR property can be tuned by controlling the physical thickness of the films. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) studies revealed the existence of SiO(2) nanoparticles of average size ∼9.4 nm in the sols. TEM studies showed presence of interconnected SiO(2) NPs of ∼10 nm in size. The films were formed with uniformly packed SiO(2) aggregates as observed by FESEM of film surface. FTIR of the films confirmed presence of glasslike Si-O-Si bonding and methyl functionalization. The hydrophobicity of the surface was depended on the thickness of the deposited films. A critical film thickness (>115 nm) was necessary to obtain the air push effect for superhydrophobicity. Trimethylsilyl functionalization of SiO(2) and the surface roughness (rms ≈30 nm as observed by AFM) of the films were also contributed toward the high water contact angle (WCA). The coated glass surface showed WCA value of the droplet as high as 168 ± 3° with 6 μL of water. These superhydrophobic films were found to be stable up to about 230-240 °C as confirmed by TG/DTA studies, and WCA measurements of the films with respect to the heat-treatment temperatures. These high water repellant films can be deposited on relatively large glass surfaces to remove water droplets immediately without any mechanical assistance.

  8. Hot embossing of PTFE: Towards superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jucius, D.; Grigaliūnas, V.; Mikolajūnas, M.; Guobienė, A.; Kopustinskas, V.; Gudonytė, A.; Narmontas, P.

    2011-01-01

    Three types of reusable stamps with features in the form of 2D arrays of pits having lateral dimensions in the range of 2-80 μm and heights of 1.5-15 μm were successfully employed for the hot embossing of PTFE at temperatures up to 50 °C above the glass transition temperature of PTFE amorphous phase. Due to the softening of PTFE at the temperatures used in this study, we were able to decrease imprint pressure significantly when comparing with the imprint conditions reported by other authors. Impact of the imprint temperature, pressure and time on the fidelity of pattern transfer as well as on water repellency was tested. The best results of embossing were achieved by applying pressure of 10 kg/cm 2 for 2 min at 170 °C. In this case, flattening of a natural PTFE roughness and pretty accurate deep replicas of the stamp patterns were observable on the whole imprinted area. Improvement in water repellency was largest for the samples imprinted by Ni stamp patterned with a 2D array of 2 μm square pits spaced by the same dimension and having a depth of 1.5 μm. Cassie-Baxter wetting regime was observed for the deepest imprints with water contact angles up to the superhydrophobic limit.

  9. Transparent, durable and thermally stable PDMS-derived superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaojiang; Xu, Yang; Ben, Keyang; Chen, Zao; Wang, Yan; Guan, Zisheng

    2015-06-01

    We reported a novel, simple, modification-free process for the preparation of transparent superhydrophobic surfaces by calcining candle-soot-coated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) films. Though a calcination process, a candle soot template was gradually removed while robust fibrous and network structures were created on glass. Owing to these structures, the glass substrates were durable and highly transparent with an average transmittance (400-800 nm) of 89.50%, very closed to the bare glass slides (89.70%). These substrates exhibited a water contact angle (WCA) of 163° and a sliding angle (SA) of ∼1°. Importantly, the superhydrophobicity of these surfaces can thermally recover after oil-contamination due to their high thermal stability below 500 °C. Based on these, superhydrophobic fiberglass cotton was also prepared for optimized oil-water separation and air filtration. This method is suitable for large-scale production because it uses inexpensive and environmentally friendly materials and gets rids of sophisticated equipment, special atmosphere and harsh operations.

  10. Stabilization of Leidenfrost vapour layer by textured superhydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Vakarelski, Ivan U; Patankar, Neelesh A; Marston, Jeremy O; Chan, Derek Y C; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2012-09-13

    In 1756, Leidenfrost observed that water drops skittered on a sufficiently hot skillet, owing to levitation by an evaporative vapour film. Such films are stable only when the hot surface is above a critical temperature, and are a central phenomenon in boiling. In this so-called Leidenfrost regime, the low thermal conductivity of the vapour layer inhibits heat transfer between the hot surface and the liquid. When the temperature of the cooling surface drops below the critical temperature, the vapour film collapses and the system enters a nucleate-boiling regime, which can result in vapour explosions that are particularly detrimental in certain contexts, such as in nuclear power plants. The presence of these vapour films can also reduce liquid-solid drag. Here we show how vapour film collapse can be completely suppressed at textured superhydrophobic surfaces. At a smooth hydrophobic surface, the vapour film still collapses on cooling, albeit at a reduced critical temperature, and the system switches explosively to nucleate boiling. In contrast, at textured, superhydrophobic surfaces, the vapour layer gradually relaxes until the surface is completely cooled, without exhibiting a nucleate-boiling phase. This result demonstrates that topological texture on superhydrophobic materials is critical in stabilizing the vapour layer and thus in controlling--by heat transfer--the liquid-gas phase transition at hot surfaces. This concept can potentially be applied to control other phase transitions, such as ice or frost formation, and to the design of low-drag surfaces at which the vapour phase is stabilized in the grooves of textures without heating.

  11. Wrinkled Graphene Monoliths as Superabsorbing Building Blocks for Superhydrophobic and Superhydrophilic Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Lv, Li-Bing; Cui, Tian-Lu; Zhang, Bing; Wang, Hong-Hui; Li, Xin-Hao; Chen, Jie-Sheng

    2015-12-07

    Superhydrophobic and superhydrophilic surfaces are of great interest because of a large range of applications, for example, as antifogging and self-cleaning coatings, as antibiofouling paints for boats, in metal refining, and for water-oil separation. An aqueous ink based on three-dimensional graphene monoliths (Gr) can be used for constructing both superhydrophobic and superhydrophilic surfaces on arbitrary substrates with different surficial structures from the meso- to the macroscale. The surface wettability of a Gr-coated surface mainly depends on which additional layers (air for a superhydrophobic surface and water for a superhydrophilic surface) are adsorbed on the surface of the graphene sheets. Switching a Gr-coated surface between being superhydrophobic and superhydrophilic can thus be easily achieved by drying and prewetting with ethanol. The Gr-based superhydrophobic membranes or films should have great potential as efficient separators for fast and gravity-driven oil-water separation.

  12. Facile fabrication of iron-based superhydrophobic surfaces via electric corrosion without bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qinghe; Liu, Hongtao; Chen, Tianchi; Wei, Yan; Wei, Zhu

    2016-04-01

    Superhydrophobic surface is of wide application in the field of catalysis, lubrication, waterproof, biomedical materials, etc. The superhydrophobic surface based on hard metal is worth further study due to its advantages of high strength and wear resistance. This paper investigates the fabrication techniques towards superhydrophobic surface on carbon steel substrate via electric corrosion and studies the properties of as-prepared superhydrophobic surface. The hydrophobic properties were characterized by a water sliding angle (SA) and a water contact angle (CA) measured by the Surface tension instrument. A Scanning electron microscope was used to analyze the structure of the corrosion surface. The surface compositions were characterized by an Energy Dispersive Spectrum. The Electrochemical workstation was used to measure its anti-corrosion property. The anti-icing performance was characterized by a steam-freezing test in Environmental testing chamber. The SiC sandpaper and 500 g weight were used to test the friction property. The research result shows that the superhydrophobic surface can be successfully fabricated by electrocorrosion on carbon steel substrate under appropriate process; the contact angle of the as-prepared superhydrophobic surface can be up to 152 ± 0.5°, and the sliding angle is 1-2°; its anti-corrosion property, anti-icing performance and the friction property all show an excellent level. This method provides the possibility of industrialization of superhydrophobic surface based on iron substrate as it can prepare massive superhydrophobic surface quickly.

  13. Numerical simulations of drop impact on superhydrophobic structured surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzzetti, Davide; Larentis, Stefano; Pugno, Nicola

    2011-11-01

    During the last decade drop impact dynamics on superhydrophobic surfaces has been intensively investigated because of the incredible properties of water repellency exhibited by this kind of surfaces, mostly inspired by biological examples such as Lotus leave. Thanks to the recent progress in micro-fabrication technology is possible to tailor surfaces wettability defining specific pillar-like structured surfaces. In this work, the behavior of impinging drops on these pillar-like surfaces is simulated, characterizing temporal evolution of droplets contact radius and drop maximal deformation dependence on Weber number. Numerical simulations results are compared with theoretical and experimental results guaranteeing simulation reliability. Fingering patterns obtained from drop impact has been studied obtaining a correlation between number of fingers and Weber number. Drop fragmentation pattern obtained from simulations supports the proposed correlation. Different drop impact outcomes (e.g. rebound, fragmentation) on structured superhydrophobic surfaces are simulated, focusing on the influence of micro-structured surface geometrical pattern. This investigation is relevant in order to define design rules for possible reliable non wettable surfaces. Financial support by Alta Scuola Politecnica.

  14. Free-standing optofluidic waveguides formed on patterned superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonáš, Alexandr; Yalizay, Berna; Akturk, Selcuk; Kiraz, Alper

    2014-03-01

    We report on the preparation and characterization of free-standing optofluidic waveguides created on solid superhydrophobic (SH) substrates with patterned wetting properties. In order to locally modify the liquid-solid contact angle, we employed selective laser ablation of SH layers deposited on magnesium-fluoride substrates with low refractive index. Upon ablation, surfaces with hydrophilic channels surrounded by SH areas were obtained. Subsequently, we created liquid optical waveguides based on total internal reflection using ethylene glycol, a polar liquid with high refractive index spreading spontaneously along the hydrophilic surface channels. We evaluated the light guiding performance and losses of these optofluidic waveguides.

  15. Pendant bubble method for an accurate characterization of superhydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Ling, William Yeong Liang; Ng, Tuck Wah; Neild, Adrian

    2011-12-06

    The commonly used sessile drop method for measuring contact angles and surface tension suffers from errors on superhydrophobic surfaces. This occurs from unavoidable experimental error in determining the vertical location of the liquid-solid-vapor interface due to a camera's finite pixel resolution, thereby necessitating the development and application of subpixel algorithms. We demonstrate here the advantage of a pendant bubble in decreasing the resulting error prior to the application of additional algorithms. For sessile drops to attain an equivalent accuracy, the pixel count would have to be increased by 2 orders of magnitude.

  16. Spontaneous droplet self-launching on superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schutzius, Thomas; Jung, Stefan; Maitra, Tanmoy; Graeber, Gustav; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2015-11-01

    Spontaneous removal of droplets from surfaces is of significant importance in nature and many technologies, e.g., self-cleaning surfaces. Despite progress, the understanding of phenomena leading to such behavior, combined with surface design promoting their manifestation, remains a challenge. We show how water droplets in contact with superhydrophobic surfaces in a low-pressure environment can self-remove through sudden spontaneous launching and subsequent repeated bouncing behavior. We demonstrate that this bouncing results from the combined effect of droplet vaporization, vapor flow in the surface texture, and substrate adhesion leading to a forced, underdamped, mass-spring-damper system behavior. This work is a step toward understanding inherent physical phenomena of droplet-surface interactions manifesting themselves at conditions promoting vaporization, e.g. low-pressure environments, and shows how surface texture design aware of such phenomena alone, can prohibit water retention on surfaces.

  17. Synthesis of superhydrophobic PTFE-like thin films by self-nanostructuration in a hybrid plasma process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Frédéric; Renaux, Fabian; Coppée, Séverine; Lazzaroni, Roberto; Vandencasteele, Nicolas; Reniers, François; Snyders, Rony

    2012-12-01

    Superhydrophobic poly(tetrafluoro-ethylene) (PTFE) like thin films were grown on silicon wafers using a plasma-based hybrid process consisting on sputtering a carbon target in an Ar/CF4 atmosphere. The influence of the bias voltage applied to the substrate (VBias) as well as of the gas mixture composition (%CF4) on the chemical composition, the wettability and the morphology of the deposited thin films were evaluated. The chemical composition measured by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) has revealed that the F/C atomic ratio is always lower than for conventional PTFE (F/C = 2) and that it decreases when VBias increases (from F/C = 1 for VBias = - 100 V to F/C = 0.75 for VBias = - 200 V). This behavior is associated with the preferential sputtering of the fluorine atoms during the plasma-assisted growth of the films. Consecutively, a self-nanostructuration enhanced when increasing VBias is observed. As a consequence, the water contact angle (WCA) measurements range from 70° up to 150° depending on (i) the fluorine concentration and (ii) on the magnitude of the nanostructuration. In addition, for the films presenting the highest WCAs, a small hysteresis between the advancing and receding WCAs is observed (< 10°) allowing these films to fulfill completely the requirements of superhydrophobicity. The nanostructuration is probably due to the chemical etching by fluorine atoms of the fluorinated group. In order to get more understanding on the wettability mechanisms of these surfaces, the topography of the films has been evaluated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The data have revealed, for all films, a dense and regular structure composed by conic objects (AvH is their average height and AvD is the average distance between them) for which the dimensions increase with VBias. A correlation between AvH/AvD, defined as the "morphological ratio", with the WCA was established. Theoretical evaluations of the WCA using the Wenzel and Cassie equations with, as inputs

  18. Fabrication of superhydrophilic or superhydrophobic self-cleaning metal surfaces using picosecond laser pulses and chemical fluorination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Buxiang; Jiang, Gedong; Wang, Wenjun; Mei, Xuesong

    2016-05-01

    Bioinspired superhydrophilic/phobic self-cleaning surfaces have recently drawn a lot of interest in both fundamental and applied research. A hybrid method to produce the self-cleaning property of micro/nanostructured surface using ultra-fast laser pulses followed by chemical fluorination is proposed. The typical micro/nanocomposite structures that form from microporous arrays and microgroove groups have been processed by picosecond laser on titanium alloy surface. The surface hydrophilic/phobic and self-cleaning properties of micro/nanostructures before and after fluorination with fluoroalkyl-silane were investigated using surface contact angle measurements. The results indicate that surface properties change from hydrophilic to hydrophobic after fluorination, and the micro/nanostructured surface with increased roughness contributes to the improvement of surface hydrophobicity. The micro/nanomodification can make the original hydrophilic titanium alloy surface more hydrophilic or superhydrophilic. It also can make an originally hydrophobic fluorinated titanium alloy surface more hydrophobic or superhydrophobic. The produced micro/nanostructured titanium alloy surfaces show excellent self-cleaning properties regardless of the fluorination treatment, although the fluorinated surfaces have slightly better self-cleaning properties. It is found that surface treatment using ultra-fast laser pulses and subsequent chemical fluorination is an effective way to manipulate surface wettability and obtain self-cleaning properties.

  19. Super-hydrophobic bandages and method of making the same

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, John T [Clinton, TN; D'Urso, Brian R [Pittsburgh, PA

    2012-06-05

    A bandage that includes a material, which can be breathable, having a first surface, and a plurality of superhydrophobic particles attached to the first surface. The plurality of superhydrophobic particles ranging in size from about 100 nanometers to about 10 micrometers. The superhydrophobic particles including a protrusive material defining a plurality of nanopores and a plurality of spaced apart nanostructures that define an external boundary of the hydrophobic particles. The nanopores providing a flow through porosity. The first surface can be rendered superhydrophobic by the attached superhydrophobic particles. The material can have a second surface opposite the first surface that is hydrophilic. The superhydrophobic particles can be adhered to the first surface by a binder. Also included is a method of making the bandages described herein.

  20. Droplet motion on designed microtextured superhydrophobic surfaces with tunable wettability.

    PubMed

    Fang, Guoping; Li, Wen; Wang, Xiufeng; Qiao, Guanjun

    2008-10-21

    Superhydrophobic surfaces have shown promising applications in microfluidic systems as a result of their water-repellent and low-friction properties over the past decade. Recently, designed microstructures have been experimentally applied to construct wettability gradients and direct the droplet motion. However, thermodynamic mechanisms responsible for the droplet motion on such regular rough surfaces have not been well understood such that at present specific guidelines for the design of tunable superhydrophobic surfaces are not available. In this study, we propose a simple but robust thermodynamic methodology to gain thorough insight into the physical nature for the controllable motion of droplets. On the basis of the thermodynamic calculations of free energy (FE) and the free-energy barrier (FEB), the effects of surface geometry of a pillar microtexture are systematically investigated. It is found that decreasing the pillar width and spacing simultaneously is required to lower the advancing and receding FEBs to effectively direct droplets on the roughness gradient surface. Furthermore, the external energy plays a role in the actuation of spontaneous droplet motion with the cooperation of the roughness gradient. In addition, it is suggested that the so-called "virtual wall" used to confine the liquid flow along the undesired directions could be achieved by constructing highly advancing FEB areas around the microchannels, which is promising for the design of microfluidic systems.

  1. Static and dynamic characterization of robust superhydrophobic surfaces built from nano-flowers on silicon micro-post arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Longquan; Xiao, Zhiyong; Chan, Philip C. H.; Lee, Yi-Kuen

    2010-10-01

    Superhydrophobic nano-flower surfaces were fabricated using MEMS technology and microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) of carbon nanotubes on silicon micro-post array surfaces. The nano-flower structures can be readily formed within 1-2 min on the micro-post arrays with the spacing ranging from 25 to 30 µm. The petals of the nano-flowers consisted of clusters of multi-wall carbon nanotubes. Patterned nano-flower structures were characterized using various microscopy techniques. After MPCVD, the apparent contact angle (160 ± 0.2°), abbreviated as ACA (defined as the measured angle between the apparent solid surface and the tangent to the liquid-fluid interface), of the nano-flower surfaces increased by 139% compared with that of the silicon micro-post arrays. The measured ACA of the nano-flower surface is consistent with the predicted ACA from a modified Cassie-Baxter equation. A high-speed CCD camera was used to study droplet impact dynamics on various micro/nanostructured surfaces. Both static testing (ACA and sliding angle) and droplet impact dynamics demonstrated that, among seven different micro/nanostructured surfaces, the nano-flower surfaces are the most robust superhydrophobic surfaces.

  2. Grafting of PMMA brushes layer on Cu surface to create a stable superhydrophobic surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junhong; Cai, Junyan; Li, Ming

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) brushes were grafted on Cu micro-cone structured substrate by a simple one-step cathodic electro-initiated polymerization method which was carried out in aqueous solution at room temperature in the open air. The PMMA brushes were continuous, uniform and thickness-controllable, and it covalently bonded to the Cu surface. In the brushes, nitrophenyl moieties acted as cross-linker between PMMA chains. After removed from the solution followed by treated with water, the PMMA brushes (basically a hydrophilic material)/micro-cone structured Cu surface was hydrophilic with water contact angle (CA) of 74.4°. However, it exhibited superhydrophobicity by treating it in the acetone. The conversion from hydrophilic surface to superhydrophobic one may due to rearrangement of nitrophenyl moieties and PMMA chains at the topmost of the brushes. In addition, its water CA increased with grafting time of the brushes from 145° to about 166°, because there was no available space in thinner film for group reorientation. The surface was conversed to hydrophilic again after treated with hot water, but it was still superhydrophobic after treated in water at room temperature. This revealed that the group reorientation also easily occurred in hot water like in the acetone. More importantly, the surface retained good superhydrophobic stability in acidic environment and in long-time storage. Furthermore, the superhydrophobic surface had excellent resistance that can provide effective protection for the bare Cu substrate.

  3. Drop shedding by shear flow for hydrophilic to superhydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Milne, A J B; Amirfazli, A

    2009-12-15

    A balance of surface science and aerodynamic knowledge is brought to bear to elucidate the fundamental parameters determining the incipient motion (runback) for a drop exposed to shearing airflow. It was found that wetting parameters such as contact angle are very influential in determining the minimum required air velocity for drop shedding. On the basis of experimental results for drops of water and hexadecane (0.5-100 microL) on PMMA, Teflon, and a superhydrophobic aluminum surface, an exponential function is proposed that relates the critical air velocity for shedding to the ratio of drop base length to projected area. The results for all of the water systems can be collapsed to self-similar curves by normalization. Results from other researchers also conform to the exponential self-similar functional form proposed. It was shown that the data for hexadecane drops can be matched relatively well to those for water drops by means of a corrective factor based on fluid properties and contact angles. Also, the critical air velocity for shedding from the superhydrophobic surface is seen to be more constant over a range of volumes than for the other surfaces. Finally, contact angle measurements from airflow shedding experiments are compared to measurements made by tilted plate and quasi-static advancing and receding tests. The observed differences between contact angles from different measurement methods show that the transfer of contact angle data among various applications must be done with care.

  4. Droplet evaporation dynamics on a superhydrophobic surface with negligible hysteresis.

    PubMed

    Dash, Susmita; Garimella, Suresh V

    2013-08-27

    We report on experiments of droplet evaporation on a structured superhydrophobic surface that displays very high contact angle (CA ∼ 160 deg), and negligible contact angle hysteresis (<1 deg). The droplet evaporation is observed to occur in a constant-contact-angle mode, with contact radius shrinking for almost the entire duration of evaporation. Experiments conducted on Teflon-coated smooth surface (CA ∼ 120 deg) as a baseline also support an evaporation process that is dominated by a constant-contact-angle mode. The experimental results are compared with an isothermal diffusion model for droplet evaporation from the literature. Good agreement is observed for the Teflon-coated smooth surface between the analytical expression and experimental results in terms of the total time for evaporation, transient volume, contact angle, and contact radius. However, for the structured superhydrophobic surface, the experiments indicate that the time taken for complete evaporation of the droplet is greater than the predicted time, across all droplet volumes. This disparity is attributed primarily to the evaporative cooling at the droplet interface due to the high aspect ratio of the droplet and also the lower effective thermal conductivity of the substrate due to the presence of air gaps. This hypothesis is verified by numerically evaluating the temperature distribution along the droplet interface. We propose a generalized relation for predicting the instantaneous volume of droplets with initial CA > 90 deg, irrespective of the mode of evaporation.

  5. Designing Self-Healing Superhydrophobic Surfaces with Exceptional Mechanical Durability.

    PubMed

    Golovin, Kevin; Boban, Mathew; Mabry, Joseph M; Tuteja, Anish

    2017-03-29

    The past decade saw a drastic increase in the understanding and applications of superhydrophobic surfaces (SHSs). Water beads up and effortlessly rolls off a SHS due to its combination of low surface energy and texture. Whether being used for drag reduction, stain repellency, self-cleaning, fog harvesting, or heat transfer applications (to name a few), the durability of a SHS is critically important. Although a handful of purportedly durable SHSs have been reported, there are still no criteria available for systematically designing a durable SHS. In the first part of this work, we discuss two new design parameters that can be used to develop mechanically durable SHSs via the spray coating of different binders and fillers. These parameters aid in the rational selection of material components and allow one to predict the capillary resistance to wetting of any SHS from a simple topographical analysis. We show that not all combinations of sprayable components generate SHSs, and mechanically durable components do not necessarily generate mechanically durable SHSs. Moreover, even the most durable SHSs can eventually become damaged. In the second part, utilizing our new parameters, we design and fabricate physically and chemically self-healing SHSs. The most promising surface is fabricated from a fluorinated polyurethane elastomer (FPU) and the extremely hydrophobic small molecule 1H,1H,2H,2H-heptadecafluorodecyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (F-POSS). A sprayed FPU/F-POSS surface can recover its superhydrophobicity even after being abraded, scratched, burned, plasma-cleaned, flattened, sonicated, and chemically attacked.

  6. Dewetting Transitions on Superhydrophobic Surfaces: When are Wenzel Drops Reversible?

    SciTech Connect

    Boreyko, Jonathan B; Collier, Pat

    2013-01-01

    On superhydrophobic surfaces, drops in theWenzel state can be switched to the suspended Cassie state in some cases, but in other cases are irreversibly impaled in the surface roughness. To date, the question of when dewetting transitions are possible for Wenzel drops has not been resolved. Here, we show that pinned Wenzel drops being stretched out-of-plane cannot reduce their contact angle below a critical value where unstable pinch-off occurs, preventing dewetting for Wenzel drops which exhibit receding contact angles beneath this critical pinchoff angle. Dewetting transitions are therefore only possible for Wenzel drops with moderately large receding contact angles, which requires low surface roughness for one-tier surfaces or a Partial Wenzel wetting state for two-tier surfaces.

  7. Dynamic effects induced transition of droplets on biomimetic superhydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yong Chae; Bhushan, Bharat

    2009-08-18

    Superhydrophobic surfaces have considerable technological potential for various applications because of their extreme water-repellent properties. Dynamic effects, such as the bouncing and vibration of a droplet, can destroy the composite solid-air-liquid interface. The impact pressure of a bouncing droplet and the inertia force of a vibrating droplet affect the transition from a solid-air-liquid interface to a solid-liquid interface. Therefore, it is necessary to study the dynamic effect of droplets under various system parameters (impact velocity and frequency and amplitude of vibration). A new model for the prediction of the wetting and dewetting process during droplet vibration based on the relationship between the adhesion force and the inertia force of a droplet is proposed. To investigate whether micro-, nano-, and hierarchical structures can resist the destabilizing factors responsible for the transition, a study of bouncing and vibration of a water droplet is systematically conducted on various surfaces. The physics of wetting phenomena for water droplet studies is of fundamental importance in the geometrical design of superhydrophobic surfaces.

  8. Controlling liquid splash on superhydrophobic surfaces by a vesicle surfactant

    PubMed Central

    Song, Meirong; Ju, Jie; Luo, Siqi; Han, Yuchun; Dong, Zhichao; Wang, Yilin; Gu, Zhen; Zhang, Lingjuan; Hao, Ruiran; Jiang, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Deposition of liquid droplets on solid surfaces is of great importance to many fundamental scientific principles and technological applications, such as spraying, coating, and printing. For example, during the process of pesticide spraying, more than 50% of agrochemicals are lost because of the undesired bouncing and splashing behaviors on hydrophobic or superhydrophobic leaves. We show that this kind of splashing on superhydrophobic surfaces can be greatly inhibited by adding a small amount of a vesicular surfactant, Aerosol OT. Rather than reducing splashing by increasing the viscosity via polymer additives, the vesicular surfactant confines the motion of liquid with the help of wettability transition and thus inhibits the splash. Significantly, the vesicular surfactant exhibits a distinguished ability to alter the surface wettability during the first inertial spreading stage of ~2 ms because of its dense aggregates at the air/water interface. A comprehensive model proposed by this idea could help in understanding the complex interfacial interactions at the solid/liquid/air interface. PMID:28275735

  9. Uniting Superhydrophobic, Superoleophobic and Lubricant Infused Slippery Behavior on Copper Oxide Nano-structured Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Ujjain, Sanjeev Kumar; Roy, Pritam Kumar; Kumar, Sumana; Singha, Subhash; Khare, Krishnacharya

    2016-01-01

    Alloys, specifically steel, are considered as the workhorse of our society and are inimitable engineering materials in the field of infrastructure, industry and possesses significant applications in our daily life. However, creating a robust synthetic metallic surface that repels various liquids has remained extremely challenging. The wettability of a solid surface is known to be governed by its geometric nano-/micro structure and the chemical composition. Here, we are demonstrating a facile and economical way to generate copper oxide micro-nano structures with spherical (0D), needle (1D) and hierarchical cauliflower (3D) morphologies on galvanized steel substrates using a simple chemical bath deposition method. These nano/micro textured steel surfaces, on subsequent coating of a low surface energy material display excellent superhydrophobic, superoleophobic and slippery behavior. Polydimethylsiloxane coated textured surfaces illustrate superhydrophobicity with water contact angle about 160°(2) and critical sliding angle ~2°. When functionalized with low-surface energy perfluoroalkylsilane, these surfaces display high repellency for low surface tension oils as well as hydrocarbons. Among them, the hierarchical cauliflower morphology exhibits re-entrant structure thereby showing the best superoleophobicity with contact angle 149° for dodecane. Once infused with a lubricant like silicone oil, they show excellent slippery behavior with low contact angle hysteresis (~ 2°) for water drops. PMID:27752098

  10. Uniting Superhydrophobic, Superoleophobic and Lubricant Infused Slippery Behavior on Copper Oxide Nano-structured Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ujjain, Sanjeev Kumar; Roy, Pritam Kumar; Kumar, Sumana; Singha, Subhash; Khare, Krishnacharya

    2016-10-01

    Alloys, specifically steel, are considered as the workhorse of our society and are inimitable engineering materials in the field of infrastructure, industry and possesses significant applications in our daily life. However, creating a robust synthetic metallic surface that repels various liquids has remained extremely challenging. The wettability of a solid surface is known to be governed by its geometric nano-/micro structure and the chemical composition. Here, we are demonstrating a facile and economical way to generate copper oxide micro-nano structures with spherical (0D), needle (1D) and hierarchical cauliflower (3D) morphologies on galvanized steel substrates using a simple chemical bath deposition method. These nano/micro textured steel surfaces, on subsequent coating of a low surface energy material display excellent superhydrophobic, superoleophobic and slippery behavior. Polydimethylsiloxane coated textured surfaces illustrate superhydrophobicity with water contact angle about 160°(2) and critical sliding angle ~2°. When functionalized with low-surface energy perfluoroalkylsilane, these surfaces display high repellency for low surface tension oils as well as hydrocarbons. Among them, the hierarchical cauliflower morphology exhibits re-entrant structure thereby showing the best superoleophobicity with contact angle 149° for dodecane. Once infused with a lubricant like silicone oil, they show excellent slippery behavior with low contact angle hysteresis (~ 2°) for water drops.

  11. Robust superhydrophobic surface on Al substrate with durability, corrosion resistance and ice-phobicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guoyong; Liu, Shuai; Wei, Sufeng; Liu, Yan; Lian, Jianshe; Jiang, Qing

    2016-02-01

    Practical application of superhydrophobic surfaces is limited by the fragility of nanoscale asperities. Combining chemical etching and anodization, microscale pits and nanoscale pores, instead of the micro and nano protrusions on traditional superhydrophobic surfaces mimicking Lutos leaves, were fabricated on commercially pure aluminum surfaces. After modified by FDTS, the surfaces were superhydrophobic and self-cleaning. The ultrahigh hardness and electrochemical stability of Al2O3 coating endowed the surface excellent mechanical durability and good corrosion resistance. Because the method is scalable, it may find practical application on body panels of automobiles and aircrafts and so on.

  12. Robust superhydrophobic surface on Al substrate with durability, corrosion resistance and ice-phobicity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guoyong; Liu, Shuai; Wei, Sufeng; Liu, Yan; Lian, Jianshe; Jiang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Practical application of superhydrophobic surfaces is limited by the fragility of nanoscale asperities. Combining chemical etching and anodization, microscale pits and nanoscale pores, instead of the micro and nano protrusions on traditional superhydrophobic surfaces mimicking Lutos leaves, were fabricated on commercially pure aluminum surfaces. After modified by FDTS, the surfaces were superhydrophobic and self-cleaning. The ultrahigh hardness and electrochemical stability of Al2O3 coating endowed the surface excellent mechanical durability and good corrosion resistance. Because the method is scalable, it may find practical application on body panels of automobiles and aircrafts and so on. PMID:26853810

  13. Robust superhydrophobic surface on Al substrate with durability, corrosion resistance and ice-phobicity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoyong; Liu, Shuai; Wei, Sufeng; Liu, Yan; Lian, Jianshe; Jiang, Qing

    2016-02-08

    Practical application of superhydrophobic surfaces is limited by the fragility of nanoscale asperities. Combining chemical etching and anodization, microscale pits and nanoscale pores, instead of the micro and nano protrusions on traditional superhydrophobic surfaces mimicking Lutos leaves, were fabricated on commercially pure aluminum surfaces. After modified by FDTS, the surfaces were superhydrophobic and self-cleaning. The ultrahigh hardness and electrochemical stability of Al2O3 coating endowed the surface excellent mechanical durability and good corrosion resistance. Because the method is scalable, it may find practical application on body panels of automobiles and aircrafts and so on.

  14. Characterization of Superhydrophobic Surfaces for Anti-icing in a Low-Temperature Wind Tunnel

    SciTech Connect

    Swarctz, Christopher; Alijallis, Elias; Hunter, Scott Robert; Simpson, John T; Choi, Chang-Hwan

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a closed loop low-temperature wind tunnel was custom-built and uniquely used to investigate the anti-icing mechanism of superhydrophobic surfaces in regulated flow velocities, temperatures, humidity, and water moisture particle sizes. Silica nanoparticle-based hydrophobic coatings were tested as superhydrophobic surface models. During tests, images of ice formation were captured by a camera and used for analysis of ice morphology. Prior to and after wind tunnel testing, apparent contact angles of water sessile droplets on samples were measured by a contact angle meter to check degradation of surface superhydrophobicity. A simple peel test was also performed to estimate adhesion of ice on the surfaces. When compared to an untreated sample, superhydrophobic surfaces inhibited initial ice formation. After a period of time, random droplet strikes attached to the superhydrophobic surfaces and started to coalesce with previously deposited ice droplets. These sites appear as mounds of accreted ice across the surface. The appearance of the ice formations on the superhydrophobic samples is white rather than transparent, and is due to trapped air. These ice formations resemble soft rime ice rather than the transparent glaze ice seen on the untreated sample. Compared to untreated surfaces, the icing film formed on superhydrophobic surfaces was easy to peel off by shear flows.

  15. Modeling of Droplet Evaporation on Superhydrophobic Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Heitor C M; Vainstein, Mendeli H; Brito, Carolina

    2015-07-14

    When a drop of water is placed on a rough surface, there are two possible extreme regimes of wetting: the one called Cassie-Baxter (CB) with air pockets trapped underneath the droplet and the one called the Wenzel (W) state characterized by the homogeneous wetting of the surface. A way to investigate the transition between these two states is by means of evaporation experiments, in which the droplet starts in a CB state and, as its volume decreases, penetrates the surface's grooves, reaching a W state. Here we present a theoretical model based on the global interfacial energies for CB and W states that allows us to predict the thermodynamic wetting state of the droplet for a given volume and surface texture. We first analyze the influence of the surface geometric parameters on the droplet's final wetting state with constant volume and show that it depends strongly on the surface texture. We then vary the volume of the droplet, keeping the geometric surface parameters fixed to mimic evaporation and show that the drop experiences a transition from the CB to the W state when its volume reduces, as observed in experiments. To investigate the dependency of the wetting state on the initial state of the droplet, we implement a cellular Potts model in three dimensions. Simulations show very good agreement with theory when the initial state is W, but it disagrees when the droplet is initialized in a CB state, in accordance with previous observations which show that the CB state is metastable in many cases. Both simulations and the theoretical model can be modified to study other types of surfaces.

  16. Shear driven droplet shedding and coalescence on a superhydrophobic surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghtadernejad, S.; Tembely, M.; Jadidi, M.; Esmail, N.; Dolatabadi, A.

    2015-03-01

    The interest on shedding and coalescence of sessile droplets arises from the importance of these phenomena in various scientific problems and industrial applications such as ice formation on wind turbine blades, power lines, nacelles, and aircraft wings. It is shown recently that one of the ways to reduce the probability of ice accretion on industrial components is using superhydrophobic coatings due to their low adhesion to water droplets. In this study, a combined experimental and numerical approach is used to investigate droplet shedding and coalescence phenomena under the influence of air shear flow on a superhydrophobic surface. Droplets with a size of 2 mm are subjected to various air speeds ranging from 5 to 90 m/s. A numerical simulation based on the Volume of Fluid method coupled with the Large Eddy Simulation turbulent model is carried out in conjunction with the validating experiments to shed more light on the coalescence of droplets and detachment phenomena through a detailed analysis of the aerodynamics forces and velocity vectors on the droplet and the streamlines around it. The results indicate a contrast in the mechanism of two-droplet coalescence and subsequent detachment with those related to the case of a single droplet shedding. At lower speeds, the two droplets coalesce by attracting each other with successive rebounds of the merged droplet on the substrate, while at higher speeds, the detachment occurs almost instantly after coalescence, with a detachment time decreasing exponentially with the air speed. It is shown that coalescence phenomenon assists droplet detachment from the superhydrophobic substrate at lower air speeds.

  17. Patterned nonadhesive surfaces: superhydrophobicity and wetting regime transitions.

    PubMed

    Nosonovsky, Michael; Bhushan, Bharat

    2008-02-19

    Nonadhesive and water-repellent surfaces are required for many tribological applications. We study mechanisms of wetting of patterned superhydrophobic Si surfaces, including the transition between various wetting regimes during microdroplet evaporation in environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and for contact angle and contact angle hysteresis measurements. Wetting involves interactions at different scale levels: macroscale (water droplet size), microscale (surface texture size), and nanoscale (molecular size). We propose a generalized formulation of the Wenzel and Cassie equations that is consistent with the broad range of experimental data. We show that the contact angle hysteresis involves two different mechanisms and how the transition from the metastable partially wetted (Cassie) state to the homogeneously wetted (Wenzel) state depends upon droplet size and surface pattern parameters.

  18. Probing droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces by synchrotron radiation scattering techniques.

    PubMed

    Accardo, Angelo; Di Fabrizio, Enzo; Limongi, Tania; Marinaro, Giovanni; Riekel, Christian

    2014-07-01

    Droplets on artificially structured superhydrophobic surfaces represent quasi contact-free sample environments which can be probed by X-ray microbeams and nanobeams in the absence of obstructing walls. This review will discuss basic surface wettability concepts and introduce the technology of structuring surfaces. Quasi contact-free droplets are compared with contact-free droplets; processes related to deposition and evaporation on solid surfaces are discussed. Droplet coalescence based on the electrowetting effect allows the probing of short-time mixing and reaction processes. The review will show for several materials of biological interest that structural processes related to conformational changes, nucleation and assembly during droplet evaporation can be spatially and temporally resolved by raster-scan diffraction techniques. Orientational ordering of anisotropic materials deposited during solidification at pinning sites facilitates the interpretation of structural data.

  19. Fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces by dislocation-selective chemical etching on aluminum, copper, and zinc substrates.

    PubMed

    Qian, Baitai; Shen, Ziqiu

    2005-09-27

    A surface roughening method by simple chemical etching was developed for the fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces on three polycrystalline metals, namely aluminum, copper, and zinc. The key to the etching technique was the use of a dislocation etchant that preferentially dissolves the dislocation sites in the grains. The etched metallic surfaces, when hydrophobized with fluoroalkylsilane, exhibited superhydrophobic properties with water contact angles of larger than 150 degrees, as well as roll-off angles of less than 10 degrees for 8-microL drops. Also, the dislocation etching concept introduced here may be helpful in the fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces on other polycrystalline substrates.

  20. Droplet condensation on superhydrophobic surfaces with enhanced dewetting under a tangential AC electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xinzhu; Li, Jian; Li, Licheng; Huang, Zhengyong; Wang, Feipeng; Wei, Yuan

    2016-10-01

    In this Letter, the dewetting behavior of superhydrophobic condensing surfaces under a tangential AC electric field is reported. The surface coverage of condensed droplets only exhibits a negligible increase with time. The jumping frequency of droplets is enhanced. The AC electric field motivates the dynamic transition of droplets from stretch to recoil, resulting in the counterforce propelling droplet jumping. The considerable horizontal component of jumping velocity facilitates droplet departure from superhydrophobic surfaces. Both the amplitude and frequency of AC voltage are important factors for droplet departure and dewetting effect. Thereby, the tangential electric field provides a unique and easily implementable approach to enhance droplet removal from superhydrophobic condensing surfaces.

  1. Superhydrophobic aluminum alloy surfaces by a novel one-step process.

    PubMed

    Saleema, N; Sarkar, D K; Paynter, R W; Chen, X-G

    2010-09-01

    A simple one-step process has been developed to render aluminum alloy surfaces superhydrophobic by immersing the aluminum alloy substrates in a solution containing NaOH and fluoroalkyl-silane (FAS-17) molecules. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and water contact angle measurements have been performed to characterize the morphological features, chemical composition and superhydrophobicity of the surfaces. The resulting surfaces provided a water contact angle as high as ∼162° and a contact angle hysteresis as low as ∼4°. The study indicates that it is possible to fabricate superhydrophobic aluminum surfaces easily and effectively without involving the traditional two-step processes.

  2. Stable superhydrophobic surface of hierarchical carbon nanotubes on Si micropillar arrays.

    PubMed

    He, Shaoqing; Wei, Jinquan; Wang, Haifan; Sun, Deshun; Yao, Zhaohui; Fu, Chengsong; Xu, Ruiqiao; Jia, Yi; Zhu, Hongwei; Wang, Kunlin; Wu, Dehai

    2013-10-07

    It is of great importance to construct a stable superhydrophobic surface with low sliding angle (SA) for various applications. We used hydrophobic carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to construct the superhydrophobic hierarchical architecture of CNTs on silicon micropillar array (CNTs/Si-μp), which have a large contact angle of 153° to 155° and an ultralow SA of 3° to 5°. Small water droplets with a volume larger than 0.3 μL can slide on the CNTs/Si-μp with a tilted angle of approximately 5°. The CNTs growing on planar Si wafer lose their superhydrophobic properties after exposing to tiny water droplets. However, the CNTs/Si-μp still show superhydrophobic properties even after wetting using tiny water droplets. The CNTs/Si-μp still have a hierarchical structure after wetting, resulting in a stable superhydrophobic surface.

  3. Fluorinated Polyhedral Oligosilsesquioxane Surfaces and Superhydrophobicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacono, Scott T.; Peloquin, Andrew J.; Smith, Dennis W.; Mabry, Joseph M.

    Fluorinated compounds are a logical choice for hydrophobic applications owing to their generally low surface energy. Polyhedral molecules may also improve hydrophobicity by increasing material surface roughness. There have been many recent attempts to synthesize and characterize various types of fluorinated polyhedra. These reports include the fluorination or fluoroalkylation of C60 [1,2]. Unfortunately, C60F48 (fluorinated buckminsterfullerene) cannot be used as a hydrophobic material, since it is metastable and is hydrolyzed by water [3]. However, the perfluorocarborane species, perfluoro-deca-β-methyl-para-carborane, shows remarkable hydrolytic and oxidative stability [4]. Fluorinated carbon nanotubes and nanofibers have also been produced [5]. Many of these fluorinated polyhedral compounds may be useful in hydrophobic applications, but they are generally hazardous to prepare, require air and moisture sensitive manipulations, and have limited economies of scale. For these reasons, alternative fluorinated polyhedra, such as Polyhedral Oligomeric SilSesquioxanes (POS) are highly desired (Figure 6.1).

  4. Turbulent Boundary Layer Flow over Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-10

    determined by the user via variable -frequency drive units that control the pumps . The water tunnel is able to produce friction Reynolds numbers up to 4000 and...gradient flow. The test surface is affixed to the bottom wall. Water from the holding tank is pumped into the tunnel at a specific speed ...as a plane moving through the air, a car driving down the road (through air), and a ship traveling through water. Based on an object’s geometry and

  5. Facile stamp patterning method for superhydrophilic/superhydrophobic surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Lyu, Sungnam Hwang, Woonbong

    2015-11-16

    Patterning techniques are essential to many research fields such as chemistry, biology, medicine, and micro-electromechanical systems. In this letter, we report a simple, fast, and low-cost superhydrophobic patterning method using a superhydrophilic template. The technique is based on the contact stamping of the surface during hydrophobic dip coating. Surface characteristics were measured using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopic analysis. The results showed that the hydrophilic template, which was contacted with the stamp, was not affected by the hydrophobic solution. The resolution study was conducted using a stripe shaped stamp. The patterned line was linearly proportional to the width of the stamp line with a constant narrowing effect. A surface with regions of four different types of wetting was fabricated to demonstrate the patterning performance.

  6. Verification of icephobic/anti-icing properties of a superhydrophobic surface.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanyi; Xue, Jian; Wang, Qingjun; Chen, Qingmin; Ding, Jianfu

    2013-04-24

    Four aluminum surfaces with wettability varied from superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic were prepared by combining an etching and a coating process. The surface wettability was checked in terms of water contact angle (CA) and sliding angle (SA) under different humidity at -10 °C. High-speed photography was applied to study water droplet impact dynamics on these surfaces. It was found that single and successive water droplets could rebound on the superhydrophobic surface and roll off at a tilt angle larger than 30° under an extremely condensing weather condition (-10 °C and relative humidity of 85-90%). In addition, the superhydrophobic surface showed a strong icephobic property, the ice adhesion on this surface was only 13% of that on the superhydrophilic surface, though they had a similar nano/microtopological structure. Moreover, this superhydrophobic surface displayed an excellent durability of the icephobic property. The ice adhesion only increased to 20% and 16% of that on the superhydrophobic surface after the surface was undergone 20 icing/ice-breaking cycles and 40 icing/ice-melting cycles, respectively. Surface profile and XPS studies on these surfaces indicated a minor damage of the surface nano/microstructure and the coating layer upon these multiple ice-breaking and ice-melting processes. Therefore, this superhydrophobic surface could be a good candidate for icephobic applications.

  7. Boundary slip study on hydrophilic, hydrophobic, and superhydrophobic surfaces with dynamic atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Bhushan, Bharat; Wang, Yuliang; Maali, Abdelhamid

    2009-07-21

    Slip length has been measured using the dynamic atomic force microscopy (AFM) method. Unlike the contact AFM method, the sample surface approaches an oscillating sphere with a very low velocity in the dynamic AFM method. During this process, the amplitude and phase shift data are recorded to calculate the hydrodynamic damping coefficient, which is then used to obtain slip length. In this study, a glass sphere with a large radius was glued to the end of an AFM cantilever to measure the slip length on rough surfaces. Experimental results for hydrophilic, hydrophobic, and superhydrophobic surfaces show that the hydrodynamic damping coefficient decreases from the hydrophilic surface to the hydrophobic surface and from the hydrophobic one to the superhydrophobic one. The slip lengths obtained on the hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces are 43 and 236 nm, respectively, which indicates increasing boundary slip from the hydrophobic surface to the superhydrophobic one.

  8. Intrusion and extrusion of a liquid on nanostructured surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amabili, M.; Giacomello, A.; Meloni, S.; Casciola, C. M.

    2017-01-01

    Superhydrophobicity is connected to the presence of gas pockets within surface asperities. Upon increasing the pressure this ‘suspended’ state may collapse, causing the complete wetting of the rough surface. In order to quantitatively characterize this process on nanostructured surfaces, we perform rare-event atomistic simulations at different pressures and for several texture geometries. Such an approach allows us to identify for each pressure the stable and metastable states and the free energy barriers separating them. Results show that, by starting from the superhydrophobic state and increasing the pressure, the suspended state abruptly collapses at a critical intrusion pressure. If the pressure is subsequently decreased, the system remains trapped in the metastable state corresponding to the wet surface. The liquid can be extruded from the nanostructures only at very negative pressures, by reaching the critical extrusion pressure (spinodal for the confined liquid). The intrusion and extrusion curves form a hysteresis cycle determined by the large free energy barriers separating the suspended and wet states. These barriers, which grow very quickly for pressures departing from the intrusion/extrusion pressure, are shown to strongly depend on the texture geometry.

  9. Self-cleaning of superhydrophobic surfaces by spontaneously jumping condensate drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisdom, Katrina; Watson, Jolanta; Watson, Gregory; Chen, Chuan-Hua

    2012-11-01

    The self-cleaning function of superhydrophobic surfaces is conventionally attributed to the removal of contaminating particles by impacting or rolling water droplets, which implies the action of external forces such as gravity. Here, we demonstrate a new self-cleaning mechanism, whereby condensate drops spontaneously jump upon coalescence on a superhydrophobic surface, and the merged drop self-propels away from the surface along with the contaminants. The jumping-condensate mechanism is shown to autonomously clean superhydrophobic cicada wings, where the contaminating particles cannot be removed by external wind flow. Our findings offer new insights for the development of self-cleaning materials.

  10. Superhydrophobic Zr-based metallic glass surface with high adhesive force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ning; Xia, Ting; Heng, Liping; Liu, Lin

    2013-06-01

    Micro/nano hierarchical structures were constructed on Zr35Ti30Be26.75Cu8.25 metallic glass surface by silicon moulding and subsequently chemical etching. The as-formed surface exhibited both superhydrophobicity and high adhesive force towards water. The superhydrophobicity is rationalized based on the modified Cassie-Baxter model [A. B. D. Cassie and S. Baxter, Trans. Faraday Soc. 40, 546 (1944)]. The origin of the robust adhesion is described in terms of intermolecular capillary forces. The present results not only provide a method to fabricate superhydrophobic metallic glasses surface but also explore an important industrial application as dry adhesives and transport of liquid microdroplets.

  11. Durability of the tunable adhesive superhydrophobic PTFE surfaces for harsh environment applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Yao; Yong, Jiale; Chen, Feng; Huo, Jinglan; Yang, Qing; Bian, Hao; Du, Guangqing; Hou, Xun

    2016-09-01

    Tunable adhesive superhydrophobic materials have attracted increasing research interest due to their applications in microdroplet manipulation, biological detection and microfluidic system. However, most of the artificial materials easily lose superhydrophobicity in harsh environments. The durability of superhydrophobic materials is very important to extend their lifetime in practical applications. In this paper, bioinspired durable superhydrophobicity with tunable adhesion on polytetrafluoroethylene surfaces is realized via a one-step femtosecond laser irradiation. On the laser-induced superhydrophobic surfaces, the sliding angle can be tuned from 1° to 90° (water droplet is pinned on the surface at any titled angles). The tunable water adhesion results from different contact states which change from the lotus state to the transition state and then to the composite state with increasing average distance of irradiation points. Water droplet quick localization and no-loss droplet transportation were achieved through designing surface adhesion. In addition, the resultant surfaces are so stable that they can maintain superhydrophobicity even after storing in harsh environments, without dramatical superhydrophobicity decay for a long time.

  12. The failure of a superhydrophobic surface under external flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ying; Fu, Matthew; Hultmark, Marcus; Smits, Alexander; Stone, Howard; Muri Slips Team

    2016-11-01

    The advantages of superhydrophobic surfaces (SHS), such as ultra water-repellency, drag reduction and enhanced heat transfer, rely on the existence of the air trapped inside the surface geometries. Thus, it is important to study the failure of SHS, i.e., how the air-filled cavities are filled with water. Most of the previous work on this topic focuses on static pressure-driven failure. Here, we study experimentally the dynamic failure of SHS under an external flow. Conditions leading to failure are identified. The effects of both the pressure and the shear from the external flow on the failure of SHS are discussed. This work is supported under Office of Naval Research (ONR) Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI) Grants N00014-12-1-0875 and N00014-12-1-0962 (Program Manager Dr. Ki-Han Kim).

  13. Fabrication of Superhydrophobic Surfaces with Controllable Electrical Conductivity and Water Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Ye, Lijun; Guan, Jipeng; Li, Zhixiang; Zhao, Jingxin; Ye, Cuicui; You, Jichun; Li, Yongjin

    2017-02-14

    A facile and versatile strategy for fabricating superhydrophobic surfaces with controllable electrical conductivity and water adhesion is reported. "Vine-on-fence"-structured and cerebral cortex-like superhydrophobic surfaces are constructed by filtering a suspension of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), using polyoxymethylene nonwovens as the filter paper. The nonwovens with micro- and nanoporous two-tier structures act as the skeleton, introducing a microscale structure. The MWCNTs act as nanoscale structures, creating hierarchical surface roughness. The surface topography and the electrical conductivity of the superhydrophobic surfaces are controlled by varying the MWCNT loading. The vine-on-fence-structured surfaces exhibit "sticky" superhydrophobicity with high water adhesion. The cerebral cortex-like surfaces exhibit self-cleaning properties with low water adhesion. The as-prepared superhydrophobic surfaces are chemically resistant to acidic and alkaline environments of pH 2-12. They therefore have potential in applications such as droplet-based microreactors and thin-film microextraction. These findings aid our understanding of the role that surface topography plays in the design and fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces with different water-adhesion properties.

  14. Superhydrophobic copper surfaces fabricated by fatty acid soaps in aqueous solution for excellent corrosion resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wenlong; Hu, Yuanyuan; Bao, Wenda; Xie, Xiaoyu; Liu, Yiran; Song, Aixin; Hao, Jingcheng

    2017-03-01

    A simple and safe one-step immersion method was developed to obtain the stable superhydrophobic copper surfaces with excellent corrosion resistance ability using fatty acids in water-medium instead of ethanol. An organic alkali, N,N-dimethylcyclohexylamine (DMCHA), was chosen to solve the poor solubility of fatty acids in water and the high Krafft point of carboxylate salts with inorganic counterions. The superhydrophobic property can be realized in a much quicker process (7.5 min) in aqueous solution than in ethanol (more than 2 d), which is universally feasible for the fabrication of superhydrophobic metal surfaces in industry scale, thereby greatly increasing the safety in industrial manufacture.

  15. DNS of flows over superhydrophobic surfaces with small texture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairhall, Chris; Garcia-Mayoral, Ricardo

    2015-11-01

    We present results from direct numerical simulations of turbulent flows over superhydrophobic surfaces with small texture sizes, comparable to those of practical application. Textures studied with DNS are usually much larger, as the cost of the simulations would otherwise be prohibitive. For this reason, a multi-block code that allows for finer resolution near the walls has been developed. We focus particularly on the pressure distribution at the wall. This distribution can cause the deformation of the gas pockets, which can ultimately lead to their loss and that of the drag reduction effect. The layout of the texture causes stagnation pressures which can contribute substantially to the wall pressure signal (Seo et al. JFM, under review). We study a range of different textures and their influence on these pressures.

  16. Harvesting electrostatic energy using super-hydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pociecha, Dominik; Zylka, Pawel

    2016-11-01

    Almost all environments are now being extensively populated by miniaturized, nano-powered electronic sensor devices communicated together through wireless sensor networks building Internet of Things (IoT). Various energy harvesting techniques are being more and more frequently proposed for battery-less powering of such remote, unattended, implantable or wearable sensors or other low-power electronic gadgets. Energy harvesting relays on extracting energy from the ambient sources readily accessible at the sensor location and converting it into electrical power. The paper exploits possibility of generating electric energy safely accessible for nano-power electronics using tribo-electric and electrostatic induction phenomena displayed at super-hydrophobic surfaces impinged by water droplets. Mechanism of such interaction is discussed and illustrated by experimental results.

  17. Evaporating behaviors of water droplet on superhydrophobic surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, PengFei; Lv, CunJing; He, Feng

    2012-12-01

    We investigated the dynamic evaporating behaviors of water droplet on superhydrophobic surfaces with micropillars. Our experimental data showed that receding contact angles of the water droplet increased with the decreasing of the scale of the micropillars during evaporation, even though the solid area fractions of the microstructured substrates remained constant. We also experimentally found that the critical contact diameters of the transition between the Cassie-Baxter and Wenzel states are affected not only by the geometrical parameters of the microstructures, but also by the initial volume of the water droplet. The measured critical pressure is consistent with the theoretical model, which validated the pressure-induced impalement mechanism for the wetting state transition.

  18. Self-cleaning of superhydrophobic surfaces by self-propelled jumping condensate

    PubMed Central

    Wisdom, Katrina M.; Qu, Xiaopeng; Liu, Fangjie; Watson, Gregory S.; Chen, Chuan-Hua

    2013-01-01

    The self-cleaning function of superhydrophobic surfaces is conventionally attributed to the removal of contaminating particles by impacting or rolling water droplets, which implies the action of external forces such as gravity. Here, we demonstrate a unique self-cleaning mechanism whereby the contaminated superhydrophobic surface is exposed to condensing water vapor, and the contaminants are autonomously removed by the self-propelled jumping motion of the resulting liquid condensate, which partially covers or fully encloses the contaminating particles. The jumping motion off the superhydrophobic surface is powered by the surface energy released upon coalescence of the condensed water phase around the contaminants. The jumping-condensate mechanism is shown to spontaneously clean superhydrophobic cicada wings, where the contaminating particles cannot be removed by gravity, wing vibration, or wind flow. Our findings offer insights for the development of self-cleaning materials. PMID:23630277

  19. Reactive superhydrophobic surface and its photoinduced disulfide-ene and thiol-ene (bio)functionalization.

    PubMed

    Li, Junsheng; Li, Linxian; Du, Xin; Feng, Wenqian; Welle, Alexander; Trapp, Oliver; Grunze, Michael; Hirtz, Michael; Levkin, Pavel A

    2015-01-14

    Reactive superhydrophobic surfaces are highly promising for biotechnological, analytical, sensor, or diagnostic applications but are difficult to realize due to their chemical inertness. In this communication, we report on a photoactive, inscribable, nonwettable, and transparent surface (PAINTS), prepared by polycondensation of trichlorovinylsilane to form thin transparent reactive porous nanofilament on a solid substrate. The PAINTS shows superhydrophobicity and can be conveniently functionalized with the photoclick thiol-ene reaction. In addition, we show for the first time that the PAINTS bearing vinyl groups can be easily modified with disulfides under UV irradiation. The effect of superhydrophobicity of PAINTS on the formation of high-resolution surface patterns has been investigated. The developed reactive superhydrophobic coating can find applications for surface biofunctionalization using abundant thiol or disulfide bearing biomolecules, such as peptides, proteins, or antibodies.

  20. Hierarchically ordered self-lubricating superhydrophobic anodized aluminum surfaces with enhanced corrosion resistance.

    PubMed

    Vengatesh, Panneerselvam; Kulandainathan, Manickam Anbu

    2015-01-28

    Herein, we report a facile method for the fabrication of self-lubricating superhydrophobic hierarchical anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) surfaces with improved corrosion protection, which is greatly anticipated to have a high impact in catalysis, aerospace, and the shipping industries. This method involves chemical grafting of as-formed AAO using low surface free energy molecules like long chain saturated fatty acids, perfluorinated fatty acid (perfluorooctadecanoic acid, PFODA), and perfluorosulfonicacid-polytetrafluoroethylene copolymer. The pre and post treatment processes in the anodization of aluminum (Al) play a vital role in the grafting of fatty acids. Wettability and surface free energy were analyzed using a contact angle meter and achieved 161.5° for PFODA grafted anodized aluminum (PFODA-Al). This study was also aimed at evaluating the surface for corrosion resistance by Tafel polarization and self-lubricating properties by tribological studies using a pin-on-disc tribometer. The collective results showed that chemically grafted AAO nanostructures exhibit high corrosion resistance toward seawater and low frictional coefficient due to low surface energy and self-lubricating property of fatty acids covalently linked to anodized Al surfaces.

  1. Design and Fabrication of a Hybrid Superhydrophobic-Hydrophilic Surface That Exhibits Stable Dropwise Condensation.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Bikash; Mac Giolla Eain, Marc; Xu, QianFeng; Egan, Vanessa M; Punch, Jeff; Lyons, Alan M

    2015-10-28

    Condensation of water vapor is an essential process in power generation, water collection, and thermal management. Dropwise condensation, where condensed droplets are removed from the surface before coalescing into a film, has been shown to increase the heat transfer efficiency and water collection ability of many surfaces. Numerous efforts have been made to create surfaces which can promote dropwise condensation, including superhydrophobic surfaces on which water droplets are highly mobile. However, the challenge with using such surfaces in condensing environments is that hydrophobic coatings can degrade and/or water droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces transition from the mobile Cassie to the wetted Wenzel state over time and condensation shifts to a less-effective filmwise mechanism. To meet the need for a heat-transfer surface that can maintain stable dropwise condensation, we designed and fabricated a hybrid superhydrophobic-hydrophilic surface. An array of hydrophilic needles, thermally connected to a heat sink, was forced through a robust superhydrophobic polymer film. Condensation occurs preferentially on the needle surface due to differences in wettability and temperature. As the droplet grows, the liquid drop on the needle remains in the Cassie state and does not wet the underlying superhydrophobic surface. The water collection rate on this surface was studied using different surface tilt angles, needle array pitch values, and needle heights. Water condensation rates on the hybrid surface were shown to be 4 times greater than for a planar copper surface and twice as large for silanized silicon or superhydrophobic surfaces without hydrophilic features. A convection-conduction heat transfer model was developed; predicted water condensation rates were in good agreement with experimental observations. This type of hybrid superhydrophobic-hydrophilic surface with a larger array of needles is low-cost, robust, and scalable and so could be used for heat

  2. One-step electrodeposition process to fabricate corrosion-resistant superhydrophobic surface on magnesium alloy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qin; Chen, Dexin; Kang, Zhixin

    2015-01-28

    A simple, one-step method has been developed to construct a superhydrophobic surface by electrodepositing Mg-Mn-Ce magnesium plate in an ethanol solution containing cerium nitrate hexahydrate and myristic acid. Scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were employed to characterize the surfaces. The shortest electrodeposition time to obtain a superhydrophobic surface was about 1 min, and the as-prepared superhydrophobic surfaces had a maximum contact angle of 159.8° and a sliding angle of less than 2°. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements demonstrated that the superhydrophobic surface greatly improved the corrosion properties of magnesium alloy in 3.5 wt % aqueous solutions of NaCl, Na2SO4, NaClO3, and NaNO3. Besides, the chemical stability and mechanical durability of the as-prepared superhydrophobic surface were also examined. The presented method is rapid, low-cost, and environmentally friendly and thus should be of significant value for the industrial fabrication of anticorrosive superhydrophobic surfaces and should have a promising future in expanding the applications of magnesium alloys.

  3. Durable Superhydrophobic Surfaces via Spontaneous Wrinkling of Teflon AF.

    PubMed

    Scarratt, Liam R J; Hoatson, Ben S; Wood, Elliot S; Hawkett, Brian S; Neto, Chiara

    2016-03-01

    We report the fabrication of both single-scale and hierarchical superhydrophobic surfaces, created by exploiting the spontaneous wrinkling of a rigid Teflon AF film on two types of shrinkable plastic substrates. Sub-100 nm to micrometric wrinkles were reproducibly generated by this simple process, with remarkable control over the size and hierarchy. Hierarchical Teflon AF wrinkled surfaces showed extremely high water repellence (contact angle 172°) and very low contact angle hysteresis (2°), resulting in droplets rolling off the surface at tilt angles lower than 5°. The wrinkling process intimately binds the Teflon AF layer with its substrate, making these surfaces mechanically robust, as revealed by macroscale and nanoscale wear tests: hardness values were close to that of commercial optical lenses and aluminum films, resistance to scratch was comparable to commercial hydrophobic coatings, and damage by extensive sonication did not significantly affect water repellence. By this fabrication method the size of the wrinkles can be reproducibly tuned from the nanoscale to the microscale, across the whole surface in one step; the fabrication procedure is extremely rapid, requiring only 2 min of thermal annealing to produce the desired topography, and uses inexpensive materials. The very low roll-off angles achieved in the hierarchical surfaces offer a potentially up-scalable alternative as self-cleaning and drag-reducing coatings.

  4. Effects of surface topography and vibrations on wetting: Superhydrophobicity, icephobicity and corrosion resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandran, Rahul

    Concrete and metallic materials are widely used in construction and water industry. The interaction of both these materials with water and ice (or snow) produces undesirable results and is therefore of interest. Water that gets absorbed into the pores of dry concrete expands on freezing and can lead to crack formation. Also, the ice accretion on concrete surfaces such as roadways can have disastrous consequence. Metallic components used in the water industry undergo corrosion due to contact with aqueous corrosive solutions. Therefore, it is desirable to make concrete water/ice-repellent, and to make metallic surfaces corrosion-resistant. Recent advances in micro/nanotechnology have made it possible to design functional micro/nanostructured surfaces with micro/nanotopography providing low adhesion. Some examples of such surfaces are superhydrophobic surfaces, which are extremely water repellent, and icephobic surfaces, which have low ice adhesion, repel incoming water droplets before freezing, or delay ice nucleation. This dissertation investigates the effects of surface micro/nanotopography and small amplitude fast vibrations on the wetting and adhesion of concrete with the goal of producing hydrophobic and icephobic concrete, and on the wetting of metallic surfaces to prevent corrosion. The relationship between surface micro/nanotopography and small fast vibrations is established using the method of separation of motions. Both these small scale effects can be substituted by an effective force or energy. The structure-property relationships in materials and surfaces are established. Both vibrations as well as surface micro/nanopatterns can affect wetting properties such as contact angle and surface free energy. Hydrophobic engineered cementitious composite samples are produced by controlling their surface topography and surface free energy. The surface topography is controlled by varying the concrete mixture composition. The surface free energy of concrete is

  5. Self-cleaning superhydrophobic surface based on titanium dioxide nanowires combined with polydimethylsiloxane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xia; Guo, Yonggang; Zhang, Zhijun; Zhang, Pingyu

    2013-11-01

    The present work describes a simple dipping process for the preparation of superhydrophobic coatings based on titanium dioxide nanowires combined with polydimethylsiloxane. The coating surface morphology, composition and wettability were investigated by scanning electron microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscope and contact angle measurements, respectively. Interestingly, the superhydrophobic coatings turn into a hydrophilic one after UV irradiation. It is found that the superhydrophobic surface shows almost complete wet self-cleaning of dirt particles with water droplets. Furthermore, the coating surface shows the anti-fouling performance for organic solvents, which can self-remove the organic solvents layer and recovers its superhydrophobic behavior. The advantage of the present approach is that the damaged coating can be easily repaired.

  6. Facile and cost-effective fabrication of patternable superhydrophobic surfaces via salt dissolution assisted etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Dongwhi; Yoo, Jaewon; Park, Sang Min; Kim, Dong Sung

    2017-01-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces with extremely low wettability have attracted attention globally along with their remarkable characteristics such as anti-icing, anti-sticking, and self-cleaning. In this study, a facile and cost-effective approach of fabricating patternable superhydrophobic surfaces, which can be applied on various substrates (including large area and 3D curvilinear substrates), is proposed with a salt-dissolution-assisted etching process. This novel proposal is environmentally benign (entirely water-based and fluorine-free process). The only required ingredients to realize superhydrophobic surfaces are commercially available salt particles, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and water. No expensive equipment or complex process control is needed. The fabricated superhydrophobic surface shows high static contact angle (∼151°) and a low sliding angle (∼6°), which correspond to the standards of superhydrophobicity. This surface also shows corrosive liquids (acid/alkali)-resistant characteristics. Moreover, the self-cleaning ability of the fabricated surfaces is explored. As a proof-of-concept application of the present approach, the spatially controllable superhydrophobic patterns on flat/curvilinear substrates are directly drawn with a minimum feature size of 500 μm without the use of expensive tooling, dies, or lithographic masks.

  7. Fabrication and condensation characteristics of metallic superhydrophobic surface with hierarchical micro-nano structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Fuqiang; Wu, Xiaomin

    2016-05-01

    Metallic superhydrophobic surfaces have various applications in aerospace, refrigeration and other engineering fields due to their excellent water repellent characteristics. This study considers a simple but widely applicable fabrication method using a two simultaneous chemical reactions method to prepare the acid-salt mixed solutions to process the metal surfaces with surface deposition and surface etching to construct hierarchical micro-nano structures on the surface and then modify the surface with low surface-energy materials. Al-based and Cu-based superhydrophobic surfaces were fabricated using this method. The Al-based superhydrophobic surface had a water contact angle of 164° with hierarchical micro-nano structures similar to the lotus leaves. The Cu-based surface had a water contact angle of 157° with moss-like hierarchical micro-nano structures. Droplet condensation experiments were also performed on these two superhydrophobic surfaces to investigate their condensation characteristics. The results show that the Al-based superhydrophobic surface has lower droplet density, higher droplet jumping probability, slower droplet growth rate and lower surface coverage due to the more structured hierarchical structures.

  8. Directional motion of water drop on ratchet-like superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Xianliang; Zhang, Jihua

    2011-05-01

    In this article, directional movements of drops on the ratchet-like superhydrophobic surfaces were observed. High-speed CCD images showed the caterpillar-like crawl of a drop on the inclined superhydrophobic surfaces as it rolled along the ridge of ratchet. In contrast, along the opposite direction, the movement of the drop only depended on the end of triple phase contact line while the front of contact line was pinned. The sliding angle (SA) measurements indicated that the ratchet-like superhydrophobic surfaces had directional drop retention traits. Moreover, the reduction of the rise angle ω1, the height d of the ratchet's ridge and the volume V of the drop can greatly enhance the directional difference of drop retention on the ratchet-like superhydrophobic surfaces. Therefore, it was concluded that the superhydrophobicity and the periodic ratchet-like microstructures were the keys to the directional drop sliding at one-dimensional level. We believe that these findings would be helpful to better understand the ratchet-like effect on the superhydrophobic surfaces and guide some novel engineering applications.

  9. Preparation of multi-functional superhydrophobic lanthanum surface on carbon steel via facile electrochemical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xi; He, Yi; Fan, Yi; Yang, Qiangbin; Li, Han

    2016-12-01

    We have constructed a superhydrophobic surface with lanthanum palmitate on carbon steel via a facile one-step electrodeposition. The morphology and chemical composition of the superhydrophobic surface were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy with attached energy dispersive X-ray spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The as-prepared surface with hierarchical structure has a largest contact angle of 160° ± 0.5° and a lowest sliding angle of 2° ± 0.5°. We found that both high electrodeposition potential and high concentrations lanthanum nitrate can accelerate the formation of superhydrophobic film. The electrochemical measurements demonstrated that the superhydrophobic surface exhibited excellent anti-corrosion performance in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution. Moreover, we also investigated the chemical stability, self-cleaning and oil/water separation of the superhydrophobic film. We believe that the facile fabrication method provides a promising strategy to fabricate multi-functional superhydrophobic surface with lanthanide series rare-earth elements on kinds of substrates.

  10. The surface tension effect on viscous liquid spreading along a superhydrophobic surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksenov, A. V.; Sudarikova, A. D.; Chicherin, I. S.

    2017-01-01

    Within the Stokes film approximation, unsteady plane-parallel spreading of a thin layer of a heavy viscous fluid along a horizontal superhydrophobic surface is studied. The forced spreading regimes induced by the mass supply are considered. Plane-parallel flow along the principal direction of the slip tensor of the superhydrophobic surface is studied in case that the corresponding slip tensor component is a power function of the spatial coordinate. An evolution equation for the film thickness is derived taking into account surface tension that is dependent on the spatial coordinate. The group classification problem is solved. Self-similar and invariant solutions are constructed for power and exponent time dependences on mass supply respectively at a special form of the surface tension coefficient. Surface tension is shown to have a significant influence on the character of the liquid spreading.

  11. Controlling surface energy of glass substrates to prepare superhydrophobic and transparent films from silica nanoparticle suspensions.

    PubMed

    Ogihara, Hitoshi; Xie, Jing; Saji, Tetsuo

    2015-01-01

    We fabricated superhydrophobic and transparent silica nanoparticle (SNP) films on glass plates via spray-coating technique. When suspensions containing 1-propanol and hydrophobic SNPs were sprayed over glass plates that were modified with dodecyl groups, superhydrophobic and transparent SNP films were formed on the substrates. Surface energy of the glass plates had a significant role to obtain superhydrophobic and transparent SNP films. SNP films did not show superhydrophobicity when bare glass plates were used as substrates, because water droplets tend to adhere the exposed part of the hydrophilic glass plate. Glass plates having extreme low surface energy were not also suitable because suspension solution was repelled from the substrates, which resulted in forming non-uniform SNP films.

  12. Evolution and environmental degradation of superhydrophobic aspen and black locust leaf surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tranquada, George Christopher

    The current study is focused on the characterization of four natural leaf species (quaking, bigtooth and columnar european aspen as well as black locust) possessing a unique dual-scale cuticle structure composed of micro- and nano-scale asperities, which are able to effectively resist wetting (superhydrophobic), characteristic of The Lotus Effect. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to track the growth and evolution of their distinctive nano-scale epicuticular wax (ECW) morphologies over one full growing season. In addition, the stability of their superhydrophobic property was tested in various environments. It was determined that the long-term stability of these surfaces is tentatively linked to various environmental stress factors. Specifically, a combination of high temperature and humidity caused the degradation of nanoscale asperities and loss of the superhydrophobic property. The dual-scale surface structure was found to provide a suitable template for the design of future superhydrophobic engineering materials.

  13. Superhydrophobic surfaces fabricated by femtosecond laser with tunable water adhesion: from lotus leaf to rose petal.

    PubMed

    Long, Jiangyou; Fan, Peixun; Gong, Dingwei; Jiang, Dafa; Zhang, Hongjun; Li, Lin; Zhong, Minlin

    2015-05-13

    Superhydrophobic surfaces with tunable water adhesion have attracted much interest in fundamental research and practical applications. In this paper, we used a simple method to fabricate superhydrophobic surfaces with tunable water adhesion. Periodic microstructures with different topographies were fabricated on copper surface via femtosecond (fs) laser irradiation. The topography of these microstructures can be controlled by simply changing the scanning speed of the laser beam. After surface chemical modification, these as-prepared surfaces showed superhydrophobicity combined with different adhesion to water. Surfaces with deep microstructures showed self-cleaning properties with extremely low water adhesion, and the water adhesion increased when the surface microstructures became flat. The changes in surface water adhesion are attributed to the transition from Cassie state to Wenzel state. We also demonstrated that these superhydrophobic surfaces with different adhesion can be used for transferring small water droplets without any loss. We demonstrate that our approach provides a novel but simple way to tune the surface adhesion of superhydrophobic metallic surfaces for good potential applications in related areas.

  14. Nanoparticle-Based Surface Modifications for Microtribology Control and Superhydrophobicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurst, Kendall Matthew

    2010-11-01

    The emergence of miniaturization techniques for consumer electronics has brought forth the relatively new and exciting field of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). However, due to the inherent forces that exist between surfaces at the micro- and nanoscale, scientists and semiconductor manufacturers are still struggling to improve the lifetime and reliability of complex microdevices. Due to the extremely large surface area-to-volume ratio of typical MEMS and microstructured surfaces, dominant interfacial forces exist which can be detrimental to their operational lifetime. In particular, van der Waals, capillary, and electrostatic forces contribute to the permanent adhesion, or stiction , of microfabricated surfaces. This strong adhesion force also contributes to the friction and wear of these silicon-based systems. The scope of this work was to examine the effect of utilizing nanoparticles as the basis for roughening surfaces for the purpose of creating films with anti-adhesive and/or superhydrophobic properties. All of the studies presented in this work are focused around a gas-expanded liquid (GXL) process that promotes the deposition of colloidal gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) into conformal thin films. The GXL particle deposition process is finalized by a critical point drying step which is advantageous to the microelectromechanical systems and semiconductor (IC) industries. In fact, preliminary results illustrated that the GXL particle deposition process can easily be integrated into current MEMS microfabrication processes. Thin films of AuNPs deposited onto the surfaces of silicon-based MEMS and tribology test devices were shown to have a dramatic effect on the adhesion of microstructures. In the various investigations, the apparent work of adhesion between surfaces was reduced by 2-4 orders of magnitude. This effect is greatly attributed to the roughening of the typically smooth silicon oxide surfaces which, in turn, dramatically decreases the "real are of

  15. A Comprehensive Model of Electric-Field-Enhanced Jumping-Droplet Condensation on Superhydrophobic Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Birbarah, Patrick; Li, Zhaoer; Pauls, Alexander; Miljkovic, Nenad

    2015-07-21

    Superhydrophobic micro/nanostructured surfaces for dropwise condensation have recently received significant attention due to their potential to enhance heat transfer performance by shedding positively charged water droplets via coalescence-induced droplet jumping at length scales below the capillary length and allowing the use of external electric fields to enhance droplet removal and heat transfer, in what has been termed electric-field-enhanced (EFE) jumping-droplet condensation. However, achieving optimal EFE conditions for enhanced heat transfer requires capturing the details of transport processes that is currently lacking. While a comprehensive model has been developed for condensation on micro/nanostructured surfaces, it cannot be applied for EFE condensation due to the dynamic droplet-vapor-electric field interactions. In this work, we developed a comprehensive physical model for EFE condensation on superhydrophobic surfaces by incorporating individual droplet motion, electrode geometry, jumping frequency, field strength, and condensate vapor-flow dynamics. As a first step toward our model, we simulated jumping droplet motion with no external electric field and validated our theoretical droplet trajectories to experimentally obtained trajectories, showing excellent temporal and spatial agreement. We then incorporated the external electric field into our model and considered the effects of jumping droplet size, electrode size and geometry, condensation heat flux, and droplet jumping direction. Our model suggests that smaller jumping droplet sizes and condensation heat fluxes require less work input to be removed by the external fields. Furthermore, the results suggest that EFE electrodes can be optimized such that the work input is minimized depending on the condensation heat flux. To analyze overall efficiency, we defined an incremental coefficient of performance and showed that it is very high (∼10(6)) for EFE condensation. We finally proposed mechanisms

  16. Thermomechanical Mechanisms of Reducing Ice Adhesion on Superhydrophobic Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Cohen, N; Dotan, A; Dodiuk, H; Kenig, S

    2016-09-20

    Superhydrophobic (SH) coatings have been shown to reduce freezing and ice nucleation rates, by means of low surface energy chemistry tailored with nano/micro roughness. Durability enhancement of SH surfaces is a crucial issue. Consequently, the present research on reducing ice adhesion is based on radiation-induced radical reaction for covalently bonding SiO2 nanoparticles to polymer coatings to obtain durable roughness. Results indicated that the proposed approach resulted in SH surfaces having high contact angles (>155°) and low sliding angles (<5°) with improved durability and transparency. In a subsequent stage, the synthesized SH coating was investigated for its icephobic characteristics using a variety of substrates. Results indicated that supercooled water drops bounced back when impinging on SH polycarbonate substrate and froze on SH copper substrate held at -10 to -30 °C and were easily peeled off when coated by ice formed during exposure to air/supercooled water drops at -20 °C. The ice shear adhesion investigation (at -20 °C) demonstrated reduction of shear adhesion to a variety of SH treated substrates having low thermal expansion coefficient (copper and aluminum) and high thermal expansion coefficient (polycarbonate and poly(methyl methacrylate)). It was concluded that the thermal mismatch between the adhering ice and the various substrates and its resultant interfacial thermal stresses affect the adhesion strength of the ice to the respective substrate.

  17. Droplet-driven transports on superhydrophobic-patterned surface microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Xing, Siyuan; Harake, Ryan S; Pan, Tingrui

    2011-11-07

    Droplet-based transport phenomena driven by surface tension have been explored as an automated pumping source for a number of chemical and biological applications. In this paper, we present a comprehensive theoretical and experimental investigation of unconventional droplet-based motions on a superhydrophobic-patterned surface microfluidic (S(2)M) platform. The S(2)M surfaces are monolithically fabricated using a facile two-step laser micromachining technique on regular polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) chemistry. Unlike the traditional droplet-driven pumps built on an enclosed microfluidic network, the S(2)M network pins the liquid-solid interface of droplets to the lithographically defined wetting boundary and establishes a direct linkage between the volumetric and hydraulic measures. Moreover, diverse modes of droplet motions are theoretically determined and experimentally characterized in a bi-droplet configuration, among which several unconventional droplet-driven transport phenomena are first demonstrated. These include big-to-small droplet merging, droplet balancing, as well as bidirectional transporting, in addition to the classic small-to-big droplet transition. Furthermore, multi-stage programmable bidirectional pumping has been implemented on the S(2)M platform, according to the newly established droplet manipulation principle, to illustrate its potential use for automated biomicrofluidic and point-of-care diagnostic applications.

  18. The effect of composition and thermodynamics on the surface morphology of durable superhydrophobic polymer coatings.

    PubMed

    Nahum, Tehila; Dodiuk, Hanna; Kenig, Samuel; Panwar, Artee; Barry, Carol; Mead, Joey

    2017-01-01

    Durable superhydrophobic coatings were synthesized using a system of silica nanoparticles (NPs) to provide nanoscale roughness, fluorosilane to give hydrophobic chemistry, and three different polymer binders: urethane acrylate, ethyl 2-cyanoacrylate, and epoxy. Coatings composed of different binders incorporating NPs in various concentrations exhibited different superhydrophobic attributes when applied on polycarbonate (PC) and glass substrates and as a function of coating composition. It was found that the substrate surface characteristics and wettability affected the superhydrophobic characteristics of the coatings. Interfacial tension and spreading coefficient parameters (thermodynamics) of the coating components were used to predict the localization of the NPs for the different binders' concentrations. The thermodynamic analysis of the NPs localization was in good agreement with the experimental observations. On the basis of the thermodynamic analysis and the experimental scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, profilometry, and atomic force microscopy results, it was concluded that localization of the NPs on the surface was critical to provide the necessary roughness and resulting superhydrophobicity. The durability evaluated by tape testing of the epoxy formulations was the best on both glass and PC. Several coating compositions retained their superhydrophobicity after the tape test. In summary, it was concluded that thermodynamic analysis is a powerful tool to predict the roughness of the coating due to the location of NPs on the surface, and hence can be used in the design of superhydrophobic coatings.

  19. The effect of composition and thermodynamics on the surface morphology of durable superhydrophobic polymer coatings

    PubMed Central

    Nahum, Tehila; Dodiuk, Hanna; Kenig, Samuel; Panwar, Artee; Barry, Carol; Mead, Joey

    2017-01-01

    Durable superhydrophobic coatings were synthesized using a system of silica nanoparticles (NPs) to provide nanoscale roughness, fluorosilane to give hydrophobic chemistry, and three different polymer binders: urethane acrylate, ethyl 2-cyanoacrylate, and epoxy. Coatings composed of different binders incorporating NPs in various concentrations exhibited different superhydrophobic attributes when applied on polycarbonate (PC) and glass substrates and as a function of coating composition. It was found that the substrate surface characteristics and wettability affected the superhydrophobic characteristics of the coatings. Interfacial tension and spreading coefficient parameters (thermodynamics) of the coating components were used to predict the localization of the NPs for the different binders’ concentrations. The thermodynamic analysis of the NPs localization was in good agreement with the experimental observations. On the basis of the thermodynamic analysis and the experimental scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, profilometry, and atomic force microscopy results, it was concluded that localization of the NPs on the surface was critical to provide the necessary roughness and resulting superhydrophobicity. The durability evaluated by tape testing of the epoxy formulations was the best on both glass and PC. Several coating compositions retained their superhydrophobicity after the tape test. In summary, it was concluded that thermodynamic analysis is a powerful tool to predict the roughness of the coating due to the location of NPs on the surface, and hence can be used in the design of superhydrophobic coatings. PMID:28243071

  20. Fabrication of superhydrophobic textured steel surface for anti-corrosion and tribological properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongmei; Yang, Jin; Chen, Beibei; Liu, Can; Zhang, Mingsuo; Li, Changsheng

    2015-12-01

    We describe a simple and rapid method to fabricate superhydrophobic textured steel surface with excellent anti-corrosion and tribological properties on S45C steel substrate. The steel substrate was firstly ground using SiC sandpapers, and then polished using diamond paste to remove scratches. The polished steel was subsequently etched in a mixture of HF and H2O2 solution for 30 s at room temperature to obtain the textured steel surface with island-like protrusions, micro-pits, and nano-flakes. Meanwhile, to investigate the formation mechanism of the multiscale structures, the polished steel was immersed in a 3 wt% Nital solution for 5 s to observe the metallographic structures. The multiscale structures, along with low-surface-energy molecules, led to the steel surface that displayed superhydrophobicity with the contact angle of 158 ± 2° and the sliding angle of 3 ± 1°. The chemical stability and potentiodynamic polarization test indicated that the as-prepared superhydrophobic surface had excellent corrosion resistance that can provide effective protection for the steel substrate. The tribological test showed that the friction coefficient of the superhydrophobic surface maintained 0.11 within 6000 s and its superhydrophobicity had no obvious decrease after the abrasion test. The theoretical mechanism for the excellent anti-corrosion and tribological properties on the superhydrophobic surface were also analyzed respectively. The advantages of facile production, anti-corrosion, and tribological properties for the superhydrophobic steel surface make it to be a good candidate in practical applications.

  1. Influence of n-hexanol and n-octanol on wetting properties and air entrapment at superhydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Krasowska, Marta; Ferrari, Michele; Liggieri, Libero; Malysa, Kazimierz

    2011-05-28

    Superhydrophobic surfaces have recently attracted a lot of attention due to their self-cleaning properties. The superhydrophobic surfaces used in our studies were prepared using a mixed inorganic-organic coating. In order to check how short chain surface active agents affect the surface energy of such surfaces, their wettability (sessile drop technique) and the kinetics of the three phase contact formation were studied. It was found that with increasing concentrations of n-hexanol and n-octanol the surface energy of these surfaces was only slightly changed, i.e. a small decrease in contact angle values with increasing solution concentration was detected. Even for the most concentrated n-hexanol and n-octanol solutions, the contact angles were in the range 145-155° and the drop rolled off, indicating that the studied surfaces stayed superhydrophobic. Air bubbles, upon collision with such superhydrophobic surfaces, spread over the superhydrophobic surface within milliseconds in the studied solutions.

  2. Thermodynamic analysis on an anisotropically superhydrophobic surface with a hierarchical structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jieliang; Su, Zhengliang; Yan, Shaoze

    2015-12-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces, which refer to the surfaces with contact angle higher than 150° and hysteresis less than 10°, have been reported in various studies. However, studies on the superhydrophobicity of anisotropic, hierarchical surfaces are limited and the corresponding thermodynamic mechanisms could not be explained thoroughly. Here we propose a simplified surface model of anisotropic patterned surface with dual scale roughness. Based on the thermodynamic method, we calculate the equilibrium contact angle (ECA) and the contact angle hysteresis (CAH) on the given surface. We show here that the hierarchical structure has much better anisotropic wetting properties than the single-scale one, and the results shed light on the potential application in controllable micro-/nano-fluidic systems. Our studies can be potentially applied for the fabrication of anisotropically superhydrophobic surfaces.

  3. Wetting and self-cleaning properties of artificial superhydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Fürstner, Reiner; Barthlott, Wilhelm; Neinhuis, Christoph; Walzel, Peter

    2005-02-01

    The wetting and the self-cleaning properties (the latter is often called the "Lotus-Effect") of three types of superhydrophobic surfaces have been investigated: silicon wafer specimens with different regular arrays of spikes hydrophobized by chemical treatment, replicates of water-repellent leaves of plants, and commercially available metal foils which were additionally hydrophobized by means of a fluorinated agent. Water droplets rolled off easily from those silicon samples which had a microstructure consisting of rather slender spikes with narrow pitches. Such samples could be cleaned almost completely from artificial particulate contaminations by a fog consisting of water droplets (diameter range, 8-20 microm). Some metal foils and some replicates had two levels of roughening. Because of this, a complete removal of all particles was not possible using artificial fog. However, water drops with some amount of kinetic impact energy were able to clean these surfaces perfectly. A substrate where pronounced structures in the range below 5 microm were lacking could not be cleaned by means of fog because this treatment resulted in a continuous water film on the samples.

  4. Superhydrophobic and adhesive properties of surfaces: testing the quality by an elaborated scanning electron microscopy method.

    PubMed

    Ensikat, Hans J; Mayser, Matthias; Barthlott, Wilhelm

    2012-10-09

    In contrast to advancements in the fabrication of new superhydrophobic materials, the characterization of their water repellency and quality is often coarse and unsatisfactory. In view of the problems and inaccuracies, particularly in the measurement of very high contact angles, we developed alternative methods for the characterization of superhydrophobic surfaces. It was found that adhering water remnants after immersion are a useful criterion in determining the repellency quality. In this study, we introduce microscopy methods to detect traces of water-resembling test liquids on superhydrophobic surfaces by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) or fluorescence light microscopy (FLM). Diverse plant surfaces and some artificial superhydrophobic samples were examined. Instead of pure water, we used aqueous solutions containing a detectable stain and glycerol in order to prevent immediate evaporation of the microdroplets. For the SEM examinations, aqueous solutions of lead acetate were used, which could be detected in a frozen state at -90 °C with high sensitivity using a backscattered electron detector. For fluorescence microscopy, aqueous solutions of auramine were used. On different species of superhydrophobic plants, varying patterns of remaining microdroplets were found on their leaves. On some species, drop remnants occurred only on surface defects such as damaged epicuticular waxes. On others, microdroplets regularly decorated the locations of increased adhesion, particularly on hierarchically structured surfaces. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the method is suitable for testing the limits of repellency under harsh conditions, such as drop impact or long-enduring contact. The supplementation of the visualization method by the measurement of the pull-off force between a water drop and the sample allowed us to determine the adhesive properties of superhydrophobic surfaces quantitatively. The results were in good agreement with former studies of the water

  5. Simple and cost-effective fabrication of highly flexible, transparent superhydrophobic films with hierarchical surface design.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Hyun; Ha, Sung-Hun; Jang, Nam-Su; Kim, Jeonghyo; Kim, Ji Hoon; Park, Jong-Kweon; Lee, Deug-Woo; Lee, Jaebeom; Kim, Soo-Hyung; Kim, Jong-Man

    2015-03-11

    Optical transparency and mechanical flexibility are both of great importance for significantly expanding the applicability of superhydrophobic surfaces. Such features make it possible for functional surfaces to be applied to various glass-based products with different curvatures. In this work, we report on the simple and potentially cost-effective fabrication of highly flexible and transparent superhydrophobic films based on hierarchical surface design. The hierarchical surface morphology was easily fabricated by the simple transfer of a porous alumina membrane to the top surface of UV-imprinted polymeric micropillar arrays and subsequent chemical treatments. Through optimization of the hierarchical surface design, the resultant superhydrophobic films showed superior surface wetting properties (with a static contact angle of >170° and contact angle hysteresis of <3.5°) in the Cassie-Baxter wetting regime, considerable dynamic water repellency (with perfect bouncing of a water droplet dropped from an impact height of 30 mm), and good optical transparency (>82% at 550 nm wavelength). The superhydrophobic films were also experimentally found to be robust without significant degradation in the superhydrophobicity, even under repetitive bending and pressing for up to 2000 cycles. Finally, the practical usability of the proposed superhydorphobic films was clearly demonstrated by examining the antiwetting performance in real time while pouring water on the film and submerging the film in water.

  6. Irradiation of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) surfaces by CF4 plasma to achieve robust superhydrophobic and enhanced oleophilic properties for biological applications.

    PubMed

    Salapare, Hernando S; Suarez, Beverly Anne T; Cosiñero, Hannah Shamina O; Bacaoco, Miguel Y; Ramos, Henry J

    2015-01-01

    Poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) was irradiated by CF4 plasma produced in the gas discharge ion source facility to produce stable and robust superhydrophobic surfaces and to enhance the materials' oleophilic property for biological applications. The characterizations employed on the samples are contact angle measurements, analysis of the surface morphology (scanning electron microscopy), surface roughness measurements (atomic force microscopy) and analysis of the surface chemistry (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy). Superhydrophobic behavior with water contact angles as high as 156° was observed. The wettability of all the treated samples was found to be stable in time as evidenced by the statistically insignificant differences in the hysteresis contact angles. The level of enhanced hydrophobicity depended on the plasma energies (i.e. irradiation times, discharge current, and discharge voltage); higher plasma energies produced surfaces with high hydrophobicity. The plasma treatment also enhanced the oleophilic property of the materials' surface as evidenced by the decrease in the PDMS-oil contact angle from 33° to as low as 10°. The superhydrophobicity of the modified PTFE and the enhancement of its oleophilic property were due to (1) the changes in the roughness of the surface, (2) the formation of nanoparticles or nanostructures on the surface, and (3) the changes in the surface chemistry.

  7. Mechanical durability of superhydrophobic surfaces: The role of surface modification technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhi, Jing-Hui; Zhang, Li-Zhi; Yan, Yuying; Zhu, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Various surface modification technologies have been used to develop superhydrophobic surface, however their durability has been recognized as the major obstacle for the real applications. Here a quantitative investigation was conducted to evaluate the effects of different surface modification methods on the surfaces' mechanical durability. The superhydrophobic surfaces were prepared by the combination of two surface roughing methods (etching and sandblasting) with chemical modifications with four low surface energy materials: silica sol (SS), octadecanoic acid (OA), heptadecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetrahydrodecyltrichlorosilane (HDFS) and hexadecyltriethoxysilane (HTS). XPS was used to analyze the elements composition and AFM was used to measure the roughness of the surfaces. The durability of these surfaces was tested by a sandpaper abrasion experiment. The collective results showed that the low surface energy materials had significant effects on the surface roughness, which would then play an important role in the durability of these rough surfaces. The SS modified rough surfaces possessed higher roughness and better durability than the surfaces modified by other three low surface energy materials. SS modified rough surfaces could bear 60 cycles of abrasion with 10 g weights on 1500 CW sandpaper.

  8. Superhydrophobic stability of nanotube array surfaces under impact and static forces.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lin; Shi, Pan; Xue, Jian; Wang, Yuanyi; Chen, Qingmin; Ding, Jianfu; Wang, Qingjun

    2014-06-11

    The surfaces of nanotube arrays were coated with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) using an imprinting method with an anodized alumina membrane as the template. The prepared nanotube array surfaces then either remained untreated or were coated with NH2(CH2)3Si(OCH3)3(PDNS) or CF3(CF2)7CH2CH2Si(OC2H5)3 (PFO). Thus, nanotube arrays with three different surfaces, PDNS, PMMA (without coating), and PFO, were obtained. All three surfaces (PDNS, PMMA, and PFO) exhibited superhydrophobic properties with contact angles (CA) of 155, 166, and 168°, respectively, and their intrinsic water contact angles were 30, 79, and 118°, respectively. The superhydrophobic stabilities of these three surfaces were examined under dynamic impact and static pressures in terms of the transition from the Cassie-Baxter mode to the Wenzel mode. This transition was determined by the maximum pressure (p(max)), which is dependent on the intrinsic contact angle and the nanotube density of the surface. A p(max) greater than 10 kPa, which is sufficiently large to maintain stable superhydrophobicity under extreme weather conditions, such as in heavy rain, was expected from the PFO surface. Interestingly, the PDNS surface, with an intrinsic CA of only 30°, also displayed superhydrophobicity, with a CA of 155°. This property was partially maintained under the dynamic impact and static pressure tests. However, under an extremely high pressure (0.5 MPa), all three surfaces transitioned from the Cassie-Baxter mode to the Wenzel mode. Furthermore, the lost superhydrophobicity could not be recovered by simply relieving the pressure. This result indicates that the best way to maintain superhydrophobicity is to increase the p(max) of the surface to a value higher than the applied external pressure by using low surface energy materials and having high-density binary nano-/microstructures on the surface.

  9. Fabrication of superhydrophobic surface with improved corrosion inhibition on 6061 aluminum alloy substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuewu; Zhang, Qiaoxin; Guo, Zheng; Shi, Tian; Yu, Jingui; Tang, Mingkai; Huang, Xingjiu

    2015-07-01

    This work has developed a simple and low-cost method to render 6061 aluminum alloy surface superhydrophobicity and excellent corrosion inhibition. The superhydrophobic aluminum alloy surface has been fabricated by hydrochloric acid etching, potassium permanganate passivation and fluoroalkyl-silane modification. Meanwhile, the effect of the etching and passivation time on the wettability and corrosion inhibition of the fabricated surface has also been investigated. Results show that with the etching time of 6 min and passivation time of 180 min the fabricated micro/nano-scale terrace-like hierarchical structures accompanying with the nanoscale coral-like network bulge structures after being modified can result in superhydrophobicity with a water contact angle (CA) of 155.7°. Moreover, an extremely weak adhesive force to droplets as well as an outstanding self-cleaning behavior of the superhydrophobic surface has also been proved. Finally, corrosion inhibition in seawater of the as-prepared aluminum alloy surface is characterized by potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Evidently, the fabricated superhydrophobic surface attained an improved corrosion inhibition efficiency of 83.37% compared with the traditional two-step processing consisting of etching and modification, which will extend the further applications of aluminum alloy especially in marine engineering fields.

  10. Evaporation of particle-laden droplets on a superhydrophobic surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigdeli, Masoud; Tsai, Peichun Amy

    2016-11-01

    We experimentally investigated the evaporation dynamics of water droplets suspended with minute particles of varying concentrations on a superhydrophobic surface. The contact angle, diameter, and height of the droplets decreased during the evaporation process. For pure water, the droplet went through a wetting transition from a partial wetting (Cassie-Baxter), with a large contact angle (>140°), to completely wetting (Wenzel) state, with a small contact angle. Unlike pure water, the nanofluid droplets maintain high contact angles (>100°) during evaporation. We found that the contact line was pinned, and an increase (10 %) in the weight fraction of nanoparticles led to a remarkable 40 % decrease in the total drying time. The nanofluid droplets left donut-shaped drying patterns. In these final drying structures, a shrinkage of the droplet height and base diameter was observed for nanofluids with lower concentrations. The results show that droplet evaporation rate and deposit pattern depend on the concentration of nanoparticles, implying the crucial influences of water evaporation and particle migration dynamics and time-scales.

  11. Fabrication of super-hydrophobic surfaces on aluminum alloy substrates by RF-sputtered polytetrafluoroethylene coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yang; Liu, Xiao Wei; Zhang, Hai Feng Zhou, Zhi Ping

    2014-03-15

    In this work, we present a method of fabricating super-hydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy substrate. The etching of aluminum surfaces has been performed using Beck's dislocation etchant for different time to create micrometer-sized irregular steps. An optimised etching time of 50 s is found to be essential before polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) coating, to obtain a highest water contact angle of 165±2° with a lowest contact angle hysteresis as low as 5±2°. The presence of patterned microstructure as revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) together with the low surface energy ultrathin RF-sputtered PTFE films renders the aluminum alloy surfaces highly super-hydrophobic.

  12. A thermodynamic approach for determining the contact angle hysteresis for superhydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Li, W; Amirfazli, A

    2005-12-01

    Contact angle hysteresis (CAH) is critical to superhydrophobicity of a surface. This study proposes a free energy thermodynamic analysis (of a 2-D model surface) that significantly simplifies calculations of free energy barrier associated with CAH phenomena. A microtextured surface with pillar structure, typical of one used in experimental studies, is used as an example. We demonstrate that the predicted CAH and equilibrium contact angles are consistent with experimental observations and predictions of Wenzel's and Cassie's equations, respectively. We also establish a criterion for transition between noncomposite and composite wetting states. The results and methodology presented can potentially be used for designing superhydrophobic surfaces.

  13. Robust superhydrophobic silicon without a low surface-energy hydrophobic coating.

    PubMed

    Hoshian, Sasha; Jokinen, Ville; Somerkivi, Villeseveri; Lokanathan, Arcot R; Franssila, Sami

    2015-01-14

    Superhydrophobic surfaces without low surface-energy (hydrophobic) modification such as silanization or (fluoro)polymer coatings are crucial for water-repellent applications that need to survive under harsh UV or IR exposures and mechanical abrasion. In this work, robust low-hysteresis superhydrophobic surfaces are demonstrated using a novel hierarchical silicon structure without a low surface-energy coating. The proposed geometry produces superhydrophobicity out of silicon that is naturally hydrophilic. The structure is composed of collapsed silicon nanowires on top and bottom of T-shaped micropillars. Collapsed silicon nanowires cause superhydrophobicity due to nanoscale air pockets trapped below them. T-shaped micropillars significantly decrease the water contact angle hysteresis because microscale air pockets are trapped between them and can not easily escape. Robustness is studied under mechanical polishing, high-energy photoexposure, high temperature, high-pressure water shower, and different acidic and solvent environments. Mechanical abrasion damages the nanowires on top of micropillars, but those at the bottom survive. Small increase of hysteresis is seen, but the surface is still superhydrophobic after abrasion.

  14. Bioinspired Multifunctional Superhydrophobic Surfaces with Carbon-Nanotube-Based Conducting Pastes by Facile and Scalable Printing.

    PubMed

    Han, Joong Tark; Kim, Byung Kuk; Woo, Jong Seok; Jang, Jeong In; Cho, Joon Young; Jeong, Hee Jin; Jeong, Seung Yol; Seo, Seon Hee; Lee, Geon-Woong

    2017-03-01

    Directly printed superhydrophobic surfaces containing conducting nanomaterials can be used for a wide range of applications in terms of nonwetting, anisotropic wetting, and electrical conductivity. Here, we demonstrated that direct-printable and flexible superhydrophobic surfaces were fabricated on flexible substrates via with an ultrafacile and scalable screen printing with carbon nanotube (CNT)-based conducting pastes. A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-polyethylene glycol (PEG) copolymer was used as an additive for conducting pastes to realize the printability of the conducting paste as well as the hydrophobicity of the printed surface. The screen-printed conducting surfaces showed a high water contact angle (WCA) (>150°) and low contact angle hysteresis (WCA < 5°) at 25 wt % PDMS-PEG copolymer in the paste, and they have an electrical conductivity of over 1000 S m(-1). Patterned superhydrophobic surfaces also showed sticky superhydrophobic characteristics and were used to transport water droplets. Moreover, fabricated films on metal meshes were used for an oil/water separation filter, and liquid evaporation behavior was investigated on the superhydrophobic and conductive thin-film heaters by applying direct current voltage to the film.

  15. Fabrication of a superhydrophobic surface from porous polymer using phase separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianfeng; Xiao, Xinyan; Shi, Yinlong; Wan, Caixia

    2014-04-01

    The present work reports a simple method to fabricate superhydrophobic porous polymeric surfaces by a phase separation process. The method involves the in situ polymerization of butyl methacrylate (BMA) and ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA) in the presence of co-porogens of 1,4-butanediol (BDO) and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) to afford superhydrophobic surfaces with the micro/nano roughness structure. The influences of the polymerization mixture on the morphology and hydrophobicity were investigated by adjusting the composition of the co-porogens and the mass ratio of monomers to co-porogens, respectively. And a precise description of the underlying mechanism of the microstructure formation was presented. The as-prepared surface shows a superhydrophobicity with water contact angle (WCA) of 159.5° and low sliding angle (SA) of 3.1°. Moreover, the superhydrophobic surface shows good chemical stability with better resistance to acid, alkali or salt aqueous solutions and excellent thermal stability. The method is simple and low-cost and can be used for the preparation of the self-cleaning superhydrophobic surfaces.

  16. Preparation of superhydrophobic nanodiamond and cubic boron nitride films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Y. B.; Yang, Y.; Liu, W. M.; Ye, Q.; He, B.; Zou, Y. S.; Wang, P. F.; Pan, X. J.; Zhang, W. J.; Bello, I.; Lee, S. T.

    2010-09-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces were achieved on the hardest and the second hardest materials, diamond and cubic boron nitride (cBN) films. Various surface nanostructures of nanocrystalline diamond (ND) and cBN films were constructed by carrying out bias-assisted reactive ion etching in hydrogen/argon plasmas; and it is shown that surface nanostructuring may enhance dramatically the hydrophobicity of ND and cBN films. Together with surface fluorination, superhydrophobic ND and cBN surfaces with a contact angle greater than 150° and a sliding angle smaller than 10° were demonstrated. The origin of hydrophobicity enhancement is discussed based on the Cassie model.

  17. Superhydrophobic hierarchically structured surfaces in biology: evolution, structural principles and biomimetic applications.

    PubMed

    Barthlott, W; Mail, M; Neinhuis, C

    2016-08-06

    A comprehensive survey of the construction principles and occurrences of superhydrophobic surfaces in plants, animals and other organisms is provided and is based on our own scanning electron microscopic examinations of almost 20 000 different species and the existing literature. Properties such as self-cleaning (lotus effect), fluid drag reduction (Salvinia effect) and the introduction of new functions (air layers as sensory systems) are described and biomimetic applications are discussed: self-cleaning is established, drag reduction becomes increasingly important, and novel air-retaining grid technology is introduced. Surprisingly, no evidence for lasting superhydrophobicity in non-biological surfaces exists (except technical materials). Phylogenetic trees indicate that superhydrophobicity evolved as a consequence of the conquest of land about 450 million years ago and may be a key innovation in the evolution of terrestrial life. The approximate 10 million extant species exhibit a stunning diversity of materials and structures, many of which are formed by self-assembly, and are solely based on a limited number of molecules. A short historical survey shows that bionics (today often called biomimetics) dates back more than 100 years. Statistical data illustrate that the interest in biomimetic surfaces is much younger still. Superhydrophobicity caught the attention of scientists only after the extreme superhydrophobicity of lotus leaves was published in 1997. Regrettably, parabionic products play an increasing role in marketing.This article is part of the themed issue 'Bioinspired hierarchically structured surfaces for green science'.

  18. Fabrication of biomimetic superhydrophobic surfaces inspired by lotus leaf and silver ragwort leaf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jinyou; Cai, Yu; Wang, Xianfeng; Ding, Bin; Yu, Jianyong; Wang, Moran

    2011-03-01

    Inspired by the self-cleaning lotus leaf and silver ragwort leaf, here we demonstrate the fabrication of biomimetic superhydrophobic fibrous mats via electrospinning polystyrene (PS) solution in the presence of silica nanoparticles. The resultant electrospun fiber surfaces exhibited a fascinating structure with the combination of nano-protrusions and numerous grooves due to the rapid phase separation in electrospinning. The content of silica nanoparticles incorporated into the fibers proved to be the key factor affecting the fiber surface morphology and hydrophobicity. The PS fibrous mats containing 14.3 wt% silica nanoparticles showed a stable superhydrophobicity with a water contact angle as high as 157.2°, exceeding that (147°) of the silver ragwort leaf and approaching that (160°) of the lotus leaf. The superhydrophobicity was explained by the hierarchical surfaces increasing the surface roughness which trapped more air under the water droplets that fell on the fibers.Inspired by the self-cleaning lotus leaf and silver ragwort leaf, here we demonstrate the fabrication of biomimetic superhydrophobic fibrous mats via electrospinning polystyrene (PS) solution in the presence of silica nanoparticles. The resultant electrospun fiber surfaces exhibited a fascinating structure with the combination of nano-protrusions and numerous grooves due to the rapid phase separation in electrospinning. The content of silica nanoparticles incorporated into the fibers proved to be the key factor affecting the fiber surface morphology and hydrophobicity. The PS fibrous mats containing 14.3 wt% silica nanoparticles showed a stable superhydrophobicity with a water contact angle as high as 157.2°, exceeding that (147°) of the silver ragwort leaf and approaching that (160°) of the lotus leaf. The superhydrophobicity was explained by the hierarchical surfaces increasing the surface roughness which trapped more air under the water droplets that fell on the fibers. Electronic

  19. Fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces with poly(furfuryl alcohol)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Men, Xue-Hu; Zhang, Zhao-Zhu; Song, Hao-Jie; Wang, Kun; Jiang, Wei

    2008-02-01

    Superhydrophobic films of poly(furfuryl alcohol)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (PFA/MWNTs) composites have been obtained by using fluorocarbon-modified MWNTs (MWNT-OOCC 7F 15), PFA, and PTFE with a simple preparation method. The prepared films showed both high contact angle and small sliding angle for water droplets. The chemical compositions and microstructures of the resultant film surfaces were also investigated by means of infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscope, respectively. Both the formed multiscale roughness structures and the lower surface energy play an important role in creating the superhydrophobic surfaces of PFA/MWNTs composites.

  20. Modification of Turbulent Boundary Layer Flows by Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gose, James W.; Golovin, Kevin; Barros, Julio; Schultz, Michael P.; Tuteja, Anish; Perlin, Marc; Ceccio, Steven L.

    2016-11-01

    Measurements of near zero pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer (TBL) flow over several superhydrophobic surfaces (SHSs) are presented and compared to those for a hydraulically smooth baseline. The surfaces were developed at the University of Michigan as part of an ongoing research thrust to investigate the feasibility of SHSs for skin-friction drag reduction in turbulent flow. The SHSs were previously evaluated in fully-developed turbulent channel flow and have been shown to provide meaningful drag reduction. The TBL experiments were conducted at the USNA in a water tunnel with a test section 2.0 m (L) x 0.2 m (W) x 0.2 m (H). The free-stream speed was set to 1.26 m/s which corresponded to a friction Reynolds number of 1,500. The TBL was tripped at the test section inlet with a 0.8 mm diameter wire. The upper and side walls provided optical access, while the lower wall was either the smooth baseline or a spray coated SHS. The velocity measurements were obtained with a TSI FSA3500 two-component Laser-Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) and custom-designed beam displacer operated in coincidence mode. The LDV probe volume diameter was 45 μm (approx. one wall-unit). The measurements were recorded 1.5 m downstream of the trip. When the measured quantities were normalized using the inner variables, the results indicated a significant reduction in the near wall viscous and total stresses with little effect on the flow outside the inner layer.

  1. Nonfunctionalized Polydimethyl Siloxane Superhydrophobic Surfaces Based on Hydrophobic-Hydrophilic Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Polizos, Georgios; Tuncer, Enis; Qiu, Xiaofeng; Aytug, Tolga; Kidder, Michelle; Messman, Jamie M; Sauers, Isidor

    2011-01-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces based on polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) were fabricated using a 50:50 PDM-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) blend. PDMS was mixed with PEG, and incomplete phase separation yielded a hierarchic structure. The phase-separated mixture was annealed at a temperature close to the crystallization temperature of the PEG. The PEG crystals were formed isothermally at the PDMS/PEG interface, leading to an engineered surface with PDMS spherulites. The resulting roughness of the surface was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The PDMS spherulites, a few micrometers in diameter observed from SEM images, were found to have an undulated (rippled) surface with nanometer-sized features. The combination of micrometer- and nanometer-sized surface features created a fractal surface and increased the water contact angle (WCA) of PDMS more than 60, resulting in a superhydrophobic PDMS surface with WCA of >160 degrees. The active surface layer for the superhydrophobicity was approximately 100 mu m thick, illustrating that the material had bulk superhydrophobicity compared to conventional fluorocarbon or fluorinated coated rough surfaces. Theoretical analysis of the fractal surface indicates that the constructed surface has a fractal dimension of 2.5, which corresponds to the Apollonian sphere packing.

  2. Transparent, superhydrophobic surfaces from one-step spin coating of hydrophobic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lebo; Karunakaran, Raghuraman G; Guo, Jia; Yang, Shu

    2012-02-01

    We study the nonwettability and transparency from the assembly of fluorosilane modified silica nanoparticles (F-SiO(2) NPs) via one-step spin-coating and dip-coating without any surface postpassivation steps. When spin-coating the hydrophobic NPs (100 nm in diameter) at a concentration ≥ 0.8 wt % in a fluorinated solvent, the surface exhibited superhydrophobicity with an advancing water contact angle greater than 150° and a water droplet (5 μL) roll-off angle less than 5°. In comparison, superhydrophobicity was not achieved by dip-coating the same hydrophobic NPs. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) images revealed that NPs formed a nearly close-packed assembly in the superhydrophobic films, which effectively minimized the exposure of the underlying substrate while offering sufficiently trapped air pockets. In the dip-coated films, however, the surface coverage was rather random and incomplete. Therefore, the underlying substrate was exposed and water was able to impregnate between the NPs, leading to smaller water contact angle and larger water contact angle hysteresis. The spin-coated superhydrophobic film was also highly transparent with greater than 95% transmittance in the visible region. Further, we demonstrated that the one-step coating strategy could be extended to different polymeric substrates, including poly(methyl methacrylate) and polyester fabrics, to achieve superhydrophobicity.

  3. Biomimetic superhydrophobic surfaces by combining mussel-inspired adhesion with lotus-inspired coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Chao-Hua; Ji, Xue-Qing; Zhang, Jing; Ma, Jian-Zhong; Jia, Shun-Tian

    2015-08-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces on PET textiles were fabricated by combined bioinspiration from the strong adhesion of marine mussels and the two-scale structure of lotus leaves under mild conditions. Dopamine can spontaneously polymerize in alkaline aqueous solution to form a thin adhesive layer of polydopamine (PDA) wrapping on the micro-scale fibers. The as-formed thin PDA layer worked as a reactive template to generate PDA nanoparticles decorated on the fiber surfaces, imparting the textiles with excellent UV-shielding properties as well as a hierarchical structure similar to the morphology of the lotus leaf. After further modification with perfluorodecyl trichlorosilane, the textiles turned superhydrophobic with a water contact angle higher than 150°. Due to the strong adhesion of PDA to a wide range of materials, the present strategy may be extendable to fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces on a variety of other substrates.

  4. The fabrication of stable superhydrophobic surfaces using a thin Au/Pd coating over a hydrophilic 3C-SiC nanorod network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Afzal; Sohail, Shiraz; Jacob, Chacko

    2015-10-01

    In this work, it has been demonstrated that for hydrophilic materials, like SiC, etc., superhydrophobicity can be achieved by coating them with a material like Au/Pd with surface adsorbed organic contaminants, rather than modifying them by fluoropolymers as is usually done. Dense and randomly aligned 3C-SiC nanorods were grown in a cold-wall APCVD reactor using Ni as a catalyst which formed a network of micro/nano air pockets and exhibited superhydrophobic behavior when modified by an Au/Pd metal alloy coating by forming hierarchical nanostructures with surface adsorbed organic contaminants. A high water contact angle (160°), very low sliding angle (<5°), rebounding and a rubber ball-like behavior of a water droplet were observed on such a metal (Au/Pd) modified surface of 3C-SiC nanorods. The durability of the surface and reproducibility of the results was checked over a period of about 14 months under ambient atmosphere at room temperature, which demonstrates the long term stability of these superhydrophobic surfaces.

  5. A Novel General Chemistry Laboratory: Creation of Biomimetic Superhydrophobic Surfaces through Replica Molding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verbanic, Samuel; Brady, Owen; Sanda, Ahmed; Gustafson, Carolina; Donhauser, Zachary J.

    2014-01-01

    Biomimetic replicas of superhydrophobic lotus and taro leaf surfaces can be made using polydimethylsiloxane. These replicas faithfully reproduce the microstructures of the leaves' surface and can be analyzed using contact angle goniometry, self-cleaning experiments, and optical microscopy. These simple and adaptable experiments were used to…

  6. Biomimetic superhydrophobic surface of high adhesion fabricated with micronano binary structure on aluminum alloy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Liu, Jindan; Li, Shuyi; Liu, Jiaan; Han, Zhiwu; Ren, Luquan

    2013-09-25

    Triggered by the microstructure characteristics of the surfaces of typical plant leaves such as the petals of red roses, a biomimetic superhydrophobic surface with high adhesion is successfully fabricated on aluminum alloy. The essential procedure is that samples were processed by a laser, then immersed and etched in nitric acid and copper nitrate, and finally modified by DTS (CH3(CH2)11Si(OCH3)3). The obtained surfaces exhibit a binary structure consisting of microscale crater-like pits and nanoscale reticula. The superhydrophobicity can be simultaneously affected by the micronano binary structure and chemical composition of the surface. The contact angle of the superhydrophobic surface reaches up to 158.8 ± 2°. Especially, the surface with micronano binary structure is revealed to be an excellent adhesive property with petal-effect. Moreover, the superhydrophobic surfaces show excellent stability in aqueous solution with a large pH range and after being exposed long-term in air. In this way, the multifunctional biomimetic structural surface of the aluminum alloy is fabricated. Furthermore, the preparation technology in this article provides a new route for other metal materials.

  7. Electrostatic powder spraying process for the fabrication of stable superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Guotuan; Tian, Yuping; Li, Zhantie; Lu, Dongfang

    2011-03-01

    Nano-sized Al2O3 particles were modified by heptadecafluorodecyl trimethoxysilane and 2,3-epoxy propoxy propyl trimethoxysilicane to make it both hydrophobic and reactive. The reactive nano-particles were mixed with polyester resin containing curing agents and electrostatic sprayed on stainless steel substrates to obtain stable superhydrophobic coatings after curing. The water contact angle (WCA) on the hybrid coating is influenced by the content of Al2O3 particles in the coating. As the Al2O3 concentration in the coating was increased from 0% to 8%, WCA increased from 68° to 165°. Surface topography of the coatings was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Nano-particles covered on the coating surface formed continuous film with greatly enhanced roughness, which was found to be responsible for the superhydrophobicity. The method is simple and cost effective and can be used for preparing self-cleaning superhydrophobic coating on large areas.

  8. Characterization of Si Nanostructured Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Brueck, S.R.J.; Gee, James M.; Ruby, Douglas S.; Zaidi, Saleem H.

    1999-07-20

    Surface texturing of Si to enhance absorption particularly in the IR spectral region has been extensively investigated. Previous research chiefly examined approaches based on geometrical optics. These surface textures typically consist of pyramids with dimensions much larger than optical wavelengths. We have investigated a physical optics approach that relies on surface texture features comparable to, or smaller than, the optical wavelengths inside the semiconductor material. Light interaction at this are strongly dependent on incident polarization and surface profile. Nanoscale textures can be tuned for either narrow band, or broad band absorptive behavior. Lowest broadband reflection has been observed for triangular profiles with linewidths significantly less than 100 nm. Si nanostructures have been integrated into large ({approximately}42 cm{sup 2}) area solar cells, Internal quantum efficiency measurements in comparison with polished and conventionally textured cells show lower efficiency in the UV-visible (350-680 mu), but significantly higher IR (700-1200 nm) efficiency.

  9. Toward a durable superhydrophobic aluminum surface by etching and ZnO nanoparticle deposition.

    PubMed

    Rezayi, Toktam; Entezari, Mohammad H

    2016-02-01

    Fabrication of suitable roughness is a fundamental step for acquiring superhydrophobic surfaces. For this purpose, a deposition of ZnO nanoparticles on Al surface was carried out by simple immersion and ultrasound approaches. Then, surface energy reduction was performed using stearic acid (STA) ethanol solution for both methods. The results demonstrated that ultrasound would lead to more stable superhydrophobic Al surfaces (STA-ZnO-Al-U) in comparison with simple immersion method (STA-ZnO-Al-I). Besides, etching in HCl solution in another sample was carried out before ZnO deposition for acquiring more mechanically stable superhydrophobic surface. The potentiodynamic measurements demonstrate that etching in HCl solution under ultrasound leads to superhydrophobic surface (STA-ZnO-Al(E)-U). This sample shows remarkable decrease in corrosion current density (icorr) and long-term stability improvement versus immersion in NaCl solution (3.5%) in comparison with the sample prepared without etching (STA-ZnO-Al-U). Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) confirmed a more condense and further particle deposition on Al substrate when ultrasound was applied in the system. The crystallite evaluation of deposited ZnO nanoparticles was carried out using X-ray diffractometer (XRD). Finally, for STA grafting verification on Al surface, Fourier transform infrared in conjunction with attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR) was used as a proper technique.

  10. Mechanically robust superhydrophobic steel surface with anti-icing, UV-durability, and corrosion resistance properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Nan; Xiong, Dangsheng; Deng, Yaling; Shi, Yan; Wang, Kun

    2015-03-25

    A superhydrophobic steel surface was prepared through a facile method: combining hydrogen peroxide and an acid (hydrochloric acid or nitric acid) to obtain hierarchical structures on steel, followed by a surface modification treatment. Empirical grid maps based on different volumes of H2O2/acid were presented, revealing a wettability gradient from "hydrophobic" to "rose effect" and finally to "lotus effect". Surface grafting has been demonstrated to be realized only on the oxidized area. As-prepared superhydrophobic surfaces exhibited excellent anti-icing properties according to the water-dripping test under overcooled conditions and the artificial "steam-freezing" (from 50 °C with 90% humidity to the -20 °C condition) test. In addition, the surfaces could withstand peeling with 3M adhesive tape at least 70 times with an applied pressure of 31.2 kPa, abrasion by 400 grid SiC sandpaper for 110 cm under 16 kPa, or water impacting for 3 h without losing superhydrophobicity, suggesting superior mechanical durability. Moreover, outstanding corrosion resistance and UV-durability were obtained on the prepared surface. This successful fabrication of a robust, anti-icing, UV-durable, and anticorrosion superhydrophobic surface could yield a prospective candidate for various practical applications.

  11. The icephobicity comparison of polysiloxane modified hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces under condensing environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuanyi; Liu, Jun; Li, Mingzhen; Wang, Qingjun; Chen, Qingmin

    2016-11-01

    Four polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coatings with different surface free energies have been prepared and applied to smooth and roughened aluminum plates to form hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces. Their surface wettability in terms of water contact angle (CA), sliding angle (SA) and water droplet impact dynamics was studied under an ambient (50% relative humidity, RH at 25 °C) and three different condensing environments (low, highly and extremely condensing, i.e. 30%, 60% and 90% RH at -10 °C). In addition, the surface ice adhesion was investigated under the extremely condensing condition. Different PDMS coatings on either smooth or roughened surfaces displayed a very similar impact to static and dynamic wettability under the ambient environment. However, the water impact behavior and ice adhesion under the extremely condensing condition between the hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces are significantly different. One of the superhydrophobic surfaces (R2180) demonstrated an excellent water repelling capability to retard ice accumulation, and reduced ice adhesion strength even under the extremely condensing condition, and thus will be a good candidate for ice-phobic applications. This excellent ice-phobic property is attributed to the low surface free energy of the coating, which effectively prevents the water condensation inside the cavities of the hierarchical superhydrophobic structures and thus maintains "air cushion" on the solid/water interface, indicated by a very low solid-liquid contact area increase after surface is exposed to this condensing weather condition. This result demonstrates that the "air cushion" in a superhydrophobic surface could be maintained even under an extremely condensing condition by carefully selection of coating composition with a very low surface free energy.

  12. Wetting on fractal superhydrophobic surfaces from "core-shell" particles: a comparison of theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Synytska, Alla; Ionov, Leonid; Grundke, Karina; Stamm, Manfred

    2009-03-03

    We report an experimental and theoretical investigation of the wetting behavior of different model polar and nonpolar liquids and their mixtures on superhydrophobic fractal surfaces made of polymer- or silane-coated "core-shell" particles. We compared the experimental results with the theoretical predictions made according to the theories of Onda-Shibuichi (describes wetting on fractal surfaces) and Cassie-Baxter (describes wetting on generic rough composite surfaces). We found that the experimental findings deviate from the behavior predicted by the Onda-Shibuichi model. On the other hand, the wetting properties were found to be close to the predictions made by the Cassie-Baxter model in the hydrophobic region (the intrinsic contact angle on the flat surface is larger than 90 degrees). However, the wetting behavior in the hydrophilic region (the intrinsic contact angle is less than 90 degrees) could not be described by the Onda-Shibuichi or Cassie-Baxter model. The observed inconsistency between the experimental results and theoretical predictions was explained by the formation of metastable states of a liquid droplet on a fabricated fractal surface according to the theory developed by Johnson and Dettre for generic rough surfaces. The entrapments of the liquid droplets in metastable states resulted in superhydrophobic behavior on fractal surfaces as well, made from nonfluorinated material such as polystyrene with a surface free energy of about 30 mJ/m2. This finding is very promising for real industrial applications where fluorinated compounds are willing to be reduced. It can be concluded that employing a texture with fractal geometry is necessary for the design of superhydrophobic coatings. Thereby, extremely lowering the surface free energy of materials by fluorination is not an obligatory factor for the generation of liquid-repellent superhydrophobic materials. We believe that the results we presented in the paper give new insight into the understanding of

  13. Capillary origami: superhydrophobic ribbon surfaces and liquid marbles

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Michael I; Shirtcliffe, Neil J; Geraldi, Nicasio R

    2011-01-01

    apply to superhydrophobic surfaces. The results are given for both droplets being wrapped by thin ribbons and for solid grains encapsulating droplets to form liquid marbles. PMID:21977426

  14. Nanosecond laser textured superhydrophobic metallic surfaces and their chemical sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ta, Duong V.; Dunn, Andrew; Wasley, Thomas J.; Kay, Robert W.; Stringer, Jonathan; Smith, Patrick J.; Connaughton, Colm; Shephard, Jonathan D.

    2015-12-01

    This work demonstrates superhydrophobic behavior on nanosecond laser patterned copper and brass surfaces. Compared with ultrafast laser systems previously used for such texturing, infrared nanosecond fiber lasers offer a lower cost and more robust system combined with potentially much higher processing rates. The wettability of the textured surfaces develops from hydrophilicity to superhydrophobicity over time when exposed to ambient conditions. The change in the wetting property is attributed to the partial deoxidation of oxides on the surface induced during laser texturing. Textures exhibiting steady state contact angles of up to ∼152° with contact angle hysteresis of around 3-4° have been achieved. Interestingly, the superhydrobobic surfaces have the self-cleaning ability and have potential for chemical sensing applications. The principle of these novel chemical sensors is based on the change in contact angle with the concentration of methanol in a solution. To demonstrate the principle of operation of such a sensor, it is found that the contact angle of methanol solution on the superhydrophobic surfaces exponentially decays with increasing concentration. A significant reduction, of 128°, in contact angle on superhydrophobic brass is observed, which is one order of magnitude greater than that for the untreated surface (12°), when percent composition of methanol reaches to 28%.

  15. A facile electrodeposition process to fabricate corrosion-resistant superhydrophobic surface on carbon steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yi; He, Yi; Luo, Pingya; Chen, Xi; Liu, Bo

    2016-04-01

    Superhydrophobic Fe film with hierarchical micro/nano papillae structures is prepared on C45 steel surface by one-step electrochemical method. The superhydrophobic surface was measured with a water contact angle of 160.5 ± 0.5° and a sliding angle of 2 ± 0.5°. The morphology of the fabricated surface film was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and the surface structure seems like accumulated hierarchical micro-nano scaled particles. Furthermore, according to the results of Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), the chemical composition of surface film was iron complex with organic acid. Besides, the electrochemical measurements showed that the superhydrophobic surface improved the corrosion resistance of carbon steel in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution significantly. The superhydrophobic layer can perform as a barrier and provide a stable air-liquid interface which inhibit penetration of corrosive medium. In addition, the as-prepared steel exhibited an excellent self-cleaning ability that was not favor to the accumulation of contaminants.

  16. Fabrication and anti-icing property of coral-like superhydrophobic aluminum surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Zhiping; Liao, Ruijin; Guo, Chao; Yuan, Yuan; Zhao, Xuetong; Zhuang, Aoyun; Zhang, YiYi

    2015-03-01

    Aluminum is one of the most widely used metals in transmission lines. Accumulation of ice on aluminum may cause serious consequences such as tower collapse and power failure. Here we develop a method to fabricate a coral-like superhydrophobic surface to improve its anti-icing performance via chemical etching and hot-water treatment. The as-prepared surface exhibited superhydrophobicity with a contact angle (CA) of 164.8 ± 1.1° and the sliding angle smaller than 1°. The static and dynamic anti-icing behaviors of the superhydrophobic surface in different conditions were systematically investigated using a self-made device and artificial climate laboratory. Results show that the coral-like superhydrophobic structure displayed excellent anti-icing property. The water droplet remained unfrozen on the as-prepared surface at -6 °C for over 110 min. 71% of the surface was free of ice when exposed in "glaze ice" for 30 min. This investigation proposed a new way to design an anti-icing surface which may have potential future applications in transmission lines against ice accumulation.

  17. Thermoresponsive PNIPAAm-modified cotton fabric surfaces that switch between superhydrophilicity and superhydrophobicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Cheng; Wang, Qihua; Wang, Tingmei

    2012-03-01

    Thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) was grafted onto the cotton fabric by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). Introducing 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyltriethoxysilane (PFDTS) onto the surface, the density of PNIPAAm chains can be adjusted because of the competitive reactions of (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APS) and PFDTS. With the appropriate ratio of APS and PFDTS, the cotton fabric can be switched from superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic by controlling temperature. The prepared cotton fabric may find application in functional textiles, soft and folding superhydrophobic materials.

  18. Understanding the Role of Dynamic Wettability for Condensate Microdrop Self-Propelling Based on Designed Superhydrophobic TiO2 Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Songnan; Huang, Jianying; Tang, Yuxin; Li, Shuhui; Ge, Mingzheng; Chen, Zhong; Zhang, Keqin; Lai, Yuekun

    2017-01-01

    The ability to release the adhered drops on superhydrophobic surfaces is very important for self-cleaning, antifrosting/icing, microfluidic device, and heat transfer applications. In this paper, three types of in situ electrochemical anodizing TiO2 nanostructure films are rationally designed and fabricated on titanium substrates with special superwettability, viz., TiO2 nanotube arrays, irregular TiO2 nanotube arrays, and hierarchical TiO2 particle arrays (HTPA), and their corresponding behavior in condensate microdrop self-propelling (CMDSP) is investigated. Compared to the flat titanium counterpart, all three types of rough TiO2 samples demonstrate a uniform distribution of smaller microscale droplets. Among the treated surfaces, the HTPA possesses the highest condensate density, and more than 80% of the droplets possess a diameter below 10 μm. Theoretical analysis indicates that the feature is mainly due to the morphology and structure induced extremely low droplet adhesion on super-antiwetting TiO2 hierarchical surfaces, where the excess surface energy released from the migration leads to the self-propelling of merged microdrop. This work offers a way to rationally construct CMDSP surfaces with excellent self-cleaning, antifrosting/icing ability, and enhanced condensation heat transfer efficiency.

  19. Self-Restoration of Superhydrophobicity on Shape Memory Polymer Arrays with Both Crushed Microstructure and Damaged Surface Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Lv, Tong; Cheng, Zhongjun; Zhang, Enshuang; Kang, Hongjun; Liu, Yuyan; Jiang, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Recently, self-healing superhydrophobic surfaces have become a new research focus due to their recoverable wetting performances and wide applications. However, until now, on almost all reported surfaces, only one factor (surface chemistry or microstructure) can be restored. In this paper, a new superhydrophobic surface with self-healing ability in both crushed microstructure and damaged surface chemistry is prepared by creating lotus-leaves-like microstructure on the epoxy shape memory polymer (SMP). Through a simple heating process, the crushed surface microstructure, the damaged surface chemistry, and the surface superhydrophobicity that are destroyed under the external pressure and/or O2 plasma action can be recovered, demonstrating that the obtained superhydrophobic surface has a good self-healing ability in both of the two factors that govern the surface wettability. The special self-healing ability is ascribed to the good shape memory effect of the polymer and the reorganization effect of surface molecules. This paper reports the first use of SMP material to demonstrate the self-healing ability of surface superhydrophobicity, which opens up some new perspectives in designing self-healing superhydrophobic surfaces. Given the properties of this surface, it could be used in many applications, such as self-cleaning coatings, microfluidic devices, and biodetection.

  20. Super-Hydrophobic Surface Prepared by Lanthanide Oxide Ceramic Deposition Through PS-PVD Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jie; Li, Cheng-Xin; Chen, Qing-Yu; Gao, Jiu-Tao; Wang, Jun; Yang, Guan-Jun; Li, Chang-Jiu

    2017-02-01

    Super-hydrophobic surface has received widespread attention in recent years. Both the surface morphology and chemical composition have significant impact on hydrophobic performance. A novel super-hydrophobic surface based on plasma spray-vapor deposition was introduced in the present paper. Samaria-doped ceria, which has been proved as an intrinsic hydrophobic material, was used as feedstock material. Additionally, in order to investigate the influence of surface free energy on the hydrophobicity, chemical modification by low surface free energy materials including stearic acid and 1,1,2,2-tetrahydroperfluorodecyltrimethoxysilane (FAS) was used on coating surface. Scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were employed to characterize the coating surface. The results show that the obtained surface has a hierarchical structure composed by island-like structures agglomerated with angular-like sub-micrometer-sized particles. Moreover, with the surface free energy decreases, the hydrophobic property of the surface improves gradually. The water contact angle of the as-sprayed coating surface increases from 110° to 148° after modification by stearic acid and up to 154° by FAS. Furthermore, the resultant surface with super-hydrophobicity exhibits an excellent stability.

  1. Evaporation of Droplets on Superhydrophobic Surfaces: Surface Roughness and Small Droplet Size Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xuemei; Ma, Ruiyuan; Li, Jintao; Hao, Chonglei; Guo, Wei; Luk, B. L.; Li, Shuai Cheng; Yao, Shuhuai; Wang, Zuankai

    2012-09-01

    Evaporation of a sessile droplet is a complex, nonequilibrium phenomenon. Although evaporating droplets upon superhydrophobic surfaces have been known to exhibit distinctive evaporation modes such as a constant contact line (CCL), a constant contact angle (CCA), or both, our fundamental understanding of the effects of surface roughness on the wetting transition remains elusive. We show that the onset time for the CCL-CCA transition and the critical base size at the Cassie-Wenzel transition exhibit remarkable dependence on the surface roughness. Through global interfacial energy analysis we reveal that, when the size of the evaporating droplet becomes comparable to the surface roughness, the line tension at the triple line becomes important in the prediction of the critical base size. Last, we show that both the CCL evaporation mode and the Cassie-Wenzel transition can be effectively inhibited by engineering a surface with hierarchical roughness.

  2. Evaporation of droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces: surface roughness and small droplet size effects.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xuemei; Ma, Ruiyuan; Li, Jintao; Hao, Chonglei; Guo, Wei; Luk, B L; Li, Shuai Cheng; Yao, Shuhuai; Wang, Zuankai

    2012-09-14

    Evaporation of a sessile droplet is a complex, nonequilibrium phenomenon. Although evaporating droplets upon superhydrophobic surfaces have been known to exhibit distinctive evaporation modes such as a constant contact line (CCL), a constant contact angle (CCA), or both, our fundamental understanding of the effects of surface roughness on the wetting transition remains elusive. We show that the onset time for the CCL-CCA transition and the critical base size at the Cassie-Wenzel transition exhibit remarkable dependence on the surface roughness. Through global interfacial energy analysis we reveal that, when the size of the evaporating droplet becomes comparable to the surface roughness, the line tension at the triple line becomes important in the prediction of the critical base size. Last, we show that both the CCL evaporation mode and the Cassie-Wenzel transition can be effectively inhibited by engineering a surface with hierarchical roughness.

  3. Droplet Jumping Induced by Focused Surface Acoustic Wave on Superhydrophobic Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darmawan, Marten; Jeon, Kwangsun; Byun, Doyoung

    2012-11-01

    We investigate the droplet jumping phenomena that are induced by focused surface acoustic wave on superhydrophobic surface. The utilization of an identical pair of single phase unidirectional transducers (SPUDTs) leads to the focusing of acoustic wave energy on a small region between them. This focused energy gives a very high acceleration as well as rapid interface destabilization to the liquid droplet and thus derives the jumping phenomenon once surpasses some Weber number's threshold value. We intriguingly investigate the effect of the small contact area of droplet on superhydrophobic surface, which is generated by using plasma treatment, to the droplet jetting phenomena and how it deforms under this circumstance. Furthermore, a parametric study, i.e. varying acoustic energy power, volume of droplet and degree of arc SPUDT, is also performed to investigate their effect on the elongated jumping droplet. Partially funded by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF, 2011-0016461) and the Industrial Core Technology Development Project through the Ministry of Knowledge and Commerce.

  4. Nano-structuring of polymer surfaces by multi-beam laser interference for application in micro-fluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klotzbuecher, T.; Radke, A.; Tunayar, A.; Haverbeck, O.; Weinbender, E.; Wuesten, J.; Toufali, A.; Claussen, J.; Detemple, P.

    2008-02-01

    The interference of three coherent laser beams of a HeCd-laser with a wavelength of 325 nm was used to create a periodic intensity distribution into the photo-resist AZ4562. The beam configuration for the laser beam interference was carefully chosen, so that well defined patterns of two-dimensional periodicity were generated in the photo-resist. Moulding tools were fabricated from the generated nano-structures via electroforming processes, allowing for a fast replication of the nano-structured surfaces via hot embossing. Hot embossed polymers were used to increase the effective surface of micro-fluidic devices like e.g. Polymerase-Chain-Reaction(PCR)-chips. The Nano-structured surfaces were characterized concerning their contact angles when wetted with de-ionized water. It was found that the nano-structures influenced the wetting behaviour of micro-fluidic chip surfaces clearly, especially Polypropylene (PP) surfaces showed a superhydrophobic behaviour.

  5. Low Drag Porous Ship with Superhydrophobic and Superoleophilic Surface for Oil Spills Cleanup.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gang; Zeng, Zhixiang; Wang, He; Zhang, Lin; Sun, Xiaodong; He, Yi; Li, Longyang; Wu, Xuedong; Ren, Tianhui; Xue, Qunji

    2015-12-02

    To efficiently remove and recycle oil spills, we construct aligned ZnO nanorod arrays on the surface of the porous stainless steel wire mesh to fabricate a porous unmanned ship (PUS) with properties of superhydrophobicity, superoleophilicity, and low drag by imitating the structure of nonwetting leg of water strider. The superhydrophobicity of the PUS is stable, which can support 16.5 cm water column with pore size of 100 μm. Water droplet can rebound without adhesion. In the process of oil/water separation, when the PUS contacts with oil, the oil is quickly pulled toward and penetrates into the PUS automatically. The superhydrophobicity and low water adhesion force of the PUS surface endow the PUS with high oil recovery capacity (above 94%) and drag-reducing property (31% at flowing velocity of 0.38m/s). In addition, the PUS has good corrosion resistance and reusability. We further investigate the wetting behavior of water and oil, oil recovery capacity, drag-reducing property, and corrosion resistance of the PUS after oil absorbed. The PUS surface changes significantly from superhydrophobic to hydrophobic after absorbing oil. However, the oil absorbed PUS possesses better drag-reducing property and corrosion resistance due to the changes of the motion state of the water droplets.

  6. Nonaligned carbon nanotubes partially embedded in polymer matrixes: a novel route to superhydrophobic conductive surfaces.

    PubMed

    Peng, Mao; Liao, Zhangjie; Qi, Ji; Zhou, Zhi

    2010-08-17

    A new method for transforming common polymers into superhydrophobic conductive surfaces, with both a high static water contact angle (approximately 160 degrees) and a low sliding angle (2.0 degrees-4.5 degrees), and a low sheet resistance on the order of 10(1)-10(3) ohms/sq is presented. A layer of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) is first distributed on the surface of a polymer substrate, then by a single step of pressing, the MWNTs are partially embedded inside the substrate surface and form a superhydrophobic coating with a "carpet-" or "hair"-like morphology. The infiltration of polymer melts into the porous MWNT layer follows Darcy's law, and the pressing time greatly influence the morphology and superhydrophobicity. Moreover, the coating can be electrically heated by 20-70 degrees C with a voltage as low as 4-8 V at an electric energy density below 1.6 J/cm(2) and therefore can be used for deicing applications. Hydroxylation and fluoroalkylsilane treatment can greatly improve the stability of the superhydrophobicity of MWNTs. This method is convenient and applicable to a variety of thermoplastic polymers and nonpolymer substrates coated by silicone rubber.

  7. Tailored magnetic nanostructures on surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, John Philip

    Nanostructuring has introduced us to a new world of tunable, artificially structured materials. An exciting aspect of this new world is that we control where the atoms, or layers of atoms, are arranged in materials and have learned that this can awaken new properties in them. But, we are only at the beginning stages in developing this control and an understanding of what can be done with it. This dissertation is about an important part of finding our way in this new world; learning to tailor magnetic nanostructures on surfaces. We begin by showing ways in which the magnetic properties of ultrathin films, nanostripes, and isolated nanoclusters can be systematically varied in order to teach us about their behavior. The ultrathin films are from the historically challenging Fe/Cu(100) system. We use small fractions of a single layer of cobalt capping atoms to control their magnetization direction and find a completely new way to cause the magnetization direction to reorient. The nanostripes are made of alloys of iron and cobalt on a tungsten surface. We explore how the magnetic ordering in these stripes is affected by variation of their composition. We then show how changing the size and spacing of isolated Fe dots on a copper surface can teach us about magnetic interactions between them. Finally, we show how our ability to synthesize the dots represented the last piece in an important puzzle. This work enables us to make the first direct observation of how the magnetic properties of a particular amount of a single material change as it is prepared in the form of an ultrathin film, wire array, or dot assembly on a common template.

  8. Synthesis of superhydrophobic SiO{sub 2} layers via combination of surface roughness and fluorination

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Eun-Kyeong; Yeong Kim, Ji; Sub Kim, Sang

    2013-01-15

    We describe the preparation of superhydrophobic SiO{sub 2} layers through a combination of surface roughness and fluorination. Electrospraying SiO{sub 2} precursor solutions that were prepared by a sol-gel route and included trichloro(1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyl)silane as a fluorination source produced highly rough, fluorinated SiO{sub 2} layers. In sharp contrast to the fluorinated flat SiO{sub 2} layer, the fluorinated rough SiO{sub 2} layer showed much enhanced repellency toward liquid droplets of different surface tensions. The surface fraction and the work of adhesion of the superhydrophobic SiO{sub 2} layers were determined, respectively, based on Cassie-Baxter and Young-Dupre equations. The satisfactory long-term stability for 30 days, the ultraviolet resistance and the thermal stability up to 400 {sup o}C of the superhydrophobic SiO{sub 2} layers prepared in this work confirm a promising practical application. - Graphical abstract: A schematic illustration of the electrospray deposition used for preparing SiO{sub 2} layers. Shapes of liquid droplets of water, glycerol, coffee, juice and milk created on the fluorinated rough SiO{sub 2} layer deposited on a silicon wafer. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Superhydrophobic SiO{sub 2} layers are realized by a combination of surface roughness and fluorination. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fluorinated rough SiO{sub 2} layer shows enhanced repellency toward various liquid droplets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The wetting behavior is explained based on Cassie-Baxter and Young-Dupre equations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The superhydrophobic SiO{sub 2} layers confirm a promising practical application.

  9. Superhydrophobic Copper Surfaces with Anticorrosion Properties Fabricated by Solventless CVD Methods.

    PubMed

    Vilaró, Ignasi; Yagüe, Jose L; Borrós, Salvador

    2017-01-11

    Due to continuous miniaturization and increasing number of electrical components in electronics, copper interconnections have become critical for the design of 3D integrated circuits. However, corrosion attack on the copper metal can affect the electronic performance of the material. Superhydrophobic coatings are a commonly used strategy to prevent this undesired effect. In this work, a solventless two-steps process was developed to fabricate superhydrophobic copper surfaces using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods. The superhydrophobic state was achieved through the design of a hierarchical structure, combining micro-/nanoscale domains. In the first step, O2- and Ar-plasma etchings were performed on the copper substrate to generate microroughness. Afterward, a conformal copolymer, 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl acrylate-ethylene glycol diacrylate [p(PFDA-co-EGDA)], was deposited on top of the metal via initiated CVD (iCVD) to lower the surface energy of the surface. The copolymer topography exhibited a very characteristic and unique nanoworm-like structure. The combination of the nanofeatures of the polymer with the microroughness of the copper led to achievement of the superhydrophobic state. AFM, SEM, and XPS were used to characterize the evolution in topography and chemical composition during the CVD processes. The modified copper showed water contact angles as high as 163° and hysteresis as low as 1°. The coating withstood exposure to aggressive media for extended periods of time. Tafel analysis was used to compare the corrosion rates between bare and modified copper. Results indicated that iCVD-coated copper corrodes 3 orders of magnitude slower than untreated copper. The surface modification process yielded repeatable and robust superhydrophobic coatings with remarkable anticorrosion properties.

  10. Superhydrophobic behavior of fluorinated carbon nanofiber arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Chien-Te; Fan, Wen-Syuan

    2006-06-01

    Superhydrophobic behavior of fluorinated carbon nanofiber (CNF) arrays, prepared by a template-assisted synthesis, has been investigated. A thermal chemical vapor method, using perfluorohexane as the precursor, was used to coat fluorocarbon on the surface of the CNFs, thus lowering their surface tension. The F-coated CNFs exhibited a good water-repellent behavior, i.e., the highest value of contact angle ˜166°. The superhydrophobicity of water droplets on the arrays can be well predicted by a modified Cassie-Baxter model, incorporating the pore size distributions determined from the density functional theory method. This satisfactory result would shed one light on how the variation of opened sizes would induce the superhydrophobicity of nanostructured surfaces.

  11. Superhydrophobic, Hybrid, Electrospun Cellulose Acetate Nanofibrous Mats for Oil/Water Separation by Tailored Surface Modification.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Osman; Aytac, Zeynep; Uyar, Tamer

    2016-08-03

    Electrospun cellulose acetate nanofibers (CA-NF) have been modified with perfluoro alkoxysilanes (FS/CA-NF) for tailoring their chemical and physical features aiming oil-water separation purposes. Strikingly, hybrid FS/CA-NF showed that perfluoro groups are rigidly positioned on the outer surface of the nanofibers providing superhydrophobic characteristic with a water contact angle of ∼155°. Detailed analysis showed that hydrolysis/condensation reactions led to the modification of the acetylated β(1 → 4) linked d-glucose chains of CA transforming it into a superhydrophobic nanofibrous mat. Analytical data have revealed that CA-NF surfaces can be selectively controlled for fabricating the durable, robust and water resistant hybrid electrospun nanofibrous mat. The -OH groups available on the CA structure allowed the basic sol-gel reactions started by the reactive FS hybrid precursor system which can be monitored by spectroscopic analysis. Since alkoxysilane groups on the perfluoro silane compound are capable of reacting for condensation together with the CA, superhydrophobic nanofibrous mat is obtained via electrospinning. This structural modification led to the facile fabrication of the novel oil/water nanofibrous separator which functions effectively demonstrated by hexane/oil and water separation experiments. Perfluoro groups consequently modified the hydrophilic CA nanofibers into superhydrophobic character and therefore FS/CA-NF could be quite practical for future applications like water/oil separators, as well as self-cleaning or water resistant nanofibrous structures.

  12. Surface studies on superhydrophobic and oleophobic polydimethylsiloxane-silica nanocomposite coating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Bharathibai J.; Dinesh Kumar, V.; Anandan, C.

    2012-11-01

    Superhydrophobic and oleophobic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-silica nanocomposite double layer coating was fabricated by applying a thin layer of low surface energy fluoroalkyl silane (FAS) as topcoat. The coatings exhibited WCA of 158-160° and stable oleophobic property with oil CA of 79°. The surface morphology was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and surface chemical composition was determined by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometery (EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). FESEM images of the coatings showed micro-nano binary structure. The improved oleophobicity was attributed to the combined effect of low surface energy of FAS and roughness created by the random distribution of silica aggregates. This is a facile, cost-effective method to obtain superhydrophobic and oleophobic surfaces on larger area of various substrates.

  13. Microscopic Receding Contact Line Dynamics on Pillar and Irregular Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Yeong, Yong Han; Milionis, Athanasios; Loth, Eric; Bayer, Ilker S.

    2015-01-01

    Receding angles have been shown to have great significance when designing a superhydrophobic surface for applications involving self-cleaning. Although apparent receding angles under dynamic conditions have been well studied, the microscopic receding contact line dynamics are not well understood. Therefore, experiments were performed to measure these dynamics on textured square pillar and irregular superhydrophobic surfaces at micron length scales and at micro-second temporal scales. Results revealed a consistent “slide-snap” motion of the microscopic receding line as compared to the “stick-slip” dynamics reported in previous studies. Interface angles between 40–60° were measured for the pre-snap receding lines on all pillar surfaces. Similar “slide-snap” dynamics were also observed on an irregular nanocomposite surface. However, the sharper features of the surface asperities resulted in a higher pre-snap receding line interface angle (~90°). PMID:25670630

  14. Micro/nano-structured superhydrophobic surfaces in the biomedical field: part II: applications overview.

    PubMed

    Lima, Ana Catarina; Mano, João F

    2015-01-01

    The properties of surfaces define the acceptance and integration of biomaterials in vivo, as well as the material's efficiency when used at research or manufacturing levels. The presence of micro/nano-topographical structures and low surface energies could bring several advantages when highly repellent surfaces are employed in the biomedical field. Biomimetic superhydrophobic surfaces have been explored for diverse applications: as an intrinsic characteristic of biomaterials to be implanted; as materials that exhibit special interactions with biological entities; or to be used in ex vivo applications. This article aims to focus on the main motivations and requirements in the biomedical field that pushed for the utilization of superhydrophobic surfaces as suitable alternatives, as well as the great evolution of applications that have emerged in the last few years.

  15. Designing superhydrophobic disordered arrays of fibers with hierarchical roughness and low-surface-energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawal, Amit; Sharma, Sumit; Kumar, Vijay; Saraswat, Harshvardhan

    2016-12-01

    Hierarchical roughness and low surface energy are the main criteria for designing superhydrophobic surfaces with extreme water repellency. Herein, we present a step-wise approach to devise three-dimensional (3D) superhydrophobic disordered arrays of fibers in the form of nonwoven mats exhibiting hierarchical surface roughness and low surface energy. Key design parameters in the form of roughness factors at multiple length scales for 3D nonwoven mats have been quantified. The contact angles have been predicted for each of the wetting regimes that exists for nonwoven mats with predefined level of hierarchical surface roughness and surface energy. Experimental realization of superhydrophobic mats was attained by decorating the highly hydrophilic nonwoven viscose fibers with ZnO rods that effectively modulated the surface roughness at multiple length scales and subsequently, the surface energy was lowered using fluorocarbon treatment. Synergistic effects of hierarchical roughness and surface energy have systematically increased the static water contact angle of nonwoven mat (up to 164°) and simultaneously, lowered the roll-off angle (≈11°).

  16. Superhydrophobic poly(L-lactic acid) surface as potential bacterial colonization substrate

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Hydrophobicity is a very important surface property and there is a growing interest in the production and characterization of superhydrophobic surfaces. Accordingly, it was recently shown how to obtain a superhydrophobic surface using a simple and cost-effective method on a polymer named poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA). To evaluate the ability of such material as a substrate for bacterial colonization, this work assessed the capability of different bacteria to colonize a biomimetic rough superhydrophobic (SH) PLLA surface and also a smooth hydrophobic (H) one. The interaction between these surfaces and bacteria with different morphologies and cell walls was studied using one strain of Staphylococcus aureus and one of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results showed that both bacterial strains colonized the surfaces tested, although significantly higher numbers of S. aureus cells were found on SH surfaces comparing to H ones. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy images showed an extracellular matrix produced by P. aeruginosa on SH PLLA surfaces, indicating that this bacterium is able to form a biofilm on such substratum. Bacterial removal through lotus leaf effect was also tested, being more efficient on H coupons than on SH PLLA ones. Overall, the results showed that SH PLLA surfaces can be used as a substrate for bacterial colonization and, thus, have an exceptional potential for biotechnology applications. PMID:22018163

  17. Active gas replenishment and sensing of the wetting state in a submerged superhydrophobic surface.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Ben P; Bartlett, Philip N; Wood, Robert J K

    2017-02-15

    Previously superhydrophobic surfaces have demonstrated effective drag reduction by trapping a lubricious gas layer on the surface with micron-sized hydrophobic features. However, prolonged reduction of drag is hindered by the dissolution of the gas into the surrounding water. This paper demonstrates a novel combination of superhydrophobic surface design and electrochemical control methods which allow quick determination of the wetted area and a gas replenishment mechanism to maintain the desirable gas filled state. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is used to measure the capacitance of the surface which is shown to be proportional to the solid/liquid interface area. To maintain a full gas coverage for prolonged periods the surface is held at an electrical potential which leads to hydrogen evolution. In the desired gas filled state the water does not touch the metallic area of the surface, however after gas has dissolved the water touches the metal which closes the electrochemical circuit causing hydrogen to be produced replenishing the gas in the surface and returning to the gas filled state; in this way the system is self-actuating. This type of surface and electrochemical control shows promise for applications where the gas filled state of superhydrophobic surfaces must be maintained when submerged for long periods of time.

  18. Bioinspired polydopamine particles-assisted construction of superhydrophobic surfaces for oil/water separation.

    PubMed

    Shang, Bin; Wang, Yanbing; Peng, Bo; Deng, Ziwei

    2016-11-15

    Frequent oil spillages and industrial discharge of oils/organic solvents have induced severe environmental pollution and ecological damage, and a great cost in energy and finance has been consumed to solve the problems raised. Therefore, it is urgent to develop a surface hydrophobic modification that can be applied to materials with desired properties of high separation efficiency, excellent selectivity and stable performance in extreme conditions during the oil/water separation. Herein, with combined bioinspirations from mussel adhesive protein (polydopamine) and superhydrophobic lotus leaf (hierarchical structures), we develop a general way to superhydrophobically modify various commercial materials, aiming for the selective removal of oils/organic solvents from water. In this procedure, immersing commercial materials (e.g. melamine sponge, stainless steel mesh, nylon netting and cotton cloth) into water/ethanol/ammonia mixtures at a low concentration of dopamine (DA, 2mg/mL) allows a polydopamine (PDA) coating with a tunable roughness appearing on the substrate in one step. This is because DA can self-polymerize and form PDA particles with a catalyst of ammonia, attaching to any surfaces due to abundant catechol and amine groups in PDA, and ultimately, resulting in hierarchical structures. The subsequent decoration with 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorodecanethiol features the surface superhydrophobic and superoleophilic. This approach is straightforward and economic, and carried out under a mild, environmental-benign circumstance, with nonspecific substrate demands. In addition, the as-prepared superhydrophobic materials exhibit excellent separation performances including high absorption/separation capacity, excellent selectivity, and extraordinary recyclability for collecting various oils/organic solvents from water. These superhydrophobic materials have also verified to be highly chemical resistant, environment stable and mechanically durable. Therefore, this

  19. Computational study of a self-cleaning process on superhydrophobic surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farokhirad, Samaneh

    All substances around us are bounded by interfaces. In general, interface between different phases of materials are categorized as fluid-fluid, solid-fluid, and solid-solid. Fluid-fluid interfaces exhibit a distinct behavior by adapting their shape in response to external stimulus. For example, a liquid droplet on a substrate can undergo different wetting morphologies depending on topography and chemical composition of the surface. Fundamentally, interfacial phenomena arise at the limit between two immiscible phases, namely interface. The interface dynamic governs, to a great extent, physical processes such as impact and spreading of two immiscible media, and stabilization of foams and emulsions from break-up and coalescence. One of the recent challenging problems in the interface-driven fluid dynamics is the self-propulsion mechanism of droplets by means of different types of external forces such as electrical potential, or thermal Marangoni effect. Rapid removal of self-propelled droplet from the surface is an essential factor in terms of expense and efficiency for many applications including self-cleaning and enhanced heat and mass transfer to save energy and natural resources. A recent study on superhydrophobic nature of micro- and nanostructures of cicada wings offers a unique way for the self-propulsion process with no external force, namely coalescence-induced self-propelled jumping of droplet which can act effectively at any orientation. The biological importance of this new mechanism is associated with protecting such surfaces from long term exposure to colloidal particles such as microbial colloids and virus particles. Different interfacial phenomena can occur after out-of-plane jumping of droplet. If the departed droplet is landed back by gravity, it may impact and spread on the surface or coalesce with another droplet and again self-peopled itself to jump away from the surface. The complete removal of the propelled droplet to a sufficient distance

  20. Transparent, superhydrophobic, and wear-resistant surfaces using deep reactive ion etching on PDMS substrates.

    PubMed

    Ebert, Daniel; Bhushan, Bharat

    2016-11-01

    Surfaces that simultaneously exhibit superhydrophobicity, low contact angle hysteresis, and high transmission of visible light are of interest for many applications, such as optical devices, solar panels, and self-cleaning windows. Superhydrophobicity could also find use in medical devices where antifouling characteristics are desirable. These applications also typically require mechanical wear resistance. The fabrication of such surfaces is challenging due to the competing goals of superhydrophobicity and transmittance in terms of the required degree of surface roughness. In this study, deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) was used to create rough surfaces on PDMS substrates using a O2/CF4 plasma. Surfaces then underwent an additional treatment with either octafluorocyclobutane (C4F8) plasma or vapor deposition of perfluorooctyltrichlorosilane (PFOTCS) following surface activation with O2 plasma. The effects of surface roughness and the additional surface modifications were examined with respect to the contact angle, contact angle hysteresis, and optical transmittance. To examine wear resistance, a sliding wear experiment was performed using an atomic force microscope (AFM).

  1. Bubble dynamics and heat transfer for pool boiling on hydrophilic, superhydrophobic and biphilic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodori, E.; Palma, T.; Valente, T.; Moita, A. S.; Moreira, A. L. N.

    2016-09-01

    This paper proposes a detailed analysis of bubble dynamics to describe pool boiling heat transfer in extreme wetting scenarios (superhydrophobic vs hydrophilic). A mechanistic approach, based on extensive post-processing allows quantifying the relative advantage of the superhydrophobic surfaces to endorse the onset of boiling at very low superheats (1-2K) vs their worse heat transfer performance associated to the swift formation of an insulating vapour film. Based on this analysis, a simple biphilic surface is created. The results suggest that for high heat fluxes, bubble dynamics is dominated by the emission of very small bubbles, which seems to affect the interaction mechanisms, precluding the emission of the large bubbles from the surface, thus compromising the good performance of the biphilic surfaces.

  2. Laser textured superhydrophobic surfaces and their applications for homogeneous spot deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ta, Van Duong; Dunn, Andrew; Wasley, Thomas J.; Li, Ji; Kay, Robert W.; Stringer, Jonathan; Smith, Patrick J.; Esenturk, Emre; Connaughton, Colm; Shephard, Jonathan D.

    2016-03-01

    This work reports the laser surface modification of 304S15 stainless steel to develop superhydrophobic properties and the subsequent application for homogeneous spot deposition. Superhydrophobic surfaces, with steady contact angle of ∼154° and contact angle hysteresis of ∼4°, are fabricated by direct laser texturing. In comparison with common pico-/femto-second lasers employed for this patterning, the nanosecond fiber laser used in this work is more cost-effective, compact and allows higher processing rates. The effect of laser power and scan line separation on surface wettability of textured surfaces are investigated and optimized fabrication parameters are given. Fluid flows and transportations of polystyrene (PS) nanoparticles suspension droplets on the processed surfaces and unprocessed wetting substrates are investigated. After evaporation is complete, the coffee-stain effect is observed on the untextured substrates but not on the superhydrophobic surfaces. Uniform deposition of PS particles on the laser textured surfaces is achieved and the deposited material is confined to smaller area.

  3. One-step fabrication of near superhydrophobic aluminum surface by nanosecond laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagdheesh, R.; García-Ballesteros, J. J.; Ocaña, J. L.

    2016-06-01

    Inspired by the micro and nano structures of biological surface such as lotus leaf, rice leaves, etc. a functional near superhydrophobic surface of pure aluminum has been fabricated using one-step nanosecond laser processing. Thin aluminum sheets are micro-patterned with ultraviolet laser pulses to create near superhydrophobic surface in one-step direct laser writing technique. The impact of number of pulses/microhole with respect to the geometry and static contact angle measurements has been investigated. The microstructure shows the formation of blind microholes along with the micro-wall by laser processing, which improves the composite interface between the three phases such as water, air and solid, thus enhance the wetting property of the surface. The geometrical changes are supported by the chemical changes induced on the surface for improving the degree of hydrophobicity. Laser processed microholes exhibited near superhydrophobic surface with SCA measurement of 148 ± 3°. The static contact angle values are very consistent for repeated measurement at same area and across the laser patterned surface.

  4. Fabricating Superhydrophobic and Superoleophobic Surfaces with Multiscale Roughness Using Airbrush and Electrospray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AL-Milaji, Karam N.

    Examples of superhydrophobic surfaces found in nature such as self-cleaning property of lotus leaf and walking on water ability of water strider have led to an extensive investigation in this area over the past few decades. When a water droplet rests on a textured surface, it may either form a liquid-solid-vapor composite interface by which the liquid droplet partially sits on air pockets or it may wet the surface in which the water replaces the trapped air depending on the surface roughness and the surface chemistry. Super water repellent surfaces have numerous applications in our daily life such as drag reduction, anti-icing, anti-fogging, energy conservation, noise reduction, and self-cleaning. In fact, the same concept could be applied in designing and producing surfaces that repel organic contaminations (e.g. low surface tension liquids). However, superoleophobic surfaces are more challenging to fabricate than superhydrophobic surfaces since the combination of multiscale roughness with re-entrant or overhang structure and surface chemistry must be provided. In this study, simple, cost-effective and potentially scalable techniques, i.e., airbrush and electrospray, were employed for the sake of making superhydrophobic and superoleophobic coatings with random and patterned multiscale surface roughness. Different types of silicon dioxide were utilized in this work to in order to study and to characterize the effect of surface morphology and surface roughness on surface wettability. The experimental findings indicated that super liquid repellent surfaces with high apparent contact angles and extremely low sliding angles were successfully fabricated by combining re-entrant structure, multiscale surface roughness, and low surface energy obtained from chemically treating the fabricated surfaces. In addition to that, the experimental observations regarding producing textured surfaces in mask-assisted electrospray were further validated by simulating the actual working

  5. Unified model for contact angle hysteresis on heterogeneous and superhydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Raj, Rishi; Enright, Ryan; Zhu, Yangying; Adera, Solomon; Wang, Evelyn N

    2012-11-13

    Understanding the complexities associated with contact line dynamics on chemically heterogeneous and superhydrophobic surfaces is important for a wide variety of engineering problems. Despite significant efforts to capture the behavior of a droplet on these surfaces over the past few decades, modeling of the complex dynamics at the three-phase contact line is needed. In this work, we demonstrate that contact line distortion on heterogeneous and superhydrophobic surfaces is the key aspect that needs to be accounted for in the dynamic droplet models. Contact line distortions were visualized and modeled using a thermodynamic approach to develop a unified model for contact angle hysteresis on chemically heterogeneous and superhydrophobic surfaces. On a surface comprised of discrete wetting defects on an interconnected less wetting area, the advancing contact angle was determined to be independent of the defects, while the relative fraction of the distorted contact line with respect to the baseline surface was shown to govern the receding contact angle. This behavior reversed when the relative wettability of the discrete defects and interconnected area was inverted. The developed model showed good agreement with the experimental advancing and receding contact angles, both at low and high solid fractions. The thermodynamic model was further extended to demonstrate its capability to capture droplet shape evolution during liquid addition and removal in our experiments and those in literature. This study offers new insight extending the fundamental understanding of solid-liquid interactions required for design of advanced functional coatings for microfluidics, biological, manufacturing, and heat transfer applications.

  6. On the collision and mixing of water droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, Michael A.; Rothstein, Jonathan P.

    2009-11-01

    The dynamics of water drop collisions on superhydrophobic surfaces is investigated using high-speed photography. Teflon is sanded to create the superhydrophobic surfaces. The results of the surface fabrication technique are presented, showing the effect of grit size on hysteresis. This method of creating superhydrophobic surfaces allows for the specification of varied advancing contact angles with similar hysteresis, or varying hysteresis with near similar advancing contact angles. Deionized water droplets are made to collide on these surfaces by propelling one droplet into another using a burst of pressurized air. The subsequent collision is captured, and several impact characteristics are calculated as a function of contact angle hysteresis. The Weber number and impact number are calculated, as well as the maximum deformation of the combined drop. In some experiments, the drops left the surface after collision even with low hysteresis at the low Weber numbers tested. Characteristic images of different regimes of the collision dynamics will be presented, as will how each of these regimes affect the mixing of the drops.

  7. Femtosecond pulsed laser textured titanium surfaces with stable superhydrophilicity and superhydrophobicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bao-jia; Li, Huang; Huang, Li-jing; Ren, Nai-fei; Kong, Xia

    2016-12-01

    A facile and highly-efficient laser scanning process coupled with a simple silanization modification was used to prepare textured titanium (Ti) surfaces with stable superhydrophilicity and superhydrophobicity. Femtosecond pulsed laser scanning along two mutually perpendicular directions led to the formation of binary structures featuring micrometer-scale spikes covered with nanometer-scale ripples. The period of the spikes significantly increased and the period of the ripples irregularly changed in the narrow range of 550-600 nm with the increase of laser fluence. The obtained laser-textured Ti surfaces were hydrophilic or even superhydrophilic, and the superhydrophilic laser-textured Ti surface using a laser fluence of 1.5 J/cm2 was observed to retain its wetting property after 30 days of storage in ambient atmosphere. After silanization, all the laser-textured Ti surfaces exhibited high hydrophobicity or superhydrophobicity, and the superhydrophobic laser-textured Ti surfaces using laser fluences of 1.5 and 1.8 J/cm2 remained stable when stored in air for over 30 days. The results imply the potential applications of these surfaces in a variety of fields.

  8. Durable superhydrophobic and antireflective surfaces by trimethylsilanized silica nanoparticles-based sol-gel processing.

    PubMed

    Manca, Michele; Cannavale, Alessandro; De Marco, Luisa; Aricò, Antonino S; Cingolani, Roberto; Gigli, Giuseppe

    2009-06-02

    We present a robust and cost-effective coating method to fabricate long-term durable superhydrophobic andsimultaneouslyantireflective surfaces by a double-layer coating comprising trimethylsiloxane (TMS) surface-functionalized silica nanoparticles partially embedded into an organosilica binder matrix produced through a sol-gel process. A dense and homogeneous organosilica gel layer was first coated onto a glass substrate, and then, a trimethylsilanized nanospheres-based superhydrophobic layer was deposited onto it. After thermal curing, the two layers turned into a monolithic film, and the hydrophobic nanoparticles were permanently fixed to the glass substrate. Such treated surfaces showed a tremendous water repellency (contact angle = 168 degrees ) and stable self-cleaning effect during 2000 h of outdoor exposure. Besides this, nanotextured topology generated by the self-assembled nanoparticles-based top layer produced a fair antireflection effect consisting of more than a 3% increase in optical transmittance.

  9. Facile fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces on wood substrates via a one-step hydrothermal process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ming; Qing, Yan; Wu, Yiqiang; Liang, Jin; Luo, Sha

    2015-03-01

    Superhydrophobic nanocomposite surfaces were successfully fabricated on wood substrates via a one-step hydrothermal process. The morphology of the nanocomposite surfaces was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the elemental composition was determined via energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results indicated that the crystallization of the anatase phase of TiO2 was prevented because of the presence of vinyltriethoxysilane [VTES, CH2CHSi(OC2H5)3] during the hydrothermal process. In addition, the nanocomposite contained Ti/Si particles with diameters ranging from 50 to 100 nm that thoroughly covered the wood substrate. Furthermore, the roughness coupled with the presence of low surface free energy groups led to superhydrophobicity; the static water contact angle (WCA) was as high as 153°, and the sliding angle was very low.

  10. Fabrication of self-healing super-hydrophobic surfaces on aluminium alloy substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yang; Wei Liu, Xiao; Zhang, Hai Feng Zhou, Zhi Ping

    2015-04-15

    We present a method to fabricate a super-hydrophobic surface with a self-healing ability on an aluminium alloy substrate. The coatings are obtained by combining a two-step process (first, the substrate is immersed in a solution of HCl, HF and H{sub 2}O, and then in boiling water) and succeeding surface fluorination with a solution of poly(vinylidene-fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) and a fluoroalkyl silane. The morphological features and chemical composition were studied by scanning electron micrometry and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The prepared super-hydrophobic aluminium surfaces showed hierarchical structures forming pores, petals and particles with a contact angle of 161° and a sliding angle of 3°.

  11. Investigating the role of surface micro/nano structure in cell adhesion behavior of superhydrophobic polypropylene/nanosilica surfaces.

    PubMed

    Hejazi, Iman; Seyfi, Javad; Hejazi, Ehsan; Sadeghi, Gity Mir Mohamad; Jafari, Seyed Hassan; Khonakdar, Hossein Ali

    2015-03-01

    The main aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of different topographical features on the biological performance of polypropylene (PP)/silica coatings. To this end, a novel method including combined use of nanoparticles and non-solvent was used for preparation of superhydrophobic PP coatings. The proposed method led to a much more homogeneous appearance with a better adhesion to the glass substrate. Moreover, a notable reduction was observed in the required contents of nanoparticles (100-20 wt% with respect to the polymer) and non-solvent (35.5-9 vol%) for achieving superhydrophobicity. Surface composition and morphology of the coatings were also investigated via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Based on both qualitative and quantitative evaluations, it was found that the superhydrophobic coatings with only nano-scale roughness strongly prevented adhesion and proliferation of 4T1 mouse mammary tumor cells as compared to the superhydrophobic surfaces with micro-scale structure. Such results demonstrate that the cell behavior could be controlled onto the polymer and nanocomposite-based surfaces via tuning the surface micro/nano structure.

  12. One-step process for superhydrophobic metallic surfaces by wire electrical discharge machining.

    PubMed

    Bae, Won Gyu; Song, Ki Young; Rahmawan, Yudi; Chu, Chong Nam; Kim, Dookon; Chung, Do Kwan; Suh, Kahp Y

    2012-07-25

    We present a direct one-step method to fabricate dual-scale superhydrophobic metallic surfaces using wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM). A dual-scale structure was spontaneously formed by the nature of exfoliation characteristic of Al 7075 alloy surface during WEDM process. A primary microscale sinusoidal pattern was formed via a programmed WEDM process, with the wavelength in the range of 200 to 500 μm. Notably, a secondary roughness in the form of microcraters (average roughness, Ra: 4.16 to 0.41 μm) was generated during the exfoliation process without additional chemical treatment. The low surface energy of Al 7075 alloy (γ = 30.65 mJ/m(2)) together with the presence of dual-scale structures appears to contribute to the observed superhydrophobicity with a static contact angle of 156° and a hysteresis less than 3°. To explain the wetting characteristics on dual-scale structures, we used a simple theoretical model. It was found that Cassie state is likely to present on the secondary roughness in all fabricated surfaces. On the other hand, either Wenzel or Cassie state can present on the primary roughness depending on the characteristic length of sinusoidal pattern. In an optimal condition of the serial cutting steps with applied powers of ∼30 and ∼8 kW, respectively, a stable, superhydrophobic metallic surface was created with a sinusoidal pattern of 500 μm wavelength.

  13. Controlling the Adhesion of Superhydrophobic Surfaces Using Electrolyte Jet Machining Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaolong; Liu, Xin; Lu, Yao; Zhou, Shining; Gao, Mingqian; Song, Jinlong; Xu, Wenji

    2016-01-01

    Patterns with controllable adhesion on superhydrophobic areas have various biomedical and chemical applications. Electrolyte jet machining technique (EJM), an electrochemical machining method, was firstly exploited in constructing dimples with various profiles on the superhydrophobic Al alloy surface using different processing parameters. Sliding angles of water droplets on those dimples firstly increased and then stabilized at a certain value with the increase of the processing time or the applied voltages of the EJM, indicating that surfaces with different adhesion force could be obtained by regulating the processing parameters. The contact angle hysteresis and the adhesion force that restricts the droplet from sliding off were investigated through experiments. The results show that the adhesion force could be well described using the classical Furmidge equation. On account of this controllable adhesion force, water droplets could either be firmly pinned to the surface, forming various patterns or slide off at designed tilting angles at specified positions on a superhydrophobic surface. Such dimples on superhydrophopbic surfaces can be applied in water harvesting, biochemical analysis and lab-on-chip devices. PMID:27046771

  14. Effects of isotropic and anisotropic slip on droplet impingement on a superhydrophobic surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clavijo, Cristian E.; Crockett, Julie; Maynes, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    The dynamics of single droplet impingement on micro-textured superhydrophobic surfaces with isotropic and anisotropic slip are investigated. While several analytical models exist to predict droplet impact on superhydrophobic surfaces, no previous model has rigorously considered the effect of the shear-free region above the gas cavities resulting in an apparent slip that is inherent for many of these surfaces. This paper presents a model that accounts for slip during spreading and recoiling. A broad range of Weber numbers and slip length values were investigated at low Ohnesorge numbers. The results show that surface slip exerts negligible influence throughout the impingement process for low Weber numbers but can exert significant influence for high Weber numbers (on the order of 102). When anisotropic slip prevails, the droplet exhibits an elliptical shape at the point of maximum spread, with greater eccentricity for increasing slip and increasing Weber number. Experiments were performed on isotropic and anisotropic micro-structured superhydrophobic surfaces and the agreement between the experimental results and the model is very good.

  15. Controlling the Adhesion of Superhydrophobic Surfaces Using Electrolyte Jet Machining Techniques.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaolong; Liu, Xin; Lu, Yao; Zhou, Shining; Gao, Mingqian; Song, Jinlong; Xu, Wenji

    2016-04-05

    Patterns with controllable adhesion on superhydrophobic areas have various biomedical and chemical applications. Electrolyte jet machining technique (EJM), an electrochemical machining method, was firstly exploited in constructing dimples with various profiles on the superhydrophobic Al alloy surface using different processing parameters. Sliding angles of water droplets on those dimples firstly increased and then stabilized at a certain value with the increase of the processing time or the applied voltages of the EJM, indicating that surfaces with different adhesion force could be obtained by regulating the processing parameters. The contact angle hysteresis and the adhesion force that restricts the droplet from sliding off were investigated through experiments. The results show that the adhesion force could be well described using the classical Furmidge equation. On account of this controllable adhesion force, water droplets could either be firmly pinned to the surface, forming various patterns or slide off at designed tilting angles at specified positions on a superhydrophobic surface. Such dimples on superhydrophopbic surfaces can be applied in water harvesting, biochemical analysis and lab-on-chip devices.

  16. Controlling the Adhesion of Superhydrophobic Surfaces Using Electrolyte Jet Machining Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaolong; Liu, Xin; Lu, Yao; Zhou, Shining; Gao, Mingqian; Song, Jinlong; Xu, Wenji

    2016-04-01

    Patterns with controllable adhesion on superhydrophobic areas have various biomedical and chemical applications. Electrolyte jet machining technique (EJM), an electrochemical machining method, was firstly exploited in constructing dimples with various profiles on the superhydrophobic Al alloy surface using different processing parameters. Sliding angles of water droplets on those dimples firstly increased and then stabilized at a certain value with the increase of the processing time or the applied voltages of the EJM, indicating that surfaces with different adhesion force could be obtained by regulating the processing parameters. The contact angle hysteresis and the adhesion force that restricts the droplet from sliding off were investigated through experiments. The results show that the adhesion force could be well described using the classical Furmidge equation. On account of this controllable adhesion force, water droplets could either be firmly pinned to the surface, forming various patterns or slide off at designed tilting angles at specified positions on a superhydrophobic surface. Such dimples on superhydrophopbic surfaces can be applied in water harvesting, biochemical analysis and lab-on-chip devices.

  17. Role of nanoparticles in phase separation and final morphology of superhydrophobic polypropylene/zinc oxide nanocomposite surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejazi, Iman; Hajalizadeh, Bardia; Seyfi, Javad; Sadeghi, Gity Mir Mohamad; Jafari, Seyed-Hassan; Khonakdar, Hossein Ali

    2014-02-01

    In this work, phase separation process was revisited to study the effect of nanoparticles in acceleration of phase separation and formation of hierarchical structures. Superhydrophobic surfaces were prepared using polypropylene (PP) and the corresponding nanocomposites containing zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles through a typical solution casting method. The wettability and morphological behavior of the surfaces were investigated via water contact angle (WCA) measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. It was found that upon introduction of ZnO nanoparticles into the pure PP, the obtained surfaces have become superhydrophobic with WCAs above 150° and sliding angles below 10°. Calcination of ZnO nanoparticles was exploited to explicate the unexpected significant loss in superhydrophobicity of the sample loaded with high ZnO content. Crystallization behavior of the samples were also investigated via differential scanning calorimetry and correlated to superhydrophobicity of the surfaces. X-ray photoelectron and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies were also utilized to further characterize the samples. An attempt was also made to present a more clear mechanism for formation of hierarchical structures which are responsible for superhydrophobicity. Likewise, the so far proposed mechanisms for formation of micro/nano roughness on the superhydrophobic surfaces were reviewed as well.

  18. Recent advances in superhydrophobic surfaces and their relevance to biology and medicine.

    PubMed

    Ciasca, G; Papi, M; Businaro, L; Campi, G; Ortolani, M; Palmieri, V; Cedola, A; De Ninno, A; Gerardino, A; Maulucci, G; De Spirito, M

    2016-02-04

    By mimicking naturally occurring superhydrophobic surfaces, scientists can now realize artificial surfaces on which droplets of a few microliters of water are forced to assume an almost spherical shape and an extremely high contact angle. In recent decades, these surfaces have attracted much attention due to their technological applications for anti-wetting and self-cleaning materials. Very recently, researchers have shifted their interest to investigate whether superhydrophobic surfaces can be exploited to study biological systems. This research effort has stimulated the design and realization of new devices that allow us to actively organize, visualize and manipulate matter at both the microscale and nanoscale levels. Such precise control opens up wide applications in biomedicine, as it allows us to directly manipulate objects at the typical length scale of cells and macromolecules. This progress report focuses on recent biological and medical applications of superhydrophobicity. Particular regard is paid to those applications that involve the detection, manipulation and study of extremely small quantities of molecules, and to those that allow high throughput cell and biomaterial screening.

  19. Fabrication of non-modified metallic superhydrophobic surfaces with temperature insensitivity and self-healing ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenwen; Wang, Shanlin; Yu, Xinquan; Zhang, Youfa

    2016-07-01

    Metallic hierarchical texture was prepared by nickel-cobalt electro-deposition and subsequent replacement reaction to coat silver. Due to energetically favorable hydrocarbon adsorption on the silver film, contact angle of the surface increased gradually over time after exposure to laboratory air. The substrate became superhydrophobic after three days to aqueous droplets with various pH values. It was found that the surface remained stable after exposing to extreme temperatures in the wide range from -196 °C to 200 °C. Importantly, self-healing of superhydrophobicity can be easily accomplished and repeated in an ambient environment while hydrocarbon desorption occurred under high temperature. Furthermore, this approach can be easily applied to other conductive substrates.

  20. Surface hydrophobic co-modification of hollow silica nanoparticles toward large-area transparent superhydrophobic coatings.

    PubMed

    Gao, Liangjuan; He, Junhui

    2013-04-15

    The present paper reports a novel, simple, and efficient approach to fabricate transparent superhydrophobic coatings on glass substrates by spray-coating stearic acid (STA) and 1H,1H,2H,2H-perflurooctyltriethoxysilane (POTS) co-modified hollow silica nanoparticles (SPHSNs), the surfaces of which were hydrophobic. The surface wettability of coatings was dependent on the conditions of post-treatment: the water contact angle of coating increased and then leveled off with increase in either the drying temperature or the drying time. When the coating was treated at 150°C for 5h, the water contact angle was as high as 160° and the sliding angle was lower than 1°, reaching excellent superhydrophobicity. They remained 159° and ≤1°, respectively, even after 3months storage under indoor conditions (20°C, 20%RH), demonstrating the long time stability of coating superhydrophobicity. The coating was robust both to the impact of water droplets (297 cm/s) and to acidic (pH=1) and basic (pH=14) droplets. It showed good transparency in the visible-near infrared spectral range, and the maximum transmittance reached as high as 89%. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermogravimetric analysis were used to investigate the interactions among STA, POTS, and hollow silica nanoparticles (HSNs). Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to observe and estimate the morphology and surface roughness of coatings. Optical properties were characterized by a UV-visible-near infrared spectrophotometer. Surface wettability was studied by a contact angle/interface system. The enhancement of hydrophobicity to superhydrophobicity by post-treatment was discussed based on the transition from the Wenzel state to the Cassie state.

  1. Fabrication of superhydrophobic copper surface on various substrates for roll-off, self-cleaning, and water/oil separation.

    PubMed

    Sasmal, Anup Kumar; Mondal, Chanchal; Sinha, Arun Kumar; Gauri, Samiran Sona; Pal, Jaya; Aditya, Teresa; Ganguly, Mainak; Dey, Satyahari; Pal, Tarasankar

    2014-12-24

    Superhydrophobic surfaces prevent percolation of water droplets and thus render roll-off, self-cleaning, corrosion protection, etc., which find day-to-day and industrial applications. In this work, we developed a facile, cost-effective, and free-standing method for direct fabrication of copper nanoparticles to engender superhydrophobicity for various flat and irregular surfaces such as glass, transparency sheet (plastic), cotton wool, textile, and silicon substrates. The fabrication of as-prepared superhydrophobic surfaces was accomplished using a simple chemical reduction of copper acetate by hydrazine hydrate at room temperature. The surface morphological studies demonstrate that the as-prepared surfaces are rough and display superhydrophobic character on wetting due to generation of air pockets (The Cassie-Baxter state). Because of the low adhesion of water droplets on the as-prepared surfaces, the surfaces exhibited not only high water contact angle (164 ± 2°, 5 μL droplets) but also superb roll-off and self-cleaning properties. Superhydrophobic copper nanoparticle coated glass surface uniquely withstands water (10 min), mild alkali (5 min in saturated aqueous NaHCO3 of pH ≈ 9), acids (10 s in dilute HNO3, H2SO4 of pH ≈ 5) and thiol (10 s in neat 1-octanethiol) at room temperature (25-35 °C). Again as-prepared surface (cotton wool) was also found to be very effective for water-kerosene separation due to its superhydrophobic and oleophilic character. Additionally, the superhydrophobic copper nanoparticle (deposited on glass surface) was found to exhibit antibacterial activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.

  2. Rapid transfer of hierarchical microstructures onto biomimetic polymer surfaces with gradually tunable water adhesion from slippery to sticky superhydrophobicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, An-Fu; Huang, Han-Xiong

    2016-02-01

    Biomimetic superhydrophobic surfaces are generally limited to extremely high or quite low water droplet adhesion. The present work proposes flexible template replication methods for bio-inspired polypropylene (PP) surfaces with microtopographies and gradually tunable water droplet adhesion in one step using microinjection compression molding (μ-ICM). A dual-level microstructure appears on PP surfaces prepared using a flexible template. The microstructures obtained under low and high mold temperatures exhibit low-aspect-ratio (AR) micropillars with semi-spherical top and high-AR ones with conical top, resulting in the surfaces with high-adhesive hydrophobicity and low-adhesive superhydrophobicity, respectively. Further, silica nanoparticles (SNPs) coated on templates are transferred to viscous state-dominated melt during its filling in μ-ICM, and firmly adhered to the skin of the replicas, forming hierarchical microstructures on PP surfaces. The hydrophilic and hydrophobic SNPs on high-AR micropillared surfaces help achieve extremely high (petal effect) and extremely low (lotus effect) adhesion on superhydrophobic surfaces, respectively. The hybrid SNPs on low-AR micropillars change the Wenzel state-dominated surface to Cassie-Baxter state-dominated surface and preserves medium adhesion with superhydrophobicity. The proposed methods for fast and mass replication of superhydrophobic surfaces with the dual-level or hierarchical microtopography can be excellent candidates for the development of microfluidics, sensors, and labs on chip.

  3. Superhydrophobic diatomaceous earth

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, John T [Clinton, TN; D& #x27; Urso, Brian R [Clinton, TN

    2012-07-10

    A superhydrophobic powder is prepared by coating diatomaceous earth (DE) with a hydrophobic coating on the particle surface such that the coating conforms to the topography of the DE particles. The hydrophobic coating can be a self assembly monolayer of a perfluorinated silane coupling agent. The DE is preferably natural-grade DE where organic impurities have been removed. The superhydrophobic powder can be applied as a suspension in a binder solution to a substrate to produce a superhydrophobic surface on the substrate.

  4. Perpetual superhydrophobicity.

    PubMed

    Giacomello, Alberto; Schimmele, Lothar; Dietrich, Siegfried; Tasinkevych, Mykola

    2016-11-04

    A liquid droplet placed on a geometrically textured surface may take on a "suspended" state, in which the liquid wets only the top of the surface structure, while the remaining geometrical features are occupied by vapor. This superhydrophobic Cassie-Baxter state is characterized by its composite interface which is intrinsically fragile and, if subjected to certain external perturbations, may collapse into the fully wet, so-called Wenzel state. Restoring the superhydrophobic Cassie-Baxter state requires a supply of free energy to the system in order to again nucleate the vapor. Here, we use microscopic classical density functional theory in order to study the Cassie-Baxter to Wenzel and the reverse transition in widely spaced, parallel arrays of rectangular nanogrooves patterned on a hydrophobic flat surface. We demonstrate that if the width of the grooves falls below a threshold value of ca. 7 nm, which depends on the surface chemistry, the Wenzel state becomes thermodynamically unstable even at very large positive pressures, thus realizing a "perpetual" superhydrophobic Cassie-Baxter state by passive means. Building upon this finding, we demonstrate that hierarchical structures can achieve perpetual superhydrophobicity even for micron-sized geometrical textures.

  5. Highly transparent superhydrophobic surfaces from the coassembly of nanoparticles (≤100 nm).

    PubMed

    Karunakaran, Raghuraman G; Lu, Cheng-Hsin; Zhang, Zanhe; Yang, Shu

    2011-04-19

    We report a simple and versatile approach to creating a highly transparent superhydrophobic surface with dual-scale roughness on the nanoscale. 3-Aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTS)-functionalized silica nanoparticles of two different sizes (100 and 20 nm) were sequentially dip coated onto different substrates, followed by thermal annealing. After hydrophobilization of the nanoparticle film with (heptadecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetrahydrodecyl)trichlorosilane for 30 min or longer, the surface became superhydrophobic with an advancing water contact angle of greater than 160° and a water droplet (10 μL) roll-off angle of less than 5°. The order of nanoparticles dip coated onto the silicon wafer (i.e., 100 nm first and 20 nm second or vice versa) did not seem to have a significant effect on the resulting apparent water contact angle. In contrast, when the substrate was dip coated with monoscale nanoparticles (20, 50, and 100 nm), a highly hydrophobic surface (with an advancing water contact angle of up to 143°) was obtained, and the degree of hydrophobicity was found to be dependent on the particle size and concentration of the dip-coating solution. UV-vis spectra showed nearly 100% transmission in the visible region from the glass coated with dual-scale nanoparticles, similar to the bare one. The coating strategy was versatile, and superhydrophobicity was obtained on various substrates, including Si, glass, epoxy resin, and fabrics. Thermal annealing enhanced the stability of the nanoparticle coating, and superhydrophobicity was maintained against prolonged exposure to UV light under ambient conditions.

  6. Influence of hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces on reducing aerodynamic insect residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, K. Ghokulla; Milionis, Athanasios; Loth, Eric; Farrell, Thomas E.; Crouch, Jeffrey D.; Berry, Douglas H.

    2017-01-01

    Insect fouling during takeoff, climb and landing can result in increased drag and fuel consumption for aircrafts with laminar-flow surfaces. This study investigates the effectiveness of various hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces in reducing residue of insects on an aerodynamic surface at relatively high impact speeds (about 45 m/s). An experimental setup consisting of a wind tunnel and a method to inject live flightless fruit flies was used to test the effectiveness of various surfaces against insect fouling. Insect fouling was analyzed based on residue area and height from multiple impacts. In general most of the residue area was due to the hemolymph spreading while most of the residue height was due to adhesion of exoskeleton parts. Hydrophobic and especially superhydrophobic surfaces performed better than a hydrophilic aluminum surface in terms of minimizing the residue area of various insect components (exoskeleton, hemolymph, and red fluid). Surfaces with reduced wettability and short lateral length scales tended to have the smallest residue area. Residue height was not as strongly influenced by surface wettability since even a single exoskeleton adhered to the surface upon impact was enough to produce a residue height of the order of one mm. In general, the results indicate that hemolymph spread needs to be avoided (e.g. by having reduced wettability and short lateral correlation lengths) in order to minimize the residue area, while exoskeleton adherence needs to be avoided (e.g. by having oleophobic properties and micro/nano roughness) in order to minimize the residue height. In particular, two of the superhydrophobic coatings produced substantial reduction in residue height and area, relative to the baseline surface of aluminum. However, the surfaces also showed poor mechanical durability on the high-speed insect impact location. This suggests that although low wettability materials show great insect anti-fouling behavior, their durability needs to

  7. Nanostructured surfaces for bone biotemplating applications.

    PubMed

    Popat, Ketul C; Daniels, R Hugh; Dubrow, Robert S; Hardev, Veeral; Desai, Tejal A

    2006-04-01

    A major goal of orthopedic biomaterials research is to design better surface chemistries and configurations to control behavior of bone cells such as osteoblasts. Nanostructured architecture significantly affects the response of several cell lines. In this work, nanostructured surfaces were prepared by vapor liquid solid growth of silicon nanowires from size-controlled gold colloid catalysts deposited on fused silica substrates. The lengths and surface densities of the nanowires were varied to assess the effect of these parameters on bone cell response. Osteoblasts were seeded on nanowire surfaces to investigate both short-term adhesion and proliferation and long-term functionality and matrix production. Cell adhesion and proliferation were characterized using a standard 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay and cell counting for up to 4 days of culture. The total protein content, alkaline phosphatase activity, and matrix production were quantified using standard colorimetric assays for up to 4 weeks of culture. Matrix production was also characterized by measuring surface concentrations of calcium and phosphorus using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Further, scanning electron microscopy was used to investigate osteoblast morphology on nanostructured surfaces. Over the 4-week study, the nanostructured surfaces demonstrated improved osteoblast adhesion and proliferation and increased alkaline phosphatase activity and matrix production compared to non-nanostructured control surfaces.

  8. Anisotropic particle synthesis inside droplet templates on superhydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Vinayak; García, Antonio A; Marquez, Manuel; Velev, Orlin D

    2010-01-18

    We demonstrate how droplet templates dispensed on superhydrophobic substrates can be used to fabricate both shape-anisotropic ("doughnut") and composition-anisotropic ("patchy magnetic") supraparticles. The macroscopic shape of the closely-packed particle assemblies is guided by the droplet meniscus. Aqueous droplets of monodisperse microsphere suspensions dispensed on the substrates initially acquire near-spherical shape due to a high contact angle. During the solvent evaporation, however, silica suspension droplets undergo shape transitions (concaving) guiding the structure of the final assemblies into doughnut supraparticles. Composition anisotropy is achieved by drying a droplet containing a mixed suspension of latex and magnetic nanoparticles, while exposing it to magnetic field gradients. Depending on the pattern of the magnetic fields, the magnetic nanoparticles segregate into single, bilateral, or trilateral, patched spherical supraparticles. The physical effects leading to the development of anisotropy are discussed. Unlike the conventional wet self-assembly (WSA) methods where the final structures need to be extracted from the liquid environment, this efficient one-step procedure produces ready to use "dry" supraparticles.

  9. Experimental investigation of inclined liquid water jet flow onto vertically located superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kibar, Ali; Karabay, Hasan; Yiğit, K. Süleyman; Ucar, Ikrime O.; Erbil, H. Yıldırım

    2010-11-01

    In this study, the behaviour of an inclined water jet, which is impinged onto hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces, has been investigated experimentally. Water jet was impinged with different inclination angles (15°-45°) onto five different hydrophobic surfaces made of rough polymer, which were held vertically. The water contact angles on these surfaces were measured as 102°, 112°, 123°, 145° and 167° showing that the last surface was superhydrophobic. Two different nozzles with 1.75 and 4 mm in diameters were used to create the water jet. Water jet velocity was within the range of 0.5-5 m/s, thus the Weber number varied from 5 to 650 and Reynolds number from 500 to 8,000 during the experiments. Hydrophobic surfaces reflected the liquid jet depending on the surface contact angle, jet inclination angle and the Weber number. The variation of the reflection angle with the Weber number showed a maximum value for a constant jet angle. The maximum value of the reflection angle was nearly equal to half of the jet angle. It was determined that the viscous drag decreases as the contact angle of the hydrophobic surface increases. The drag force on the wall is reduced dramatically with superhydrophobic surfaces. The amount of reduction of the average shear stress on the wall was about 40%, when the contact angle of the surface was increased from 145° to 167°. The area of the spreading water layer decreased as the contact angle of the surface increased and as the jet inclination angle, Weber number and Reynolds number decreased.

  10. Superhydrophobic surface-based magnetic electrochemical immunoassay for detection of Schistosoma japonicum antibodies.

    PubMed

    Nie, Jinfang; Zhang, Yun; Wang, Hua; Wang, Shiping; Shen, Guoli

    2012-03-15

    In this paper, a magnetic electrochemical immunoassay that uses a superhydrophobic surface-based analytical platform (SSAP) has been initially developed for detection of Schistosoma japonicum (Sj) antibodies (SjAb). The SSAP is fabricated by modifying the inner surfaces of plastic test tubes with superhydrophobic polycarbonate coatings that show a water contact angle up to 160° and a water rolling angle less than 5°. In a noncompetitive sandwich format, the SjAb immunoassay with magnetic particles is based on sensitive stripping voltammetry analysis coupled with the copper enhanced Au nanoparticle tag amplification. This technique is quantitatively sensitive to SjAb concentrations ranging from 2 ng ml(-1) to 15 μg ml(-1), with a detection limit of ∼1.3 ngml(-1). Moreover, the results of assaying several serum specimens prove its feasibility of practical applications. The self-cleaning SSAP can be reused, because no aqueous samples reagents or contaminate the superhydrophobic polycarbonate during the experiments. The comparison study additionally demonstrates that the SSAP-based magnetic electrochemical immunoassays can offer preferable advantages over the existing approaches for SjAb detection, in terms of volumes of samples and reagents, assay time, and detection limit.

  11. Durable and scalable icephobic surfaces: similarities and distinctions from superhydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Sojoudi, H; Wang, M; Boscher, N D; McKinley, G H; Gleason, K K

    2016-02-21

    Formation, adhesion, and accumulation of ice, snow, frost, glaze, rime, or their mixtures can cause severe problems for solar panels, wind turbines, aircrafts, heat pumps, power lines, telecommunication equipment, and submarines. These problems can decrease efficiency in power generation, increase energy consumption, result in mechanical and/or electrical failure, and generate safety hazards. To address these issues, the fundamentals of interfaces between liquids and surfaces at low temperatures have been extensively studied. This has lead to development of so called "icephobic" surfaces, which possess a number of overlapping, yet distinctive, characteristics from superhydrophobic surfaces. Less attention has been given to distinguishing differences between formation and adhesion of ice, snow, glaze, rime, and frost or to developing a clear definition for icephobic, or more correctly pagophobic, surfaces. In this review, we strive to clarify these differences and distinctions, while providing a comprehensive definition of icephobicity. We classify different canonical families of icephobic (pagophobic) surfaces providing a review of those with potential for scalable and robust development.

  12. Synergistic Effect of Superhydrophobicity and Oxidized Layers on Corrosion Resistance of Aluminum Alloy Surface Textured by Nanosecond Laser Treatment.

    PubMed

    Boinovich, Ludmila B; Emelyanenko, Alexandre M; Modestov, Alexander D; Domantovsky, Alexandr G; Emelyanenko, Kirill A

    2015-09-02

    We report a new efficient method for fabricating a superhydrophobic oxidized surface of aluminum alloys with enhanced resistance to pitting corrosion in sodium chloride solutions. The developed coatings are considered very prospective materials for the automotive industry, shipbuilding, aviation, construction, and medicine. The method is based on nanosecond laser treatment of the surface followed by chemisorption of a hydrophobic agent to achieve the superhydrophobic state of the alloy surface. We have shown that the surface texturing used to fabricate multimodal roughness of the surface may be simultaneously used for modifying the physicochemical properties of the thick surface layer of the substrate itself. Electrochemical and wetting experiments demonstrated that the superhydrophobic state of the metal surface inhibits corrosion processes in chloride solutions for a few days. However, during long-term contact of a superhydrophobic coating with a solution, the wetted area of the coating is subjected to corrosion processes due to the formation of defects. In contrast, the combination of an oxide layer with good barrier properties and the superhydrophobic state of the coating provides remarkable corrosion resistance. The mechanisms for enhancing corrosion protective properties are discussed.

  13. Fabrication of sticky and slippery superhydrophobic surfaces via spin-coating silica nanoparticles onto flat/patterned substrates.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kuan-Hung; Chen, Li-Jen

    2011-11-04

    Silica nanoparticles were spin-coated onto a flat/patterned (regular pillar-like) substrate to enhance the surface roughness. The surface was further modified by a self-assembled fluorosilanated monolayer. The advancing/receding contact angle and sliding angle measurements were performed to determine the wetting behavior of a water droplet on the surface. It is interesting to find that a transition from a Wenzel surface to a sticky superhydrophobic surface is observed due to the spin-coating silica nanoparticles. A slippery superhydrophobic surface can be further obtained after secondary spin-coating with silica nanoparticles to generate a multi-scale roughness structure. The prepared superhydrophobic substrates should be robust for practical applications. The adhesion between the substrate and nanoparticles is also examined and discussed.

  14. The evaluation of hierarchical structured superhydrophobic coatings for the alleviation of insect residue to aircraft laminar flow surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kok, Mariana; Young, Trevor M.

    2014-09-01

    Surface contamination caused by insects on laminar flow wing surfaces causes a disruption of the flow, resulting in an increase in drag and fuel consumption. Consequently, the use of superhydrophobic coatings to mitigate insect residue adhesion was investigated. A range of hierarchical superhydrophobic coatings with different surface chemistry and topography was examined. Candidate coatings were characterized in terms of their morphology and hydrophobic properties by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and static and dynamic contact angle measurements, respectively. Arithmetic mean surface roughness (Ra) values were measured using profilometry. Only superhydrophobic coatings with a specific topography showed complete mitigation against insect residue adhesion. A surface which exhibited a specific microstructure (Ra = 5.26 μm) combined with a low sliding angle (SA = 7.6°) showed the best anti-contamination properties. The dynamics of an insect impact event and its influence on the wetting and adhesion mechanisms of insect residue to a surface were discussed.

  15. Super-hydrophobic surfaces of layer-by-layer structured film-coated electrospun nanofibrous membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Tasuku; Ding, Bin; Sone, Yuji; Shiratori, Seimei

    2007-04-01

    We have recently fabricated super-hydrophobic membrane surfaces based on the inspiration of self-cleaning silver ragwort leaves. This biomimetic super-hydrophobic surface was composed of fluoroalkylsilane (FAS)-modified layer-by-layer (LBL) structured film-coated electrospun nanofibrous membranes. The rough fibre surface caused by the electrostatic LBL coating of TiO2 nanoparticles and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) was used to imitate the rough surface of nanosized grooves along the silver ragwort leaf fibre axis. The results showed that the FAS modification was the key process for increasing the surface hydrophobicity of the fibrous membranes. Additionally, the dependence of the hydrophobicity of the membrane surfaces upon the number of LBL coating bilayers was affected by the membrane surface roughness. Moreover, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results further indicated that the surface of LBL film-coated fibres absorbed more fluoro groups than the fibre surface without the LBL coating. A (TiO2/PAA)10 film-coated cellulose acetate nanofibrous membrane with FAS surface modification showed the highest water contact angle of 162° and lowest water-roll angle of 2°.

  16. Bioinspired superhydrophobic surfaces, fabricated through simple and scalable roll-to-roll processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Sangeui; Moreira, David; Bandaru, Prabhakar R.; Han, Intaek; Yun, Dong-Jin

    2015-10-01

    A simple, scalable, non-lithographic, technique for fabricating durable superhydrophobic (SH) surfaces, based on the fingering instabilities associated with non-Newtonian flow and shear tearing, has been developed. The high viscosity of the nanotube/elastomer paste has been exploited for the fabrication. The fabricated SH surfaces had the appearance of bristled shark skin and were robust with respect to mechanical forces. While flow instability is regarded as adverse to roll-coating processes for fabricating uniform films, we especially use the effect to create the SH surface. Along with their durability and self-cleaning capabilities, we have demonstrated drag reduction effects of the fabricated films through dynamic flow measurements.

  17. Coupling of surface energy with electric potential makes superhydrophobic surfaces corrosion-resistant.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Rahul; Nosonovsky, Michael

    2015-10-14

    We study the correlation of wetting properties and corrosion rates on hydrophobized cast iron. Samples of different surface roughnesses (abraded by sandpaper) are studied without coating and with two types of hydrophobic coatings (stearic acid and a liquid repelling spray). The contact angles and contact angle hysteresis are measured using a goniometer while corrosion rates are measured by a potentiodynamic polarization test. The data show a decrease in corrosion current density and an increase in corrosion potential after superhydrophobization. A similar trend is also found in the recent literature data. We conclude that a decrease in the corrosion rate can be attributed to the changing open circuit potential of a coated surface and increased surface area making the non-homogeneous (Cassie-Baxter) state possible. We interpret these results in light of the idea that the inherent surface energy is coupled with the electric potential in accordance with the Lippmann law of electrowetting and Le Châtelier's principle and, therefore, hydrophobization leads to a decrease in the corrosion potential. This approach can be used for novel anti-corrosive coatings.

  18. From Initial Nucleation to Cassie-Baxter State of Condensed Droplets on Nanotextured Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Cunjing; Zhang, Xiwen; Niu, Fenglei; He, Feng; Hao, Pengfei

    2017-02-01

    Understanding how droplet condensation happens plays an essential role for our fundamental insights of wetting behaviors in nature and numerous applications. Since there is a lack of study of the initial formation and growing processes of condensed droplets down to nano-/submicroscale, relevant underlying mechanisms remain to be explored. We report an in situ observation of vapor condensation on nano-/microtextured superhydrophobic surfaces using optical microscopy. An interesting picture of the vapor condensation, from the initial appearance of individual small droplets (≤1 μm) to a Cassie-Baxter wetting state (>30 μm), are exhibited. It is found that individual droplets preferentially nucleate at the top and the edge of single micropillars with very high apparent contact angles on the nanotextures. Scenarios of two distinguished growing modes are reported statistically and the underlying mechanisms are discussed in the view of thermodynamics. We particularly reveal that the formation of the Cassie-Baxter wetting state is a result of a continuous coalescence of individual small droplets, in which the nanotexture-enhanced superhydrophobicity plays a crucial role. We envision that these fundamental findings can deepen our understanding of the nucleation and development of condensed droplets in nanoscale, so as to optimize design strategies of superhydrophobic materials for a broad range of water-harvesting and heat-transfer systems.

  19. From Initial Nucleation to Cassie-Baxter State of Condensed Droplets on Nanotextured Superhydrophobic Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Lv, Cunjing; Zhang, Xiwen; Niu, Fenglei; He, Feng; Hao, Pengfei

    2017-02-16

    Understanding how droplet condensation happens plays an essential role for our fundamental insights of wetting behaviors in nature and numerous applications. Since there is a lack of study of the initial formation and growing processes of condensed droplets down to nano-/submicroscale, relevant underlying mechanisms remain to be explored. We report an in situ observation of vapor condensation on nano-/microtextured superhydrophobic surfaces using optical microscopy. An interesting picture of the vapor condensation, from the initial appearance of individual small droplets (≤1 μm) to a Cassie-Baxter wetting state (>30 μm), are exhibited. It is found that individual droplets preferentially nucleate at the top and the edge of single micropillars with very high apparent contact angles on the nanotextures. Scenarios of two distinguished growing modes are reported statistically and the underlying mechanisms are discussed in the view of thermodynamics. We particularly reveal that the formation of the Cassie-Baxter wetting state is a result of a continuous coalescence of individual small droplets, in which the nanotexture-enhanced superhydrophobicity plays a crucial role. We envision that these fundamental findings can deepen our understanding of the nucleation and development of condensed droplets in nanoscale, so as to optimize design strategies of superhydrophobic materials for a broad range of water-harvesting and heat-transfer systems.

  20. From Initial Nucleation to Cassie-Baxter State of Condensed Droplets on Nanotextured Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Cunjing; Zhang, Xiwen; Niu, Fenglei; He, Feng; Hao, Pengfei

    2017-01-01

    Understanding how droplet condensation happens plays an essential role for our fundamental insights of wetting behaviors in nature and numerous applications. Since there is a lack of study of the initial formation and growing processes of condensed droplets down to nano-/submicroscale, relevant underlying mechanisms remain to be explored. We report an in situ observation of vapor condensation on nano-/microtextured superhydrophobic surfaces using optical microscopy. An interesting picture of the vapor condensation, from the initial appearance of individual small droplets (≤1 μm) to a Cassie-Baxter wetting state (>30 μm), are exhibited. It is found that individual droplets preferentially nucleate at the top and the edge of single micropillars with very high apparent contact angles on the nanotextures. Scenarios of two distinguished growing modes are reported statistically and the underlying mechanisms are discussed in the view of thermodynamics. We particularly reveal that the formation of the Cassie-Baxter wetting state is a result of a continuous coalescence of individual small droplets, in which the nanotexture-enhanced superhydrophobicity plays a crucial role. We envision that these fundamental findings can deepen our understanding of the nucleation and development of condensed droplets in nanoscale, so as to optimize design strategies of superhydrophobic materials for a broad range of water-harvesting and heat-transfer systems. PMID:28202939

  1. Wetting, adhesion and friction of superhydrophobic and hydrophilic leaves and fabricated micro/nanopatterned surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhushan, Bharat; Jung, Yong Chae

    2008-06-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces have considerable technological potential for various applications due to their extreme water-repellent properties. When two hydrophilic bodies are brought into contact, any liquid present at the interface forms menisci, which increases adhesion/friction and the magnitude is dependent upon the contact angle. Certain plant leaves are known to be superhydrophobic in nature due to their roughness and the presence of a thin wax film on the leaf surface. Various leaf surfaces on the microscale and nanoscale have been characterized in order to separate out the effects of the microbumps and nanobumps and the wax on the hydrophobicity. The next logical step in realizing superhydrophobic surfaces that can be produced is to design surfaces based on understanding of the leaves. The effect of micropatterning and nanopatterning on the hydrophobicity was investigated for two different polymers with micropatterns and nanopatterns. Scale dependence on adhesion was also studied using atomic force microscope tips of various radii. Studies on silicon surfaces patterned with pillars of varying diameter, height and pitch values and deposited with a hydrophobic coating were performed to demonstrate how the contact angles vary with the pitch. The effect of droplet size on contact angle was studied by droplet evaporation and a transition criterion was developed to predict when air pockets cease to exist. Finally, an environmental scanning electron microscope study on the effect of droplet size of about 20 µm radius on the contact angle of patterned surfaces is presented. The importance of hierarchical roughness structure on destabilization of air pockets is discussed.

  2. General formulations for predicting longevity of submerged superhydrophobic surfaces composed of pores or posts.

    PubMed

    Hemeda, A A; Tafreshi, H Vahedi

    2014-09-02

    Superhydrophobicity can arise from the ability of a submerged rough hydrophobic surface to trap air in its surface pores, and thereby reduce the contact area between the water and the frictional solid walls. A submerged surface can only remain superhydrophobic (SHP) as long as it retains the air in its pores. SHP surfaces have a short underwater life, and their longevity depends strongly on the hydrostatic pressure at which they operate. In this work, a comprehensive mathematical framework is developed to predict the mechanical stability and the longevity of submerged SHP surfaces with arbitrary pore or post geometries. We start by deriving an integro-partial differential equation for the 3-D shape of the air-water interface, and use this information to predict the rate of dissolution of the entrapped air into the ambient water under different hydrostatic pressures. For the special case of circular pores, the above integro-partial differential equation is reduced to easy-to-solve ordinary differential equations. In addition, approximate nonlinear algebraic solutions are also obtained for surfaces with circular pores or posts. The effects of geometrical parameters and hydrostatic conditions on surface stability and longevity are discussed in detail. Moreover, a simple equivalent pore diameter method is developed for SHP surfaces composed of posts with ordered or random configuration--an otherwise complicated task requiring the solution of an integro-partial differential equation.

  3. Hierarchically structured superhydrophobic coatings fabricated by successive Langmuir-Blodgett deposition of micro-/nano-sized particles and surface silanization.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ping-Szu; Yang, Yu-Min; Lee, Yuh-Lang

    2007-11-21

    The present study demonstrates the creation of a stable, superhydrophobic surface by coupling of successive Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) depositions of micro- and nano-sized (1.5 µm/50 nm, 1.0 µm/50 nm, and 0.5 µm/50 nm) silica particles on a glass substrate with the formation of a self-assembled monolayer of dodecyltrichlorosilane on the surface of the particulate film. Particulate films, in which one layer of 50 nm particles was deposited over one to five sublayers of larger micro-sized particles, with hierarchical surface roughness and superhydrophobicity, were successfully fabricated. Furthermore, the present 'two-scale' (micro- and nano-sized particles) approach is superior to the previous 'one-scale' (micro-sized particles) approach in that both higher advancing contact angle and lower contact angle hysteresis can be realized. Experimental results revealed that the superhydrophobicity exhibited by as-fabricated particulate films with different sublayer particle diameters increases in the order of 0.5 µm>1.0 µm>1.5 µm. However, no clear trend between sublayer number and surface superhydrophobicity could be discerned. An explanation of superhydrophobicity based on the surface roughness introduced by two-scale particles is also proposed.

  4. Polydimethylsiloxane-Based Superhydrophobic Surfaces on Steel Substrate: Fabrication, Reversibly Extreme Wettability and Oil-Water Separation.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiaojing; Li, Hongqiang; Lai, Xuejun; Zhang, Lin; Liang, Tao; Feng, Yuchun; Zeng, Xingrong

    2017-01-25

    Functional surfaces for reversibly switchable wettability and oil-water separation have attracted much interest with pushing forward an immense influence on fundamental research and industrial application in recent years. This article proposed a facile method to fabricate superhydrophobic surfaces on steel substrates via electroless replacement deposition of copper sulfate (CuSO4) and UV curing of vinyl-terminated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). PDMS-based superhydrophobic surfaces exhibited water contact angle (WCA) close to 160° and water sliding angle (WSA) lower than 5°, preserving outstanding chemical stability that maintained superhydrophobicity immersing in different aqueous solutions with pH values from 1 to 13 for 12 h. Interestingly, the superhydrophobic surface could dramatically switch to the superhydrophilic state under UV irradiation and then gradually recover to the highly hydrophobic state with WCA at 140° after dark storage. The underlying mechanism was also investigated by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Additionally, the PDMS-based steel mesh possessed high separation efficiency and excellent reusability in oil-water separation. Our studies provide a simple, fast, and economical fabrication method for wettability-transformable superhydrophobic surfaces and have the potential applications in microfluidics, the biomedical field, and oil spill cleanup.

  5. Fabrication of lotus-leaf-like superhydrophobic surfaces via Ni-based nano-composite electro-brush plating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongtao; Wang, Xuemei; Ji, Hongmin

    2014-01-01

    Superhydrophobic surface has become a research hot topic in recent years due to its excellent performance and wide application prospect. This paper investigates the method to fabricate superhydrophobic surface on carbon steel substrate via two-layer nano-composite electro-brush plating and subsequent surface modification with low free energy materials. The hydrophobic properties of as-prepared coatings were characterized by a water sliding angle (SA) and a water contact angle (CA) measured by the Surface tension instrument. A Scanning electron microscope was used to analyze the surface structure of plating coatings. Anti-corrosion performance of the superhydrophobic coating was characterized by a potentiodynamic polarization curve measured by the Electrochemical workstation. The research result shows that: the superhydrophobic structure can be successfully prepared by plating nano-C/Ni and nano-Cu/Ni two-layer coating on carbon steel substrate under appropriate technology and has similarity with lotus-leaf-like micro/nano composite structure; the contact angle of the as-prepared superhydrophobic coating can be up to 155.5°, the sliding angle is 5°; the coating has better anti-corrosion performance compared with substrate.

  6. Ellipsoidal Colloids with a Controlled Surface Roughness via Bioinspired Surface Engineering: Building Blocks for Liquid Marbles and Superhydrophobic Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pengjiao; Yang, Lu; Li, Qiang; Wu, Songhai; Jia, Shaoyi; Li, Zhanyong; Zhang, Zhenkun; Shi, Linqi

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the important role of the surface roughness of nano/colloidal particles and harnessing them for practical applications need novel strategies to control the particles' surface topology. Although there are many examples of spherical particles with a specific surface roughness, nonspherical ones with similar surface features are rare. The current work reports a one-step, straightforward, and bioinspired surface engineering strategy to prepare ellipsoidal particles with a controlled surface roughness. By manipulating the unique chemistry inherent to the oxidation-induced self-polymerization of dopamine into polydopamine (PDA), PDA coating of polymeric ellipsoids leads to a library of hybrid ellipsoidal particles (PS@PDA) with a surface that decorates with nanoscale PDA protrusions of various densities and sizes. Together with the advantages originated from the anisotropy of ellipsoids and rich chemistry of PDA, such a surface feature endows these particles with some unique properties. Evaporative drying of fluorinated PS@PDA particles produces a homogeneous coating with superhydrophobicity that arises from the two-scale hierarchal structure of microscale interparticle packing and nanoscale roughness of the constituent ellipsoids. Instead of water repelling that occurs for most of the lotus leaf-like superhydrophobic surfaces, such coating exhibits strong water adhesion that is observed with certain species of rose pedals. In addition, the as-prepared hybrid ellipsoids are very efficient in preparing liquid marble-isolated droplets covered with solid particles. Such liquid marbles can be placed onto many surfaces and might be useful for the controllable transport and manipulation of small volumes of liquids.

  7. Robust and Superhydrophobic Surface Modification by a "Paint + Adhesive" Method: Applications in Self-Cleaning after Oil Contamination and Oil-Water Separation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Baiyi; Qiu, Jianhui; Sakai, Eiichi; Kanazawa, Nobuhiro; Liang, Ruilu; Feng, Huixia

    2016-07-13

    Conventional superhydrophobic surfaces have always depended on expensive, sophisticated, and fragile roughness structures. Therefore, poor robustness has turned into the bottleneck for large-scale industrial applications of the superhydrophobic surfaces. To handle this problem, a superhydrophobic surface with firm robustness urgently needs to be developed. In this work, we created a versatile strategy to fabricate robust, self-cleaning, and superhydrophobic surfaces for both soft and hard substrates. We created an ethanol based suspension of perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane-mdodified calcium carbonate nanoparticles which can be sprayed onto both hard and soft substrates to form superhydrophobic surfaces. For all kinds of substrates, spray adhesive was directly coated onto abluent substrate surfaces to promote the robustness. These superhydrophobic surfaces showed remarkable robustness against knife scratch and sandpaper abrasion, while retaining its superhydrophobicity even after 30 abrasion cycles with sandpaper. What is more, the superhydrophobic surfaces have shown promising potential applications in self-cleaning and oil-water separation. The surfaces retained their self-cleaning property even immersed in oil. In addition to oil-water separation, the water contents in oil after separation of various mixtures were all below 150 ppm, and for toluene even as low as 55 ppm. Furthermore, the as-prepared device for oil-water separation could be cycled 6 times and still retained excellent oil-water separation efficiency.

  8. A theoretical prediction of friction drag reduction in turbulent flow by superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukagata, Koji; Kasagi, Nobuhide; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2006-05-01

    We present a theoretical prediction for the drag reduction rate achieved by superhydrophobic surfaces in a turbulent channel flow. The predicted drag reduction rate is in good agreement with results obtained from direct numerical simulations at Reτ≃180 and 400. The present theory suggests that large drag reduction is possible also at Reynolds numbers of practical interest (Reτ˜105-106) by employing a hydrophobic surface, which induces a slip length on the order of ten wall units or more.

  9. Tuning cell adhesion on polymeric and nanocomposite surfaces: Role of topography versus superhydrophobicity.

    PubMed

    Zangi, Sepideh; Hejazi, Iman; Seyfi, Javad; Hejazi, Ehsan; Khonakdar, Hossein Ali; Davachi, Seyed Mohammad

    2016-06-01

    Development of surface modification procedures which allow tuning the cell adhesion on the surface of biomaterials and devices is of great importance. In this study, the effects of different topographies and wettabilities on cell adhesion behavior of polymeric surfaces are investigated. To this end, an improved phase separation method was proposed to impart various wettabilities (hydrophobic and superhydrophobic) on polypropylene surfaces. Surface morphologies and compositions were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. Cell culture was conducted to evaluate the adhesion of 4T1 mouse mammary tumor cells. It was found that processing conditions such as drying temperature is highly influential in cell adhesion behavior due to the formation of an utterly different surface topography. It was concluded that surface topography plays a more significant role in cell adhesion behavior rather than superhydrophobicity since the nano-scale topography highly inhibited the cell adhesion as compared to the micro-scale topography. Such cell repellent behavior could be very useful in many biomedical devices such as those in drug delivery and blood contacting applications as well as biosensors.

  10. Analytical modeling and thermodynamic analysis of robust superhydrophobic surfaces with inverse-trapezoidal microstructures.

    PubMed

    Im, Maesoon; Im, Hwon; Lee, Joo-Hyung; Yoon, Jun-Bo; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2010-11-16

    A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer surface with perfectly ordered microstructures having an inverse-trapezoidal cross-sectional profile (simply PDMS trapezoids) showed superhydrophobic and transparent characteristics under visible light as reported in our previous work. The addition of a fluoropolymer (Teflon) coating enhances both features and provides oleophobicity. This paper focuses on the analytical modeling of the fabricated PDMS trapezoids structure and thermodynamic analysis based on the Gibbs free energy analysis. Additionally, the wetting characteristics of the fabricated PDMS trapezoids surface before and after the application of the Teflon coating are analytically explained. The Gibbs free energy analysis reveals that, due to the Teflon coating, the Cassie-Baxter state becomes energetically more favorable than the Wenzel state and the contact angle difference between the Cassie-Baxter state and the Wenzel state decreases. These two findings support the robustness of the superhydrophobicity of the fabricated Teflon-coated PDMS trapezoids. This is then verified via the impinging test of a water droplet at a high speed. The dependencies of the design parameters in the PDMS trapezoids on the hydrophobicity are also comprehensively studied through a thermodynamic analysis. Geometrical dependency on the hydrophobicity shows that overhang microstructures do not have a significant influence on the hydrophobicity. In contrast, the intrinsic contact angle of the structural material is most important in determining the apparent contact angle. On the other hand, the experimental results showed that the side angles of the overhangs are critical not for the hydrophobic but for the oleophobic property with liquids of a low surface tension. Understanding of design parameters in the PDMS trapezoids surface gives more information for implementation of superhydrophobic surfaces.

  11. Organic-inorganic hybrid superhydrophobic surfaces using methyltriethoxysilane and tetraethoxysilane sol-gel derived materials in emulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xiu-Fang; Wang, Kun; Pi, Pi-Hui; Yang, Jin-Xin; Cai, Zhi-Qi; Zhang, Li-juan; Qian, Yu; Yang, Zhuo-Ru; Zheng, Da-feng; Cheng, Jiang

    2011-11-01

    By applying alkaline-catalyzed co-hydrolysis and copolycondensation reactions of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and methyltriethoxysilane (MTES) in organic siloxane modified polyacrylate emulsion (OSPA emulsion), we are able to demonstrate the potential for developing a sol-gel derived organic-inorganic hybrid emulsion for a superhydrophobic surface research. TEOS and MTES derived sol-gel moieties can be designed for a physical roughness and hydrophobic characteristic (Si-CH3) of the hybrid superhydrophobic surface, while OSPA emulsion can be endowed for good film-forming property. The effect of formulation parameters on superhydrophobicity and film-forming property was analyzed. The water contact angle (WCA) on the sol-gel derived hybrid film is determined to be 156°, and the contact angle hysteresis is 5° by keeping the mole ratio of TEOS:MTES:C2H5OH:NH3·H2O:AMP-95 at 1:4:30:10:0.63 and the mass percentage of OSPA emulsion at 25%. The nanoparticle-based silica rough surface is observed as the mole ratio of MTES/TEOS at 4:1. The sol-gel derived organic-inorganic hybrid emulsion shows remarkable film-forming property when the mole ratio of MTES/TEOS reaches or exceeds 4:1. With the primer coating, the performance of superhydrophobic film achieve actual use standard. It reveals that this new procedure is an effective shortcut to obtain a superhydrophobic surface with potential applications.

  12. Designing heterogeneous chemical composition on hierarchical structured copper substrates for the fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces with controlled adhesion.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhongjun; Hou, Rui; Du, Ying; Lai, Hua; Fu, Kewei; Zhang, Naiqing; Sun, Kening

    2013-09-11

    Controlling water adhesion is important for superhydrophobic surfaces in many applications. Compared with numerous researches about the effect of microstructures on the surface adhesion, research relating to the influence of surface chemical composition on the surface adhesion is extremely rare. Herein, a new strategy for preparation of tunable adhesive superhydrophobic surfaces through designing heterogeneous chemical composition (hydrophobic/hydrophilic) on the rough substrate is reported, and the influence of surface chemical composition on the surface adhesion are examined. The surfaces were prepared through self-assembling of mixed thiol (containing both HS(CH2)9CH3 and HS(CH2)11OH) on the hierarchical structured copper substrates. By simply controlling the concentration of HS(CH2)11OH in the modified solution, tunable adhesive superhydrophobic surfaces can be obtained. The adhesive force of the surfaces can be increased from extreme low (about 8 μN) to very high (about 65 μN). The following two reasons can be used to explain the tunable effect: one is the number of hydrogen bond for the variation of surface chemical composition; and the other is the variation of contact area between the water droplet and surface because of the capillary effect that results from the combined effect of hydrophilic hydroxyl groups and microstructures on the surface. Noticeably, water droplets with different pH (2-12) have similar contact angles and adhesive forces on the surfaces, indicating that these surfaces are chemical resistant to acid and alkali. Moreover, the as-prepared surfaces were also used as the reaction substrates and applied in the droplet-based microreactor for the detection of vitamin C. This report provides a new method for preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces with tunable adhesion, which could not only help us further understand the principle for the fabrication of tunable adhesive superhydrophobic surfaces, but also potentially be used in many

  13. Experimental and numerical investigation of liquid jet impingement on superhydrophobic and hydrophobic convex surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kibar, Ali

    2017-02-01

    Experiments and numerical simulations were carried out to examine the vertical impingement a round liquid jet on the edges of horizontal convex surfaces that were either superhydrophobic or hydrophobic. The experiments examine the effects on the flow behaviour of curvature, wettability, inertia of the jet, and the impingement rate. Three copper pipes with outer diameters of 15, 22, and 35 mm were investigated. The pipes were wrapped with a piece of a Brassica oleracea leaf or a smooth Teflon sheet, which have apparent contact angles of 160° and 113°. The Reynolds number ranged from 1000 to 4500, and the impingement rates of the liquid jets were varied. Numerical results show good agreement with the experimental results for explaining flow and provide detailed information about the impingement on the surfaces. The liquid jet reflected off the superhydrophobic surfaces for all conditions. However, the jet reflected or deflected off the hydrophobic surface, depending on the inertia of the jet, the curvature of the surface, and the impingement rate. The results suggest that pressure is not the main reason for the bending of the jet around the curved hydrophobic surface.

  14. Evaporative properties and pinning strength of laser-ablated, hydrophilic sites on lotus-leaf-like, nanostructured surfaces.

    PubMed

    McLauchlin, Melissa L; Yang, Dongqing; Aella, P; Garcia, Antonio A; Picraux, S T; Hayes, Mark A

    2007-04-24

    Wetting, evaporative, and pinning strength properties of hydrophilic sites on superhydrophobic, nanostructured surfaces were examined. Understanding these properties is important for surface characterization and designing features in self-cleaning, lotus-leaf-like surfaces. Laser-ablated, hydrophilic spots between 250 mum and 2 mm in diameter were prepared on silicon nanowire (NW) superhydrophobic surfaces. For larger circumference pinning sites, initial contact angle measurements resemble the contact angle of the surface within the pinning site: 65-69 degrees . As the drop volume is increased, the contact angles approach the contact angle of the NW surface without pinning sites: 171-176 degrees . The behavior of water droplets on the pinning sites is governed by how much of the water droplet is being influenced by the superhydrophobic NW surfaces versus the hydrophilic areas. During the evaporation of sinapic acid solution, drops are pinned by the spots except for the smaller circumference sites. Pinning strengths of the hydrophilic sites are a linear function of the pinning spot circumference. Protein samples prepared and deposited on the pinning sites for analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization indicate an improvement in sensitivity from that of a standard plate analysis by a factor of 5.

  15. Motion of Liquid Droplets on a Superhydrophobic Oleophobic Surface (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    Contact angle measurements The contact angles of water and dodecane on the prepared surfaces were measured from sessile drops using a lab- designed...low surface energy and properly designed surface morphology. The relationships among surface tensions, contact angles , contact angle hystereses, roll...oleophobic surface was prepared. Good agreement between the predicted and measured contact angles and roll-off angles were obtained. The effect

  16. Wetting behaviour during evaporation and condensation of water microdroplets on superhydrophobic patterned surfaces.

    PubMed

    Jung, Y C; Bhushan, B

    2008-01-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces have considerable technological potential for various applications due to their extreme water repellent properties. The superhydrophobic surfaces may be generated by the use of hydrophobic coating, roughness and air pockets between solid and liquid. The geometric effects and dynamic effects, such as surface waves, can destroy the composite solid-air-liquid interface. The relationship between the water droplet size and geometric parameters governs the creation of composite interface and affects transition from solid-liquid interface to composite interface. Therefore, it is necessary to study the effect of droplets of various sizes. We have studied the effect of droplet size on contact angle by evaporation using droplets with radii ranging from about 300 to 700 microm. Experimental and theoretical studies of the wetting properties of silicon surfaces patterned with pillars of two different diameters and heights with varying pitch values are presented. We propose a criterion where the transition from Cassie and Baxter regime to Wenzel regime occurs when the droop of the droplet sinking between two asperities is larger than the depth of the cavity. The trends are explained based on the experimental data and the proposed transition criteria. An environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) is used to form smaller droplets of about 20 microm radius and measure the contact angle on the patterned surfaces. The investigation has shown that ESEM provides a new approach to wetting studies on the microscale.

  17. Effect of superhydrophobic surfaces on the flow over a hydrofoil at low Reynolds number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyunseok; Kim, Nayoung; Park, Hyungmin

    2014-11-01

    In the present study, we experimentally investigate the effect of superhydrophobic surface on the flow over a hydrofoil at low Rec <104 , where c is the chord length of a hydrofoil. As a hydrofoil, we consider the cross-sections typically used for airfoils like NACA0012, NACA0024, and NACA4412, which stand for thin, thick and cambered hydrofoils, respectively. Spray-coating of hydrophobic nanoparticles are applied onto the hydrofoil surface and subsequent velocity fields are measured in a water tunnel using two-dimensional particle image velocimetry at different angles of attack, α =0° -20° . At small α's (for example, less than 10°), it is found that the surface slip tends to affect the flow separation slightly and also modify the size of recirculation region in the wake. Since a massive separation occurs at the leading edge at larger α's, however, the effect of superhydrophobic surface becomes diminished. In the talk, the dependence of the hydrodynamic role of surface slip on the hydrofoil shape and Rec will be presented. Supported by the NRF Programs (NRF-2012M2A8A4055647, NRF-2013R1A1A1008373) of Korean government.

  18. Direct numerical simulation of turbulent flows over superhydrophobic surfaces with gas pockets using linearized boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jongmin; Bose, Sanjeeb; Garcia-Mayoral, Ricardo; Mani, Ali

    2012-11-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces are shown to be effective for surface drag reduction under laminar regime by both experiments and simulations (see for example, Ou and Rothstein, Phys. Fluids 17:103606, 2005). However, such drag reduction for fully developed turbulent flow maintaining the Cassie-Baxter state remains an open problem due to high shear rates and flow unsteadiness of turbulent boundary layer. Our work aims to develop an understanding of mechanisms leading to interface breaking and loss of gas pockets due to interactions with turbulent boundary layers. We take advantage of direct numerical simulation of turbulence with slip and no-slip patterned boundary conditions mimicking the superhydrophobic surface. In addition, we capture the dynamics of gas-water interface, by deriving a proper linearized boundary condition taking into account the surface tension of the interface and kinematic matching of interface deformation and normal velocity conditions on the wall. We will show results from our simulations predicting the dynamical behavior of gas pocket interfaces over a wide range of dimensionless surface tensions. Supported by the Office of Naval Research and the Kwanjeong Educational Scholarship Foundation.

  19. Transparent, wear-resistant, superhydrophobic and superoleophobic poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) surfaces.

    PubMed

    Martin, Samuel; Bhushan, Bharat

    2017-02-15

    Superoleophobic surfaces that exhibit self-cleaning, antifouling, low-drag, and anti-smudge properties with high transparency are of interest in industrial applications including optical devices, solar panels, and self-cleaning windows. In many superoleophobic surfaces created to date, the lack of mechanical durability has been an issue. In this work, for the first time, transparent, wear-resistant, superhydrophobic and superoleophobic surfaces were developed for polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) using a simple and scalable fabrication technique. PDMS is of importance in biomedical applications as it is biocompatible, chemically stable, and transparent. PDMS was made superhydrophobic either through micropatterning or an applied coating of hydrophobic SiO2 nanoparticles with a binder of methylphenyl silicone resin. Through the addition of fluorination via fluorosilane, the nanoparticle/binder coating was made superoleophobic. Intermediate steps using ultraviolet-ozone treatment were required for improved deposition and adhesion of the coatings. The effects of surface treatments were examined through contact angle and tilt angle measurements. The coating was found to have re-entrant geometries desirable for superoleophobicity and to exhibit mechanical wear resistance and transparent properties.

  20. Bioinspired superhydrophobic poly(L-lactic acid) surfaces control bone marrow derived cells adhesion and proliferation.

    PubMed

    Alves, Natália M; Shi, Jun; Oramas, Elena; Santos, José L; Tomás, Helena; Mano, João F

    2009-11-01

    The aptitude of a cell to adhere, migrate, and differentiate on a compact substrate or scaffold is important in the field of tissue engineering and biomaterials. It is well known that cell behavior can be controlled and guided through the change in micro- and nano-scale topographic features. In this work, we intend to demonstrate that special topographic features that control wettability may also have an important role in the biological performance of biodegradable substrates. Poly(L-lactic acid) surfaces with superhydrophobic characteristics were produced, based on the so-called Lotus effect, exhibiting dual micro- and nano-scale roughness. The water contact angle could be higher than 150 degrees and a value of that order could be kept even upon immersion in a simulated body fluid solution for more than 20 days. Such water repellent surfaces were found to prevent adhesion and proliferation of bone marrow derived cells previously isolated from the femurs of 6-week-old male Wistar rats, when compared with smoother surfaces prepared by simple solvent casting. Such results demonstrate that these superhydrophobic surfaces may be used to control cell behavior onto biodegradable substrates.

  1. Superhydrophobic surface with hierarchical architecture and bimetallic composition for enhanced antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mei; Wang, Ping; Sun, Hongyan; Wang, Zuankai

    2014-12-24

    Developing robust antibacterial materials is of importance for a wide range of applications such as in biomedical engineering, environment, and water treatment. Herein we report the development of a novel superhydrophobic surface featured with hierarchical architecture and bimetallic composition that exhibits enhanced antibacterial activity. The surface is created using a facile galvanic replacement reaction followed by a simple thermal oxidation process. Interestingly, we show that the surface's superhydrophobic property naturally allows for a minimal bacterial adhesion in the dry environment, and also can be deactivated in the wet solution to enable the release of biocidal agents. In particular, we demonstrate that the higher solubility nature of the thermal oxides created in the thermal oxidation process, together with the synergistic cooperation of bimetallic composition and hierarchical architecture, allows for the release of metal ions in a sustained and accelerated manner, leading to enhanced antibacterial performance in the wet condition as well. We envision that the ease of fabrication, the versatile functionalities, and the robustness of our surface will make it appealing for broad applications.

  2. Fabrication of hierarchical structures for stable superhydrophobicity on metallic planar and cylindrical inner surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Xiuqing; Wang, Li; Lv, Danhui; Wang, Quandai; Li, Liang; He, Ning; Lu, Bingheng

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the construction of stable superhydrophobicity on metallic wetting surfaces has gained increasing attention due to its potential wide applications. In this paper, we propose an economic fabricating method, which not only is suitable for metallic planar surfaces, but also could be applied onto cylindrical inner surfaces. It mainly involves two steps: etching micro-concaves by a movable mask electrochemical micromachining (EMM) technique and fabricating nanopillars of ZnO by a hydrothermal method. Then the influences of surface morphology on the static and dynamic behaviors of water droplets are investigated. The energy loss during impact on the surfaces is quantified in terms of the restitution coefficient for droplets bouncing off the surfaces. For hierarchical structures with excellent superhydrophobicity (contact angle ≈180° and sliding angle ≤1°), the droplet bounces off the surface several times, superior to the droplet's response on single nanopillars (contact angle ≈165.8° and sliding angle ≈6.29°) where droplet bounces off only for limited a number of times, and even far better than the dynamics of a liquid droplet impinging on microstructures (contact angle ≈132.1° and sliding angle >90°) where droplet does not rebound and remains pinned. The highest elasticity is obtained on the hierarchical surface, where the restitution coefficient can be as large as 0.94. The fabricating method is then applied onto the cylindrical inner surface and the wetting behavior is confirmed to be consistent with the planar surface. This method, which can be generalized to any kind of solid electroconductive metal or other surfaces with different shapes, could find wide practical applications in self-cleaning surfaces, chemical industry, microfluidic devices, mechanical engineering and aviation.

  3. Investigating the Interface of Superhydrophobic Surfaces in Contact With Water

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-11

    pressure technique was used to prepare a rough, highly porous organosilica aerogel -like film. UV/ozone treatments were used to control the surface coverage...a rough, highly porous organosilica aerogel -like film. UV/ozone treatments were used to control the surface coverage of hydrophobic organic ligands on...earlier work on low-temperature/ low-pressure aerogel coatings.42 In this process, surface derivatization of silica sols with fluroalkyl groups28

  4. Connector ability to design superhydrophobic and oleophobic surfaces from conducting polymers.

    PubMed

    Zenerino, Arnaud; Darmanin, Thierry; Taffin de Givenchy, Elisabeth; Amigoni, Sonia; Guittard, Frédéric

    2010-08-17

    In the aim of creating superoleophobic surfaces using monomers with short perfluorinated chains, to avoid drawbacks associated with PFOA, original semifluorinated (C(4)F(9), C(6)F(13)) 3,4-ethylenedioxypyrrole derivatives were synthesized. These monomers were obtained using the faster synthetic method than previously described with some analogues, characterized and electrochemically polymerized on gold plates. The obtained surfaces exhibited superhydrophobic (contact angle with water of 157 degrees and 158 degrees, respectively) and oleophobic properties (contact angle with hexadecane: 88 degrees and 108 degrees, respectively). The comparison between these new monomers and already published analogue EDOP6 confirms the importance of the bipolaronic form of conductive polymer for obtaining surface nanoporosity and as a consequence improving surface oleophobicity. Thus, little change in the molecule design of the connector and the spacer of the monomer can have a significant influence on the surface oleophobicity.

  5. Nanotexturing of polystyrene surface in fluorocarbon plasmas: from sticky to slippery superhydrophobicity.

    PubMed

    Mundo, Rosa Di; Palumbo, Fabio; d'Agostino, Riccardo

    2008-05-06

    In this work plasma etching processes have been studied to roughen and fluorinate polystyrene surface as an easy method to achieve a superhydrophobic slippery character. Radiofrequency discharges have been fed with CF(4)/O(2) mixtures and the effect of the O(2):CF(4) ratio, the input power, and the treatment duration have been investigated in terms of wettability, with focus on sliding performances. For this purpose, surface morphological variations, evaluated by means of scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, together with the chemical assessment by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, have been correlated with water contact angle hysteresis and volume resolved sliding angle measurements. Results indicate that by increasing the height and decreasing the density of the structures formed by etching, within a tailored range, a transition from sticky to slippery superhydrophobicity occurs. A short treatment time (5 min) is sufficient to obtain such an effect, provided that a high power input is utilized. Optimized surfaces show a unaltered transparency to visible light according to the low roughness produced.

  6. Micro to nano: Surface size scale and superhydrophobicity

    PubMed Central

    Dorrer, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Summary This work looks at the fundamental question of how the surface mobility of drops in the composite state is related to the size scale of the roughness features of the surface. To this end, relevant literature is first reviewed and the important terms are clarified. We then describe and discuss contact and roll-off angle measurements on a set of hydrophobicized silicon post surfaces for which all parameters except for the surface size scale were held constant. It was found that a critical transition from “sticky superhydrophobic” (composite state with large contact angle hysteresis) to “truly superhydrophobic” (composite state with low hysteresis) takes place as the size of the surface features reaches 1 μm. PMID:21977446

  7. Electrospinning and Superhydrophobic Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    in intimate contact with a rough surface will generally be better adhered than the same liquid on a smooth surface due to the increase in the contact ...area. Rough superhydrophobic surfaces with low surface energy, however, support the liquid on the peaks of the roughness, with minimal contact area...From contact angle measurements, it was found that these methods increased the water contact angle, however, a truly superhydrophobic surface with

  8. Fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces via CaCO3 mineralization mediated by poly(glutamic acid)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Heng; Yao, Jinrong; Shao, Zhengzhong

    2013-03-01

    Surfaces with micrometer and nanometer sized hierarchical structures were fabricated by an one-step in situ additive controlled CaCO3 mineralization method. After chemical modification, the surfaces with various morphologies showed superhydrophobicity in different states, which could be easily adjusted by the initial supersaturation of the mineralization solution (concentration of calcium ion and poly(glutamic acid)). Generally, the "lotus state" surface which was covered by a thick layer of tetrahedron-shaped CaCO3 particles to exhibit a contact angle (CA) of 157±1° and a very low contact angle hysteresis (CAH) (roll-off angle=1°) was produced under high supersaturation. On the other hands, the petal-like surface with flower-shaped calcite spherulites was obtained in a relative low supersaturation, which showed both high CA (156±2°) and CAH (180°) in a "Cassie impregnating wetting state".

  9. Probing droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces by synchrotron radiation scattering techniques

    PubMed Central

    Accardo, Angelo; Di Fabrizio, Enzo; Limongi, Tania; Marinaro, Giovanni; Riekel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Droplets on artificially structured superhydrophobic surfaces represent quasi contact-free sample environments which can be probed by X-ray microbeams and nanobeams in the absence of obstructing walls. This review will discuss basic surface wettability concepts and introduce the technology of structuring surfaces. Quasi contact-free droplets are compared with contact-free droplets; processes related to deposition and evaporation on solid surfaces are discussed. Droplet coalescence based on the electrowetting effect allows the probing of short-time mixing and reaction processes. The review will show for several materials of biological interest that structural processes related to conformational changes, nucleation and assembly during droplet evaporation can be spatially and temporally resolved by raster-scan diffraction techniques. Orientational ordering of anisotropic materials deposited during solidification at pinning sites facilitates the interpretation of structural data. PMID:24971957

  10. Traces of surfactants limit the drag reduction potential of superhydrophobic surfaces in realistic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peaudecerf, Francois J.; Landel, Julien R.; Luzzatto-Fegiz, Paolo

    2015-11-01

    Large drag reductions have been measured for laminar flows over superhydrophobic surfaces (SHS), making them attractive for applications in pipelines, ships and submarines. However, experiments involving turbulent flows, typical of these applications, have often yielded limited drag reductions. A complete explanation for this issue has so far proved elusive. We propose that trace amounts of surfactants, unavoidable in the environment and in large-scale experiments, can yield poor performances of SHS, by producing Marangoni stresses when the edges of the SHS pattern are not aligned with the local flow velocity. To explore our hypothesis, we develop numerical simulations (inclusive of surfactants) for a flow over a textured SHS in a micro-channel, whose background shear is similar to a viscous sublayer. The texture consists of micro ridges perpendicular to the flow. We find that even small amounts of surfactants can prevent any drag reduction. As an experimental test, we flow de-ionised water with known surfactant concentrations through SHS micro-channels with texture similar to the simulations, while performing micro-PIV. At negligible surfactant concentrations, we find higher velocities between the ridges, as expected by classical models. However, as the concentration increases, we discover that the slip velocity drops to very small values even in the presence of a plastron. Our results show that the drag-reducing potential of superhydrophobic surfaces can be limited in realistic flow conditions

  11. Spatial Control of Condensation and Freezing on Superhydrophobic Surfaces with Hydrophilic Patches

    SciTech Connect

    Mishchenko, Lidiya; Khan, M.; Aizenberg, Joanna; Hatton, Benjamin

    2013-09-25

    Certain natural organisms use micro-patterned surface chemistry, or ice-nucleating species, to control water condensation and ice nucleation for survival under extreme conditions. As an analogy to these biological approaches, it is shown that functionalized, hydrophilic polymers and particles deposited on the tips of superhydrophobic posts induce precise topographical control over water condensation and freezing at the micrometer scale. A bottom-up deposition process is used to take advantage of the limited contact area of a non-wetting aqueous solution on a superhydrophobic surface. Hydrophilic polymer deposition on the tips of these geometrical structures allows spatial control over the nucleation, growth, and coalescence of micrometer-scale water droplets. The hydrophilic tips nucleate water droplets with extremely uniform nucleation and growth rates, uniform sizes, an increased stability against coalescence, and asymmetric droplet morphologies. Furthermore, control of freezing behavior is also demonstrated via deposition of ice-nucleating AgI nanoparticles on the tips of these structures. The combination of the hydrophilic polymer and AgI particles on the tips was used to achieve templating of ice nucleation at the micrometer scale. Preliminary results indicate that control over ice crystal size, spatial symmetry, and position might be possible with this method. This type of approach can serve as a platform for systematically analyzing micrometer-scale condensation and freezing phenomena, and as a model for natural systems.

  12. Spatial Control of Condensation and Freezing on Superhydrophobic Surfaces with Hydrophilic Patches

    SciTech Connect

    Mishchenko, L; Khan, M; Aizenberg, J; Hatton, BD

    2013-07-03

    Certain natural organisms use micro-patterned surface chemistry, or ice-nucleating species, to control water condensation and ice nucleation for survival under extreme conditions. As an analogy to these biological approaches, it is shown that functionalized, hydrophilic polymers and particles deposited on the tips of superhydrophobic posts induce precise topographical control over water condensation and freezing at the micrometer scale. A bottom-up deposition process is used to take advantage of the limited contact area of a non-wetting aqueous solution on a superhydrophobic surface. Hydrophilic polymer deposition on the tips of these geometrical structures allows spatial control over the nucleation, growth, and coalescence of micrometer-scale water droplets. The hydrophilic tips nucleate water droplets with extremely uniform nucleation and growth rates, uniform sizes, an increased stability against coalescence, and asymmetric droplet morphologies. Control of freezing behavior is also demonstrated via deposition of ice-nucleating AgI nanoparticles on the tips of these structures. This combination of the hydrophilic polymer and AgI particles on the tips was used to achieve templating of ice nucleation at the micrometer scale. Preliminary results indicate that control over ice crystal size, spatial symmetry, and position might be possible with this method. This type of approach can serve as a platform for systematically analyzing micrometer-scale condensation and freezing phenomena, and as a model for natural systems.

  13. Singlet oxygen generation on porous superhydrophobic surfaces: effect of gas flow and sensitizer wetting on trapping efficiency.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuanyuan; Liu, Yang; Xu, Qianfeng; Barahman, Mark; Bartusik, Dorota; Greer, Alexander; Lyons, Alan M

    2014-11-13

    We describe physical-organic studies of singlet oxygen generation and transport into an aqueous solution supported on superhydrophobic surfaces on which silicon-phthalocyanine (Pc) particles are immobilized. Singlet oxygen ((1)O2) was trapped by a water-soluble anthracene compound and monitored in situ using a UV-vis spectrometer. When oxygen flows through the porous superhydrophobic surface, singlet oxygen generated in the plastron (i.e., the gas layer beneath the liquid) is transported into the solution within gas bubbles, thereby increasing the liquid-gas surface area over which singlet oxygen can be trapped. Higher photooxidation rates were achieved in flowing oxygen, as compared to when the gas in the plastron was static. Superhydrophobic surfaces were also synthesized so that the Pc particles were located in contact with, or isolated from, the aqueous solution to evaluate the relative effectiveness of singlet oxygen generated in solution and the gas phase, respectively; singlet oxygen generated on particles wetted by the solution was trapped more efficiently than singlet oxygen generated in the plastron, even in the presence of flowing oxygen gas. A mechanism is proposed that explains how Pc particle wetting, plastron gas composition and flow rate as well as gas saturation of the aqueous solution affect singlet oxygen trapping efficiency. These stable superhydrophobic surfaces, which can physically isolate the photosensitizer particles from the solution may be of practical importance for delivering singlet oxygen for water purification and medical devices.

  14. Conversion of an electrospun nanofibrous cellulose acetate mat from a super-hydrophilic to super-hydrophobic surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Bin; Li, Chunrong; Hotta, Yoshio; Kim, Jinho; Kuwaki, Oriha; Shiratori, Seimei

    2006-09-01

    We report a new approach to convert an electrospun nanofibrous cellulose acetate mat surface from super-hydrophilic to super-hydrophobic. Super-hydrophilic cellulose acetate nanofibrous mats can be obtained by electrospinning hydrophilic cellulose acetate. The surface properties of the fibrous mats were modified from super-hydrophilic to super-hydrophobic with a simple sol-gel coating of decyltrimethoxysilane (DTMS) and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS). The resultant samples were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), water contact angle, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and UV-visible measurements. The results of FE-SEM and XPS showed that the sol-gel (I) films were formed on the rough fibrous mats only after immersion in sol-gel. After the sol-gel (I) coating, the cellulose acetate fibrous mats formed in both 8 and 10 wt% cellulose acetate solutions showed the super-hydrophobic surface property. Additionally, the average sol-gel film thickness coated on 10 wt% cellulose acetate fibrous mats was calculated to be 80 nm. The super-hydrophobicity of fibrous mats was attributed to the combined effects of the high surface roughness of the electrospun nanofibrous mats and the hydrophobic DTMS sol-gel coating. Additionally, hydrophobic sol-gel nanofilms were found to be transparent according to UV-visible measurements.

  15. Singlet Oxygen Generation on Porous Superhydrophobic Surfaces: Effect of Gas Flow and Sensitizer Wetting on Trapping Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We describe physical-organic studies of singlet oxygen generation and transport into an aqueous solution supported on superhydrophobic surfaces on which silicon–phthalocyanine (Pc) particles are immobilized. Singlet oxygen (1O2) was trapped by a water-soluble anthracene compound and monitored in situ using a UV–vis spectrometer. When oxygen flows through the porous superhydrophobic surface, singlet oxygen generated in the plastron (i.e., the gas layer beneath the liquid) is transported into the solution within gas bubbles, thereby increasing the liquid–gas surface area over which singlet oxygen can be trapped. Higher photooxidation rates were achieved in flowing oxygen, as compared to when the gas in the plastron was static. Superhydrophobic surfaces were also synthesized so that the Pc particles were located in contact with, or isolated from, the aqueous solution to evaluate the relative effectiveness of singlet oxygen generated in solution and the gas phase, respectively; singlet oxygen generated on particles wetted by the solution was trapped more efficiently than singlet oxygen generated in the plastron, even in the presence of flowing oxygen gas. A mechanism is proposed that explains how Pc particle wetting, plastron gas composition and flow rate as well as gas saturation of the aqueous solution affect singlet oxygen trapping efficiency. These stable superhydrophobic surfaces, which can physically isolate the photosensitizer particles from the solution may be of practical importance for delivering singlet oxygen for water purification and medical devices. PMID:24885074

  16. Wetting behavior and drag reduction of superhydrophobic layered double hydroxides films on aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haifeng; Yin, Liang; Liu, Xiaowei; Weng, Rui; Wang, Yang; Wu, Zhiwen

    2016-09-01

    We present a novel method to fabricate Zn-Al LDH (layered double hydroxides) film with 3D flower-like micro-and nanostructure on the aluminum foil. The wettability of the Zn-Al LDH film can be easily changed from superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic with a simple chemical modification. The as-prepared superhydrophobic surfaces have water CAs (contact angles) of 165 ± 2°. In order to estimate the drag reduction property of the surface with different adhesion properties, the experimental setup of the liquid/solid friction drag is proposed. The drag reduction ratio for the as-prepared superhydrophobic sample is 20-30% at low velocity. Bearing this in mind, we construct superhydrophobic surfaces that have numerous technical applications in drag reduction field.

  17. A novel method to fabricate superhydrophobic surfaces based on well-defined mulberry-like particles and self-assembly of polydimethylsiloxane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jinxin; Pi, Pihui; Wen, Xiufang; Zheng, Dafeng; Xu, Mengyi; Cheng, Jiang; Yang, Zhuoru

    2009-01-01

    A superhydrophobic surface was obtained by combining application of CaCO 3/SiO 2 mulberry-like composite particles, which originated from violent stirring and surface modification, and self-assembly of polydimethylsiloxane. Water contact angle and sliding angle of the superhydrophobic surface were measured to be about 164 ± 2.5° and 5°, respectively. The excellent hydrophobicity is attributed to the synergistic effect of micro-submicro-nano-meter scale roughness (fabricated by composite particles) and the low surface energy (provided by polydimethylsiloxane). This procedure makes it possible for widespread applications of superhydrophobic film due to its simplicity and practicability.

  18. Fabrication of hierarchically structured superhydrophobic PDMS surfaces by Cu and CuO casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliaccio, Christopher P.; Lazarus, Nathan

    2015-10-01

    Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) films decorated with hierarchically structured pillars are cast from large area copper and copper oxide negative molds. The molds are fabricated using a single patterning step and electroplating. The process of casting structured PDMS films is simpler and cheaper than alternatives based on deep reactive ion etching or laser roughening of bulk silicone. Texture imparted to the pillars from the mold walls renders the PDMS films superhydrophobic, with the contact angle/hysteresis of the most non-wetting surfaces measuring 164°/9° and 158°/10° for surfaces with and without application of a low surface energy coating. The usefulness of patterned PDMS films as a "self-cleaning" solar cell module covering is demonstrated and other applications are discussed.

  19. Bioinspired superhydrophobic surfaces, fabricated through simple and scalable roll-to-roll processing

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Sangeui; Moreira, David; Bandaru, Prabhakar R.; Han, InTaek; Yun, Dong-Jin

    2015-01-01

    A simple, scalable, non-lithographic, technique for fabricating durable superhydrophobic (SH) surfaces, based on the fingering instabilities associated with non-Newtonian flow and shear tearing, has been developed. The high viscosity of the nanotube/elastomer paste has been exploited for the fabrication. The fabricated SH surfaces had the appearance of bristled shark skin and were robust with respect to mechanical forces. While flow instability is regarded as adverse to roll-coating processes for fabricating uniform films, we especially use the effect to create the SH surface. Along with their durability and self-cleaning capabilities, we have demonstrated drag reduction effects of the fabricated films through dynamic flow measurements. PMID:26490133

  20. Superhydrophobic, antiadhesive, and antireflective surfaces mediated by hybrid biomimetic salvinia leaf with moth-eye structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Cho-Yun; Tsai, Yu-Lin; Yang, Cho-Yu; Sung, Cheng-Kuo; Yu, Peichen; Kuo, Hao-Chung

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we successfully demonstrate multifunctional surfaces based on scaffolding biomimetic structures, namely, hybrid salvinia leaves with moth-eye structures (HSMSs). The novel fabrication process employs scalable polystyrene nanosphere lithography and a lift-off process. Systematic characterizations show the biomimetic HSMS exhibiting superhydrophobic, self-cleaning, antiadhesive, and antireflective properties. Furthermore, the resulting surface tension gradient (known as the Marangoni effect) leads to a superior air retention characteristic in the HSMS under water droplet impact, compared with the traditional hybrid lotus leaf with a moth-eye structure (HLMS). Such results and learnings pave the way towards the attainment and mass deployment of dielectric surfaces with multiple functionalities for versatile biological and optoelectronic applications.

  1. Three-Dimensional Numerical Simulations of Liquid Laminar Flow over Superhydrophobic Surfaces with Post Geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Abolfazl

    2011-12-01

    Frictional resistance reduction of liquid flow over surfaces has recently become a more important topic of research in the field of fluid dynamics. Scientific and technological progress and continued interest in nano and micro-technology have required new developments and approaches related to reducing frictional resistance, especially in liquid flow through nano and micro-channels. The application of superhydrophobic surfaces could be very effective in achieving the desired flow through such small channels. Superhydrophobic surfaces are created by intentionally creating roughnesses on the surface and applying a uniform hydrophobic coating to the entire surface. Liquid droplet tests have revealed that because of the trapped air within the cavities such surfaces could have contact angles as high as 179º. Such a property gives superhydrophobic surfaces liquid repelling characteristics making them very suitable for frictional resistance reduction in liquid flow through nano or micro-channels, provided wetting of the cavities could be avoided. This study presents 3-D numerical simulation results of liquid laminar flow over post patterned superhydrophobic surfaces. The research was performed in three phases, 1) pressure-driven flow with square micro-posts, 2) Couette flow with square micro-posts, and 3) pressure-driven flow with rectangular micro-posts at various aspect ratios. In phases (1) and (2) the influences of important parameters such as the cavity fraction, in the range of 0.0-0.9998, and the relative module width, from 0.01 to 1.5, on frictional resistance reduction in the creeping flow regime were explored. Phase (1) also addressed the effect of varying Reynolds number from 1 to 2500 on frictional resistance. Phase (3) was conducted for aspect ratios of 1/8, 1/4, 1/2, 2, 4, and 8 also in the creeping flow regime. The obtained results suggest that important parameters such as cavity fraction (relative area of the cavities), relative module width (combined

  2. Multifunctional porous silicon nanopillar arrays: antireflection, superhydrophobicity, photoluminescence, and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)

    PubMed Central

    Kiraly, Brian; Yang, Shikuan

    2014-01-01

    We have fabricated porous silicon nanopillar arrays over large areas with a rapid, simple, and low-cost technique. The porous silicon nanopillars show unique longitudinal features along their entire length and have porosity with dimensions on the single-nanometer scale. Both Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence data were used to determine the nanocrystallite size to be < 3 nm. The porous silicon nanopillar arrays also maintained excellent ensemble properties, reducing reflection nearly fivefold from planar silicon in the visible range without any optimization and approaching superhydrophobic behavior with increasing aspect ratio, demonstrating contact angles up to 138°. Finally, the porous silicon nanopillar arrays were made into sensitive surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates by depositing metal onto the pillars. The SERS performance of the substrates was demonstrated using a chemical dye Rhodamine 6G. With their multitude of properties (i.e., antireflection, superhydrophobicity, photoluminescence, and sensitive SERS), the porous silicon nanopillar arrays described here can be valuable in applications such as solar harvesting, electrochemical cells, self-cleaning devices, and dynamic biological monitoring. PMID:23703091

  3. Sustainable Drag Reduction in Turbulent Taylor-Couette Flows by Depositing Sprayable Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Siddarth; Kleingartner, Justin A.; Gilbert, Jonathan B.; Cohen, Robert E.; Milne, Andrew J. B.; McKinley, Gareth H.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a reduction in the measured inner wall shear stress in moderately turbulent Taylor-Couette flows by depositing sprayable superhydrophobic microstructures on the inner rotor surface. The magnitude of reduction becomes progressively larger as the Reynolds number increases up to a value of 22% at Re =8.0 ×1 04 . We show that the mean skin friction coefficient Cf in the presence of the superhydrophobic coating can be fitted to a modified Prandtl-von Kármán-type relationship of the form (Cf/2 )-1 /2=M ln (Re (Cf/2 )1 /2) +N +(b /Δ r )Re (Cf/2 )1 /2 from which we extract an effective slip length of b ≈19 μ m . The dimensionless effective slip length b+=b /δν, where δν is the viscous length scale, is the key parameter that governs the drag reduction and is shown to scale as b+˜Re1 /2 in the limit of high Re.

  4. Micro-/nano-structured superhydrophobic surfaces in the biomedical field: part I: basic concepts and biomimetic approaches.

    PubMed

    Lima, Ana Catarina; Mano, João F

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by natural structures, great attention has been devoted to the study and development of surfaces with extreme wettable properties. The meticulous study of natural systems revealed that the micro/nano-topography of the surface is critical to obtaining unique wettability features, including superhydrophobicity. However, the surface chemistry also has an important role in such surface characteristics. As the interaction of biomaterials with the biological milieu occurs at the surface of the materials, it is expected that synthetic substrates with extreme and controllable wettability ranging from superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic regimes could bring about the possibility of new investigations of cell-material interactions on nonconventional surfaces and the development of alternative devices with biomedical utility. This first part of the review will describe in detail how proteins and cells interact with micro/nano-structured surfaces exhibiting extreme wettabilities.

  5. Drag-reducing performance of obliquely aligned superhydrophobic surface in turbulent channel flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Sho; Mamori, Hiroya; Fukagata, Koji

    2017-04-01

    Friction drag reduction effect by superhydrophobic surfaces in a turbulent channel flow is investigated by means of direct numerical simulation. The simulations are performed under a constant pressure gradient at the friction Reynolds number of 180. A special focus is laid upon the influence of the angle of microridge structure to flow direction, while the gas area fraction on the surface is kept at 50% and the groove width is kept constant at 33.75 wall units. Larger drag reduction effect is observed for a smaller angle: the bulk-mean velocity is increased about 15% when the microridge is parallel to the flow. The drag reduction effect is found to deteriorate rapidly with the microridge angle due to a decrease in the slip velocity. The Reynolds stress budgets show that the modification in each physical effect is qualitatively similar but more pronounced when the microridge is aligned with the stream.

  6. Ultra lightweight PMMA-based composite plates with robust super-hydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Pareo, Paola; De Gregorio, Gian Luca; Manca, Michele; Pianesi, Maria Savina; De Marco, Luisa; Cavallaro, Francesco; Mari, Margherita; Pappadà, Silvio; Ciccarella, Giuseppe; Gigli, Giuseppe

    2011-11-15

    Extremely lightweight plates made of an engineered PMMA-based composite material loaded with hollow glass micro-sized spheres, nano-sized silica particles and aluminum hydroxide prismatic micro-flakes were realized by cast molding. Their interesting bulk mechanical properties were combined to properly tailored surface topography compatible with the achievement of a superhydrophobic behavior after the deposition of a specifically designed hydrophobic coating. With this aim, we synthesized two different species of fluoromethacrylic polymers functionalized with methoxysilane anchoring groups to be covalently grafted onto the surface protruding inorganic fillers. By modulating the feed composition of the reacting monomers, it was possible to combine the hydrophobic character of the polymer with an high adhesion strength to the substrate and hence to maximize both the water contact angle (up to 157°) and the durability of the easy-to-clean effect (up to 2000 h long outdoor exposure).

  7. Constructing a superhydrophobic surface on polydimethylsiloxane via spin coating and vapor-liquid sol-gel process.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yu-Ting; Lo, Kuo-Feng; Juang, Yi-Je

    2010-04-06

    In this study, a superhydrophobic surface on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate was constructed via the proposed vapor-liquid sol-gel process in conjunction with spin coating of dodecyltrichlorosilane (DTS). Unlike the conventional sol-gel process where the reaction takes place in the liquid phase, layers of silica (SiO(2)) particles were formed through the reaction between the reactant spin-coated on the PDMS surface and vapor of the acid solution. This led to the SiO(2) particles inlaid on the PDMS surface. Followed by subsequent spin coating of DTS solution, the wrinkle-like structure was formed, and the static contact angle of the water droplet on the surface could reach 162 degrees with 2 degrees sliding angle and less than 5 degrees contact angle hysteresis. The effect of layers of SiO(2) particles, concentrations of DTS solution and surface topography on superhydrophobicity of the surface is discussed.

  8. Surface nanostructures in manganite films.

    PubMed

    Gambardella, A; Graziosi, P; Bergenti, I; Prezioso, M; Pullini, D; Milita, S; Biscarini, F; Dediu, V A

    2014-06-19

    Ultrathin manganite films are widely used as active electrodes in organic spintronic devices. In this study, a scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) investigation with atomic resolution revealed previously unknown surface features consisting of small non-stoichiometric islands. Based upon this evidence, a new mechanism for the growth of these complex materials is proposed. It is suggested that the non-stoichiometric islands result from nucleation centres that are below the critical threshold size required for stoichiometric crystalline growth. These islands represent a kinetic intermediate of single-layer growth regardless of the film thickness, and should be considered and possibly controlled in manganite thin-film applications.

  9. Surface Nanostructures in Manganite Films

    PubMed Central

    Gambardella, A.; Graziosi, P.; Bergenti, I.; Prezioso, M.; Pullini, D.; Milita, S.; Biscarini, F.; Dediu, V. A.

    2014-01-01

    Ultrathin manganite films are widely used as active electrodes in organic spintronic devices. In this study, a scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) investigation with atomic resolution revealed previously unknown surface features consisting of small non-stoichiometric islands. Based upon this evidence, a new mechanism for the growth of these complex materials is proposed. It is suggested that the non-stoichiometric islands result from nucleation centres that are below the critical threshold size required for stoichiometric crystalline growth. These islands represent a kinetic intermediate of single-layer growth regardless of the film thickness, and should be considered and possibly controlled in manganite thin-film applications. PMID:24941969

  10. Superhydrophobic and superoleophobic surface by electrodeposition on magnesium alloy substrate: Wettability and corrosion inhibition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Li, Shuyi; Wang, Yaming; Wang, Huiyuan; Gao, Ke; Han, Zhiwu; Ren, Luquan

    2016-09-15

    Superamphiphobic (both superhydrophobic and superoleophobic) surfaces have attracted great interests in the fundamental research and practical application. This research successfully fabricated the superamphiphobic surfaces by combining the nickel plating process and modification with perfluorocaprylic acid. The cooperation of hierarchical micro-nano structures and perfluorocaprylic acid with low surface energy plays an important role in the formation of superamphiphobic surfaces. The contact angles of water/oil have reached up to 160.2±1°/152.4±1°, respectively. Contrast with bare substrate, the electrochemical measurements of superamphiphobic surfaces, not only the EIS measurement, but also potentiodynamic polarization curves, all revealed that, the surface corrosion inhibition was improved significantly. Moreover, superamphiphobic surfaces exhibited superior stability in the solutions with a large pH range, also could maintain excellent performance after storing for a long time in the air. This method is easy, feasible and effective, and could be used to fabricate large-area mutli-functional surface. Such a technique will develop a new approach to fabricate superamphiphobic surfaces on different engineering materials.

  11. Article coated with flash bonded superhydrophobic particles

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, John T [Clinton, TN; Blue, Craig A [Knoxville, TN; Kiggans, Jr., James O [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-07-13

    A method of making article having a superhydrophobic surface includes: providing a solid body defining at least one surface; applying to the surface a plurality of diatomaceous earth particles and/or particles characterized by particle sizes ranging from at least 100 nm to about 10 .mu.m, the particles being further characterized by a plurality of nanopores, wherein at least some of the nanopores provide flow through porosity, the particles being further characterized by a plurality of spaced apart nanostructured features that include a contiguous, protrusive material; flash bonding the particles to the surface so that the particles are adherently bonded to the surface; and applying a hydrophobic coating layer to the surface and the particles so that the hydrophobic coating layer conforms to the nanostructured features.

  12. A study on the fabrication of superhydrophobic iron surfaces by chemical etching and galvanic replacement methods and their anti-icing properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kunquan; Zeng, Xingrong; Li, Hongqiang; Lai, Xuejun

    2015-08-01

    Hierarchical structures on iron surfaces were constructed by means of chemical etching by hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution or the galvanic replacement by silver nitrate (AgNO3) solution. The superhydrophobic iron surfaces were successfully prepared by subsequent hydrophobic modification with stearic acid. The superhydrophobic iron surfaces were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and water contact angle (WCA). The effects of reactive concentration and time on the microstructure and the wetting behavior were investigated. In addition, the anti-icing properties of the superhydrophobic iron surfaces were also studied. The FTIR study showed that the stearic acid was chemically bonded onto the iron surface. With the HCl concentration increase from 4 mol/L to 8 mol/L, the iron surface became rougher with a WCA ranging from 127° to 152°. The AgNO3 concentration had little effect on the wetting behavior, but a high AgNO3 concentration caused Ag particle aggregates to transform from flower-like formations into dendritic crystals, owing to the preferential growth direction of the Ag particles. Compared with the etching method, the galvanic replacement method on the iron surface more favorably created roughness required for achieving superhydrophobicity. The superhydrophobic iron surface showed excellent anti-icing properties in comparison with the untreated iron. The icing time of water droplets on the superhydrophobic surface was delayed to 500 s, which was longer than that of 295 s for untreated iron. Meanwhile, the superhydrophobic iron surface maintained superhydrophobicity after 10 icing and de-icing cycles in cold conditions.

  13. Drag reductions and the air-water interface stability of superhydrophobic surfaces in rectangular channel flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingxian; Yao, Zhaohui; Hao, Pengfei

    2016-11-01

    Flow in a rectangular channel with superhydrophobic (SH) top and bottom walls was investigated experimentally. Different SH surfaces, including hierarchical structured surfaces and surfaces with different micropost sizes (width and spacing) but the same solid fraction, were fabricated and measured. Pressure loss and flow rate in the channel with SH top and bottom walls were measured, with Reynolds number changing from 700 to 4700, and the corresponding friction factor for the SH surface was calculated. The statuses of the air plastron on different SH surfaces were observed during the experiment. In our experiment, compared with the experiment for the smooth surface, drag reductions were observed for all SH surfaces, with the largest drag reduction of 42.2%. It was found that the hierarchy of the microstructure can increase the drag reduction by decreasing the solid fraction and enhancing the stability of the air-water interface. With a fixed solid fraction, the drag reduction decreases as the post size (width and spacing) increases, due to the increasing curvature and instability effects of the air-water interface. A correlation parameter between the contact angle hysteresis, the air-water interface stability, and the drag reduction of the SH surfaces was found.

  14. Superhydrophobicity of PHBV fibrous surface with bead-on-string structure.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Young Il; Moon, Hyun Sik; Lyoo, Won Seok; Lee, Taek Seung; Park, Won Ho

    2008-04-01

    A poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) fibrous surface with various bead-on-string structures was fabricated by electrospinning. PHBV was electrospun at various concentrations and then CF4 plasma treatment was employed to further improve the hydrophobicity of the PHBV fiber surfaces. The surface morphology of the electrospun PHBV mats was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The surface properties were characterized by water contact angle (WCA) measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The surface morphology of the electrospun PHBV fibrous mats with the bead-son-string structure varied with the solution concentration. The WCA of all of the electrospun PHBV mats was higher than that of the PHBV film. In particular, a very rough fiber surface including porous beads was observed when PHBV was electrospun from the solution with a concentration of 26 wt%. Also, its WCA further increased from 141 degrees to 158 degrees after CF(4) plasma treatment for 150 s. PHBV can be rendered superhydrophobic by controlling the surface morphology and surface energy, which can be achieved by adjusting the electrospinning and plasma treatment conditions.

  15. Fabrication of Superhydrophobic Surface with Controlled Wetting Property by Hierarchical Particles.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianxiong; Liu, Weiwei; Du, Jingjing; Tang, Zengmin; Xu, Lijian; Li, Na

    2015-04-01

    Hierarchical particles were prepared by synthetically joining appropriately functionalized polystyrene spheres of poly[styrene-co-(3-(4-vinylphenyl)pentane-2,4-dione)] (PS-co-PVPD) nanoparticles and poly(styrene-co-chloromethylstyrene) (PS-co-PCMS) microparticles. The coupling reaction of nucleophilic substitution of pendent β-diketone groups with benzyl chloride was used to form the hierarchical particles. Since the polymeric nanoparticles and microparticles were synthesized by dispersion polymerization and emulsion polymerization, respectively, both the core microparticles and the surface nanoparticles can be different size and chemical composition. By means of changing the size of the PS-co-PVPD surface nanoparticles, a series of hierarchical particles with different scale ratio of the micro/nano surface structure were successfully prepared. Moreover, by employing the PS-co-PVPD microparticles and PS-co-PCMS nanoparticles as building blocks, hierarchical particles with surface nanoaprticles of different composition were made. These as-prepared hierarchical particles were subsequently assembled on glass substrates to form particulate films. Contact angle measurement shows that superhydrophobic surfaces can be obtained and the contact angle of water on the hierarchically structured surface can be adjusted by the scale ratio of the micro/nano surface structure and surface chemical component of hierarchical particles.

  16. Drag reductions and the air-water interface stability of superhydrophobic surfaces in rectangular channel flow.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingxian; Yao, Zhaohui; Hao, Pengfei

    2016-11-01

    Flow in a rectangular channel with superhydrophobic (SH) top and bottom walls was investigated experimentally. Different SH surfaces, including hierarchical structured surfaces and surfaces with different micropost sizes (width and spacing) but the same solid fraction, were fabricated and measured. Pressure loss and flow rate in the channel with SH top and bottom walls were measured, with Reynolds number changing from 700 to 4700, and the corresponding friction factor for the SH surface was calculated. The statuses of the air plastron on different SH surfaces were observed during the experiment. In our experiment, compared with the experiment for the smooth surface, drag reductions were observed for all SH surfaces, with the largest drag reduction of 42.2%. It was found that the hierarchy of the microstructure can increase the drag reduction by decreasing the solid fraction and enhancing the stability of the air-water interface. With a fixed solid fraction, the drag reduction decreases as the post size (width and spacing) increases, due to the increasing curvature and instability effects of the air-water interface. A correlation parameter between the contact angle hysteresis, the air-water interface stability, and the drag reduction of the SH surfaces was found.

  17. Preparation and characterization of superhydrophobic surfaces based on hexamethyldisilazane-modified nanoporous alumina

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Superhydrophobic nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (alumina) surfaces were prepared using treatment with vapor-phase hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS). Nanoporous alumina substrates were first made using a two-step anodization process. Subsequently, a repeated modification procedure was employed for efficient incorporation of the terminal methyl groups of HMDS to the alumina surface. Morphology of the surfaces was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, showing hexagonally ordered circular nanopores with approximately 250 nm in diameter and 300 nm of interpore distances. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflectance analysis showed the presence of chemically bound methyl groups on the HMDS-modified nanoporous alumina surfaces. Wetting properties of these surfaces were characterized by measurements of the water contact angle which was found to reach 153.2 ± 2°. The contact angle values on HMDS-modified nanoporous alumina surfaces were found to be significantly larger than the average water contact angle of 82.9 ± 3° on smooth thin film alumina surfaces that underwent the same HMDS modification steps. The difference between the two cases was explained by the Cassie-Baxter theory of rough surface wetting. PMID:21827683

  18. Temperature-Induced Coalescence of Colliding Binary Droplets on Superhydrophobic Surface

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Nan; Huang, Bin; Dong, Lining; Quan, Xiaojun; Hong, Fangjun; Tao, Peng; Song, Chengyi; Shang, Wen; Deng, Tao

    2014-01-01

    This report investigates the impact of droplet temperature on the head-on collision of binary droplets on a superhydrophobic surface. Understanding droplet collision is critical to many fundamental processes and industrial applications. There are many factors, including collision speed, collision angle, and droplet composition, that influence the outcome of the collision between binary droplets. This work provides the first experimental study of the influence of droplet temperature on the collision of binary droplets. As the droplet temperature increases, the possibility increases for the two droplets to coalesce after collision. The findings in this study can be extended to collision of droplets under other conditions where control of the droplet temperature is feasible. Such findings will also be beneficial to applications that involve droplet collision, such as in ink-jet printing, steam turbines, engine ignition, and spraying cooling. PMID:24603362

  19. Micro/nanofabrication for a realistic beetle wing with a superhydrophobic surface.

    PubMed

    Ko, Jin Hwan; Kim, Jihoon; Hong, Jongin; Yoo, Yonghoon; Lee, Youngjong; Jin, Tai Lie; Park, Hoon Cheol; Goo, Nam Seo; Byun, Doyoung

    2012-03-01

    In keeping with the high interest in micro air vehicles, microfabrication technologies have been developed in an attempt to mimic insect wings via a membrane-vein structure. In this work, we present microfabrication techniques that mimic a beetle wing to construct a realistic vein-membrane structure. Full microfabrication processes as well as sophisticated manipulations are introduced for constructing a realistic artificial wing whose key morphological and mechanical parameters can be achieved close to those of the real wing. Secondly, for wing loading reduction whenever moist air is present, we successfully fabricated superhydrophobic nanopillar forests by conventional nanofabrication techniques, such as ion beam and heat treatments. The creation of the nanopillar forests, which exist on the surface of leaves and insect wings, allowed lowering the dispersive component in a hydrophobic material, and the clustered nanopillars enhanced water repellency.

  20. Temperature-Induced Coalescence of Colliding Binary Droplets on Superhydrophobic Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Nan; Huang, Bin; Dong, Lining; Quan, Xiaojun; Hong, Fangjun; Tao, Peng; Song, Chengyi; Shang, Wen; Deng, Tao

    2014-03-01

    This report investigates the impact of droplet temperature on the head-on collision of binary droplets on a superhydrophobic surface. Understanding droplet collision is critical to many fundamental processes and industrial applications. There are many factors, including collision speed, collision angle, and droplet composition, that influence the outcome of the collision between binary droplets. This work provides the first experimental study of the influence of droplet temperature on the collision of binary droplets. As the droplet temperature increases, the possibility increases for the two droplets to coalesce after collision. The findings in this study can be extended to collision of droplets under other conditions where control of the droplet temperature is feasible. Such findings will also be beneficial to applications that involve droplet collision, such as in ink-jet printing, steam turbines, engine ignition, and spraying cooling.

  1. Temperature-induced coalescence of colliding binary droplets on superhydrophobic surface.

    PubMed

    Yi, Nan; Huang, Bin; Dong, Lining; Quan, Xiaojun; Hong, Fangjun; Tao, Peng; Song, Chengyi; Shang, Wen; Deng, Tao

    2014-03-07

    This report investigates the impact of droplet temperature on the head-on collision of binary droplets on a superhydrophobic surface. Understanding droplet collision is critical to many fundamental processes and industrial applications. There are many factors, including collision speed, collision angle, and droplet composition, that influence the outcome of the collision between binary droplets. This work provides the first experimental study of the influence of droplet temperature on the collision of binary droplets. As the droplet temperature increases, the possibility increases for the two droplets to coalesce after collision. The findings in this study can be extended to collision of droplets under other conditions where control of the droplet temperature is feasible. Such findings will also be beneficial to applications that involve droplet collision, such as in ink-jet printing, steam turbines, engine ignition, and spraying cooling.

  2. Switchable static and dynamic self-assembly of magnetic droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Timonen, Jaakko V I; Latikka, Mika; Leibler, Ludwik; Ras, Robin H A; Ikkala, Olli

    2013-07-19

    Self-assembly is a process in which interacting bodies are autonomously driven into ordered structures. Static structures such as crystals often form through simple energy minimization, whereas dynamic ones require continuous energy input to grow and sustain. Dynamic systems are ubiquitous in nature and biology but have proven challenging to understand and engineer. Here, we bridge the gap from static to dynamic self-assembly by introducing a model system based on ferrofluid droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces. The droplets self-assemble under a static external magnetic field into simple patterns that can be switched to complicated dynamic dissipative structures by applying a time-varying magnetic field. The transition between the static and dynamic patterns involves kinetic trapping and shows complexity that can be directly visualized.

  3. Detection of Heavy-metal Ions Based on Evaporative Concentration Using a Super-hydrophobic Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagimachi, Isao; Nashida, Norihiro; Iwasa, Koichiro; Suzuki, Hiroaki

    A concentrator chip which could detect a variety of heavy-metal ions was fabricated. To improve the detection sensitivity, a droplet of a sample solution was concentrated evaporatively using a super-hydrophobic surface formed with polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) beads. The system consists of a working electrode at the center, surrounded by an Ag/AgCl reference electrode. Square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry was conducted using concentrator chips with different working electrode materials. A significant increase in peak height was observed as the sensitive area decreased and the volume of the droplet increased. When a 5-μl droplet was used, the detection limit for lead, cadmium, and arsenic ions was 1 ppb.

  4. Patterning liquids on inkjet-imprinted surfaces with highly adhesive superhydrophobicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Bin; Sun, Jiazhen; Gao, Meng; Zhang, Xingye; Jiang, Lei; Song, Yanlin

    2016-05-01

    The rapidly increasing research interest in microfluidics, microreactors and solution-processable fabrication technologies requires the development of patterning techniques to obtain large-scale functional liquid arrays. To achieve this objective, photolithography, microcontact printing and mask-based UV irradiation have been utilized to physically or chemically pattern surfaces into templates where ordered arrays of liquid materials are constructed. However, these methods require elaborately fabricated templates or expensive vacuum-deposited masks that restrict their practical applications. Herein, we fabricate physically patterned superhydrophobic surfaces with high adhesion by modifying inkjet-imprinted surfaces through nanoparticle deposition, and utilize these surfaces as templates for liquid patterning. Various functional liquid materials are patterned into defined shapes through a simple dipping-withdrawing process. Moreover, functional material patterns such as photonic crystal patterns, arrays of inorganic nanoparticles and crystals are formed after solvent evaporation of the liquid droplets. Furthermore, chemical reactions can be carried out on the patterns. These surfaces demonstrate excellent performance in liquid patterning, which will find numerous applications in optoelectronic devices, lab-on-chip devices, microreactors, and related fields.The rapidly increasing research interest in microfluidics, microreactors and solution-processable fabrication technologies requires the development of patterning techniques to obtain large-scale functional liquid arrays. To achieve this objective, photolithography, microcontact printing and mask-based UV irradiation have been utilized to physically or chemically pattern surfaces into templates where ordered arrays of liquid materials are constructed. However, these methods require elaborately fabricated templates or expensive vacuum-deposited masks that restrict their practical applications. Herein, we fabricate

  5. Surface plasmon polaritons in artificial metallic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briscoe, Jayson Lawrence

    Surface plasmon polaritons have been the focus of intense research due to their many unique properties such as high electromagnetic field localization, extreme sensitivity to surface conditions, and subwavelength confinement of electromagnetic waves. The area of potential impact is vast and includes promising advancements in photonic circuits, high speed photodetection, hyperspectral imaging, spectroscopy, enhanced solar cells, ultra-small scale lithography, and microscopy. My research has focused on utilizing these properties to design and demonstrate new phenomena and implement real-world applications using artificial metallic nanostructures. Artificial metallic nanostructures employed during my research begin as thin planar gold films which are then lithographically patterned according to previously determined dimensions. The result is a nanopatterned device which can excite surface plasmon polaritons on its surface under specific conditions. Through my research I characterized the optical properties of these devices for further insight into the interesting properties of surface plasmon polaritons. Exploration of these properties led to advancements in biosensing, development of artificial media to enhance and control light-matter interactions at the nanoscale, and hybrid plasmonic cavities. Demonstrations from these advancements include: label-free immunosensing of Plasmodium in a whole blood lysate, low part-per-trillion detection of microcystin-LR, enhanced refractive index sensitivity of novel resonant plasmonic devices, a defect-based plasmonic crystal, spontaneous emission modification of colloidal quantum dots, and coupling of plasmonic and optical Fabry-Perot resonant modes in a hybrid cavity.

  6. Characterization for Cassie-Wenzel wetting transition based on the force response in the process of squeezing liquid drops by two parallel superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian

    2016-06-01

    Application of superhydrophobic surfaces is partly limited by the escaping of the entrapped air beneath the liquid sitting on the superhydrophobic surfaces, i.e., the so-called Cassie-Wenzel wetting transition. Here, to characterize this wetting transition, a linear force response relation with certain abnormal systematic deflection showing the wetting transition information is constructed for the process of squeezing the test liquid drop by two parallel structured (superhydrophobic) surfaces. The linear force response relation is validated by replotting the experimental data from the former work. And then the wetting transition information is investigated on a numerically generated force response curve with certain errors by taking into account the liquid pressure variation during the wetting transition. Results show that the wetting transition can cause an obvious bulge on the linear force response curve. We believe that this method has a potential application in characterizing the robustness of superhydrophobic surfaces.

  7. Tailoring the morphology of raspberry-like carbon black/polystyrene composite microspheres for fabricating superhydrophobic surface

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, Yubin; Li, Qiuying; Xue, Pengfei; Huang, Jianfeng; Wang, Jibin; Guo, Weihong; Wu, Chifei

    2011-05-15

    In our previous report, raspberry-like carbon black/polystyrene (CB/PS) composite microsphere was prepared through heterocoagulation process. Based on the previous study, in the present work, the morphology of raspberry-like CB/PS particle is tailored through adjusting the polarity and the concentration ratio of CB/PS colloidal suspension with the purpose to prepare particulate film for the fabrication of superhydrophobic surface. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) confirms the morphology of raspberry-like particle and the coverage of CB. Rough surfaces fabricated by raspberry-like particles with proper morphology are observed by SEM and clear evidence of superhydrophobic surface is shown. The structure of raspberry-like particle is analyzed by atom force microscope. The proposed relationship between the hydrophobicity and the structure of CB aggregates on the surface of PS microsphere is discussed in details.

  8. The effect of contact angle hysteresis on droplet motion and collisions on superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, Michael; Rothstein, Jonathan

    2010-11-01

    The effect of varying the contact angle hysteresis of a superhydrophobic surface on the characteristics and dynamics of water droplet motion and their subsequent collision are investigated using a high-speed camera. The surfaces are created by imparting random roughness to Teflon through sanding. With this technique, it is possible to create surfaces with similar advancing contact angles near 150 degrees, but with varying contact angle hysteresis. This talk will focus on a number of interesting experimental observations pertaining to drop dynamics along a surface with uniform hysteresis, drop motion along surfaces with transition zones from one hysteresis to another, and the collision of droplets on surfaces of uniform hysteresis. For single drop studies, gravity is used as the driving force, while the collision studies use pressurized air to propel one drop into the other. For the case of droplet collision, the effect of hysteresis, Weber number, and impact number on the maximum deformation of the drops, and the post-collision dynamics will be discussed. For the single droplet measurements, the resistance to motion will be characterized as well as the transition from rolling to sliding as a function of drop size, inclination angle, and hysteresis. Additionally, we will quantify the effect of surface transitions on the resulting motion, mixing, and deflection of the drops.

  9. Anti-icing property of bio-inspired micro-structure superhydrophobic surfaces and heat transfer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan; Li, Xinlin; Jin, Jingfu; Liu, Jiaan; Yan, Yuying; Han, Zhiwu; Ren, Luquan

    2017-04-01

    Ice accumulation is a thorny problem which may inflict serious damage even disasters in many areas, such as aircraft, power line maintenance, offshore oil platform and locators of ships. Recent researches have shed light on some promising bio-inspired anti-icing strategies to solve this problem. Inspired by typical plant surfaces with super-hydrophobic character such as lotus leaves and rose petals, structured superhydrophobic surface are prepared to discuss the anti-icing property. 7075 Al alloy, an extensively used materials in aircrafts and marine vessels, is employed as the substrates. As-prepared surfaces are acquired by laser processing after being modified by stearic acid for 1 h at room temperature. The surface morphology, chemical composition and wettability are characterized by means of SEM, XPS, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. The morphologies of structured as-prepared samples include round hump, square protuberance and mountain-range-like structure, and that the as-prepared structured surfaces shows an excellent superhydrophobic property with a WCA as high as 166 ± 2°. Furthermore, the anti-icing property of as-prepared surfaces was tested by a self-established apparatus, and the crystallization process of a cooling water on the sample was recorded. More importantly, we introduced a model to analyze heat transfer process between the droplet and the structured surfaces. This study offers an insight into understanding the heat transfer process of the superhydrophobic surface, so as to further research about its unique property against ice accumulation.

  10. Durable polyorganosiloxane superhydrophobic films with a hierarchical structure by sol-gel and heat treatment method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhenlin; Fang, Shuying; Wang, Chaosheng; Wang, Huaping; Ji, Chengchang

    2016-12-01

    For a surface to be superhydrophobic a combination of surface roughness and low surface energy is required. In this study, polyorganosiloxane superhydrophobic surfaces were fabricated using a sol-gel and heat treatment process followed by coating with a nanosilica (SiO2) sol and organosiloxane 1, 1, 1, 3, 5, 5, 5-heptamethyl-3-[2-(trimethoxysilyl)ethyl]-trisiloxane (β-HPEOs). The nano-structure was superimposed using self-assembled, surface-modified silica nanoparticles, forming two-dimensional hierarchical structures. The water contact angle (WCA) of polyorganosiloxane superhydrophobic surface was 143.7 ± 0.6°, which was further increased to 156.7 ± 1.1° with water angle hysteresis of 2.5 ± 0.6° by superimposing nanoparticles using a heat treatment process. An analytical characterization of the surface revealed that the nano-silica and polyorganosiloxane formed a micro/nano structure on the films and the wetting behaviour of the films changed from hydrophilic to superhydrophobic. The WCA of these films were 143.7 ± 0.6° and at heat treatment temperatures of less than 400 °C, the WCA increased from 144.5 ± 0.7° to 156.7 ± 1.1°. The prepared superhydrophobic films were stable even after heat treatment at 430 °C for 30 min and their superhydrophobicity was durable for more than 120 days. The effects of heat treatment process on the surface chemistry structure, wettability and morphology of the polyorganosiloxane superhydrophobic films were investigated in detail. The results indicated that the stability of the chemical structure was required to yield a thermally-stable superhydrophobic surface.

  11. Rolling, sliding, and sticking of viscoplastic xanthan gum solution drops on a superhydrophobic surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Minyoung; Lee, Eungjun; Kim, Do Hyun; Kwak, Rhokyun

    2016-11-01

    Dynamics of Newtonian fluid on a non-wettable substrate have been reported, but those of non-Newtonian fluid, especially of viscoplastic fluid showing a yield stress, are not fully characterized yet. Here, we investigate three distinct behaviors of a viscoplastic drop (xanthan gum solution) -rolling, sliding, and sticking- on an inclined superhydrophobic surface with various inclined angles (1-24 degree) and xanthan gum concentrations (0.25-1.5%). At a low concentration of xanthan gum (low yield stress) and/or a high inclined angle (high gravitational stress), the drop rolls down the surface as the gravitational stress exceeds the yield stress. As the concentration increases, and thus the yield stress exceeds the gravitational stress, the drop stays on the surface like a solid (sticking). However, if we adjust the gravitational stress to induce an adhesive failure between the xanthan gum drop and the surface (but still lower than the yield stress), the drop slides down the surface without rolling. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first direct characterization of the behavior of the viscoplastic drops on an inclined surface considering gravitational stress, yield stress, and adhesive failure.

  12. Tensiometric Characterization of Superhydrophobic Surfaces As Compared to the Sessile and Bouncing Drop Methods.

    PubMed

    Hisler, Valentin; Jendoubi, Hiba; Hairaye, Camille; Vonna, Laurent; Le Houérou, Vincent; Mermet, Frédéric; Nardin, Michel; Haidara, Hamidou

    2016-08-09

    We have considered in this work the Wilhelmy plate tensiometer to characterize the wetting properties of two model surface textures: (i) a series of three superhydrophobic micropillared surfaces and (ii) a series of two highly water-repellent surfaces microtextured with a femtosecond laser. The wetting forces obtained on these surfaces with the Wilhelmy plate technique were compared to the contact angles of water droplets measured with the sessile drop technique and to the bouncing behavior of water droplets recorded at a high frame rate. We showed that it is possible with this technique to directly measure triple-line anchoring forces that are not accessible with the commonly used sessile drop technique. In addition, we have demonstrated on the basis of the bouncing drop experiments wetting transitions induced by the specific test conditions associated with the Wilhelmy plate tensiometer for the two series of textured surfaces. Finally, the tensiometer technique is proposed as an alternative test for characterizing the wetting properties of highly liquid-repellent surface, especially under immersion conditions.

  13. On jet impingement and thin film breakup on a horizontal superhydrophobic surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prince, Joseph F.; Maynes, Daniel; Crockett, Julie

    2015-11-01

    When a vertical laminar jet impinges on a horizontal surface, it will spread out in a thin film. If the surface is hydrophobic and a downstream depth is not maintained, the film will radially expand until it breaks up into filaments or droplets. We present the first analysis and model that describes the location of this transition for both isotropic and anisotropic structured superhydrophobic (SH) surfaces. All surfaces explored are hydrophobic or SH, where the SH surfaces exhibit an apparent slip at the plane of the surface due to a shear free condition above the air filled cavities between the structures. The influence of apparent slip on the entire flow field is significant and yields behavior that deviates notably from classical behavior for a smooth hydrophilic surface where a hydraulic jump would form. Instead, break up into droplets occurs where the jet's outward radial momentum is balanced by the inward surface tension force of the advancing film. For hydrophobic surfaces, or SH surfaces with random micropatterning, the apparent slip on the surface is uniform in all directions and droplet breakup occurs in a circular pattern. When alternating rib/cavity microstructures are used to create the SH surface, the apparent slip varies as a function of the azimuthal coordinate, and thus, the breakup location is elliptically shaped. The thin film dynamics are modeled by a radial momentum analysis for a given jet Weber number and specified slip length and the location of breakup for multiple surfaces over a range of jet Weber numbers and realistic slip length values is quantified. The results of the analysis show that the breakup radius increases with increasing Weber number and slip length. The eccentricity of the breakup ellipse for the rib/cavity SH structures increases with increasing Weber number and slip length as well. A generalized model that allows prediction of the transition (break-up) location as a function of all influencing parameters is presented

  14. A durable, superhydrophobic, superoleophobic and corrosion-resistant coating with rose-like ZnO nanoflowers on a bamboo surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Chunde; Li, Jingpeng; Han, Shenjie; Wang, Jin; Sun, Qingfeng

    2014-11-01

    Bamboo remains a vital component of modern-day society; however, its use is severely limited in certain applications because of its hydrophilic and oleophilic properties. In this work, we present a method to render bamboo surfaces superamphiphobic by combining control of ZnO nanostructures and fluoropolymer deposition while maintaining their corrosion resistance. Large-scale rose-like ZnO nanoflowers (RZN) were planted on the bamboo surface by a hydrothermal method. After fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) film deposition to lower the surface energy, the resulting surface showed superamphiphobicity toward water, oil, and even certain corrosive liquids, including salt solutions and acidic and basic solutions at all pH values. The as-prepared superamphiphobic bamboo surface was durable and maintained its superhydrophobic property with water contact angles >150° when stored under ambient condition for two months or immersed in a hydrochloric acid solution of pH 1 and a sodium hydroxide solution of pH 14 for 3 h at 50 °C.

  15. Highly efficient and large-scale fabrication of superhydrophobic alumina surface with strong stability based on self-congregated alumina nanowires.

    PubMed

    Peng, Shan; Tian, Dong; Yang, Xiaojun; Deng, Wenli

    2014-04-09

    In this study, a large-area superhydrophobic alumina surface with a series of superior properties was fabricated via an economical, simple, and highly effective one-step anodization process, and subsequently modified with low-surface-energy film. The effects of the anodization parameters including electrochemical anodization time, current density, and electrolyte temperature on surface morphology and surface wettability were investigated in detail. The hierarchical alumina pyramids-on-pores (HAPOP) rough structure which was produced quickly through the one-step anodization process together with a low-surface-energy film deposition [1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyltriethoxysilane (PDES) and stearic acid (STA)] confer excellent superhydrophobicity and an extremely low sliding angle. Both the PDES-modified superhydrophobic (PDES-MS) and the STA-modified superhydrophobic (STA-MS) surfaces present fascinating nonwetting and extremely slippery behaviors. The chemical stability and mechanical durability of the PDES-MS and STA-MS surfaces were evaluated and discussed. Compared with the STA-MS surface, the as-prepared PDES-MS surface possesses an amazing chemical stability which not only can repel cool liquids (water, HCl/NaOH solutions, around 25 °C), but also can show excellent resistance to a series of hot liquids (water, HCl/NaOH solutions, 30-100 °C) and hot beverages (coffee, milk, tea, 80 °C). Moreover, the PDES-MS surface also presents excellent stability toward immersion in various organic solvents, high temperature, and long time period. In particular, the PDES-MS surface achieves good mechanical durability which can withstand ultrasonication treatment, finger-touch, multiple fold, peeling by adhesive tape, and even abrasion test treatments without losing superhydrophobicity. The corrosion resistance and durability of the diverse-modified superhydrophobic surfaces were also examined. These fascinating performances makes the present method suitable for large

  16. Insight into drop runback on hydrophilic to superhydrophobic surfaces by shearing airflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milne, Andrew J. B.; Amirfazli, Alidad

    2009-11-01

    Drop runback has many diverse applications including airfoil icing and fuel cell flooding. In this talk, we use surface science and fluid dynamics principles to explain incipient runback for a drop exposed to shearing airflow. Through experiments with single drops of water and hexadecane (0.5-100 μl) on PMMA, Teflon, and a superhydrophobic aluminum surface (SHS), wetting parameters such as surface tension, drop shape and contact angle are found to be major controllers of the minimum required air velocity for drop shedding. Exponential functions are proposed that relate air velocity to drop base length and projected area. By normalizing the results, the three water systems can be collapsed to a single curve that also explains results from other researchers, vastly increasing predictive power. SHS are seen to shed drops more easily compared to the other surfaces, with evidence that the drops roll along the surface instead of sliding. Using high speed video, oscillating drop shape and variation of contact angles are also analyzed as they change with air and drop speed.

  17. Study on hierarchical structured PDMS for surface super-hydrophobicity using imprinting with ultrafast laser structured models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bin; Wang, Wenjun; Jiang, Gedong; Mei, Xuesong; Wang, Zibao; Wang, Kedian; Cui, Jianlei

    2016-02-01

    We report a simple and inexpensive method for producing super-hydrophobic surfaces through direct replication of micro/nano-structures on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) from a replication master prepared by ultrafast-laser texturing process. Gratings were obtained on 304L stainless steel plate using picosecond laser ablation. It has been used as a master with grating areas of different structural features. PDMS negative replica was prepared from the masters, and PDMS positive replica was prepared from the negative replica thereafter. Wettability of samples of the steel master, negative and positive replicas was distinguished using the apparent contact angle (CA) of water drop. Relationships between the CAs on three kinds of samples and structural features were presented. Super-hydrophobic behavior with self-cleaning, exhibited by a water contact angle of 164.5° and sliding angle of 8.44°, was observed on the PDMS negative replica surface. The negative and positive replicas were sputtered on gold films, which were used to metalized PDMS and eliminate the submicron/nano-structures in hierarchical structures. Results prove that submicro/nano-structures of hierarchical structures enhance the hydrophobicity of material surface remarkably. This replication method can be applied for large scale production of micro/nano textured super-hydrophobic surfaces for commercial applications.

  18. Turbulent flows over superhydrophobic surfaces with shear-dependent slip length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosh Aghdam, Sohrab; Seddighi, Mehdi; Ricco, Pierre

    2015-11-01

    Motivated by recent experimental evidence, shear-dependent slip length superhydrophobic surfaces are studied. Lyapunov stability analysis is applied in a 3D turbulent channel flow and extended to the shear-dependent slip-length case. The feedback law extracted is recognized for the first time to coincide with the constant-slip-length model widely used in simulations of hydrophobic surfaces. The condition for the slip parameters is found to be consistent with the experimental data and with values from DNS. The theoretical approach by Fukagata (PoF 18.5: 051703) is employed to model the drag-reduction effect engendered by the shear-dependent slip-length surfaces. The estimated drag-reduction values are in very good agreement with our DNS data. For slip parameters and flow conditions which are potentially realizable in the lab, the maximum computed drag reduction reaches 50%. The power spent by the turbulent flow on the walls is computed, thereby recognizing the hydrophobic surfaces as a passive-absorbing drag-reduction method, as opposed to geometrically-modifying techniques that do not consume energy, e.g. riblets, hence named passive-neutral. The flow is investigated by visualizations, statistical analysis of vorticity and strain rates, and quadrants of the Reynolds stresses. Part of this work was funded by Airbus Group. Simulations were performed on the ARCHER Supercomputer (UKTC Grant).

  19. DNS of turbulent flows over superhydrophobic surfaces: effect of texture randomness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jongmin; Mani, Ali

    2016-11-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces (SHS) are non-wetting surfaces consisting of hydrophobic material and nano/micro-scale structures. When in contact with overlaying liquid flows, such structures can entrap gas and therefore suppress the direct contact between water and solid, reducing skin friction. SHS patterns can utilize a wide range of geometries including posts, ridges, and etched holes, either in a pre-specified arrangement or randomly distributed. In this work we investigate how the randomness of such patterns affect the drag reduction and interfacial robustness when these surfaces are under turbulent flows. We perform direct numerical simulations of turbulent flows over randomly patterned slip surface on a wide range of texture parameters. We present slip lengths of randomly distributed SHS for texture widths w+ = 4 - 26, and solid fractions from 11% to 25%. For fixed gas fraction and texture size, the slip lengths of randomly distributed textures are less than those of aligned textures. We show that the geometric randomness of texture distribution weakens the interfacial robustness of the gas pocket. Support from Office of Naval Research (ONR) under Grant #3002451214 is gratefully acknowledged.

  20. Air-directed attachment of coccoid bacteria to the surface of superhydrophobic lotus-like titanium.

    PubMed

    Truong, V K; Webb, H K; Fadeeva, E; Chichkov, B N; Wu, A H F; Lamb, R; Wang, J Y; Crawford, R J; Ivanova, E P

    2012-01-01

    Superhydrophobic titanium surfaces fabricated by femtosecond laser ablation to mimic the structure of lotus leaves were assessed for their ability to retain coccoid bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus CIP 65.8T, S. aureus ATCC 25923, S. epidermidis ATCC 14990T and Planococcus maritimus KMM 3738 were retained by the surface, to varying degrees. However, each strain was found to preferentially attach to the crevices located between the microscale surface features. The upper regions of the microscale features remained essentially cell-free. It was hypothesised that air entrapped by the topographical features inhibited contact between the cells and the titanium substratum. Synchrotron SAXS revealed that even after immersion for 50 min, nano-sized air bubbles covered 45% of the titanium surface. After 1 h the number of cells of S. aureus CIP 65.8T attached to the lotus-like titanium increased to 1.27×10(5) mm(-2), coinciding with the replacement of trapped air by the incubation medium.

  1. Superhydrophobic and oleophobic surface from fluoropolymer-SiO2 hybrid nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Liang, Junyan; He, Ling

    2014-12-01

    The fluoropolymer-SiO2 hybrid nanocomposite consisting of core-corona fluoropolymer-grafted SiO2 nanoparticle (NP) and poly(dodecafluoroheptyl methacrylate) (PDFHM) was obtained by radical solution polymerization of the vinyl trimethoxy silane (VTMS)-treated SiO2 NP with DFHM in this work. In H2O/tetrahydrofuran (THF) solution, PDFHM self-assembles into dendritic micelle and the increase in H2O volume is favorable for fluoropolymer-grafted SiO2 NPs to create dense fluoropolymer corona layer. It also shows that the addition of H2O to the THF suspension of fluoropolymer-SiO2 nanocomposite could cause a transfer for surface morphology of cast film from smooth film-covered aggregation to bare-exposed flaky aggregation and microsphere aggregation, which results in an increase in surface RMS roughness of cast film and induces a superhydrophobicity. Oleophobicity of cast film can be improved by thermal annealing, because strong surface self-segregation of PDFHM chains during thermal annealing process arouses a marked increase in surface fluorine content.

  2. Drop evaporation on superhydrophobic PTFE surfaces driven by contact line dynamics.

    PubMed

    Ramos, S M M; Dias, J F; Canut, B

    2015-02-15

    In the present study, we experimentally study the evaporation modes and kinetics of sessile drops of water on highly hydrophobic surfaces (contact angle ∼160°), heated to temperatures ranging between 40° and 70 °C. These surfaces were initially constructed by means of controlled tailoring of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) substrates. The evaporation of droplets was observed to occur in three distinct phases, which were the same for the different substrate temperatures. The drops started to evaporate in the constant contact radius (CCR) mode, then switched to a more complex mode characterized by a set of stick-slip events accompanied by a decrease in contact angle, and finally shifted to a mixed mode in which the contact radius and contact angle decreased simultaneously until the drops had completely evaporated. It is shown that in the case of superhydrophobic surfaces, the energy barriers (per unit length) associated with the stick-slip motion of a drop ranges in the nJ m(-1) scale. Furthermore, analysis of the evaporation rates, determined from experimental data show that, even in the CCR mode, a linear relationship between V(2/3) and the evaporation time is verified. The values of the evaporation rate constants are found to be higher in the pinned contact line regime (the CCR mode) than in the moving contact line regime. This behavior is attributed to the drop's higher surface to volume ratio in the CCR mode.

  3. Hierarchical silicon etched structures for controlled hydrophobicity/superhydrophobicity.

    PubMed

    Xiu, Yonghao; Zhu, Lingbo; Hess, Dennis W; Wong, C P

    2007-11-01

    Silicon surface hydrophobicity has been varied by using silane treatments on silicon pyramid surfaces generated by KOH anisotropic etching. Results demonstrated that by altering the surface hydrophobicity, the apparent contact angle changed in accord with the Wenzel equation for surface structures with inclined side walls. Hierarchical structures were also constructed from Si pyramids where nanostructures were added by Au-assisted electroless HF/H2O2 etching. Surface hydrophobicity and superhydrophobicity were achieved by surface modification with a variety of silanes. Stability of the Cassie state of superhydrophobicity is described with respect to the Laplace pressure as indicated by the water droplet meniscus in contact with the hierarchical structures. The contact angle hysteresis observed is also discussed with respect to water/substrate adhesion.

  4. Computational characterization of ordered nanostructured surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohieddin Abukhdeir, Nasser

    2016-08-01

    A vital and challenging task for materials researchers is to determine relationships between material characteristics and desired properties. While the measurement and assessment of material properties can be complex, quantitatively characterizing their structure is frequently a more challenging task. This issue is magnified for materials researchers in the areas of nanoscience and nanotechnology, where material structure is further complicated by phenomena such as self-assembly, collective behavior, and measurement uncertainty. Recent progress has been made in this area for both self-assembled and nanostructured surfaces due to increasing accessibility of imaging techniques at the nanoscale. In this context, recent advances in nanomaterial surface structure characterization are reviewed including the development of new theory and image processing methods.

  5. Wenzel to Cassie transition during droplet impingement on a superhydrophobic surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clavijo, Cristian E.; Crockett, Julie; Maynes, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces offer many industrial advantages such as drag reduction and self-cleaning behavior as long as the liquid remains suspended above the composite solid/gas interface (Cassie state). These advantages are hindered when liquid penetrates the gas cavities (Wenzel state), and this is commonly referred to as impalement. Current efforts to drive impaled liquid out of, or dewet, the cavities—such as boiling or mechanical vibrations—are locally disruptive to the flow. In this work, we reveal that passive dewetting is possible during droplet impingement on micropillar substrates under the right thermodynamical conditions. Exploration included substrates with pillar-to-pillar spacing of 8 and 16 μ m , pillar diameters of 3 and 6 μ m , and pillar heights of 4 to 8 μ m and 8 to 18 μ m , respectively. The substrate temperature range considered was 23 surface energy. First-order models are consequently constructed, revealing that dewetting does not occur due to evaporation, but is caused by surface energy gradients at the interface. Dissipation in the flow is taken into account due to hydrodynamic and nonhydrodynamic mechanisms; the latter is found to dominate resistance.

  6. Investigations of Air Perfusion through Porous Media and Super-Hydrophobic Surface Active Gas Replenishment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlin, Marc; Gose, James W.; Golovin, Kevin; Ceccio, Steven L.; Tuteja, Anish

    2015-11-01

    Super-hydrophobic (SH) materials have been used successfully to generate reduced skin-friction in laminar flows. Success in the laminar regime has led researchers to try SH materials in turbulent flows. More often than not, this has been unsuccessful at providing meaningful skin-friction drag reduction, and has even generated increased drag. This failure is frequently attributed to the wetting of an SH surface or equivalently the transition from the Cassie-Baxter to the Wenzel state. The result is fluid flow over an essentially roughened surface. In this investigation the researchers aim to perfuse small amounts of gas through porous media, including sintered and foam metals, to attain skin-friction drag reduction in a fully-developed turbulent channel flow. As air is perfused through porous media, the solid - liquid interaction at the interface transitions to a solid - liquid - gas interaction. This can result in an interface that functions similarly to SH materials. Controlled air perfusion that provides the necessary replenishment of lost gas at the interface might prevent wetting, and thus eliminate or reduce the effect of the roughness on the flow. This latter possibility is investigated by perfusing small amounts of gas through porous media with and without SH coatings. To quantify the effectiveness of this method, pressure drop is used to infer friction drag along the surface in a fully-developed turbulent channel flow. The authors recognize the support of ONR.

  7. Fabrication of Hydrophobic Nanostructured Surfaces for Microfluidic Control.

    PubMed

    Morikawa, Kyojiro; Tsukahara, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    In the field of micro- and nanofluidics, various kinds of novel devices have been developed. For such devices, not only fluidic control but also surface control of micro/nano channels is essential. Recently, fluidic control by hydrophobic nanostructured surfaces have attracted much attention. However, conventional fabrication methods of nanostructures require complicated steps, and integration of the nanostructures into micro/nano channels makes fabrication procedures even more difficult and complicated. In the present study, a simple and easy fabrication method of nanostructures integrated into microchannels was developed. Various sizes of nanostructures were successfully fabricated by changing the plasma etching time and etching with a basic solution. Furthermore, it proved possible to construct highly hydrophobic nanostructured surfaces that could effectively control the fluid in microchannels at designed pressures. We believe that the fabrication method developed here and the results obtained are valuable contributions towards further applications in the field of micro- and nanofluidics.

  8. Superhydrophobic and superoleophillic surface of porous beaded electrospun polystrene and polysytrene-zeolite fiber for crude oil-water separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alayande, S. Oluwagbemiga; Dare, E. Olugbenga; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Akinlabi, A. Kehinde; Aiyedun, P. O.

    2016-04-01

    This research presents a cheap route procedure for the preparation of a potential adsorbent with superhydrophobic/superoleophillic properties for selective removal of crude oil from water. In this study, expanded polystyrene (EPS) was electrospun to produce beaded fibers in which zeolite was introduced to the polymer matrix in order to impart rough surface to non-beaded fiber. Films of the EPS and EPS/Zeolite solutions were also made for comparative study. The electrospun fibers EPS, EPS/Zeolite and resultant films were characterized using SEM, BET, FTIR and optical contact angle. The fibers exhibited superhydrophobic and superoleophillic wetting properties with water (>1500) and crude oil (00). The selective removal of crude oil presents new opportunity for the re-use of EPS as adsorbent in petroleum/petrochemical industry.

  9. Superhydrophobic metallic surfaces functionalized via femtosecond laser surface processing for long term air film retention when submerged in liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuhlke, Craig A.; Anderson, Troy P.; Li, Pengbo; Lucis, Michael J.; Roth, Nick; Shield, Jeffrey E.; Terry, Benjamin; Alexander, Dennis R.

    2015-03-01

    Femtosecond laser surface processing (FLSP) is a powerful technique used to create self-organized microstructures with nanoscale features on metallic surfaces. By combining FLSP surface texturing with surface chemistry changes, either induced by the femtosecond laser during processing or introduced through post processing techniques, the wetting properties of metals can be altered. In this work, FLSP is demonstrated as a technique to create superhydrophobic surfaces on grade 2 titanium and 304 stainless steel that can retain an air film (plastron) between the surface and a surrounding liquid when completely submerged. It is shown that the plastron lifetime when submerged in distilled water or synthetic stomach acid is critically dependent on the specific degree of surface micro- and nano-roughness, which can be tuned by controlling various FLSP parameters. The longest plastron lifetime was on a 304 stainless steel sample that was submerged in distilled water and maintained a plastron for 41 days, the length of time of the study, with no signs of degradation. Also demonstrated for the first time is the precise control of pulse fluence and pulse count to produce three unique classes of surface micron/nano-structuring on titanium.

  10. Multifunctional Nano-engineered Polymer Surfaces with Enhanced Mechanical Resistance and Superhydrophobicity

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Jaime J.; Monclús, Miguel A.; Navarro-Baena, Iván; Viela, Felipe; Molina-Aldareguia, Jon M.; Rodríguez, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a multifunctional polymer surface that provides superhydrophobicity and self–cleaning functions together with an enhancement in mechanical and electrical performance. These functionalities are produced by nanoimprinting high aspect ratio pillar arrays on polymeric matrix incorporating functional reinforcing elements. Two distinct matrix-filler systems are investigated specifically, Carbon Nanotube reinforced Polystyrene (CNT-PS) and Reduced Graphene Oxide reinforced Polyvinylidene Difluoride (RGO-PVDF). Mechanical characterization of the topographies by quantitative nanoindentation and nanoscratch tests are performed to evidence a considerable increase in stiffness, Young’s modulus and critical failure load with respect to the pristine polymers. The improvement on the mechanical properties is rationalized in terms of effective dispersion and penetration of the fillers into the imprinted structures as determined by confocal Raman and SEM studies. In addition, an increase in the degree of crystallization for the PVDF-RGO imprinted nanocomposite possibly accounts for the larger enhancement observed. Improvement of the mechanical ruggedness of functional textured surfaces with appropriate fillers will enable the implementation of multifunctional nanotextured materials in real applications. PMID:28262672

  11. Multifunctional Nano-engineered Polymer Surfaces with Enhanced Mechanical Resistance and Superhydrophobicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, Jaime J.; Monclús, Miguel A.; Navarro-Baena, Iván; Viela, Felipe; Molina-Aldareguia, Jon M.; Rodríguez, Isabel

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents a multifunctional polymer surface that provides superhydrophobicity and self–cleaning functions together with an enhancement in mechanical and electrical performance. These functionalities are produced by nanoimprinting high aspect ratio pillar arrays on polymeric matrix incorporating functional reinforcing elements. Two distinct matrix-filler systems are investigated specifically, Carbon Nanotube reinforced Polystyrene (CNT-PS) and Reduced Graphene Oxide reinforced Polyvinylidene Difluoride (RGO-PVDF). Mechanical characterization of the topographies by quantitative nanoindentation and nanoscratch tests are performed to evidence a considerable increase in stiffness, Young’s modulus and critical failure load with respect to the pristine polymers. The improvement on the mechanical properties is rationalized in terms of effective dispersion and penetration of the fillers into the imprinted structures as determined by confocal Raman and SEM studies. In addition, an increase in the degree of crystallization for the PVDF-RGO imprinted nanocomposite possibly accounts for the larger enhancement observed. Improvement of the mechanical ruggedness of functional textured surfaces with appropriate fillers will enable the implementation of multifunctional nanotextured materials in real applications.

  12. Fabrication of Highly-Oleophobic and Superhydrophobic Surfaces on Microtextured al Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Changsong; Zhou, Jigen; Zheng, Dongmei; Wan, Yong; Li, Zhiwen

    2011-06-01

    Theoretical calculations suggest that creating highly-oleophobic surfaces would require a surface energy lower than that of any known materials. In the present work, we demonstrate microtextured Al substrate surfaces with veins-like micro/nanostructures displaying apparent contact angles (CA) greater than 120°, even with nitromethane (surface tension γ1 = 37 mN/m). The Al substrate was microtextured by a chemical solution mixed by zinc nitrate hexahydrate, hexamethyltetramine and a little of hydrofluoric acid. A fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) agent was used to tune the surface wettability. The Al substrates were microtextured by veins-like micro/nanostructures and generating a solid-liquid-vapor composite interface. Combination with FAS modification, the Al surfaces resulted in an oleophobicity with CA for nitromethane was 126.3° (152.7° for diethylene glycol, γ1 = 45.2 mN/m). In addition, the Al surfaces demonstrated a low rolling-off angle with < 6° even for diethylene glycol. However, nitromethane droplet favored to pin on the sample surface even the sample stage is tilted to 90°. It is noted that this highly-oleophobic behavior is induced mainly by topography, which form a composite surface of air and solid with oil drop sitting partially on air. The results are expected to promote the study on self-cleaning applications, especially in the condition with oil contaminations.

  13. Atomically Bonded Transparent Superhydrophobic Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Aytug, Tolga

    2015-08-01

    Maintaining clarity and avoiding the accumulation of water and dirt on optically transparent surfaces such as US military vehicle windshields, viewports, periscope optical head windows, and electronic equipment cover glasses are critical to providing a high level of visibility, improved survivability, and much-needed safety for warfighters in the field. Through a combination of physical vapor deposition techniques and the exploitation of metastable phase separation in low-alkali borosilicate, a novel technology was developed for the fabrication of optically transparent, porous nanostructured silica thin film coatings that are strongly bonded to glass platforms. The nanotextured films, initially structurally superhydrophilic, exhibit superior superhydrophobicity, hence antisoiling ability, following a simple but robust modification in surface chemistry. The surfaces yield water droplet contact angles as high as 172°. Moreover, the nanostructured nature of these coatings provides increased light scattering in the UV regime and reduced reflectivity (i.e., enhanced transmission) over a broad range of the visible spectrum. In addition to these functionalities, the coatings exhibit superior mechanical resistance to abrasion and are thermally stable to temperatures approaching 500°C. The overall process technology relies on industry standard equipment and inherently scalable manufacturing processes and demands only nontoxic, naturally abundant, and inexpensive base materials. Such coatings, applied to the optical components of current and future combat equipment and military vehicles will provide a significant strategic advantage for warfighters. The inherent self-cleaning properties of such superhydrophobic coatings will also mitigate biofouling of optical windows exposed to high-humidity conditions and can help decrease repair/replacement costs, reduce maintenance, and increase readiness by limiting equipment downtime.

  14. Neutralization of H- at Nanostructured Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obreshkov, Boyan; Thumm, Uwe

    2006-05-01

    The charge transfer rates and the neutralization probabilities for hydrogen anions colliding with nanostructured (vicinal) surfaces are obtained by direct numerical integration of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation for the motion of the active electron in the field of the projectile-surface compound. The electronic structure of the surface is calculated from a Thomas-Fermi - von Weizsaecker statistical model with local density approximation for the exchange-correlation energy. In fixed-ion approximation, the decay rate of the electronic state of the anion in front of the surface is obtained by projecting the density of states of the collision system onto the unperturbed projectile level. The ion neutralization probability is calculated from this static width within a rate equation approach for a set of broken-straight-line collision trajectories for kinetic energies of 1 keV. The dependence of decay rates and neutralization probabilities on the surface morphology and the scattering trajectories, and a comparison of our numerical results with the experiments will be discussed.

  15. Surface Plasmon Propagation in Nanostructured Metallic Waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calm, Y. M.; Merlo, J. M.; Rose, A. H.; Nesbitt, N. T.; Boyce, A. M.; McMahon, G.; Burns, M. J.; Kempa, K.; Naughton, M. J.

    2015-03-01

    Visible frequencies of light can be routed on subwavelength scales with nanostructured, metallic waveguides by coupling optical energy to surface plasmon (SP) modes at a metal-insulator interface. Epitaxially-grown Ag nanowires and nanocoaxes provide a low-loss, ``model'' system to characterize the propagation of SP waves. We have studied these structures by electron, focused ion, scanning probe, and optical microscopies, and have observed propagation lengths exceeding 15λvac with confinement on the order of 0 . 07(λvac) 2 . Experimental efforts towards lithographically-fabricated metal-insulator-metal waveguides are discussed. Finally, an architecture for a nanocoax-based optical microscope, which extracts near-field (evanescent) information and propagates it into the far-field, is presented. Supported by the W.M. Keck Foundation.

  16. Laser-induced superhydrophobic grid patterns on PDMS for droplet arrays formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farshchian, Bahador; Gatabi, Javad R.; Bernick, Steven M.; Park, Sooyeon; Lee, Gwan-Hyoung; Droopad, Ravindranath; Kim, Namwon

    2017-02-01

    We demonstrate a facile single step laser treatment process to render a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surface superhydrophobic. By synchronizing a pulsed nanosecond laser source with a motorized stage, superhydrophobic grid patterns were written on the surface of PDMS. Hierarchical micro and nanostructures were formed in the irradiated areas while non-irradiated areas were covered by nanostructures due to deposition of ablated particles. Arrays of droplets form spontaneously on the laser-patterned PDMS with superhydrophobic grid pattern when the PDMS sample is simply immersed in and withdrawn from water due to different wetting properties of the irradiated and non-irradiated areas. The effects of withdrawal speed and pitch size of superhydrophobic grid on the size of formed droplets were investigated experimentally. The droplet size increases initially with increasing the withdrawal speed and then does not change significantly beyond certain points. Moreover, larger droplets are formed by increasing the pitch size of the superhydrophobic grid. The droplet arrays formed on the laser-patterned PDMS with wettability contrast can be used potentially for patterning of particles, chemicals, and bio-molecules and also for cell screening applications.

  17. Path-programmable water droplet manipulations on an adhesion controlled superhydrophobic surface

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jungmok; Lee, Seoung-Ki; Lee, Jaehong; Seung Lee, Jung; Kwon, Hyukho; Cho, Seung-Woo; Ahn, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Taeyoon

    2015-01-01

    Here, we developed a novel and facile method to control the local water adhesion force of a thin and stretchable superhydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate with micro-pillar arrays that allows the individual manipulation of droplet motions including moving, merging and mixing. When a vacuum pressure was applied below the PDMS substrate, a local dimple structure was formed and the water adhesion force of structure was significantly changed owing to the dynamically varied pillar density. With the help of the lowered water adhesion force and the slope angle of the formed dimple structure, the motion of individual water droplets could be precisely controlled, which facilitated the creation of a droplet-based microfluidic platform capable of a programmable manipulation of droplets. We showed that the platform could be used in newer and emerging microfluidic operations such as surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy with extremely high sensing capability (10−15 M) and in vitro small interfering RNA transfection with enhanced transfection efficiency of ~80%. PMID:26202206

  18. Collection efficiencies of an electrostatic sampler with superhydrophobic surface for fungal bioaerosols

    PubMed Central

    Han, T.; Nazarenko, Y.; Lioy, P. J.; Mainelis, G.

    2014-01-01

    We recently developed an electrostatic precipitator with superhydrophobic surface (EPSS), which collects particles into a 10- to 40-μl water droplet allowing achievement of very high concentration rates (defined as the ratio of particle concentration in the collection liquid vs. the airborne particle concentration per time unit) when sampling airborne bacteria. Here, we analyzed the performance of this sampler when collecting three commonly found fungal spores – Cladosporium cladosporioides, Penicillium melinii, and Aspergillus versicolor – under different operating conditions. We also adapted adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-based bioluminescence for the analysis of collection efficiency and the concentration rates. The collection efficiency ranged from 10 to 36% at a sampling flow rate of 10 l/min when the airborne fungal spore concentration was approximately 105–106 spores/m3 resulting in concentration rates in the range of 1 × 105–3 × 105/min for a 10-μl droplet. The collection efficiency was inversely proportional to the airborne spore concentration and it increased to above 60% for common ambient spore concentrations, e.g., 104–105 spores/m3. The spore concentrations determined by the ATP-based method were not statistically different from those determined by microscopy and allowed us to analyze spore concentrations that were too low to be reliably detected by microscopy. PMID:21204982

  19. Path-programmable water droplet manipulations on an adhesion controlled superhydrophobic surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jungmok; Lee, Seoung-Ki; Lee, Jaehong; Seung Lee, Jung; Kwon, Hyukho; Cho, Seung-Woo; Ahn, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Taeyoon

    2015-07-01

    Here, we developed a novel and facile method to control the local water adhesion force of a thin and stretchable superhydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate with micro-pillar arrays that allows the individual manipulation of droplet motions including moving, merging and mixing. When a vacuum pressure was applied below the PDMS substrate, a local dimple structure was formed and the water adhesion force of structure was significantly changed owing to the dynamically varied pillar density. With the help of the lowered water adhesion force and the slope angle of the formed dimple structure, the motion of individual water droplets could be precisely controlled, which facilitated the creation of a droplet-based microfluidic platform capable of a programmable manipulation of droplets. We showed that the platform could be used in newer and emerging microfluidic operations such as surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy with extremely high sensing capability (10-15 M) and in vitro small interfering RNA transfection with enhanced transfection efficiency of ~80%.

  20. Fast Surface Dynamics of Metallic Glass Enable Superlatticelike Nanostructure Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L.; Cao, C. R.; Shi, J. A.; Lu, Z.; Sun, Y. T.; Luo, P.; Gu, L.; Bai, H. Y.; Pan, M. X.; Wang, W. H.

    2017-01-01

    Contrary to the formation of complicated polycrystals induced by general crystallization, a modulated superlatticelike nanostructure, which grows layer by layer from the surface to the interior of a Pd40Ni10Cu30P20 metallic glass, is observed via isothermal annealing below the glass transition temperature. The generation of the modulated nanostructure can be solely controlled by the annealing temperature, and it can be understood based on the fast dynamic and liquidlike behavior of the glass surface. The observations have implications for understanding the glassy surface dynamics and pave a way for the controllable fabrication of a unique and sophisticated nanostructure on a glass surface to realize the properties' modification.

  1. Landau damping of surface plasmons in metal nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahbazyan, Tigran V.

    2016-12-01

    We develop a quantum-mechanical theory for Landau damping of surface plasmons in metal nanostructures of arbitrary shape. We show that the electron surface scattering, which facilitates plasmon decay in small nanostructures, can be incorporated into the metal dielectric function on par with phonon and impurity scattering. The derived surface scattering rate is determined by the local field polarization relative to the metal-dielectric interface and is highly sensitive to the system geometry. We illustrate our model by providing analytical results for surface scattering rate in some common shape nanostructures. Our results can be used for calculations of hot carrier generation rates in photovoltaics and photochemistry applications.

  2. Surface analysis of nanostructured carbonaceous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wepasnick, Kevin Andrew

    The characterization of surfaces is central to understanding its interaction with other materials. Current ground-breaking research in interfacial science is focusing on surfaces which have a nanoscopic-size to their structuring. In particular, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been explored extensively. However, to utilize these materials in commercial and scientific applications, the surfaces are often modified to tailor specific properties, such as dispersion, sorption, and reactivity. The focus of this thesis is to apply surface analytical techniques to explore the chemical and structural characteristics of modified nanostructured surfaces. Specifically studied are the covalent surface modifications of CNTs by strategies that involve the direct incorporation of specific elements into the graphene sidewalls by commonly used wet chemical oxidants. These resulting CNTs are then evaluated in terms of their change in surface chemistry and structure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to characterize the surface oxidation, while chemical derivatization techniques in conjunction with XPS afforded the concentration of carboxyl, carbonyl, and hydroxyl groups on the CNT surface. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was able to provide detailed structural information on the modified CNT, including the extent of sidewall damage. Results indicate that the distribution of oxygen-containing functional groups was insensitive to the reaction conditions, but was dependent upon the identity of the oxidant. These trends in functional group concentration were then applied to determining environmental properties, specifically divalent metal cation sorption. Consistently, the increases in COOH functional groups result in an increase in sorption capacity of divalent metal cations, such as Zn2+ and Cd2+. Furthermore, the interactions of size-selected metal and metal-oxide nanoclusters with graphite surfaces were studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning tunneling

  3. Facile spray-coating process for the fabrication of tunable adhesive superhydrophobic surfaces with heterogeneous chemical compositions used for selective transportation of microdroplets with different volumes.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Jing, Zhijiao; Zha, Fei; Yang, Yaoxia; Wang, Qingtao; Lei, Ziqiang

    2014-06-11

    In this paper, tunable adhesive superhydrophobic ZnO surfaces have been fabricated successfully by spraying ZnO nanoparticle (NP) suspensions onto desired substrates. We regulate the spray-coating process by changing the mass percentage of hydrophobic ZnO NPs (which were achieved by modifying hydrophilic ZnO NPs with stearic acid) in the hydrophobic/hydrophilic ZnO NP mixtures to control heterogeneous chemical composition of the ZnO surfaces. Thus, the water adhesion on the same superhydrophobic ZnO surface could be effectively tuned by controlling the surface chemical composition without altering the surface morphology. Compared with the conventional tunable adhesive superhydrophobic surfaces, on which there were only three different water sliding angle values: lower than 10°, 90° (the water droplet is firmly pinned on the surface at any tilted angles), and the value between the two ones, the water adhesion on the superhydrophobic ZnO surfaces has been tuned effectively, on which the sliding angle is controlled from 2 ± 1° to 9 ± 1°, 21 ± 2°, 39 ± 3°, and 90°. Accordingly, the adhesive force can be adjusted from extremely low (∼2.5 μN) to very high (∼111.6 μN). On the basis of the different adhesive forces of the tunable adhesive superhydrophobic surfaces, the selective transportation of microdroplets with different volumes was achieved, which has never been reported before. In addition, we demonstrated a proof of selective transportation of microdroplets with different volumes for application in the droplet-based microreactors via our tunable adhesive superhydrophobic surfaces for the quantitative detection of AgNO3 and NaOH. The results reported herein realize the selective transportation of microdroplets with different volumes and we believe that this method would potentially be used in many important applications, such as selective water droplet transportation, biomolecular quantitative detection and droplet-based biodetection.

  4. Coalescence-induced jumping of micro-droplets on heterogeneous superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attarzadeh, Reza; Dolatabadi, Ali

    2017-01-01

    The phenomenon of droplets coalescence-induced self-propelled jumping on homogeneous and heterogeneous superhydrophobic surfaces was numerically modeled using the volume of fluid method coupled with a dynamic contact angle model. The heterogeneity of the surface was directly modeled as a series of micro-patterned pillars. To resolve the influence of air around a droplet and between the pillars, extensive simulations were performed for different droplet sizes on a textured surface. Parallel computations with the OpenMP algorithm were used to accelerate computation speed to meet the convergence criteria. The composition of the air-solid surface underneath the droplet facilitated capturing the transition from a no-slip/no-penetration to a partial-slip with penetration as the contact line at triple point started moving to the air pockets. The wettability effect from the nanoscopic roughness and the coating was included in the model by using the intrinsic contact angle obtained from a previously published study. As the coalescence started, the radial velocity of the coalescing liquid bridge was partially reverted to the upward direction due to the counter-action of the surface. However, we found that the velocity varied with the size of the droplets. A part of the droplet kinetic energy was dissipated as the merged droplet started penetrating into the cavities. This was due to a different area in contact between the liquid and solid and, consequently, a higher viscous dissipation rate in the system. We showed that the effect of surface roughness is strongly significant when the size of the micro-droplet is comparable with the size of the roughness features. In addition, the relevance of droplet size to surface roughness (critical relative roughness) was numerically quantified. We also found that regardless of the viscous cutoff radius, as the relative roughness approached the value of 44, the direct inclusion of surface topography was crucial in the modeling of the

  5. Shear shedding of drops and the use of superhydrophobic surfaces in microgravity: PFC and ground based results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milne, Andrew; Amirfazli, Alidad

    In free fall, the absence of gravity poses many challenges for fluid handling systems. One such example of this is condensers. On earth, the condensed liquid is removed from the tilted condenser plate by gravity forced shedding. In microgravity, proposed solutions include the use of surfaces with gradients in wettability [1], the use of electrowetting [2], and shearing airflow [3]. In this talk, shear shedding results for a variety of surface (hydrophilic to superhydrophobic (extremely water repelling)) will be presented. Surface science and aerodynamics are used to reveal fundamental parameters controlling incipient motion for drops exposed to shearing airflow. It is found that wetting parameters such as contact angle and surface tension are very influential in determining the minimum required air velocity for drop shedding. Based on experimental results for drops of water and hexadecane (0.5-100 l) on PMMA, Teflon, and a superhydrophobic aluminum surface, an exponential function is proposed that relates the critical air velocity for shedding to the ratio of drop base length to projected area. The results for the water systems can be collapsed to a self similar curve by normalization, which also explains results from other researchers. Since shedding from superhydrophobic surfaces (SHS) is seen to be easier compared to other surfaces, the behaviour of SHS is also probed in this talk. SHS have space-based applications to shedding, self cleaning, anti-icing (spacecraft launch/re-entry), anti-fouling, fluid actuation, and decreased fluid friction. The mechanism for SHS is understood to be the existence of an air layer between large portions of the drop and solid. The first concrete visual evidence of this was gained performing a parabolic flight experiment with the ESA. Results of this experi-ment will be discussed, showing the extreme water repelling potential of SHS in microgravity, and demonstrating how the wetting behaviours seen (partial penetration, transition

  6. Droplet compression and relaxation by a superhydrophobic surface: contact angle hysteresis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Siang-Jie; Chou, Tung-He; Chan, Seong Heng; Sheng, Yu-Jane; Tsao, Heng-Kwong

    2012-04-03

    In this article, the contact angle hysteresis (CAH) of acrylic glass is experimentally and theoretically studied through the compression-relaxation process of droplets by using a superhydrophobic surface with negligible CAH effect. In contrast to the existing technique in which the volume of the droplet changes during the measurement of CAH, this procedure is carried out at a constant volume of the droplet. By observing the base diameter (BD) and the contact angle (CA) of the droplet during the compression-relaxation process, the wetting behavior of the droplet can be divided into two regimes, the contact line withdrawal and the contact line pinning regimes, depending on the gap thickness (H) at the end of the compression process. During the compression process, both regimes possess similar droplet behavior; the contact line will move outward and the BD will expand while the CA remains at the advancing angle. During the relaxation process, the two regimes are significantly different. In the contact line withdrawal regime, the contact line will withdraw with the CA remaining at the receding angle. In the contact line pinning regime, however, the contact line will be pinned at the final position and the CA will decline to a certain value higher than the receding angle. Furthermore, the advancing pinning behavior can also be realized through a successive compression-relaxation process. On the basis of the liquid-induced defects model, Surface Evolver simulations are performed to reproduce the behavior of the droplet during the compression-relaxation process; both contact line withdrawal and pinning regimes can also be identified. The results of the experiment and simulation agree with each other very well.

  7. Transparent, Superhydrophobic Surface with Varied Surface Tension Responsiveness in Wettability Based on Tunable Porous Silica Structure for Gauging Liquid Surface Tension.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Zhu, Yingjie; Zhang, Chunyang; Li, Jun; Guan, Zisheng

    2017-02-01

    Any solid surface can spontaneously exhibit variational wettability toward liquids with varied surface tension (γ). However, this correspondence has seldom been proposed or used on an artificial superhydrophobic surface, which should be more remarkable and peculiar. Herein, we fabricated robust, transparent superhydrophobic surfaces utilizing acid- and base-catalyzed silica (AC- and BC-silica) particles combined with candle soot template for structural construction and the CVD process for chemical modification. Three types of porous silica structures were devised, which presented distinctive surface tension responsiveness in wettability. Interestingly, all types of surfaces (i.e., AC-, AC/BC-, and BC-silica) show high repellence to high surface tension liquid (γ > 35 mN/m), and small differences are observed. With decreasing γ of the ethanol-water mixtures (γ < 35 mN/m), the static contact angles (SCAs) on all surfaces have an evident decline, but the features of the decreases are fairly different. As γ decreases, the SCA on the AC-silica surface decreases gradually, but the extent of decline becomes larger when γ < 27.42 mN/m. However, the SCA on the BC-silica surface decreases gradually except for γ ≈ 30.81 mN/m, and the SCA undergoes a sharp decline at γ ≈ 30.81 mN/m. The SCA on the AC/BC-silica surface has a similar variation as that of the SCA on the BC-silica surface, but a lower rate of BC-silica particles, e.g., 1/16, 1/8, 1/1 (AC/BC), further diminishes the critical γ values (where a sharp SCA drop occurs) to 30.16, 29.56, and 28.04 mN/m, respectively. The diversity is believed to be ascribed to the structure-induced selectivity of pore infiltration for the liquid. The tunable responsiveness can be generalized to various classes of organic aqueous solutions including methanol, acetic acid, acetone, and N,N-dimethylformamide. Benefiting from this, we can estimate organics concentration of an organic aqueous solution as well as its liquid

  8. A facile cost-effective method for preparing poinsettia-inspired superhydrophobic ZnO nanoplate surface on Al substrate with corrosion resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peng; Han, Huilong; Li, Junfeng; Fan, Xiaoliang; Ding, Haimin; Wang, Jinfeng

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports an easy method to imitate the "poinsettia leaves" by constructing ZnO nanoplates on Al substrate. Using ammonium hydroxide as the reactant, together with zinc nitrate hexahydrate, randomly distributed ZnO nanoplates can be fabricated on the Al substrate directly. The morphology of the ZnO nanoplates can be controlled by the growth time, and the nanoplate growth mechanism is discussed in detail. After modification with stearic acid, the nanoplate surface shows a stable superhydrophobicity. Moreover, the superhydrophobic ZnO nanoplate surface showed much smaller corrosion current density, reduced 23,088-fold from the bare Al 6061 substrate. This facile and low-cost method may open a new avenue in the design and fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces on Al materials with anticorrosive property.

  9. Preparation of a durable superhydrophobic membrane by electrospinning poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) mixed with epoxy-siloxane modified SiO2 nanoparticles: a possible route to superhydrophobic surfaces with low water sliding angle and high water contact angle.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai; Li, Yapeng; Fei, Xiaoliang; Sun, Mingda; Zhang, Chaoqun; Li, Yaoxian; Yang, Qingbiao; Hong, Xia

    2011-07-15

    A durable superhydrophobic surface with low water sliding angle (SA) and high water contact angle (CA) was obtained by electrospinning poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) which was mixed with epoxy-siloxane modified SiO(2) nanoparticles. To increase the roughness, modified SiO(2) nanoparticles were introduced into PVDF precursor solution. Then in the electrospinning process, nano-sized SiO(2) particles irregularly inlayed (it could also be regard as self-assembly) in the surface of the micro-sized PVDF mini-islands so as to form a dual-scale structure. This structure was responsible for the superhydrophobicity and self-cleaning property. In addition, epoxy-siloxane copolymer was used to modify the surface of SiO(2) nanoparticles so that the SiO(2) nanoparticles could stick to the surface of the micro-sized PVDF mini-islands. Through the underwater immersion test, the SiO(2) nanoparticles cannot be separated from PVDF easily so as to achieve the effect of durability. We chiefly explore the surface wettability and the relationship between the mass ratio of modified SiO(2) nanoparticles/PVDF and the CA, SA of electrospun mat. As the content of modified SiO(2) nanoparticles increased, the value of CA increased, ranging from 145.6° to 161.2°, and the water SA decreased to 2.17°, apparently indicating that the membrane we fabricated has a perfect effect of superhydrophobicity.

  10. Creation of coating surfaces possessing superhydrophobic and superoleophobic characteristics with fluoroalkyl end-capped vinyltrimethoxysilane oligomeric nanocomposites having biphenylene segments.

    PubMed

    Goto, Yuki; Takashima, Hiroki; Takishita, Katsuhisa; Sawada, Hideo

    2011-10-15

    Fluoroalkyl end-capped vinyltrimethoxysilane oligomeric nanocomposites having biphenylene units [R(F)-(VM-SiO(2))(n)-R(F)/Ar-SiO(2)] were prepared by the sol-gel reaction of the corresponding oligomer [R(F)-(VM)(n)-R(F)] with 4,4'-bis(triethoxysilyl)-1,1'-biphenyl [Ar-Si(OEt)(3)] under alkaline conditions. R(F)-(VM-SiO(2))(n)-R(F)/Ar-SiO(2) nanocomposites were applied to the surface modification of PMMA to exhibit not only a good oleophobicity imparted by fluorine but also a fluorescent emission ability on the surface. Methanol sol solutions of R(F)-(VM-SiO(2))(n)-R(F)/Ar-SiO(2) nanocomposites were effective for the surface modification of glass through the dipping technique to exhibit good oleophobicity with superhydrophobicity on the modified glass surface. On the other hand, 1,2-dichloroethane sol solutions enabled R(F)-(VM-SiO(2))(n)-R(F)/Ar-SiO(2) nanocomposites to exhibit both superhydrophobic and superoleophobic characteristics on the modified surface through dipping the glass in these sol solutions.

  11. Water-Repellent Properties of Superhydrophobic and Lubricant-Infused "Slippery" Surfaces: A Brief Study on the Functions and Applications.

    PubMed

    Cao, Moyuan; Guo, Dawei; Yu, Cunming; Li, Kan; Liu, Mingjie; Jiang, Lei

    2016-02-17

    Bioinspired water-repellent materials offer a wealth of opportunities to solve scientific and technological issues. Lotus-leaf and pitcher plants represent two types of antiwetting surfaces, i.e., superhydrophobic and lubricant-infused "slippery" surfaces. Here we investigate the functions and applications of those two types of interfacial materials. The superhydrophobic surface was fabricated on the basis of a hydrophobic fumed silica nanoparticle/poly(dimethylsiloxane) composite layer, and the lubricant-infused "slippery" surface was prepared on the basis of silicone oil infusion. The fabrication, characteristics, and functions of both substrates were studied, including the wettability, transparency, adhesive force, dynamic droplet impact, antifogging, self-cleaning ability, etc. The advantages and disadvantages of the surfaces were briefly discussed, indicating the most suitable applications of the antiwetting materials. This contribution is aimed at providing meaningful information on how to select water-repellent substrates to solve the scientific and practical issues, which can also stimulate new thinking for the development of antiwetting interfacial materials.

  12. Geometrically induced surface polaritons in planar nanostructured metallic cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Davids, P. S.; Intravia, F; Dalvit, Diego A.

    2014-01-14

    We examine the modal structure and dispersion of periodically nanostructured planar metallic cavities within the scattering matrix formulation. By nanostructuring a metallic grating in a planar cavity, artificial surface excitations or spoof plasmon modes are induced with dispersion determined by the periodicity and geometric characteristics of the grating. These spoof surface plasmon modes are shown to give rise to new cavity polaritonic modes at short mirror separations that modify the density of modes in nanostructured cavities. The increased modal density of states form cavity polarirons have a large impact on the fluctuation induced electromagnetic forces and enhanced hear transfer at short separations.

  13. Calcium carbonate mineralization: X-ray microdiffraction probing of the interface of an evaporating drop on a superhydrophobic surface.

    PubMed

    Accardo, Angelo; Burghammer, Manfred; Di Cola, Emanuela; Reynolds, Michael; Di Fabrizio, Enzo; Riekel, Christian

    2011-07-05

    The liquid/air interface of calcium bicarbonate solution drops was probed by synchrotron radiation microbeam scattering. The drops were deposited on a nanopatterned superhydrophobic poly(methyl methacrylate) surface and raster-scanned during evaporation by small-angle and wide-angle X-ray scattering. The appearance of about 200-nm-size calcite crystallites at the interface could be spatially resolved at the onset of crystallization. Diffuse scattering from the interface is attributed to a dense nanoscale amorphous calcium carbonate phase. Calcite was found to be the major phase in the solid residue with vaterite as minor phase.

  14. Formation and Mechanism of Superhydrophobic/Hydrophobic Surfaces Made from Amphiphiles through Droplet-Mediated Evaporation-Induced Self-Assembly.

    PubMed

    Dong, Fangyuan; Zhang, Mi; Tang, Wai-Wa; Wang, Yi

    2015-04-23

    Superhydrophobic/hydrophobic surfaces have attracted wide attention because of their broad applications in various regions, including coating, textile, packaging, electronic devices, and bioengineering. Many studies have been focused on the fabrication of superhydrophobic/hydrophobic surfaces using natural materials. In this paper, superhydrophobic/hydrophobic surfaces were formed by an amphiphilic natural protein, zein, using electrospinning. Water contact angle (WCA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the hydrophobicity and surface morphology of the electrospun structures. The highest WCA of the zein electrospun surfaces could reach 155.5 ± 1.4°. To further understand the mechanism of superhydrophobic surface formation from amphiphiles using electrospinning, a synthetic amphiphilic polymer was selected, and also, a method similar to electrospinning, spray drying, was tried. The electrospun amphiphilic polymer surface showed a high hydrophobicity with a WCA of 141.4 ± 0.7°. WCA of the spray-dried zein surface could reach 125.3 ± 2.1°. The secondary structures of the zein in the electrospun film and cast-dried film were studied using ATR-FTIR, showing that α-helix to β-sheet transformation happened during the solvent evaporation in the cast drying process but not in the electrospinning process. A formation mechanism was proposed on the basis of the orientation of the amphiphiles during the solvent evaporation of different fabrication methods. The droplet-based or jet-based evaporation during electrospinning and spray drying led to the formation of the superhydrophobic/hydrophobic surface by the accumulation of the hydrophobic groups of the amphiphiles on the surface, while the surface-based evaporation during cast drying led to the formation of the hydrophilic surface by the accumulation of the hydrophilic groups of the amphiphiles on the surface.

  15. A self-cleaning polybenzoxazine/TiO2 surface with superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity for oil/water separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenfei; Lu, Xin; Xin, Zhong; Zhou, Changlu

    2015-11-01

    Two important properties--the low surface free energy of polybenzoxazine (PBZ) and the photocatalysis-induced self-cleaning property of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles--are combined to develop a promising approach for oil/water separation. They are integrated into a multifunctional superhydrophobic and superoleophilic material, PBZ/TiO2 modified polyester non-woven fabrics (PBZT), through a simple dip coating and subsequent thermal curing method. The resulting PBZT reveals excellent mechanical durability and strong resistance to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation as well as acid and alkali. This durable superhydrophobic and superoleophilic fabric is efficient for separating oil/water mixtures by gravity with high separation efficiency, and it can also purify wastewater that contains soluble dyes, which makes it more effective and promising in treating water pollution. Importantly, PBZT demonstrates an integrated self-cleaning performance on the removal of both oil and particle contamination. It is expected that this simple process can be readily adopted for the design of multifunctional PBZ/TiO2 based materials for oil/water separation.Two important properties--the low surface free energy of polybenzoxazine (PBZ) and the photocatalysis-induced self-cleaning property of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles--are combined to develop a promising approach for oil/water separation. They are integrated into a multifunctional superhydrophobic and superoleophilic material, PBZ/TiO2 modified polyester non-woven fabrics (PBZT), through a simple dip coating and subsequent thermal curing method. The resulting PBZT reveals excellent mechanical durability and strong resistance to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation as well as acid and alkali. This durable superhydrophobic and superoleophilic fabric is efficient for separating oil/water mixtures by gravity with high separation efficiency, and it can also purify wastewater that contains soluble dyes, which makes it more effective and

  16. Fabrication and icing property of superhydrophilic and superhydrophobic aluminum surfaces derived from anodizing aluminum foil in a sodium chloride aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Meirong; Liu, Yuru; Cui, Shumin; Liu, Long; Yang, Min

    2013-10-01

    An aluminum foil with a rough surface was first prepared by anodic treatment in a neutral aqueous solution with the help of pitting corrosion of chlorides. First, the hydrophobic Al surface (contact angle around 79°) became superhydrophilic (contact angle smaller than 5°) after the anodizing process. Secondly, the superhydrophilic Al surface became superhydrophobic (contact angle larger than 150°) after being modified by oleic acid. Finally, the icing property of superhydrophilic, untreated, and superhydrophobic Al foils were investigated in a refrigerated cabinet at -12 °C. The mean total times to freeze a water droplet (6 μL) on the three foils were 17 s, 158 s and 1604 s, respectively. Thus, the superhydrophilic surface accelerates the icing process, while the superhydrophobic surface delays the process. The main reason for this transition might mainly result from the difference of the contact area of the water droplet with Al substrate: the increase in contact area with Al substrate will accelerate the heat conduct process, as well as the icing process; the decrease in contact area with Al substrate will delay the heat conduct process, as well as the icing process. Compared to the untreated Al foil, the contact area of the water droplet with the Al substrate was higher on superhydrophilic surface and smaller on the superhydrophobic surface, which led to the difference of the heat transfer time as well as the icing time.

  17. One-step fabrication of biomimetic superhydrophobic surface by electrodeposition on magnesium alloy and its corrosion inhibition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Xue, Jingze; Luo, Dan; Wang, Huiyuan; Gong, Xu; Han, Zhiwu; Ren, Luquan

    2017-04-01

    A facile, rapid and one-step electrodeposition process has been employed to construct a superhydrophobic surface with micro/nano scale structure on a Mg-Sn-Zn (TZ51) alloy, which is expected to be applied as a biodegradable biomedical implant materials. By changing the electrodeposition time, the maximum contact angle of the droplet was observed as high as 160.4°±0.7°. The characteristics of the as-prepared surface were conducted by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Besides, the anti-corrosion performance of the coatings in stimulated body fluid (SBF) solution were investigated by electrochemical measurement. The results demonstrated that the anti-corrosion property of superhydrophobic surface was greatly improved. This method show beneficial effects on the wettability and corrosion behavior, and therefore provides a efficient route to mitigate the undesirable rapid corrosion of magnesium alloy in favor of application for clinical field.

  18. Strength Improvement of Glass Substrates by Using Surface Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amarendra; Kashyap, Kunal; Hou, Max T; Yeh, J Andrew

    2016-12-01

    Defects and heterogeneities degrade the strength of glass with different surface and subsurface properties. This study uses surface nanostructures to improve the bending strength of glass and investigates the effect of defects on three glass types. Borosilicate and aluminosilicate glasses with a higher defect density than fused silica exhibited 118 and 48 % improvement, respectively, in bending strength after surface nanostructure fabrication. Fused silica, exhibited limited strength improvement. Therefore, a 4-μm-deep square notch was fabricated to study the effect of a dominant defect in low defect density glass. The reduced bending strength of fused silica caused by artificial defect increased 65 % in the presence of 2-μm-deep nanostructures, and the fused silica regained its original strength when the nanostructures were 4 μm deep. In fragmentation tests, the fused silica specimen broke into two major portions because of the creation of artificial defects. The number of fragments increased when nanostructures were fabricated on the fused silica surface. Bending strength improvement and fragmentation test confirm the usability of this method for glasses with low defect densities when a dominant defect is present on the surface. Our findings indicate that nanostructure-based strengthening is suitable for all types of glasses irrespective of defect density, and the observed Weibull modulus enhancement confirms the reliability of this method.

  19. Development of nanostructured surfaces for ice protection applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizadeh, Azar

    2012-02-01

    Ice accretion on surfaces of aircrafts, wind turbine blades, oil and gas rigs and heat exchangers, to name a few examples, presents long recognized problems with respect to efficiency and cost of operation. For instance, significant ice accretion on critical surfaces of an aircraft will cause problems during lift off (and will change the aerodynamics of the wings during flight. On the other hand, ice built up on wind turbine blades in cold climates (T < -20 C) drastically reduces the efficiency of power generation. Despite considerable number of studies and significant progress toward development of icephobic coatings, development of robust ice-resistance or anti-icing coatings is still elusive. Several approaches towards development of anti-icing surfaces have recently postulated that the superhydrophobic properties of hierarchically textured coatings, with contact angles > 150 , may lead to a significant reduction and perhaps elimination of snow and ice accretion. However, the exact mechanism of delayed icing on these surfaces is still under debate. Here we present a systematic study of early stages of ice formation upon water droplet impact on a range of hydrophobic, hydrophilic, textured and chemically patterned surfaces. We show that, in addition to a significant reduction in ice-adhesion strength on superhydrophobic surfaces, decreasing the water-substrate contact area plays a dual role in delaying ice nucleation: first by reducing heat-transfer and second by reducing the probability of heterogeneous nucleation at the water-substrate interface. The study presented here also offers a comprehensive perspective on the efficacy of textured surfaces for practical non-icing applications.

  20. Towards design rules for covalent nanostructures on metal surfaces.

    PubMed

    Björk, Jonas; Hanke, Felix

    2014-01-20

    The covalent molecular assembly on metal surfaces is explored, outlining the different types of applicable reactions. Density functional calculations for on-surface reactions are shown to yield valuable insights into specific reaction mechanisms and trends across the periodic table. Finally, it is shown how design rules could be derived for nanostructures on metal surfaces.

  1. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering on colloidal nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Aroca, R F; Alvarez-Puebla, R A; Pieczonka, N; Sanchez-Cortez, S; Garcia-Ramos, J V

    2005-11-30

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering combines extremely high sensitivity, due to enhanced Raman cross-sections comparable or even better than fluorescence, with the observation of vibrational spectra of adsorbed species, providing one of the most incisive analytical methods for chemical and biochemical detection and analysis. SERS spectra are observed from a molecule-nanostructure enhancing system. This symbiosis molecule-nanostructure is a fertile ground for theoretical developments and a realm of applications from single molecule detection to biomedical diagnostic and techniques for nanostructure characterization.

  2. Using time-dependent experiments and simulations to establish the role of surfactant in increasing drag over superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luzzatto-Fegiz, Paolo; Peaudecerf, Francois; Landel, Julien R.; Goldstein, Raymond E.

    2016-11-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces (SHS) can potentially achieve drag reduction for both internal and external flow applications. However, experiments have provided inconsistent results, with many studies reporting significantly decreased performance. While a complete explanation is yet to be found, it has been proposed that surfactants, ubiquitous in flow applications, could be responsible, as Marangoni stresses could develop when the edges of the SHS are not aligned with the flow. However, testing this hypothesis has been challenging. Even careful experiments with purified water have shown large interfacial stresses; adding surfactant yields only small drag increases, potentially revealing a pre-existing contamination of the interface. Other common physical processes, such as thermal Marangoni stresses and interface deflection, could also explain the lower performance. We address this question with numerical simulations, including surfactant kinetics, and SHS experiments in a micro-channel, where we control temperature gradients and interface deflections. By imposing a time-dependent pressure gradient, we are able to drive complex interface dynamics that can only be explained by surfactant gradients. Our results demonstrate the role of surfactants in increasing drag over superhydrophobic surfaces.

  3. Liquid-infused nanostructured surfaces with extreme anti-ice and anti-frost performance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Philseok; Wong, Tak-Sing; Alvarenga, Jack; Kreder, Michael J; Adorno-Martinez, Wilmer E; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2012-08-28

    Ice-repellent coatings can have significant impact on global energy savings and improving safety in many infrastructures, transportation, and cooling systems. Recent efforts for developing ice-phobic surfaces have been mostly devoted to utilizing lotus-leaf-inspired superhydrophobic surfaces, yet these surfaces fail in high-humidity conditions due to water condensation and frost formation and even lead to increased ice adhesion due to a large surface area. We report a radically different type of ice-repellent material based on slippery, liquid-infused porous surfaces (SLIPS), where a stable, ultrasmooth, low-hysteresis lubricant overlayer is maintained by infusing a water-immiscible liquid into a nanostructured surface chemically functionalized to have a high affinity to the infiltrated liquid and lock it in place. We develop a direct fabrication method of SLIPS on industrially relevant metals, particularly aluminum, one of the most widely used lightweight structural materials. We demonstrate that SLIPS-coated Al surfaces not only suppress ice/frost accretion by effectively removing condensed moisture but also exhibit at least an order of magnitude lower ice adhesion than state-of-the-art materials. On the basis of a theoretical analysis followed by extensive icing/deicing experiments, we discuss special advantages of SLIPS as ice-repellent surfaces: highly reduced sliding droplet sizes resulting from the extremely low contact angle hysteresis. We show that our surfaces remain essentially frost-free in which any conventional materials accumulate ice. These results indicate that SLIPS is a promising candidate for developing robust anti-icing materials for broad applications, such as refrigeration, aviation, roofs, wires, outdoor signs, railings, and wind turbines.

  4. Electrochemical characterization of organosilane-functionalized nanostructured ITO surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pruna, R.; Palacio, F.; López, M.; Pérez, J.; Mir, M.; Blázquez, O.; Hernández, S.; Garrido, B.

    2016-08-01

    The electroactivity of nanostructured indium tin oxide (ITO) has been investigated for its further use in applications such as sensing biological compounds by the analysis of redox active molecules. ITO films were fabricated by using electron beam evaporation at different substrate temperatures and subsequently annealed for promoting their crystallization. The morphology of the deposited material was monitored by scanning electron microscopy, confirming the deposition of either thin films or nanowires, depending on the substrate temperature. Electrochemical surface characterization revealed a 45 % increase in the electroactive surface area of nanostructured ITO with respect to thin films, one third lower than the geometrical surface area variation determined by atomic force microscopy. ITO surfaces were functionalized with a model organic molecule known as 6-(ferrocenyl)hexanethiol. The chemical attachment was done by means of a glycidoxy compound containing a reactive epoxy group, the so-called 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxy-silane. ITO functionalization was useful for determining the benefits of nanostructuration on the surface coverage of active molecules. Compared to ITO thin films, an increase in the total peak height of 140 % was observed for as-deposited nanostructured electrodes, whereas the same measurement for annealed electrodes resulted in an increase of more than 400 %. These preliminary results demonstrate the ability of nanostructured ITO to increase the surface-to-volume ratio, conductivity and surface area functionalization, features that highly benefit the performance of biosensors.

  5. Roll-to-roll, shrink-induced superhydrophobic surfaces for antibacterial applications, enhanced point-of-care detection, and blood anticoagulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nokes, Jolie McLane

    Superhydrophobic (SH) surfaces are desirable because of their unique anti-wetting behavior. Fluid prefers to bead up (contact angle >150°) and roll off (contact angle hysteresis <10°) a SH surface because micro- and nanostructure features trap air pockets. Fluid only adheres to the peaks of the structures, causing minimal adhesion to the surface. Here, shrink-induced SH plastics are fabricated for a plethora of applications, including antibacterial applications, enhanced point-of-care (POC) detection, and reduced blood coagulation. Additionally, these purely structural SH surfaces are achieved in a roll-to-roll (R2R) platform for scalable manufacturing. Because their self-cleaning and water resistant properties, structurally modified SH surfaces prohibit bacterial growth and obviate bacterial chemical resistance. Antibacterial properties are demonstrated in a variety of SH plastics by preventing gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacterial growth >150x compared to flat when fluid is rinsed and >20x without rinsing. Therefore, a robust and stable means to prevent bacteria growth is possible. Next, protein in urine is detected using a simple colorimetric output by evaporating droplets on a SH surface. Contrary to evaporation on a flat surface, evaporation on a SH surface allows fluid to dramatically concentrate because the weak adhesion constantly decreases the footprint area. On a SH surface, molecules in solution are confined to a footprint area 8.5x smaller than the original. By concentrating molecules, greater than 160x improvements in detection sensitivity are achieved compared to controls. Utility is demonstrated by detecting protein in urine in the pre-eclampsia range (150-300microgmL -1) for pregnant women. Further, SH surfaces repel bodily fluids including blood, urine, and saliva. Importantly, the surfaces minimize blood adhesion, leading to reduced blood coagulation without the need for anticoagulants. SH surfaces have >4200x and >28x reduction of

  6. Constructing Fluorine-Free and Cost-Effective Superhydrophobic Surface with Normal-Alcohol-Modified Hydrophobic SiO2 Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ye, Hui; Zhu, Liqun; Li, Weiping; Liu, Huicong; Chen, Haining

    2017-01-11

    Superhydrophobic coatings have drawn much attention in recent years for their wide potential applications. However, a simple, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly approach is still lacked. Herein, a promising approach using nonhazardous chemicals was proposed, in which multiple hydrophobic functionalized silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs) were first prepared as core component, through the efficient reaction between amino group containing SiO2 NPs and the isocyanate containing hydrophobic surface modifiers synthesized by normal alcohols, followed by simply spraying onto various substrates for superhydrophobic functionalization. Furthermore, to further improve the mechanical durability, an organic-inorganic composite superhydrophobic coating was fabricated by incorporating cross-linking agent (polyisocyanate) into the mixture of hydrophobic-functionalized SiO2 NPs and hydroxyl acrylic resin. The hybrid coating with cross-linked network structures is very stable with excellent mechanical durability, self-cleaning property and corrosion resistance.

  7. Surface modification of blood-contacting biomaterials by plasma-polymerized superhydrophobic films using hexamethyldisiloxane and tetrafluoromethane as precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, Chaio-Ru; Lin, Cheng-Wei; Chou, Chia-Man; Chung, Chi-Jen; He, Ju-Liang

    2015-08-01

    This paper proposes a plasma polymerization system that can be used to modify the surface of the widely used biomaterial, polyurethane (PU), by employing low-cost hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) and tetrafluoromethane (CF4) as precursors; this system features a pulsed-dc power supply. Plasma-polymerized HMDSO/CF4 (pp-HC) with coexisting micro- and nanoscale morphology was obtained as a superhydrophobic coating material by controlling the HMDSO/CF4 (fH) monomer flow ratio. The developed surface modification technology can be applied to medical devices, because it is non-cytotoxic and has favorable hemocompatibility, and no blood clots form when the device surface direct contacts. Experimental results reveal that the obtained pp-HC films contained SiOx nanoparticles randomly dispersed on the micron-scale three-dimensional network film surface. The sbnd CF functional group, sbnd CF2 bonding, and SiOx were detected on the film surface. The maximal water contact angle of the pp-HC coating was 161.2°, apparently attributable to the synergistic effect of the coexisting micro- and nanoscale surface morphology featuring a low surface-energy layer. The superhydrophobic and antifouling characteristics of the coating were retained even after it was rubbed 20 times with a steel wool tester. Results of in vitro cytotoxicity, fibrinogen adsorption, and platelet adhesion tests revealed favorable myoblast cell proliferation and the virtual absence of fibrinogen adsorption and platelet adhesion on the pp-HC coated specimens. These quantitative findings imply that the pp-HC coating can potentially prevent the formation of thrombi and provide an alternative means of modifying the surfaces of blood-contacting biomaterials.

  8. Controlling the surface properties of nanostructures for studies of polymerases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crut, Aurélien; Koster, Daniel A.; Huang, Zhuangxiong; Hage, Susanne; Dekker, Nynke H.

    2008-11-01

    We report the successful functionalization of optically accessible nanostructures, suitable for single-molecule experiments at physiological substrate concentrations, with polyethylene glycol. Characterization of the coating in terms of roughness, protein repellence, and specific immobilization of DNA is described. We present an application of this technique in the detection of polymerase activity within nanostructures, which demonstrates the opportunities made possible through the integration of nanofabricated structures with surface functionalization.

  9. Superhydrophobic surfaces allow probing of exosome self organization using X-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accardo, Angelo; Tirinato, Luca; Altamura, Davide; Sibillano, Teresa; Giannini, Cinzia; Riekel, Christian; di Fabrizio, Enzo

    2013-02-01

    Drops of exosome dispersions from healthy epithelial colon cell line and colorectal cancer cells were dried on a superhydrophobic PMMA substrate. The residues were studied by small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering using both a synchrotron radiation micrometric beam and a high-flux table-top X-ray source. Structural differences between healthy and cancerous cells were detected in the lamellar lattices of the exosome macro-aggregates.Drops of exosome dispersions from healthy epithelial colon cell line and colorectal cancer cells were dried on a superhydrophobic PMMA substrate. The residues were studied by small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering using both a synchrotron radiation micrometric beam and a high-flux table-top X-ray source. Structural differences between healthy and cancerous cells were detected in the lamellar lattices of the exosome macro-aggregates. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr34032e

  10. Carbon-based nanostructured surfaces for enhanced phase-change cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvaraj Kousalya, Arun

    . Nanostructured samples having a thicker copper coating provided a considerable increase in dryout heat flux while maintaining lower surface superheat temperatures compared to a bare sintered powder sample; this enhancement is attributed primarily to the improved surface wettability. Dynamic contact angle measurements are conducted to quantitatively compare the surface wetting trends for varying copper coating thicknesses and confirm the increase in hydrophilicity with increasing coating thickness. The second and relatively new carbon nanostructured coating, carbon nanotubes decorated with graphitic nanopetals, are used as a template to manufacture boiling surfaces with heterogeneous wettability. Heat transfer surfaces with parallel alternating superhydrophobic and superhydrophilic stripes are fabricated by a combination of oxygen plasma treatment, Teflon coating and shadow masking. Such composite wetting surfaces exhibit enhanced flow-boiling performance compared to homogeneous wetting surfaces. Flow visualization studies elucidate the physical differences in nucleate boiling mechanisms between the different heterogeneous wetting surfaces. The third and the final carbon nanomaterial, graphene, is examined as an oxidation barrier coating for liquid and liquid-vapor phase-change cooling systems. Forced convection heat transfer experiments on bare and graphene-coated copper surfaces reveal nearly identical liquid-phase and two-phase thermal performance for the two surfaces. Surface analysis after thermal testing indicates significant oxide formation on the entire surface of the bare copper substrate; however, oxidation is observed only along the grain boundaries of the graphene-coated substrate. Results suggest that few-layer graphene can act as a protective layer even under vigorous flow boiling conditions, indicating a broad application space of few-layer graphene as an ultra-thin oxidation barrier coating.

  11. Integrating anti-reflection and superhydrophobicity of moth-eye-like surface morphology on a large-area flexible substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chia-Hsing; Niu, Pei-Lun; Sung, Cheng-Kuo

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL) roll-to-roll (R2R) process with argon and oxygen (Ar-O2) plasma ashing and coating of a dilute perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane (FDTS) layer to fabricate the large-area moth-eye-like surface morphology on a polyethylene terephthalate substrate. By using Maxwell-Garnett's effective medium theory, the optimal dimensions of the moth-eye-like surface morphology was designed and fabricated with UV-NIL R2R process to obtain maximum transmittance ratio. In addition, the base angle (θ = 30.1°) of the moth-eye-like surface morphology was modified with Ar-O2 plasma ashing and coated with a dilute FDTS layer to possess both superhydrophobic and air-retention properties. This increases both the transmittance ratio of 4% and contact angle to 153°.

  12. Facile preparation of super durable superhydrophobic materials.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lei; Zhang, Junping; Li, Bucheng; Fan, Ling; Li, Lingxiao; Wang, Aiqin

    2014-10-15

    The low stability, complicated and expensive fabrication procedures seriously hinder practical applications of superhydrophobic materials. Here we report an extremely simple method for preparing super durable superhydrophobic materials, e.g., textiles and sponges, by dip coating in fluoropolymers (FPs). The morphology, surface chemical composition, mechanical, chemical and environmental stabilities of the superhydrophobic textiles were investigated. The results show how simple the preparation of super durable superhydrophobic textiles can be! The superhydrophobic textiles outperform their natural counterparts and most of the state-of-the-art synthetic superhydrophobic materials in stability. The intensive mechanical abrasion, long time immersion in various liquids and repeated washing have no obvious influence on the superhydrophobicity. Water drops are spherical in shape on the samples and could easily roll off after these harsh stability tests. In addition, this simple dip coating approach is applicable to various synthetic and natural textiles and can be easily scaled up. Furthermore, the results prove that a two-tier roughness is helpful but not essential with regard to the creation of super durable superhydrophobic textiles. The combination of microscale roughness of textiles and materials with very low surface tension is enough to form super durable superhydrophobic textiles. According to the same procedure, superhydrophobic polyurethane sponges can be prepared, which show high oil absorbency, oil/water separation efficiency and stability.

  13. Nanostructured Ag surface fabricated by femtosecond laser for surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Chang, Han-Wei; Tsai, Yu-Chen; Cheng, Chung-Wei; Lin, Cen-Ying; Lin, Yen-Wen; Wu, Tzong-Ming

    2011-08-01

    Femtosecond laser was employed to fabricate nanostructured Ag surface for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) application. The prepared nanostructured Ag surface was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The FESEM images demonstrate the formation of nanostructure-covered femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure, also termed as ripples, on the Ag surface. The AFM images indicate that the surface roughness of the produced nanostructured Ag substrate is larger than the untreated Ag substrate. The XRD and XPS of the nanostructured Ag surface fabricated by femtosecond laser show a face centered cubic phase of metallic Ag and no impurities of Ag oxide species. The application of the produced nanostructured Ag surface in SERS was investigated by using rhodamine 6G (R6G) as a reference chemical. The SERS intensity of R6G in aqueous solution at the prepared nanostructured Ag surface is 15 times greater than that of an untreated Ag substrate. The Raman intensities vary linearly with the concentrations of R6G in the range of 10(-8)-10(-4)M. The present methodology demonstrates that the nanostructured Ag surface fabricated by femtosecond laser is potential for qualification and quantification of low concentration molecules.

  14. Preparation of multifunctional Al-Mg alloy surface with hierarchical micro/nanostructures by selective chemical etching processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Tian; Kong, Jianyi; Wang, Xingdong; Li, Xuewu

    2016-12-01

    A superamphiphobic aluminum magnesium alloy surface with enhanced anticorrosion behavior has been prepared in this work via a simple and low-cost method. By successively polishing, etching and boiling treatments, the multifunctional hierarchical binary structures composed of the labyrinth-like concave-convex microstructures and twisty nanoflakes have been prepared. Results indicate that a superhydrophobic contact angle of 160.5° and superoleophobic contact angle larger than 150° as well as low adhesive property to liquids are achieved after such structures being modified with fluoroalkyl-silane. Furthermore, the anticorrosion behaviors in seawater of as-prepared samples are characterized by electrochemical tests including the impedance spectroscopies, equivalent circuits fittings and polarization curves. It is found that the hierarchical micro/nanostructures accompanying with the modified coating are proved to possess the maximal coating coverage rate of 90.0% larger than microstructures of 85.9%, nanostructures of 83.8% and bare polished surface of 67.1% suggesting the optimal anticorrosion. Finally, a great potential application in concentrators for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) analysis of toxic and pollutive ions on the superamphiphobic surface is also confirmed. This work has wider significance in extending further applications of alloys in engineering and environmental detecting fields.

  15. Surface effects on shape and topology optimization of nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanthakumar, S. S.; Valizadeh, Navid; Park, Harold S.; Rabczuk, Timon

    2015-07-01

    We present a computational method for the optimization of nanostructures, where our specific interest is in capturing and elucidating surface stress and surface elastic effects on the optimal nanodesign. XFEM is used to solve the nanomechanical boundary value problem, which involves a discontinuity in the strain field and the presence of surface effects along the interface. The boundary of the nano-structure is implicitly represented by a level set function, which is considered as the design variable in the optimization process. Two objective functions, minimizing the total potential energy of a nanostructure subjected to a material volume constraint and minimizing the least square error compared to a target displacement, are chosen for the numerical examples. We present results of optimal topologies of a nanobeam subject to cantilever and fixed boundary conditions. The numerical examples demonstrate the importance of size and aspect ratio in determining how surface effects impact the optimized topology of nanobeams.

  16. Studying electric field enhancement factor of the nanostructured emission surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zartdinov, A. N.; Nikiforov, K. A.

    2016-08-01

    Mathematical model of nanostructured field emission surface is proposed. In order to determine geometrical parameters of the surface structure digital processing of scanning electron microscopy images was used. Effective value of local electrical field enhancement factor is defined and calculated within the Fowler-Nordheim theory. It was found effective enhancement factor decreases as the applied electrical field increases for a fixed geometry.

  17. Nanoporosity-induced superhydrophobicity and large antireflection in InSb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Debi Prasad; Som, Tapobrata

    2016-05-01

    A porous nanostructure evolves in InSb due to keV ion implantation which leads to superhydrophobic and large antireflective property, indicating a single-step facile fabrication to introduce both functionalities. In particular, it is observed that the contact angle of a water droplet on the nanoporous InSb surface exceeds 150°, revealing the transition to a superhydrophobic surface. Correlation between the contact angle and the porous nanostructures is qualitatively understood in light of the Cassie-Baxter model. It is found that a decrease in the fraction of solid surface wetted by the water droplet and a corresponding increase in the air-water interface fraction lead to the enhancement in the hydrophobicity. We further observe that the large broadband antireflection (in the range of 200-800 nm) is also correlated to the nanoporous structure, arising out of a large reduction in the refractive index due to its increasing porosity. Such a surface with the combination of superhydrophobicity and large antireflection can be very useful for applications of InSb nanostructures in electronic, photonic devices, or infrared detectors.

  18. Wetting characteristics of 3-dimensional nanostructured fractal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Ethan; Liu, Ying; Jiang, Lijia; Lu, Yongfeng; Ndao, Sidy

    2017-01-01

    This article reports the fabrication and wetting characteristics of 3-dimensional nanostructured fractal surfaces (3DNFS). Three distinct 3DNFS surfaces, namely cubic, Romanesco broccoli, and sphereflake were fabricated using two-photon direct laser writing. Contact angle measurements were performed on the multiscale fractal surfaces to characterize their wetting properties. Average contact angles ranged from 66.8° for the smooth control surface to 0° for one of the fractal surfaces. The change in wetting behavior was attributed to modification of the interfacial surface properties due to the inclusion of 3-dimensional hierarchical fractal nanostructures. However, this behavior does not exactly obey existing surface wetting models in the literature. Potential applications for these types of surfaces in physical and biological sciences are also discussed.

  19. Facile Synthesis of Smart Nanocontainers as Key Components for Construction of Self-Healing Coating with Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yi; Wang, MingDong; Wang, Cheng; Feng, Jing; Li, JianSheng; Wang, LianJun; Fu, JiaJun

    2016-04-01

    SiO2-imidazoline nanocomposites (SiO2-IMI) owning high loading capacity of corrosion inhibitor, 1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (HMID), and a special acid/alkali dual-stimuli-accelerated release property have been synthesized via a one-step modified Stöber method. SiO2-IMI were uniformly distributed into the hydrophobic SiO2 sol to construct "host"-"guest" feedback active coating with a superhydrophobic surface (SiO2-IMI@SHSC) on aluminium alloy, AA2024, by dip-coating technique. SiO2-IMI as "guest" components have good compatibility with "host" sol-gel coating, and more importantly, once localized corrosion occurs on the surface of AA2024, SiO2-IMI can simultaneously respond to the increase in environmental pH around corrosive micro-cathodic regions and decrease in pH near micro-anodic regions, promptly releasing HMID to form a compact molecular film on the damaged surface, inhibiting corrosion spread and executing a self-healing function. The scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET) was applied to illustrate the suppression process of cathodic/anodic corrosion activities. Furthermore, benefiting from the superhydrophobic surface, SiO2-IMI@SHSC remained its protective ability after immersion in 0.5 M NaCl solution for 35 days, which is far superior to the conventional sol-gel coating with the same coating thickness. The facile fabrication method of SiO2-IMI simplifies the construction procedure of SiO2-IMI@SHSC, which have great potential to replace non-environmental chromate conversion coatings for practical use.

  20. Pyridine-containing block copolymer/silica core-shell nanoparticles for one-step preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Liang, Junyan; Wang, Li; He, Ling; Sun, Shaodong

    2013-07-14

    Two poly(4-vinylpyridine)-b-polystyrene diblock copolymer/silica core-shell nanoparticles (P4VP-b-PS/SiO2 NPs) are developed in this work. Confirmed by DLS analysis and TEM observation, one comprises a SiO2 core surrounded by a P4VP-b-PS shell and the other comprises a P4VP-b-PS core surrounded by a SiO2 shell, which is facilely prepared by the in situ hydrolysis of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) using cationic P4VP-b-PS micelles obtained in a THF-H2C2O4 (aq, 0.1 mol L(-1)) mixture and a DMF-H2C2O4 (aq, 0.01 mol L(-1)) mixture as template, respectively. The SCA, CAH, SA and SEM measurements reveal that one-step deposition of P4VP-b-PS/SiO2 NPs with SiO2 cores formed at a high level of TEOS creates a superhydrophobic surface with an SCA of 160°, a CAH of 2° and an SA of around 4° originating from the formation of a typical micro-nanoscale binary structure (MNBS). For the NPs with SiO2 cores formed at a low level of TEOS, the superhydrophobicity with a SCA of 151°, CAH of 3° and SA of around 5° can be induced by the transition of the surface microstructure from an uneven and discontinuous MNBS, created by a one-step deposition process, to the coexistence of MNBS and a nanoscale structure (NS) after annealing with toluene for 30 min. In contrast, one-step deposition of P4VP-b-PS/SiO2 NPs with P4VP-b-PS cores and SiO2 shells usually results in the inhomogeneous precipitation of SiO2 from bulk P4VP-b-PS along with the production of micro-cracks, with which is impossible to achieve surface superhydrophobicity.

  1. Formation of hierarchical ZnO nanostructure on tinfoil substrate and the application on wetting repellency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jun; Xia, Jun; Jing, Chen; Lei, Wei; Wang, Bao-ping

    2011-10-01

    Hierarchical ZnO (zinc oxide) nanostructures composed with nano-sheet and micro-flower structures (made from the nano-sheet) have been generated on tinfoil substrate via a chemical bath deposition process. Benefiting from an inherent distinct lattice constant compared with commonly used glass or other kinds of substrate, the tinfoil substrate played an important role on the formation of the hierarchical ZnO nanostructures. The resulting hierarchical ZnO surface shows excellent superhydrophobicity and extremely low water rolling angle after being modified with spin coating Teflon. The flexible and superhydrophobic characteristics of such fabricated substrate will be beneficial for applications requiring bendable and lightweight superhydrophobic substrates. In addition, the multifunctional properties of ZnO nanostructures are expected to broaden the applications to electronic and optical applications.

  2. From petal effect to lotus effect: a facile solution immersion process for the fabrication of super-hydrophobic surfaces with controlled adhesion.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhongjun; Du, Ming; Lai, Hua; Zhang, Naiqing; Sun, Kening

    2013-04-07

    In this paper, a convenient approach based on the reaction between an alkyl thiol and hierarchical structured Cu(OH)2 substrates is reported for the fabrication of super-hydrophobic surfaces with controlled adhesion. This reaction can etch the Cu(OH)2 microstructures and simultaneously introduce a coating with low surface energy. By simply controlling the reaction time or the chain length of the thiol, super-hydrophobic surfaces with controlled adhesion can be achieved, and the adhesive force between the surface and the water droplet can be adjusted from extreme low (∼14 μN) to very high (∼65 μN). The tunable effect of the adhesion is ascribed to the different wetting states for the droplet on the surface that results from the change of the morphology and microstructure scale after the thiolate reaction. Noticeably, the as-prepared surfaces are acid/alkali-resisting; the acidic and basic water droplets have similar contact angles and adhesive forces to that of the neutral water droplet. Moreover, we demonstrate a proof of water droplet transportation for application in droplet-based microreactors via our surfaces. We believe that the results reported here would be helpful for the further understanding of the effect of wetting states on the surface adhesion and the fabrication principle for a super-hydrophobic surface with controlled adhesion.

  3. Manipulating and dispensing micro/nanoliter droplets by superhydrophobic needle nozzles.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhichao; Ma, Jie; Jiang, Lei

    2013-11-26

    There is rapidly increasing research interest focused on manipulating and dispensing tiny droplets in nanotechnology and biotechnology. A micro/nanostructured superhydrophobic nozzle surface is one promising candidate for the realization of tiny droplet manipulating applications. Here, we explore the feasibility of using superhydrophobicity for guided dispensing of tiny water droplets. A facile dip-coating method is developed to prepare superhydrophobic needle nozzles (SNNs) based on commercial needle nozzles with reduced inner diameter. The SNNs can manipulate tiny droplets of different volumes by only changing the inner diameter of the nozzle, rather than reducing the nozzle size as a whole. Different from the previous electric-field-directed process or pyroelectrodynamic-driven technique, quasi-stable water drops down to the picoliter scale can be produced by SNNs without employing any extra driving mechanisms. Due to their intrinsic superhydrophobic nature, the SNNs also possess the properties of reducing sample liquid retention, improving sample volume transfer accuracy, and saving expensive reagents. In addition, this kind of dip-coating method can also be applied to micropipet tips, inkjet or bio-printer heads, etc. As the issues of reducing drop size and increasing drop volume accuracy are quite important in the laboratory and industry, this facile but effective superhydrophobic nozzle-coating method for manipulating tiny droplets could be of great help to make breakthroughs in next-generation liquid transport and biometric and inkjet printing devices.

  4. Curvature-dependent surface energy and implications for nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chhapadia, P.; Mohammadi, P.; Sharma, P.

    2011-10-01

    At small length scales, several size-effects in both physical phenomena and properties can be rationalized by invoking the concept of surface energy. Conventional theoretical frameworks of surface energy, in both the mechanics and physics communities, assume curvature independence. In this work we adopt a simplified and linearized version of a theory proposed by Steigmann-Ogden to capture curvature-dependence of surface energy. Connecting the theory to atomistic calculations and the solution to an illustrative paradigmatical problem of a bent cantilever beam, we catalog the influence of curvature-dependence of surface energy on the effective elastic modulus of nanostructures. The observation in atomistic calculations that the elastic modulus of bent nanostructures is dramatically different than under tension - sometimes softer, sometimes stiffer - has been a source of puzzlement to the scientific community. We show that the corrected surface mechanics framework provides a resolution to this issue. Finally, we propose an unambiguous definition of the thickness of a crystalline surface.

  5. A facial approach combining photosensitive sol⿿gel with self-assembly method to fabricate superhydrophobic TiO2 films with patterned surface structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Zongfan; Zhao, Zhen; Luo, Dan; Zhao, Maiqun; Zhao, Gaoyang

    2016-01-01

    Superhydrophobic TiO2 films with micro-patterned surface structure was prepared through a facial approach combining photosensitive sol⿿gel method with following surface modification by 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltrichlorosilane (PFOTCS). The patterned surface possessed quasi micro-lens array structure resembling processus mastoideus of lotus, leading to excellent hydrophobicity. The relationship between hydrophobic performance and the period of the micro-patterned TiO2 surface was investigated. The water contact angles (CAs) of micro-patterned TiO2 surface increased with the decrease of the periods, and the patterned surface with the lowest period of 0.83 μm showed the highest CA of 163°. It suggests that this approach would offer an advantage to control the wettability properties of superhydrophobic surfaces by adjusting the fine pattern structure. Furthermore, the superhydrophobic state could be converted to the state of superhydrophilicity under ultraviolet (UV) illumination as a result of the photocatalytic decomposition of the PFOTCS monolayer on the micro-patterned TiO2 Surface.

  6. Modelling of contact angle hysteresis on rough, non-uniform and superhydrophobic surfaces with lattice Boltzmann method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubiak, K. J.; Wilson, M. C. T.; Castrejón-Pita, J. R.; Hutchings, I. M.

    2011-11-01

    Contact Angle Hysteresis (CAH) is usually attributed to surface heterogeneity, contact line pinning, adsorption or interdiffusion. A model of CAH developed recently by Kubiak & Wilson is demonstrated using the lattice Boltzmann method. The model is based on the dynamic surface heterogeneity, reorientation of surface molecules under wetting liquid, physical roughness, chemical heterogeneity and liquid adhesion and evaporation. Once the surface is wetted, the local static contact angle (CA) changes from its advancing value to match the receding static CA over time Ta. When the contact line retracts, the surface recovers its initial properties corresponding to the advancing static CA over time period Te, which corresponds to the physical evaporation. Further development of the model to include surface roughness and chemical heterogeneity is presented. The model shows good agreement with experimental results for several practical configurations i.e. droplet impact and coalescence, drops on tilted surface, and drops on superhydrophobic and non-uniform surfaces etc. The extended model exhibits great potential for predictive modelling using the lattice Boltzmann method, but can be also implemented in other schemes. Research supported by EPSRC EP/F065019/1 and EP/H018913/1.

  7. Superhydrophobic conductive carbon nanotube coatings for steel.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Sunny; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2009-04-21

    We report the synthesis of superhydrophobic coatings for steel using carbon nanotube (CNT)-mesh structures. The CNT coating maintains its structural integrity and superhydrophobicity even after exposure to extreme thermal stresses and has excellent thermal and electrical properties. The coating can also be reinforced by optimally impregnating the CNT-mesh structure with cross-linked polymers without significantly compromising on superhydrophobicity and electrical conductivity. These superhydrophobic conductive coatings on steel, which is an important structural material, open up possibilities for many new applications in the areas of heat transfer, solar panels, transport of fluids, nonwetting and nonfouling surfaces, temperature resilient coatings, composites, water-walking robots, and naval applications.

  8. Fabrication of recyclable superhydrophobic cotton fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Sang Wook; Park, Eun Ji; Jeong, Myung-Geun; Kim, Il Hee; Seo, Hyun Ook; Kim, Ju Hwan; Kim, Kwang-Dae; Kim, Young Dok

    2017-04-01

    Commercial cotton fabric was coated with SiO2 nanoparticles wrapped with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layer, and the resulting material surface showed a water contact angle greater than 160°. The superhydrophobic fabric showed resistance to water-soluble contaminants and maintained its original superhydrophobic properties with almost no alteration even after many times of absorption-washing cycles of oil. Moreover, superhydrophobic fabric can be used as a filter to separate oil from water. We demonstrated a simple method of fabrication of superhydrophobic fabric with potential interest for use in a variety of applications.<