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Sample records for nanostructuring optical waveguides

  1. Optical pulse engineering and processing using optical nonlinearities of nanostructured waveguides made of silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavdas, Spyros; You, Jie; Osgood, Richard M.; Panoiu, Nicolae C.

    2015-08-01

    We present recent results pertaining to pulse reshaping and optical signal processing using optical nonlinearities of silicon-based tapered photonic wires and photonic crystal waveguides. In particular, we show how nonlinearity and dispersion engineering of tapered photonic wires can be employed to generate optical similaritons and achieve more than 10× pulse compression. We also discuss the properties of four-wave mixing pulse amplification and frequency conversion efficiency in long-period Bragg waveguides and photonic crystal waveguides. Finally, the influence of linear and nonlinear optical effects on the transmission bit-error rate in uniform photonic wires and photonic crystal waveguides made of silicon is discussed.

  2. Peptide Optical waveguides.

    PubMed

    Handelman, Amir; Apter, Boris; Shostak, Tamar; Rosenman, Gil

    2017-02-01

    Small-scale optical devices, designed and fabricated onto one dielectric substrate, create integrated optical chip like their microelectronic analogues. These photonic circuits, based on diverse physical phenomena such as light-matter interaction, propagation of electromagnetic waves in a thin dielectric material, nonlinear and electro-optical effects, allow transmission, distribution, modulation, and processing of optical signals in optical communication systems, chemical and biological sensors, and more. The key component of these optical circuits providing both optical processing and photonic interconnections is light waveguides. Optical confinement and transmitting of the optical waves inside the waveguide material are possible due to the higher refractive index of the waveguides in comparison with their surroundings. In this work, we propose a novel field of bionanophotonics based on a new concept of optical waveguiding in synthetic elongated peptide nanostructures composed of ordered peptide dipole biomolecules. New technology of controllable deposition of peptide optical waveguiding structures by nanofountain pen technique is developed. Experimental studies of refractive index, optical transparency, and linear and nonlinear waveguiding in out-of-plane and in-plane diphenylalanine peptide nanotubes have been conducted. Optical waveguiding phenomena in peptide structures are simulated by the finite difference time domain method. The advantages of this new class of bio-optical waveguides are high refractive index contrast, wide spectral range of optical transparency, large optical nonlinearity, and electro-optical effect, making them promising for new applications in integrated multifunctional photonic circuits. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Optical waveguide beam splitters based on hybrid metal-dielectric-semiconductor nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yunyun; Liang, Junwu; Zhang, Qinglin; Zhou, Zidong; Li, Honglai; Fan, Xiaopeng; Wang, Xiaoxia; Fan, Peng; Yang, Yankun; Guo, Pengfei; Zhuang, Xiujuan; Zhu, Xiaoli; Liao, Lei; Pan, Anlian

    2015-11-01

    Miniature integration is desirable for the future photonics circuit. Low-dimensional semiconductor and metal nanostructures is the potential building blocks in compact photonic circuits for their unique electronic and optical properties. In this work, a hybrid metal-dielectric-semiconductor nanostructure is designed and fabricated to realizing a nano-scale optical waveguide beam splitter, which is constructed with the sandwiched structure of a single CdS nanoribbon/HfO2 thin film/Au nanodisk arrays. Micro-optical investigations reveal that the guided light outputting at the terminal end of the CdS ribbon is well separated into several light spots. Numerical simulations further demonstrate that the beam splitting mechanism is attributed to the strong electromagnetic coupling between the Au nanodisks and light guided in the nanoribbon. The number of the split beams (light spots) at the terminal end of the nanoribbon is mainly determined by the number of the Au nanodisk rows, as well as the distance of the blank region between the nanodisks array and the end of the CdS ribbon, owing to the interference between the split beams. These optical beam splitters may find potential applications in high-density integrated photonic circuits and systems.

  4. Optical nano-structuring in light-sensitive AgCl-Ag waveguide thin films: wavelength effect.

    PubMed

    Talebi, Razieh; Nahal, Arashmid; Bashouti, Muhammad Y; Christiansen, Silke H

    2014-12-15

    Irradiation of photosensitive thin films results in the nanostructures formation in the interaction area. Here, we investigate how the formation of nanostructures in photosensitive waveguide AgCl thin films, doped by Ag nanoparticles, can be customized by tuning the wavelength of the incident beam. We found, silver nanoparticles are pushed towards the interference pattern minima created by the interference of the incident beam with the excited TEn-modes of the AgCl-Ag waveguide. The interference pattern determines the grating constant of the resulting spontaneous periodic nanostructures. Also, our studies indicate a strong dependence of the shape and size distribution of the formed Ag nano-coalescences on the wavelength of the incident beam. It also influences on the surface coverage of the sample by the formed silver nanoparticles and on period of the self-organized nano-gratings. It is found, exposure time and intensity of the incident light are the most determinant parameters for the quality and finesse of our nanostructures. More intense incident light with shorter exposure time generates more regular nanostructures with smaller nano-coalescences and, produces gratings with higher diffraction efficiency. At constant intensity longer exposure time produces more complete nanostructures because of optical positive feedback. We observed exposure with longer wavelength produces finer gratings.

  5. Surface Plasmon Propagation in Nanostructured Metallic Waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calm, Y. M.; Merlo, J. M.; Rose, A. H.; Nesbitt, N. T.; Boyce, A. M.; McMahon, G.; Burns, M. J.; Kempa, K.; Naughton, M. J.

    2015-03-01

    Visible frequencies of light can be routed on subwavelength scales with nanostructured, metallic waveguides by coupling optical energy to surface plasmon (SP) modes at a metal-insulator interface. Epitaxially-grown Ag nanowires and nanocoaxes provide a low-loss, ``model'' system to characterize the propagation of SP waves. We have studied these structures by electron, focused ion, scanning probe, and optical microscopies, and have observed propagation lengths exceeding 15λvac with confinement on the order of 0 . 07(λvac) 2 . Experimental efforts towards lithographically-fabricated metal-insulator-metal waveguides are discussed. Finally, an architecture for a nanocoax-based optical microscope, which extracts near-field (evanescent) information and propagates it into the far-field, is presented. Supported by the W.M. Keck Foundation.

  6. Compound semiconductor optical waveguide switch

    DOEpatents

    Spahn, Olga B.; Sullivan, Charles T.; Garcia, Ernest J.

    2003-06-10

    An optical waveguide switch is disclosed which is formed from III-V compound semiconductors and which has a moveable optical waveguide with a cantilevered portion that can be bent laterally by an integral electrostatic actuator to route an optical signal (i.e. light) between the moveable optical waveguide and one of a plurality of fixed optical waveguides. A plurality of optical waveguide switches can be formed on a common substrate and interconnected to form an optical switching network.

  7. Planar waveguide optical immunosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choquette, Steven J.; Locascio-Brown, Laurie E.; Durst, Richard A.

    1991-03-01

    Monoclonal antibodies were covalently bonded to the surfaces of planar waveguides to confer immunoreacth''ity. Silver-ion diffused waveguides were used to measure theophylline concentrations in a fluorescence immunoassay and silicon nitride waveguides were used to detect theophylline in an absorbance-based immunoassay. Liposomes were employed in both assays as the optically detectable label in a competitive reaction to monitor antigen-antibody complexation. Regeneration of the active antibody site will be discussed.

  8. Biperiodic nanostructured waveguides for wavelength-selectivity of hybrid photonic devices.

    PubMed

    Talneau, A; Pommarède, X; Itawi, A; Pantzas, K; Lupu, A; Benisty, H

    2015-11-15

    A biperiodic nanostructuration consisting of a super-periodicity added to a nanohole lattice of subwavelength pitch is demonstrated to provide both modal confinement and wavelength selectivity within a hybrid III-V on a silicon waveguide. The wavelength-selective behavior stems from finely tuned larger holes. Such biperiodic hybrid waveguides have been fabricated by oxide-free bonding III-V material on silicon and display well-defined stop bands. Such nanostructured waveguides offer the versatility for designing advanced optical functions within hybrid devices. Moreover, keeping the silicon waveguide surface planar, such nanostructured waveguides are compatible with electrical operation across the oxide-free hybrid interface.

  9. Actively coupled optical waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexeeva, N. V.; Barashenkov, I. V.; Rayanov, K.; Flach, S.

    2014-01-01

    We consider light propagation through a pair of nonlinear optical waveguides with absorption, placed in a medium with power gain. The active medium boosts the in-phase component of the overlapping evanescent fields of the guides, while the nonlinearity of the guides couples it to the damped out-of-phase component creating a feedback loop. As a result, the structure exhibits stable stationary and oscillatory regimes in a wide range of gain-loss ratios. We show that the pair of actively coupled (AC) waveguides can act as a stationary or integrate-and-fire comparator sensitive to tiny differences in their input powers.

  10. Effects of stabilizer ratio on structural, morphological, optical and waveguide properties of ZnO nano-structured thin films by a sol-gel process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodja, S.; Touam, T.; Chelouche, A.; Boudjouan, F.; Djouadi, D.; Hadjoub, Z.; Fischer, A.; Boudrioua, A.

    2014-11-01

    We report an experimental study on the synthesis and characterization of sol-gel zinc oxide (ZnO) nano-structured thin films. The effect of different monoethanolamine (MEA) to zinc acetate (ZnAc) molar ratios on the microstructure, surface morphology and optical transmittance were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometry. Waveguide properties such as propagating modes and optical losses were also measured at 632.8 nm wavelength by M-lines spectroscopy (MLS). XRD spectra have shown that all the thin films are polycrystalline wurtzite hexagonal structure and exhibit higher c-axis preferred orientation (0 0 2) as stabilizer molar ratio increases. SEM micrographs and AFM images have revealed that morphology and surface roughness are affected by the stabilizer molar ratio. The UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy analyses have shown that all the thin films were transparent in the visible region with an average transmittance ranging from 70% to 90%, while in the infrared one, it exceeds 80%. The obtained results from MLS measurements have also shown that all ZnO thin film optical waveguides are single mode and the ones deposited at stabilizer molar ratio of 1.50 have demonstrated for the first time optical loss of less than 1.0 dB/cm.

  11. Waveguide optical microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egorov, Alexandre A.

    1997-08-01

    The theoretical aspects of the light scattering on the statistical irregularities of the planar optical waveguide are described. The analysis of direct and inverse light scattering problems is accomplished. The theoretical investigation predicts: the lateral resolution can attain approximately 20 nm and the vertical resolution (in rms height) can attain approximately 1 angstrom. The limiting lateral resolution is a approximately 15-times less than Abbe's diffraction limit. Thus the superresolution may be accomplished by the waveguide optical microscopy (WOM). The increasing of WOM's resolution depends on a-priori information of the irregularities and on a sufficiently high signal-to-noise ratio. A possible using of WOM for bioecological researchers has been mentioned.

  12. Integrated optic waveguide devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramer, O. G.

    1980-01-01

    Integrated optic waveguide circuits with a phase bias and modulator on the same chip were designed, fabricated, and tested for use in a fiber-optic rotation sensor (gyro) under development. Single mode fiber-optic pigtails were permanently coupled to the four ports of the chip. The switch format was based on coherent coupling between waveguides formed in Z-cut LiNbO3. The control of the coupling was achieved by electro-optically varying the phase propagation constants of each guide. Fiber-to-chip interfacing required the development of appropriate fixturing and manipulation techniques to achieve the close tolerance needed for high coupling efficiency between a fiber with an approximately 5 micron m core and a channel guide with a roughly 2 micron m by 5 micron m cross section. Switch and chip performance at 0.85 micron m is discussed as well as potential improvements related to insertion loss reduction, switching voltages, and suppression of Li2O out-diffusion.

  13. Fluorinated polyimides for optical waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, S.

    1996-10-01

    Polymeric optical materials are expected to be used for optical communication components, such as optical waveguides in multichip interconnections, mainly because of their good processability. However, conventional polymeric optical materials, such as poly(methyl methacrylate) and polycarbonate, have poor thermal stability, and conventional thermally stable polyimides do not have the transparency and controllable refractive indices needed in optical materials. A new optical polymer needs to be developed that has both thermal stability and good optical properties. Therefore we have been investigating fluorinated polyimides for optical communication components. This paper reports on properties of our fluorinated polyimides and fabrication of optical waveguides using these polyimides.

  14. Low Loss Nanostructured Polymers for Chip-scale Waveguide Amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Chen, George F R; Zhao, Xinyu; Sun, Yang; He, Chaobin; Tan, Mei Chee; Tan, Dawn T H

    2017-06-13

    On-chip waveguide amplifiers offer higher gain in small device sizes and better integration with photonic devices than the commonly available fiber amplifiers. However, on-chip amplifiers have yet to make its way into the mainstream due to the limited availability of materials with ideal light guiding and amplification properties. A low-loss nanostructured on-chip channel polymeric waveguide amplifier was designed, characterized, fabricated and its gain experimentally measured at telecommunication wavelength. The active polymeric waveguide core comprises of NaYF4:Yb,Er,Ce core-shell nanocrystals dispersed within a SU8 polymer, where the nanoparticle interfacial characteristics were tailored using hydrolyzed polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane-graft-poly(methyl methacrylate) to improve particle dispersion. Both the enhanced IR emission intensity from our nanocrystals using a tri-dopant scheme and the reduced scattering losses from our excellent particle dispersion at a high solid loading of 6.0 vol% contributed to the outstanding optical performance of our polymeric waveguide. We achieved one of the highest reported gain of 6.6 dB/cm using a relatively low coupled pump power of 80 mW. These polymeric waveguide amplifiers offer greater promise for integrated optical circuits due to their processability and integration advantages which will play a key role in the emerging areas of flexible communication and optoelectronic devices.

  15. Optical Waveguide Scattering Reduction. II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    FAD-AOAR 815 BATTELLEWCOLUMBUS LABS ON F/S 20/6 OPTICAL WAVEGUIDE SCATTER ING REDUC TION. II.(U) 7 DEC 80 0 W VAHEY, N F HARTMAN, R C SHERMAN F3361... OPTICAL WAVEGUIDE SCATTERING REDUCTION II M BATTELLE COLUMBUS LABORATORIES 505 KING AVENUE COLUMBUS, OHIO 43201 DTIC ELECTEf MAY 12 198111 December...reviewed and is approved for publication. DOUGLAS AWIWILLE, Project Engineer KENNETH R. HUTCHINSON, Chief Electro- Optics Techniques and Electro- Optics

  16. Resonantly Enhanced Emission from a Luminescent Nanostructured Waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inada, Yasuhisa; Hashiya, Akira; Nitta, Mitsuru; Tomita, Shogo; Tsujimoto, Akira; Suzuki, Masa-Aki; Yamaki, Takeyuki; Hirasawa, Taku

    2016-09-01

    Controlling the characteristics of photon emission represents a significant challenge for both fundamental science and device technologies. Research on microcavities, photonic crystals, and plasmonic nanocavities has focused on controlling spontaneous emission by way of designing a resonant structure around the emitter to modify the local density of photonic states. In this work, we demonstrate resonantly enhanced emission using luminescent nanostructured waveguide resonance (LUNAR). Our concept is based on coupling between emitters in the luminescent waveguide and a resonant waveguide mode that interacts with a periodic nanostructure and hence outcouples via diffraction. We show that the enhancement of resonance emission can be controlled by tuning the design parameters. We also demonstrate that the enhanced emission is attributable to the accelerated spontaneous emission rate that increases the probability of photon emission in the resonant mode, accompanied by enhanced the local density of photonic states. This study demonstrates that nanostructured luminescent materials can be designed to exhibit functional and enhanced emission. We anticipate that our concept will be used to improve the performance of a variety of photonic and optical applications ranging from bio/chemical sensors to lighting, displays and projectors.

  17. Resonantly Enhanced Emission from a Luminescent Nanostructured Waveguide

    PubMed Central

    Inada, Yasuhisa; Hashiya, Akira; Nitta, Mitsuru; Tomita, Shogo; Tsujimoto, Akira; Suzuki, Masa-aki; Yamaki, Takeyuki; Hirasawa, Taku

    2016-01-01

    Controlling the characteristics of photon emission represents a significant challenge for both fundamental science and device technologies. Research on microcavities, photonic crystals, and plasmonic nanocavities has focused on controlling spontaneous emission by way of designing a resonant structure around the emitter to modify the local density of photonic states. In this work, we demonstrate resonantly enhanced emission using luminescent nanostructured waveguide resonance (LUNAR). Our concept is based on coupling between emitters in the luminescent waveguide and a resonant waveguide mode that interacts with a periodic nanostructure and hence outcouples via diffraction. We show that the enhancement of resonance emission can be controlled by tuning the design parameters. We also demonstrate that the enhanced emission is attributable to the accelerated spontaneous emission rate that increases the probability of photon emission in the resonant mode, accompanied by enhanced the local density of photonic states. This study demonstrates that nanostructured luminescent materials can be designed to exhibit functional and enhanced emission. We anticipate that our concept will be used to improve the performance of a variety of photonic and optical applications ranging from bio/chemical sensors to lighting, displays and projectors. PMID:27682993

  18. Strong coupling of diffraction coupled plasmons and optical waveguide modes in gold stripe-dielectric nanostructures at telecom wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Philip A; Auton, Gregory H; Kundys, Dmytro; Grigorenko, Alexander N; Kravets, Vasyl G

    2017-03-24

    We propose a hybrid plasmonic device consisting of a planar dielectric waveguide covering a gold nanostripe array fabricated on a gold film and investigate its guiding properties at telecom wavelengths. The fundamental modes of a hybrid device and their dependence on the key geometric parameters are studied. A communication length of 250 μm was achieved for both the TM and TE guided modes at telecom wavelengths. Due to the difference between the TM and TE light propagation associated with the diffractive plasmon excitation, our waveguides provide polarization separation. Our results suggest a practical way of fabricating metal-nanostripes-dielectric waveguides that can be used as essential elements in optoelectronic circuits.

  19. Strong coupling of diffraction coupled plasmons and optical waveguide modes in gold stripe-dielectric nanostructures at telecom wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Philip A.; Auton, Gregory H.; Kundys, Dmytro; Grigorenko, Alexander N.; Kravets, Vasyl G.

    2017-03-01

    We propose a hybrid plasmonic device consisting of a planar dielectric waveguide covering a gold nanostripe array fabricated on a gold film and investigate its guiding properties at telecom wavelengths. The fundamental modes of a hybrid device and their dependence on the key geometric parameters are studied. A communication length of 250 μm was achieved for both the TM and TE guided modes at telecom wavelengths. Due to the difference between the TM and TE light propagation associated with the diffractive plasmon excitation, our waveguides provide polarization separation. Our results suggest a practical way of fabricating metal-nanostripes-dielectric waveguides that can be used as essential elements in optoelectronic circuits.

  20. Temporal waveguides for optical pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Plansinis, Brent W.; Donaldson, William R.; Agrawal, Govind P.

    2016-05-12

    Here we discuss, temporal total internal reflection (TIR), in analogy to the conventional TIR of an optical beam at a dielectric interface, is the total reflection of an optical pulse inside a dispersive medium at a temporal boundary across which the refractive index changes. A pair of such boundaries separated in time acts as the temporal analog of planar dielectric waveguides. We study the propagation of optical pulses inside such temporal waveguides, both analytically and numerically, and show that the waveguide supports a finite number of temporal modes. We also discuss how a single-mode temporal waveguide can be created in practice. In contrast with the spatial case, the confinement can occur even when the central region has a lower refractive index.

  1. Temporal waveguides for optical pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Plansinis, Brent W.; Donaldson, William R.; Agrawal, Govind P.

    2016-05-12

    Here we discuss, temporal total internal reflection (TIR), in analogy to the conventional TIR of an optical beam at a dielectric interface, is the total reflection of an optical pulse inside a dispersive medium at a temporal boundary across which the refractive index changes. A pair of such boundaries separated in time acts as the temporal analog of planar dielectric waveguides. We study the propagation of optical pulses inside such temporal waveguides, both analytically and numerically, and show that the waveguide supports a finite number of temporal modes. We also discuss how a single-mode temporal waveguide can be created in practice. In contrast with the spatial case, the confinement can occur even when the central region has a lower refractive index.

  2. Temporal waveguides for optical pulses

    DOE PAGES

    Plansinis, Brent W.; Donaldson, William R.; Agrawal, Govind P.

    2016-05-12

    Here we discuss, temporal total internal reflection (TIR), in analogy to the conventional TIR of an optical beam at a dielectric interface, is the total reflection of an optical pulse inside a dispersive medium at a temporal boundary across which the refractive index changes. A pair of such boundaries separated in time acts as the temporal analog of planar dielectric waveguides. We study the propagation of optical pulses inside such temporal waveguides, both analytically and numerically, and show that the waveguide supports a finite number of temporal modes. We also discuss how a single-mode temporal waveguide can be created inmore » practice. In contrast with the spatial case, the confinement can occur even when the central region has a lower refractive index.« less

  3. Strong coupling of diffraction coupled plasmons and optical waveguide modes in gold stripe-dielectric nanostructures at telecom wavelengths

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Philip A.; Auton, Gregory H.; Kundys, Dmytro; Grigorenko, Alexander N.; Kravets, Vasyl G.

    2017-01-01

    We propose a hybrid plasmonic device consisting of a planar dielectric waveguide covering a gold nanostripe array fabricated on a gold film and investigate its guiding properties at telecom wavelengths. The fundamental modes of a hybrid device and their dependence on the key geometric parameters are studied. A communication length of 250 μm was achieved for both the TM and TE guided modes at telecom wavelengths. Due to the difference between the TM and TE light propagation associated with the diffractive plasmon excitation, our waveguides provide polarization separation. Our results suggest a practical way of fabricating metal-nanostripes-dielectric waveguides that can be used as essential elements in optoelectronic circuits. PMID:28338060

  4. Omnidirectional optical waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Bora, Mihail; Bond, Tiziana C.

    2016-08-02

    In one embodiment, a system includes a scintillator material; a detector coupled to the scintillator material; and an omnidirectional waveguide coupled to the scintillator material, the omnidirectional waveguide comprising: a plurality of first layers comprising one or more materials having a refractive index in a first range; and a plurality of second layers comprising one or more materials having a refractive index in a second range, the second range being lower than the first range, a plurality of interfaces being defined between alternating ones of the first and second layers. In another embodiment, a method includes depositing alternating layers of a material having a relatively high refractive index and a material having a relatively low refractive index on a substrate to form an omnidirectional waveguide; and coupling the omnidirectional waveguide to at least one surface of a scintillator material.

  5. Optical waveguides for chemical sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, Lloyd W.

    1992-07-01

    Possibilities of employing thin film optical waveguides for chemical analysis are reviewed. Particular attention is given to the use of integrated or planar optical elements in sensors which may be applied to continuous or in situ monitoring in biomedical, environmental, and chemical processes.

  6. Loop coupled resonator optical waveguides.

    PubMed

    Song, Junfeng; Luo, Lian-Wee; Luo, Xianshu; Zhou, Haifeng; Tu, Xiaoguang; Jia, Lianxi; Fang, Qing; Lo, Guo-Qiang

    2014-10-06

    We propose a novel coupled resonator optical waveguide (CROW) structure that is made up of a waveguide loop. We theoretically investigate the forbidden band and conduction band conditions in an infinite periodic lattice. We also discuss the reflection- and transmission- spectra, group delay in finite periodic structures. Light has a larger group delay at the band edge in a periodic structure. The flat band pass filter and flat-top group delay can be realized in a non-periodic structure. Scattering matrix method is used to calculate the effects of waveguide loss on the optical characteristics of these structures. We also introduce a tunable coupling loop waveguide to compensate for the fabrication variations since the coupling coefficient of the directional coupler in the loop waveguide is a critical factor in determining the characteristics of a loop CROW. The loop CROW structure is suitable for a wide range of applications such as band pass filters, high Q microcavity, and optical buffers and so on.

  7. Thin heterogeneous optical silicon-on-insulator waveguides and their application in reconfigurable optical multiplexers

    SciTech Connect

    Tsarev, A V

    2008-05-31

    A new type of optical waveguides in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) nanostructures is proposed and studied. Their optical properties and the possibility of their application in tunable optical filters and reconfigurable multiplexers are discussed based on the results of numerical simulation by the BPM and FDTD methods. A new design of heterogeneous waveguide structures containing additional regions with a high concentration of free charge carriers in the form of a p-n junction, which are located at the edges of a multimode strip waveguide (the cross section of the silicon core being {approx}0.22x35 {mu}m), is proposed. This doping provides single-mode behaviour of the heterogeneous waveguide due to low optical losses in the fundamental mode and to enhanced losses in highest modes. Heterogeneous waveguides can be used for the fabrication of different photonic elements including new types of tunable optical filters and reconfigurable multiplexers based on the multireflection technology. (integral-optical elements)

  8. Optical waveguide tamper sensor technology

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, R.F.; Butler, M.A.; Sinclair, M.B.

    1997-03-01

    Dielectric optical waveguides exhibit properties that are well suited to sensor applications. They have low refractive index and are transparent to a wide range of wavelengths. They can react with the surrounding environment in a variety of controllable ways. In certain sensor applications, it is advantageous to integrate the dielectric waveguide on a semiconductor substrate with active devices. In this work, we demonstrate a tamper sensor based on dielectric waveguides that connect epitaxial GaAs-GaAlAs sources and detectors. The tamper sensing function is realized by attaching particles of absorbing material with high refractive index to the surface of the waveguides. These absorbers are then attached to a lid or cover, as in an integrated circuit package or multi-chip module. The absorbers attenuate the light in the waveguides as a function of absorber interaction. In the tamper indicating mode, the absorbers are placed randomly on the waveguides, to form a unique attenuation pattern that is registered by the relative signal levels on the photodetectors. When the lid is moved, the pattern of absorbers changes, altering the photodetector signals. This dielectric waveguide arrangement is applicable to a variety of sensor functions, and specifically can be fabricated as a chemical sensor by the application of cladding layers that change their refractive index and/or optical absorption properties upon exposure to selected chemical species. An example is found in palladium claddings that are sensitive to hydrogen. A description of designs and a basic demonstration of the tamper sensing and chemical sensing functions is described herein.

  9. Optical panel system including stackable waveguides

    DOEpatents

    DeSanto, Leonard; Veligdan, James T.

    2007-03-06

    An optical panel system including stackable waveguides is provided. The optical panel system displays a projected light image and comprises a plurality of planar optical waveguides in a stacked state. The optical panel system further comprises a support system that aligns and supports the waveguides in the stacked state. In one embodiment, the support system comprises at least one rod, wherein each waveguide contains at least one hole, and wherein each rod is positioned through a corresponding hole in each waveguide. In another embodiment, the support system comprises at least two opposing edge structures having the waveguides positioned therebetween, wherein each opposing edge structure contains a mating surface, wherein opposite edges of each waveguide contain mating surfaces which are complementary to the mating surfaces of the opposing edge structures, and wherein each mating surface of the opposing edge structures engages a corresponding complementary mating surface of the opposite edges of each waveguide.

  10. Optical panel system including stackable waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    DeSanto, Leonard; Veligdan, James T.

    2007-11-20

    An optical panel system including stackable waveguides is provided. The optical panel system displays a projected light image and comprises a plurality of planar optical waveguides in a stacked state. The optical panel system further comprises a support system that aligns and supports the waveguides in the stacked state. In one embodiment, the support system comprises at least one rod, wherein each waveguide contains at least one hole, and wherein each rod is positioned through a corresponding hole in each waveguide. In another embodiment, the support system comprises at least two opposing edge structures having the waveguides positioned therebetween, wherein each opposing edge structure contains a mating surface, wherein opposite edges of each waveguide contain mating surfaces which are complementary to the mating surfaces of the opposing edge structures, and wherein each mating surface of the opposing edge structures engages a corresponding complementary mating surface of the opposite edges of each waveguide.

  11. Biocompatible silk step-index optical waveguides

    PubMed Central

    Applegate, Matthew B.; Perotto, Giovanni; Kaplan, David L.; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G.

    2015-01-01

    Biocompatible optical waveguides were constructed entirely of silk fibroin. A silk film (n=1.54) was encapsulated within a silk hydrogel (n=1.34) to form a robust and biocompatible waveguide. Such waveguides were made using only biologically and environmentally friendly materials without the use of harsh solvents. Light was coupled into the silk waveguides by direct incorporation of a glass optical fiber. These waveguides are extremely flexible, and strong enough to survive handling and manipulation. Cutback measurements showed propagation losses of approximately 2 dB/cm. The silk waveguides were found to be capable of guiding light through biological tissue. PMID:26600988

  12. Integrated waveguide and nanostructured sensor platform for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, Stuart J.; Pollard, Michael E.; Oo, SweZin; Chen, Ruiqi; Kalsi, Sumit; Charlton, Martin D. B.

    2014-01-01

    Limitations of current sensors include large dimensions, sometimes limited sensitivity and inherent single-parameter measurement capability. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy can be utilized for environment and pharmaceutical applications with the intensity of the Raman scattering enhanced by a factor of 10. By fabricating and characterizing an integrated optical waveguide beneath a nanostructured precious metal coated surface a new surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy sensing arrangement can be achieved. Nanostructured sensors can provide both multiparameter and high-resolution sensing. Using the slab waveguide core to interrogate the nanostructures at the base allows for the emission to reach discrete sensing areas effectively and should provide ideal parameters for maximum Raman interactions. Thin slab waveguide films of silicon oxynitride were etched and gold coated to create localized nanostructured sensing areas of various pitch, diameter, and shape. These were interrogated using a Ti:Sapphire laser tuned to 785-nm end coupled into the slab waveguide. The nanostructured sensors vertically projected a Raman signal, which was used to actively detect a thin layer of benzyl mercaptan attached to the sensors.

  13. Fabrication Of Fiber-Optic Waveguide Coupler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goss, Willis; Nelson, Mark D.; Mclauchlan, John M.

    1989-01-01

    Technique for making four-port, single-mode fiber-optic waveguide couplers requires no critically-precise fabrication operations or open-loop processes. Waveguide couplers analogous to beam-splitter prisms. Essential in many applications that require coherent separation or combination of two waves; for example, for interferometric purposes. Components of optical waveguide coupler held by paraffin on microscope slide while remaining cladding of two optical fibers fused together by arc welding.

  14. Investigation of semiconductor clad optical waveguides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batchman, T. E.; Carson, R. F.

    1985-01-01

    A variety of techniques have been proposed for fabricating integrated optical devices using semiconductors, lithium niobate, and glasses as waveguides and substrates. The use of glass waveguides and their interaction with thin semiconductor cladding layers was studied. Though the interactions of these multilayer waveguide structures have been analyzed here using glass, they may be applicable to other types of materials as well. The primary reason for using glass is that it provides a simple, inexpensive way to construct waveguides and devices.

  15. Optical waveguide materials, structures, and dispersion modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao; Liu, Jiaming; Lin, Jian; Li, Wenxiu; Xue, Xia; Huang, Anping; Xiao, Zhisong

    2016-11-01

    Optical waveguide is used in most integrated optic devices to confine and guide light in higher refractive index channels. The structures and materials of slot waveguides are reviewed in this paper. Coupled resonator optical waveguides (CROWs) can be used for a rotation sensor with compact size, low power consumption and low cost. The loss determines the ultimate sensitivity of CROW gyros. Resonator-based optical gyroscope's sensitivity for measuring rotation is enhanced via using the anomalous dispersion characteristic of superluminal light propagation, which can be also generated by using passive optical resonators.

  16. A Simple Optical Waveguide Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, J.; Sambles, J. R.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a thin film rectangular dielectric waveguide and its laboratory use. Discusses the theory of uniaxial thin film waveguides with mathematical expressions and the laboratory procedures for a classroom experiment with diagrams. (Author/YP)

  17. A Simple Optical Waveguide Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, J.; Sambles, J. R.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a thin film rectangular dielectric waveguide and its laboratory use. Discusses the theory of uniaxial thin film waveguides with mathematical expressions and the laboratory procedures for a classroom experiment with diagrams. (Author/YP)

  18. All-optical switching in optically induced nonlinear waveguide couplers

    SciTech Connect

    Diebel, Falko Boguslawski, Martin; Rose, Patrick; Denz, Cornelia; Leykam, Daniel; Desyatnikov, Anton S.

    2014-06-30

    We experimentally demonstrate all-optical vortex switching in nonlinear coupled waveguide arrays optically induced in photorefractive media. Our technique is based on multiplexing of nondiffracting Bessel beams to induce various types of waveguide configurations. Using double- and quadruple-well potentials, we demonstrate precise control over the coupling strength between waveguides, the linear and nonlinear dynamics and symmetry-breaking bifurcations of guided light, and a power-controlled optical vortex switch.

  19. Integrated optical tamper sensor with planar waveguide

    DOEpatents

    Carson, Richard F.; Casalnuovo, Stephen A.

    1993-01-01

    A monolithic optical tamper sensor, comprising an optical emitter and detector, connected by an optical waveguide and placed into the critical entry plane of an enclosed sensitive region, the tamper sensor having a myriad of scraps of a material optically absorbent at the wavelength of interest, such that when the absorbent material is in place on the waveguide, an unique optical signature can be recorded, but when entry is attempted into the enclosed sensitive region, the scraps of absorbent material will be displaced and the optical/electrical signature of the tamper sensor will change and that change can be recorded.

  20. Integrated optical tamper sensor with planar waveguide

    DOEpatents

    Carson, R.F.; Casalnuovo, S.A.

    1993-01-05

    A monolithic optical tamper sensor, comprising an optical emitter and detector, connected by an optical waveguide and placed into the critical entry plane of an enclosed sensitive region, the tamper sensor having a myriad of scraps of a material optically absorbent at the wavelength of interest, such that when the absorbent material is in place on the waveguide, an unique optical signature can be recorded, but when entry is attempted into the enclosed sensitive region, the scraps of absorbent material will be displaced and the optical/electrical signature of the tamper sensor will change and that change can be recorded.

  1. Metamaterial Waveguide Devices for Integrated Optics.

    PubMed

    Amemiya, Tomohiro; Kanazawa, Toru; Yamasaki, Satoshi; Arai, Shigehisa

    2017-09-05

    We show the feasibility of controlling the magnetic permeability of optical semiconductor devices on InP-based photonic integration platforms. We have achieved the permeability control of GaInAsP/InP semiconductor waveguides by combining the waveguide with a metamaterial consisting of gate-controlled split ring resonators. The split-ring resonators interact magnetically with light travelling in the waveguide and move the effective relative permeability of the waveguide away from 1 at optical frequencies. The variation in permeability can be controlled with the gate voltage. Using this variable-permeability waveguide, we have built an optical modulator consisting of a GaInAsP/InP Mach-Zehnder interferometer for use at an optical communication wavelength of 1.55 μm. The device changes the permeability of its waveguide arm with controlling gate voltage, thereby varying the refractive index of the arm to modulate the intensity of light. For the study of variable-permeability waveguide devices, we also propose a method of extracting separately the permittivity and permeability values of devices from the experimental data of light transmission. Adjusting the permeability of optical semiconductors to the needs of device designers will open the promising field of 'permeability engineering'. Permeability engineering will facilitate the manipulation of light and the management of photons, thereby contributing to the development of novel devices with sophisticated functions for photonic integration.

  2. Metamaterial Waveguide Devices for Integrated Optics

    PubMed Central

    Kanazawa, Toru; Yamasaki, Satoshi; Arai, Shigehisa

    2017-01-01

    We show the feasibility of controlling the magnetic permeability of optical semiconductor devices on InP-based photonic integration platforms. We have achieved the permeability control of GaInAsP/InP semiconductor waveguides by combining the waveguide with a metamaterial consisting of gate-controlled split ring resonators. The split-ring resonators interact magnetically with light travelling in the waveguide and move the effective relative permeability of the waveguide away from 1 at optical frequencies. The variation in permeability can be controlled with the gate voltage. Using this variable-permeability waveguide, we have built an optical modulator consisting of a GaInAsP/InP Mach–Zehnder interferometer for use at an optical communication wavelength of 1.55 μm. The device changes the permeability of its waveguide arm with controlling gate voltage, thereby varying the refractive index of the arm to modulate the intensity of light. For the study of variable-permeability waveguide devices, we also propose a method of extracting separately the permittivity and permeability values of devices from the experimental data of light transmission. Adjusting the permeability of optical semiconductors to the needs of device designers will open the promising field of ‘permeability engineering’. Permeability engineering will facilitate the manipulation of light and the management of photons, thereby contributing to the development of novel devices with sophisticated functions for photonic integration. PMID:28872621

  3. Characterization of passive polymer optical waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joehnck, Matthias; Kalveram, Stefan; Lehmacher, Stefan; Pompe, Guido; Rudolph, Stefan; Neyer, Andreas; Hofstraat, Johannes W.

    1999-05-01

    The characterization of monomode passive polymer optical devices fabricated according to the POPCORN technology by methods originated from electron, ion and optical spectroscopy is summarized. Impacts of observed waveguide perturbations on the optical characteristics of the waveguide are evaluated. In the POPCORN approach optical components for telecommunication applications are fabricated by photo-curing of liquid halogenated (meth)acrylates which have been applied on moulded thermoplastic substrates. For tuning of waveguide material refractive indices with respect to the substrate refractive index frequently comonomer mixtures are used. The polymerization characteristics, especially the polymerization kinetics of individual monomers, determine the formation of copolymers. Therefore the unsaturation as function of UV-illumination time in the formation of halogenated homo- and copolymers has been examined. From different suitable copolymer system, after characterization of their glass transition temperatures, their curing behavior and their refractive indices as function of the monomer ratios, monomode waveguides applying PMMA substrates have been fabricated. To examine the materials composition also in the 6 X 6 micrometers 2 waveguides they have been visualized by transmission electron microscopy. With this method e.g. segregation phenomena could be observed in the waveguide cross section characterization as well. The optical losses in monomode waveguides caused by segregation and other materials induce defects like micro bubbles formed as a result of shrinkage have been quantized by return loss measurements. Defects causing scattering could be observed by convocal laser scanning microscopy and by conventional light microscopy.

  4. On-chip plasmonic waveguide optical waveplate.

    PubMed

    Gao, Linfei; Huo, Yijie; Zang, Kai; Paik, Seonghyun; Chen, Yusi; Harris, James S; Zhou, Zhiping

    2015-10-28

    Polarization manipulation is essential in almost every photonic system ranging from telecommunications to bio-sensing to quantum information. This is traditionally achieved using bulk waveplates. With the developing trend of photonic systems towards integration and miniaturization, the need for an on-chip waveguide type waveplate becomes extremely urgent. However, this is very challenging using conventional dielectric waveguides, which usually require complex 3D geometries to alter the waveguide symmetry and are also difficult to create an arbitrary optical axis. Recently, a waveguide waveplate was realized using femtosecond laser writing, but the device length is in millimeter range. Here, for the first time we propose and experimentally demonstrate an ultracompact, on-chip waveplate using an asymmetric hybrid plasmonic waveguide to create an arbitrary optical axis. The device is only in several microns length and produced in a flexible integratable IC compatible format, thus opening up the potential for integration into a broad range of systems.

  5. On-chip plasmonic waveguide optical waveplate

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Linfei; Huo, Yijie; Zang, Kai; Paik, Seonghyun; Chen, Yusi; Harris, James S.; Zhou, Zhiping

    2015-01-01

    Polarization manipulation is essential in almost every photonic system ranging from telecommunications to bio-sensing to quantum information. This is traditionally achieved using bulk waveplates. With the developing trend of photonic systems towards integration and miniaturization, the need for an on-chip waveguide type waveplate becomes extremely urgent. However, this is very challenging using conventional dielectric waveguides, which usually require complex 3D geometries to alter the waveguide symmetry and are also difficult to create an arbitrary optical axis. Recently, a waveguide waveplate was realized using femtosecond laser writing, but the device length is in millimeter range. Here, for the first time we propose and experimentally demonstrate an ultracompact, on-chip waveplate using an asymmetric hybrid plasmonic waveguide to create an arbitrary optical axis. The device is only in several microns length and produced in a flexible integratable IC compatible format, thus opening up the potential for integration into a broad range of systems. PMID:26507563

  6. On-chip plasmonic waveguide optical waveplate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Linfei; Huo, Yijie; Zang, Kai; Paik, Seonghyun; Chen, Yusi; Harris, James S.; Zhou, Zhiping

    2015-10-01

    Polarization manipulation is essential in almost every photonic system ranging from telecommunications to bio-sensing to quantum information. This is traditionally achieved using bulk waveplates. With the developing trend of photonic systems towards integration and miniaturization, the need for an on-chip waveguide type waveplate becomes extremely urgent. However, this is very challenging using conventional dielectric waveguides, which usually require complex 3D geometries to alter the waveguide symmetry and are also difficult to create an arbitrary optical axis. Recently, a waveguide waveplate was realized using femtosecond laser writing, but the device length is in millimeter range. Here, for the first time we propose and experimentally demonstrate an ultracompact, on-chip waveplate using an asymmetric hybrid plasmonic waveguide to create an arbitrary optical axis. The device is only in several microns length and produced in a flexible integratable IC compatible format, thus opening up the potential for integration into a broad range of systems.

  7. Electro-optic Waveguide Beam Deflector.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    beam deflection by variation in the electro - optic effect produced within the waveguide region in response to known or determinable magnitude variations in the electrical potential of an applied signal source.

  8. Optical pumping in a whispering-mode optical waveguide

    DOEpatents

    Kurnit, N.A.

    1981-08-11

    A device and method for optical pumping in a whispering mode optical waveguide are described. Both a helical ribbon and cylinder are disclosed which incorporate an additional curvature for confining the beam to increase intensity. An optical pumping medium is disposed in the optical path of the beam as it propagates along the waveguide. Optical pumping is enhanced by the high intensities of the beam and long interaction path lengths which are achieved in a small volume.

  9. Optical pumping in a whispering mode optical waveguide

    DOEpatents

    Kurnit, Norman A.

    1984-01-01

    A device and method for optical pumping in a whispering mode optical waveguide. Both a helical ribbon and cylinder are disclosed which incorporate an additional curvature for confining the beam to increase intensity. An optical pumping medium is disposed in the optical path of the beam as it propagates along the waveguide. Optical pumping is enhanced by the high intensities of the beam and long interaction pathlengths which are achieved in a small volume.

  10. Synergistically Enhanced Performance of Ultrathin Nanostructured Silicon Solar Cells Embedded in Plasmonically Assisted, Multispectral Luminescent Waveguides.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Min; Dhar, Purnim; Chen, Huandong; Montenegro, Angelo; Liaw, Lauren; Kang, Dongseok; Gai, Boju; Benderskii, Alexander V; Yoon, Jongseung

    2017-04-12

    Ultrathin silicon solar cells fabricated by anisotropic wet chemical etching of single-crystalline wafer materials represent an attractive materials platform that could provide many advantages for realizing high-performance, low-cost photovoltaics. However, their intrinsically limited photovoltaic performance arising from insufficient absorption of low-energy photons demands careful design of light management to maximize the efficiency and preserve the cost-effectiveness of solar cells. Herein we present an integrated flexible solar module of ultrathin, nanostructured silicon solar cells capable of simultaneously exploiting spectral upconversion and downshifting in conjunction with multispectral luminescent waveguides and a nanostructured plasmonic reflector to compensate for their weak optical absorption and enhance their performance. The 8 μm-thick silicon solar cells incorporating a hexagonally periodic nanostructured surface relief are surface-embedded in layered multispectral luminescent media containing organic dyes and NaYF4:Yb(3+),Er(3+) nanocrystals as downshifting and upconverting luminophores, respectively, via printing-enabled deterministic materials assembly. The ultrathin nanostructured silicon microcells in the composite luminescent waveguide exhibit strongly augmented photocurrent (∼40.1 mA/cm(2)) and energy conversion efficiency (∼12.8%) than devices with only a single type of luminescent species, owing to the synergistic contributions from optical downshifting, plasmonically enhanced upconversion, and waveguided photon flux for optical concentration, where the short-circuit current density increased by ∼13.6 mA/cm(2) compared with microcells in a nonluminescent medium on a plain silver reflector under a confined illumination.

  11. Resonant Optical Forces in Silicon Carbide Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dongfang; Zia, Rashid

    2012-02-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) materials are widely used for their exceptional electronic, mechanical, and thermal properties. For example, given its high stiffness to density ratio, SiC is an ideal material for mechanical resonators, and it has been explored for applications in nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). SiC also supports strong surface phonon-polariton resonances in the infrared region, which could enable its use for optomechanics. Similar to surface plasmon-polaritons supported by metal-dielectric interfaces, these surface waves at a SiC-vacuum interface can be used to guide and confine intense electromagnetic energy. Here, we investigate the resonant optical forces induced by phonon-polariton modes in different SiC nanostructures. Specifically, we calculate optical forces using the Maxwell Stress Tensor for three geometries: spherical particles, slab waveguides, and rectangular waveguides. We find that the high quality factor phonon-polariton modes in SiC can produce very large forces, more than two orders of magnitude larger than the plasmonic forces in similar metal nanostructures. These strong resonant forces, combined with its mechanical and thermal properties, make SiC a promising material for optomechanical applications.

  12. Forecast analysis of optical waveguide bus performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ledesma, R.; Rourke, M. D.

    1979-01-01

    Elements to be considered in the design of a data bus include: architecture; data rate; modulation, encoding, detection; power distribution requirements; protocol, work structure; bus reliability, maintainability; interterminal transmission medium; cost; and others specific to application. Fiber- optic data bus considerations for a 32 port transmissive star architecture, are discussed in a tutorial format. General optical-waveguide bus concepts, are reviewed. The electrical and optical performance of a 32 port transmissive star bus, and the effects of temperature on the performance of optical-waveguide buses are examined. A bibliography of pertinent references and the bus receiver test results are included.

  13. Evanescent field sensors and the implementation of waveguiding nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Boerner, Sandra; Orghici, Rozalia; Waldvogel, Siegfried R.; Willer, Ulrike; Schade, Wolfgang

    2009-02-01

    Conventional fiber optic evanescent-field gas sensors are based on a high number of total reflections while the gas is passing the active bare core fiber and of course a suitable laser light source. The use of miniaturized laser sources for sensitive detection of CO2 in gaseous and water-dissolved phase for environmental monitoring are studied for signal enhancing purposes. Additionally, the fiber optic sensor, consisting of a coiled bare multimode fiber core, was sensitized by an active polymer coating for the detection of explosive TNT. The implementation of ZnO waveguiding nanowires is discussed for surface and sensitivity enhancing coating of waveguiding elements, considering computational and experimental results.

  14. Optical waveguide device with an adiabatically-varying width

    DOEpatents

    Watts; Michael R. , Nielson; Gregory N.

    2011-05-10

    Optical waveguide devices are disclosed which utilize an optical waveguide having a waveguide bend therein with a width that varies adiabatically between a minimum value and a maximum value of the width. One or more connecting members can be attached to the waveguide bend near the maximum value of the width thereof to support the waveguide bend or to supply electrical power to an impurity-doped region located within the waveguide bend near the maximum value of the width. The impurity-doped region can form an electrical heater or a semiconductor junction which can be activated with a voltage to provide a variable optical path length in the optical waveguide. The optical waveguide devices can be used to form a tunable interferometer (e.g. a Mach-Zehnder interferometer) which can be used for optical modulation or switching. The optical waveguide devices can also be used to form an optical delay line.

  15. Flexible parylene-film optical waveguide arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagiwa, S.; Ishida, M.; Kawano, T.

    2015-08-01

    Modulation of neuronal activities by light [e.g., laser or light-emitting diode] using optogenetics is a powerful tool for studies on neuronal functions in a brain. Herein, flexible thin-film optical waveguide arrays based on a highly biocompatible material of parylene are reported. Parylene-C and -N thin layers with the different refractive indices form the clad and the core of the waveguide, respectively, and neural recording microelectrodes are integrated to record optical stimuli and electrical recordings simultaneously using the same alignment. Both theoretical and experimental investigations confirm that light intensities of more than 90% can propagate in a bent waveguide with a curvature radius of >5 mm. The proposed flexible thin-film waveguide arrays with microelectrodes can be used for numerous spherical bio-tissues, including brain and spinal cord samples.

  16. Waveguide optical isolator: a new design.

    PubMed

    Ando, K

    1991-03-20

    A new design of a thin film waveguide optical isolator is described. It is composed of a nonreciprocal mode converter by the Faraday effect, a reciprocal mode converter by the Cotton-Mouton effect, an integrated mirror, and TE-mode selectors. Its mode transfer matrices are derived. Numerical calculations show that wider tolerances of the film parameters and smaller dimensions are obtained compared with the ordinary tandem type waveguide isolators without the integrated mirror. This structure is free of the problem of the localized control of the directions of the magnetization, which has been required for the ordinary tandem type waveguide isolator.

  17. Waveguide-based optical chemical sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Grace, Karen M.; Swanson, Basil I.; Honkanen, Seppo

    2007-03-13

    The invention provides an apparatus and method for highly selective and sensitive chemical sensing. Two modes of laser light are transmitted through a waveguide, refracted by a thin film host reagent coating on the waveguide, and analyzed in a phase sensitive detector for changes in effective refractive index. Sensor specificity is based on the particular species selective thin films of host reagents which are attached to the surface of the planar optical waveguide. The thin film of host reagents refracts laser light at different refractive indices according to what species are forming inclusion complexes with the host reagents.

  18. Nonlinear optical coupler using a doped optical waveguide

    DOEpatents

    Pantell, Richard H.; Sadowski, Robert W.; Digonnet, Michel J. F.; Shaw, Herbert J.

    1994-01-01

    An optical mode coupling apparatus includes an Erbium-doped optical waveguide in which an optical signal at a signal wavelength propagates in a first spatial propagation mode and a second spatial propagation mode of the waveguide. The optical signal propagating in the waveguide has a beat length. The coupling apparatus includes a pump source of perturbational light signal at a perturbational wavelength that propagates in the waveguide in the first spatial propagation mode. The perturbational signal has a sufficient intensity distribution in the waveguide that it causes a perturbation of the effective refractive index of the first spatial propagation mode of the waveguide in accordance with the optical Kerr effect. The perturbation of the effective refractive index of the first spatial propagation mode of the optical waveguide causes a change in the differential phase delay in the optical signal propagating in the first and second spatial propagation modes. The change in the differential phase delay is detected as a change in the intensity distribution between two lobes of the optical intensity distribution pattern of an output signal. The perturbational light signal can be selectively enabled and disabled to selectively change the intensity distribution in the two lobes of the optical intensity distribution pattern.

  19. Nanowires and nanoribbons as subwavelength optical waveguides and their use as components in photonic circuits and devices

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Peidong; Law, Matt; Sirbuly, Donald J.; Johnson, Justin C.; Saykally, Richard; Fan, Rong; Tao, Andrea

    2012-10-02

    Nanoribbons and nanowires having diameters less than the wavelength of light are used in the formation and operation of optical circuits and devices. Such nanostructures function as subwavelength optical waveguides which form a fundamental building block for optical integration. The extraordinary length, flexibility and strength of these structures enable their manipulation on surfaces, including the precise positioning and optical linking of nanoribbon/wire waveguides and other nanoribbon/wire elements to form optical networks and devices. In addition, such structures provide for waveguiding in liquids, enabling them to further be used in other applications such as optical probes and sensors.

  20. Optical waveguide end roughness in correlation to optical coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruse, Kevin; Riegel, Nick; Demars, Casey; Middlebrook, Christopher; Roggemann, Michael

    2012-01-01

    With the ever-increasing demand for board-to-board optical data communications, the correlation between waveguide surface end roughness and coupling losses must be thoroughly investigated. This study measures end roughness of siloxane polymer optical waveguides in terms of optical coupling losses. Siloxane Polymers from Dow Corning were used to fabricate 50 x 50 μm rectangular waveguides through photolithographic processes. Edge roughness was controlled through various grades of fiber-optic polishing films and then measured using interferometric microscopy (IFM). Controlled lab results are compared with industrial polishing techniques that are consistent with mass-production methods. Electromagnetic modeling revealed correlations between experimental and theoretical results.

  1. Nonlinear optical interactions in silicon waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuyken, B.; Leo, F.; Clemmen, S.; Dave, U.; Van Laer, R.; Ideguchi, T.; Zhao, H.; Liu, X.; Safioui, J.; Coen, S.; Gorza, S. P.; Selvaraja, S. K.; Massar, S.; Osgood, R. M.; Verheyen, P.; Van Campenhout, J.; Baets, R.; Green, W. M. J.; Roelkens, G.

    2017-03-01

    The strong nonlinear response of silicon photonic nanowire waveguides allows for the integration of nonlinear optical functions on a chip. However, the detrimental nonlinear optical absorption in silicon at telecom wavelengths limits the efficiency of many such experiments. In this review, several approaches are proposed and demonstrated to overcome this fundamental issue. By using the proposed methods, we demonstrate amongst others supercontinuum generation, frequency comb generation, a parametric optical amplifier, and a parametric optical oscillator.

  2. Dispersive solitons in magneto-optic waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega-Guzman, Jose; Ullah, Malik Zaka; Asma, Mir; Zhou, Qin; Biswas, Anjan

    2017-03-01

    This paper obtains bright, dark and singular dispersive optical soliton solutions with magneto-optic waveguides. The governing equation is the coupled Schrödinger-Hirota equation. The existence criteria of these solitons are also presented. Both Kerr law and power law of nonlinearity are considered.

  3. Wideband Waveguide Acousto-Optic Bragg Cell.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The results of an effort to improve the performance specifications of acousto - optic Bragg cells are reported. Various configurations of multiple...would provide a 700 MHz acousto - optic bandwidth. Investigated were Bragg cells fabricated on Ti diffused LiNb03 waveguides as well as Ti diffused LiNb03

  4. Optical Waveguide Output Couplers Fabricated in Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Michael D.; Abushagur, Mustafa A. G.; Ashley, Paul R.; Johnson-Cole, Helen

    1998-01-01

    Waveguide output couplers fabricated in Norland Optical Adhesive (NOA) #81 and AMOCO Ultradel 9020D polyimide are investigated. The output couplers are implemented using periodic relief gratings on a planar waveguide. Design theory of the couplers is based on the perturbation approach. Coupling of light from waveguide propagation modes to output radiation modes is described by coupled mode theory and the transmission line approximation of the perturbed area (grating structure). Using these concepts, gratings can be accurately designed to output a minimum number of modes at desired output angles. Waveguide couplers were designed using these concepts. These couplers were fabricated and analyzed for structural accuracy, output beam accuracy, and output efficiency. The results for the two different materials are compared.

  5. A transparent nanostructured optical biosensor.

    PubMed

    He, Yuan; Li, Xiang; Que, Long

    2014-05-01

    Herein we report a new transparent nanostructured Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) device. The unique features of the nanostructured optical device can be summarized as the following: (i) optically transparent nanostructured optical device; (ii) simple and inexpensive for fabrication; (iii) easy to be fabricated and scaled up as an arrayed format. These features overcome the existing barriers for the current nanopore-based interferometric optical biosensors by measuring the transmitted optical signals rather than the reflected optical signals, thereby facilitating the optical testing significantly for the arrayed biosensors and thus paving the way for their potential for high throughput biodetection applications. The optically transparent nanostructures (i.e., anodic aluminum oxide nanopores) inside the FPI devices are fabricated from 2.2 microm thick lithographically patterned Al thin film on an indium tin oxide (ITO) glass substrate using a two-step anodization process. Utilizing the binding between Protein A and porcine immunoglobulin G (IgG) as a model, the detection of the bioreaction between biomolecules has been demonstrated successfully. Experiments found that the lowest detection concentration of proteins is in the range of picomolar level using current devices, which can be easily tuned into the range of femtomolar level by optimizing the performance of devices.

  6. Chalcogenide Glass Optical Waveguides for Infrared Biosensing

    PubMed Central

    Anne, Marie-Laure; Keirsse, Julie; Nazabal, Virginie; Hyodo, Koji; Inoue, Satoru; Boussard-Pledel, Catherine; Lhermite, Hervé; Charrier, Joël; Yanakata, Kiyoyuki; Loreal, Olivier; Le Person, Jenny; Colas, Florent; Compère, Chantal; Bureau, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    Due to the remarkable properties of chalcogenide (Chg) glasses, Chg optical waveguides should play a significant role in the development of optical biosensors. This paper describes the fabrication and properties of chalcogenide fibres and planar waveguides. Using optical fibre transparent in the mid-infrared spectral range we have developed a biosensor that can collect information on whole metabolism alterations, rapidly and in situ. Thanks to this sensor it is possible to collect infrared spectra by remote spectroscopy, by simple contact with the sample. In this way, we tried to determine spectral modifications due, on the one hand, to cerebral metabolism alterations caused by a transient focal ischemia in the rat brain and, in the other hand, starvation in the mouse liver. We also applied a microdialysis method, a well known technique for in vivo brain metabolism studies, as reference. In the field of integrated microsensors, reactive ion etching was used to pattern rib waveguides between 2 and 300 μm wide. This technique was used to fabricate Y optical junctions for optical interconnections on chalcogenide amorphous films, which can potentially increase the sensitivity and stability of an optical micro-sensor. The first tests were also carried out to functionalise the Chg planar waveguides with the aim of using them as (bio)sensors. PMID:22423209

  7. Single Mode Optical Waveguide Design Investigation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-10

    AD-AI04 584 CORNING GLASS WORKS NY F/G 20/6 SINGLE MODE OPTICAL WAVEGUIDE DESIGN INVESTIGATION. (7 N JUL 81 V A BHAGAVATJLA, R A WESTWIG. D B KECK...Contract N00173-8O-C-0563 / V. A./Bhagavatula R. A..Westwig D. B.!Keck Corning Glass Works Corning, New York H> July 1,0, 1981 CL 8m NA Single Mode Optical...Waveguide Design Inve-tigation Progress Report 3 1. Sumpry 1.1 ,A total of six fibers have been fabricated with parameters fitting the design matrix

  8. Resonant spatial tracking using nanostructured resonant waveguide grating for multispectral sensing by imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bougot-Robin, Kristelle; Cao, Wenbin; Li, Shunbo; Benisty, Henri; Wen, Weijia

    2016-04-01

    Resonant profile shift resulting from a change of resonant conditions is classically used for sensing, either liquid refractive index or immobilized biological layer effective thickness. Resonant waveguide gratings (RWG) allow sensing over a large spectral domain, depending on the materials and geometrical parameters of the grating. Profiles measurements usually involve scanning instrumentation. We recently demonstrated that direct imaging multi-assay RWGs sensing may be rendered more robust using spatial Fano profiles from "chirped" RWG chips. The scheme circumvents the classical but demanding scans: instead of varying angle or wavelength through fragile moving parts or special optics, a RWG structure parameter is varied. Our findings are illustrated with resonance profiles from nanostructured silicon nitride waveguide on glass. A sensitivity down to Δn=2x10-5 or biomolecules mass density of 10 pg/mm2 is demonstrated through theory and experiments. To assess different sensing wavelength, the period might also vary within the same chip support. We discuss guiding properties and sensing sensitivities of RWG sensing over the whole visible spectral range. Resonant profiles are analyzed using a correlation approach, correlating the sensed signal to a zero-shifted reference signal. This analysis was demonstrated to be more accurate than usual fitting, for analyzing signals including noise contribution. The current success of surface plasmon imaging suggests that our work could leverage an untapped potential to extend such techniques in a convenient and sturdy optical configuration. Moreover, extended spectral range sensing can be addressed by dielectric waveguide structures. This allows sensitive sensing of small volumes of analyte, which can be circulated close from the resonant waveguide. Together with the demonstration of highly accurate fits through correlation analysis, our scheme based on a "Peak-tracking chip" demonstrates a new technique for multispectral

  9. Ion beam irradiated optical channel waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bányász, I.; Rajta, I.; Nagy, G. U. L.; Zolnai, Z.; Havranek, V.; Pelli, S.; Veres, M.; Himics, L.; Berneschi, S.; Nunzi-Conti, G.; Righini, G. C.

    2014-03-01

    Nowadays, in the modern optical communications systems, channel waveguides represent the core of many active and passive integrated devices, such as amplifiers, lasers, couplers and splitters. Different materials and fabrication processes were investigated in order to achieve the aforementioned optoelectronic circuits with low costs and high performance and reproducibility. Nevertheless, the 2D guiding structures fabrication continues to be a challenging task in some of optical materials due to their susceptibility to mechanical and/or chemical damages which can occur during the different steps of the fabrication process. Here we report on channel waveguides demonstration in erbium doped Tungsten - Tellurite (Er3+:TeO2-WO3) glasses and BGO crystals by means of a masked ion beam and/or direct writing processes performed at different energy MeV and ions species. The evidence of the waveguides formation was investigated by microscopy techniques and micro Raman spectroscopy.

  10. Photonic nanowires: from subwavelength waveguides to optical sensors.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xin; Ying, Yibin; Tong, Limin

    2014-02-18

    Nanowires are one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures with comparatively large aspect ratios, which can be useful in manipulating electrons, photons, plasmons, phonons, and atoms for numerous technologies. Among various nanostructures for low-dimensional photonics, the 1D nanowire is of great importance owing to its ability to route tightly confined light fields in single-mode with lowest space and material requirements, minimized optical path, and high mechanical flexibilities. In recent years, nanowire photonics have increasingly been attracting scientists' interests for both fundamental studies and technological applications because 1D nanowires have more favorable properties than many other structures, such as 0D quantum dots (QDs) and 2D films. As subwavelength waveguides, free-standing nanowires fabricated by either chemical growth or physical drawing techniques surpass nanowaveguides fabricated by almost all other means in terms of sidewall smoothness and diameter uniformity. This conveys their low waveguiding losses. With high index contrast (typically higher than 0.5) between the core and the surrounding or with surface plasmon resonance, a nanowire can guide light with tight optical confinement. For example, the effective mode area is less than λ(2)/10 for a dielectric nanowire or less than λ(2)/100 for a metal nanowire, where λ is the vacuum wavelength of the light. As we increase the wavelength-to-diameter ratio (WDR) of a nanowire, we can enlarge the fractional power of the evanescent fields in the guiding modes to over 80% while maintaining a small effective mode area, which may enable highly localized near-field interaction between the guided fields and the surrounding media. These favorable properties have opened great opportunities for optical sensing on the single-nanowire scale. However, several questions arise with ongoing research. With a deep-subwavelength cross-section, how can we efficiently couple light into a single nanowire? How can we

  11. Nanostructured Substrates for Optical Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Kemling, Jonathan W.; Qavi, Abraham J.; Bailey, Ryan C.

    2011-01-01

    Sensors that change color have the advantages of versatility, ease of use, high sensitivity, and low cost. The recent development of optically based chemical sensing platforms has increasingly employed substrates manufactured with advanced processing or fabrication techniques to provide precise control over shape and morphology of the sensor micro- and nano-structure. New sensors have resulted with improved capabilities for a number of sensing applications, including the detection of biomolecules and environmental monitoring. This perspective focuses on recent optical sensor devices that utilize nanostructured substrates. PMID:22174955

  12. Waveguide Plasmon Resonance of Arrayed Metallic Nanostructures Patterned on a Soft Substrate by Direct Contact Printing Lithography.

    PubMed

    Su, Wei-Xiang; Wu, Chun-Ying; Lee, Yung-Chun

    2017-08-13

    This paper presents a direct contact printing method to obtain arrayed metallic nanostructures on a soft polymer substrate. It utilizes a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold replicated from silicon molds to transfer metallic nanopatterns onto a polymer substrate based on differences in interfacial bonding energy. Arrayed metallic nanodisks with a disk diameter down to 180 nm and a center-to-center pitch around 400 nm are experimentally patterned on a PET substrate. The patterned metallic nanostructures are then spin-coated with a polymer layer; which mechanically secures the patterned nanostructures and optically allows waveguide plasmon resonance being excited by incident EM waves. Both experimental works and theoretical modeling are given to illustrate the behaviors of different types of plasmon resonance. These arrayed metallic nanostructures patterned on a soft polymer substrate and their tunable optical characteristics open up many possibilities in future engineering applications.

  13. Gamma-ray irradiated polymer optical waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, C.-C.; Wei, T.-Y.; Chang, C.-Y.; Wang, W.-S.; Wei, Y.-Y.

    2008-01-14

    Optical waveguides fabricated by gamma-ray irradiation on polymer through a gold mask are presented. The gamma-ray induced index change is found almost linearly dependent on the dose of the irradiation. And the measured propagation losses are low enough for practical application. Due to the high penetrability of gamma ray, uniform refractive index change in depth can be easily achieved. Moreover, due to large-area printing, the uniformity of waveguide made by gamma-ray irradiation is much better than that by e-beam direct writing.

  14. Achromatic multiple beam splitting by adiabatic passage in optical waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangelov, Andon A.; Vitanov, Nikolay V.

    2012-05-01

    A variable achromatic optical beam splitter with one input and N output waveguide channels is introduced. The physical mechanism of this multiple beam splitter is adiabatic passage of light between neighboring optical waveguides in a fashion reminiscent of the technique of stimulated Raman adiabatic passage in quantum physics. The input and output waveguides are coupled via a mediator waveguide and the ratios of the light intensities in the output channels are controlled by the couplings of the respective waveguides to the mediator waveguide. Due to its adiabatic nature the beam splitting efficiency is robust to variations in the experimental parameters.

  15. Optical waveguide taps on silicon CMOS circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenger, Vincent E.; Beyette, Fred R., Jr.

    2000-11-01

    As silicon CMOS circuit technology is scaled beyond the GHz range, both chipmakers and board makers face increasingly difficult challenges in implementing high speed metal interconnects. Metal traces are limited in density-speed performance due to the skin effect, electrical conductivity, and cross talk. Optical based interconnects have higher available bandwidth by virtue of the extremely high carrier frequencies of optical signals (> 100 THz). For this work, an effort has been made to determine an optimal optical tap receiver design for integration with commercial CMOS processes. Candidate waveguide tap technologies were considered in terms of optical loss, bandwidth, economy, and CMOS process compatibility. A new device, which is based on a variation of the multimode interference effect, has been found to be especially promising. BeamProp simulation results show nearly zero excess optical loss for the design, and up to 70% coupling into a 25 micrometer traveling wave CMOS photodetector device. Single-mode waveguides make the design readily compatible with wavelength multiplexing/demultiplexing elements. Polymer waveguide materials are targeted for fabrication due to planarization properties, low cost, broad index control, and poling abilities for modulation/tuning functions. Low cost, silicon CMOS based processing makes the new tap technology especially suitable for computer chip and board level interconnects, as well as metro fiber-to-the- home/desk telecommunications applications.

  16. Surface phonon-polariton enhanced optical forces in silicon carbide nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongfang; Lawandy, Nabil M; Zia, Rashid

    2013-09-09

    The enhanced optical forces induced by surface phonon-polariton (SPhP) modes are investigated in different silicon carbide (SiC) nanostructures. Specifically, we calculate optical forces using the Maxwell stress tensor for three different geometries: spherical particles, slab waveguides, and rectangular waveguides. We show that SPhP modes in SiC can produce very large forces, more than one order of magnitude larger than the surface plasmon-polariton (SPP) forces in analogous metal nanostructures. The material and geometric basis for these large optical forces are examined in terms of dispersive permittivity, separation distance, and operating wavelength.

  17. NITINOL Interconnect Device for Optical Fiber Waveguides

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    LE EL,~NAVSEA REPORT NO. S27L~kV-NL 4P fNSWNC TR 81-129 1 JULY 1981 0 NITINOL INTERC&INECT DEVICE FOR OPTICAL FIBER WAVEGUIDES FINAL REPORT A...ACCESSION NO. 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER NSWC TR 81-129I 1-19 -A )ci , ’ 4 TI TL E (and Sbtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED NITINOL ... NITINOL Optical Fibers 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse side if neceeewy and identify by block number) Two different interconnect devices for optical

  18. Fabrication of hollow optical waveguides on planar substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, John P.

    This dissertation presents the fabrication of hollow optical waveguides integrated on planar substrates. Similar in principle to Bragg waveguides and other photonic crystal waveguides, the antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide (ARROW) is used to guide light in hollow cores filled with liquids or gases. Waveguides with liquid or gas cores are an important new building block for integrated optical sensors. The fabrication method developed for hollow ARROW waveguides makes use of standard microfabrication processes and materials. Dielectric layers are deposited on a silicon wafer using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) to form the bottom layers of the ARROW waveguide. A sacrificial core material is then deposited and patterned. Core materials used include aluminum, SU-8 and reflowed photoresist, each resulting in a different core geometry. Additional dielectric layers are then deposited, forming the top and sides of the waveguide. The sacrificial core is then removed in an acid solution, resulting in a hollow ARROW waveguide. Experiments investigating the mechanical strength of the hollow waveguides and the etching characteristics of the sacrificial core suggest design rules for the different core types. Integration of solid-core waveguides is accomplished by etching a ridge into the top dielectric layer of the ARROW structure. Improved optical performance can be obtained by forming the waveguides on top of a raised pedestal on the silicon substrate. Loss measurements on hollow ARROW waveguides fabricated in this manner gave loss coefficients of 0.26 cm-1 for liquid-core waveguides and 2.6 cm-1 for air-core waveguides. Fluorescence measurements in liquid-core ARROW waveguides have achieved single-molecule detection sensitivity. Integrated optical filters based on ARROW waveguides were fabricated, and preliminary results of a capillary electrophoresis separation device using a hollow ARROW indicate the feasibility of such devices for future

  19. Electro-optics laboratory evaluation: Deutsch optical waveguide connectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A description of a test program evaluating the performance of an optical waveguide connector system is presented. Both quality and effectiveness of connections made in an optical fiber, performance of the equipment used and applicability of equipment and components to field conditions are reviewed.

  20. Substrate cleaning for integrated optical waveguides.

    PubMed

    Brandt, G B; Supertzi, E P; Henningsen, T

    1973-12-01

    Losses in integrated optical waveguides depend upon the homogeneity of the guiding layer. Successful production of acceptable guides by sputtering or solution deposition depends critically on the methods used to clean the substrate. Cleaning methods that produce films adequate for ordinary coatings have proved inadequate for integrated optical films. The extreme cleanliness required to produce low-loss waveguides can be achieved by a process described in this paper, which utilizes a precleaning step in an ultrasonically agitated detergent bath followed by careful rinsing in an ultrasonically agitated bath of heated, deionized, and filtered water. In addition to the cleaning method, we discuss the design of a cleaning station that combines the necessary apparatus in a portable unit.

  1. Evanescent-wave bonding between optical waveguides.

    PubMed

    Povinelli, Michelle L; Loncar, Marko; Ibanescu, Mihai; Smythe, Elizabeth J; Johnson, Steven G; Capasso, Federico; Joannopoulos, John D

    2005-11-15

    Forces arising from overlap between the guided waves of parallel, microphotonic waveguides are calculated. Both attractive and repulsive forces, determined by the choice of relative input phase, are found. Using realistic parameters for a silicon-on-insulator material system, we estimate that the forces are large enough to cause observable displacements. Our results illustrate the potential for a broader class of optically tunable microphotonic devices and microstructured artificial materials.

  2. Computer Modeling for Optical Waveguide Sensors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-15

    COSATI CODES 18 SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse it necessary and cleritify by DIock numnerl FIEL GRUP SB-GOUP Optical waveguide sensors Computer...reflection. The resultant probe beam transmission may be plotted as a function of changes in the refractive index of the surrounding fluid medium. BASIC...all angles of incidence about the critical angle ecr. It should be noted that N in equation (3) is a function of e, since = sin - l sin 8 , see

  3. Precision molding techniques for optical waveguide devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalveram, Stefan; Neyer, Andreas

    1997-09-01

    Single-mode optical waveguide devices with integrated fiber- alignment grooves have been fabricated by injection molding of structured substrates and by subsequent filling of the waveguide channels with higher refractive index polymer. The master forms of the microstructures have been micro-machined channels with higher refractive index polymers. The master forms of the microstructures have been micro-machined in silicon. A special injection molding tool has been developed to yield plastic substrate chips with high surface planarity and replicated microstructures with details in the submicron range. Hot embossing is a further technology applied for the fabrication of large area waveguide devices with integrated mirrors, mainly intended for optical backplane applications. The hot embossing tool is driven on an injection molding machine which is a more cost effective method than the acquisition of conventional hot embossing equipment. In this paper, the injection molding as well as the hot embossing tool will be described together with the process and the results in the field of passive components for optical telecommunications and datacommunications.

  4. Reconfigurable optical assembly of nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montelongo, Yunuen; Yetisen, Ali K.; Butt, Haider; Yun, Seok-Hyun

    2016-06-01

    Arrangements of nanostructures in well-defined patterns are the basis of photonic crystals, metamaterials and holograms. Furthermore, rewritable optical materials can be achieved by dynamically manipulating nanoassemblies. Here we demonstrate a mechanism to configure plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs) in polymer media using nanosecond laser pulses. The mechanism relies on optical forces produced by the interference of laser beams, which allow NPs to migrate to lower-energy configurations. The resulting NP arrangements are stable without any external energy source, but erasable and rewritable by additional recording pulses. We demonstrate reconfigurable optical elements including multilayer Bragg diffraction gratings, volumetric photonic crystals and lenses, as well as dynamic holograms of three-dimensional virtual objects. We aim to expand the applications of optical forces, which have been mostly restricted to optical tweezers. Holographic assemblies of nanoparticles will allow a new generation of programmable composites for tunable metamaterials, data storage devices, sensors and displays.

  5. Reconfigurable optical assembly of nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Montelongo, Yunuen; Yetisen, Ali K; Butt, Haider; Yun, Seok-Hyun

    2016-06-23

    Arrangements of nanostructures in well-defined patterns are the basis of photonic crystals, metamaterials and holograms. Furthermore, rewritable optical materials can be achieved by dynamically manipulating nanoassemblies. Here we demonstrate a mechanism to configure plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs) in polymer media using nanosecond laser pulses. The mechanism relies on optical forces produced by the interference of laser beams, which allow NPs to migrate to lower-energy configurations. The resulting NP arrangements are stable without any external energy source, but erasable and rewritable by additional recording pulses. We demonstrate reconfigurable optical elements including multilayer Bragg diffraction gratings, volumetric photonic crystals and lenses, as well as dynamic holograms of three-dimensional virtual objects. We aim to expand the applications of optical forces, which have been mostly restricted to optical tweezers. Holographic assemblies of nanoparticles will allow a new generation of programmable composites for tunable metamaterials, data storage devices, sensors and displays.

  6. Reconfigurable optical assembly of nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Montelongo, Yunuen; Yetisen, Ali K.; Butt, Haider; Yun, Seok-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Arrangements of nanostructures in well-defined patterns are the basis of photonic crystals, metamaterials and holograms. Furthermore, rewritable optical materials can be achieved by dynamically manipulating nanoassemblies. Here we demonstrate a mechanism to configure plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs) in polymer media using nanosecond laser pulses. The mechanism relies on optical forces produced by the interference of laser beams, which allow NPs to migrate to lower-energy configurations. The resulting NP arrangements are stable without any external energy source, but erasable and rewritable by additional recording pulses. We demonstrate reconfigurable optical elements including multilayer Bragg diffraction gratings, volumetric photonic crystals and lenses, as well as dynamic holograms of three-dimensional virtual objects. We aim to expand the applications of optical forces, which have been mostly restricted to optical tweezers. Holographic assemblies of nanoparticles will allow a new generation of programmable composites for tunable metamaterials, data storage devices, sensors and displays. PMID:27337216

  7. waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauters, Jared F.; Adleman, James R.; Heck, Martijn J. R.; Bowers, John E.

    2014-08-01

    Planar waveguides with ultra-low propagation loss are necessary for integrating optoelectronic systems that require long optical time delay or narrowband optical filters. In this paper, we review an ultra-low loss planar waveguide platform that uses thin (<150 nm) Si3N4 cores and thick (>8 μm) SiO2 cladding layers. In particular, we discuss the performance of arrayed waveguide gratings (AWGs) fabricated with the platform. We propose the use of a practical design method that takes the statistical nature of worst-case crosstalk into account. We also demonstrate the measurement of amplitude and phase error distributions in an AWG using an optical backscatter reflectometer. We show that the waveguides have phase errors small enough to achieve AWG crosstalk below -30 dB, while crosstalk below -40 dB should also be possible with optimization of the component design.

  8. EDITORIAL: Nanostructures + Light = 'New Optics'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheludev, Nikolay; Shalaev, Vladimir

    2005-02-01

    Suddenly, at the end of the last century, classical optics and classical electrodynamics became fashionable again. Fields that several generations of researchers thought were comprehensively covered by the famous Born and Wolf textbook and were essentially dead as research subjects were generating new excitement. In accordance with Richard Feynman’s famous quotation on nano-science, the optical community suddenly discovered that 'there is plenty of room at the bottom'—mixing light with small, meso- and nano-structures could generate new physics and new mind-blowing applications. This renaissance began when the concept of band structure was imported from electronics into the domain of optics and led to the development of what is now a massive research field dedicated to two- and three-dimensional photonic bandgap structures. The field was soon awash with bright new ideas and discoveries that consolidated the birth of the 'new optics'. A revision of some of the basic equations of electrodynamics led to the suspicion that we had overlooked the possibility that the triad of wave vector, electric field and magnetic field, characterizing propagating waves, do not necessarily form a right-handed set. This brought up the astonishing possibilities of sub-wavelength microscopy and telescopy where resolution is not limited by diffraction. The notion of meta-materials, i.e. artificial materials with properties not available in nature, originated in the microwave community but has been widely adopted in the domain of optical research, thanks to rapidly improving nanofabrication capabilities and the development of sub-wavelength scanning imaging techniques. Photonic meta-materials are expected to open a gateway to unprecedented electromagnetic properties and functionality unattainable from naturally occurring materials. The structural units of meta-materials can be tailored in shape and size; their composition and morphology can be artificially tuned, and inclusions can be

  9. Formation of waveguide channels by dark spatial solitons in a planar waveguide optically induced in a lithium niobate crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Shandarov, V M; Shandarova, K V

    2005-10-31

    The formation of optical waveguide channels is experimentally demonstrated upon the photorefractive self-action of a phased light beam in a planar waveguide optically induced in an iron-doped lithium niobate crystal. Planar and channel waveguides were produced by using a 633-nm He-Ne laser with output powers 1 mW and {approx}10 {mu}W, respectively. (waveguides)

  10. Rotated waveplates in integrated waveguide optics.

    PubMed

    Corrielli, Giacomo; Crespi, Andrea; Geremia, Riccardo; Ramponi, Roberta; Sansoni, Linda; Santinelli, Andrea; Mataloni, Paolo; Sciarrino, Fabio; Osellame, Roberto

    2014-06-25

    Controlling and manipulating the polarization state of a light beam is crucial in applications ranging from optical sensing to optical communications, both in the classical and quantum regime, and ultimately whenever interference phenomena are to be exploited. In addition, many of these applications present severe requirements of phase stability and greatly benefit from a monolithic integrated-optics approach. However, integrated devices that allow arbitrary transformations of the polarization state are very difficult to produce with conventional lithographic technologies. Here we demonstrate waveguide-based optical waveplates, with arbitrarily rotated birefringence axis, fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses. To validate our approach, we exploit this component to realize a compact device for the quantum state tomography of two polarization-entangled photons. This work opens perspectives for integrated manipulation of polarization-encoded information with relevant applications ranging from integrated polarimetric sensing to quantum key distribution.

  11. Rotated waveplates in integrated waveguide optics

    PubMed Central

    Corrielli, Giacomo; Crespi, Andrea; Geremia, Riccardo; Ramponi, Roberta; Sansoni, Linda; Santinelli, Andrea; Mataloni, Paolo; Sciarrino, Fabio; Osellame, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Controlling and manipulating the polarization state of a light beam is crucial in applications ranging from optical sensing to optical communications, both in the classical and quantum regime, and ultimately whenever interference phenomena are to be exploited. In addition, many of these applications present severe requirements of phase stability and greatly benefit from a monolithic integrated-optics approach. However, integrated devices that allow arbitrary transformations of the polarization state are very difficult to produce with conventional lithographic technologies. Here we demonstrate waveguide-based optical waveplates, with arbitrarily rotated birefringence axis, fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses. To validate our approach, we exploit this component to realize a compact device for the quantum state tomography of two polarization-entangled photons. This work opens perspectives for integrated manipulation of polarization-encoded information with relevant applications ranging from integrated polarimetric sensing to quantum key distribution. PMID:24963757

  12. Optics of nanostructured dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiersma, D. S.; Sapienza, R.; Mujumdar, S.; Colocci, M.; Ghulinyan, M.; Pavesi, L.

    2005-02-01

    We discuss the optical transport properties of complex photonic structures ranging from ordered photonic crystals to disordered strongly-scattering materials, with particular focus on the intermediate regime between complete order and disorder. We start by giving an overview of the field and explain the important analogies between the transport of optical waves in complex photonic materials and the transport of electrons in solids. We then discuss amplifying disordered materials that exhibit random laser action and show how liquid crystal infiltration can be used to control the scattering strength of random structures. Also we discuss the occurrence of narrow emission modes in random lasers. Liquid crystals are discussed as an example of a partially ordered system and particular attention is dedicated to quasi-crystalline materials. One-dimensional quasi-crystals can be realized by controlled etching of multi-layer structures in silicon. Transmission spectra of Fibonacci type quasi-crystals are reported and the (self-similar) light distributions of the transmission modes at the Fibonacci band edge are calculated and discussed.

  13. Polysilane-based 3D waveguides for optical interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogura, Kouhei; Oka, Takeshi; Watanabe, Emi; Aoi, Kazunori; Tsushima, Hiroshi; Okano, Hiroaki; Suzuki, Shuji; Hiramatsu, Seiki

    2008-02-01

    We have been developing the optical waveguide for the multimode using the photo-bleaching property of polysilane. The refractive index of polysilane can be easily changed by exposing to UV light as photobleaching. Using this property, we can make waveguide with simple processes as spin coating, exposing and annealing. We found that this waveguide has thermal adhesive property with glass substrate. And we applied this feature to fabricate multilayered optical waveguides that have three-dimensional structure and can change the optical light at right angle.

  14. Reversible optical waveguide vapor sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, J. F.; Wohltjen, H.

    1985-04-01

    A device for detecting small amounts of a chemical such as ammonia, and other ammonia-like molecules such as hydrazine or pyridine, in air and in other gases is disclosed. A capillary tube serves as a multiple total reflective medium for an optical beam from a light-emitting diode. The outer surface of the capillary tube is coated with a dye which, when exposed to the chemical, changes color so that the multiply reflected light is modified. The resultant change in the output light intensity from the capillary tube is photodetected and recorded to sense the presence of the chemical. When the chemical is removed, the dye returns to its original color so that the device can be reused.

  15. Optical properties of silicon germanium waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Hammani, Kamal; Ettabib, Mohamed A; Bogris, Adonis; Kapsalis, Alexandros; Syvridis, Dimitris; Brun, Mickael; Labeye, Pierre; Nicoletti, Sergio; Richardson, David J; Petropoulos, Periklis

    2013-07-15

    We present a systematic experimental study of the linear and nonlinear optical properties of silicon-germanium (SiGe) waveguides, conducted on samples of varying cross-sectional dimensions and Ge concentrations. The evolution of the various optical properties for waveguide widths in the range 0.3 to 2 µm and Ge concentrations varying between 10 and 30% is considered. Finally, we comment on the comparative performance of the waveguides, when they are considered for nonlinear applications at telecommunications wavelengths.

  16. Single Mode Optical Waveguide Design Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-23

    AD-I7g62 CORNING GLASS WORKS NY FIG 20/6 ADA0 21 SINGLE MODE OPTICAL WAVEGUIDE DESIGN STUDY.(U) NOV 81 V A BHAGAVATJLA. D B KECK, R A WESTWIG N00173...Ralph A. Westwig Corning Glass Works ’ 1 / Research and Development-Division Sullivan Park Corning, New York Th document ha bern c -yro vd Spubc rlea...Authors: Venkata A. Bhagavatula Donald B. Keck Ralph A. Westwig Corning Glass Works Research and Development Division Sullivan Park Corning, New York 11

  17. Optical waveguides for evanescent field sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehouma, F.; Persegol, D.; Kevorkian, A.

    1994-09-01

    A novel method based on the control of the topography of the guide during its elaboration was presented. This new method aimed to contribute to the working principle of integrated-optics sensors. The proposed technique is easy to use and allows to bury different regions of ion-exchange waveguides selectively. The surface interaction length of the component and the losses of the structure can be controlled by the width and the tilt angle of the mask. Moreover, the method presented a combination of numerous advantages.

  18. Thermal limiting effects in optical plasmonic waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ershov, A. E.; Gerasimov, V. S.; Gavrilyuk, A. P.; Karpov, S. V.; Zakomirnyi, V. I.; Rasskazov, I. L.; Polyutov, S. P.

    2017-04-01

    We have studied thermal effects occurring during excitation of optical plasmonic waveguide (OPW) in the form of linear chain of spherical Ag nanoparticles by pulsed laser radiation. It was shown that heating and subsequent melting of the first irradiated particle in a chain can significantly deteriorate the transmission efficiency of OPW that is the crucial and limiting factor and continuous operation of OPW requires cooling devices. This effect is caused by suppression of particle's surface plasmon resonance due to reaching the melting point temperature. We have determined optimal excitation parameters which do not significantly affect the transmission efficiency of OPW.

  19. Optical properties of chiral nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecilia, Noguez; Román-Velázquez, Carlos E.; Garzón, Ignacio L.

    2004-03-01

    We present a computational model to study the optical properties chiral nanostructures[1] . In this work the nanostructures of interest are composed by N atoms, where each one is represented by a polarizable point dipole located at theposition of the atom. We assume that the dipole located is characterized by a polarizability. The nanostructure is excited by a circularly polarized incident wave, such that, each dipole is subject to a total electric field due to: (i) the incident radiation field, plus (ii) the radiation field resulting from all of the other induced dipoles. Once we solve the complex-linear equations, the dipole moment on each atom in the cluster can be determined and we can find the extinction cross section of the whole nanoparticle. Circular dichroism (CD) spectra of chiral bare and thiol-passivated gold nanoclusters have been calculated within the dipole approximation. The calculated CD spectra show features that allow us to distinguish between clusters with different indexes of chirality. The main factor responsible of the differences in the CD lineshapes is the distribution of interatomic distances that characterize the chiral cluster geometry. These results provide theoretical support for the quantification of chirality and its measurement, using the CD lineshapes of chiral metal nanoclusters. [1] C. E. Roman-Velazquez, et al., J. of Phys. Chem. B (Letter) 107, 12035 (2003) This work has been partly supported by DGAPA-UNAM grants No. IN104201 and IN104402, and by CONACyT grant 36651-E.

  20. Direct Wafer Bonding and Its Application to Waveguide Optical Isolators

    PubMed Central

    Mizumoto, Tetsuya; Shoji, Yuya; Takei, Ryohei

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the direct bonding technique focusing on the waveguide optical isolator application. A surface activated direct bonding technique is a powerful tool to realize a tight contact between dissimilar materials. This technique has the potential advantage that dissimilar materials are bonded at low temperature, which enables one to avoid the issue associated with the difference in thermal expansion. Using this technique, a magneto-optic garnet is successfully bonded on silicon, III-V compound semiconductors and LiNbO3. As an application of this technique, waveguide optical isolators are investigated including an interferometric waveguide optical isolator and a semileaky waveguide optical isolator. The interferometric waveguide optical isolator that uses nonreciprocal phase shift is applicable to a variety of waveguide platforms. The low refractive index of buried oxide layer in a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguide enhances the magneto-optic phase shift, which contributes to the size reduction of the isolator. A semileaky waveguide optical isolator has the advantage of large fabrication-tolerance as well as a wide operation wavelength range. PMID:28817020

  1. Polymeric waveguide prism-based electro-optic beam deflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Lin; Kim, Jin-ha; Jang, Chiou-Hung; An, Dechang; Lu, Xuejun; Zhou, Qingjun; Taboada, John M.; Chen, Ray T.; Maki, Jeffery J.; Tang, Suning; Zhang, Hua; Steier, William H.; Zhang, Cheng H.; Dalton, Larry R.

    2001-07-01

    Beam steering devices without moving parts are highly desirable for their potential application in emerging optical technologies such as holographic optical storage systems, all optical networks, and optical switches. We demonstrate a thin-film waveguide beam deflector device that consists of an electro-optic prism array within a polymer waveguide. An electrode structure defines the prism array within the planar waveguide. The deflection efficiency of 28 mrad/kV and the maximum deflection angle of +/- 8.4 mrad at +/- 300 V are obtained for this demonstration device. Further optimization of electrode-field poling and processing is likely to improve these results by at least an order of magnitude.

  2. Silicone polymer waveguide bridge for Si to glass optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruse, Kevin L.; Riegel, Nicholas J.; Middlebrook, Christopher T.

    2015-03-01

    Multimode step index polymer waveguides achieve high-speed, (<10 Gb/s) low bit-error-rates for onboard and embedded circuit applications. Using several multimode waveguides in parallel enables overall capacity to reach beyond 100 Gb/s, but the intrinsic bandwidth limitations due to intermodal dispersion limit the data transmission rates within multimode waveguides. Single mode waveguides, where intermodal dispersion is not present, have the potential to further improve data transmission rates. Single mode waveguide size is significantly less than their multimode counterparts allowing for greater density of channels leading to higher bandwidth capacity per layer. Challenges in implementation of embedded single mode waveguides within printed circuit boards involves mass production fabrication techniques to create precision dimensional waveguides, precision alignment tolerances necessary to launch a mode, and effective coupling between adjoining waveguides and devices. An emerging need in which single mode waveguides can be utilized is providing low loss fan out techniques and coupling between on-chip transceiver devices containing Si waveguide structures to traditional single mode optical fiber. A polymer waveguide bridge for Si to glass optical fibers can be implemented using silicone polymers at 1310 nm. Fabricated and measured prototype devices with modeling and simulation analysis are reported for a 12 member 1-D tapered PWG. Recommendations and designs are generated with performance factors such as numerical aperture and alignment tolerances.

  3. Optical design including characteristics of manufactured nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wächter, Christoph; Müller, Martin; Förster, Erik; Oliva, Maria; Michaelis, Dirk

    2013-09-01

    Micro- and nanostructures enable specific optical functionalities, which rely on diffractive effects or effective medium features, depending on pattern dimension and wavelength. Performance predictions of optical systems which make use of nanostructured materials require having an accurate description of these materials ready to hand within the optical design. At the one hand, nanostructure characteristics which result from rigorous electromagnetic modeling can be used for the optical design. At the other hand, manufactured nanostructures may deviate from their idealized geometry, which will affect the performance of the optical system, wherein these artificial structures will be used. Thus, detailed optical characterization of the micro- or nanostructure functionality is prerequisite for accurate optical design and performance prediction. To this end, several characterization techniques can be applied depending on the scope of the optical design, finally. We report on a general route to include all accessible and required optical information about the nanostructured material within a corresponding model of the nanostructure as a specific optical component which can be used within a ray-trace engine, finally. This is illustrated by a meta-material with asymmetric transmission properties in some more detail.

  4. Disorder-immune coupled resonator optical waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamilov, Alexey G.; Bertino, Massimo F.

    2007-02-01

    We demonstrate that a photonic lattice with short- and long-range harmonic modulations of the refractive index facilitates formation of flat photonic bands and leads to slow propagation of light. The system can be considered a coupled-resonator optical waveguide (CROW): photonic bands with abnormally small dispersion are created due to the interaction of long-lived states in the cavity regions via weak coupling across tunneling barriers. Unlike previous CROW implementations, the proposed structures can be fabricated with interference photolithography (holography), sidestepping the issue of resonator-to-resonator fluctuation of the system parameters. The proposed holography-based approach enables fabrication of arrays with a large number of coupled optical resonators, which is necessary for practical applications.

  5. Total longitudinal momentum in a dispersive optical waveguide.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jianhui; Chen, Chunyan; Zhai, Yanfang; Chen, Zhe; Zhang, Jun; Wu, Lijun; Huang, Furong; Xiao, Yi

    2011-12-05

    Using the Lorentz force law, we derived simpler expressions for the total longitudinal (conserved) momentum and the mechanical momentums associated with an optical pulse propagating along a dispersive optical waveguide. These expressions can be applied to an arbitrary non-absorptive optical waveguide having continuous translational symmetry. Our simulation using finite difference time domain (FDTD) method verified that the total momentum formula is valid in a two-dimensional infinite waveguide. We studied the conservation of the total momentum and the transfer of the momentum to the waveguide for the case when an optical pulse travels from a finite waveguide to vacuum. We found that neither the Abraham nor the Minkowski momentum expression for an electromagnetic wave in a waveguide represents the complete total (conserved) momentum. Only the total momentum as we derived for a mode propagating in a dispersive optical waveguides is the 'true' conserved momentum. This total momentum can be expressed as PTot = -U Die/(vg) + neff (U/c). It has three contributions: (1) the Abraham momentum; (2) the momentum from the Abraham force, which equals to the difference between the Abraham momentum and the Minkowski momentum; and (3) the momentum from the dipole force which can be expressed as -UDie/vg. The last two contributions constitute the mechanical momentum. Compared with FDTD-Lorentz-force method, the presently derived total momentum formula provides a better method in terms of analyzing the permanent transfer of optical momentum to a waveguide.

  6. Intensity-based readout of resonant-waveguide grating biosensors: Systems and nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulsen, Moritz; Jahns, Sabrina; Gerken, Martina

    2017-09-01

    Resonant waveguide gratings (RWG) - also called photonic crystal slabs (PCS) - have been established as reliable optical transducers for label-free biochemical assays as well as for cell-based assays. Current readout systems are based on mechanical scanning and spectrometric measurements with system sizes suitable for laboratory equipment. Here, we review recent progress in compact intensity-based readout systems for point-of-care (POC) applications. We briefly introduce PCSs as sensitive optical transducers and introduce different approaches for intensity-based readout systems. Photometric measurements have been realized with a simple combination of a light source and a photodetector. Recently a 96-channel, intensity-based readout system for both biochemical interaction analyses as well as cellular assays was presented employing the intensity change of a near cut-off mode. As an alternative for multiparametric detection, a camera system for imaging detection has been implemented. A portable, camera-based system of size 13 cm × 4.9 cm × 3.5 cm with six detection areas on an RWG surface area of 11 mm × 7 mm has been demonstrated for the parallel detection of six protein binding kinetics. The signal-to-noise ratio of this system corresponds to a limit of detection of 168 M (24 ng/ml). To further improve the signal-to-noise ratio advanced nanostructure designs are investigated for RWGs. Here, results on multiperiodic and deterministic aperiodic nanostructures are presented. These advanced nanostructures allow for the design of the number and wavelengths of the RWG resonances. In the context of intensity-based readout systems they are particularly interesting for the realization of multi-LED systems. These recent trends suggest that compact point-of-care systems employing disposable test chips with RWG functional areas may reach market in the near future.

  7. Nonlinear optical localization in embedded chalcogenide waveguide arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Mingshan; Huang, Sheng; Wang, Qingqing; Chen, Kevin P.; Petek, Hrvoje

    2014-05-15

    We report the nonlinear optical localization in an embedded waveguide array fabricated in chalcogenide glass. The array, which consists of seven waveguides with circularly symmetric cross sections, is realized by ultrafast laser writing. Light propagation in the chalcogenide waveguide array is studied with near infrared laser pulses centered at 1040 nm. The peak intensity required for nonlinear localization for the 1-cm long waveguide array was 35.1 GW/cm{sup 2}, using 10-nJ pulses with 300-fs pulse width, which is 70 times lower than that reported in fused silica waveguide arrays and with over 7 times shorter interaction distance. Results reported in this paper demonstrated that ultrafast laser writing is a viable tool to produce 3D all-optical switching waveguide circuits in chalcogenide glass.

  8. Waveguide ring resonator as integrated optics for rotation sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Quan'an; Zheng, Ludi; Ma, Xinyu; Zhang, Yanshen

    1996-09-01

    To obtain a micro optic rotation sensor (MORS), a passive ring resonator (PRR) based on channel waveguide was designed and investigated. The waveguide structure of the resonator includes a ring waveguide as well as two directional couplers. The theoretical resolution and transfer functions of the MORS are discussed, and the PRR parameters are determined. According to the sensitivity requirement, the PRR frequency detecting system is discussed, and different detecting schemes are compared.

  9. Controlled guidance of light through a flexible optical waveguide sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson-Smith, Chloë; Knopf, George K.; Bordatchev, Evgueni

    2016-03-01

    The controlled guidance of light rays through a mechanically flexible large area polymer optical waveguide sheet is investigated using Zemax OpticStudio software. The geometry and spatial distribution of micro-optical features patterned on the waveguide sheet determines whether the surface acts as a light concentrator or diffuser. To illustrate the concept, incident light is collected over a large center area and then transmitted to the border where it is emitted through an illumination window covered by an array of photo-cells. The efficiencies of the collector and illuminating regions of the hybrid PDMS collector-diffuser waveguide sheet are discussed. Initial analysis of the waveguide design demonstrates an ideal efficiency of over 90% for the concentrating region of the waveguide and over 80% efficiency for the diffusing region of the waveguide. The Zemax simulation of the ideal design of the hybrid concentrator-diffuser waveguide exhibited an efficiency of up to 75%. However this efficiency significantly decreased when examining the waveguide's performance as a flexible sheet. The necessary design modifications, to mitigate these losses in efficiency, are discussed, and future work will focus on analyzing and optimizing the waveguide design for performance as a fully flexible concentrator-diffuser membrane.

  10. Quantum Nonlinear Optics in Optomechanical Nanoscale Waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoubi, Hashem; Hammerer, Klemens

    2017-09-01

    We show that strong nonlinearities at the few photon level can be achieved in optomechanical nanoscale waveguides. We consider the propagation of photons in cm-scale one-dimensional nanophotonic structures where stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) is strongly enhanced by radiation pressure coupling. We introduce a configuration that allows slowing down photons by several orders of magnitude via SBS from sound waves using two pump fields. Slowly propagating photons can then experience strong nonlinear interactions through virtual off-resonant exchange of dispersionless phonons. As a benchmark we identify requirements for achieving a large cross-phase modulation among two counterpropagating photons applicable for photonic quantum gates. Our results indicate that strongly nonlinear quantum optics is possible in continuum optomechanical systems realized in nanophotonic structures.

  11. Optical Nyquist filters based on silicon coupled resonator optical waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ke; Sung, Jiun-Yu; Wong, Chi Yan; Cheng, Zhenzhou; Chow, Chi Wai; Tsang, Hon Ki

    2014-10-01

    We propose an integrated optical Nyquist filter based on silicon coupled resonator optical waveguides (CROW). The designed filter can shape the 28 Gbaud QPSK spectrum to a spectrum having 0.2 roll-off raised cosine shape with 6-dB bandwidth equals to the baud rate. The impact of the fabrication tolerance induced coupling coefficients error on the figure of merits of the filter is considered. The filter overall performance is investigated in a Nyquist-WDM system and compared with a 4th order super Gaussian filter.

  12. Nonlinear band gap transmission in optical waveguide arrays.

    PubMed

    Khomeriki, Ramaz

    2004-02-13

    The effect of nonlinear transmission in coupled optical waveguide arrays is theoretically investigated and a realistic experimental setup is suggested. The beam is injected in a single boundary waveguide, linear refractive index of which (n(0)) is larger than refractive indexes (n) of other identical waveguides in the array. Particularly, the effect holds if omega(n(0)-n)/c>2Q, where Q is a linear coupling constant between array waveguides, omega is a carrier wave frequency, and c is a light velocity. Numerical experiments show that the energy transfers from the boundary waveguide to the waveguide array above a certain threshold intensity of the injected beam. This effect is due to the creation and the propagation of gap solitons in full analogy with a similar phenomenon in sine-Gordon lattice [Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 134102 (2002)

  13. Net optical gain in a plasmonic waveguide embedded in a fluorescent polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gather, Malte C.; Meerholz, Klaus; Danz, Norbert; Leosson, Kristjan

    2010-07-01

    Plasmonics-the study of the interaction between electromagnetic waves and electron plasmas on metal surfaces and in metallic nanostructures-has received much attention in recent years, with potential new applications ranging from subwavelength photonic circuits to photothermal cancer therapy. In many cases, however, the substantial attenuation of the electromagnetic wave due to absorption (ohmic loss) in the metal is of serious concern. Introduction of optical gain into the dielectric material adjacent to the metal surface has been identified as a means of compensating for the absorption loss, but the experimental realization of lossless propagation or optical gain in plasmonic waveguides has proven elusive. Here, we demonstrate direct proof of plasmonic propagation with net positive gain over macroscopic distances. The gain is provided by an optically pumped layer of fluorescent conjugated polymer adjacent to the metal surface in a dielectric-metal-dielectric plasmonic waveguide.

  14. Vertically-tapered optical waveguide and optical spot transformer formed therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Bakke, Thor; Sullivan, Charles T.

    2004-07-27

    An optical waveguide is disclosed in which a section of the waveguide core is vertically tapered during formation by spin coating by controlling the width of an underlying mesa structure. The optical waveguide can be formed from spin-coatable materials such as polymers, sol-gels and spin-on glasses. The vertically-tapered waveguide section can be used to provide a vertical expansion of an optical mode of light within the optical waveguide. A laterally-tapered section can be added adjacent to the vertically-tapered section to provide for a lateral expansion of the optical mode, thereby forming an optical spot-size transformer for efficient coupling of light between the optical waveguide and a single-mode optical fiber. Such a spot-size transformer can also be added to a III-V semiconductor device by post processing.

  15. Interaction of optical waveguide modes with magnetostatic transverse surface eigenmodes in a channel yttrium iron garnet waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matyushev, V. V.; Stashkevich, A. A.; Lukyanov, A. I.

    1993-09-01

    The objective of this study was to experimentally investigate the peculiarities of the interaction of optical waveguide modes with surface magnetostatic wave (MSW) in a narrow channel waveguide. A 3-mm-wide yttrium iron garnet-gadolinium gallium garnet (YGG-GGG) layered structure was employed as a waveguide for MSW and optical waves. The ferrimagnetic layer was 3.8- micron thick. Due to isotropic prisms, the difference between the wave numbers of a TE and TM mode in a couple of optical waveguide modes were measured with high accuracy. The experiments were performed on four couples of optical waveguide modes: the zeroth, first, second, and third.

  16. Waveguide sensors for liquid using gapped optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, Kazutaka; Chiba, Keita

    2014-03-01

    A waveguide sensor using a gapped optical fiber for measurements of refractive index and absorptance of liquid has been theoretically investigated. The gap formed in the single mode optical fiber is filled with the liquid whose optical characteristics are to be measured. An optical loss of the gapped optical fiber depends on the refractive index and absorptance of the liquid in the gap. The optical loss becomes smaller with the refractive index of the liquid as the light beam greatly expands in the media with smaller refractive index because of diffraction. On the other hand, the optical loss becomes larger with the absorptance of the liquid. Therefore, the refractive index and absorptance can be measured by using two waveguide sensors with different gap width. In the previous work, we investigated the theoretical characteristics of the sensors by using the two-dimensional slab waveguide for simplification. In this work, we have derived an equation for evaluation of the optical losses by approximating the fundamental mode in the optical fiber by a Gaussian function for practical use. And we clearly show the relationship between the optical loss and the refractive index of liquid filled into the gap for various gapped optical waveguides. The optical loss more greatly changes in the gaped optical fiber in comparison with the gaped slab waveguide. We have designed a saccharimeter for the liquid with Brix scale 0-20% by using the gapped waveguide. For example, the optimum gap widths are evaluated as 1.8 mm for the spot sizes of 0.01 mm. We have also designed waveguide sensor for measurements of not only refractive index but also absorptance of liquid.

  17. Semiconductor hollow optical waveguides formed by omni-directional reflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Shih-Shou; Wang, Mou-Sian; Chen, Chii-Chang

    2004-12-01

    In this study, a hollow optical waveguide with omni-directional reflectors in silicon-based materials was design, fabricated and characterized. By using dry etching technique, plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition for Si/SiO2 thin films and covering another wafer with omni-directional reflector together, the waveguides can be formed with an air core of 1.2μm x 1.3μm. A uniform propagation loss of the waveguide to be around 1.7dB/cm for C+L band was found for the TE and TM modes. Polarization-independent hollow optical waveguides were obtained with the hollow waveguide structure.

  18. Optical properties of ZnO nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Djurisić, Aleksandra B; Leung, Yu Hang

    2006-08-01

    We present a review of current research on the optical properties of ZnO nanostructures. We provide a brief introduction to different fabrication methods for various ZnO nanostructures and some general guidelines on how fabrication parameters (temperature, vapor-phase versus solution-phase deposition, etc.) affect their properties. A detailed discussion of photoluminescence, both in the UV region and in the visible spectral range, is provided. In addition, different gain (excitonic versus electron hole plasma) and feedback (random lasing versus individual nanostructures functioning as Fabry-Perot resonators) mechanisms for achieving stimulated emission are described. The factors affecting the achievement of stimulated emission are discussed, and the results of time-resolved studies of stimulated emission are summarized. Then, results of nonlinear optical studies, such as second-harmonic generation, are presented. Optical properties of doped ZnO nanostructures are also discussed, along with a concluding outlook for research into the optical properties of ZnO.

  19. Raman scattering in a whispering mode optical waveguide

    DOEpatents

    Kurnit, Norman A.

    1982-01-01

    A device and method for Raman scattering in a whispering mode optical waveguide. Both a helical ribbon and cylinder are disclosed which incorporate an additional curvature .rho. p for confining the beam to increase intensity. A Raman scattering medium is disposed in the optical path of the beam as it propagates along the waveguide. Raman scattering is enhanced by the high intensities of the beam and long interaction path lengths which are achieved in a small volume.

  20. Slow Light in Coupled Resonator Optical Waveguides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Hongrok; Gates, Amanda L.; Fuller, Kirk A.; Gregory, Don A.; Witherow, William K.; Paley, Mark S.; Frazier, Donald O.; Smith, David D.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Recently, we discovered that a splitting of the whispering gallery modes (WGMs) occurs in coupled resonator optical waveguides (CROWs), and that these split modes are of a higher Q than the single-resonator modes, leading to enormous circulating intensity magnification factors that dramatically reduce thresholds for nonlinear optical (NLO) processes. As a result of the enhancements in Q, pulses propagating at a split resonance can propagate much slower (faster) for over (under)-coupled structures, due to the modified dispersion near the split resonance. Moreover, when loss is considered, the mode-splitting may be thought of as analogous to the Autler-Townes splitting that occurs in atomic three-level lambda systems, i.e., it gives rise to induced transparency as a result of destructive interference. In under- or over-coupled CROWs, this coupled resonator induced transparency (CRIT) allows slow light to be achieved at the single-ring resonance with no absorption, while maintaining intensities such that NLO effects are maximized. The intensity magnification of the circulating fields and phase transfer characteristics are examined in detail.

  1. Slow Light in Coupled Resonator Optical Waveguides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Hongrok; Gates, Amanda L.; Fuller, Kirk A.; Gregory, Don A.; Witherow, William K.; Paley, Mark S.; Frazier, Donald O.; Smith, David D.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Recently, we discovered that a splitting of the whispering gallery modes (WGMs) occurs in coupled resonator optical waveguides (CROWs), and that these split modes are of a higher Q than the single-resonator modes, leading to enormous circulating intensity magnification factors that dramatically reduce thresholds for nonlinear optical (NLO) processes. As a result of the enhancements in Q, pulses propagating at a split resonance can propagate much slower (faster) for over (under)-coupled structures, due to the modified dispersion near the split resonance. Moreover, when loss is considered, the mode-splitting may be thought of as analogous to the Autler-Townes splitting that occurs in atomic three-level lambda systems, i.e., it gives rise to induced transparency as a result of destructive interference. In under- or over-coupled CROWs, this coupled resonator induced transparency (CRIT) allows slow light to be achieved at the single-ring resonance with no absorption, while maintaining intensities such that NLO effects are maximized. The intensity magnification of the circulating fields and phase transfer characteristics are examined in detail.

  2. High efficiency source coupler for optical waveguide illumination system

    DOEpatents

    Siminovitch, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    A fiber optic or optical waveguide illumination system includes a source coupling system. The source coupling system includes an optical channel with an internal cavity. A light source is disposed inside the driving circuit. Coupling losses are minimized by placing the light source within the optical channel. The source cavity and the source optical channel can be shaped to enhance the amount of light captured in the channel by total internal reflection. Multiple light distribution waveguides can be connected to the source coupling channel to produce an illumination system.

  3. Optical fiber having wave-guiding rings

    DOEpatents

    Messerly, Michael J [Danville, CA; Dawson, Jay W [Livermore, CA; Beach, Raymond J [Livermore, CA; Barty, Christopher P. J. [Hayward, CA

    2011-03-15

    A waveguide includes a cladding region that has a refractive index that is substantially uniform and surrounds a wave-guiding region that has an average index that is close to the index of the cladding. The wave-guiding region also contains a thin ring or series of rings that have an index or indices that differ significantly from the index of the cladding. The ring or rings enable the structure to guide light.

  4. Preparation of flexible optical waveguide film with refractive index tunability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Yong Ku; Noh, Seung Ju; Han, Jin Young; Suk, Min Kyun; Heo, Sung Ik; Jin, Sun Jin; Ahn, Hang Hee; Ahn, Cheol Hee

    2012-09-01

    Novel organic-inorganic hybrid materials were successfully synthesized by non-hydrolytic sol-gel processing. Crack-free and thick films were produced with no remaining traces of solvents without high volume shrinkage. Adjusting the chemical composition of the materials allows the precise tailoring of the optical properties of the materials, such as optical loss, birefringence, refractive index, and thermo-optic coefficient. They can be fabricated into the step index optical waveguide structures with well-defined and reproducible refractive index differences within 0.001. The transmission performance of each waveguide channel was tested using a 10 Gbps data stream. The electrical output signal from a photodetector, connected to a wide-band oscilloscope, displays a clear 10 Gbps eye pattern. We produced a series of flexible optical waveguides from organic-inorganic hybrid materials by using soft-lithographic technique. The optical losses of the flexible waveguide arrays bent over various curvatures were measured and the transmission performance of each waveguide channel was also tested. The bending losses of a flexible waveguide array were measured and found to yield no significant loss above 2 mm diameter curvature.

  5. Fluorescence and optical-resolution photoacoustic imaging through capillary waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stasio, Nicolino; Shibukawa, Atsushi; Papadopoulos, Ioannis N.; Farahi, Salma; Simandoux, Olivier; Huignard, Jean-Pierre; Bossy, Emmanuel; Moser, Christophe; Psaltis, Demetri

    2016-03-01

    Endoscopy can be used to obtain high-resolution images at large depths in biological tissues. Usually endoscopic devices have a diameter ranging from 1 to few millimeters. Using digital phase conjugation, it is possible to adapt ultrathin multimode fibers to endoscopic purposes. Recently, we demonstrated that a 330 μm diameter, water-filled silica capillary waveguide can guide high frequency ultrasound waves through a 3 cm thick fat layer, allowing optical resolution photoacoustic imaging. Here we demonstrate that using digital phase conjugation, the same water-filled capillary waveguide (3 cm long) can be used as an endoscopic probe to obtain both fluorescence and optical resolution photoacoustic imaging, with no optical or acoustic elements at the tip of the waveguide. We study the consequences of using digital phase conjugation combined with a capillary waveguide and we conclude with possible future improvements of our endoscopic approach.

  6. Guided modes in non-Hermitian optical waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turitsyna, Elena G.; Shadrivov, Ilya V.; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2017-09-01

    We study guided modes in non-Hermitian optical waveguides with dielectric layers having either gain or loss. For the case of a three-layer waveguide, we describe stationary regimes for guided modes when gain and loss compensate each other in the entire structure rather than in each layer. We demonstrate that, by adding a lossless dielectric layer to a double-layer waveguide with the property of parity-time (PT ) symmetry, we can control a ratio of gain and loss required to support propagating and nondecaying optical guided modes. This novel feature becomes possible due to the modification of the mode structure, and it can allow using materials with a lower gain to balance losses in various optical waveguiding structures. In addition, we find a non-PT -symmetric regime when all guided modes of the system have their losses perfectly compensated.

  7. Tunable hollow optical waveguides for photonic integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, Fumio

    2004-10-01

    We propose a tunable hollow optical waveguide with a variable air core toward a new class of photonic integrated circuits. We present various unique features in hollow waveguides and the combination with microelectro-mechanical system (MEMS) will gives us widely tunable waveguide devices. We presente the design and fabrication of a tunable hollow waveguide with a variable air core. We describe the full-vectorial modeling of 3D and slab hollow waveguides with a variable air core, which is also supported by experiments. We demonstrated low loss and polarization insensitive waveguiding in an air core with optimized multilayer coating. The result shows a possibility of a large change of ~3% in propagation constant with a variable air core. We will present a wide variety of device applications based on hollow waveguides, which include tunable grating demultiplexers, variable attenuators, optical switches, tunable Bragg reflectors, tunable dispersion compensators and tunable lasers. The device structure can be formed by fully planar fabrication processes based on lithography and etching. The proposed concept may open up a new class of various tunable optical devices, which give us unique features of wide tunability, compact size and temperature insensitivity.

  8. Study of nonlinear optical effects in silicon waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Lianghong

    2009-12-01

    This thesis is devoted to investigate optical properties of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguides with an emphasis on third-order nonlinearities of silicon waveguides. The objective is to understand the nonlinear effects inside SOI waveguides, the possible applications of SOI waveguides, and the intrinsic difficulties this structure faces for some of the real applications. We first discuss the types of SOI waveguides used in our laboratory, and present the measurements of propagation loss, total insertion loss and coupling loss using Fabry-Perot resonances, cutback, and scattering methods. Three mathematical tools for calculating the modes and dispersion properties of SOI waveguides are compared from the standpoint of accuracy and efficiency. The importance of dispersion tailoring of SOI waveguides in order to realize anomalous dispersion at wavelength around 1.5 mum, and the possibility of soliton propagation in such a tailored waveguide are discussed next. Chapter 5 provides a general theoretical model for pulse propagation inside an SOI waveguide. The general formalism includes both the electronic and Raman responses. The self-phase modulation process in SOI waveguides is discussed next with an emphasis on the effects of two-photon absorption and the consequent free-carrier effects. The maximum allowed repetition rate of pulse trains is presented to serve as a general guideline of using self-phase modulation effect in real situations We also present our experimental work on self-phase modulation in an SOI waveguide for both the TE and TM modes. In chapter 7 we describe supercontinuum generation in SOI waveguides from a theoretical standpoint. We next consider cross-phase modulation and nonlinear polarization rotation for realizing an SOI-waveguide based optical Ken shutter. The theoretical work is given first followed with our experimental results that show successful all-optical switching of a CW probe light by a pulsed pump light. Sub-pico-second switching

  9. Optical waveguides and structures for short haul optical communication channels within printed circuit boards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riegel, Nicholas J.

    Optical waveguides have shown promising results for use within printed circuit boards. These optical waveguides have higher bandwidth than traditional copper transmission systems and are immune to electromagnetic interference. Design parameters for these optical waveguides are needed to ensure an optimal link budget. Modeling and simulation methods are used to determine the optimal design parameters needed in designing the waveguides. As a result, optical structures necessary for incorporating optical waveguides into printed circuit boards are designed and optimized. Embedded siloxane polymer waveguides are investigated for their use in optical printed circuit boards. This material was chosen because it has low absorption, high temperature stability, and can be deposited using common processing techniques. Two sizes of waveguides are investigated, 50 mum multimode and 4 - 9 mum single mode waveguides. A beam propagation method is developed for simulating the multimode and single mode waveguide parameters. The attenuation of simulated multimode waveguides are able to match the attenuation of fabricated waveguides with a root mean square error of 0.192 dB. Using the same process as the multimode waveguides, parameters needed to ensure a low link loss are found for single mode waveguides including maximum size, minimum cladding thickness, minimum waveguide separation, and minimum bend radius. To couple light out-of-plane to a transmitter or receiver, a structure such as a vertical interconnect assembly (VIA) is required. For multimode waveguides the optimal placement of a total internal reflection mirror can be found without prior knowledge of the waveguide length. The optimal placement is found to be either 60 microm or 150 microm away from the end of the waveguide depending on which metric a designer wants to optimize the average output power, the output power variance, or the maximum possible power loss. For single mode waveguides a volume grating coupler is

  10. Optical modulation of waveguiding in spiropyran-functionalized polydiacetylene microtube.

    PubMed

    Xia, Hongyan; Chen, Yikai; Yang, Guang; Zou, Gang; Zhang, Qijin; Zhang, Douguo; Wang, Pei; Ming, Hai

    2014-09-10

    Optical modulation of waveguiding and logic operations play significant roles in highly integrated optical communication components, optical computing, and photonic circuits. Herein, we designed and synthesized spiropyran-functionalized polydiacetylene (SFPDA) microtubes, and realized reversible optical modulation of waveguiding in SFPDA microtubes through fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between the PDA matrix and spiropyran in open merocyanine (MC) form within the surface of the microtubes. Because of the reversible isomerization characteristics of spiropyran units, we have realized resettable, multireadout logic system that includes OR and INHIBIT logic operations in SFPDA microtube.

  11. Incorporating an optical waveguide into a neural interface

    SciTech Connect

    Tolosa, Vanessa; Delima, Terri L.; Felix, Sarah H.; Pannu, Satinderpall S.; Shah, Kedar G.; Sheth, Heeral; Tooker, Angela C.

    2016-11-08

    An optical waveguide integrated into a multielectrode array (MEA) neural interface includes a device body, at least one electrode in the device body, at least one electrically conducting lead coupled to the at least one electrode, at least one optical channel in the device body, and waveguide material in the at least one optical channel. The fabrication of a neural interface device includes the steps of providing a device body, providing at least one electrode in the device body, providing at least one electrically conducting lead coupled to the at least one electrode, providing at least one optical channel in the device body, and providing a waveguide material in the at least one optical channel.

  12. Influence of gold nanoparticles on the 1.53 µm optical gain in Er3+/Yb3+: PbO-GeO2 RIB waveguides.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Davinson Mariano; Kassab, Luciana Reyes Pires; Siarkowski, Acácio L; de Araújo, Cid B

    2014-06-30

    We report the fabrication of waveguide amplifiers produced by RF-sputtering, using a PbO-GeO(2) glass (PGO glass) film codoped with Er(3+)/Yb(3+). RIB waveguides were obtained from PGO thin films using optical lithography followed by reactive ion etching process. The optical losses in the waveguide were ≈1.0 dB/cm and the maximum internal gain at 1.53 µm, with excitation at 980 nm, was 3 dB/cm. Nanostructured gold films deposited on the waveguides enhanced the Er(3+) ions photoluminescence (PL) by ≈400% in the red region and ≈30% in the infrared, under 980 nm pumping. The optical gain was enhanced and reached 6.5 dB/cm. The results demonstrate that the PGO waveguides, with or without gold nanoparticles, are promising for integrated photonics.

  13. Optical planar waveguide for cell counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeBlanc, John; Mueller, Andrew J.; Prinz, Adrian; Butte, Manish J.

    2012-01-01

    Low cost counting of cells has medical applications in screening, military medicine, disaster medicine, and rural healthcare. In this report, we present a shallow, buried, planar waveguide fabricated by potassium ion exchange in glass that enables low-cost and rapid counting of metal-tagged objects that lie in the evanescent field of the waveguide. Laser light transmitted through the waveguide was attenuated proportionately to the presence of metal-coated microstructures fabricated from photoresist. This technology enables the low-cost enumeration of cells from blood, urine, or other biofluids.

  14. Optical planar waveguide for cell counting

    PubMed Central

    LeBlanc, John; Mueller, Andrew J.; Prinz, Adrian; Butte, Manish J.

    2012-01-01

    Low cost counting of cells has medical applications in screening, military medicine, disaster medicine, and rural healthcare. In this report, we present a shallow, buried, planar waveguide fabricated by potassium ion exchange in glass that enables low-cost and rapid counting of metal-tagged objects that lie in the evanescent field of the waveguide. Laser light transmitted through the waveguide was attenuated proportionately to the presence of metal-coated microstructures fabricated from photoresist. This technology enables the low-cost enumeration of cells from blood, urine, or other biofluids. PMID:22331960

  15. Total reflection optical waveguide switching through dielectric chip motion.

    PubMed

    Terui, H; Kobayashi, M

    1981-09-15

    An optical waveguide switch has been realized utilizing the total reflection critical angle controlled by the motion of a dielectric chip set on a waveguide surface. By the contact-noncontact of a GGG chip with the SiO(2)-Ta(2)O(5) waveguide film having a built-in low refractive-index channel, a switching angle of 22.5x and extincion ratio of 12-16 dB were obtained for the TE(0) mode at 0.633-microm wavelength. A 1 x 3 switch that includes two switching positions driven by 6-V electromagnets is demonstrated.

  16. Fabrication and characterization of polyester and acrylic polyurethane optical waveguides.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, S K; Pandey, C D; Joshi, J C; Dawar, A L; Tripathy, K N; Gupta, V L

    1989-01-01

    Asystematic study of the fabrication and characterization of planar optical waveguides based on polyester and acrylic polyurethane coatings has been made. Mode effective refractive-index measurements have been made on a large number of these waveguides fabricated on glass prepared in different conditions. The results show that the mixture of polyester and acrylic polyol in the initial solution can be used to control the refractive index from 1.563 to 1.595. The propagation losses are estimated to be 10-20 and 6-12 dB/cm for polyester and acrylic-based waveguides, respectively.

  17. Nonlinear Optical Microscopy of Single Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Libai; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2013-07-01

    We review recent advances in nonlinear optical (NLO) microscopy studies of single nanostructures. NLO signals are intrinsically sensitive to the electronic, vibrational, and structural properties of such nanostructures. Ultrafast excitation allows for mapping of energy relaxation pathways at the single-particle level. The strong nonlinear response of nanostructures makes them highly attractive for applications as novel NLO imaging agents in biological and biomedical research. NLO modalities based on harmonic generation, multiphoton photoluminescence, four-wave mixing, and pump-probe processes are discussed in detail.

  18. Giant optical nonlinearity of plasmonic nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Melentiev, P N; Afanasev, A E; Balykin, V I

    2014-06-30

    The experimental studies of giant optical nonlinearity of single metal nanostructures are briefly reviewed. A new hybrid nanostructure – split-hole resonator (SHR) – is investigated. This structure is characterised by a record-high efficiency of third-harmonic generation and multiphoton luminescence (its nonlinearity exceeds that of a single nanohole by five orders of magnitude) and an unprecedently high sensitivity to light polarisation (extinction coefficient 4 × 10{sup 4}). (extreme light fields and their applications)

  19. Spatially Modulated Gain Waveguide Electro-Optic Laser

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-09

    gain medium profile. We met this goal by implementing a Ti diffused erbium doped active laser waveguide that exploits optical Birefringence, pump beam...sensitivity. An Erbium doped LiNbC>3 waveguide laser theoretically can provide both the narrow linewidth and the higher tuning sensitivity. However, at...Since Erbium doped LiNb03 is homogeneously broadened and the SMG laser contains no spatial hole burning, the single frequency operation is guaranteed

  20. Resolving parity and order of Fabry-Pérot modes in semiconductor nanostructure waveguides and lasers: Young's interference experiment revisited.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liaoxin; Ren, Ming-Liang; Liu, Wenjing; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2014-11-12

    Semiconductor nanostructures such as nanowires and nanoribbons functioning as Fabry-Pérot (F-P)-type optical cavities and nanolasers have attracted great interest not only for their potential use in nanophotonic systems but also to understand the physics of light-matter interactions at the nanoscale. Due to their nanoscale dimensions, new techniques need to be continuously developed to characterize the nature of highly confined optical modes. Furthermore, the inadequacy of typical far-field photoluminescence experiments for characterizing the nanoscale cavity modes such as parity and order has precluded efforts to obtain precise information that is required to fully understand these cavities. Here, we utilize a modified Young's interference method based on angle-resolved microphotoluminescence spectral technique to directly reveal the parity of F-P cavity modes in CdS nanostructures functioning as waveguides and nanolasers. From these analyses, the mode order can be straightforwardly obtained with the help of numerical simulations. Moreover, we show that the Young's technique is a general technique applicable to any F-P type cavities in nanoribbons, nanowires, or other photonic and plasmonic nanostructures.

  1. Copper ion-exchanged channel waveguides optimization for optical trapping.

    PubMed

    Reshak, A H; Khor, K N; Shahimin, M M; Murad, S A Z

    2013-08-01

    Optical trapping of particles has become a powerful non-mechanical and non-destructive technique for precise particle positioning. The manipulation of particles in the evanescent field of a channel waveguide potentially allows for sorting and trapping of several particles and cells simultaneously. Channel waveguide designs can be further optimized to increase evanescent field prior to the fabrication process. This is crucial in order to make sure that the surface intensity is sufficient for optical trapping. Simulation configurations are explained in detail with specific simulation flow. Discussion on parameters optimization; physical geometry, optical polarization and wavelength is included in this paper. The effect of physical, optical parameters and beam spot size on evanescent field has been thoroughly discussed. These studies will continue toward the development of a novel copper ion-exchanged waveguide as a method of particle sorting, with biological cell propulsion studies presently underway. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Waveguide optical scanner with increased deflection sensitivity for optical data storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qibao; Chiu, Yi; Devasahayam, Adrian J.; Seigler, Michael A.; Lambeth, David N.; Schlesinger, Tuviah E.; Stancil, Daniel D.

    1994-10-01

    Waveguide electrooptic (EO) beam scanners are of interest for applications requiring high speed, high throughput, low power consumption, and modest deflection. Such devices can be used in high performance optical recording and laser printer heads. We are pursuing a novel waveguide device structure in which prisms are formed by ferroelectric domain inversion in a substrate containing a planar waveguide. The device uses TM optical modes in z-cut substrates and is therefore compatible with waveguides used for high-efficiency optical second harmonic generation (SHG).

  3. Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouviere, Mathieu; Halbwax, Mathieu; Cercus, Jean-Luc; Cassan, Eric; Vivien, Laurent; Pascal, Daniel; Heitzmann, Michel; Hartmann, Jean-Michel; Laval, Suzanne

    2005-07-01

    The main characteristics of germanium photodetectors integrated in silicon-on-insulator optical waveguides for intrachip optical interconnects are presented. The epitaxial Ge layers are grown on Si(001) by reduced-pressure chemical vapor deposition. The optical absorption of Ge layers is recorded from 1.2 to 1.7 µm and linked to the layer strain. The responsivity of an interdigitated metal-semiconductor-metal Ge photodetector has been measured. Light coupling from a slightly etched submicron rib silicon-on-insulator waveguide to a Ge photodetector is studied for two configurations: butt coupling and vertical coupling.

  4. Polymer integrated waveguide optical biosensor by using spectral splitting effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiaonan; Han, Xiuyou; Shao, Yuchen; Wu, Zhenlin; Liang, Yuxin; Teng, Jie; Bo, Shuhui; Morthier, Geert; Zhao, Mingshan

    2017-06-01

    The polymer waveguide optical biosensor based on the Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) by using spectral splitting effect is investigated. The MZI based biosensor has two unequal width sensing arms. With the different mode dispersion responses of the two-arm waveguides to the cladding refractive index change, the spectral splitting effect of the output interference spectrum is obtained, inducing a very high sensitivity. The influence of the different mode dispersions between the two-arm waveguides on the spectral splitting characteristic is analyzed. By choosing different lengths of the two unequal width sensing arms, the initial dip wavelength of the interference spectrum and the spectral splitting range can be controlled flexibly. The polymer waveguide optical biosensor is designed, and its sensing property is analyzed. The results show that the sensitivity of the polymer waveguide optical biosensor by using spectral splitting effect is as high as 104 nm/RIU, with an improvement of 2-3 orders of magnitude compared with the slot waveguide based microring biosensor.

  5. Polymer integrated waveguide optical biosensor by using spectral splitting effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiaonan; Han, Xiuyou; Shao, Yuchen; Wu, Zhenlin; Liang, Yuxin; Teng, Jie; Bo, Shuhui; Morthier, Geert; Zhao, Mingshan

    2017-02-01

    The polymer waveguide optical biosensor based on the Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) by using spectral splitting effect is investigated. The MZI based biosensor has two unequal width sensing arms. With the different mode dispersion responses of the two-arm waveguides to the cladding refractive index change, the spectral splitting effect of the output interference spectrum is obtained, inducing a very high sensitivity. The influence of the different mode dispersions between the two-arm waveguides on the spectral splitting characteristic is analyzed. By choosing different lengths of the two unequal width sensing arms, the initial dip wavelength of the interference spectrum and the spectral splitting range can be controlled flexibly. The polymer waveguide optical biosensor is designed, and its sensing property is analyzed. The results show that the sensitivity of the polymer waveguide optical biosensor by using spectral splitting effect is as high as 104 nm/RIU, with an improvement of 2-3 orders of magnitude compared with the slot waveguide based microring biosensor.

  6. Linear and nonlinear optical waveguiding in bio-inspired peptide nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Handelman, Amir; Apter, Boris; Turko, Nir; Rosenman, Gil

    2016-01-01

    Unique linear and nonlinear optical properties of bioinspired peptide nanostructures such as wideband transparency and high second-order nonlinear optical response, combined with elongated tubular shape of variable size and rapid self-assembly fabrication process, make them promising for diverse bio-nano-photonic applications. This new generation of nanomaterials of biological origin possess physical properties similar to those of biological structures. Here, we focus on new specific functionality of ultrashort peptide nanotubes to guide light at fundamental and second-harmonic generation (SHG) frequency in horizontal and vertical peptide nanotubes configurations. Conducted simulations and experimental data show that these self-assembled linear and nonlinear optical bio-waveguides provide strong optical power confinement factor, demonstrate pronounced directionality of SHG and high conversion efficiency of SHG ∼10(-5). Our study gives new insight on physics of light propagation in nanostructures of biological origin and opens the avenue towards new and unexpected applications of these waveguiding effects in bio-nanomaterials both for biomedical nonlinear microscopy imaging recognition and development of novel integrated nanophotonic devices. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Polymer waveguide technology: optical connectivity for small form factor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizotte, Todd

    2010-08-01

    Planar polymer waveguides provide opportunities for small form factor distribution of laser light for communication, energy transfer and triggering devices used in the field of optically initiated arming, safing, fusing and firing. The two primary methods or classes of polymer waveguide technology use photolithographic processes both mask and maskless techniques. A waveguide is a device that controls the propagation of an electromagnetic wave so that the wave is forced to follow a path defined by the physical structure of the guide. Fabrication takes the form of both a ridge technology (ridge or trench formed by an embossing or etching method) and the second fabrication technique and the subject of this paper is termed Diffusion Technology [1]. This method includes the formation of a high refractive index waveguide by monomer diffusion into the light-exposed guide forming region with no mechanical or chemical etching contact. An essential process feature here is the photomask-defined light exposure of a mobile monomer waveguide forming region in a polymer matrix that converts the monomer to a polymer. The process of continued monomer diffusion into the surrounding guide imaged region increases the density. The addition of other laminated monomer/polymer diffusing layers with the typical three-plus layer configuration is completely photopolymerized after diffusion is complete. The essential steps include a light induced imaging reaction, a total polymerization light fixing for the entire film, and final cure, all using pre-coated dry materials without waveguide side wall contact. Light and molecular diffusion determine the guide walls [1]. This paper will provide testing results and information on the state of polymer waveguides, the methods of fabrication and the general conditions that these waveguides can operate under. The use of polymer waveguides for connectivity has sufficiently advanced, is practical and available for consideration in near term application

  8. Electro-optic switching based on a waveguide-ring resonator made of dielectric-loaded graphene plasmon waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Zhe; Zhu, Zhi Hong; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Jian Fa; Cai Guo, Chu; Liu, Ken; Yuan, Xiao Dong; Qiao Qin, Shi

    2016-09-01

    We numerically demonstrate that electro-optic switching in the mid-infrared range can be realized using a waveguide-ring resonator made of dielectric-loaded graphene plasmon waveguides (DLGPWs). The numerical results are in good agreement with the results of physical analysis. The switching mechanism is based on dynamic modification of the resonant wavelengths of the ring resonator, achieved by varying the Fermi energy of a graphene sheet. The results reveal that a switching ratio of ∼24 dB can be achieved with only a 0.01 eV change in the Fermi energy. Such electrically controlled switching operation may find use in actively tunable integrated photonic circuits.

  9. Two-photon patterning of optical waveguides in flexible polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bichler, Sabine; Feldbacher, Sonja; Woods, Rachel; Satzinger, Valentin; Schmidt, Volker; Jakopic, Georg; Langer, Gregor; Kern, Wolfgang

    2009-08-01

    Over the last few years two-photon based photo-processes have become an important method to generate 3D microstructures in organic materials without the use of masks and molds. The present work deals with the fabrication of optical waveguides in a flexible polysiloxane matrix for data transmission on printed circuit boards (PCB). In the developed system the waveguide core is formed by two-photon induced photo polymerization (TPIP) of selected monomers, which are dissolved in a silicone matrix. Through the photo-induced polymerization an interpenetrating network is generated, resulting in a refractive index change between the illuminated waveguide cladding and the illuminated core material. Because of the optical transparency, flexibility, chemical and thermal stability polysiloxanes were chosen as optical matrix material. Different types of phenyl methacrylates with a high refractive index were used as monomers. In order to obtain a high contrast in refractive index, the monomers were removed from non-illuminated regions in a vacuum process after laser exposure. The written optical waveguides were evidenced by phase contrast microscopy, revealing an excellent structuring behaviour of the developed material. Optical techniques e.g. cut-back measurements and light extraction tests were applied to characterize the inscribed waveguide structures and to detect the resulting optical loss. To determine the refractive index change upon UV-irradiation spectroscopic ellipsometry was applied. Thus, a difference of Δn=0.02 between the non-illuminated cladding and the illuminated core material was detected. Further, prototypes of optical interconnects on PCBs were fabricated by inscription of a waveguide bundle between a mounted laser and photo diode, resulting in the desired increase of the transmitted photocurrent after TPA structuring. In conclusion, the obtained results demonstrate that fully flexible optical interconnects are accessible by the developed process.

  10. Compact surface plasmonic waveguide component for integrated optical processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogoi, Nilima; Sahu, Partha Pratim

    2015-06-01

    A compact surface plasmonic two mode interference waveguide component having silicon core and silver and GaAsInP side cladding is proposed for optical processor elements. Coupling operation is obtained by using index modulation of GaAsInP cladding with applied optical pulse.

  11. Arrayed waveguide collimators for integrating free-space optics on polymeric waveguide devices.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jin-Soo; Lee, Chang-Hee; Shin, Sang-Yung; Huang, Guang-Hao; Chu, Woo-Sung; Oh, Min-Cheol; Noh, Young-Ouk; Lee, Hyung-Jong

    2014-10-06

    Array-type optical devices are important for wavelength-division multiplexing optical communication system to achieve small footprint, mass production, and reliability. For fabricating transmitter module in an array configuration, it is difficult to achieve a passive alignment of isolator, collimating lens, and laser diode. To facilitate array isolator integration, a waveguide collimator is proposed in this work by using a low-contrast, large-core polymer waveguide. The diffraction of a guided mode propagating through a free-space region is suppressed by enlarging the guided mode. The fiber coupling loss due to the enlarged mode was overcome by incorporating an adiabatic taper structure. The excess loss of waveguide collimator including the loss through a 400-μm free-propagation region was less than 1.0 dB.

  12. Optically guided large-nanostructure probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchman, Herschel M.; Wetsel, Grover C., Jr.

    1993-05-01

    A large-nanostructure probe with optically guided macroscopic scanning has been developed for high-resolution imaging and characterization of nanostructures. The novel optical viewing system allows placement of the imaging tip to within 1 μm of a desired site on the sample during coarse positioning. Fine positioning and imaging are accomplished with nanometer-scale resolution using a segmented-tube piezoelectric scanner. High-resolution images of identifiable quantum dots have been obtained to demonstrate the efficacy of the method.

  13. Nano-optical conveyor belt with waveguide-coupled excitation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guanghui; Ying, Zhoufeng; Ho, Ho-pui; Huang, Ying; Zou, Ningmu; Zhang, Xuping

    2016-02-01

    We propose a plasmonic nano-optical conveyor belt for peristaltic transport of nano-particles. Instead of illumination from the top, waveguide-coupled excitation is used for trapping particles with a higher degree of precision and flexibility. Graded nano-rods with individual dimensions coded to have resonance at specific wavelengths are incorporated along the waveguide in order to produce spatially addressable hot spots. Consequently, by switching the excitation wavelength sequentially, particles can be transported to adjacent optical traps along the waveguide. The feasibility of this design is analyzed using three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain and Maxwell stress tensor methods. Simulation results show that this system is capable of exciting addressable traps and moving particles in a peristaltic fashion with tens of nanometers resolution. It is the first, to the best of our knowledge, report about a nano-optical conveyor belt with waveguide-coupled excitation, which is very important for scalability and on-chip integration. The proposed approach offers a new design direction for integrated waveguide-based optical manipulation devices and its application in large scale lab-on-a-chip integration.

  14. Optical analogue of relativistic Dirac solitons in binary waveguide arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, Truong X.; Longhi, Stefano; Biancalana, Fabio

    2014-01-15

    We study analytically and numerically an optical analogue of Dirac solitons in binary waveguide arrays in the presence of Kerr nonlinearity. Pseudo-relativistic soliton solutions of the coupled-mode equations describing dynamics in the array are analytically derived. We demonstrate that with the found soliton solutions, the coupled mode equations can be converted into the nonlinear relativistic 1D Dirac equation. This paves the way for using binary waveguide arrays as a classical simulator of quantum nonlinear effects arising from the Dirac equation, something that is thought to be impossible to achieve in conventional (i.e. linear) quantum field theory. -- Highlights: •An optical analogue of Dirac solitons in nonlinear binary waveguide arrays is suggested. •Analytical solutions to pseudo-relativistic solitons are presented. •A correspondence of optical coupled-mode equations with the nonlinear relativistic Dirac equation is established.

  15. Micropore and nanopore fabrication in hollow antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Matthew R.; Shang, Tao; Hawkins, Aaron R.; Rudenko, Mikhail; Measor, Philip; Schmidt, Holger

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication of micropore and nanopore features in hollow antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides to create an electrical and optical analysis platform that can size select and detect a single nanoparticle. Micropores (4 μm diameter) are reactive-ion etched through the top SiO2 and SiN layers of the waveguides, leaving a thin SiN membrane above the hollow core. Nanopores are formed in the SiN membranes using a focused ion-beam etch process that provides control over the pore size. Openings as small as 20 nm in diameter are created. Optical loss measurements indicate that micropores did not significantly alter the loss along the waveguide. PMID:21922035

  16. Omnidirectional optical attractor in structured gap-surface plasmon waveguide

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Chong; Liu, Hui; Zhu, Shining; Genov, Dentcho A.

    2016-01-01

    An optical attractor based on a simple and easy to fabricate structured metal-dielectric-metal (SMDM) waveguide is proposed. The structured waveguide has a variable thickness in the vicinity of an embedded microsphere and allow for adiabatic nano-focusing of gap-surface plasmon polaritons (GSPPs). We show that the proposed system acts as an omnidirectional absorber across a broad spectral range. The geometrical optics approximation is used to provide a description of the ray trajectories in the system and identify the singularity of the deflection angle at the photon sphere. The analytical theory is validated by full-wave numerical simulations demonstrating adiabatic, deep sub-wavelength focusing of GSPPs and high local field enhancement. The proposed structured waveguide is an ideal candidate for the demonstration of reflection free omnidirectional absorption of GSPP in the optical and infrared frequency ranges. PMID:27001451

  17. Monolithic single mode SU-8 waveguides for integrated optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordström, Maria; Zauner, Dan A.; Boisen, Anja; Hübner, Jörg

    2006-01-01

    We present the fabrication and characterization of single mode waveguides fabricated monolithically in SU-8. SU-8 is a negative resist, which can be structured by UV lithography followed by a baking step to induce cross-linking. As a material platform, SU-8 is well suited for systems used for biochemical analysis, as it possesses very high chemical resistance and good mechanical stability. Here we show that single mode embedded waveguides can be fabricated using SU-8 as core material and the modified SU-8, mr-L 6050XP, as cladding material. The refractive index difference between the two materials of the final waveguides is around 0.004. All waveguides fabricated in this work have a height of 4.5 μm and their widths are 3, 5 or 10 μm. We have characterized the losses of these waveguides with the cut-back method both at 635 nm and 1535 nm. We have furthermore studied changes in the refractive index of the material with changes in the processing of the SU-8 material. Finally, absorption measurements in the visible spectral range and mode profile analysis have also been performed. Because of the low optical absorption at wavelengths above 700 nm in combination with the fast, simple and cost-efficient fabrication process, we show that SU-8 is well suited as structuring material for waveguides for integrated optics.

  18. Optical Biosensors Based on Semiconductor Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Palma, Raúl J.; Manso, Miguel; Torres-Costa, Vicente

    2009-01-01

    The increasing availability of semiconductor-based nanostructures with novel and unique properties has sparked widespread interest in their use in the field of biosensing. The precise control over the size, shape and composition of these nanostructures leads to the accurate control of their physico-chemical properties and overall behavior. Furthermore, modifications can be made to the nanostructures to better suit their integration with biological systems, leading to such interesting properties as enhanced aqueous solubility, biocompatibility or bio-recognition. In the present work, the most significant applications of semiconductor nanostructures in the field of optical biosensing will be reviewed. In particular, the use of quantum dots as fluorescent bioprobes, which is the most widely used application, will be discussed. In addition, the use of some other nanometric structures in the field of biosensing, including porous semiconductors and photonic crystals, will be presented. PMID:22346691

  19. Optical waveguides in lithium niobate: Recent developments and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bazzan, Marco Sada, Cinzia

    2015-12-15

    The state of the art of optical waveguide fabrication in lithium niobate is reviewed, with particular emphasis on new technologies and recent applications. The attention is mainly devoted to recently developed fabrication methods, such as femtosecond laser writing, ion implantation, and smart cut waveguides as well as to the realization of waveguides with tailored functionalities, such as photorefractive or domain engineered structures. More exotic systems, such as reconfigurable and photorefractive soliton waveguides, are also considered. Classical techniques, such as Ti in-diffusion and proton exchange, are cited and briefly reviewed as a reference standpoint to highlight the recent developments. In all cases, the application-oriented point of view is preferred, in order to provide the reader with an up-to date panorama of the vast possibilities offered by lithium niobate to integrated photonics.

  20. Photonic crystal nanostructures for optical biosensing applications.

    PubMed

    Dorfner, D; Zabel, T; Hürlimann, T; Hauke, N; Frandsen, L; Rant, U; Abstreiter, G; Finley, J

    2009-08-15

    We present the design, fabrication and optical investigation of photonic crystal (PhC) nanocavity drop filters for use as optical biosensors. The resonant cavity mode wavelength and Q-factor are studied as a function of the ambient refractive index and as a function of adsorbed proteins (bovine serum albumin) on the sensor surface. Experiments were performed by evanescent excitation of the cavity mode via a PhC waveguide. This in turn is coupled to a ridge waveguide that allows the introduction of a fluid flow cell on a chip. A response of partial delta lambda/delta c=(4.54+/-0.66)x10(5)nm/M is measured leading to a measured detection limit as good as Delta m=4.0+/-0.6 fg or Delta m/Delta A=(4.9+/-0.7)x10(2)pg/mm(2)in the sensitive area.

  1. Planar optical waveguides for optical panel having gradient refractive index core

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.

    2001-01-01

    An optical panel is disclosed. A plurality of stacked planar optical waveguides are used to guide light from an inlet face to an outlet face of an optical panel. Each of the optical waveguides comprises a planar sheet of core material having a central plane. The core material has an index of refraction which decreases as the distance from the central plane increases. The decrease in the index of refraction occurs gradually and continuously.

  2. Planar optical waveguides for optical panel having gradient refractive index core

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.

    2004-08-24

    An optical panel is disclosed. A plurality of stacked planar optical waveguides are used to guide light from an inlet face to an outlet face of an optical panel. Each of the optical waveguides comprises a planar sheet of core material having a central plane. The core material has an index of refraction which decreases as the distance from the central plane increases. The decrease in the index of refraction occurs gradually and continuously.

  3. Transparent and flexible force sensor array based on optical waveguide.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngsung; Park, Suntak; Park, Seung Koo; Yun, Sungryul; Kyung, Ki-Uk; Sun, Kyung

    2012-06-18

    This paper suggests a force sensor array measuring contact force based on intensity change of light transmitted throughout optical waveguide. For transparency and flexibility of the sensor, two soft prepolymers with different refractive index have been developed. The optical waveguide consists of two cladding layers and a core layer. The top cladding layer is designed to allow light scattering at the specific area in response to finger contact. The force sensor shows a distinct tendency that output intensity decreases with input force and measurement range is from 0 to -13.2 dB.

  4. Generation of optical vortices in layered helical waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Alexeyev, C. N.; Fadeyeva, T. A.; Lapin, B. P.; Yavorsky, M. A.

    2011-06-15

    We study the possibility of changing the topological charge of incident beams by layered helical structures consisting of planar layers. We show that such structures can effectively change the topological charge of the incoming beam by unity. The problem of the fundamental mode and optical vortex passage through such a layered helical waveguide of a finite length is solved. The spectral characteristics of these processes are obtained. It is shown that such a waveguide can operate as a broadband compact generator of optical vortices from both regular and singular beams.

  5. Neutron depth profiling study of lithium niobate optical waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolářova, P.; Vacík, J.; Špirková-Hradilová, J.; Červená, J.

    1998-05-01

    The relation between optical properties and the structure of proton exchanged and annealed proton exchanged optical waveguides in lithium niobate was studied using the mode spectroscopy and neutron depth profiling methods. We have found a close correlation between the lithium depletion and the depth profile of the extraordinary refractive index. The form of the observed dependence between Li depletion and refractive index depends on the fabrication procedure by which the waveguide was prepared but it is highly reproducible for specimens prepared by the same procedure.

  6. Quantum simulation of decoherence in optical waveguide lattices.

    PubMed

    Longhi, Stefano

    2013-11-15

    We suggest that propagation of nonclassical light in lattices of optical waveguides can provide a laboratory tool to simulate quantum decoherence phenomena with high non-Markovian features. As examples, we study decoherence of optical Schrödinger cats in a lattice that mimics a dissipative quantum harmonic oscillator coupled to a quantum bath, showing fractional decoherence in the strong coupling regime, and Bloch oscillations of optical Schrödinger cats, where damped revivals of the coherence can be observed.

  7. Optical image processing by using a photorefractive spatial soliton waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Bao-Lai; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Su-Heng; Guo, Qing-Lin; Wang, Shu-Fang; Fu, Guang-Sheng; Simmonds, Paul J.; Wang, Zhao-Qi

    2017-04-01

    By combining the photorefractive spatial soliton waveguide of a Ce:SBN crystal with a coherent 4-f system we are able to manipulate the spatial frequencies of an input optical image to perform edge-enhancement and direct component enhancement operations. Theoretical analysis of this optical image processor is presented to interpret the experimental observations. This work provides an approach for optical image processing by using photorefractive spatial solitons.

  8. Optical properties of metallic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Aric Warner

    Surface plasmon polaritons (SPP's) are collective oscillations of electrons sustained at a metal dielectric interface. These oscillations confine electromagnetic fields naturally to two dimensions. In this thesis I explore SPP's in one and two dimensions. Propagation shows interesting behavior including the redirection and inter-coupling between one dimensional plasmon modes. In addition, I explore novel far-field detection schemes and localized launching mechanisms. These techniques are coupled with excitation polarization to investigate the scattering mechanisms in 1-d plasmon waveguides. Finally, the luminescent blinking of silver nanowires is presented and discussed in a statistical manner.

  9. Investigation of semiconductor clad optical waveguides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batchman, T. E.; Mcwright, G. M.

    1982-01-01

    Glass waveguides are studied because of the ease and economy of fabricating devices in glass. All calculations are based on the assumption of a glass guide and substrate, but the effects being studied will occur on other materials if the proper refractive indices are used in the calculations.

  10. Design, fabrication and analysis of integrated optical waveguide devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikorski, Yuri

    Throughout the present dissertation, the main effort has been to develop the set of design rules for optical integrated circuits (OIC). At the present time, when planar optical integrated circuits seem to be the leading technology, and industry is heading towards much higher levels of integration, such design rules become necessary. It is known that analysis of light propagation in rectangular waveguides can not be carried out exactly. Various approximations become necessary, and their validity is discussed in this text. Various methods are used in the text for calculating the same problems, and results are compared. A few new concepts have been suggested to avoid approximations used elsewhere. The second part of this dissertation is directed to the development of a new technique for the fabrication of optical integrated circuits inside optical glass. This technique is based on the use of ultrafast laser pulses to alter the properties of glasses. Using this method we demonstrated the possibility of changing the refractive index of various passive and active optical glasses as well as ablating the material on the surface in a controlled fashion. A number of optical waveguide devices (e.g. waveguides, directional couplers, diffraction gratings, fiber Bragg gratings, V-grooves in dual-clad optical fibers, optical waveguide amplifiers) were fabricated and tested. Testing included measurements of loss/throughput, near-field mode profiles, efficiency and thermal stability. All of the experimental setup and test results are reported in the dissertation. We also demonstrated the possibility of using this technique to fabricate future bio-optical devices that will incorporate an OIC and a microfluidic circuit on a single substrate. Our results are expected to serve as a guide for the design and fabrication of a new generation of integrated optical and bio-optical devices.

  11. Design of arrayed waveguide gratings for optical wavelength division multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Jane C.

    1998-12-01

    With the ever increasing demand on transmission capacity, it is important to utilize the bandwidth of existing fiber through optical wavelength division multiplexing. An arrayed waveguide grating offers a compact and stable solution that can function both as a multiplexer and a demultiplexer. The basic structure of the device consists of two star couplers connected by an array of waveguides to form a grating. The device can be scaled to support a large number of narrowly spaced wavelength channels. The major focus of this thesis is on developing the tools and concepts for the design and analysis of such devices. A simple linear systems model, that includes the discrete grating properties, waveguide mode field profiles for the waveguide grating array, and the Fourier transform operation of the star couplers, is introduced to study the transmission characteristics. A modified finite difference beam propagation method (BPM) for cylindrical coordinates is formulated for analysis of the radially diverging/converging waveguide array when the waveguides are close enough for mutual coupling. The combination of BPM with the linear systems model forms the basis for simulation of the whole device. Factors that contribute to the performance of the device in terms of channel uniformity, crosstalk level, sensitivity of center wavelength, wavelength dispersion and polarization effects are considered. Issues that related to the layout geometry are also examined. The predictions of our analysis are confirmed by the design and testing of a five-channel arrayed waveguide grating device based on SiO2/Si planar waveguide technology. It is designed for use with a multi-wavelength VCSEL array centered at 850 nm. Experimental results show good agreement with simulation.

  12. Effect of multiple scattering to optical forces on a sphere near an optical waveguide.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Zang, Wei-Ping; Tian, Jian-Guo

    2015-02-23

    We have investigated the effect of multiple scattering to optical forces on a particle in the evanescent field produced by an optical waveguide. Considering the multiple scattering between the sphere and the waveguide, we extend the formalism based on transition matrix and reflection matrix to calculate the optical forces on a sphere near an optical waveguide. Numerical results show that the influence that multiple scattering has on the optical forces can't be ignored, especially when the structure resonance of the particle arises. Moreover, the effect of multiple scattering to optical forces is also studied in detail on the condition that the distance between the sphere and the waveguide is within the effective operating distance.

  13. Simple evaluation method of multimode polymer optical waveguides for next generation FTTH application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugihara, Okihiro; Kaino, Toshikuni; Shibata, Shinya; Takayama, Kazuya; Selvan, J. S.; Hirano, Koki; Ushiwaka, Takami; Yasuda, Hiroki; Itoh, Yuzo; Morimoto, Masahito; Yagi, Shogo; Sugita, Akio; Shimizu, Keishi; Akutsu, Eiichi; Matsui, Yoko; Tajiri, Kozo

    2007-09-01

    Polymer optical waveguide devices are getting popular for next generation FTTH application. In order to accelerate the development of polymer optical devices, evaluation of waveguide characteristics should be speeded up. Polymer optical chip containing a combination of 45°-angled cut waveguide, Y-splitter and S-bend structures was designed and fabricated for simple evaluation of multimode waveguides. Input launching such as light source, mode scrambler was investigated for reliable measurement.

  14. Integrated optic polymer waveguide devices for sensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Dilip K.

    1994-11-01

    Organic polymeric materials and devices have attracted considerable attention in recent years. Non-linear optical polymers have show promise of very high electro-optical coefficients and useful device characteristics with compatible device processing on semiconductor wafers leading to development of compact, high reliability OEICs. In this paper, the state-of-the-art technology and performance of polymeric integrated optical waveguide devices will be received and feasibility of using these devices as sensor elements (e.g., to measure temperature, pressure, displacement, vibration, chemical analysis, etc.) and also as components in optical sensor subsystems (e.g., optical gyro chip) explored.

  15. Thermocapillary Technique for Shaping and Fabricating Optical Ribbon Waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiedler, Kevin; Troian, Sandra

    The demand for ever increasing bandwidth and higher speed communication has ushered the next generation optoelectronic integrated circuits which directly incorporate polymer optical waveguide devices. Polymer melts are very versatile materials which have been successfully cast into planar single- and multimode waveguides using techniques such as embossing, photolithography and direct laser writing. In this talk, we describe a novel thermocapillary patterning method for fabricating waveguides in which the free surface of an ultrathin molten polymer film is exposed to a spatially inhomogeneous temperature field via thermal conduction from a nearby cooled mask pattern held in close proximity. The ensuring surface temperature distribution is purposely designed to pool liquid selectively into ribbon shapes suitable for optical waveguiding, but with rounded and not rectangular cross sectional areas due to capillary forces. The solidified waveguide patterns which result from this non-contact one step procedure exhibit ultrasmooth interfaces suitable for demanding optoelectronic applications. To complement these studies, we have also conducted finite element simulations for quantifying the influence of non-rectangular cross-sectional shapes on mode propagation and losses. Kf gratefully acknowledges support from a NASA Space Technology Research Fellowship.

  16. Silicon-on-Insulator Nanowire Based Optical Waveguide Biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mingyu; Liu, Yong; Chen, Yangqing; He, Jian-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Optical waveguide biosensors based on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) nanowire have been developed for label free molecular detection. This paper reviews our work on the design, fabrication and measurement of SOI nanowire based high-sensitivity biosensors employing Vernier effect. Biosensing experiments using cascaded double-ring sensor and Mach-Zehnder- ring sensor integrated with microfluidic channels are demonstrated

  17. Polymer waveguide systems for nonlinear and electro-optic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantelis, Philip; Hill, Julian R.; Kashyap, Raman

    1991-12-01

    Waveguides with photochromic or electro-optic properties have been fabricated by a new technique using spin coating of polymers, or guest/host-polymer systems, on to grooves etched in an indium phosphide wafer. Monomoded waveguides at 633 nm, and at 1320 and 1550 nm (wavelengths of telecommunications interest) have been fabricated. These guides have good quality cleaved ends which allow efficient coupling of light from monomoded standard lensed silica fibers. An example of an electro-optic application is given in the form of a phase modulator. This device uses a side-chain polymer as the waveguide core that develops linear electro-optic properties following an electric field alignment process. It was found to have a switching voltage of 30 V, for a (pi) phase change, and had a total insertion loss of 9.4 dB. Waveguides with photochromic properties have also been produced using Aberchrome 670 (a commercially available fulgide) as a guest in a poly(methyl methacrylate) polymer host. Refractive index, optical loss, photochromic activity, and film forming properties of differing concentrations of guest (up to 20% concentration by weight) have been measured and are reported.

  18. All-optical Landau-Zener tunneling in waveguide arrays.

    PubMed

    Fratalocchi, Andrea; Assanto, Gaetano

    2006-03-06

    We investigate Landau-Zener all-optical tunneling in a voltage-controlled waveguide array realized in undoped nematic liquid crystals. From the material governing equations we derive the original Zener model and demonstrate a novel approach to Floquet-band tunneling.

  19. Measurement of the thermo-optical effect of integrated waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremmel, Johannes; Lamprecht, Tobias; Michler, Markus

    2016-05-01

    Thermo-optical switches are widely used in integrated optics and various types of integrated optical structures have been reported in literature. These structures include, but are not limited to Mach-Zehnder-Interferometer (MZI) switches and digital optical switches. The thermo-optical effect depends on the refractive index, the polarizability and the density of a material. The polarizability effect can often be neglected and the change of refractive index is dominated by a density change due to the thermal expansion of the material. We report herein a new method to measure the thermo-optical effect of waveguides directly, using integrated MZIs fabricated in polymer waveguide technology. Common methods rely on macroscopic samples, but the properties can differ significantly for micro-structured waveguides. Using a floodlight halogen rod lamp and metal-shields, we realized a radiation heater with a trapezoidal-shaped heating pattern. While the heating occurred from the bottom side, a thermocouple was placed on top of the sample. By dynamically measuring the temperature and the corresponding output-power of the MZI, the temperature difference between constructive and destructive interference can be determined. Multiple measurements of different sample MZIs exhibit an average thermo-optical coefficient (TOC) of 1.6 ∗ 10-4 1/K .

  20. Utilization of Field Enhancement in Plasmonic Waveguides for Subwavelength Light-Guiding, Polarization Handling, Heating, and Optical Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Daoxin; Wu, Hao; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic nanostructures have attracted intensive attention for many applications in recent years because of the field enhancement at the metal/dielectric interface. First, this strong field enhancement makes it possible to break the diffraction limit and enable subwavelength optical waveguiding, which is desired for nanophotonic integrated circuits with ultra-high integration density. Second, the field enhancement in plasmonic nanostructures occurs only for the polarization mode whose electric field is perpendicular to the metal/dielectric interface, and thus the strong birefringence is beneficial for realizing ultra-small polarization-sensitive/selective devices, including polarization beam splitters, and polarizers. Third, plasmonic nanostructures provide an excellent platform of merging electronics and photonics for some applications, e.g., thermal tuning, photo-thermal detection, etc. Finally, the field enhancement at the metal/dielectric interface helps a lot to realize optical sensors with high sensitivity when introducing plasmonic nanostrutures. In this paper, we give a review for recent progresses on the utilization of field enhancement in plasmonic nanostructures for these applications, e.g., waveguiding, polarization handling, heating, as well as optical sensing. PMID:28793600

  1. Optical properties of new wide heterogeneous waveguides with thermo optical shifters.

    PubMed

    De Leonardis, Francesco; Tsarev, Andrei V; Passaro, Vittorio M

    2008-12-22

    We present analysis and simulation of novel silicon-on-insulator (SOI) heterogeneous waveguides with thermo-optic phase shifters. New structure design contains a p-n junction on both sides of SOI ridge waveguide with 220 nm x 35 microm silicon core. Strongly mode-dependent optical losses (by additional free charge absorption) provide quasi-singe-mode behavior of wide waveguide with mode size approximately 10 microm. Local heater produces an efficient phase shifting by small temperature increase (DeltaT approximately 2K), switching power (< 40 mW) and switching time (< 10 micros). Mode optical losses are significantly decreased at high heating (DeltaT approximately 120 K).

  2. Beam propagation method analysis of optical waveguide lenses.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, A; Izutsu, M; Sueta, T

    1990-12-01

    Focusing characteristics of optical waveguide lenses are analyzed by the beam propagation method (BPM) instead of the ray tracing method. By use of the BPM, we can observe field distributions of a converging or diverging light beam after it passes through a waveguide lens. Variations of the spot width and magnitude of diffraction can immediately be evaluated with this calculation. The BPM calculations are used for a mode-index, Luneburg, and geodesic lenses. For the application of the method to the geodesic lens, the surface deformation is converted into an equivalent index.

  3. Air-core hollow optical waveguides with omnidirectional reflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Shih-Shou; Chen, Chii-Chang

    2006-04-01

    We have designed and fabricated a hollow optical waveguide with omnidirectional reflectors (ODRs) on a silicon substrate. The pattern is defined by photolithography on a (100) silicon wafer. The groove is etched by inductive coupled plasma. Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition technology is used to deposit six-pair Si/SiO2 (0.111/0.258 µm) multilayer stacks on the sample. Finally, the top of the sample is covered with an identical ODR. Hence, the light is confined in a hollow waveguide.

  4. Fields of optical waveguides as waves in free space.

    PubMed

    Kukhlevsky, S V; Nyitray, G; Kantsyrev, V L

    2001-08-01

    It is shown by using the scalar diffraction theory and the method of images that the arbitrary field confined by the optical waveguide can be generated in free space by the appropriate light source. The correspondence between the guided and free-space waves is illustrated using several particular fields, such as the diffraction-free, self-imaging, ultra-short, solitonlike, partially coherent waves and laser fractals. In opposition to the eigenmode theory of waveguides, the field at the guide entrance can satisfy neither the guide wave-equation nor the boundary conditions.

  5. Few-cycle optical solitons in linearly coupled waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terniche, Said; Leblond, Hervé; Mihalache, Dumitru; Kellou, Abdelhamid

    2016-12-01

    We consider soliton propagation in two parallel optical waveguides, in the presence of a linear nondispersive coupling and in the few-cycle regime. The numerical analysis is based on a set of two coupled modified Korteweg-de Vries equations. The evidenced few-cycle vector solitons are optical breathers. In addition to the usual breathing due to carrier-envelope velocity mismatch, we observe, and describe in detail, spatial oscillations of soliton's amplitude and energy.

  6. Design of integrated hybrid silicon waveguide optical gyroscope.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Sudharsanan; Moreira, Renan; Blumenthal, Daniel; Bowers, John E

    2014-10-20

    We propose and analyze a novel highly integrated optical gyroscope using low loss silicon nitride waveguides. By integrating the active optical components on chip, we show the possibility of reaching a detection limit on the order of 19°/hr/√Hz in an area smaller than 10 cm(2). This study examines a number of parameters, including the dependence of sensitivity on sensor area.

  7. Mode conversion enables optical pulling force in photonic crystal waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Tongtong; Novitsky, Andrey; Cao, Yongyin; Mahdy, M. R. C.; Wang, Lin; Sun, Fangkui; Jiang, Zehui; Ding, Weiqiang

    2017-08-01

    We propose a robust scheme to achieve optical pulling force using the guiding modes supported in a hollow core double-mode photonic crystal waveguide instead of the structured optical beams in free space investigated earlier. The waveguide under consideration supports both the 0th order mode with a larger forward momentum and the 1st order mode with a smaller forward momentum. When the 1st order mode is launched, the scattering by the object inside the waveguide results in the conversion from the 1st order mode to the 0th order mode, thus creating the optical pulling force according to the conservation of linear momentum. We present the quantitative agreement between the results derived from the mode conversion analysis and those from rigorous simulation using the finite-difference in the time-domain numerical method. Importantly, the optical pulling scheme presented here is robust and broadband with naturally occurred lateral equilibriums and has a long manipulation range. Flexibilities of the current configuration make it valuable for the optical force tailoring and optical manipulation operation, especially in microfluidic channel systems.

  8. Optical waveguides using PDMS-metal oxide hybrid nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinzadeh, Arash; Middlebrook, Christopher T.; Mullins, Michael E.

    2015-03-01

    Development of passive and active polymer based optical materials for high data rate waveguide routing and interconnects has gained increased attention because of their excellent properties such as low absorption, cost savings, and ease in fabrication. However, optical polymers are typically limited in the range of their refraction indices. Combining polymeric and inorganic optical materials provides advantages for as development of nano-composites with higher refractive indices with the possibility of being used as an active optical component. In this paper a new composite material is proposed based on polymer-metal oxide nano-composites for use as optical wave guiding structures and components. PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane) is utilized for the polymer portion while the inorganic material is titanium dioxide. Refraction indices as high as 1.74 have been reported using these composites. For PDMS-TiO2 hybrids, the higher the ratio of titanium dioxide to PDMS, the higher the resulting refractive index. The index of refraction as a function of the PDMS:TiO2 ratio is reported with an emphasis on use as optical waveguide devices. Absorption spectrum of the nano-composites is measured showing low absorption at 850 nm and high absorption in the UV regime for direct UV laser/light curing. Prototype multimode waveguides are fabricated using soft imprint embossing that is compatible with the low viscosity nano-composite material. Cross dimensional shape and profile show the potential for full scale development utilizing the material set.

  9. Analytical study of optical bistability in silicon-waveguide resonators.

    PubMed

    Rukhlenko, Ivan D; Premaratne, Malin; Agrawal, Govind P

    2009-11-23

    We present a theoretical model that describes accurately the nonlinear phenomenon of optical bistability in silicon-waveguide resonators but remains amenable to analytical results. Using this model, we derive a transcendental equation governing the intensity of a continuous wave transmitted through a Fabry-Perot resonator formed using a silicon-on-insulator waveguide. This equation reveals a dual role of free carriers in the formation of optical bistability in silicon. First, it shows that free-carrier absorption results in a saturation of the transmitted intensity. Second, the free-carrier dispersion and the thermo-optic effect may introduce phase shifts far exceeding those resulting from the Kerr effect alone, thus enabling one to achieve optical bistability in ultrashort resonators that are only a few micrometers long. Bistability can occur even when waveguide facets are not coated because natural reflectivity of the silicon- r interface can provide sufficient feedback. We find that it is possible to control the input-output characteristics of silicon-based resonators by changing the free-carrier lifetime using a reverse-biased p-n junction. We show theoretically that such a technique is suitable for realization of electronically assisted optical switching at a fixed input power and it may lead to silicon-based, nanometer-size, optical memories.

  10. Integration of waveguides for optical detection in microfabricated analytical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutter, Joerg P.; Mogensen, Klaus B.; Friis, Peter; Jorgensen, Anders M.; Petersen, Nickolaj J.; Telleman, Pieter; Huebner, Joerg

    2000-08-01

    Buried optical channel waveguides integrated with a fluidic channel network on a planar microdevice are presented. The waveguides were fabricated using silica-on-silicon technology with the goal to replace bulk optical elements and facilitate various optical detection techniques for miniaturized total analysis systems or lab-on-a-chip systems. Waveguide structures with core layers doped with germanium were employed for fluorescence measurements, while waveguides with nitrogen- only doped core layers were used for absorbance measurements. By the elimination of germanium oxygen deficiency centers transmission of light down to 210nm was possible, allowing absorance measurements in the mid and far UV region (210 to 280nm), which is the region where a large number of different molecules absorb light. Robust, alignment-free microdevices, which can easily be hooked up to a number of light sources and detectors were used for fluorescence measurements of two dyes, fluorescein and Bodipy, and absorbance measurements of a stres-reducing drug, propranolol. The lowest detected concentrations were 250pM for fluorescein, 100nM for Bodipy and 12(mu) M for propranolol.

  11. Hollow optical waveguides with omni-directional reflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Shih-Shou; Hou, Chia-Hung; Chien, Hung-Ta; Hsiao, Fu-Li; Chen, Chii-Chang

    2005-03-01

    In this study, we design and fabricate a hollow optical waveguide with omni-directional reflectors in silicon-based materials. A groove is etched by inductive coupled plasma (ICP) with photolithographic process on (100) silicon wafer. The width of the groove is varied from 3.5 to 5.5 micrometer for different waveguide designs. The depth of the groove is 1.2 micrometers. Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition is used to deposit six pairs of Si/SiO2(0.111/0.258micrometers) on the samples. Finally, the top of the sample is covered by another silicon substrate on which the identical omni-directional reflector has been also deposited. By wafer bonding technology, the top omni-directional reflector can be combined with the groove to form a hollow optical waveguide. Light with the wavelength at 1.55 micrometers can be confined by the omni-directional reflectors at single mode operation. Polarization independent hollow optical waveguides can be achieved with this fabrication process.

  12. Gel-based optical waveguides with live cell encapsulation and integrated microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Jain, Aadhar; Yang, Allen H J; Erickson, David

    2012-05-01

    In this Letter, we demonstrate a biocompatible microscale optical device fabricated from agarose hydrogel that allows for encapsulation of cells inside an optical waveguide. This allows for better interaction between the light in the waveguide and biology, since it can interact with the direct optical mode rather than the evanescent field. We characterize the optical properties of the waveguide and further incorporate a microfluidic channel over the optical structure, thus developing an integrated optofluidic system fabricated entirely from agarose gel.

  13. Optical Sensors based on single arm thin film Waveguide Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarkisov, Sergey S.

    1998-01-01

    The second achievement meets the second objective for the second year. We choose adjustable prism couplers for connecting the sensor to optical fiber lines in our design of a breadboard prototype of the sensor. These couplers have good coupling efficiency at relatively low cost comparing to any other alternatives such as grating couplers. The third accomplishment meets the third objective for the second year. We performed testing the breadboard prototype of the sensor using heating as a technique of changing its refractive index. The only difference is that we ruled out the channel waveguides as irrelevant to the final goals of the project. The feasibility of the sensor can be shown for the slab waveguide configuration without usage of relatively expensive technologies of channel waveguide delineation.

  14. Fabrication of optical waveguide structures based on PDMS using photoresist fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaso, Peter; Pudiš, Dusan; Martincek, Ivan; Jandura, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    We describe fabrication process of optical waveguide structures such as multi-mode optical splitter and optical waveguide with surface Bragg grating in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Technology based on drawing of thin photoresist fiber with diameter up to 100 μm was developed and optimized. In this way, fibers drawn from photoresist form cores of waveguides in PDMS slab. After removal of the photoresist, created air channels can be filled in with different liquids. We prepared multimode waveguide structures in PDMS composed of two PDMS materials with different refractive indices. Using this technology, also complicated waveguide structures were prepared as optical splitter and surface Bragg grating were prepared in PDMS material.

  15. Ultrafast optical switching using photonic molecules in photonic crystal waveguides.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanhui; Qian, Chenjiang; Qiu, Kangsheng; Gao, Yunan; Xu, Xiulai

    2015-04-06

    We study the coupling between photonic molecules and waveguides in photonic crystal slab structures using finite-difference time-domain method and coupled mode theory. In a photonic molecule with two cavities, the coupling of cavity modes results in two super-modes with symmetric and anti-symmetric field distributions. When two super-modes are excited simultaneously, the energy of electric field oscillates between the two cavities. To excite and probe the energy oscillation, we integrate photonic molecule with two photonic crystal waveguides. In coupled structure, we find that the quality factors of two super-modes might be different because of different field distributions of super-modes. After optimizing the radii of air holes between two cavities of photonic molecule, nearly equal quality factors of two super-modes are achieved, and coupling strengths between the waveguide modes and two super-modes are almost the same. In this case, complete energy oscillations between two cavities can be obtained with a pumping source in one waveguide, which can be read out by another waveguide. Finally, we demonstrate that the designed structure can be used for ultrafast optical switching with a time scale of a few picoseconds.

  16. Synthetic Engineering of Spider Silk Fiber as Implantable Optical Waveguides for Low-Loss Light Guiding.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xin; Qian, Zhigang; Li, Junjie; Sun, Hongji; Han, Yao; Xia, Xiaoxia; Zhou, Jin; Wang, Chunlan; Wang, Yan; Wang, Changyong

    2017-05-03

    A variety of devices used for biomedical engineering have been fabricated using protein polymer because of their excellent properties, such as strength, toughness, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. In this study, we fabricated an optical waveguide using genetically engineered spider silk protein. This method has two significant advantages: (1) recombinant spider silk optical waveguide exhibits excellent optical and biological properties and (2) biosynthesis of spider silk protein can overcome the limitation to the research on spider silk optical waveguide due to the low yield of natural spider silk. In detail, two kinds of protein-based optical waveguides made from recombinant spider silk protein and regenerative silkworm silk protein were successfully prepared. Results suggested that the recombinant spider silk optical waveguide showed a smoother surface and a higher refractive index when compared with regenerative silkworm silk protein. The optical loss of recombinant spider silk optical waveguide was 0.8 ± 0.1 dB/cm in air and 1.9 ± 0.3 dB/cm in mouse muscles, which were significantly lower than those of regenerative silkworm silk optical waveguide. Moreover, recombinant spider silk optical waveguide can meet the demand to guide and efficiently deliver light through biological tissue. In addition, recombinant spider silk optical waveguide showed low toxicity to cells in vitro and low-level inflammatory reaction with surrounding tissue in vivo. Therefore, recombinant spider silk optical waveguide is a promising implantable device to guide and deliver light with low loss.

  17. Integrated optical refractometer based on bend waveguide with air trench structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Jin Hwa; Park, Jaehoon; Kang, Chan-mo; Son, Youngdal; Do, Lee-Mi; Baek, Kyu-Ha

    2015-07-01

    This study proposed a novel optical sensor based on a refractometer integrating a bend waveguide and a trench structure. The optical sensor is a planar lightwave circuit (PLC) device involving a bend waveguide with maximum optical loss. A trench structure was aligned with the partially exposed core layer's sidewall of the bend waveguide, providing a quantitative measurement condition. The insertion losses of the proposed 1 x 2 single-mode optical splitter-type sensor were 4.38 dB and 8.67 dB for the reference waveguide and sensing waveguide, respectively, at a wavelength of 1,550 nm. The optical loss of the sensing waveguide depends on the change in the refractive index of the material in contact with the trench, but the reference waveguide had stable optical propagating characteristic regardless of the variations of the refractive index.

  18. Fluorescence based fiber optic and planar waveguide biosensors. A review.

    PubMed

    Benito-Peña, Elena; Valdés, Mayra Granda; Glahn-Martínez, Bettina; Moreno-Bondi, Maria C

    2016-11-02

    The application of optical biosensors, specifically those that use optical fibers and planar waveguides, has escalated throughout the years in many fields, including environmental analysis, food safety and clinical diagnosis. Fluorescence is, without doubt, the most popular transducer signal used in these devices because of its higher selectivity and sensitivity, but most of all due to its wide versatility. This paper focuses on the working principles and configurations of fluorescence-based fiber optic and planar waveguide biosensors and will review biological recognition elements, sensing schemes, as well as some major and recent applications, published in the last ten years. The main goal is to provide the reader a general overview of a field that requires the joint collaboration of researchers of many different areas, including chemistry, physics, biology, engineering, and material science.

  19. Method of fabricating optical waveguides by ion implantation doping

    DOEpatents

    Appleton, Bill R.; Ashley, Paul R.; Buchal, Christopher J.

    1989-01-01

    A method for fabricating high-quality optical waveguides in optical quality oxide crystals by ion implantation doping and controlled epitaxial recrystallization is provided. Masked LiNbO.sub.3 crystals are implanted with high concentrations of Ti dopant at ion energies of about 350 keV while maintaining the crystal near liquid nitrogen temperature. Ion implantation doping produces an amorphous, Ti-rich nonequilibrium phase in the implanted region. Subsequent thermal annealing in a water-saturated oxygen atmosphere at up to 1000.degree. C. produces solid-phase epitaxial regrowth onto the crystalline substrate. A high-quality single crystalline layer results which incorporates the Ti into the crystal structure at much higher concentrations than is possible by standard diffusion techniques, and this implanted region has excellent optical waveguides properties.

  20. Method of fabricating optical waveguides by ion implantation doping

    DOEpatents

    Appleton, B.R.; Ashley, P.R.; Buchal, C.J.

    1987-03-24

    A method for fabricating high-quality optical waveguides in optical quality oxide crystals by ion implantation doping and controlled epitaxial recrystallization is provided. Masked LiNbO/sub 3/ crystals are implanted with high concentrations of Ti dopant at ion energies of about 360 keV while maintaining the crystal near liquid nitrogen temperature. Ion implantation doping produces an amorphous, Ti-rich nonequilibrium phase in the implanted region. Subsequent thermal annealing in a water-saturated oxygen atmosphere at up to 1000/degree/C produces solid-phase epitaxial regrowth onto the crystalline substrate. A high-quality crystalline layer results which incorporates the Ti into the crystal structure at much higher concentrations than is possible by standard diffusion techniques, and this implanted region has excellent optical waveguiding properties.

  1. Mitigating optical singularities in coordinate-based metamaterial waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viaene, Sophie; Ginis, Vincent; Danckaert, Jan; Tassin, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    Transformation optics has revolutionized our approach to material design in several scientific disciplines by determining the material properties that implement the desired effects of a coordinate transformation. Unfortunately, the performance of several coordinate-based devices, such as beam splitters and invisibility cloaks, suffers from the necessary implementation of singularities with extreme material parameters. Here, we make use of transformation optics to eliminate these singularities in an isotropic way for the improvement of coordinate-based metamaterial waveguides. In particular, singularities that lead to vanishing material properties are softened with a global rescaling of the coordinates, while singular terms that lead to infinite material properties are strategically replaced by well-behaved curve factors. Detailed full-wave simulations confirm that the resulting waveguide devices are as efficient as their singular counterparts despite the fact that they consist of materials with much more moderate optical properties.

  2. Prism coupling into clad uniform optical waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Revelli, J.F.; Sarid, D.

    1980-07-01

    The theory of prism coupling into multilayered dielectric slab waveguides is presented. In addition to including the possibility of high index cladding, the present theory also extends the region of validity of previously reported work to cover the regime of ''strong coupling''. The limiting conditions for validity of the present theory are that both ..cap alpha../sub m//k and ..cap alpha../sub m/ +- p/k be much smaller than either unity or vertical-bar..beta../sub m/-..beta../sub m/ +- pvertical-bar, where m is the mode under consideration, ..cap alpha../sub m/ is the leakage of that mode, and vertical-bar..beta../sub m/-..beta../sub m/ +- pvertical-bar is the separation of the effective indices of adjacent modes. A numerical example is presented in which the coupling efficiency into a uniform or slab waveguide with ..delta..n=0.002 is calculated for various cladding thicknesses with a cladding index of 2.5. The introduction of cladding is found to reduce coupling efficiency in this example due to increased phase mismatch between the incident and ''ideal'' beams.

  3. Optical waveguides in magneto-optical glasses fabricated by proton implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chun-Xiao; Li, Yu-Wen; Zheng, Rui-Lin; Fu, Li-Li; Zhang, Liao-Lin; Guo, Hai-Tao; Zhou, Zhi-Guang; Li, Wei-Nan; Lin, She-Bao; Wei, Wei

    2016-11-01

    Planar waveguides in magneto-optical glasses (Tb3+-doped aluminum borosilicate glasses) have been produced by a 550-keV proton implantation at a dose of 4.0×1016 ions/cm2 for the first time to our knowledge. After annealing at 260 °C for 1.0 h, the dark-mode spectra and near-field intensity distributions are measured by the prism-coupling and end-face coupling methods. The damage profile, refractive index distribution and light propagation mode of the planar waveguide are numerically calculated by SRIM 2010, RCM and FD-BPM, respectively. The effects of implantation on the structural and optical properties are investigated by Raman and absorption spectra. It suggests that the proton-implanted Tb3+-doped aluminum borosilicate glass waveguide is a good candidate for a waveguide isolator in optical fiber communication and all-optical communication.

  4. FIBER-OPTIC AND OTHER WAVEGUIDES: Characteristics of nonlinear optical excitation of modes in planar waveguide structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yashkir, O. V.; Yashkir, Yu N.

    1987-06-01

    A theoretical investigation is made of nonlinear excitation of planar waveguide modes at frequencies ω when external plane optical waves of frequency ω1 are incident on the waveguide surface. The general formulas for the efficiency of the excitation of modes by a monochromatic wave are obtained and analyzed for the case of self-interaction of the ω = ω1 + ω1 - ω1 type and by a biharmonic wave in the case of generation of the difference frequency ω = ω1 - ω1'. The efficiency of parametric conversion of waveguide modes ω accompanied by an increase of the frequency to the range ω' is considered for the case when the sum frequency ω + ω1 = ω1' is generated. The numerical method developed by the authors is used to analyze the characteristic features of these processes in some specific cases.

  5. Graded-index core polymer optical waveguide for high-bandwidth-density optical printed circuit boards: fabrication and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishigure, Takaaki

    2014-03-01

    We demonstrate that graded-index (GI) core polymer optical waveguides are a promising component realizing highbandwidth- density on-board interconnects. As a method for fabricating GI-circular-core polymer optical waveguides, we introduce the Mosquito method utilizing a microdispenser. The Mosquito method is capable of accurately controlling the core diameter and the inter-core pitch. We also demonstrate that the GI-core polymer waveguides enable remarkably low loss waveguide circuits involving waveguide crossings in a mono layer. We show an alternative technique to realize the low-loss GI-core crossed waveguide: the photo-addressing method which was developed by Sumitomo Bakelite Co., Ltd.

  6. NONLINEAR OPTICS: Nonlinear optical processes in planar waveguides and excitation of surface polaritons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yashkir, O. V.; Yashkir, Yu N.

    1987-11-01

    An investigation is made of nonlinear optical interaction of light propagating in a planar waveguide with surface polaritons. Reduced wave equations for the amplitudes of the waveguide modes and surface polaritons are used to study the characteristics of generation of surface polaritons of difference frequency, parametric frequency up-conversion of the polaritons, and stimulated Raman scattering by the polaritons. An analysis is made of the characteristic properties of the investigated nonlinear optical processes.

  7. Optical interference logic in silicon-on-insulator waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Dana C.; Hall, Douglas C.

    2006-02-01

    A novel means of realizing optical logic with passive silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguide elements is proposed and modeled. Using what we call interference logic (IL), information is encoded and manipulated in the complex domain by properly setting the amplitude and phase of information inputs through specially designed waveguide structures, with the resulting wave interference used to compute the desired function output. We demonstrate that any arbitrary Boolean logic function can be realized in any physical system in which interference occurs. In this work, optical interference logic utilizing constructive and destructive interference of 1.55 micron light waves in multi-mode interference (MMI) couplers fabricated with SOI rib waveguides is described. Defining a vector representation of the complex information, a numerical function minimization algorithm is employed to compute the optimum input vector manipulations needed to realize a given operation's truth table. As such, with the definition of an output amplitude detection threshold separating "0" and "1" results, logic operations can be performed. A digital 2 x 1 multiplexer (MUX) is implemented in a single 4 x 1 MMI coupler where 1 of the 4 inputs serves as a reference input beam. With an input spacing of 40 micron, the 2 x 1 multiplexer has an overall dimension of 160 micron x 2.25 cm. Simple varied-dimension waveguide elements are used to adjust input wave amplitude and phase. To confirm and optimize the designs, device operation is simulated using 2D beam propagation method (BPM).

  8. Facile fabrication of gelatin-based biopolymeric optical waveguides.

    PubMed

    Manocchi, Amy K; Domachuk, Peter; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G; Yi, Hyunmin

    2009-07-01

    The rapid development in optical detection techniques for sensing applications has led to an increased need for biocompatible, biodegradable, and disposable optical components. We present a controllable fabrication technique for an entirely biopolymeric planar optical waveguide via simple spin-coating. The refractive index difference, thermal responsive properties, and inherent biocompatibility of gelatin and agarose were exploited in the fabrication of thin, stacked films that efficiently guide light in a core layer with higher index of refraction. These planar waveguides were fabricated using a simple spin-coating technique, which resulted in controllable layer thicknesses and smooth layer interfaces. This technique, therefore, offers a path for routine engineering of biopolymer structures with contrasting refractive indices. The thermal stability of the gelatin core layer was improved using two crosslinkers; glutaraldehyde or microbial Transglutaminase. Light guiding in the core layer of the waveguide was demonstrated using a simple He-Ne laser setup. Guiding efficiency was further illustrated by directly embedding fluorescent markers within the core layer and detecting their spectral signature. Combined with the biopolymers' inherent biocompatibility and biodegradability, our simple strategy to fabricate disposable optical components holds the potential for the development of applications in biological sensing and implantable biomedical devices.

  9. Waveguide refractometry as a probe of thin film optical uniformity

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, Jr. B.G.; Dimos, D.; Sinclair, M.B.

    1997-02-01

    Optical inhomogeneities through the thickness of a sol-gel-derived, spin-coated Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} (PZT) thin film have been evaluated using prism-coupled waveguide refractometry. Unusual waveguide coupling angle behavior has been treated using a multilayer model to describe the optical characteristics of the film. Waveguide refractometry measurements, performed after incremental reductions in film thickness, were used to develop a consistent model for optical inhomogeneity through the film thickness. Specifically, a thin film layer model, consisting of alternating layers of high and low refractive index material, was found to accurately predict irregularities in transverse-electric (TE) mode coupling angles exhibited by the film. This layer structure has a spatial periodicity that is consistent with the positions of the upper film surface at intermediate firings during film synthesis. The correlation emphasizes the impact of the multistep thin-film deposition approach on the optical characteristics of the resulting thin film. {copyright} {ital 1997 Materials Research Society.}

  10. Coherent tunneling by adiabatic passage in an optical waveguide system

    SciTech Connect

    Longhi, S.; Della Valle, G.; Ornigotti, M.; Laporta, P.

    2007-11-15

    We report on an experimental demonstration of light transfer in an engineered triple-well optical waveguide structure which provides a classic analog of coherent tunneling by adiabatic passage (CTAP) recently proposed for coherent transport in space of neutral atoms or electrons among tunneling-coupled optical traps or quantum wells [A. D. Greentree et al., Phys. Rev. B 70, 235317 (2004); K. Eckert et al., Phys. Rev. A 70, 023606 (2004)]. The direct visualization of CTAP wave-packet dynamics enabled by our simple optical system clearly shows that in the counterintuitive passage scheme light waves tunnel between the two outer wells without appreciable excitation of the middle well.

  11. Prospective for Gallium Nitride-Based Optical Waveguide Modulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolz, Arnaud; Considine, Laurence; Dogheche, Elhadj; Decoster, Didier; Pavlidis, Dimitris

    A complete analysis of GaN-based structures with very promising characteristics for future optical waveguide devices, such as modulators, is presented. First the material growth was optimized for low dislocation density and surface roughness. Optical measurements demonstrate excellent waveguide properties in terms of index and temperature dependence while planar propagation losses are below 1dB/cm. Bias was applied on both sides of the epitaxially grown films to evaluate the refractive index dependence on reverse voltage and a variation of 2.10-3 was found for 30V. These results support the possibility of using structures of this type for the fabrication of modulator devices such as Mach-Zehnder interferometers.

  12. Optical waveguide Hamiltonians leading to step-2 difference equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rueda-Paz, Juvenal; Wolf, Kurt Bernardo

    2011-03-01

    We examine the evolution of an N-point signal produced and sensed at finite arrays of points transverse to a planar waveguide, within the framework of the finite quantization of geometric optics. In contradistinction to the common mechanical Hamiltonians (kinetic plus potential energy terms) the classical waveguide Hamiltonian is the square root of a difference of squares of the refractive index profile minus the optical momentum. The finitely quantized model requires the solution of the square eigenvalue and eigenfunction problem which leads to a step-two difference equation that contains two solutions and two signs of energy. We find the proper linear combinations to fit the Kravchuk functions of the finite oscillator model.

  13. Electro-optical circuit board with single-mode glass waveguide optical interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brusberg, Lars; Neitz, Marcel; Pernthaler, Dominik; Weber, Daniel; Sirbu, Bogdan; Herbst, Christian; Frey, Christopher; Queisser, Marco; Wöhrmann, Markus; Manessis, Dionysios; Schild, Beatrice; Oppermann, Hermann; Eichhammer, Yann; Schröder, Henning; Hâkansson, Andreas; Tekin, Tolga

    2016-03-01

    A glass optical waveguide process has been developed for fabrication of electro-optical circuit boards (EOCB). Very thin glass panels with planar integrated single-mode waveguides can be embedded as a core layer in printed circuit boards for high-speed board-level chip-to-chip and board-to-board optical interconnects over an optical backplane. Such singlemode EOCBs will be needed in upcoming high performance computers and data storage network environments in case single-mode operating silicon photonic ICs generate high-bandwidth signals [1]. The paper will describe some project results of the ongoing PhoxTroT project, in which a development of glass based single-mode on-board and board-to-board interconnection platform is successfully in progress. The optical design comprises a 500 μm thin glass panel (Schott D263Teco) with purely optical layers for single-mode glass waveguides. The board size is accommodated to the mask size limitations of the fabrication (200 mm wafer level process, being later transferred also to larger panel size). Our concept consists of directly assembling of silicon photonic ICs on cut-out areas in glass-based optical waveguide panels. A part of the electrical wiring is patterned by thin film technology directly on the glass wafer surface. A coupling element will be assembled on bottom side of the glass-based waveguide panel for 3D coupling between board-level glass waveguides and chip-level silicon waveguides. The laminate has a defined window for direct glass access for assembling of the photonic integrated circuit chip and optical coupling element. The paper describes the design, fabrication and characterization of glass-based electro-optical circuit board with format of (228 x 305) mm2.

  14. Nanostructured tapered optical fibers for paticle trapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, Mark; Truong, Viet Giang; Nic Chormaic, Síle

    2015-05-01

    Optical micro- and nanofibers have recently gained popularity as tools in quantum engineering using laser-cooled, neutral atoms. In particular, atoms can be trapped around such optical fibers, and photons coupled into the fibers from the surrounding atoms could be used to transfer quantum state information within the system. It has also been demonstrated that such fibers can be used to manipulate and trap silica and polystyrene particles in the 1-3 μm range. We recently proposed using a focused ion beam nanostructured tapered optical fiber for improved atom trapping geometries1. Here, we present details on the design and fabrication of these nanostructured optical fibers and their integration into particle trapping platforms for the demonstration of submicron particle trapping. The optical fibers are tapered to approximately 1-2 μm waist diameters, using a custom-built, heat-and-pull fiber rig, prior to processing using a focused ion beam. Slots of about 300 nm in width and 10-20 μm in length are milled right though the waist regions of the tapered optical fibers. Details on the fabrication steeps necessary to ensure high optical transmission though the fiber post processing are included. Fiber transmissions of over 80% over a broad range of wavelengths, in the 700-11100 nm range, are attainable. We also present simulation results on the impact of varying the slot parameters on the trap depths achievable and milling multiple traps within a single tapered fiber. This work demonstrates even further the functionality of optical micro- and nanofibers as trapping devices across a range of regimes.

  15. Integrating optical glucose sensing into a planar waveguide sensor structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Aradhana; Deka, Bidyut; Sahu, Partha P.

    2013-06-01

    A device for glucose monitoring in people with diabetes is a clinical and research priority in the recent years for its accurate self management. An extensive theoretical design and development of an optical sensor is carried out incorporating planar waveguide structure in an endeavor to measure slight changes of glucose concentration. The sensor is simple and highly sensitive and has the potential to be used for online monitoring of blood glucose levels for the diabetic patients in the near future.

  16. Optical Limiting in a Single Mode Waveguide System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    systems are of great value to both the military and the telecommunications industry because of their ability to protect sensitive equipment from...limiters”. Such systems are of great value to both the military and the telecommunications industry because of their ability to protect sensitive...telecommunication industry , have lead to an increased interest in the properties of optical waveguide systems. One particularly interesting property that can

  17. Optical waveguide formed by cubic silicon carbide on sapphire substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Xiao; Wongchotigul, Kobchat; Spencer, Michael G.

    1991-01-01

    Optical confinement in beta silicon carbide (beta-SiC) thin films on sapphire substrate is demonstrated. Measurements are performed on waveguides formed by the mechanical transfer of thin beta-SiC films to sapphire. Recent results of epitaxial films of SiC on sapphire substrates attest to the technological viability of optoelectronic devices made from silicon carbide. Far-field mode patterns are shown. It is believed that this is the first step in validating a silicon carbide optoelectronic technology.

  18. Impressing technology of optical Bragg's gratings on planar optical sol-gel waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pustelny, T.; Zielonka, I.; Tyszkiewicz, C.; Karasiński, P.; Pustelny, B.

    2006-06-01

    The aim of the presented investigations was to develop a technique of producing Bragg's grating couplers on planar waveguides. Waveguides are obtained by means of the sol-gel technology. The introduction of a light beam into the structure of the waveguide is in the case of planar or strip optical systems always an essential technical problem, requiring simple and reproducible solutions without extending excessively the waveguide structure. The paper presents a technology of producing grating couplers by impressing the pattern of the network while forming the planar waveguide structure applying the sol-gel method. Some remarks concerning the sol-gel technology are also presented. The results of investigations on grating couplers obtained in such a way have been discussed, too. Attention has been drawn to the possibility of using such structures in optoelectronic sensors, particularly gas sensors, including sensors of water vapour as well as toxic gases.

  19. Nanostructured gradient-index antireflection diffractive optics.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Hao; Dominguez-Caballero, Jose A; Choi, Hyungryul J; Barbastathis, George

    2011-06-15

    We describe the fabrication and characterization of a nanostructured diffractive element with near-zero reflection losses. In this element, subwavelength nanostructures emulating adiabatic index matching are integrated on the surface of a diffractive microstructure to suppress reflected diffraction orders. The fabricated silicon grating exhibits reflected efficiencies that are suppressed by 2 orders of magnitude over broad wavelength bands and wide incident angles. Theoretical models of the fabricated structure based on rigorous coupled-wave analysis and effective medium theory are in agreement with the experimental data. The proposed principles can be applied to improve the performance of any diffractive structures, potentially leading to more efficient Fresnel lenses, holographic elements, and integrated optical systems.

  20. Nanostructured detector technologies for optical sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sood, Ashok K.; Welser, Roger E.; Puri, Yash R.; Dhar, Nibir K.; Polla, Dennis L.; Wijewarnasuriya, Priyalal; Dubey, Madan

    2014-05-01

    Optical sensing technology is critical for optical communication, defense and security applications. Advances in optoelectronics materials in the UV, Visible and Infrared, using nanostructures, and use of novel materials such as CNT and Graphene have opened doors for new approaches to apply device design methodology that are expected to offer enhanced performance and low cost optical sensors in a wide range of applications. This paper is intended to review recent advancements and present different device architectures and analysis. The chapter will briefly introduce the basics of UV and Infrared detection physics and various wave bands of interest and their characteristics [1, 2] We will cover the UV band (200-400 nm) and address some of the recent advances in nanostructures growth and characterization using ZnO/MgZnO based technologies and their applications. Recent advancements in design and development of CNT and Graphene based detection technologies have shown promise for optical sensor applications. We will present theoretical and experimental results on these device and their potential applications in various bands of interest.

  1. Optical nonlinearity enhancement with graphene-decorated silicon waveguides

    PubMed Central

    Ishizawa, Atsushi; Kou, Rai; Goto, Takahiro; Tsuchizawa, Tai; Matsuda, Nobuyuki; Hitachi, Kenichi; Nishikawa, Tadashi; Yamada, Koji; Sogawa, Tetsuomi; Gotoh, Hideki

    2017-01-01

    Broadband on-chip optical frequency combs (OFCs) are important for expanding the functionality of photonic integrated circuits. Here, we demonstrate a huge local optical nonlinearity enhancement using graphene. A waveguide is decorated with graphene by precisely manipulating graphene’s area and position. Our approach simultaneously achieves both an extremely efficient supercontinuum and ultra-short pulse generation. With our graphene-decorated silicon waveguide (G-SWG), we have achieved enhanced spectral broadening of femtosecond pump pulses, along with an eightfold increase in the output optical intensity at a wavelength approximately 200 nm shorter than that of the pump pulses. We also found that this huge nonlinearity works as a compressor that effectively compresses pulse width from 80 to 15.7 fs. Our results clearly show the potential for our G-SWG to greatly boost the speed and capacity of future communications with lower power consumption, and our method will further decrease the required pump laser power because it can be applied to decorate various kinds of waveguides with various two-dimensional materials. PMID:28401940

  2. Optical nonlinearity enhancement with graphene-decorated silicon waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishizawa, Atsushi; Kou, Rai; Goto, Takahiro; Tsuchizawa, Tai; Matsuda, Nobuyuki; Hitachi, Kenichi; Nishikawa, Tadashi; Yamada, Koji; Sogawa, Tetsuomi; Gotoh, Hideki

    2017-04-01

    Broadband on-chip optical frequency combs (OFCs) are important for expanding the functionality of photonic integrated circuits. Here, we demonstrate a huge local optical nonlinearity enhancement using graphene. A waveguide is decorated with graphene by precisely manipulating graphene’s area and position. Our approach simultaneously achieves both an extremely efficient supercontinuum and ultra-short pulse generation. With our graphene-decorated silicon waveguide (G-SWG), we have achieved enhanced spectral broadening of femtosecond pump pulses, along with an eightfold increase in the output optical intensity at a wavelength approximately 200 nm shorter than that of the pump pulses. We also found that this huge nonlinearity works as a compressor that effectively compresses pulse width from 80 to 15.7 fs. Our results clearly show the potential for our G-SWG to greatly boost the speed and capacity of future communications with lower power consumption, and our method will further decrease the required pump laser power because it can be applied to decorate various kinds of waveguides with various two-dimensional materials.

  3. FDTD modeling of anisotropic nonlinear optical phenomena in silicon waveguides.

    PubMed

    Dissanayake, Chethiya M; Premaratne, Malin; Rukhlenko, Ivan D; Agrawal, Govind P

    2010-09-27

    A deep insight into the inherent anisotropic optical properties of silicon is required to improve the performance of silicon-waveguide-based photonic devices. It may also lead to novel device concepts and substantially extend the capabilities of silicon photonics in the future. In this paper, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, we present a three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method for modeling optical phenomena in silicon waveguides, which takes into account fully the anisotropy of the third-order electronic and Raman susceptibilities. We show that, under certain realistic conditions that prevent generation of the longitudinal optical field inside the waveguide, this model is considerably simplified and can be represented by a computationally efficient algorithm, suitable for numerical analysis of complex polarization effects. To demonstrate the versatility of our model, we study polarization dependence for several nonlinear effects, including self-phase modulation, cross-phase modulation, and stimulated Raman scattering. Our FDTD model provides a basis for a full-blown numerical simulator that is restricted neither by the single-mode assumption nor by the slowly varying envelope approximation.

  4. A new fiber-optic microphone based on waveguide modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chengmei; Zhen, Shenglai; Zhang, Bo; Ai, Fei; Zhang, Shuangxi; Jiang, Chao; Yu, Benli

    2009-11-01

    A new fiber-optic microphone was demonstrated theoretically and experimentally in this paper. The microphone is based on Mach-Zehnder and Sagnac interferometers, which comprise an amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) light source, a conventional single-mode fiber, a fiber reflector and two 3dB couplers. As two light paths have the same optical length but travel different sequence paths in this hybrid interferometer, the beams in different paths pass through the sensing fiber at different times and the phase signals differ from each other. Utilizing the two light paths interfered and fiber waveguide modulator replaced by piezoelectric ceramic (PZT) modulation, to implement the direct acquiring of weak voice signals. Adoption of the ASE light source and the single-mode fiber as sensing fiber decreases the system cost. The application of the fiber waveguide modulator overcomes the limitation in high frequency and nonlinear effect of PZT modulation, improves the flexibility of the system and the frequency response range. Phase shifts of the two interfered beams, which is caused by the slowly varying environmental parameter, is equal to eliminate the influence from outside effectively. In this system, the signal demodulation circuit based on weak voice signal is simpler than the PGC demodulation circuit. The experimental results of the fiber-optic microphone based on waveguide modulator have been demonstrated that the simple circuit demodulation for the weak voice signal is feasible.

  5. Optical waveguide spectrometer based on thin-film glass plates.

    PubMed

    Qi, Zhi-Mei; Matsuda, Naoki; Yoshida, Takamitsu; Asano, Hajime; Takatsu, Akiko; Kato, Kenji

    2002-11-15

    Commercially available thin-film glass plates have been successfully used for optical waveguide spectroscopy of chemical and biological films adsorbed upon the plates' surfaces. A 50-mum -thick glass plate was placed in contact with two parallel strips of silicone rubber supported on a slide glass. The plate area between the rubber strips served as the waveguiding region, eliminating the negative effect of the substrate on absorbance sensitivity. We coupled white light into the waveguide by focusing the light from a xenon lamp onto one end of a glass fiber and then inserting the other end into a glycerol drop overlaid upon the plate's surface. With a CCD detector, light at wavelengths as short as 360 nm was found to transmit out of the plate's end face. The propagation loss of the waveguide was measured to be

  6. Optical properties of atomic layer deposited materials and their application in silicon waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alasaarela, Tapani; Hiltunen, Jussi; Khanna, Amit; Säynätjoki, Antti; Tervonen, Ari; Honkanen, Seppo

    2010-02-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a promising method to grow optical materials on waveguide structures. Propagation loss analysis indicates that amorphous TiO2 and Al2O3 films are promising for the waveguide purposes. Instead, polycrystalline ZnO does not work properly as a waveguide by itself, but the waveguiding properties can probably be enhanced by introducing intermediate Al2O3 layers. The wide variety of available materials, conformal growth properties and low scattering losses of many ALD films enable their usage in various waveguide applications. Experimental coating of silicon waveguides is discussed.

  7. Experimental assessment of SU-8 optical waveguides buried in plastic substrate for optical interconnections.

    PubMed

    Hamid, Hanan H; Fickenscher, Thomas; Thiel, David V

    2015-08-01

    Multimode polymer waveguides have been developed to create low-cost, high-speed on-board optical interconnects. Buried optical waveguides made from SU-8 in a polymethyl methacrylate polymer (PMMA) substrate covered with a thin PMMA sheet are a low-cost option for electro-optical interconnects. The propagation losses for a 600  μm×600  μm straight waveguide were 1.96, 1.32, and 1.39  dB/cm, respectively, at three different wavelengths (850, 1310, and 1550 nm). The bending loss for a 15 mm bending radius is as high as 6  dB/cm. Transition and radiation losses dominate overall loss when the bending radius is less than 30 mm. The waveguide was excited using a multimode 850 nm VCSEL transmitter and detected using butt-coupled and lens-coupled receivers. The coupling loss was about 1 dB for the butt-coupling technique and 2 dB for lens coupling. The response bandwidth and the group delay of direct modulated (IF) signal were independent of the channel waveguide for communication speeds up to more than 3 GHz. This technique is viable for low-cost, short-length buried optical waveguides.

  8. Integrated planar optical waveguide interferometer biosensors: a comparative review.

    PubMed

    Kozma, Peter; Kehl, Florian; Ehrentreich-Förster, Eva; Stamm, Christoph; Bier, Frank F

    2014-08-15

    Integrated planar optical waveguide interferometer biosensors are advantageous combinations of evanescent field sensing and optical phase difference measurement methods. By probing the near surface region of a sensor area with the evanescent field, any change of the refractive index of the probed volume induces a phase shift of the guided mode compared to a reference field typically of a mode propagating through the reference arm of the same waveguide structure. The interfering fields of these modes produce an interference signal detected at the sensor׳s output, whose alteration is proportional to the refractive index change. This signal can be recorded, processed and related to e.g. the concentration of an analyte in the solution of interest. Although this sensing principle is relatively simple, studies about integrated planar optical waveguide interferometer biosensors can mostly be found in the literature covering the past twenty years. During these two decades, several members of this sensor family have been introduced, which have remarkably advantageous properties. These entail label-free and non-destructive detection, outstandingly good sensitivity and detection limit, cost-effective and simple production, ability of multiplexing and miniaturization. Furthermore, these properties lead to low reagent consumption, short analysis time and open prospects for point-of-care applications. The present review collects the most relevant developments of the past twenty years categorizing them into two main groups, such as common- and double path waveguide interferometers. In addition, it tries to maintain the historical order as it is possible and it compares the diverse sensor designs in order to reveal not only the development of this field in time, but to contrast the advantages and disadvantages of the different approaches and sensor families, as well.

  9. Extreme optical confinement in a slotted photonic crystal waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Caër, Charles; Le Roux, Xavier; Cassan, Eric; Combrié, Sylvain De Rossi, Alfredo

    2014-09-22

    Using Optical Coherence Tomography, we measure the attenuation of slow light modes in slotted photonic crystal waveguides. When the group index is close to 20, the attenuation is below 300 dB cm{sup −1}. Here, the optical confinement in the empty slot is very strong, corresponding to an ultra-small effective cross section of 0.02 μm{sup 2}. This is nearly 10 times below the diffraction limit at λ = 1.5 μm, and it enables an effective interaction with a very small volume of functionalized matter.

  10. GeAsSe chalcogenide slot optical waveguide ring resonator for refractive index sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashok, N.; Lee, Yeung Lak; Shin, WooJin

    2017-04-01

    We present a slot optical waveguide ring resonator that can be used as a refractive index sensor. The proposed ring resonator works on the principle of coupling of the mode from the bus waveguide to the ring waveguide. The ring resonator was analyzed using the finite-difference time-domain method. Our proposed waveguide structure showed a sensitivity of 42 nm/RIU. Our aim is to design a chalcogenide ring resonator for refractive index sensing in midinfrared wavelengths.

  11. Development of Proton Exchange Technology in the ISSP—Optical Waveguides in Electro-Optical Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuneva, Mariana

    2010-01-01

    The contribution of the team working in the field of integrated optics in the Institute of Solid State Physics to the development of proton exchange technology is discussed. Some modifications of its parameters (new proton sources) and steps (two-step exchange separated by annealing, for example) are pointed out in respect of their effect on the waveguide properties of proton-exchanged layers. The spectroscopic methods used for phase content characterization of waveguides obtained are also described. These include infrared absorption and reflection spectrometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, mode spectroscopy and micro & waveguide Raman spectroscopy.

  12. Nonlocal optical response in metallic nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Raza, Søren; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I; Wubs, Martijn; Asger Mortensen, N

    2015-05-13

    This review provides a broad overview of the studies and effects of nonlocal response in metallic nanostructures. In particular, we thoroughly present the nonlocal hydrodynamic model and the recently introduced generalized nonlocal optical response (GNOR) model. The influence of nonlocal response on plasmonic excitations is studied in key metallic geometries, such as spheres and dimers, and we derive new consequences due to the GNOR model. Finally, we propose several trajectories for future work on nonlocal response, including experimental setups that may unveil further effects of nonlocal response.

  13. Reflectively coupled waveguide photodetector for high speed optical interconnection.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Shih-Hsiang

    2010-01-01

    To fully utilize GaAs high drift mobility, techniques to monolithically integrate In0.53Ga0.47As p-i-n photodetectors with GaAs based optical waveguides using total internal reflection coupling are reviewed. Metal coplanar waveguides, deposited on top of the polyimide layer for the photodetector's planarization and passivation, were then uniquely connected as a bridge between the photonics and electronics to illustrate the high-speed monitoring function. The photodetectors were efficiently implemented and imposed on the echelle grating circle for wavelength division multiplexing monitoring. In optical filtering performance, the monolithically integrated photodetector channel spacing was 2 nm over the 1,520-1,550 nm wavelength range and the pass band was 1 nm at the -1 dB level. For high-speed applications the full-width half-maximum of the temporal response and 3-dB bandwidth for the reflectively coupled waveguide photodetectors were demonstrated to be 30 ps and 11 GHz, respectively. The bit error rate performance of this integrated photodetector at 10 Gbit/s with 2(7)-1 long pseudo-random bit sequence non-return to zero input data also showed error-free operation.

  14. Reflectively Coupled Waveguide Photodetector for High Speed Optical Interconnection

    PubMed Central

    Hsu*, Shih-Hsiang

    2010-01-01

    To fully utilize GaAs high drift mobility, techniques to monolithically integrate In0.53Ga0.47As p-i-n photodetectors with GaAs based optical waveguides using total internal reflection coupling are reviewed. Metal coplanar waveguides, deposited on top of the polyimide layer for the photodetector’s planarization and passivation, were then uniquely connected as a bridge between the photonics and electronics to illustrate the high-speed monitoring function. The photodetectors were efficiently implemented and imposed on the echelle grating circle for wavelength division multiplexing monitoring. In optical filtering performance, the monolithically integrated photodetector channel spacing was 2 nm over the 1,520–1,550 nm wavelength range and the pass band was 1 nm at the −1 dB level. For high-speed applications the full-width half-maximum of the temporal response and 3-dB bandwidth for the reflectively coupled waveguide photodetectors were demonstrated to be 30 ps and 11 GHz, respectively. The bit error rate performance of this integrated photodetector at 10 Gbit/s with 27-1 long pseudo-random bit sequence non-return to zero input data also showed error-free operation. PMID:22163502

  15. Loss analysis for a two wire optical waveguide for chip-to-chip communication.

    PubMed

    Dickason, Jonathan; Goossen, K W

    2013-03-11

    We propose an optical interconnect system for chip-to-chip communication using gold bond wires as a two wire waveguide. Here the loss of such a waveguide is determined for near-IR wavelengths, for different wire sizes and configurations, and show that we can achieve transmission loss coefficients less than 0.4 mm(-1) (1.7 dB/mm) making chip-to-chip optical communication possible using two-wire transmission lines made of standard gold bond wires. Such an optical waveguide scheme would greatly simplify inter-chip optical communication compared with existing waveguide concepts.

  16. Fabrication 3D buried channel optical waveguide modulators on field-driven ion exchange process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zigang; Chen, Wenqiang; Zhu, Li; Li, Jing; Luo, Xiaoying

    2010-10-01

    A high electric field technique was developed to fabricate buried optical waveguide modulator on K9 optical glass. The 80V voltage was applied on the glass to accelerate the field-driven ion exchange process by expeditiously replacing host sodium ions in the glass with silver ions. As a result, the optical loss for optical waveguide modulator was measured using the edge coupling technique with a 0.6328μm He-Ne laser. Loss of 0.20 dB/cm was obtained for channel waveguides of 25μm in depth, relatively low for waveguides of such depth at red wavelength.

  17. WGM-Resonator/Tapered-Waveguide White-Light Sensor Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stekalov, Dmitry; Maleki, Lute; Matsko, Andrey; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Iltchenko, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations have demonstrated the feasibility of compact white-light sensor optics consisting of unitary combinations of (1) low-profile whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) resonators and (2) tapered rod optical waveguides. These sensors are highly wavelength-dispersive and are expected to be especially useful in biochemical applications for measuring absorption spectra of liquids. These sensor optics exploit the properties of a special class of non-diffracting light beams that are denoted Bessel beams because their amplitudes are proportional to Bessel functions of the radii from their central axes. High-order Bessel beams can have large values of angular momentum. In a sensor optic of this type, a low-profile WGM resonator that supports modes having large angular momenta is used to generate high-order Bessel beams. As used here, "low-profile" signifies that the WGM resonator is an integral part of the rod optical waveguide but has a radius slightly different from that of the adjacent part(s).

  18. Channel polymer optical waveguides embedded in glass: Design, fabrication and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández Gavela, Adrián; García Granda, Miguel; Rodríguez García, José

    2015-09-01

    In this work, the design, fabrication and experimental evaluation of new channel polymer optical waveguides embedded in glass are reported. We show that high quality microchannels in glass, without roughness on the walls, make possible the fabrication of new channel optical waveguides by filling the microchannels with a polymer. Guided light through those new optical waveguides is demonstrated experimentally. The commercial software OlympIOs was used to design multimode and monomode channel polymer optical waveguides. The microchannels in glass substrate were fabricated by using a laser lithography system and wet-etching procedures. The spin-coating technique was applied to deposit the polymer inside the microchannels. The end-coupling method was implemented for the waveguides characterization. Theoretical and experimental results have confirmed light confinement as well as guided modes propagation by these new channel optical waveguides.

  19. Bioabsorbable polymer optical waveguides for deep-tissue photomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Nizamoglu, Sedat; Gather, Malte C.; Humar, Matjaž; Choi, Myunghwan; Kim, Seonghoon; Kim, Ki Su; Hahn, Sei Kwang; Scarcelli, Giuliano; Randolph, Mark; Redmond, Robert W.; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Advances in photonics have stimulated significant progress in medicine, with many techniques now in routine clinical use. However, the finite depth of light penetration in tissue is a serious constraint to clinical utility. Here we show implantable light-delivery devices made of bio-derived or biocompatible, and biodegradable polymers. In contrast to conventional optical fibres, which must be removed from the body soon after use, the biodegradable and biocompatible waveguides may be used for long-term light delivery and need not be removed as they are gradually resorbed by the tissue. As proof of concept, we demonstrate this paradigm-shifting approach for photochemical tissue bonding (PTB). Using comb-shaped planar waveguides, we achieve a full thickness (>10 mm) wound closure of porcine skin, which represents ∼10-fold extension of the tissue area achieved with conventional PTB. The results point to a new direction in photomedicine for using light in deep tissues. PMID:26783091

  20. Bioabsorbable polymer optical waveguides for deep-tissue photomedicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nizamoglu, Sedat; Gather, Malte C.; Humar, Matjaž; Choi, Myunghwan; Kim, Seonghoon; Kim, Ki Su; Hahn, Sei Kwang; Scarcelli, Giuliano; Randolph, Mark; Redmond, Robert W.; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Advances in photonics have stimulated significant progress in medicine, with many techniques now in routine clinical use. However, the finite depth of light penetration in tissue is a serious constraint to clinical utility. Here we show implantable light-delivery devices made of bio-derived or biocompatible, and biodegradable polymers. In contrast to conventional optical fibres, which must be removed from the body soon after use, the biodegradable and biocompatible waveguides may be used for long-term light delivery and need not be removed as they are gradually resorbed by the tissue. As proof of concept, we demonstrate this paradigm-shifting approach for photochemical tissue bonding (PTB). Using comb-shaped planar waveguides, we achieve a full thickness (>10 mm) wound closure of porcine skin, which represents ~10-fold extension of the tissue area achieved with conventional PTB. The results point to a new direction in photomedicine for using light in deep tissues.

  1. Polymer optical waveguide devices for mode-division-multiplexing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Kin Seng

    2017-05-01

    Mode-division multiplexing (MDM), which allows different guided modes of a few-mode fiber to carry different signals, is a new technology being actively pursued worldwide to increase the signal-carrying capacity of a fiber. For the development of the MDM technology, many mode-controlling devices are needed, such as mode converters, mode (de)multiplexers, mode filters, and mode-selective switches. Among the various technologies available for the implementation of such devices, the polymer waveguide technology offers many distinct advantages. This paper presents a review of polymer waveguide devices for MDM applications, which include grating-based mode converters, 3D mode (de)multiplexers, graphene-based mode filters, and thermo-optic mode-selective switches.

  2. Bioabsorbable polymer optical waveguides for deep-tissue photomedicine.

    PubMed

    Nizamoglu, Sedat; Gather, Malte C; Humar, Matjaž; Choi, Myunghwan; Kim, Seonghoon; Kim, Ki Su; Hahn, Sei Kwang; Scarcelli, Giuliano; Randolph, Mark; Redmond, Robert W; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2016-01-19

    Advances in photonics have stimulated significant progress in medicine, with many techniques now in routine clinical use. However, the finite depth of light penetration in tissue is a serious constraint to clinical utility. Here we show implantable light-delivery devices made of bio-derived or biocompatible, and biodegradable polymers. In contrast to conventional optical fibres, which must be removed from the body soon after use, the biodegradable and biocompatible waveguides may be used for long-term light delivery and need not be removed as they are gradually resorbed by the tissue. As proof of concept, we demonstrate this paradigm-shifting approach for photochemical tissue bonding (PTB). Using comb-shaped planar waveguides, we achieve a full thickness (>10 mm) wound closure of porcine skin, which represents ∼ 10-fold extension of the tissue area achieved with conventional PTB. The results point to a new direction in photomedicine for using light in deep tissues.

  3. Waveguide-coupled nanowire as an optical antenna.

    PubMed

    Arnaud, Laurent; Bruyant, Aurélien; Renault, Mikael; Hadjar, Yassine; Salas-Montiel, Rafael; Apuzzo, Aniello; Lérondel, Gilles; Morand, Alain; Benech, Pierre; Le Coarer, Etienne; Blaize, Sylvain

    2013-11-01

    We study the optical coupling between a gold nanowire and a silver ion-exchanged waveguide, with special emphasis on the nanowire antenna radiation pattern. We measure the radiation patterns of waveguide-coupled gold nanowires with a height of 70 nm and width of 50 or 150 nm in the 450-700 nm spectral range for TE and TM polarizations. We perform a systematic theoretical study on the wavelength, polarization, nanowire size, and material dependences on the properties of the radiation pattern. We also give some elements concerning absorption and near-field. Experiments and calculations show localized plasmon resonance for the polarization orthogonal to the wire (far-field resonance at 580 nm for the smallest wire and 670 nm for the widest). It is shown that a great variety of radiation patterns can be obtained, together with a high sensitivity to a change of one parameter, particularly near-resonance.

  4. Optical loss and crosstalk in multimode photolithographically fabricated polyacrylate polymer waveguide crossings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baghsiahi, Hadi; Wang, Kai; Selviah, David R.

    2014-03-01

    Complex interconnection patterns in electrical PCBs have to use multiple layers of copper tracks. However, the same interconnections can be made in a single layer using optical waveguides as they cross on the same layer. Waveguide crossings where two waveguides intersect in the same optical layer are particularly important components as they offer OPCB layout designers additional flexibility to solve layout problems such as routing around cutout areas, electrical components and other obstacles on an OPCB. Use of waveguide crossings can also help to avoid sharp bends in the design as these bends are an important cause of optical loss. Despite all of the advantages of waveguide crossings, and although most of the light travels along the intended waveguide, a proportion of the optical power in one waveguide will couple into the crossing waveguide at each intersection point or couple out of the original waveguide and into the cladding. This coupling phenomenon causes optical loss and crosstalk in the system. In this paper, the results of an investigation of the optical loss due to the crossing of multimode polymer waveguide, fabricated on FR4 printed circuit boards, PCBs, as a function of crossing angles are presented theoretically and experimentally. The results from ray tracing simulation is compared with the experiment results and the contrast is discussed.

  5. Optical waveguides having flattened high order modes

    DOEpatents

    Messerly, Michael Joseph; Beach, Raymond John; Heebner, John Edward; Dawson, Jay Walter; Pax, Paul Henry

    2014-08-05

    A deterministic methodology is provided for designing optical fibers that support field-flattened, ring-like higher order modes. The effective and group indices of its modes can be tuned by adjusting the widths of the guide's field-flattened layers or the average index of certain groups of layers. The approach outlined here provides a path to designing fibers that simultaneously have large mode areas and large separations between the propagation constants of its modes.

  6. Optical simulation of neutrino oscillations in binary waveguide arrays.

    PubMed

    Marini, Andrea; Longhi, Stefano; Biancalana, Fabio

    2014-10-10

    We theoretically propose and investigate an optical analogue of neutrino oscillations in a pair of vertically displaced binary waveguide arrays with longitudinally modulated effective refractive index. Optical propagation is modeled through coupled-mode equations, which in the continuous limit converge to two coupled Dirac equations for fermionic particles with different mass states, analogously to neutrinos. In addition to simulating neutrino oscillation in the noninteracting regime, our optical setting enables us to explore neutrino interactions in extreme regimes that are expected to play an important role in massive supernova stars. In particular, we predict the quenching of neutrino oscillations and the existence of topological defects, i.e., neutrino solitons, which in our photonic simulator should be observable as excitation of optical gap solitons propagating along the binary arrays at high excitation intensities.

  7. Single Mode Optical Waveguide Design Investigation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-30

    ADA09 979 CORNING GLASS WORKS NY F/6 20/6 SINGLE NOOK OPTICAL WAVEGUIOC DESIGN INVESTIGATION. (U) MA 81 V A BHAGAVAY~l-A, R A WESTWIG. D 6 KECK...Bhagavatula R. A. Westwig D. B. Keck Corning Glass Wqrks Corning, N.Y. March 30, 1981 Approved L r oc e 81 415 021 1i. Summary 1.1 Lateral and angular offset...sensitivity test equipment has been designed and built. 1.2 Measurements of lateral offset sensitivity have been made on several fibers to determine

  8. Integrated optical gyroscope using active long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguide resonator.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tong; Qian, Guang; Wang, Yang-Yang; Xue, Xiao-Jun; Shan, Feng; Li, Ruo-Zhou; Wu, Jing-Yuan; Zhang, Xiao-Yang

    2014-01-24

    Optical gyroscopes with high sensitivity are important rotation sensors for inertial navigation systems. Here, we present the concept of integrated resonant optical gyroscope constructed by active long-range surface plasmon-polariton (LRSPP) waveguide resonator. In this gyroscope, LRSPP waveguide doped gain medium is pumped to compensate the propagation loss, which has lower pump noise than that of conventional optical waveguide. Peculiar properties of single-polarization of LRSPP waveguide have been found to significantly reduce the polarization error. The metal layer of LRSPP waveguide is electro-optical multiplexed for suppression of reciprocal noises. It shows a limited sensitivity of ~10(-4) deg/h, and a maximum zero drift which is 4 orders of magnitude lower than that constructed by conventional single-mode waveguide.

  9. Integrated optical gyroscope using active Long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguide resonator

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tong; Qian, Guang; Wang, Yang-Yang; Xue, Xiao-Jun; Shan, Feng; Li, Ruo-Zhou; Wu, Jing-Yuan; Zhang, Xiao-Yang

    2014-01-01

    Optical gyroscopes with high sensitivity are important rotation sensors for inertial navigation systems. Here, we present the concept of integrated resonant optical gyroscope constructed by active long-range surface plasmon-polariton (LRSPP) waveguide resonator. In this gyroscope, LRSPP waveguide doped gain medium is pumped to compensate the propagation loss, which has lower pump noise than that of conventional optical waveguide. Peculiar properties of single-polarization of LRSPP waveguide have been found to significantly reduce the polarization error. The metal layer of LRSPP waveguide is electro-optical multiplexed for suppression of reciprocal noises. It shows a limited sensitivity of ~10−4 deg/h, and a maximum zero drift which is 4 orders of magnitude lower than that constructed by conventional single-mode waveguide. PMID:24458281

  10. 40 GHz electro-optic modulation in hybrid silicon-organic slotted photonic crystal waveguides.

    PubMed

    Wülbern, Jan Hendrik; Prorok, Stefan; Hampe, Jan; Petrov, Alexander; Eich, Manfred; Luo, Jingdong; Jen, Alex K-Y; Jenett, Martin; Jacob, Arne

    2010-08-15

    In this Letter we demonstrate broadband electro-optic modulation with frequencies of up to 40 GHz in slotted photonic crystal waveguides based on silicon-on-insulator substrates covered and infiltrated with a nonlinear optical polymer. Two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguides in silicon enable integrated optical devices with an extremely small geometric footprint on the scale of micrometers. The slotted waveguide design optimizes the overlap of the optical and electric fields in the second-order nonlinear optical medium and, hence, the interaction of the optical and electric waves.

  11. Photo-induced reduction of graphene oxide coating on optical waveguide and consequent optical intermodulation

    PubMed Central

    Chong, W. Y.; Lim, W. H.; Yap, Y. K.; Lai, C. K.; De La Rue, R. M.; Ahmad, H.

    2016-01-01

    Increased absorption of transverse-magnetic (TM) - polarised light by a graphene-oxide (GO) coated polymer waveguide has been observed in the presence of transverse-electric (TE) - polarised light. The GO-coated waveguide exhibits very strong photo-absorption of TE-polarised light - and acts as a TM-pass waveguide polariser. The absorbed TE-polarised light causes a significant temperature increase in the GO film and induces thermal reduction of the GO, resulting in an increase in optical-frequency conductivity and consequently increased optical propagation loss. This behaviour in a GO-coated waveguide gives the action of an inverted optical switch/modulator. By varying the incident TE-polarised light power, a maximum modulation efficiency of 72% was measured, with application of an incident optical power level of 57 mW. The GO-coated waveguide was able to respond clearly to modulated TE-polarised light with a pulse duration of as little as 100 μs. In addition, no wavelength dependence was observed in the response of either the modulation (TE-polarised light) or the signal (TM-polarised light). PMID:27034015

  12. S-shaped SU-8 optical waveguide immobilized with gold nanoparticles for trace detection of explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharadwaj, Reshma; Tripathi, Rakesh; Prabhakar, Amit; Mukherji, Soumyo

    2013-09-01

    In this study, we report a miniaturized optical sensor for direct detection of vapors of nitro-based explosives using gold nanoparticle (AuNP) coated SU-8 polymer optical waveguides. S-shaped waveguide geometry was chosen due its enhanced evanescent field sensitivity. Light was coupled into the waveguide structure to evanescently excite the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) modes of the immobilized AuNP. The AuNP were functionalized with 4- mercaptobenzoic acid (4-MBA) which acts as the receptor for nitro-based explosives. The AuNP coated SU-8 optical waveguide sensor demonstrated an ability to detect 10 parts per billion (ppb) concentration of explosive analytes.

  13. Polymeric Optical Waveguide with Plastic Optical Fiber Guides for Passive Alignment Fabricated by Hot Embossing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuno, Hirotaka; Jordan, Shane; Sugihara, Okihiro; Kaino, Toshikuni; Okamoto, Naomichi; Ohama, Motoshi

    2004-11-01

    The simple fabrication of a passive alignment structure, and the simple connection of polymeric optical waveguides (POWs) and plastic optical fibers (POFs) are presented. Optical waveguides with large core sizes of 500 and 1000 μm were fabricated, and a low propagation loss of 0.21-0.23 dB/cm at 650 nm was achieved in these waveguides. Using a structure with the same core and fiber guide patterns as the master, a passive alignment structure was fabricated easily by hot embossing. POWs directly connected to POFs with passive alignment were realized and the coupling loss from POF to POF through POW was measured to be 1.6 dB at an optimum core width of 900 μm for 980 μm core size POFs.

  14. X-ray and optical characterization of multilayer semiconductor waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand, Olivier; Leo, Giuseppe; Masini, Gianlorenzo; Colace, Lorenzo; Marcadet, Xavier; Berger, Vincent; Assanto, Gaetano

    2001-05-01

    Nowadays refractive-index engineering has become a challenging area for experimentalists in semiconductor integrated optics, whereas design constraints are often more strict than both standard technology tolerances and model accuracies. In fact, it is crucial to non-destructively evaluate thicknesses and refractive indices of a multilayer waveguide independently, and to this aim we resorted to X-ray reflectometry and effective index measurements on MBE-grown AlGaAs waveguides, respectively. With the first technique interference effects (Kiessig fringes) arise, which are related to layer thicknesses. By standard data processing, thickness accuracies of +/- 0.05 nm are readily achieved. Effective index measurements were performed at several wavelengths on both slab and rib waveguides, through grating-assisted distributed coupling with both photoresist and etched gratings. Effective indices were determined with an absolute precision as good as 1/2000, adequate for phase matching in parametric devices. Merging thickness and effective index evaluations, the refractive indices of the constituent layers were determined with unprecedented accuracies, in substantial agreement with existing models.

  15. Bend insensitive graded index multimode polymer optical waveguides fabricated using the Mosquito method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Asami; Ishigure, Takaaki

    2015-02-01

    We fabricate low-loss graded index (GI) circular core multimode polymer optical waveguides with 90o bending and demonstrate low bending loss even if the bend radius is as small as 1 mm. In the several fabrication methods for GI-core polymer waveguides already proposed, we adopt the "Mosquito method" that utilize a microdispenser because the Mosquito method makes it possible to fabricate waveguides directly on board at desired places on a printed circuit board, and to draw various patterns of cores including curves. However, in the waveguides including such curved cores, the additional transmission loss due to the bending (bending loss) is a concern. Thus, we characterize the fabricated GI-core polymer waveguides with bending: using two kinds of cladding monomer with different refractive indexes for fabricating waveguides with bending. We found when the NA of waveguides was as high as 0.35, no additional loss due to bending was observed even if the bending radius is as small as 1 mm. The core diameter of the fabricated waveguides is 50 μm, and it is possible to further decrease the bending loss in the waveguides with smaller core diameter. Furthermore, utilizing the Mosquito method, we fabricate waveguides with not only horizontally curved cores but also vertically curved ones. Waveguides with vertically curved cores could make it possible to realize three-dimensionally optical wiring applicable to on-board optical interconnects.

  16. Optical pulling force and conveyor belt effect in resonator-waveguide system.

    PubMed

    Intaraprasonk, Varat; Fan, Shanhui

    2013-09-01

    We present the theoretical condition and actual numerical design that achieves an optical pulling force in resonator-waveguide systems, where the direction of the force on the resonator is in the opposite direction to the input light in the waveguide. We also show that this pulling force can occur in conjunction with the lateral optical equilibrium effect, such that the resonator is maintained at the fixed distance from the waveguide while experiencing the pulling force.

  17. Modeling of Electro Optic Polymer Electrical Characteristics in a 3 layer Optical Waveguide Modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Michael D.; Ashley, Paul R.; Guenthner, Andrew J.; Abushagur, Mustafa

    2004-01-01

    The electrical characteristics of electro optic polymer waveguide modulators are often described by the bulk reactance of the individual layers. However, the resistance and capacitance between the layers can significantly alter the electrical performance of a waveguide modulator. These interface characteristics are related to the boundary charge density and are strongly affected by the adhesion of the layers in the waveguide stack. An electrical reactance model has been derived to investigate this phenomenon at low frequencies. The model shows the waveguide stack frequency response has no limiting effects below the microwave range and that a true DC response requires a stable voltage for over 1000 hours. Thus, reactance of the layers is the key characteristic of optimizing the voltage across the core layer, even at very low frequencies (> 10(exp -6) Hz). The results of the model are compared with experimental data for two polymer systems and show quite good correlation.

  18. The Interaction of Optical Guided Modes with Waveguide Diffraction Gratings.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weller-Brophy, Laura Ann

    In this thesis the results of a theoretical and experimental investigation of the coupling of guided modes by waveguide gratings are presented. This work is motivated by the potential application of waveguide gratings to integrated optical devices. The coupling of guided modes obliquely incident to both periodic and aperiodic gratings is a mechanism basic to the operation of integrated optical components such as filters, reflectors, beamsplitters, and modulators. It is shown in the Introduction to this thesis, that this mechanism is not modeled consistently by the analyses presented in the literature. For the case of TM-TM coupling, virtually each analytical treatment predicts a different value for the grating reflectivity. In addition, it is found that the typical Coupled-Mode formalisms used to derive the grating reflectivity do not offer an intuitive picture of the operation of waveguide gratings. These two particular problem areas serve as the focal points of this thesis. The latter of these is addressed through the development of a thin film model of the operation of waveguide gratings. This model presents an intuitively appealing picture of the interaction of waveguide gratings and guided modes. It also yields grating reflectivities which are in excellent agreement with those obtained through the numerical solution of the Coupled-Mode equations for both periodic and aperiodic gratings. The bulk of this research project is directed towards resolving the conflicting theoretical grating analyses presented in the literature. A new derivation of the coupling of guided modes obliquely incident to periodic gratings is presented in Chapter II of this thesis. This derivation is based on the Local Normal Mode expansion used by Marcuse for the case of normal incidence. It produces coupling coefficients which are nearly identical to those derived using the rigorous Boundary Perturbation technique. The coupling coefficients predicted by this Local Normal Mode formalism

  19. Improve power conversion efficiency of slab coupled optical waveguide lasers.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jiahua; Zhu, Lin; Dogan, Mehmet; Jacob, Jonah

    2014-07-28

    The slab coupled optical waveguide laser (SCOWL) is a promising candidate for high power, single mode emitter for a number of reasons, including its near diffraction limited optical quality, large modal size and near circular output pattern. Current SCOWL designs have limited electrical-optical power conversion efficiency (PCE) around 40%, which is lower than conventional RWG laser and broad area laser that are known to have much higher PCEs. To improve the SCOWL PCE, we theoretically optimize its structure by reducing Al content, increasing doping concentration and introducing a GRIN layer to prevent carrier leakage. Numerical simulations predict that an optimized SCOWL design has a maximum PCE of about 57% at room temperature.

  20. Enhancing optical isolator performance in nonreciprocal waveguide arrays.

    PubMed

    Levy, Miguel; Carroll, Turhan K; El-Ganainy, Ramy

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the operation of optical isolators based on magneto-optics waveguide arrays beyond the coupled mode analysis. Semi-vectorial beam propagation simulations demonstrate that evanescent tail coupling and the effects of radiation are responsible for degrading the device's performance. Our analysis suggests that these effects can be mitigated when the array size is scaled up. In addition, we propose the use of radiation blockers in order to offset some of these effects, and we show that they provide a dramatic improvement in performance. Finally, we also study the robustness of the system with respect to fabrication tolerances using the coupled mode theory. We show that small, random variations in the system's parameters tend to average out as the number of optical guiding channels increases.

  1. Waveguide-fed optical hybrid plasmonic patch nano-antenna.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Leila; Foster, Amy C

    2012-07-30

    We propose a novel optical hybrid plasmonic patch nano-antenna for operation at the standard telecommunication wavelength of 1550 nm. The nano-antenna is designed to be compatible with a hybrid plasmonic waveguide through matching of both the operational mode and the wave impedance. The antenna is designed to receive the optical signal from a planar waveguide and redirect the signal out of plane, and is therefore useful for inter- or intra-chip optical communications and sensing. The transmission line model in conjunction with surface plasmon theory is used to develop analytical formulas for design and analysis, and a 3-dimensional full-wave numerical method is used to validate the design. The proposed device provides a bandwidth of more than 15 THz, a gain of 5.6 dB, and an efficiency of 87%. Furthermore, by designing an 8 × 8 array of the proposed antenna, a directivity of 20 dBi and steering of the beam angle are achieved by controlling the relative phase shift between elements of the array.

  2. Technology Development of Stratified Volume Diffractive Optics for Waveguide Coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, Diana M.

    2000-01-01

    Stratified Volume Diffractive Optical Elements (SVDOE) appear to be viable as high-efficiency waveguide couplers. Preliminary design studies were conducted under this task to provide initial device parameters for evaluation. However, these designs should be revisited prior to fabrication of a device for testing. The emphasis of this task has been development and implementation of fabrication procedures necessary for SVDOE'S, namely alignment of grating layers, Including offsets, to within required tolerances. Progress in this area Indicates that the alignment technique chosen is viable and tolerances have been reached that allow reasonable performance ranges. Approaches have been identified to improve alignment tolerances even further.

  3. Optical branching in dye-doped polymeric waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkisov, Sergey; Taylor, Andre; Venkateswarlu, Putcha; Wilkosz, Aaron

    1998-01-01

    We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that a single optical beam splits into multiple beams (branches) as a result of light induced permanent refractive index decrease in a dye-doped polymeric slab waveguide upon its upconverted photobleaching. The input Gaussian beam initially splits into two primary branches that grow in time moving out of the central axis and eventually collapse into numerous secondary branches. The proposed theoretical model is nonlocal in time and is based on a Shrödinger-type nonlinear propagation equation complemented by a rate equation for the decrease of the refractive index.

  4. Transformation of randomly modulated optical signals along a dispersive single-mode fiber-optical waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Belanov, A.S.; Polukhin, A.T.

    1995-02-01

    Compact relationships for describing the transformation of the correlation function of uniform optical noises along a dispersive single-mode fiber-optical waveguide (SFW) are obtained. As an example of the dispersion-induced distortions in the SFW, an important practical case of optical waves with a regular phase modulation at the SFW input or in one of its parts is considered. 2 refs.

  5. Waveguide Studies for Fiber Optics and Optical Signal Processing Applications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    beam expander is shown in Fig. 2 -i. The beam, which is expanded to approximately 100 Wm, can be deflected acousto - optically to make a spectrum analyzer...3 2 . DBR Lasers for Fiber Optics and Optical Signal Processing Sources ......... ................. 4 4. Studies of LiNbO 3...6 Chapter 1. Wave Beam Expansion ....... ............. 9 Chapter 2 . DBR Lasers for Fiber Optics and Optical Signal Processing Sources

  6. Fabrication of fluorinated polyimide optical waveguides by micropen direct writing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zemin; Cao, Yu; Li, Xiangyou; Gao, Ming; Zeng, Xiaoyan

    2011-07-01

    A novel and cheap direct writing method based on the micropen has been developed to fabricate fluorinated polyimide stripe optical waveguides on Si/SiO 2 wafers. The overall design, starting material, micropen direct writing system and fabrication processes of the stripe optical waveguides are presented. The effects of the key direct writing parameters, such as the tip-to-substrate distance, extrusive gas pressure, writing speed and viscosity of the polyamic acid, on the dimension and morphology of the stripe optical waveguides are discussed in detail. After deposition by the micropen system and baking process, the fluorinated polyimide stripe optical waveguides with good morphology and surface quality can be fabricated using the optimal parameters. The propagation losses at the wavelength of 1.55 μm are in the range of 1.4-3.5 dB cm -1 as characterized by different length combinations of the strip optical waveguides.

  7. Ultrafast Optical Beam Deflection in a Planar Waveguide for High Dynamic Range Recording at Picosecond Resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Sarantos, C H; Heebner, J E

    2008-07-02

    We report the latest performance of an ultrafast, all-optical beam deflector based on a prism array imprinted in a planar waveguide. The deflector enables single-shot, high dynamic range optical recording with picosecond resolution.

  8. Mesoscale cavities in hollow-core waveguides for quantum optics with atomic ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haapamaki, C. M.; Flannery, J.; Bappi, G.; Al Maruf, R.; Bhaskara, S. V.; Alshehri, O.; Yoon, T.; Bajcsy, M.

    2016-08-01

    Single-mode hollow-core waveguides loaded with atomic ensembles offer an excellent platform for light-matter interactions and nonlinear optics at low photon levels. We review and discuss possible approaches for incorporating mirrors, cavities, and Bragg gratings into these waveguides without obstructing their hollow cores. With these additional features controlling the light propagation in the hollow-core waveguides, one could potentially achieve optical nonlinearities controllable by single photons in systems with small footprints that can be integrated on a chip. We propose possible applications such as single-photon transistors and superradiant lasers that could be implemented in these enhanced hollow-core waveguides.

  9. Proposal of using slot-waveguide cavity to reduce noises in resonant integrated optical gyroscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yi; Kong, Mei; Xu, Yameng

    2016-10-01

    Resonant optical gyroscopes suffer serious performance degradation induced by noises. We propose using an air-gap silicon-on-silica slot waveguide ring resonator as the resonant cavity of a resonant integrated optical gyroscope. We estimate possible backscattering, Kerr effect, polarization fluctuation, and thermal drift in the air-gap slot waveguide. It is shown that the backscattering, Kerr nonlinearity, and thermal instabilities can decrease significantly compared to those in a common solid-core silicon waveguide cavity, and perturbations of the polarization fluctuation may be eliminated. In addition, a slot-waveguide cavity is more beneficial for integration than a photonic bandgap fiber cavity.

  10. Efficient and spurious-free integral-equation-based optical waveguide mode solver.

    PubMed

    Hochman, Amit; Leviatan, Yehuda

    2007-10-29

    Modal analysis of waveguides and resonators by integra-lequation formulations can be hindered by the existence of spurious solutions. In this paper, spurious solutions are shown to be eliminated by introduction of a Rayleigh-quotient based matrix singularity measure. Once the spurious solutions are eliminated, the true modes may be determined efficiently and reliably, even in the presence of degeneracy, by an adaptive search algorithm. Analysis examples that demonstrate the efficacy of the method include an elliptical dielectric waveguide, two unequal touching dielectric cylinders, a plasmonic waveguide, and a realistic micro-structured optical fiber. A freely downloadable version of an optical waveguide mode solver based on this article is available.

  11. Generation of a sequence of frequency-modulated pulses in longitudinally inhomogeneous optical waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolotovskii, I. O.; Lapin, V. A.; Sementsov, D. I.; Stolyarov, D. A.

    2017-03-01

    The conditions for the generation and efficient amplification of frequency-modulated soliton-like wave packets in longitudinally inhomogeneous active optical waveguides have been studied. The possibility of forming a sequence of pico- and subpicosecond pulses from quasi-continuous radiation in active and passive optical waveguides with the group-velocity dispersion (GVD) changing over the waveguide length is considered. The behavior of a wave packet in the well-developed phase of modulation instability with a change in the waveguide inhomogeneity parameters has been investigated based on the numerical analysis.

  12. Mechanical Kerr nonlinearities due to bipolar optical forces between deformable silicon waveguides.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jing; Povinelli, Michelle L

    2011-05-23

    We use an analytical method based on the perturbation of effective index at fixed frequency to calculate optical forces between silicon waveguides. We use the method to investigate the mechanical Kerr effect in a coupled-waveguide system with bipolar forces. We find that a positive mechanical Kerr coefficient results from either an attractive or repulsive force. An enhanced mechanical Kerr coefficient several orders of magnitude larger than the intrinsic Kerr coefficient is obtained in waveguides for which the optical mode approaches the air light line, given appropriate design of the waveguide dimensions.

  13. Optical branching effect in Ti:LiNbO3 waveguides: near-field pattern studies.

    PubMed

    Jerominek, H; Delisle, C; Tremblay, R

    1986-03-01

    The paper presents a detailed study of a single optical beam splitting into several beams (the branching effect) in photorefractive sensitive Ti:LiNbO3 optical slab waveguides. The near-field patterns of the multibeam structures are presented for different values of optical power coupled into TE guided modes of different orders. The process of partial recovery of the optically damaged waveguide (the partial shrinking of the multibeam bundle created) is also described.

  14. Optical Waveguide Solar Energy System for Lunar Materials Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, T.; Case, J. A.; Senior, C. L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses results of our work on development of the Optical Waveguide (OW) Solar Energy System for Lunar Materials Processing. In the OW system as shown, solar radiation is collected by the concentrator which transfers the concentrated solar radiation to the OW transmission line consisting of low-loss optical fibers. The OW line transmits the solar radiation to the thermal reactor of the lunar materials processing plant. The feature of the OW system are: (1) Highly concentrated solar radiation (up to 104 suns) can be transmitted via flexible OW lines directly into the thermal reactor for materials processing: (2) Solar radiation intensity or spectra can be tailored to specific materials processing steps; (3) Provide solar energy to locations or inside of enclosures that would not otherwise have an access to solar energy; and (4) The system can be modularized and can be easily transported to and deployed at the lunar base.

  15. Optical Waveguide Solar Energy System for Lunar Materials Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, T.; Case, J. A.; Senior, C. L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses results of our work on development of the Optical Waveguide (OW) Solar Energy System for Lunar Materials Processing. In the OW system as shown, solar radiation is collected by the concentrator which transfers the concentrated solar radiation to the OW transmission line consisting of low-loss optical fibers. The OW line transmits the solar radiation to the thermal reactor of the lunar materials processing plant. The feature of the OW system are: (1) Highly concentrated solar radiation (up to 104 suns) can be transmitted via flexible OW lines directly into the thermal reactor for materials processing: (2) Solar radiation intensity or spectra can be tailored to specific materials processing steps; (3) Provide solar energy to locations or inside of enclosures that would not otherwise have an access to solar energy; and (4) The system can be modularized and can be easily transported to and deployed at the lunar base.

  16. Bio-functional subwavelength optical waveguides for biodetection

    SciTech Connect

    Sirbuly, D J; Fischer, N; Huang, S; Artyukhin, A

    2007-07-10

    We report a versatile biofunctional subwavelength photonic device platform for real-time detection of biological molecules. Our devices contain lipid bilayer membranes fused onto metal oxide nanowire waveguides stretched across polymeric flow channels. The lipid bilayers incorporating target receptors are submersed in the propagating evanescent field of the optical cavity. We show that the lipid bilayers in our devices are continuous, have very high mobile fraction, and are resistant to fouling. We also demonstrate that our platform allows rapid membrane exchange. Finally we use this device for detection of specific DNA sequences in solution by anchoring complementary DNA target strands in the lipid bilayer. This evanescent wave sensing architecture holds great potential for portable, all-optical detection systems.

  17. Direct-patterned optical waveguides on amorphous silicon films

    DOEpatents

    Vernon, Steve; Bond, Tiziana C.; Bond, Steven W.; Pocha, Michael D.; Hau-Riege, Stefan

    2005-08-02

    An optical waveguide structure is formed by embedding a core material within a medium of lower refractive index, i.e. the cladding. The optical index of refraction of amorphous silicon (a-Si) and polycrystalline silicon (p-Si), in the wavelength range between about 1.2 and about 1.6 micrometers, differ by up to about 20%, with the amorphous phase having the larger index. Spatially selective laser crystallization of amorphous silicon provides a mechanism for controlling the spatial variation of the refractive index and for surrounding the amorphous regions with crystalline material. In cases where an amorphous silicon film is interposed between layers of low refractive index, for example, a structure comprised of a SiO.sub.2 substrate, a Si film and an SiO.sub.2 film, the formation of guided wave structures is particularly simple.

  18. Lithographically defined tapered waveguides for transformation optics device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Todd; Ermer, Kurt; Piazza, Alex; Schaefer, Dave; Smolyaninova, Vera; Smolyaninov, Igor

    2013-03-01

    Recent progress in metamaterials and transformation optics (TO) give rise to such fascinating devices as perfect lenses, invisibility cloaks, etc., which are typically achieved with metamaterials. Realization of these devices using electromagnetic metamaterials would require sophisticated nanofabrication techniques. Recently we have demonstrated that the same effect may be achieved by much simpler means. By tapering a waveguide, one can literally ``bend'' optical space and achieve the same result. Our approach leads to much simpler designs, which require conventional lithographic techniques and readily available dielectric materials. Here we report fabrication of low cost TO devices, such as analogues of metamaterial lenses and invisibility cloaks. Their broadband properties will be demonstrated and performance for light of different polarization will be discussed. This work is supported by NSF grants DMR-0348939 and DMR-110476.

  19. Thermo-optic Goos-Hänchen effect in silicon-on-insulator waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Tingting; Luo, Li; Liu, Wenli; He, Xiujun; Zhang, Yanfen

    2015-09-01

    We study the thermo-optic Goos-Hänchen (TOGH) effect in a prism-waveguide coupling structure with silicon-on-insulator waveguide. Stationary-phase method is utilized to calculate the TOGH shift. When the waveguide is regarded as a two-dimensional planar waveguide, a nonlinear relation between GH shift and temperature is obtained. Based on the noticeable TOGH effect, a sensitive temperature modulator or sensor can be realized. As the waveguide width is limited, the proposed structure can be regarded as a three-dimensional rectangular waveguide. We explore the GH shift and TOGH effect for different modes propagating in rectangular waveguide which show different linear relations between GH shift and temperature, which can be used to design mode-selective device based on TO effect.

  20. Metal-insulator-metal photomonitor for optical waveguides at telecom wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Satoshi; Baghdasaryan, Hovik; Marciniak, Marian; Otomo, Akira

    2016-12-01

    A compact photodetector for an optical waveguide that is easy to integrate is necessary for optical on-chip devices. We demonstrate that a metallic contact covering an optical waveguide can monitor guided light in the 680 to 1550 nm wavelength range without blocking it. The contact is made of Au, titania, and Ti thin films that form a metal-insulator-metal structure. A concise design and facile fabrication process make our device particularly suitable for optical waveguides made of insulators such as polymers and dielectrics.

  1. Optical trapping and propulsion of red blood cells on waveguide surfaces.

    PubMed

    Ahluwalia, Balpreet Singh; McCourt, Peter; Huser, Thomas; Hellesø, Olav Gaute

    2010-09-27

    We have studied optical trapping and propulsion of red blood cells in the evanescent field of optical waveguides. Cell propulsion is found to be highly dependent on the biological medium and serum proteins the cells are submerged in. Waveguides made of tantalum pentoxide are shown to be efficient for cell propulsion. An optical propulsion velocity of up to 
6 µm/s on a waveguide with a width of ~6 µm is reported. Stable optical trapping and propulsion of cells during transverse flow is also reported.

  2. Length optimization of an S-shaped transition between offset optical waveguides.

    PubMed

    Marcuse, D

    1978-03-01

    We derive expressions for the radiation loss of an S-shaped waveguide transition used to connect two straight integrated optics waveguides that are offset with respect to each other. It is assumed that the diffused integrated optics waveguides are produced with the help of an electron beam machine that allows beam positioning in the y direction only in discrete steps. We thus must consider staircase approximations to the desired smooth S-shaped curves. A waveguide whose axis consists of a staircase suffers radiation losses due to the quasi-periodic deformation of its axis. A second loss contribution comes from the S-shape of the waveguide axis. The sum of these loss contributions assumes a minimum that defines the optimum length of the transition waveguide.

  3. Optical forces generated by plasmonic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moocarme, Matthew

    For millennia, scientists have sought to uncover the secrets of what holds the world together. Optical physicists are often at the forefront, unraveling material properties through investigations of light-matter interactions. As the field has progressed, the smallest unit at which matter can be probed and manipulated has subsequently decreased. The resulting sub-field nanophotonics--which reflects the processing of light at the nanoscale--has blossomed into a vast design space for both applied and theoretical researchers. Plasmonics, the phenomena by which the electron-density of a material oscillates in response to incident electromagnetic radiation, is a subject that has excited nanophotonics researchers for two reasons. The first is that plasmonic excitations are able to couple light to sub-wavelength dimensions, circumventing the diffraction limit and concentrating electromagnetic fields, leading to significantly enhanced light-matter interactions. The second is that the advances in nanofabrication methods, driven by the silicon microelectronics industry, has allowed for the fabrication and development of metallic structures at the nanoscale, a requirement for the excitation of plasmons with visible light. This thesis explores some aspects of how plasmonics can be used to exploit the design, fabrication and applications of nanostructures that result in materials with highly tailored optical properties. In particular, this thesis will demonstrate the understanding of how high electromagnetic field density that plasmons create produce optically-generated forces. Applications of the optically-generated forces presented here include the advanced control of nanoparticles that form the building blocks of metamaterials, as well as metasurface designs that vary polarization and encode information. Ultimately, it is hoped that this work furthers the research on how metasurfaces and metamaterials are designed, fabricated, and applied.

  4. Design of optical metamaterial waveguide structures (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega-Moñux, Alejandro; Halir, Robert; Sánchez-Postigo, Alejandro; Soler-Penadés, Jordi; Ctyroký, Jirí; Luque-González, José Manuel; Sarmiento-Merenguel, José Darío.; Wangüemert-Pérez, Juan Gonzalo; Schmid, Jens H.; Xu, Dan-Xia; Janz, Sigfried; Lapointe, Jean; Molina-Fernández, Iñigo; Nedeljkovic, Milos; Mashanovich, Goran Z.; Cheben, Pavel

    2017-05-01

    Subwavelength gratings (SWGs) are periodic structures with a pitch (Λ) smaller than the wavelength of the propagating wave (λ), so that diffraction effects are suppressed. These structures thus behave as artificial metamaterials where the refractive index and the dispersion profile can be controlled with a proper design of the geometry of the structure. SWG waveguides have found extensive applications in the field of integrated optics, such as efficient fiber-chip couplers, broadband multimode interference (MMI) couplers, polarization beam splitters or evanescent field sensors, among others. From the point of view of nano-fabrication, the subwavelength condition (Λ << λ) is much easier to meet for long, mid-infrared wavelengths than for the comparatively short near-infrared wavelengths. Since most of the integrated devices based on SWGs have been proposed for the near-infrared, the true potential of subwavelength structures has not yet been completely exploited. In this talk we summarize some valuable guidelines for the design of high performance SWG integrated devices. We will start describing some practical aspects of the design, such as the range of application of semi-analytical methods, the rigorous electromagnetic simulation of Floquet modes, the relevance of substrate leakage losses and the effects of the random jitter, inherent to any fabrication process, on the performance of SWG structures. Finally, we will show the possibilities of the design of SWG structures with two different state-of-the-art applications: i) ultra-broadband MMI beam splitters with an operation bandwidth greater than 300nm for telecom wavelengths and ii) a set of suspended waveguides with SWG lateral cladding for mid-infrared applications, including low loss waveguides, MMI couplers and Mach-Zehnder interferometers.

  5. Emergence of correlated optics in one-dimensional waveguides for classical and quantum atomic gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruostekoski, Janne; Javanainen, Juha

    2016-09-01

    We analyze the emergence of correlated optical phenomena in the transmission of light through a waveguide that confines classical or ultracold quantum degenerate atomic ensembles. The conditions of the correlated collective response are identified in terms of atom density, thermal broadening, and photon losses by using stochastic Monte Carlo simulations and transfer matrix methods of transport theory. We also calculate the "cooperative Lamb shift" for the waveguide transmission resonance, and discuss line shifts that are specific to effectively one-dimensional waveguide systems.

  6. Electronic optical bistability in a GaAs/AlGaAs strip-loaded waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, M.; Gibbons, W.; Komatsu, K.; Sarid, D.; Hendricks, D.

    1987-10-01

    Optical bistability of electronic origin has been observed in strip-loaded waveguides in a GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well structure. Single-mode waveguides were fabricated by reactive ion etching of an epitaxial AlGaAs layer above the quantum wells. The waveguides were operated as nonlinear Fabry-Perot etalons with 30 percent reflectors provided by the cleaved ends. Phase shifts of 2 pi were observed in some devices.

  7. The Polarization of Light in Anisotropic Inhomogeneous Optical Waveguides and Design of Optical Fiber Spectrometers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyung-Mog

    1995-01-01

    The polarization state of guided modes on inhomogeneous anisotropic optical waveguides was studied analytically and solved numerically by developing the Ez-Hz formula from Maxwell's equations. The numerical analysis of the Faraday effect on the propagation constant of the guided modes on metal waveguides was developed. By assuming the exponential decay function as infinite element to simulate the conductor wall, the spurious modes induced by the metal boundary conditions were successfully eliminated. The Faraday effect on the propagation constant was calculated for cylindrical and rectangular waveguides. The mode chart for a few lower modes showed excellent agreement with the exact solutions available homogeneous isotropic medium waveguides. This method did not show any spurious mode. A new infinite element for open dielectric cylindrical waveguides, the Fourier series expansion of a basis function combined with the modified Bessel function of the second kind for the modal analysis of this waveguide, was compared with the exponential decay function in finding a few lower modes using the E_{rm z} -H_{rm z} finite element method. The transverse propagation constant was accurately determined iteratively. The influence of the optical properties on the depth of modulation and on the Faraday rotation effect was analyzed for a magneto -optic fiber modulator by developing equations for the polarization state of light propagating through a sequence of different optical materials. A magneto-optic modulator was constructed with strongly twisted optical fiber (40 turns/m) looped inside a toroidal coil of wire. The rotation angle of the linearly polarized beam was measured to be 1.57 radian at a current of 32.2 amperes for a Faraday rotator constructed of optical fiber with a circular birefringence of 3.2 radian per meter. Experimental results showed saturated Faraday rotation efficiency and 90% modulation depth in agreement with the theoretical predictions. A Faraday tunable

  8. Slow light enhanced optical nonlinearity in a silicon photonic crystal coupled-resonator optical waveguide.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Nobuyuki; Kato, Takumi; Harada, Ken-Ichi; Takesue, Hiroki; Kuramochi, Eiichi; Taniyama, Hideaki; Notomi, Masaya

    2011-10-10

    We demonstrate highly enhanced optical nonlinearity in a coupled-resonator optical waveguide (CROW) in a four-wave mixing experiment. Using a CROW consisting of 200 coupled resonators based on width-modulated photonic crystal nanocavities in a line defect, we obtained an effective nonlinear constant exceeding 10,000 /W/m, thanks to slow light propagation combined with a strong spatial confinement of light achieved by the wavelength-sized cavities.

  9. Fiber optic reference frequency distribution to remote beam waveguide antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calhoun, Malcolm; Kuhnle, Paul; Law, Julius

    1995-01-01

    In the NASA/JPL Deep Space Network (DSN), radio science experiments (probing outer planet atmospheres, rings, gravitational waves, etc.) and very long-base interferometry (VLBI) require ultra-stable, low phase noise reference frequency signals at the user locations. Typical locations for radio science/VLBI exciters and down-converters are the cone areas of the 34 m high efficiency antennas or the 70 m antennas, located several hundred meters from the reference frequency standards. Over the past three years, fiber optic distribution links have replaced coaxial cable distribution for reference frequencies to these antenna sites. Optical fibers are the preferred medium for distribution because of their low attenuation, immunity to EMI/IWI, and temperature stability. A new network of Beam Waveguide (BWG) antennas presently under construction in the DSN requires hydrogen maser stability at tens of kilometers distance from the frequency standards central location. The topic of this paper is the design and implementation of an optical fiber distribution link which provides ultra-stable reference frequencies to users at a remote BWG antenna. The temperature profile from the earth's surface to a depth of six feet over a time period of six months was used to optimize the placement of the fiber optic cables. In-situ evaluation of the fiber optic link performance indicates Allan deviation on the order of parts in 10(exp -15) at 1000 and 10,000 seconds averaging time; thus, the link stability degradation due to environmental conditions still preserves hydrogen maser stability at the user locations. This paper reports on the implementation of optical fibers and electro-optic devices for distributing very stable, low phase noise reference signals to remote BWG antenna locations. Allan deviation and phase noise test results for a 16 km fiber optic distribution link are presented in the paper.

  10. Athermal optical waveguide microring biosensor with intensity interrogation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiuyou; Shao, Yuchen; Han, Xiaonan; Lu, Zhili; Wu, Zhenlin; Teng, Jie; Ren, Jun; Zhao, Mingshan

    2015-12-01

    The temperature sensitivity of optical waveguide microring (MR) is the critical factor to influence the performance of MR-based biosensor. An athermal MR-based biosensor with intensity interrogation is proposed and analyzed. The integrative biosensor chip is composed of sensing unit MR and interrogation unit Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) with the same temperature sensitivity. The resonant wavelength shift of MR by temperature change is equal to the center wavelength shift of interrogation curve of MZI which cancel with each other during interrogation process. The polymer based integrative biosensor chip is designed and investigated. The simulation results show that the temperature sensitivity of the polymer waveguide biosensor is smaller than 1 pm/K with the temperature change between -10 K to 20 K relative to the reference temperature 20 °C and refractive index change from 0 to 0.05. The intensity interrogation method utilizing the power ratio between the two output ports of MZI has the flexibility of selecting large linear range and high resolution and is immune to output power fluctuations of the light source.

  11. Engineering optical gradient force from coupled surface plasmon polariton modes in nanoscale plasmonic waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jiahui; Wang, Guanghui

    2016-11-01

    We explore the dispersion properties and optical gradient forces from mutual coupling of surface plasmon polariton (SPP) modes at two interfaces of nanoscale plasmonic waveguides with hyperbolic metamaterial cladding. With Maxwell’s equations and Maxwell stress tensor, we calculate and compare the dispersion relation and optical gradient force for symmetric and antisymmetric SPP modes in two kinds of nanoscale plasmonic waveguides. The numerical results show that the optical gradient force between two coupled hyperbolic metamaterial waveguides can be engineered flexibly by adjusting the waveguide structure parameters. Importantly, an alternative way to boost the optical gradient force is provided through engineering the hyperbolic metamaterial cladding of suitable orientation. These special optical properties will open the door for potential optomechanical applications, such as optical tweezers and actuators. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11474106) and the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province, China (Grant No. 2016A030313439).

  12. Low-Loss Hollow Waveguide Platforms for Optical Sensing and Manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunt, Evan J.

    This dissertation presents a method for fabricating integrated hollow and solid optical waveguides on planar substrates. These waveguides are antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides (ARROWs), where high-index cladding layers confine light to hollow cores through optical interference. Hollow waveguides that can be filled with liquids or gases are an important new building block for creating highly-integrated optical sensors. The method developed for fabricating these integrated waveguides employs standard processes and materials used in the microelectronics industry, allowing for parallel, low-cost fabrication. Dielectric cladding layers are deposited on a silicon wafer using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). After the lower cladding layers have been deposited, a sacrificial material is deposited and patterned using photolithography to produce the hollow-core shape. After the sacrificial cores are defined, they are coated with additional PECVD dielectric layers to form the sides and tops of the waveguides. Integrated solid-core waveguides can be easily created by etching a ridge into the top dielectric cladding layer. Finally, the ends of the sacrificial cores are exposed and removed with an acid solution, resulting in hollow waveguides. Improved optical performance for integrated ARROW platforms can be achieved by only using a single over-coating for the cladding on the sides and top of the hollow waveguide. Such a structure resulted in 70% improvement in optical throughput for the platforms and increased sensitivity for optical manipulation and fluorescence detection of single particles, including viruses. Reduced loss for the hollow waveguides can be obtained by surrounding the core with a terminal layer of air on the sides and top of the waveguide. Such devices were created by forming the hollow waveguides on top of a pedestal on the silicon substrate. This process produces the ideal geometry for hollow ARROW waveguides, and loss measurements

  13. Polarization independent electro-optical waveguides with liquid crystals in isotropic phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costache, Florenta; Blasl, Martin; Bornhorst, Kirstin

    2015-02-01

    Electro-optically induced waveguides can be used in fiber optic networks for optical power control and the distribution of optical signals transmitted over optical fibers. Reliable operation is ensured with this type of waveguides due to their non-mechanical principle of operation. Their polarization dependent behavior caused by field-induced birefringence effects may limit however their practical applications. We report on a method to reduce the polarization dependent loss in electro-optically induced waveguides with a core made of liquid crystals in isotropic phase. The concept design enables a controlled adjustment of the electric field distribution, which is responsible for inducing and shaping the optical mode, by employing an optimized electrode arrangement. In this new waveguide structure, the TM and TE modes coexist spatially and are guided in a similar way. In order to demonstrate this concept, straight and bending waveguides in 1×1 and 1×2 light input to output configurations have been designed and fabricated. The electrode arrangement and single mode waveguide geometry were optimized using FEM simulations. Bulk silicon micromachining was used to fabricate these waveguides. In particular, the manufactured device consisted of two processed silicon substrates with a liquid crystal layer enclosed in between. Devices tested with varying driving voltage have revealed comparable transmitted power for both TE and TM modes. Very low polarization dependent losses over a more than 20 dB wide dynamic attenuation range have been obtained.

  14. Optical-assembly periodic structure of ferrofluids in a liquid core/metal cladding optical waveguide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianping; Yin, Cheng; Sun, Jingjing; Han, Qingbang; Li, Honggen; Sang, Minghuang; Yuan, Wen; Cao, Zhuangqi

    2013-11-01

    We present a novel and simple mechanism for the fabrication of periodic microstructure based on a ferrofluids core/metal cladding optical waveguide chip. The ultrahigh-order modes excited in the millimeter scale guiding layer lead to the ordered particle aggregates in ferrofluids without applying a magnetic field. Since the absorption of photons by the extremely dilute ferrofluids is extremely small and the Soret effect is not noticeable, a tentative explanation in terms of the optical trapping effect is proposed. Furthermore, this scheme exhibits all-optically tunable reflectivity and lateral Goos-Hänchen shift, which potentially may be for practical use in novel optical devices.

  15. Microfabrication and optical properties of highly ordered silver nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Using thermal evaporation, we fabricated five uniform and regular arrays of Ag nanostructures with different shapes that were based on an anodized aluminum oxide template and analyzed their optical properties. Round-top-shaped structures are obtained readily, whereas to obtain needle-on-round-top-shaped and needle-shaped structures, control of the directionality of evaporation, pore size, length, temperature of the substrate, etc., was required. We then observed optical sensitivity of the nanostructures by using surface-enhanced Raman scattering, and we preliminarily investigated the dependency of Raman signal to the roughness and shape of the nanostructures. PMID:22672844

  16. Reconstruction of optical characteristics of waveguide lenses by the use of ray tracing.

    PubMed

    Beliakov, G

    1994-06-01

    A method that uses the data of ray tracing for optical waveguide lens diagnostics is described. This method permits a direct reconstruction of the optical characteristics of a waveguide without the optical or the physical thickness being measured. Conditions are determined for the mathematical problem of diagnostics by ray tracing to have a unique solution, and a technique to obtain a numerical solution from noisy experimental data is described.

  17. Low-loss Si3N4 arrayed-waveguide grating (de)multiplexer using nano-core optical waveguides.

    PubMed

    Dai, Daoxin; Wang, Zhi; Bauters, Jared F; Tien, M-C; Heck, Martijn J R; Blumenthal, Daniel J; Bowers, John E

    2011-07-18

    A 16-channel 200 GHz arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG) (de)-multiplexer is demonstrated experimentally by utilizing Si3N4 buried optical waveguides, which have 50 nm-thick Si3N4 cores and a 15 μm-thick SiO2 cladding. The structure with an ultra-thin core layer helps to reduce the scattering due to the sidewall roughness and consequently shows very low loss of about 0.4~0.8 dB/m. When using this type of optical waveguide for an AWG (de)multiplexer, there is no problem associated with gap refill using the upper-cladding material even when choosing a small (e.g., 1.0 μm) gap between adjacent arrayed waveguides, which helps to reduce the transition loss between the FPR (free-propagation region) and the arrayed waveguides. Therefore, the demonstrated AWG (de)multiplexer based on the present Si3N4 buried optical waveguides has a low on-chip loss. The fabricated AWG (de)multiplexer is characterized in two wavelength ranges around 1310 nm and 1550 nm, respectively. It shows that the crosstalk from adjacent and non-adjacent channels are about -30 dB, and -40 dB, respectively, at the wavelength range of 1310 nm. The Si3N4 AWG (de)multiplexer has a temperature dependence of about 0.011 nm/°C, which is close to that of a pure SiO2 AWG device.

  18. Single-mode glass waveguide technology for optical interchip communication on board level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brusberg, Lars; Neitz, Marcel; Schröder, Henning

    2012-01-01

    The large bandwidth demand in long-distance telecom networks lead to single-mode fiber interconnects as result of low dispersion, low loss and dense wavelength multiplexing possibilities. In contrast, multi-mode interconnects are suitable for much shorter lengths up to 300 meters and are promising for optical links between racks and on board level. Active optical cables based on multi-mode fiber links are at the market and research in multi-mode waveguide integration on board level is still going on. Compared to multi-mode, a single-mode waveguide has much more integration potential because of core diameters of around 20% of a multi-mode waveguide by a much larger bandwidth. But light coupling in single-mode waveguides is much more challenging because of lower coupling tolerances. Together with the silicon photonics technology, a single-mode waveguide technology on board-level will be the straight forward development goal for chip-to-chip optical interconnects integration. Such a hybrid packaging platform providing 3D optical single-mode links bridges the gap between novel photonic integrated circuits and the glass fiber based long-distance telecom networks. Following we introduce our 3D photonic packaging approach based on thin glass substrates with planar integrated optical single-mode waveguides for fiber-to-chip and chip-to-chip interconnects. This novel packaging approach merges micro-system packaging and glass integrated optics. It consists of a thin glass substrate with planar integrated singlemode waveguide circuits, optical mirrors and lenses providing an integration platform for photonic IC assembly and optical fiber interconnect. Thin glass is commercially available in panel and wafer formats and characterizes excellent optical and high-frequency properties. That makes it perfect for microsystem packaging. The paper presents recent results in single-mode waveguide technology on wafer level and waveguide characterization. Furthermore the integration in a

  19. Characterization of GaAlAs optical waveguide heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radens, C. J.; Jackson, H. E.; Boyd, J. T.; Bhasin, K. B.; Pouch, J. J.

    1988-01-01

    Multiple-layer GaAlAs optical waveguide heterostructures have been grown by MBE. These samples were designed to operate at 840 nm with negligible coupling of guided light to the absorbing GaAs substrate. The Al concentration was 13 percent for the guiding layer and was 16 percent for the cladding layers. The process for growing waveguide layers was calibrated primarily by high-energy electron diffraction, with the optical quality confirmed by photoluminescence measurements. Channel waveguide structures having widths of 5 microns were etched in a low-pressure magnetically confined multipolar plasma reactor. The resulting waveguide structures were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, ellipsometry, AES, and optical-waveguide loss measurements.

  20. Sol-gel derived optical waveguide films: technological platform for development of planar evanescent wave sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karasiński, Paweł

    2015-12-01

    Plane evanescent wave sensors are being developed for over thirty years. However, their full development is somehow limited by the lack of relatively cheap and stable waveguide layers of high refractive index, low optical losses and at the same time resistance to the impact of chemical substances. The paper involves waveguide layers SiO2:TiO2 of high refractive index (˜1.81) satisfying these criteria, fabricated via sol-gel method and dip-coating technique. The parameters of the waveguide layers SiO2:TiO2 were determined using elipsometric and spectrophotometric methods. The presented waveguide layers have excellent optical properties and are suitable for the application in the planar evanescent wave sensors technology. For the best waveguide SiO2:TiO2 layers, the obtained level of optical loss was below 0.2 dB/cm.

  1. Characteristics and crosstalk of optical waveguides fabricated in polymethyl methacrylate polymer circuit board.

    PubMed

    Hamid, Hanan H; Rüter, Christian E; Thiel, David V; Fickenscher, Thomas

    2016-11-10

    Electro-optical circuit boards should provide simple and cost-effective coupling techniques and crosstalk levels of less than -30  dB. A dicing saw was used to create waveguide grooves with a surface roughness of less than 183 nm in a 1.6-mm-thick polymethyl methacrylate polymer (PMMA) substrate. The buried optical waveguides were made from SU-8 in a PMMA substrate covered with a 1-mm PMMA sheet. The propagation loss for a 500  μm×570  μm straight waveguide was 0.9 dB/cm at 1310 nm. The coupling between parallel waveguides was measured at separation distances from 45 to 595 μm. The crosstalk was less than -40  dB for 65-mm-long waveguides. This fabrication method shows potential for dense optical interconnects with very low crosstalk.

  2. [Optical Design of Miniature Infrared Gratings Spectrometer Based on Planar Waveguide].

    PubMed

    Li, Yang-yu; Fang, Yong-hua; Li, Da-cheng; Liu, Yang

    2015-03-01

    In order to miniaturize an infrared spectrometer, we analyze the current optical design of miniature spectrometers and propose a method for designing a miniature infrared gratings spectrometer based on planar waveguide. Common miniature spectrometer uses miniature optical elements to reduce the size of system, which also shrinks the effective aperture. So the performance of spectrometer has dropped. Miniaturization principle of planar waveguide spectrometer is different from the principle of common miniature spectrometer. In planar waveguide spectrometer, the propagation of light is limited in a thin planar waveguide, which looks like the whole optical system is squashed flat. In the direction parallel to the planar waveguide, the light through the slit is collimated, dispersed and focused. And a spectral image is formed in the detector plane. This propagation of light is similar to the light in common miniature spectrometer. In the direction perpendicular to the planar waveguide, light is multiple reflected by the upper and lower surfaces of the planar waveguide and propagates in the waveguide. So the size of corresponding optical element could be very small in the vertical direction, which can reduce the size of the optical system. And the performance of the spectrometer is still good. The design method of the planar waveguide spectrometer can be separated into two parts, Czerny-Turner structure design and planar waveguide structure design. First, by using aberration theory an aberration-corrected (spherical aberration, coma, focal curve) Czerny-Turner structure is obtained. The operation wavelength range and spectral resolution are also fixed. Then, by using geometrical optics theory a planar waveguide structure is designed for reducing the system size and correcting the astigmatism. The planar waveguide structure includes a planar waveguide and two cylindrical lenses. Finally, they are modeled together in optical design software and are optimized as a whole. An

  3. Microminiature optical waveguide structure and method for fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Strand, O.T.; Deri, R.J.; Pocha, M.D.

    1998-12-08

    A method for manufacturing low-cost, nearly circular cross section waveguides comprises starting with a substrate material that a molten waveguide material can not wet or coat. A thin layer is deposited of an opposite material that the molten waveguide material will wet and is patterned to describe the desired surface-contact path pedestals for a waveguide. A waveguide material, e.g., polymer or doped silica, is deposited. A resist material is deposited and unwanted excess is removed to form pattern masks. The waveguide material is etched away to form waveguide precursors and the masks are removed. Heat is applied to reflow the waveguide precursors into near-circular cross-section waveguides that sit atop the pedestals. The waveguide material naturally forms nearly circular cross sections due to the surface tension effects. After cooling, the waveguides will maintain the round shape. If the width and length are the same, then spherical ball lenses are formed. Alternatively, the pedestals can be patterned to taper along their lengths on the surface of the substrate. This will cause the waveguides to assume a conical taper after reflowing by heat. 32 figs.

  4. Microminiature optical waveguide structure and method for fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Strand, Oliver T.; Deri, Robert J.; Pocha, Michael D.

    1998-01-01

    A method for manufacturing low-cost, nearly circular cross section waveguides comprises starting with a substrate material that a molten waveguide material can not wet or coat. A thin layer is deposited of an opposite material that the molten waveguide material will wet and is patterned to describe the desired surface-contact path pedestals for a waveguide. A waveguide material, e.g., polymer or doped silica, is deposited. A resist material is deposited and unwanted excess is removed to form pattern masks. The waveguide material is etched away to form waveguide precursors and the masks are removed. Heat is applied to reflow the waveguide precursors into near-circular cross-section waveguides that sit atop the pedestals. The waveguide material naturally forms nearly circular cross sections due to the surface tension effects. After cooling, the waveguides will maintain the round shape. If the width and length are the same, then spherical ball lenses are formed. Alternatively, the pedestals can be patterned to taper along their lengths on the surface of the substrate. This will cause the waveguides to assume a conical taper after reflowing by heat.

  5. High sensitivity optical waveguide accelerometer based on Fano resonance.

    PubMed

    Wan, Fenghua; Qian, Guang; Li, Ruozhou; Tang, Jie; Zhang, Tong

    2016-08-20

    An optical waveguide accelerometer based on tunable asymmetrical Fano resonance in a ring-resonator-coupled Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) is proposed and analyzed. A Fano resonance accelerometer has a relatively large workspace of coupling coefficients with high sensitivity, which has potential application in inertial navigation, missile guidance, and attitude control of satellites. Due to the interference between a high-Q resonance pathway and a coherent background pathway, a steep asymmetric line shape is generated, which greatly improves the sensitivity of this accelerometer. The sensitivity of the accelerometer is about 111.75 mW/g. A 393-fold increase in sensitivity is achieved compared with a conventional MZI accelerometer and is approximately equal to the single ring structure.

  6. Raman diagnostics in manufacturing of polymer planar optical waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnyba, Marcin; Keranen, Mikko

    2003-04-01

    A Raman spectroscopy was used to diagnose a synthesis process of new class of materials - hybrid polymer thin films, dedicated to planar optical waveguides. Hybrids, made in sol-gel technology, have a great application potential, because their properties may be formed in wide range. However, to obtain high quality product, a strict control of the manufacturing process must be ensured. In our experiment, correctness of particular steps of the process as well as molecular structure of monomers, gel and thin films was investigated. The results of Raman mesurements showed that efficiency of two basic reactions should be improved. However, the structure of final product seems to be appropriate. To investigate full potential of Raman spectroscopy in process control, an experimental in-situ measurement was made in the real time, which allowed us to estimate the time required for the reaction.

  7. Homoclinic nonlinear band gap transmission threshold in discrete optical waveguide arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Togueu Motcheyo, A. B.; Tchinang Tchameu, J. D.; Siewe Siewe, M.; Tchawoua, C.

    2017-09-01

    We show for the first time that supratransmission threshold can be found in discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation modelling the optical waveguide arrays with Kerr nonlinearity using two-dimensional map approach. Called homoclinic nonlinear band gap threshold, this amplitude is in agreement with the numerical one even for the strongly discrete aspect of the waveguide and for the large frequencies.

  8. Molecularly Imprinted Polymers Used as Optical Waveguides for the Detection of Fluorescent Analytes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-04-05

    molecular sieves. Fabrication of MIP waveeuides Fabrication of polymer waveguides utilized the soft lithography technique of micromolding in...UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP013610 TITLE: Molecularly Imprinted Polymers Used as Optical Waveguides...TITLE: Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings. Volume 723. Molecularly Imprinted Materials - Sensors and Other Devices. Symposia Held in

  9. On-chip optical mode conversion based on dynamic grating in photonic-phononic hybrid waveguide

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guodong; Zhang, Ruiwen; Sun, Junqiang

    2015-01-01

    We present a scheme for reversible and tunable on-chip optical mode conversion based on dynamic grating in a hybrid photonic-phononic waveguide. The dynamic grating is built up through the acousto-optic effect and the theoretical model of the optical mode conversion is developed by considering the geometrical deformation and refractive index change. Three kinds of mode conversions are able to be realized using the same hybrid waveguide structure in a large bandwidth by only changing the launched acoustic frequency. The complete mode conversion can be achieved by choosing a proper acoustic power under a given waveguide length. PMID:25996236

  10. Ce:YIG/Silicon-on-Insulator waveguide optical isolator realized by adhesive bonding.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, S; Keyvavinia, S; Van Roy, W; Mizumoto, T; Roelkens, G; Baets, R

    2012-01-16

    A waveguide optical isolator realized by adhesive bonding of a garnet die, containing a Ce:YIG magneto-optic layer, on a silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit is demonstrated. The die was bonded on top of an asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer using a 100nm thick DVS-BCB adhesive bonding layer. A static magnetic field applied perpendicular to the light propagation direction results in a non-reciprocal phase shift for the fundamental quasi-TM mode in the hybrid waveguide geometry. A maximum optical isolation of 25 dB is obtained.

  11. Radiation direction control by optical slot antenna integrated with plasmonic waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Yeonsang; Kim, Jineun; Roh, Young-Geun; Lee, Chang-Won

    2016-04-01

    We present an optical slot antenna integrated with a metal-dielectric-metal (MIM) plasmonic waveguide. By integrating optical slot antenna on top metal layer of MIM waveguide, we can couple the plasmon guide mode into the feed antenna directly. The resonantly excited slot antenna works as a magnetic dipole and then radiates in dipole-like far-field pattern. By adding an auxiliary groove structure along with the slot antenna, the radiation can be directed into the direction where the structure determined. The demonstrated optical slot antenna integrated with a plasmonic waveguide can be used as a "plasmonic via" in plasmonic nanocircuits.

  12. ZnO nanotube waveguide arrays on graphene films for local optical excitation on biological cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Hyeonjun; Kwak, Hankyul; Song, Minho S.; Ha, Go Eun; Park, Jongwoo; Tchoe, Youngbin; Hyun, Jerome K.; Park, Hye Yoon; Cheong, Eunji; Yi, Gyu-Chul

    2017-04-01

    We report on scalable and position-controlled optical nanoprobe arrays using ZnO nanotube waveguides on graphene films for use in local optical excitation. For the waveguide fabrication, position-controlled and well-ordered ZnO nanotube arrays were grown on chemical vapor deposited graphene films with a submicron patterned mask layer and Au prepared between the interspace of nanotubes. Mammalian cells were cultured on the nanotube waveguide arrays and were locally excited by light illuminated through the nanotubes. Fluorescence and optogenetic signals could be excited through the optical nanoprobes. This method offers the ability to investigate cellular behavior with a high spatial resolution that surpasses the current limitation.

  13. Complete achromatic optical switching between two waveguides with a sign flip of the phase mismatch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei; Rangelov, Andon A.; Kyoseva, Elica

    2014-11-01

    We present a two-waveguide coupler which realizes complete achromatic all-optical switching. The coupling of the waveguides has a hyperbolic-secant shape, while the phase mismatch has a sign flip at the maximum of the coupling. We derive an analytic solution for the electric field propagation using coupled-mode theory and show that the light switching is robust against small to moderate variations in the coupling strength and phase mismatch. Thus, we realize an achromatic light switching between the two waveguides. We further consider the extended case of three coupled waveguides in an array and pay special attention to the case of equal bidirectional achromatic light beam splitting.

  14. Nonlinear Quantum Optics in a Waveguide: Distinct Single Photons Strongly Interacting at the Single Atom Level

    SciTech Connect

    Kolchin, Pavel; Oulton, Rupert F.; Zhang Xiang

    2011-03-18

    We propose a waveguide-QED system where two single photons of distinct frequency or polarization interact strongly. The system consists of a single ladder-type three level atom coupled to a waveguide. When both optical transitions are coupled strongly to the waveguide's mode, we show that a control photon tuned to the upper transition induces a {pi} phase shift and tunneling of a probe photon tuned to the otherwise reflective lower transition. Furthermore, the system exhibits single photon scattering by a classical control beam. Waveguide-QED schemes could be an alternative to high quality cavities or dense atomic ensembles in quantum information processing.

  15. Active and Passive Coupled-Resonator Optical Waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poon, Joyce Kai See

    Coupled-Resonator Optical Waveguides (CROWs) are chains of resonators in which light propagates by virtue of the coupling between the resonators. The dispersive properties of these waveguides are controllable by the inter-resonator coupling and the geometry of the resonators. If the inter-resonator coupling is weak, light can be engineered to propagate slowly in these structures. The small group velocities possible in CROWs may enable applications in and technologies for optical delay lines, interferometers, buffers, nonlinear optics, and lasers. This thesis reports on achieving and controlling the optical delay in passive and active CROWs. Both theoretical and experimental results are presented. Transfer matrices, tight-binding models, and coupled-mode approaches are developed to analyze and design a variety of coupled resonator systems in the space, frequency, and time domains. Although each analytical method is fundamentally different, in the limit of weak inter-resonator coupling these approaches are consistent with each other. From these formalisms, simple expressions for the delay, loss, bandwidth, and a figure of merit are derived to compare the performance of CROW delay lines. Using a time-domain tight-binding model, we examine the resonant gain enhancement and spontaneous emission noise in amplifying CROWs to find that the net amplification of a propagating wave does not always vary with the group velocity but instead depends on the termination and excitation of the CROW. CROWs in the form of high-order (> 10) weakly coupled passive polymer microring resonators were fabricated and measured. The measured transmission, group delay, and dispersive properties of the CROWs agreed with the theoretical results. Delays in excess of 100 ps and slowing factors of about 25 over bandwidths of about 20 GHz were observed. The main limitation of the passive CROWs was the optical losses. To overcome the losses and to enable electrical integration, we demonstrated active

  16. The hybrid photonic planar integrated receiver with a polymer optical waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busek, Karel; Jerábek, Vitezslav; Armas Arciniega, Julio; Prajzler, Václav

    2008-11-01

    This article describes design of the photonic receiver composed of the system polymer planar waveguides, InGaAs p-i-n photodiode and integrated HBT amplifier on a low loss composite substrate. The photonic receiver was the main part of the hybrid integrated microwave optoelectronic transceiver TRx (transciever TRx) for the optical networks PON (passive optical networks) with FTTH (fiber-to-the-home) topology. In this article are presented the research results of threedimensional field between output facet of a optical waveguide and p-i-n photodiode. In terms of our research, there was optimized the optical coupling among the facet waveguide and pi-n photodiode and the electrical coupling among p-i-n photodiode and input of HBT amplifier. The hybrid planar lightwave circuit (PLC) of the transceiver TRx will be composed from a two parts - polymer optical waveguide including VHGT filter section and a optoelectronic microwave section.

  17. Optically Active Nanostructured ZnO Films.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yingying; Han, Lu; Zhang, Jialiang; Asahina, Shunsuke; Huang, Zhehao; Shi, Lin; Wang, Bo; Cao, Yuanyuan; Yao, Yuan; Ma, Liguo; Wang, Cui; Dukor, Rina K; Sun, Lu; Jiang, Chun; Tang, Zhiyong; Nafie, Laurence A; Che, Shunai

    2015-12-07

    Inorganic nanomaterials endowed with hierarchical chirality could open new horizons in physical theory and applications because of their fascinating properties. Here, we report chiral ZnO films coated on quartz substrates with a hierarchical nanostructure ranging from atomic to micrometer scale. Three levels of hierarchical chirality exist in the ZnO films: helical ZnO crystalline structures that form primary helically coiled nanoplates, secondary helical stacking of these nanoplates, and tertiary nanoscale circinate aggregates formed by several stacked nanoplates. These films exhibited optical activity (OA) at 380 nm and in the range of 200-800 nm and created circularly polarized luminescence centered at 510 nm and Raman OA at 50-1400 cm(-1) , which was attributed to electronic transitions, scattering, photoluminescent emission, and Raman scattering in a dissymmetric electric field. The unprecedented strong OA could be attributed to multiple light scattering and absorption-enhanced light harvesting in the hierarchical structures. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Engineering of orbital angular momentum supermodes in coupled optical waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turpin, A.; Pelegrí, G.; Polo, J.; Mompart, J.; Ahufinger, V.

    2017-04-01

    In this work we demonstrate the existence of orbital angular momentum (OAM) bright and dark supermodes in a three-evanescently coupled cylindrical waveguides system. Bright and dark supermodes are characterized by their coupling and decoupling from one of the waveguides, respectively. In addition, we demonstrate that complex couplings between modes of different waveguides appear naturally due to the characteristic spiral phase-front of OAM modes in two-dimensional configurations where the waveguides are arranged forming a triangle. Finally, by adding dissipation to the waveguide uncoupled to the dark supermode, we are able to filter this supermode out, allowing for the design of OAM mode cloners and inverters.

  19. Engineering of orbital angular momentum supermodes in coupled optical waveguides

    PubMed Central

    Turpin, A.; Pelegrí, G.; Polo, J.; Mompart, J.; Ahufinger, V.

    2017-01-01

    In this work we demonstrate the existence of orbital angular momentum (OAM) bright and dark supermodes in a three-evanescently coupled cylindrical waveguides system. Bright and dark supermodes are characterized by their coupling and decoupling from one of the waveguides, respectively. In addition, we demonstrate that complex couplings between modes of different waveguides appear naturally due to the characteristic spiral phase-front of OAM modes in two-dimensional configurations where the waveguides are arranged forming a triangle. Finally, by adding dissipation to the waveguide uncoupled to the dark supermode, we are able to filter this supermode out, allowing for the design of OAM mode cloners and inverters. PMID:28443618

  20. Engineering of orbital angular momentum supermodes in coupled optical waveguides.

    PubMed

    Turpin, A; Pelegrí, G; Polo, J; Mompart, J; Ahufinger, V

    2017-04-26

    In this work we demonstrate the existence of orbital angular momentum (OAM) bright and dark supermodes in a three-evanescently coupled cylindrical waveguides system. Bright and dark supermodes are characterized by their coupling and decoupling from one of the waveguides, respectively. In addition, we demonstrate that complex couplings between modes of different waveguides appear naturally due to the characteristic spiral phase-front of OAM modes in two-dimensional configurations where the waveguides are arranged forming a triangle. Finally, by adding dissipation to the waveguide uncoupled to the dark supermode, we are able to filter this supermode out, allowing for the design of OAM mode cloners and inverters.

  1. Dynamic diffraction-limited light-coupling of 3D-maneuvered wave-guided optical waveguides.

    PubMed

    Villangca, Mark; Bañas, Andrew; Palima, Darwin; Glückstad, Jesper

    2014-07-28

    We have previously proposed and demonstrated the targeted-light delivery capability of wave-guided optical waveguides (WOWs). As the WOWs are maneuvered in 3D space, it is important to maintain efficient light coupling through the waveguides within their operating volume. We propose the use of dynamic diffractive techniques to create diffraction-limited spots that will track and couple to the WOWs during operation. This is done by using a spatial light modulator to encode the necessary diffractive phase patterns to generate the multiple and dynamic coupling spots. The method is initially tested for a single WOW and we have experimentally demonstrated dynamic tracking and coupling for both lateral and axial displacements.

  2. Spatiotemporal optical similaritons in dual-core waveguide with an external source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soloman Raju, Thokala

    2017-04-01

    We explore analytically and numerically the existence of exact asymptotic spatiotemporal optical self-similar light bullets to the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with gain in the presence of an external source in (3+1)-dimensions. This model appertains to the description of self-similar wave propagation through asymmetric planar dual-core waveguide (DWG) amplifiers. The asymmetric DWG is composed of two adjoining, closely spaced, upper and lower waveguides, in which the lower one acts as a passive waveguide while the upper waveguide is an active one. Due to the linear coupling between them, we can control the dynamical behaviors of the wave propagating through the passive waveguide by controlling the wave in active waveguide. We explicate the mechanism to control the dynamical behaviors of these self-similar waves for two specific cases: (i) when the gain and width are hyperbolic functions and (ii) when the gain and width are periodic functions.

  3. Linearity and effective optical pathlength of liquid waveguide capillary cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belz, Mathias; Dress, Peter; Sukhitskiy, Aleksandr; Liu, Suyi

    1999-11-01

    The validity of using Beer's Law to describe liquid waveguide capillary cells (LWCC) as absorption cells with increased optical pathlength was investigated. Experimental and theoretical results for two types of LWCC are presented. 'Type I' LWCCs are constructed with solid TEFLON AF tubing. 'Type II' LWCCs consist of quartz tubing with an outer coating of TEFLON AF. UV/Vis absorbance spectra versus chromophore concentration were found to be linear for both LWCC types within the wavelength range and absorbance accuracy of the spectrophotometer used. The ratio between 'effective' and 'physical' pathlength, EPLR was determined experimentally for both LWCC types. Type I cells had an effective optical pathlength that was statistically indistinguishable from the physical pathlength on a 95 percent probability basis. Type II cells had an effective optical pathlength that was slightly shorter than the physical pathlength, dependent on the cell's inner diameter and wall thickness. A theoretical model explaining Type I LWCC result is presented. Our results indicate that Beer- Lambert's Law can be applied to both types of LWCCs for UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy.

  4. Ultralow-loss waveguide crossings for the integration of microfluidics and optical waveguide sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zheng; Yan, Hai; Wang, Zongxing; Zou, Yi; Yang, Chun-Ju; Chakravarty, Swapnajit; Subbaraman, Harish; Tang, Naimei; Xu, Xiaochuan; Fan, D. L.; Wang, Alan X.; Chen, Ray T.

    2015-03-01

    Integrating photonic waveguide sensors with microfluidics is promising in achieving high-sensitivity and cost-effective biological and chemical sensing applications. One challenge in the integration is that an air gap would exist between the microfluidic channel and the photonic waveguide when the micro-channel and the waveguide intersect. The air gap creates a path for the fluid to leak out of the micro-channel. Potential solutions, such as oxide deposition followed by surface planarization, would introduce additional fabrication steps and thus are ineffective in cost. Here we propose a reliable and efficient approach for achieving closed microfluidic channels on a waveguide sensing chip. The core of the employed technique is to add waveguide crossings, i.e., perpendicularly intersecting waveguides, to block the etched trenches and prevent the fluid from leaking through the air gap. The waveguide crossings offer a smooth interface for microfluidic channel bonding while bring negligible additional propagation loss (0.024 dB/crossing based on simulation). They are also efficient in fabrication, which are patterned and fabricated in the same step with waveguides. We experimentally integrated microfluidic channels with photonic crystal (PC) microcavity sensor chips on silicon-on-insulator substrate and demonstrated leak-free sensing measurement with waveguide crossings. The microfluidic channel was made from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and pressure bonded to the silicon chip. The tested flow rates can be varied from 0.2 μL/min to 200 μL/min. Strong resonances from the PC cavity were observed from the transmission spectra. The spectra also show that the waveguide crossings did not induce any significant additional loss or alter the resonances.

  5. Optical waveguides in TiO₂ formed by He ion implantation.

    PubMed

    Bi, Zhuan-Fang; Wang, Lei; Liu, Xiu-Hong; Zhang, Shao-Mei; Dong, Ming-Ming; Zhao, Quan-Zhong; Wu, Xiang-Long; Wang, Ke-Ming

    2012-03-12

    We report on the formation and the optical properties of the planar and ridge optical waveguides in rutile TiO₂ crystal by He+ ion implantation combined with micro-fabrication technologies. Planar optical waveguides in TiO₂ are fabricated by high-energy (2.8 MeV) He+-ion implantation with a dose of 3 × 10¹⁶ ions/cm² and triple low energies (450, 500, 550) keV He+-ion implantation with all fluences of 2 × 10¹⁶ ions/cm² at room temperature. The guided modes were measured by a modal 2010 prism coupler at wavelength of 1539 nm. There are damage profiles in ion-implanted waveguides by Rutherford backscattering (RBS)/channeling measurements. The refractive-index profile of the 2.8 MeV He+-implanted waveguide was analyzed based on RCM (Reflected Calculation Method). Also ridge waveguides were fabricated by femtosecond laser ablation on 2.8 MeV ion implanted planar waveguide and Ar ion beam etching on the basis of triple keV ion implanted planar waveguide, separately. The loss of the ridge waveguide was estimated. The measured near-field intensity distributions of the planar and ridge modes are all shown.

  6. Optical single-sideband modulation based on silicon-on-insulator coupled-resonator optical waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Shijie; Yi, Xiaoke; Chew, Suen Xin; Li, Liwei; Nguyen, Linh; Zheng, Rongkun

    2016-03-01

    We propose and demonstrate for the first time an optical single-sideband (OSSB) modulation generation based on silicon-on-insulator coupled-resonator optical waveguides (CROWs) capable of operating at wide bandwidth with enhanced sideband suppression. The optimum order of the CROW filter was synthesized based on comprehensive performance analysis including optical sideband suppression and electrical power variation. Experimental results demonstrate an OSSB signal with sideband suppression as large as 23 dB. The performance of the proposed OSSB was demonstrated via compensating radio frequency (RF) power degradation in the transmission of the RF signal within the fiber.

  7. Systematic control of optical features in aluminosilicate glass waveguides using direct femtosecond laser writing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, B. Hari; Niu, Mengsi; Yang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Yanbo; Feng, Lin; Qin, Wei; Hao, Xiao-Tao

    2017-10-01

    Low loss optical waveguides inside aluminosilicate glasses have been successfully fabricated using direct femtosecond laser writing. To establish the influence of pulse energy and host variations on the optical waveguides have been tentatively explored and systematically studied with the help of different spectroscopic techniques. Isochronal annealing treatment effectively reduces the insertion losses to 1.01 ± 0.28 dB at 632.8 nm. A red shift of the Raman band has been observed with increasing Al2O3 content due to the bond angle variations. The point defects such as non-bridging oxygen hole centers have been corroborated by the photoluminescence studies and significant red-shift has also been documented with increasing Al2O3 content. In addition, there is no NBOHC defects perceived after isochronal annealing treatment inside the glass waveguides. Our results envisage that the present glass waveguides should be promising and potential for applications in passive waveguides and integrated photonic devices.

  8. Dynamic analysis of hyperbolic waveguide resonator driven by optical gradient force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Zuo-Yang; Zhang, Hai-Lian; Zhang, Wen-Ming; Liu, Yan

    2016-08-01

    As a unique type of driving force, the transverse optical gradient force has been extensively studied and applied in the nanowaveguides resonator. Recently, it is demonstrated that the optical forces in slot waveguides of hyperbolic metamaterials can be over two orders of magnitude stronger than that in conventional dielectric slot waveguides. To investigate the nonlinear dynamic characteristic of hyperbolic waveguide resonator driven by optical gradient force, a continuum elastic model of the optoresonator is presented and analytically solved using the methods of Rayleigh-Ritz and multiple scales. The results show that the optical force is strengthened with the increase of the filling ratio of silver in the hyperbolic waveguide. The resonance frequency becomes greater with the increase of the filling ratio of silver no matter what the geometric parameters and physical property parameters are. However, the steady maximum vibration amplitude becomes smaller, and the degree of system stiffness softening also reduces.

  9. Fiber Optics (Optical Waveguides) Technology - Potential Application in the DCS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    between areas ti,,t have high voltage differences , a safety hazard to the personnel can also occur. The use of fiber optics cormunicL, 4ans cable can...entered in Block 20, If different from Report) 18. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Review relevance 5 years from submission date. 19 KEY WORDS (Cnntinue oil reverse...placed much farther apart. It provides electrical isolation, even between high voltage areas, because the transmission medium is an electrical insulator

  10. Laser chemical etching of waveguides and quasi-optical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drouet D'Aubigny, Christian Yann Pierre

    2003-11-01

    The terahertz (THz) frequency domain, located at the frontier of radio and light, is the last unexplored region of the electromagnetic spectrum. As technology becomes available, THz systems are finding applications to fields ranging all the way from astronomical and atmospheric remote sensing to space telecommunications, medical imaging, and security. In Astronomy the THz and far infrared (IR) portion of the electromagnetic spectrum (λ = 300 to 10 μm) may hold the answers to countless questions regarding the origin and evolution of the Universe, galaxy, star and planet formation. Over the past decade, advances in telescope and detector technology have for the first time made this regime available to astronomers. Near THz frequencies, metallic hollow waveguide structures become so small, (typically much less than a millimeter), that conventional machining becomes extremely difficult, and in many cases, nearly impossible. Laser induced, micro-chemical etching is a promising new technology that can be used to fabricate three dimensional structures many millimeters across with micrometer accuracy. Laser micromachining of silicon possesses a significant edge over more conventional techniques. It does not require the use of masks and is not confined to crystal planes. A non-contact process, it eliminates tool wear and vibration problems associated with classical milling machines. At the University of Arizona we have constructed the first such laser micromachining system optimized for the fabrication of THz and far IR waveguide and quasi-optical components. The system can machine structures up to 50 mm in diameter, down to a few microns accuracy in a few minutes and with a remarkable surface finish. A variety of THz devices have been fabricated using this technique, their design, fabrication, assembly and theoretical performance is described in the chapters that follow.

  11. Manufacturability and optical functionality of multimode optical interconnections developed with fast processable and reliable polymer waveguide silicones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Joe; Lee, Allen; Hu, Mike; Chan, Lisa; Huang, Sean; Swatowski, Brandon W.; Weidner, W. Ken; Han, Joseph

    2015-03-01

    We report on the manufacturing, reliability, and optical functionality of multimode optical waveguide devices developed with a fast processable optical grade silicone. The materials show proven optical losses of <0.05 dB/cm @ 850 nm, surviving >2000 hours 85°C/85% relative humidity testing as well as >4 cycles of wave solder reflow. Fabrication speeds of <10 minutes are shown for a full waveguide stack. Step index 50×50 μm waveguides were fabricated and passively MT connectorized on rigid FR4 and flexible polyimide substrates with precise alignment features (cut by dicing saw or ablated by UV laser). Two out-of-plane coupling techniques were demonstrated in this paper, a MT connectorized sample with a 45° turning lens as well as 45° dielectric mirrors on waveguides by dicing saw. Multiple connections between fiber and polymer waveguides with MPO and two out-of-plane coupling techniques in a complete optical link are demonstrated @ 10 Gbps data rates with commercial transceiver modules. Also, complex waveguide geometries such as turnings and crossings are demonstrated by QSFP+ transceiver. The eye diagram analyses show comparable results in functionality between silicone waveguide and fiber formats.

  12. Polymer optical waveguide composed of europium-aluminum-acrylate composite core for compact optical amplifier and laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitani, Marina; Yamashita, Kenichi; Fukui, Toshimi; Ishigure, Takaaki

    2015-02-01

    We successfully fabricate polymer waveguides with Europium-Aluminum (Eu-Al) polymer composite core using the Mosquito method that utilizes a microdispenser for realizing a compact waveguide optical amplifiers and lasers. Rareearth (RE) ions are widely used as the gain medium for fiber lasers and optical fiber amplifiers. However, high concentration doping of rare-earth-ion leads to the concentration quenching resulting in observing less gain in optical amplification. For addressing the concentration quenching problem, a rare-earth metal (RE-M) polymer composite has been proposed by KRI, Inc. to be a waveguide core material. Actually, 10-wt% RE doping into organic polymer materials was already achieved. Hence, realization of compact and high-efficiency waveguide amplifiers and lasers have been anticipated using the RE-M polymer composite. In this paper, a microdispenser is adopted to fabricate a Eu-doped polymer waveguide. Then, it is experimentally confirmed that the low-loss waveguides are fabricated with a high reproducibility. Optical gain is estimated by measuring the amplified spontaneous emission using the variable stripe length method. The fabricated waveguide exhibits an optical gain as high as 7.1 dB/cm at 616-nm wavelength.

  13. Optical formation of stable waveguiding structures from a photopolymerisable composition with a nonpolymerisable component

    SciTech Connect

    Mensov, Sergei N; Polushtaitsev, Yu V

    2012-06-30

    We report formation of stable dielectric waveguiding structures from a photopolymerisable composition containing a nonpolymerisable component by optical radiation. A computer simulation has shown that the use of nonpolymerisable additives not only retains the self-trapping modes of incident radiation but also provides matching conditions for the synthesised waveguiding structure with standard optical fibres at telecommunication wavelengths. The efficiency of these nonlinear wave processes for connecting single-mode fibres SMF-28 is experimentally confirmed.

  14. Zero-birefringent polyimide for polymer optical waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Sung-Ho; Kang, Jae-Wook; Li, Xiangdan; Lee, Myong-Hoon; Kim, Jang-Joo

    2003-07-01

    A novel zero birefringent and photosensitive polyimide was synthesized. The polymer is soluble in solvents and contains a chalcone group for photo-crosslinking by UV exposure. The glass transition and decomposition temperature of the polymer were 254°C and 430°C before cross-linking. Evolution of the absorption spectra upon UV exposure indicated that the cross-linking reaction is related to the cycloaddition of the double bonds in the chalcone group to form cyclobutane. The photo-crosslinking reaction not only increased the thermal stability, but also induced a refractive index change of the films. The refractive index of the film was reduced upon UV exposure from 1.5862 to 1.5697 for TE mode and from 1.5807 to 1.5697 for TM mode, respectively, resulting in zero birefringence after curing. Loss of p-conjugation in the chalcone group by the crosslinking reaction is supposed to induce the reduction of the refractive indices and orbital change from sp2 to sp3 makes the polymer chain be kinked, resulting in decrease of birefringence. The polymer film showed optical loss of 0.41 dB/cm at 1.3 mm and 0.54 dB/cm at 1.55 mm. Zero birefringence and low optical loss combined with photo-processibility of the material are making it an excellent candidate for the high performance waveguide materials.

  15. Integration of polymer waveguides for optical detection in microfabricated chemical analysis systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogensen, Klaus B.; El-Ali, Jamil; Wolff, Anders; Kutter, Jörg P.

    2003-07-01

    Multimode polymer waveguides and fiber-to-waveguide couplers have been integrated with microfluidic channels by use of a single-mask-step procedure, which ensured self-alignment between the optics and the fluidics and allowed a fabrication and packaging time of only one day. Three fabrication procedures for obtaining hermetically sealed channels were investigated, and the spectrally resolved propagation loss (400-900 nm) of the integrated waveguides was determined for all three procedures. Two chemical absorbance cells with optical path lengths of 100 and 1000 μm were furthermore fabricated and characterized in terms of coupling loss, sensitivity, and limit of detection for measurements of the dye bromothymol blue.

  16. A Hybrid Method for Paraxial Beam Propagation in Multimode Optical Waveguides.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    generalization to waveguides of circular symmetry. P-I REFERENCES [1] D. Marcuse , Theory of Dielectric Optical Waveguides. New York: Academic Press, 1974, ch...Gaussian beams in multimode fiber guides," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. vol. 68 , pp. 989-993 (1978). [5] M.D. Feit and J.A. Fleck, "Light propagation in graded...1978). [22] R. Ulrich and T. Kamiya, "Resolution of self-images in planar optical waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. vol. 68 , pp, 583-592 (1978). [23

  17. Optical properties of V-groove silicon nitride trench waveguides.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qiancheng; Huang, Yuewang; Boyraz, Ozdal

    2016-09-01

    We numerically investigate the mode properties of the V-groove silicon nitride trench waveguides based on the experimental results. The trench waveguides are suitable for nonlinear applications. By manipulating the waveguide thicknesses, the waveguides can achieve zero dispersion or a maximized nonlinear parameter of 0.219  W-1·m-1 at 1550 nm. Broadband four-wave mixing with a gain of 5.545  m-1 is presented as an example. The waveguides can also be applied in sensing applications with an optimized evanescent intensity ratio. By etching away the top flat slabs, wider trapezoidal trench waveguides can be utilized for plasmonic sensing thanks to their TE fundamental modes.

  18. The metrology of multimode fiber-optic waveguides and problems in the standardization of measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belov, A. V.; Neustruev, V. B.

    1983-05-01

    The paper presents a brief survey of methods for measuring the principal optical characteristics of multimode fiber-optic waveguides: optical losses, the refractive-index profile, the numerical aperture, and the time dispersion of light pulses. Particular attention is given to the measurement of total losses by the backscattering technique and to the measurement of time dispersion in graded optical fibers. The properties of fiber-optic waveguides which are responsible for the nonuniqueness of measurement results are examined. Experimental data are presented which illustrate the dependence of the measurement results on the excitation conditions.

  19. GaInAsP/InP MZI waveguide optical isolator integrated with spot size converter.

    PubMed

    Sobu, Yohei; Shoji, Yuya; Sakurai, Kazumasa; Mizumoto, Tetsuya

    2013-07-01

    We fabricated a waveguide optical isolator with a GaInAsP guiding layer integrated with spot size converters (SSCs) for efficient coupling to optical fibers. The isolator is constructed with a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI), which is composed of multi-mode interference (MMI) couplers, as well as nonreciprocal and reciprocal phase shifters. The nonreciprocal phase shifter is constructed with a magneto-optical cladding layer directly bonded to a semiconductor guiding layer. The performance of the GaInAsP waveguide optical isolator was demonstrated with a maximum optical isolation of 28.3 dB at a wavelength of 1558 nm for the TM mode.

  20. Comparative evaluation of optical waveguides as alternative interconnections for high performance packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schacham, S. E.; Merkelo, Henri; Hwang, L.-T.; Mccredie, Bradley D.; Veatch, Mark S.; Turlik, I.

    1992-01-01

    A detailed comparison between optical and electrical interconnections is presented, with emphasis on advantages and drawbacks of optical link utilization. The impact of attenuation, dispersive degradation, and fan out on signal integrity is discussed. Reflections from discontinuities are taken into account in the section on fan out. According to our results, there is no obvious advantage of using optical interconnections for the distribution of digital signals containing significant frequency components in excess of 10 GHz, unless substantial distances are involved, for which low dispersion optical waveguides could provide a solution. The implementation of a polyimide optical waveguide in the MCNC package is discussed.

  1. Design Considerations for Monolithic Beam Formers Based on Electro-Optic Polymer Phase Modulators and Strain-Induced Optical Waveguides - Postprint

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    passive optical polymer is that it can provide low-loss optical waveguides and its mode can be made to match that of a 4.0~4.5 m small-core fiber ...on top of the polymer introduces a strain-induced refractive index change within the core layer thus providing better lateral optical mode ...induced optical waveguide technique to reduce optical propagation loss, 4) the TO switch in closely spaced parallel single- mode waveguides, and 5

  2. Voltage-induced inhibition of antigen-antibody binding at conducting optical waveguides.

    PubMed

    Liron, Zvi; Tender, Leonard M; Golden, Joel P; Ligler, Frances S

    2002-06-01

    Optical waveguides coated with electrically conducting indium-tin oxide (ITO) are demonstrated here as a new class of substrate for fluorescent immunosensors. These waveguides combine electrochemical control with evanescent excitation and image-based detection. Presented here are preliminary results utilizing these waveguides that demonstrate influence of waveguide voltage on antigen binding. Specifically, waveguide surfaces were bisected into electrically addressable halves, anti-ovalbumin immobilized in patterns on their surfaces, and a 1.3 V bias applied between waveguide halves in the presence of Cy5-labeled ovalbumin in 10 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) containing 150 mM NaCl and 0.05% Tween-20. Fluorescence imaging indicated that binding of the antigen to positively biased waveguide halves was inhibited nearly 10-fold compared with negatively biased waveguide halves and unbiased controls. Furthermore, it is shown that ovalbumin binding to positively biased waveguide regions is regenerated after removal of applied voltage. These results suggest that electrochemical control of immunosensor substrates can be used as a possible strategy toward minimizing cross-reactive binding and/or nonspecific adsorption, immunosensor regeneration, and controlled binding.

  3. Polymer waveguide cointegration with microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) for integrated optical metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Kolin S.; Taylor, B. J.; Dawson, Jeremy M.; Hornak, Lawrence A.

    1998-03-01

    The merging of Microelectromechanical (MEM) devices and optics to create Microoptoelectromechanical (MOEM) systems provides opportunity to create new devices and to expand the functionality and applications of MEMS technology. Planar optical waveguide co-integration with surface micromachined (SMM) structures and inclusion of diffractive optical systems within 3D MEMS chip stack architectures have the potential to enable integrated optical test, metrology, and state feedback functions for complex MEM systems. This paper presents the results of research developing a fabrication process for co-integrating polymer optical waveguides with prefabricated MEMS devices. Multimode air superstrate rectangular optical waveguides have been fabricated using Ultradel optical polyimides over unreleased MEMS dice fabricated using the MultiUser MEMS Process Service (MUMPS) SMM process. These structures serve as the basic building block for exploration of guided wave integrated optical metrology functions for MEMS. Specially designed `split- comb' linear resonator devices enabling coupling of waveguide output to the resonator stage for position measurement are one class of a set of prototype MEMS function MUMPS testbeds under development for both guidance and evaluation of waveguide and free-space IOM efforts. Recently initiated work analytically and experimentally evaluating through-wafer free-space micro-optical systems for IOM will also be outlined.

  4. 24-ch microlens-integrated no-polish connector for optical interconnection with polymer waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraishi, Takashi; Yagisawa, Takatoshi; Ikeuchi, Tadashi; Daikuhara, Osamu; Tanaka, Kazuhiro

    2013-02-01

    We successfully developed a new 24-ch optical connector for polymer waveguides. The connector consists of a transparent thermoplastic resin that has two rectangular slits on one side for alignment of the waveguide films and integrated microlens arrays on the other side for coupling to the MT connector. Two 12-ch waveguide films were cut to a 3-mm width. The thickness of each waveguide film was controlled at 100 μm. The waveguide films were inserted into the slits until they touched the bottom face of the slit. Ultraviolet curing adhesive was used to achieve a short hardening process. The expanded beam in the transparent material is focused by the microlens arrays formed on the connector surface. This lens structure enables assembly without the need for a polishing process. We designed the lens for coupling between a step-index 40-μm rectangular waveguide and a graded-index 50-μm fiber. We achieved low-loss optical coupling by designing a method of providing asymmetric magnification between the horizontal and vertical directions in order to compensate for the asymmetric numerical aperture of the waveguide. The typical measured coupling losses from/to the waveguide to/from the fiber were 1.2 dB and 0.6 dB, respectively. The total coupling loss was as small as that of a physical contact connection.

  5. Optical Sensors Based on Single Arm Thin Film Waveguide Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarkisov, S. S.; Diggs, D.; Curley, M.; Adamovsky, Grigory (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Single-arm double-mode double-order optical waveguide interferometer utilizes interference between two propagating modes of different orders. Sensing effect results from the change in propagation conditions of the modes caused by the environment. The waveguide is made as an open asymmetric slab structure containing a dye-doped polymer film onto a fused quartz substrate. It is more sensitive to the change of environment than its conventional polarimetric analog using orthogonal modes (TE and TM) of the same order. The sensor still preserves the option of operating in polarimetric regime using a variety of mode combinations such as TE(sub 0)/TM(sub 0) (conventional), TE(sub 0)/TM(sub 1), TE(sub 1)/TM(sub 0), or TE(sub 1)/TM(sub 1) but can also work in nonpolarimetric regime using combinations TE(sub 0)/TM(sub 1) or TE(sub 0)/TM(sub 1). Utilization of different mode combinations simultaneously makes the device more versatile. Application of the sensor to gas sensing is based on doping polymer film with an organic indicator dye sensitive to a particular gas. Change of optical absorption spectrum of the dye caused by the gaseous pollutant results change of the reactive index of the dye-doped polymer film that can be detected by the sensor. As an indicator dyes, we utilize Bromocresol Purple doped into polymer poly(methyl) methacrylate, which shows a reversible growth of the absorption peak neat 600 nm after exposure to wet ammonia. We have built a breadboard prototype of the sensor with He-Ne laser as a light source and with a single mode fiber input and a multimode fiber output. The prototype showed sensitivity to temperature change of the order of 2 C per one full oscillation of the signal. The sensitivity of the sensor to the presence of wet ammonia is 200 ppm per one full oscillation of the signal. The further improvements include switching to a longer wavelength laser source (750-nm semiconductor laser), substitution of poly(methyl) methacrylate with hydrophilic

  6. Optical Sensors Based on Single Arm Thin Film Waveguide Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarkisov, S. S.; Diggs, D.; Curley, M.; Adamovsky, Grigory (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Single-arm double-mode double-order optical waveguide interferometer utilizes interference between two propagating modes of different orders. Sensing effect results from the change in propagation conditions of the modes caused by the environment. The waveguide is made as an open asymmetric slab structure containing a dye-doped polymer film onto a fused quartz substrate. It is more sensitive to the change of environment than its conventional polarimetric analog using orthogonal modes (TE and TM) of the same order. The sensor still preserves the option of operating in polarimetric regime using a variety of mode combinations such as TE(sub 0)/TM(sub 0) (conventional), TE(sub 0)/TM(sub 1), TE(sub 1)/TM(sub 0), or TE(sub 1)/TM(sub 1) but can also work in nonpolarimetric regime using combinations TE(sub 0)/TM(sub 1) or TE(sub 0)/TM(sub 1). Utilization of different mode combinations simultaneously makes the device more versatile. Application of the sensor to gas sensing is based on doping polymer film with an organic indicator dye sensitive to a particular gas. Change of optical absorption spectrum of the dye caused by the gaseous pollutant results change of the reactive index of the dye-doped polymer film that can be detected by the sensor. As an indicator dyes, we utilize Bromocresol Purple doped into polymer poly(methyl) methacrylate, which shows a reversible growth of the absorption peak neat 600 nm after exposure to wet ammonia. We have built a breadboard prototype of the sensor with He-Ne laser as a light source and with a single mode fiber input and a multimode fiber output. The prototype showed sensitivity to temperature change of the order of 2 C per one full oscillation of the signal. The sensitivity of the sensor to the presence of wet ammonia is 200 ppm per one full oscillation of the signal. The further improvements include switching to a longer wavelength laser source (750-nm semiconductor laser), substitution of poly(methyl) methacrylate with hydrophilic

  7. Optical waveguides in Er:LiNbO3 fabricated by different techniques - A comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cajzl, Jakub; Nekvindová, Pavla; Macková, Anna; Malinský, Petr; Oswald, Jiří; Staněk, Stanislav; Vytykáčová, Soňa; Špirková, Jarmila

    2016-03-01

    We report on the comparison of three techniques used for the fabrication of optical waveguides in erbium doped lithium niobate crystal substrates (Er:LiNbO3). The techniques include ion in-diffusion from a titanium metal layer, annealed proton exchange (APE), and He+ ion implantation. The main focus of the work was placed on the investigation of the influence of the used optical waveguides fabrication techniques on the structural and luminescence properties of Er:LiNbO3 substrates. The results have shown that none of the used optical-waveguide-fabrication techniques significantly affect the position of erbium in the host crystal structure. It turned out, however, that the fabrication process affected luminescence intensities of the characteristic luminescence bands of erbium ions - the most significant decrease in the luminescence intensity was observed in the Ti-indiffused waveguides.

  8. Laser-machined microfluidic bioreactors with printed scaffolds and integrated optical waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Michael N.; Fahlenkamp, Heather D.; Higbee, Russell G.; Kachurin, Anatoly M.; Church, Kenneth H.; Warren, William L.

    2004-12-01

    Laser micromachining combined with digital printing allows rapid prototyping of complex bioreactors with reduced fabrication times compared to multi-mask photolithography. Microfluidic bioreactors with integrated optical waveguides for diagnostics have been fabricated via ultrashort pulse laser micromachining and digital printing. The microfluidic channels are directly laser machined into poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) silicone elastomer. Multimode optical waveguides are formed by coating the PDMS with alternating refractive index polymer layers and laser machining to define the waveguide geometry. Tapered alignment grooves are also laser machined to aid in coupling optical fibers to the waveguides. Three-dimensional (3-D) bio-scaffold matrices comprising liquid solutions that can be selectively and rapidly gelled are digitally printed inside the bioreactors and filled with nutrient rich media and cells. This paper will describe the maskless fabrication of complex 3-D bioreactors and discuss their performance characteristics.

  9. Squeezing red blood cells on an optical waveguide to monitor cell deformability during blood storage.

    PubMed

    Ahluwalia, Balpreet Singh; McCourt, Peter; Oteiza, Ana; Wilkinson, James S; Huser, Thomas R; Hellesø, Olav Gaute

    2015-01-07

    Red blood cells squeeze through micro-capillaries as part of blood circulation in the body. The deformability of red blood cells is thus critical for blood circulation. In this work, we report a method to optically squeeze red blood cells using the evanescent field present on top of a planar waveguide chip. The optical forces from a narrow waveguide are used to squeeze red blood cells to a size comparable to the waveguide width. Optical forces and pressure distributions on the cells are numerically computed to explain the squeezing process. The proposed technique is used to quantify the loss of blood deformability that occurs during blood storage lesion. Squeezing red blood cells using waveguides is a sensitive technique and works simultaneously on several cells, making the method suitable for monitoring stored blood.

  10. Polydimethylsiloxane-based optical waveguides for tetherless powering of floating microstimulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ersen, Ali; Sahin, Mesut

    2017-05-01

    Neural electrodes and associated electronics are powered either through percutaneous wires or transcutaneous powering schemes with energy harvesting devices implanted underneath the skin. For electrodes implanted in the spinal cord and the brain stem that experience large displacements, wireless powering may be an option to eliminate device failure by the breakage of wires and the tethering of forces on the electrodes. We tested the feasibility of using optically clear polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as a waveguide to collect the light in a subcutaneous location and deliver to deeper regions inside the body, thereby replacing brittle metal wires tethered to the electrodes with PDMS-based optical waveguides that can transmit energy without being attached to the targeted electrode. We determined the attenuation of light along the PDMS waveguides as 0.36±0.03 dB/cm and the transcutaneous light collection efficiency of cylindrical waveguides as 44%±11% by transmitting a laser beam through the thenar skin of human hands. We then implanted the waveguides in rats for a month to demonstrate the feasibility of optical transmission. The collection efficiency and longitudinal attenuation values reported here can help others design their own waveguides and make estimations of the waveguide cross-sectional area required to deliver sufficient power to a certain depth in tissue.

  11. Electro-optical backplane demonstrator with integrated multimode gradient-index thin glass waveguide panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Henning; Brusberg, Lars; Pitwon, Richard; Whalley, Simon; Wang, Kai; Miller, Allen; Herbst, Christian; Weber, Daniel; Lang, Klaus-Dieter

    2015-03-01

    Optical interconnects for data transmission at board level offer increased energy efficiency, system density, and bandwidth scalability compared to purely copper driven systems. We present recent results on manufacturing of electrooptical printed circuit board (PCB) with integrated planar glass waveguides. The graded index multi-mode waveguides are patterned inside commercially available thin-glass panels by performing a specific ion-exchange process. The glass waveguide panel is embedded within the layer stack-up of a PCB using proven industrial processes. This paper describes the design, manufacture, assembly and characterization of the first electro-optical backplane demonstrator based on integrated planar glass waveguides. The electro-optical backplane in question is created by laminating the glass waveguide panel into a conventional multi-layer electronic printed circuit board stack-up. High precision ferrule mounts are automatically assembled, which will enable MT compliant connectors to be plugged accurately to the embedded waveguide interfaces on the glass panel edges. The demonstration platform comprises a standardized sub-rack chassis and five pluggable test cards each housing optical engines and pluggable optical connectors. The test cards support a variety of different data interfaces and can support data rates of up to 32 Gb/s per channel.

  12. Optical pulse dynamics for quantum-dot logic operations in a photonic-crystal waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Xun; John, Sajeev

    2011-11-15

    We numerically demonstrate all-optical logic operations with quantum dots (QDs) embedded in a bimodal photonic-crystal waveguide using Maxwell-Bloch equations in a slowly varying envelope approximation (SVEA). The two-level QD excitation level is controlled by one or more femtojoule optical driving pulses passing through the waveguide. Specific logic operations depend on the relative pulse strengths and their detunings from an inhomogeneouslly broadened (about 1% for QD transitions centered at 1.5 {mu}m) QD transition. This excitation controlled two-level medium then determines passage of subsequent probe optical pulses. Envelope equations for electromagnetic waves in the linear dispersion and cutoff waveguide modes are derived to simplify solution of the coupled Maxwell-Bloch equations in the waveguide. These determine the quantum mechanical evolution of the QD excitation and its polarization, driven by classical electromagnetic (EM) pulses near a sharp discontinuity in the EM density of states of the bimodal waveguide. Different configurations of the driving pulses lead to distinctive relations between driving pulse strength and probe pulse passage, representing all-optical logic and, or, and not operations. Simulation results demonstrate that such operations can be done on picosecond time scales and within a waveguide length of about 10 {mu}m in a photonic-band-gap (PBG) optical microchip.

  13. MZI optical isolator with Si-wire waveguides by surface-activated direct bonding.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Yuya; Ito, Masatoshi; Shirato, Yuya; Mizumoto, Tetsuya

    2012-07-30

    We fabricate a Mach-Zehnder interferometer-based optical isolator using a silicon-wire waveguide with magneto-optic garnet cladding using direct bonding techniques. Using Si-wire waveguides, the size of the device is greatly reduced from that of our previous device. We investigate surface-activated direct bonding with nitrogen plasma treatment, which shows better bonding results than oxygen plasma treatment. A large magneto-optic phase shift of 0.8π and an optical isolation of 18 dB are obtained at a wavelength of 1322 nm.

  14. Waveguide and packaging technology for optical backplanes and hybrid electrical-optical circuit boards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, H.; Bauer, J.; Ebling, F.; Franke, M.; Beier, A.; Demmer, P.; Süllau, W.; Kostelnik, J.; Mödinger, R.; Pfeiffer, K.; Ostrzinski, U.; Griese, E.

    2006-02-01

    Due to ever-faster processor clock speeds, there is a rising need for increased bandwidth to transfer large amounts of data, noise-free, within computer and telecommunications systems. A related requirement is the demand for high bit-rate, short-haul links. Here, optical transmission paths are a viable alternative to high-frequency electrical interconnections, whereby layers with integrated waveguides are particularly suitable. The reasons for this include that a higher connection density can be achieved and the power dissipation, as well as interference from electromagnetic radiation, are significantly lower. The article presents general considerations and the results of research conducted by the German BMBF Project NeGIT, into the manufacture of circuit boards with embedded polymer optical waveguides. The electrical-optical boards were fabricated using precise photolithographic processes and standard lamination methods. They possess the thermal stability necessary for manufacturing processes and operational conditions, in terms of both bond strength and the stability of the optical properties. As part of this project, a design of an optical coupling in the daughter card and board backplane interfaces was developed and is presented as the centerpiece of this study.

  15. Metallic waveguide mirrors in polymer film waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, S.; Giehl, A. R.; Renno, M.; Fouckhardt, H.

    2001-10-01

    A technology for the fabrication of metallic waveguide mirrors is developed. Plane and curved waveguide mirrors, the latter acting in the same way as cylindrical lenses, are realized in benzocyclobutene (BCB) film waveguides. The waveguide mirror structure is dry-etched into the BCB film waveguide. To enhance the reflectivity of the waveguide mirrors, the waveguide edge is metallized. The BCB film waveguide mirrors are characterized with respect to waveguide attenuation and mirror reflectivity. The waveguide attenuation of the processed BCB waveguide is 0.5 dB/cm. Ag-coated BCB waveguide mirrors show a reflectivity of 71%. The efficiency of total internal reflection (TIR, i.e. in the case without metallization) at the dry-etched waveguide edge is 74%. As an application of the BCB waveguide mirrors a hybrid integrated optical module for Fourier-optical transverse mode selection in broad area lasers (BAL) is proposed.

  16. Polymer waveguides for electro-optical integration in data centers and high-performance computers.

    PubMed

    Dangel, Roger; Hofrichter, Jens; Horst, Folkert; Jubin, Daniel; La Porta, Antonio; Meier, Norbert; Soganci, Ibrahim Murat; Weiss, Jonas; Offrein, Bert Jan

    2015-02-23

    To satisfy the intra- and inter-system bandwidth requirements of future data centers and high-performance computers, low-cost low-power high-throughput optical interconnects will become a key enabling technology. To tightly integrate optics with the computing hardware, particularly in the context of CMOS-compatible silicon photonics, optical printed circuit boards using polymer waveguides are considered as a formidable platform. IBM Research has already demonstrated the essential silicon photonics and interconnection building blocks. A remaining challenge is electro-optical packaging, i.e., the connection of the silicon photonics chips with the system. In this paper, we present a new single-mode polymer waveguide technology and a scalable method for building the optical interface between silicon photonics chips and single-mode polymer waveguides.

  17. Quantum physics inspired optical effects in evanescently coupled waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Clinton Edward

    The tight-binding model that has been used for many years in condensed matter physics, due to its analytic and numerical tractability, has recently been used to describe light propagating through an array of evanescently coupled waveguides. This dissertation presents analytic and numerical simulation results of light propagating in a waveguide array. The first result presented is that photonic transport can be achieved in an array where the propagation constant is linearly increasing across the array. For an input at the center waveguide, the breathing modes of the system are observed, while for a phase displaced, asymmetric input, phase-controlled photonic transport is predicted. For an array with a waveguide-dependent, parity-symmetric coupling constant, the wave packet dynamics are predicted to be tunable. In addition to modifying the propagation constant, the coupling between waveguides can also be modified, and the quantum correlations are sensitive to the form of the tunneling function. In addition to modifying the waveguide array parameters in a structured manner, they can be randomized as to mimic the insertion of impurities during the fabrication process. When the refractive indices are randomized and real, the amount of light that localizes to the initial waveguide is found to be dependent on the initial waveguide when the waveguide coupling is non-uniform. In addition, when the variance of the refractive indices is small, light localizes in the initial waveguide as well as the parity-symmetric waveguide. In addition to real valued disorder, complex valued disorder can be introduced into the array through the imaginary component of the refractive index. It is shown that the two-particle correlation function is qualitatively similar to the case when the waveguide coupling is real and random, as both cases preserve the symmetry of the eigenvalues. Lastly, different input fields have been used to investigate the quantum statistical aspects of Anderson

  18. Controlling optical response of metallic nanostructure

    SciTech Connect

    Grigorenko, Ilya

    2008-01-01

    In this talk I am going to discuss the direct and inverse problems in nanoplasmonics in classical, and in particular quantum regimes of excitations. The inverse problem in nanoplasmonics is aimed to control the eigenspectrum, excitations,and other physical properties of nanosized quantum systems via controlling their size, shape, and structural composition. Using a combination of modern modeling techniques and optimization procedures, one can succeed to solve the inverse problem, namely, to find a nanostructure which has the desired functionality, or to find optimal control field in the presence of known nanostructured metallic surface.

  19. Integrating cell on chip—Novel waveguide platform employing ultra-long optical paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fohrmann, Lena Simone; Sommer, Gerrit; Pitruzzello, Giampaolo; Krauss, Thomas F.; Petrov, Alexander Yu.; Eich, Manfred

    2017-09-01

    Optical waveguides are the most fundamental building blocks of integrated optical circuits. They are extremely well understood, yet there is still room for surprises. Here, we introduce a novel 2D waveguide platform which affords a strong interaction of the evanescent tail of a guided optical wave with an external medium while only employing a very small geometrical footprint. The key feature of the platform is its ability to integrate the ultra-long path lengths by combining low propagation losses in a silicon slab with multiple reflections of the guided wave from photonic crystal (PhC) mirrors. With a reflectivity of 99.1% of our tailored PhC-mirrors, we achieve interaction paths of 25 cm within an area of less than 10 mm2. This corresponds to 0.17 dB/cm effective propagation which is much lower than the state-of-the-art loss of approximately 1 dB/cm of single mode silicon channel waveguides. In contrast to conventional waveguides, our 2D-approach leads to a decay of the guided wave power only inversely proportional to the optical path length. This entirely different characteristic is the major advantage of the 2D integrating cell waveguide platform over the conventional channel waveguide concepts that obey the Beer-Lambert law.

  20. Finite element analysis of a variable optical attenuator based on s-shape polymer waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Jing; Wu, Lingxun; Xue, Fenglan; Hu, Jian; Fu, Yanjun; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Fangren

    2016-01-01

    A variable optical attenuator (VOA) based on S-shape polymer waveguide is demonstrated at the wavelength λ = 1.55 micron. The VOA consists of straight input and output waveguides, an S-shape waveguide and a pair of deposited electrodes. The cladding material of S waveguide is Poly (methyl methacrylate/disperse red 1) (PMMA/DR1) and the core material of S waveguide is SiON. The refractive index of the polymer cladding at S waveguide is modified by the applied electric voltage. Light scatters at the S waveguide and the VOA has large energy loss in the original state at voltage-off. In the voltage-on state, the refractive index of the polymer of the S waveguide reduces, and energy loss changes as the voltage increases. The attenuation of the VOA can be controled and adjusted by the applied voltage. The beam propagation method(BPM) and finite element analysis are employed to simulate and analyse the VOA. The results show that the VOA has large variable attenuation range of 45.2dB and low insertion loss of 0.8dB.

  1. Optical Gratings Coated with Thin Si3N4 Layer for Efficient Immunosensing by Optical Waveguide Lightmode Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Diéguez, Lorena; Caballero, David; Calderer, Josep; Moreno, Mauricio; Martínez, Elena; Samitier, Josep

    2012-04-10

    New silicon nitride coated optical gratings were tested by means of Optical Waveguide Lightmode Spectroscopy (OWLS). A thin layer of 10 nm of transparent silicon nitride was deposited on commercial optical gratings by means of sputtering. The quality of the layer was tested by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. As a proof of concept, the sensors were successfully tested with OWLS by monitoring the concentration dependence on the detection of an antibody-protein pair. The potential of the Si3N4 as functional layer in a real-time biosensor opens new ways for the integration of optical waveguides with microelectronics.

  2. Optical coupling of bare optoelectronic components and flexographically printed polymer waveguides in planar optronic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yixiao; Wolfer, Tim; Lange, Alex; Overmeyer, Ludger

    2016-05-01

    Large scale, planar optronic systems allowing spatially distributed functionalities can be well used in diverse sensor networks, such as for monitoring the environment by measuring various physical quantities in medicine or aeronautics. In these systems, mechanically flexible and optically transparent polymeric foils, e.g. polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET), are employed as carrier materials. A benefit of using these materials is their low cost. The optical interconnections from light sources to light transmission structures in planar optronic systems occupy a pivotal position for the sensing functions. As light sources, we employ the optoelectronic components, such as edgeemitting laser diodes, in form of bare chips, since their extremely small structures facilitate a high integration compactness and ensure sufficient system flexibility. Flexographically printed polymer optical waveguides are deployed as light guiding structures for short-distance communication in planar optronic systems. Printing processes are utilized for this generation of waveguides to achieve a cost-efficient large scale and high-throughput production. In order to attain a high-functional optronic system for sensing applications, one of the most essential prerequisites is the high coupling efficiency between the light sources and the waveguides. Therefore, in this work, we focus on the multimode polymer waveguide with a parabolic cross-section and investigate its optical coupling with the bare laser diode. We establish the geometrical model of the alignment based on the previous works on the optodic bonding of bare laser diodes and the fabrication process of polymer waveguides with consideration of various parameters, such as the beam profile of the laser diode, the employed polymer properties of the waveguides as well as the carrier substrates etc. Accordingly, the optical coupling of the bare laser diodes and the polymer waveguides was simulated

  3. Optical properties of wide single-mode strip and grating loaded channel waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Tsarev, Andrei V

    2009-12-31

    New wide single-mode strip and grating loaded (SGL) channel waveguides made of silicon nitride on the oxide buffer layer of a planar silicon-on-insulator waveguide are studied. The central 10-lm-wide strip produces a multi-mode channel waveguide and diffraction gratings with a period 0.6 lm built on the structure edges produce mode-dependent additional losses due to radiation to the surrounding medium. The optical properties of these waveguides are discussed using the results of a three-dimensional numerical simulation by the FDTD and BPM methods. It is shown that a wide SGL waveguide is quasi-single-mode one because it has a small propagation loss ({approx} 0.3 dB cm{sup -1}) for the fundamental mode and a high (up to -20 dB cm{sup -1}) loss for the higher order modes. The new SGL waveguides are CMOS compatible and can become basic for fabricating new photonic elements, including tunable optical filters and multi-plexers based on the multireflector technology. (waveguides)

  4. Perforated hollow-core optical waveguides for on-chip atomic spectroscopy and gas sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Giraud-Carrier, M. Hill, C.; Decker, T.; Hawkins, A.; Black, J. A.; Schmidt, H.

    2016-03-28

    A hollow-core waveguide structure for on-chip atomic spectroscopy is presented. The devices are based on Anti-Resonant Reflecting Optical Waveguides and may be used for a wide variety of applications which rely on the interaction of light with gases and vapors. The designs presented here feature short delivery paths of the atomic vapor into the hollow waveguide. They also have excellent environmental stability by incorporating buried solid-core waveguides to deliver light to the hollow cores. Completed chips were packaged with an Rb source and the F = 3 ≥ F′ = 2, 3, 4 transitions of the D2 line in {sup 85}Rb were monitored for optical absorption. Maximum absorption peak depths of 9% were measured.

  5. Synthesis of photosensitive poly(methyl methacrylate-co-glycidyl methacrylate) for optical waveguide devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Xu; Shi, Yuan; Cao, Yang

    2010-08-01

    Photosensitive poly(MMA-co-GMA) for optical waveguide was synthesized, and the refractive index of the polymer film was tuned in the range of 1.481-1.588 at 1550 nm by mixing with bis-phenol-A epoxy resin. The film, which was made by spinning coated the poly(MMA-co-GMA) with photo initiator, had good UV light lithograph sensitivity, high glass transition temperature ( T g : 153°C, after crosslinking) and good thermal stabilities ( T d : up to 324°C, after crosslinking). The optical waveguides with very smooth top surface were fabricated from the resulting polymer by direct UV exposure and chemical development. For waveguides with cladding, the propagation losses of the channel waveguides were measured to be below 3 dB/cm at 1550 nm.

  6. Fabrication and characterization of hollow metal waveguides for optical interconnect applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bicknell, Robert; King, Laura; Otis, Charles E.; Yeo, Jong-Souk; Meyer, Neal; Kornilovitch, Pavel; Lerner, Scott; Seals, Lenward

    2009-06-01

    As data rates continue to increase in high-performance computer systems and networks, it is becoming more difficult for copper-based interconnects to keep pace. An alternative approach to meet these requirements is to move to optical-based interconnect technologies which offer a number of advantages over the legacy copper-based solutions. In order to meet the stringent requirements of high performance and low cost, manufacturable waveguide technologies must be developed. Past solutions have often employed polymer waveguide technologies, which can be expensive and limited by modal dispersion. In the present work, hollow metal waveguides (HMWGs) are investigated as a potential alternative. These waveguides demonstrate very low optical losses of <0.05 dB/cm and the capability to transmit at extremely high data rates. The fabrication, modeling, characterization of the HMWGs are discussed to enable photonic interconnect solutions for future generations of computer and server products.

  7. Design of optical channel waveguides in SiO2 by ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De los Reyes, H.; Lizarraga-Medina, E. G.; Salazar, D.; Rangel-Rojo, R.; Vázquez, G. V.; Oliver, A.; Achenbach, S.; Börner, M.; Márquez, H.

    2015-08-01

    Design of straight and S-bend optical channel waveguides based on silver ion implantation in SiO2 substrates is presented. 3D Beam Propagation Method (BPM) calculations are used for the design of the waveguides based on step index profiles produced from a sequential multiple ion implantation process. An analysis of modal optical confinement was done by means of the Effective Index Method (EIM) for selecting the right dimensions of the channel waveguides. Core index values between 1.4623-1.4662 are obtained, depending on the fluence, are considered. Depth and width for the waveguides were chosen to provide single mode operation. Bending losses are determined as function of bending radius, refractive index change (Δn), and wavelength.

  8. Surface plasmon induced polarization rotation and optical vorticity in a single mode waveguide.

    PubMed

    Davids, P S; Block, B A; Reshotko, M R; Cadien, K C

    2007-07-23

    The control and manipulation of the mode polarization state in a single mode dielectric waveguide is of considerable significance for optical information processing utilizing the polarization state to store digital information and integrated photonic devices used for high speed signaling. Here we report on an integrated on-chip mode polarization rotation based on short metal Cu electrodes placed in close proximity to the dielectric waveguide core. Polarization mode rotation with specific rotation of 10(4) degrees/mm is observed for offset metallic electrodes placed diagonally along a single mode dielectric waveguide. The mechanism for the polarization rotation is shown to be directional coupling into guided surface plasmon modes at the metal corners and coupling between the guided plasmon modes. This inter-plasmon coupling gives rise to giant polarization rotation and optical vorticity (helical power flow) in the waveguide.

  9. Optical amplifier based on an Er:MgO-doped near stoichiometric lithium niobate waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Linan; Tan, Yang; Chen, Feng

    2017-07-01

    We report on an optical signal amplifier based on an Er:MgO-doped near stoichiometric lithium niobate (Er:MgO:SLN) waveguide. The Er:MgO:SLN waveguide was fabricated using swift carbon ion irradiation combined with precision diamond blade dicing. Under 980 nm laser pumping, the waveguide provides a 2.13 dB/cm gain at 1536 nm, 1.49 dB/cm gain at 1552 nm, and 1.37 dB/cm gain at 1565 nm, with the pumping power of 99.5 mW. This work demonstrates the potential application of swift ion irradiated Er:MgO:SLN waveguides for the optical amplifiers in the C communication band.

  10. Compact resonant electro-optic modulator using randomness of a photonic crystal waveguide.

    PubMed

    Ooka, Yuta; Daud, Nurul Ashikin Binti; Tetsumoto, Tomohiro; Tanabe, Takasumi

    2016-05-16

    We fabricate and demonstrate an electro-optic modulator that utilizes the randomness in a photonic crystal waveguide. We exploit a way of using random photonic crystals for device application that involves restricting the area influenced by the randomness. Our random photonic crystal waveguide is in a diffusive regime and the confinement of light is observed only for a W0.98 waveguide (98% of the original width) placed between W1.05 photonic crystal waveguides, where we obtained a transmittance spectrum with an ultra-high Q of 2.4 × 105. A numerical investigation revealed that the experimental yield rate of the appearance of the high-Q confined mode is larger than 80%, by properly designing the length of W0.98. Since the confinement location is predictable, we integrate a p-i-n structure and demonstrate a GHz electro-optic modulation.

  11. Perforated hollow-core optical waveguides for on-chip atomic spectroscopy and gas sensing

    PubMed Central

    Giraud-Carrier, M.; Hill, C.; Decker, T.; Black, J. A.; Schmidt, H.; Hawkins, A.

    2016-01-01

    A hollow-core waveguide structure for on-chip atomic spectroscopy is presented. The devices are based on Anti-Resonant Reflecting Optical Waveguides and may be used for a wide variety of applications which rely on the interaction of light with gases and vapors. The designs presented here feature short delivery paths of the atomic vapor into the hollow waveguide. They also have excellent environmental stability by incorporating buried solid-core waveguides to deliver light to the hollow cores. Completed chips were packaged with an Rb source and the F = 3 ≥ F′ = 2, 3, 4 transitions of the D2 line in 85Rb were monitored for optical absorption. Maximum absorption peak depths of 9% were measured. PMID:27076685

  12. Linear and nonlinear waveguiding of few-cycle optical solitons in a planar geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblond, Hervé; Mihalache, Dumitru

    2013-08-01

    We consider the guiding of a few-cycle optical soliton by total internal reflexion, in a planar geometry. By means of numerical solution of a cubic generalized Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation, we show that, for intensities high enough to induce soliton formation, the nonlinear effects considerably widen the guided mode and can even prevent guiding for the shortest pulses and the narrowest waveguides. However, waveguiding can be achieved by means of a steep variation of the nonlinear coefficients, e.g., by using a higher nonlinear coefficient in the cladding than that in the waveguide core. We further propose an analytical approach for extremely narrow guides, which allows us to derive a modified Korteweg-de Vries-type model for the propagation of few-cycle optical solitons in the planar waveguide.

  13. Arrayed and checkerboard optical waveguides controlled by the electromagnetically induced transparency

    SciTech Connect

    Li Yongyao; Malomed, Boris A.; Feng Mingneng; Zhou Jianying

    2010-12-15

    We introduce two models of quasidiscrete optical systems: an array of waveguides doped by four-level N-type atoms, and a nonlinear checkerboard pattern, formed by doping with three-level atoms of the {Lambda}-type. The dopant atoms are driven by external fields, to induce the effect of the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). These active systems offer advantages and additional degrees of freedom, in comparison with ordinary passive waveguiding systems. In the array of active waveguides, the driving field may adjust linear and nonlinear propagation regimes for a probe signal. The nonlinear checkerboard system supports the transmission of stable spatial solitons and their 'fuzzy' counterparts, straight or oblique.

  14. Three-dimensional negative index of refraction at optical frequencies by coupling plasmonic waveguides.

    PubMed

    Verhagen, Ewold; de Waele, René; Kuipers, L; Polman, Albert

    2010-11-26

    We identify a route towards achieving a negative index of refraction at optical frequencies based on coupling between plasmonic waveguides that support backwards waves. We show how modal symmetry can be exploited in metal-dielectric waveguide pairs to achieve negative refraction of both phase and energy. Control of waveguide coupling yields a metamaterial consisting of a one-dimensional multilayer stack that exhibits an isotropic index of -1 at a free-space wavelength of 400 nm. The concepts developed here may inspire new low-loss metamaterial designs operating close to the metal plasma frequency.

  15. Waveguide optical planar lenses in LiNbO3 - Theory and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Z. D.

    1983-09-01

    A simple, efficient method for the fabrication of a waveguide optical planar lens is reported. The method is based upon the Ti-indiffusion (TI), proton-exchange (PE), and Ti-indiffusion-proton-exchange (TIPE) techniques in LiNbO3 substrates. The effective refractive indices of the TI waveguide and TIPE waveguide are very different. Starting with Fermat's principle a nonspherical contour lens can be designed. The experimental result of an F = 15 mm dual lens is described, the focal characteristic of which is excellent.

  16. Planar Fresnel lens photoimprinted in a germanium-doped silica optical waveguide.

    PubMed

    Albert, J; Huttunen, J; Saarinen, J

    1995-05-15

    A gradient-thickness Fresnel lens was photoimprinted in the germanium-doped core layer of a single-mode planar waveguide on silica by exposure to ultraviolet light through a mask, which increases the refractive index in the lens region by approximately 5 x 10(-3). The lens is used to collimate the output of a standard single-mode optical fiber butt coupled to the waveguide at a wavelength of 1.3 microm. The method is applicable to the mass production of complex diffractive elements in a planar waveguide geometry.

  17. Optical characterization of femtosecond laser induced active channel waveguides in lithium fluoride crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiamenti, I.; Bonfigli, F.; Gomes, A. S. L.; Michelotti, F.; Montereali, R. M.; Kalinowski, H. J.

    2014-01-01

    We successfully realized broad-band light-emitting color center waveguides buried in LiF crystals by using femtosecond laser pulses. The characterization of the waveguides was performed by optical microscopy, photoluminescence spectra, loss measurements and near-field profiling. The experimental results show that the direct-writing fabrication process induces low-index contrast active channel waveguides: their wavelength-dependent refractive index changes, estimated from 10-3 to 10-4 depending on the writing conditions, allow supporting few modes at visible and near-infrared wavelengths.

  18. Polarized optical waveguide spectroscopy: Effective tool to analyze adsorption process of dye molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, Hiroyuki; Taniguchi, Keisuke; Fujita, Kyoko

    2009-05-01

    Real time changes of the molecular orientational state are readily analyzed with polarized optical waveguide (POW) spectroscopy. Assembly or orientation of over 20 different dye molecules in solution have been analyzed during air-drying. The dynamic behavior of dyes including both orientational direction and degree of aggregation has been discussed with the key group structures of dyes. We suggest that certain interaction between dimethylimino residue of dyes and silanol residue of the waveguide surface should be responsible for these orientational changes. Furthermore, greater aggregation of these dyes tended to give rise to perpendicular orientation on the waveguide surface.

  19. Vertically-coupled Whispering Gallery Mode Resonator Optical Waveguide, and Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsko, Andrey B. (Inventor); Savchenkov, Anatolly A. (Inventor); Matleki, Lute (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A vertically-coupled whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonator optical waveguide, a method of reducing a group velocity of light, and a method of making a waveguide are provided. The vertically-coupled WGM waveguide comprises a cylindrical rod portion having a round cross-section and an outer surface. First and second ring-shaped resonators are formed on the outer surface of the cylindrical rod portion and are spaced from each other along a longitudinal direction of the cylindrical rod. The first and second ringshaped resonators are capable of being coupled to each other by way an evanescent field formed in an interior of the cylindrical rod portion.

  20. Optical characterization of femtosecond laser induced active channel waveguides in lithium fluoride crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Chiamenti, I.; Kalinowski, H. J.; Bonfigli, F.; Montereali, R. M.; Gomes, A. S. L.; Michelotti, F.

    2014-01-14

    We successfully realized broad-band light-emitting color center waveguides buried in LiF crystals by using femtosecond laser pulses. The characterization of the waveguides was performed by optical microscopy, photoluminescence spectra, loss measurements and near-field profiling. The experimental results show that the direct-writing fabrication process induces low-index contrast active channel waveguides: their wavelength-dependent refractive index changes, estimated from 10{sup −3} to 10{sup −4} depending on the writing conditions, allow supporting few modes at visible and near-infrared wavelengths.

  1. Acrylic and metal based Y-branch plastic optical fiber splitter with optical NOA63 polymer waveguide taper region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehsan, Abang Annuar; Shaari, Sahbudin; Rahman, Mohd Kamil Abd.

    2011-01-01

    We proposed a simple low-cost acrylic and metal-based Y-branch plastic optical fiber (POF) splitter which utilizes a low cost optical polymer glue NOA63 as the main waveguiding medium at the waveguide taper region. The device is composed of three sections: an input POF waveguide, a middle waveguide taper region and output POF waveguides. A desktop high speed CNC engraver is utilized to produce the mold inserts used for the optical devices. Short POF fibers are inserted into the engraved slots at the input and output ports. UV curable optical polymer glue NOA63 is injected into the waveguide taper region and cured. The assembling is completed when the top plate is positioned to enclose the device structure and connecting screws are secured. Both POF splitters have an average insertion loss of 7.8 dB, coupling ratio of 55: 45 and 57: 43 for the acrylic and metal-based splitters respectively. The devices have excess loss of 4.82 and 4.73 dB for the acrylic and metal-based splitters respectively.

  2. Solitons in magneto-optic waveguides by extended trial function scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekici, Mehmet; Zhou, Qin; Sonmezoglu, Abdullah; Moshokoa, Seithuti P.; Ullah, Malik Zaka; Biswas, Anjan; Belic, Milivoj

    2017-07-01

    This paper obtains soliton solutions to magneto-optic waveguides that appear with Kerr, power and log-law nonlinearities. The extended trial function method is employed to obtain these solutions. Thus, bright, dark and singular soliton solutions are retrieved. In addition, Gaussons are obtained for log-law nonlinear waveguides. All of these solutions appear with constraints that guarantees the existence of solitons and Gaussons.

  3. Thin Film Optical Waveguides in 3-5 Semiconductors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-01-01

    Waveguide 64 23 Attenuation Rate of the GaAs/n+GaAs Waveguides 66 24 Contour Map of 8 for Graded Refractive Index Waveguide 68 25 Attenuation...34 44 2.24x 10" New AsH3 and PH3 43 2.04 s 1014 New AsH3 49 5.30x 10" 68 1.47 x 10" New AsH3 79 l.lOx 10" 44 2.39 x 10" 23 jj-iaj»*.,^ -juJaa-tt«a...pM w thickness j_ 10 12 2 4 6 8 d(ym) Figure 24. Contour Map of f> for Graded Refractive Index Waveguide 68 .ii

  4. Optical coupling and splitting with two parallel waveguide tapers.

    PubMed

    Tao, S H

    2011-01-17

    A coupling and splitting device comprising a width taper and a spatial-modulated subwavelength grating waveguide (SSGW) is proposed. The width taper is a waveguide with increasing width and the SSGW is a waveguide grating whose width and thickness are constant but the filling factor increases along the light propagation. Thus, the effective index of the subwavelength grating increases according to the effective medium theory. Light of orthogonal polarizations from a single-mode fiber can be coupled efficiently with the two parallel tapers. Furthermore, the coupled lights of orthogonal polarizations in the two tapers can be further split with connecting bent waveguides. Fabrication of the device is fully compatible with current complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology.

  5. Application of the theory of coupled waves for analysis of inclined reflectors in optical waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Kolosovskii, E A; Tsarev, A V

    2008-09-30

    A new method for analysing the transmission and scattering of the guided TE mode in an inclined reflector located in an optical waveguide is proposed and studied. The reflection of an inhomogeneous optical beam from the inclined reflector is described semi-analytically for the first time by using the theory of coupled waves and taking into account the interrelation and transformation of energy between all the waves of the discrete and continuous spectra of the optical 2D-waveguide (even and odd guided, radiation, and evanescent waves). The results of calculations of the propagation of light through the inclined reflector in the form of a thin (10-500 nm) homogeneous strip obtained by our method and by the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method are in excellent quantitative agreement. The calculation rate of our method considerably (by one-two orders of magnitude) exceeds that of the FDTD method and our method has a better accuracy. (optical waveguides)

  6. End-faced waveguide mediated optical propulsion of microspheres and single cells in a microfluidic device.

    PubMed

    Lilge, Lothar; Shah, Duoaud; Charron, Luc

    2013-07-07

    Single cell transport in microfluidic devices is a topic of interest as their utility is becoming appreciated by cell and molecular biologist. Cell transport should minimize mechanical stress due to friction or pressure gradients. Optical forces have the advantage of applying their forces across the cell volume and not only at the cell membrane and are thus preferable. Optical pushing by scattering force is a suitable candidate so highly dependent on the photon irradiance field inside the propagation capillary which in turn is determined by the waveguide properties delivering the radiation pressure. Here we present a numerical approach to predict the optical scattering force, speed and trajectory of cells as a function of waveguide and propagation capillary geometry. Experimental verification of the simulation approach is demonstrated using polystyrene microspheres and leukemia cells. Effects of optical fibre to waveguide alignment, capillary wall angle and temperature on the dynamic viscosity on speed and position of the microspheres and cells inside the propagation capillary are demonstrated.

  7. Optical Filters Based on Uniform Arrays of Metallic Waveguides

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-04-08

    manufacture for longer 18 wavelengths because the cutoff frequency is determined by the waveguide diameter. For a hollow 19 cylindrical waveguide having...spectral filter comprising a wafer having an array of 6 substantially uniform parallel hollow channels therethrough. The channels have a diameter...spectral 10 filter comprising the steps of (i) providing a wafer having substantially uniform, parallel, hollow 11 channels therethrough, the channels

  8. Interfacing Superconducting Qubits and Single Optical Photons Using Molecules in Waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Sumanta; Elfving, Vincent E.; Faez, Sanli; Sørensen, Anders S.

    2017-04-01

    We propose an efficient light-matter interface at optical frequencies between a single photon and a superconducting qubit. The desired interface is based on a hybrid architecture composed of an organic molecule embedded inside an optical waveguide and electrically coupled to a superconducting qubit placed near the outside surface of the waveguide. We show that high fidelity, photon-mediated, entanglement between distant superconducting qubits can be achieved with incident pulses at the single photon level. Such a low light level is highly desirable for achieving a coherent optical interface with superconducting qubit, since it minimizes decoherence arising from the absorption of light.

  9. On-chip optical isolation via unidirectional Bloch oscillations in a waveguide array.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pradeep; Levy, Miguel

    2012-09-15

    We propose to use the unidirectionality of the optical Bloch oscillation phenomenon achievable in a magneto-optic asymmetric waveguide array to achieve optical isolation. At the 1.55 μm telecommunication wavelength, our isolator design exhibits an isolation ratio of 36 dB between forward- and backward-propagating waves. The proposed design consists of a waveguide array made in a silicon-on-insulator substrate with a magnetic garnet cover layer. A key role is played by the transverse-magnetic mode nonreciprocal phase shift effect.

  10. Polymer slab waveguides for the optical detection of nanoparticles in evanescent field based biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teigell Beneitez, Nuria; Missinne, Jeroen; Schleipen, Jean; Orsel, Joke; Prins, Menno W. J.; Van Steenberge, Geert

    2014-02-01

    We present a polymer optical waveguide integration technology for the detection of nanoparticles in an evanescent field based biosensor. In the proposed biosensor concept, super-paramagnetic nanoparticles are used as optical contrast labels. The nanoparticles capture target molecules from a sample fluid and bind to the sensor surface with biological specificity. The surface-bound nanoparticles are then detected using frustration of an evanescent field. In the current paper we elaborate on the polymer waveguides which are used to generate a well-defined optical field for nanoparticle detection.

  11. Realization of optical multimode TSV waveguides for Si-Interposer in 3D-chip-stacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Killge, S.; Charania, S.; Richter, K.; Neumann, N.; Al-Husseini, Z.; Plettemeier, D.; Bartha, J. W.

    2017-05-01

    Optical connectivity has the potential to outperform copper-based TSVs in terms of bandwidth at the cost of more complexity due to the required electro-optical and opto-electrical conversion. The continuously increasing demand for higher bandwidth pushes the breakeven point for a profitable operation to shorter distances. To integrate an optical communication network in a 3D-chip-stack optical through-silicon vertical VIAs (TSV) are required. While the necessary effort for the electrical/optical and vice versa conversion makes it hard to envision an on-chip optical interconnect, a chip-to-chip optical link appears practicable. In general, the interposer offers the potential advantage to realize electro-optical transceivers on affordable expense by specific, but not necessarily CMOS technology. We investigated the realization and characterization of optical interconnects as a polymer based waveguide in high aspect ratio (HAR) TSVs proved on waferlevel. To guide the optical field inside a TSV as optical-waveguide or fiber, its core has to have a higher refractive index than the surrounding material. Comparing different material / technology options it turned out that thermal grown silicon dioxide (SiO2) is a perfect candidate for the cladding (nSiO2 = 1.4525 at 850 nm). In combination with SiO2 as the adjacent polymer layer, the negative resist SU-8 is very well suited as waveguide material (nSU-8 = 1.56) for the core. Here, we present the fabrication of an optical polymer based multimode waveguide in TSVs proved on waferlevel using SU-8 as core and SiO2 as cladding. The process resulted in a defect-free filling of waveguide TSVs with SU-8 core and SiO2 cladding up to aspect ratio (AR) 20:1 and losses less than 3 dB.

  12. Tailoring the Optical Properties of Silicon with Ion Beam Created Nanostructures for Advanced Photonics Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhter, Perveen

    light trapping in poly-Si thin films using ion implantation induced surface texturing. In addition to surface texturing produced by H and Ar ion implantations, metal nanostructures are also added to the surface to further suppress light reflection at the plasmonic resonance of metal nanostructures. Remarkable suppression has been achieved resulting in reflection from the air/Si interface to below ˜5%. In the second part, optical properties of embedded metal nanostructures in silicon matrix gettered into the ion implantation created nanocavities are studied. Embedded nanostructures can have a huge impact in future photonics applications by replacing the existing electronic and photonic components such as interconnects, waveguides, modulators and amplifiers with their plasmonic counterparts. This new method of encapsulating metal nanostructures in silicon is cost-effective and compatible with silicon fabrication technology. Spectroscopic ellipsometry is used to study the dielectric properties of silicon with embedded silver nanostructures. High absorption regions around 900 nm, corresponding to plasmonic absorption of Ag nanoparticles in Si, have been observed and compared to theoretical calculations and simulation results. The possibility of modifying the dielectric function of Si with metal nanostructures can lay the foundation for functional base structures for advanced applications in silicon photonics, photovoltaics and plasmonics.

  13. Integrated optical waveguide and nanoparticle based label-free molecular biosensing concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hainberger, Rainer; Muellner, Paul; Melnik, Eva; Wellenzohn, Markus; Bruck, Roman; Schotter, Joerg; Schrittwieser, Stefan; Waldow, Michael; Wahlbrink, Thorsten; Koppitsch, Guenther; Schrank, Franz; Soulantica, Katerina; Lentijo, Sergio; Pelaz, Beatriz; Parak, Wolfgang

    2014-03-01

    We present our developments on integrated optical waveguide based as well as on magnetic nanoparticle based label-free biosensor concepts. With respect to integrated optical waveguide devices, evanescent wave sensing by means of Mach- Zehnder interferometers are used as biosensing components. We describe three different approaches: a) silicon photonic wire waveguides enabling on-chip wavelength division multiplexing, b) utilization of slow light in silicon photonic crystal defect waveguides operated in the 1.3 μm wavelength regime, and c) silicon nitride photonics wire waveguide devices compatible with on-chip photodiode integration operated in the 0.85 μm wavelength regime. The nanoparticle based approach relies on a plasmon-optical detection of the hydrodynamic properties of magnetic-core/gold-shell nanorods immersed in the sample solution. The hybrid nanorods are rotated within an externally applied magnetic field and their rotation optically monitored. When target molecules bind to the surfaces of the nanorods their hydrodynamic volumes increase, which directly translates into a change of the optical signal. This approach possesses the potential to enable real-time measurements with only minimal sample preparation requirements, thus presenting a promising point-of- care diagnostic system.

  14. Capillary waveguide optrodes: an approach to optical sensing in medical diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lippitsch, Max E.; Draxler, Sonja; Kieslinger, Dietmar; Lehmann, Hartmut; Weigl, Bernhard H.

    1996-07-01

    Glass capillaries with a chemically sensitive coating on the inner surface are used as optical sensors for medical diagnostics. A capillary simultaneously serves as a sample compartment, a sensor element, and an inhomogeneous optical waveguide. Various detection schemes based on absorption, fluorescence intensity, or fluorescence lifetime are described. In absorption-based capillary waveguide optrodes the absorption in the sensor layer is analyte dependent; hence light transmission along the inhomogeneous waveguiding structure formed by the capillary wall and the sensing layer is a function of the analyte concentration. Similarly, in fluorescence-based capillary optrodes the fluorescence intensity or the fluorescence lifetime of an indicator dye fixed in the sensing layer is analyte dependent; thus the specific property of fluorescent light excited in the sensing layer and thereafter guided along the inhomogeneous waveguiding structure is a function of the analyte concentration. Both schemes are experimentally demonstrated, one with carbon dioxide as the analyte and the other one with oxygen. The device combines optical sensors with the standard glass capillaries usually applied to gather blood drops from fingertips, to yield a versatile diagnostic instrument, integrating the sample compartment, the optical sensor, and the light-collecting optics into a single piece. This ensures enhanced sensor performance as well as improved handling compared with other sensors. waveguide, blood gases, medical diagnostics.

  15. Fabrication of lithium niobate-based low-loss bend optical waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xin; Liu, Ang; Qiu, Yu; Feng, Jie; Chen, Jun-Jiang; Lin, Xue-song; Yang, Shi-han; Zhou, Zi-gang

    2014-11-01

    The bend waveguide is one of the key components of photonic integration. In this paper, by using tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses with repetition rate of 76 MHz, pulse duration of 50 fs, average output power about 270mW, and the focus lens NA=0.65, we put forward a structure of waveguide that bent it to be 1/4 round, and research its mechanism by performing experiments. Under the above conditions, when the vertical scanning speed of the laser system is 0.8 mm / s, the width of the bend optical waveguide is about 10μm, the loss reaches a minimum value about 1dB/cm when the bend way's radius is about 5mm. Based on the experimental results of the above parameters, we can fabricate a 1/4 round vertical bend fiber coupler, which can be applied to the connection between the chips or inter-level optical .The results showed that the bend lithium niobate waveguides can be applied in the field of optical communication and has important implications for the production of low loss, low cost and small size optical waveguide gratings , vertical fiber coupler, optical switches and other devices .

  16. Periodic nanostructures for tunable thin optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Criante, L.; Di Fonzo, F.; Fumagalli, F.; Lanzani, G.; Passoni, L.; Scotognella, F.; Simoni, F.

    2015-08-01

    We report the realization and characterization of porous nanostructures where a periodic refractive index modulation is achieved by stacking layers with different nano-architectures. One multilayer photonic crystal has been fabricated starting from colloidal dispersion of silicon dioxide and zirconium dioxide using spin coating technique. Improved efficiency of Bragg reflectivity (up to 85%) has been obtained by a new bottom-up fabrication technique of photonic hierarchical nanostructures based on self-assembly from the gas-phase at low temperature whit a very thin (≍ 1 μm) photonic crystal devices. Due to the high porosity, these systems can be infiltrated with nematic liquid crystals leading to tuning of the Bragg reflection band by applying low voltages to the structure.

  17. Optical waveguide writing in photochromic material: photoinduced optical properties by femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, J. M.; Camacho-López, S.; Cano-Lara, M.; Rodríguez, A.; Balderas-Navarro, R. E.; Elizalde, L. E.; Ledezma, R.

    2011-09-01

    We report on the interaction of high repetition rate (MHz) Ti: sapphire laser pulses with a spiropyran polymer (MIC1). Such a polymer is photochromic, wich has potential applications in integrated optical devices. A thin film of polymer deposited on a glass substrate is irradiated with ultrashort pulses (66 fs) from a Ti: sapphire laser. We demonstrate that it is possible to induce an absorption band in the visible by the use of femtosecond pulses via a two-photon excitation process; this might be useful to accomplish waveguide-like structures formation with photochromic response.

  18. Optical nano artifact metrics using silicon random nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Tsutomu; Yoshida, Naoki; Nishio, Shumpei; Hoga, Morihisa; Ohyagi, Yasuyuki; Tate, Naoya; Naruse, Makoto

    2016-08-31

    Nano-artifact metrics exploit unique physical attributes of nanostructured matter for authentication and clone resistance, which is vitally important in the age of Internet-of-Things where securing identities is critical. However, expensive and huge experimental apparatuses, such as scanning electron microscopy, have been required in the former studies. Herein, we demonstrate an optical approach to characterise the nanoscale-precision signatures of silicon random structures towards realising low-cost and high-value information security technology. Unique and versatile silicon nanostructures are generated via resist collapse phenomena, which contains dimensions that are well below the diffraction limit of light. We exploit the nanoscale precision ability of confocal laser microscopy in the height dimension; our experimental results demonstrate that the vertical precision of measurement is essential in satisfying the performances required for artifact metrics. Furthermore, by using state-of-the-art nanostructuring technology, we experimentally fabricate clones from the genuine devices. We demonstrate that the statistical properties of the genuine and clone devices are successfully exploited, showing that the liveness-detection-type approach, which is widely deployed in biometrics, is valid in artificially-constructed solid-state nanostructures. These findings pave the way for reasonable and yet sufficiently secure novel principles for information security based on silicon random nanostructures and optical technologies.

  19. Optical nano artifact metrics using silicon random nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Tsutomu; Yoshida, Naoki; Nishio, Shumpei; Hoga, Morihisa; Ohyagi, Yasuyuki; Tate, Naoya; Naruse, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Nano-artifact metrics exploit unique physical attributes of nanostructured matter for authentication and clone resistance, which is vitally important in the age of Internet-of-Things where securing identities is critical. However, expensive and huge experimental apparatuses, such as scanning electron microscopy, have been required in the former studies. Herein, we demonstrate an optical approach to characterise the nanoscale-precision signatures of silicon random structures towards realising low-cost and high-value information security technology. Unique and versatile silicon nanostructures are generated via resist collapse phenomena, which contains dimensions that are well below the diffraction limit of light. We exploit the nanoscale precision ability of confocal laser microscopy in the height dimension; our experimental results demonstrate that the vertical precision of measurement is essential in satisfying the performances required for artifact metrics. Furthermore, by using state-of-the-art nanostructuring technology, we experimentally fabricate clones from the genuine devices. We demonstrate that the statistical properties of the genuine and clone devices are successfully exploited, showing that the liveness-detection-type approach, which is widely deployed in biometrics, is valid in artificially-constructed solid-state nanostructures. These findings pave the way for reasonable and yet sufficiently secure novel principles for information security based on silicon random nanostructures and optical technologies. PMID:27578146

  20. Optical nano artifact metrics using silicon random nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Tsutomu; Yoshida, Naoki; Nishio, Shumpei; Hoga, Morihisa; Ohyagi, Yasuyuki; Tate, Naoya; Naruse, Makoto

    2016-08-01

    Nano-artifact metrics exploit unique physical attributes of nanostructured matter for authentication and clone resistance, which is vitally important in the age of Internet-of-Things where securing identities is critical. However, expensive and huge experimental apparatuses, such as scanning electron microscopy, have been required in the former studies. Herein, we demonstrate an optical approach to characterise the nanoscale-precision signatures of silicon random structures towards realising low-cost and high-value information security technology. Unique and versatile silicon nanostructures are generated via resist collapse phenomena, which contains dimensions that are well below the diffraction limit of light. We exploit the nanoscale precision ability of confocal laser microscopy in the height dimension; our experimental results demonstrate that the vertical precision of measurement is essential in satisfying the performances required for artifact metrics. Furthermore, by using state-of-the-art nanostructuring technology, we experimentally fabricate clones from the genuine devices. We demonstrate that the statistical properties of the genuine and clone devices are successfully exploited, showing that the liveness-detection-type approach, which is widely deployed in biometrics, is valid in artificially-constructed solid-state nanostructures. These findings pave the way for reasonable and yet sufficiently secure novel principles for information security based on silicon random nanostructures and optical technologies.

  1. Nanostructured optical microchips for cancer biomarker detection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tianhua; He, Yuan; Wei, Jianjun; Que, Long

    2012-01-01

    Herein we report the label-free detection of a cancer biomarker using newly developed arrayed nanostructured Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) microchips. Specifically, the prostate cancer biomarker free prostate-specific antigen (f-PSA) has been detected with a mouse anti-human PSA monoclonal antibody (mAb) as the receptor. Experiments found that the limit-of-detection of current nanostructured FPI microchip for f-PSA is about 10 pg/mL and the upper detection range for f-PSA can be dynamically changed by varying the amount of the PSA mAb immobilized on the sensing surface. The control experiments have also demonstrated that the immunoassay protocol used in the experiments shows excellent specificity and selectivity, suggesting the great potential to detect the cancer biomarkers at trace levels in complex biofluids. In addition, given its nature of low cost, simple-to-operation and batch fabrication capability, the arrayed nanostructured FPI microchip-based platform could provide an ideal technical tool for point-of-care diagnostics application and anticancer drug screen and discovery.

  2. Characterization of Si3N4/SiO2 optical channel waveguides by photon scanning tunneling microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yan; Chudgar, Mona H.; Jackson, Howard E.; Miller, Jeffrey S.; De Brabander, Gregory N.; Boyd, Joseph T.

    1993-01-01

    Photon scanning tunneling microscopy (PSTM) is used to characterize Si3N4/Si02 optical channel waveguides being used for integrated optical-micromechanical sensors. PSTM utilizes an optical fiber tapered to a fine point which is piezoelectrically positioned to measure the decay of the evanescent field intensity associated with the waveguide propagating mode. Evanescent field decays are recorded for both ridge channel waveguides and planar waveguide regions. Values for the local effective refractive index are calculated from the data for both polarizations and compared to model calculations.

  3. Advantages of UV210 polymer for integrated optics applications: comparison of ridge and photoinscripted strip waveguide performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouldieff, C.; Huby, N.; Bêche, B.

    2015-12-01

    We report on the propagation performance comparison of two waveguide structures obtained from the same UV210 photoresist. Ridge waveguide structures were fabricated by deep ultraviolet photolithography, and photoinscripted strip waveguides were realized by the same process, excluding the last development step. Structural and optical studies were carried out for both waveguide families, highlighting a well-controlled photolithography process. Predictions of the propagating modes were also led using the beam propagation method, showing a good agreement with experiments in single-mode propagation. Propagation losses were evaluated at 635 nm by cut-back measurement, showing mean loss values that are slightly lower for photoinscripted waveguides than for ridge waveguides. UV210 photoinscripted waveguides thus combine a fast and low-cost process, reduced optical losses, and a planar surface with as many advantages for more complex integrated components.

  4. Waveguiding Properties of Nano-Structured TiO2 Thin Films Synthesized by Sol-Gel Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Znaidi, L.; Touam, T.; Vrel, D.; Kunetsova, I. N.; Fischer, A.; Boudrioua, A.

    2011-12-01

    TiO2 thin films were synthesized by sol-gel process: titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) was dissolved in isopropanol, and then hydrolyzed by adding a water/isopropanol mixture with a controlled hydrolysis ratio. The as prepared sol was deposited by `dip-coating' on a glass substrate with a controlled withdrawal speed. The obtained films were annealed at 350 and 500 °C (2 h). The structural, morphological and optical properties of the prepared films were analyzed by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The optical and waveguiding properties of TiO2 films were investigated for both annealing temperatures using m-lines spectroscopy. The results show that our fabricated TiO2 waveguides are multimodes and demonstrate low propagation losses of 0.9 dBṡcm-1.

  5. Transverse writing of three-dimensional tubular optical waveguides in glass with a slit-shaped femtosecond laser beam

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Yang; Qi, Jia; Wang, Peng; Chu, Wei; Wang, Zhaohui; Qiao, Lingling; Cheng, Ya

    2016-01-01

    We report on fabrication of tubular optical waveguides buried in ZBLAN glass based on transverse femtosecond laser direct writing. Irradiation in ZBLAN with focused femtosecond laser pulses leads to decrease of refractive index in the modified region. Tubular optical waveguides of variable mode areas are fabricated by forming the four sides of the cladding with slit-shaped femtosecond laser pulses, ensuring single mode waveguiding with a mode field dimension as small as ~4 μm. PMID:27346285

  6. Low-loss silicon slot waveguides and couplers fabricated with optical lithography and atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Säynätjoki, A; Karvonen, L; Alasaarela, T; Tu, X; Liow, T Y; Hiltunen, M; Tervonen, A; Lo, G Q; Honkanen, S

    2011-12-19

    We demonstrate low-loss silicon slot waveguides patterned with 248 nm deep-UV lithography and filled with atomic layer deposited aluminum oxide. Propagation losses less than 5 dB/cm are achieved with the waveguides. The devices are fabricated using low-temperature CMOS compatible processes. We also demonstrate simple, compact and efficient strip-to-slot waveguide couplers. With a coupler as short as 10 µm, coupling loss is less than 0.15 dB. The low-index and low-nonlinearity filling material allows nonlinearities nearly two orders of magnitude smaller than in silicon waveguides. Therefore, these waveguides are a good candidate for linear photonic devices on the silicon platform, and for distortion-free signal transmission channels between different parts of a silicon all-optical chip. The low-nonlinearity slot waveguides and robust couplers also facilitate a 50-fold local change of the waveguide nonlinearity within the chip by a simple mask design.

  7. Detection of avian influenza antigens in proximity fiber, droplet, and optical waveguide microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Jeong-Yeol; Heinze, Brian C.; Gamboa, Jessica; You, David J.

    2009-05-01

    Virus antigens of avian influenza subtype H3N2 were detected on two different microfluidic platforms: microchannel and droplet. Latex immunoagglutination assays were performed using 920-nm highly carboxylated polystyrene beads that are conjugated with antibody to avian influenza virus. The bead suspension was merged with the solutions of avian influenza virus antigens in a Y-junction of a microchannel made by polydimethylsiloxane soft lithography. The resulting latex immunoagglutinations were measured with two optical fibers in proximity setup to detect 45° forward light scattering. Alternatively, 10 μL droplets of a bead suspension and an antigen solution were merged on a superhydrophobic surface (water contact angle = 155°), whose movement was guided by a metal wire, and 180° back light scattering is measured with a backscattering optical probe. Detection limits were 0.1 pg mL-1 for both microchannel with proximity fibers and droplet microfluidics, thanks to the use of micro-positioning stages to help generate reproducible optical signals. Additionally, optical waveguide was tested by constructing optical waveguide channels (filled with mineral oil) within a microfluidic device to detect the same light scattering. Detection limit was 0.1 ng mL-1 for an optical waveguide device, with a strong potential of improvement in the near future. The use of optical waveguide enabled smaller device setup, easier operation, smaller standard deviations and broader linear range of assay than proximity fiber microchannel and droplet microfluidics. Total assay time was less than 10 min.

  8. Gold nanostructure-integrated silica-on-silicon waveguide for the detection of antibiotics in milk and milk products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozhikandathil, Jayan; Badilescu, Simona; Packirisamy, Muthukumaran

    2012-10-01

    Antibiotics are extensively used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases. The use of antibiotics for the treatment of animals used for food production raised the concern of the public and a rapid screening method became necessary. A novel approach of detection of antibiotics in milk is reported in this work by using an immunoassay format and the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance property of gold. An antibiotic from the penicillin family that is, ampicillin is used for testing. Gold nanostructures deposited on a glass substrate by a novel convective assembly method were heat-treated to form a nanoisland morphology. The Au nanostructures were functionalized and the corresponding antibody was absorbed from a solution. Solutions with known concentrations of antigen (antibiotics) were subsequently added and the spectral changes were monitored step by step. The Au LSPR band corresponding to the nano-island structure was found to be suitable for the detection of the antibody antigen interaction. The detection of the ampicillin was successfully demonstrated with the gold nano-islands deposited on glass substrate. This process was subsequently adapted for the integration of gold nanostructures on the silica-on-silicon waveguide for the purpose of detecting antibiotics.

  9. Femtosecond laser waveguide and FBG inscription in four-core optical fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodosiou, Antreas; Ioannou, Andreas; Polis, Michael; Lacraz, Amédée.; Koutsides, Charalambos; Kalli, Kyriacos

    2016-04-01

    We present research into the use of femtosecond lasers to develop optical waveguides inscribed in the cladding of singlemode, silica optical fibre (SMF28). The waveguides are inscribed near to the fibre core, coupling light into them evanescently and so behaving as traditional couplers. By carefully controlling the laser parameters we are able to inscribe cladding waveguides with no evidence of damage through ablation. We show that this flexible inscription method can be used as an enabling technology to couple light from single-core fibres to new multi-core optical fibres, and in this work specifically to 4-core fibre. The SMF28 fibre is fusion spliced to the multi-core fibre and using the femtosecond laser we inscribe bridging waveguides from the centrally located single mode fibre core to a selected offset core of the 4-core fibre. To demonstrate the efficiency of the method and the possibility of making new kinds of optical fibre sensors, we inscribe a fibre Bragg grating (FBG) in one of the four fibre cores. The light reflected from the FBG is coupled back to the SMF28 core via bridging waveguide and we recovered the reflection spectrum of the grating using a commercial high-resolution spectrometer.

  10. Apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy for ion exchange channel waveguide characterization.

    PubMed

    Blaize, S; Aubert, S; Bruyant, A; Bachelot, R; Lerondel, G; Royer, P; Broquin, J-E; Minier, V

    2003-03-01

    We report the characterization of an integrated Ag+/Na+ ion exchange waveguide realized in a silicate glass substrate using apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy. Our experimental set-up is based on the combination of a commercial atomic force microscope with an optical confocal detection system. Thanks to this system, the topography and evanescent optical field at the waveguide top surface are mapped simultaneously. Also, the process of apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy image formation is analysed. In particular, fringe patterns appearing in the image reveal the intrinsic interferometric nature of the collected signal, due to interference between the field scattered by the tip end and background fields related to guide losses. We give a quantitative interpretation of these fringes. Evanescent intensity mapping on the sample surface allowed us to extract physical waveguide parameters. In particular, it shows an unambiguous multimode beat along the waveguide propagation axis. Furthermore, we show that analysis of this intensity profile reveals back-reflection effects from the waveguide exit facet. The resulting standing waves pattern allows us to evaluate the eigenmode propagation constants.

  11. Hybrid silicon–carbon nanostructures for broadband optical absorption

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Wen -Hua; Lu, Wen -Cai; Ho, K. M.; ...

    2017-01-25

    Proper design of nanomaterials for broadband light absorption is a key factor for improving the conversion efficiency of solar cells. Here we present a hybrid design of silicon–carbon nanostructures with silicon clusters coated by carbon cages, i.e., Sim@C2n for potential solar cell application. The optical properties of these hybrid nanostructures were calculated based on time dependent density function theory (TDDFT). The results show that the optical spectra of Sim@C2n are very different from those of pure Sim and C2n clusters. While the absorption spectra of pure carbon cages and Sim clusters exhibit peaks in the UV region, those of themore » Sim@C2n nanostructures exhibit a significant red shift. Superposition of the optical spectra of various Sim@C2n nanostructures forms a broad-band absorption, which extends to the visible light and infrared regions. As a result, the broadband adsorption of the assembled Sim@C2n nanoclusters may provide a new approach for the design of high efficiency solar cell nanomaterials.« less

  12. An He-implanted optical planar waveguide in an Nd:YGG laser crystal preserving fluorescence properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jin-Hua; Huang, Qing; Liu, Peng; Wang, Xue-Lin

    2011-06-01

    We report the formation of a planar waveguide in an Nd:YGG laser crystal by low-energy He-ion implantation at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K). The optical properties are measured by the prism coupling and end-face coupling methods, the absorption properties the waveguide and Nd:YGG substrate are obtained. The fluorescence spectrums are investigated by confocal methods. The experimental results revealed that the planar waveguide preserved the absorption and fluorescence properties of the Nd:YGG laser crystal. Thus, the planar waveguide formed by the ion implantation method is a promising candidate in waveguide lasers.

  13. Experimental verification of optical models of graphene with multimode slab waveguides.

    PubMed

    Chang, Zeshan; Chiang, Kin Seng

    2016-05-01

    We compare three optical models of graphene, namely, the interface model, the isotropic model, and the anisotropic model, and verify them experimentally with two multimode slab waveguide samples operating at the wavelengths of 632.8 and 1536 nm. By comparing the calculated graphene-induced losses and the measurement data, we confirm that the interface model and the anisotropic model give correct results for both the transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic modes, while the isotropic model gives correct results only for the TE modes. With the experimental data, we also quantitatively verify the widely used expression for the surface conductivity of graphene in the optical regime. Our findings clarify the issue of modeling graphene in the analysis of graphene-incorporated waveguides and offer deeper insight into the optical properties of graphene for waveguide applications.

  14. Optical lattice-like cladding waveguides by direct laser writing: fabrication, luminescence, and lasing.

    PubMed

    Nie, Weijie; He, Ruiyun; Cheng, Chen; Rocha, Uéslen; Rodríguez Vázquez de Aldana, Javier; Jaque, Daniel; Chen, Feng

    2016-05-15

    We report on the fabrication of optical lattice-like waveguide structures in an Nd:YAP laser crystal by using direct femtosecond laser writing. With periodically arrayed laser-induced tracks, the waveguiding cores can be located in either the regions between the neighbored tracks or the central zone surrounded by a number of tracks as outer cladding. The polarization of the femtosecond laser pulses for the inscription has been found to play a critical role in the anisotropic guiding behaviors of the structures. The confocal photoluminescence investigations reveal different stress-induced modifications of the structures inscribed by different polarization of the femtosecond laser beam, which are considered to be responsible for the refractive index changes of the structures. Under optical pump at 808 nm, efficient waveguide lasing at ∼1  μm wavelength has been realized from the optical lattice-like structure, which exhibits potential applications as novel miniature light sources.

  15. Size-dependent waveguide dispersion in nanowire optical cavities: slowed light and dispersionless guiding.

    PubMed

    van Vugt, Lambert K; Zhang, Bin; Piccione, Brian; Spector, Arthur A; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2009-04-01

    Fundamental understanding of the size dependence of nanoscale optical confinement in semiconductor nanowire waveguides, as expressed by changes in the dispersion of light, is crucial for the optimal design of nanophotonic devices. Measurements of the dispersion are particularly challenging for nanoscale cavities due to difficulties associated with the in- and out-coupling of light resulting from diffraction effects. We report the strong size dependence of optical dispersion and associated group velocities in subwavelength width ZnSe nanowire waveguide cavities, using a technique based on Fabry-Perot resonator modes as probes over a wide energy range. Furthermore, we observed subwavelength (lambda/9) dispersionless waveguiding and significant slowing of the propagating light by 90% (c/8). These results, in addition to providing insights into nanoscale optical transport, will facilitate the rational design of nanowire photonic devices with tailored dispersion and group velocities.

  16. Chip-to-chip optical interconnect using gold long-range surface plasmon polariton waveguides.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Tae; Ju, Jung Jin; Park, Suntak; Kim, Min-su; Park, Seung Koo; Lee, Myung-Hyun

    2008-08-18

    We demonstrate a novel on-board chip-to-chip optical interconnect using long-range surface plasmon polariton (LR-SPP) waveguides that feature 2.5-cm-long gold strips embedded in a low loss polymer cladding. A TM-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) operating at a wavelength of 1.3 microm was butt-coupled into the waveguides in order to excite a fundamental LR-SPP mode and then the transmitted light was received with a photo-diode (PD). The waveguide width is varied in the range of 1.5-5.0 microm in order to optimize the insertion loss where the 3-microm-wide waveguide provides a minimum insertion loss of -17 dB, consisting of 6 dB/cm propagation loss and 2 dB coupling loss. An interconnect system based on the optimized waveguide with a 4-channel array is assembled with the arrayed optoelectronic chips. It shows the feasibility of 10 Gbps (2.5 Gbps x 4 channels) signal transmission indicating that the LR-SPP waveguide is a potential transmission line for optical interconnection.

  17. Analysis of the refractive index change of optical waveguide in LiNbO3 using a femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shi-han; Zhang, Liang; Lin, Xue-song; Feng, Jie; Zhou, Zi-gang; Chen, Jang-jun

    2014-11-01

    We used a commercially available 75 MHz regeneratively amplified laser system emitting 50 femtosecond pulses of energies up to 3nJ at a wavelength of 800 nm. All waveguides were fabricated by focussing the femotsecond pulse train polarised parallel to the x-axis to a distance of approximately 125 μm below the sample surface using a 0.65 NA, ×40 microscope objective and translating the sample along the y axis. To find the optimum waveguide fabrication parameters the translation speed was varied from 2 to 100 μm/s. We introduces a method of measuring the refractive index of optical waveguide in ten micrometer. Useing CCD to measure the two-dimensional near-field light intensity distribution of the output cross-section of the waveguide, by measuring the two-dimensional near-field light intensity distribution of the output cross-section of the waveguide can be calculated the two-dimensional distribution of refractive index of waveguides. The context detailedly gives measurement results about femtosecond laser inducing the near-field intensity of lithium niobate optical waveguide cross-section and calculations of refractive index of optical waveguide. The results show that the refractive index of waveguides showed a large central, gradually reduce and the change of refractive index in the range of 0.001. This method is of great significance to measure the optical waveguide refractive index distribution.

  18. Hybrid electro-optic polymer modulator compatible to silicon photonic waveguide (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Shiyoshi

    2016-09-01

    Electro-optic (EO) polymers are the promising material of choice for the waveguide modulation application due to their high EO coefficient, optical transparency, low dielectric loss, and compatibility with many materials and substrates. This widespread compatibility enables the construction of the unique hybrid polymer device to the silicon waveguide. One of the successful demonstrations in recent progress is the hybrid silicon modulator to the EO polymer. The hybrid silicon and polymer modulators have already demonstrated a very low half-wave voltage and multi-GHz bandwidth response. While, the fabrication is quite elaborate, involving the high-resolution lithography, controlled etching, and ion implantation process. In order to simplify the hybrid silicon and EO polymer modulator, we apply the conventional photolithography technique. The waveguide consists of silicon core with a thickness of 30 nm and a width of 2 μm, and the cladding is the polymer. In such a thin silicon core, the side-wall scattering can be significantly reduced, thus the measured propagation loss of the waveguide is 1.5 dB/cm. The optical mode calculation reveals that 55% of the optical field extends into the polymer cladding. The hybrid phase modulator waveguide performed the half-wave voltage of the modulator to be 4.6 V at 1550 nm and excellent temperature stability at 85C for longer than 500 hours. We also investigate a mode converter which can couple the light from the hybrid polymer waveguide to the silicon strip waveguide. The coupling loss between two devices is measured to be 0.5 dB.

  19. Electro-optic polymer waveguide fabricated using electric-field-assisted chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatsuura, Satoshi; Sotoyama, Wataru; Yoshimura, Tetsuzo

    1992-04-01

    The paper describes the fabrication of an electrooptic (EO) polymer channel waveguide using a new technique, electric-field-assisted chemical vapor deposition. A polymer film is deposited from epoxy and nonlinear optical (NLO) aliphatic amine, using chemical vapor deposition under an electric field applied by slit electrodes on a thermally oxidized Si wafer at room temperature. A clear propagating He-Ne laser beam is observed along the electrode gap. The propagated beam's near field pattern is bright for the TE mode, but very weak for the TM mode. This indicates the NLO side groups' in-plane alignment and the fabrication of a channel waveguide. The EO coefficient of this waveguide, measured in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, is r(11) of about 0.1 pm/V. The polymer channel waveguide, which is poled at room temperature after film deposition, shows no EO response. This means NLO molecules are actually aligned during polymerizing, not after.

  20. Direct optical measurement of light coupling into planar waveguide by plasmonic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pennanen, Antti M; Toppari, J Jussi

    2013-01-14

    Coupling of light into a thin layer of high refractive index material by plasmonic nanoparticles has been widely studied for application in photovoltaic devices, such as thin-film solar cells. In numerous studies this coupling has been investigated through measurement of e.g. quantum efficiency or photocurrent enhancement. Here we present a direct optical measurement of light coupling into a waveguide by plasmonic nanoparticles. We investigate the coupling efficiency into the guided modes within the waveguide by illuminating the surface of a sample, consisting of a glass slide coated with a high refractive index planar waveguide and plasmonic nanoparticles, while directly measuring the intensity of the light emitted out of the waveguide edge. These experiments were complemented by transmittance and reflectance measurements. We show that the light coupling is strongly affected by thin-film interference, localized surface plasmon resonances of the nanoparticles and the illumination direction (front or rear).

  1. Metal slit array Fresnel lens for wavelength-scale optical coupling to nanophotonic waveguides.

    PubMed

    Jung, Young Jin; Park, Dongwon; Koo, Sukmo; Yu, Sunkyu; Park, Namkyoo

    2009-10-12

    We propose a novel metal slit array Fresnel lens for wavelength-scale optical coupling into a nanophotonic waveguide. Using the plasmonic waveguide structure in Fresnel lens form, a much wider beam acceptance angle and wavelength-scale working distance of the lens was realized compared to a conventional dielectric Fresnel lens. By applying the plasmon waveguide dispersion relation to a phased antenna array model, we also develop and analyze design rules and parameters for the suggested metal slit Fresnel lens. Numerical assessment of the suggested structure shows excellent coupling efficiency (up to 59%) of the 10 mum free-space Gaussian beam to the 0.36 mum Si waveguide within a working distance of a few mum.

  2. Efficient electro-optic modulation in low-loss graphene-plasmonic slot waveguides.

    PubMed

    Ding, Y; Guan, X; Zhu, X; Hu, H; Bozhevolnyi, S I; Oxenløwe, L K; Jin, K J; Mortensen, N A; Xiao, S

    2017-10-06

    Surface plasmon polaritons enable light concentration within subwavelength regions, opening thereby new avenues for miniaturizing the device and strengthening light-matter interactions. Here we realize efficient electro-optic modulation in low-loss plasmonic waveguides with the aid of graphene, and the devices are fully integrated in the silicon-on-insulator platform. By advantageously exploiting low-loss plasmonic slot-waveguide modes, which weakly leak into a substrate while featuring strong fields within the two-layer-graphene covered slots in metals, we successfully achieve a tunability of 0.13 dB μm(-1) for our fabricated graphene-plasmonic waveguide devices with extremely low insertion loss, which outperforms previously reported graphene-plasmonic devices. Our results highlight the potential of graphene plasmonic leaky-mode hybrid waveguides to realize active ultra-compact devices for optoelectronic applications.

  3. Monolithic integration of microfluidic channels and optical waveguides in silica on silicon.

    PubMed

    Friis, P; Hoppe, K; Leistiko, O; Mogensen, K B; Hübner, J; Kutter, J P

    2001-12-01

    Sealing of the flow channel is an important aspect during integration of microfluidic channels and optical waveguides. The uneven topography of many waveguide-fabrication techniques will lead to leakage of the fluid channels. Planarization methods such as chemical mechanical polishing or the etch-back technique are possible, but troublesome. We present a simple but efficient alternative: By means of changing the waveguide layout, bonding pads are formed along the microfluidic channels. With the same height as the waveguide, they effectively prevent leakage and hermetically seal the channels during bonding. Negligible influence on light propagation is found when 10-mum-wide bonding pads are used. Fabricated microsystems with application in absorbance measurements and flow cytometry are presented.

  4. Submicron optical waveguides and microring resonators fabricated by selective oxidation of tantalum.

    PubMed

    Rabiei, Payam; Ma, Jichi; Khan, Saeed; Chiles, Jeff; Fathpour, Sasan

    2013-03-25

    Submicron tantalum pentoxide ridge and channel optical waveguides and microring resonators are demonstrated on silicon substrates by selective oxidation of the refractory metal, tantalum. The novel method eliminates the surface roughness problem normally introduced during dry etching of waveguide sidewalls and also simplifies fabrication of directional couplers. It is shown that the measured propagation loss is independent of the waveguide structure and thereby limited by the material loss of tantalum pentoxide in waveguides core regions. The achieved microring resonators have cross-sectional dimensions of ~600 nm × ~500 nm, diameters as small as 80 µm with a quality, Q, factor of 4.5 × 10(4), and a finesse of 120.

  5. Low-Loss Silica-Based Optical Film Waveguides Deposited by Helicon-Activated Reactive Evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulla, Douglas A. P.; Li, Wei-Tang; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod; Ankiewicz, Adrian; Love, John D.

    2005-03-01

    Planar silica-based optical waveguides have been deposited by a plasma helicon-activated reactive evaporation system, at a low temperature and with reduced hydrogen contamination, on thermally oxidized silicon wafers. The transmission loss of the rib waveguides, formed on the deposited films by etching with hydrofluoric acid, is determined to be lower than 0.1 and 0.7 dB/cm at wavelengths of 1310 and 1510 nm, respectively, for TE polarization. The influence of substrate leakage on propagation loss is determined numerically and compared with experimental results for TE and TM polarizations. The presence of the OH vibrational overtone band in the fabricated waveguides, at a wavelength of around 1385 nm, is discussed in terms of the waveguide structure.

  6. Plasmonic nano-structures for optical data storage.

    PubMed

    Mansuripur, M; Zakharian, A R; Lesuffleur, A; Oh, Sang-Hyun; Jones, R J; Lindquist, N C; Im, Hyungsoon; Kobyakov, A; Moloney, J V

    2009-08-03

    We propose a method of optical data storage that exploits the small dimensions of metallic nano-particles and/or nano-structures to achieve high storage densities. The resonant behavior of these particles (both individually and in small clusters) in the presence of ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared light may be used to retrieve pre-recorded information by far-field spectroscopic optical detection. In plasmonic data storage, a very short (approximately few femtoseconds) laser pulse is focused to a diffraction-limited spot over a small region of an optical disk containing metallic nano-structures. The digital data stored in each bit-cell, comprising multiple bits of information, modifies the spectrum of the incident light pulse. This spectrum is subsequently detected, upon reflection/transmission, with the aid of an optical spectrum analyzer. We present theoretical as well as preliminary experimental results that confirm the potential of plasmonic nano-structures for high-density optical data storage applications.

  7. Calculated coupling efficiency between an elliptical-core optical fiber and an optical waveguide over temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuma, Margaret L.; Weisshaar, Andreas; Li, Jian; Beheim, Glenn

    1995-01-01

    To determine the feasibility of coupling the output of a single-mode optical fiber into a single-mode rib waveguide in a temperature varying environment, a theoretical calculation of the coupling efficiency between the two was investigated. Due to the complex geometry of the rib guide, there is no analytical solution to the wave equation for the guided modes, thus, approximation and/or numerical techniques must be utilized to determine the field patterns of the guide. In this study, three solution methods were used for both the fiber and guide fields; the effective-index method (EIM), Marcatili's approximation, and a Fourier method. These methods were utilized independently to calculate the electric field profile of each component at two temperatures, 20 C and 300 C, representing a nominal and high temperature. Using the electric field profile calculated from each method, the theoretical coupling efficiency between an elliptical-core optical fiber and a rib waveguide was calculated using the overlap integral and the results were compared. It was determined that a high coupling efficiency can be achieved when the two components are aligned. The coupling efficiency was more sensitive to alignment offsets in the y direction than the x, due to the elliptical modal field profile of both components. Changes in the coupling efficiency over temperature were found to be minimal.

  8. Waveguide-coupling to be used in a micro optical laser gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leber, Ingmar; Niesel, Thalke; Dietzel, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    A new concept for the realization of a micro optical laser gyroscope was developed. This new concept involves a passive free space ring resonator in which the light is circulating by reflections at three double mirrors and an external light source to activate the resonator. To couple the light in and out of the resonator waveguide-couplers are employed. This paper reports on the simulation of waveguide-coupler structures and on experimental investigation of coupling efficiency using micro fabricated SU-8 coupler structures. The modeled coupler structures consist of two parallel waveguides. The waveguides with rectangular profile are in close proximity i.e. separated only by a narrow gap over a certain path length Waveguide-coupler structures with similar geometries have been micro fabricated and optically characterized. It has been found that as a consequence of the lithographic formation of SU-8 high aspect ratio waveguides residual SU- 8 material remains between the waveguides as the gaps become very small (below 5 μm). In these structures a parasitic connection between the two parallel waveguides could be identified. No coupling effect was observed in the micro fabricated devices with perfect gap separation. From comparison of simulations and experiments we can conclude that there is a coupling mechanism based on the residual SU-8 material bridging the separation gap. Bridging allows coupling light at gaps even larger than 1 μm. Such residual material coupling can be achieved with SU8 lithographic high aspect ratio structuring (height 30 μm x width 50 μm or height 30 μm x width 20 μm) in which sub μm-gaps are almost impossible to produce with standard technologies.

  9. Formation of an ensemble of silver nanoparticles in the process of surface evaporation of glass optical waveguides doped with silver ions by the radiation of a pulsed CO{sub 2} laser

    SciTech Connect

    Egorov, V I; Sidorov, A I; Nashchekin, A V

    2015-09-30

    It is shown that pulsed irradiation (a wavelength of 10.6 μm and an energy density of 0.6 – 8.5 J cm{sup -2}) of glass with a waveguide layer containing silver ion leads to the formation of a ring, surrounding the irradiated zone and consisting of silver nanoparticles deposited on the glass surface. The possible process of formation of silver nanoparticles under laser irradiation is discussed. (optics and technology of nanostructures)

  10. Light-guided localization within tissue using biocompatible surgical suture fiber as an optical waveguide.

    PubMed

    Choi, Woo June; Park, Kwan Seob; Lee, Byeong Ha

    2014-09-01

    In breast-conserving surgery, an optical wire is a useful surgical guiding tool to optically locate small lesions within the breast tissue. However, the use of a long silica glass fiber as the optical wire can be burdensome to patients because of its stiffness and nonbiocompatibility. We investigate the use of a biocompatible fiber for light localization in tissue. A surgical suture with a diameter of 400 μm and a few centimeters long is employed as the biocompatible optical waveguide to transport the visible laser light to the inner tissue site. Optical location is confirmed with glow ball-like red laser illumination at the tip of the suture embedded within a fresh chicken breast tissue. Effective optical power coupling to the suture is made by using a double-cladding fiber coupler. From this preliminary result, we realize practical light localization with biopolymer waveguides.

  11. Mode conversion based on the acousto-optical interaction in photonic-phononic waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guodong; Zhang, Ruiwen; Xiong, Huang; Xie, Heng; Gao, Ya; Feng, Danqi; Sun, Junqiang

    2015-02-01

    We present a scheme for on-chip optical mode conversion in a hybrid photonic-phononic waveguide. Both propagating optical and acoustic wave can be tightly confined in the hybrid waveguide, and the acoustooptical interaction can be enhanced to realize optical mode conversion within a chip-scale size. The theoretical model of the acousto-optic interaction is established to explain the mode conversion. The numerical simulation results indicate that the high efficient mode conversion can be achieved by adjusting the intensity of the acoustic wave. We also show that the mode conversion bandwidth can be dramatically broadened to 13 THz by adjusting the frequency of the acoustic wave to match phase condition of the acousto-optic interaction. This mode converter on-chip is promising in order to increase the capacity of silicon data busses for on-chip optical interconnections.

  12. Sharply bent hollow optical waveguides formed by an omni-directional reflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Hua-Kung; Hsu, Chih-Ming; Lo, Shih-Shou; Chen, Chii-Chang; Lee, Chien-Chieh

    2009-10-01

    In this work, we demonstrate theoretically and experimentally the air core bent optical waveguide composed of omni-directional reflectors on a silicon substrate. Amorphous silicon and silicon oxide are used for high index-contrast Bragg reflectors. The transmission efficiency of power for the bent optical waveguide with various bending angles of 1°-90° is calculated by the two-dimensional finite-difference time-domain method and the three-dimensional beam propagation method. The sample is measured using the end-butt method. The device exhibits a lower polarization dependent loss at the operation wavelength of 1550 nm.

  13. Observation of an optical event horizon in a silicon-on-insulator photonic wire waveguide.

    PubMed

    Ciret, Charles; Leo, François; Kuyken, Bart; Roelkens, Gunther; Gorza, Simon-Pierre

    2016-01-11

    We report on the first experimental observation of an optical analogue of an event horizon in integrated nanophotonic waveguides, through the reflection of a continuous wave on an intense pulse. The experiment is performed in a dispersion-engineered silicon-on-insulator waveguide. In this medium, solitons do not suffer from Raman induced self-frequency shift as in silica fibers, a feature that is interesting for potential applications of optical event horizons. As shown by simulations, this also allows the observation of multiple reflections at the same time on fundamental solitons ejected by soliton fission.

  14. Simultaneous high-capacity optical and microwave data transmission over metal waveguides.

    PubMed

    Banan, Behnam; Hai, Mohammed Shafiqul; Berini, Pierre; Liboiron-Ladouceur, Odile

    2015-06-01

    The implementation of power efficient and high throughput chip-to-chip interconnects is necessary to keep pace with the bandwidth demands in high-performance computing platforms. In recent years, considerable effort has been made to optimize inter-chip communications using traditional copper waveguides. Also, optical links are extensively investigated as an alternative technology for fast and efficient data routing. For the first time, we experimentally demonstrate simultaneous microwave and optical high-speed data transmission over metallic waveguides embedded in polymer. The demonstration is significant as it merges two layers of communications onto the same structure towards increased aggregated bandwidth, and energy-efficient data movement.

  15. Exceptional points and asymmetric mode conversion in quasi-guided dual-mode optical waveguides

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, S. N.; Chong, Y. D.

    2016-01-01

    Non-Hermitian systems host unconventional physical effects that be used to design new optical devices. We study a non-Hermitian system consisting of 1D planar optical waveguides with suitable amount of simultaneous gain and loss. The parameter space contains an exceptional point, which can be accessed by varying the transverse gain and loss profile. When light propagates through the waveguide structure, the output mode is independent of the choice of input mode. This “asymmetric mode conversion” phenomenon can be explained by the swapping of mode identities in the vicinity of the exceptional point, together with the failure of adiabatic evolution in non-Hermitian systems. PMID:27101933

  16. Variable optical attenuator based on photonic crystal waveguide with low-group-index tapers.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qiang; Cui, Kaiyu; Feng, Xue; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Yidong

    2013-09-01

    We demonstrate a compact thermo-optic variable optical attenuator (VOA) based on the cutoff effect of W1 photonic crystal waveguide (PCW). In experiment, a variable attenuation range of 29 dB is achieved with a device length of only 16.8 μm. The coupling loss is also reduced by 7.5±2.5 dB through introducing low-group-index tapers between the W1 PCW and strip waveguide. This VOA provides the largest variable attenuation range in the reported tunable PCW device to our knowledge.

  17. Growth and Characterization of Optical Waveguides for 10.6 micrometer Light

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-01-30

    Optical Fibers IR Optical Waveguides Crystal Growth Germanium Fibers Laser Heated Crystal Growth CO2 Laser C02 Laser Materials Processing Security...SELECTION A. Wave Propagation B. Candidate Materials FIBER GROWTH A. The Laser Heated , Floating Zone Fiber Growth Process B. Ge Fiber Growth...Single Mode Core Radius as a Function of Core and Cladding Indices Optical Bench Used in C02 Laser- Heated Fiber Growth Process 0.012" Diameter C

  18. Cost effective all-optical fractional OFDM receiver using an arrayed waveguide grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagashima, T.; Cincotti, G.; Murakawa, T.; Shimizu, S.; Hasegawa, M.; Hattori, K.; Okuno, M.; Mino, S.; Himeno, A.; Wada, N.; Uenohara, H.; Konishi, T.

    2016-12-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of implementing a cost effective all-optical fractional orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (AO-FrOFDM) receiver using an arrayed waveguide grating (AWG). The all-optical fractional Fourier transform at the receiver is implemented by modifying the second slab coupler from a conventional all-optical discrete Fourier transform AWG. The open eye diagrams obtained from the experimental results indicate that 12 × 10 Gbit/s DBPSK AO-FrOFDM signals were successfully demultiplexed.

  19. Enhancement of optics-to-THz conversion efficiency by metallic slot waveguides.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Zhichao; Veronis, Georgios; Vodopyanov, Konstantin L; Fejer, Marty M; Fan, Shanhui

    2009-08-03

    A metallic slot waveguide, with a dielectric strip embedded within, is investigated for the purpose of enhancing the optics-to-THz conversion efficiency using the difference-frequency generation (DFG) process. To describe the frequency conversion process in such lossy waveguides, a fully-vectorial coupled-mode theory is developed. Using the coupled-mode theory, we outline the basic theoretical requirements for efficient frequency conversion, which include the needs to achieve large coupling coefficients, phase matching, and low propagation loss for both the optical and THz waves. Following these requirements, a metallic waveguide is designed by considering the trade-off between modal confinement and propagation loss. Our numerical calculation shows that the conversion efficiency in these waveguide structures can be more than one order of magnitude larger than what has been achieved using dielectric waveguides. Based on the distinct impact of the slot width on the optical and THz modal dispersion, we propose a two-step method to realize the phase matching for general pump wavelengths.

  20. Broadband silicon optical modulator using a graphene-integrated hybrid plasmonic waveguide.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jin-Soo; Kim, Jin Tae

    2015-09-11

    Graphene is an excellent electronic and photonic material for developing electronic-photonic integrated circuits in Si-based semiconductor devices with ultra wide operational bandwidth. As an extended application, here we propose a broadband silicon optical modulator using a graphene-integrated hybrid plasmonic waveguide, and investigate the optical characteristics numerically at a wavelength of 1.55 μm. The optical device is based on the surface plasmon polariton absorption of graphene. By electrically tuning the graphene's refractive index as low as that of a noble metal, the hybrid plasmonic waveguide supports a strongly confined highly lossy hybrid long-range surface plasmon polariton strip mode, and hence light coupled from an input waveguide experiences significant power attenuation as it propagates along the waveguide. Over the entire C-band from 1.530 to 1.565 μm wavelengths, the on/off extinction ratio is larger than 13.7 dB. This modulator has the potential to play a key role in realizing graphene-Si waveguide-based integrated photonic devices.

  1. Monolithic integration of optical mode-size converter and high-speed electroabsorption modulators using laterally undercut waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tsu-Hsiu; Lin, Fang-Zheng; Yan, Hung-Jung; Wu, Jui-Pin; Chiu, Yi-Jen

    2010-02-01

    A new monolithic integration scheme of fabricating optical spot-size converter (SSC) is realized in this work. High-speed electroabsorption modulator (EAM) is used to integrate such SSC. By laterally tapering the active region of an optical waveguide through undercut active region, a vertically asymmetric waveguide coupler can be defined to form an SSC, where the top is a tapered active waveguide, and the bottom is a large core of passive waveguide mode-matched to single-mode fiber (SMF). Through the top tapered active waveguide, the effective index can be gradually varied in the propagation direction, momentarily matching the bottom low-index passive waveguide. It not only performs the resonant coupling in such asymmetric waveguide coupler, but also locks the transferred power by the tapered structure. InGaAsP/InP multiple quantum wells are used as active region of active waveguide. Based on the highly selective etching properties between InGaAsP and InP, the tapered active waveguide can be fabricated by a method, called selectively undercut-etching-active-region (UEAR), enabling the processing a narrow waveguide structure (up to submicron) by general wet etching from a large waveguide ridge. It also leads to good microwave performance of waveguide. By taking this advantage, a SSC-integrated EAM can perform high-speed electrical-to-optical (EO) response as well as low-insertion loss properties. A mode transfer efficiency of 70% is obtained in such SSC. By narrowing waveguide by UEAR, over 40 GHz of -3dB electrical-to-optical (EO) response is obtained from this device. The high efficient SSC integrated with high-speed EAM suggests that the UEAR technique can have potential for applications in high-speed optoelectronic fields.

  2. Mathematical modeling and computation of the optical response from nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yuanchang

    This dissertation studies the computational modeling for nanostructures in response to external electromagnetic fields. Light-matter interactions on nanoscale are at the heart of nano-optics. To fully characterize the optical interactions with nanostructures quantum electrodynamics (QED) must be invoked, however, the required extremely intense computation and analysis prohibit QED from applications in nano-optics. To avoid the expensive computations and be able to seize the essential quantum effects a semiclassical model is developed. The wellposedness of the model partial differential equations is established. Emphasis is placed on the optical interactions with an individual nanostructure, excitons and biexcitons effects and finite-size effects are investigated. The crucial step of our model is to couple the electromagnetic fields with the motion of the excited particles to yield a new dielectric constant which contains quantum effects of interest. A novel feature of the dielectric constant is the wavevector-dependence which leads to a multi-wave propagation inside the medium. Additional boundary conditions are proposed to deal with this situation. We proceed with incorporating this dielectric constant to Maxwell's equations, and by solving a scattering problem the quantum effects can be captured in the scattered spectra.

  3. Transmission performance of one waveguide and double micro-ring resonator using 3×3 optical fiber coupler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chao Ying; Tan, Wei Han

    2016-09-01

    This paper investigates theoretically the transmission characteristics of one waveguide and double micro-ring resonator using 3 × 3 optical fibre coupler. Our analytical solution of transmittance is suitable for either linearly distributed coupler or circularly symmetric distributed coupler. The all-optical analogue to electromagnetic inducted transparency spectrum of one waveguide and double micro-ring resonators can be controlled by changing the coupling strength between waveguide and micro-rings, the absorption coefficient around micro-rings, as well as the asymmetric coupling coefficients between non-adjacent waveguides. The curves show that the transitions of transmission spectra sensitively depend on asymmetric coupling coefficients.

  4. Direct write fabrication of waveguides and interconnects for optical printed wiring boards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dingeldein, Joseph C.

    Current copper based circuit technology is becoming a limiting factor in high speed data transfer applications as processors are improving at a faster rate than are developments to increase on board data transfer. One solution is to utilize optical waveguide technology to overcome these bandwidth and loss restrictions. The use of this technology virtually eliminates the heat and cross-talk loss seen in copper circuitry, while also operating at a higher bandwidth. Transitioning current fabrication techniques from small scale laboratory environments to large scale manufacturing presents significant challenges. Optical-to-electrical connections and out-of-plane coupling are significant hurdles in the advancement of optical interconnects. The main goals of this research are the development of direct write material deposition and patterning tools for the fabrication of waveguide systems on large substrates, and the development of out-of-plane coupler components compatible with standard fiber optic cabling. Combining these elements with standard printed circuit boards allows for the fabrication of fully functional optical-electrical-printed-wiring-boards (OEPWBs). A direct dispense tool was designed, assembled, and characterized for the repeatable dispensing of blanket waveguide layers over a range of thicknesses (25-225 μm), eliminating waste material and affording the ability to utilize large substrates. This tool was used to directly dispense multimode waveguide cores which required no UV definition or development. These cores had circular cross sections and were comparable in optical performance to lithographically fabricated square waveguides. Laser direct writing is a non-contact process that allows for the dynamic UV patterning of waveguide material on large substrates, eliminating the need for high resolution masks. A laser direct write tool was designed, assembled, and characterized for direct write patterning waveguides that were comparable in quality to those

  5. Capillary waveguide optrodes: an approach to optical sensing in medical diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Lippitsch, M E; Draxler, S; Kieslinger, D; Lehmann, H; Weigl, B H

    1996-07-01

    Glass capillaries with a chemically sensitive coating on the inner surface are used as optical sensors for medical diagnostics. A capillary simultaneously serves as a sample compartment, a sensor element, and an inhomogeneous optical waveguide. Various detection schemes based on absorption, fluorescence intensity, or fluorescence lifetime are described. In absorption-based capillary waveguide optrodes the absorption in the sensor layer is analyte dependent; hence light transmission along the inhomogeneous waveguiding structure formed by the capillary wall and the sensing layer is a function of the analyte concentration. Similarly, in fluorescence-based capillary optrodes the fluorescence intensity or the fluorescence lifetime of an indicator dye fixed in the sensing layer is analyte dependent; thus the specific property of fluorescent light excited in the sensing layer and thereafter guided along the inhomogeneous waveguiding structure is a function of the analyte concentration. Both schemes are experimentally demonstrated, one with carbon dioxide as the analyte and the other one with oxygen. The device combines optical sensors with the standard glass capillaries usually applied to gather blood drops from fingertips, to yield a versatile diagnostic instrument, integrating the sample compartment, the optical sensor, and the light-collecting optics into a single piece. This ensures enhanced sensor performance as well as improved handling compared with other sensors.

  6. Noise tolerance in optical waveguide circuits for recognition of optical 16 quadrature amplitude modulation codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoshita, Kensuke; Hama, Yoshimitsu; Kishikawa, Hiroki; Goto, Nobuo

    2016-12-01

    In photonic label routers, various optical signal processing functions are required; these include optical label extraction, recognition of the label, optical switching and buffering controlled by signals based on the label information and network routing tables, and label rewriting. Among these functions, we focus on photonic label recognition. We have proposed two kinds of optical waveguide circuits to recognize 16 quadrature amplitude modulation codes, i.e., recognition from the minimum output port and from the maximum output port. The recognition function was theoretically analyzed and numerically simulated by finite-difference beam-propagation method. We discuss noise tolerance in the circuit and show numerically simulated results to evaluate bit-error-rate (BER) characteristics against optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR). The OSNR required to obtain a BER less than 1.0×10-3 for the symbol rate of 2.5 GBaud was 14.5 and 27.0 dB for recognition from the minimum and maximum output, respectively.

  7. Experimental demonstration of on-chip optical parametric oscillation in planar tantalum pentoxide waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ruiqi Y.; Charlton, Martin D. B.; Lagoudakis, Pavlos G.

    2010-08-01

    Tantalum pentoxide ( Ta2O5 ) planar waveguides have recently been shown to possess unusually large nonlinearities, and nonlinear Kerr coefficient (n2), leading to potential applications in nonlinear integrated optics, such as supercontinuum generation. In this paper, we report the experimental demonstration of a third-order susceptibility (χ(3)) governed nonlinear optical parametric process within a 7 mm long planar tantalum pentoxide waveguide using a pump-probe configuration. When pumped at 800 nm, and seeded in the near infra-red (IR) the waveguides allow parametric conversion giving rise to signal photons in the visible spectrum. By seeding the parametric conversion process in the 1200 to 1600 nm IR telecoms range, we obtain continuously tunable output over the visible range (533 to 600 nm) from a single guide.

  8. Nano-optical imaging of WSe2 waveguide modes revealing light-exciton interactions

    DOE PAGES

    Fei, Z.; Scott, M. E.; Gosztola, D. J.; ...

    2016-08-01

    We report on a nano-optical imaging study of WSe2 thin flakes with scanning near-field optical microscopy (NSOM). The NSOM technique allows us to visualize in real space various waveguide photon modes inside WSe2. By tuning the excitation laser energy, we are able to map the entire dispersion of these waveguide modes both above and below the A exciton energy of WSe2. We found that all the modes interact strongly with WSe2 excitons. The outcome of the interaction is that the observed waveguide modes shift to higher momenta right below the A exciton energy. At higher energies, on the other hand,more » these modes are strongly damped due to adjacent B excitons or band-edge absorptions. Lastly, the mode-shifting phenomena are consistent with polariton formation in WSe2.« less

  9. Chirped self-similar optical pulses in tapered centrosymmetric nonlinear waveguides doped with resonant impurities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, J. R.; Xu, S. L.; Xue, L.

    2017-06-01

    Exact chirped self-similar optical pulses propagating in tapered centrosymmetric nonlinear waveguides doped with resonant impurities are reported. The propagation behaviors of the pulses are studied by tailoring of the tapering function. Numerical simulations and stability analysis reveal that the tapering can be used to postpone the wave dispersion and the addition of a small cubic self-focusing term to the governing equation could stabilize the chirped bright pulses. An example of possible experimental protocol that may generate the pulses in realistic waveguides is given. The obtained chirped self-similar optical pulses are particularly useful in the design of amplifying or attenuating pulse compressors for chirped solitary waves in tapered centrosymmetric nonlinear waveguides doped with resonant impurities.

  10. Optical biosensing transducer based on silicon waveguide structure coated with polyelectrolyte nano layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haron, Saharudin; Nabok, Alexey V.; Ray, Asim K.

    2003-04-01

    An optical biosensor based on attenuation of the light intensity during multiple reflections in a planar waveguide has been developed for water pollution monitoring. The planar waveguide consists of a 190 nanometer thick silicon nitride (Si3N4) core layer sandwiched between 1.5 micrometer thick silicon dioxide (SiO2) cladding layers. Composite polyelectrolyte self-assembled membranes containing Cyclotetrachromotropylene (CTCT) as an indicator and enzymes, such as Urease or Acetylcholine Esterase (AChE) were deposited on top of silicon nitride core layer within a 4 × 6 mm sensing window. Experimental studies on the light propagation through the planar waveguide show the advantages of this method over conventional UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. It was found that the planar waveguide sensitivity is higher by several orders of magnitude than that for UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. The respective enzyme reactions as well as their inhibition by heavy metal ions were studied by monitoring the light intensity in the planar waveguide. Cadmium (Cd2+) and lead (Pb2+) ions were registered in very low concentrations down to 1 ppb with the planar waveguide transducer. The enzymes used were inhibited differently by the above pollutants, which is promising for the development of enzyme sensor arrays.

  11. Waveguide design and fabrication of trench for hybrid integrated optic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Suntae; Song, Jeong Hwan; Kim, Kyoung-Youm; Oh, Yunkyung

    2005-03-01

    The hybrid integration of passive and optoelectronic devices has been widely researched. One of the main applications of this technique is for the fiber to the home (FTTH) network. In bi-directional transceivers, integrated WDM filters have been used to separate or combine the optical signals. Thin film filter (TFF) embedded waveguide type is effective for an application requiring wide bandwidth and low loss. Although the insertion loss of TFF itself is quite low, significant loss occurs at the trench and it depends on the geometrical structure and fabrication errors of the trench waveguide. The conventional sawing method and deep reactive ion etching technique were used for trench fabrication. In the case of using DRIE process, fabrication error was reduced and position error of the trench was controlled within 1um. This method could also enhance the platform design flexibility. To reduce the coupling loss between input and reflection waveguides with high tolerance of filter position, a few mode waveguide and horn waveguide were proposed. The insertion losses of transmission and reflection were less than 0.5dB and 0.7dB respectively. The 1dB tolerance of filter position was improved to be nearly twice than that of the conventional waveguide.

  12. Ultrafast, broadband, and configurable midinfrared all-optical switching in nonlinear graphene plasmonic waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ooi, Kelvin J. A.; Cheng, J. L.; Sipe, J. E.; Ang, L. K.; Tan, Dawn T. H.

    2016-07-01

    Graphene plasmonics provides a unique and excellent platform for nonlinear all-optical switching, owing to its high nonlinear conductivity and tight optical confinement. In this paper, we show that impressive switching performance on graphene plasmonic waveguides could be obtained for both phase and extinction modulations at sub-MW/cm2 optical pump intensities. Additionally, we find that the large surface-induced nonlinearity enhancement that comes from the tight confinement effect can potentially drive the propagating plasmon pump power down to the pW range. The graphene plasmonic waveguides have highly configurable Fermi-levels through electrostatic-gating, allowing for versatility in device design and a broadband optical response. The high capabilities of nonlinear graphene plasmonics would eventually pave the way for the adoption of the graphene plasmonics platform in future all-optical nanocircuitry.

  13. Dispersion and optical gradient force from high-order mode coupling between two hyperbolic metamaterial waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guanghui; Zhang, Weifeng; Lu, Jiahui; Zhao, Huijun

    2016-08-01

    We analytically study dispersion properties and optical gradient forces of different-order transverse magnetic (TM) modes in two coupled hyperbolic metamaterial waveguides (HMMWs). According to Maxwell's equations, we obtain the dispersion relation of symmetric and antisymmetric modes, and calculate optical gradient forces of different-order modes by using Maxwell stress tensor. Numerical results show that the dispersion properties are dependent on the filling ratio, and the optical gradient forces of high-order TM modes are larger than the fundamental mode when the gap between two HMMWs is very narrow, but they weaken much faster than the case of low-order TM modes with the gap width increasing. In addition, the effects of the dielectric surrounding of waveguides on the coupling effect and optical gradient force are clarified. These properties offer an avenue for various optomechanical applications in optical sensors and actuators.

  14. Reproduction and optical analysis of Morpho-inspired polymeric nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tippets, Cary A.; Fu, Yulan; Jackson, Anne-Martine; Donev, Eugenii U.; Lopez, Rene

    2016-06-01

    The brilliant blue coloration of the Morpho rhetenor butterfly originates from complex nanostructures found on the surface of its wings. The Morpho butterfly exhibits strong short-wavelength reflection and a unique two-lobe optical signature in the incident (θ) and reflected (ϕ) angular space. Here, we report the large-area fabrication of a Morpho-like structure and its reproduction in perfluoropolyether. Reflection comparisons of periodic and quasi-random ‘polymer butterfly’ nanostructures show similar normal-incidence spectra but differ in the angular θ-ϕ dependence. The periodic sample shows strong specular reflection and simple diffraction. However, the quasi-random sample produces a two-lobe angular reflection pattern with minimal specular refection, approximating the real butterfly’s optical behavior. Finite-difference time-domain simulations confirm that this pattern results from the quasi-random periodicity and highlights the significance of the inherent randomness in the Morpho’s photonic structure.

  15. Structure of modes of a smoothly irregular integrated-optical four-layer three-dimensional waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Egorov, Alexander A; Sevast'yanov, L A

    2009-06-30

    The asymptotic method and the method of coupled waves used to study an integrated-optical multilayer three-dimensional waveguide satisfying the conditions of a continuously variable effective refractive index are considered. Three-dimensional fields of smoothly deforming modes of a four-layer integrated-optical waveguide are described analytically. Explicit dependences of the contributions of the first order of smallness to the electric and magnetic field amplitudes of quasi-waveguide modes are obtained. The canonical type of quasi-wave equations describing the structure of quasi-TE and quasi-TM modes in a smoothly irregular four-layer integrated-optical three-dimensional waveguide is presented for the asymptotic method. By using the perturbation theory, shifts of complex propagation constants are obtained in an explicit form for these modes. The elaborated theory can be used to analyse structures from dielectric, magnetic and metamaterials in a rather broad wavelength range of electromagnetic waves. (waveguides. optical fibres)

  16. Chalcogenide amorphous nanoparticles doped poly (methyl methacrylate) with high nonlinearity for optical waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Xiaojie; Nagasaka, Kenshiro; Cheng, Tonglei; Deng, Dinghuan; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Lai; Suzuki, Takenobu; Ohishi, Yasutake

    2015-03-01

    Nonlinear optical polymers show promising potential applications in photonics, for example, electro-optical devices. Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) is widely used in optical waveguides, integrated optics and optical fibers. However, PMMA has not been used for nonlinear optical waveguides since it has a low nonlinear refractive index. We successfully prepared chalcogenide amorphous nanoparticles doped PMMA that had a high nonlinearity. The As3S7 bulk glass was dissolved in propylamine to form a cluster solution. Then the As3S7/propylamine solution was added into methyl methacrylate (MMA) containing photoinitiator Irgacure 184 about 0.5 wt%. After well mixing the As3S7 nanoparticle doped MMA was transparent. Under the irradiation by a 365 nm UV lamp, As3S7 nanoparticles doped PMMA was obtained with yellow color. The third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility of As3S7 nanoparticles doped PMMA was investigated. An optical waveguide array based on the As3S7 nanoparticles doped PMMA composite of high nonlinearity was fabricated.

  17. Linear charge coupled device detector array for imaging light propagating in an integrated thin-film optical waveguide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. L.; Boyd, J. T.

    1976-01-01

    Device design, fabrication, and operation of a linear charge coupled device (CCD) detector array integrated with a thin film optical waveguide and applications of this structure to integrated optical signal processing and fiber optical communications were discussed. A two phase, overlapping-gate CCD is connected in parallel by means of a series of gates to an array of photodiodes. The photodiode provides an electrode free surface region so that a highly efficient waveguide detector coupling technique can be implemented. A thermally-oxidized layer of SiO2 forms an effective substrate for the optical waveguide.

  18. Optical routing and switching of energy flow in nanostructure systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, S. M.

    2011-09-01

    We study optical routing and switching of energy transfer between semiconductor quantum dots and metallic nanostructures. We demonstrate that in the presence of a metallic nanoshell, one can use quantum coherence to direct or switch energy transfer flow from a quantum dot to another quantum dot or to the nanoshell. Our results show that a quantum dot-metallic nanoshell system can act as a bistable energy switch formed via quantum mechanical control of energy transfer processes.

  19. Development of embedded Mach-Zehnder optical waveguide structures in polydimethylsiloxane thin films by proton beam writing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kada, W.; Miura, K.; Kato, H.; Saruya, R.; Kubota, A.; Satoh, T.; Koka, M.; Ishii, Y.; Kamiya, T.; Nishikawa, H.; Hanaizumi, O.

    2015-04-01

    A focused 750 keV proton microbeam was used to fabricate an embedded Mach-Zehnder (MZ) optical waveguide in a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) film for interferometer application. The sample position was precisely controlled by a mechanical stage together with scanning microbeam to form an embedded MZ waveguide structure within an area of 0.3 mm × 40 mm. The MZ waveguides with core size of 8 μm was successfully embedded in PDMS film at a depth of 18 μm by 750 keV proton microbeam with fluences from 10 to 100 nC/mm2. The MZ waveguides were coupled with an IR fiber-laser with a center wavelength of 1550 nm and evaluated by using the transmitted intensity images from an IR vidicon camera. The results indicate that the embedded MZ waveguide structure in PDMS achieved single spot light propagation, which is necessary for building optical switching circuits based on polymer MZ waveguides.

  20. The use of optical waveguides in head up display (HUD) applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homan, Malcolm

    2013-06-01

    The application of optical waveguides to Head Up Displays (HUD) is an enabling technology which solves the critical issues of volume reduction (including cockpit intrusion) and mass reduction in an affordable product which retains the high performance optical capabilities associated with today's generation of digital display based HUDs. Improved operability and pilot comfort is achieved regardless of the installation by virtue of the intrinsic properties of optical waveguides and this has enabled BAE Systems Electronic Systems to develop two distinct product streams for glareshield and overhead HUD installations respectively. This paper addresses the design drivers behind the development of the next generation of Head Up Displays and their compatibility with evolving cockpit architectures and structures. The implementation of large scale optical waveguide combiners capable of matching and exceeding the display performances normally only associated with current digital display sourced HUDs has enabled BAE Systems Electronic Systems to solve the volume and installation challenges of the latest military and civil cockpits with it's LiteHUD® technology. Glareshield mounted waveguide based HUDs are compatible with the trend towards the addition of Large Area Displays (LAD) in place of the traditional multiple Head Down Displays (HDD) within military fast jet cockpits. They use an "indirect view" variant of the display which allows the amalgamation of high resolution digital display devices with the inherently small volume and low mass of the waveguide optics. This is then viewed using the more traditional technology of a conventional HUD combiner. This successful combination of technologies has resulted in the LPHUD product which is specifically designed by BAE Systems Electronic Systems to provide an ultra-low profile HUD which can be installed behind a LAD; still providing the level of performance that is at least equivalent to that of a conventional large volume

  1. Improved optical efficiency of bulk laser amplifiers with femtosecond written waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukharin, Mikhail A.; Lyashedko, Andrey; Skryabin, Nikolay N.; Khudyakov, Dmitriy V.; Vartapetov, Sergey K.

    2016-04-01

    In the paper we proposed improved technique of three-dimensional waveguides writing with direct femtosecond laser inscription technology. The technique allows, for the first time of our knowledge, production of waveguides with mode field diameter larger than 200 μm. This result broadens field of application of femtosecond writing technology into bulk laser schemes and creates an opportunity to develop novel amplifiers with increased efficiency. We proposed a novel architecture of laser amplifier that combines free-space propagation of signal beam with low divergence and propagation of pump irradiation inside femtosecond written waveguide with large mode field diameter due to total internal reflection effect. Such scheme provides constant tight confinement of pump irradiation over the full length of active laser element (3-10 cm). The novel amplifier architecture was investigated numerically and experimentally in Nd:phosphate glass. Waveguides with 200 μm mode field diameter were written with high frequency femtosecond oscillator. Proposed technique of three-dimensional waveguides writing based on decreasing and compensation of spherical aberration effect due to writing in heat cumulative regime and dynamic pulse energy adjustment at different depths of writing. It was shown, that written waveguides could increase optical efficiency of amplifier up to 4 times compared with corresponding usual free-space schemes. Novelty of the results consists in technique of femtosecond writing of waveguides with large mode field diameter. Actuality of the results consists in originally proposed architecture allows to improve up to 4 times optical efficiency of conventional bulk laser schemes and especially ultrafast pulse laser amplifiers.

  2. Vertical stacking of three-dimensional nanostructures via an aerosol lithography for advanced optical applications.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kiwoong; Choi, Hoseop; Kim, Dae Seong; Jang, Min Seok; Choi, Mansoo

    2017-09-29

    In this report, we introduce a method utilizing ion-assisted aerosol lithography (IAAL) to stack 3D nanostructures vertically. The stacked 3D nanostructures exhibit extraordinary optical properties: the double layer 3D nanostructures show more than 5-fold increased surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) intensities compared to their single layer counterpart. This unusual enhancement of Raman intensity implies the existence of additional vertical hotspots formed by interlayer cavity effects between the lower and upper nanostructures. Allowing for full 3-dimensional control in nanofabrication, this work provides a reliable way to create complex-shaped advanced optical nanostructures with non-intuitive bulk optical properties. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  3. Single-mode optical waveguides on native high-refractive-index substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grote, Richard R.; Bassett, Lee C.

    2016-10-01

    High-refractive-index semiconductor optical waveguides form the basis for modern photonic integrated circuits (PICs). However, conventional methods for achieving optical confinement require a thick lower-refractive-index support layer that impedes large-scale co-integration with electronics and limits the materials on which PICs can be fabricated. To address this challenge, we present a general architecture for single-mode waveguides that confine light in a high-refractive-index material on a native substrate. The waveguide consists of a high-aspect-ratio fin of the guiding material surrounded by lower-refractive-index dielectrics and is compatible with standard top-down fabrication techniques. This letter describes a physically intuitive, semi-analytical, effective index model for designing fin waveguides, which is confirmed with fully vectorial numerical simulations. Design examples are presented for diamond and silicon at visible and telecommunications wavelengths, respectively, along with calculations of propagation loss due to bending, scattering, and substrate leakage. Potential methods of fabrication are also discussed. The proposed waveguide geometry allows PICs to be fabricated alongside silicon CMOS electronics on the same wafer, removes the need for heteroepitaxy in III-V PICs, and will enable wafer-scale photonic integration on emerging material platforms such as diamond and SiC.

  4. The relationship between polymer waveguide optical interconnection end facet roughness and the optical input and output coupling losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baghsiahi, Hadi; Wang, Kai; Pitwon, Richard; Selviah, David R.

    2015-03-01

    The RMS surface roughness of an optical polymer waveguide end facet cut by a milling router and measured by AFM is investigated for a range of rotation speeds and translation speeds of the router. It was found that 1 flute (cutting edge) routers gave significantly less rough surfaces than 2 or 3 flute routers. The best results were achieved for a 1 flute router when the milling bit was inserted from the copper layer side of the board with a rotation speed of 15,000 rpm and a translation speed of 0.25 m/min which minimized the waveguide core end facet RMS roughness to 183 +/- 8 nm and gave input optical coupling loss of 1.7 dB +/- 0.5 dB and output optical coupling loss of 2.0 dB +/- 0.7 dB. The relationship between optical coupling loss at the input and output of the waveguides and waveguide end facet roughness is also investigated in this paper. The ratio of RMS roughness to autocorrelation length of the roughness is shown to have a quantified linear relationship with experimental measurements of optical insertion loss, input optical coupling loss and output optical coupling loss. A new fabrication technique for cut waveguide end facet treatment has been proposed and demonstrated which reduces the insertion loss by 2.60 dB +/- 1.3 dB which is more than that achieved by the closest available index matching fluid which gave 2.23 dB +/- 1.2 dB and which is far more robust for use in commercial products.

  5. A novel graphene oxide-polyimide as optical waveguide material: Synthesis and thermo-optic switch properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Tianlin; Zhao, Fanyu; Da, Zulin; Qiu, Fengxian; Yang, Dongya; Guan, Yijun; Cao, Guorong; Zhao, Zerun; Li, Jiaxin; Guo, Xiaotong

    2016-10-01

    In this work, a novel graphene oxide-polyimide (GOPI) as optical waveguide material was prepared. The structure, mechanical, thermal property and morphology of the GOPI was characterized by using fourier transform infrared, UV-visible spectroscopy, near-infrared spectrum, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscopy. The thermo-optic coefficients (dn/dT) are -9.16 × 10-4 (532 nm), -7.56 × 10-4 (650 nm) and -4.82 × 10-4 (850 nm) °C-1, respectively. Based on the thermo-optic effect of prepared GOPI as waveguide material, a Y-branch with branching angle of 0.143° and Mach-Zehnder thermo-optic switches were designed. Using finite difference beam propagation method (FD-BPM) method, the simulation results such as power consumptions and response times of two different thermo-optic switches were obtained.

  6. Integrated Sagnac optical gyroscope sensor using ultra-low loss high aspect ratio silicon nitride waveguide coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gundavarapu, Sarat; Belt, Michael; Huffman, Taran; Tran, Minh A.; Komljenovic, Tin; Bowers, John E.; Blumenthal, Daniel J.

    2017-04-01

    We demonstrate operation of an interferometric optical gyroscope that uses an on-chip 3m ultra-low-loss silicon nitride waveguide coil. The measured minimum waveguide loss of the waveguide coil fabricated using lithographic die stitching was 0.78 dB/m. The angle random walk and bias instability of the gyroscope were characterized to be 8.52 deg/hr1/2 and 58.7 deg/hr respectively.

  7. Optical sensor instrumentation using absorption- and fluorescence-based capillary waveguide optrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigl, Bernhard H.; Draxler, Sonja; Kieslinger, Dietmar; Lehmann, H.; Trettnak, Wolfgang; Wolfbeis, Otto S.; Lippitsch, Max E.

    1995-09-01

    An analytical instrument comprising absorption- and fluorescence-based capillary waveguide optrodes (CWOs) is described. Glass capillaries with a chemically sensitive coating on the inner surface are used for optical chemical sensing in gaseous and liquid samples. In case of absorption-based CWOs, light from a LED is coupled into and out of the capillary under a defined angle via a rigid waveguide and an immersion coupler. The coated glass capillary forms an inhomogeneous waveguide, in which the light is guided in both the glass and the coating. The portion of the light which is absorbed in the chemically sensitive coating is proportional to a chemcial concentration or activity. This principle is demonstrated with a pCO2-sensitive inner coating. Typical relative light intensity signal changes with this type of optical interrogation are 98%, with an active capillary length of 10 mm. For fluorescence- based CWOs, the excitation light from an LED is coupled diffusely into the glass capillary and the optical sensor layer. A major portion of the excited fluorescence light is then collected within the coated capillary, and guided to the photodiode, which is located on the distal end of the capillary waveguide. Hereby, the excitation light is separated very efficiently from the fluorescent light. As an example, a CWO for pO2 is described. By applying this optical geometry, it was possible to utilize fluorescence decay time of the sensor layer as the transducer signal even when using solid state components (LEDs and photodiodes).

  8. Femtosecond laser written optical waveguide amplifier in phospho-tellurite glass.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, T Toney; Eaton, S M; Della Valle, G; Vazquez, R Martinez; Irannejad, M; Jose, G; Jha, A; Cerullo, G; Osellame, R; Laporta, P

    2010-09-13

    We report on the first demonstration of an optical waveguide amplifier in phospho-tellurite glass providing net gain at 1.5 μm. The device was fabricated using a high repetition rate femtosecond laser and exhibited internal gain across 100-nm bandwidth covering the entire C + L telecom bands.

  9. Local density of optical states of an asymmetric waveguide grating at photonic band gap resonant wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alatas, Husin; Sumaryada, Tony I.; Ahmad, Faozan

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated the characteristics of local density of optical states (LDOS) at photonic band gap resonant wavelength of an asymmetric waveguide grating based on Green's function formulation. It is found that the LDOS of the considered structure exhibits different characteristics in its localization between the upper and lower resonant wavelengths of the corresponding photonic band gap edges.

  10. Three dimensional fabrication of optical waveguiding elements for on-chip integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsi Sreenivas, V. V.; Bülters, M.; Schröder, M.; Bergmann, R. B.

    2014-05-01

    We present micro polymer optical waveguide elements fabricated using femtosecond laser and two-photon absorption (TPA) process. The POWs are constructed by tightly focusing a laser beam in SU-8 based resists transparent to the laser wavelength for single-photon absorption. The TPA process enables the patterning of the resist in three dimensions at a resolution of 100-200 nm, which provides a high degree of freedom for POW designs. Using this technology, we provide a novel approach to fabricate Three dimensional Polymer Optical Waveguides (3D-POW) and coupling with single mode fibers in the visible wavelength regions. Our research is also focused on fabricating passive micro optical elements such as splitters, combiners and simple logical gates. For this reason we are aiming to achieve optimum coupling efficiency between the 3D-POW and fibers. The technology also facilitates 3D-POW fabrication independent of the substrate material. We present these fabrication techniques and designs, along with supporting numerical simulations and its transmission properties. With a length of 270 μm and polymer core diameter of 9 μm with air cladding, the waveguides possess a total loss of 12 dB. This value also includes the external in and out mode coupling and in continuously being improved upon by design optimization and simulations. We verify the overall feasibility of the design and coupling mechanisms that can be exploited to execute waveguide based optical functions such as filtering and logical operations.

  11. NONLINEAR OPTICS: Coherent laser spectroscopy of matter utilizing waveguide structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaus, A. I.; Yashkir, Yu N.

    1990-07-01

    Some features of CARS spectroscopy in waveguide structures are investigated theoretically taking into account stimulated Raman amplification of a weak pump wave in the field of a strong wave and allowing for the phase matching. A four-photon intermode coupling which occurs under amplification conditions results in energy diffusion between different modes. General expressions for the intensities of the pump waves undergoing stimulated amplification and for the anti-Stokes signal are derived and analyzed.

  12. Characteristics of Single- and Multi-Mode Optical Waveguides.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    and R. Ebrahimian , "Propagation constants for step- index fibers of arbitrary cross-section at high frequency," USNC/URSI National Radio Science...Rozalina Ebrahimian , graduate student and research assistant (/15/81 -5/30/81) (M.S., in progress) 10. Mr. Todd Pet, graduate student and research...Mahnad and Rozalina Ebrahimian . A Ph.D. dissertation by Robert L. Holland which deals in part with curvature of channel waveguides is currently in progress.

  13. Optimization of gyroscope properties with active coupled resonator optical waveguide structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiayang; Zhang, Hao; Jin, Junjie; Lin, Jian; Zhao, Long; Bi, Zhuanfang; Huang, Anping; Xiao, Zhisong

    2015-03-01

    Active coupled resonator optical waveguide (CROW) structure can significantly enhance the performance of optical gyroscope due to its loss compensation effect and highly dispersive properties. In this paper, we analyze the effect of optical gain and its induced noise, i.e. spontaneous emission noise, on the properties of the active CROWs. A thorough investigation of the impact of various disorder degrees on the performance of the active three dimensional vertically coupled resonators (3D-VCR) gyroscope has been performed. It shows how the disorder interacted with coupling coefficient affects the achievable resolution ΔΩmin of gyroscope, and the degree of disorder will supplant the propagation loss to become an ultimate limitation. Finally, it is shown that the active 3D-VCR gyroscope (the number of ring, N>6) has better resolution ΔΩmin than that of the equivalent resonant waveguide optical gyroscope (RWOG).

  14. Optical sampling of ultrahigh bitrate signals using highly nonlinear chalcogenide planar waveguides or tapered fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Erps, Jürgen; Luan, Feng; Pelusi, Mark D.; Mägi, Eric; Iredale, Tim; Madden, Steve; Choi, Duk Yong; Bulla, Douglas A.; Luther-Davies, Barry; Thienpont, Hugo; Eggleton, Benjamin J.

    2010-06-01

    As the bit rates of optical networks increase, the ability of accurate monitoring of optical waveforms has become increasingly important. In recent years, optical sampling has emerged as a technique to perform time-resolved measurements of optical data signals at high data rates with a bandwidth that cannot be reached by conventional photodetectors and oscilloscopes. In an optical sampling system, the optical signal is sampled in the optical domain by a nonlinear optical sampling gate before the resulting samples are converted to an electrical signal. This avoids the need for high bandwidth electronics if the optical sampling gate is operated with a modest repetition frequency. In this paper, we present an optical sampling system using the optical Kerr effect in a highly nonlinear chalcogenide device, enabling combined capability for femtosecond resolution and broadband signal wavelength tunability. A temporal resolution 450-fs is achieved using four-wave mixing (FWM) in dispersion-engineered chalcogenide waveguides: on one hand a 7-cm long planar waveguide (integrated on a photonic chip) and on the other hand a 5-cm long tapered fiber. The use of a short length, dispersion-shifted waveguide with ultrahigh nonlinearity (10000/W/km) enables high-resolution optical sampling without the detrimental effect of chromatic dispersion on the temporal distortion of the signal and sampling pulses, as well as their phase mismatch (which in turn would degrade the FWM efficiency and the sensitivity of the measurement). Using these chalcogenide devices, we successfully monitor a 640-Gb/s optical time-division multiplexing (OTDM) datastream, showcasing its potential for monitoring of signals at bitrates approaching and beyond Tb/s. We compare the advantages and disadvantages of both approaches and discuss fundamental limitations as well as potential improvements.

  15. Optical and electrical properties of composite nanostructured materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amooali Khosroabadi, Akram

    A novel lithographic fabrication method is used to fabricate nanopillars arrays of anisotropic Ag and TCO electrodes. Optical and electrical properties of the electrodes including bandgap, free carrier concentration, resistivity and surface plasmon frequency of different electrodes can be tuned by adjusting the dimensions and geometry of the pillars. Given the ability to tune the nonlocal responses of the plasmonic field enhancements, we attempt to determine the nature of the effective refractive index profile within the visible wavelength region for multi-layer hybrid nanostructures. Knowledge of the effective optical constants of the obtained structure is critical for various applications. nanopillars of TCOAg core shell structures have been successfully fabricated. The Maxwell-Garnett mixing law has been used to determine the optical constants of the nanostructure based on spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements. Simulated reflection spectra indicate a down shift in the Brewster angle of the pillars resulting from the reduction in the effective refractive index of the nanostructure. Two plasmonic resonances were observed, with one in the visible region and the other in the IR region. Plasmon hybridization model is used to describe the behavior of metal and metal oxide core shell nanostructured electrodes. Different charge density distributions around the pillars determine the plasma frequency which depends on the core and surrounding media dielectric constants. Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) simulation of different structures agree well with experiment and help us to understand electric field behavior at different structures with different geometries and dielectric constants. Plasmonic Ag nanopillar arrays are effective substrates for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). An enhancement factor up to 6 orders of magnitude is obtained. Monolayers of C60 is deposited on the Ag nanopillars and the interface of C60/Ag is studied which is important in

  16. Two-photon absorption for the realization of optical waveguides on printed circuit boards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, Gregor; Riester, Markus

    2007-02-01

    The integration of optical interconnections in printed circuit boards (PCBs) is an emerging field that arouses rapidly growing interest worldwide. At present the key issue is to identify a technical concept, which allows for the realization of optical interconnections that are compatible to existing PCB manufacturing processes. Above all, the material in which the optical interconnections are embedded has to withstand increased temperatures and lamination pressures as well as various wet chemistry processes. AT&S uses so-called two-photon absorption (TPA) laser structuring - a rather new and innovative technology - to realize optical circuits in a special polymer layer. In this case a near infrared laser is applied working in the femto-second regime. The high photon density that can be reached in the laser's focus results in a modification of the optical polymer, which is usually photosensitive in the UV-spectrum of light only. In our particular case, the refractive index of the optical polymer is increased. Choosing the right laser intensity and focus propagation speed one achieves a waveguide well embedded within the polymer layer, which has not been affected by the laser. In contrast to one-photon absorption, which only allows a two dimensional respectively lateral modification of a polymer, this technology allows a modification within the volume resulting in 3D-microstructures inside the polymer layer. Apart from the possibility to realize structures in three dimensions, this TPA-technique has additional advantages. First of all, it allows one step fabrication, which reduces costs and production time compared to etching procedures or conventional UV lithography processes. Moreover, this technique allows varying the waveguide's cross section geometry and diameter simply varying size and form of the structuring laser focus. Whereas the realization of optical waveguides is not challenging anymore the coupling of waveguides with optoelectronic components is rather

  17. Semiconducting polymer waveguides for end-fired ultra-fast optical amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ning; Ruseckas, Arvydas; Montgomery, Neil A; Samuel, Ifor D W; Turnbull, Graham A

    2009-11-23

    A method to fabricate conjugated polymer waveguides with well defined edge facets is demonstrated. The utility of the approach is explored for application as end-fired ultrafast optical amplifiers based on poly(9,9'-dioctylfluorene-co-benzothiadiazole). An internal gain of 19 dB was achieved on a 760 microm long waveguide at 565 nm wavelength. This fabrication procedure may be applied to a wide range of conjugated polymers and organic light-emitting devices, providing an important step towards future applications of organic integrated photonics.

  18. Observation of Defect-Free Surface Modes in Optical Waveguide Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szameit, Alexander; Garanovich, Ivan L.; Heinrich, Matthias; Sukhorukov, Andrey A.; Dreisow, Felix; Pertsch, Thomas; Nolte, Stefan; Tünnermann, Andreas; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2008-11-01

    We report on the experimental observation of novel defect-free surface modes predicted theoretically for modulated photonic lattices [I. L. Garanovich et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 203904 (2008)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.100.203904]. We generate the linear surface modes in truncated arrays of periodically curved optical waveguides created in fused silica by a laser direct-writing technique. Our results demonstrate that the degree of surface wave localization can be controlled by selecting the waveguide bending amplitude.

  19. Impedance matching vertical optical waveguide couplers for dense high index contrast circuits.

    PubMed

    Sun, Rong; Beals, Mark; Pomerene, Andrew; Cheng, Jing; Hong, Ching-Yin; Kimerling, Lionel; Michel, Jurgen

    2008-08-04

    We designed and demonstrated a compact, high-index contrast (HIC) vertical waveguide coupler for TE single mode operation with the lowest coupling loss of 0.20 dB +/- 0.05 dB at 1550 nm. Our vertical coupler consists of a pair of vertically overlapping inverse taper structures made of SOI and amorphous silicon. The vertical coupler can suppress power oscillation observed in regular directional couplers and guarantees vertical optical impedance matching with great tolerance for fabrication and refractive index variations of the waveguide materials. The coupler furthermore shows excellent broadband coupling efficiencies between 1460 nm and 1570 nm.

  20. Slow light enhanced correlated photon pair generation in photonic-crystal coupled-resonator optical waveguides.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Nobuyuki; Takesue, Hiroki; Shimizu, Kaoru; Tokura, Yasuhiro; Kuramochi, Eiichi; Notomi, Masaya

    2013-04-08

    We demonstrate the generation of quantum-correlated photon pairs from a Si photonic-crystal coupled-resonator optical waveguide. A slow-light supermode realized by the collective resonance of high-Q and small-mode-volume photonic-crystal cavities successfully enhanced the efficiency of the spontaneous four-wave mixing process. The generation rate of photon pairs was improved by two orders of magnitude compared with that of a photonic-crystal line defect waveguide without a slow-light effect.

  1. Nanostructured Materials Integrated in Microfabricated Optical Devices

    SciTech Connect

    SASAKI, DARRYL Y.; LAST, JULIE A.; BONDURANT, BRUCE; WAGGONER, TINA A.; BRINKER, C. JEFFREY; KEMME, SHANALYN A.; WENDT, JOEL R.; CARTER, TONY; SAMORA, SALLY; WARREN, MIAL E.; SINCLAIR, MICHAEL B.; YANG, YI

    2002-12-01

    This project combined nanocomposite materials with microfabricated optical device structures for the development of microsensor arrays. For the nanocomposite materials we have designed, developed, and characterized self-assembling, organic/inorganic hybrid optical sensor materials that offer highly selective, sensitive, and reversible sensing capability with unique hierarchical nanoarchitecture. Lipid bilayers and micellar polydiacetylene provided selective optical response towards metal ions (Pb(II), Hg(II)), a lectin protein (Concanavalin A), temperature, and organic solvent vapor. These materials formed as composites in silica sol-gels to impart physical protection of the self-assembled structures, provide a means for thin film surface coatings, and allow facile transport of analytes. The microoptical devices were designed and prepared with two- and four-level diffraction gratings coupled with conformal gold coatings on fused silica. The structure created a number of light reflections that illuminated multiple spots along the silica surface. These points of illumination would act as the excitation light for the fluorescence response of the sensor materials. Finally, we demonstrate an integrated device using the two-level diffraction grating coupled with the polydiacetylene/silica material.

  2. Wavelength-agile near-IR optical parametric oscillator using a deposited silicon waveguide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke-Yao; Foster, Mark A; Foster, Amy C

    2015-06-15

    Using a deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) waveguide, we demonstrate ultra-broad bandwidth (60 THz) parametric amplification via four-wave mixing (FWM), and subsequently achieve the first silicon optical parametric oscillator (OPO) at near-IR wavelengths. Utilization of the time-dispersion-tuned technique provides an optical source with active wavelength tuning over 42 THz with a fixed pump wave.

  3. Planar dielectric waveguides in rotation are optical fibers: comparison with the classical model.

    PubMed

    Peña García, Antonio; Pérez-Ocón, Francisco; Jiménez, José Ramón

    2008-01-21

    A novel and simpler method to calculate the main parameters in fiber optics is presented. This method is based in a planar dielectric waveguide in rotation and, as an example, it is applied to calculate the turning points and the inner caustic in an optical fiber with a parabolic refractive index. It is shown that the solution found using this method agrees with the standard (and more complex) method, whose solutions for these points are also summarized in this paper.

  4. Fabrication of a deoxyribonucleic acid polymer ridge waveguide electro-optic modulator by nanoimprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fehrman Cory, Emily Marie

    The purpose of this dissertation is to develop the nanoimprint lithography (NIL) technique for direct patterning of the deoxyribonucleic acid biopolymer DNA-CTMA. The Mach Zehnder modulator was chosen as the test device to demonstrate the NIL patterning technique for DNA-CTMA as well as the unique optical and electrical properties of the DNA-CTMA as a cladding material for poled electro-optic polymers. Towards this goal, a DNA-CTMA clad inverted ridge waveguide is demonstrated at 633 nm and 1550 nm, the structure of which is patterned directly in the DNA-CTMA cladding by NIL. Additionally, EO modulation is demonstrated in a slab waveguide structure with DNA-CTMA cladding and SEO110 EO polymer core. Marine-derived deoxyribonucleic acid biopolymer (DNA-CTMA) is a green, nontoxic, low cost optical polymer material derived from waste products of the salmon fishing industry. It exhibits low optical loss at 1550 nm, forms a thin flexible film, is compatible with existing poled polymer technologies, increases the poling efficiency when used as a low resistivity cladding layer, and is thermally stable to 200 oC. Due to chemical incompatibility with the photoresists and the associated solvents, NIL has been developed for patterning the DNA biopolymer cladding to form an inverted ridge waveguide for the basis of the Mach Zehnder modulator. While DNA-CTMA presents significant advantages over other commonly used cladding materials for the 1550 nm wavelength range, one of the commonly used bands for optical communications, the mechanical properties and environmental susceptibility of the material poses significant fabrication challenges. A study of the effects of optical and mechanical effects of environmental humidity exposure are presented for the DNA-CTMA and SEO110 polymers used in the inverted ridge waveguide. While the soft, flexible nature of the DNA-CTMA is desirable for certain applications, this presents a challenge in producing a clean polished window for optical

  5. OPTICAL AND DYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF UNDOPED AND DOPED SEMICONDUCTOR NANOSTRUCTURES

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, C D; Zhang, J Z

    2007-09-28

    This chapter provides an overview of some recent research activities on the study of optical and dynamic properties of semiconductor nanomaterials. The emphasis is on unique aspects of these properties in nanostructures as compared to bulk materials. Linear, including absorption and luminescence, and nonlinear optical as well as dynamic properties of semiconductor nanoparticles are discussed with focus on their dependence on particle size, shape, and surface characteristics. Both doped and undoped semiconductor nanomaterials are highlighted and contrasted to illustrate the use of doping to effectively alter and probe nanomaterial properties. Some emerging applications of optical nanomaterials are discussed towards the end of the chapter, including solar energy conversion, optical sensing of chemicals and biochemicals, solid state lighting, photocatalysis, and photoelectrochemistry.

  6. Optical limiting effects in nanostructured silicon carbide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Borshch, A A; Starkov, V N; Volkov, V I; Rudenko, V I; Boyarchuk, A Yu; Semenov, A V

    2013-12-31

    We present the results of experiments on the interaction of nanosecond laser radiation at 532 and 1064 nm with nanostructured silicon carbide thin films of different polytypes. We have found the effect of optical intensity limiting at both wavelengths. The intensity of optical limiting at λ = 532 nm (I{sub cl} ∼ 10{sup 6} W cm{sup -2}) is shown to be an order of magnitude less than that at λ = 1064 nm (I{sub cl} ∼ 10{sup 7} W cm{sup -2}). We discuss the nature of the nonlinearity, leading to the optical limiting effect. We have proposed a method for determining the amount of linear and two-photon absorption in material media. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  7. Design and investigation of properties of nanocrystalline diamond optical planar waveguides.

    PubMed

    Prajzler, Vaclav; Varga, Marian; Nekvindova, Pavla; Remes, Zdenek; Kromka, Alexander

    2013-04-08

    Diamond thin films have remarkable properties comparable with natural diamond. Because of these properties it is a very promising material for many various applications (sensors, heat sink, optical mirrors, chemical and radiation wear, cold cathodes, tissue engineering, etc.) In this paper we report about design, deposition and measurement of properties of optical planar waveguides fabricated from nanocrystalline diamond thin films. The nanocrystalline diamond planar waveguide was deposited by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition and the structure of the deposited film was studied by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The design of the presented planar waveguides was realized on the bases of modified dispersion equation and was schemed for 632.8 nm, 964 nm, 1 310 nm and 1 550 nm wavelengths. Waveguiding properties were examined by prism coupling technique and it was found that the diamond based planar optical element guided one fundamental mode for all measured wavelengths. Values of the refractive indices of our NCD thin film measured at various wavelengths were almost the same as those of natural diamond.

  8. Fabrication of thermally stable and cost-effective polymeric waveguide for optical printed-circuit board.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Won; Ahn, Seung Ho; Cho, In-Kui; Im, Dong-Min; Shorab Muslim, Shirazy Md; Park, Hyo-Hoon

    2008-10-13

    A thermally stable polymeric optical waveguide has been fabricated using ultraviolet (UV)-curable epoxy resins for the core and clad materials. A simple and cost-effective fabrication method that uses reusable polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) masters has been developed. The 12-channel under-clad layer of the UV-cured epoxy was prepared using a PDMS master whose embossed channels had been fabricated by a polycarbonate (PC) secondary master. The thermal stability of the fabricated waveguide was tested at 200 degrees C for one hour. The optical waveguide was not damaged physically by thermal stress. Propagation losses detected by a cut-back method were 0.16 dB/cm and 0.26 dB/cm, respectively, before and after the thermal stability test at 850 nm. Loss increase after the thermal treatment can be attributed to the formation of the absorbing and scattering sources. This waveguide can be applied for areas that require thermal stability such as an optical printed-circuit board.

  9. Optical properties of K9 glass waveguides fabricated by using carbon-ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chun-Xiao; Wei, Wei; Fu, Li-Li; Zhu, Xu-Feng; Guo, Hai-Tao; Li, Wei-Nan; Lin, She-Bao

    2016-07-01

    K9 glass is a material with promising properties that make it attractive for optical devices. Ion implantation is a powerful technique to form waveguides with controllable depth and refractive index profile. In this work, optical planar waveguide structures were fabricated in K9 glasses by using 6.0-MeV C3+-ion implantation with a fluence of 1.0 × 1015 ions/cm2. The effective refractive indices of the guided modes were measured by using a prism-coupling system. The refractive index change in the ion-irradiated region was simulated by using the intensity calculation method. The modal intensity profile of the waveguide was calculated and measured by using the finite difference beam propagation method and the end-face coupling technique, respectively. The transmission spectra before and after the implantation showed that the main absorption band was not influenced by the low fluence dopants. The optical properties of the carbon-implanted K9 glass waveguides show promise for use as integrated photonic devices.

  10. Optics of an individual organic molecular mesowire waveguide: directional light emission and anomalous refractive index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Ravi P. N.; Dasgupta, Arindam; Chikkaraddy, Rohit; Pratim Patra, Partha; Vasista, Adarsh B.; Pavan Kumar, G. V.

    2016-06-01

    We report on experimental investigations performed on an isolated organic mesowire waveguide resting on a glass substrate. The waveguide was made of diaminoanthraquinone (DAAQ) molecular aggregates. First, we show directional emission of light from distal ends of the DAAQ waveguide. For a given mesowire geometry, operating in passive or photoluminescence regimes, we quantified the emission angles by combining multi-wavelength Fourier-plane optical microscopy and photoluminescence micro-spectroscopy. We found light emission in the photoluminescence regime to be more directional in nature compared to the passive waveguiding regime, which was supported by three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations. Second, we measured the anomalous behaviour of refractive index as a function of emission wavelength using the spectra of directionally emitted light. Third, by using spatial-filtered collection optics, we observed and quantified single-excitation dual-channel directional, active emission from DAAQ mesowire. The results discussed herein has implication not only in understanding some fundamental aspects of exciton-polariton mediated directional light emission, but also in applications such as organic optical antennas and photonic couplers.

  11. Ultra-thin silicon/electro-optic polymer hybrid waveguide modulators

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, Feng; Spring, Andrew M.; Sato, Hiromu; Maeda, Daisuke; Ozawa, Masa-aki; Odoi, Keisuke; Aoki, Isao; Otomo, Akira; Yokoyama, Shiyoshi

    2015-09-21

    Ultra-thin silicon and electro-optic (EO) polymer hybrid waveguide modulators have been designed and fabricated. The waveguide consists of a silicon core with a thickness of 30 nm and a width of 2 μm. The cladding is an EO polymer. Optical mode calculation reveals that 55% of the optical field around the silicon extends into the EO polymer in the TE mode. A Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) modulator was prepared using common coplanar electrodes. The measured half-wave voltage of the MZI with 7 μm spacing and 1.3 cm long electrodes is 4.6 V at 1550 nm. The evaluated EO coefficient is 70 pm/V, which is comparable to that of the bulk EO polymer film. Using ultra-thin silicon is beneficial in order to reduce the side-wall scattering loss, yielding a propagation loss of 4.0 dB/cm. We also investigated a mode converter which couples light from the hybrid EO waveguide into a strip silicon waveguide. The calculation indicates that the coupling loss between these two devices is small enough to exploit the potential fusion of a hybrid EO polymer modulator together with a silicon micro-photonics device.

  12. Compact broadband polarizer based on shallowly-etched silicon-on-insulator ridge optical waveguides.

    PubMed

    Dai, Daoxin; Wang, Zhi; Julian, Nick; Bowers, John E

    2010-12-20

    A new way to make broadband polarizers on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguides is proposed, analyzed and characterized. The characteristics of the eigenmodes in a shallowly-etched SOI ridge optical waveguide are analyzed by using a full-vectorial finite-different method (FV-FDM) mode solver. The theoretical calculation shows that the loss of TE fundamental mode could be made very low while at the same time the TM fundamental mode has very large leakage loss, which is strongly dependent on the trench width. The leakage loss of the TM fundamental mode changes quasi-periodically as the trench width w(tr) varies. The formula of the period ∆w(tr) is given. By utilizing the huge polarization dependent loss of this kind of waveguide, a compact and simple optical polarizer based on a straight waveguide was demonstrated. The polarizer is fabricated on a 700 nm-thick SOI wafer and then characterized by using a free-space optical system. The measured extinction ratio is as high as 25 dB over a 100 nm wavelength range for a 1 mm-long polarizer.

  13. Fluorescence coupling into structured waveguide as platform for optical portable sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiler, Anne-Laure; Labeye, Pierre; Pouteau, Patrick; Mallard, Frédéric; Hugon, Xavier; Benech, Pierre

    2005-11-01

    Optical chemical sensors and biosensors are attracting research interest in applications such as environmental monitoring and biomedical diagnostics. Structured Integrated Optical Waveguide is one solution to reduce the reader's cost and size. The principle is the capture of fluorescence emitted by Qdots at the surface of a rib waveguide, which collects then guides it at the end-face of the chip to be detected. However, fluorescence coupling into a waveguide is still not easy to predict as it depends on fluorophore's environment and dipole's orientation and location. We report here the validation of a simple theory concerning optimization of optical waveguide's thickness considering a fluorophore's position. Optimisation of coupling power between a dipole and a guided mode can be simplified by the optimisation of the guided mode's intensity ratio integrated in the 5 nm region over the guide's core surface (where QDots are supposed to settle) divided by the whole guided intensity. A model has been developed from the work of Marcuse1: coupled power is proportional to the square of the electrical field of the guided wave. As a result, this model gives an optimal core's thickness and efficiency of coupling depends on polarisation. Moreover, FDTD simulations do complete this study. Three thicknesses have been therefore experimentally deposited: 100 nm, 125 nm and 150 nm. To conclude, experimentation corresponds to the model. A new, sensitive and potentially low cost portable transducer for the analysis of all kinds of biomolecular affinity systems has been developed and validated.

  14. Optical planar waveguide in sodium-doped calcium barium niobate crystals by carbon ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jin-Hua; Qin, Xi-Feng; Wang, Feng-Xiang; Fu, Gang; Wang, Hui-Lin; Wang, Xue-Lin

    2013-07-01

    There is great interest in niobate crystals which belong to the tetragonal tungsten bronze (TTB) families owing to their intriguing properties. As one representative of such crystals, CBN (calcium barium niobate) has attracted rapidly growing attention. Because it has a higher Curie temperature than SBN (strontium barium niobate), possesses outstanding ferroelectric and it possesses optical properties. In addition, doped with sodium, CBN will show a higher Curie temperature than pure CBN. We report on the fabrication and characterization of optical planar waveguide in x-cut sodium-doped calcium barium niobate crystal by using C ion implantation. The guided-mode properties at the wavelength of 633 and 1539 nm are investigated through prism-coupling measurements, respectively. By applying direct end-face coupling arrangement, the near-field optical intensity distribution of waveguide modes is measured at 633 nm. For comparison, the modal profile of the same guided mode is also numerically calculated by the finite difference beam-propagation method via computer software BeamPROP. The transmission spectra of the waveguide before and after ion implantation treatments were investigated also. Our experiment results reveal that the waveguide could propagate light with transverse magnetic polarized direction only and it is assumed that the polarization selectivity of CBN crystal may responsible for this phenomenon.

  15. Ion beam induced optical and surface modification in plasmonic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Udai B.; Gautam, Subodh K.; Kumar, Sunil; Hooda, Sonu; Ojha, Sunil; Singh, Fouran

    2016-07-01

    In present work, ion irradiation induced nanostructuring has been exploited as an efficient and effective tool for synthesis of coupled plasmonics nanostructures by using 1.2 MeV Xe ions on Au/ZnO/Au system deposited on glass substrate. The results are correlated on the basis of their optical absorption, surface morphologies and enhanced sensitivity of evolved phonon modes by using UV Visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Raman spectroscopy (RS), respectively. Optical absorbance spectra of plasmonic nanostructures (NSs) show a decrease in band gap, which may be ascribed to the formation of defects with ion irradiation. The surface morphology reveals the formation of percolated NSs upon ion irradiation and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) study clearly shows the formation of multilayer system. Furthermore, RS measurements on samples are studied to understand the enhanced sensitivity of ion irradiation induced phonon mode at 573 cm-1 along with other modes. As compared to pristine sample, a stronger and pronounced evolution of these phonon modes is observed with further ion irradiation, which indicates localized surface plasmon results with enhanced intensity of phonon modes of Zinc oxide (ZnO) material. Thus, such plasmonic NSs can be used as surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates.

  16. How To Identify Plasmons from the Optical Response of Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Runmin; Bursi, Luca; Cox, Joel D; Cui, Yao; Krauter, Caroline M; Alabastri, Alessandro; Manjavacas, Alejandro; Calzolari, Arrigo; Corni, Stefano; Molinari, Elisa; Carter, Emily A; García de Abajo, F Javier; Zhang, Hui; Nordlander, Peter

    2017-07-25

    A promising trend in plasmonics involves shrinking the size of plasmon-supporting structures down to a few nanometers, thus enabling control over light-matter interaction at extreme-subwavelength scales. In this limit, quantum mechanical effects, such as nonlocal screening and size quantization, strongly affect the plasmonic response, rendering it substantially different from classical predictions. For very small clusters and molecules, collective plasmonic modes are hard to distinguish from other excitations such as single-electron transitions. Using rigorous quantum mechanical computational techniques for a wide variety of physical systems, we describe how an optical resonance of a nanostructure can be classified as either plasmonic or nonplasmonic. More precisely, we define a universal metric for such classification, the generalized plasmonicity index (GPI), which can be straightforwardly implemented in any computational electronic-structure method or classical electromagnetic approach to discriminate plasmons from single-particle excitations and photonic modes. Using the GPI, we investigate the plasmonicity of optical resonances in a wide range of systems including: the emergence of plasmonic behavior in small jellium spheres as the size and the number of electrons increase; atomic-scale metallic clusters as a function of the number of atoms; and nanostructured graphene as a function of size and doping down to the molecular plasmons in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Our study provides a rigorous foundation for the further development of ultrasmall nanostructures based on molecular plasmonics.

  17. How To Identify Plasmons from the Optical Response of Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    A promising trend in plasmonics involves shrinking the size of plasmon-supporting structures down to a few nanometers, thus enabling control over light–matter interaction at extreme-subwavelength scales. In this limit, quantum mechanical effects, such as nonlocal screening and size quantization, strongly affect the plasmonic response, rendering it substantially different from classical predictions. For very small clusters and molecules, collective plasmonic modes are hard to distinguish from other excitations such as single-electron transitions. Using rigorous quantum mechanical computational techniques for a wide variety of physical systems, we describe how an optical resonance of a nanostructure can be classified as either plasmonic or nonplasmonic. More precisely, we define a universal metric for such classification, the generalized plasmonicity index (GPI), which can be straightforwardly implemented in any computational electronic-structure method or classical electromagnetic approach to discriminate plasmons from single-particle excitations and photonic modes. Using the GPI, we investigate the plasmonicity of optical resonances in a wide range of systems including: the emergence of plasmonic behavior in small jellium spheres as the size and the number of electrons increase; atomic-scale metallic clusters as a function of the number of atoms; and nanostructured graphene as a function of size and doping down to the molecular plasmons in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Our study provides a rigorous foundation for the further development of ultrasmall nanostructures based on molecular plasmonics. PMID:28651057

  18. Silver nanostructures synthesis via optically induced electrochemical deposition

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pan; Liu, Na; Yu, Haibo; Wang, Feifei; Liu, Lianqing; Lee, Gwo-Bin; Wang, Yuechao; Li, Wen Jung

    2016-01-01

    We present a new digitally controlled, optically induced electrochemical deposition (OED) method for fabricating silver nanostructures. Projected light patterns were used to induce an electrochemical reaction in a specialized sandwich-like microfluidic device composed of one indium tin oxide (ITO) glass electrode and an optically sensitive-layer-covered ITO electrode. Silver polyhedral nanoparticles, triangular and hexagonal nanoplates, and nanobelts were controllably synthesized in specific positions at which projected light was illuminated. The silver nanobelts had rectangular cross-sections with an average width of 300 nm and an average thickness of 100 nm. By controlling the applied voltage, frequency, and time, different silver nanostructure morphologies were obtained. Based on the classic electric double-layer theory, a dynamic process of reduction and crystallization can be described in terms of three phases. Because it is template- and surfactant-free, the digitally controlled OED method facilitates the easy, low cost, efficient, and flexible synthesis of functional silver nanostructures, especially quasi-one-dimensional nanobelts. PMID:27295084

  19. Optical transmitter module using polymer waveguide with fully integrated reflector mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, In-Kui; Ahn, Seoung-Ho; Lee, Woo-Jin; Han, Sang-Pil; Bae, Byeong-Soo; Yoon, Keun Byoung; Jeong, Myung-Yung; Park, Hyo Hoon

    2006-09-01

    The cost-effective and repeatable technology for integration of polymer multimode waveguide and out-of-plane 45° reflector mirrors is developed. This method is cost-effective, repeatable, robust, and fully compatible with the standard manufacturing processes for a 90° optical bending structure. The basic concept of the technology for integration of waveguide and out-of-plane 45° reflector mirrors is as follows; 1) The positively patterned master in order to mold waveguides is manufactured by using photolithography and Deep RIE (Reactive Ion Etching). And the master is polished to obtain 45°-inclined plane. 2) Both sides of the positively patterned master are divided into three parts by using a sawing machine. One is a center master (main-master) with a positively patterned waveguide and the others are side masters (sub-master) without a pattered waveguide. The main master and sub-master turned over get back together again. 3) The negatively patterned PDMS master to be able to mold simultaneously both waveguide and out-of-plane 45° reflector mirrors is manufactured through pouring PDMS gel into master and thermally curing the PDMS master. 4) The multimode tapered waveguides with out-of-plane 45° reflector mirrors are simultaneously embossed by using PDMS master. The UV (Ultraviolet) curable material is organic-inorganic hybrid material (HYBRIMER, core index: 1.51, clad index: 1.48). The transmitter module is constructed on a MOB. The MOB was employed for several purposes; to align optical module passively, to use as heat sinker and also to support the boards. On this MOB, 1×4 arrays of vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) and Tapered Waveguide with 45° reflector mirrors are integrated. The height and width of waveguide's core are 100 μm, 60 μm respectively and the pitch is 250 μm. The transmission access lines in transmitter are designed considering differential impedance matching for high-speed operation. We measured the insertion loss of this

  20. Study of optical waveguide sensor using metamaterial as buffer layer with non-linear cladding and substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Santosh; Kumari, Anamika; Raghuwanshi, Sanjeev K.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, dispersion equation of optical waveguide using metamaterial as buffer layer with non-linear cladding and substrate is pointed. The sensitivity of TE in metamaterial optical waveguide sensor is computed mathematically. The impacts of buffer layer with non-linear cladding and substrate on metamaterial optical waveguide sensor are also tried out. The effects of various parameters on sensitivity of sensor are obtained through MATLAB. It is expected that metamaterial as buffer layer with non-linear cladding and substrate profile has a huge application in leaky fibre sensor, gas sensor and chemical sensor for oil and under grounds mining industries.