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Sample records for nanotube field-effect transistors

  1. Electronic transport characteristics in silicon nanotube field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Guangcun; Wang, Yu; Huang, Wei

    2011-07-01

    The successful synthesis of silicon nanotubes (SiNTs) has been reported, making these nanostructures a new novel candidate for future nanodevices. By self-consistently solving the Poisson equations using the non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) formalism, we investigate the electronic transport and the role of gate bias in affecting the drive current of single-walled silicon nanotube (SW-SiNT) field-effect transistors (FETs). By comparison of a SW-CNT FET, it is found that the SW-SiNT with a high- k HfO gate oxide is a promising candidate for nanotube transistor with better performance. The results discussed here would serve as a versatile and powerful guideline for future experimental studies of SW-SiNT-based transistor with the purpose of exploring device application for nanoelectronics.

  2. Mechanism of gas sensing in carbon nanotube field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dube, Isha

    Gas sensors based on carbon nanotubes in the field effect transistor configuration have exhibited impressive sensitivities compared to the existing technologies. However, the lack of an understanding of the gas sensing mechanism in these carbon nanotube field effect transistors (CNTFETs) has impeded setting-up a calibration standard and customization of these nano-sensors for specified gas sensing application. Calibration requires identifying fundamental transistor parameters and establishing how they vary in the presence of a gas and influence the overall sensing behavior. This work focuses on modeling the sensing behavior of a CNTFET in the presence of oxidizing (NO 2) and reducing (NH3) gases and determining how each of the transistor parameters, namely: the Schottky barrier height, Schottky barrier width and doping level of the nanotube are affected by the presence of these gases. Earlier experiments have shown that the carbon nanotube-metal interface is responsible for the observed change in the CNTFET response. The interface consists of the metal contact and the depletion region in the carbon nanotube. A change in the metal work function will change the Schottky barrier height, whereas doping of the depletion region will affect the Schottky barrier width and the doping level of the carbon nanotube. A theoretical model containing these parameters was systematically fitted to the experimental transfer characteristics for different concentrations of NO2 and NH3. A direct correlation between the measured changes in the CNTFET saturated conductance and the Schottky barrier height was found. These changes are directly related to the changes in the metal work function of the electrodes that I determined experimentally, independently, with a Kelvin probe system. The overall change in the CNTFET characteristics were explained and quantified by also including changes due to doping from molecules adsorbed at the carbon nanotube-metal interface through the parameters

  3. MoS{sub 2} nanotube field effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Strojnik, M. E-mail: dragan.mihailovic@ijs.si; Mrzel, A.; Buh, J.; Strle, J.; Kovic, A.; Mihailovic, D. E-mail: dragan.mihailovic@ijs.si

    2014-09-15

    We report on electric field effects on electron transport in multi-walled MoS{sub 2} nanotubes (NTs), fabricated using a two-step synthesis method from Mo{sub 6}S{sub x}I{sub 9-x} nanowire bundle precursors. Transport properties were measured on 20 single nanotube field effect transistor (FET) devices, and compared with MoS{sub 2} layered crystal devices prepared using identical fabrication techniques. The NTs exhibited mobilities of up to 0.014 cm{sup 2}V{sup −1}s{sup −1} and an on/off ratio of up to 60. As such they are comparable with previously reported WS{sub 2} nanotube FETs, but materials defects and imperfections apparently limit their performance compared with multilayer MoS{sub 2} FETs with similar number of layers.

  4. Enhanced shot noise in carbon nanotube field-effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Betti, A.; Fiori, G.; Iannaccone, G.

    2009-12-21

    We predict shot noise enhancement in defect-free carbon nanotube field-effect transistors through a numerical investigation based on the self-consistent solution of the Poisson and Schroedinger equations within the nonequilibrium Green's functions formalism, and on a Monte Carlo approach to reproduce injection statistics. Noise enhancement is due to the correlation between trapping of holes from the drain into quasibound states in the channel and thermionic injection of electrons from the source, and can lead to an appreciable Fano factor of 1.22 at room temperature.

  5. Carbon nanotube gated lateral resonant tunneling field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D. P.; Perkins, B. R.; Yin, A. J.; Zaslavsky, A.; Xu, J. M.; Beresford, R.; Snider, G. L.

    2005-10-01

    We have produced a lateral resonant tunneling field-effect transistor using a Y-junction multiwalled carbon nanotube as the dual gate on a narrow channel etched from a modulation-doped GaAs /AlGaAs heterostructure. When the Y-junction nanotube is negatively biased, electrons traveling from source to drain along the channel face a voltage-tunable electrostatic double-barrier potential. We measured the three-terminal IDS(VDS,VGS) characteristics of the device at 4.2 K and observed gate-induced structure in the transconductance and negative differential resistance in the drain current. We interpret the data in terms of resonant tunneling through one-dimensional subbands confined by a self-consistently calculated electrostatic potential.

  6. Carbon Nanotube Gated Lateral Resonant Tunneling Field-Effect Transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D. P.

    2005-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes have generated a great deal of interest for use in novel devices due to their small size and high current densities. We have produced a new type of lateral resonant tunneling field-effect transistor using a Y-junction multiwalled carbon nanotube as the dual gate on a narrow wire etched from a modulation-doped GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. The two branches of the Y-junction nanotube produced in an alumina nanotemplate array ootnotetextLi, J., Papadopoulos, C. and Xu, J. M., ``Growing Y- Junction Carbon Nanotubes" Nature 402, 253-254, 2000. are used as gates to produce a voltage-tunable double-barrier potential for the carriers traveling from source to drain along the wire. The three terminal I-V characteristics of the device have been measured at 4.2K. Conductance oscillation is observed as a function of dual gate potential, indicating electron resonant tunneling through the energy states between the barriers. Detailed measurement and comparison with self-consistent potential simulations will be presented.

  7. Fabrication of Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistors Using Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition Grown Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnaka, Hirofumi; Kojima, Yoshihiro; Kishimoto, Shigeru; Ohno, Yutaka; Mizutani, Takashi

    2006-06-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes are grown using grid-inserted plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The field effect transistor operation was confirmed using the PECVD grown carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The preferential growth of the semiconducting nanotubes was confirmed in the grid-inserted PECVD by measuring current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the devices. Based on the measurement of the electrical breakdown of the metallic CNTs, the probability of growing the semiconducting nanotubes has been estimated to be more than 90%.

  8. Analysis of long-channel nanotube field-effect-transistors (NT FETs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toshishige, Yamada; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an analysis of long-channel nanotube (NT) field effect transistors (FET) from NASA's Ames Research Center. The structure of such a transistor including the electrode contact, 1D junction, and the planar junction is outlined. Also mentioned are various characteristics of a nanotube tip-equipped scanning tunnel microscope (STM).

  9. Self aligned hysteresis free carbon nanotube field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shlafman, M.; Tabachnik, T.; Shtempluk, O.; Razin, A.; Kochetkov, V.; Yaish, Y. E.

    2016-04-01

    Hysteresis phenomenon in the transfer characteristics of carbon nanotube field effect transistor (CNT FET) is being considered as the main obstacle for successful realization of electronic devices based on CNTs. In this study, we prepare four kinds of CNTFETs and explore their hysteretic behavior. Two kinds of devices comprise on-surface CNTs (type I) and suspended CNTs (type II) with thin insulating layer underneath and a single global gate which modulates the CNT conductance. The third and fourth types (types III and IV) consist of suspended CNT over a metallic local gate underneath, where for type IV the local gate was patterned self aligned with the source and drain electrodes. The first two types of devices, i.e., type I and II, exhibit substantial hysteresis which increases with scanning range and sweeping time. Under high vacuum conditions and moderate electric fields ( |E |>4 ×106 V /cm ), the hysteresis for on-surface devices cannot be eliminated, as opposed to suspended devices. Interestingly, type IV devices exhibit no hysteresis at all at ambient conditions, and from the different roles which the global and local gates play for the four types of devices, we could learn about the hysteresis mechanism of this system. We believe that these self aligned hysteresis free FETs will enable the realization of different electronic devices and sensors based on CNTs.

  10. Integrating carbon nanotubes into silicon by means of vertical carbon nanotube field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jingqi; Wang, Qingxiao; Yue, Weisheng; Guo, Zaibing; Li, Liang; Zhao, Chao; Wang, Xianbin; Abutaha, Anas I.; Alshareef, H. N.; Zhang, Yafei; Zhang, X. X.

    2014-07-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes have been integrated into silicon for use in vertical carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNTFETs). A unique feature of these devices is that a silicon substrate and a metal contact are used as the source and drain for the vertical transistors, respectively. These CNTFETs show very different characteristics from those fabricated with two metal contacts. Surprisingly, the transfer characteristics of the vertical CNTFETs can be either ambipolar or unipolar (p-type or n-type) depending on the sign of the drain voltage. Furthermore, the p-type/n-type character of the devices is defined by the doping type of the silicon substrate used in the fabrication process. A semiclassical model is used to simulate the performance of these CNTFETs by taking the conductance change of the Si contact under the gate voltage into consideration. The calculation results are consistent with the experimental observations.Single-walled carbon nanotubes have been integrated into silicon for use in vertical carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNTFETs). A unique feature of these devices is that a silicon substrate and a metal contact are used as the source and drain for the vertical transistors, respectively. These CNTFETs show very different characteristics from those fabricated with two metal contacts. Surprisingly, the transfer characteristics of the vertical CNTFETs can be either ambipolar or unipolar (p-type or n-type) depending on the sign of the drain voltage. Furthermore, the p-type/n-type character of the devices is defined by the doping type of the silicon substrate used in the fabrication process. A semiclassical model is used to simulate the performance of these CNTFETs by taking the conductance change of the Si contact under the gate voltage into consideration. The calculation results are consistent with the experimental observations. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00978a

  11. Analysis of Carbon Nanotube Field-Effect-Transistors (FETs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamada, Toshishige

    1999-01-01

    This five page presentation is grouped into 11 numbered viewgraphs, most of which contain one or more diagrams. Some of the diagrams are accompanied by captions, including: 2) Nanotube FET by Delft, IBM; 3) Nanotube FET/Standard MOSFET; 5) Saturation with carrier-carrier; 7) Electronic properties of carbon nanotube; 8) Theoretical nanotube FET characteristics; 11) Summary: Delft and IBM nanotube FET analysis.

  12. Short Channel Field-Effect-Transistors with Inkjet-Printed Semiconducting Carbon Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Jang, Seonpil; Kim, Bongjun; Geier, Michael L; Hersam, Mark C; Dodabalapur, Ananth

    2015-11-01

    Short channel field-effect-transistors with inkjet-printed semiconducting carbon nanotubes are fabricated using a novel strategy to minimize material consumption, confining the inkjet droplet into the active channel area. This fabrication approach is compatible with roll-to-roll processing and enables the formation of high-performance short channel device arrays based on inkjet printing. PMID:26312458

  13. Fabrication of n-type carbon nanotube field-effect transistors by Al doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Hwangyou; Kim, Ju-Jin; Song, Woon; Moon, Sunkyung; Kim, Nam; Kim, Jinhee; Park, Noejung

    2006-03-01

    We report the effect of an Al layer, covering the central part of the nanotube channel, on the electrical transport properties of carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNFETs). The CNFETs, consisting of single-walled carbon nanotube or double-walled carbon nanotube between two Pd electrodes on top of SiO2 layer, which showed p-type or ambipolar transport behaviors, exhibit clear n-type characteristics after the Al deposition. We ascribe such conversions into n-type behaviors to the electron doping in the Al-covered nanotube region, which results in the bending of the nanotube bands nearby the edges of the Al layer. This technique, Al deposition under a high vacuum, may give rise to a practical fabrication method for the n-type CNFET, which may enable us to develop complementary logic nanotube electronic devices.

  14. Si/Ge hetero-structure nanotube tunnel field effect transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Hanna, A. N.; Hussain, M. M.

    2015-01-07

    We discuss the physics of conventional channel material (silicon/germanium hetero-structure) based transistor topology mainly core/shell (inner/outer) gated nanotube vs. gate-all-around nanowire architecture for tunnel field effect transistor application. We show that nanotube topology can result in higher performance through higher normalized current when compared to nanowire architecture at V{sub dd} = 1 V due to the availability of larger tunneling cross section and lower Shockley-Reed-Hall recombination. Both architectures are able to achieve sub 60 mV/dec performance for more than five orders of magnitude of drain current. This enables the nanotube configuration achieving performance same as the nanowire architecture even when V{sub dd} is scaled down to 0.5 V.

  15. High performance of potassium n-doped carbon nanotube field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radosavljević, M.; Appenzeller, J.; Avouris, Ph.; Knoch, J.

    2004-05-01

    We describe a robust technique for the fabrication of high performance vertically scaled n-doped field-effect transistors from large band gap carbon nanotubes. These devices have a tunable threshold voltage in the technologically relevant range (-1.3 V⩽Vth⩽0.5 V) and can carry up to 5-6 μA of current in the on-state. We achieve such performance by exposure to potassium (K) vapor and device annealing in high vacuum. The treatment has a twofold effect to: (i) controllably shift Vth toward negative gate biases via bulk doping of the nanotube (up to about 0.6e-/nm), and (ii) increase the on-current by 1-2 orders of magnitude. This current enhancement is achieved by lowering external device resistance due to more intimate contact between K metal and doped nanotube channel in addition to potential reduction of the Schottky barrier height at the contact.

  16. High Performance n-Type Carbon Nanotube Field-Effect Transistors with Chemically Doped Contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javey, Ali; Tu, Ryan; Farmer, Damon B.; Guo, Jing; Gordon, Roy G.; Dai, Hongjie

    2005-02-01

    Short channel (~80 nm) n-type single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) field-effect transistors (FETs) with potassium (K) doped source and drain regions and high-k gate dielectrics (ALD HfO2) are obtained. For nanotubes with diameter ~ 1.6 nm and bandgap ~ 0.55 eV, we obtain n-MOSFET-like devices exhibiting high on-currents due to chemically suppressed Schottky barriers at the contacts, subthreshold swing of 70mV/decade, negligible ambipolar conduction and high on/off ratios up to 10^6 at a bias voltage of 0.5V. The results compare favorably with the state-of-the-art silicon n-MOSFETs and demonstrate the potential of SWNTs for future complementary electronics. The effects of doping level on the electrical characteristics of the nanotube devices are discussed.

  17. Fabrication process of carbon nanotube field effect transistors using atomic layer deposition passivation for biosensors.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Yasuhiro; Ohno, Yutaka; Kishimoto, Shigeru; Okochi, Mina; Honda, Hiroyuki; Mizutani, Takashi

    2010-06-01

    Fabrication process of the carbon nanotube (CNT) field effect transistors (FETs) for biosensors was studied. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of HfO2 was applied to the deposition of the passivation/gate insulator film. The CNT-FETs did not show the drain current degradation after ALD passivation even though the passivation by Si3N4 deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) resulted in a significant drain current decrease. This indicates the advantage of the present ALD technique in terms of the damage suppression. The biosensing operation was confirmed using thus fabricated CNT-FETs. PMID:20355371

  18. Ultrasensitive Detection of DNA Hybridization Using Carbon Nanotube Field-Effect Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maehashi, Kenzo; Matsumoto, Kazuhiko; Kerman, Kagan; Takamura, Yuzuru; Tamiya, Eiichi

    2004-12-01

    We have sensitively detected DNA hybridization using carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNTFETs) in real time. Amino modified peptide nucleic acid (PNA) oligonucleotides at 5' end were covalently immobilized onto the Au surface of the back gate. For 11-mer PNA oligonucletide probe, full-complementary DNA with concentration as low as 6.8 fM solution could be effectively detected. Our CNTFET-based biochip is a promising candidate for the development of an integrated, high-throughput, multiplexed DNA biosensor for medical, forensic and environmental diagnostics.

  19. Investigating the effect of some parameters of the channel on the characteristics of tunneling carbon nanotube field-effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valed Karimi, Najmeh; Pourasad, Yaghoub

    2016-08-01

    This paper studies p-i-n tunneling carbon nanotube field-effect transistor to investigate the effect of various parameters of the channel on the characteristics of tunneling carbon nanotube field-effect transistor. Tunneling carbon nanotube field-effect transistor (T-CNTFET) has been simulated using non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF), and the transmission was conducted through inelastic scattering. Besides the evaluation of device performance, various parameters of the channel were also compared. One of the parameters is considered as the variable, while other parameters of the channel are constant. Then, improved characteristics were discussed by selection of some channel parameters. T-CNTFET with CNT (10, 0) with oxide thickness = 1 nm shows reduced sub-threshold swing (18 mV/decade).

  20. Polymer-sorted semiconducting carbon nanotube networks for high-performance ambipolar field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Schiessl, Stefan P; Fröhlich, Nils; Held, Martin; Gannott, Florentina; Schweiger, Manuel; Forster, Michael; Scherf, Ullrich; Zaumseil, Jana

    2015-01-14

    Efficient selection of semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) from as-grown nanotube samples is crucial for their application as printable and flexible semiconductors in field-effect transistors (FETs). In this study, we use atactic poly(9-dodecyl-9-methyl-fluorene) (a-PF-1-12), a polyfluorene derivative with asymmetric side-chains, for the selective dispersion of semiconducting SWNTs with large diameters (>1 nm) from plasma torch-grown SWNTs. Lowering the molecular weight of the dispersing polymer leads to a significant improvement of selectivity. Combining dense semiconducting SWNT networks deposited from an enriched SWNT dispersion with a polymer/metal-oxide hybrid dielectric enables transistors with balanced ambipolar, contact resistance-corrected mobilities of up to 50 cm(2)·V(-1)·s(-1), low ohmic contact resistance, steep subthreshold swings (0.12-0.14 V/dec) and high on/off ratios (10(6)) even for short channel lengths (<10 μm). These FETs operate at low voltages (<3 V) and show almost no current hysteresis. The resulting ambipolar complementary-like inverters exhibit gains up to 61. PMID:25493421

  1. Polymer-Sorted Semiconducting Carbon Nanotube Networks for High-Performance Ambipolar Field-Effect Transistors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Efficient selection of semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) from as-grown nanotube samples is crucial for their application as printable and flexible semiconductors in field-effect transistors (FETs). In this study, we use atactic poly(9-dodecyl-9-methyl-fluorene) (a-PF-1-12), a polyfluorene derivative with asymmetric side-chains, for the selective dispersion of semiconducting SWNTs with large diameters (>1 nm) from plasma torch-grown SWNTs. Lowering the molecular weight of the dispersing polymer leads to a significant improvement of selectivity. Combining dense semiconducting SWNT networks deposited from an enriched SWNT dispersion with a polymer/metal-oxide hybrid dielectric enables transistors with balanced ambipolar, contact resistance-corrected mobilities of up to 50 cm2·V–1·s–1, low ohmic contact resistance, steep subthreshold swings (0.12–0.14 V/dec) and high on/off ratios (106) even for short channel lengths (<10 μm). These FETs operate at low voltages (<3 V) and show almost no current hysteresis. The resulting ambipolar complementary-like inverters exhibit gains up to 61. PMID:25493421

  2. Enrichment of semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes by carbothermic reaction for use in all-nanotube field effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Li, Shisheng; Liu, Chang; Hou, Peng-Xiang; Sun, Dong-Ming; Cheng, Hui-Ming

    2012-11-27

    Selective removal of metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and consequent enrichment of semiconducting SWCNTs were achieved through an efficient carbothermic reaction with a NiO thin film at a relatively low temperature of 350 °C. All-SWCNT field effect transistors (FETs) were fabricated with the aid of a patterned NiO mask, in which the as-grown SWCNTs behaving as source/drain electrodes and the remaining semiconducting SWCNTs that survive in the carbothermic reaction as a channel material. The all-SWCNT FETs demonstrate improved current ON/OFF ratios of ∼10(3).

  3. A mathematical space mapping model for ballistic carbon nanotube field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emamifar, Farnousha; Yousefi, Reza

    2016-11-01

    In this study, a mathematical model is presented based on mathematical space mapping for ballistic carbon nanotube field-effect transistors. This model is generalized from another model that was based on the concept of neural space mapping to calculate the three parameters of a coarse model. These parameters were the threshold voltage, the Early voltage, and assumed constant k of a modified "level 1" MOSFET model in simulation program with integrated circuit emphasis (SPICE). In this work, three analytical relations are introduced to replace the neural networks of the main model. The comparisons between the proposed model and a well-known reference model, named FETToy, show that the proposed model had reasonable accuracy in terms of different biases and physical parameters.

  4. Performance analysis of junctionless carbon nanotube field effect transistors using NEGF formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbastegan, Saber; Shahhoseini, Ali

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the simulation study of a junctionless carbon nanotube field effect transistor (JL-CNTFET) and a comparison is made with the conventional CNTFET using the atomistic scale simulation, within the non-equilibrium Green’s function (NEGF) formalism. In order to have a comprehensive analysis, both analog and digital parameters of the device are studied. Results have shown that JL-CNTFET with respect to C-CNTFET shows slightly higher ION/IOFF ratio about two times larger than that of C-CNTFET, smaller electric field along channel more than three order of magnitude and reduced tunneling current about 100 times. In addition, the investigation of analog properties of both devices has exhibited that junctionless structure has a transconductance about two times and an intrinsic gain of 15 dB larger than C-CNTFET in same bias condition which makes JL-CNTFET a promising candidate for low voltage analog applications.

  5. Modeling and simulation of carbon nanotube field effect transistor and its circuit application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Amandeep; Saini, Dinesh Kumar; Agarwal, Dinesh; Aggarwal, Sajal; Khosla, Mamta; Raj, Balwinder

    2016-07-01

    The carbon nanotube field effect transistor (CNTFET) is modelled for circuit application. The model is based on the transport mechanism and it directly relates the transport mechanism with the chirality. Also, it does not consider self consistent equations and thus is used to develop the HSPICE compatible circuit model. For validation of the model, it is applied to the top gate CNTFET structure and the MATLAB simulation results are compared with the simulations of a similar structure created in NanoTCAD ViDES. For demonstrating the circuit compatibility of the model, two circuits viz. inverter and SRAM are designed and simulated in HSPICE. Finally, SRAM performance metrics are compared with those of device simulations from Nano TCAD ViDES.

  6. A measurement technique for circumventing hysteresis and conductance drift in carbon nanotube field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Tunnell, Andrew; Ballarotto, Vincent; Cumings, John

    2014-01-31

    We present a measurement protocol that effectively eliminates both the hysteresis and the temporal drift typically observed in the channel conductance of single-walled carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (SWNT FETs) during the application of gate voltages. Before each resistance measurement, the gate is first stepped through a series of alternating positive and negative voltages to produce a neutral charge distribution within the device. This process is highly effective at removing the hysteresis in the channel conductance, and time-dependent measurements further demonstrate that the drain current is stable and single-valued, independent of the prior measurement history. The effectiveness of this method can be understood within the Preisach hysteresis model, which we demonstrate as a useful framework to predict the observed results. PMID:24394672

  7. A measurement technique for circumventing hysteresis and conductance drift in carbon nanotube field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunnell, Andrew; Ballarotto, Vincent; Cumings, John

    2014-01-01

    We present a measurement protocol that effectively eliminates both the hysteresis and the temporal drift typically observed in the channel conductance of single-walled carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (SWNT FETs) during the application of gate voltages. Before each resistance measurement, the gate is first stepped through a series of alternating positive and negative voltages to produce a neutral charge distribution within the device. This process is highly effective at removing the hysteresis in the channel conductance, and time-dependent measurements further demonstrate that the drain current is stable and single-valued, independent of the prior measurement history. The effectiveness of this method can be understood within the Preisach hysteresis model, which we demonstrate as a useful framework to predict the observed results.

  8. Modeling of Gate Bias Modulation in Carbon Nanotube Field-Effect-Transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toshishige, Yamada; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The threshold voltages of a carbon-nanotube (CNT) field-effect transistor (FET) are studied. The CNT channel is so thin that there is no voltage drop perpendicular to the gate electrode plane, and this makes the device characteristics quite unique. The relation between the voltage and the electrochemical potentials, and the mass action law for electrons and holes are examined in the context of CNTs, and inversion and accumulation threshold voltages (V(sub Ti), and V(sub Ta)) are derived. V(sub Ti) of the CNTFETs has a much stronger doping dependence than that of the metal-oxide- semiconductor FETs, while V(sub Ta) of both devices depends weakly on doping with the same functional form.

  9. Performance analysis of junctionless carbon nanotube field effect transistors using NEGF formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbastegan, Saber; Shahhoseini, Ali

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the simulation study of a junctionless carbon nanotube field effect transistor (JL-CNTFET) and a comparison is made with the conventional CNTFET using the atomistic scale simulation, within the non-equilibrium Green’s function (NEGF) formalism. In order to have a comprehensive analysis, both analog and digital parameters of the device are studied. Results have shown that JL-CNTFET with respect to C-CNTFET shows slightly higher ION/IOFF ratio about two times larger than that of C-CNTFET, smaller electric field along channel more than three order of magnitude and reduced tunneling current about 100 times. In addition, the investigation of analog properties of both devices has exhibited that junctionless structure has a transconductance about two times and an intrinsic gain of 15 dB larger than C-CNTFET in same bias condition which makes JL-CNTFET a promising candidate for low voltage analog applications.

  10. Label-free detection of DNA hybridization using carbon nanotube network field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Star, Alexander; Tu, Eugene; Niemann, Joseph; Gabriel, Jean-Christophe P.; Joiner, C. Steve; Valcke, Christian

    2006-01-01

    We report carbon nanotube network field-effect transistors (NTNFETs) that function as selective detectors of DNA immobilization and hybridization. NTNFETs with immobilized synthetic oligonucleotides have been shown to specifically recognize target DNA sequences, including H63D single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discrimination in the HFE gene, responsible for hereditary hemochromatosis. The electronic responses of NTNFETs upon single-stranded DNA immobilization and subsequent DNA hybridization events were confirmed by using fluorescence-labeled oligonucleotides and then were further explored for label-free DNA detection at picomolar to micromolar concentrations. We have also observed a strong effect of DNA counterions on the electronic response, thus suggesting a charge-based mechanism of DNA detection using NTNFET devices. Implementation of label-free electronic detection assays using NTNFETs constitutes an important step toward low-cost, low-complexity, highly sensitive and accurate molecular diagnostics. hemochromatosis | SNP | biosensor

  11. Sensing Reversible Protein–Ligand Interactions with Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Field-Effect Transistors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report on the reversible detection of CaptAvidin, a tyrosine modified avidin, with single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) field-effect transistors (FETs) noncovalently functionalized with biotin moieties using 1-pyrenebutyric acid as a linker. Binding affinities at different pH values were quantified, and the sensor’s response at various ionic strengths was analyzed. Furthermore, protein “fingerprints” of NeutrAvidin and streptavidin were obtained by monitoring their adsorption at several pH values. Moreover, gold nanoparticle decorated SWNT FETs were functionalized with biotin using 1-pyrenebutyric acid as a linker for the CNT surface and (±)-α-lipoic acid linkers for the gold surface, and reversible CaptAvidin binding is shown, paving the way for potential dual mode measurements with the addition of surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). PMID:25126155

  12. Single-molecule measurements of proteins using carbon nanotube field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sims, Patrick Craig

    Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) field-effect transistors (FETs) provide a promising platform for investigating proteins at the single-molecule level. Recently, we have demonstrated that SWCNT FETs have sufficient sensitivity and bandwidth to monitor the conformational motions and processivity of an individual T4 lysozyme molecule. This is accomplished by functionalizing a SWCNT FET device with a single protein and measuring the conductance versus time through the device as it is submerged in an electrolyte solution. To generalize this approach for the study of a wide variety of proteins at the single-molecule level, this dissertation investigates the conjugation process to determine and isolate the key parameters involved in functionalizing a SWCNT with a single protein, the physical basis for transducing conformational motion of a protein into an electrical signal, and finally, the general application of the technique to monitor the binary and ternary complex formation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA).

  13. Synthesized multiwall MoS{sub 2} nanotube and nanoribbon field-effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Fathipour, S. Ajoy, A.; Vishwanath, S.; Rouvimov, S.; Xing, H. G.; Jena, D.; Seabaugh, A.; Remskar, M.; Varlec, A.; Yan, R.; Hwang, W. S.

    2015-01-12

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of synthesized multiwall MoS{sub 2} nanotube (NT) and nanoribbon (NR) field-effect transistors (FETs). The MoS{sub 2} NTs and NRs were grown by chemical transport, using iodine as a transport agent. Raman spectroscopy confirms the material as unambiguously MoS{sub 2} in NT, NR, and flake forms. Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe cross sections of the devices after electrical measurements and these were used in the interpretation of the electrical measurements, allowing the estimation of the current density. The NT and NR FETs demonstrate n-type behavior, with ON/OFF current ratios exceeding 10{sup 3}, and with current densities of 1.02 μA/μm and 0.79 μA/μm at V{sub DS} = 0.3 V and V{sub BG} = 1 V, respectively. Photocurrent measurements conducted on a MoS{sub 2} NT FET revealed short-circuit photocurrent of tens of nanoamps under an excitation optical power of 78 μW and 488 nm wavelength, which corresponds to a responsivity of 460 μA/W. A long channel transistor model was used to model the common-source characteristics of MoS{sub 2} NT and NR FETs and was shown to be consistent with the measured data.

  14. Device and circuit-level performance of carbon nanotube field-effect transistor with benchmarking against a nano-MOSFET

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The performance of a semiconducting carbon nanotube (CNT) is assessed and tabulated for parameters against those of a metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET). Both CNT and MOSFET models considered agree well with the trends in the available experimental data. The results obtained show that nanotubes can significantly reduce the drain-induced barrier lowering effect and subthreshold swing in silicon channel replacement while sustaining smaller channel area at higher current density. Performance metrics of both devices such as current drive strength, current on-off ratio (Ion/Ioff), energy-delay product, and power-delay product for logic gates, namely NAND and NOR, are presented. Design rules used for carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNTFETs) are compatible with the 45-nm MOSFET technology. The parasitics associated with interconnects are also incorporated in the model. Interconnects can affect the propagation delay in a CNTFET. Smaller length interconnects result in higher cutoff frequency. PMID:22901374

  15. Device and circuit-level performance of carbon nanotube field-effect transistor with benchmarking against a nano-MOSFET.

    PubMed

    Tan, Michael Loong Peng; Lentaris, Georgios; Amaratunga Aj, Gehan

    2012-01-01

    The performance of a semiconducting carbon nanotube (CNT) is assessed and tabulated for parameters against those of a metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET). Both CNT and MOSFET models considered agree well with the trends in the available experimental data. The results obtained show that nanotubes can significantly reduce the drain-induced barrier lowering effect and subthreshold swing in silicon channel replacement while sustaining smaller channel area at higher current density. Performance metrics of both devices such as current drive strength, current on-off ratio (Ion/Ioff), energy-delay product, and power-delay product for logic gates, namely NAND and NOR, are presented. Design rules used for carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNTFETs) are compatible with the 45-nm MOSFET technology. The parasitics associated with interconnects are also incorporated in the model. Interconnects can affect the propagation delay in a CNTFET. Smaller length interconnects result in higher cutoff frequency.

  16. Enzyme assays using sensor arrays based on ion-selective carbon nanotube field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Melzer, K; Bhatt, V Deep; Jaworska, E; Mittermeier, R; Maksymiuk, K; Michalska, A; Lugli, P

    2016-10-15

    In the fields of clinical diagnostics and point-of-care diagnosis as well as food and environmental monitoring there is a high demand for reliable high-throughput, rapid and highly sensitive assays for a simultaneous detection of several analytes in complex and low-volume samples. Sensor platforms based on solution-processable electrolyte-gated carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNT-FETs) are a simple and cost-effective alternative for conventional assays. In this work we demonstrate a selective as well as direct detection of the products of an enzyme-substrate interaction, here the for metabolic processes important urea-urease system, with sensors based on spray-coated CNT-FETs. The selective and direct detection is achieved by immobilizing the enzyme urease via certain surface functionalization techniques on the sensor surface and further modifying the active interfaces with polymeric ion-selective membranes as well as pH-sensitive layers. Thereby, we can avoid the generally applied approach for a field-effect based detection of enzyme reactions via detecting changes in the pH value due to an on-going enzymatic reaction and directly detect selectively the products of the enzymatic conversion. Thus, we can realize a buffering-capacity independent monitoring of changes in the substrate concentration. PMID:27140308

  17. Enzyme assays using sensor arrays based on ion-selective carbon nanotube field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Melzer, K; Bhatt, V Deep; Jaworska, E; Mittermeier, R; Maksymiuk, K; Michalska, A; Lugli, P

    2016-10-15

    In the fields of clinical diagnostics and point-of-care diagnosis as well as food and environmental monitoring there is a high demand for reliable high-throughput, rapid and highly sensitive assays for a simultaneous detection of several analytes in complex and low-volume samples. Sensor platforms based on solution-processable electrolyte-gated carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNT-FETs) are a simple and cost-effective alternative for conventional assays. In this work we demonstrate a selective as well as direct detection of the products of an enzyme-substrate interaction, here the for metabolic processes important urea-urease system, with sensors based on spray-coated CNT-FETs. The selective and direct detection is achieved by immobilizing the enzyme urease via certain surface functionalization techniques on the sensor surface and further modifying the active interfaces with polymeric ion-selective membranes as well as pH-sensitive layers. Thereby, we can avoid the generally applied approach for a field-effect based detection of enzyme reactions via detecting changes in the pH value due to an on-going enzymatic reaction and directly detect selectively the products of the enzymatic conversion. Thus, we can realize a buffering-capacity independent monitoring of changes in the substrate concentration.

  18. Demonstration of high current carbon nanotube enabled vertical organic field effect transistors at industrially relevant voltages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Mitchell

    The display market is presently dominated by the active matrix liquid crystal display (LCD). However, the active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) display is argued to become the successor to the LCD, and is already beginning its way into the market, mainly in small size displays. But, for AMOLED technology to become comparable in market share to LCD, larger size displays must become available at a competitive price with their LCD counterparts. A major issue preventing low-cost large AMOLED displays is the thin-film transistor (TFT) technology. Unlike the voltage driven LCD, the OLEDs in the AMOLED display are current driven. Because of this, the mature amorphous silicon TFT backplane technology used in the LCD must be upgraded to a material possessing a higher mobility. Polycrystalline silicon and transparent oxide TFT technologies are being considered to fill this need. But these technologies bring with them significant manufacturing complexity and cost concerns. Carbon nanotube enabled vertical organic field effect transistors (CN-VFETs) offer a unique solution to this problem (now known as the AMOLED backplane problem). The CN-VFET allows the use of organic semiconductors to be used for the semiconductor layer. Organics are known for their low-cost large area processing compatibility. Although the mobility of the best organics is only comparable to that of amorphous silicon, the CN-VFET makes up for this by orienting the channel vertically, as opposed to horizontally (like in conventional TFTs). This allows the CN-VFET to achieve sub-micron channel lengths without expensive high resolution patterning. Additionally, because the CN-VFET can be easily converted into a light emitting transistor (called the carbon nanotube enabled vertical organic light emitting transistor---CN-VOLET) by essentially stacking an OLED on top of the CN-VFET, more potential benefits can be realized. These potential benefits include, increased aperture ratio, increased OLED

  19. The Effect of Hydrophobin Protein on Conductive Properties of Carbon Nanotube Field-Effect Transistors: First Study on Sensing Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Yotprayoonsakl, Peerapong; Szilvay, Géza R; Laaksonen, Päivi; Linder, Markus B; Ahlskog, Markus

    2015-03-01

    Hydrophobin is a surface active protein having both hydrophobic and hydrophilic functional domains which has previously been used for functionalization and solubilization of graphene and carbon nanotubes. In this work, field-effect transistors based on single nanotubes have been employed for electronic detection of hydrophobin protein in phosphate buffer solution. Individual nanotubes, single- and multiwalled, are characterized by atomic force microscopy after being immersed in protein solution, showing a relatively dense coverage with hydrophobin. We have studied aspects such as nanotube length (0.3-1.2 µm) and the hysteresis effect in the gate voltage dependent conduction. When measured in ambient condition after the exposure to hydrophobin, the resistance increase has a strong dependence on the nanotube length, which we ascribe to mobility degradation and localization effects. The change could be exceptionally large when measured in-situ in solution and at suitable gate voltage conditions, which is shown to relate to the different mechanism behind the hysteresis effect. PMID:26413623

  20. Advantages of flattened electrode in bottom contact single-walled carbon nanotube field-effect transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Setiadi, Agung; Akai-Kasaya, Megumi Saito, Akira; Kuwahara, Yuji

    2014-09-01

    We fabricated single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) field-effect transistor (FET) devices on flattened electrodes, in which there are no height difference between metal electrodes and the substrate. SWNT-FET fabricated using bottom contact technique have some advantages, such that the SWNTs are free from electron irradiation, have direct contact with the desired metal electrodes, and can be functionalized before or after deposition. However, the SWNTs can be bent at the contact point with the metal electrodes leading to a different electrical characteristic of the devices. The number of SWNT direct junctions in short channel length devices is drastically increased by the use of flattened electrodes due to strong attractive interaction between SWNT and the substrate. The flattened electrodes show a better balance between their hole and electron mobility compared to that of the non-flattened electrodes, that is, ambipolar FET characteristic. It is considered that bending of the SWNTs in the non-flattened electrode devices results in a higher Schottky barrier for the electrons.

  1. Modeling of Gate Bias Modulation in Carbon Nanotube Field-Effect-Transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamada, Toshishige; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The threshold voltages of a carbon nanotube (CNT) field-effect transistor (FET) are derived and compared with those of the metal oxide-semiconductor (MOS) FETs. The CNT channel is so thin that there is no voltage drop perpendicular to the gate electrode plane, which is the CNT diameter direction, and this makes the CNTFET characteristics quite different from those in MOSFETs. The relation between the voltage and the electrochemical potentials, and the mass action law for electrons and holes are examined in the context of CNTs, and it is shown that the familiar relations are still valid because of the macroscopic number of states available in the CNTs. This is in sharp contrast to the cases of quantum dots. Using these relations, we derive an inversion threshold voltage V(sub Ti) and an accumulation threshold voltage V(sub Ta) as a function of the Fermi level E(sub F) in the channel, where E(sub F) is a measure of channel doping. V(sub Ti) of the CNTFETs has a much stronger dependence than that of MOSFETs, while V(sub Ta)s of both CNTFETs and MOSFETs depend quite weakly on E(sub F) with the same functional form. This means the transition from normally-off mode to normally-on mode is much sharper in CNTFETs as the doping increases, and this property has to be taken into account in circuit design.

  2. Fabrication and characterization of junctionless carbon nanotube field effect transistor for cholesterol detection

    SciTech Connect

    Barik, Md. Abdul Dutta, Jiten Ch.

    2014-08-04

    We have reported fabrication and characterization of polyaniline (PANI)/zinc oxide (ZnO) membrane-based junctionless carbon nanotube field effect transistor deposited on indium tin oxide glass plate for the detection of cholesterol (0.5–22.2 mM). Cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) has been immobilized on the PANI/ZnO membrane by physical adsorption technique. Electrical response has been recorded using digital multimeter (Agilent 3458A) in the presence of phosphate buffer saline of 50 mM, pH 7.0, and 0.9% NaCl contained in a glass pot. The results of response studies for cholesterol reveal linearity as 0.5–16.6 mM and improved sensitivity of 60 mV/decade in good agreement with Nernstian limit ∼59.2 mV/decade. The life time of this sensor has been found up to 5 months and response time of 1 s. The limit of detection with regression coefficient (r) ∼ 0.998 and Michaelis-Menten constant (K{sub m}) were found to be ∼0.25 and 1.4 mM, respectively, indicating high affinity of ChOx to cholesterol. The results obtained in this work show negligible interference with glucose and urea.

  3. Carbon nanotube field effect transistors for the fast and selective detection of human immunoglobulin G.

    PubMed

    Cid, Cristina C; Riu, Jordi; Maroto, Alicia; Rius, F Xavier

    2008-08-01

    We report a field effect transistor (FET) based on a network of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) which can selectively detect human immunoglobulin G (HIgG). HIgG antibodies, which are strongly adsorbed onto the walls of the SWCNTs, are the basic elements of the recognition layer. The non-specific binding of proteins and the effects of other interferences are avoided by covering the non-adsorbed areas of the SWCNTs with Tween 20. The selectivity of the sensor has been tested against bovine serum albumin (BSA), the most abundant protein in plasma. HIgG in aqueous solution with concentrations from 1.25 mg L(-1) (8 nM) can be readily detected with response times of about 10 min. The SWCNT networks that form the basis of the sensor are easily grown by chemical vapour deposition. Silver screen-printed electrodes make the sensor quick to build. The sensitivity obtained with this sensor is similar to other FET devices based on SWCNTs built using much more complicated lithography processes. Moreover, the sensor is a reagentless device that does not need labels to detect HIgG.

  4. Highly Uniform Carbon Nanotube Field-Effect Transistors and Medium Scale Integrated Circuits.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bingyan; Zhang, Panpan; Ding, Li; Han, Jie; Qiu, Song; Li, Qingwen; Zhang, Zhiyong; Peng, Lian-Mao

    2016-08-10

    Top-gated p-type field-effect transistors (FETs) have been fabricated in batch based on carbon nanotube (CNT) network thin films prepared from CNT solution and present high yield and highly uniform performance with small threshold voltage distribution with standard deviation of 34 mV. According to the property of FETs, various logical and arithmetical gates, shifters, and d-latch circuits were designed and demonstrated with rail-to-rail output. In particular, a 4-bit adder consisting of 140 p-type CNT FETs was demonstrated with higher packing density and lower supply voltage than other published integrated circuits based on CNT films, which indicates that CNT based integrated circuits can reach to medium scale. In addition, a 2-bit multiplier has been realized for the first time. Benefitted from the high uniformity and suitable threshold voltage of CNT FETs, all of the fabricated circuits based on CNT FETs can be driven by a single voltage as small as 2 V.

  5. Compact model for ballistic MOSFET-like carbon nanotube field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdolkader, Tarek M.; Fikry, Wael

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a compact model for MOSFET-like ballistic carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNFETs) is presented. The model is based on calculating the charge and surface potential on the top of the barrier between source and drain using closed-form analytical formulae. The formula for the surface potential is obtained by merging two simplified expressions obtained in two extreme cases (very low and very high gate bias). Two fitting parameters are introduced whose values are extracted by best fitting model results with numerically calculated ones. The model has a continuous derivative and thus it is SPICE-compatible. Accuracy of the model is compared to previous analytical model presented in the literature with numerical results taken as a reference. Proposed model proves to give less relative error over a wide range of gate biases, and for a drain bias up to 0.5 V. In addition, the model enables the calculation of quantum and gate capacitance analytically reproducing the negative capacitance behaviour known in CNFETs.

  6. Highly Uniform Carbon Nanotube Field-Effect Transistors and Medium Scale Integrated Circuits.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bingyan; Zhang, Panpan; Ding, Li; Han, Jie; Qiu, Song; Li, Qingwen; Zhang, Zhiyong; Peng, Lian-Mao

    2016-08-10

    Top-gated p-type field-effect transistors (FETs) have been fabricated in batch based on carbon nanotube (CNT) network thin films prepared from CNT solution and present high yield and highly uniform performance with small threshold voltage distribution with standard deviation of 34 mV. According to the property of FETs, various logical and arithmetical gates, shifters, and d-latch circuits were designed and demonstrated with rail-to-rail output. In particular, a 4-bit adder consisting of 140 p-type CNT FETs was demonstrated with higher packing density and lower supply voltage than other published integrated circuits based on CNT films, which indicates that CNT based integrated circuits can reach to medium scale. In addition, a 2-bit multiplier has been realized for the first time. Benefitted from the high uniformity and suitable threshold voltage of CNT FETs, all of the fabricated circuits based on CNT FETs can be driven by a single voltage as small as 2 V. PMID:27459084

  7. Solution-processed single-walled carbon nanotube field effect transistors and bootstrapped inverters for disintegratable, transient electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Sung Hun E-mail: jhl@snu.ac.kr Shin, Jongmin; Cho, In-Tak; Lee, Jong-Ho E-mail: jhl@snu.ac.kr; Han, Sang Youn; Lee, Dong Joon; Lee, Chi Hwan; Rogers, John A. E-mail: jhl@snu.ac.kr

    2014-07-07

    This paper presents materials, device designs, and physical/electrical characteristics of a form of nanotube electronics that is physically transient, in the sense that all constituent elements dissolve and/or disperse upon immersion into water. Studies of contact effects illustrate the ability to use water soluble metals such as magnesium for source/drain contacts in nanotube based field effect transistors. High mobilities and on/off ratios in transistors that use molybdenum, silicon nitride, and silicon oxide enable full swing characteristics for inverters at low voltages (∼5 V) and with high gains (∼30). Dissolution/disintegration tests of such systems on water soluble sheets of polyvinyl alcohol demonstrate physical transience within 30 min.

  8. Detection of the Odor Signature of Ovarian Cancer using DNA-Decorated Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistor Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehayias, Christopher; Kybert, Nicholas; Yodh, Jeremy; Johnson, A. T. Charlie

    Carbon nanotubes are low-dimensional materials that exhibit remarkable chemical and bio-sensing properties and have excellent compatibility with electronic systems. Here, we present a study that uses an electronic olfaction system based on a large array of DNA-carbon nanotube field effect transistors vapor sensors to analyze the VOCs of blood plasma samples collected from patients with malignant ovarian cancer, patients with benign ovarian lesions, and age-matched healthy subjects. Initial investigations involved coating each CNT sensor with single-stranded DNA of a particular base sequence. 10 distinct DNA oligomers were used to functionalize the carbon nanotube field effect transistors, providing a 10-dimensional sensor array output response. Upon performing a statistical analysis of the 10-dimensional sensor array responses, we showed that blood samples from patients with malignant cancer can be reliably differentiated from those of healthy control subjects with a p-value of 3 x 10-5. The results provide preliminary evidence that the blood of ovarian cancer patients contains a discernable volatile chemical signature that can be detected using DNA-CNT nanoelectronic vapor sensors, a first step towards a minimally invasive electronic diagnostic technology for ovarian cancer.

  9. High-performance carbon-nanotube-based complementary field-effect-transistors and integrated circuits with yttrium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Shibo; Zhang, Zhiyong Si, Jia; Zhong, Donglai; Peng, Lian-Mao

    2014-08-11

    High-performance p-type carbon nanotube (CNT) transistors utilizing yttrium oxide as gate dielectric are presented by optimizing oxidization and annealing processes. Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) field-effect-transistors (FETs) are then fabricated on CNTs, and the p- and n-type devices exhibit symmetrical high performances, especially with low threshold voltage near to zero. The corresponding CMOS CNT inverter is demonstrated to operate at an ultra-low supply voltage down to 0.2 V, while displaying sufficient voltage gain, high noise margin, and low power consumption. Yttrium oxide is proven to be a competitive gate dielectric for constructing high-performance CNT CMOS FETs and integrated circuits.

  10. Microwave field effect transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Ho-Chung (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Electrodes of a high power, microwave field effect transistor are substantially matched to external input and output networks. The field effect transistor includes a metal ground plane layer, a dielectric layer on the ground plane layer, a gallium arsenide active region on the dielectric layer, and substantially coplanar spaced source, gate, and drain electrodes having active segments covering the active region. The active segment of the gate electrode is located between edges of the active segments of the source and drain electrodes. The gate and drain electrodes include inactive pads remote from the active segments. The pads are connected directly to the input and output networks. The source electrode is connected to the ground plane layer. The space between the electrodes and the geometry of the electrodes extablish parasitic shunt capacitances and series inductances that provide substantial matches between the input network and the gate electrode and between the output network and the drain electrode. Many of the devices are connected in parallel and share a common active region, so that each pair of adjacent devices shares the same source electrodes and each pair of adjacent devices shares the same drain electrodes. The gate electrodes for the parallel devices are formed by a continuous stripe that extends between adjacent devices and is connected at different points to the common gate pad.

  11. Carbon nanotube based field-effect transistors: merits and fundamental limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Lian-Mao

    The development of even more powerful computer systems are made possible by scaling of CMOS transistors, and this simple process has afforded continuous improvement in both the device switch time and integration density. However, CMOS scaling has become very difficult at the 22-nm node and unlikely to be rewarding beyond the 14-nm node. Among other new approaches, carbon nanotube devices are emerging as the most promising technique with unique properties that are ideal for nanoelectronics. In particular, perfect n-type and p-type contacts are now available for controlled injection of electrons into the conduction band and holes into the valence band of the CNT, paving the way for a doping free fabrication of CNT based ballistic CMOS, high performance optoelectronic devices, and integrated circuits. These results will be compared with data projected for Si CMOS toward the end of the roadmap at 2026, as well as with those thermodynamic and quantum limits.

  12. Probing Biological Processes on Supported Lipid Bilayers with Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Field-Effect Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xinjian; Moran-Mirabal, Jose Manuel; Craighead, Harold; McEuen, Paul

    2006-03-01

    We have formed supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) by small unilamellar vesicle fusion on substrates containing single-walled carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (SWNT-FETs). We are able to detect the self-assembly of SLBs electrically with SWNT-FETs since their threshold voltages are shifted by this event. The SLB fully covers the NT surface and lipid molecules can diffuse freely in the bilayer surface across the NT. To study the interactions of important biological entities with receptors imbedded within the membrane, we have also integrated a membrane protein, GT1b ganglioside, in the bilayer. While bare gangliosides can diffuse freely across the NT, interestingly the NT acts as a diffusion barrier for the gangliosides when they are bound with tetanus toxin. This experiment opens the possibility of using SWNT-FETs as biosensors for label-free detection.

  13. Gyrator employing field effect transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochmair, E. S. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A gyrator circuit of the conventional configuration of two amplifiers in a circular loop, one producing zero phase shift and the other producing 180 deg phase reversal is examined. All active elements are MOS field effect transistors. Each amplifier comprises a differential amplifier configuration with current limiting transistor, followed by an output transistor in cascode configuration, and two load transistors of opposite conductivity type from the other transistors. A voltage divider control circuit comprises a series string of transistors with a central voltage input to provide control, with locations on the amplifiers receiving reference voltages by connection to appropriate points on the divider. The circuit produces excellent response and is well suited for fabrication by integrated circuits.

  14. Dependence of sensitivity of biosensor for carbon nanotube field-effect transistor with top-gate structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Masuhiro; Murata, Katsuyuki; Matsumoto, Kazuhiko

    2010-04-01

    In this study, we used biosensors that employ a top-gate-type carbon nanotube field-effect transistor (CNT-FET) for detecting target proteins in a solution. The dependence of the sensitivity of the biosensor on structural characteristics of the top gate, such as the thicknesses of its insulator and electrode and the relative permittivity of the insulator, was examined by simulations and by experiment which change the thickness of the insulator. Results of calculations performed by the finite element method showed that a thin insulator with a relative permittivity greater than 20 would lead to high sensitivity of the CNT-FET biosensor. Experimental investigation supported this result. The transconductance of a CNT-FET with a 20-nm-thick insulating layer was found to be approximately six times higher than that with 50-nm-thick and 80-nm-thick insulating layers. Moreover, the sensitivity of the CNT-FET biosensor with the 20-nm-thick insulating layer was also higher than that of a CNT-FET with a thicker insulating layer. By the experimental measurements, the influence of insulator thickness on the sensitivity of the biosensor was elucidated for the first time.

  15. Single-walled carbon nanotube field-effect transistors with graphene oxide passivation for fast, sensitive, and selective protein detection.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jingbo; Mao, Shun; Zhang, Yang; Cui, Shumao; Steeber, Douglas A; Chen, Junhong

    2013-04-15

    We report a novel technique to design an insulating membrane with attachment sites on top of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) for achieving high sensitivity and selectivity in an SWNT field-effect transistor (FET) biosensor. Because electronic properties of SWNTs are extremely sensitive to the surface state, direct immobilization of proteins or DNAs onto SWNTs will generate surface defects through chemical reactions or physical adsorption, resulting in degradation of performance and instability of SWNT-FET biosensor devices. Here we demonstrate fabrication of novel FET biosensor devices using SWNTs as semiconducting channels, and a monolayer of graphene oxide (GO) membrane covered on the SWNTs as a passivating layer to avoid direct attachment of biomaterials on SWNTs, thereby preserving intrinsic electrical properties of SWNTs. Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) are decorated on the GO layer for the covalent attachment of biotin, which is then used to selectively detect the target avidin. The passivation with GO layers can effectively lead to enhanced sensitivity of biosensor devices through increasing the on/off ratio of FET sensors.

  16. Single-walled carbon nanotube field-effect transistors with graphene oxide passivation for fast, sensitive, and selective protein detection.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jingbo; Mao, Shun; Zhang, Yang; Cui, Shumao; Steeber, Douglas A; Chen, Junhong

    2013-04-15

    We report a novel technique to design an insulating membrane with attachment sites on top of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) for achieving high sensitivity and selectivity in an SWNT field-effect transistor (FET) biosensor. Because electronic properties of SWNTs are extremely sensitive to the surface state, direct immobilization of proteins or DNAs onto SWNTs will generate surface defects through chemical reactions or physical adsorption, resulting in degradation of performance and instability of SWNT-FET biosensor devices. Here we demonstrate fabrication of novel FET biosensor devices using SWNTs as semiconducting channels, and a monolayer of graphene oxide (GO) membrane covered on the SWNTs as a passivating layer to avoid direct attachment of biomaterials on SWNTs, thereby preserving intrinsic electrical properties of SWNTs. Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) are decorated on the GO layer for the covalent attachment of biotin, which is then used to selectively detect the target avidin. The passivation with GO layers can effectively lead to enhanced sensitivity of biosensor devices through increasing the on/off ratio of FET sensors. PMID:23202350

  17. Length separation of single-walled carbon nanotubes and its impact on structural and electrical properties of wafer-level fabricated carbon nanotube-field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böttger, Simon; Hermann, Sascha; Schulz, Stefan E.; Gessner, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    For an industrial realization of devices based on single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNTs) such as field-effect transistors (FETs) it becomes increasingly important to consider technological aspects such as intrinsic device structure, integration process controllability as well as yield. From the perspective of a wafer-level integration technology, the influence of SWCNT length on the performance of short-channel CNT-FETs is demonstrated by means of a statistical and comparative study. Therefore, a methodological development of a length separation process based on size-exclusion chromatography was conducted in order to extract well-separated SWCNT dispersions with narrowed length distribution. It could be shown that short SWCNTs adversely affect integrability and reproducibility, underlined by a 25% decline of the integration yield with respect to long SWCNTs. Furthermore, it turns out that the significant changes in electrical performance are directly linked to a SWCNT chain formation in the transistor channel. In particular, CNT-FETs with long SWCNTs outperform reference and short SWCNTs with respect to hole mobility and subthreshold controllability by up to 300% and up to 140%, respectively. As a whole, this study provides a statistical and comparative analysis towards chain-less CNT-FETs fabricated with a wafer-level technology.

  18. Mobilities in ambipolar field effect transistors based on single-walled carbon nanotube network and formed on a gold nanoparticle template

    SciTech Connect

    Wongsaeng, Chalao; Singjai, Pisith

    2014-04-07

    Ambipolar field effect transistors based on a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) network formed on a gold nanoparticle (AuNP) template with polyvinyl alcohol as a gate insulator were studied by measuring the current–gate voltage characteristics. It was found that the mobilities of holes and electrons increased with increasing AuNP number density. The disturbances in the flow pattern of the carbon feedstock in the chemical vapor deposition growth that were produced by the AuNP geometry, resulted in the differences in the crystallinity and the diameter, as well as the changes in the degree of the semiconductor behavior of the SWNTs.

  19. Band-to-band tunneling in a carbon nanotube metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor is dominated by phonon-assisted tunneling.

    PubMed

    Koswatta, Siyuranga O; Lundstrom, Mark S; Nikonov, Dmitri E

    2007-05-01

    Band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) devices have recently gained a lot of interest due to their potential for reducing power dissipation in integrated circuits. We have performed extensive simulations for the BTBT operation of carbon nanotube metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (CNT-MOSFETs) using the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism for both ballistic and dissipative quantum transport. In comparison with recently reported experimental data (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2006, 128, 3518-3519), we have obtained strong evidence that BTBT in CNT-MOSFETs is dominated by optical phonon assisted inelastic transport, which can have important implications on the transistor characteristics. It is shown that, under large biasing conditions, two-phonon scattering may also become important. PMID:17388638

  20. Normally-ON and Normally-OFF Carbon Nanotube-based Ionic-Liquid Supercapacitor-Gated Vertical Organic Field-Effect Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuen, Jonathan; Cook, Alexander; Bykova, Julia; Srivastav, Vidisha; Micheli, Joseph; Zakhidov, Anvar

    2014-03-01

    We report on novel implementations of the vertical organic field effect transistor (VOFET). Instead of a typical capacitor below the organic diode, a carbon nanotube (CNT) based ionic-liquid supercapacitor (or ionic gate) is on top. The present work has been motivated by the discovery that the conductivity and work function of carbon nanotubes can be strongly modified by electric double layer charging (EDLC) in an electrolyte as much as +/-0.7eV. The conductivity of EDLC CNT is enhanced by a factor of two. By coupling the ionic gate with an organic diode, charge injection into the diode can be controlled via modulation of the workfunction of the CNT electrode, resulting in transistor-like behavior. Additionally, the high capacitance of the supercapacitor will enable the VOFET to be operated at low voltages. The entire device is processed under ambient conditions with no vacuum equipment used. We have tested VOFETs with two different materials, p-type P3HT and n-type PC70BM. The polarity of the charge transported in the material determines the charge injection rate and whether the device is a normally-ON or a normally-OFF transistor. Both devices have high current transport, excellent output characteristics, good on-off ratios and low operation voltages. We believe that these novel VOFETs will have exciting potential for various future electronic applications.

  1. Ambipolar phosphorene field effect transistor.

    PubMed

    Das, Saptarshi; Demarteau, Marcel; Roelofs, Andreas

    2014-11-25

    In this article, we demonstrate enhanced electron and hole transport in few-layer phosphorene field effect transistors (FETs) using titanium as the source/drain contact electrode and 20 nm SiO2 as the back gate dielectric. The field effect mobility values were extracted to be ∼38 cm(2)/Vs for electrons and ∼172 cm(2)/Vs for the holes. On the basis of our experimental data, we also comprehensively discuss how the contact resistances arising due to the Schottky barriers at the source and the drain end effect the different regime of the device characteristics and ultimately limit the ON state performance. We also propose and implement a novel technique for extracting the transport gap as well as the Schottky barrier height at the metal-phosphorene contact interface from the ambipolar transfer characteristics of the phosphorene FETs. This robust technique is applicable to any ultrathin body semiconductor which demonstrates symmetric ambipolar conduction. Finally, we demonstrate a high gain, high noise margin, chemical doping free, and fully complementary logic inverter based on ambipolar phosphorene FETs.

  2. Adjustable hydrazine modulation of single-wall carbon nanotube network field effect transistors from p-type to n-type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Ruixuan; Xie, Dan; Xu, Jianlong; Sun, Yilin; Sun, MengXing; Zhang, Cheng; Li, Xian

    2016-11-01

    Single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) network field effect transistors (FETs), which show decent p-type electronic properties, have been fabricated. The use of hydrazine as an aqueous solution and a strong n-type dopant for the SWCNTs is demonstrated in this paper. The electrical properties are obviously tuned by hydrazine treatment at different concentrations on the surface of the SWCNT network FETs. The transport behavior of SWCNTs can be modulated from p-type to n-type, demonstrating the controllable and adjustable doping effect of hydrazine. With a higher concentration of hydrazine, more electrons can be transferred from the hydrazine molecules to the SWCNT network films, thus resulting in a change of threshold voltage, carrier mobility and on-current. By cleaning the device, the hydrazine doping effects vanish, which indicates that the doping effects of hydrazine are reversible. Through x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterization, the doping effects of hydrazine have also been studied.

  3. Adjustable hydrazine modulation of single-wall carbon nanotube network field effect transistors from p-type to n-type.

    PubMed

    Dai, Ruixuan; Xie, Dan; Xu, Jianlong; Sun, Yilin; Sun, MengXing; Zhang, Cheng; Li, Xian

    2016-11-01

    Single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) network field effect transistors (FETs), which show decent p-type electronic properties, have been fabricated. The use of hydrazine as an aqueous solution and a strong n-type dopant for the SWCNTs is demonstrated in this paper. The electrical properties are obviously tuned by hydrazine treatment at different concentrations on the surface of the SWCNT network FETs. The transport behavior of SWCNTs can be modulated from p-type to n-type, demonstrating the controllable and adjustable doping effect of hydrazine. With a higher concentration of hydrazine, more electrons can be transferred from the hydrazine molecules to the SWCNT network films, thus resulting in a change of threshold voltage, carrier mobility and on-current. By cleaning the device, the hydrazine doping effects vanish, which indicates that the doping effects of hydrazine are reversible. Through x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterization, the doping effects of hydrazine have also been studied.

  4. Adjustable hydrazine modulation of single-wall carbon nanotube network field effect transistors from p-type to n-type.

    PubMed

    Dai, Ruixuan; Xie, Dan; Xu, Jianlong; Sun, Yilin; Sun, MengXing; Zhang, Cheng; Li, Xian

    2016-11-01

    Single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) network field effect transistors (FETs), which show decent p-type electronic properties, have been fabricated. The use of hydrazine as an aqueous solution and a strong n-type dopant for the SWCNTs is demonstrated in this paper. The electrical properties are obviously tuned by hydrazine treatment at different concentrations on the surface of the SWCNT network FETs. The transport behavior of SWCNTs can be modulated from p-type to n-type, demonstrating the controllable and adjustable doping effect of hydrazine. With a higher concentration of hydrazine, more electrons can be transferred from the hydrazine molecules to the SWCNT network films, thus resulting in a change of threshold voltage, carrier mobility and on-current. By cleaning the device, the hydrazine doping effects vanish, which indicates that the doping effects of hydrazine are reversible. Through x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterization, the doping effects of hydrazine have also been studied. PMID:27670730

  5. Graphene nanopore field effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, Wanzhi; Skafidas, Efstratios

    2014-07-14

    Graphene holds great promise for replacing conventional Si material in field effect transistors (FETs) due to its high carrier mobility. Previously proposed graphene FETs either suffer from low ON-state current resulting from constrained channel width or require complex fabrication processes for edge-defecting or doping. Here, we propose an alternative graphene FET structure created on intrinsic metallic armchair-edged graphene nanoribbons with uniform width, where the channel region is made semiconducting by drilling a pore in the interior, and the two ends of the nanoribbon act naturally as connecting electrodes. The proposed GNP-FETs have high ON-state currents due to seamless atomic interface between the channel and electrodes and are able to be created with arbitrarily wide ribbons. In addition, the performance of GNP-FETs can be tuned by varying pore size and ribbon width. As a result, their performance and fabrication process are more predictable and controllable in comparison to schemes based on edge-defects and doping. Using first-principle transport calculations, we show that GNP-FETs can achieve competitive leakage current of ∼70 pA, subthreshold swing of ∼60 mV/decade, and significantly improved On/Off current ratios on the order of 10{sup 5} as compared with other forms of graphene FETs.

  6. Complementary junction heterostructure field-effect transistor

    DOEpatents

    Baca, A.G.; Drummond, T.J.; Robertson, P.J.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1995-12-26

    A complimentary pair of compound semiconductor junction heterostructure field-effect transistors and a method for their manufacture are disclosed. The p-channel junction heterostructure field-effect transistor uses a strained layer to split the degeneracy of the valence band for a greatly improved hole mobility and speed. The n-channel device is formed by a compatible process after removing the strained layer. In this manner, both types of transistors may be independently optimized. Ion implantation is used to form the transistor active and isolation regions for both types of complimentary devices. The invention has uses for the development of low power, high-speed digital integrated circuits. 10 figs.

  7. Complementary junction heterostructure field-effect transistor

    DOEpatents

    Baca, Albert G.; Drummond, Timothy J.; Robertson, Perry J.; Zipperian, Thomas E.

    1995-01-01

    A complimentary pair of compound semiconductor junction heterostructure field-effect transistors and a method for their manufacture are disclosed. The p-channel junction heterostructure field-effect transistor uses a strained layer to split the degeneracy of the valence band for a greatly improved hole mobility and speed. The n-channel device is formed by a compatible process after removing the strained layer. In this manner, both types of transistors may be independently optimized. Ion implantation is used to form the transistor active and isolation regions for both types of complimentary devices. The invention has uses for the development of low power, high-speed digital integrated circuits.

  8. Field-effect transistor improves electrometer amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, R.

    1964-01-01

    An electrometer amplifier uses a field effect transistor to measure currents of low amperage. The circuit, developed as an ac amplifier, is used with an external filter which limits bandwidth to achieve optimum noise performance.

  9. Field effect transistors improve buffer amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    Unity gain buffer amplifier with a Field Effect Transistor /FET/ differential input stage responds much faster than bipolar transistors when operated at low current levels. The circuit uses a dual FET in a unity gain buffer amplifier having extremely high input impedance, low bias current requirements, and wide bandwidth.

  10. Doping-free fabrication of n-type random network single-walled carbon nanotube field effect transistor with yttrium contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Leihua; Chor, Eng Fong; Wu, Yihong

    2011-05-01

    This work reports the realization of high performance n-type random network single-walled carbon nanotube (rn-SWCNT) field effect transistor (FET) by means of contact engineering, where a low work function metal, Yttrium (Y), is used as the source and drain contacts. The presence of crossed metallic ( m-) and semiconducting ( s-) SWCNT junctions in the channel of rn-SWCNT FETs, which form p-type rectifying Schottky barrier, is believed to introduce non-negligible hole current in the fabricated FETs and lead to undesirable ambipolar characteristic. By means of soaking in 2,4,6-triphenylpyrylium tetrafluoroborate (2,4,6-TPPT), we have successfully converted the ambipolar rn-SWCNT FETs to highly unipolar n-type devices by selectively removing the m-SWCNTs in the FET channel. The best characteristics of our unipolar n-type rn-SWCNT FETs are as follows: on/off current ratio up to ∼10 5, mobility as high as 25 cm 2 V -1 s -1, and transconductance of 0.12 μS/μm; they have demonstrated air-stable n-type characteristics and are also more reproducibility than individual SWCNT FETs.

  11. Raman mapping investigation of single-walled carbon nanotube bending in bottom-contact field-effect-transistor devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setiadi, Agung; Akai-Kasaya, Megumi; Kuwahara, Yuji

    2016-09-01

    We investigated the bending of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in bottom-contact SWNT devices using Raman mapping measurements. The height difference between the metal electrodes and the substrate caused the SWNTs to bend, down-shifting the G+ and G- bands of the bent SWNTs. No shifting of the G+ and G- bands was observed when flat electrodes were used. Shifting of the G+ and G- bands in SWNTs is strongly correlated to modulation of the Fermi level. We confirmed this effect by measuring the transport properties of the SWNT devices, which were in good agreement with the Raman measurement results.

  12. Gallium nitride junction field-effect transistor

    DOEpatents

    Zolper, John C.; Shul, Randy J.

    1999-01-01

    An all-ion implanted gallium-nitride (GaN) junction field-effect transistor (JFET) and method of making the same. Also disclosed are various ion implants, both n- and p-type, together with or without phosphorous co-implantation, in selected III-V semiconductor materials.

  13. Gallium nitride junction field-effect transistor

    DOEpatents

    Zolper, J.C.; Shul, R.J.

    1999-02-02

    An ion implanted gallium-nitride (GaN) junction field-effect transistor (JFET) and method of making the same are disclosed. Also disclosed are various ion implants, both n- and p-type, together with or without phosphorus co-implantation, in selected III-V semiconductor materials. 19 figs.

  14. Silicon nanowire field effect transistor for biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu

    Detection and recognition of chemical ions and biological molecules are important in basic science as well as in pharmacology and medicine. Nanotechnology has made it possible to greatly enhance detection sensitivity through the use of nanowires, nanotubes, nanocrystals, nanocantilevers, and quantum dots as sensing platforms. In this work silicon nanowires are used as the conductance channel between the source and drain of a FET (field effect transistor) device and the biomolecular binding on the surface of nanowire modifies the conductance like a change in gate voltage. Due to the high surface-to-volume ratio and unique character of the silicon nanowires, this device has significant advantages in real-time, label-free and highly sensitive detection of a wide range of species, including proteins, nucleic acids and other small molecules. Here we present a biosensor fabricated from CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) compatible top-down methods including electron beam lithography. This method enables scalable manufacturing of multiple sensor arrays with high efficiency. In a systematic study of the device characteristics with different wire widths, we have found the sensitivity of the device increases when wire width decreases. By operating the device in appropriate bias region, the sensitivity of the device can be improved without doping or high temperature annealing. Not only can this device be used to detect the concentration of proteins and metabolites like urea or glucose, but also dynamic information like the dissociation constant can be extracted from the measurement. The device is also used to detect the clinically related cancer antigen CA 15.3 and shows potential application in cancer studies.

  15. Investigation of light doping and hetero gate dielectric carbon nanotube tunneling field-effect transistor for improved device and circuit-level performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Sun, Yuan; Wang, Huan; Xu, Hongsong; Xu, Min; Jiang, Sitao; Yue, Gongshu

    2016-03-01

    We perform a comparative study (both for device and circuit simulations) of three carbon nanotube tunneling field-effect transistor (CNT-TFET) designs: high-K gate dielectric TFETs (HK-TFETs), hetero gate dielectric TFETs (HTFETs) and a novel CNT-TFET-based combination of light doping and hetero gate dielectric TFETs (LD-HTFETs). At device level, the effects of channel and gate dielectric engineering on the switching and high-frequency characteristics for CNT-TFET have been theoretically investigated using a quantum kinetic model. This model is based on two-dimensional non-equilibrium Green’s functions solved self-consistently with Poisson’s equations. It is revealed that the proposed LD-HTFET structure can significantly reduce leakage current, enhance control ability of the gate on the channel, improve the switching speed, and is more suitable for use in low-power, high-frequency circuits. At circuit level, using HSPICE with look-up table-based Verilog-A models, the performance and reliability of CNT-TFET logic gate circuits is evaluated on the basis of power consumption, average delay, stability, energy consumption and power-delay product (PDP). Simulation results indicate that, compared to a traditional CNT-TFET-based circuit, the one based on LD-HTFET has a significantly better performance (static noise margin, energy, delay, PDP). It is also observed that our proposed design exhibits better robustness under different operational conditions by considering power supply voltage and temperature variations. Our results may be useful for designing and optimizing CNTFET devices and circuits.

  16. A silicon nanocrystal tunnel field effect transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey-Collard, Patrick; Drouin, Dominique; Pioro-Ladrière, Michel

    2014-05-12

    In this work, we demonstrate a silicon nanocrystal Field Effect Transistor (ncFET). Its operation is similar to that of a Tunnelling Field Effect Transistor (TFET) with two barriers in series. The tunnelling barriers are fabricated in very thin silicon dioxide and the channel in intrinsic polycrystalline silicon. The absence of doping eliminates the problem of achieving sharp doping profiles at the junctions, which has proven a challenge for large-scale integration and, in principle, allows scaling down the atomic level. The demonstrated ncFET features a 10{sup 4} on/off current ratio at room temperature, a low 30 pA/μm leakage current at a 0.5 V bias, an on-state current on a par with typical all-Si TFETs and bipolar operation with high symmetry. Quantum dot transport spectroscopy is used to assess the band structure and energy levels of the silicon island.

  17. Vertically Integrated Multiple Nanowire Field Effect Transistor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung-Hyun; Kang, Min-Ho; Ahn, Dae-Chul; Park, Jun-Young; Bang, Tewook; Jeon, Seung-Bae; Hur, Jae; Lee, Dongil; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2015-12-01

    A vertically integrated multiple channel-based field-effect transistor (FET) with the highest number of nanowires reported ever is demonstrated on a bulk silicon substrate without use of wet etching. The driving current is increased by 5-fold due to the inherent vertically stacked five-level nanowires, thus showing good feasibility of three-dimensional integration-based high performance transistor. The developed fabrication process, which is simple and reproducible, is used to create multiple stiction-free and uniformly sized nanowires with the aid of the one-route all-dry etching process (ORADEP). Furthermore, the proposed FET is revamped to create nonvolatile memory with the adoption of a charge trapping layer for enhanced practicality. Thus, this research suggests an ultimate design for the end-of-the-roadmap devices to overcome the limits of scaling.

  18. Vertically Integrated Multiple Nanowire Field Effect Transistor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung-Hyun; Kang, Min-Ho; Ahn, Dae-Chul; Park, Jun-Young; Bang, Tewook; Jeon, Seung-Bae; Hur, Jae; Lee, Dongil; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2015-12-01

    A vertically integrated multiple channel-based field-effect transistor (FET) with the highest number of nanowires reported ever is demonstrated on a bulk silicon substrate without use of wet etching. The driving current is increased by 5-fold due to the inherent vertically stacked five-level nanowires, thus showing good feasibility of three-dimensional integration-based high performance transistor. The developed fabrication process, which is simple and reproducible, is used to create multiple stiction-free and uniformly sized nanowires with the aid of the one-route all-dry etching process (ORADEP). Furthermore, the proposed FET is revamped to create nonvolatile memory with the adoption of a charge trapping layer for enhanced practicality. Thus, this research suggests an ultimate design for the end-of-the-roadmap devices to overcome the limits of scaling. PMID:26544156

  19. Black phosphorus field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Li, Likai; Yu, Yijun; Ye, Guo Jun; Ge, Qingqin; Ou, Xuedong; Wu, Hua; Feng, Donglai; Chen, Xian Hui; Zhang, Yuanbo

    2014-05-01

    Two-dimensional crystals have emerged as a class of materials that may impact future electronic technologies. Experimentally identifying and characterizing new functional two-dimensional materials is challenging, but also potentially rewarding. Here, we fabricate field-effect transistors based on few-layer black phosphorus crystals with thickness down to a few nanometres. Reliable transistor performance is achieved at room temperature in samples thinner than 7.5 nm, with drain current modulation on the order of 10(5) and well-developed current saturation in the I-V characteristics. The charge-carrier mobility is found to be thickness-dependent, with the highest values up to ∼ 1,000 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) obtained for a thickness of ∼ 10 nm. Our results demonstrate the potential of black phosphorus thin crystals as a new two-dimensional material for applications in nanoelectronic devices.

  20. Hysteresis modeling in graphene field effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, M.; Rorsman, N.; Sveinbjörnsson, E. Ö.

    2015-02-21

    Graphene field effect transistors with an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} gate dielectric are fabricated on H-intercalated bilayer graphene grown on semi-insulating 4H-SiC by chemical vapour deposition. DC measurements of the gate voltage v{sub g} versus the drain current i{sub d} reveal a severe hysteresis of clockwise orientation. A capacitive model is used to derive the relationship between the applied gate voltage and the Fermi energy. The electron transport equations are then used to calculate the drain current for a given applied gate voltage. The hysteresis in measured data is then modeled via a modified Preisach kernel.

  1. Field effect transistors used as voltage controlled resistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    Two new methods of incorporating field effect transistors into circuit designs have resulted in linear response of this type transistor over a wide range of controlled voltage levels. This increases its usefulness as a voltage-controlled resistor.

  2. Antiferromagnetic Spin Wave Field-Effect Transistor

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cheng, Ran; Daniels, Matthew W.; Zhu, Jian-Gang; Xiao, Di

    2016-04-06

    In a collinear antiferromagnet with easy-axis anisotropy, symmetry dictates that the spin wave modes must be doubly degenerate. Theses two modes, distinguished by their opposite polarization and available only in antiferromagnets, give rise to a novel degree of freedom to encode and process information. We show that the spin wave polarization can be manipulated by an electric field induced Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction and magnetic anisotropy. We propose a prototype spin wave field effect transistor which realizes a gate-tunable magnonic analog of the Faraday effect, and demonstrate its application in THz signal modulation. In conclusion, our findings open up the exciting possibilitymore » of digital data processing utilizing antiferromagnetic spin waves and enable the direct projection of optical computing concepts onto the mesoscopic scale.« less

  3. Polycrystalline silicon ion sensitive field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, F.; Estrela, P.; Mo, Y.; Migliorato, P.; Maeda, H.; Inoue, S.; Shimoda, T.

    2005-01-01

    We report the operation of polycrystalline silicon ion sensitive field effect transistors. These devices can be fabricated on inexpensive disposable substrates such as glass or plastics and are, therefore, promising candidates for low cost single-use intelligent multisensors. In this work we have developed an extended gate structure with a Si3N4 sensing layer. Nearly ideal pH sensitivity (54mV /pH) and stable operation have been achieved. Temperature effects have been characterized. A penicillin sensor has been fabricated by functionalizing the sensing area with penicillinase. The sensitivity to penicillin G is about 10mV/mM, in solutions with concentration lower than the saturation value, which is about 7 mM.

  4. Antiferromagnetic Spin Wave Field-Effect Transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Ran; Daniels, Matthew W.; Zhu, Jian-Gang; Xiao, Di

    2016-04-01

    In a collinear antiferromagnet with easy-axis anisotropy, symmetry dictates that the spin wave modes must be doubly degenerate. Theses two modes, distinguished by their opposite polarization and available only in antiferromagnets, give rise to a novel degree of freedom to encode and process information. We show that the spin wave polarization can be manipulated by an electric field induced Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction and magnetic anisotropy. We propose a prototype spin wave field-effect transistor which realizes a gate-tunable magnonic analog of the Faraday effect, and demonstrate its application in THz signal modulation. Our findings open up the exciting possibility of digital data processing utilizing antiferromagnetic spin waves and enable the direct projection of optical computing concepts onto the mesoscopic scale.

  5. Antiferromagnetic Spin Wave Field-Effect Transistor

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ran; Daniels, Matthew W.; Zhu, Jian-Gang; Xiao, Di

    2016-01-01

    In a collinear antiferromagnet with easy-axis anisotropy, symmetry dictates that the spin wave modes must be doubly degenerate. Theses two modes, distinguished by their opposite polarization and available only in antiferromagnets, give rise to a novel degree of freedom to encode and process information. We show that the spin wave polarization can be manipulated by an electric field induced Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction and magnetic anisotropy. We propose a prototype spin wave field-effect transistor which realizes a gate-tunable magnonic analog of the Faraday effect, and demonstrate its application in THz signal modulation. Our findings open up the exciting possibility of digital data processing utilizing antiferromagnetic spin waves and enable the direct projection of optical computing concepts onto the mesoscopic scale. PMID:27048928

  6. Contact electrification field-effect transistor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chi; Tang, Wei; Zhang, Limin; Han, Changbao; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2014-08-26

    Utilizing the coupled metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor and triboelectric nanogenerator, we demonstrate an external force triggered/controlled contact electrification field-effect transistor (CE-FET), in which an electrostatic potential across the gate and source is created by a vertical contact electrification between the gate material and a “foreign” object, and the carrier transport between drain and source can be tuned/controlled by the contact-induced electrostatic potential instead of the traditional gate voltage. With the two contacted frictional layers vertically separated by 80 μm, the drain current is decreased from 13.4 to 1.9 μA in depletion mode and increased from 2.4 to 12.1 μA in enhancement mode at a drain voltage of 5 V. Compared with the piezotronic devices that are controlled by the strain-induced piezoelectric polarization charged at an interface/junction, the CE-FET has greatly expanded the sensing range and choices of materials in conjunction with semiconductors. The CE-FET is likely to have important applications in sensors, human–silicon technology interfacing, MEMS, nanorobotics, and active flexible electronics. Based on the basic principle of the CE-FET, a field of tribotronics is proposed for devices fabricated using the electrostatic potential created by triboelectrification as a “gate” voltage to tune/control charge carrier transport in conventional semiconductor devices. By the three-way coupling among triboelectricity, semiconductor, and photoexcitation, plenty of potentially important research fields are expected to be explored in the near future. PMID:25119657

  7. New Flexible Channels for Room Temperature Tunneling Field Effect Transistors

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hao, Boyi; Asthana, Anjana; Hazaveh, Paniz Khanmohammadi; Bergstrom, Paul L.; Banyai, Douglas; Savaikar, Madhusudan A.; Jaszczak, John A.; Yap, Yoke Khin

    2016-02-05

    Tunneling field effect transistors (TFETs) have been proposed to overcome the fundamental issues of Si based transistors, such as short channel effect, finite leakage current, and high contact resistance. Unfortunately, most if not all TFETs are operational only at cryogenic temperatures. Here we report that iron (Fe) quantum dots functionalized boron nitride nanotubes (QDs-BNNTs) can be used as the flexible tunneling channels of TFETs at room temperatures. The electrical insulating BNNTs are used as the one-dimensional (1D) substrates to confine the uniform formation of Fe QDs on their surface as the flexible tunneling channel. Consistent semiconductor-like transport behaviors under variousmore » bending conditions are detected by scanning tunneling spectroscopy in a transmission electron microscopy system (insitu STM-TEM). Ultimately, as suggested by computer simulation, the uniform distribution of Fe QDs enable an averaging effect on the possible electron tunneling pathways, which is responsible for the consistent transport properties that are not sensitive to bending.« less

  8. New Flexible Channels for Room Temperature Tunneling Field Effect Transistors

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Boyi; Asthana, Anjana; Hazaveh, Paniz Khanmohammadi; Bergstrom, Paul L.; Banyai, Douglas; Savaikar, Madhusudan A.; Jaszczak, John A.; Yap, Yoke Khin

    2016-01-01

    Tunneling field effect transistors (TFETs) have been proposed to overcome the fundamental issues of Si based transistors, such as short channel effect, finite leakage current, and high contact resistance. Unfortunately, most if not all TFETs are operational only at cryogenic temperatures. Here we report that iron (Fe) quantum dots functionalized boron nitride nanotubes (QDs-BNNTs) can be used as the flexible tunneling channels of TFETs at room temperatures. The electrical insulating BNNTs are used as the one-dimensional (1D) substrates to confine the uniform formation of Fe QDs on their surface as the flexible tunneling channel. Consistent semiconductor-like transport behaviors under various bending conditions are detected by scanning tunneling spectroscopy in a transmission electron microscopy system (in-situ STM-TEM). As suggested by computer simulation, the uniform distribution of Fe QDs enable an averaging effect on the possible electron tunneling pathways, which is responsible for the consistent transport properties that are not sensitive to bending. PMID:26846587

  9. Compact model for switching characteristics of graphene field effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreenath, R.; Bala Tripura Sundari, B.

    2016-04-01

    The scaling of CMOS transistors has resulted in intensified short channel effects, indicating that CMOS has reached its physical limits. Alternate non silicon based materials namely carbon based graphene, carbon nanotubes are being explored for usability as channel and interconnect material due to their established higher mobility and robustness. This paper presents a drift-diffusion based circuit simulatable Verilog-A compact model of graphene field effect transistor (GFET) for channel length of 100nm.The focus is on the development of simulatable device model in Verilog A based on intrinsic parameters and obtain the current, high cutoff frequency and use the model into circuit level simulations to realize an inverter and a 3-stage ring oscillator using Synopsys HSPICE. The applications are so chosen that their switching characteristics enable the determination of the RF frequency ranges of operation that the model can achieve when used in digital applications and also to compare its performance with existing CMOS model. The GFET's switching characteristics and power consumption were found to be better than similarly sized CMOS operating at same range of voltages. The basic frequency of operation in the circuit is of significant importance so as to use the model in other applications at RF and in future for millimeter wave applications. The frequency of operation at circuit level is found to be 1.1GHz at 100nm which is far higher than the existing frequency of 245 MHz reported at 500nm using AlN.

  10. Noise characteristics of single-walled carbon nanotube network transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Un Jeong; Kim, Kang Hyun; Kim, Kyu Tae; Min, Yo-Sep; Park, Wanjun

    2008-07-01

    The noise characteristics of randomly networked single-walled carbon nanotubes grown directly by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) are studied with field effect transistors (FETs). Due to the geometrical complexity of nanotube networks in the channel area and the large number of tube-tube/tube-metal junctions, the inverse frequency, 1/f, dependence of the noise shows a similar level to that of a single single-walled carbon nanotube transistor. Detailed analysis is performed with the parameters of number of mobile carriers and mobility in the different environment. This shows that the change in the number of mobile carriers resulting in the mobility change due to adsorption and desorption of gas molecules (mostly oxygen molecules) to the tube surface is a key factor in the 1/f noise level for carbon nanotube network transistors.

  11. Noise characteristics of single-walled carbon nanotube network transistors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Un Jeong; Kim, Kang Hyun; Kim, Kyu Tae; Min, Yo-Sep; Park, Wanjun

    2008-07-16

    The noise characteristics of randomly networked single-walled carbon nanotubes grown directly by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) are studied with field effect transistors (FETs). Due to the geometrical complexity of nanotube networks in the channel area and the large number of tube-tube/tube-metal junctions, the inverse frequency, 1/f, dependence of the noise shows a similar level to that of a single single-walled carbon nanotube transistor. Detailed analysis is performed with the parameters of number of mobile carriers and mobility in the different environment. This shows that the change in the number of mobile carriers resulting in the mobility change due to adsorption and desorption of gas molecules (mostly oxygen molecules) to the tube surface is a key factor in the 1/f noise level for carbon nanotube network transistors. PMID:21828739

  12. A Field-Effect Transistor (FET) model for ASAP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, L.

    1965-01-01

    The derivation of the circuitry of a field effect transistor (FET) model, the procedure for adapting the model to automated statistical analysis program (ASAP), and the results of applying ASAP on this model are described.

  13. I-V Characteristics of a Ferroelectric Field Effect Transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat Duen

    1999-01-01

    There are many possible uses for ferroelectric field effect transistors.To understand their application, a fundamental knowledge of their basic characteristics must first be found. In this research, the current and voltage characteristics of a field effect transistor are described. The effective gate capacitance and charge are derived from experimental data on an actual FFET. The general equation for a MOSFET is used to derive the internal characteristics of the transistor: This equation is modified slightly to describe the FFET characteristics. Experimental data derived from a Radiant Technologies FFET is used to calculate the internal transistor characteristics using fundamental MOSFET equations. The drain current was measured under several different gate and drain voltages and with different initial polarizations on the ferroelectric material in the transistor. Two different polarization conditions were used. One with the gate ferroelectric material polarized with a +9.0 volt write pulse and one with a -9.0 volt pulse.

  14. Organic Field-Effect Transistors for CMOS Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melzer, Christian; von Seggern, Heinz

    Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) are the key elements of future low cost electronics such as radio frequency identification tags. In order to take full advantage of organic electronics, low power consumption is mandatory, requiring the use of a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) like technique. To realize CMOS-devices p-type and n-type organic field-effect transistors on one substrate have to be provided. Here, the latest concepts to produce in a straightforward way complementary acting OFETs for CMOS-like elements are illustrated on basis of the inverter. Starting from a simple description of thin-film transistors, the basic design rules for the development of complementary OFETs are given and some realizations of CMOS-like inverters are discussed. A CMOS-like inverter based on two identical field-effect transistors disclosing almost unipolar p-type and n-type behavior is presented.

  15. Detection of supported lipid bilayers with carbon nanotube transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xinjian; Moran-Mirabal, Jose; Craighead, Harold; McEuen, Paul

    2005-03-01

    Supported lipid bilayers are important synthetic structures that can be used to mimic and study the properties and functions of cellular membranes, as well as to perform various bioassays which involve membrane bound receptors. The fusion of phospholipid vesicles and formation of a supported lipid bilayer can be detected in real time with high sensitivity by carbon nanotube field effect transistors which have been patterned on the same substrate. The properties of different vesicles, such as fusion rates and phospholipid composition can be distinguished by the conductance change of carbon nanotube field effect transistors. Fluorescence is used to verify the formation of a supported lipid bilayer, although the detection scheme is label-free. This demonstrates that electrical detection with carbon nanotubes can provide a powerful tool for study of lipid membranes.

  16. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES: Humidity sensitive organic field effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murtaza, I.; Karimov, Kh S.; Ahmad, Zubair; Qazi, I.; Mahroof-Tahir, M.; Khan, T. A.; Amin, T.

    2010-05-01

    This paper reports the experimental results for the humidity dependent properties of an organic field effect transistor. The organic field effect transistor was fabricated on thoroughly cleaned glass substrate, in which the junction between the metal gate and the organic channel plays the role of gate dielectric. Thin films of organic semiconductor copper phthalocynanine (CuPc) and semitransparent Al were deposited in sequence by vacuum thermal evaporation on the glass substrate with preliminarily deposited Ag source and drain electrodes. The output and transfer characteristics of the fabricated device were performed. The effect of humidity on the drain current, drain current-drain voltage relationship, and threshold voltage was investigated. It was observed that humidity has a strong effect on the characteristics of the organic field effect transistor.

  17. Sandwich double gate vertical tunneling field-effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Zhang, Wen-hao; Yu, Cheng-hao; Cao, Fei

    2016-05-01

    In this work, a sandwich vertical tunnel field effect transistor (SDG-VTFET) is presented and studied. Since the dominant carrier tunneling of SDG-VFET occurs in a direction that is in line with the gate field, high ON-state current and steep subthreshold slope are observed. Comparisons between SDG-VFET and double gate tunnel field effect transistor are made to clarify advantages of SDG-VTFET. The simulation results of our work show that SDG-VTFET has stronger gate control, steeper subthreshold slope and higher ON-state current. The device plays a promising candidate for future low power circuit applications.

  18. Assembly, physics, and application of highly electronic-type purified semiconducting carbon nanotubes in aligned array field effect transistors and photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Recent advances in (1) achieving highly monodisperse semiconducting carbon nanotubes without problematic metallic nanotubes and (2) depositing these nanotubes into useful, organized arrays and assemblies on substrates have created new opportunities for studying the physics of these one-dimensional conductors and for applying them in electronics and photonics technologies. In this talk, I will present on two topics that are along these lines. In the first, we have pioneered a scalable approach for depositing aligned arrays of ultrahigh purity semiconducting SWCNTs (prepared using polyfluorene-derivatives) called floating evaporative self-assembly (FESA). FESA is exploited to create FETs with exceptionally high combined on-conductance and on-off ratio of 261 μS/ μm and 2 x105, respectively, for a channel length of 240 nm. This is 1400 x greater on-off ratio than SWCNT FETs fabricated by other methods, at comparable on-conductance per width of 250 μS/ μm, and 30-100 x greater on-conductance per width, at comparable on-off ratio of 105-107. In the second, we have discovered how to efficiently harvest photons using semiconducting SWCNTs by driving the dissociation of excitons using donor/acceptor heterojunctions. The flow of energy in SWCNT films occurs across a complex energy landscape, temporally resolved using two-dimensional white light ultrafast spectroscopy. We have demonstrated simple solar cells driven by SWCNT excitons, based on bilayers between C60 and ultrathin (5 nm) films of SWCNTs that achieve a 1% solar power conversion efficiency (7% at the bandgap). High internal quantum efficiency indicates that future blended or multijunction cells exploiting multiple layers will be many times more efficient.

  19. Improved Field-Effect Transistor Equations for Computer Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Richard; Ardini, James

    1979-01-01

    Presents a laboratory experiment that was developed to acquaint physics students with field-effect transistor characteristics and circuits. Computer-drawn curves supplementing student laboratory exercises can be generated to provide more permanent, usable data than those taken from a curve tracer. (HM)

  20. Radiation tolerant silicon nitride insulated gate field effect transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, P. A.

    1969-01-01

    Metal-Insulated-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor /MISFET/ device uses a silicon nitride passivation layer over a thin silicon oxide layer to enhance the radiation tolerance. It is useful in electronic systems exposed to space radiation environment or the effects of nuclear weapons.

  1. Multiplexer uses insulated gate-field effect transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gussow, S. S.

    1967-01-01

    Small lightweight multiplexer incorporates IG-FETs /Insulated Gate-Field Effect Transistors/ for all digital logic functions, including the internally generated 3.6-kHz clock. It consists of 30 primary channels, each of which is sampled 120 times per second.

  2. Single event burnout sensitivity of embedded field effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Koga, R.; Crain, S.H.; Crawford, K.B.; Yu, P.; Gordon, M.J.

    1999-12-01

    Observations of single event burnout (SEB) in embedded field effect transistors are reported. Both SEB and other single event effects are presented for several pulse width modulation and high frequency devices. The microscope has been employed to locate and to investigate the damaged areas. A model of the damage mechanism based on the results so obtained is described.

  3. Sub-10 nm carbon nanotube transistor.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Aaron D; Luisier, Mathieu; Han, Shu-Jen; Tulevski, George; Breslin, Chris M; Gignac, Lynne; Lundstrom, Mark S; Haensch, Wilfried

    2012-02-01

    Although carbon nanotube (CNT) transistors have been promoted for years as a replacement for silicon technology, there is limited theoretical work and no experimental reports on how nanotubes will perform at sub-10 nm channel lengths. In this manuscript, we demonstrate the first sub-10 nm CNT transistor, which is shown to outperform the best competing silicon devices with more than four times the diameter-normalized current density (2.41 mA/μm) at a low operating voltage of 0.5 V. The nanotube transistor exhibits an impressively small inverse subthreshold slope of 94 mV/decade-nearly half of the value expected from a previous theoretical study. Numerical simulations show the critical role of the metal-CNT contacts in determining the performance of sub-10 nm channel length transistors, signifying the need for more accurate theoretical modeling of transport between the metal and nanotube. The superior low-voltage performance of the sub-10 nm CNT transistor proves the viability of nanotubes for consideration in future aggressively scaled transistor technologies.

  4. Ge/Si nanowire heterostructures as high-performance field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Jie; Lu, Wei; Hu, Yongjie; Wu, Yue; Yan, Hao; Lieber, Charles M

    2006-05-25

    Semiconducting carbon nanotubes and nanowires are potential alternatives to planar metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) owing, for example, to their unique electronic structure and reduced carrier scattering caused by one-dimensional quantum confinement effects. Studies have demonstrated long carrier mean free paths at room temperature in both carbon nanotubes and Ge/Si core/shell nanowires. In the case of carbon nanotube FETs, devices have been fabricated that work close to the ballistic limit. Applications of high-performance carbon nanotube FETs have been hindered, however, by difficulties in producing uniform semiconducting nanotubes, a factor not limiting nanowires, which have been prepared with reproducible electronic properties in high yield as required for large-scale integrated systems. Yet whether nanowire field-effect transistors (NWFETs) can indeed outperform their planar counterparts is still unclear. Here we report studies on Ge/Si core/shell nanowire heterostructures configured as FETs using high-kappa dielectrics in a top-gate geometry. The clean one-dimensional hole-gas in the Ge/Si nanowire heterostructures and enhanced gate coupling with high-kappa dielectrics give high-performance FETs values of the scaled transconductance (3.3 mS microm(-1)) and on-current (2.1 mA microm(-1)) that are three to four times greater than state-of-the-art MOSFETs and are the highest obtained on NWFETs. Furthermore, comparison of the intrinsic switching delay, tau = CV/I, which represents a key metric for device applications, shows that the performance of Ge/Si NWFETs is comparable to similar length carbon nanotube FETs and substantially exceeds the length-dependent scaling of planar silicon MOSFETs. PMID:16724062

  5. A scheme for a topological insulator field effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vali, Mehran; Dideban, Daryoosh; Moezi, Negin

    2015-05-01

    We propose a scheme for a topological insulator field effect transistor. The idea is based on the gate voltage control of the Dirac fermions in a ferromagnetic topological insulator channel with perpendicular magnetization connecting to two metallic topological insulator leads. Our theoretical analysis shows that the proposed device displays a switching effect with high on/off current ratio and a negative differential conductance with a good peak to valley ratio.

  6. Lead iodide perovskite light-emitting field-effect transistor

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Xin Yu; Cortecchia, Daniele; Yin, Jun; Bruno, Annalisa; Soci, Cesare

    2015-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of solution-processable hybrid organic–inorganic perovskites in photovoltaic and light-emitting applications, determination of their intrinsic charge transport parameters has been elusive due to the variability of film preparation and history-dependent device performance. Here we show that screening effects associated to ionic transport can be effectively eliminated by lowering the operating temperature of methylammonium lead iodide perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) field-effect transistors. Field-effect carrier mobility is found to increase by almost two orders of magnitude below 200 K, consistent with phonon scattering-limited transport. Under balanced ambipolar carrier injection, gate-dependent electroluminescence is also observed from the transistor channel, with spectra revealing the tetragonal to orthorhombic phase transition. This demonstration of CH3NH3PbI3 light-emitting field-effect transistors provides intrinsic transport parameters to guide materials and solar cell optimization, and will drive the development of new electro-optic device concepts, such as gated light-emitting diodes and lasers operating at room temperature. PMID:26108967

  7. Lead iodide perovskite light-emitting field-effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Xin Yu; Cortecchia, Daniele; Yin, Jun; Bruno, Annalisa; Soci, Cesare

    2015-06-01

    Despite the widespread use of solution-processable hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites in photovoltaic and light-emitting applications, determination of their intrinsic charge transport parameters has been elusive due to the variability of film preparation and history-dependent device performance. Here we show that screening effects associated to ionic transport can be effectively eliminated by lowering the operating temperature of methylammonium lead iodide perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) field-effect transistors. Field-effect carrier mobility is found to increase by almost two orders of magnitude below 200 K, consistent with phonon scattering-limited transport. Under balanced ambipolar carrier injection, gate-dependent electroluminescence is also observed from the transistor channel, with spectra revealing the tetragonal to orthorhombic phase transition. This demonstration of CH3NH3PbI3 light-emitting field-effect transistors provides intrinsic transport parameters to guide materials and solar cell optimization, and will drive the development of new electro-optic device concepts, such as gated light-emitting diodes and lasers operating at room temperature.

  8. Irradiation of graphene field effect transistors with highly charged ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, P.; Kozubek, R.; Madauß, L.; Sonntag, J.; Lorke, A.; Schleberger, M.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, graphene field-effect transistors are used to detect defects due to irradiation with slow, highly charged ions. In order to avoid contamination effects, a dedicated ultra-high vacuum set up has been designed and installed for the in situ cleaning and electrical characterization of graphene field-effect transistors during irradiation. To investigate the electrical and structural modifications of irradiated graphene field-effect transistors, their transfer characteristics as well as the corresponding Raman spectra are analyzed as a function of ion fluence for two different charge states. The irradiation experiments show a decreasing mobility with increasing fluences. The mobility reduction scales with the potential energy of the ions. In comparison to Raman spectroscopy, the transport properties of graphene show an extremely high sensitivity with respect to ion irradiation: a significant drop of the mobility is observed already at fluences below 15 ions/μm2, which is more than one order of magnitude lower than what is required for Raman spectroscopy.

  9. TOPICAL REVIEW: Organic field-effect transistors using single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Tatsuo; Takeya, Jun

    2009-04-01

    Organic field-effect transistors using small-molecule organic single crystals are developed to investigate fundamental aspects of organic thin-film transistors that have been widely studied for possible future markets for 'plastic electronics'. In reviewing the physics and chemistry of single-crystal organic field-effect transistors (SC-OFETs), the nature of intrinsic charge dynamics is elucidated for the carriers induced at the single crystal surfaces of molecular semiconductors. Materials for SC-OFETs are first reviewed with descriptions of the fabrication methods and the field-effect characteristics. In particular, a benchmark carrier mobility of 20-40 cm2 Vs-1, achieved with thin platelets of rubrene single crystals, demonstrates the significance of the SC-OFETs and clarifies material limitations for organic devices. In the latter part of this review, we discuss the physics of microscopic charge transport by using SC-OFETs at metal/semiconductor contacts and along semiconductor/insulator interfaces. Most importantly, Hall effect and electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements reveal that interface charge transport in molecular semiconductors is properly described in terms of band transport and localization by charge traps.

  10. Exfoliated multilayer MoTe2 field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathipour, S.; Ma, N.; Hwang, W. S.; Protasenko, V.; Vishwanath, S.; Xing, H. G.; Xu, H.; Jena, D.; Appenzeller, J.; Seabaugh, A.

    2014-11-01

    The properties of multilayer exfoliated MoTe2 field-effect transistors (FETs) on SiO2 were investigated for channel thicknesses from 6 to 44 monolayers (MLs). All transistors showed p-type conductivity at zero back-gate bias. For channel thicknesses of 8 ML or less, the transistors exhibited ambipolar characteristics. ON/OFF current ratio was greatest, 1 × 105, for the transistor with the thinnest channel, 6 ML. Devices showed a clear photoresponse to wavelengths between 510 and 1080 nm at room temperature. Temperature-dependent current-voltage measurements were performed on a FET with 30 layers of MoTe2. When the channel is turned-on and p-type, the temperature dependence is barrier-limited by the Au/Ti/MoTe2 contact with a hole activation energy of 0.13 eV. A long channel transistor model with Schottky barrier contacts is shown to be consistent with the common-source characteristics.

  11. Thin film transistors using PECVD-grown carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Ono, Yuki; Kishimoto, Shigeru; Ohno, Yutaka; Mizutani, Takashi

    2010-05-21

    Thin film transistors with a carbon nanotube (CNT) network as a channel have been fabricated using grid-inserted plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) which has the advantage of preferential growth of the CNTs with semiconducting behavior in the I-V characteristics of CNT field effect transistors (CNT-FETs). Taking advantage of the preferential growth and suppression of bundle formation, a large ON current of 170 microA mm(-1), which is among the largest in these kinds of devices with a large ON/OFF current ratio of about 10(5), has been realized in the relatively short channel length of 10 microm. The field effect mobility of the device was 5.8 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). PMID:20418603

  12. Thin film transistors using PECVD-grown carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Yuki; Kishimoto, Shigeru; Ohno, Yutaka; Mizutani, Takashi

    2010-05-01

    Thin film transistors with a carbon nanotube (CNT) network as a channel have been fabricated using grid-inserted plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) which has the advantage of preferential growth of the CNTs with semiconducting behavior in the I-V characteristics of CNT field effect transistors (CNT-FETs). Taking advantage of the preferential growth and suppression of bundle formation, a large ON current of 170 µA mm - 1, which is among the largest in these kinds of devices with a large ON/OFF current ratio of about 105, has been realized in the relatively short channel length of 10 µm. The field effect mobility of the device was 5.8 cm2 V - 1 s - 1.

  13. Field-effect transistors based on cubic indium nitride

    PubMed Central

    Oseki, Masaaki; Okubo, Kana; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Ohta, Jitsuo; Fujioka, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Although the demand for high-speed telecommunications has increased in recent years, the performance of transistors fabricated with traditional semiconductors such as silicon, gallium arsenide, and gallium nitride have reached their physical performance limits. Therefore, new materials with high carrier velocities should be sought for the fabrication of next-generation, ultra-high-speed transistors. Indium nitride (InN) has attracted much attention for this purpose because of its high electron drift velocity under a high electric field. Thick InN films have been applied to the fabrication of field-effect transistors (FETs), but the performance of the thick InN transistors was discouraging, with no clear linear-saturation output characteristics and poor on/off current ratios. Here, we report the epitaxial deposition of ultrathin cubic InN on insulating oxide yttria-stabilized zirconia substrates and the first demonstration of ultrathin-InN-based FETs. The devices exhibit high on/off ratios and low off-current densities because of the high quality top and bottom interfaces between the ultrathin cubic InN and oxide insulators. This first demonstration of FETs using a ultrathin cubic indium nitride semiconductor will thus pave the way for the development of next-generation high-speed electronics. PMID:24492240

  14. Field-effect transistors based on cubic indium nitride.

    PubMed

    Oseki, Masaaki; Okubo, Kana; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Ohta, Jitsuo; Fujioka, Hiroshi

    2014-02-04

    Although the demand for high-speed telecommunications has increased in recent years, the performance of transistors fabricated with traditional semiconductors such as silicon, gallium arsenide, and gallium nitride have reached their physical performance limits. Therefore, new materials with high carrier velocities should be sought for the fabrication of next-generation, ultra-high-speed transistors. Indium nitride (InN) has attracted much attention for this purpose because of its high electron drift velocity under a high electric field. Thick InN films have been applied to the fabrication of field-effect transistors (FETs), but the performance of the thick InN transistors was discouraging, with no clear linear-saturation output characteristics and poor on/off current ratios. Here, we report the epitaxial deposition of ultrathin cubic InN on insulating oxide yttria-stabilized zirconia substrates and the first demonstration of ultrathin-InN-based FETs. The devices exhibit high on/off ratios and low off-current densities because of the high quality top and bottom interfaces between the ultrathin cubic InN and oxide insulators. This first demonstration of FETs using a ultrathin cubic indium nitride semiconductor will thus pave the way for the development of next-generation high-speed electronics.

  15. DNA aptamer functionalized zinc oxide field effect transistors for liquid state selective sensing of small molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagen, Joshua A.; Kim, Sang N.; Bayraktaroglu, Burhan; Kelley-Loughnane, Nancy; Naik, Rajesh R.; Stone, Morley O.

    2010-08-01

    In this work, we show the use of single stranded DNA aptamers as selective biorecognition elements in a sensor based on a field effect transistor (FET) platform. Aptamers are chemically attached to the semiconducting material in the FET through the use of linker molecules and confirmed through atomic force microscopy and positive target detection. Highly selective sensing of a small molecule, riboflavin is shown down to the nano-molar level in zinc oxide FET and micro-molar level in a carbon nanotube FET. High selectivity is determined through the use of negative control target molecules with similar molecular structures as the positive control targets with little to no sensor response. The goal of this work is to develop a sensor platform where biorecognition elements can be used to functionalize an array of transistors for simultaneous sensing of multiple targets in biological fluids.

  16. Vertical Organic Field-Effect Transistors for Integrated Optoelectronic Applications.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hyeonggeun; Dong, Zhipeng; Guo, Jing; Kim, Doyoung; So, Franky

    2016-04-27

    Direct integration of a vertical organic field-effect transistor (VOFET) and an optoelectronic device offers a single stacked, low power optoelectronic VOFET with high aperture ratios. However, a functional optoelectronic VOFET could not be realized because of the difficulty in fabricating transparent source and gate electrodes. Here, we report a VOFET with an on/off ratio up to 10(5) as well as output current saturation by fabricating a transparent gate capacitor consisting of a perforated indium tin oxide (ITO) source electrode, HfO2 gate dielectric, and ITO gate electrode. Effects of the pore size and the pore depth within the porous ITO electrodes on the on/off characteristic of a VOFET are systematically explained in this work. By combining a phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode with an optimized VOFET structure, a vertical organic light-emitting transistor with a luminance on/off ratio of 10(4) can be fabricated.

  17. Graphene-graphite oxide field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Standley, Brian; Mendez, Anthony; Schmidgall, Emma; Bockrath, Marc

    2012-03-14

    Graphene's high mobility and two-dimensional nature make it an attractive material for field-effect transistors. Previous efforts in this area have used bulk gate dielectric materials such as SiO(2) or HfO(2). In contrast, we have studied the use of an ultrathin layered material, graphene's insulating analogue, graphite oxide. We have fabricated transistors comprising single or bilayer graphene channels, graphite oxide gate insulators, and metal top-gates. The graphite oxide layers show relatively minimal leakage at room temperature. The breakdown electric field of graphite oxide was found to be comparable to SiO(2), typically ~1-3 × 10(8) V/m, while its dielectric constant is slightly higher, κ ≈ 4.3.

  18. Semiconducting nanowire field effect transistor for nanoelectronics and nanomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshmukh, Mandar

    2013-02-01

    Semiconducting nanowire transistors offer an interesting avenue to make fundamentally new device architecture for future switching devices. I will our work to develop a simple fabrication technique for lateral nanowire wrap-gate devices with high capacitive coupling and field-effect mobility using InAs nanowires and also discuss electrical characterization of these devices. Our process uses e-beam lithography with a single resist-spinning step and does not require chemical etching. We measure significantly larger mobility and good sub-threshold characteristics [1]. I will also discuss the applications of using suspended nanowire transistors in studying mechanics and thermal properties of nanostructures as they can be useful in studying a wide variety of physics at the nanoscale. This work is supported by Government of India and partially supported by IBM India.

  19. Vertical Organic Field-Effect Transistors for Integrated Optoelectronic Applications.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hyeonggeun; Dong, Zhipeng; Guo, Jing; Kim, Doyoung; So, Franky

    2016-04-27

    Direct integration of a vertical organic field-effect transistor (VOFET) and an optoelectronic device offers a single stacked, low power optoelectronic VOFET with high aperture ratios. However, a functional optoelectronic VOFET could not be realized because of the difficulty in fabricating transparent source and gate electrodes. Here, we report a VOFET with an on/off ratio up to 10(5) as well as output current saturation by fabricating a transparent gate capacitor consisting of a perforated indium tin oxide (ITO) source electrode, HfO2 gate dielectric, and ITO gate electrode. Effects of the pore size and the pore depth within the porous ITO electrodes on the on/off characteristic of a VOFET are systematically explained in this work. By combining a phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode with an optimized VOFET structure, a vertical organic light-emitting transistor with a luminance on/off ratio of 10(4) can be fabricated. PMID:27082815

  20. Biomolecular detection using a metal semiconductor field effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estephan, Elias; Saab, Marie-Belle; Buzatu, Petre; Aulombard, Roger; Cuisinier, Frédéric J. G.; Gergely, Csilla; Cloitre, Thierry

    2010-04-01

    In this work, our attention was drawn towards developing affinity-based electrical biosensors, using a MESFET (Metal Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor). Semiconductor (SC) surfaces must be prepared before the incubations with biomolecules. The peptides route was adapted to exceed and bypass the limits revealed by other types of surface modification due to the unwanted unspecific interactions. As these peptides reveal specific recognition of materials, then controlled functionalization can be achieved. Peptides were produced by phage display technology using a library of M13 bacteriophage. After several rounds of bio-panning, the phages presenting affinities for GaAs SC were isolated; the DNA of these specific phages were sequenced, and the peptide with the highest affinity was synthesized and biotinylated. To explore the possibility of electrical detection, the MESFET fabricated with the GaAs SC were used to detect the streptavidin via the biotinylated peptide in the presence of the bovine Serum Albumin. After each surface modification step, the IDS (current between the drain and the source) of the transistor was measured and a decrease in the intensity was detected. Furthermore, fluorescent microscopy was used in order to prove the specificity of this peptide and the specific localisation of biomolecules. In conclusion, the feasibility of producing an electrical biosensor using a MESFET has been demonstrated. Controlled placement, specific localization and detection of biomolecules on a MESFET transistor were achieved without covering the drain and the source. This method of functionalization and detection can be of great utility for biosensing application opening a new way for developing bioFETs (Biomolecular Field-Effect Transistor).

  1. Cryogenetically Cooled Field Effect Transistors for Low-Noise Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollack, Edward J.; Rabin, Douglas M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Recent tends in the design, fabrication and use of High-Electron-Mobility-Transistors (HEMT) in low noise amplifiers are reviewed. Systems employing these devices have achieved the lowest system noise for wavelengths greater than three millimeters with relatively modest cryogenic cooling requirements in a variety of ground and space based applications. System requirements which arise in employing such devices in imaging applications are contrasted with other leading coherent detector candidates at microwave wavelengths. Fundamental and practical limitations which arise in the context of microwave application of field effect devices at cryogenic temperatures will be discussed from a component and systems point of view.

  2. Cryogenically Cooled Field Effect Transistors for Low-Noise Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollack, Edward J.

    2002-01-01

    Recent tends in the design, fabrication and use of High-Electron-Mobility-Transistors (HEMT) in low noise amplifiers are reviewed. Systems employing these devices have achieved the lowest system noise for wavelengths greater than three millimeters with relatively modest cryogenic cooling requirements in a variety of ground and space based applications. System requirements which arise in employing such devices in imaging applications are contrasted with other leading coherent detector candidates at microwave wavelengths. Fundamental and practical limitations which arise in the context of microwave application of field effect devices at cryogenic temperatures will be discussed from a component and systems point of view.

  3. Ion-Sensitive Field-Effect Transistor for Biological Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang-Soo; Kim, Sang Kyu; Kim, Moonil

    2009-01-01

    In recent years there has been great progress in applying FET-type biosensors for highly sensitive biological detection. Among them, the ISFET (ion-sensitive field-effect transistor) is one of the most intriguing approaches in electrical biosensing technology. Here, we review some of the main advances in this field over the past few years, explore its application prospects, and discuss the main issues, approaches, and challenges, with the aim of stimulating a broader interest in developing ISFET-based biosensors and extending their applications for reliable and sensitive analysis of various biomolecules such as DNA, proteins, enzymes, and cells. PMID:22423205

  4. Polarized photocurrent response in black phosphorus field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Hong, Tu; Chamlagain, Bhim; Lin, Wenzhi; Chuang, Hsun-Jen; Pan, Minghu; Zhou, Zhixian; Xu, Ya-Qiong

    2014-08-01

    We investigate electrical transport and optoelectronic properties of field effect transistors (FETs) made from few-layer black phosphorus (BP) crystals down to a few nanometers. In particular, we explore the anisotropic nature and photocurrent generation mechanisms in BP FETs through spatial-, polarization-, gate-, and bias-dependent photocurrent measurements. Our results reveal that the photocurrent signals at BP-electrode junctions are mainly attributed to the photovoltaic effect in the off-state and photothermoelectric effect in the on-state, and their anisotropic feature primarily results from the directional-dependent absorption of BP crystals.

  5. Ferroelectric Field-Effect Transistor Differential Amplifier Circuit Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Thomas A.; MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat D.

    2008-01-01

    There has been considerable research investigating the Ferroelectric Field-Effect Transistor (FeFET) in memory circuits. However, very little research has been performed in applying the FeFET to analog circuits. This paper investigates the use of FeFETs in a common analog circuit, the differential amplifier. The two input Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS) transistors in a general MOS differential amplifier circuit are replaced with FeFETs. Resistors are used in place of the other three MOS transistors. The FeFET model used in the analysis has been previously reported and was based on experimental device data. Because of the FeFET hysteresis, the FeFET differential amplifier has four different operating modes depending on whether the FeFETs are positively or negatively polarized. The FeFET differential amplifier operation in the different modes was analyzed by calculating the amplifier voltage transfer and gain characteristics shown in figures 2 through 5. Comparisons were made between the FeFET differential amplifier and the standard MOS differential amplifier. Possible applications and benefits of the FeFET differential amplifier are discussed.

  6. Infrared light gated MoS₂ field effect transistor.

    PubMed

    Fang, Huajing; Lin, Ziyuan; Wang, Xinsheng; Tang, Chun-Yin; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Fan; Chai, Yang; Li, Qiang; Yan, Qingfeng; Chan, H L W; Dai, Ji-Yan

    2015-12-14

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS₂) as a promising 2D material has attracted extensive attentions due to its unique physical, optical and electrical properties. In this work, we demonstrate an infrared (IR) light gated MoS₂ transistor through a device composed of MoS₂ monolayer and a ferroelectric single crystal Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O₃-PbTiO₃ (PMN-PT). With a monolayer MoS₂ onto the top surface of (111) PMN-PT crystal, the drain current of MoS₂ channel can be modulated with infrared illumination and this modulation process is reversible. Thus, the transistor can work as a new kind of IR photodetector with a high IR responsivity of 114%/Wcm⁻². The IR response of MoS₂ transistor is attributed to the polarization change of PMN-PT single crystal induced by the pyroelectric effect which results in a field effect. Our result promises the application of MoS₂ 2D material in infrared optoelectronic devices. Combining with the intrinsic photocurrent feature of MoS₂ in the visible range, the MoS₂ on ferroelectric single crystal may be sensitive to a broadband wavelength of light.

  7. Infrared light gated MoS₂ field effect transistor.

    PubMed

    Fang, Huajing; Lin, Ziyuan; Wang, Xinsheng; Tang, Chun-Yin; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Fan; Chai, Yang; Li, Qiang; Yan, Qingfeng; Chan, H L W; Dai, Ji-Yan

    2015-12-14

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS₂) as a promising 2D material has attracted extensive attentions due to its unique physical, optical and electrical properties. In this work, we demonstrate an infrared (IR) light gated MoS₂ transistor through a device composed of MoS₂ monolayer and a ferroelectric single crystal Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O₃-PbTiO₃ (PMN-PT). With a monolayer MoS₂ onto the top surface of (111) PMN-PT crystal, the drain current of MoS₂ channel can be modulated with infrared illumination and this modulation process is reversible. Thus, the transistor can work as a new kind of IR photodetector with a high IR responsivity of 114%/Wcm⁻². The IR response of MoS₂ transistor is attributed to the polarization change of PMN-PT single crystal induced by the pyroelectric effect which results in a field effect. Our result promises the application of MoS₂ 2D material in infrared optoelectronic devices. Combining with the intrinsic photocurrent feature of MoS₂ in the visible range, the MoS₂ on ferroelectric single crystal may be sensitive to a broadband wavelength of light. PMID:26698982

  8. Graphene field effect transistor without an energy gap.

    PubMed

    Jang, Min Seok; Kim, Hyungjun; Son, Young-Woo; Atwater, Harry A; Goddard, William A

    2013-05-28

    Graphene is a room temperature ballistic electron conductor and also a very good thermal conductor. Thus, it has been regarded as an ideal material for postsilicon electronic applications. A major complication is that the relativistic massless electrons in pristine graphene exhibit unimpeded Klein tunneling penetration through gate potential barriers. Thus, previous efforts to realize a field effect transistor for logic applications have assumed that introduction of a band gap in graphene is a prerequisite. Unfortunately, extrinsic treatments designed to open a band gap seriously degrade device quality, yielding very low mobility and uncontrolled on/off current ratios. To solve this dilemma, we propose a gating mechanism that leads to a hundredfold enhancement in on/off transmittance ratio for normally incident electrons without any band gap engineering. Thus, our saw-shaped geometry gate potential (in place of the conventional bar-shaped geometry) leads to switching to an off state while retaining the ultrahigh electron mobility in the on state. In particular, we report that an on/off transmittance ratio of 130 is achievable for a sawtooth gate with a gate length of 80 nm. Our switching mechanism demonstrates that intrinsic graphene can be used in designing logic devices without serious alteration of the conventional field effect transistor architecture. This suggests a new variable for the optimization of the graphene-based device--geometry of the gate electrode.

  9. Structured-gate organic field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aljada, Muhsen; Pandey, Ajay K.; Velusamy, Marappan; Burn, Paul L.; Meredith, Paul; Namdas, Ebinazar B.

    2012-06-01

    We report the fabrication and electrical characteristics of structured-gate organic field-effect transistors consisting of a gate electrode patterned with three-dimensional pillars. The pillar gate electrode was over-coated with a gate dielectric (SiO2) and solution processed organic semiconductors producing both unipolar p-type and bipolar behaviour. We show that this new structured-gate architecture delivers higher source-drain currents, higher gate capacitance per unit equivalent linear channel area, and enhanced charge injection (electrons and/or holes) versus the conventional planar structure in all modes of operation. For the bipolar field-effect transistor (FET) the maximum source-drain current enhancements in p- and n-channel mode were >600% and 28%, respectively, leading to p and n charge mobilities with the same order of magnitude. Thus, we have demonstrated that it is possible to use the FET architecture to manipulate and match carrier mobilities of material combinations where one charge carrier is normally dominant. Mobility matching is advantageous for creating organic logic circuit elements such as inverters and amplifiers. Hence, the method represents a facile and generic strategy for improving the performance of standard organic semiconductors as well as new materials and blends.

  10. Charge Transport in Hybrid Halide Perovskite Field-Effect Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurchescu, Oana

    Hybrid organic-inorganic trihalide perovskite (HTP) materials exhibit a strong optical absorption, tunable band gap, long carrier lifetimes and fast charge carrier transport. These remarkable properties, coupled with their reduced complexity processing, make the HTPs promising contenders for large scale, low-cost thin film optoelectronic applications. But in spite of the remarkable demonstrations of high performance solar cells, light-emitting diodes and field-effect transistor devices, all of which took place in a very short time period, numerous questions related to the nature and dynamics of the charge carriers and their relation to device performance, stability and reliability still remain. This presentation describes the electrical properties of HTPs evaluated from field-effect transistor measurements. The electrostatic gating of provides an unique platform for the study of intrinsic charge transport in these materials, and, at the same time, expand the use of HTPs towards switching electronic devices, which have not been explored previously. We fabricated FETs on SiO2 and polymer dielectrics from spin coating, thermal evaporation and spray deposition and compare their properties. CH3NH3PbI3-xClx can reach balanced electron and hole mobilities of 10 cm2/Vs upon tuning the thin-film microstructure, injection and the defect density at the semiconductor/dielectric interface. The work was performed in collaboration with Yaochuan Mei (Wake Forest University), Chuang Zhang, and Z. Valy Vardeny (University of Utah). The work is supported by ONR Grant N00014-15-1-2943.

  11. High-performance carbon nanotube thin-film transistors on flexible paper substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Na; Yun, Ki Nam; Yu, Hyun-Yong; Shim, Joon Hyung; Lee, Cheol Jin

    2015-03-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are promising materials as active channels for flexible transistors owing to their excellent electrical and mechanical properties. However, flexible SWCNT transistors have never been realized on paper substrates, which are widely used, inexpensive, and recyclable. In this study, we fabricated SWCNT thin-film transistors on photo paper substrates. The devices exhibited a high on/off current ratio of more than 106 and a field-effect mobility of approximately 3 cm2/V.s. The proof-of-concept demonstration indicates that SWCNT transistors on flexible paper substrates could be applied as low-cost and recyclable flexible electronics.

  12. High-performance carbon nanotube thin-film transistors on flexible paper substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Na; Yun, Ki Nam; Yu, Hyun-Yong; Lee, Cheol Jin; Shim, Joon Hyung

    2015-03-09

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are promising materials as active channels for flexible transistors owing to their excellent electrical and mechanical properties. However, flexible SWCNT transistors have never been realized on paper substrates, which are widely used, inexpensive, and recyclable. In this study, we fabricated SWCNT thin-film transistors on photo paper substrates. The devices exhibited a high on/off current ratio of more than 10{sup 6} and a field-effect mobility of approximately 3 cm{sup 2}/V·s. The proof-of-concept demonstration indicates that SWCNT transistors on flexible paper substrates could be applied as low-cost and recyclable flexible electronics.

  13. Hysteresis in Carbon Nanotube Transistors: Measurement and Analysis of Trap Density, Energy Level, and Spatial Distribution.

    PubMed

    Park, Rebecca Sejung; Shulaker, Max Marcel; Hills, Gage; Suriyasena Liyanage, Luckshitha; Lee, Seunghyun; Tang, Alvin; Mitra, Subhasish; Wong, H-S Philip

    2016-04-26

    We present a measurement technique, which we call the Pulsed Time-Domain Measurement, for characterizing hysteresis in carbon nanotube field-effect transistors, and demonstrate its applicability for a broad range of 1D and 2D nanomaterials beyond carbon nanotubes. The Pulsed Time-Domain Measurement enables the quantification (density, energy level, and spatial distribution) of charged traps responsible for hysteresis. A physics-based model of the charge trapping process for a carbon nanotube field-effect transistor is presented and experimentally validated using the Pulsed Time-Domain Measurement. Leveraging this model, we discover a source of traps (surface traps) unique to devices with low-dimensional channels such as carbon nanotubes and nanowires (beyond interface traps which exist in today's silicon field-effect transistors). The different charge trapping mechanisms for interface traps and surface traps are studied based on their temperature dependencies. Through these advances, we are able to quantify the interface trap density for carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (∼3 × 10(13) cm(-2) eV(-1) near midgap), and compare this against a range of previously studied dielectric/semiconductor interfaces.

  14. In situ tuning and probing the ambipolar field effect on multiwall carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Li-Ying; Chang, Chia-Seng

    2014-12-15

    We report a method of fabricating ultra-clean and hysteresis-free multiwall carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNFETs) inside the ultra-high vacuum transmission electron microscope equipped with a movable gold tip as a local gate. By tailoring the shell structure of the nanotube and varying the drain-source voltage (V{sub ds}), we can tune the electronic characteristic of a multiwall CNFET in situ. We have also found that the Schottky barriers of a multiwall CNFET are generated within the nanotube, but not at the nanotube/electrode contacts, and the barrier height has been derived. We have subsequently demonstrated the ambipolar characteristics of the CNFET with concurrent high-resolution imaging and local gating.

  15. Electrospun Polyaniline/Polyethylene Oxide Nanofiber Field Effect Transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinto, N. J.; Johnson, A. T.; MacDiarmid, A. G.; Mueller, C. H.; Theofylaktos, N.; Robinson, D. C.; Miranda, F. A.

    2003-01-01

    We report on the observation of field effect transistor (FET) behavior in electrospun camphorsulfonic acid doped polyaniline(PANi)/polyethylene oxide(PE0) nanofibers. Saturation channel currents are observed at surprisingly low source/drain voltages. The hole mobility in the depletion regime is 1.4 x 10(exp -4) sq cm/V s while the 1-D charge density (at zero gate bias) is calculated to be approximately 1 hole per 50 two-ring repeat units of polyaniline, consistent with the rather high channel conductivity (approx. 10(exp -3) S/cm). Reducing or eliminating the PEO content in the fiber is expected to enhance device parameters. Electrospinning is thus proposed as a simple method of fabricating 1-D polymer FET's.

  16. Electric control of spin in monolayer WSe₂ field effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Gong, Kui; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Dongping; Liu, Lei; Zhu, Yu; Zhao, Yonghong; Guo, Hong

    2014-10-31

    We report first-principles theoretical investigations of quantum transport in a monolayer WSe2 field effect transistor (FET). Due to strong spin-orbit interaction (SOI) and the atomic structure of the two-dimensional lattice, monolayer WSe2 has an electronic structure that exhibits Zeeman-like up-down spin texture near the K and K' points of the Brillouin zone. In a FET, the gate electric field induces an extra, externally tunable SOI that re-orients the spins into a Rashba-like texture thereby realizing electric control of the spin. The conductance of FET is modulated by the spin texture, namely by if the spin orientation of the carrier after the gated channel region, matches or miss-matches that of the FET drain electrode. The carrier current I(τ, s) in the FET is labelled by both the valley index and spin index, realizing valleytronics and spintronics in the same device. PMID:25287881

  17. Theoretical study of phosphorene tunneling field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jiwon; Hobbs, Chris

    2015-02-01

    In this work, device performances of tunneling field effect transistors (TFETs) based on phosphorene are explored via self-consistent atomistic quantum transport simulations. Phosphorene is an ultra-thin two-dimensional (2-D) material with a direct band gap suitable for TFETs applications. Our simulation shows that phosphorene TFETs exhibit subthreshold slope below 60 mV/dec and a wide range of on-current depending on the transport direction due to highly anisotropic band structures of phosphorene. By benchmarking with monolayer MoTe2 TFETs, we predict that phosphorene TFETs oriented in the small effective mass direction can yield much larger on-current at the same on-current/off-current ratio than monolayer MoTe2 TFETs. It is also observed that a gate underlap structure is required for scaling down phosphorene TFETs in the small effective mass direction to suppress the source-to-drain direct tunneling leakage current.

  18. Abnormal Dirac point shift in graphene field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shaoqing; Jin, Zhi; Huang, Xinnan; Peng, Songang; Zhang, Dayong; Shi, Jingyuan

    2016-09-01

    The shift of Dirac point in graphene devices is of great importance, influencing the reliability and stability. Previous studies show the Dirac point shifts slightly to be more positive when the drain bias increases. Here, an abnormal shift of Dirac point is observed in monolayer graphene field effect transistors by investigating the transfer curves under various drain biases. The voltage of Dirac point shifts positively at first and then decreases rapidly when the channel electric field exceeds some threshold. The negative Dirac point shift is attributed to holes injection into oxide layer and captured by the oxide traps under high channel electric field. This can also be demonstrated through a simple probability model and the graphene Raman spectra before and after the DC measurement.

  19. Touching polymer chains by organic field-effect transistors

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Wei; Dong, Huanli; Wang, Zhigang; Hu, Wenping

    2014-01-01

    Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) are used to directly “touch” the movement and dynamics of polymer chains, and then determine Tg. As a molecular-level probe, the conducting channel of OFETs exhibits several unique advantages: 1) it directly detects the motion and dynamics of polymer chain at Tg; 2) it allows the measurement of size effects in ultrathin polymer films (even down to 6 nm), which bridges the gap in understanding effects between surface and interface. This facile and reliable determination of Tg of polymer films and the understanding of polymer chain dynamics guide a new prospect for OFETs besides their applications in organic electronics and casting new light on the fundamental understanding of the nature of polymer chain dynamics. PMID:25227159

  20. Modeling of Metal-Ferroelectric-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duen Ho, Fat; Macleod, Todd C.

    1998-01-01

    The characteristics for a MFSFET (metal-ferroelectric-semiconductor field effect transistor) is very different than a conventional MOSFET and must be modeled differently. The drain current has a hysteresis shape with respect to the gate voltage. The position along the hysteresis curve is dependent on the last positive or negative polling of the ferroelectric material. The drain current also has a logarithmic decay after the last polling. A model has been developed to describe the MFSFET drain current for both gate voltage on and gate voltage off conditions. This model takes into account the hysteresis nature of the MFSFET and the time dependent decay. The model is based on the shape of the Fermi-Dirac function which has been modified to describe the MFSFET's drain current. This is different from the model proposed by Chen et. al. and that by Wu.

  1. Theoretical study of phosphorene tunneling field effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Jiwon; Hobbs, Chris

    2015-02-23

    In this work, device performances of tunneling field effect transistors (TFETs) based on phosphorene are explored via self-consistent atomistic quantum transport simulations. Phosphorene is an ultra-thin two-dimensional (2-D) material with a direct band gap suitable for TFETs applications. Our simulation shows that phosphorene TFETs exhibit subthreshold slope below 60 mV/dec and a wide range of on-current depending on the transport direction due to highly anisotropic band structures of phosphorene. By benchmarking with monolayer MoTe{sub 2} TFETs, we predict that phosphorene TFETs oriented in the small effective mass direction can yield much larger on-current at the same on-current/off-current ratio than monolayer MoTe{sub 2} TFETs. It is also observed that a gate underlap structure is required for scaling down phosphorene TFETs in the small effective mass direction to suppress the source-to-drain direct tunneling leakage current.

  2. The fundamental downscaling limit of field effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Mamaluy, Denis Gao, Xujiao

    2015-05-11

    We predict that within next 15 years a fundamental down-scaling limit for CMOS technology and other Field-Effect Transistors (FETs) will be reached. Specifically, we show that at room temperatures all FETs, irrespective of their channel material, will start experiencing unacceptable level of thermally induced errors around 5-nm gate lengths. These findings were confirmed by performing quantum mechanical transport simulations for a variety of 6-, 5-, and 4-nm gate length Si devices, optimized to satisfy high-performance logic specifications by ITRS. Different channel materials and wafer/channel orientations have also been studied; it is found that altering channel-source-drain materials achieves only insignificant increase in switching energy, which overall cannot sufficiently delay the approaching downscaling limit. Alternative possibilities are discussed to continue the increase of logic element densities for room temperature operation below the said limit.

  3. Resolving ambiguities in nanowire field-effect transistor characterization.

    PubMed

    Heedt, Sebastian; Otto, Isabel; Sladek, Kamil; Hardtdegen, Hilde; Schubert, Jürgen; Demarina, Natalia; Lüth, Hans; Grützmacher, Detlev; Schäpers, Thomas

    2015-11-21

    We have modeled InAs nanowires using finite element methods considering the actual device geometry, the semiconducting nature of the channel and surface states, providing a comprehensive picture of charge distribution and gate action. The effective electrostatic gate width and screening effects are taken into account. A pivotal aspect is that the gate coupling to the nanowire is compromised by the concurrent coupling of the gate electrode to the surface/interface states, which provide the vast majority of carriers for undoped nanowires. In conjunction with field-effect transistor (FET) measurements using two gates with distinctly dissimilar couplings, the study reveals the density of surface states that gives rise to a shallow quantum well at the surface. Both gates yield identical results for the electron concentration and mobility only at the actual surface state density. Our method remedies the flaws of conventional FET analysis and provides a straightforward alternative to intricate Hall effect measurements on nanowires. PMID:26482127

  4. Encapsulated graphene field-effect transistors for air stable operation

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandrou, Konstantinos Kymissis, Ioannis; Petrone, Nicholas; Hone, James

    2015-03-16

    In this work, we report the fabrication of encapsulated graphene field effects transistors (GFETs) with excellent air stability operation in ambient environment. Graphene's 2D nature makes its electronics properties very sensitive to the surrounding environment, and thus, non-encapsulated graphene devices show extensive vulnerability due to unintentional hole doping from the presence of water molecules and oxygen limiting their performance and use in real world applications. Encapsulating GFETs with a thin layer of parylene-C and aluminum deposited on top of the exposed graphene channel area resulted in devices with excellent electrical performance stability for an extended period of time. Moisture penetration is reduced significantly and carrier mobility degraded substantially less when compared to non-encapsulated control devices. Our CMOS compatible encapsulation method minimizes the problems of environmental doping and lifetime performance degradation, enabling the operation of air stable devices for next generation graphene-based electronics.

  5. Semianalytical quantum model for graphene field-effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Pugnaghi, Claudio; Grassi, Roberto Gnudi, Antonio; Di Lecce, Valerio; Gnani, Elena; Reggiani, Susanna; Baccarani, Giorgio

    2014-09-21

    We develop a semianalytical model for monolayer graphene field-effect transistors in the ballistic limit. Two types of devices are considered: in the first device, the source and drain regions are doped by charge transfer with Schottky contacts, while, in the second device, the source and drain regions are doped electrostatically by a back gate. The model captures two important effects that influence the operation of both devices: (i) the finite density of states in the source and drain regions, which limits the number of states available for transport and can be responsible for negative output differential resistance effects, and (ii) quantum tunneling across the potential steps at the source-channel and drain-channel interfaces. By comparison with a self-consistent non-equilibrium Green's function solver, we show that our model provides very accurate results for both types of devices, in the bias region of quasi-saturation as well as in that of negative differential resistance.

  6. Electronic Model of a Ferroelectric Field Effect Transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat Duen; Russell, Larry (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A pair of electronic models has been developed of a Ferroelectric Field Effect transistor. These models can be used in standard electrical circuit simulation programs to simulate the main characteristics of the FFET. The models use the Schmitt trigger circuit as a basis for their design. One model uses bipolar junction transistors and one uses MOSFET's. Each model has the main characteristics of the FFET, which are the current hysterisis with different gate voltages and decay of the drain current when the gate voltage is off. The drain current from each model has similar values to an actual FFET that was measured experimentally. T'he input and o Output resistance in the models are also similar to that of the FFET. The models are valid for all frequencies below RF levels. No attempt was made to model the high frequency characteristics of the FFET. Each model can be used to design circuits using FFET's with standard electrical simulation packages. These circuits can be used in designing non-volatile memory circuits and logic circuits and is compatible with all SPICE based circuit analysis programs. The models consist of only standard electrical components, such as BJT's, MOSFET's, diodes, resistors, and capacitors. Each model is compared to the experimental data measured from an actual FFET.

  7. Silicon junctionless field effect transistors as room temperature terahertz detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Marczewski, J. Tomaszewski, D.; Zaborowski, M.; Zagrajek, P.

    2015-09-14

    Terahertz (THz) radiation detection by junctionless metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (JL MOSFETs) was studied and compared with THz detection using conventional MOSFETs. It has been shown that in contrast to the behavior of standard transistors, the junctionless devices have a significant responsivity also in the open channel (low resistance) state. The responsivity for a photolithographically defined JL FET was 70 V/W and the noise equivalent power 460 pW/√Hz. Working in the open channel state may be advantageous for THz wireless and imaging applications because of its low thermal noise and possible high operating speed or large bandwidth. It has been proven that the junctionless MOSFETs can also operate in a zero gate bias mode, which enables simplification of the THz array circuitry. Existing models of THz detection by MOSFETs were considered and it has been demonstrated that the process of detection by these junctionless devices cannot be explained within the framework of the commonly accepted models and therefore requires a new theoretical approach.

  8. Nano-textured high sensitivity ion sensitive field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajmirzaheydarali, M.; Sadeghipari, M.; Akbari, M.; Shahsafi, A.; Mohajerzadeh, S.

    2016-02-01

    Nano-textured gate engineered ion sensitive field effect transistors (ISFETs), suitable for high sensitivity pH sensors, have been realized. Utilizing a mask-less deep reactive ion etching results in ultra-fine poly-Si features on the gate of ISFET devices where spacing of the order of 10 nm and less is achieved. Incorporation of these nano-sized features on the gate is responsible for high sensitivities up to 400 mV/pH in contrast to conventional planar structures. The fabrication process for this transistor is inexpensive, and it is fully compatible with standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor fabrication procedure. A theoretical modeling has also been presented to predict the extension of the diffuse layer into the electrolyte solution for highly featured structures and to correlate this extension with the high sensitivity of the device. The observed ultra-fine features by means of scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy tools corroborate the theoretical prediction.

  9. Slowing DNA Translocation in a Nanofluidic Field-Effect Transistor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yifan; Yobas, Levent

    2016-04-26

    Here, we present an experimental demonstration of slowing DNA translocation across a nanochannel by modulating the channel surface charge through an externally applied gate bias. The experiments were performed on a nanofluidic field-effect transistor, which is a monolithic integrated platform featuring a 50 nm-diameter in-plane alumina nanocapillary whose entire length is surrounded by a gate electrode. The field-effect transistor behavior was validated on the gating of ionic conductance and protein transport. The gating of DNA translocation was subsequently studied by measuring discrete current dips associated with single λ-DNA translocation events under a source-to-drain bias of 1 V. The translocation speeds under various gate bias conditions were extracted by fitting event histograms of the measured translocation time to the first passage time distributions obtained from a simple 1D biased diffusion model. A positive gate bias was observed to slow the translocation of single λ-DNA chains markedly; the translocation speed was reduced by an order of magnitude from 18.4 mm/s obtained under a floating gate down to 1.33 mm/s under a positive gate bias of 9 V. Therefore, a dynamic and flexible regulation of the DNA translocation speed, which is vital for single-molecule sequencing, can be achieved on this device by simply tuning the gate bias. The device is realized in a conventional semiconductor microfabrication process without the requirement of advanced lithography, and can be potentially further developed into a compact electronic single-molecule sequencer.

  10. Biologically sensitive field-effect transistors: from ISFETs to NanoFETs.

    PubMed

    Pachauri, Vivek; Ingebrandt, Sven

    2016-06-30

    Biologically sensitive field-effect transistors (BioFETs) are one of the most abundant classes of electronic sensors for biomolecular detection. Most of the time these sensors are realized as classical ion-sensitive field-effect transistors (ISFETs) having non-metallized gate dielectrics facing an electrolyte solution. In ISFETs, a semiconductor material is used as the active transducer element covered by a gate dielectric layer which is electronically sensitive to the (bio-)chemical changes that occur on its surface. This review will provide a brief overview of the history of ISFET biosensors with general operation concepts and sensing mechanisms. We also discuss silicon nanowire-based ISFETs (SiNW FETs) as the modern nanoscale version of classical ISFETs, as well as strategies to functionalize them with biologically sensitive layers. We include in our discussion other ISFET types based on nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes, metal oxides and so on. The latest examples of highly sensitive label-free detection of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules using SiNW FETs and single-cell recordings for drug screening and other applications of ISFETs will be highlighted. Finally, we suggest new device platforms and newly developed, miniaturized read-out tools with multichannel potentiometric and impedimetric measurement capabilities for future biomedical applications. PMID:27365038

  11. Biologically sensitive field-effect transistors: from ISFETs to NanoFETs

    PubMed Central

    Pachauri, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    Biologically sensitive field-effect transistors (BioFETs) are one of the most abundant classes of electronic sensors for biomolecular detection. Most of the time these sensors are realized as classical ion-sensitive field-effect transistors (ISFETs) having non-metallized gate dielectrics facing an electrolyte solution. In ISFETs, a semiconductor material is used as the active transducer element covered by a gate dielectric layer which is electronically sensitive to the (bio-)chemical changes that occur on its surface. This review will provide a brief overview of the history of ISFET biosensors with general operation concepts and sensing mechanisms. We also discuss silicon nanowire-based ISFETs (SiNW FETs) as the modern nanoscale version of classical ISFETs, as well as strategies to functionalize them with biologically sensitive layers. We include in our discussion other ISFET types based on nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes, metal oxides and so on. The latest examples of highly sensitive label-free detection of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules using SiNW FETs and single-cell recordings for drug screening and other applications of ISFETs will be highlighted. Finally, we suggest new device platforms and newly developed, miniaturized read-out tools with multichannel potentiometric and impedimetric measurement capabilities for future biomedical applications. PMID:27365038

  12. Biologically sensitive field-effect transistors: from ISFETs to NanoFETs.

    PubMed

    Pachauri, Vivek; Ingebrandt, Sven

    2016-06-30

    Biologically sensitive field-effect transistors (BioFETs) are one of the most abundant classes of electronic sensors for biomolecular detection. Most of the time these sensors are realized as classical ion-sensitive field-effect transistors (ISFETs) having non-metallized gate dielectrics facing an electrolyte solution. In ISFETs, a semiconductor material is used as the active transducer element covered by a gate dielectric layer which is electronically sensitive to the (bio-)chemical changes that occur on its surface. This review will provide a brief overview of the history of ISFET biosensors with general operation concepts and sensing mechanisms. We also discuss silicon nanowire-based ISFETs (SiNW FETs) as the modern nanoscale version of classical ISFETs, as well as strategies to functionalize them with biologically sensitive layers. We include in our discussion other ISFET types based on nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes, metal oxides and so on. The latest examples of highly sensitive label-free detection of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules using SiNW FETs and single-cell recordings for drug screening and other applications of ISFETs will be highlighted. Finally, we suggest new device platforms and newly developed, miniaturized read-out tools with multichannel potentiometric and impedimetric measurement capabilities for future biomedical applications.

  13. Gas Sensors Based on Semiconducting Nanowire Field-Effect Transistors

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Ping; Shao, Feng; Shi, Yi; Wan, Qing

    2014-01-01

    One-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures are unique sensing materials for the fabrication of gas sensors. In this article, gas sensors based on semiconducting nanowire field-effect transistors (FETs) are comprehensively reviewed. Individual nanowires or nanowire network films are usually used as the active detecting channels. In these sensors, a third electrode, which serves as the gate, is used to tune the carrier concentration of the nanowires to realize better sensing performance, including sensitivity, selectivity and response time, etc. The FET parameters can be modulated by the presence of the target gases and their change relate closely to the type and concentration of the gas molecules. In addition, extra controls such as metal decoration, local heating and light irradiation can be combined with the gate electrode to tune the nanowire channel and realize more effective gas sensing. With the help of micro-fabrication techniques, these sensors can be integrated into smart systems. Finally, some challenges for the future investigation and application of nanowire field-effect gas sensors are discussed. PMID:25232915

  14. Interfacial fields in organic field-effect transistors and sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawidczyk, Thomas J.

    Organic electronics are currently being commercialized and present a viable alternative to conventional electronics. These organic materials offer the ability to chemically manipulate the molecule, allowing for more facile mass processing techniques, which in turn reduces the cost. One application where organic semiconductors (OSCs) are being investigated is sensors. This work evaluates an assortment of n- and p-channel semiconductors as organic field-effect transistor (OFET) sensors. The sensor responses to dinitrotoluene (DNT) vapor and solid along with trinitrotoluene (TNT) solid were studied. Different semiconductor materials give different magnitude and direction of electrical current response upon exposure to DNT. Additional OFET parameters---mobility and threshold voltage---further refine the response to the DNT with each OFET sensor requiring a certain gate voltage for an optimized response to the vapor. The pattern of responses has sufficient diversity to distinguish DNT from other vapors. To effectively use these OFET sensors in a circuit, the threshold voltage needs to be tuned for each transistor to increase the efficiency of the circuit and maximize the sensor response. The threshold voltage can be altered by embedding charges into the dielectric layer of the OFET. To study the quantity and energy of charges needed to alter the threshold voltage, charge carriers were injected into polystyrene (PS) and investigated with scanning Kelvin probe microscopy (SKPM) and thermally stimulated discharge current (TSDC). Lateral heterojunctions of pentacene/PS were scanned using SKPM, effectively observing polarization along a side view of a lateral nonvolatile organic field-effect transistor dielectric interface. TSDC was used to observe charge migration out of PS films and to estimate the trap energy level inside the PS, using the initial rise method. The process was further refined to create lateral heterojunctions that were actual working OFETs, consisting of a

  15. SiC Optically Modulated Field-Effect Transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabib-Azar, Massood

    2009-01-01

    An optically modulated field-effect transistor (OFET) based on a silicon carbide junction field-effect transistor (JFET) is under study as, potentially, a prototype of devices that could be useful for detecting ultraviolet light. The SiC OFET is an experimental device that is one of several devices, including commercial and experimental photodiodes, that were initially evaluated as detectors of ultraviolet light from combustion and that could be incorporated into SiC integrated circuits to be designed to function as combustion sensors. The ultraviolet-detection sensitivity of the photodiodes was found to be less than desired, such that it would be necessary to process their outputs using high-gain amplification circuitry. On the other hand, in principle, the function of the OFET could be characterized as a combination of detection and amplification. In effect, its sensitivity could be considerably greater than that of a photodiode, such that the need for amplification external to the photodetector could be reduced or eliminated. The experimental SiC OFET was made by processes similar to JFET-fabrication processes developed at Glenn Research Center. The gate of the OFET is very long, wide, and thin, relative to the gates of typical prior SiC JFETs. Unlike in prior SiC FETs, the gate is almost completely transparent to near-ultraviolet and visible light. More specifically: The OFET includes a p+ gate layer less than 1/4 m thick, through which photons can be transported efficiently to the p+/p body interface. The gate is relatively long and wide (about 0.5 by 0.5 mm), such that holes generated at the body interface form a depletion layer that modulates the conductivity of the channel between the drain and the source. The exact physical mechanism of modulation of conductivity is a subject of continuing research. It is known that injection of minority charge carriers (in this case, holes) at the interface exerts a strong effect on the channel, resulting in amplification

  16. Nanowire Tunnel Field Effect Transistors: Prospects and Pitfalls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylvia, Somaia Sarwat

    The tunnel field effect transistor (TFET) has the potential to operate at lower voltages and lower power than the field effect transistor (FET). The TFET can circumvent the fundamental thermal limit of the inverse subthreshold slope (S) by exploiting interband tunneling of non-equilibrium "cold" carriers. The conduction mechanism in the TFET is governed by band-to-band tunneling which limits the drive current. TFETs built with III-V materials like InAs and InSb can produce enough tunneling current because of their small direct bandgap. Our simulation results show that although they require highly degenerate source doping to support the high electric fields in the tunnel region, the devices achieve minimum inverse subthreshold slopes of 30 mV/dec. In subthreshold, these devices experience both regimes of voltage-controlled tunneling and cold-carrier injection. Numerical results based on a discretized 8-band k.p model are compared to analytical WKB theory. For both regular FETs and TFETs, direct channel tunneling dominates the leakage current when the physical gate length is reduced to 5 nm. Therefore, a survey of materials is performed to determine their ability to suppress the direct tunnel current through a 5 nm barrier. The tunneling effective mass gives the best indication of the relative size of the tunnel currents. Si gives the lowest overall tunnel current for both the conduction and valence band and, therefore, it is the optimum choice for suppressing tunnel current at the 5 nm scale. Our numerical simulation shows that the finite number, random placement, and discrete nature of the dopants in the source of an InAs nanowire (NW) TFET affect both the mean value and the variance of the drive current and the inverse subthreshold slope. The discrete doping model gives an average drive current and an inverse subthreshold slope that are less than those predicted from the homogeneous doping model. The doping density required to achieve a target drive current is

  17. Stretchable transistors with buckled carbon nanotube films as conducting channels

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Michael S; Xu, Feng

    2015-03-24

    Thin-film transistors comprising buckled films comprising carbon nanotubes as the conductive channel are provided. Also provided are methods of fabricating the transistors. The transistors, which are highly stretchable and bendable, exhibit stable performance even when operated under high tensile strains.

  18. A silicon carbide nanowire field effect transistor for DNA detection.

    PubMed

    Fradetal, L; Bano, E; Attolini, G; Rossi, F; Stambouli, V

    2016-06-10

    This work reports on the label-free electrical detection of DNA molecules for the first time, using silicon carbide (SiC) as a novel material for the realization of nanowire field effect transistors (NWFETs). SiC is a promising semiconductor for this application due to its specific characteristics such as chemical inertness and biocompatibility. Non-intentionally n-doped SiC NWs are first grown using a bottom-up vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism, leading to the NWs exhibiting needle-shaped morphology, with a length of approximately 2 μm and a diameter ranging from 25 to 60 nm. Then, the SiC NWFETs are fabricated and functionalized with DNA molecule probes via covalent coupling using an amino-terminated organosilane. The drain current versus drain voltage (I d-V d) characteristics obtained after the DNA grafting and hybridization are reported from the comparative and simultaneous measurements carried out on the SiC NWFETs, used either as sensors or references. As a representative result, the current of the sensor is lowered by 22% after probe DNA grafting and by 7% after target DNA hybridization, while the current of the reference does not vary by more than ±0.6%. The current decrease confirms the field effect induced by the negative charges of the DNA molecules. Moreover, the selectivity, reproducibility, reversibility and stability of the studied devices are emphasized by de-hybridization, non-complementary hybridization and re-hybridization experiments. This first proof of concept opens the way for future developments using SiC-NW-based sensors.

  19. A silicon carbide nanowire field effect transistor for DNA detection.

    PubMed

    Fradetal, L; Bano, E; Attolini, G; Rossi, F; Stambouli, V

    2016-06-10

    This work reports on the label-free electrical detection of DNA molecules for the first time, using silicon carbide (SiC) as a novel material for the realization of nanowire field effect transistors (NWFETs). SiC is a promising semiconductor for this application due to its specific characteristics such as chemical inertness and biocompatibility. Non-intentionally n-doped SiC NWs are first grown using a bottom-up vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism, leading to the NWs exhibiting needle-shaped morphology, with a length of approximately 2 μm and a diameter ranging from 25 to 60 nm. Then, the SiC NWFETs are fabricated and functionalized with DNA molecule probes via covalent coupling using an amino-terminated organosilane. The drain current versus drain voltage (I d-V d) characteristics obtained after the DNA grafting and hybridization are reported from the comparative and simultaneous measurements carried out on the SiC NWFETs, used either as sensors or references. As a representative result, the current of the sensor is lowered by 22% after probe DNA grafting and by 7% after target DNA hybridization, while the current of the reference does not vary by more than ±0.6%. The current decrease confirms the field effect induced by the negative charges of the DNA molecules. Moreover, the selectivity, reproducibility, reversibility and stability of the studied devices are emphasized by de-hybridization, non-complementary hybridization and re-hybridization experiments. This first proof of concept opens the way for future developments using SiC-NW-based sensors. PMID:27120971

  20. A silicon carbide nanowire field effect transistor for DNA detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fradetal, L.; Bano, E.; Attolini, G.; Rossi, F.; Stambouli, V.

    2016-06-01

    This work reports on the label-free electrical detection of DNA molecules for the first time, using silicon carbide (SiC) as a novel material for the realization of nanowire field effect transistors (NWFETs). SiC is a promising semiconductor for this application due to its specific characteristics such as chemical inertness and biocompatibility. Non-intentionally n-doped SiC NWs are first grown using a bottom-up vapor–liquid–solid (VLS) mechanism, leading to the NWs exhibiting needle-shaped morphology, with a length of approximately 2 μm and a diameter ranging from 25 to 60 nm. Then, the SiC NWFETs are fabricated and functionalized with DNA molecule probes via covalent coupling using an amino-terminated organosilane. The drain current versus drain voltage (I d–V d) characteristics obtained after the DNA grafting and hybridization are reported from the comparative and simultaneous measurements carried out on the SiC NWFETs, used either as sensors or references. As a representative result, the current of the sensor is lowered by 22% after probe DNA grafting and by 7% after target DNA hybridization, while the current of the reference does not vary by more than ±0.6%. The current decrease confirms the field effect induced by the negative charges of the DNA molecules. Moreover, the selectivity, reproducibility, reversibility and stability of the studied devices are emphasized by de-hybridization, non-complementary hybridization and re-hybridization experiments. This first proof of concept opens the way for future developments using SiC-NW-based sensors.

  1. Simulation Model of A Ferroelectric Field Effect Transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat Duen; Russell, Larry W. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An electronic simulation model has been developed of a ferroelectric field effect transistor (FFET). This model can be used in standard electrical circuit simulation programs to simulate the main characteristics of the FFET. The model uses a previously developed algorithm that incorporates partial polarization as a basis for the design. The model has the main characteristics of the FFET, which are the current hysterisis with different gate voltages and decay of the drain current when the gate voltage is off. The drain current has values matching actual FFET's, which were measured experimentally. The input and output resistance in the model is similar to that of the FFET. The model is valid for all frequencies below RF levels. A variety of different ferroelectric material characteristics can be modeled. The model can be used to design circuits using FFET'S with standard electrical simulation packages. The circuit can be used in designing non-volatile memory circuits and logic circuits and is compatible with all SPICE based circuit analysis programs. The model is a drop in library that integrates seamlessly into a SPICE simulation. A comparison is made between the model and experimental data measured from an actual FFET.

  2. Ambipolar organic field-effect transistors on unconventional substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosseddu, P.; Mattana, G.; Orgiu, E.; Bonfiglio, A.

    2009-04-01

    In this paper we report on the realization of flexible all-organic ambipolar field-effect transistors (FETs) realized on unconventional substrates, such as plastic films and textile yarns. A double layer pentacene-C60 heterojunction was used as the semiconductor layer. The contacts were made with poly(ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and patterned by means of soft lithography microcontact printing (μCP). Very interestingly growing C60 on a predeposited pentacene buffer layer leads to a clear improvement in the morphology and crystallinity of the film so it obtains n-type conduction despite the very high electron injection barrier at the interface between PEDOT:PSS and C60. As a result, it was possible to obtain all-organic ambipolar FETs and to optimize their electrical properties by tuning the thicknesses of the two employed active layers. Moreover, it will be shown that modifying the triple interface between dielectric/semiconductor/electrodes is a crucial point for optimizing and balancing injection and transport of both kinds of charge carriers. In particular, we demonstrate that using a middle contact configuration in which source and drain electrodes are sandwiched between pentacene and C60 layers allows significantly improving the electrical performance in planar ambipolar devices. These findings are very important because they pave the way for the realization of low-cost, fully flexible and stretchable organic complementary circuits for smart wearable and textile electronics applications.

  3. Boron doped simulated graphene field effect transistor model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Preetika; Kaur, Inderpreet; Gupta, Shuchi; Singh, Sukhbir

    2016-05-01

    Graphene based electronic devices due to its unique properties has transformed electronics. A Graphene Field Effect Transistor (GNRFET) model is simulated in Virtual Nano Lab (VNL) and the calculations are based on density functional theory (DFT). Simulations were performed on this pristine GNRFET model and the transmission spectrum was observed. The graph obtained showed a uniform energy gap of +1 to -1eV and the highest transmission peak at -1.75 eV. To this pristine model of GNRFET, doping was introduced and its effect was seen on the Fermi level obtained in the transmission spectrum. Boron as a dopant was used which showed variations in both the transmission peaks and the energy gap. In this model, first the single boron was substituted in place of carbon and Fermi level showed an energy gap of 1.5 to -0.5eV with the highest transmission peak at -1.3 eV. In another variation in the model, two carbon atoms were replaced by two boron atoms and Fermi level shifted from 2 to 0.25eV. In this observation, the highest transmission peak was observed at -1(approx.). The use of nanoelectronic devices have opened many areas of applications as GFET is an excellent building block for electronic circuits, and is being used in applications such as high-performance frequency doublers and mixers, digital modulators, phase detectors, optoelectronics and spintronics.

  4. Mixed Carrier Conduction in Modulation-doped Field Effect Transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schacham, S. E.; Haugland, E. J.; Mena, R. A.; Alterovitz, S. A.

    1995-01-01

    The contribution of more than one carrier to the conductivity in modulation-doped field effect transistors (MODFET) affects the resultant mobility and complicates the characterization of these devices. Mixed conduction arises from the population of several subbands in the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG), as well as the presence of a parallel path outside the 2DEG. We characterized GaAs/AlGaAs MODFET structures with both delta and continuous doping in the barrier. Based on simultaneous Hall and conductivity analysis we conclude that the parallel conduction is taking place in the AlGaAs barrier, as indicated by the carrier freezeout and activation energy. Thus, simple Hall analysis of these structures may lead to erroneous conclusions, particularly for real-life device structures. The distribution of the 2D electrons between the various confined subbands depends on the doping profile. While for a continuously doped barrier the Shubnikov-de Haas analysis shows superposition of two frequencies for concentrations below 10(exp 12) cm(exp -2), for a delta doped structure the superposition is absent even at 50% larger concentrations. This result is confirmed by self-consistent analysis, which indicates that the concentration of the second subband hardly increases.

  5. Strain Engineering for Transition Metal Dichalcogenides Based Field Effect Transistors.

    PubMed

    Shen, Tingting; Penumatcha, Ashish V; Appenzeller, Joerg

    2016-04-26

    Using electrical characteristics from three-terminal field-effect transistors (FETs), we demonstrate substantial strain induced band gap tunability in transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) in line with theoretical predictions and optical experiments. Devices were fabricated on flexible substrates, and a cantilever sample holder was used to apply uniaxial tensile strain to the various multilayer TMD FETs. Analyzing in particular transfer characteristics, we argue that the modified device characteristics under strain are clear evidence of a band gap reduction of 100 meV in WSe2 under 1.35% uniaxial tensile strain at room temperature. Furthermore, the obtained device characteristics imply that the band gap does not shrink uniformly under strain relative to a reference potential defined by the source/drain contacts. Instead, the band gap change is only related to a change of the conduction band edge of WSe2, resulting in a decrease in the Schottky barrier (SB) for electrons without any change for hole injection into the valence band. Simulations of SB device characteristics are employed to explain this point and to quantify our findings. Last, our experimental results are compared with DFT calculations under strain showing excellent agreement between theoretical predictions and the experimental data presented here. PMID:27043387

  6. Vertical Microcavity Organic Light-emitting Field-effect Transistors

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yongsheng; Lin, Jie; Song, Li; Lu, Qipeng; Zhu, Wanbin; Liu, Xingyuan

    2016-01-01

    Organic light-emitting field-effect transistors (OLEFETs) are regarded as a novel kind of device architecture for fulfilling electrical-pumped organic lasers. However, the realization of OLEFETs with high external quantum efficiency (EQE) and high brightness simultaneously is still a tough task. Moreover, the design of the resonator structure in LED is far from satisfactory. Here, OLEFETs with EQE of 1.5% at the brightness of 2600 cdm−2, and the corresponding ON/OFF ratio and current efficiency reaches above 104 and 3.1 cdA−1, respectively, were achieved by introducing 1,4,5,8,9,12-hexaazatriphenylene-hexacarbonitrile (HAT-CN) as a charge generation layer. Moreover, a vertical microcavity based on distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) and Ag source/drain electrodes is successfully introduced into the high performance OLEFETs, which results in electroluminescent spectrum linewidth narrowing from 96 nm to 6.9 nm. The results manifest the superiority of the vertical microcavity as an optical resonator in OLEFETs, which sheds some light on achieving the electrically pumped organic lasers. PMID:26986944

  7. Silicene field-effect transistors operating at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Li; Cinquanta, Eugenio; Chiappe, Daniele; Grazianetti, Carlo; Fanciulli, Marco; Dubey, Madan; Molle, Alessandro; Akinwande, Deji

    2015-03-01

    Free-standing silicene, a silicon analogue of graphene, has a buckled honeycomb lattice and, because of its Dirac bandstructure combined with its sensitive surface, offers the potential for a widely tunable two-dimensional monolayer, where external fields and interface interactions can be exploited to influence fundamental properties such as bandgap and band character for future nanoelectronic devices. The quantum spin Hall effect, chiral superconductivity, giant magnetoresistance and various exotic field-dependent states have been predicted in monolayer silicene. Despite recent progress regarding the epitaxial synthesis of silicene and investigation of its electronic properties, to date there has been no report of experimental silicene devices because of its air stability issue. Here, we report a silicene field-effect transistor, corroborating theoretical expectations regarding its ambipolar Dirac charge transport, with a measured room-temperature mobility of ˜100 cm2 V-1 s-1 attributed to acoustic phonon-limited transport and grain boundary scattering. These results are enabled by a growth-transfer-fabrication process that we have devised—silicene encapsulated delamination with native electrodes. This approach addresses a major challenge for material preservation of silicene during transfer and device fabrication and is applicable to other air-sensitive two-dimensional materials such as germanene and phosphorene. Silicene's allotropic affinity with bulk silicon and its low-temperature synthesis compared with graphene or alternative two-dimensional semiconductors suggest a more direct integration with ubiquitous semiconductor technology.

  8. Thickness tunable transport in alloyed WSSe field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karande, Shruti D.; Kaushik, Naveen; Narang, Deepa S.; Late, Dattatray; Lodha, Saurabh

    2016-10-01

    We report the field effect transistor characteristics of exfoliated transition metal dichalcogenide alloy tungsten sulphoselenide. WSSe is a layered material of strongly bonded S-W-Se atoms having weak interlayer van der Waals forces with a significant potential for spintronic and valleytronic applications due to its polar nature. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements on crystals grown by the chemical vapor transport method indicate a stoichiometry of the form WSSe. We report flake thickness tunable transport mechanism with n-type behavior in thin flakes ( ≤11 nm) and ambipolarity in thicker flakes. The devices with flake thicknesses of 2.4 nm-54.8 nm exhibit a maximum electron mobility of ˜50 cm2/V s along with an ION/IOFF ratio >106. The electron Schottky barrier height values of 35 meV and 52 meV extracted from low temperature I-V measurements for 3.9 nm and 25.5 nm thick flakes, respectively, indicate that an increase in hole current with thickness is likely due to lowering of the bandgap through an increase in energy of the valence band maximum.

  9. Epitaxially-Grown GaN Junction Field Effect Transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Baca, A.G.; Chang, P.C.; Denbaars, S.P.; Lester, L.F.; Mishra, U.K.; Shul, R.J.; Willison, C.G.; Zhang, L.; Zolper, J.C.

    1999-05-19

    Junction field effect transistors (JFET) are fabricated on a GaN epitaxial structure grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The DC and microwave characteristics of the device are presented. A junction breakdown voltage of 56 V is obtained corresponding to the theoretical limit of the breakdown field in GaN for the doping levels used. A maximum extrinsic transconductance (gm) of 48 mS/mm and a maximum source-drain current of 270 mA/mm are achieved on a 0.8 µ m gate JFET device at VGS= 1 V and VDS=15 V. The intrinsic transconductance, calculated from the measured gm and the source series resistance, is 81 mS/mm. The fT and fmax for these devices are 6 GHz and 12 GHz, respectively. These JFETs exhibit a significant current reduction after a high drain bias is applied, which is attributed to a partially depleted channel caused by trapped hot-electrons in the semi-insulating GaN buffer layer. A theoretical model describing the current collapse is described, and an estimate for the length of the trapped electron region is given.

  10. Graphene based field effect transistor for the detection of ammonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Madhav; Jayatissa, Ahalapitiya H.

    2012-09-01

    Graphene synthesized by chemical vapor deposition has been used to fabricate the back-gated field effect transistor to study the sensing of ammonia (NH3) in ppm levels. Graphene has been synthesized directly on a target substrate using a thin Cu film as a catalyst, which has several advantages over deposition of graphene on Cu foil followed by a transferring process to another substrate. Raman spectroscopy was used to monitor the quality of the deposited graphene films on SiO2/Si substrates. The adsorption/desorption behavior of NH3 on graphene in dry air was analyzed from the progressive shift of the Dirac peak at smaller/larger gate voltages based on different time exposures to different concentrations of NH3. The relative change in the shift of the Dirac peak was consistent with a small charge transfer (0.039 ± 0.001 electrons per molecule at room temperature). The response of the device was found to increase with increasing NH3 concentrations and operating temperatures. The dependence of device response on concentration indicated that the graphene sensors exhibited two different adsorption modes for NH3 close to room temperature, whereas only one adsorption mode was observed at higher temperatures close to100 °C. The shift rate of the Dirac peak estimated with a simple model using the Langmuir approach indicated that the rate was increasing linearly with temperature within the range of temperature studied (25 °C-100 °C) in this work.

  11. Vertical Microcavity Organic Light-emitting Field-effect Transistors.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yongsheng; Lin, Jie; Song, Li; Lu, Qipeng; Zhu, Wanbin; Liu, Xingyuan

    2016-01-01

    Organic light-emitting field-effect transistors (OLEFETs) are regarded as a novel kind of device architecture for fulfilling electrical-pumped organic lasers. However, the realization of OLEFETs with high external quantum efficiency (EQE) and high brightness simultaneously is still a tough task. Moreover, the design of the resonator structure in LED is far from satisfactory. Here, OLEFETs with EQE of 1.5% at the brightness of 2600 cdm(-2), and the corresponding ON/OFF ratio and current efficiency reaches above 10(4) and 3.1 cdA(-1), respectively, were achieved by introducing 1,4,5,8,9,12-hexaazatriphenylene-hexacarbonitrile (HAT-CN) as a charge generation layer. Moreover, a vertical microcavity based on distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) and Ag source/drain electrodes is successfully introduced into the high performance OLEFETs, which results in electroluminescent spectrum linewidth narrowing from 96 nm to 6.9 nm. The results manifest the superiority of the vertical microcavity as an optical resonator in OLEFETs, which sheds some light on achieving the electrically pumped organic lasers. PMID:26986944

  12. Silicene field-effect transistors operating at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Tao, Li; Cinquanta, Eugenio; Chiappe, Daniele; Grazianetti, Carlo; Fanciulli, Marco; Dubey, Madan; Molle, Alessandro; Akinwande, Deji

    2015-03-01

    Free-standing silicene, a silicon analogue of graphene, has a buckled honeycomb lattice and, because of its Dirac bandstructure combined with its sensitive surface, offers the potential for a widely tunable two-dimensional monolayer, where external fields and interface interactions can be exploited to influence fundamental properties such as bandgap and band character for future nanoelectronic devices. The quantum spin Hall effect, chiral superconductivity, giant magnetoresistance and various exotic field-dependent states have been predicted in monolayer silicene. Despite recent progress regarding the epitaxial synthesis of silicene and investigation of its electronic properties, to date there has been no report of experimental silicene devices because of its air stability issue. Here, we report a silicene field-effect transistor, corroborating theoretical expectations regarding its ambipolar Dirac charge transport, with a measured room-temperature mobility of ∼100 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) attributed to acoustic phonon-limited transport and grain boundary scattering. These results are enabled by a growth-transfer-fabrication process that we have devised--silicene encapsulated delamination with native electrodes. This approach addresses a major challenge for material preservation of silicene during transfer and device fabrication and is applicable to other air-sensitive two-dimensional materials such as germanene and phosphorene. Silicene's allotropic affinity with bulk silicon and its low-temperature synthesis compared with graphene or alternative two-dimensional semiconductors suggest a more direct integration with ubiquitous semiconductor technology.

  13. Understanding charge transport in organometal halide field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senanayak, Satyaprasad P.; Yang, Bingyan; Sadhanala, Aditya; Friend, Richard, Prof. _., Sir; Sirrnighaus, Henning, , Prof.

    Organometal halide based perovskite are emerging materials for wide range of electronic applications. A range of optoelectronic applications like high efficiency solar cells, color pure LEDs and optical pumped lasers have been demonstrated. Here, we report the demonstration of a high performance field effect transistor fabricated from iodide perovskite material at room temperature. The devices exhibit clean saturation behavior with electron μFET >3 cm2V-1s-1 and current modulation in the range of 106 - 107 which are till date the best performance achieved with these class of materials. This high performance is attributed to a combination of novel film fabrication technique and device engineering strategies. Detailed understanding of the observed band-like transport phenomenon is developed by tuning the different sources of dynamic and static disorder prevalent in the system. These finding are expected to pave way for developing next generation electronic application from perovskite materials. Authors acknowledge EPSRC for funding and SPS acknowledges Royal Society Newton Fellowship.

  14. Polyfluorene-based organic field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Michael C.

    The electrical performance and device stability of a patterned-gate, gate-planarized, inverted, coplanar thin-film transistor with an organic polymer F8T2 active layer semiconductor was studied. The validity of electrical performance parameter extraction methods was studied and the inclusion of a field-dependent mobility provided the most reliable results. A gate-bias dependent activation energy near 0.2eV for the field-effect mobility of holes in F8T2 was found. The source and drain contact and channel resistances were characterized and are similar with values near 109O. Additionally, these devices showed promise for use in high-voltage applications. The effects of broadband and monochromatic illumination were characterized and strongly absorbed illumination reduced the threshold voltage. Application of a photo-field effect theory provided an estimation of the density and slope of the gap states. This method also provided an estimate of the flat-band voltage of -10V. The performance of the device as a photodetector showed a responsivity of 1A/W, a photosensitivity greater than 100, an external quantum efficiency greater than 100%, a noise equivalent power of 10-14 WHz-0.5 and a specific detectivity of approximately 2x1011 cmHz0.5W-1. Hysteresis in the transfer characteristics was characterized by the dependence on the applied gate-bias, temperature and illumination. It was observed that the hysteresis is a charge trapping effect that is dependent on the charge density within the channel. The hysteresis was eliminated by incorporating an organic insulator layer between the inorganic insulator and the organic semiconductor. Bias temperature stress effects were characterized and the major effect was an increase in threshold voltage. Analysis using a stretched exponential behavior for DC bias stress effects showed that there exists a distribution of trap states centered at 0.25eV above the valence band. Negative AC BTS resulted in a dependence on the total stress time

  15. Carbon nanotube transistor based high-frequency electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroter, Michael

    At the nanoscale carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have higher carrier mobility and carrier velocity than most incumbent semiconductors. Thus CNT based field-effect transistors (FETs) are being considered as strong candidates for replacing existing MOSFETs in digital applications. In addition, the predicted high intrinsic transit frequency and the more recent finding of ways to achieve highly linear transfer characteristics have inspired investigations on analog high-frequency (HF) applications. High linearity is extremely valuable for an energy efficient usage of the frequency spectrum, particularly in mobile communications. Compared to digital applications, the much more relaxed constraints for CNT placement and lithography combined with already achieved operating frequencies of at least 10 GHz for fabricated devices make an early entry in the low GHz HF market more feasible than in large-scale digital circuits. Such a market entry would be extremely beneficial for funding the development of production CNTFET based process technology. This talk will provide an overview on the present status and feasibility of HF CNTFET technology will be given from an engineering point of view, including device modeling, experimental results, and existing roadblocks. Carbon nanotube transistor based high-frequency electronics.

  16. Electric Characteristics of the Carbon Nanotube Network Transistor with Directly Grown ZnO Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Un Jeong; Bae, Gi Yoon; Suh, Dong Ik; Park, Wanjun

    2016-03-01

    We report on the electrical characteristics of field effect transistors fabricated with random networks of single-walled carbon nanotubes with surfaces modified by ZnO nanoparticles. ZnO nanoparticles are directly grown on single-walled carbon nanotubes by atomic layer deposition using diethylzinc (DEZ) and water. Electrical observations show that ZnO nanoparticles act as charge transfer sources that provide electrons to the nanotube channel. The valley position in ambipolar transport of nanotube transistors is negatively shifted for 3V due to the electronic n-typed property of ZnO nanoparticles. However, the Raman resonance remains invariant despite the charge transfer effect produced by ZnO nanoparticles.

  17. Electric Characteristics of the Carbon Nanotube Network Transistor with Directly Grown ZnO Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Un Jeong; Bae, Gi Yoon; Suh, Dong Ik; Park, Wanjun

    2016-03-01

    We report on the electrical characteristics of field effect transistors fabricated with random networks of single-walled carbon nanotubes with surfaces modified by ZnO nanoparticles. ZnO nanoparticles are directly grown on single-walled carbon nanotubes by atomic layer deposition using diethylzinc (DEZ) and water. Electrical observations show that ZnO nanoparticles act as charge transfer sources that provide electrons to the nanotube channel. The valley position in ambipolar transport of nanotube transistors is negatively shifted for 3V due to the electronic n-typed property of ZnO nanoparticles. However, the Raman resonance remains invariant despite the charge transfer effect produced by ZnO nanoparticles. PMID:27455727

  18. Low-frequency noise in MoSe2 field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Suprem R.; Kwon, Jiseok; Prakash, Abhijith; Delker, Collin J.; Das, Saptarshi; Janes, David B.

    2015-02-01

    One of the important performance metrics of emerging nanoelectronic devices, including low dimensional Field Effect Transistors (FETs), is the magnitude of the low-frequency noise. Atomically thin 2D semiconductor channel materials such as MoX2 (X ≡ S, Se) have shown promising transistor characteristics such as ION/IOFF ratio exceeding 106 and low IOFF, making them attractive as channel materials for next generation nanoelectronic devices. However, MoS2 FETs demonstrated to date exhibit high noise levels under ambient conditions. In this letter, we report at least two orders of magnitude smaller values of Hooge parameter in a back-gated MoSe2 FET (10 atomic layers) with nickel S/D contacts and measured at atmospheric pressure and temperature. The channel dominated regime of noise was extracted from the total noise spectrum and is shown to follow a mobility fluctuation model with 1/f dependence. The low noise in MoSe2 FETs is comparable to other 1D nanoelectronic devices such as carbon nanotube FETs (CNT-FETs) and paves the way for use in future applications in precision sensing and communications.

  19. Low-frequency noise in MoSe{sub 2} field effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Suprem R. E-mail: janes@purdue.edu; Kwon, Jiseok; Prakash, Abhijith; Janes, David B. E-mail: janes@purdue.edu; Delker, Collin J.; Das, Saptarshi

    2015-02-23

    One of the important performance metrics of emerging nanoelectronic devices, including low dimensional Field Effect Transistors (FETs), is the magnitude of the low-frequency noise. Atomically thin 2D semiconductor channel materials such as MoX{sub 2} (X ≡ S, Se) have shown promising transistor characteristics such as I{sub ON}/I{sub OFF} ratio exceeding 10{sup 6} and low I{sub OFF}, making them attractive as channel materials for next generation nanoelectronic devices. However, MoS{sub 2} FETs demonstrated to date exhibit high noise levels under ambient conditions. In this letter, we report at least two orders of magnitude smaller values of Hooge parameter in a back-gated MoSe{sub 2} FET (10 atomic layers) with nickel S/D contacts and measured at atmospheric pressure and temperature. The channel dominated regime of noise was extracted from the total noise spectrum and is shown to follow a mobility fluctuation model with 1/f dependence. The low noise in MoSe{sub 2} FETs is comparable to other 1D nanoelectronic devices such as carbon nanotube FETs (CNT-FETs) and paves the way for use in future applications in precision sensing and communications.

  20. Radiation effects on junction field-effect transistors (JFETS), MOSFETs, and bipolar transistors, as related to SSC circuit design

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, E.J. Oak Ridge National Lab., TN ); Alley, G.T.; Britton, C.L. Jr. ); Skubic, P.L. ); Gray, B.; Wu, A. )

    1990-01-01

    Some results of radiation effects on selected junction field-effect transistors, MOS field-effect transistors, and bipolar junction transistors are presented. The evaluations include dc parameters, as well as capacitive variations and noise evaluations. The tests are made at the low current and voltage levels (in particular, at currents {le}1 mA) that are essential for the low-power regimes required by SSC circuitry. Detailed noise data are presented both before and after 5-Mrad (gamma) total-dose exposure. SPICE radiation models for three high-frequency bipolar processes are compared for a typical charge-sensitive preamplifier.

  1. Substrate dielectric effects on graphene field effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Zhaoying; Prasad Sinha, Dhiraj; Ung Lee, Ji Liehr, Michael

    2014-05-21

    Graphene is emerging as a promising material for future electronics and optoelectronics applications due to its unique electronic structure. Understanding the graphene-dielectric interaction is of vital importance for the development of graphene field effect transistors (FETs) and other novel graphene devices. Here, we extend the exploration of substrate dielectrics from conventionally used thermally grown SiO{sub 2} and hexagonal boron nitride films to technologically relevant deposited dielectrics used in semiconductor industry. A systematic analysis of morphology and optical and electrical properties was performed to study the effects of different substrates (SiO{sub 2}, HfO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS)-oxide, and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) on the carrier transport of chemical vapor deposition-derived graphene FET devices. As baseline, we use graphene FETs fabricated on thermal SiO{sub 2} with a relatively high carrier mobility of 10 000 cm{sup 2}/(V s). Among the deposited dielectrics studied, silicon nitride showed the highest mobility, comparable to the properties of graphene fabricated on thermal SiO{sub 2}. We conclude that this result comes from lower long range scattering and short range scattering rates in the nitride compared those in the other deposited films. The carrier fluctuation caused by substrates, however, seems to be the main contributing factor for mobility degradation, as a universal mobility-disorder density product is observed for all the dielectrics examined. The extrinsic doping trend is further confirmed by Raman spectra. We also provide, for the first time, correlation between the intensity ratio of G peak and 2D peak in the Raman spectra to the carrier mobility of graphene for different substrates.

  2. Controlled deposition or organic semiconductor single crystals and its application in field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuhong

    single crystals are selectively nucleated on patterned templates of carbon nanotube (CNT) bundles. Several organic semiconductor materials are successfully patterned, including p-type pentacene, tetracene, sexiphenylene, and sexithiophene, as well as n-type tetracyanoquinodimethane. This study suggests that the selective growth of crystals onto patterned carbon nanotubes is most likely due to the coarse topography of the CNT bundles. Moreover, I observe that the crystals nucleate from CNT bundles and grow onto CNT bundles in a conformal fashion. The crystal growth can be directly applied onto transistor source-drain electrodes and arrays of organic single-crystal field effect transistors are demonstrated. To investigate the impact of CNTs on device performance, CNT bundles are incorporated into thin-film FETs and a mobility enhancement of organic semiconductors is observed. In the third approach, organic single crystals with well controlled sizes and shapes are successfully grown using patterned Au films as templates. It is observed that sexithiophene crystals nucleate from the edge or the top surface of Au films and then grow two dimensionally on SiO2 surface. The sizes and shapes of sexithiophene crystals are precisely determined by that of the Au patterns. After removing Au templates, large arrays of sexithiophene crystals with controlled sizes and various shapes such as stripes, squares, hexagons, etc. are achieved. Top-contact FETs made of sexithiophene ribbons are demonstrated. Besides organic single crystals, Au templates can also act as templates to pattern vapor- and solution-deposited organic semiconductor thin films. Patterned organic thin-film FETs exhibit superior performance compared to unpatterned devices. Finally, oriented growth of organic semiconductor single crystals on templates with various features is studied. On substrates with aligned features, such as friction-transferred poly(tetrafluoroethylene) thin films, organic semiconductor thin films

  3. Monoclonal Antibodies Attached to Carbon Nanotube Transistors for Paclitaxel Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Wonbae; Lau, Calvin; Richardson, Mark; Rajapakse, Arith; Weiss, Gregory; Collins, Philip; UCI, Molecular Biology; Biochemistry Collaboration; UCI, Departments of Physics; Astronomy Collaboration

    Paclitaxel is a naturally-occurring pharmaceutical used in numerous cancer treatments, despite its toxic side effects. Partial inhibition of this toxicity has been demonstrated using weakly interacting monoclonal antibodies (3C6 and 8A10), but accurate monitoring of antibody and paclitaxel concentrations remains challenging. Here, single-molecule studies of the kinetics of antibody-paclitaxel interactions have been performed using single-walled carbon nanotube field-effect transistors. The devices were sensitized with single antibody attachments to record the single-molecule binding dynamics of paclitaxel. This label-free technique recorded a range of dynamic interactions between the antibody and paclitaxel, and it provided sensitive paclitaxel detection for pM to nM concentrations. Measurements with two different antibodies suggest ways of extending this working range and uncovering the mechanistic differences among different antibodies.

  4. Wafer-level hysteresis-free resonant carbon nanotube transistors.

    PubMed

    Cao, Ji; Bartsch, Sebastian T; Ionescu, Adrian M

    2015-03-24

    We report wafer-level fabrication of resonant-body carbon nanotube (CNT) field-effect transistors (FETs) in a dual-gate configuration. An integration density of >10(6) CNTFETs/cm(2), an assembly yield of >80%, and nanoprecision have been simultaneously obtained. Through combined chemical and thermal treatments, hysteresis-free (in vacuum) suspended-body CNTFETs have been demonstrated. Electrostatic actuation by lateral gate and FET-based readout of mechanical resonance have been achieved at room temperature. Both upward and downward in situ frequency tuning has been experimentally demonstrated in the dual-gate architecture. The minuscule mass, high resonance frequency, and in situ tunability of the resonant CNTFETs offer promising features for applications in radio frequency signal processing and ultrasensitive sensing. PMID:25752991

  5. Exploration of vertical scaling limit in carbon nanotube transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Chenguang; Zhang, Zhiyong; Yang, Yingjun; Xiao, Mengmeng; Ding, Li; Peng, Lian-Mao

    2016-05-01

    Top-gated carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNT FETs) were fabricated by using ultra-thin (4.5 nm or thinner) atomic-layer-deposition grown HfO2 as gate insulator, and shown to exhibit high gate efficiency, i.e., all examined (totally 76) devices present very low room temperature subthreshold swing with an averaged value of 64 mV/Dec, without observable carrier mobility degradation. The gate leakage of the CNT FET under fixed gate voltage is dependent not only on the thickness of HfO2 insulator, but also on the diameter of the CNT. The vertical scaling limit of CNT FETs is determined by gate leakage standard in ultra large scale integrated circuits. HfO2 film with effective oxide thickness of 1.2 nm can provide both excellent gate electrostatic controllability and small gate leakage for sub-5 nm FETs based on CNT with small diameter.

  6. Intracellular recordings of action potentials by an extracellular nanoscale field-effect transistor

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Xiaojie; Gao, Ruixuan; Xie, Ping; Cohen-Karni, Tzahi; Qing, Quan; Choe, Hwan Sung; Tian, Bozhi; Jiang, Xiaocheng; Lieber, Charles M.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to make electrical measurements inside cells has led to many important advances in electrophysiology1-6. The patch clamp technique, in which a glass micropipette filled with electrolyte is inserted into a cell, offers both high signal-to-noise ratio and temporal resolution1,2. Ideally the micropipette should be as small as possible to increase the spatial resolution and reduce the invasiveness of the measurement, but the overall performance of the technique depends on the impedance of the interface between the micropipette and the cell interior1,2, which limits how small the micropipette can be. Techniques that involve inserting metal or carbon microelectrodes into cells are subject to similar constraints4,7-9. Field-effect transistors (FETs) can also record electric potentials inside cells10, and since their performance does not depend on impedance11,12, they can be made much smaller than micropipettes and microelectrodes. Moreover, FET arrays are better suited for multiplexed measurements. Previously we have demonstrated FET-based intracellular recording with kinked nanowire structures10, but the kink configuration and device design places limits on the probe size and the potential for multiplexing. Here we report a new approach where a SiO2 nanotube is synthetically integrated on top of a nanoscale FET. After penetrating the cell membrane, the SiO2 nanotube brings the cell cytosol into contact with the FET and enables the recording of intracellular transmembrane potential. Simulations show that the bandwidth of this branched intracellular nanotube FET (BIT-FET) is high enough for it to record fast action potentials even when the nanotube diameter is decreased to 3 nm, a length scale which is well below that accessible with other methods1,2,4. Studies of cardiomyocyte cells demonstrate that when brought close, the nanotubes of phospholipid-modified BIT-FETs spontaneously penetrate the cell membrane to yield stable, full-amplitude intracellular action

  7. Intracellular recordings of action potentials by an extracellular nanoscale field-effect transistor.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xiaojie; Gao, Ruixuan; Xie, Ping; Cohen-Karni, Tzahi; Qing, Quan; Choe, Hwan Sung; Tian, Bozhi; Jiang, Xiaocheng; Lieber, Charles M

    2012-03-01

    The ability to make electrical measurements inside cells has led to many important advances in electrophysiology. The patch clamp technique, in which a glass micropipette filled with electrolyte is inserted into a cell, offers both high signal-to-noise ratio and temporal resolution. Ideally, the micropipette should be as small as possible to increase the spatial resolution and reduce the invasiveness of the measurement, but the overall performance of the technique depends on the impedance of the interface between the micropipette and the cell interior, which limits how small the micropipette can be. Techniques that involve inserting metal or carbon microelectrodes into cells are subject to similar constraints. Field-effect transistors (FETs) can also record electric potentials inside cells, and because their performance does not depend on impedance, they can be made much smaller than micropipettes and microelectrodes. Moreover, FET arrays are better suited for multiplexed measurements. Previously, we have demonstrated FET-based intracellular recording with kinked nanowire structures, but the kink configuration and device design places limits on the probe size and the potential for multiplexing. Here, we report a new approach in which a SiO2 nanotube is synthetically integrated on top of a nanoscale FET. This nanotube penetrates the cell membrane, bringing the cell cytosol into contact with the FET, which is then able to record the intracellular transmembrane potential. Simulations show that the bandwidth of this branched intracellular nanotube FET (BIT-FET) is high enough for it to record fast action potentials even when the nanotube diameter is decreased to 3 nm, a length scale well below that accessible with other methods. Studies of cardiomyocyte cells demonstrate that when phospholipid-modified BIT-FETs are brought close to cells, the nanotubes can spontaneously penetrate the cell membrane to allow the full-amplitude intracellular action potential to be

  8. Low Temperature Noise and Electrical Characterization of the Company Heterojunction Field-Effect Transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Thomas J.; Gee, Russell C.; Fossum, Eric R.; Baier, Steven M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the electrical properties of the complementary heterojunction field-effect transistor (CHFET) at 4K, including the gate leakage current, the subthreshold transconductance, and the input-referred noise voltage.

  9. Field-effect transistor replaces bulky transformer in analog-gate circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor /MOSFET/ analog-gate circuit adapts well to integrated circuits. It provides better system isolation than a transformer, while size and weight are appreciably reduced.

  10. Electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistor for selective reversible ion detection.

    PubMed

    Schmoltner, Kerstin; Kofler, Johannes; Klug, Andreas; List-Kratochvil, Emil J W

    2013-12-17

    An ion-sensitive electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistor for selective and reversible detection of sodium (Na(+) ) down to 10(-6) M is presented. The inherent low voltage - high current operation of these transistors in combination with a state-of-the-art ion-selective membrane proves to be a novel, versatile modular sensor platform.

  11. Electrical recordings from rat cardiac muscle cells using field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprössler, Christoph; Denyer, Morgan; Britland, Steve; Knoll, Wolfgang; Offenhäusser, Andreas

    1999-08-01

    Extracellular electrophysiological recordings were made from cardiac cells cultured for up to seven days over microfabricated arrays of field-effect transistors. The recorded signals can be separated mainly into two types of cell transistor couplings: one that can be explained entirely by purely passive circuitry elements, and a second where voltage-gated ion channels contribute greatly to the measured extracellular signal.

  12. Nonlinear photoresponse of field effect transistors terahertz detectors at high irradiation intensities

    SciTech Connect

    But, D. B.; Drexler, C.; Ganichev, S. D.; Sakhno, M. V.; Sizov, F. F.; Dyakonova, N.; Drachenko, O.; Gutin, A.; Knap, W.

    2014-04-28

    Terahertz power dependence of the photoresponse of field effect transistors, operating at frequencies from 0.1 to 3 THz for incident radiation power density up to 100 kW/cm{sup 2} was studied for Si metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistors and InGaAs high electron mobility transistors. The photoresponse increased linearly with increasing radiation intensity up to the kW/cm{sup 2} range. Nonlinearity followed by saturation of the photoresponse was observed for all investigated field effect transistors for intensities above several kW/cm{sup 2}. The observed photoresponse nonlinearity is explained by nonlinearity and saturation of the transistor channel current. A theoretical model of terahertz field effect transistor photoresponse at high intensity was developed. The model explains quantitative experimental data both in linear and nonlinear regions. Our results show that dynamic range of field effect transistors is very high and can extend over more than six orders of magnitudes of power densities (from ∼0.5 mW/cm{sup 2} to ∼5 kW/cm{sup 2})

  13. Effect of uniaxial strain on electrical properties of CNT-based junctionless field-effect transistor: Numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourian, Parisa; Yousefi, Reza; Ghoreishi, Seyed Saleh

    2016-05-01

    Numerical studies on junctionless carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (JL-CNTFETs) have indicated that these devices produce more ON current than silicon junctionless transistors in comparable dimensions. Nevertheless, due to the smaller bandgap and quantum confinement effects, they provide weaker results in the OFF state. Since the change of energy bandgap is one of the effects of applying uniaxial strain on CNTs, in this paper, using non-equilibrium Green's function method (NEGF), the effects of applying strain on electrical characteristics of JL-CNTFETs, such as ION and IOFF, intrinsic delay, ION/IOFF ratio, power-delay product, unity-gain frequency, gate transconductance, and output resistance are investigated. The simulation results show that uniaxial stain, significantly alters the OFF state behavior and as a result the electrical properties of the device.

  14. Advances in NO2 sensing with individual single-walled carbon nanotube transistors

    PubMed Central

    Muoth, Matthias; Roman, Cosmin; Haluska, Miroslav; Hierold, Christofer

    2014-01-01

    Summary The charge carrier transport in carbon nanotubes is highly sensitive to certain molecules attached to their surface. This property has generated interest for their application in sensing gases, chemicals and biomolecules. With over a decade of research, a clearer picture of the interactions between the carbon nanotube and its surroundings has been achieved. In this review, we intend to summarize the current knowledge on this topic, focusing not only on the effect of adsorbates but also the effect of dielectric charge traps on the electrical transport in single-walled carbon nanotube transistors that are to be used in sensing applications. Recently, contact-passivated, open-channel individual single-walled carbon nanotube field-effect transistors have been shown to be operational at room temperature with ultra-low power consumption. Sensor recovery within minutes through UV illumination or self-heating has been shown. Improvements in fabrication processes aimed at reducing the impact of charge traps have reduced the hysteresis, drift and low-frequency noise in carbon nanotube transistors. While open challenges such as large-scale fabrication, selectivity tuning and noise reduction still remain, these results demonstrate considerable progress in transforming the promise of carbon nanotube properties into functional ultra-low power, highly sensitive gas sensors. PMID:25551046

  15. Electrical interfacing of neurotransmitter receptor and field effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peitz, I.; Fromherz, P.

    2009-10-01

    The interfacing of a ligand-gated ion channel to a transistor is studied. It relies on the transduction of ion current to a voltage in a cell-transistor junction. For the first time, a genetically modified cell is used without external driving voltage as applied by a patch-pipette. Using a core-coat conductor model, we show that an autonomous dynamics gives rise to a signal if a driving voltage is provided by potassium channels, and if current compensation is avoided by an inhomogeneous activation of channels. In a proof-of-principle experiment, we transfect HEK293 cells with the serotonin receptor 5-HT3A and the potassium channel Kv1.3. The interfacing is characterized under voltage-clamp with a negative transistor signal for activated 5-HT3A and a positive signal for activated Kv1.3. Without patch-pipette, a biphasic transient is induced by serotonin. The positive wave is assigned to 5-HT3A receptors in the free membrane that drive a potassium outward current through the adherent membrane. The negative wave is attributed to 5-HT3A receptors in the adherent membrane that are activated with a delay due to serotonin diffusion. The implementation of a receptor-cell-transistor device is a fundamental step in the development of biosensors that combine high specificity and universal microelectronic readout.

  16. Thin film transistors using preferentially grown semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotube networks by water-assisted plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Un Jeong; Lee, Eun Hong; Kim, Jong Min; Min, Yo-Sep; Kim, Eunseong; Park, Wanjun

    2009-07-01

    Nearly perfect semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotube random network thin film transistors were fabricated and their reproducible transport properties were investigated. The networked single-walled carbon nanotubes were directly grown by water-assisted plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Optical analysis confirmed that the nanotubes were mostly semiconductors without clear metallic resonances in both the Raman and the UV-vis-IR spectroscopy. The transistors made by the nanotube networks whose density was much larger than the percolation threshold also showed no metallic paths. Estimation based on the conductance change of semiconducting nanotubes in the SWNT network due to applied gate voltage difference (conductance difference for on and off state) indicated a preferential growth of semiconducting nanotubes with an advantage of water-assisted PECVD. The nanotube transistors showed 10-5 of on/off ratio and ~8 cm2 V-1 s-1 of field effect mobility.

  17. Thin film transistors using preferentially grown semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotube networks by water-assisted plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition.

    PubMed

    Kim, Un Jeong; Lee, Eun Hong; Kim, Jong Min; Min, Yo-Sep; Kim, Eunseong; Park, Wanjun

    2009-07-22

    Nearly perfect semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotube random network thin film transistors were fabricated and their reproducible transport properties were investigated. The networked single-walled carbon nanotubes were directly grown by water-assisted plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Optical analysis confirmed that the nanotubes were mostly semiconductors without clear metallic resonances in both the Raman and the UV-vis-IR spectroscopy. The transistors made by the nanotube networks whose density was much larger than the percolation threshold also showed no metallic paths. Estimation based on the conductance change of semiconducting nanotubes in the SWNT network due to applied gate voltage difference (conductance difference for on and off state) indicated a preferential growth of semiconducting nanotubes with an advantage of water-assisted PECVD. The nanotube transistors showed 10(-5) of on/off ratio and approximately 8 cm2 V(-1) s(-1) of field effect mobility. PMID:19567966

  18. Biologically templated assembly of hybrid semiconducting nanomesh for high performance field effect transistors and sensors

    PubMed Central

    Byeon, Hye-Hyeon; Lee, Seung-Woo; Lee, Eun-Hee; Kim, Woong; Yi, Hyunjung

    2016-01-01

    Delicately assembled composites of semiconducting nanomaterials and biological materials provide an attractive interface for emerging applications, such as chemical/biological sensors, wearable health monitoring devices, and therapeutic agent releasing devices. The nanostructure of composites as a channel and a sensing material plays a critical role in the performance of field effect transistors (FETs). Therefore, it is highly desirable to prepare elaborate composite that can allow the fabrication of high performance FETs and also provide high sensitivity and selectivity in detecting specific chemical/biological targets. In this work, we demonstrate that high performance FETs can be fabricated with a hydrodynamically assembled composite, a semiconducting nanomesh, of semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (S-SWNTs) and a genetically engineered M13 phage to show strong binding affinity toward SWNTs. The semiconducting nanomesh enables a high on/off ratio (~104) of FETs. We also show that the threshold voltage and the channel current of the nanomesh FETs are sensitive to the change of the M13 phage surface charge. This biological gate effect of the phage enables the detection of biologically important molecules such as dopamine and bisphenol A using nanomesh-based FETs. Our results provide a new insight for the preparation of composite material platform for highly controllable bio/electronics interfaces. PMID:27762315

  19. Metal-semiconductor hybrid thin films in field-effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Okamura, Koshi Dehm, Simone; Hahn, Horst

    2013-12-16

    Metal-semiconductor hybrid thin films consisting of an amorphous oxide semiconductor and a number of aluminum dots in different diameters and arrangements are formed by electron beam lithography and employed for thin-film transistors (TFTs). Experimental and computational demonstrations systematically reveal that the field-effect mobility of the TFTs enhances but levels off as the dot density increases, which originates from variations of the effective channel length that strongly depends on the electric field distribution in a transistor channel.

  20. Field-Effect Transistors: Ultrathin MXene-Micropattern-Based Field-Effect Transistor for Probing Neural Activity (Adv. Mater. 17/2016).

    PubMed

    Xu, Bingzhe; Zhu, Minshen; Zhang, Wencong; Zhen, Xu; Pei, Zengxia; Xue, Qi; Zhi, Chunyi; Shi, Peng

    2016-05-01

    A field-effect transistor (FET) based on ultrathin Ti3 C2 -MXene micropatterns is developed by C. Zhi, P. Shi, and co-workers, as described on page 3333. The FET can be utilized for label-free probing of small molecules in typical biological environments, e.g., for fast detection of action potentials in primary neurons. This device is produced with a microcontact printing technique, harnessing the unique advantages for easy fabrication. PMID:27122113

  1. Exploring graphene field effect transistor devices to improve spectral resolution of semiconductor radiation detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Richard Karl; Howell, Stephen Wayne; Martin, Jeffrey B.; Hamilton, Allister B.

    2013-12-01

    Graphene, a planar, atomically thin form of carbon, has unique electrical and material properties that could enable new high performance semiconductor devices. Graphene could be of specific interest in the development of room-temperature, high-resolution semiconductor radiation spectrometers. Incorporating graphene into a field-effect transistor architecture could provide an extremely high sensitivity readout mechanism for sensing charge carriers in a semiconductor detector, thus enabling the fabrication of a sensitive radiation sensor. In addition, the field effect transistor architecture allows us to sense only a single charge carrier type, such as electrons. This is an advantage for room-temperature semiconductor radiation detectors, which often suffer from significant hole trapping. Here we report on initial efforts towards device fabrication and proof-of-concept testing. This work investigates the use of graphene transferred onto silicon and silicon carbide, and the response of these fabricated graphene field effect transistor devices to stimuli such as light and alpha radiation.

  2. Highly stable organic polymer field-effect transistor sensor for selective detection in the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Knopfmacher, Oren; Hammock, Mallory L; Appleton, Anthony L; Schwartz, Gregor; Mei, Jianguo; Lei, Ting; Pei, Jian; Bao, Zhenan

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, the susceptibility to degradation in both ambient and aqueous environments has prevented organic electronics from gaining rapid traction for sensing applications. Here we report an organic field-effect transistor sensor that overcomes this barrier using a solution-processable isoindigo-based polymer semiconductor. More importantly, these organic field-effect transistor sensors are stable in both freshwater and seawater environments over extended periods of time. The organic field-effect transistor sensors are further capable of selectively sensing heavy-metal ions in seawater. This discovery has potential for inexpensive, ink-jet printed, and large-scale environmental monitoring devices that can be deployed in areas once thought of as beyond the scope of organic materials.

  3. Highly stable organic polymer field-effect transistor sensor for selective detection in the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Knopfmacher, Oren; Hammock, Mallory L; Appleton, Anthony L; Schwartz, Gregor; Mei, Jianguo; Lei, Ting; Pei, Jian; Bao, Zhenan

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, the susceptibility to degradation in both ambient and aqueous environments has prevented organic electronics from gaining rapid traction for sensing applications. Here we report an organic field-effect transistor sensor that overcomes this barrier using a solution-processable isoindigo-based polymer semiconductor. More importantly, these organic field-effect transistor sensors are stable in both freshwater and seawater environments over extended periods of time. The organic field-effect transistor sensors are further capable of selectively sensing heavy-metal ions in seawater. This discovery has potential for inexpensive, ink-jet printed, and large-scale environmental monitoring devices that can be deployed in areas once thought of as beyond the scope of organic materials. PMID:24389531

  4. Improvement of terahertz field effect transistor detectors by substrate thinning and radiation losses reduction.

    PubMed

    Coquillat, Dominique; Marczewski, Jacek; Kopyt, Pawel; Dyakonova, Nina; Giffard, Benoit; Knap, Wojciech

    2016-01-11

    Phenomena of the radiation coupling to the field effect transistors based terahertz (THz) detectors are studied. We show that in the case of planar metal antennas a significant portion of incoming radiation, instead of being coupled to the transistors, is coupled to an antenna substrate leading to responsivity losses and/or cross-talk effects in the field effect based THz detector arrays. Experimental and theoretical investigations of the responsivity versus substrate thickness are performed. They clearly show how to minimize the losses by the detector/ array substrate thinning. In conclusion simple quantitative rules of losses minimization by choosing a proper substrate thickness of field effect transistor THz detectors are presented for common materials (Si, GaAs, InP, GaN) used in semiconductor technologies. PMID:26832258

  5. Determination of optimal ionic liquid for organic single-crystal field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, S.; Miwa, K.; Seki, S.

    2016-02-01

    We investigate organic single-crystal field-effect transistors with various ionic liquids as gate dielectric. We find that the mobility of the field-effect transistors for both p-type and n-type organic semiconductors increases with decreasing total capacitance of the ionic liquid. However, it does not depend on the ion species at the interface between the organic semiconductor and the ionic liquid. By choosing an appropriate ionic liquid, a high carrier mobility of 12.4 cm2/V s in rubrene single crystals (p-type) and 0.13 cm2/V s in 7.7.8.8-Tetracyanoquinodimethane single crystals (n-type) are achieved. This study clarifies the influence of ionic liquids on the device performance of organic field-effect transistors and shows a way to maximize carrier mobility at the solid/liquid interface.

  6. A Novel Metal-Ferroelectric-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor Memory Cell Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Thomas A.; Bailey, Mark; Ho, Fat Duen

    2004-01-01

    The use of a Metal-Ferroelectric-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor (MFSFET) in a resistive-load SRAM memory cell has been investigated A typical two-transistor resistive-load SRAM memory cell architecture is modified by replacing one of the NMOS transistors with an n-channel MFSFET. The gate of the MFSFET is connected to a polling voltage pulse instead of the other NMOS transistor drain. The polling voltage pulses are of sufficient magnitude to saturate the ferroelectric gate material and force the MFSFET into a particular logic state. The memory cell circuit is further modified by the addition of a PMOS transistor and a load resistor in order to improve the retention characteristics of the memory cell. The retention characteristics of both the "1" and "0" logic states are simulated. The simulations show that the MFSFET memory cell design can maintain both the "1" and "0" logic states for a long period of time.

  7. Tuning the threshold voltage in electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistors

    PubMed Central

    Kergoat, Loïg; Herlogsson, Lars; Piro, Benoit; Pham, Minh Chau; Horowitz, Gilles; Crispin, Xavier; Berggren, Magnus

    2012-01-01

    Low-voltage organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) promise for low power consumption logic circuits. To enhance the efficiency of the logic circuits, the control of the threshold voltage of the transistors are based on is crucial. We report the systematic control of the threshold voltage of electrolyte-gated OFETs by using various gate metals. The influence of the work function of the metal is investigated in metal-electrolyte-organic semiconductor diodes and electrolyte-gated OFETs. A good correlation is found between the flat-band potential and the threshold voltage. The possibility to tune the threshold voltage over half the potential range applied and to obtain depletion-like (positive threshold voltage) and enhancement (negative threshold voltage) transistors is of great interest when integrating these transistors in logic circuits. The combination of a depletion-like and enhancement transistor leads to a clear improvement of the noise margins in depleted-load unipolar inverters. PMID:22586088

  8. Vertical Field-Effect Transistor Based on Graphene-Transition Metal Dichalcogenides Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Jatinder; Chien, Hui-Chun; Bellus, Matthew Z.; Sicilian, David L.; Aubin, Davis St.; Chiu, Hsin-Ying; Physics and Astronomy, University of Kansas Team

    2014-03-01

    The remarkable properties of graphene has made it possible to create transistors just few atoms thick. A new development was that the other two-dimensional materials can be stacked on it with atomic layer precision, creating numerous heterostructures on demand. Here, novel vertical field-effect transistor composed of graphene- transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) heterostructures is fabricated and characterized at various temperatures. Due to ultrathin nature of these transistors, they present the ultimate limit for electron transport in heterostructures. Tunneling and thermionic transport characteristics are studied among different graphene-TMDs heterostructures. Their electronic properties have been investigated and can be used in vast range of devices.

  9. Organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memories utilizing sputtered C nanoparticles as nano-floating-gate

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jie; Liu, Chang-Hai; She, Xiao-Jian; Sun, Qi-Jun; Gao, Xu; Wang, Sui-Dong

    2014-10-20

    High-performance organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memories have been achieved using sputtered C nanoparticles as the nano-floating-gate. The sputtered C nano-floating-gate is prepared with low-cost material and simple process, forming uniform and discrete charge trapping sites covered by a smooth and complete polystyrene layer. The devices show large memory window, excellent retention capability, and programming/reading/erasing/reading endurance. The sputtered C nano-floating-gate can effectively trap both holes and electrons, and it is demonstrated to be suitable for not only p-type but also n-type organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memories.

  10. Organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memories utilizing sputtered C nanoparticles as nano-floating-gate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jie; Liu, Chang-Hai; She, Xiao-Jian; Sun, Qi-Jun; Gao, Xu; Wang, Sui-Dong

    2014-10-01

    High-performance organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memories have been achieved using sputtered C nanoparticles as the nano-floating-gate. The sputtered C nano-floating-gate is prepared with low-cost material and simple process, forming uniform and discrete charge trapping sites covered by a smooth and complete polystyrene layer. The devices show large memory window, excellent retention capability, and programming/reading/erasing/reading endurance. The sputtered C nano-floating-gate can effectively trap both holes and electrons, and it is demonstrated to be suitable for not only p-type but also n-type organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memories.

  11. An approach to decrease dimensions of field-effect transistors without p-n-junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankratov, E. L.; Bulaeva, E. A.

    2014-07-01

    It has been recently shown, that manufacturing p-n-junctions, field-effect and bipolar transistors, thyristors in a multilayer structure by diffusion or ion implantation under condition of optimization of dopant and/or radiation defects leads to increasing sharpness of p-n-junctions (both single p-n-junctions and p-n-junctions, which include into their system). In this situation, one can also obtain increase of homogeneity of dopant in doped area. In this paper, we consider manufacturing a field-effect heterotransistor without p-n-junction. Optimization of technological process with using inhomogeneity of heterostructure gives us possibility to manufacture transistors to be more compact.

  12. Hall and field-effect mobilities in few layered p-WSe2 field-effect transistors

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, N. R.; Rhodes, D.; Memaran, S.; Poumirol, J. M.; Smirnov, D.; Talapatra, S.; Feng, S.; Perea-Lopez, N.; Elias, A. L.; Terrones, M.; Ajayan, P. M.; Balicas, L.

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present a temperature (T) dependent comparison between field-effect and Hall mobilities in field-effect transistors based on few-layered WSe2 exfoliated onto SiO2. Without dielectric engineering and beyond a T-dependent threshold gate-voltage, we observe maximum hole mobilities approaching 350 cm2/Vs at T = 300 K. The hole Hall mobility reaches a maximum value of 650 cm2/Vs as T is lowered below ~150 K, indicating that insofar WSe2-based field-effect transistors (FETs) display the largest Hall mobilities among the transition metal dichalcogenides. The gate capacitance, as extracted from the Hall-effect, reveals the presence of spurious charges in the channel, while the two-terminal sheet resistivity displays two-dimensional variable-range hopping behavior, indicating carrier localization induced by disorder at the interface between WSe2 and SiO2. We argue that improvements in the fabrication protocols as, for example, the use of a substrate free of dangling bonds are likely to produce WSe2-based FETs displaying higher room temperature mobilities, i.e. approaching those of p-doped Si, which would make it a suitable candidate for high performance opto-electronics. PMID:25759288

  13. Monitoring Single-Molecule Protein Dynamics with a Carbon Nanotube Transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Philip G.

    2014-03-01

    Nanoscale electronic devices like field-effect transistors have long promised to provide sensitive, label-free detection of biomolecules. Single-walled carbon nanotubes press this concept further by not just detecting molecules but also monitoring their dynamics in real time. Recent measurements have demonstrated this premise by monitoring the single-molecule processivity of three different enzymes: lysozyme, protein Kinase A, and the Klenow fragment of DNA polymerase I. With all three enzymes, single molecules tethered to nanotube transistors were electronically monitored for 10 or more minutes, allowing us to directly observe a range of activity including rare transitions to chemically inactive and hyperactive conformations. The high bandwidth of the nanotube transistors further allow every individual chemical event to be clearly resolved, providing excellent statistics from tens of thousands of turnovers by a single enzyme. Initial success with three different enzymes indicates the generality and attractiveness of the nanotube devices as a new tool to complement other single-molecule techniques. Research on transduction mechanisms provides the design rules necessary to further generalize this architecture and apply it to other proteins. The purposeful incorporation of just one amino acid is sufficient to fabricate effective, single molecule sensors from a wide range of enzymes or proteins.

  14. Energy dissipation in graphene field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Freitag, Marcus; Steiner, Mathias; Martin, Yves; Perebeinos, Vasili; Chen, Zhihong; Tsang, James C; Avouris, Phaedon

    2009-05-01

    We measure the temperature distribution in a biased single-layer graphene transistor using Raman scattering microscopy of the 2D-phonon band. Peak operating temperatures of 1050 K are reached in the middle of the graphene sheet at 210 kW cm(-2) of dissipated electric power. The metallic contacts act as heat sinks, but not in a dominant fashion. To explain the observed temperature profile and heating rate, we have to include heat flow from the graphene to the gate oxide underneath, especially at elevated temperatures, where the graphene thermal conductivity is lowered due to umklapp scattering. Velocity saturation due to phonons with about 50-60 meV energy is inferred from the measured charge density via shifts in the Raman G-phonon band, suggesting that remote scattering (through field coupling) by substrate polar surface phonons increases the energy transfer to the substrate and at the same time limits the high-bias electronic conduction of graphene. PMID:19331421

  15. A hydrogel capsule as gate dielectric in flexible organic field-effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Dumitru, L. M.; Manoli, K.; Magliulo, M.; Torsi, L.; Ligonzo, T.; Palazzo, G.

    2015-01-01

    A jellified alginate based capsule serves as biocompatible and biodegradable electrolyte system to gate an organic field-effect transistor fabricated on a flexible substrate. Such a system allows operating thiophene based polymer transistors below 0.5 V through an electrical double layer formed across an ion-permeable polymeric electrolyte. Moreover, biological macro-molecules such as glucose-oxidase and streptavidin can enter into the gating capsules that serve also as delivery system. An enzymatic bio-reaction is shown to take place in the capsule and preliminary results on the measurement of the electronic responses promise for low-cost, low-power, flexible electronic bio-sensing applications using capsule-gated organic field-effect transistors.

  16. Hysteresis in single-layer MoS2 field effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Late, Dattatray J; Liu, Bin; Matte, H S S Ramakrishna; Dravid, Vinayak P; Rao, C N R

    2012-06-26

    Field effect transistors using ultrathin molybdenum disulfide (MoS(2)) have recently been experimentally demonstrated, which show promising potential for advanced electronics. However, large variations like hysteresis, presumably due to extrinsic/environmental effects, are often observed in MoS(2) devices measured under ambient environment. Here, we report the origin of their hysteretic and transient behaviors and suggest that hysteresis of MoS(2) field effect transistors is largely due to absorption of moisture on the surface and intensified by high photosensitivity of MoS(2). Uniform encapsulation of MoS(2) transistor structures with silicon nitride grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition is effective in minimizing the hysteresis, while the device mobility is improved by over 1 order of magnitude.

  17. Benzocyclobutene (BCB) Polymer as Amphibious Buffer Layer for Graphene Field-Effect Transistor.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yun; Zou, Jianjun; Huo, Shuai; Lu, Haiyan; Kong, Yuecan; Chen, Tangshen; Wu, Wei; Xu, Jingxia

    2015-08-01

    Owing to the scattering and trapping effects, the interfaces of dielectric/graphene or substrate/graphene can tailor the performance of field-effect transistor (FET). In this letter, the polymer of benzocyclobutene (BCB) was used as an amphibious buffer layer and located at between the layers of substrate and graphene and between the layers of dielectric and graphene. Interestingly, with the help of nonpolar and hydrophobic BCB buffer layer, the large-scale top-gated, chemical vapor deposited (CVD) graphene transistors was prepared on Si/SiO2 substrate, its cutoff frequency (fT) and the maximum cutoff frequency (fmax) of the graphene field-effect transistor (GFET) can be reached at 12 GHz and 11 GHz, respectively. PMID:26369142

  18. Terahertz 3D printed diffractive lens matrices for field-effect transistor detector focal plane arrays.

    PubMed

    Szkudlarek, Krzesimir; Sypek, Maciej; Cywiński, Grzegorz; Suszek, Jarosław; Zagrajek, Przemysław; Feduniewicz-Żmuda, Anna; Yahniuk, Ivan; Yatsunenko, Sergey; Nowakowska-Siwińska, Anna; Coquillat, Dominique; But, Dmytro B; Rachoń, Martyna; Węgrzyńska, Karolina; Skierbiszewski, Czesław; Knap, Wojciech

    2016-09-01

    We present the concept, the fabrication processes and the experimental results for materials and optics that can be used for terahertz field-effect transistor detector focal plane arrays. More specifically, we propose 3D printed arrays of a new type - diffractive multi-zone lenses of which the performance is superior to that of previously used mono-zone diffractive or refractive elements and evaluate them with GaN/AlGaN field-effect transistor terahertz detectors. Experiments performed in the 300-GHz atmospheric window show that the lens arrays offer both a good efficiency and good uniformity, and may improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the terahertz field-effect transistor detectors by more than one order of magnitude. In practice, we tested 3 × 12 lens linear arrays with printed circuit board THz detector arrays used in postal security scanners and observed significant signal-to-noise improvements. Our results clearly show that the proposed technology provides a way to produce cost-effective, reproducible, flat optics for large-size field-effect transistor THz-detector focal plane arrays.

  19. Transport properties of Nb/InAs(2DEG)/Nb Josephson field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, A.; Koch, M.; Matsuyama, T.; Merkt, U.

    1999-11-01

    We investigate transport properties of mesoscopic semiconductor-superconductor weak links. The superconducting Nb electrodes of our junctions are coupled by the two-dimensional electron gas of an InAs heterostructure grown on a GaAs substrate. We report on the properties of Josephson field-effect transistors utilizing these junctions.

  20. Use of cermet thin film resistors with nitride passivated metal insulator field effect transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, G. A.; Harrap, V.

    1971-01-01

    Film deposition of cermet resistors on same chip with metal nitride oxide silicon field effect transistors permits protection of contamination sensitive active devices from contaminants produced in cermet deposition and definition processes. Additional advantages include lower cost, greater reliability, and space savings.

  1. 2D Mica Crystal as Electret in Organic Field-Effect Transistors for Multistate Memory.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaotao; He, Yudong; Li, Rongjin; Dong, Huanli; Hu, Wenping

    2016-05-01

    Organic nonvolatile multistate storage devices based on organic field-effect transistors using mica as the 2D single-crystal electrets are developed. A4-paper-sized 2D mica crystals with flat surface are prepared successfully. Devices with mica electrets exhibit a typical memory effect and show ideal output curves on both the on and the off states.

  2. Terahertz 3D printed diffractive lens matrices for field-effect transistor detector focal plane arrays.

    PubMed

    Szkudlarek, Krzesimir; Sypek, Maciej; Cywiński, Grzegorz; Suszek, Jarosław; Zagrajek, Przemysław; Feduniewicz-Żmuda, Anna; Yahniuk, Ivan; Yatsunenko, Sergey; Nowakowska-Siwińska, Anna; Coquillat, Dominique; But, Dmytro B; Rachoń, Martyna; Węgrzyńska, Karolina; Skierbiszewski, Czesław; Knap, Wojciech

    2016-09-01

    We present the concept, the fabrication processes and the experimental results for materials and optics that can be used for terahertz field-effect transistor detector focal plane arrays. More specifically, we propose 3D printed arrays of a new type - diffractive multi-zone lenses of which the performance is superior to that of previously used mono-zone diffractive or refractive elements and evaluate them with GaN/AlGaN field-effect transistor terahertz detectors. Experiments performed in the 300-GHz atmospheric window show that the lens arrays offer both a good efficiency and good uniformity, and may improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the terahertz field-effect transistor detectors by more than one order of magnitude. In practice, we tested 3 × 12 lens linear arrays with printed circuit board THz detector arrays used in postal security scanners and observed significant signal-to-noise improvements. Our results clearly show that the proposed technology provides a way to produce cost-effective, reproducible, flat optics for large-size field-effect transistor THz-detector focal plane arrays. PMID:27607620

  3. A spiking neuron circuit based on a carbon nanotube transistor.

    PubMed

    Chen, C-L; Kim, K; Truong, Q; Shen, A; Li, Z; Chen, Y

    2012-07-11

    A spiking neuron circuit based on a carbon nanotube (CNT) transistor is presented in this paper. The spiking neuron circuit has a crossbar architecture in which the transistor gates are connected to its row electrodes and the transistor sources are connected to its column electrodes. An electrochemical cell is incorporated in the gate of the transistor by sandwiching a hydrogen-doped poly(ethylene glycol)methyl ether (PEG) electrolyte between the CNT channel and the top gate electrode. An input spike applied to the gate triggers a dynamic drift of the hydrogen ions in the PEG electrolyte, resulting in a post-synaptic current (PSC) through the CNT channel. Spikes input into the rows trigger PSCs through multiple CNT transistors, and PSCs cumulate in the columns and integrate into a 'soma' circuit to trigger output spikes based on an integrate-and-fire mechanism. The spiking neuron circuit can potentially emulate biological neuron networks and their intelligent functions.

  4. A spiking neuron circuit based on a carbon nanotube transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.-L.; Kim, K.; Truong, Q.; Shen, A.; Li, Z.; Chen, Y.

    2012-07-01

    A spiking neuron circuit based on a carbon nanotube (CNT) transistor is presented in this paper. The spiking neuron circuit has a crossbar architecture in which the transistor gates are connected to its row electrodes and the transistor sources are connected to its column electrodes. An electrochemical cell is incorporated in the gate of the transistor by sandwiching a hydrogen-doped poly(ethylene glycol)methyl ether (PEG) electrolyte between the CNT channel and the top gate electrode. An input spike applied to the gate triggers a dynamic drift of the hydrogen ions in the PEG electrolyte, resulting in a post-synaptic current (PSC) through the CNT channel. Spikes input into the rows trigger PSCs through multiple CNT transistors, and PSCs cumulate in the columns and integrate into a ‘soma’ circuit to trigger output spikes based on an integrate-and-fire mechanism. The spiking neuron circuit can potentially emulate biological neuron networks and their intelligent functions.

  5. A spiking neuron circuit based on a carbon nanotube transistor.

    PubMed

    Chen, C-L; Kim, K; Truong, Q; Shen, A; Li, Z; Chen, Y

    2012-07-11

    A spiking neuron circuit based on a carbon nanotube (CNT) transistor is presented in this paper. The spiking neuron circuit has a crossbar architecture in which the transistor gates are connected to its row electrodes and the transistor sources are connected to its column electrodes. An electrochemical cell is incorporated in the gate of the transistor by sandwiching a hydrogen-doped poly(ethylene glycol)methyl ether (PEG) electrolyte between the CNT channel and the top gate electrode. An input spike applied to the gate triggers a dynamic drift of the hydrogen ions in the PEG electrolyte, resulting in a post-synaptic current (PSC) through the CNT channel. Spikes input into the rows trigger PSCs through multiple CNT transistors, and PSCs cumulate in the columns and integrate into a 'soma' circuit to trigger output spikes based on an integrate-and-fire mechanism. The spiking neuron circuit can potentially emulate biological neuron networks and their intelligent functions. PMID:22710137

  6. Silicon-on-insulator field effect transistor with improved body ties for rad-hard applications

    DOEpatents

    Schwank, James R.; Shaneyfelt, Marty R.; Draper, Bruce L.; Dodd, Paul E.

    2001-01-01

    A silicon-on-insulator (SOI) field-effect transistor (FET) and a method for making the same are disclosed. The SOI FET is characterized by a source which extends only partially (e.g. about half-way) through the active layer wherein the transistor is formed. Additionally, a minimal-area body tie contact is provided with a short-circuit electrical connection to the source for reducing floating body effects. The body tie contact improves the electrical characteristics of the transistor and also provides an improved single-event-upset (SEU) radiation hardness of the device for terrestrial and space applications. The SOI FET also provides an improvement in total-dose radiation hardness as compared to conventional SOI transistors fabricated without a specially prepared hardened buried oxide layer. Complementary n-channel and p-channel SOI FETs can be fabricated according to the present invention to form integrated circuits (ICs) for commercial and military applications.

  7. Carbon nanotube transistor based high-frequency electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroter, Michael

    At the nanoscale carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have higher carrier mobility and carrier velocity than most incumbent semiconductors. Thus CNT based field-effect transistors (FETs) are being considered as strong candidates for replacing existing MOSFETs in digital applications. In addition, the predicted high intrinsic transit frequency and the more recent finding of ways to achieve highly linear transfer characteristics have inspired investigations on analog high-frequency (HF) applications. High linearity is extremely valuable for an energy efficient usage of the frequency spectrum, particularly in mobile communications. Compared to digital applications, the much more relaxed constraints for CNT placement and lithography combined with already achieved operating frequencies of at least 10 GHz for fabricated devices make an early entry in the low GHz HF market more feasible than in large-scale digital circuits. Such a market entry would be extremely beneficial for funding the development of production CNTFET based process technology. This talk will provide an overview on the present status and feasibility of HF CNTFET technology will be given from an engineering point of view, including device modeling, experimental results, and existing roadblocks.

  8. Pentacene disproportionation during sublimation for field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Roberson, Luke B; Kowalik, Janusz; Tolbert, Laren M; Kloc, Christian; Zeis, Roswitha; Chi, Xiaoliu; Fleming, Richard; Wilkins, Charles

    2005-03-01

    At moderate temperatures in flowing gas, pentacene undergoes a disproportionation reaction to produce 6,13-dihydropentacene (DHP) and a series of polycondensed aromatic hydrocarbons, including the previously unknown peripentacene (PP). The process requires activation by heating to 320 degrees C and is possibly catalyzed by impurities such as DHP, 6,13-pentacenequinone (PQ), Al, or Fe found in the starting materials. These impurities also result in a decrease in the intrinsic field-effect mobility (FEM) of pentacene crystals. Subsequent purifications remove such impurities, thus inhibiting the formation of the disproportionation products and increasing the FEM of pentacene (2.2 cm(2)/Vs). These results clarify the importance of purification of semiconductive materials for measurements of intrinsic mobility and optimal device performance. PMID:15740146

  9. High performance transistors via aligned polyfluorene-sorted carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, Gerald J.; Joo, Yongho; Singha Roy, Susmit; Gopalan, Padma; Arnold, Michael S.

    2014-02-24

    We evaluate the performance of exceptionally electronic-type sorted, semiconducting, aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (s-SWCNTs) in field effect transistors (FETs). High on-conductance and high on/off conductance modulation are simultaneously achieved at channel lengths which are both shorter and longer than individual s-SWCNTs. The s-SWCNTs are isolated from heterogeneous mixtures using a polyfluorene-derivative as a selective agent and aligned on substrates via dose-controlled, floating evaporative self-assembly at densities of ∼50 s-SWCNTs μm{sup −1}. At a channel length of 9 μm the s-SWCNTs percolate to span the FET channel, and the on/off ratio and charge transport mobility are 2.2 × 10{sup 7} and 46 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}, respectively. At a channel length of 400 nm, a large fraction of the s-SWCNTs directly span the channel, and the on-conductance per width is 61 μS μm{sup −1} and the on/off ratio is 4 × 10{sup 5}. These results are considerably better than previous solution-processed FETs, which have suffered from poor on/off ratio due to spurious metallic nanotubes that bridge the channel. 4071 individual and small bundles of s-SWCNTs are tested in 400 nm channel length FETs, and all show semiconducting behavior, demonstrating the high fidelity of polyfluorenes as selective agents and the promise of assembling s-SWCNTs from solution to create high performance semiconductor electronic devices.

  10. Simulation-based design of a strained graphene field effect transistor incorporating the pseudo magnetic field effect

    SciTech Connect

    Souma, Satofumi Ueyama, Masayuki; Ogawa, Matsuto

    2014-05-26

    We present a numerical study on the performance of strained graphene-based field-effect transistors. A local strain less than 10% is applied over a central channel region of the graphene to induce the shift of the Dirac point in the channel region along the transverse momentum direction. The left and the right unstrained graphene regions are doped to be either n-type or p-type. By using the atomistic tight-binding model and a Green's function method, we predict that the gate voltage applied to the central strained graphene region can switch the drain current on and off with an on/off ratio of more than six orders of magnitude at room temperature. This is in spite of the absence of a bandgap in the strained channel region. Steeper subthreshold slopes below 60 mV/decade are also predicted at room temperature because of a mechanism similar to the band-to-band tunneling field-effect transistors.

  11. Highly stretchable carbon nanotube transistors enabled by buckled ion gel gate dielectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Meng-Yin; Chang, Tzu-Hsuan; Ma, Zhenqiang; Zhao, Juan; Xu, Feng; Jacobberger, Robert M.; Arnold, Michael S.

    2015-08-03

    Deformable field-effect transistors (FETs) are expected to facilitate new technologies like stretchable displays, conformal devices, and electronic skins. We previously demonstrated stretchable FETs based on buckled thin films of polyfluorene-wrapped semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes as the channel, buckled metal films as electrodes, and unbuckled flexible ion gel films as the dielectric. The FETs were stretchable up to 50% without appreciable degradation in performance before failure of the ion gel film. Here, we show that by buckling the ion gel, the integrity and performance of the nanotube FETs are extended to nearly 90% elongation, limited by the stretchability of the elastomer substrate. The FETs maintain an on/off ratio of >10{sup 4} and a field-effect mobility of 5 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} under elongation and demonstrate invariant performance over 1000 stretching cycles.

  12. Hysteresis free carbon nanotube thin film transistors comprising hydrophobic dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefebvre, J.; Ding, J.; Li, Z.; Cheng, F.; Du, N.; Malenfant, P. R. L.

    2015-12-01

    We present two examples of carbon nanotube network thin film transistors with strongly hydrophobic dielectrics comprising either Teflon-AF or a poly(vinylphenol)/poly(methyl silsesquioxane) (PVP/pMSSQ) blend. In the absence of encapsulation, bottom gated transistors in air ambient show no hysteresis between forward and reverse gate sweep direction. Device threshold gate voltage and On-current present excellent time dependent stability even under dielectric stress. Furthermore, threshold gate voltage for hole conduction is negative upon device encapsulation with PVP/pMSSQ enabling much improved current On/Off ratio at 0 V. This work addresses two major challenges impeding solution based fabrication of relevant thin film transistors with printable single-walled carbon nanotube channels.

  13. T-gate aligned nanotube radio frequency transistors and circuits with superior performance.

    PubMed

    Che, Yuchi; Lin, Yung-Chen; Kim, Pyojae; Zhou, Chongwu

    2013-05-28

    In this paper, we applied self-aligned T-gate design to aligned carbon nanotube array transistors and achieved an extrinsic current-gain cutoff frequency (ft) of 25 GHz, which is the best on-chip performance for nanotube radio frequency (RF) transistors reported to date. Meanwhile, an intrinsic current-gain cutoff frequency up to 102 GHz is obtained, comparable to the best value reported for nanotube RF transistors. Armed with the excellent extrinsic RF performance, we performed both single-tone and two-tone measurements for aligned nanotube transistors at a frequency up to 8 GHz. Furthermore, we utilized T-gate aligned nanotube transistors to construct mixing and frequency doubling analog circuits operated in gigahertz frequency regime. Our results confirm the great potential of nanotube-based circuit applications and indicate that nanotube transistors are promising building blocks in high-frequency electronics.

  14. Light quasiparticles dominate electronic transport in molecular crystal field-effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Z. Q.; Podzorov, V.; Sai, N.; Martin, Michael C.; Gershenson, M. E.; Di Ventra, M.; Basov, D. N.

    2007-03-01

    We report on an infrared spectroscopy study of mobile holes in the accumulation layer of organic field-effect transistors based on rubrene single crystals. Our data indicate that both transport and infrared properties of these transistors at room temperature are governed by light quasiparticles in molecular orbital bands with the effective masses m[small star, filled]comparable to free electron mass. Furthermore, the m[small star, filled]values inferred from our experiments are in agreement with those determined from band structure calculations. These findings reveal no evidence for prominent polaronic effects, which is at variance with the common beliefs of polaron formation in molecular solids.

  15. Reduction of threshold voltage fluctuation in field-effect transistors by controlling individual dopant position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hori, Masahiro; Taira, Keigo; Komatsubara, Akira; Kumagai, Kuninori; Ono, Yukinori; Tanii, Takashi; Endoh, Tetsuo; Shinada, Takahiro

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the impact of only the dopant position on threshold voltage (Vth) in nanoscale field-effect transistors, we fabricated transistors with ordered dopant arrays and conventional random channel doping. Electrical measurements revealed that device performance could be enhanced by controlling the dopant position alone, despite varying dopant number according to a Poisson distribution. Furthermore, device-to-device fluctuations in Vth could be suppressed by implanting a heavier ion such as arsenic owing to the reduction of the projected ion struggling. The results of our study highlight potential improvements in device performance by controlling individual dopant positions.

  16. Graphene field effect transistors with niobium contacts and asymmetric transfer characteristics.

    PubMed

    Bartolomeo, Antonio Di; Giubileo, Filippo; Romeo, Francesco; Sabatino, Paolo; Carapella, Giovanni; Iemmo, Laura; Schroeder, Thomas; Lupina, Grzegorz

    2015-11-27

    We fabricate back-gated field effect transistors using niobium electrodes on mechanically exfoliated monolayer graphene and perform electrical characterization in the pressure range from atmospheric down to 10(-4) mbar. We study the effect of room temperature vacuum degassing and report asymmetric transfer characteristics with a resistance plateau in the n-branch. We show that weakly chemisorbed Nb acts as p-dopant on graphene and explain the transistor characteristics by Nb/graphene interaction with unpinned Fermi level at the interface. PMID:26535591

  17. Direct probing of Schottky barriers in Si nanowire Schottky barrier field effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Martin, Dominik; Heinzig, Andre; Grube, Matthias; Geelhaar, Lutz; Mikolajick, Thomas; Riechert, Henning; Weber, Walter M

    2011-11-18

    This work elucidates the role of the Schottky junction in the electronic transport of nanometer-scale transistors. In the example of Schottky barrier silicon nanowire field effect transistors, an electrical scanning probe technique is applied to examine the charge transport effects of a nanometer-scale local top gate during operation. The results prove experimentally that Schottky barriers control the charge carrier transport in these devices. In addition, a proof of concept for a reprogrammable nonvolatile memory device based on band bending at the Schottky barriers will be shown.

  18. Light quasiparticles dominate electronic transport in molecularcrystal field-effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Z.Q.; Podzorov, V.; Sai, N.; Martin, M.C.; Gershenson, M.E.; Di Ventra, M.; Basov, D.N.

    2007-04-30

    We report on an infrared spectroscopy study of mobile holesin the accumulation layer of organic field effect transistors based onrubrene single crystals. Our data indicate that both transport andinfrared properties of these transistors at room temperature are governedby light quasiparticles in molecular orbital bands with the effectivemasses m* comparable to free electron mass. Furthermore, the m* valuesinferred from our experiments are in agreement with those determined fromband structure calculations. These findings reveal no evidence forprominent polaronic effects, which is at variance with the common beliefsof polaron formation in molecular solids.

  19. Carbon nanotube transistors, sensors, and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xinjian

    Carbon nanotubes are tiny hollow cylinders, made from a single graphene sheet, that possess many amazing properties. Another reason why nanotubes have generated intense research activities from scientists of various disciplines is they represent a new class of materials for the study of one-dimensional physics. In this thesis we investigate the electrical transport of semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes and their potential applications as biological sensors. Electrons have been predicted, by theoretical physicists, to go through nanotubes without much resistance. But this has not been properly quantified experimentally, and the origin of the routinely observed large resistance in nanotubes is not clear. In this thesis we show that in moderate long high quality nanotubes the electrical transport is limited by electron-phonon scattering. Systematic studies are carried out using many devices of different diameters at various temperatures. The resistance and inverse of peak mobility are observed to decrease linearly with temperature, indicating the influence of phonons. The conductance and peak mobility scales with nanotube diameters also, in a linear fashion and quadratic fashion respectively. Based on electron-phonon scattering, a theory model is developed that can not only predict how the resistance changes with gate voltage but also explain the observed temperature and diameter dependence. This work clarifies the nature of electrical transport in nanotubes and sets a performance limit of nanotube devices in diffusive regime. The electrical transport in nanotubes is extremely sensitive to local electrostatic environment due to their small size, large surface to volume ratio and high mobility, making nanotubes ideal key elements in biological sensors. In the second part of this thesis, we integrate nanotubes with supported lipid bilayers, mimic structures of cell membranes, and use this platform as a way to introduce biomolecules into the vicinity of

  20. Ferroelectric Material Application: Modeling Ferroelectric Field Effect Transistor Characteristics from Micro to Nano

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacLeod, Todd, C.; Ho, Fat Duen

    2006-01-01

    All present ferroelectric transistors have been made on the micrometer scale. Existing models of these devices do not take into account effects of nanoscale ferroelectric transistors. Understanding the characteristics of these nanoscale devices is important in developing a strategy for building and using future devices. This paper takes an existing microscale ferroelectric field effect transistor (FFET) model and adds effects that become important at a nanoscale level, including electron velocity saturation and direct tunneling. The new model analyzed FFETs ranging in length from 40,000 nanometers to 4 nanometers and ferroelectric thickness form 200 nanometers to 1 nanometer. The results show that FFETs can operate on the nanoscale but have some undesirable characteristics at very small dimensions.

  1. Tuning the threshold voltage of MoS2 field-effect transistors via surface treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leong, Wei Sun; Li, Yida; Luo, Xin; Nai, Chang Tai; Quek, Su Ying; Thong, John T. L.

    2015-06-01

    Controlling the threshold voltage (Vth) of a field-effect transistor is important for realizing robust logic circuits. Here, we report a facile approach to achieve bidirectional Vth tuning of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) field-effect transistors. By increasing and decreasing the amount of sulfur vacancies in the MoS2 surface, the Vth of MoS2 transistors can be left- and right-shifted, respectively. Transistors fabricated on perfect MoS2 flakes are found to exhibit a two-fold enhancement in mobility and a very positive Vth (18.5 +/- 7.5 V). More importantly, our elegant hydrogen treatment is able to tune the large Vth to a small value (~0 V) without any performance degradation simply by reducing the atomic ratio of S : Mo slightly; in other words, it creates a certain amount of sulfur vacancies in the MoS2 surface, which generate defect states in the band gap of MoS2 that mediates conduction of a MoS2 transistor in the subthreshold regime. First-principles calculations further indicate that the defect band's edge and width can be tuned according to the vacancy density. This work not only demonstrates for the first time the ease of tuning the Vth of MoS2 transistors, but also offers a process technology solution that is critical for further development of MoS2 as a mainstream electronic material.Controlling the threshold voltage (Vth) of a field-effect transistor is important for realizing robust logic circuits. Here, we report a facile approach to achieve bidirectional Vth tuning of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) field-effect transistors. By increasing and decreasing the amount of sulfur vacancies in the MoS2 surface, the Vth of MoS2 transistors can be left- and right-shifted, respectively. Transistors fabricated on perfect MoS2 flakes are found to exhibit a two-fold enhancement in mobility and a very positive Vth (18.5 +/- 7.5 V). More importantly, our elegant hydrogen treatment is able to tune the large Vth to a small value (~0 V) without any performance degradation

  2. Direct Electrical Detection of DNA Hybridization Based on Electrolyte-Gated Graphene Field-Effect Transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, Yasuhide; Okamoto, Shogo; Maehashi, Kenzo; Matsumoto, Kazuhiko

    2013-11-01

    DNA hybridization was electrically detected by graphene field-effect transistors. Probe DNA was modified on the graphene channel by a pyrene-based linker material. The transfer characteristic was shifted by the negative charges on the probe DNA, and the drain current was changed by the full-complementary DNA while no current change was observed after adding noncomplementary DNA, indicating that the graphene field-effect transistor detected the DNA hybridization. In addition, the number of DNAs was estimated by the simple plate capacitor model. As a result, one probe DNA was attached on the graphene channel per 10×10 nm2, indicating their high density functionalization. We estimated that 30% of probe DNA on the graphene channel was hybridized with 200 nM full-complementary DNA while only 5% of probe DNA was bound to the noncomplementary DNA. These results will help to pave the way for future biosensing applications based on graphene FETs.

  3. Detection of clinically relevant levels of protein analyte under physiologic buffer using planar field effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Samit; Elias, Mark; Wen, Xuejin; Shapiro, John; Brillson, Leonard; Lu, Wu; Lee, Stephen Craig

    2008-12-01

    Electrochemical detection of protein binding at physiological salt concentration by planar field effect transistor platforms has yet to be documented convincingly. Here we report detection of streptavidin and clinically relevant levels of biotinylated monokine induced by interferon gamma (MIG) at physiological salt concentrations with AlGaN heterojunction field effect transistors (HFETs). The AlGaN HFETs are functionalized with a silane linker and analyte-specific affinity elements. Polarity of sensor responses is as expected from n-type HFETs to negatively and positively charged analytes. Sensitivity of the HFET sensors increases when salt concentration decreases, and the devices also exhibit dose-dependent responses to analyte. Detection of clinically relevant MIG concentrations at physiological salt levels demonstrates the potential for AlGaN devices to be used in development of in vivo biosensors.

  4. Reducing flicker noise in chemical vapor deposition graphene field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Heather N.; Sangwan, Vinod K.; Schmucker, Scott W.; Cress, Cory D.; Luck, Kyle A.; Friedman, Adam L.; Robinson, Jeremy T.; Marks, Tobin J.; Hersam, Mark C.

    2016-02-01

    Single-layer graphene derived from chemical vapor deposition (CVD) holds promise for scalable radio frequency (RF) electronic applications. However, prevalent low-frequency flicker noise (1/f noise) in CVD graphene field-effect transistors is often up-converted to higher frequencies, thus limiting RF device performance. Here, we achieve an order of magnitude reduction in 1/f noise in field-effect transistors based on CVD graphene transferred onto silicon oxide substrates by utilizing a processing protocol that avoids aqueous chemistry after graphene transfer. Correspondingly, the normalized noise spectral density (10-7-10-8 μm2 Hz-1) and noise amplitude (4 × 10-8-10-7) in these devices are comparable to those of exfoliated and suspended graphene. We attribute the reduction in 1/f noise to a decrease in the contribution of fluctuations in the scattering cross-sections of carriers arising from dynamic redistribution of interfacial disorder.

  5. Towards a cleaner graphene surface in graphene field effect transistor via N,N-Dimethylacetamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Da-Cheng; Peng, Song-Ang; Wang, Shao-Qing; Zhang, Da-Yong; Shi, Jing-Yuan; Wang, Xinnan; Jin, Zhi

    2016-09-01

    Graphene is a two-dimensional material with a high surface to volume ratio and the fabrication process of graphene field effect transistors always introduces unintended contaminates like photoresidues on the surface of graphene. These contaminations are difficult to remove by conventional acetone solvent and suppress the intrinsic properties of graphene. To address the problem, a wet-chemical approach employing N,N-Dimethylacetamide (C4H9NO) was developed in this study, which shows an increase of the carrier mobility and a reduction of minimum conductance point in our devices. Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscope were carried out to verify the cleaning effect of the approach. Our method provides a simple and effective way to enhance the electrical performance of graphene field effect transistors and can be readily integrated into the CMOS fabrication pilot line.

  6. Controlling field-effect mobility in pentacene-based transistors by supersonic molecular-beam deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Toccoli, T.; Pallaoro, A.; Coppede, N.; Iannotta, S.; De Angelis, F.; Mariucci, L.; Fortunato, G.

    2006-03-27

    We show that pentacene field-effect transistors, fabricated by supersonic molecular beams, have a performance strongly depending on the precursor's kinetic energy (K{sub E}). The major role played by K{sub E} is in achieving highly ordered and flat films. In the range K{sub E}{approx_equal}3.5-6.5 eV, the organic field effect transistor linear mobility increases of a factor {approx}5. The highest value (1.0 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}) corresponds to very uniform and flat films (layer-by-layer type growth). The temperature dependence of mobility for films grown at K{sub E}>6 eV recalls that of single crystals (bandlike) and shows an opposite trend for films grown at K{sub E}{<=}5.5 eV.

  7. Mobility enhancement of organic field-effect transistor based on guanine trap-neutralizing layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Wei; Zheng, Yifan; Yu, Junsheng; Taylor, André D.; Katz, Howard E.

    2016-10-01

    We introduced a nucleic acid component guanine as a trap-neutralizing layer between silicon dioxide gate dielectric and a pentacene semiconducting layer to obtain increased field-effect mobility in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). A tripling of the field-effect mobility, from 0.13 to 0.42 cm2/V s, was achieved by introducing a 2 nm guanine layer. By characterizing the surface morphology of pentacene films grown on guanine, we found that the effect of guanine layer on the topography of pentacene film was not responsible for the mobility enhancement of the OFETs. The increased field-effect mobility was mainly attributed to the hydrogen bonding capacity of otherwise unassociated guanine molecules, which enabled them to neutralize trapping sites on the silicon dioxide surface.

  8. Multifunctional Self-Assembled Monolayers for Organic Field-Effect Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cernetic, Nathan

    Organic field effect transistors (OFETs) have the potential to reach commercialization for a wide variety of applications such as active matrix display circuitry, chemical and biological sensing, radio-frequency identification devices and flexible electronics. In order to be commercially competitive with already at-market amorphous silicon devices, OFETs need to approach similar performance levels. Significant progress has been made in developing high performance organic semiconductors and dielectric materials. Additionally, a common route to improve the performance metric of OFETs is via interface modification at the critical dielectric/semiconductor and electrode/semiconductor interface which often play a significant role in charge transport properties. These metal oxide interfaces are typically modified with rationally designed multifunctional self-assembled monolayers. As means toward improving the performance metrics of OFETs, rationally designed multifunctional self-assembled monolayers are used to explore the relationship between surface energy, SAM order, and SAM dipole on OFET performance. The studies presented within are (1) development of a multifunctional SAM capable of simultaneously modifying dielectric and metal surface while maintaining compatibility with solution processed techniques (2) exploration of the relationship between SAM dipole and anchor group on graphene transistors, and (3) development of self-assembled monolayer field-effect transistor in which the traditional thick organic semiconductor is replaced by a rationally designed self-assembled monolayer semiconductor. The findings presented within represent advancement in the understanding of the influence of self-assembled monolayers on OFETs as well as progress towards rationally designed monolayer transistors.

  9. Sensing small neurotransmitter-enzyme interaction with nanoporous gated ion-sensitive field effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Kisner, Alexandre; Stockmann, Regina; Jansen, Michael; Yegin, Ugur; Offenhäusser, Andreas; Kubota, Lauro Tatsuo; Mourzina, Yulia

    2012-01-15

    Ion-sensitive field effect transistors with gates having a high density of nanopores were fabricated and employed to sense the neurotransmitter dopamine with high selectivity and detectability at micromolar range. The nanoporous structure of the gates was produced by applying a relatively simple anodizing process, which yielded a porous alumina layer with pores exhibiting a mean diameter ranging from 20 to 35 nm. Gate-source voltages of the transistors demonstrated a pH-dependence that was linear over a wide range and could be understood as changes in surface charges during protonation and deprotonation. The large surface area provided by the pores allowed the physical immobilization of tyrosinase, which is an enzyme that oxidizes dopamine, on the gates of the transistors, and thus, changes the acid-base behavior on their surfaces. Concentration-dependent dopamine interacting with immobilized tyrosinase showed a linear dependence into a physiological range of interest for dopamine concentration in the changes of gate-source voltages. In comparison with previous approaches, a response time relatively fast for detecting dopamine was obtained. Additionally, selectivity assays for other neurotransmitters that are abundantly found in the brain were examined. These results demonstrate that the nanoporous structure of ion-sensitive field effect transistors can easily be used to immobilize specific enzyme that can readily and selectively detect small neurotransmitter molecule based on its acid-base interaction with the receptor. Therefore, it could serve as a technology platform for molecular studies of neurotransmitter-enzyme binding and drugs screening.

  10. Performance Enhancement of Black Phosphorus Field-Effect Transistors by Chemical Doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yuchen; Yang, Lingming; Zhou, Hong; Ye, Peide D.

    2016-04-01

    In this letter, a new approach to chemically dope black phosphorus (BP) is presented, which significantly enhances the device performance of BP field-effect transistors for an initial period of 18 h, before degrading to previously reported levels. By applying 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4-TCNQ), low ON-state resistance of 3.2 ohm.mm and high field-effect mobility of 229 cm2/Vs are achieved with a record high drain current of 532 mA/mm at a moderate channel length of 1.5 {\\mu}m.

  11. Graphene-based field effect transistors for radiation-induced field sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Gaspare, Alessandra; Valletta, Antonio; Fortunato, Guglielmo; Larciprete, Rosanna; Mariucci, Luigi; Notargiacomo, Andrea; Cimino, Roberto

    2016-07-01

    We propose the implementation of graphene-based field effect transistor (FET) as radiation sensor. In the proposed detector, graphene obtained via chemical vapor deposition is integrated into a Si-based field effect device as the gate readout electrode, able to sense any change in the field distribution induced by ionization in the underneath absorber, because of the strong variation in the graphene conductivity close to the charge neutrality point. Different 2-dimensional layered materials can be envisaged in this kind of device.

  12. The hysteresis-free negative capacitance field effect transistors using non-linear poly capacitance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, S.-T.; Yan, J.-Y.; Lai, D.-C.; Liu, C. W.

    2016-08-01

    A gate structure design for negative capacitance field effect transistors (NCFETs) is proposed. The hysteresis loop in current-voltage performances is eliminated by the nonlinear C-V dependence of polysilicon in the gate dielectrics. Design considerations and optimizations to achieve the low SS and hysteresis-free transfer were elaborated. The effects of gate-to-source/drain overlap, channel length scaling, interface trap states and temperature impact on SS are also investigated.

  13. Charge carrier transport in polycrystalline organic thin film based field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, Varsha; Sharma, Akanksha; Ghosh, Subhasis

    2016-05-01

    The charge carrier transport mechanism in polycrystalline thin film based organic field effect transistors (OFETs) has been explained using two competing models, multiple trapping and releases (MTR) model and percolation model. It has been shown that MTR model is most suitable for explaining charge carrier transport in grainy polycrystalline organic thin films. The energetic distribution of traps determined independently using Mayer-Neldel rule (MNR) is in excellent agreement with the values obtained by MTR model for copper phthalocyanine and pentacene based OFETs.

  14. Interdigitated gate electrode field effect transistor for the selective detection of nitrogen dioxide and diisopropyl methylphosphonate

    SciTech Connect

    Kolesar, E.S. Jr.; Wiseman, J.M. )

    1989-11-01

    An interdigitated gate electrode field effect transistor (IGE-FET) coupled to an electron beam evaporated copper phthalocyanine thin film was used to selectively detect part-per-billion concentration levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) and diisopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP). The sensor is excited with a voltage pulse, and the time- and frequency-domain responses are measured. The envelopes of the magnitude of the normalized difference frequency spectrums reveal features that unambiguously distinguish NO{sub 2} and DIMP exposures.

  15. Ultrathin MXene-Micropattern-Based Field-Effect Transistor for Probing Neural Activity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bingzhe; Zhu, Minshen; Zhang, Wencong; Zhen, Xu; Pei, Zengxia; Xue, Qi; Zhi, Chunyi; Shi, Peng

    2016-05-01

    A field-effect transistor (FET) based on ultrathin Ti3 C2 -MXene micropatterns is developed and utilized as a highly sensitive biosensor. The device is produced with the microcontact printing technique, making use of its unique advantages for easy fabrication. Using the MXene-FET device, label-free probing of small molecules in typical biological environments and fast detection of action potentials in primary neurons is demonstrated. PMID:26924616

  16. Explicit drain current model of junctionless double-gate field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yesayan, Ashkhen; Prégaldiny, Fabien; Sallese, Jean-Michel

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents an explicit drain current model for the junctionless double-gate metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor. Analytical relationships for the channel charge densities and for the drain current are derived as explicit functions of applied terminal voltages and structural parameters. The model is validated with 2D numerical simulations for a large range of channel thicknesses and is found to be very accurate for doping densities exceeding 1018 cm-3, which are actually used for such devices.

  17. Measuring bi-directional current through a field-effect transistor by virtue of drain-to-source voltage measurement

    DOEpatents

    Turner, Steven Richard

    2006-12-26

    A method and apparatus for measuring current, and particularly bi-directional current, in a field-effect transistor (FET) using drain-to-source voltage measurements. The drain-to-source voltage of the FET is measured and amplified. This signal is then compensated for variations in the temperature of the FET, which affects the impedance of the FET when it is switched on. The output is a signal representative of the direction of the flow of current through the field-effect transistor and the level of the current through the field-effect transistor. Preferably, the measurement only occurs when the FET is switched on.

  18. Hydrothermally Processed Photosensitive Field-Effect Transistor Based on ZnO Nanorod Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ashish; Bhargava, Kshitij; Dixit, Tejendra; Palani, I. A.; Singh, Vipul

    2016-11-01

    Formation of a stable, reproducible zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod-network-based photosensitive field-effect transistor using a hydrothermal process at low temperature has been demonstrated. K2Cr2O7 additive was used to improve adhesion and facilitate growth of the ZnO nanorod network over the SiO2/Si substrate. Transistor characteristics obtained in the dark resemble those of the n-channel-mode field-effect transistor (FET). The devices showed I on/ I off ratio above 8 × 102 under dark condition, field-effect mobility of 4.49 cm2 V-1 s-1, and threshold voltage of -12 V. Further, under ultraviolet (UV) illumination, the FET exhibited sensitivity of 2.7 × 102 in off-state (-10 V) versus 1.4 in on-state (+9.7 V) of operation. FETs based on such nanorod networks showed good photoresponse, which is attributed to the large surface area of the nanorod network. The growth temperature for ZnO nanorod networks was kept at 110°C, enabling a low-temperature, cost-effective, simple approach for high-performance ZnO-based FETs for large-scale production. The role of network interfaces in the FET performance is also discussed.

  19. Novel Field-Effect Schottky Barrier Transistors Based on Graphene-MoS2 Heterojunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, He; Tan, Zhen; Wu, Can; Wang, Xiaomu; Mohammad, Mohammad Ali; Xie, Dan; Yang, Yi; Wang, Jing; Li, Lain-Jong; Xu, Jun; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2014-08-01

    Recently, two-dimensional materials such as molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) have been demonstrated to realize field effect transistors (FET) with a large current on-off ratio. However, the carrier mobility in backgate MoS2 FET is rather low (typically 0.5-20 cm2/V.s). Here, we report a novel field-effect Schottky barrier transistors (FESBT) based on graphene-MoS2 heterojunction (GMH), where the characteristics of high mobility from graphene and high on-off ratio from MoS2 are properly balanced in the novel transistors. Large modulation on the device current (on/off ratio of 105) is achieved by adjusting the backgate (through 300 nm SiO2) voltage to modulate the graphene-MoS2 Schottky barrier. Moreover, the field effective mobility of the FESBT is up to 58.7 cm2/V.s. Our theoretical analysis shows that if the thickness of oxide is further reduced, a subthreshold swing (SS) of 40 mV/decade can be maintained within three orders of drain current at room temperature. This provides an opportunity to overcome the limitation of 60 mV/decade for conventional CMOS devices. The FESBT implemented with a high on-off ratio, a relatively high mobility and a low subthreshold promises low-voltage and low-power applications for future electronics.

  20. Hydrothermally Processed Photosensitive Field-Effect Transistor Based on ZnO Nanorod Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ashish; Bhargava, Kshitij; Dixit, Tejendra; Palani, I. A.; Singh, Vipul

    2016-07-01

    Formation of a stable, reproducible zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod-network-based photosensitive field-effect transistor using a hydrothermal process at low temperature has been demonstrated. K2Cr2O7 additive was used to improve adhesion and facilitate growth of the ZnO nanorod network over the SiO2/Si substrate. Transistor characteristics obtained in the dark resemble those of the n-channel-mode field-effect transistor (FET). The devices showed I on/I off ratio above 8 × 102 under dark condition, field-effect mobility of 4.49 cm2 V-1 s-1, and threshold voltage of -12 V. Further, under ultraviolet (UV) illumination, the FET exhibited sensitivity of 2.7 × 102 in off-state (-10 V) versus 1.4 in on-state (+9.7 V) of operation. FETs based on such nanorod networks showed good photoresponse, which is attributed to the large surface area of the nanorod network. The growth temperature for ZnO nanorod networks was kept at 110°C, enabling a low-temperature, cost-effective, simple approach for high-performance ZnO-based FETs for large-scale production. The role of network interfaces in the FET performance is also discussed.

  1. Fabrication of graphene field-effect transistor on top of ferroelectric single-crystal substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Nahee; Kang, Haeyong; Lee, Yourack; Kim, Jeong-Gyun; Kim, Joong-Gyu; Yun, Yoojoo; Park, Jeongmin; Kim, Taesoo; Kim, Jung Ho; Jin, Youngjo; Shin, Yong Seon; Lee, Young Hee; Suh, Dongseok

    2015-03-01

    In the analysis of Graphene field-effect transistor, the substrate material which has the direct contact with Graphene layer plays an important in the device performance. In this presentation, we have tested PMN-PT(i.e.(1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3) O3-xPbTiO3) substrate as a gate dielectric of Graphene field-effect transistor. Unlike the case of previously used substrates such as silicon oxide or hexagonal Boron-Nitride(h-BN), the PMN-PT substrate can induce giant amount of surface charge that is directly injected to the attached Graphene layer due to its ferroelectric property. And the hysteresis of polarization versus electric field of PMN-PT can cause the device to show the ferroelectric nonvolatile memory operation. We had successfully fabricated Graphene field-effect transistor using the mechanically exfoliated Graphene layer transferred on the PMN-PT(001) substrate. Unlike the case of mechanical exfoliation on the surface of silicon-oxide or the Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), the weak adhesion properties between graphene and PMNPT required the pretreatment on PMMA before the exfoliation process. The device performance is analyzed in terms of the effect of ferro- and piezo-electric effect of PMNPT substrate.

  2. Metal-Ferroelectric-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor NAND Gate Switching Time Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Thomas A.; Macleod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat D.

    2006-01-01

    Previous research investigated the modeling of a N Wga te constructed of Metal-Ferroelectric- Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors (MFSFETs) to obtain voltage transfer curves. The NAND gate was modeled using n-channel MFSFETs with positive polarization for the standard CMOS n-channel transistors and n-channel MFSFETs with negative polarization for the standard CMOS p-channel transistors. This paper investigates the MFSFET NAND gate switching time propagation delay, which is one of the other important parameters required to characterize the performance of a logic gate. Initially, the switching time of an inverter circuit was analyzed. The low-to-high and high-to-low propagation time delays were calculated. During the low-to-high transition, the negatively polarized transistor pulls up the output voltage, and during the high-to-low transition, the positively polarized transistor pulls down the output voltage. The MFSFETs were simulated by using a previously developed model which utilized a partitioned ferroelectric layer. Then the switching time of a 2-input NAND gate was analyzed similarly to the inverter gate. Extension of this technique to more complicated logic gates using MFSFETs will be studied.

  3. Measurement and Analysis of a Ferroelectric Field-Effect Transistor NAND Gate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Thomas A.; MacLeond, Todd C.; Sayyah, Rana; Ho, Fat Duen

    2009-01-01

    Previous research investigated expanding the use of Ferroelectric Field-Effect Transistors (FFET) to other electronic devices beyond memory circuits. Ferroelectric based transistors possess unique characteris tics that give them interesting and useful properties in digital logic circuits. The NAND gate was chosen for investigation as it is one of the fundamental building blocks of digital electronic circuits. In t his paper, NAND gate circuits were constructed utilizing individual F FETs. N-channel FFETs with positive polarization were used for the standard CMOS NAND gate n-channel transistors and n-channel FFETs with n egative polarization were used for the standard CMOS NAND gate p-chan nel transistors. The voltage transfer curves were obtained for the NA ND gate. Comparisons were made between the actual device data and the previous modeled data. These results are compared to standard MOS logic circuits. The circuits analyzed are not intended to be fully opera tional circuits that would interface with existing logic circuits, bu t as a research tool to look into the possibility of using ferroelectric transistors in future logic circuits. Possible applications for th ese devices are presented, and their potential benefits and drawbacks are discussed.

  4. Device perspective for black phosphorus field-effect transistors: contact resistance, ambipolar behavior, and scaling.

    PubMed

    Du, Yuchen; Liu, Han; Deng, Yexin; Ye, Peide D

    2014-10-28

    Although monolayer black phosphorus (BP), or phosphorene, has been successfully exfoliated and its optical properties have been explored, most of the electrical performance of the devices is demonstrated on few-layer phosphorene and ultrathin BP films. In this paper, we study the channel length scaling of ultrathin BP field-effect transistors (FETs) and discuss a scheme for using various contact metals to change the transistor characteristics. Through studying transistor behaviors with various channel lengths, the contact resistance can be extracted with the transfer length method (TLM). With different contact metals, we find out that the metal/BP interface has different Schottky barrier heights, leading to a significant difference in contact resistance, which is quite different from previous studies of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), such as MoS2, where the Fermi level is strongly pinned near the conduction band edge at the metal/MoS2 interface. The nature of BP transistors is Schottky barrier FETs, where the on and off states are controlled by tuning the Schottky barriers at the two contacts. We also observe the ambipolar characteristics of BP transistors with enhanced n-type drain current and demonstrate that the p-type carriers can be easily shifted to n-type or vice versa by controlling the gate bias and drain bias, showing the potential to realize BP CMOS logic circuits.

  5. High-performance partially aligned semiconductive single-walled carbon nanotube transistors achieved with a parallel technique.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yilei; Pillai, Suresh Kumar Raman; Chan-Park, Mary B

    2013-09-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are widely thought to be a strong contender for next-generation printed electronic transistor materials. However, large-scale solution-based parallel assembly of SWNTs to obtain high-performance transistor devices is challenging. SWNTs have anisotropic properties and, although partial alignment of the nanotubes has been theoretically predicted to achieve optimum transistor device performance, thus far no parallel solution-based technique can achieve this. Herein a novel solution-based technique, the immersion-cum-shake method, is reported to achieve partially aligned SWNT networks using semiconductive (99% enriched) SWNTs (s-SWNTs). By immersing an aminosilane-treated wafer into a solution of nanotubes placed on a rotary shaker, the repetitive flow of the nanotube solution over the wafer surface during the deposition process orients the nanotubes toward the fluid flow direction. By adjusting the nanotube concentration in the solution, the nanotube density of the partially aligned network can be controlled; linear densities ranging from 5 to 45 SWNTs/μm are observed. Through control of the linear SWNT density and channel length, the optimum SWNT-based field-effect transistor devices achieve outstanding performance metrics (with an on/off ratio of ~3.2 × 10(4) and mobility 46.5 cm(2) /Vs). Atomic force microscopy shows that the partial alignment is uniform over an area of 20 × 20 mm(2) and confirms that the orientation of the nanotubes is mostly along the fluid flow direction, with a narrow orientation scatter characterized by a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of <15° for all but the densest film, which is 35°. This parallel process is large-scale applicable and exploits the anisotropic properties of the SWNTs, presenting a viable path forward for industrial adoption of SWNTs in printed, flexible, and large-area electronics.

  6. Simulation of carbon nanotube field effect transistors using NEGF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aravind, S.; Shravan, S.; Shrijan, S.; Venkat Sanjeev, R.; Bala Tripura Sundari, B.

    2016-09-01

    A nearest neighbour tight binding approximation for analysing the I-V characteristics of ballistic CNTFETs is developed making use of the non-equilibrium green's function (NEGF) formalism. NEGF provides a matrix based computational since device description at the atomic level can be employed and multiple quantum phenomenon that are visible in real time can be effectively modelled. The proposed model involves zig-zag CNTs as the channel material with a 25nm channel length that uses a basis transformation to decouple the channel Hamiltonian. Temperature dependence on the output characteristics of CNTFETs with varying chirality is also studied. All simulations are carried out on MATLAB.

  7. Field-effect transistors based on few-layered α-MoTe(2).

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Nihar R; Rhodes, Daniel; Feng, Simin; Xin, Yan; Memaran, Shahriar; Moon, Byoung-Hee; Terrones, Humberto; Terrones, Mauricio; Balicas, Luis

    2014-06-24

    Here we report the properties of field-effect transistors based on a few layers of chemical vapor transport grown α-MoTe2 crystals mechanically exfoliated onto SiO2. We performed field-effect and Hall mobility measurements, as well as Raman scattering and transmission electron microscopy. In contrast to both MoS2 and MoSe2, our MoTe2 field-effect transistors are observed to be hole-doped, displaying on/off ratios surpassing 10(6) and typical subthreshold swings of ∼140 mV per decade. Both field-effect and Hall mobilities indicate maximum values approaching or surpassing 10 cm(2)/(V s), which are comparable to figures previously reported for single or bilayered MoS2 and/or for MoSe2 exfoliated onto SiO2 at room temperature and without the use of dielectric engineering. Raman scattering reveals sharp modes in agreement with previous reports, whose frequencies are found to display little or no dependence on the number of layers. Given that MoS2 is electron-doped, the stacking of MoTe2 onto MoS2 could produce ambipolar field-effect transistors and a gap modulation. Although the overall electronic performance of MoTe2 is comparable to those of MoS2 and MoSe2, the heavier element Te leads to a stronger spin-orbit coupling and possibly to concomitantly longer decoherence times for exciton valley and spin indexes.

  8. Field-effect transistors based on few-layered α-MoTe(2).

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Nihar R; Rhodes, Daniel; Feng, Simin; Xin, Yan; Memaran, Shahriar; Moon, Byoung-Hee; Terrones, Humberto; Terrones, Mauricio; Balicas, Luis

    2014-06-24

    Here we report the properties of field-effect transistors based on a few layers of chemical vapor transport grown α-MoTe2 crystals mechanically exfoliated onto SiO2. We performed field-effect and Hall mobility measurements, as well as Raman scattering and transmission electron microscopy. In contrast to both MoS2 and MoSe2, our MoTe2 field-effect transistors are observed to be hole-doped, displaying on/off ratios surpassing 10(6) and typical subthreshold swings of ∼140 mV per decade. Both field-effect and Hall mobilities indicate maximum values approaching or surpassing 10 cm(2)/(V s), which are comparable to figures previously reported for single or bilayered MoS2 and/or for MoSe2 exfoliated onto SiO2 at room temperature and without the use of dielectric engineering. Raman scattering reveals sharp modes in agreement with previous reports, whose frequencies are found to display little or no dependence on the number of layers. Given that MoS2 is electron-doped, the stacking of MoTe2 onto MoS2 could produce ambipolar field-effect transistors and a gap modulation. Although the overall electronic performance of MoTe2 is comparable to those of MoS2 and MoSe2, the heavier element Te leads to a stronger spin-orbit coupling and possibly to concomitantly longer decoherence times for exciton valley and spin indexes. PMID:24878323

  9. Recent Progress in Obtaining Semiconducting Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes for Transistor Applications.

    PubMed

    Islam, Ahmad E; Rogers, John A; Alam, Muhammad A

    2015-12-22

    High purity semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (s-SWCNTs) with a narrow diameter distribution are required for high-performance transistors. Achieving this goal is extremely challenging because the as-grown material contains mixtures of s-SWCNTs and metallic- (m-) SWCNTs with wide diameter distributions, typically inadequate for integrated circuits. Since 2000, numerous ex situ methods have been proposed to improve the purity of the s-SWCNTs. The majority of these techniques fail to maintain the quality and integrity of the s-SWCNTs with a few notable exceptions. Here, the progress in realizing high purity s-SWCNTs in as-grown and post-processed materials is highlighted. A comparison of transistor parameters (such as on/off ratio and field-effect mobility) obtained from test structures establishes the effectiveness of various methods and suggests opportunities for future improvements.

  10. Memory operation devices based on light-illumination ambipolar carbon-nanotube thin-film-transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Aïssa, B.; Nedil, M.; Kroeger, J.; Haddad, T.; Rosei, F.

    2015-09-28

    We report the memory operation behavior of a light illumination ambipolar single-walled carbon nanotube thin film field-effect transistors devices. In addition to the high electronic-performance, such an on/off transistor-switching ratio of 10{sup 4} and an on-conductance of 18 μS, these memory devices have shown a high retention time of both hole and electron-trapping modes, reaching 2.8 × 10{sup 4} s at room temperature. The memory characteristics confirm that light illumination and electrical field can act as an independent programming/erasing operation method. This could be a fundamental step toward achieving high performance and stable operating nanoelectronic memory devices.

  11. Recent Progress in Obtaining Semiconducting Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes for Transistor Applications.

    PubMed

    Islam, Ahmad E; Rogers, John A; Alam, Muhammad A

    2015-12-22

    High purity semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (s-SWCNTs) with a narrow diameter distribution are required for high-performance transistors. Achieving this goal is extremely challenging because the as-grown material contains mixtures of s-SWCNTs and metallic- (m-) SWCNTs with wide diameter distributions, typically inadequate for integrated circuits. Since 2000, numerous ex situ methods have been proposed to improve the purity of the s-SWCNTs. The majority of these techniques fail to maintain the quality and integrity of the s-SWCNTs with a few notable exceptions. Here, the progress in realizing high purity s-SWCNTs in as-grown and post-processed materials is highlighted. A comparison of transistor parameters (such as on/off ratio and field-effect mobility) obtained from test structures establishes the effectiveness of various methods and suggests opportunities for future improvements. PMID:26540144

  12. Nature of size effects in compact models of field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torkhov, N. A.; Babak, L. I.; Kokolov, A. A.; Salnikov, A. S.; Dobush, I. M.; Novikov, V. A.; Ivonin, I. V.

    2016-03-01

    Investigations have shown that in the local approximation (for sizes L < 100 μm), AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) structures satisfy to all properties of chaotic systems and can be described in the language of fractal geometry of fractional dimensions. For such objects, values of their electrophysical characteristics depend on the linear sizes of the examined regions, which explain the presence of the so-called size effects—dependences of the electrophysical and instrumental characteristics on the linear sizes of the active elements of semiconductor devices. In the present work, a relationship has been established for the linear model parameters of the equivalent circuit elements of internal transistors with fractal geometry of the heteroepitaxial structure manifested through a dependence of its relative electrophysical characteristics on the linear sizes of the examined surface areas. For the HEMTs, this implies dependences of their relative static (A/mm, mA/V/mm, Ω/mm, etc.) and microwave characteristics (W/mm) on the width d of the sink-source channel and on the number of sections n that leads to a nonlinear dependence of the retrieved parameter values of equivalent circuit elements of linear internal transistor models on n and d. Thus, it has been demonstrated that the size effects in semiconductors determined by the fractal geometry must be taken into account when investigating the properties of semiconductor objects on the levels less than the local approximation limit and designing and manufacturing field effect transistors. In general, the suggested approach allows a complex of problems to be solved on designing, optimizing, and retrieving the parameters of equivalent circuits of linear and nonlinear models of not only field effect transistors but also any arbitrary semiconductor devices with nonlinear instrumental characteristics.

  13. Characterization of Field Effect Transistor Biosensors Fabricated Using Layer-by-Layer Nanoassembly Process.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Pushparaj; Que, Long

    2015-12-01

    In order to avoid the fabrication complexity involved with a single carbon nanotube (CNT) based immunosensor, herein we report an FET based biosensor, in which the channel is made out of Carbon Nanotube Thin Film (CNTF). The CNTF channel between the source and drain electrodes is assembled using a combination of photolithography and electrostatic layer-by-layer self-assembly (LbL). The fabricated device behaves like a p-type transistor. The bio-affinity interaction between Protein A and rabbit Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is used to model the immunosensing, and our initial results show the device is capable of detecting IgG concentrations as low as 1 pg/mL. PMID:26682397

  14. Atomic layer deposition of aluminum oxide films for carbon nanotube network transistor passivation.

    PubMed

    Grigoras, Kestutis; Zavodchikova, Marina Y; Nasibulin, Albert G; Kauppinen, Esko I; Ermolov, Vladimir; Franssila, Sami

    2011-10-01

    Ultra-thin (2-5 nm thick) aluminum oxide layers were grown on non-functionalized individual single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and their bundles by atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique in order to investigate the mechanism of the coating process. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to examine the uniformity and conformality of the coatings grown at different temperatures (80 degrees C or 220 degrees C) and with different precursors for oxidation (water and ozone). We found that bundles of SWCNTs were coated continuously, but at the same time, bare individual nanotubes remained uncoated. The successful coating of bundles was explained by the formation of interstitial pores between the individual SWCNTs constituting the bundle, where the precursor molecules can adhere, initiating the layer growth. Thicker alumina layers (20-35 nm thick) were used for the coating of bottom-gated SWCNT-network based field effect transistors (FETs). ALD layers, grown at different conditions, were found to influence the performance of the SWCNT-network FETs: low temperature ALD layers caused the ambipolarity of the channel and pronounced n-type conduction, whereas high temperature ALD processes resulted in hysteresis suppression in the transfer characteristics of the SWCNT transistors and preserved p-type conduction. Fixed charges in the ALD layer have been considered as the main factor influencing the conduction change of the SWCNT network based transistors.

  15. Giant thermovoltage in single InAs nanowire field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Roddaro, Stefano; Ercolani, Daniele; Safeen, Mian Akif; Suomalainen, Soile; Rossella, Francesco; Giazotto, Francesco; Sorba, Lucia; Beltram, Fabio

    2013-08-14

    Millivolt range thermovoltage is demonstrated in single InAs nanowire based field effect transistors. Thanks to a buried heating scheme, we drive both a large thermal bias ΔT > 10 K and a strong field-effect modulation of electric conductance on the nanostructures. This allows the precise mapping of the evolution of the Seebeck coefficient S as a function of the gate-controlled conductivity σ between room temperature and 100 K. Based on these experimental data a novel estimate of the electron mobility is given. This value is compared with the result of standard field-effect based mobility estimates and discussed in relation to the effect of charge traps in the devices. PMID:23869467

  16. Unstrained Epitaxial Zn-Substituted Fe3O4 Films for Ferromagnetic Field-Effect Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichimura, Takashi; Fujiwara, Kohei; Kushizaki, Takayoshi; Kanki, Teruo; Tanaka, Hidekazu

    2013-06-01

    A field-effect transistor has been fabricated utilizing an epitaxial film of unstrained zinc-substituted magnetite (Fe3O4) as the active channel. A thin film of Fe2.5Zn0.5O4 was grown on a lattice-matched MgO(001) substrate by pulsed-laser deposition and covered by a parylene gate insulator to dope charge carriers by a field effect. The device showed a field-effect mobility of 1.2 ×10-2 cm2 V-1 s-1 at 300 K, which is higher by a factor of 15 than those of the devices with strained Fe2.5Zn0.5O4 channels on perovskite-type substrates. The enhanced response to the gate electric field is useful in exploring gate-tunable magnetism in magnetite.

  17. Transport properties of single-walled carbon nanotube transistors after gamma radiation treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Vitusevich, S. A.; Sydoruk, V. A.; Klein, N.; Offenhaeusser, A.; Petrychuk, M. V.; Danilchenko, B. A.; Ural, A.; Bosman, G.

    2010-03-15

    Single-walled carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNT-FETs) were characterized before and after gamma radiation treatment using noise spectroscopy. The results obtained demonstrate that in long channel CNT-FETs with a length of 10 {mu}m the contribution of contact regions can be neglected. Moreover, radiation treatment with doses of 1x10{sup 6} and 2x10{sup 6} rad allows a considerable decrease parallel to the nanotube parasitic conductivity and even the shift region with maximal conductivity to the voltage range of nearly zero gate voltage that improves the working point of the FETs. The Hooge parameters obtained before and after gamma radiation treatment with a dose of 1x10{sup 6} rad are found to be about 5x10{sup -3}. The parameters are comparable with typical values for conventional semiconductors.

  18. Mobility overestimation due to gated contacts in organic field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Bittle, Emily G; Basham, James I; Jackson, Thomas N; Jurchescu, Oana D; Gundlach, David J

    2016-01-01

    Parameters used to describe the electrical properties of organic field-effect transistors, such as mobility and threshold voltage, are commonly extracted from measured current-voltage characteristics and interpreted by using the classical metal oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor model. However, in recent reports of devices with ultra-high mobility (>40 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)), the device characteristics deviate from this idealized model and show an abrupt turn-on in the drain current when measured as a function of gate voltage. In order to investigate this phenomenon, here we report on single crystal rubrene transistors intentionally fabricated to exhibit an abrupt turn-on. We disentangle the channel properties from the contact resistance by using impedance spectroscopy and show that the current in such devices is governed by a gate bias dependence of the contact resistance. As a result, extracted mobility values from d.c. current-voltage characterization are overestimated by one order of magnitude or more.

  19. Low dielectric constant-based organic field-effect transistors and metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ukah, Ndubuisi Benjamin

    This thesis describes a study of PFB and pentacene-based organic field-effect transistors (OFET) and metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitors with low dielectric constant (k) poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), poly(4-vinyl phenol) (PVP) and cross-linked PVP (c-PVP) gate dielectrics. A physical method -- matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) -- of fabricating all-polymer field-effect transistors and MIS capacitors that circumvents inherent polymer dissolution and solvent-selectivity problems, is demonstrated. Pentacene-based OFETs incorporating PMMA and PVP gate dielectrics usually have high operating voltages related to the thickness of the dielectric layer. Reduced PMMA layer thickness (≤ 70 nm) was obtained by dissolving the PMMA in propylene carbonate (PC). The resulting pentacene-based transistors exhibited very low operating voltage (below -3 V), minimal hysteresis in their transfer characteristics, and decent electrical performance. Also low voltage (within -2 V) operation using thin (≤ 80 nm) low-k and hydrophilic PVP and c-PVP dielectric layers obtained via dissolution in high dipole moment and high-k solvents -- PC and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), is demonstrated to be a robust means of achieving improved electrical characteristics and high operational stability in OFETs incorporating PVP and c-PVP dielectrics.

  20. Mobility overestimation due to gated contacts in organic field-effect transistors

    PubMed Central

    Bittle, Emily G.; Basham, James I.; Jackson, Thomas N.; Jurchescu, Oana D.; Gundlach, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Parameters used to describe the electrical properties of organic field-effect transistors, such as mobility and threshold voltage, are commonly extracted from measured current–voltage characteristics and interpreted by using the classical metal oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor model. However, in recent reports of devices with ultra-high mobility (>40 cm2 V−1 s−1), the device characteristics deviate from this idealized model and show an abrupt turn-on in the drain current when measured as a function of gate voltage. In order to investigate this phenomenon, here we report on single crystal rubrene transistors intentionally fabricated to exhibit an abrupt turn-on. We disentangle the channel properties from the contact resistance by using impedance spectroscopy and show that the current in such devices is governed by a gate bias dependence of the contact resistance. As a result, extracted mobility values from d.c. current–voltage characterization are overestimated by one order of magnitude or more. PMID:26961271

  1. Highly sensitive protein detection using a plasmonic field effect transistor (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shokri-Kojori, Hossein; Ji, Yiwen; Han, Xu; Paik, Younghun; Braunschweig, Adam; Kim, Sung Jin

    2016-03-01

    Localized surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR) is a nanoscale phenomenon which presents strong resonance associated with noble metal nanostructures. This plasmon resonance based technology enables highly sensitive detection for chemical and biological applications. Recently, we have developed a plasmon field effect transistor (FET) that enables direct plasmonic-to-electric signal conversion with signal amplification. The plasmon FET consists of back-gated field effect transistor incorporated with gold nanoparticles on top of the FET channel. The gold nanostructures are physically separated from transistor electrodes and can be functionalized for a specific biological application. In this presentation, we report a successful demonstration of a model system to detect Con A proteins using Carbohydrate linkers as a capture molecule. The plasmon FET detected a very low concentration of Con A (0.006 mg/L) while it offers a wide dynamic range of 0.006-50 mg/L. In this demonstration, we used two-color light sources instead of a bulky spectrometer to achieve high sensitivity and wide dynamic range. The details of two-color based differential measurement method will be discussed. This novel protein-based sensor has several advantages such as extremely small size for point-of-care system, multiplexing capability, no need of complex optical geometry.

  2. Suspended InAs nanowire gate-all-around field-effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Qiang; Huang, Shaoyun E-mail: hqxu@pku.edu.cn; Wang, Jingyun; Pan, Dong; Zhao, Jianhua; Xu, H. Q. E-mail: hqxu@pku.edu.cn

    2014-09-15

    Gate-all-around field-effect transistors are realized with thin, single-crystalline, pure-phase InAs nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy. At room temperature, the transistors show a desired high on-state current I{sub on} of ∼10 μA and an on-off current ratio I{sub on}/I{sub off} of as high as 10{sup 6} at source-drain bias voltage of 50 mV and gate length of 1 μm with a gate underlap spacing of 1 μm from the source and from the drain. At low temperatures, the on-state current I{sub on} is only slightly reduced, while the ratio I{sub on}/I{sub off} is increased to 10{sup 7}. The field-effect mobility in the nanowire channels is also investigated and found to be ∼1500 cm{sup 2}/V s at room temperature and ∼2000 cm{sup 2}/V s at low temperatures. The excellent performance of the transistors is explained in terms of strong electrostatic and quantum confinements of carriers in the nanowires.

  3. Mobility overestimation due to gated contacts in organic field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Bittle, Emily G; Basham, James I; Jackson, Thomas N; Jurchescu, Oana D; Gundlach, David J

    2016-01-01

    Parameters used to describe the electrical properties of organic field-effect transistors, such as mobility and threshold voltage, are commonly extracted from measured current-voltage characteristics and interpreted by using the classical metal oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor model. However, in recent reports of devices with ultra-high mobility (>40 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)), the device characteristics deviate from this idealized model and show an abrupt turn-on in the drain current when measured as a function of gate voltage. In order to investigate this phenomenon, here we report on single crystal rubrene transistors intentionally fabricated to exhibit an abrupt turn-on. We disentangle the channel properties from the contact resistance by using impedance spectroscopy and show that the current in such devices is governed by a gate bias dependence of the contact resistance. As a result, extracted mobility values from d.c. current-voltage characterization are overestimated by one order of magnitude or more. PMID:26961271

  4. Mobility overestimation due to gated contacts in organic field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittle, Emily G.; Basham, James I.; Jackson, Thomas N.; Jurchescu, Oana D.; Gundlach, David J.

    2016-03-01

    Parameters used to describe the electrical properties of organic field-effect transistors, such as mobility and threshold voltage, are commonly extracted from measured current-voltage characteristics and interpreted by using the classical metal oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor model. However, in recent reports of devices with ultra-high mobility (>40 cm2 V-1 s-1), the device characteristics deviate from this idealized model and show an abrupt turn-on in the drain current when measured as a function of gate voltage. In order to investigate this phenomenon, here we report on single crystal rubrene transistors intentionally fabricated to exhibit an abrupt turn-on. We disentangle the channel properties from the contact resistance by using impedance spectroscopy and show that the current in such devices is governed by a gate bias dependence of the contact resistance. As a result, extracted mobility values from d.c. current-voltage characterization are overestimated by one order of magnitude or more.

  5. Modeling of a Metal-Ferroelectric-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor NAND Gate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Thomas A.; MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat Duen

    2005-01-01

    Considerable research has been performed by several organizations in the use of the Metal- Ferroelectric-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors (MFSFET) in memory circuits. However, research has been limited in expanding the use of the MFSFET to other electronic circuits. This research project investigates the modeling of a NAND gate constructed from MFSFETs. The NAND gate is one of the fundamental building blocks of digital electronic circuits. The first step in forming a NAND gate is to develop an inverter circuit. The inverter circuit was modeled similar to a standard CMOS inverter. A n-channel MFSFET with positive polarization was used for the n-channel transistor, and a n-channel MFSFET with negative polarization was used for the p-channel transistor. The MFSFETs were simulated by using a previously developed current model which utilized a partitioned ferroelectric layer. The inverter voltage transfer curve was obtained over a standard input of zero to five volts. Then a 2-input NAND gate was modeled similar to the inverter circuit. Voltage transfer curves were obtained for the NAND gate for various configurations of input voltages. The resultant data shows that it is feasible to construct a NAND gate with MFSFET transistors.

  6. N-Channel field-effect transistors with floating gates for extracellular recordings.

    PubMed

    Meyburg, Sven; Goryll, Michael; Moers, Jürgen; Ingebrandt, Sven; Böcker-Meffert, Simone; Lüth, Hans; Offenhäusser, Andreas

    2006-01-15

    A field-effect transistor (FET) for recording extracellular signals from electrogenic cells is presented. The so-called floating gate architecture combines a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-type n-channel transistor with an independent sensing area. This concept allows the transistor and sensing area to be optimised separately. The devices are robust and can be reused several times. The noise level of the devices was smaller than of comparable non-metallised gate FETs. In addition to the usual drift of FET devices, we observed a long-term drift that has to be controlled for future long-term measurements. The device performance for extracellular signal recording was tested using embryonic rat cardiac myocytes cultured on fibronectin-coated chips. The extracellular cell signals were recorded before and after the addition of the cardioactive isoproterenol. The signal shapes of the measured action potentials were comparable to the non-metallised gate FETs previously used in similar experiments. The fabrication of the devices involved the process steps of standard CMOS that were necessary to create n-channel transistors. The implementation of a complete CMOS process would facilitate the integration of the logical circuits necessary for signal pre-processing on a chip, which is a prerequisite for a greater number of sensor spots in future layouts. PMID:16029948

  7. High performance MoS2-based field-effect transistor enabled by hydrazine doping.

    PubMed

    Lim, Dongsuk; Kannan, E S; Lee, Inyeal; Rathi, Servin; Li, Lijun; Lee, Yoontae; Khan, Muhammad Atif; Kang, Moonshik; Park, Jinwoo; Kim, Gil-Ho

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the n-type doping effect of hydrazine on the electrical characteristics of a molybdenum disulphide (MoS2)-based field-effect transistor (FET). The threshold voltage of the MoS2 FET shifted towards more negative values (from -20 to -70 V) on treating with 100% hydrazine solution with the channel current increasing from 0.5 to 25 μA at zero gate bias. The inverse subthreshold slope decreased sharply on doping, while the ON/OFF ratio increased by a factor of 100. Gate-channel coupling improved with doping, which facilitates the reduction of channel length between the source and drain electrodes without compromising on the transistor performance, making the MoS2-based FET easily scalable.

  8. Plasmon Field Effect Transistor for Plasmon to Electric Conversion and Amplification.

    PubMed

    Shokri Kojori, Hossein; Yun, Ju-Hyung; Paik, Younghun; Kim, Joondong; Anderson, Wayne A; Kim, Sung Jin

    2016-01-13

    Direct coupling of electronic excitations of optical energy via plasmon resonances opens the door to improving gain and selectivity in various optoelectronic applications. We report a new device structure and working mechanisms for plasmon resonance energy detection and electric conversion based on a thin film transistor device with a metal nanostructure incorporated in it. This plasmon field effect transistor collects the plasmonically induced hot electrons from the physically isolated metal nanostructures. These hot electrons contribute to the amplification of the drain current. The internal electric field and quantum tunneling effect at the metal-semiconductor junction enable highly efficient hot electron collection and amplification. Combined with the versatility of plasmonic nanostructures in wavelength tunability, this device architecture offers an ultrawide spectral range that can be used in various applications.

  9. Tunnel field-effect transistors as energy-efficient electronic switches.

    PubMed

    Ionescu, Adrian M; Riel, Heike

    2011-11-16

    Power dissipation is a fundamental problem for nanoelectronic circuits. Scaling the supply voltage reduces the energy needed for switching, but the field-effect transistors (FETs) in today's integrated circuits require at least 60 mV of gate voltage to increase the current by one order of magnitude at room temperature. Tunnel FETs avoid this limit by using quantum-mechanical band-to-band tunnelling, rather than thermal injection, to inject charge carriers into the device channel. Tunnel FETs based on ultrathin semiconducting films or nanowires could achieve a 100-fold power reduction over complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) transistors, so integrating tunnel FETs with CMOS technology could improve low-power integrated circuits.

  10. Effect of Temperature on GaGdO/GaN Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Abernathy, C.R.; Baca, A.; Chu, S.N.G.; Hong, M.; Lothian, J.R.; Marcus, M.A.; Pearton, S.J.; Ren, F.; Schurman, M.J.

    1998-10-14

    GaGdO was deposited on GaN for use as a gate dielectric in order to fabricate a depletion metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET). This is the fmt demonstration of such a device in the III-Nitride system. Analysis of the effect of temperature on the device shows that gate leakage is significantly reduced at elevated temperature relative to a conventional metal semiconductor field effeet transistor (MESFET) fabricated on the same GaN layer. MOSFET device operation in fact improved upon heating to 400 C. Modeling of the effeet of temperature on contact resistance suggests that the improvement is due to a reduction in the parasitic resistances present in the device.

  11. Photocurrent microscopy of contact resistance and charge carrier traps in organic field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liewald, C.; Reiser, D.; Westermeier, C.; Nickel, B.

    2016-08-01

    We use a pentacene transistor with asymmetric source drain contacts to test the sensitivity of scanning photocurrent microscopy (SPCM) for contact resistance and charge traps. The drain current of the device strongly depends on the choice of the drain electrode. In one case, more than 94% of the source drain voltage is lost due to contact resistance. Here, SPCM maps show an enhanced photocurrent signal at the hole-injecting contact. For the other bias condition, i.e., for ohmic contacts, the SPCM signal peaks heterogeneously along the channel. We argue from basic transport models that bright areas in SPCM maps indicate areas of large voltage gradients or high electric field strength caused by injection barriers or traps. Thus, SPCM allows us to identify and image the dominant voltage loss mechanism in organic field-effect transistors.

  12. Organic Gate Silicon Field Effect Transistors with Poly Methylmethacrylate Films for Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirose, Fumihiko; Miyagi, Tatsuro; Narita, Yuzuru

    We have developed an easy fabrication method of Si field effect transistors (FETs) with poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) gate films for science education. In this process, we can easily fabricate the silicon FETs only by means of metal deposition and thermal diffusion without any lithography processes. The organic isolation films of PMMA can be deposited by casting or painting at room temperature in air. The metal-organic-semiconductor FETs with PMMA exhibited almost the same drain current — gate voltage characteristics as those of conventional Si metal-oxide-semiconductor FETs, which are suitable for the education material of semiconductor engineering. The organic gate Si FETs can be used not only for education but also as thin film transistors for active matrix displays.

  13. Polymer-free graphene transfer for enhanced reliability of graphene field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hamin; Park, Ick-Joon; Yool Jung, Dae; Lee, Khang June; Yang, Sang Yoon; Choi, Sung-Yool

    2016-06-01

    We propose a polymer-free graphene transfer technique for chemical vapor deposition-grown graphene to ensure the intrinsic electrical properties of graphene for reliable transistor applications. The use of a metal catalyst as a supporting layer avoids contamination from the polymer material and graphene films become free of polymer residue after the transfer process. Atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy indicate that the polymer-free transferred graphene shows closer properties to intrinsic graphene properties. The reliability of graphene field-effect transistors (GFETs) was investigated through the analysis of the negative gate bias-stress-induced instability. This work reveals the effect of polymer residues on the reliability of GFETs, and that the developed new polymer-free transfer method enhances the reliability.

  14. Wide-bandwidth charge sensitivity with a radio-frequency field-effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiguchi, Katsuhiko; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Akira; van der Zant, Herre S. J.; Steele, Gary A.

    2013-09-01

    We demonstrate high-speed charge detection at room temperature with single-electron resolution by using a radio-frequency field-effect transistor (RF-FET). The RF-FET combines a nanometer-scale silicon FET with an impedance-matching circuit composed of an inductor and capacitor. Driving the RF-FET with a carrier signal at its resonance frequency, small signals at the transistor's gate modulate the impedance of the resonant circuit, which is monitored at high speed using the reflected signal. The RF-FET driven by high-power carrier signals enables a charge sensitivity of 2 × 10-4 e/Hz0.5 at a readout bandwidth of 20 MHz.

  15. Enhanced plasmonic resonant excitation in a grating gated field-effect transistor with supplemental gates.

    PubMed

    Guo, Nan; Hu, Wei-Da; Chen, Xiao-Shuang; Wang, Lin; Lu, Wei

    2013-01-28

    An alternative-grating gated AlGaN/GaN field-effect transistor (FET) is proposed by considering the slit regions to be covered by a highly doped semiconductor acting as supplemental gates. The plasmonic resonant absorption spectra are studied at THz frequencies using the FDTD method. The 2DEGs, under supplemental gates, modulated by a positive voltage, can make the excitation of the higher order plasmon modes under metallic fingers more efficient in comparison to ungated regions in common slit-grating gate transistors. Moreover, the supplemental gates can confine the electric field of dipole oscillation between metallic gate fingers under THz radiation. The competition of the near-field enhancement and screening effect of the supplemental gate fingers results in the intensity of the higher order plasmon resonances being maximized at increased doping concentration. Our results demonstrate the possibility of significant improvement in the excitation of plasmon resonances in FETs for THz detection.

  16. High performance MoS2-based field-effect transistor enabled by hydrazine doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Dongsuk; Kannan, E. S.; Lee, Inyeal; Rathi, Servin; Li, Lijun; Lee, Yoontae; Atif Khan, Muhammad; Kang, Moonshik; Park, Jinwoo; Kim, Gil-Ho

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the n-type doping effect of hydrazine on the electrical characteristics of a molybdenum disulphide (MoS2)-based field-effect transistor (FET). The threshold voltage of the MoS2 FET shifted towards more negative values (from ‑20 to ‑70 V) on treating with 100% hydrazine solution with the channel current increasing from 0.5 to 25 μA at zero gate bias. The inverse subthreshold slope decreased sharply on doping, while the ON/OFF ratio increased by a factor of 100. Gate–channel coupling improved with doping, which facilitates the reduction of channel length between the source and drain electrodes without compromising on the transistor performance, making the MoS2-based FET easily scalable.

  17. High performance MoS2-based field-effect transistor enabled by hydrazine doping.

    PubMed

    Lim, Dongsuk; Kannan, E S; Lee, Inyeal; Rathi, Servin; Li, Lijun; Lee, Yoontae; Khan, Muhammad Atif; Kang, Moonshik; Park, Jinwoo; Kim, Gil-Ho

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the n-type doping effect of hydrazine on the electrical characteristics of a molybdenum disulphide (MoS2)-based field-effect transistor (FET). The threshold voltage of the MoS2 FET shifted towards more negative values (from -20 to -70 V) on treating with 100% hydrazine solution with the channel current increasing from 0.5 to 25 μA at zero gate bias. The inverse subthreshold slope decreased sharply on doping, while the ON/OFF ratio increased by a factor of 100. Gate-channel coupling improved with doping, which facilitates the reduction of channel length between the source and drain electrodes without compromising on the transistor performance, making the MoS2-based FET easily scalable. PMID:27098430

  18. Top-Contacted Organic Field-Effect Transistors with Graphene Electrodes Prepared by Laminate Transfer Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suganuma, Koichi; Gotou, Takuya; Ueno, Keiji

    2012-12-01

    Top-contacted organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) with graphene electrodes were fabricated by the laminate transfer method. Graphene electrodes were prepared on a different glass substrate and transferred onto an organic semiconductor layer of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) using a double-layer laminate film of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). The fabricated top-contacted OFET with graphene electrodes covered by the polymer film showed good p-type transistor characteristics with hole mobility of (3.7+/-0.5)×10-2 cm2 V-1 s-1, and 92% of the mobility was maintained even after exposure to ambient air for 250 h.

  19. Detection of Orexin A Neuropeptide in Biological Fluids Using a Zinc Oxide Field Effect Transistor

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Biomarkers which are indicative of acute physiological and emotional states are studied in a number of different areas in cognitive neuroscience. Currently, many cognitive studies are conducted based on programmed tasks followed by timed biofluid sampling, central laboratory processing, and followed by data analysis. In this work, we present a sensor platform capable of rapid biomarker detection specific for detecting neuropeptide orexin A, found in blood and saliva and known as an indicator of fatigue and cognitive performance. A peptide recognition element that selectively binds to orexin A was designed, characterized, and functionalized onto a zinc oxide field effect transistor to enable rapid detection. The detection limit using the sensor platform was sub-picomolar in water, and picomolar to nanomolar levels in saliva and serum. The transistor and recognition element sensor platform can be easily expanded, allowing for multiple biomarkers to be detected simultaneously, lending itself to complex biomarker analysis applicable to rapid feedback for neuroscience research and physiological monitoring. PMID:23509980

  20. Field-effect transistors based on self-organized molecular nanostripes.

    PubMed

    Cavallini, Massimiliano; Stoliar, Pablo; Moulin, Jean-François; Surin, Mathieu; Leclère, Philippe; Lazzaroni, Roberto; Breiby, Dag Werner; Andreasen, Jens Wenzel; Nielsen, Martin M; Sonar, Prashant; Grimsdale, Andrew C; Müllen, Klaus; Biscarini, Fabio

    2005-12-01

    Charge transport properties in organic semiconductors depend strongly on molecular order. Here we demonstrate field-effect transistors where drain current flows through a precisely defined array of nanostripes made of crystalline and highly ordered molecules. The molecular stripes are fabricated across the channel of the transistor by a stamp-assisted deposition of the molecular semiconductors from a solution. As the solvent evaporates, the capillary forces drive the solution to form menisci under the stamp protrusions. The solute precipitates only in the regions where the solution is confined by the menisci once the critical concentration is reached and self-organizes into molecularly ordered stripes 100-200 nm wide and a few monolayers high. The charge mobility measured along the stripes is 2 orders of magnitude larger than the values measured for spin-coated thin films.

  1. Self-aligned, full solution process polymer field-effect transistor on flexible substrates

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yan; Huang, Long-Biao; Zhou, Ye; Han, Su-Ting; Zhou, Li; Zhuang, Jiaqing; Xu, Zong-Xiang; Roy, V. A. L.

    2015-01-01

    Conventional techniques to form selective surface energy regions on rigid inorganic substrates are not suitable for polymer interfaces due to sensitive and soft limitation of intrinsic polymer properties. Therefore, there is a strong demand for finding a novel and compatible method for polymeric surface energy modification. Here, by employing the confined photo-catalytic oxidation method, we successfully demonstrate full polymer filed-effect transistors fabricated through four-step spin-coating process on a flexible polymer substrate. The approach shows negligible etching effect on polymeric film. Even more, the insulating property of polymeric dielectric is not affected by the method, which is vital for polymer electronics. Finally, the self-aligned full polymer field-effect transistors on the flexible polymeric substrate are fabricated, showing good electrical properties and mechanical flexibility under bending tests. PMID:26497412

  2. A novel Tunneling Graphene Nano Ribbon Field Effect Transistor with dual material gate: Numerical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghoreishi, Seyed Saleh; Saghafi, Kamyar; Yousefi, Reza; Moravvej-farshi, Mohammad Kazem

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we present Dual Material Gate Tunneling Graphene Nano-Ribbon Field Effect Transistors (DMG-T-GNRFET) mainly to suppress the am-bipolar current with assumption that sub-threshold swing which is one of the important characteristics of tunneling transistors must not be degraded. In the proposed structure, dual material gates with different work functions are used. Our investigations are based on numerical simulations which self-consistently solves the 2D Poisson based on an atomistic mode-space approach and Schrodinger equations, within the Non-Equilibrium Green's (NEGF). The proposed device shows lower off-current and on-off ratio becomes 5order of magnitude greater than the conventional device. Also two different short channel effects: Drain Induced Barrier Shortening (DIBS) and hot-electron effect are improved in the proposed device compare to the main structure.

  3. Facile fabrication of electrolyte-gated single-crystalline cuprous oxide nanowire field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Stoesser, Anna; von Seggern, Falk; Purohit, Suneeti; Nasr, Babak; Kruk, Robert; Dehm, Simone; Di Wang; Hahn, Horst; Dasgupta, Subho

    2016-10-14

    Oxide semiconductors are considered to be one of the forefront candidates for the new generation, high-performance electronics. However, one of the major limitations for oxide electronics is the scarcity of an equally good hole-conducting semiconductor, which can provide identical performance for the p-type metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors as compared to their electron conducting counterparts. In this quest, here we present a bulk synthesis method for single crystalline cuprous oxide (Cu2O) nanowires, their chemical and morphological characterization and suitability as active channel material in electrolyte-gated, low-power, field-effect transistors (FETs) for portable and flexible logic circuits. The bulk synthesis method used in the present study includes two steps: namely hydrothermal synthesis of the nanowires and the removal of the surface organic contaminants. The surface treated nanowires are then dispersed on a receiver substrate where the passive electrodes are structured, followed by printing of a composite solid polymer electrolyte (CSPE), chosen as the gate insulator. The characteristic electrical properties of individual nanowire FETs are found to be quite interesting including accumulation-mode operation and field-effect mobility of 0.15 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). PMID:27609560

  4. Facile fabrication of electrolyte-gated single-crystalline cuprous oxide nanowire field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoesser, Anna; von Seggern, Falk; Purohit, Suneeti; Nasr, Babak; Kruk, Robert; Dehm, Simone; Wang, Di; Hahn, Horst; Dasgupta, Subho

    2016-10-01

    Oxide semiconductors are considered to be one of the forefront candidates for the new generation, high-performance electronics. However, one of the major limitations for oxide electronics is the scarcity of an equally good hole-conducting semiconductor, which can provide identical performance for the p-type metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors as compared to their electron conducting counterparts. In this quest, here we present a bulk synthesis method for single crystalline cuprous oxide (Cu2O) nanowires, their chemical and morphological characterization and suitability as active channel material in electrolyte-gated, low-power, field-effect transistors (FETs) for portable and flexible logic circuits. The bulk synthesis method used in the present study includes two steps: namely hydrothermal synthesis of the nanowires and the removal of the surface organic contaminants. The surface treated nanowires are then dispersed on a receiver substrate where the passive electrodes are structured, followed by printing of a composite solid polymer electrolyte (CSPE), chosen as the gate insulator. The characteristic electrical properties of individual nanowire FETs are found to be quite interesting including accumulation-mode operation and field-effect mobility of 0.15 cm2 V-1 s-1.

  5. Facile fabrication of electrolyte-gated single-crystalline cuprous oxide nanowire field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Stoesser, Anna; von Seggern, Falk; Purohit, Suneeti; Nasr, Babak; Kruk, Robert; Dehm, Simone; Di Wang; Hahn, Horst; Dasgupta, Subho

    2016-10-14

    Oxide semiconductors are considered to be one of the forefront candidates for the new generation, high-performance electronics. However, one of the major limitations for oxide electronics is the scarcity of an equally good hole-conducting semiconductor, which can provide identical performance for the p-type metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors as compared to their electron conducting counterparts. In this quest, here we present a bulk synthesis method for single crystalline cuprous oxide (Cu2O) nanowires, their chemical and morphological characterization and suitability as active channel material in electrolyte-gated, low-power, field-effect transistors (FETs) for portable and flexible logic circuits. The bulk synthesis method used in the present study includes two steps: namely hydrothermal synthesis of the nanowires and the removal of the surface organic contaminants. The surface treated nanowires are then dispersed on a receiver substrate where the passive electrodes are structured, followed by printing of a composite solid polymer electrolyte (CSPE), chosen as the gate insulator. The characteristic electrical properties of individual nanowire FETs are found to be quite interesting including accumulation-mode operation and field-effect mobility of 0.15 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1).

  6. 25th Anniversary Article: Organic Field-Effect Transistors: The Path Beyond Amorphous Silicon

    PubMed Central

    Sirringhaus, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) have witnessed impressive improvements in materials performance by 3–4 orders of magnitude, and many of the key materials discoveries have been published in Advanced Materials. This includes some of the most recent demonstrations of organic field-effect transistors with performance that clearly exceeds that of benchmark amorphous silicon-based devices. In this article, state-of-the-art in OFETs are reviewed in light of requirements for demanding future applications, in particular active-matrix addressing for flexible organic light-emitting diode (OLED) displays. An overview is provided over both small molecule and conjugated polymer materials for which field-effect mobilities exceeding > 1 cm2 V–1 s–1 have been reported. Current understanding is also reviewed of their charge transport physics that allows reaching such unexpectedly high mobilities in these weakly van der Waals bonded and structurally comparatively disordered materials with a view towards understanding the potential for further improvement in performance in the future. PMID:24443057

  7. Silicon on ferroelectic insulator field effect transistor (SOF-FET) a new device for the next generation ultra low power circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Es-Sakhi, Azzedin D.

    Field effect transistors (FETs) are the foundation for all electronic circuits and processors. These devices have progressed massively to touch its final steps in sub-nanometer level. Left and right proposals are coming to rescue this progress. Emerging nano-electronic devices (resonant tunneling devices, single-atom transistors, spin devices, Heterojunction Transistors rapid flux quantum devices, carbon nanotubes, and nanowire devices) took a vast share of current scientific research. Non-Si electronic materials like III-V heterostructure, ferroelectric, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and other nanowire based designs are in developing stage to become the core technology of non-classical CMOS structures. FinFET present the current feasible commercial nanotechnology. The scalability and low power dissipation of this device allowed for an extension of silicon based devices. High short channel effect (SCE) immunity presents its major advantage. Multi-gate structure comes to light to improve the gate electrostatic over the channel. The new structure shows a higher performance that made it the first candidate to substitute the conventional MOSFET. The device also shows a future scalability to continue Moor's Law. Furthermore, the device is compatible with silicon fabrication process. Moreover, the ultra-low-power (ULP) design required a subthreshold slope lower than the thermionic-emission limit of 60mV/ decade (KT/q). This value was unbreakable by the new structure (SOI-FinFET). On the other hand most of the previews proposals show the ability to go beyond this limit. However, those pre-mentioned schemes have publicized a very complicated physics, design difficulties, and process non-compatibility. The objective of this research is to discuss various emerging nano-devices proposed for ultra-low-power designs and their possibilities to replace the silicon devices as the core technology in the future integrated circuit. This thesis proposes a novel design that exploits the

  8. Operation of SOI P-Channel Field Effect Transistors, CHT-PMOS30, under Extreme Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard; Hammoud, Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    Electronic systems are required to operate under extreme temperatures in NASA planetary exploration and deep space missions. Electronics on-board spacecraft must also tolerate thermal cycling between extreme temperatures. Thermal management means are usually included in today s spacecraft systems to provide adequate temperature for proper operation of the electronics. These measures, which may include heating elements, heat pipes, radiators, etc., however add to the complexity in the design of the system, increases its cost and weight, and affects its performance and reliability. Electronic parts and circuits capable of withstanding and operating under extreme temperatures would reflect in improvement in system s efficiency, reducing cost, and improving overall reliability. Semiconductor chips based on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology are designed mainly for high temperature applications and find extensive use in terrestrial well-logging fields. Their inherent design offers advantages over silicon devices in terms of reduced leakage currents, less power consumption, faster switching speeds, and good radiation tolerance. Little is known, however, about their performance at cryogenic temperatures and under wide thermal swings. Experimental investigation on the operation of SOI, N-channel field effect transistors under wide temperature range was reported earlier [1]. This work examines the performance of P-channel devices of these SOI transistors. The electronic part investigated in this work comprised of a Cissoid s CHT-PMOS30, high temperature P-channel MOSFET (metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor) device [2]. This high voltage, medium-power transistor is designed for geothermal well logging applications, aerospace and avionics, and automotive industry, and is specified for operation in the temperature range of -55 C to +225 C. Table I shows some specifications of this transistor [2]. The CHT-PMOS30 device was characterized at various temperatures

  9. A subthermionic tunnel field-effect transistor with an atomically thin channel.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Deblina; Xie, Xuejun; Liu, Wei; Cao, Wei; Kang, Jiahao; Gong, Yongji; Kraemer, Stephan; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Banerjee, Kaustav

    2015-10-01

    The fast growth of information technology has been sustained by continuous scaling down of the silicon-based metal-oxide field-effect transistor. However, such technology faces two major challenges to further scaling. First, the device electrostatics (the ability of the transistor's gate electrode to control its channel potential) are degraded when the channel length is decreased, using conventional bulk materials such as silicon as the channel. Recently, two-dimensional semiconducting materials have emerged as promising candidates to replace silicon, as they can maintain excellent device electrostatics even at much reduced channel lengths. The second, more severe, challenge is that the supply voltage can no longer be scaled down by the same factor as the transistor dimensions because of the fundamental thermionic limitation of the steepness of turn-on characteristics, or subthreshold swing. To enable scaling to continue without a power penalty, a different transistor mechanism is required to obtain subthermionic subthreshold swing, such as band-to-band tunnelling. Here we demonstrate band-to-band tunnel field-effect transistors (tunnel-FETs), based on a two-dimensional semiconductor, that exhibit steep turn-on; subthreshold swing is a minimum of 3.9 millivolts per decade and an average of 31.1 millivolts per decade for four decades of drain current at room temperature. By using highly doped germanium as the source and atomically thin molybdenum disulfide as the channel, a vertical heterostructure is built with excellent electrostatics, a strain-free heterointerface, a low tunnelling barrier, and a large tunnelling area. Our atomically thin and layered semiconducting-channel tunnel-FET (ATLAS-TFET) is the only planar architecture tunnel-FET to achieve subthermionic subthreshold swing over four decades of drain current, as recommended in ref. 17, and is also the only tunnel-FET (in any architecture) to achieve this at a low power-supply voltage of 0.1 volts. Our

  10. Combining axial and radial nanowire heterostructures: radial Esaki diodes and tunnel field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Dey, Anil W; Svensson, Johannes; Ek, Martin; Lind, Erik; Thelander, Claes; Wernersson, Lars-Erik

    2013-01-01

    The ever-growing demand on high-performance electronics has generated transistors with very impressive figures of merit (Radosavljevic et al., IEEE Int. Devices Meeting 2009, 1-4 and Cho et al., IEEE Int. Devices Meeting 2011, 15.1.1-15.1.4). The continued scaling of the supply voltage of field-effect transistors, such as tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs), requires the implementation of advanced transistor architectures including FinFETs and nanowire devices. Moreover, integration of novel materials with high electron mobilities, such as III-V semiconductors and graphene, are also being considered to further enhance the device properties (del Alamo, Nature 2011, 479, 317-323, and Liao et al., Nature 2010, 467, 305-308). In nanowire devices, boosting the drive current at a fixed supply voltage or maintaining a constant drive current at a reduced supply voltage may be achieved by increasing the cross-sectional area of a device, however at the cost of deteriorated electrostatics. A gate-all-around nanowire device architecture is the most favorable electrostatic configuration to suppress short channel effects; however, the arrangement of arrays of parallel vertical nanowires to address the drive current predicament will require additional chip area. The use of a core-shell nanowire with a radial heterojunction in a transistor architecture provides an attractive means to address the drive current issue without compromising neither chip area nor device electrostatics. In addition to design advantages of a radial transistor architecture, we in this work illustrate the benefit in terms of drive current per unit chip area and compare the experimental data for axial GaSb/InAs Esaki diodes and TFETs to their radial counterparts and normalize the electrical data to the largest cross-sectional area of the nanowire, i.e. the occupied chip area, assuming a vertical device geometry. Our data on lateral devices show that radial Esaki diodes deliver almost 7 times higher peak

  11. A subthermionic tunnel field-effect transistor with an atomically thin channel.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Deblina; Xie, Xuejun; Liu, Wei; Cao, Wei; Kang, Jiahao; Gong, Yongji; Kraemer, Stephan; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Banerjee, Kaustav

    2015-10-01

    The fast growth of information technology has been sustained by continuous scaling down of the silicon-based metal-oxide field-effect transistor. However, such technology faces two major challenges to further scaling. First, the device electrostatics (the ability of the transistor's gate electrode to control its channel potential) are degraded when the channel length is decreased, using conventional bulk materials such as silicon as the channel. Recently, two-dimensional semiconducting materials have emerged as promising candidates to replace silicon, as they can maintain excellent device electrostatics even at much reduced channel lengths. The second, more severe, challenge is that the supply voltage can no longer be scaled down by the same factor as the transistor dimensions because of the fundamental thermionic limitation of the steepness of turn-on characteristics, or subthreshold swing. To enable scaling to continue without a power penalty, a different transistor mechanism is required to obtain subthermionic subthreshold swing, such as band-to-band tunnelling. Here we demonstrate band-to-band tunnel field-effect transistors (tunnel-FETs), based on a two-dimensional semiconductor, that exhibit steep turn-on; subthreshold swing is a minimum of 3.9 millivolts per decade and an average of 31.1 millivolts per decade for four decades of drain current at room temperature. By using highly doped germanium as the source and atomically thin molybdenum disulfide as the channel, a vertical heterostructure is built with excellent electrostatics, a strain-free heterointerface, a low tunnelling barrier, and a large tunnelling area. Our atomically thin and layered semiconducting-channel tunnel-FET (ATLAS-TFET) is the only planar architecture tunnel-FET to achieve subthermionic subthreshold swing over four decades of drain current, as recommended in ref. 17, and is also the only tunnel-FET (in any architecture) to achieve this at a low power-supply voltage of 0.1 volts. Our

  12. Combining axial and radial nanowire heterostructures: radial Esaki diodes and tunnel field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Dey, Anil W; Svensson, Johannes; Ek, Martin; Lind, Erik; Thelander, Claes; Wernersson, Lars-Erik

    2013-01-01

    The ever-growing demand on high-performance electronics has generated transistors with very impressive figures of merit (Radosavljevic et al., IEEE Int. Devices Meeting 2009, 1-4 and Cho et al., IEEE Int. Devices Meeting 2011, 15.1.1-15.1.4). The continued scaling of the supply voltage of field-effect transistors, such as tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs), requires the implementation of advanced transistor architectures including FinFETs and nanowire devices. Moreover, integration of novel materials with high electron mobilities, such as III-V semiconductors and graphene, are also being considered to further enhance the device properties (del Alamo, Nature 2011, 479, 317-323, and Liao et al., Nature 2010, 467, 305-308). In nanowire devices, boosting the drive current at a fixed supply voltage or maintaining a constant drive current at a reduced supply voltage may be achieved by increasing the cross-sectional area of a device, however at the cost of deteriorated electrostatics. A gate-all-around nanowire device architecture is the most favorable electrostatic configuration to suppress short channel effects; however, the arrangement of arrays of parallel vertical nanowires to address the drive current predicament will require additional chip area. The use of a core-shell nanowire with a radial heterojunction in a transistor architecture provides an attractive means to address the drive current issue without compromising neither chip area nor device electrostatics. In addition to design advantages of a radial transistor architecture, we in this work illustrate the benefit in terms of drive current per unit chip area and compare the experimental data for axial GaSb/InAs Esaki diodes and TFETs to their radial counterparts and normalize the electrical data to the largest cross-sectional area of the nanowire, i.e. the occupied chip area, assuming a vertical device geometry. Our data on lateral devices show that radial Esaki diodes deliver almost 7 times higher peak

  13. High temperature study of flexible silicon-on-insulator fin field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diab, Amer; Torres Sevilla, Galo A.; Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Hussain, Muhammad M.

    2014-09-01

    We report high temperature electrical transport characteristics of a flexible version of the semiconductor industry's most advanced architecture: fin field-effect transistor on silicon-on-insulator with sub-20 nm fins and high-κ/metal gate stacks. Characterization from room to high temperature (150 °C) was completed to determine temperature dependence of drain current (Ids), gate leakage current (Igs), transconductance (gm), and extracted low-field mobility (μ0). Mobility degradation with temperature is mainly caused by phonon scattering. The other device characteristics show insignificant difference at high temperature which proves the suitability of inorganic flexible electronics with advanced device architecture.

  14. High-quality Graphenes via a facile quenching method for field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Tang, Y B; Lee, C S; Chen, Z H; Yuan, G D; Kang, Z H; Luo, L B; Song, H S; Liu, Y; He, Z B; Zhang, W J; Bello, I; Lee, S T

    2009-04-01

    Single- and few-layer graphene sheets with sizes up to 0.1 mm were fabricated by simply quenching hot graphite in an ammonium hydrogen carbonate aqueous solution. The identity and thickness of graphene sheets were characterized with transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. In addition to its simplicity and scalability, the present synthesis can produce graphene sheets with excellent qualities in terms of sizes, purity, and crystal quality. The as-produced graphene sheets can be easily transferred to solid substrates for further processing. Field-effect transistors based on individual graphenes were fabricated and shown to have high ambipolar carrier mobilities. PMID:19301858

  15. Surface-potential-based physical compact model for graphene field effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lingfei; Peng, Songang; Wang, Wei; Xu, Guangwei; Ji, Zhuoyu; Lu, Nianduan; Li, Ling; Jin, Zhi; Liu, Ming

    2016-08-01

    A surface potential based physical compact model for a graphene field effect transistor is proposed, including Boltzmann transport and thermally activated transport. We verified it by the experiments and Gummel symmetry test, showing good accuracy and continuity over a wide range of operation regions. Coded in Verilog-A, this model provides physics-based consistent DC and AC characteristics, which can be easily embedded into a vendor CAD tool to simulate circuits. Based on this model, a direct insight into the relationship between physical parameters and circuit performances can be achieved.

  16. Plasmon-controlled optimum gate bias for GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šimukovič, A.; Matulionis, A.; Liberis, J.; Šermukšnis, E.; Sakalas, P.; Zhang, F.; Leach, J. H.; Avrutin, V.; Morkoç, H.

    2013-05-01

    Electron density-dependent dc, rf and power characteristics are investigated for nearly lattice-matched InAlN/AlN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors (HFETs). The best performance in respect to transconductance and cutoff frequency is demonstrated at the optimal gate bias of -8 V for the devices with electron sheet density of 3 × 1013 cm-2 (measured on Hall bars of as-grown heterostructures). The results are in fair agreement with the universal bias-density relation controlled by the plasmon-assisted ultrafast decay of nonequilibrium optical phonons launched by hot electrons.

  17. Modeling and simulation of ionizing radiation effect on ferroelectric field-effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Shaoan; Li, Gang; Guo, Hongxia; Zhao, Wen; Xiong, Ying; Tang, Minghua; Li, Zheng; Xiao, Yongguang; Zhang, Wanli; Lei, Zhifeng

    2016-04-01

    A theoretical model is developed to investigate the ionizing radiation effect on electrical characteristics of a metal-ferroelectric-insulator-semiconductor structure ferroelectric gate field-effect transistor (MFIS FeFET). Modeling results show that gate capacitance versus gate voltage curves and transfer characteristic curves shift significantly and the memory window becomes worse with the total dose. Moreover, the drain current and I ON/I OFF ratio exhibit a considerable decrease under high incident dose rates. Finally, it is found that radiation-induced degradations can be affected strongly by the insulator layer thickness, and that MFIS FeFETs with a thin insulator buffer layer show a high radiation tolerance.

  18. Molecular Analysis of Blood with Micro/Nano Scale Field Effect Transistor Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Makowski, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    Rapid and accurate molecular blood analysis is essential for disease diagnosis and management. Field Effect Transistor (FET) biosensors are a type of device that promise to advance blood point-of-care testing by offering desirable characteristics such as portability, high sensitivity, brief detection time, low manufacturing cost, multiplexing, and label-free detection. By controlling device parameters, desired FET biosensor performance is obtained. This review focuses on the effects of sensing environment, micro/nanoscale device structure, operation mode, and surface functionalization on device performance and long-term stability. PMID:21638783

  19. Simulation of electrical characteristics in negative capacitance surrounding-gate ferroelectric field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Y. G.; Chen, Z. J.; Tang, M. H.; Tang, Z. H.; Yan, S. A.; Li, J. C.; Gu, X. C.; Zhou, Y. C.; Ouyang, X. P.

    2012-12-01

    The electrical characteristics of surrounding-gate (SG) metal-ferroelectric-semiconductor (MFS) field-effect transistors (FETs) were theoretically investigated by considering the ferroelectric negative capacitance (NC) effect. The derived results demonstrated that the NC-SG-MFS-FET displays superior electrical properties compared with that of the traditional SG-MIS-FET, in terms of better electrostatic control of the gate electrode over the channel, smaller subthreshold swing (S < 60 mV/dec), and bigger value of ION. It is expected that this investigation may provide some insight into the design and performance improvement for the fast switching and low power dissipation applications of ferroelectric FETs.

  20. Encapsulated gate-all-around InAs nanowire field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Satoshi; Tateno, Kouta; Zhang, Guoqiang; Suominen, Henri; Harada, Yuichi; Saito, Shiro; Fujiwara, Akira; Sogawa, Tetsuomi; Muraki, Koji

    2013-11-01

    We report the fabrication of lateral gate-all-around InAs nanowire field-effect transistors whose gate overlaps the source and drain electrodes and thus fully encapsulates the nanowire channel. They feature large drive current and transconductance that surpass those of conventional non-gate-overlap devices. The improved device characteristics can be attributed to the elimination of access resistance associated with ungated segments between the gate and source/drain electrodes. Our data also reveal a correlation between the normalized transconductance and the threshold voltage, which points to a beneficial effect of our wet-etching procedure performed prior to the atomic-layer-deposition of the gate dielectric.

  1. Deep-ultraviolet-light-driven reversible doping of WS2 field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Muhammad Waqas; Iqbal, Muhammad Zahir; Khan, Muhammad Farooq; Shehzad, Muhammad Arslan; Seo, Yongho; Eom, Jonghwa

    2014-12-01

    Improvement of the electrical and photoelectric characteristics is essential to achieve an advanced performance of field-effect transistors and optoelectronic devices. Here we have developed a doping technique to drastically improve electrical and photoelectric characteristics of single-layered, bi-layered and multi-layered WS2 field-effect transistors (FET). After illuminating with deep ultraviolet (DUV) light in a nitrogen environment, WS2 FET shows an enhanced charge carrier density, mobility and photocurrent response. The threshold voltage of WS2 FET shifted toward the negative gate voltage, and the positions of E12g and A1g peaks in Raman spectra shifted toward lower wavenumbers, indicating the n-type doping effect of the WS2 FET. The doping effect is reversible. The pristine characteristics of WS2 FET can be restored by DUV light illumination in an oxygen environment. The DUV-driven doping technique in a gas environment provides a very stable, effective, easily applicable way to enhance the performance of WS2 FET.Improvement of the electrical and photoelectric characteristics is essential to achieve an advanced performance of field-effect transistors and optoelectronic devices. Here we have developed a doping technique to drastically improve electrical and photoelectric characteristics of single-layered, bi-layered and multi-layered WS2 field-effect transistors (FET). After illuminating with deep ultraviolet (DUV) light in a nitrogen environment, WS2 FET shows an enhanced charge carrier density, mobility and photocurrent response. The threshold voltage of WS2 FET shifted toward the negative gate voltage, and the positions of E12g and A1g peaks in Raman spectra shifted toward lower wavenumbers, indicating the n-type doping effect of the WS2 FET. The doping effect is reversible. The pristine characteristics of WS2 FET can be restored by DUV light illumination in an oxygen environment. The DUV-driven doping technique in a gas environment provides a very stable

  2. A pH sensor with a double-gate silicon nanowire field-effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Jae-Hyuk; Kim, Jee-Yeon; Seol, Myeong-Lok; Baek, David J.; Guo, Zheng; Kim, Chang-Hoon; Choi, Sung-Jin; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2013-02-01

    A pH sensor composed of a double-gate silicon nanowire field-effect transistor (DG Si-NW FET) is demonstrated. The proposed DG Si-NW FET allows the independent addressing of the gate voltage and hence improves the sensing capability through an application of asymmetric gate voltage between the two gates. One gate is a driving gate which controls the current flow, and the other is a supporting gate which amplifies the shift of the threshold voltage, which is a sensing metric, and which arises from changes in the pH. The pH signal is also amplified through modulation of the gate oxide thickness.

  3. Influence of bias stressing and irradiation on poly-three-hexylthiophene based field effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Devine, R. A. B.

    2006-04-15

    Preliminary measurements of positive and negative bias stress and radiation effects in poly-three-hexylthiophene based field effect transistors are reported. Radiation up to 0.5 Mrad (SiO{sub 2}) is found to have little effect on channel carrier mobility though bias stressing does. A strong positive bias stress induced positive threshold voltage shift is suppressed when devices are simultaneously irradiated. There is no evidence for significant radiation effects in the organic semiconductor. Recovery effects are observed following removal of bias stress and radiation.

  4. Investigation of defect-induced abnormal body current in fin field-effect-transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Kuan-Ju; Tsai, Jyun-Yu; Lu, Ying-Hsin; Liu, Xi-Wen; Chang, Ting-Chang; Chen, Ching-En; Yang, Ren-Ya; Cheng, Osbert; Huang, Cheng-Tung

    2015-08-24

    This letter investigates the mechanism of abnormal body current at the linear region in n-channel high-k/metal gate stack fin field effect transistors. Unlike body current, which is generated by impact ionization at high drain voltages, abnormal body current was found to increase with decreasing drain voltages. Notably, the unusual body leakage only occurs in three-dimensional structure devices. Based on measurements under different operation conditions, the abnormal body current can be attributed to fin surface defect-induced leakage current, and the mechanism is electron tunneling to the fin via the defects, resulting in holes left at the body terminal.

  5. Electric field dependent photocurrent decay length in single lead sulfide nanowire field effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Graham, Rion; Miller, Chris; Oh, Eunsoon; Yu, Dong

    2011-02-01

    We determined the minority carrier diffusion length to be ∼1 μm in single PbS nanowire field effect transistors by scanning photocurrent microscopy. PbS nanowires grown by the vapor-liquid-solid method were p-type with hole mobilities up to 49 cm(2)/(V s). We measured a photoresponse time faster than 14 μs with near-unity charge separation efficiency at the contacts. For the first time, we also observed a field-dependent photocurrent decay length, indicating a drift dominant carrier transport at high bias.

  6. High intensity induced photocurrent polarity switching in lead sulfide nanowire field effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yiming; Peng, Xingyue; Yu, Dong

    2014-05-16

    We report an optoelectronic investigation of lead sulfide nanowires (NWs) by scanning photocurrent microscopy. The photocurrent in p-type lead sulfide NW field effect transistors has demonstrated unusually nonlinear dependence on the intensity of local excitation. Surprisingly, the photocurrent polarity can be reversed under high illumination intensity on the order of 100 W cm(-2). The origin of this photocurrent polarity switching is that the photo-injected carriers flip the direction of the electric field near the contact. These observations shed light on the nonlinear optoelectronic characteristics in semiconductor nanostructures and may provide an innovative method for optically tailoring local band structures.

  7. Encapsulated gate-all-around InAs nanowire field-effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Satoshi Tateno, Kouta; Zhang, Guoqiang; Suominen, Henri; Harada, Yuichi; Saito, Shiro; Fujiwara, Akira; Sogawa, Tetsuomi; Muraki, Koji

    2013-11-18

    We report the fabrication of lateral gate-all-around InAs nanowire field-effect transistors whose gate overlaps the source and drain electrodes and thus fully encapsulates the nanowire channel. They feature large drive current and transconductance that surpass those of conventional non-gate-overlap devices. The improved device characteristics can be attributed to the elimination of access resistance associated with ungated segments between the gate and source/drain electrodes. Our data also reveal a correlation between the normalized transconductance and the threshold voltage, which points to a beneficial effect of our wet-etching procedure performed prior to the atomic-layer-deposition of the gate dielectric.

  8. Nanomechanoelectronic signal transduction scheme with metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor-embedded microcantilevers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tark, Soo-Hyun; Srivastava, Arvind; Chou, Stanley; Shekhawat, Gajendra; Dravid, Vinayak P.

    2009-03-01

    We explore various metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET)-embedded microcantilever designs to assess their performance as an efficient nanomechanoelectronic signal transduction platform for monitoring deflection in microcantilever-based phenomena such as biochemical sensing and actuation. The current-voltage characteristics of embedded MOSFETs show current noise in the nanoampere range with a large signal-to-noise ratio sufficient to provide measureable output signal. The change in drain current with cantilever deflection is consistent with the effect of stress on carrier mobility and drain current reported in previous studies, validating that the MOSFET cantilevers can directly transduce deflection of a microcantilever into reproducible change in electrical signal.

  9. Organic field-effect transistor-based biosensors functionalized with protein receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddalena, Francesco; Kuiper, Marjon J.; Poolman, Bert; Brouwer, Frank; Hummelen, Jan C.; de Leeuw, Dago M.; De Boer, Bert; Blom, Paul W. M.

    2010-12-01

    An organic field-effect transistor with integrated proteins (Bio-FET) for sensing of sulfate ions is presented. A sulfate receptor was engineered to contain a thiol group for surface-anchoring without affecting its binding activity. The modified receptor was covalently coupled to a maleimide-functionalized polystyrene layer, and integrated as gate dielectric in a dual-gate transducer. The binding of sulfate ions in dry conditions was detected by a shift in the threshold voltage. Combined with surface density measurements by atomic force microscopy , an effective charge of -1.7q per protein was found, as expected from the Bio-FET operation model.

  10. Impact of graphene polycrystallinity on the performance of graphene field-effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Jiménez, David; Chaves, Ferney; Cummings, Aron W.; Van Tuan, Dinh; Kotakoski, Jani; Roche, Stephan

    2014-01-27

    We have used a multi-scale physics-based model to predict how the grain size and different grain boundary morphologies of polycrystalline graphene will impact the performance metrics of graphene field-effect transistors. We show that polycrystallinity has a negative impact on the transconductance, which translates to a severe degradation of the maximum and cutoff frequencies. On the other hand, polycrystallinity has a positive impact on current saturation, and a negligible effect on the intrinsic gain. These results reveal the complex role played by graphene grain boundaries and can be used to guide the further development and optimization of graphene-based electronic devices.

  11. Biological Synapse Behavior of Nanoparticle Organic Memory Field Effect Transistor Fabricated by Curing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Kyoung-Cheol; Lee, Jong-Sun; Kim, Chul Geun; Park, Jea-Gun

    2013-06-01

    The p-type channel of a nanoparticle organic memory field effect transistor (NOMFET) was fabricated by evaporating a thin Au layer, curing at 700 °C, and evaporating pentacene. The resulting NOMFET showed a facilitating ac-pulse drain current after programming and a depressing ac-pulse drain current after erasing that mimicked the behavior of biological synapses. The facilitating and depressing current ratio could be adjusted by using the program or erase voltage; i.e., the facilitating current increased with the program voltage, and the depressing current ratio increased with the erase voltage.

  12. Charge modulation infrared spectroscopy of rubrene single-crystal field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, R.; Yada, H.; Makino, M.; Matsui, Y.; Miwa, K.; Uemura, T.; Takeya, J.; Okamoto, H.

    2013-03-01

    Polarized absorption spectra of hole carriers in rubrene single crystal field-effect transistors were measured in the infrared region (725-8000 cm-1) by charge modulation spectroscopy. The absorptions, including the superimposed oscillatory components due to multiple reflections within thin crystals, monotonically increased with decreasing frequency. The spectra and their polarization dependences were well reproduced by the analysis based on the Drude model, in which the absorptions due to holes in rubrene and electrons in the gate electrodes (silicon), and multiple reflections were fully considered. The results support the band transport of hole carriers in rubrene.

  13. The effect of excimer laser annealing on ZnO nanowires and their field effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Maeng, Jongsun; Heo, Sungho; Jo, Gunho; Choe, Minhyeok; Kim, Seonghyun; Hwang, Hyunsang; Lee, Takhee

    2009-03-01

    We have investigated the effect of excimer laser annealing on the chemical bonding, electrical, and optical properties of ZnO nanowires. We demonstrate that after laser annealing on the ZnO nanowire field effect transistors, the on-current increases and the threshold voltage shifts in the negative gate bias direction. These electrical results are attributed to the increase of oxygen vacancies as n-type dopants after laser annealing, consistent with the shifts towards higher binding energies of Zn 2p and O 1s in the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of as-grown nanowires and laser-annealed ZnO nanowires.

  14. Bias stress effect in "air-gap" organic field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Podzorov, V

    2012-05-22

    The origin of the bias stress effect related only to semiconductor properties is investigated in "air-gap" organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) in the absence of a material gate dielectric. The effect becomes stronger as the density of trap states in the semiconductor increases. A theoretical model based on carrier trapping and relaxation in localized tail states is formulated. Polar molecular vapors in the gap of "air-gap" OFETs also have a significant impact on the bias stress effect via the formation of bound states between the charge carriers and molecular dipoles at the semiconductor surface. PMID:22499410

  15. Extended-gate organic field-effect transistor for the detection of histamine in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minamiki, Tsukuru; Minami, Tsuyoshi; Yokoyama, Daisuke; Fukuda, Kenjiro; Kumaki, Daisuke; Tokito, Shizuo

    2015-04-01

    As part of our ongoing research program to develop health care sensors based on organic field-effect transistor (OFET) devices, we have attempted to detect histamine using an extended-gate OFET. Histamine is found in spoiled or decayed fish, and causes foodborne illness known as scombroid food poisoning. The new OFET device possesses an extended gate functionalized by carboxyalkanethiol that can interact with histamine. As a result, we have succeeded in detecting histamine in water through a shift in OFET threshold voltage. This result indicates the potential utility of the designed OFET devices in food freshness sensing.

  16. Improved contact resistance in ReSe2 thin film field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbet, Chris M.; Sonde, Sushant S.; Tutuc, Emanuel; Banerjee, Sanjay K.

    2016-04-01

    We report the fabrication and device characteristics of exfoliated, few-layer, ReSe2 field effect transistors (FET) and a method to improve contact resistance by up to three orders of magnitude using ultra-high-vacuum annealing (UHV). Many devices were studied in the absence of light and we found an average contact of 750 Ω . cm after UHV treatment. The median FET metrics were similar to other transition metal dichalcogenides: field effect mobility ˜6.7 cm2/V . s, subthreshold swing ˜1.2 V/decade, and Ion/Ioff ˜ 105. In devices with low Rc current saturation was observed and is attributed to injection limited transport.

  17. Polymer/metal oxide hybrid dielectrics for low voltage field-effect transistors with solution-processed, high-mobility semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Held, Martin; Schießl, Stefan P.; Gannott, Florentina; Miehler, Dominik; Zaumseil, Jana

    2015-08-24

    Transistors for future flexible organic light-emitting diode (OLED) display backplanes should operate at low voltages and be able to sustain high currents over long times without degradation. Hence, high capacitance dielectrics with low surface trap densities are required that are compatible with solution-processable high-mobility semiconductors. Here, we combine poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and atomic layer deposition hafnium oxide (HfO{sub x}) into a bilayer hybrid dielectric for field-effect transistors with a donor-acceptor polymer (DPPT-TT) or single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) as the semiconductor and demonstrate substantially improved device performances for both. The ultra-thin PMMA layer ensures a low density of trap states at the semiconductor-dielectric interface while the metal oxide layer provides high capacitance, low gate leakage and superior barrier properties. Transistors with these thin (≤70 nm), high capacitance (100–300 nF/cm{sup 2}) hybrid dielectrics enable low operating voltages (<5 V), balanced charge carrier mobilities and low threshold voltages. Moreover, the hybrid layers substantially improve the bias stress stability of the transistors compared to those with pure PMMA and HfO{sub x} dielectrics.

  18. Gate-Sensing Coherent Charge Oscillations in a Silicon Field-Effect Transistor.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Zalba, M Fernando; Shevchenko, Sergey N; Barraud, Sylvain; Johansson, J Robert; Ferguson, Andrew J; Nori, Franco; Betz, Andreas C

    2016-03-01

    Quantum mechanical effects induced by the miniaturization of complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology hamper the performance and scalability prospects of field-effect transistors. However, those quantum effects, such as tunneling and coherence, can be harnessed to use existing CMOS technology for quantum information processing. Here, we report the observation of coherent charge oscillations in a double quantum dot formed in a silicon nanowire transistor detected via its dispersive interaction with a radio frequency resonant circuit coupled via the gate. Differential capacitance changes at the interdot charge transitions allow us to monitor the state of the system in the strong-driving regime where we observe the emergence of Landau-Zener-Stückelberg-Majorana interference on the phase response of the resonator. A theoretical analysis of the dispersive signal demonstrates that quantum and tunneling capacitance changes must be included to describe the qubit-resonator interaction. Furthermore, a Fourier analysis of the interference pattern reveals a charge coherence time, T2 ≈ 100 ps. Our results demonstrate charge coherent control and readout in a simple silicon transistor and open up the possibility to implement charge and spin qubits in existing CMOS technology.

  19. SnTe field effect transistors and the anomalous electrical response of structural phase transition

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Haitao Zhu, Hao; Yuan, Hui; Li, Qiliang; You, Lin; Kopanski, Joseph J.; Richter, Curt A.; Zhao, Erhai

    2014-07-07

    SnTe is a conventional thermoelectric material and has been newly found to be a topological crystalline insulator. In this work, back-gate SnTe field-effect transistors have been fabricated and fully characterized. The devices exhibit n-type transistor behaviors with excellent current-voltage characteristics and large on/off ratio (>10{sup 6}). The device threshold voltage, conductance, mobility, and subthreshold swing have been studied and compared at different temperatures. It is found that the subthreshold swings as a function of temperature have an apparent response to the SnTe phase transition between cubic and rhombohedral structures at 110 K. The abnormal and rapid increase in subthreshold swing around the phase transition temperature may be due to the soft phonon/structure change which causes the large increase in SnTe dielectric constant. Such an interesting and remarkable electrical response to phase transition at different temperatures makes the small SnTe transistor attractive for various electronic devices.

  20. High capacitance organic field-effect transistors with modified gate insulator surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majewski, L. A.; Schroeder, R.; Grell, M.; Glarvey, P. A.; Turner, M. L.

    2004-11-01

    In this paper, we report on flexible, high capacitance, pentacene, and regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (rr-P3HT) organic field-effect transistors fabricated on metallized Mylar films. The gate insulator, Al2O3, was prepared by means of anodization. We show that covering the anodized gate insulator with an octadecyltrichlorosilane self-assembled monolayer or apoly(α-methylstyrene) capping layer has the same effect on carrier mobility as for thermally grown silicon oxide. In addition, temperature-dependent measurements of mobility were performed on transistors fabricated with and without modification of the gate dielectric. In the case of both the pentacene and the rr-P3HT transistors, the μ(T ) behavior shows that the cause of the mobility enhancement through surface modification is not a reduction in the level of energetic disorder (σ in Bässler's model), as in the case of the fully amorphous organic semiconductor poly(triarylamine) [Veres et al., Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 199 (2003)]. It appears that the surface modification improves mobility by changing the morphology of the semiconducting films.

  1. Local Maps of the Polarization and Depolarization in Organic Ferroelectric Field-Effect Transistors.

    PubMed

    Cai, Ronggang; Jonas, Alain M

    2016-02-24

    We study the local ferroelectric polarization and depolarization of poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) in p-type ferroelectric field-effect transistors (FeFETs). Piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) is used to obtain local maps of the polarization on model metal-semiconductor-ferroelectric stacks, and on FeFETs stripped from their top-gate electrode; transfer curves are measured on complete FeFETs. The influence of the semiconductor layer thickness and of the polarity and amplitude of the poling voltage are investigated. In accumulation, the stable "on" state consists of a uniform upward-polarized ferroelectric layer, with compensation holes accumulating at the ferroelectric/semiconducting interface. In depletion, the stable "off" state consists of a depolarized region in the center of the transistor channel, surrounded by partially downward-polarized regions over the source and drain electrodes and neighboring regions. The partial depolarization of these regions is due to the incomplete screening of polarization charges by the charges of the remote electrodes. Therefore, thinner semiconducting layers provide higher downward polarizations, which result in a more depleted transistor channel and a higher charge injection barrier between the electrodes and the semiconductor, leading to lower threshold voltages and higher on/off current values at zero gate bias. Clues for optimization of the devices are finally provided.

  2. Gate-Sensing Coherent Charge Oscillations in a Silicon Field-Effect Transistor.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Zalba, M Fernando; Shevchenko, Sergey N; Barraud, Sylvain; Johansson, J Robert; Ferguson, Andrew J; Nori, Franco; Betz, Andreas C

    2016-03-01

    Quantum mechanical effects induced by the miniaturization of complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology hamper the performance and scalability prospects of field-effect transistors. However, those quantum effects, such as tunneling and coherence, can be harnessed to use existing CMOS technology for quantum information processing. Here, we report the observation of coherent charge oscillations in a double quantum dot formed in a silicon nanowire transistor detected via its dispersive interaction with a radio frequency resonant circuit coupled via the gate. Differential capacitance changes at the interdot charge transitions allow us to monitor the state of the system in the strong-driving regime where we observe the emergence of Landau-Zener-Stückelberg-Majorana interference on the phase response of the resonator. A theoretical analysis of the dispersive signal demonstrates that quantum and tunneling capacitance changes must be included to describe the qubit-resonator interaction. Furthermore, a Fourier analysis of the interference pattern reveals a charge coherence time, T2 ≈ 100 ps. Our results demonstrate charge coherent control and readout in a simple silicon transistor and open up the possibility to implement charge and spin qubits in existing CMOS technology. PMID:26866446

  3. Inversion channel diamond metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor with normally off characteristics.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Tsubasa; Kato, Hiromitsu; Oyama, Kazuhiro; Makino, Toshiharu; Ogura, Masahiko; Takeuchi, Daisuke; Inokuma, Takao; Tokuda, Norio; Yamasaki, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    We fabricated inversion channel diamond metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) with normally off characteristics. At present, Si MOSFETs and insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) with inversion channels are widely used because of their high controllability of electric power and high tolerance. Although a diamond semiconductor is considered to be a material with a strong potential for application in next-generation power devices, diamond MOSFETs with an inversion channel have not yet been reported. We precisely controlled the MOS interface for diamond by wet annealing and fabricated p-channel and planar-type MOSFETs with phosphorus-doped n-type body on diamond (111) substrate. The gate oxide of Al2O3 was deposited onto the n-type diamond body by atomic layer deposition at 300 °C. The drain current was controlled by the negative gate voltage, indicating that an inversion channel with a p-type character was formed at a high-quality n-type diamond body/Al2O3 interface. The maximum drain current density and the field-effect mobility of a diamond MOSFET with a gate electrode length of 5 μm were 1.6 mA/mm and 8.0 cm(2)/Vs, respectively, at room temperature. PMID:27545201

  4. Biosensors based on enzyme field-effect transistors for determination of some substrates and inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Dzyadevych, Sergei V; Soldatkin, Alexey P; Korpan, Yaroslav I; Arkhypova, Valentyna N; El'skaya, Anna V; Chovelon, Jean-Marc; Martelet, Claude; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole

    2003-10-01

    This paper is a review of the authors' publications concerning the development of biosensors based on enzyme field-effect transistors (ENFETs) for direct substrates or inhibitors analysis. Such biosensors were designed by using immobilised enzymes and ion-selective field-effect transistors (ISFETs). Highly specific, sensitive, simple, fast and cheap determination of different substances renders them as promising tools in medicine, biotechnology, environmental control, agriculture and the food industry. The biosensors based on ENFETs and direct enzyme analysis for determination of concentrations of different substrates (glucose, urea, penicillin, formaldehyde, creatinine, etc.) have been developed and their laboratory prototypes were fabricated. Improvement of the analytical characteristics of such biosensors may be achieved by using a differential mode of measurement, working solutions with different buffer concentrations and specific agents, negatively or positively charged additional membranes, or genetically modified enzymes. These approaches allow one to decrease the effect of the buffer capacity influence on the sensor response in an aim to increase the sensitivity of the biosensors and to extend their dynamic ranges. Biosensors for the determination of concentrations of different toxic substances (organophosphorous pesticides, heavy metal ions, hypochlorite, glycoalkaloids, etc.) were designed on the basis of reversible and/or irreversible enzyme inhibition effect(s). The conception of an enzymatic multibiosensor for the determination of different toxic substances based on the enzyme inhibition effect is also described. We will discuss the respective advantages and disadvantages of biosensors based on the ENFETs developed and also demonstrate their practical application.

  5. A Water-Soluble Polythiophene for Organic Field-Effect Transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Ming; He, Youjun; Hong, Kunlun; Rouleau, Christopher M; Geohegan, David B; Xiao, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Synthesis of a non-ionic, water-soluble poly(thiophene) (PT) derivative, poly(3-(2-(2-methoxyethoxy) ethoxy)ethoxy) methylthiophene) (P3TEGT) with a hydrophilic tri-ethylene glycol side group, is reported and thin films of the polymer suitable for organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) are characterized by combining analysis techniques that include UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and atomic force microscopy. After thermal annealing, P3TEGT films exhibit a well-organized nanofibrillar lamellar nanostructure that originates from the strong - stacking of the thiophene backbones. P-type organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) with hole mobilities of 10-5 cm2V-1s-1 were fabricated from this water-soluble poly(thiophene) derivative, demonstrating the possibility that environmentally-friendly solvents may be promising alternatives for the low-cost, green solution-based organic electronic device manufacturing of OFETs, organic photovoltaics (OPVs), and biosensors.

  6. Integrated digital inverters based on two-dimensional anisotropic ReS₂ field-effect transistors

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Liu, Erfu; Fu, Yajun; Wang, Yaojia; Feng, Yanqing; Liu, Huimei; Wan, Xiangang; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Baigeng; Shao, Lubin; Ho, Ching -Hwa; et al

    2015-05-07

    Semiconducting two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides are emerging as top candidates for post-silicon electronics. While most of them exhibit isotropic behaviour, lowering the lattice symmetry could induce anisotropic properties, which are both scientifically interesting and potentially useful. Here we present atomically thin rhenium disulfide (ReS₂) flakes with unique distorted 1T structure, which exhibit in-plane anisotropic properties. We fabricated monolayer and few-layer ReS₂ field-effect transistors, which exhibit competitive performance with large current on/off ratios (~10⁷) and low subthreshold swings (100 mV per decade). The observed anisotropic ratio along two principle axes reaches 3.1, which is the highest among all known two-dimensional semiconductingmore » materials. Furthermore, we successfully demonstrated an integrated digital inverter with good performance by utilizing two ReS₂ anisotropic field-effect transistors, suggesting the promising implementation of large-scale two-dimensional logic circuits. Our results underscore the unique properties of two-dimensional semiconducting materials with low crystal symmetry for future electronic applications.« less

  7. Selenium-Containing Fused Bicyclic Heterocycle Diselenolodiselenole: Field Effect Transistor Study and Structure-Property Relationship.

    PubMed

    Debnath, Sashi; Chithiravel, Sundaresan; Sharma, Sagar; Bedi, Anjan; Krishnamoorthy, Kothandam; Zade, Sanjio S

    2016-07-20

    The first application of the diselenolodiselenole (C4Se4) heterocycle as an active organic field effect transistor materials is demonstrated here. C4Se4 derivatives (2a-2d) were obtained by using a newly developed straightforward diselenocyclization protocol, which includes the reaction of diynes with selenium powder at elevated temperature. C4Se4 derivatives exhibit strong donor characteristics and planar structure (except 2d). The atomic force microscopic analysis and thin-film X-ray diffraction pattern of compounds 2a-2d indicated the formation of distinct crystalline films that contain large domains. A scanning electron microscopy study of compound 2b showed development of symmetrical grains with an average diameter of 150 nm. Interestingly, 2b exhibited superior hole mobility, approaching 0.027 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) with a transconductance of 9.2 μS. This study correlate the effect of π-stacking, Se···Se intermolecular interaction, and planarity with the charge transport properties and performance in the field effect transistor devices. We have shown that the planarity in C4Se4 derivatives was achieved by varying the end groups attached to the C4Se4 core. In turn, optoelectronic properties can also be tuned for all these derivatives by end-group variation.

  8. A Micro-Machined Microphone Based on a Combination of Electret and Field-Effect Transistor.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kumjae; Jeon, Junsik; West, James Edward; Moon, Wonkyu

    2015-08-18

    Capacitive-type transduction is now widely used in MEMS microphones. However, its sensitivity decreases with reducing size, due to decreasing air gap capacitance. In the present study, we proposed and developed the Electret Gate of Field Effect Transistor (ElGoFET) transduction based on an electret and FET (field-effect-transistor) as a novel mechanism of MEMS microphone transduction. The ElGoFET transduction has the advantage that the sensitivity is dependent on the ratio of capacitance components in the transduction structure. Hence, ElGoFET transduction has high sensitivity even with a smaller air gap capacitance, due to a miniaturization of the transducer. A FET with a floating-gate electrode embedded on a membrane was designed and fabricated and an electret was fabricated by ion implantation with Ga(+) ions. During the assembly process between the FET and the electret, the operating point of the FET was characterized using the static response of the FET induced by the electric field due to the trapped positive charge at the electret. Additionally, we evaluated the microphone performance of the ElGoFET by measuring the acoustic response in air using a semi-anechoic room. The results confirmed that the proposed transduction mechanism has potential for microphone applications.

  9. Temperature sensitivity analysis of polarity controlled electrostatically doped tunnel field-effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nigam, Kaushal; Pandey, Sunil; Kondekar, P. N.; Sharma, Dheeraj

    2016-09-01

    The conventional tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs) have shown potential to scale down in sub-22 nm regime due to its lower sub-threshold slope and robustness against short-channel effects (SCEs), however, sensitivity towards temperature variation is a major concern. Therefore, for the first time, we investigate temperature sensitivity analysis of a polarity controlled electrostatically doped tunnel field-effect transistor (ED-TFET). Different performance metrics and analog/RF figure-of-merits were considered and compared for both devices, and simulations were performed using Silvaco ATLAS device tool. We found that the variation in ON-state current in ED-TFET is almost temperature independent due to electrostatically doped mechanism, while, it increases in conventional TFET at higher temperature. Above room temperature, the variation in ION, IOFF, and SS sensitivity in ED-TFET are only 0.11%/K, 2.21%/K, and 0.63%/K, while, in conventional TFET the variations are 0.43%/K, 2.99%/K, and 0.71%/K, respectively. However, below room temperature, the variation in ED-TFET ION is 0.195%/K compared to 0.27%/K of conventional TFET. Moreover, it is analysed that the incomplete ionization effect in conventional TFET severely affects the drive current and the threshold voltage, while, ED-TFET remains unaffected. Hence, the proposed ED-TFET is less sensitive towards temperature variation and can be used for cryogenics as well as for high temperature applications.

  10. Utilizing self-assembled-monolayer-based gate dielectrics to fabricate molybdenum disulfide field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawanago, Takamasa; Oda, Shunri

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we apply self-assembled-monolayer (SAM)-based gate dielectrics to the fabrication of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) field-effect transistors. A simple fabrication process involving the selective formation of a SAM on metal oxides in conjunction with the dry transfer of MoS2 flakes was established. A subthreshold slope (SS) of 69 mV/dec and no hysteresis were demonstrated with the ultrathin SAM-based gate dielectrics accompanied by a low gate leakage current. The small SS and no hysteresis indicate the superior interfacial properties of the MoS2/SAM structure. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy revealed a sharp and abrupt interface of the MoS2/SAM structure. The SAM-based gate dielectrics are found to be applicable to the fabrication of low-voltage MoS2 field-effect transistors and can also be extended to various layered semiconductor materials. This study opens up intriguing possibilities of SAM-based gate dielectrics in functional electronic devices.

  11. Environmental Effects on Hysteresis of Transfer Characteristics in Molybdenum Disulfide Field-Effect Transistors

    PubMed Central

    Shimazu, Yoshihiro; Tashiro, Mitsuki; Sonobe, Satoshi; Takahashi, Masaki

    2016-01-01

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has recently received much attention for nanoscale electronic and photonic applications. To explore the intrinsic properties and enhance the performance of MoS2-based field-effect transistors, thorough understanding of extrinsic effects such as environmental gas and contact resistance of the electrodes is required. Here, we report the effects of environmental gases on the transport properties of back-gated multilayered MoS2 field-effect transistors. Comparisons between different gases (oxygen, nitrogen, and air and nitrogen with varying relative humidities) revealed that water molecules acting as charge-trapping centers are the main cause of hysteresis in the transfer characteristics. While the hysteresis persisted even after pumping out the environmental gas for longer than 10 h at room temperature, it disappeared when the device was cooled to 240 K, suggesting a considerable increase in the time constant of the charge trapping/detrapping at these modestly low temperatures. The suppression of the hysteresis or instability in the easily attainable temperature range without surface passivation is highly advantageous for the device application of this system. The humidity dependence of the threshold voltages in the transfer curves indicates that the water molecules dominantly act as hole-trapping centers. A strong dependence of the on-state current on oxygen pressure was also observed. PMID:27435309

  12. Inversion channel diamond metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor with normally off characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Tsubasa; Kato, Hiromitsu; Oyama, Kazuhiro; Makino, Toshiharu; Ogura, Masahiko; Takeuchi, Daisuke; Inokuma, Takao; Tokuda, Norio; Yamasaki, Satoshi

    2016-08-01

    We fabricated inversion channel diamond metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) with normally off characteristics. At present, Si MOSFETs and insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) with inversion channels are widely used because of their high controllability of electric power and high tolerance. Although a diamond semiconductor is considered to be a material with a strong potential for application in next-generation power devices, diamond MOSFETs with an inversion channel have not yet been reported. We precisely controlled the MOS interface for diamond by wet annealing and fabricated p-channel and planar-type MOSFETs with phosphorus-doped n-type body on diamond (111) substrate. The gate oxide of Al2O3 was deposited onto the n-type diamond body by atomic layer deposition at 300 °C. The drain current was controlled by the negative gate voltage, indicating that an inversion channel with a p-type character was formed at a high-quality n-type diamond body/Al2O3 interface. The maximum drain current density and the field-effect mobility of a diamond MOSFET with a gate electrode length of 5 μm were 1.6 mA/mm and 8.0 cm2/Vs, respectively, at room temperature.

  13. Photoresponsive and Gas Sensing Field-Effect Transistors based on Multilayer WS2 Nanoflakes

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Nengjie; Yang, Shengxue; Wei, Zhongming; Li, Shu-Shen; Xia, Jian-Bai; Li, Jingbo

    2014-01-01

    The photoelectrical properties of multilayer WS2 nanoflakes including field-effect, photosensitive and gas sensing are comprehensively and systematically studied. The transistors perform an n-type behavior with electron mobility of 12 cm2/Vs and exhibit high photosensitive characteristics with response time (τ) of <20 ms, photo-responsivity (Rλ) of 5.7 A/W and external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 1118%. In addition, charge transfer can appear between the multilayer WS2 nanoflakes and the physical-adsorbed gas molecules, greatly influencing the photoelectrical properties of our devices. The ethanol and NH3 molecules can serve as electron donors to enhance the Rλ and EQE significantly. Under the NH3 atmosphere, the maximum Rλ and EQE can even reach 884 A/W and 1.7 × 105%, respectively. This work demonstrates that multilayer WS2 nanoflakes possess important potential for applications in field-effect transistors, highly sensitive photodetectors, and gas sensors, and it will open new way to develop two-dimensional (2D) WS2-based optoelectronics. PMID:24909387

  14. Inversion channel diamond metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor with normally off characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Tsubasa; Kato, Hiromitsu; Oyama, Kazuhiro; Makino, Toshiharu; Ogura, Masahiko; Takeuchi, Daisuke; Inokuma, Takao; Tokuda, Norio; Yamasaki, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    We fabricated inversion channel diamond metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) with normally off characteristics. At present, Si MOSFETs and insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) with inversion channels are widely used because of their high controllability of electric power and high tolerance. Although a diamond semiconductor is considered to be a material with a strong potential for application in next-generation power devices, diamond MOSFETs with an inversion channel have not yet been reported. We precisely controlled the MOS interface for diamond by wet annealing and fabricated p-channel and planar-type MOSFETs with phosphorus-doped n-type body on diamond (111) substrate. The gate oxide of Al2O3 was deposited onto the n-type diamond body by atomic layer deposition at 300 °C. The drain current was controlled by the negative gate voltage, indicating that an inversion channel with a p-type character was formed at a high-quality n-type diamond body/Al2O3 interface. The maximum drain current density and the field-effect mobility of a diamond MOSFET with a gate electrode length of 5 μm were 1.6 mA/mm and 8.0 cm2/Vs, respectively, at room temperature. PMID:27545201

  15. A Micro-Machined Microphone Based on a Combination of Electret and Field-Effect Transistor

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Kumjae; Jeon, Junsik; West, James Edward; Moon, Wonkyu

    2015-01-01

    Capacitive-type transduction is now widely used in MEMS microphones. However, its sensitivity decreases with reducing size, due to decreasing air gap capacitance. In the present study, we proposed and developed the Electret Gate of Field Effect Transistor (ElGoFET) transduction based on an electret and FET (field-effect-transistor) as a novel mechanism of MEMS microphone transduction. The ElGoFET transduction has the advantage that the sensitivity is dependent on the ratio of capacitance components in the transduction structure. Hence, ElGoFET transduction has high sensitivity even with a smaller air gap capacitance, due to a miniaturization of the transducer. A FET with a floating-gate electrode embedded on a membrane was designed and fabricated and an electret was fabricated by ion implantation with Ga+ ions. During the assembly process between the FET and the electret, the operating point of the FET was characterized using the static response of the FET induced by the electric field due to the trapped positive charge at the electret. Additionally, we evaluated the microphone performance of the ElGoFET by measuring the acoustic response in air using a semi-anechoic room. The results confirmed that the proposed transduction mechanism has potential for microphone applications. PMID:26295231

  16. Band gap engineered nano perforated graphene microstructures for field effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palla, Penchalaiah; Tiwari, Durgesh Laxman; Ansari, Hasan Raza; Babu, Taraprasanna Saha; Ethiraj, Anita Sagadevan; Raina, J. P.

    2016-05-01

    To make use of exceptional properties of graphene in Field effect Transistor (FETs) for switching devices a band gap must be introduced in order to switch -off the device. Through periodic nano perforations a semi-metallic graphene is converted into semiconducting graphene. To understand the device physics behind the reported experiments theoretical simulations has been carried out. The present paper illustrates nano perforated semiconducting graphene Field effect Transistor (FETs) with micron scale dimensions. The simulation has been performed using drift-diffusion semi-classical and tight-binding based non-equilibrium green's function (NEGF) methods. The obtained simulation results are compared with previously reported experimental work. The device dimensions considered for simulations and the experiment are similar with neck width, hole periodicity and channel length of 6.3 nm, 16.3 nm and 1 µm respectively. The interesting and new finding in this work is the p-type I-V characteristics for small band gap devices and n-type behavior for large band gap devices.

  17. Deep-ultraviolet-light-driven reversible doping of WS2 field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Muhammad Waqas; Iqbal, Muhammad Zahir; Khan, Muhammad Farooq; Shehzad, Muhammad Arslan; Seo, Yongho; Eom, Jonghwa

    2015-01-14

    Improvement of the electrical and photoelectric characteristics is essential to achieve an advanced performance of field-effect transistors and optoelectronic devices. Here we have developed a doping technique to drastically improve electrical and photoelectric characteristics of single-layered, bi-layered and multi-layered WS2 field-effect transistors (FET). After illuminating with deep ultraviolet (DUV) light in a nitrogen environment, WS2 FET shows an enhanced charge carrier density, mobility and photocurrent response. The threshold voltage of WS2 FET shifted toward the negative gate voltage, and the positions of E and A1g peaks in Raman spectra shifted toward lower wavenumbers, indicating the n-type doping effect of the WS2 FET. The doping effect is reversible. The pristine characteristics of WS2 FET can be restored by DUV light illumination in an oxygen environment. The DUV-driven doping technique in a gas environment provides a very stable, effective, easily applicable way to enhance the performance of WS2 FET.

  18. Fabrication and characterization on reduced graphene oxide field effect transistor (RGOFET) based biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, A. Diyana; Ruslinda, A. Rahim; Fatin, M. F.; Hashim, U.; Arshad, M. K.

    2016-07-01

    The fabrication and characterization on reduced graphene oxide field effect transistor (RGO-FET) were demonstrated using a spray deposition method for biological sensing device purpose. A spray method is a fast, low-cost and simple technique to deposit graphene and the most promising technology due to ideal coating on variety of substrates and high production speed. The fabrication method was demonstrated for developing a label free aptamer reduced graphene oxide field effect transistor biosensor. Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) was obtained by heating on hot plate fixed at various temperatures of 100, 200 and 300°C, respectively. The surface morphology of RGO were examined via atomic force microscopy to observed the temperature effect of produced RGO. The electrical measurement verify the performance of electrical conducting RGO-FET at temperature 300°C is better as compared to other temperature due to the removal of oxygen groups in GO. Thus, reduced graphene oxide was a promising material for biosensor application.

  19. Demonstration of hetero-gate-dielectric tunneling field-effect transistors (HG TFETs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Woo Young; Lee, Hyun Kook

    2016-06-01

    The steady scaling-down of semiconductor device for improving performance has been the most important issue among researchers. Recently, as low-power consumption becomes one of the most important requirements, there have been many researches about novel devices for low-power consumption. Though scaling supply voltage is the most effective way for low-power consumption, performance degradation is occurred for metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) when supply voltage is reduced because subthreshold swing (SS) of MOSFETs cannot be lower than 60 mV/dec. Thus, in this thesis, hetero-gate-dielectric tunneling field-effect transistors (HG TFETs) are investigated as one of the most promising alternatives to MOSFETs. By replacing source-side gate insulator with a high- k material, HG TFETs show higher on-current, suppressed ambipolar current and lower SS than conventional TFETs. Device design optimization through simulation was performed and fabrication based on simulation demonstrated that performance of HG TFETs were better than that of conventional TFETs. Especially, enlargement of gate insulator thickness while etching gate insulator at the source side was improved by introducing HF vapor etch process. In addition, the proposed HG TFETs showed higher performance than our previous results by changing structure of sidewall spacer by high- k etching process.

  20. MoS2 Field-effect Transistors with Graphene/Metal Hetero-contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yuchen; Yang, Lingming; Zhang, Jingyun; Conrad, Nathan; Liu, Han; Ye, Peide

    2014-03-01

    MoS2, as one of the mostly studied transition-metal dichalcogenides, has already revealed a series of new physics and potential device applications. However, the performance of the MoS2 field-effect transistors is limited by the large contact resistance at metal/MoS2 interface due to the non-negligible Schottky barrier. In this study, n-type few-layer MoS2 field-effect transistors with graphene/Ti as the metal contacts have been fabricated showing more than 160 mA/mm drain current at 1 μm gate length and on-off current ratio of 107. Different metal contacts (Ti, Ni, Au, and Pd) from low work function to high work function metals on MoS2/graphene hetero contacts have been performed and studied. Moreover, for the first time, 2D Fermi-level pinning concept is introduced to understand the band alignment of hetero-structured metal/graphene/MoS2 or other 2D semiconductor interfaces. Temperature dependent, noise, and stress measurement results will also be presented.

  1. Position sensitivity of graphene field effect transistors to X-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Cazalas, Edward Moore, Michael E.; Jovanovic, Igor; Sarker, Biddut K.; Childres, Isaac; Chen, Yong P.

    2015-06-01

    Device architectures that incorporate graphene to realize detection of electromagnetic radiation typically utilize the direct absorbance of radiation by graphene. This limits their effective area to the size of the graphene and their applicability to lower-energy, less penetrating forms of radiation. In contrast, graphene-based transistor architectures that utilize the field effect as the detection mechanism can be sensitive to interactions of radiation not only with graphene but also with the surrounding substrate. Here, we report the study of the position sensitivity and response of a graphene-based field effect transistor (GFET) to penetrating, well-collimated radiation (micro-beam X-rays), producing ionization in the substrate primarily away from graphene. It is found that responsivity and response speed are strongly dependent on the X-ray beam distance from graphene and the gate voltage applied to the GFET. To develop an understanding of the spatially dependent response, a model is developed that incorporates the volumetric charge generation, transport, and recombination. The model is in good agreement with the observed spatial response characteristics of the GFET and predicts a greater response potential of the GFET to radiation interacting near its surface. The study undertaken provides the necessary insight into the volumetric nature of the GFET response, essential for development of GFET-based detectors for more penetrating forms of ionizing radiation.

  2. Instability in an amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O field effect transistor upon water exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Bhupendra K.; Ahn, Jong-Hyun

    2016-02-01

    The instability of an amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (IGZO) field effect transistor is investigated upon water treatment. Electrical characteristics are measured before, immediately after and a few days after water treatment in ambient as well as in vacuum conditions. It is observed that after a few days of water exposure an IGZO field effect transistor (FET) shows relatively more stable behaviour as compared to before exposure. Transfer characteristics are found to shift negatively after immediate water exposure and in vacuum. More interestingly, after water exposure the off current is found to decrease by 1-2 orders of magnitude and remains stable even after 15 d of water exposure in ambient as well as in vacuum, whereas the on current more or less remains the same. An x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic study is carried out to investigate the qualitative and quantitative analysis of IGZO upon water exposure. The changes in the FET parameters are evaluated and attributed to the formation of excess oxygen vacancies and changes in the electronic structure of the IGZO bulk channel and at the IGZO/SiO2 interface, which can further lead to the formation of subgap states. An attempt is made to distinguish which parameters of the FET are affected by the changes in the electronic structure of the IGZO bulk channel and at the IGZO/SiO2 interface separately.

  3. Multibit ferroelectric field-effect transistor with epitaxial-like Pb(Zr,Ti)O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jae Hyo; Kim, Hyung Yoon; Seok, Ki Hwan; Kiaee, Zohreh; Lee, Sol Kyu; Joo, Seung Ki

    2016-03-01

    Being able to control grain boundaries during the phase transformation when processing a ferroelectric thin-film is crucial for the successful development of practical multibit ferroelectric memory. A novel development of ferroelectric thin-film crystallization processing for realizing epitaxial-like single crystals via artificial nucleation by Pt-seeding is reported here. Dividing the nucleation and growth mechanism by Pt-seeding, it is possible to obtain large and uniform rectangular-shaped ferroelectric grains, large enough to fabricate a field-effect transistor (FET) in the inside of the crystal grain. The fabricated ferroelectric FET, Pt/Pb(Zr,Ti)O3/ZrTiO4/Si, showed a large memory window (˜2.2 V), a low operation voltage (˜6 V), and an ultra-fast program/erase speed (˜10-6 s). Moreover, there was no degradation after 1015 cycles of bipolar fatigue testing and the sample even showed a long retention time after 1 yr. All of these characteristics correspond to the best performance among all types of ferroelectric field-effect transistors reported thus far.

  4. Selenium-Containing Fused Bicyclic Heterocycle Diselenolodiselenole: Field Effect Transistor Study and Structure-Property Relationship.

    PubMed

    Debnath, Sashi; Chithiravel, Sundaresan; Sharma, Sagar; Bedi, Anjan; Krishnamoorthy, Kothandam; Zade, Sanjio S

    2016-07-20

    The first application of the diselenolodiselenole (C4Se4) heterocycle as an active organic field effect transistor materials is demonstrated here. C4Se4 derivatives (2a-2d) were obtained by using a newly developed straightforward diselenocyclization protocol, which includes the reaction of diynes with selenium powder at elevated temperature. C4Se4 derivatives exhibit strong donor characteristics and planar structure (except 2d). The atomic force microscopic analysis and thin-film X-ray diffraction pattern of compounds 2a-2d indicated the formation of distinct crystalline films that contain large domains. A scanning electron microscopy study of compound 2b showed development of symmetrical grains with an average diameter of 150 nm. Interestingly, 2b exhibited superior hole mobility, approaching 0.027 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) with a transconductance of 9.2 μS. This study correlate the effect of π-stacking, Se···Se intermolecular interaction, and planarity with the charge transport properties and performance in the field effect transistor devices. We have shown that the planarity in C4Se4 derivatives was achieved by varying the end groups attached to the C4Se4 core. In turn, optoelectronic properties can also be tuned for all these derivatives by end-group variation. PMID:27353123

  5. Environmental Effects on Hysteresis of Transfer Characteristics in Molybdenum Disulfide Field-Effect Transistors.

    PubMed

    Shimazu, Yoshihiro; Tashiro, Mitsuki; Sonobe, Satoshi; Takahashi, Masaki

    2016-07-20

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has recently received much attention for nanoscale electronic and photonic applications. To explore the intrinsic properties and enhance the performance of MoS2-based field-effect transistors, thorough understanding of extrinsic effects such as environmental gas and contact resistance of the electrodes is required. Here, we report the effects of environmental gases on the transport properties of back-gated multilayered MoS2 field-effect transistors. Comparisons between different gases (oxygen, nitrogen, and air and nitrogen with varying relative humidities) revealed that water molecules acting as charge-trapping centers are the main cause of hysteresis in the transfer characteristics. While the hysteresis persisted even after pumping out the environmental gas for longer than 10 h at room temperature, it disappeared when the device was cooled to 240 K, suggesting a considerable increase in the time constant of the charge trapping/detrapping at these modestly low temperatures. The suppression of the hysteresis or instability in the easily attainable temperature range without surface passivation is highly advantageous for the device application of this system. The humidity dependence of the threshold voltages in the transfer curves indicates that the water molecules dominantly act as hole-trapping centers. A strong dependence of the on-state current on oxygen pressure was also observed.

  6. Deep-ultraviolet-light-driven reversible doping of WS2 field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Muhammad Waqas; Iqbal, Muhammad Zahir; Khan, Muhammad Farooq; Shehzad, Muhammad Arslan; Seo, Yongho; Eom, Jonghwa

    2015-01-14

    Improvement of the electrical and photoelectric characteristics is essential to achieve an advanced performance of field-effect transistors and optoelectronic devices. Here we have developed a doping technique to drastically improve electrical and photoelectric characteristics of single-layered, bi-layered and multi-layered WS2 field-effect transistors (FET). After illuminating with deep ultraviolet (DUV) light in a nitrogen environment, WS2 FET shows an enhanced charge carrier density, mobility and photocurrent response. The threshold voltage of WS2 FET shifted toward the negative gate voltage, and the positions of E and A1g peaks in Raman spectra shifted toward lower wavenumbers, indicating the n-type doping effect of the WS2 FET. The doping effect is reversible. The pristine characteristics of WS2 FET can be restored by DUV light illumination in an oxygen environment. The DUV-driven doping technique in a gas environment provides a very stable, effective, easily applicable way to enhance the performance of WS2 FET. PMID:25429443

  7. Environmental Effects on Hysteresis of Transfer Characteristics in Molybdenum Disulfide Field-Effect Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazu, Yoshihiro; Tashiro, Mitsuki; Sonobe, Satoshi; Takahashi, Masaki

    2016-07-01

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has recently received much attention for nanoscale electronic and photonic applications. To explore the intrinsic properties and enhance the performance of MoS2-based field-effect transistors, thorough understanding of extrinsic effects such as environmental gas and contact resistance of the electrodes is required. Here, we report the effects of environmental gases on the transport properties of back-gated multilayered MoS2 field-effect transistors. Comparisons between different gases (oxygen, nitrogen, and air and nitrogen with varying relative humidities) revealed that water molecules acting as charge-trapping centers are the main cause of hysteresis in the transfer characteristics. While the hysteresis persisted even after pumping out the environmental gas for longer than 10 h at room temperature, it disappeared when the device was cooled to 240 K, suggesting a considerable increase in the time constant of the charge trapping/detrapping at these modestly low temperatures. The suppression of the hysteresis or instability in the easily attainable temperature range without surface passivation is highly advantageous for the device application of this system. The humidity dependence of the threshold voltages in the transfer curves indicates that the water molecules dominantly act as hole-trapping centers. A strong dependence of the on-state current on oxygen pressure was also observed.

  8. Biosensors based on enzyme field-effect transistors for determination of some substrates and inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Dzyadevych, Sergei V; Soldatkin, Alexey P; Korpan, Yaroslav I; Arkhypova, Valentyna N; El'skaya, Anna V; Chovelon, Jean-Marc; Martelet, Claude; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole

    2003-10-01

    This paper is a review of the authors' publications concerning the development of biosensors based on enzyme field-effect transistors (ENFETs) for direct substrates or inhibitors analysis. Such biosensors were designed by using immobilised enzymes and ion-selective field-effect transistors (ISFETs). Highly specific, sensitive, simple, fast and cheap determination of different substances renders them as promising tools in medicine, biotechnology, environmental control, agriculture and the food industry. The biosensors based on ENFETs and direct enzyme analysis for determination of concentrations of different substrates (glucose, urea, penicillin, formaldehyde, creatinine, etc.) have been developed and their laboratory prototypes were fabricated. Improvement of the analytical characteristics of such biosensors may be achieved by using a differential mode of measurement, working solutions with different buffer concentrations and specific agents, negatively or positively charged additional membranes, or genetically modified enzymes. These approaches allow one to decrease the effect of the buffer capacity influence on the sensor response in an aim to increase the sensitivity of the biosensors and to extend their dynamic ranges. Biosensors for the determination of concentrations of different toxic substances (organophosphorous pesticides, heavy metal ions, hypochlorite, glycoalkaloids, etc.) were designed on the basis of reversible and/or irreversible enzyme inhibition effect(s). The conception of an enzymatic multibiosensor for the determination of different toxic substances based on the enzyme inhibition effect is also described. We will discuss the respective advantages and disadvantages of biosensors based on the ENFETs developed and also demonstrate their practical application. PMID:12904953

  9. The interface between ferroelectric and 2D material for a Ferroelectric Field-Effect Transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Nahee; Kang, Haeyong; Lee, Sang-Goo; Lee, Young Hee; Suh, Dongseok

    We have studied electrical property of ferroelectric field-effect transistor which consists of graphene on hexagonal Boron-Nitride (h-BN) gated by a ferroelectric, PMN-PT (i.e. (1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3) O3-xPbTiO3) single-crystal substrate. The PMN-PT was expected to have an effect on polarization field into the graphene channel and to induce a giant amount of surface charge. The hexagonal Boron-Nitride (h-BN) flake was directly exfoliated on the PMN-PT substrate for preventing graphene from directly contacting on the PMN-PT substrate. It can make us to observe the effect of the interface between ferroelectric and 2D material on the device operation. Monolayer graphene as 2D channel material, which was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy, was transferred on top of the hexagonal Boron-Nitride (h-BN) by using the conventional dry-transfer method. Here, we can demonstrate that the structure of graphene/hexagonal-BN/ferroelectric field-effect transistor makes us to clearly understand the device operation as well as the interface between ferroelectric and 2D materials by inserting h-BN between them. The phenomena such as anti-hysteresis, current saturation behavior, and hump-like increase of channel current, will be discussed by in terms of ferroelectric switching, polarization-assisted charge trapping.

  10. Integrated digital inverters based on two-dimensional anisotropic ReS₂ field-effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Erfu; Fu, Yajun; Wang, Yaojia; Feng, Yanqing; Liu, Huimei; Wan, Xiangang; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Baigeng; Shao, Lubin; Ho, Ching -Hwa; Huang, Ying -Sheng; Cao, Zhengyi; Wang, Laiguo; Li, Aidong; Zeng, Junwen; Song, Fengqi; Wang, Xinran; Shi, Yi; Yuan, Hongtao; Hwang, Harold Y.; Cui, Yi; Miao, Feng; Xing, Dingyu

    2015-05-07

    Semiconducting two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides are emerging as top candidates for post-silicon electronics. While most of them exhibit isotropic behaviour, lowering the lattice symmetry could induce anisotropic properties, which are both scientifically interesting and potentially useful. Here we present atomically thin rhenium disulfide (ReS₂) flakes with unique distorted 1T structure, which exhibit in-plane anisotropic properties. We fabricated monolayer and few-layer ReS₂ field-effect transistors, which exhibit competitive performance with large current on/off ratios (~10⁷) and low subthreshold swings (100 mV per decade). The observed anisotropic ratio along two principle axes reaches 3.1, which is the highest among all known two-dimensional semiconducting materials. Furthermore, we successfully demonstrated an integrated digital inverter with good performance by utilizing two ReS₂ anisotropic field-effect transistors, suggesting the promising implementation of large-scale two-dimensional logic circuits. Our results underscore the unique properties of two-dimensional semiconducting materials with low crystal symmetry for future electronic applications.

  11. Approaching the Trap-Free Limit in Organic Single-Crystal Field-Effect Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blülle, Balthasar; Häusermann, Roger; Batlogg, Bertram

    2014-04-01

    We present measurements of rubrene single-crystal field-effect transistors with textbooklike transfer characteristics, as one would expect for intrinsically trap-free semiconductor devices. Particularly, the high purity of the crystals and the defect-free interface to the gate dielectric are reflected in an unprecedentedly low subthreshold swing of 65 mV/decade, remarkably close to the fundamental limit of 58.5 mV/decade. From these measurements, we quantify the residual density of traps by a detailed analysis of the subthreshold regime, including a full numerical simulation. An exceedingly low trap density of Dbulk=1×1013 cm-3 eV-1 at an energy of approximately 0.62 eV is found. This result corresponds to one trap per eV in 108 rubrene molecules. The equivalent density of traps located at the interface (Dit=3×109 cm-2 eV-1) is as low as in the best crystalline Si/Si field-effect transistors. These results highlight the benefit of having van der Waals bonded semiconducting crystals without electronically active states due to broken bonds at the surface.

  12. Deep-submicron Graphene Field-Effect Transistors with State-of-Art fmax

    PubMed Central

    Lyu, Hongming; Lu, Qi; Liu, Jinbiao; Wu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Jinyu; Li, Junfeng; Niu, Jiebin; Yu, Zhiping; Wu, Huaqiang; Qian, He

    2016-01-01

    In order to conquer the short-channel effects that limit conventional ultra-scale semiconductor devices, two-dimensional materials, as an option of ultimate thin channels, receive wide attention. Graphene, in particular, bears great expectations because of its supreme carrier mobility and saturation velocity. However, its main disadvantage, the lack of bandgap, has not been satisfactorily solved. As a result, maximum oscillation frequency (fmax) which indicates transistors’ power amplification ability has been disappointing. Here, we present submicron field-effect transistors with specially designed low-resistance gate and excellent source/drain contact, and therefore significantly improved fmax. The fabrication was assisted by the advanced 8-inch CMOS back-end-of-line technology. A 200-nm-gate-length GFET achieves fT/fmax = 35.4/50 GHz. All GFET samples with gate lengths ranging from 200 nm to 400 nm possess fmax 31–41% higher than fT, closely resembling Si n-channel MOSFETs at comparable technology nodes. These results re-strengthen the promise of graphene field-effect transistors in next generation semiconductor electronics. PMID:27775009

  13. Environmental Effects on Hysteresis of Transfer Characteristics in Molybdenum Disulfide Field-Effect Transistors.

    PubMed

    Shimazu, Yoshihiro; Tashiro, Mitsuki; Sonobe, Satoshi; Takahashi, Masaki

    2016-01-01

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has recently received much attention for nanoscale electronic and photonic applications. To explore the intrinsic properties and enhance the performance of MoS2-based field-effect transistors, thorough understanding of extrinsic effects such as environmental gas and contact resistance of the electrodes is required. Here, we report the effects of environmental gases on the transport properties of back-gated multilayered MoS2 field-effect transistors. Comparisons between different gases (oxygen, nitrogen, and air and nitrogen with varying relative humidities) revealed that water molecules acting as charge-trapping centers are the main cause of hysteresis in the transfer characteristics. While the hysteresis persisted even after pumping out the environmental gas for longer than 10 h at room temperature, it disappeared when the device was cooled to 240 K, suggesting a considerable increase in the time constant of the charge trapping/detrapping at these modestly low temperatures. The suppression of the hysteresis or instability in the easily attainable temperature range without surface passivation is highly advantageous for the device application of this system. The humidity dependence of the threshold voltages in the transfer curves indicates that the water molecules dominantly act as hole-trapping centers. A strong dependence of the on-state current on oxygen pressure was also observed. PMID:27435309

  14. Carbon Nanotube Synaptic Transistor Network for Pattern Recognition.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungho; Yoon, Jinsu; Kim, Hee-Dong; Choi, Sung-Jin

    2015-11-18

    Inspired by the human brain, a neuromorphic system combining complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) and adjustable synaptic devices may offer new computing paradigms by enabling massive neural-network parallelism. In particular, synaptic devices, which are capable of emulating the functions of biological synapses, are used as the essential building blocks for an information storage and processing system. However, previous synaptic devices based on two-terminal resistive devices remain challenging because of their variability and specific physical mechanisms of resistance change, which lead to a bottleneck in the implementation of a high-density synaptic device network. Here we report that a three-terminal synaptic transistor based on carbon nanotubes can provide reliable synaptic functions that encode relative timing and regulate weight change. In addition, using system-level simulations, the developed synaptic transistor network associated with CMOS circuits can perform unsupervised learning for pattern recognition using a simplified spike-timing-dependent plasticity scheme.

  15. Carbon Nanotube Synaptic Transistor Network for Pattern Recognition.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungho; Yoon, Jinsu; Kim, Hee-Dong; Choi, Sung-Jin

    2015-11-18

    Inspired by the human brain, a neuromorphic system combining complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) and adjustable synaptic devices may offer new computing paradigms by enabling massive neural-network parallelism. In particular, synaptic devices, which are capable of emulating the functions of biological synapses, are used as the essential building blocks for an information storage and processing system. However, previous synaptic devices based on two-terminal resistive devices remain challenging because of their variability and specific physical mechanisms of resistance change, which lead to a bottleneck in the implementation of a high-density synaptic device network. Here we report that a three-terminal synaptic transistor based on carbon nanotubes can provide reliable synaptic functions that encode relative timing and regulate weight change. In addition, using system-level simulations, the developed synaptic transistor network associated with CMOS circuits can perform unsupervised learning for pattern recognition using a simplified spike-timing-dependent plasticity scheme. PMID:26512729

  16. Carbon Nanostructure-Based Field-Effect Transistors for Label-Free Chemical/Biological Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Hu, PingAn; Zhang, Jia; Li, Le; Wang, Zhenlong; O’Neill, William; Estrela, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, electrical detection of chemical and biological species using novel nanostructure-based devices has attracted significant attention for chemical, genomics, biomedical diagnostics, and drug discovery applications. The use of nanostructured devices in chemical/biological sensors in place of conventional sensing technologies has advantages of high sensitivity, low decreased energy consumption and potentially highly miniaturized integration. Owing to their particular structure, excellent electrical properties and high chemical stability, carbon nanotube and graphene based electrical devices have been widely developed for high performance label-free chemical/biological sensors. Here, we review the latest developments of carbon nanostructure-based transistor sensors in ultrasensitive detection of chemical/biological entities, such as poisonous gases, nucleic acids, proteins and cells. PMID:22399927

  17. Polymer electrolyte gating of carbon nanotube network transistors.

    PubMed

    Ozel, Taner; Gaur, Anshu; Rogers, John A; Shim, Moonsub

    2005-05-01

    Network behavior in single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) is examined by polymer electrolyte gating. High gate efficiencies, low voltage operation, and the absence of hysteresis in polymer electrolyte gating lead to a convenient and effective method of analyzing transport in SWNT networks. Furthermore, the ability to control carrier type with chemical groups of the host polymer allows us to examine both electron and hole conduction. Comparison to back gate measurements is made on channel length scaling. Frequency measurements are also made giving an upper limit of approximately 300 Hz switching speed for poly(ethylene oxide)/LiClO(4) gated SWNT thin film transistors. PMID:15884892

  18. Radio frequency analog electronics based on carbon nanotube transistors

    PubMed Central

    Kocabas, Coskun; Kim, Hoon-sik; Banks, Tony; Rogers, John A.; Pesetski, Aaron A.; Baumgardner, James E.; Krishnaswamy, S. V.; Zhang, Hong

    2008-01-01

    The potential to exploit single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in advanced electronics represents a continuing, major source of interest in these materials. However, scalable integration of SWNTs into circuits is challenging because of difficulties in controlling the geometries, spatial positions, and electronic properties of individual tubes. We have implemented solutions to some of these challenges to yield radio frequency (RF) SWNT analog electronic devices, such as narrow band amplifiers operating in the VHF frequency band with power gains as high as 14 dB. As a demonstration, we fabricated nanotube transistor radios, in which SWNT devices provide all of the key functions, including resonant antennas, fixed RF amplifiers, RF mixers, and audio amplifiers. These results represent important first steps to practical implementation of SWNTs in high-speed analog circuits. Comparison studies indicate certain performance advantages over silicon and capabilities that complement those in existing compound semiconductor technologies. PMID:18227509

  19. Metal contact effect on the performance and scaling behavior of carbon nanotube thin film transistors.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jiye; Dong, Guodong; Tian, Boyuan; Yan, Qiuping; Zhang, Han; Liang, Xuelei; Peng, Lianmao

    2016-05-21

    Metal-tube contact is known to play an important role in carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNT-FETs) which are fabricated on individual CNTs. Less attention has been paid to the contact effect in network type carbon nanotube thin film transistors (CNT-TFTs). In this study, we demonstrate that contact plays an even more important role in CNT-TFTs than in CNT-FETs. Although the Schottky barrier height at the metal-tube contact can be tuned by the work function of the metal, similar to the case in CNT-FETs, the contact resistance (Rc) forms a much higher proportion of the total resistance in CNT-TFTs. Interestingly, the contact resistivity was found to increase with channel length, which is a consequence of the percolating nature of the transport in CNT films, and this behavior does not exist in CNT-FETs and normal 2D Ohmic conductors. Electrical transport in CNT-TFTs has been predicted to scale with channel length by stick percolation theory. However, the scaling behavior is also impacted, or even covered up by the effect of Rc. Once the contact effect is excluded, the covered scaling behavior can be revealed correctly. A possible way of reducing Rc in CNT-TFTs was proposed. We believe the findings in this paper will strengthen our understanding of CNT-TFTs, and even accelerate the commercialization of CNT-TFT technology.

  20. Defect Screening Effects of Fluoropolymer Capping in Single Walled Carbon Nanotube Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Seonpil; Kim, Bongjun; Geier, Michael; Hersam, Mark; Dodabalapur, Ananth

    2015-03-01

    One of the most promising uses of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is as active channel semiconductor materials in field-effect transistors (FETs). Recent advances in the availability of highly sorted semiconducting SWCNT source material and in printing such nanotubes to realize high-performance thin-film transistors make them very promising candidates for printed electronics. In this presentation, we report on the substantial improvements in the characteristics of SWCNT FET devices and circuits comprised of these devices by the use of coatings of the fluoropolymer containing copolymer, PVDF-TrFE. The origins of these improvements may be attributed to the polar nature of C-F bonds and the local organization of the fluoropolymer at the interfaces with the SWCNTs so as to partially neutralize charged defects. This hypothesis was tested by the experiments using a number of vapor phase polar molecules which produce similar effects on the FET characteristics. The polar vapor experiments show that dipoles can partially neutralize residual charges arising from defects/impurities. The dipole present in polar molecules adopts an orientation that tends to cancel the effects of the charged defect/impurity from the perspective of mobile charges in the SWCNTs.

  1. Novel gallium nitride based microwave noise and power heterostructure field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chumbes, Eduardo Martin

    With the pioneering efforts of Isamu Akasaki of Meiji University and Shuji Nakamura of Nichia Chemical Industries in the late 1980's and early 1990's, the first long-lived candela-class blue and ultraviolet light emitting devices have finally come to fruition. Their success in conquering this Holy Grail in opto-electronics is due to their development of a new technology based remarkably on a class of semiconductor materials that has been practically ignored and overlooked by almost everyone for the past twenty years---the nitrides of Al, Ga and In and their alloys. The breakthroughs made from this new technology in the last decade of the 20th century has revolutionized and revitalized worldwide research and development efforts to the point where it is feasible for other important technologies such as high-density information storage, high-resolution full-color displays and efficient white light lamps and UV sensors to come much closer to realization. Equally important is the potential that this new technology can bring toward the development of efficient ultra-high power and high-temperature electronics that will revolutionize the aerospace and high-speed communication industries. Specifically, the large bandgap and strong polar properties of the group III-nitrides has at present allowed for the realization of simple doped and remarkably undoped AlGaN/GaN transistor structures on sapphire and SiC substrates with two-dimensional electron gas sheet densities significantly greater than that of conventional transistor structures based on GaAs and InP. This dissertation will look specifically at extending undoped AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors or HFETs towards more advanced system applications involving the integration of these devices onto a more advanced Si technology and looking at the feasibility of this integration. It will also address important issues similar devices on semi-insulating SiC substrates have in robust microwave low noise and

  2. Terahertz signal detection in a short gate length field-effect transistor with a two-dimensional electron gas

    SciTech Connect

    Vostokov, N. V. Shashkin, V. I.

    2015-11-28

    We consider the problem of non-resonant detection of terahertz signals in a short gate length field-effect transistor having a two-dimensional electron channel with zero external bias between the source and the drain. The channel resistance, gate-channel capacitance, and quadratic nonlinearity parameter of the transistor during detection as a function of the gate bias voltage are studied. Characteristics of detection of the transistor connected in an antenna with real impedance are analyzed. The consideration is based on both a simple one-dimensional model of the transistor and allowance for the two-dimensional distribution of the electric field in the transistor structure. The results given by the different models are discussed.

  3. Position-dependent performance of copper phthalocyanine based field-effect transistors by gold nanoparticles modification.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiao; Li, Yao; Lv, Wenli; Zhao, Feiyu; Sun, Lei; Peng, Yingquan; Wen, Zhanwei; Zhong, Junkang; Zhang, Jianping

    2015-01-21

    A facile fabrication and characteristics of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)-based organic field-effect transistor (OFET) using the gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) modification is reported, thereby achieving highly improved performance. The effect of Au NPs located at three different positions, that is, at the SiO2/CuPc interface (device B), embedding in the middle of CuPc layer (device C), and on the top of CuPc layer (device D), is investigated, and the results show that device D has the best performance. Compared with the device without Au NPs (reference device A), device D displays an improvement of field-effect mobility (μ(sat)) from 1.65 × 10(-3) to 5.51 × 10(-3) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), and threshold voltage decreases from -23.24 to -16.12 V. Therefore, a strategy for the performance improvement of the CuPc-based OFET with large field-effect mobility and saturation drain current is developed, on the basis of the concept of nanoscale Au modification. The model of an additional electron transport channel formation by FET operation at the Au NPs/CuPc interface is therefore proposed to explain the observed performance improvement. Optimum CuPc thickness is confirmed to be about 50 nm in the present study. The device-to-device uniformity and time stability are discussed for future application.

  4. Position-dependent performance of copper phthalocyanine based field-effect transistors by gold nanoparticles modification.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiao; Li, Yao; Lv, Wenli; Zhao, Feiyu; Sun, Lei; Peng, Yingquan; Wen, Zhanwei; Zhong, Junkang; Zhang, Jianping

    2015-01-21

    A facile fabrication and characteristics of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)-based organic field-effect transistor (OFET) using the gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) modification is reported, thereby achieving highly improved performance. The effect of Au NPs located at three different positions, that is, at the SiO2/CuPc interface (device B), embedding in the middle of CuPc layer (device C), and on the top of CuPc layer (device D), is investigated, and the results show that device D has the best performance. Compared with the device without Au NPs (reference device A), device D displays an improvement of field-effect mobility (μ(sat)) from 1.65 × 10(-3) to 5.51 × 10(-3) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), and threshold voltage decreases from -23.24 to -16.12 V. Therefore, a strategy for the performance improvement of the CuPc-based OFET with large field-effect mobility and saturation drain current is developed, on the basis of the concept of nanoscale Au modification. The model of an additional electron transport channel formation by FET operation at the Au NPs/CuPc interface is therefore proposed to explain the observed performance improvement. Optimum CuPc thickness is confirmed to be about 50 nm in the present study. The device-to-device uniformity and time stability are discussed for future application. PMID:25548878

  5. Light emission from an ambipolar semiconducting polymer field-effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swensen, James Sherman

    The successful demonstration of light emitting field-effect transistors (LEFETs) has been worked towards for years within the organic electronics community. The belief was held that if an ambipolar FET could be developed with high enough density of both electrons and holes within the channel region of an FET simultaneously, then recombination of those carriers would result in electroluminescence. The challenge to demonstrating such a device centered on the issue of electron transport; why was electron transport not observed for nearly all SCPs in a field-effect transistor? Use of a low dielectric constant material to passivate inorganic dielectrics in order to observe electron transport for semiconducting conjugated polymers in a field-effect transistor was verified. A different material, polypropylene-co-1-butene, was shown to passivate various inorganic insulators to eliminate or reduce trap states such that electron transport can be observed for SCPs. Another challenge to demonstrating an LEFET involved developing a method to deposit a low work function metal as either the source or the drain electrode in the FET structure. In this research, a process was developed in which an SCP FET can be fabricated inside of a nitrogen glove box where one electrode is a high work function metal and the other electrode is a low work function metal with the precision of photolithography using a silicon shadow mask and an angled evaporation technique. As a result, the SCP LED electrodes architecture was successfully transferred to an FET platform as the source and drain electrodes, which we "call two-color electrodes." In summary, by combining the passivation layer technology which allows for electron transport and the silicon shadow mask/angled evaporation technique which gives two color electrodes, ambipolar SCP LEFETs were demonstrated. Transport data show ambipolar behavior. Recombination of electrons and holes result in a narrow zone of light emission within the channel

  6. Low-power bacteriorhodopsin-silicon n-channel metal-oxide field-effect transistor photoreceiver.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jonghyun; Bhattacharya, Pallab; Yuan, Hao-Chih; Ma, Zhenqiang; Váró, György

    2007-03-01

    A bacteriorhodopsin (bR)-silicon n-channel metal-oxide field-effect transistor (NMOSFET) monolithically integrated photoreceiver is demonstrated. The bR film is selectively formed on an external gate electrode of the transistor by electrophoretic deposition. A modified biasing circuit is incorporated, which helps to match the resistance of the bR film to the input impedance of the NMOSFET and to shift the operating point of the transistor to coincide with the maximum gain. The photoreceiver exhibits a responsivity of 4.7 mA/W. PMID:17392901

  7. Detection of terahertz radiation by tightly concatenated InGaAs field-effect transistors integrated on a single chip

    SciTech Connect

    Popov, V. V.; Yermolaev, D. M.; Shapoval, S. Yu.; Maremyanin, K. V.; Gavrilenko, V. I.; Zemlyakov, V. E.; Bespalov, V. A.; Yegorkin, V. I.; Maleev, N. A.; Ustinov, V. M.

    2014-04-21

    A tightly concatenated chain of InGaAs field-effect transistors with an asymmetric T-gate in each transistor demonstrates strong terahertz photovoltaic response without using supplementary antenna elements. We obtain the responsivity above 1000 V/W and up to 2000 V/W for unbiased and drain-biased transistors in the chain, respectively, with the noise equivalent power below 10{sup −11} W/Hz{sup 0.5} in the unbiased mode of the detector operation.

  8. Group IV nanotube transistors for next generation ubiquitous computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahad, Hossain M.; Hussain, Aftab M.; Sevilla Torres, Galo A.; Banerjee, Sanjay K.; Hussain, Muhammad M.

    2014-06-01

    Evolution in transistor technology from increasingly large power consuming single gate planar devices to energy efficient multiple gate non-planar ultra-narrow (< 20 nm) fins has enhanced the scaling trend to facilitate doubling performance. However, this performance gain happens at the expense of arraying multiple devices (fins) per operation bit, due to their ultra-narrow dimensions (width) originated limited number of charges to induce appreciable amount of drive current. Additionally arraying degrades device off-state leakage and increases short channel characteristics, resulting in reduced chip level energy-efficiency. In this paper, a novel nanotube device (NTFET) topology based on conventional group IV (Si, SiGe) channel materials is discussed. This device utilizes a core/shell dual gate strategy to capitalize on the volume-inversion properties of an ultra-thin (< 10 nm) group IV nanotube channel to minimize leakage and short channel effects while maximizing performance in an area-efficient manner. It is also shown that the NTFET is capable of providing a higher output drive performance per unit chip area than an array of gate-all-around nanowires, while maintaining the leakage and short channel characteristics similar to that of a single gate-all-around nanowire, the latter being the most superior in terms of electrostatic gate control. In the age of big data and the multitude of devices contributing to the internet of things, the NTFET offers a new transistor topology alternative with maximum benefits from performance-energy efficiency-functionality perspective.

  9. Field Effect Transistor Behavior in Electrospun Polyaniline/Polyethylene Oxide Demonstrated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Carl H.; Theofylaktos, Onoufrios; Robinson, Daryl C.; Miranda, Felix A.

    2004-01-01

    Novel transistors and logic devices based on nanotechnology concepts are under intense development. The potential for ultra-low-power circuitry makes nanotechnology attractive for applications such as digital electronics and sensors. For NASA applications, nanotechnology offers tremendous opportunities for increased onboard data processing, and thus autonomous decisionmaking ability, and novel sensors that detect and respond to environmental stimuli with little oversight requirements. Polyaniline/polyethylene oxide (PANi/PEO) nanofibers are of interest because they have electrical conductivities that can be changed from insulating to metallic by varying the doping levels and conformations of the polymer chain. At the NASA Glenn Research Center, we have observed field effect transistor (FET) behavior in electrospun PANi/PEO nanofibers doped with camphorsulfonic acid. The nanofibers were deposited onto Au electrodes, which had been prepatterned onto oxidized silicon substrates. The preceding scanning electron image shows the device used in the transistor measurements. Saturation channel currents are observed at surprisingly low source/drain voltages (see the following graph). The hole mobility in the depletion regime is 1.4x10(exp -4)sq cm/V sec, whereas the one-dimensional charge density (at zero gate bias) is calculated to be approximately 1 hole per 50 two-ring repeat units of polyaniline, consistent with the rather high channel conductivity (approx.10(exp -3) S/cm). Reducing or eliminating the PEO content in the fiber is expected to enhance device parameters. Electrospinning is thus proposed as a simple method of fabricating one-dimensional polymer FET's.

  10. Current crowding in two-dimensional black-phosphorus field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q.; Tao, X.; Yang, L.; Gu, Y.

    2016-03-01

    By combining electrical measurements, scanning Kelvin probe microscopy, and numerical electrical simulations, we find significant current crowding in two-dimensional (2D) black phosphorus field-effect transistors. This current crowding can lead to localized Joule heating close to the metal contacts, and it is consistent with the features of the device failure observed in this study. Importantly, by considering both Schottky and resistive Ohmic contact models, we find that the commonly used transmission-line model, in general, significantly underestimates the extent of the current crowding. These findings, which are likely to be relevant in other 2D materials, suggest the need to take into account the current crowding effect in designing 2D devices.

  11. Contact-dependent performance variability of monolayer MoS{sub 2} field-effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Gyuchull; Yoon, Youngki

    2014-11-24

    Using self-consistent quantum transport simulations, we investigate the performance variability of monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) field-effect transistors (FETs) with various contact properties. Varying the Schottky barrier in MoS{sub 2} FETs affects the output characteristics more significantly than the transfer characteristics. If doped contacts are realized, the performance variation due to non-ideal contacts becomes negligible; otherwise, channel doping can effectively suppress the performance variability in metal-contact devices. Our scaling study also reveals that for sub-10-nm channels, doped-contact devices can be more robust in terms of switching, while metal-contact MoS{sub 2} FETs can undergo the smaller penalty in output conductance.

  12. Examination of hot-carrier stress induced degradation on fin field-effect transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yi-Lin Yen, Tzu-Sung; Ku, Chao-Chen; Wu, Tai-Hsuan; Wang, Tzuo-Li; Li, Chien-Yi; Wu, Bing-Tze; Zhang, Wenqi; Hong, Jia-Jian; Wong, Jie-Chen; Yeh, Wen-Kuan; Lin, Shih-Hung

    2014-02-24

    Degradation in fin field-effect transistor devices was investigated in detail under various hot-carrier stress conditions. The threshold voltage (V{sub TH}) shift, substrate current (I{sub B}), and subthreshold swing were extracted to determine the degradation of a device. The power-law time exponent of the V{sub TH} shift was largest at V{sub G} = 0.3 V{sub D}, indicating that the V{sub TH} shift was dominated by interface state generation. Although the strongest impact ionization occurred at V{sub G} = V{sub D}, the V{sub TH} shift was mainly caused by electron trapping resulting from a large gate leakage current.

  13. Design and fabrication of high-performance diamond triple-gate field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiangwei; Ohsato, Hirotaka; Wang, Xi; Liao, Meiyong; Koide, Yasuo

    2016-10-01

    The lack of large-area single-crystal diamond wafers has led us to downscale diamond electronic devices. Here, we design and fabricate a hydrogenated diamond (H-diamond) triple-gate metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) to extend device downscaling and increase device output current. The device’s electrical properties are compared with those of planar-type MOSFETs, which are fabricated simultaneously on the same substrate. The triple-gate MOSFET’s output current (174.2 mA mm‑1) is much higher than that of the planar-type device (45.2 mA mm‑1), and the on/off ratio and subthreshold swing are more than 108 and as low as 110 mV dec‑1, respectively. The fabrication of these H-diamond triple-gate MOSFETs will drive diamond electronic device development forward towards practical applications.

  14. Single particle transport in two-dimensional heterojunction interlayer tunneling field effect transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Mingda Snider, Gregory; Jena, Debdeep; Grace Xing, Huili; Esseni, David

    2014-02-21

    The single particle tunneling in a vertical stack consisting of monolayers of two-dimensional semiconductors is studied theoretically, and its application to a novel Two-dimensional Heterojunction Interlayer Tunneling Field Effect Transistor (Thin-TFET) is proposed and described. The tunneling current is calculated by using a formalism based on the Bardeen's transfer Hamiltonian, and including a semi-classical treatment of scattering and energy broadening effects. The misalignment between the two 2D materials is also studied and found to influence the magnitude of the tunneling current but have a modest impact on its gate voltage dependence. Our simulation results suggest that the Thin-TFETs can achieve very steep subthreshold swing, whose lower limit is ultimately set by the band tails in the energy gaps of the 2D materials produced by energy broadening. The Thin-TFET is thus very promising as a low voltage, low energy solid state electronic switch.

  15. Towards the reality of spin field effect transistor utilizing a graphene channel with spin-splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yi-Hang; Li, Lin; Liu, Ying; Miao, Guo-Xing

    2016-10-01

    We propose a spin field effect transistor using a graphene nanoribbon as the channel. The control and manipulation of the electron spin in the channel modulate the spin-polarized current. The modulation is carried out by the magnetic exchange field which arises from the electron exchange interaction with ferromagnetic gate and quantum confinement effect. Numerical estimation indicates that a substantial magnetic exchange field can generate a phase difference on the order of π within a timeframe far below the spin lifetime and timescale between successive collisions, which ensures both the spin coherence and ballistic conduction during the electron transport. A graphene ribbon with armchair boundaries has the desired Dirac point and metallic character. This Dirac-like dispersion relation, together with negligible spin–orbit coupling, makes large on-off ratio feasible even in the presence of thermal dispersion.

  16. Direct Growth of Vertically-oriented Graphene for Field-Effect Transistor Biosensor

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Shun; Yu, Kehan; Chang, Jingbo; Steeber, Douglas A.; Ocola, Leonidas E.; Chen, Junhong

    2013-01-01

    A sensitive and selective field-effect transistor (FET) biosensor is demonstrated using vertically-oriented graphene (VG) sheets labeled with gold nanoparticle (NP)-antibody conjugates. VG sheets are directly grown on the sensor electrode using a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) method and function as the sensing channel. The protein detection is accomplished through measuring changes in the electrical signal from the FET sensor upon the antibody-antigen binding. The novel biosensor with unique graphene morphology shows high sensitivity (down to ~2 ng/ml or 13 pM) and selectivity towards specific proteins. The PECVD growth of VG presents a one-step and reliable approach to prepare graphene-based electronic biosensors. PMID:23603871

  17. Simulation of GeSn/Ge tunneling field-effect transistors for complementary logic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Liang, Renrong; Wang, Jing; Xiao, Lei; Xu, Jun

    2016-09-01

    GeSn/Ge tunneling field-effect transistors (TFETs) with different device configurations are comprehensively investigated by numerical simulation. The lateral PIN- and PNPN-type point-tunneling and vertical line-tunneling device structures are analyzed and compared. Both n- and p-type TFETs are optimized to construct GeSn complementary logic applications. Simulation results indicate that GeSn/Ge heterochannel and heterosource structures significantly improve the device characteristics of point- and line-TFETs, respectively. Device performance and subthreshold swing can be further improved by increasing the Sn composition. GeSn/Ge heterosource line-TFETs exhibit excellent device performance and superior inverter voltage-transfer characteristic, which make them promising candidates for GeSn complementary TFET applications.

  18. Leakage and field emission in side-gate graphene field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Bartolomeo, A.; Giubileo, F.; Iemmo, L.; Romeo, F.; Russo, S.; Unal, S.; Passacantando, M.; Grossi, V.; Cucolo, A. M.

    2016-07-01

    We fabricate planar graphene field-effect transistors with self-aligned side-gate at 100 nm from the 500 nm wide graphene conductive channel, using a single lithographic step. We demonstrate side-gating below 1 V with conductance modulation of 35% and transconductance up to 0.5 mS/mm at 10 mV drain bias. We measure the planar leakage along the SiO2/vacuum gate dielectric over a wide voltage range, reporting rapidly growing current above 15 V. We unveil the microscopic mechanisms driving the leakage, as Frenkel-Poole transport through SiO2 up to the activation of Fowler-Nordheim tunneling in vacuum, which becomes dominant at higher voltages. We report a field-emission current density as high as 1 μA/μm between graphene flakes. These findings are important for the miniaturization of atomically thin devices.

  19. Manipulation of transport hysteresis on graphene field effect transistors with Ga ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Quan; Liu, Shuai; Ren, Naifei

    2014-09-29

    We have studied the effect of Ga ion irradiation on the controllable hysteretic behavior of graphene field effect transistors fabricated on Si/SO{sub 2} substrates. The various densities of defects in graphene were monitored by Raman spectrum. It was found that the Dirac point shifted to the positive gate voltage constantly, while the hysteretic behavior was enhanced first and then weakened, with the dose of ion irradiation increasing. By contrasting the trap charges density induced by dopant and the total density of effective trap charges, it demonstrated that adsorbate doping was not the decisive factor that induced the hysteretic behavior. The tunneling between the defect sites induced by ion irradiation was also an important cause for the hysteresis.

  20. Investigation of drift effect on silicon nanowire field effect transistor based pH sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sihyun; Kwon, Dae Woong; Lee, Ryoongbin; Kim, Dae Hwan; Park, Byung-Gook

    2016-06-01

    It is widely accepted that the operation mechanism of pH-sensitive ion sensitive field effect transistor (ISFET) can be divided into three categories; reaction of surface sites, chemical modification of insulator surface, and ionic diffusion into the bulk of insulator. The first mechanism is considered as the main operation mechanism of pH sensors due to fast response, while the others with relatively slow responses disturb accurate pH detection. In this study, the slow responses (often called drift effects) are investigated in silicon nanowire (SiNW) pH-sensitive ISFETs. Based on the dependence on the channel type of SiNW, liquid gate bias, and pH, it is clearly revealed that the drift of n-type SiNW results from H+ diffusion into the insulator whereas that of p-type SiNW is caused by chemical modification (hydration) of the insulator.

  1. Speeding-up Defect Analysis and Modeling of Graphene based Tunnel Field Effect Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaiswal, Akhilesh Ramlaut

    The hunt for post-CMOS devices has seen emergence of many new devices and materials, one among those is graphene based Tunnel Field Effect Transistor (TFET). It becomes necessary to investigate device-circuit and device-system co-design to tackle some of the challenges posed by these devices. Defect analysis and related data is necessary to study variation and effects that realistic devices would have on system level. Such defect analyses require quantum mechanical analyses and are compute and time intensive. In order to quickly gain insight and hence speed up defect analysis for graphene based TFET devices, we have developed a bandstructure based filtering mechanism which filters out severely defected devices from a pool of devices under study thus saving computation time. Effort has also been made to develop a compact model based on Landauer equation for ballistic transport and expression for quantum mechanical tunneling.

  2. Experimental Investigations on Ballistic Transport in Multi-Bridged Channel Field Effect Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Young Chai; Hong, Byoung Hak; Choi, Luryi; Hwang, Sung Woo; Cho, Keun Hwi; Lee, Sung-Young; Kim, Dong-Won; Park, Donggun

    2011-04-01

    Electrical characteristics of multi bridged channel field effect transistor (MBCFET) with various channel lengths (L) ranging from 500 to 48 nm have been investigated. The current--voltage characteristics do not show any sign of short channel effect due to surrounding gate structures. The gate bias power law of the drain saturation current, mobility, and ballistic efficiency as functions of L show mixed features of drift-diffusion and ballistic transport. The channel resistance shows anomalous decrease when L≤ 60 nm, which is related with the transconductance overshoot resulted in ballistic transport at small VDS. Temperature (T) dependence of the 100 nm device shows another type of transport region when T < 40 K, which can be interpreted as the one-dimensional quantum ballistic regime.

  3. Experimental Investigations on Ballistic Transport in Multi-Bridged Channel Field Effect Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai Jung, Young; Hong, Byoung Hak; Choi, Luryi; Hwang, Sung Woo; Cho, Keun Hwi; Lee, Sung-Young; Kim, Dong-Won; Park, Donggun

    2011-04-01

    Electrical characteristics of multi bridged channel field effect transistor (MBCFET) with various channel lengths (L) ranging from 500 to 48 nm have been investigated. The current-voltage characteristics do not show any sign of short channel effect due to surrounding gate structures. The gate bias power law of the drain saturation current, mobility, and ballistic efficiency as functions of L show mixed features of drift-diffusion and ballistic transport. The channel resistance shows anomalous decrease when L≤60 nm, which is related with the transconductance overshoot resulted in ballistic transport at small VDS. Temperature (T) dependence of the 100 nm device shows another type of transport region when T < 40 K, which can be interpreted as the one-dimensional quantum ballistic regime.

  4. Radio-Frequency Performance of Epitaxial Graphene Field-Effect Transistors on Sapphire Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qing-Bin; Yu, Cui; Li, Jia; Song, Xu-Bo; He, Ze-Zhao; Lu, Wei-Li; Gu, Guo-Dong; Wang, Yuan-Gang; Feng, Zhi-Hong

    2014-07-01

    We report dc and the first-ever measured small signal rf performance of epitaxial graphene field-effect transistors (GFETs), where the epitaxial graphene is grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on a 2-inch c-plane sapphire substrate. Our epitaxial graphene material has a good flatness and uniformity due to the low carbon concentration during the graphene growth. With a gate length Lg = 100 nm, the maximum drain source current Ids and peak transconductance gm reach 0.92 A/mm and 0.143 S/mm, respectively, which are the highest results reported for GFETs directly grown on sapphire. The extrinsic cutoff frequency (fT) and maximum oscillation frequency (fmax) of the device are 12 GHz and 9.5 GHz, and up to 32 GHz and 21.5 GHz after de-embedding, respectively. Our work proves that epitaxial graphene on sapphire substrates is a promising candidate for rf electronics.

  5. Controlling the on/off current ratio of ferroelectric field-effect transistors

    PubMed Central

    Katsouras, Ilias; Zhao, Dong; Spijkman, Mark-Jan; Li, Mengyuan; Blom, Paul W. M.; Leeuw, Dago M. de; Asadi, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    The on/off current ratio in organic ferroelectric field-effect transistors (FeFETs) is largely determined by the position of the threshold voltage, the value of which can show large device-to-device variations. Here we show that by employing a dual-gate layout for the FeFET, we can gain full control over the on/off ratio. In the resulting dual-gate FeFET the ferroelectric gate provides the memory functionality and the second, non-ferroelectric, control gate is advantageously used to set the threshold voltage. The on/off ratio can thus be maximized at the readout bias. The operation is explained by the quantitative analysis of charge transport in a dual-gate FeFET. PMID:26160465

  6. Field dependent transport properties in InAs nanowire field effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Dayeh, Shadi A; Susac, Darija; Kavanagh, Karen L; Yu, Edward T; Wang, Deli

    2008-10-01

    We present detailed studies of the field dependent transport properties of InAs nanowire field-effect transistors. Transconductance dependence on both vertical and lateral fields is discussed. Velocity-field plots are constructed from a large set of output and transfer curves that show negative differential conductance behavior and marked mobility degradation at high injection fields. Two dimensional electrothermal simulations at current densities similar to those measured in the InAs NWFET devices indicate that a significant temperature rise occurs in the channel due to enhanced phonon scattering that leads to the observed mobility degradation. Scanning transmission electron microscopy measurements on devices operated at high current densities reveal arsenic vaporization and crystal deformation in the subject nanowires.

  7. An underlap field-effect transistor for electrical detection of influenza

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kwang-Won; Choi, Sung-Jin; Ahn, Jae-Hyuk; Moon, Dong-Il; Park, Tae Jung; Lee, Sang Yup; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2010-01-01

    An underlap channel-embedded field-effect transistor (FET) is proposed for label-free biomolecule detection. Specifically, silica binding protein fused with avian influenza (AI) surface antigen and avian influenza antibody (anti-AI) were designed as a receptor molecule and a target material, respectively. The drain current was significantly decreased after the binding of negatively charged anti-AI on the underlap channel. A set of control experiments supports that only the biomolecules on the underlap channel effectively modulate the drain current. With the merits of a simple fabrication process, complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor compatibility, and enhanced sensitivity, the underlap FET could be a promising candidate for a chip-based biosensor.

  8. Recovery Based Nanowire Field-Effect Transistor Detection of Pathogenic Avian Influenza DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chih-Heng; Chu, Chia-Jung; Teng, Kang-Ning; Su, Yi-Jr; Chen, Chii-Dong; Tsai, Li-Chu; Yang, Yuh-Shyong

    2012-02-01

    Fast and accurate diagnosis is critical in infectious disease surveillance and management. We proposed a DNA recovery system that can easily be adapted to DNA chip or DNA biosensor for fast identification and confirmation of target DNA. This method was based on the re-hybridization of DNA target with a recovery DNA to free the DNA probe. Functionalized silicon nanowire field-effect transistor (SiNW FET) was demonstrated to monitor such specific DNA-DNA interaction using high pathogenic strain virus hemagglutinin 1 (H1) DNA of avian influenza (AI) as target. Specific electric changes were observed in real-time for AI virus DNA sensing and device recovery when nanowire surface of SiNW FET was modified with complementary captured DNA probe. The recovery based SiNW FET biosensor can be further developed for fast identification and further confirmation of a variety of influenza virus strains and other infectious diseases.

  9. Design and fabrication of high-performance diamond triple-gate field-effect transistors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiangwei; Ohsato, Hirotaka; Wang, Xi; Liao, Meiyong; Koide, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    The lack of large-area single-crystal diamond wafers has led us to downscale diamond electronic devices. Here, we design and fabricate a hydrogenated diamond (H-diamond) triple-gate metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) to extend device downscaling and increase device output current. The device’s electrical properties are compared with those of planar-type MOSFETs, which are fabricated simultaneously on the same substrate. The triple-gate MOSFET’s output current (174.2 mA mm−1) is much higher than that of the planar-type device (45.2 mA mm−1), and the on/off ratio and subthreshold swing are more than 108 and as low as 110 mV dec−1, respectively. The fabrication of these H-diamond triple-gate MOSFETs will drive diamond electronic device development forward towards practical applications. PMID:27708372

  10. Analytic modeling of a depletion-mode cylindrical surrounding-gate nanowire field-effect transistor.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yun Seop; Park, Hyung-Kun

    2012-07-01

    A compact model for depletion-mode p-type cylindrical surrounding-gate nanowire field-effect transistors (SGNWFETs) is proposed. The SGNWFET model consists of two back-to-back Schottky diodes for the metal-semiconductor (MS) contacts and the intrinsic SGNWFET. Based on the electrostatic method, the intrinsic SGNWFET model was derived from current conduction mechanisms attributed to bulk charges through the center neutral region, in addition to accumulation charges through the surface accumulation region. The authors' previously developed Schottky diode model was used for the M-S contacts. The new model was applied to an advanced design system (ADS), whereby the intrinsic part of the SGNWFET and the Schottky diode were developed using the Verilog-A language. The results of the simulation of the newly developed SGNWFET model reproduced the experiment results considerably well.

  11. Gold-coated graphene field-effect transistors for quantitative analysis of protein-antibody interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasov, Alexey; Tsai, Meng-Yen; Flynn, Erin M.; Joiner, Corey A.; Taylor, Robert C.; Vogel, Eric M.

    2015-12-01

    Field-effect transistors (FETs) based on large-area graphene and other 2D materials can potentially be used as low-cost and flexible potentiometric biological sensors. However, there have been few attempts to use these devices for quantifying molecular interactions and to compare their performance to established sensor technology. Here, gold-coated graphene FETs are used to measure the binding affinity of a specific protein-antibody interaction. Having a gold surface gives access to well-known thiol chemistry for the self-assembly of linker molecules. The results are compared with potentiometric silicon-based extended-gate sensors and a surface plasmon resonance system. The estimated dissociation constants are in excellent agreement for all sensor types as long as the active surfaces are the same (gold). The role of the graphene transducer is to simply amplify surface potential changes caused by adsorption of molecules on the gold surface.

  12. Field effect transistors and photodetectors based on nanocrystalline graphene derived from electron beam induced carbonaceous patterns.

    PubMed

    Kurra, Narendra; Bhadram, Venkata Srinu; Narayana, Chandrabhas; Kulkarni, G U

    2012-10-26

    We describe a transfer-free method for the fabrication of nanocrystalline graphene (nc-graphene) on SiO(2) substrates directly from patterned carbonaceous deposits. The deposits were produced from the residual hydrocarbons present in the vacuum chamber without any external source by using an electron beam induced carbonaceous deposition (EBICD) process. Thermal treatment under vacuum conditions in the presence of Ni catalyst transformed the EBIC deposit into nc-graphene patterns, confirmed using Raman and TEM analysis. The nc-graphene patterns have been employed as an active p-type channel material in a field effect transistor (FET) which showed a hole mobility of ~90 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). The nc-graphene also proved to be suitable material for IR detection.

  13. Field-effect transistors based on thermally treated electron beam-induced carbonaceous patterns.

    PubMed

    Kurra, Narendra; Bhadram, Venkata Srinu; Narayana, Chandrabhas; Kulkarni, G U

    2012-02-01

    Electron beam-induced carbonaceous deposition (EBICD) derived from residual hydrocarbons in the vacuum chamber has many fascinating properties. It is known to be chemically complex but robust, structurally amorphous, and electrically insulating. The present study is an attempt to gain more insight into its chemical and electrical nature based on detailed measurements such as Raman, XPS, TEM, and electrical. Interestingly, EBIC patterns are found to be blue fluorescent when excited with UV radiation, a property which owes much to sp(2) carbon clusters amidst sp(3) matrix. Temperature-dependent Raman and electrical measurements have confirmed the graphitization of the EBICD through the decomposition of functional groups above 300 °C. Finally, graphitized EBIC patterns have been employed as active p-type channel material in the field-effect transistors to obtain mobilities in the range of 0.2-4 cm(2)/V s.

  14. Field effect transistors and photodetectors based on nanocrystalline graphene derived from electron beam induced carbonaceous patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurra, Narendra; Srinu Bhadram, Venkata; Narayana, Chandrabhas; Kulkarni, G. U.

    2012-10-01

    We describe a transfer-free method for the fabrication of nanocrystalline graphene (nc-graphene) on SiO2 substrates directly from patterned carbonaceous deposits. The deposits were produced from the residual hydrocarbons present in the vacuum chamber without any external source by using an electron beam induced carbonaceous deposition (EBICD) process. Thermal treatment under vacuum conditions in the presence of Ni catalyst transformed the EBIC deposit into nc-graphene patterns, confirmed using Raman and TEM analysis. The nc-graphene patterns have been employed as an active p-type channel material in a field effect transistor (FET) which showed a hole mobility of ˜90 cm2 V-1 s-1. The nc-graphene also proved to be suitable material for IR detection.

  15. Enhanced memory characteristics in organic ferroelectric field-effect transistors through thermal annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Sugano, Ryo; Tashiro, Tomoya; Sekine, Tomohito; Fukuda, Kenjiro; Kumaki, Daisuke; Tokito, Shizuo

    2015-11-15

    We report on the memory characteristics of organic ferroelectric field-effect transistors (FeFETs) using spin-coated poly(vinylidene difluoride/trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF/TrFE)) as a gate insulating layer. By thermal annealing the P(VDF/TrFE) layer at temperatures above its melting point, we could significantly improve the on/off current ratio to over 10{sup 4}. Considerable changes in the surface morphology and x-ray diffraction patterns were also observed in the P(VDF/TrFE) layer as a result of the annealing process. The enhanced memory effect is attributed to large polarization effects caused by rearranged ferroelectric polymer chains and improved crystallinity in the organic semiconductor layer of the FeFET devices.

  16. Germanium and Silicon Nanocrystal Thin-Film Field-Effect Transistors from Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Holman, Zachary C.; Liu, Chin-Yi; Kortshagen, Uwe R.

    2010-07-09

    Germanium and silicon have lagged behind more popular II-VI and IV-VI semiconductor materials in the emerging field of semiconductor nanocrystal thin film devices. We report germanium and silicon nanocrystal field-effect transistors fabricated by synthesizing nanocrystals in a plasma, transferring them into solution, and casting thin films. Germanium devices show n-type, ambipolar, or p-type behavior depending on annealing temperature with electron and hole mobilities as large as 0.02 and 0.006 cm2 V-1 s-1, respectively. Silicon devices exhibit n-type behavior without any postdeposition treatment, but are plagued by poor film morphology.

  17. High-performance integrated field-effect transistor-based sensors.

    PubMed

    Adzhri, R; Md Arshad, M K; Gopinath, Subash C B; Ruslinda, A R; Fathil, M F M; Ayub, R M; Nor, M Nuzaihan Mohd; Voon, C H

    2016-04-21

    Field-effect transistors (FETs) have succeeded in modern electronics in an era of computers and hand-held applications. Currently, considerable attention has been paid to direct electrical measurements, which work by monitoring changes in intrinsic electrical properties. Further, FET-based sensing systems drastically reduce cost, are compatible with CMOS technology, and ease down-stream applications. Current technologies for sensing applications rely on time-consuming strategies and processes and can only be performed under recommended conditions. To overcome these obstacles, an overview is presented here in which we specifically focus on high-performance FET-based sensor integration with nano-sized materials, which requires understanding the interaction of surface materials with the surrounding environment. Therefore, we present strategies, material depositions, device structures and other characteristics involved in FET-based devices. Special attention was given to silicon and polyaniline nanowires and graphene, which have attracted much interest due to their remarkable properties in sensing applications.

  18. Terahertz responsivity of field-effect transistors under arbitrary biasing conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Földesy, Péter

    2013-09-01

    Current biased photoresponse model of long channel field-effect transistor (FET) detectors is introduced to describe the low frequency behavior in complex circuit environment. The model is applicable in all FET working regions, including subthreshold, linear, saturated modes, includes bulk potential variations, and handles the simultaneous gate-source and drain-source detection or source-driven topologies. The model is based on the phenomenological representation that links the photoresponse to the gate transconductance over drain current ratio (gm/ID) and circuit theory. A derived method is provided to analyze the detector behavior, to characterize existing antenna coupled detectors, and to predict the photoresponse in a complex circuit. The model is validated by measurements of 180 nm gate length silicon and GaAs high electron mobility FETs.

  19. Attofarad resolution capacitance-voltage measurement of nanometer scale field effect transistors utilizing ambient noise.

    PubMed

    Gokirmak, Ali; Inaltekin, Hazer; Tiwari, Sandip

    2009-08-19

    A high resolution capacitance-voltage (C-V) characterization technique, enabling direct measurement of electronic properties at the nanoscale in devices such as nanowire field effect transistors (FETs) through the use of random fluctuations, is described. The minimum noise level required for achieving sub-aF (10(-18) F) resolution, the leveraging of stochastic resonance, and the effect of higher levels of noise are illustrated through simulations. The non-linear DeltaC(gate-source/drain)-V(gate) response of FETs is utilized to determine the inversion layer capacitance (C(inv)) and carrier mobility. The technique is demonstrated by extracting the carrier concentration and effective electron mobility in a nanoscale Si FET with C(inv) = 60 aF. PMID:19636094

  20. Auger generation as an intrinsic limit to tunneling field-effect transistor performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teherani, James T.; Agarwal, Sapan; Chern, Winston; Solomon, Paul M.; Yablonovitch, Eli; Antoniadis, Dimitri A.

    2016-08-01

    Many in the microelectronics field view tunneling field-effect transistors (TFETs) as society's best hope for achieving a >10× power reduction for electronic devices; however, despite a decade of considerable worldwide research, experimental TFET results have significantly underperformed simulations and conventional MOSFETs. To explain the discrepancy between TFET experiments and simulations, we investigate the parasitic leakage current due to Auger generation, an intrinsic mechanism that cannot be mitigated with improved material quality or better device processing. We expose the intrinsic link between the Auger and band-to-band tunneling rates, highlighting the difficulty of increasing one without the other. From this link, we show that Auger generation imposes a fundamental limit on ultimate TFET performance.

  1. Design Architecture of field-effect transistor with back gate electrode for biosensor application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathil, M. F. M.; Arshad, M. K. Md.; Hashim, U.; Ruslinda, A. R.; Gopinath, Subash C. B.; M. Nuzaihan M., N.; Ayub, R. M.; Adzhri, R.; Zaki, M.; Azman, A. H.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the preparation method of photolithography chrome mask design used in fabrication process of field-effect transistor with back gate biasing based biosensor. Initially, the chrome masks are designed by studying the process flow of the biosensor fabrication, followed by drawing of the actual chrome mask using the AutoCAD software. The overall width and length of the device is optimized at 16 mm and 16 mm, respectively. Fabrication processes of the biosensor required five chrome masks, which included source and drain formation mask, the back gate area formation mask, electrode formation mask, front gate area formation mask, and passivation area formation mask. The complete chrome masks design will be sent for chrome mask fabrication and for future use in biosensor fabrication.

  2. Optical and electrical properties of electrochemically doped organic field effect transistors

    PubMed Central

    Yumusak, Cigdem; Abbas, Mamatimin; Sariciftci, Niyazi Serdar

    2013-01-01

    Mixed ionic/electronic conduction in conducting polymers introduces new physics/chemistry and an additional functionality in organic optoelectronic devices. The incorporation of an ionic species in a conjugated polymer matrix results in the increase in electrical conductivity associated with the electrochemical doping of the material. In recent years polymer light emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) have been demonstrated. In such electrochemical optoelectronic devices, mobile ions facilitate the efficient injection of electronic charge carriers creating “in situ” doping regions near the electrodes and lead to efficient electroluminescence light emission. Here, we introduce the same concept of an LEC in the organic field effect transistors (OFETs). The presence of both electronic and ionic charge carriers in the active layers of OFETs brings high charge carrier mobility and light emission even using symmetric source and drain metal electrodes. PMID:23482672

  3. Polarity control in MoS2 and MoSe2 field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragapane, A.; Bobek, S.; Barroso, D.; Nguyen, A.; Bonilla, E.; Naghibi, S.; von Son Palacio, G.; Klee, V.; Preciado, E.; Martinez, J.; Pleskot, D.; Mann, J.; Shidpoor, R.; Bartels, L.; Sorger, V.; Liu, A.; Paranjape, M.; Barbara, P.

    2014-03-01

    Ambipolar operation is essential for a variety of optoelectronic applications, where both electron and hole transport are required simultaneously. However, hole transport and p-type Schottky barriers have been difficult to achieve in all-solid state field effect transistors based on MoS2 charge channels. In prior work we demonstrated that Schottky barriers of either polarity (p-type or n-type) can be obtained with multilayer MoS2 flakes exfoliated from geological crystals. Here we study Schottky barrier polarity in thinner flakes of MoS2 and MoSe2 (down to single-layer thicknesses) that are grown by CVD, towards understanding how both variations in the bandgap and material work functions affect band alignment at the interface between the flakes and the metal contacts. Supported by the NSF, DMR-1008242, 1106210 and C-SPIN.

  4. Selective vapor phase sensing of small molecules using biofunctionalized field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagen, Joshua A.; Kim, Sang Nyon; Kelley-Loughnane, Nancy; Naik, Rajesh R.; Stone, Morley O.

    2011-05-01

    This work details a proof of concept study for vapor phase selective sensing using a strategy of biorecognition elements (BRE) integrated into a zinc oxide field effect transistor (ZnO FET). ZnO FETs are highly sensitive to changes to the environment with little to no selectivity. Addition of a biorecognition element retains the sensitivity of the device while adding selectivity. The DNA aptamer designed to bind the small molecule riboflavin was covalently integrated into the ZnO FET and detects the presence of 116 ppb of riboflavin in a nitrogen atmosphere by a change in current. The unfunctionalized ZnO FET shows no response to this same concentrations of riboflavin, showing that the aptamerbinding strategy may be a promising strategy for vapor phase sensing.

  5. 100-nm-size ferroelectric-gate field-effect transistor with 108-cycle endurance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Hai, Le; Takahashi, Mitsue; Zhang, Wei; Sakai, Shigeki

    2015-08-01

    The fabrication process of 100-nm-size ferroelectric-gate field-effect transistors (FeFETs) with high endurance was reported. The FeFETs had Pt/Sr0.8Ca0.2Bi2Ta2O9 (SCBT)/HfO2/Si stacks where the Pt gate length was 100 nm. The FeFETs were successfully fabricated by integrating many technologies such as fine patterning of etching masks by electron-beam lithography, precise anisotropic etching of the gate stacks, well-controlled ion implantation for gate-self-aligned sources and drains, and the sidewall-cover process that we had developed. Good performances of the FeFETs were characterized by the endurance of 108 program-and-erase cycles with negligible threshold-voltage shift and good drain-current retention for 3.98 × 105 s.

  6. Optimal Geometry Aspect Ratio of Ellipse-Shaped- Surrounding-Gate Nanowire Field Effect Transistors.

    PubMed

    Li, Yiming

    2016-01-01

    Theoretically ideally round shape of the surrounding gate may not always guarantee because of limitations of the fabrication process in surrounding-gate nanowire field effect transistors (FETs). These limitations may lead to the formation of an ellipse-shaped surrounding gate with major and minor axes of different lengths. In this paper, we for the first time study the electrical characteristics of ellipse-shaped-surrounding-gate silicon nanowire FETs with different ratio of the major and minor axes. By simultaneously simulating engineering acceptable magnitudes of the threshold voltage roll-off, the drain induced barrier lowering, the subthreshold swing, and the on-/off-state current ratio, an optimal geometry aspect ratio between the channel length and the major and minor axes of the ellipse-shaped-surrounding-gate nanowire FET is concluded. PMID:27398546

  7. High-performance integrated field-effect transistor-based sensors.

    PubMed

    Adzhri, R; Md Arshad, M K; Gopinath, Subash C B; Ruslinda, A R; Fathil, M F M; Ayub, R M; Nor, M Nuzaihan Mohd; Voon, C H

    2016-04-21

    Field-effect transistors (FETs) have succeeded in modern electronics in an era of computers and hand-held applications. Currently, considerable attention has been paid to direct electrical measurements, which work by monitoring changes in intrinsic electrical properties. Further, FET-based sensing systems drastically reduce cost, are compatible with CMOS technology, and ease down-stream applications. Current technologies for sensing applications rely on time-consuming strategies and processes and can only be performed under recommended conditions. To overcome these obstacles, an overview is presented here in which we specifically focus on high-performance FET-based sensor integration with nano-sized materials, which requires understanding the interaction of surface materials with the surrounding environment. Therefore, we present strategies, material depositions, device structures and other characteristics involved in FET-based devices. Special attention was given to silicon and polyaniline nanowires and graphene, which have attracted much interest due to their remarkable properties in sensing applications. PMID:27026595

  8. High-Mobility Holes in Dual-Gated WSe2 Field-Effect Transistors.

    PubMed

    Movva, Hema C P; Rai, Amritesh; Kang, Sangwoo; Kim, Kyounghwan; Fallahazad, Babak; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Tutuc, Emanuel; Banerjee, Sanjay K

    2015-10-27

    We demonstrate dual-gated p-type field-effect transistors (FETs) based on few-layer tungsten diselenide (WSe2) using high work-function platinum source/drain contacts and a hexagonal boron nitride top-gate dielectric. A device topology with contacts underneath the WSe2 results in p-FETs with ION/IOFF ratios exceeding 10(7) and contacts that remain ohmic down to cryogenic temperatures. The output characteristics show current saturation and gate tunable negative differential resistance. The devices show intrinsic hole mobilities around 140 cm(2)/(V s) at room temperature and approaching 4000 cm(2)/(V s) at 2 K. Temperature-dependent transport measurements show a metal-insulator transition, with an insulating phase at low densities and a metallic phase at high densities. The mobility shows a strong temperature dependence consistent with phonon scattering, and saturates at low temperatures, possibly limited by Coulomb scattering or defects. PMID:26343531

  9. Light emission from an ambipolar semiconducting polymer field-effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swensen, James S.; Soci, Cesare; Heeger, Alan J.

    2006-02-01

    Ambipolar light-emitting field-effect transistors are fabricated with two different metals for the top-contact source and drain electrodes; a low-work-function metal defining the channel for the source electrode and a high-work-function metal defining the channel for the drain electrode. A thin film of polypropylene-co-1-butene on SiN x is used as the gate dielectric on an n ++-Si wafer, which functioned as the substrate and the gate electrode. Transport data show ambipolar behavior. Recombination of electrons and holes results in a narrow zone of light emission within the channel. The location of the emission zone is controlled by the gate bias.

  10. Light emission from an ambipolar semiconducting polymer field-effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swensen, James S.; Soci, Cesare; Heeger, Alan J.

    2005-12-01

    Ambipolar light-emitting field-effect transistors are fabricated with two different metals for the top-contact source and drain electrodes; a low-work-function metal defining the channel for the source electrode and a high-work-function metal defining the channel for the drain electrode. A thin film of polypropylene-co-1-butene on SiNx is used as the gate dielectric on an n++-Si wafer, which functioned as the substrate and the gate electrode. Transport data show ambipolar behavior. Recombination of electrons and holes results in a narrow zone of light emission within the channel. The location of the emission zone is controlled by the gate bias.

  11. Electrical properties of high density arrays of silicon nanowire field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hye-Young; Lee, Kangho; Lee, Jae Woo; Kim, Sangwook; Kim, Gyu-Tae; Duesberg, Georg S.

    2013-10-01

    Proximity effect corrected e-beam lithography of hydrogen silsesquioxane on silicon on insulator was used to fabricate multi-channel silicon nanowire field-effect transistors (SiNW FETs). Arrays of 15-channels with a line width of 18 nm and pitch as small as 50 nm, the smallest reported for electrically functional devices, were fabricated. These high density arrays were back-gated by the substrate and allowed for investigation of the effects of scaling on the electrical performance of this multi-channel SiNW FET. It was revealed that the drain current and the transconductance (gm) are both reduced with decreasing pitch size. The drain induced barrier lowering and the threshold voltage (Vth) are also decreased, whereas the subthreshold swing (S) is increased. The results are in agreement with our simulations of the electric potential profile of the devices. The study contains valuable information on SiNW FET integration and scaling for future devices.

  12. Enhanced stability of black phosphorus field-effect transistors with SiO2 passivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Bensong; Yang, Bingchao; Wang, Yue; Zhang, Junying; Zeng, Zhongming; Liu, Zhongyuan; Wang, Wenhong

    2015-10-01

    Few-layer black phosphorus (BP) has attracted much attention due to its high mobility and suitable band gap for potential applic5ations in optoelectronics and flexible devices. However, its instability under ambient conditions limits its practical applications. Our investigations indicate that by passivation of the mechanically exfoliated BP flakes with a SiO2 layer, the fabricated BP field-effect transistors (FETs) exhibit greatly enhanced environmental stability. Compared to the unpassivated BP devices, which show a fast drop of on/off current ratio by a factor of 10 after one week of ambient exposure, the SiO2-passivated BP devices display a high retained on/off current ratio of over 600 after one week of exposure, just a little lower than the initial value of 810. Our investigations provide an effective route to passivate the few-layer BPs for enhancement of their environmental stability.

  13. Enhanced stability of black phosphorus field-effect transistors with SiO₂ passivation.

    PubMed

    Wan, Bensong; Yang, Bingchao; Wang, Yue; Zhang, Junying; Zeng, Zhongming; Liu, Zhongyuan; Wang, Wenhong

    2015-10-30

    Few-layer black phosphorus (BP) has attracted much attention due to its high mobility and suitable band gap for potential applic5ations in optoelectronics and flexible devices. However, its instability under ambient conditions limits its practical applications. Our investigations indicate that by passivation of the mechanically exfoliated BP flakes with a SiO2 layer, the fabricated BP field-effect transistors (FETs) exhibit greatly enhanced environmental stability. Compared to the unpassivated BP devices, which show a fast drop of on/off current ratio by a factor of 10 after one week of ambient exposure, the SiO2-passivated BP devices display a high retained on/off current ratio of over 600 after one week of exposure, just a little lower than the initial value of 810. Our investigations provide an effective route to passivate the few-layer BPs for enhancement of their environmental stability.

  14. Photocurrent transient variation in aligned Si nanowire field-effect transistors embedded with Au nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dong; Kong, Tao; Wang, Miao; Xiao, Miao; Zhang, Zhaochun; Cheng, Guosheng

    2016-09-01

    Photocurrent transient variation caused by hot-electron transfer was detected in gold nanoparticles embedded in silicon nanowire field-effect transistors via their electrical response under illumination. The devices showed dramatic photocurrent transient variation at various illumination wavelengths (300, 500, 700, and 900 nm). The maximum transient variation of the source-drain current was about five-fold stronger with the gold nanoparticles than without. A finite-difference time-domain method was employed to determine the response wavelength range of the photocurrent transient variation. The distribution of the local electromagnetic field at the interface of the gold nanoparticles and the silicon nanowire was calculated. The weak hot-electron transfer for incident wavelengths below 500 nm was concentrated on the three-phase boundary of air, gold, and silicon, while there was a relatively strong hot-electron transfer present at the boundary of gold and silicon in the wavelength range from 700 to 900 nm.

  15. Organic nanofibers integrated by transfer technique in field-effect transistor devices

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The electrical properties of self-assembled organic crystalline nanofibers are studied by integrating these on field-effect transistor platforms using both top and bottom contact configurations. In the staggered geometries, where the nanofibers are sandwiched between the gate and the source-drain electrodes, a better electrical conduction is observed when compared to the coplanar geometry where the nanofibers are placed over the gate and the source-drain electrodes. Qualitatively different output characteristics were observed for top and bottom contact devices reflecting the significantly different contact resistances. Bottom contact devices are dominated by contact effects, while the top contact device characteristics are determined by the nanofiber bulk properties. It is found that the contact resistance is lower for crystalline nanofibers when compared to amorphous thin films. These results shed light on the charge injection and transport properties for such organic nanostructures and thus constitute a significant step forward toward a nanofiber-based light-emitting device. PMID:21711821

  16. High temperature study of flexible silicon-on-insulator fin field-effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Diab, Amer; Torres Sevilla, Galo A.; Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Hussain, Muhammad M.

    2014-09-29

    We report high temperature electrical transport characteristics of a flexible version of the semiconductor industry's most advanced architecture: fin field-effect transistor on silicon-on-insulator with sub-20 nm fins and high-κ/metal gate stacks. Characterization from room to high temperature (150 °C) was completed to determine temperature dependence of drain current (I{sub ds}), gate leakage current (I{sub gs}), transconductance (g{sub m}), and extracted low-field mobility (μ{sub 0}). Mobility degradation with temperature is mainly caused by phonon scattering. The other device characteristics show insignificant difference at high temperature which proves the suitability of inorganic flexible electronics with advanced device architecture.

  17. Modeling of quasi-ballistic transport in nanowire metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yeonghun; Kakushima, Kuniyuki; Natori, Kenji; Iwai, Hiroshi

    2015-10-01

    We developed a semi-analytical quasi-ballistic transport model for the nanowire metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors, dealing with finite lengths of source, channel, and drain. For the modeling, we used a combination of one-flux scattering matrices and analytical solutions of Boltzmann transport equations. The developed model was in quantitatively good agreement with numerical results, and well represented intermediate-scaled devices. In addition, we illustrated that the finite source seriously affect the distribution function of the carriers injected from the source, and the finite drain does for the backscattering into the channel from the drain. Finally, our model and results would help to understand physical aspects regarding quasi-ballistic transport in nanoscale devices.

  18. Field-effect transistor having a superlattice channel and high carrier velocities at high applied fields

    DOEpatents

    Chaffin, R.J.; Dawson, L.R.; Fritz, I.J.; Osbourn, G.C.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1987-06-08

    A field effect transistor comprises a semiconductor having a source, a drain, a channel and a gate in operational relationship. The semiconductor is a strained layer superlattice comprising alternating quantum well and barrier layers, the quantum well layers and barrier layers being selected from the group of layer pairs consisting of InGaAs/AlGaAs, InAs/InAlGaAs, and InAs/InAlAsP. The layer thicknesses of the quantum well and barrier layers are sufficiently thin that the alternating layers constitute a superlattice which has a superlattice conduction band energy level structure in k-vector space. The layer thicknesses of the quantum well layers are selected to provide a superlattice L/sub 2D/-valley which has a shape which is substantially more two-dimensional than that of said bulk L-valley. 2 figs.

  19. Method for extracting relevant electrical parameters from graphene field-effect transistors using a physical model

    SciTech Connect

    Boscá, A.; Pedrós, J.; Martínez, J.; Calle, F.

    2015-01-28

    Due to its intrinsic high mobility, graphene has proved to be a suitable material for high-speed electronics, where graphene field-effect transistor (GFET) has shown excellent properties. In this work, we present a method for extracting relevant electrical parameters from GFET devices using a simple electrical characterization and a model fitting. With experimental data from the device output characteristics, the method allows to calculate parameters such as the mobility, the contact resistance, and the fixed charge. Differentiated electron and hole mobilities and direct connection with intrinsic material properties are some of the key aspects of this method. Moreover, the method output values can be correlated with several issues during key fabrication steps such as the graphene growth and transfer, the lithographic steps, or the metalization processes, providing a flexible tool for quality control in GFET fabrication, as well as a valuable feedback for improving the material-growth process.

  20. Microscopic origin of low frequency noise in MoS{sub 2} field-effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Ghatak, Subhamoy; Jain, Manish; Ghosh, Arindam; Mukherjee, Sumanta; Sarma, D. D.

    2014-09-01

    We report measurement of low frequency 1/f noise in molybdenum di-sulphide (MoS{sub 2}) field-effect transistors in multiple device configurations including MoS{sub 2} on silicon dioxide as well as MoS{sub 2}-hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) heterostructures. All as-fabricated devices show similar magnitude of noise with number fluctuation as the dominant mechanism at high temperatures and density, although the calculated density of traps is two orders of magnitude higher than that at the SiO{sub 2} interface. Measurements on the heterostructure devices with vacuum annealing and dual gated configuration reveals that along with the channel, metal-MoS{sub 2} contacts also play a significant role in determining noise magnitude in these devices.

  1. An analytical model for bio-electronic organic field-effect transistor sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macchia, Eleonora; Giordano, Francesco; Magliulo, Maria; Palazzo, Gerardo; Torsi, Luisa

    2013-09-01

    A model for the electrical characteristics of Functional-Bio-Interlayer Organic Field-Effect Transistors (FBI-OFETs) electronic sensors is here proposed. Specifically, the output current-voltage characteristics of a streptavidin (SA) embedding FBI-OFET are modeled by means of the analytical equations of an enhancement mode p-channel OFET modified according to an ad hoc designed equivalent circuit that is also independently simulated with pspice. An excellent agreement between the model and the experimental current-voltage output characteristics has been found upon exposure to 5 nM of biotin. A good agreement is also found with the SA OFET parameters graphically extracted from the device transfer I-V curves.

  2. Unipolar and bipolar operation of InAs/InSb nanowire heterostructure field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, Henrik A.; Caroff, Philippe; Lind, Erik; Pistol, Mats-Erik; Thelander, Claes; Wernersson, Lars-Erik

    2011-09-01

    We present temperature dependent electrical measurements on n-type InAs/InSb nanowire heterostructure field-effect transistors. The barrier height of the heterostructure junction is determined to be 220 meV, indicating a broken bandgap alignment. A clear asymmetry is observed when applying a bias to either the InAs or the InSb side of the junction. Impact ionization and band-to-band tunneling is more pronounced when the large voltage drop occurs in the narrow bandgap InSb segment. For small negative gate-voltages, the InSb segment can be tuned toward p-type conduction, which induces a strong band-to-band tunneling across the heterostructucture junction.

  3. Drive current enhancement in tunnel field-effect transistors by graded heterojunction approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, Nguyen Dang; Vinh, Luu The

    2013-09-01

    The heterostructure technique has recently demonstrated an excellent solution to resolve the trade-off between on- and off-state currents in tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs). This paper shows the weakness of abrupt heterojunctions and explores the physics of drive current enhancement as well as generalizes the proposed graded heterojunction approach in both n-type and p-type TFETs. It is shown that the presence of thermal emission barriers formed by abrupt band offsets is the physical reason of the on-current lowering observed in abrupt heterojunction TFETs. By employing graded heterojunctions in TFETs, the thermal emission barriers for electrons and holes are completely eliminated to narrow the tunnel widths in n-type and p-type TFETs, respectively. With the significant improvement in on-current, this novel approach of graded heterojunctions provides an effective technique for enhancing the drive current in heterostructure-based TFET devices.

  4. High-mobility bio-organic field effect transistors with photoreactive DNAs as gate insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youn Sun; Jung, Ki Hwa; Lee, U. Ra; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Hoang, Mai Ha; Jin, Jung-Il; Choi, Dong Hoon

    2010-03-01

    Organic-soluble DNAs bearing chalcone moieties were synthesized by using purified natural sodium DNA. In addition to the chalcone-containing DNA homopolymer (CcDNA), a copolymer (CTMADNA-co-CcDNA) was synthesized. They were employed as gate insulators for fabricating organic thin-film transistors. An organic semiconductor (5,5'-(9,10-bis((4-hexylphenyl)ethynyl)anthracene-2,6-yl-diyl)bis(ethyne-2,1-diyl)bis(2-hexylthiophene; HB-ant-THT) was deposited on the photocrosslinked DNA-based gate insulators via a solution process. Interestingly, the resulting TFT devices had extremely high field-effect mobilities, and their corresponding transfer curves indicated low hysteresis. The carrier mobility of the device with HB-ant-THT deposited on the CTMADNA-co-CcDNA gate insulator was the best, i.e., 0.31 cm2 V-1 s-1 (Ion/Ioff=1.0×104).

  5. ON current enhancement of nanowire Schottky barrier tunnel field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takei, Kohei; Hashimoto, Shuichiro; Sun, Jing; Zhang, Xu; Asada, Shuhei; Xu, Taiyu; Matsukawa, Takashi; Masahara, Meishoku; Watanabe, Takanobu

    2016-04-01

    Silicon nanowire Schottky barrier tunnel field effect transistors (NW-SBTFETs) are promising structures for high performance devices. In this study, we fabricated NW-SBTFETs to investigate the effect of nanowire structure on the device characteristics. The NW-SBTFETs were operated with a backgate bias, and the experimental results demonstrate that the ON current density is enhanced by narrowing the width of the nanowire. We confirmed using the Fowler-Nordheim plot that the drain current in the ON state mainly comprises the quantum tunneling component through the Schottky barrier. Comparison with a technology computer aided design (TCAD) simulation revealed that the enhancement is attributed to the electric field concentration at the corners of cross-section of the NW. The study findings suggest an effective approach to securing the ON current by Schottky barrier width modulation.

  6. Internal additive noise effects in stochastic resonance using organic field effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Yoshiharu; Matsubara, Kiyohiko; Asakawa, Naoki

    2016-08-01

    Stochastic resonance phenomenon was observed in organic field effect transistor using poly(3-hexylthiophene), which enhances performance of signal transmission with application of noise. The enhancement of correlation coefficient between the input and output signals was low, and the variation of correlation coefficient was not remarkable with respect to the intensity of external noise, which was due to the existence of internal additive noise following the nonlinear threshold response. In other words, internal additive noise plays a positive role on the capability of approximately constant signal transmission regardless of noise intensity, which can be said "homeostatic" behavior or "noise robustness" against external noise. Furthermore, internal additive noise causes emergence of the stochastic resonance effect even on the threshold unit without internal additive noise on which the correlation coefficient usually decreases monotonically.

  7. Few-electron edge-state quantum dots in a silicon nanowire field-effect transistor.

    PubMed

    Voisin, Benoit; Nguyen, Viet-Hung; Renard, Julien; Jehl, Xavier; Barraud, Sylvain; Triozon, François; Vinet, Maud; Duchemin, Ivan; Niquet, Yann-Michel; de Franceschi, Silvano; Sanquer, Marc

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the gate-induced onset of few-electron regime through the undoped channel of a silicon nanowire field-effect transistor. By combining low-temperature transport measurements and self-consistent calculations, we reveal the formation of one-dimensional conduction modes localized at the two upper edges of the channel. Charge traps in the gate dielectric cause electron localization along these edge modes, creating elongated quantum dots with characteristic lengths of ∼10 nm. We observe single-electron tunneling across two such dots in parallel, specifically one in each channel edge. We identify the filling of these quantum dots with the first few electrons, measuring addition energies of a few tens of millielectron volts and level spacings of the order of 1 meV, which we ascribe to the valley orbit splitting. The total removal of valley degeneracy leaves only a 2-fold spin degeneracy, making edge quantum dots potentially promising candidates for silicon spin qubits.

  8. pn-Heterojunction effects of perylene tetracarboxylic diimide derivatives on pentacene field-effect transistor.

    PubMed

    Yu, Seong Hun; Kang, Boseok; An, Gukil; Kim, BongSoo; Lee, Moo Hyung; Kang, Moon Sung; Kim, Hyunjung; Lee, Jung Heon; Lee, Shichoon; Cho, Kilwon; Lee, Jun Young; Cho, Jeong Ho

    2015-01-28

    We investigated the heterojunction effects of perylene tetracarboxylic diimide (PTCDI) derivatives on the pentacene-based field-effect transistors (FETs). Three PTCDI derivatives with different substituents were deposited onto pentacene layers and served as charge transfer dopants. The deposited PTCDI layer, which had a nominal thickness of a few layers, formed discontinuous patches on the pentacene layers and dramatically enhanced the hole mobility in the pentacene FET. Among the three PTCDI molecules tested, the octyl-substituted PTCDI, PTCDI-C8, provided the most efficient hole-doping characteristics (p-type) relative to the fluorophenyl-substituted PTCDIs, 4-FPEPTC and 2,4-FPEPTC. The organic heterojunction and doping characteristics were systematically investigated using atomic force microscopy, 2D grazing incidence X-ray diffraction studies, and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. PTCDI-C8, bearing octyl substituents, grew laterally on the pentacene layer (2D growth), whereas 2,4-FPEPTC, with fluorophenyl substituents, underwent 3D growth. The different growth modes resulted in different contact areas and relative orientations between the pentacene and PTCDI molecules, which significantly affected the doping efficiency of the deposited adlayer. The differences between the growth modes and the thin-film microstructures in the different PTCDI patches were attributed to a mismatch between the surface energies of the patches and the underlying pentacene layer. The film-morphology-dependent doping effects observed here offer practical guidelines for achieving more effective charge transfer doping in thin-film transistors.

  9. Electron and hole photoemission detection for band offset determination of tunnel field-effect transistor heterojunctions

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wei; Zhang, Qin; Kirillov, Oleg A.; Levin, Igor; Richter, Curt A.; Gundlach, David J.; Nguyen, N. V. E-mail: liangxl@pku.edu.cn; Bijesh, R.; Datta, S.; Liang, Yiran; Peng, Lian-Mao; Liang, Xuelei E-mail: liangxl@pku.edu.cn

    2014-11-24

    We report experimental methods to ascertain a complete energy band alignment of a broken-gap tunnel field-effect transistor based on an InAs/GaSb hetero-junction. By using graphene as an optically transparent electrode, both the electron and hole barrier heights at the InAs/GaSb interface can be quantified. For a Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/InAs/GaSb layer structure, the barrier height from the top of the InAs and GaSb valence bands to the bottom of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} conduction band is inferred from electron emission whereas hole emissions reveal the barrier height from the top of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} valence band to the bottom of the InAs and GaSb conduction bands. Subsequently, the offset parameter at the broken gap InAs/GaSb interface is extracted and thus can be used to facilitate the development of predicted models of electron quantum tunneling efficiency and transistor performance.

  10. Nb-doped single crystalline MoS{sub 2} field effect transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Saptarshi E-mail: das@anl.gov; Demarteau, Marcellinus; Roelofs, Andreas

    2015-04-27

    We report on the demonstration of a p-type, single crystalline, few layer MoS{sub 2} field effect transistor (FET) using Niobium (Nb) as the dopant. The doping concentration was extracted and determined to be ∼3 × 10{sup 19}/cm{sup 3}. We also report on bilayer Nb-doped MoS{sub 2} FETs with ambipolar conduction. We found that the current ON-OFF ratio of the Nb-doped MoS{sub 2} FETs changes significantly as a function of the flake thickness. We attribute this experimental observation to bulk-type electrostatic effect in ultra-thin MoS{sub 2} crystals. We provide detailed analytical modeling in support of our claims. Finally, we show that in the presence of heavy doping, even ultra-thin 2D-semiconductors cannot be fully depleted and may behave as a 3D material when used in transistor geometry. Our findings provide important insights into the doping constraints of 2D materials, in general.

  11. Room-temperature amorphous alloy field-effect transistor exhibiting particle and wave electronic transport

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuhara, M.; Kawarada, H.

    2015-02-28

    The realization of room-temperature macroscopic field effect transistors (FETs) will lead to new epoch-making possibilities for electronic applications. The I{sub d}-V{sub g} characteristics of the millimeter-sized aluminum-oxide amorphous alloy (Ni{sub 0.36}Nb{sub 0.24}Zr{sub 0.40}){sub 90}H{sub 10} FETs were measured at a gate-drain bias voltage of 0–60 μV in nonmagnetic conditions and under a magnetic fields at room temperature. Application of dc voltages to the gate electrode resulted in the transistor exhibiting one-electron Coulomb oscillation with a period of 0.28 mV, Fabry-Perot interference with a period of 2.35 μV under nonmagnetic conditions, and a Fano effect with a period of 0.26 mV for Vg and 0.2 T under a magnetic field. The realization of a low-energy controllable device made from millimeter-sized Ni-Nb-Zr-H amorphous alloy throws new light on cluster electronics.

  12. High performance field-effect transistor based on multilayer tungsten disulfide.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xue; Hu, Jin; Yue, Chunlei; Della Fera, Nicholas; Ling, Yun; Mao, Zhiqiang; Wei, Jiang

    2014-10-28

    Semiconducting two-dimensional transition metal chalcogenide crystals have been regarded as the promising candidate for the future generation of transistor in modern electronics. However, how to fabricate those crystals into practical devices with acceptable performance still remains as a challenge. Employing tungsten disulfide multilayer thin crystals, we demonstrate that using gold as the only contact metal and choosing appropriate thickness of the crystal, high performance transistor with on/off ratio of 10(8) and mobility up to 234 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) at room temperature can be realized in a simple device structure. Furthermore, low temperature study revealed that the high performance of our device is caused by the minimized Schottky barrier at the contact and the existence of a shallow impurity level around 80 meV right below the conduction band edge. From the analysis on temperature dependence of field-effect mobility, we conclude that strongly suppressed phonon scattering and relatively low charge impurity density are the key factors leading to the high mobility of our tungsten disulfide devices.

  13. Spearhead Nanometric Field-Effect Transistor Sensors for Single-Cell Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Córdoba, Ainara López; Ali, Tayyibah; Shevchuk, Andrew; Takahashi, Yasufumi; Novak, Pavel; Edwards, Christopher; Lab, Max; Gopal, Sahana; Chiappini, Ciro; Anand, Uma; Magnani, Luca; Coombes, R. Charles; Gorelik, Julia; Matsue, Tomokazu; Schuhmann, Wolfgang; Klenerman, David; Sviderskaya, Elena V.; Korchev, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Nanometric field-effect-transistor (FET) sensors are made on the tip of spear-shaped dual carbon nanoelectrodes derived from carbon deposition inside double-barrel nanopipettes. The easy fabrication route allows deposition of semiconductors or conducting polymers to comprise the transistor channel. A channel from electrodeposited poly pyrrole (PPy) exhibits high sensitivity toward pH changes. This property is exploited by immobilizing hexokinase on PPy nano-FETs to give rise to a selective ATP biosensor. Extracellular pH and ATP gradients are key biochemical constituents in the microenvironment of living cells; we monitor their real-time changes in relation to cancer cells and cardiomyocytes. The highly localized detection is possible because of the high aspect ratio and the spear-like design of the nano-FET probes. The accurately positioned nano-FET sensors can detect concentration gradients in three-dimensional space, identify biochemical properties of a single living cell, and after cell membrane penetration perform intracellular measurements. PMID:26816294

  14. Photojunction field-effect transistor based on a colloidal quantum dot absorber channel layer.

    PubMed

    Adinolfi, Valerio; Kramer, Illan J; Labelle, André J; Sutherland, Brandon R; Hoogland, S; Sargent, Edward H

    2015-01-27

    The performance of photodetectors is judged via high responsivity, fast speed of response, and low background current. Many previously reported photodetectors based on size-tuned colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) have relied either on photodiodes, which, since they are primary photocarrier devices, lack gain; or photoconductors, which provide gain but at the expense of slow response (due to delayed charge carrier escape from sensitizing centers) and an inherent dark current vs responsivity trade-off. Here we report a photojunction field-effect transistor (photoJFET), which provides gain while breaking prior photoconductors' response/speed/dark current trade-off. This is achieved by ensuring that, in the dark, the channel is fully depleted due to a rectifying junction between a deep-work-function transparent conductive top contact (MoO3) and a moderately n-type CQD film (iodine treated PbS CQDs). We characterize the rectifying behavior of the junction and the linearity of the channel characteristics under illumination, and we observe a 10 μs rise time, a record for a gain-providing, low-dark-current CQD photodetector. We prove, using an analytical model validated using experimental measurements, that for a given response time the device provides a two-orders-of-magnitude improvement in photocurrent-to-dark-current ratio compared to photoconductors. The photoJFET, which relies on a junction gate-effect, enriches the growing family of CQD photosensitive transistors. PMID:25558809

  15. Uncovering edge states and electrical inhomogeneity in MoS2 field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Di; Li, Xiao; Luan, Lan; Wu, Xiaoyu; Li, Wei; Yogeesh, Maruthi N; Ghosh, Rudresh; Chu, Zhaodong; Akinwande, Deji; Niu, Qian; Lai, Keji

    2016-08-01

    The understanding of various types of disorders in atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), including dangling bonds at the edges, chalcogen deficiencies in the bulk, and charges in the substrate, is of fundamental importance for TMD applications in electronics and photonics. Because of the imperfections, electrons moving on these 2D crystals experience a spatially nonuniform Coulomb environment, whose effect on the charge transport has not been microscopically studied. Here, we report the mesoscopic conductance mapping in monolayer and few-layer MoS2 field-effect transistors by microwave impedance microscopy (MIM). The spatial evolution of the insulator-to-metal transition is clearly resolved. Interestingly, as the transistors are gradually turned on, electrical conduction emerges initially at the edges before appearing in the bulk of MoS2 flakes, which can be explained by our first-principles calculations. The results unambiguously confirm that the contribution of edge states to the channel conductance is significant under the threshold voltage but negligible once the bulk of the TMD device becomes conductive. Strong conductance inhomogeneity, which is associated with the fluctuations of disorder potential in the 2D sheets, is also observed in the MIM images, providing a guideline for future improvement of the device performance.

  16. Room-temperature amorphous alloy field-effect transistor exhibiting particle and wave electronic transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuhara, M.; Kawarada, H.

    2015-02-01

    The realization of room-temperature macroscopic field effect transistors (FETs) will lead to new epoch-making possibilities for electronic applications. The Id-Vg characteristics of the millimeter-sized aluminum-oxide amorphous alloy (Ni0.36Nb0.24Zr0.40)90H10 FETs were measured at a gate-drain bias voltage of 0-60 μV in nonmagnetic conditions and under a magnetic fields at room temperature. Application of dc voltages to the gate electrode resulted in the transistor exhibiting one-electron Coulomb oscillation with a period of 0.28 mV, Fabry-Perot interference with a period of 2.35 μV under nonmagnetic conditions, and a Fano effect with a period of 0.26 mV for Vg and 0.2 T under a magnetic field. The realization of a low-energy controllable device made from millimeter-sized Ni-Nb-Zr-H amorphous alloy throws new light on cluster electronics.

  17. α,ω-dihexyl-sexithiophene thin films for solution-gated organic field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schamoni, Hannah; Noever, Simon; Nickel, Bert; Stutzmann, Martin; Garrido, Jose A.

    2016-02-01

    While organic semiconductors are being widely investigated for chemical and biochemical sensing applications, major drawbacks such as the poor device stability and low charge carrier mobility in aqueous electrolytes have not yet been solved to complete satisfaction. In this work, solution-gated organic field-effect transistors (SGOFETs) based on the molecule α,ω-dihexyl-sexithiophene (DH6T) are presented as promising platforms for in-electrolyte sensing. Thin films of DH6T were investigated with regard to the influence of the substrate temperature during deposition on the grain size and structural order. The performance of SGOFETs can be improved by choosing suitable growth parameters that lead to a two-dimensional film morphology and a high degree of structural order. Furthermore, the capability of the SGOFETs to detect changes in the pH or ionic strength of the gate electrolyte is demonstrated and simulated. Finally, excellent transistor stability is confirmed by continuously operating the device over a period of several days, which is a consequence of the low threshold voltage of DH6T-based SGOFETs. Altogether, our results demonstrate the feasibility of high performance and highly stable organic semiconductor devices for chemical or biochemical applications.

  18. Touch sensors based on planar liquid crystal-gated-organic field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jooyeok; Lee, Chulyeon; Han, Hyemi; Lee, Sooyong; Nam, Sungho; Kim, Hwajeong; Lee, Joon-Hyung; Park, Soo-Young; Kang, Inn-Kyu; Kim, Youngkyoo

    2014-09-01

    We report a tactile touch sensor based on a planar liquid crystal-gated-organic field-effect transistor (LC-g-OFET) structure. The LC-g-OFET touch sensors were fabricated by forming the 10 μm thick LC layer (4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl - 5CB) on top of the 50 nm thick channel layer (poly(3-hexylthiophene) - P3HT) that is coated on the in-plane aligned drain/source/gate electrodes (indium-tin oxide - ITO). As an external physical stimulation to examine the tactile touch performance, a weak nitrogen flow (83.3 μl/s) was employed to stimulate the LC layer of the touch device. The LC-g-OFET device exhibited p-type transistor characteristics with a hole mobility of 1.5 cm2/Vs, but no sensing current by the nitrogen flow touch was measured at sufficiently high drain (VD) and gate (VG) voltages. However, a clear sensing current signal was detected at lower voltages, which was quite sensitive to the combination of VD and VG. The best voltage combination was VD = -0.2 V and VG = -1 V for the highest ratio of signal currents to base currents (i.e., signal-to-noise ratio). The change in the LC alignment upon the nitrogen flow touch was assigned as the mechanism for the present LC-g-OFET touch sensors.

  19. Boron δ-doped (111) diamond solution gate field effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Edgington, Robert; Ruslinda, A Rahim; Sato, Syunsuke; Ishiyama, Yuichiro; Tsuge, Kyosuke; Ono, Tasuku; Kawarada, Hiroshi; Jackman, Richard B

    2012-03-15

    A solution gate field effect transistor (SGFET) using an oxidised boron δ-doped channel on (111) diamond is presented for the first time. Employing an optimised plasma chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) recipe to deposit δ-layers, SGFETs show improved current-voltage (I-V) characteristics in comparison to previous similar devices fabricated on (100) and polycrystalline diamond, where the device is shown to operate in the enhancement mode of operation, achieving channel pinch-off and drain-source current saturation within the electrochemical window of diamond. A maximum gain and transconductance of 3 and 200μS/mm are extracted, showing comparable figures of merit to hydrogen-based SGFET. The oxidised device shows a site-binding model pH sensitivity of 36 mV/pH, displaying fast temporal responses. Considering the biocompatibility of diamond towards cells, the device's highly mutable transistor characteristics, pH sensitivity and stability against anodic oxidation common to hydrogen terminated diamond SGFET, oxidised boron δ-doped diamond SGFETs show promise for the recording of action potentials from electrogenic cells.

  20. Spearhead Nanometric Field-Effect Transistor Sensors for Single-Cell Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanjun; Clausmeyer, Jan; Babakinejad, Babak; López Córdoba, Ainara; Ali, Tayyibah; Shevchuk, Andrew; Takahashi, Yasufumi; Novak, Pavel; Edwards, Christopher; Lab, Max; Gopal, Sahana; Chiappini, Ciro; Anand, Uma; Magnani, Luca; Coombes, R Charles; Gorelik, Julia; Matsue, Tomokazu; Schuhmann, Wolfgang; Klenerman, David; Sviderskaya, Elena V; Korchev, Yuri

    2016-03-22

    Nanometric field-effect-transistor (FET) sensors are made on the tip of spear-shaped dual carbon nanoelectrodes derived from carbon deposition inside double-barrel nanopipettes. The easy fabrication route allows deposition of semiconductors or conducting polymers to comprise the transistor channel. A channel from electrodeposited poly pyrrole (PPy) exhibits high sensitivity toward pH changes. This property is exploited by immobilizing hexokinase on PPy nano-FETs to give rise to a selective ATP biosensor. Extracellular pH and ATP gradients are key biochemical constituents in the microenvironment of living cells; we monitor their real-time changes in relation to cancer cells and cardiomyocytes. The highly localized detection is possible because of the high aspect ratio and the spear-like design of the nano-FET probes. The accurately positioned nano-FET sensors can detect concentration gradients in three-dimensional space, identify biochemical properties of a single living cell, and after cell membrane penetration perform intracellular measurements.

  1. Nerve cell response to inhibitors recorded with an aluminum-galliumnitride/galliumnitride field-effect transistor.

    PubMed

    Gebinoga, Michael; Mai, Patrick; Donahue, Mary; Kittler, Mario; Cimalla, Irina; Lübbers, Benedikt; Klett, Maren; Lebedev, Vadim; Silveira, Liele; Singh, Sukhdeep; Schober, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Experiments based on neuronal cell-transistor couplings were made from some groups during the last years. Pioneering work in this field was carried out by Fromherz and his group (Fromherz, 2003; Schmidtner and Fromherz, 2006). We were interested of the interaction of nerve cells to serine hydrolase inhibitor diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP), monitored by using an aluminum-galliumnitride/galliumnitride (AlGaN/GaN) electrolyte gate field effect transistor (EGFET). The biocompatibility study of our sensor materials with nerve cells shows a proliferation rate of at least 95%. The inhibitors were added to the medium and the source-drain current of the EGFET was recorded as a function of time. The inhibitor was added to the NG108-15 nerve cells growing directly on the sensor surface, resulting in a fast decrease in the drain current, I(DS). Control measurements show that this response is associated with cationic fluxes pumped through ionic channels present in the cellular membrane. The sensor enables analysis of the ion channel activity without cell destruction and simultaneously allows visual observation due to the optical transparency of the sensor material.

  2. Uncovering edge states and electrical inhomogeneity in MoS2 field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Di; Li, Xiao; Luan, Lan; Wu, Xiaoyu; Li, Wei; Yogeesh, Maruthi N; Ghosh, Rudresh; Chu, Zhaodong; Akinwande, Deji; Niu, Qian; Lai, Keji

    2016-08-01

    The understanding of various types of disorders in atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), including dangling bonds at the edges, chalcogen deficiencies in the bulk, and charges in the substrate, is of fundamental importance for TMD applications in electronics and photonics. Because of the imperfections, electrons moving on these 2D crystals experience a spatially nonuniform Coulomb environment, whose effect on the charge transport has not been microscopically studied. Here, we report the mesoscopic conductance mapping in monolayer and few-layer MoS2 field-effect transistors by microwave impedance microscopy (MIM). The spatial evolution of the insulator-to-metal transition is clearly resolved. Interestingly, as the transistors are gradually turned on, electrical conduction emerges initially at the edges before appearing in the bulk of MoS2 flakes, which can be explained by our first-principles calculations. The results unambiguously confirm that the contribution of edge states to the channel conductance is significant under the threshold voltage but negligible once the bulk of the TMD device becomes conductive. Strong conductance inhomogeneity, which is associated with the fluctuations of disorder potential in the 2D sheets, is also observed in the MIM images, providing a guideline for future improvement of the device performance. PMID:27444021

  3. Controlling Leakage Currents in Organic Field-Effect Transistors using Molecular Dipole Monolayers on Nanoscale Oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Hardigree, Josue F.; Dawidczyk, Thomas; Ireland, Robert; Johns, Gary; Jung, Byung-Jun; Markovic, Nina; Katz, Howard

    2013-03-01

    Self-assembled monolayers (SAM) have been explored as easily-processed, ultrathin interfacial layers in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) for tuning the threshold voltage (Vt). We investigated the influence of Fermi-level pinning of the gate electrode by SAMs on leakage currents in OFETs fabricated on highly-doped n- and p-type Si gates with an intentionally marginal-quality, high leakage 8 nm SiO2 dielectric. Two dipolar alkyl SAMs, octyltriethoxysilane (OTS) and its fluorinated analogue (FOTS), were employed under a 40 nm active layer of a naphthalenetetracarboxylic diimide (NTCDI) derivative. Transistors on nSi displayed more positive Vt for OTS (+0.23 V) and FOTS (+1.09 V) than bare oxide (-0.56 V), while OFETs on pSi showed a lower Vt for OTS (+0.26 V) and a higher Vt for FOTS (+1.25 V) devices relative to bare oxide (+1.15 V). Differences in gate and subthreshold leakage between bare and SAM-treated oxides match the trends in Vt. Scanning Kelvin-probe measurements were consistent with this trend, indicating FOTS made both nSi and pSi oxide surfaces more negative relative to bare oxide, while OTS treatment resulted in more positive surface potentials on pSi and more negative surface potentials on nSi. Now at University of Seoul

  4. Fast and broadband photoresponse of few-layer black phosphorus field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Buscema, Michele; Groenendijk, Dirk J; Blanter, Sofya I; Steele, Gary A; van der Zant, Herre S J; Castellanos-Gomez, Andres

    2014-06-11

    Few-layer black phosphorus, a new elemental two-dimensional (2D) material recently isolated by mechanical exfoliation, is a high-mobility layered semiconductor with a direct bandgap that is predicted to strongly depend on the number of layers, from 0.35 eV (bulk) to 2.0 eV (single layer). Therefore, black phosphorus is an appealing candidate for tunable photodetection from the visible to the infrared part of the spectrum. We study the photoresponse of field-effect transistors (FETs) made of few-layer black phosphorus (3-8 nm thick), as a function of excitation wavelength, power, and frequency. In the dark state, the black phosphorus FETs can be tuned both in hole and electron doping regimes allowing for ambipolar operation. We measure mobilities in the order of 100 cm(2)/V s and a current ON/OFF ratio larger than 10(3). Upon illumination, the black phosphorus transistors show a response to excitation wavelengths from the visible region up to 940 nm and a rise time of about 1 ms, demonstrating broadband and fast detection. The responsivity reaches 4.8 mA/W, and it could be drastically enhanced by engineering a detector based on a PN junction. The ambipolar behavior coupled to the fast and broadband photodetection make few-layer black phosphorus a promising 2D material for photodetection across the visible and near-infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum. PMID:24821381

  5. Graphene field-effect transistor array with integrated electrolytic gates scaled to 200 mm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, N. C. S.; Borme, J.; Machado, G., Jr.; Cerqueira, F.; Freitas, P. P.; Zucolotto, V.; Peres, N. M. R.; Alpuim, P.

    2016-03-01

    Ten years have passed since the beginning of graphene research. In this period we have witnessed breakthroughs both in fundamental and applied research. However, the development of graphene devices for mass production has not yet reached the same level of progress. The architecture of graphene field-effect transistors (FET) has not significantly changed, and the integration of devices at the wafer scale has generally not been sought. Currently, whenever an electrolyte-gated FET (EGFET) is used, an external, cumbersome, out-of-plane gate electrode is required. Here, an alternative architecture for graphene EGFET is presented. In this architecture, source, drain, and gate are in the same plane, eliminating the need for an external gate electrode and the use of an additional reservoir to confine the electrolyte inside the transistor active zone. This planar structure with an integrated gate allows for wafer-scale fabrication of high-performance graphene EGFETs, with carrier mobility up to 1800 cm2 V-1 s-1. As a proof-of principle, a chemical sensor was achieved. It is shown that the sensor can discriminate between saline solutions of different concentrations. The proposed architecture will facilitate the mass production of graphene sensors, materializing the potential of previous achievements in fundamental and applied graphene research.

  6. Spearhead Nanometric Field-Effect Transistor Sensors for Single-Cell Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanjun; Clausmeyer, Jan; Babakinejad, Babak; López Córdoba, Ainara; Ali, Tayyibah; Shevchuk, Andrew; Takahashi, Yasufumi; Novak, Pavel; Edwards, Christopher; Lab, Max; Gopal, Sahana; Chiappini, Ciro; Anand, Uma; Magnani, Luca; Coombes, R Charles; Gorelik, Julia; Matsue, Tomokazu; Schuhmann, Wolfgang; Klenerman, David; Sviderskaya, Elena V; Korchev, Yuri

    2016-03-22

    Nanometric field-effect-transistor (FET) sensors are made on the tip of spear-shaped dual carbon nanoelectrodes derived from carbon deposition inside double-barrel nanopipettes. The easy fabrication route allows deposition of semiconductors or conducting polymers to comprise the transistor channel. A channel from electrodeposited poly pyrrole (PPy) exhibits high sensitivity toward pH changes. This property is exploited by immobilizing hexokinase on PPy nano-FETs to give rise to a selective ATP biosensor. Extracellular pH and ATP gradients are key biochemical constituents in the microenvironment of living cells; we monitor their real-time changes in relation to cancer cells and cardiomyocytes. The highly localized detection is possible because of the high aspect ratio and the spear-like design of the nano-FET probes. The accurately positioned nano-FET sensors can detect concentration gradients in three-dimensional space, identify biochemical properties of a single living cell, and after cell membrane penetration perform intracellular measurements. PMID:26816294

  7. Graphene field-effect transistor array with integrated electrolytic gates scaled to 200 mm.

    PubMed

    Vieira, N C S; Borme, J; Machado, G; Cerqueira, F; Freitas, P P; Zucolotto, V; Peres, N M R; Alpuim, P

    2016-03-01

    Ten years have passed since the beginning of graphene research. In this period we have witnessed breakthroughs both in fundamental and applied research. However, the development of graphene devices for mass production has not yet reached the same level of progress. The architecture of graphene field-effect transistors (FET) has not significantly changed, and the integration of devices at the wafer scale has generally not been sought. Currently, whenever an electrolyte-gated FET (EGFET) is used, an external, cumbersome, out-of-plane gate electrode is required. Here, an alternative architecture for graphene EGFET is presented. In this architecture, source, drain, and gate are in the same plane, eliminating the need for an external gate electrode and the use of an additional reservoir to confine the electrolyte inside the transistor active zone. This planar structure with an integrated gate allows for wafer-scale fabrication of high-performance graphene EGFETs, with carrier mobility up to 1800 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). As a proof-of principle, a chemical sensor was achieved. It is shown that the sensor can discriminate between saline solutions of different concentrations. The proposed architecture will facilitate the mass production of graphene sensors, materializing the potential of previous achievements in fundamental and applied graphene research. PMID:26830656

  8. Fast and broadband photoresponse of few-layer black phosphorus field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Buscema, Michele; Groenendijk, Dirk J; Blanter, Sofya I; Steele, Gary A; van der Zant, Herre S J; Castellanos-Gomez, Andres

    2014-06-11

    Few-layer black phosphorus, a new elemental two-dimensional (2D) material recently isolated by mechanical exfoliation, is a high-mobility layered semiconductor with a direct bandgap that is predicted to strongly depend on the number of layers, from 0.35 eV (bulk) to 2.0 eV (single layer). Therefore, black phosphorus is an appealing candidate for tunable photodetection from the visible to the infrared part of the spectrum. We study the photoresponse of field-effect transistors (FETs) made of few-layer black phosphorus (3-8 nm thick), as a function of excitation wavelength, power, and frequency. In the dark state, the black phosphorus FETs can be tuned both in hole and electron doping regimes allowing for ambipolar operation. We measure mobilities in the order of 100 cm(2)/V s and a current ON/OFF ratio larger than 10(3). Upon illumination, the black phosphorus transistors show a response to excitation wavelengths from the visible region up to 940 nm and a rise time of about 1 ms, demonstrating broadband and fast detection. The responsivity reaches 4.8 mA/W, and it could be drastically enhanced by engineering a detector based on a PN junction. The ambipolar behavior coupled to the fast and broadband photodetection make few-layer black phosphorus a promising 2D material for photodetection across the visible and near-infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  9. High-mobility solution-processed copper phthalocyanine-based organic field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaure, Nandu B.; Cammidge, Andrew N.; Chambrier, Isabelle; Cook, Michael J.; Cain, Markys G.; Murphy, Craig E.; Pal, Chandana; Ray, Asim K.

    2011-03-01

    Solution-processed films of 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octakis(hexyl) copper phthalocyanine (CuPc6) were utilized as an active semiconducting layer in the fabrication of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) in the bottom-gate configurations using chemical vapour deposited silicon dioxide (SiO2) as gate dielectrics. The surface treatment of the gate dielectric with a self-assembled monolayer of octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) resulted in values of 4×10-2 cm2 V-1 s-1 and 106 for saturation mobility and on/off current ratio, respectively. This improvement was accompanied by a shift in the threshold voltage from 3 V for untreated devices to -2 V for OTS treated devices. The trap density at the interface between the gate dielectric and semiconductor decreased by about one order of magnitude after the surface treatment. The transistors with the OTS treated gate dielectrics were more stable over a 30-day period in air than untreated ones.

  10. Improved Drain Current Saturation and Voltage Gain in Graphene–on–Silicon Field Effect Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Seung Min; Bong, Jae Hoon; Hwang, Wan Sik; Cho, Byung Jin

    2016-05-01

    Graphene devices for radio frequency (RF) applications are of great interest due to their excellent carrier mobility and saturation velocity. However, the insufficient current saturation in graphene field effect transistors (FETs) is a barrier preventing enhancements of the maximum oscillation frequency and voltage gain, both of which should be improved for RF transistors. Achieving a high output resistance is therefore a crucial step for graphene to be utilized in RF applications. In the present study, we report high output resistances and voltage gains in graphene-on-silicon (GoS) FETs. This is achieved by utilizing bare silicon as a supporting substrate without an insulating layer under the graphene. The GoSFETs exhibit a maximum output resistance of 2.5 MΩ•μm, maximum intrinsic voltage gain of 28 dB, and maximum voltage gain of 9 dB. This method opens a new route to overcome the limitations of conventional graphene-on-insulator (GoI) FETs and subsequently brings graphene electronics closer to practical usage.

  11. Improved Drain Current Saturation and Voltage Gain in Graphene–on–Silicon Field Effect Transistors

    PubMed Central

    Song, Seung Min; Bong, Jae Hoon; Hwang, Wan Sik; Cho, Byung Jin

    2016-01-01

    Graphene devices for radio frequency (RF) applications are of great interest due to their excellent carrier mobility and saturation velocity. However, the insufficient current saturation in graphene field effect transistors (FETs) is a barrier preventing enhancements of the maximum oscillation frequency and voltage gain, both of which should be improved for RF transistors. Achieving a high output resistance is therefore a crucial step for graphene to be utilized in RF applications. In the present study, we report high output resistances and voltage gains in graphene-on-silicon (GoS) FETs. This is achieved by utilizing bare silicon as a supporting substrate without an insulating layer under the graphene. The GoSFETs exhibit a maximum output resistance of 2.5 MΩ∙μm, maximum intrinsic voltage gain of 28 dB, and maximum voltage gain of 9 dB. This method opens a new route to overcome the limitations of conventional graphene-on-insulator (GoI) FETs and subsequently brings graphene electronics closer to practical usage. PMID:27142861

  12. Inkjet printed ambipolar transistors and inverters based on carbon nanotube/zinc tin oxide heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Bongjun; Jang, Seonpil; Dodabalapur, Ananth; Geier, Michael L.; Prabhumirashi, Pradyumna L.; Hersam, Mark C.

    2014-02-10

    We report ambipolar field-effect transistors (FETs) consisting of inkjet printed semiconductor bilayer heterostructures utilizing semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and amorphous zinc tin oxide (ZTO). The bilayer structure allows for electron transport to occur principally in the amorphous oxide layer and hole transport to occur exclusively in the SWCNT layer. This results in balanced electron and hole mobilities exceeding 2 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} at low operating voltages (<5 V) in air. We further show that the SWCNT-ZTO hybrid ambipolar FETs can be integrated into functional inverter circuits that display high peak gain (>10). This work provides a pathway for realizing solution processable, inkjet printable, large area electronic devices, and systems based on SWCNT-amorphous oxide heterostructures.

  13. Detection of α-fetoprotein in human serum using carbon nanotube transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    So, Hye-Mi; Park, Dong-Won; Lee, Seong-Kyu; Kim, Beom Soo; Chang, Hyunju; Lee, Jeong-O.

    2009-03-01

    We have fabricated antibody-coated carbon nanotube field effect transistor (CNT-FET) sensor for the detection of α-fetoprotein (AFP), single chain glycoprotein of 70 kDa that is normally expressed in the fetal liver, in human serum. The AFP-specific antibodies were immobilized on CNT with linker molecule such as pyrenebutyric acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester. To prevent nonspecific adsorption of antigen, we performed blocking procedure using bovine serum albumin (BSA). Antibody-antigen binding was determined by measuring electrical conductance change of FET and took an average of thereshold voltage change before and after binding. Also we checked concentration-dependent conductance change in human serum using both p-type SWNT-FETs and n-type SWNT-FETs.

  14. Method for manufacturing compound semiconductor field-effect transistors with improved DC and high frequency performance

    DOEpatents

    Zolper, John C.; Sherwin, Marc E.; Baca, Albert G.

    2000-01-01

    A method for making compound semiconductor devices including the use of a p-type dopant is disclosed wherein the dopant is co-implanted with an n-type donor species at the time the n-channel is formed and a single anneal at moderate temperature is then performed. Also disclosed are devices manufactured using the method. In the preferred embodiment n-MESFETs and other similar field effect transistor devices are manufactured using C ions co-implanted with Si atoms in GaAs to form an n-channel. C exhibits a unique characteristic in the context of the invention in that it exhibits a low activation efficiency (typically, 50% or less) as a p-type dopant, and consequently, it acts to sharpen the Si n-channel by compensating Si donors in the region of the Si-channel tail, but does not contribute substantially to the acceptor concentration in the buried p region. As a result, the invention provides for improved field effect semiconductor and related devices with enhancement of both DC and high-frequency performance.

  15. Scaling behavior of hysteresis in multilayer MoS{sub 2} field effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tao; Du, Gang; Zhang, Baoshun; Zeng, Zhongming

    2014-09-01

    Extrinsic hysteresis effects are often observed in MoS{sub 2} field effect devices due to adsorption of gas molecules on the surface of MoS{sub 2} channel. Scaling is a common method used in ferroics to quantitatively study the hysteresis. Here, the scaling behavior of hysteresis in multilayer MoS{sub 2} field effect transistors with a back-gated configuration was investigated. The power-law scaling relations were obtained for hysteresis area (〈A〉) and memory window (ΔV) with varying the region of back-gate voltage (V{sub bg,max}). It is interesting to find that the transition voltage in the forward sweep (V{sub FW}) and in the backward sweep (V{sub BW}) shifted to the opposite directions of back-gate voltage (V{sub bg}) with increasing V{sub bg,max}. However, when decreasing V{sub bg,max}, V{sub FW} shifted to positive and reversibly recovered, but V{sub BW} almost kept unchanged. The evolution of 〈A〉, ΔV, V{sub FW,} and V{sub BW} with V{sub bg,max} were discussed by the electrons transferring process between the adsorbate and MoS{sub 2} channel.

  16. Method for manufacturing compound semiconductor field-effect transistors with improved DC and high frequency performance

    SciTech Connect

    Zolper, J.C.; Sherwin, M.E.; Baca, A.G.

    2000-07-04

    A method for making compound semiconductor devices including the use of a p-type dopant is disclosed wherein the dopant is co-implanted with an n-type donor species at the time the n-channel is formed and a single anneal at moderate temperature is then performed. Also disclosed are devices manufactured using the method. In the preferred embodiment n-MESFETs and other similar field effect transistor devices are manufactured using C ions co-implanted with Si atoms in GaAs to form an n-channel. C exhibits a unique characteristic in the context of the invention in that it exhibits a low activation efficiency (typically, 50% or less) as a p-type dopant, and consequently, it acts to sharpen the Si n-channel by compensating Si donors in the region of the Si-channel tail, but does not contribute substantially to the acceptor concentration in the buried p region. As a result, the invention provides for improved field effect semiconductor and related devices with enhancement of both DC and high-frequency performance.

  17. Fluorinated polyimide gate dielectrics for the advancing the electrical stability of organic field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Baek, Yonghwa; Lim, Sooman; Yoo, Eun Joo; Kim, Lae Ho; Kim, Haekyoung; Lee, Seung Woo; Kim, Se Hyun; Park, Chan Eon

    2014-09-10

    Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) that operated with good electrical stability were prepared by synthesizing fluorinated polyimide (PI) gate dielectrics based on 6FDA-PDA-PDA PI and 6FDA-CF3Bz-PDA PI. 6FDA-PDA-PDA PI and 6FDA-CF3Bz-PDA PI contain 6 and 18 fluorine atoms per repeat unit, respectively. These fluorinated polymers provided smooth surface topographies and surface energies that decreased as the number of fluorine atoms in the polymer backbone increased. These properties led to a better crystalline morphology in the semiconductor film grown over their surfaces. The number of fluorine atoms in the PI backbone increased, the field-effect mobility improved, and the threshold voltage shifted toward positive values (from -0.38 to +2.21 V) in the OFETs with pentacene and triethylsilylethynyl anthradithiophene. In addition, the highly fluorinated polyimide dielectric showed negligible hysteresis and a notable gate bias stability under both a N2 environment and ambient air.

  18. Three-Dimensional Percolation and Performance of Nanocrystal Field-Effect Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aigner, Willi; Wiesinger, Markus; Wiggers, Hartmut; Stutzmann, Martin; Pereira, Rui N.

    2016-05-01

    The understanding of charge transport through films of semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) is fundamental for most applications envisaged for these materials, e.g., light-emitting diodes, solar cells, and thin-film field-effect transistors (FETs). In this work, we show that three-dimensional film-thickness-dependent percolation effects taking place above the percolation threshold strongly affect the charge transport in NC films and greatly determine the performance of NC devices such as NC FETs. We use thin films of Si NCs with a wide range of thicknesses controllable by spray coating of NC inks to thoroughly investigate the electronic properties and charge transport in thin NC films. We find a steep (superlinear) increase of the electrical conductivity with increasing film thickness, which is not observed in bulk semiconductor thin films with bandlike charge transport. We explain this increase by an exponentially increasing number of charge percolation paths in a system dominated by hopping charge transport. Thin-film NC FETs reveal thickness-independent field-effect mobilities and threshold voltages, whereas on:off current ratios decrease quickly with increasing film thickness. We show that the steep enhancement of electrical conductivity with increasing film thickness provided by three-dimensional percolation effects is, in fact, responsible for the dramatic degradation of NC FET performance observed with increasing film thickness. Our work demonstrates that the performance of NC FETs is much more critically sensitive to film thickness than in conventional FET-based bulk semiconductor materials.

  19. Improving the electrical characteristics of graphene field effect transistors by hexamethyldisilazane interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Sk.; Rahimi, Somayyeh; Sonde, Sushant; Tao, Li; Banerjee, Sanjay; Akinwande, Deji

    2014-03-01

    We report the improvement of the electrical characteristics of graphene field effect transistors (FET) by hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) passivation. Sample is left in liquid HMDS after complete back gated FET fabrication. Both electron and hole field effect mobilities are improved by 1.5X - 2X, accompanied by effective residual carrier concentration reduction. Dirac voltage also moves closer to zero. Various techniques for HMDS application are investigated. Time evolution of mobility data shows that mobility improvement saturates after a few hours of HMDS dosing. Temperature-dependent transport measurements show small mobility variation between 77K and room temperature (295K) before HMDS application. But mobility at 77K is almost 2 times higher than mobility at 295K after HMDS application. The best CVD devices achieve a mobility of ~ 20,000 cm2/V-s at 77K. Performance improvement is observed for FETs made with exfoliated graphene and for FETs made on hydrophobic substrate- an HMDS-graphene-HMDS sandwich structure. Raman spectroscopic analysis shows that G peak width is increased, G peak position is down shifted and intensity ratios between 2D and G peak is increased after HMDS application. AFM data shows increased RMS roughness after HMDS application.

  20. Toward Intraoperative Detection of Disseminated Tumor Cells in Lymph Nodes with Silicon Nanowire Field Effect Transistors.

    PubMed

    Tran, Duy P; Winter, Marnie A; Wolfrum, Bernhard; Stockmann, Regina; Yang, Chih-Tsung; Pourhassan-Moghaddam, Mohammad; Offenhäusser, Andreas; Thierry, Benjamin

    2016-02-23

    Within an hour, as little as one disseminated tumor cell (DTC) per lymph node can be quantitatively detected using an intraoperative biosensing platform based on silicon nanowire field-effect transistors (SiNW FET). It is also demonstrated that the integrated biosensing platform is able to detect the presence of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the blood of colorectal cancer patients. The presence of DTCs in lymph nodes and CTCs in peripheral blood is highly significant as it is strongly associated with poor patient prognosis. The SiNW FET sensing platform out-performed in both sensitivity and rapidity not only the current standard method based on pathological examination of tissue sections but also the emerging clinical gold standard based on molecular assays. The possibility to achieve accurate and highly sensitive analysis of the presence of DTCs in the lymphatics within the surgery time frame has the potential to spare cancer patients from an unnecessary secondary surgery, leading to reduced patient morbidity, improving their psychological wellbeing and reducing time spent in hospital. This study demonstrates the potential of nanoscale field-effect technology in clinical cancer diagnostics. PMID:26859618

  1. Chemical vapor deposition grown monolayer graphene field-effect transistors with reduced impurity concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Tae-Jun; Lee, Alvin

    2015-07-01

    We report on the restoration of the electronic characteristics of waferscale chemical vapor deposition (CVD) monolayer graphene field-effect transistors (GFETs) by reducing the impurity concentration. An optimized electropolishing process on copper foils combined with carbon-fluorine encapsulation using a suitable amorphous fluoropolymer enables reducing the surface roughness of graphene and screening out interfacial impurity scattering, which leads to an improvement in all key device metrics. The conductivity at the Dirac point is substantially reduced, resulting in an increase in the on-off current ratio. In addition, the field-effect mobility increased from 1817 to 3918 cm2/V-s, the impurity concentration decreased from 1.1 × 1012 to 2.1 × 1011 cm-2 and the electron and hole transport became more symmetric. Significantly, favorable shifts toward zero voltage were observed in the Dirac point. We postulate that the smoother surface due to electropolishing and a pool of strong dipole-dipole moments in the flouropolymer coating provide a charge buffer that relaxes the fluctuation in the electron-hole puddles. We also investigate the long-term stability in GFETs encapsulated with fluoropolymer, which exhibit a high hydrophobicity that suppresses the chemical interaction with water molecules. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  2. Organic/inorganic interfaced field-effect transistor properties with a novel organic semiconducting material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demir, Ahmet; Atahan, Alparslan; Bağcı, Sadık; Aslan, Metin; Saif Islam, M.

    2016-01-01

    A novel 1,3,4-oxadiazole-substituted benzo[b]triphenylene was synthesized by three-step synthetic procedure and OFET device design was successfully designed after theoretical calculations made using Gaussian software. For investigating the field-effect properties of designed organic electronic device, a SiO2 (300 nm) was thermally grown on p-Si wafer at 1000 °C as a dielectric layer and gate, source and drain contacts have been deposited using Au metal with physical vapour deposition. 1,3,4-Oxadiazole-substituted benzo[b]triphenylene was spin coated on the source and drain electrodes of our device, forming organic/inorganic interfaced field-effect transistors. Surface morphology and thin film properties were investigated using AFM. All electrical measurements were done in air ambient. The device showed a typical p-type channel behaviour with increasing negative gate bias voltage values. Our results have surprisingly shown that the saturation regime of this device has high mobility (μFET), excellent on/off ratio (Ion/Ioff), high transconductance (gm) and a small threshold voltage (VTh). The values of μFET, Ion/Ioff, gm and VTh were found as 5.02 cm2/Vs, 0.7 × 103, 5.64 μS/mm and 1.37 V, respectively. These values show that our novel organic material could be a potential candidate for organic electronic device applications in the future.

  3. A sub kBT/q semimetal nanowire field effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, L.; Fagas, G.; Gity, F.; Greer, J. C.

    2016-08-01

    The key challenge for nanoelectronics technologies is to identify the designs that work on molecular length scales, provide reduced power consumption relative to classical field effect transistors (FETs), and that can be readily integrated at low cost. To this end, a FET is introduced that relies on the quantum effects arising for semimetals patterned with critical dimensions below 5 nm, that intrinsically has lower power requirements due to its better than a "Boltzmann tyranny" limited subthreshold swing (SS) relative to classical field effect devices, eliminates the need to form heterojunctions, and mitigates against the requirement for abrupt doping profiles in the formation of nanowire tunnel FETs. This is achieved through using a nanowire comprised of a single semimetal material while providing the equivalent of a heterojunction structure based on shape engineering to avail of the quantum confinement induced semimetal-to-semiconductor transition. Ab initio calculations combined with a non-equilibrium Green's function formalism for charge transport reveals tunneling behavior in the OFF state and a resonant conduction mechanism for the ON state. A common limitation to tunnel FET (TFET) designs is related to a low current in the ON state. A discussion relating to the semimetal FET design to overcome this limitation while providing less than 60 meV/dec SS at room temperature is provided.

  4. Large-signal model of the bilayer graphene field-effect transistor targeting radio-frequency applications: Theory versus experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Pasadas, Francisco Jiménez, David

    2015-12-28

    Bilayer graphene is a promising material for radio-frequency transistors because its energy gap might result in a better current saturation than the monolayer graphene. Because the great deal of interest in this technology, especially for flexible radio-frequency applications, gaining control of it requires the formulation of appropriate models for the drain current, charge, and capacitance. In this work, we have developed them for a dual-gated bilayer graphene field-effect transistor. A drift-diffusion mechanism for the carrier transport has been considered coupled with an appropriate field-effect model taking into account the electronic properties of the bilayer graphene. Extrinsic resistances have been included considering the formation of a Schottky barrier at the metal-bilayer graphene interface. The proposed model has been benchmarked against experimental prototype transistors, discussing the main figures of merit targeting radio-frequency applications.

  5. Self-aligned graphene field-effect transistors on SiC (0001) substrates with self-oxidized gate dielectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Li; Cui, Yu; Li, Wang; Qingbin, Liu; Zezhao, He; Shujun, Cai; Zhihong, Feng

    2014-07-01

    A scalable self-aligned approach is employed to fabricate monolayer graphene field-effect transistors on semi-insulated 4H-SiC (0001) substrates. The self-aligned process minimized access resistance and parasitic capacitance. Self-oxidized Al2O3, formed by deposition of 2 nm Al followed by exposure in air to be oxidized, is used as gate dielectric and shows excellent insulation. An intrinsic cutoff frequency of 34 GHz and maximum oscillation frequency of 36.4 GHz are realized for the monolayer graphene field-effect transistor with a gate length of 0.2 μm. These studies show a pathway to fabricate graphene transistors for future applications in ultra-high frequency circuits.

  6. Simple and reliable urea assay based on a signal accumulation type of ion-sensitive field-effect transistor.

    PubMed

    Tomari, Naohiro; Kawasaki, Asako; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Nishiya, Yoshiaki

    2015-02-01

    A simple urea assay was developed using a signal accumulation type of ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (SA-ISFET). Decreases in proton concentration resulting from urease-catalyzed hydrolysis of urea are detected by SA-ISFET as a change in potential. The method exhibits high sensitivity, linearity, and reproducibility when potential signals are accumulated 10-fold.

  7. Leveraging the ambipolar transport in polymeric field-effect transistors via blending with liquid-phase exfoliated graphene.

    PubMed

    El Gemayel, Mirella; Haar, Sébastien; Liscio, Fabiola; Schlierf, Andrea; Melinte, Georgian; Milita, Silvia; Ersen, Ovidiu; Ciesielski, Artur; Palermo, Vincenzo; Samorì, Paolo

    2014-07-23

    Enhancement in the ambipolar behavior of field-effect transistors based on an n-type polymer, P(NDI2OD-T2), is obtained by co-deposition with liquid-phase exfoliated graphene. This approach provides a prospective pathway for the application of graphene-based nanocomposites for logic circuits.

  8. Asymmetric Diketopyrrolopyrrole Conjugated Polymers for Field-Effect Transistors and Polymer Solar Cells Processed from a Nonchlorinated Solvent.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yunjing; Xiao, Chengyi; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Jianqi; Li, Cheng; Wu, Yonggang; Wei, Zhixiang; Zhan, Xiaowei; Hu, Wenping; Wang, Zhaohui; Janssen, René A J; Li, Weiwei

    2016-02-01

    Newly designed asymmetric diketopyrrolopyrrole conjugated polymers with two different aromatic substituents possess a hole mobility of 12.5 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) in field-effect transistors and a power conversion efficiency of 6.5% in polymer solar cells, when solution processed from a nonchlorinated toluene/diphenyl ether mixed solvent.

  9. High I on/I off current ratio graphene field effect transistor: the role of line defect.

    PubMed

    Tajarrod, Mohammad Hadi; Saghai, Hassan Rasooli

    2015-01-01

    The present paper casts light upon the performance of an armchair graphene nanoribbon (AGNR) field effect transistor in the presence of one-dimensional topological defects. The defects containing 5-8-5 sp(2)-hybridized carbon rings were placed in a perfect graphene sheet. The atomic scale behavior of the transistor was investigated in the non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) and tight-binding Hamiltonian frameworks. AGNRFET basic terms such as the on/off current, transconductance and subthreshold swing were investigated along with the extended line defect (ELD). The results indicated that the presence of ELDs had a significant effect on the parameters of the GNRFET. Compared to conventional transistors, the increase of the I on/I off ratio in graphene transistors with ELDs enhances their applicability in digital devices.

  10. Ferroelectric Field Effect Transistor Model Using Partitioned Ferroelectric Layer and Partial Polarization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat D.

    2004-01-01

    A model of an n-channel ferroelectric field effect transistor has been developed based on both theoretical and empirical data. The model is based on an existing model that incorporates partitioning of the ferroelectric layer to calculate the polarization within the ferroelectric material. The model incorporates several new aspects that are useful to the user. It takes into account the effect of a non-saturating gate voltage only partially polarizing the ferroelectric material based on the existing remnant polarization. The model also incorporates the decay of the remnant polarization based on the time history of the FFET. A gate pulse of a specific voltage; will not put the ferroelectric material into a single amount of polarization for that voltage, but instead vary with previous state of the material and the time since the last change to the gate voltage. The model also utilizes data from FFETs made from different types of ferroelectric materials to allow the user just to input the material being used and not recreate the entire model. The model also allows the user to input the quality of the ferroelectric material being used. The ferroelectric material quality can go from a theoretical perfect material with little loss and no decay to a less than perfect material with remnant losses and decay. This model is designed to be used by people who need to predict the external characteristics of a FFET before the time and expense of design and fabrication. It also allows the parametric evaluation of quality of the ferroelectric film on the overall performance of the transistor.

  11. Phosphorus-Rich Copper Phosphide Nanowires for Field-Effect Transistors and Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Guo-An; Wang, Chiu-Yen; Chang, Wei-Chung; Tuan, Hsing-Yu

    2016-09-27

    Phosphorus-rich transition metal phosphide CuP2 nanowires were synthesized with high quality and high yield (∼60%) via the supercritical fluid-liquid-solid (SFLS) growth at 410 °C and 10.2 MPa. The obtained CuP2 nanowires have a high aspect ratio and exhibit a single crystal structure of monoclinic CuP2 without any impurity phase. CuP2 nanowires have progressive improvement for semiconductors and energy storages compared with bulk CuP2. Being utilized for back-gate field effect transistor (FET) measurement, CuP2 nanowires possess a p-type behavior intrinsically with an on/off ratio larger than 10(4) and its single nanowire electrical transport property exhibits a hole mobility of 147 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), representing the example of a CuP2 transistor. In addition, CuP2 nanowires can serve as an appealing anode material for a lithium-ion battery electrode. The discharge capacity remained at 945 mA h g(-1) after 100 cycles, showing a good capacity retention of 88% based on the first discharge capacity. Even at a high rate of 6 C, the electrode still exhibited an outstanding result with a capacity of ∼600 mA h g(-1). Ex-situ transmission electron microscopy and CV tests demonstrate that the stability of capacity retention and remarkable rate capability of the CuP2 nanowires electrode are attributed to the role of the metal phosphide conversion-type lithium storage mechanism. Finally, CuP2 nanowire anodes and LiFePO4 cathodes were assembled into pouch-type lithium batteries offering a capacity over 60 mA h. The full cell shows high capacity and stable capacity retention and can be used as an energy supply to operate electronic devices such as mobile phones and mini 4WD cars. PMID:27603024

  12. Enzyme-modified electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buth, Felix; Donner, Andreas; Stutzmann, Martin; Garrido, Jose A.

    2012-10-01

    Organic solution-gated field-effect transistors (SGFETs) can be operated at low voltages in aqueous environments, paving the way to the use of organic semiconductors in bio-sensing applications. However, it has been shown that these devices exhibit only a rather weak sensitivity to standard electrolyte parameters such as pH and ionic strength. In order to increase the sensitivity and to add specificity towards a given analyte, the covalent attachment of functional groups and enzymes to the device surface would be desirable. In this contribution we demonstrate that enzyme modified organic SGFETs can be used for the in-situ detection of penicillin in the low μM regime. In a first step, silane molecules with amine terminal groups are grafted to α-sexithiophene-based thin film transistors. Surface characterization techniques like X-ray photoemission confirm the modification of the surface with these functional groups, which are stable in standard aqueous electrolytes. We show that the presence of surface-bound amphoteric groups (e.g. amino or carboxylic moieties) increases the pH-sensitivity of the organic SGFETs. In addition, these groups serve as anchoring sites for the attachment of the enzyme penicillinase. The resulting enzyme-FETs are used for the detection of penicillin, enabling the study of the influence of the buffer strength and the pH of the electrolyte on the enzyme kinetics. The functionalization of the organic FETs shown here can be extended to a large variety of enzymes, allowing the specific detection of different chemical and biochemical analytes.

  13. Phosphorus-Rich Copper Phosphide Nanowires for Field-Effect Transistors and Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Guo-An; Wang, Chiu-Yen; Chang, Wei-Chung; Tuan, Hsing-Yu

    2016-09-27

    Phosphorus-rich transition metal phosphide CuP2 nanowires were synthesized with high quality and high yield (∼60%) via the supercritical fluid-liquid-solid (SFLS) growth at 410 °C and 10.2 MPa. The obtained CuP2 nanowires have a high aspect ratio and exhibit a single crystal structure of monoclinic CuP2 without any impurity phase. CuP2 nanowires have progressive improvement for semiconductors and energy storages compared with bulk CuP2. Being utilized for back-gate field effect transistor (FET) measurement, CuP2 nanowires possess a p-type behavior intrinsically with an on/off ratio larger than 10(4) and its single nanowire electrical transport property exhibits a hole mobility of 147 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), representing the example of a CuP2 transistor. In addition, CuP2 nanowires can serve as an appealing anode material for a lithium-ion battery electrode. The discharge capacity remained at 945 mA h g(-1) after 100 cycles, showing a good capacity retention of 88% based on the first discharge capacity. Even at a high rate of 6 C, the electrode still exhibited an outstanding result with a capacity of ∼600 mA h g(-1). Ex-situ transmission electron microscopy and CV tests demonstrate that the stability of capacity retention and remarkable rate capability of the CuP2 nanowires electrode are attributed to the role of the metal phosphide conversion-type lithium storage mechanism. Finally, CuP2 nanowire anodes and LiFePO4 cathodes were assembled into pouch-type lithium batteries offering a capacity over 60 mA h. The full cell shows high capacity and stable capacity retention and can be used as an energy supply to operate electronic devices such as mobile phones and mini 4WD cars.

  14. Touch sensors based on planar liquid crystal-gated-organic field-effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, Jooyeok; Lee, Chulyeon; Han, Hyemi; Lee, Sooyong; Nam, Sungho; Kim, Youngkyoo; Kim, Hwajeong; Lee, Joon-Hyung; Park, Soo-Young; Kang, Inn-Kyu

    2014-09-15

    We report a tactile touch sensor based on a planar liquid crystal-gated-organic field-effect transistor (LC-g-OFET) structure. The LC-g-OFET touch sensors were fabricated by forming the 10 μm thick LC layer (4-cyano-4{sup ′}-pentylbiphenyl - 5CB) on top of the 50 nm thick channel layer (poly(3-hexylthiophene) - P3HT) that is coated on the in-plane aligned drain/source/gate electrodes (indium-tin oxide - ITO). As an external physical stimulation to examine the tactile touch performance, a weak nitrogen flow (83.3 μl/s) was employed to stimulate the LC layer of the touch device. The LC-g-OFET device exhibited p-type transistor characteristics with a hole mobility of 1.5 cm{sup 2}/Vs, but no sensing current by the nitrogen flow touch was measured at sufficiently high drain (V{sub D}) and gate (V{sub G}) voltages. However, a clear sensing current signal was detected at lower voltages, which was quite sensitive to the combination of V{sub D} and V{sub G}. The best voltage combination was V{sub D} = −0.2 V and V{sub G} = −1 V for the highest ratio of signal currents to base currents (i.e., signal-to-noise ratio). The change in the LC alignment upon the nitrogen flow touch was assigned as the mechanism for the present LC-g-OFET touch sensors.

  15. Sulfur vacancy activated field effect transistors based on ReS2 nanosheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Kai; Deng, Hui-Xiong; Wang, Zhenxing; Huang, Yun; Wang, Feng; Li, Shu-Shen; Luo, Jun-Wei; He, Jun

    2015-09-01

    Rhenium disulphide (ReS2) is a recently discovered new member of the transition metal dichalcogenides. Most impressively, it exhibits a direct bandgap from bulk to monolayer. However, the growth of ReS2 nanosheets (NSs) still remains a challenge and in turn their applications are unexplored. In this study, we successfully synthesized high-quality ReS2 NSs via chemical vapor deposition. A high-performance field effect transistor of ReS2 NSs with an on/off ratio of ~105 was demonstrated. Through both electrical transport measurements at varying temperatures (80 K-360 K) and first-principles calculations, we find sulfur vacancies, which exist intrinsically in ReS2 NSs and significantly affect the performance of the ReS2 FET device. Furthermore, we demonstrated that sulfur vacancies can efficiently adsorb and recognize oxidizing (O2) and reducing (NH3) gases, which electronically interact with ReS2 only at defect sites. Our findings provide experimental groundwork for the synthesis of new transition metal dichalocogenides, supply guidelines for understanding the physical nature of ReS2 FETs, and offer a new route toward tailoring their electrical properties by defect engineering in the future.Rhenium disulphide (ReS2) is a recently discovered new member of the transition metal dichalcogenides. Most impressively, it exhibits a direct bandgap from bulk to monolayer. However, the growth of ReS2 nanosheets (NSs) still remains a challenge and in turn their applications are unexplored. In this study, we successfully synthesized high-quality ReS2 NSs via chemical vapor deposition. A high-performance field effect transistor of ReS2 NSs with an on/off ratio of ~105 was demonstrated. Through both electrical transport measurements at varying temperatures (80 K-360 K) and first-principles calculations, we find sulfur vacancies, which exist intrinsically in ReS2 NSs and significantly affect the performance of the ReS2 FET device. Furthermore, we demonstrated that sulfur vacancies

  16. Sub-10 nm transparent all-around-gated ambipolar ionic field effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung-Hyun; Lee, Hyomin; Jin, Tianguang; Park, Sungmin; Yoon, Byung Jun; Sung, Gun Yong; Kim, Ki-Bum; Kim, Sung Jae

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we developed a versatile ionic field effect transistor (IFET) which has an ambipolar function for manipulating molecules regardless of their polarity and can be operated at a wide range of electrolytic concentrations (10-5 M-1 M). The IFET has circular nanochannels radially covered by gate electrodes, called ``all-around-gate'', with an aluminum oxide (Al2O3) oxide layer of a near-zero surface charge. Experimental and numerical validations were conducted for characterizing the IFET. We found that the versatility originated from the zero-charge density of the oxide layer and all-around-gate structure which increased the efficiency of the gate effect 5 times higher than a previously developed planar-gate by capacitance calculations. Our numerical model adapted Poisson-Nernst-Planck-Stokes (PNPS) formulations with additional nonlinear constraints of a fringing field effect and a counter-ion condensation and the experimental and numerical results were well matched. The device can control the transportation of ions at concentrations up to 1 M electrolyte which resembles a backflow of a shale gas extraction process. Furthermore, while traditional IFETs can manipulate either positively or negatively charged species depending on the inherently large surface charge of oxide layer, the presenting device and mechanism provide effective means to control the motion of both negatively and positively charged molecules which is important in biomolecule transport through nanochannels, medical diagnosis system and point-of-care system, etc.In this paper, we developed a versatile ionic field effect transistor (IFET) which has an ambipolar function for manipulating molecules regardless of their polarity and can be operated at a wide range of electrolytic concentrations (10-5 M-1 M). The IFET has circular nanochannels radially covered by gate electrodes, called ``all-around-gate'', with an aluminum oxide (Al2O3) oxide layer of a near-zero surface charge. Experimental and

  17. Dopant characterization in self-regulatory plasma doped fin field-effect transistors by atom probe tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Takamizawa, H.; Shimizu, Y.; Nozawa, Y.; Toyama, T.; Nagai, Y.; Morita, H.; Yabuuchi, Y.; Ogura, M.

    2012-02-27

    Fin field-effect transistors are promising next-generation electronic devices, and the identification of dopant positions is important for their accurate characterization. We report atom probe tomography (APT) of silicon fin structures prepared by a recently developed self-regulatory plasma doping (SRPD) technique. Trenches between fin-arrays were filled using a low-energy focused ion beam to directly deposit silicon, which allowed the analysis of dopant distribution by APT near the surface of an actual fin transistor exposed to air. We directly demonstrate that SRPD can achieve a boron concentration above 1 x 10{sup 20} atoms/cm{sup 3} at the fin sidewall.

  18. Metal contact effect on the performance and scaling behavior of carbon nanotube thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Jiye; Dong, Guodong; Tian, Boyuan; Yan, Qiuping; Zhang, Han; Liang, Xuelei; Peng, Lianmao

    2016-05-01

    Metal-tube contact is known to play an important role in carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNT-FETs) which are fabricated on individual CNTs. Less attention has been paid to the contact effect in network type carbon nanotube thin film transistors (CNT-TFTs). In this study, we demonstrate that contact plays an even more important role in CNT-TFTs than in CNT-FETs. Although the Schottky barrier height at the metal-tube contact can be tuned by the work function of the metal, similar to the case in CNT-FETs, the contact resistance (Rc) forms a much higher proportion of the total resistance in CNT-TFTs. Interestingly, the contact resistivity was found to increase with channel length, which is a consequence of the percolating nature of the transport in CNT films, and this behavior does not exist in CNT-FETs and normal 2D Ohmic conductors. Electrical transport in CNT-TFTs has been predicted to scale with channel length by stick percolation theory. However, the scaling behavior is also impacted, or even covered up by the effect of Rc. Once the contact effect is excluded, the covered scaling behavior can be revealed correctly. A possible way of reducing Rc in CNT-TFTs was proposed. We believe the findings in this paper will strengthen our understanding of CNT-TFTs, and even accelerate the commercialization of CNT-TFT technology.Metal-tube contact is known to play an important role in carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNT-FETs) which are fabricated on individual CNTs. Less attention has been paid to the contact effect in network type carbon nanotube thin film transistors (CNT-TFTs). In this study, we demonstrate that contact plays an even more important role in CNT-TFTs than in CNT-FETs. Although the Schottky barrier height at the metal-tube contact can be tuned by the work function of the metal, similar to the case in CNT-FETs, the contact resistance (Rc) forms a much higher proportion of the total resistance in CNT-TFTs. Interestingly, the contact

  19. Bismuth ferrite based thin films, nanofibers, and field effect transistor devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera-Beltran, Rut

    In this research an attempt has been made to explore bismuth ferrite thin films with low leakage current and nanofibers with high photoconductivity. Thin films were deposited with pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method. An attempt has been made to develop thin films under different deposition parameters with following target compositions: i) 0.6BiFeO3-0.4(Bi0.5 K0.5)TiO3 (BFO-BKT) and ii) bi-layered 0.88Bi 0.5Na0.5TiO3-0.08Bi0.5K0.5TiO 3-0.04BaTiO3/BiFeO3 (BNT-BKT-BT/BFO). BFO-BKT thin film shows suppressed leakage current by about four orders of magnitude which in turn improve the ferroelectric and dielectric properties of the films. The optimum remnant polarization is 19 muC.cm-2 at the oxygen partial pressure of 300 mtorr. The BNT-BKT-BT/BFO bi-layered thin films exhibited ferroelectric behavior as: Pr = 22.0 muC.cm-2, Ec = 100 kV.cm-1 and epsilonr = 140. The leakage current of bi-layered thin films have been reduced two orders of magnitude compare to un-doped bismuth ferrite. Bismuth ferrite nanofibers were developed by electrospinning technique and its electronic properties such as photoconductivity and field effect transistor performance were investigated extensively. Nanofibers were deposited by electrospinning of sol-gel solution on SiO2/Si substrate at driving voltage of 10 kV followed by heat treatment at 550 °C for 2 hours. The composition analysis through energy dispersive detector and electron energy loss spectroscopy revealed the heterogeneous nature of the composition with Bi rich and Fe deficient regions. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results confirmed the combination of Fe3+ and Fe2+ valence state in the fibers. The photoresponse result is almost hundred times higher for a fiber of 40 nm diameter compared to a fiber with 100 nm diameter. This effect is described by a size dependent surface recombination mechanism. A single and multiple BFO nanofibers field effect transistors devices were fabricated and characterized. Bismuth ferrite FET behaves

  20. Separation of interlayer resistance in multilayer MoS{sub 2} field-effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Na, Junhong; Jeong Kim, Yun; Kim, Gyu-Tae; Shin, Minju; Joo, Min-Kyu; Huh, Junghwan; Jong Choi, Hyung; Hyung Shim, Joon

    2014-06-09

    We extracted the interlayer resistance between two layers in multilayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) field-effect transistors by confirming that contact resistances (R{sub contact}) measured using the four-probe measurements were similar, within ∼30%, to source/drain series resistances (R{sub sd}) measured using the two-probe measurements. R{sub contact} values obtained from gated four-probe measurements exhibited gate voltage dependency. In the two-probe measurements, the Y-function method was applied to obtain the R{sub sd} values. By comparing those two R{sub contact} (∼9.5 kΩ) and R{sub sd} (∼12.3 kΩ) values in strong accumulation regime, we found the rationality that those two values had nearly the same properties, i.e., the Schottky barrier resistances and interlayer resistances. The R{sub sd} values of devices with two-probe source/drain electrodes exhibited thickness dependency due to interlayer resistance changes. The interlayer resistance between two layers was also obtained as ∼2.0 Ω mm.