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Sample records for nanotube-reinforced polymer composite

  1. EB treatment of carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szebényi, G.; Romhány, G.; Vajna, B.; Czvikovszky, T.

    2012-09-01

    A small amount — less than 0.5% — carbon nanotube reinforcement may improve the mechanical properties of epoxy based composite materials significantly. The basic technical problem on one side is the dispersion of the nanotubes into the viscous matrix resin, namely, the fine powder-like — less than 100 nanometer diameter — nanotubes are prone to form aggregates. On the other side, the good connection between the nanofiber and matrix, which is determining the success of the reinforcement, requires some efficient adhesion promoting treatment. The goal of our research was to give one such treatment capable of industrial size application. A two step curing epoxy/vinylester resin process technology has been developed where the epoxy component has been cured conventionally, while the vinylester has been cured by electron treatment afterwards. The sufficient irradiation dose has been selected according to Raman spectroscopy characterization. Using the developed hybrid resin system hybrid composites containing carbon fibers and multiwalled carbon nanotubes have been prepared. The effect of the electron beam induced curing of the vinylester resin on the mechanical properties of the composites has been characterized by three point bending and interlaminar shear tests, which showed clearly the superiority of the developed resin system. The results of the mechanical tests have been supported by AFM studies of the samples, which showed that the difference in the viscoelastic properties of the matrix constituents decreased significantly by the electron beam treatment.

  2. Constitutive Modeling of Nanotube-Reinforced Polymer Composite Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odegard, Gregory M.; Harik, Vasyl M.; Wise, Kristopher E.; Gates, Thomas S.

    2001-01-01

    In this study, a technique has been proposed for developing constitutive models for polymer composite systems reinforced with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT). Since the polymer molecules are on the same size scale as the nanotubes, the interaction at the polymer/nanotube interface is highly dependent on the local molecular structure and bonding. At these small length scales, the lattice structures of the nanotube and polymer chains cannot be considered continuous, and the bulk mechanical properties of the SWNT/polymer composites can no longer be determined through traditional micromechanical approaches that are formulated using continuum mechanics. It is proposed herein that the nanotube, the local polymer near the nanotube, and the nanotube/polymer interface can be modeled as an effective continuum fiber using an equivalent-continuum modeling method. The effective fiber retains the local molecular structure and bonding information and serves as a means for incorporating micromechanical analyses for the prediction of bulk mechanical properties of SWNT/polymer composites with various nanotube sizes and orientations. As an example, the proposed approach is used for the constitutive modeling of two SWNT/polyethylene composite systems, one with continuous and aligned SWNT and the other with discontinuous and randomly aligned nanotubes.

  3. Constitutive Modeling of Nanotube-Reinforced Polymer Composite Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odegard, Gregory M.; Harik, Vasyl M.; Wise, Kristopher E.; Gates, Thomas S.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, a technique has been proposed for developing constitutive models for polymer composite systems reinforced with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT). Since the polymer molecules are on the same size scale as the nanotubes, the interaction at the polymer/nanotube interface is highly dependent on the local molecular structure and bonding. At these small length scales, the lattice structures of the nanotube and polymer chains cannot be considered continuous, and the bulk mechanical properties of the SWNT/polymer composites can no longer be determined through traditional micromechanical approaches that are formulated using continuum mechanics. It is proposed herein that the nanotube, the local polymer near the nanotube, and the nanotube/polymer interface can be modeled as an effective continuum fiber using an equivalent-continuum modeling method. The effective fiber retains the local molecular structure and bonding information and serves as a means for incorporating micromechanical analyses for the prediction of bulk mechanical properties of SWNT/polymer composites with various nanotube sizes and orientations. As an example, the proposed approach is used for the constitutive modeling of two SWNT/polyethylene composite systems, one with continuous and aligned SWNT and the other with discontinuous and randomly aligned nanotubes.

  4. Constitutive Modeling of Nanotube-Reinforced Polymer Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odegard, G. M.; Gates, T. S.; Wise, K. E.; Park, C.; Siochi, E. J.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this study, a technique is presented for developing constitutive models for polymer composite systems reinforced with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT). Because the polymer molecules are on the same size scale as the nanotubes, the interaction at the polymer/nanotube interface is highly dependent on the local molecular structure and bonding. At these small length scales, the lattice structures of the nanotube and polymer chains cannot be considered continuous, and the bulk mechanical properties can no longer be determined through traditional micromechanical approaches that are formulated by using continuum mechanics. It is proposed herein that the nanotube, the local polymer near the nanotube, and the nanotube/polymer interface can be modeled as an effective continuum fiber using an equivalent-continuum modeling method. The effective fiber serves as a means for incorporating micromechanical analyses for the prediction of bulk mechanical properties of SWNT/polymer composites with various nanotube lengths, concentrations, and orientations. As an example, the proposed approach is used for the constitutive modeling of two SWNT/polyimide composite systems.

  5. Constitutive Modeling of Nanotube-Reinforced Polymer Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odegard, G. M.; Gates, T. S.; Wise, K. E.

    2002-01-01

    In this study, a technique is presented for developing constitutive models for polymer composite systems reinforced with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT). Because the polymer molecules are on the same size scale as the nanotubes, the interaction at the polymer/nanotube interface is highly dependent on the local molecular structure and bonding. At these small length scales, the lattice structures of the nanotube and polymer chains cannot be considered continuous, and the bulk mechanical properties can no longer be determined through traditional micromechanical approaches that are formulated by using continuum mechanics. It is proposed herein that the nanotube, the local polymer near the nanotube, and the nanotube/polymer interface can be modeled as an effective continuum fiber using an equivalent-continuum modeling method. The effective fiber serves as a means for incorporating micromechanical analyses for the prediction of bulk mechanical properties of SWNT/polymer composites with various nanotube shapes, sizes, concentrations, and orientations. As an example, the proposed approach is used for the constitutive modeling of two SWNT/LaRC-SI (with a PmPV interface) composite systems, one with aligned SWNTs and the other with three-dimensionally randomly oriented SWNTs. The Young's modulus and shear modulus have been calculated for the two systems for various nanotube lengths and volume fractions.

  6. Buckling of Carbon Nanotube-Reinforced Polymer Laminated Composite Materials Subjected to Axial Compression and Shear Loadings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riddick, J. C.; Gates, T. S.; Frankland, S.-J. V.

    2005-01-01

    A multi-scale method to predict the stiffness and stability properties of carbon nanotube-reinforced laminates has been developed. This method is used in the prediction of the buckling behavior of laminated carbon nanotube-polyethylene composites formed by stacking layers of carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer with the nanotube alignment axes of each layer oriented in different directions. Linking of intrinsic, nanoscale-material definitions to finite scale-structural properties is achieved via a hierarchical approach in which the elastic properties of the reinforced layers are predicted by an equivalent continuum modeling technique. Solutions for infinitely long symmetrically laminated nanotube-reinforced laminates with simply-supported or clamped edges subjected to axial compression and shear loadings are presented. The study focuses on the influence of nanotube volume fraction, length, orientation, and functionalization on finite-scale laminate response. Results indicate that for the selected laminate configurations considered in this study, angle-ply laminates composed of aligned, non-functionalized carbon nanotube-reinforced lamina exhibit the greatest buckling resistance with 1% nanotube volume fraction of 450 nm uniformly-distributed carbon nanotubes. In addition, hybrid laminates were considered by varying either the volume fraction or nanotube length through-the-thickness of a quasi-isotropic laminate. The ratio of buckling load-to-nanotube weight percent for the hybrid laminates considered indicate the potential for increasing the buckling efficiency of nanotube-reinforced laminates by optimizing nanotube size and proportion with respect to laminate configuration.

  7. Carbon nanotubes reinforced composites for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Zhu, Yuhe; Liao, Susan; Li, Jiajia

    2014-01-01

    This review paper reported carbon nanotubes reinforced composites for biomedical applications. Several studies have found enhancement in the mechanical properties of CNTs-based reinforced composites by the addition of CNTs. CNTs reinforced composites have been intensively investigated for many aspects of life, especially being made for biomedical applications. The review introduced fabrication of CNTs reinforced composites (CNTs reinforced metal matrix composites, CNTs reinforced polymer matrix composites, and CNTs reinforced ceramic matrix composites), their mechanical properties, cell experiments in vitro, and biocompatibility tests in vivo.

  8. Carbon Nanotubes Reinforced Composites for Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Zhu, Yuhe; Liao, Susan; Li, Jiajia

    2014-01-01

    This review paper reported carbon nanotubes reinforced composites for biomedical applications. Several studies have found enhancement in the mechanical properties of CNTs-based reinforced composites by the addition of CNTs. CNTs reinforced composites have been intensively investigated for many aspects of life, especially being made for biomedical applications. The review introduced fabrication of CNTs reinforced composites (CNTs reinforced metal matrix composites, CNTs reinforced polymer matrix composites, and CNTs reinforced ceramic matrix composites), their mechanical properties, cell experiments in vitro, and biocompatibility tests in vivo. PMID:24707488

  9. Effects of vacancy defects on the interfacial shear strength of carbon nanotube reinforced polymer composite.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Sanjib Chandra; Okabe, Tomonaga; Nishikawa, Masaaki

    2010-02-01

    We investigate the effects of the vacancy defects (i.e., missing atoms) in carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on the interfacial shear strength (ISS) of the CNT-polyethylene composite with the molecular dynamics simulation. In the simulation, the crystalline polyethylene matrix is set up in a hexagonal array with the polymer chains parallel to the CNT axis. Vacancy defects in the CNT are introduced by removing the corresponding atoms from the pristine CNT (i.e., CNT without any defect). Three patterns of vacancy defects with three different sizes are considered. Two types of interfaces, with and without cross-links between the CNT and the matrix are also considered here. Polyethylene chains are used as cross-links between the CNT and the matrix. The Brenner potential is used for the carbon-carbon interaction in the CNT, while the polymer is modeled by a united-atom potential. The nonbonded van der Waals interaction between the CNT and the polymer matrix and within the polymer matrix itself is modeled with the Lennard-Jones potential. To determine the ISS, we conduct the CNT pull-out from the polymer matrix and the ISS has been estimated with the change of total potential energy of the CNT-polymer system. The simulation results reveal that the vacancy defects significantly influence the ISS. Moreover, the simulation clarifies that CNT breakage occurs during the pull-out process for large size vacancy defect which ultimately reduces the reinforcement. PMID:20352712

  10. Morphological and mechanical properties of carbon-nanotube-reinforced semicrystalline and amorphous polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadek, M.; Coleman, J. N.; Barron, V.; Hedicke, K.; Blau, W. J.

    2002-12-01

    In this work, multiwalled carbon nanotubes were investigated as potential mechanical reinforcement agents in two hosts, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and poly(9-vinyl carbazole) (PVK). It was found that, by adding various concentrations of nanotubes, both Young's modulus and hardness increased by factors of 1.8 and 1.6 at 1 wt % in PVA and 2.8 and 2.0 at 8 wt % in PVK, in reasonable agreement with the Halpin-Tsai theory. Furthermore, the presence of the nanotubes was found to nucleate crystallization of the PVA. This crystal growth is thought to enhance matrix-nanotube stress transfer. In addition, microscopy studies suggest extremely strong interfacial bonding in the PVA-based composite. This is manifested by the fracture of the polymer rather that the polymer-nanotube interface.

  11. Stiffness predictions of carbon nanotube reinforced two and three-phase polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neer, Eric

    Carbon nanotubes are a relatively new area of research which has gained significant attention in published literature. One reason for this interest is their use in multi-phase composites, specifically where they can enhance traditional polymer matrices. Many authors have attempted to adapt conventional micromechanical analyses reserved for microfibers to the nano scale. A review of these works is presented. In depth analysis is provided on one of these two phase (nanotube and matrix) models, the Anumandla-Gibson model, originally published in 2006. A discussion of its strengths and sensitivities is given, with numerical data to support the conclusions. It is extended to three-phase composites through the use of classical laminated plate theory. A literature survey is conducted to gather published two and three-phase experimental results for comparison. Two phase experimental results agree well with the present model, whereas three phase data was limited, but initial comparisons were promising.

  12. Nanoscale damping characteristics of boron nitride nanotubes and carbon nanotubes reinforced polymer composites.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Richa; Nieto, Andy; Chen, Han; Mora, Maria; Agarwal, Arvind

    2013-11-27

    This study compares the damping behavior of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as reinforcement in PLC, a biodegradable copolymer. The damping behavior of PLC composites reinforced with 2 wt % or 5 wt % nanotube filler is evaluated by nanodynamic mechanical analysis (NanoDMA). The addition of 2 wt % CNT leads to the greatest enhancement in damping (tan δ) behavior. This is attributed to pullout in CNTs because of lower interfacial shear strength with the polymer matrix and a more effective sword-in-sheath mechanism as opposed to BNNTs which have bamboo-like nodes. BNNTs however have a superior distribution in the PLC polymer matrix enabling higher contents of BNNT to further enhance the damping behavior. This is in contrast with CNTs which agglomerate at higher concentrations, thus preventing further improvement at higher concentrations. It is observed that for different compositions, tan δ values show no significant changes over varying dynamic loads or prolonged cycles. This shows the ability of nanotube mechanisms to function at varying strain rates and to survive long cycles. PMID:24236402

  13. MODELING FUNCTIONALLY GRADED INTERPHASE REGIONS IN CARBON NANOTUBE REINFORCED COMPOSITES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidel, G. D.; Lagoudas, D. C.; Frankland, S. J. V.; Gates, T. S.

    2006-01-01

    A combination of micromechanics methods and molecular dynamics simulations are used to obtain the effective properties of the carbon nanotube reinforced composites with functionally graded interphase regions. The multilayer composite cylinders method accounts for the effects of non-perfect load transfer in carbon nanotube reinforced polymer matrix composites using a piecewise functionally graded interphase. The functional form of the properties in the interphase region, as well as the interphase thickness, is derived from molecular dynamics simulations of carbon nanotubes in a polymer matrix. Results indicate that the functional form of the interphase can have a significant effect on all the effective elastic constants except for the effective axial modulus for which no noticeable effects are evident.

  14. Boron Nitride Nanotubes-Reinforced Glass Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam; Hurst, Janet B.; Choi, Sung R.

    2005-01-01

    Boron nitride nanotubes of significant lengths were synthesized by reaction of boron with nitrogen. Barium calcium aluminosilicate glass composites reinforced with 4 weight percent of BN nanotubes were fabricated by hot pressing. Ambient-temperature flexure strength and fracture toughness of the glass-BN nanotube composites were determined. The strength and fracture toughness of the composite were higher by as much as 90 and 35 percent, respectively, than those of the unreinforced glass. Microscopic examination of the composite fracture surfaces showed pullout of the BN nanotubes. The preliminary results on the processing and improvement in mechanical properties of BN nanotube reinforced glass matrix composites are being reported here for the first time.

  15. Mechanical and thermal properties of carbon-nanotube-reinforced polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadek, Martin; Coleman, Jonathan N.; Barron, Valerie; Hedicke, Katrin; Blau, Werner J.

    2003-03-01

    In this research study carbon nanotubes were investigated as possible reinforcement agents to improve the mechanical and thermal properties of two different polymer matrix systems. The polymer matrices systems examined were polyvinyl alcohol and poly(9-vinyl cabazole). It was found by adding a range of mass fractions of carbon nanotubes that both Young's modulus and hardness as measured by nano-indentation increased dramatically for both matrices. Thermal properties were examined using differential scanning calorimetry and thermo gravimetric analysis. An increase of 82% in Young's modulus and 63% in hardness was observed for polyvinyl alcohol while adding approximately 1% by weight of multi walled carbon nanotubes. In the case of poly(9-vinyl cabazole) an increase of 200% in Young's modulus and 100% in hardness was achieved, by adding only 8% by weight of nanotubes. As far as the authors are aware this is the highest increase of mechanical properties observed when using carbon nanotube as a reinforcing agent. In addition the thermal properties varied significatly on introduction of the nanotubes. An increase of crystallinity was found for the semi-crystalline matrix, while a second phase appeared for the amorphous polymer when increasing the amount of multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Mechanical and thermal properties of the used polymer matrices could be significantly increased.

  16. Vibrations of carbon nanotube-reinforced composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Formica, Giovanni; Lacarbonara, Walter; Alessi, Roberto

    2010-05-01

    This work deals with a study of the vibrational properties of carbon nanotube-reinforced composites by employing an equivalent continuum model based on the Eshelby-Mori-Tanaka approach. The theory allows the calculation of the effective constitutive law of the elastic isotropic medium (matrix) with dispersed elastic inhomogeneities (carbon nanotubes). The devised computational approach is shown to yield predictions in good agreement with the experimentally obtained elastic moduli of composites reinforced with uniformly aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The primary contribution of the present work deals with the global elastic modal properties of nano-structured composite plates. The investigated composite plates are made of a purely isotropic elastic hosting matrix of three different types (epoxy, rubber, and concrete) with embedded single-walled CNTs. The computations are carried out via a finite element (FE) discretization of the composite plates. The effects of the CNT alignment and volume fraction are studied in depth to assess how the modal properties are influenced both globally and locally. As a major outcome, the lowest natural frequencies of CNT-reinforced rubber composites are shown to increase up to 500 percent.

  17. Wear Behaviour of Carbon Nanotubes Reinforced Nanocrystalline AA 4032 Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthil Saravanari, M. S.; Kumaresh Babu, S. P.; Sivaprasad, K.

    2016-09-01

    The present paper emphasizes the friction and wear properties of Carbon Nanotubes reinforced AA 4032 nanocomposites prepared by powder metallurgy technique. CNTs are multi-wall in nature and prepared by electric arc discharge method. Multi-walled CNTs are blended with AA 4032 elemental powders and compaction followed by sintering to get bulk nanocomposites. The strength of the composites has been evaluated by microhardness and the surface contact between the nanocomposites and EN 32 steel has been evaluated by Pin on disk tester. The results are proven that reinforcement of CNTs play a major role in the enhancement of hardness and wear.

  18. Preparation and characterization of water-soluble carbon nanotube reinforced Nafion membranes and so-based ionic polymer metal composite actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ru, Jie; Wang, Yanjie; Chang, Longfei; Chen, Hualing; Li, Dichen

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we developed a new kind of ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC) actuator by doping water-soluble sulfonated multi-walled carbon nanotube (sMWCNT) into Nafion matrix to overcome some major drawbacks of traditional IPMCs, such as relatively low bending deformation and carring capacity at low driving voltages. Firstly, sMWCNT was synthesized via diazotization coupling reaction, and then doped into Nafion matrix by casting method. Subsequently, the electrochemical and electromechanical properties of sMWCNT-reinforced Nafion membranes and the corresponding IPMCs were investigated. Finally, the effects of sMWCNT on the performances of IPMCs were evaluated and analyzed systematacially. The results showed that sMWCNT was homogeneously dispersed in Nafion matrix without any entangled structure or obvious agglomeration. The main factors for superior actuation performances, like water-uptake ratio, proton conductivity and elastic modulus, increased significantly. Compared to the pure Nafion IPMC and MWCNT/Nafion IPMC, much superior electrochemical and electromechanical performances were achieved in the sMWCNT/Nafion IPMC, which were attributed to the numerous insertion sites, high surface conductivity and excellent mechanical strength as well as the homogeneous dispersity of the incorporated sMWCNT. Herein, a trace amount of sMWCNT can improve the performances of IPMCs significantly for realistic applications.

  19. Tungsten disulfide nanotubes reinforced biodegradable polymers for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Lalwani, Gaurav; Henslee, Allan M; Farshid, Behzad; Parmar, Priyanka; Lin, Liangjun; Qin, Yi-Xian; Kasper, F Kurtis; Mikos, Antonios G; Sitharaman, Balaji

    2013-09-01

    In this study, we have investigated the efficacy of inorganic nanotubes as reinforcing agents to improve the mechanical properties of poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF) composites as a function of nanomaterial loading concentration (0.01-0.2 wt.%). Tungsten disulfide nanotubes (WSNTs) were used as reinforcing agents in the experimental group. Single- and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs and MWCNTs) were used as positive controls, and crosslinked PPF composites were used as the baseline control. Mechanical testing (compression and three-point bending) shows a significant enhancement (up to 28-190%) in the mechanical properties (compressive modulus, compressive yield strength, flexural modulus and flexural yield strength) of WSNT-reinforced PPF nanocomposites compared to the baseline control. In comparison to the positive controls, significant improvements in the mechanical properties of WSNT nanocomposites were also observed at various concentrations. In general, the inorganic nanotubes (WSNTs) showed mechanical reinforcement better than (up to 127%) or equivalent to that of carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs and MWCNTs). Sol fraction analysis showed significant increases in the crosslinking density of PPF in the presence of WSNTs (0.01-0.2 wt.%). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis on thin sections of crosslinked nanocomposites showed the presence of WSNTs as individual nanotubes in the PPF matrix, whereas SWCNTs and MWCNTs existed as micron-sized aggregates. The trend in the surface area of nanostructures obtained by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis was SWCNTs>MWCNTs>WSNTs. The BET surface area analysis, TEM analysis and sol fraction analysis results taken together suggest that chemical composition (inorganic vs. carbon nanomaterials), the presence of functional groups (such as sulfide and oxysulfide) and individual dispersion of the nanomaterials in the polymer matrix (absence of aggregation of the reinforcing agent) are the key parameters

  20. Nanomechanics and the viscoelastic behavior of carbon nanotube-reinforced polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Frank Thomas

    Recent experimental results demonstrate that substantial improvements in the mechanical behavior of polymers can be attained using small amounts of carbon nanotubes as a reinforcing phase. While this suggests the potential use of carbon nanotube-reinforced polymers (NRPs) for structural applications, the development of predictive models describing NRP effective behavior will be critical in the development and ultimate employment of such materials. To date many researchers have simply studied the nanoscale behavior of NRPs using techniques developed for traditional composite materials. While such studies can be useful, this dissertation seeks to extend these traditional theories to more accurately model the nanoscale interaction of the NRP constituent phases. Motivated by micrographs showing that embedded nanotubes often exhibit significant curvature within the polymer, in the first section of this dissertation a hybrid finite element-micromechanical model is developed to incorporate nanotube waviness into micromechanical predictions of NRP effective modulus. While also suitable for other types of wavy inclusions, results from this model indicate that moderate nanotube waviness can dramatically decrease the effective modulus of these materials. The second portion of this dissertation investigates the impact of the nanotubes on the overall NRP viscoelastic behavior. Because the nanotubes are on the size scale of the individual polymer chains, nanotubes may alter the viscoelastic response of the NRP in comparison to that of the pure polymer; this behavior is distinctly different from that seen in traditional polymer matrix composites. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) results for each of three modes of viscoelastic behavior (glass transition temperature, relaxation spectrum, and physical aging) are all consistent with the hypothesis of a reduced mobility, non-bulk polymer phase in the vicinity of the embedded nanotubes. These models represent initial efforts to

  1. Carbon nanotube-reinforced composites: frequency analysis theories based on the matrix stiffness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Sara Shayan; Dalir, Hamid; Farshidianfar, Anooshirvan

    2009-03-01

    Strong and versatile carbon nanotubes are finding new applications in improving conventional polymer-based fibers and films. This paper studies the influence of matrix stiffness and the intertube radial displacements on free vibration of an individual double-walled carbon nanotube (DWNT). For this, a double elastic beam model is presented for frequency analysis in a DWNT embedded in an elastic matrix. The analysis is based on both Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko beam theories which considers shear deformation and rotary inertia and for both concentric and non-concentric assumptions considering intertube radial displacements and the related internal degrees of freedom. New intertube resonant frequencies and the associated non-coaxial vibrational modes are calculated. Detailed results are demonstrated for the dependence of resonant frequencies and mode shapes on the matrix stiffness. The results indicate that internal radial displacement and surrounding matrix stiffness could substantially affect resonant frequencies especially for longer double-walled carbon nanotubes of larger innermost radius at higher resonant frequencies, and thus the latter does not keep the otherwise concentric structure at ultrahigh frequencies. Therefore, depending on the matrix stiffness, for carbon nanotubes reinforced composites, different analysis techniques should be used while the aspect ratio of carbon nanotubes has a little effect on the analysis theory which should be selected.

  2. Thermal expansion of multiwall carbon nanotube reinforced nanocrystalline silver matrix composite

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Manjula Sharma, Vimal; Pal, Hemant

    2014-04-24

    Multiwall carbon nanotube reinforced silver matrix composite was fabricated by novel molecular level mixing method, which involves nucleation of Ag ions inside carbon nanotube dispersion at the molecular level. As a result the carbon nanotubes get embedded within the powder rather than on the surfaces. Micro structural characterization by X- ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy reveals that the nanotubes are homogeneously dispersed and anchored within the matrix. The thermal expansion of the composite with the multiwall nanotube content (0, 1.5 vol%) were investigated and it is found that coefficient of thermal expansion decreases with the addition of multiwall nanotube content and reduce to about 63% to that of pure Ag.

  3. Hot extruded carbon nanotube reinforced aluminum matrix composite materials.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hansang; Leparoux, Marc

    2012-10-19

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced aluminum (Al) matrix composite materials were successfully fabricated by mechanical ball milling followed by powder hot extrusion processes. Microstructural analysis revealed that the CNTs were well dispersed at the boundaries and were aligned with the extrusion direction in the composites obtained. Although only a small quantity of CNTs were added to the composite (1 vol%), the Vickers hardness and the tensile strength were significantly enhanced, with an up to three-fold increase relative to that of pure Al. From the fractography of the extruded Al-CNT composite, several shapes were observed in the fracture surface, and this unique morphology is discussed based on the strengthening mechanism. The damage in the CNTs was investigated with Raman spectroscopy. However, the Al-CNT composite materials were not only strengthened by the addition of CNTs but also enhanced by several synergistic effects. The nanoindentation stress-strain curve was successfully constructed by setting the effective zero-load and zero-displacement points and was compared with the tensile stress-strain curve. The yield strengths of the Al-CNT composites from the nanoindentation and tensile tests were compared and discussed. We believe that the yield strength can be predicted using a simple nanoindentation stress/strain curve and that this method will be useful for materials that are difficult to machine, such as complex ceramics. PMID:23011263

  4. Self-lubricating carbon nanotube reinforced nickel matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Scharf, T. W.; Neira, A.; Hwang, J. Y.; Banerjee, R.; Tiley, J.

    2009-07-01

    Nickel (Ni)--multiwalled carbon nanotube (CNT) composites have been processed in a monolithic form using the laser-engineered net shape (LENS) processing technique. Auger electron spectroscopy maps determined that the nanotubes were well dispersed and bonded in the nickel matrix and no interfacial chemical reaction products were determined in the as-synthesized composites. Mechanisms of solid lubrication have been investigated by micro-Raman spectroscopy spatial mapping of the worn surfaces to determine the formation of tribochemical products. The Ni-CNT composites exhibit a self-lubricating behavior, forming an in situ, low interfacial shear strength graphitic film during sliding, resulting in a decrease in friction coefficient compared to pure Ni.

  5. The mechanical properties measurement of multiwall carbon nanotube reinforced nanocrystalline aluminum matrix composite

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Manjula Pal, Hemant; Sharma, Vimal

    2015-05-15

    Nanocrystalline aluminum matrix composite containing carbon nanotubes were fabricated using physical mixing method followed by cold pressing. The microstructure of the composite has been investigated using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy techniques. These studies revealed that the carbon nanotubes were homogeneously dispersed throughout the metal matrix. The consolidated samples were pressureless sintered in inert atmosphere to further actuate a strong interface between carbon nanotubes and aluminum matrix. The nanoindentation tests carried out on considered samples showed that with the addition of 0.5 wt% carbon nanotubes, the hardness and elastic modulus of the aluminum matrix increased by 21.2 % and 2 % repectively. The scratch tests revealed a decrease in the friction coefficient of the carbon nanotubes reinforced composite due to the presence of lubricating interfacial layer. The prepared composites were promising entities to be used in the field of sporting goods, construction materials and automobile industries.

  6. The mechanical properties measurement of multiwall carbon nanotube reinforced nanocrystalline aluminum matrix composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Manjula; Pal, Hemant; Sharma, Vimal

    2015-05-01

    Nanocrystalline aluminum matrix composite containing carbon nanotubes were fabricated using physical mixing method followed by cold pressing. The microstructure of the composite has been investigated using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy techniques. These studies revealed that the carbon nanotubes were homogeneously dispersed throughout the metal matrix. The consolidated samples were pressureless sintered in inert atmosphere to further actuate a strong interface between carbon nanotubes and aluminum matrix. The nanoindentation tests carried out on considered samples showed that with the addition of 0.5 wt% carbon nanotubes, the hardness and elastic modulus of the aluminum matrix increased by 21.2 % and 2 % repectively. The scratch tests revealed a decrease in the friction coefficient of the carbon nanotubes reinforced composite due to the presence of lubricating interfacial layer. The prepared composites were promising entities to be used in the field of sporting goods, construction materials and automobile industries.

  7. Characterization and modeling of viscoelastic behavior of carbon nanotube reinforced polymers: The influence of interphase and nanotube morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hua

    The addition of nanoparticles into polymer materials has been observed to dramatically change the mechanical, thermal, electrical, and diffusion properties of the host polymers, promising a novel class of polymer matrix composite materials with superior properties and added functionalities that are ideal candidates in many applications, including aerospace, automobile, medical devices, and sporting goods. Understanding the behavior and underlying mechanisms of these polymer nanocomposites is critical. The research work presented in this dissertation represents one of the initial efforts in the long journey pursuing the ultimate understanding of nanoparticle reinforced polymer systems. Particular focal points are experimental evaluation and the development of appropriate modeling methods to capture the influence of the interphase on the overall viscoelastic behavior of carbon nanotube reinforced polymer nanocomposites. The first portion of this dissertation study investigates the viscoelastic behavior of MWCNT based PMMA nanocomposites, which complements our previous study of SWCNT/PMMA systems to confirm functionalization of nanotubes as an effective way to manipulate the interaction between nanotube and polymers and control the properties of the interphase region forming around the nanotubes and consequently change the overall performance of nanotube based polymer nanocomposites. In the second portion of this dissertation, we present a novel hybrid numerical-analytical modeling method that is capable of predicting viscoelastic behavior of multiphase polymer nanocomposites, in which the nanoscopic fillers can assume complex configurations. By combining the finite element technique and a micromechanical approach (particularly, the Mori-Tanaka method) with local phase properties, this method operates at low computational cost and effectively accounts for the influence of the interphase as well as in situ nanoparticle morphology. This modeling method is implemented

  8. Forced vibration analysis of functionally graded carbon nanotube-reinforced composite plates using a numerical strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, R.; Hasrati, E.; Faghih Shojaei, M.; Gholami, R.; Shahabodini, A.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, the nonlinear forced vibration behavior of composite plates reinforced by carbon nanotubes is investigated by a numerical approach. The reinforcement is considered to be functionally graded (FG) in the thickness direction according to a micromechanical model. The first-order shear deformation theory and von Kármán-type kinematic relations are employed. The governing equations and the corresponding boundary conditions are derived with the use of Hamilton's principle. The generalized differential quadrature (GDQ) method is utilized to achieve a discretized set of nonlinear governing equations. A Galerkin-based scheme is then applied to obtain a time-varying set of ordinary differential equations of Duffing-type. Subsequently, a time periodic discretization is done and the frequency response of plates is determined via the pseudo-arc length continuation method. Selected numerical results are given for the effects of different parameters on the nonlinear forced vibration characteristics of uniformly distributed carbon nanotube- and FG carbon nanotube-reinforced composite plates. It is found that with the increase of CNT volume fraction, the flexural stiffness of plate increases; and hence its natural frequency gets larger. Moreover, it is observed that the distribution type of CNTs significantly affects the vibrational behavior of plate. The results also show that when the mid-plane of plate is CNT-rich, the natural frequency takes its minimum value and the hardening-type response of plate is intensified.

  9. Free vibration of functionally graded carbon-nanotube-reinforced composite plates with cutout.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, Mostafa; Kiani, Yaser

    2016-01-01

    During the past five years, it has been shown that carbon nanotubes act as an exceptional reinforcement for composites. For this reason, a large number of investigations have been devoted to analysis of fundamental, structural behavior of solid structures made of carbon-nanotube-reinforced composites (CNTRC). The present research, as an extension of the available works on the vibration analysis of CNTRC structures, examines the free vibration characteristics of plates containing a cutout that are reinforced with uniform or nonuniform distribution of carbon nanotubes. The first-order shear deformation plate theory is used to estimate the kinematics of the plate. The solution method is based on the Ritz method with Chebyshev basis polynomials. Such a solution method is suitable for arbitrary in-plane and out-of-plane boundary conditions of the plate. It is shown that through a functionally graded distribution of carbon nanotubes across the thickness of the plate, the fundamental frequency of a rectangular plate with or without a cutout may be enhanced. Furthermore, the frequencies are highly dependent on the volume fraction of carbon nanotubes and may be increased upon using more carbon nanotubes as reinforcement. PMID:27335742

  10. Free vibration of functionally graded carbon-nanotube-reinforced composite plates with cutout.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, Mostafa; Kiani, Yaser

    2016-01-01

    During the past five years, it has been shown that carbon nanotubes act as an exceptional reinforcement for composites. For this reason, a large number of investigations have been devoted to analysis of fundamental, structural behavior of solid structures made of carbon-nanotube-reinforced composites (CNTRC). The present research, as an extension of the available works on the vibration analysis of CNTRC structures, examines the free vibration characteristics of plates containing a cutout that are reinforced with uniform or nonuniform distribution of carbon nanotubes. The first-order shear deformation plate theory is used to estimate the kinematics of the plate. The solution method is based on the Ritz method with Chebyshev basis polynomials. Such a solution method is suitable for arbitrary in-plane and out-of-plane boundary conditions of the plate. It is shown that through a functionally graded distribution of carbon nanotubes across the thickness of the plate, the fundamental frequency of a rectangular plate with or without a cutout may be enhanced. Furthermore, the frequencies are highly dependent on the volume fraction of carbon nanotubes and may be increased upon using more carbon nanotubes as reinforcement.

  11. Free vibration of functionally graded carbon-nanotube-reinforced composite plates with cutout

    PubMed Central

    Mirzaei, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Summary During the past five years, it has been shown that carbon nanotubes act as an exceptional reinforcement for composites. For this reason, a large number of investigations have been devoted to analysis of fundamental, structural behavior of solid structures made of carbon-nanotube-reinforced composites (CNTRC). The present research, as an extension of the available works on the vibration analysis of CNTRC structures, examines the free vibration characteristics of plates containing a cutout that are reinforced with uniform or nonuniform distribution of carbon nanotubes. The first-order shear deformation plate theory is used to estimate the kinematics of the plate. The solution method is based on the Ritz method with Chebyshev basis polynomials. Such a solution method is suitable for arbitrary in-plane and out-of-plane boundary conditions of the plate. It is shown that through a functionally graded distribution of carbon nanotubes across the thickness of the plate, the fundamental frequency of a rectangular plate with or without a cutout may be enhanced. Furthermore, the frequencies are highly dependent on the volume fraction of carbon nanotubes and may be increased upon using more carbon nanotubes as reinforcement. PMID:27335742

  12. A multiscale approach for estimating the chirality effects in carbon nanotube reinforced composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Unnati A.; Sharma, Satish C.; Harsha, S. P.

    2012-08-01

    In this paper, the multiscale representative volume element approach is proposed for modeling the elastic behavior of carbon nanotubes reinforced composites. The representative volume element incorporates the continuum approach, while carbon nanotube characterizes the atomistic approach. Space frame structure similar to three dimensional beams and point masses are employed to simulate the discrete geometrical constitution of the single walled carbon nanotube. The covalent bonds between carbon atoms found in the hexagonal lattices are assigned elastic properties using beam elements. The point masses applied on each node are coinciding with the carbon atoms work as mass of beam elements. The matrix phase is modeled as a continuum medium using solid elements. These two regions are interconnected by interfacial zone using beam elements. Analysis of nanocomposites having single walled carbon nanotube with different chiralities is performed, using an atomistic finite element model based on a molecular structural mechanics approach. Using the proposed multi scale model, the deformations obtained from the simulations are used to predict the elastic and shear moduli of the nanocomposites. A significant enhancement in the stiffness of the nanocomposites is observed. The effects of interfacial shear strength, stiffness, tensile strength, chirality, length of carbon nanotube, material of matrix, types of representative volume elements and types of loading conditions on the mechanical behavior of the nanocomposites are estimated. The finite element results are compared with the rule of mixtures using formulae. It is found that the results offered by proposed model, are in close proximity with those obtained by the rule of mixtures.

  13. Multiwall carbon nanotubes reinforced epoxy nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei

    The emergence of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has led to myriad possibilities for structural polymer composites with superior specific modulus, strength, and toughness. While the research activities in carbon nanotube reinforced polymer composites (NRPs) have made enormous progress towards fabricating next-generation advanced structural materials with added thermal, optical, and electrical advantages, questions concerning the filler dispersion, interface, and CNT alignment in these composites remain partially addressed. In this dissertation, the key technical challenges related to the synthesis, processing, and reinforcing mechanics governing the effective mechanical properties of NRPs were introduced and reviewed in the first two chapters. Subsequently, issues on the dispersion, interface control, hierarchical structure, and multi-functionality of NRPs were addressed based on functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotube reinforced DGEBA epoxy systems (NREs). In chapter 3, NREs with enhanced flexural properties were discussed in the context of improved dispersion and in-situ formation of covalent bonds at the interface. In chapter 4, NREs with controlled interface and tailored thermomechanical properties were demonstrated through the judicious choice of surface functionality and resin chemistry. In chapter 5, processing-condition-induced CNT organization in hierarchical epoxy nanocomposites was analyzed. In Chapter 6, possibilities were explored for multi-functional NREs for underwater acoustic structural applications. Finally, the findings of this dissertation were concluded and future research was proposed for ordered carbon nanotube array reinforced nanocomposites in the last chapter. Four journal publications resulted from this work are listed in Appendix.

  14. Inorganic nanotubes reinforced polyvinylidene fluoride composites as low-cost electromagnetic interference shielding materials

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Novel polymer nanocomposites comprising of MnO2 nanotubes (MNTs), functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNTs), and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) were synthesized. Homogeneous distribution of f-MWCNTs and MNTs in PVDF matrix were confirmed by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Electrical conductivity measurements were performed on these polymer composites using four probe technique. The addition of 2 wt.% of MNTs (2 wt.%, f-MWCNTs) to PVDF matrix results in an increase in the electrical conductivity from 10-16S/m to 4.5 × 10-5S/m (3.2 × 10-1S/m). Electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness (EMI SE) was measured with vector network analyzer using waveguide sample holder in X-band frequency range. EMI SE of approximately 20 dB has been obtained with the addition of 5 wt.% MNTs-1 wt.% f-MWCNTs to PVDF in comparison with EMI SE of approximately 18 dB for 7 wt.% of f-MWCNTs indicating the potential use of the present MNT/f-MWCNT/PVDF composite as low-cost EMI shielding materials in X-band region. PMID:21711633

  15. Strengthening behavior of chopped multi-walled carbon nanotube reinforced aluminum matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, S.E.; Bae, D.H.

    2013-09-15

    Strengthening behavior of the aluminum composites reinforced with chopped multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) or aluminum carbide formed during annealing at 500 °C has been investigated. The composites were fabricated by hot-rolling the powders which were ball-milled under various conditions. During the early annealing process, aluminum atoms can cluster inside the tube due to the diffusional flow of aluminum atoms into the tube, providing an increase of the strength of the composite. Further annealing induces the formation of the aluminum carbide phase, leading to an overall drop in the strength of the composites. While the strength of the composites can be evaluated according to the rule of mixture, a particle spacing effect can be additionally imparted on the strength of the composites reinforced with the chopped MWCNTs or the corresponding carbides since the reinforcing agents are smaller than the submicron matrix grains. - Highlights: • Strengthening behavior of chopped CNT reinforced Al-based composites is investigated. • Chopped CNTs have influenced the strength and microstructures of the composites. • Chopped CNTs are created under Ar- 3% H2 atmosphere during mechanical milling. • Strength can be evaluated by the rule of the mixture and a particle spacing effect.

  16. Hardness and wear resistance of carbon nanotube reinforced aluminum-copper matrix composites.

    PubMed

    Nam, Dong Hoon; Kim, Jae Hwang; Cha, Seung Il; Jung, Seung Il; Lee, Jong Kook; Park, Hoon Mo; Park, Hyun Dal; Hong, Hyung

    2014-12-01

    Recently, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been attracted to reinforcement of composite materials due to their extraordinary mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. Many researchers have attempted to develop CNT reinforced metal composites with various fabrication methods and have shown possibilities for structural and functional applications. Among them, CNT reinforced Al matrix composites have become very attractive due to their huge structural application in industry. In this study, CNT reinforced Al-Cu matrix composites with a microstructure of homogeneous dispersion of CNTs in the Al-Cu matrix are investigated. The CNT/Al-Cu composites are fabricated by mixing of CNT/Cu composite powders and Al powders by high energy ball mill process followed by hot extrusion process. The hardness and wear resistance of the CNT/Al-Cu composites are enhanced by 1.4 and 3 times, respectively, compared to those values for the Al-Cu matrix. This remarkable enhancement mainly originates from the homogeneous dispersion of CNTs in Al-Cu matrix and self-lubricant effect of CNTs. PMID:25971024

  17. Characterization of multiwalled carbon nanotube-reinforced hydroxyapatite composites consolidated by spark plasma sintering.

    PubMed

    Kim, Duk-Yeon; Han, Young-Hwan; Lee, Jun Hee; Kang, Inn-Kyu; Jang, Byung-Koog; Kim, Sukyoung

    2014-01-01

    Pure HA and 1, 3, 5, and 10 vol% multiwalled carbon nanotube- (MWNT-) reinforced hydroxyapatite (HA) were consolidated using a spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique. The relative density of pure HA increased with increasing sintering temperature, but that of the MWNT/HA composite reached almost full density at 900°C, and then decreased with further increases in sintering temperature. The relative density of the MWNT/HA composites increased with increasing MWNT content due to the excellent thermal conductivity of MWNTs. The grain size of MWNT/HA composites decreased with increasing MWNT content and increased with increasing sintering temperature. Pull-out toughening of the MWNTs of the MWNT/HA composites was observed in the fractured surface, which can be used to predict the improvement of the mechanical properties. On the other hand, the existence of undispersed or agglomerate MWNTs in the MWNT/HA composites accompanied large pores. The formation of large pores increased with increasing sintering temperature and MWNT content. The addition of MWNT in HA increased the hardness and fracture toughness by approximately 3~4 times, despite the presence of large pores produced by un-dispersed MWNTs. This provides strong evidence as to why the MWNTs are good candidates as reinforcements for strengthening the ceramic matrix. The MWNT/HA composites did not decompose during SPS sintering. The MWNT-reinforced HA composites were non-toxic and showed a good cell affinity and morphology in vitro for 1 day.

  18. Characterization of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube-Reinforced Hydroxyapatite Composites Consolidated by Spark Plasma Sintering

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Duk-Yeon; Han, Young-Hwan; Lee, Jun Hee; Kang, Inn-Kyu; Jang, Byung-Koog; Kim, Sukyoung

    2014-01-01

    Pure HA and 1, 3, 5, and 10 vol% multiwalled carbon nanotube- (MWNT-) reinforced hydroxyapatite (HA) were consolidated using a spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique. The relative density of pure HA increased with increasing sintering temperature, but that of the MWNT/HA composite reached almost full density at 900°C, and then decreased with further increases in sintering temperature. The relative density of the MWNT/HA composites increased with increasing MWNT content due to the excellent thermal conductivity of MWNTs. The grain size of MWNT/HA composites decreased with increasing MWNT content and increased with increasing sintering temperature. Pull-out toughening of the MWNTs of the MWNT/HA composites was observed in the fractured surface, which can be used to predict the improvement of the mechanical properties. On the other hand, the existence of undispersed or agglomerate MWNTs in the MWNT/HA composites accompanied large pores. The formation of large pores increased with increasing sintering temperature and MWNT content. The addition of MWNT in HA increased the hardness and fracture toughness by approximately 3~4 times, despite the presence of large pores produced by un-dispersed MWNTs. This provides strong evidence as to why the MWNTs are good candidates as reinforcements for strengthening the ceramic matrix. The MWNT/HA composites did not decompose during SPS sintering. The MWNT-reinforced HA composites were non-toxic and showed a good cell affinity and morphology in vitro for 1 day. PMID:24724100

  19. Consolidation of Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Aluminum Matrix Composites by High-Pressure Torsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asgharzadeh, Hamed; Joo, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Hyoung Seop

    2014-08-01

    Al-3 vol pct carbon nanotube (CNT) composites are fabricated by consolidation through high-pressure torsion (HPT) at room temperature. The densification behavior, microstructural evolution, and mechanical properties of Al/CNT composites are studied. The results show that density and microstructural homogeneity increase with increasing number of revolutions under a high pressure of 6 GPa. Substantial grain refinement is achieved after 10 turns of HPT with an average grain thickness of ~38 nm perpendicular to the compression axis of HPT. The Al/CNT composite shows a considerable increase in hardness and strength compared to the Al matrix. The strengthening mechanisms of the Al/CNT composite are found to be (i) grain refinement of Al matrix and (ii) Orowan looping. Raman spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy reveal that the structure of most of CNTs is changed during processing through mechanical milling and HPT.

  20. Mechanical characterization of copper coated carbon nanotubes reinforced aluminum matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Maqbool, Adnan; Hussain, M. Asif; Khalid, F. Ahmad; Bakhsh, Nabi; Hussain, Ali; Kim, Myong Ho

    2013-12-15

    In this investigation, carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced aluminum composites were prepared by the molecular-level mixing process using copper coated CNTs. The mixing of CNTs was accomplished by ultrasonic mixing and ball milling. Electroless Cu-coated CNTs were used to enhance the interfacial bonding between CNTs and aluminum. Scanning electron microscope analysis revealed the homogenous dispersion of Cu-coated CNTs in the composite samples compared with the uncoated CNTs. The samples were pressureless sintered under vacuum followed by hot rolling to promote the uniform microstructure and dispersion of CNTs. In 1.0 wt.% uncoated and Cu-coated CNT/Al composites, compared to pure Al, the microhardness increased by 44% and 103%, respectively. As compared to the pure Al, for 1.0 wt.% uncoated CNT/Al composite, increase in yield strength and ultimate tensile strength was estimated about 58% and 62%, respectively. However, in case of 1.0 wt.% Cu-coated CNT/Al composite, yield strength and ultimate tensile strength were increased significantly about 121% and 107%, respectively. - Graphical Abstract: Copper coated CNTs were synthesized by the electroless plating process. Optimizing the plating bath to (1:1) by wt CNTs with Cu, thickness of Cu-coated CNTs has been reduced to 100 nm. Cu-coated CNTs developed the stronger interfacial bonding with the Al matrix which resulted in the efficient transfer of load. Highlights: • Copper coated CNTs were synthesized by the electroless plating process. • Thickness of Cu-coated CNTs has been reduced to 100 nm by optimized plating bath. • In 1.0 wt.% Cu-coated CNT/Al composite, microhardness increased by 103%. • Cu-coated CNTs transfer load efficiently with stronger interfacial bonding. • In 1.0 wt.% Cu-coated CNT/Al composite, Y.S and UTS increased by 126% and 105%.

  1. A novel processing route for carbon nanotube reinforced glass-ceramic matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dassios, Konstantinos G.; Bonnefont, Guillaume; Fantozzi, Gilbert; Matikas, Theodore E.

    2015-03-01

    The current study reports the establishment of a novel feasible way for processing glass- and ceramic- matrix composites reinforced with carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The technique is based on high shear compaction of glass/ceramic and CNT blends in the presence of polymeric binders for the production of flexible green bodies which are subsequently sintered and densified by spark plasma sintering. The method was successfully applied on a borosilicate glass / multi-wall CNT composite with final density identical to that of the full-dense ceramic. Preliminary non-destructive evaluation of dynamic mechanical properties such as Young's and shear modulus and Poisson's ratio by ultrasonics show that property improvement maximizes up to a certain CNT loading; after this threshold is exceeded, properties degrade with further loading increase.

  2. Hypervelocity impact on carbon nanotube reinforced a-SiC composite targets: An atomistic simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makeev, Maxim; Srivastava, Deepak

    2007-03-01

    Atomistic simulation studies, employing the Tersoff many-body reactive potential, have been performed to investigate the hypersonic velocity impact protection properties of carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced a-SiC composites, for a diamond spherical projectile velocities ranging from 1 km/s to 20 km/s. The scaling relations and analytical forms are derived to describe the penetration depth as a function of the velocity and radius of the projectile. A theoretical framework has been developed to describe the penetration depth behavior in the case of impact of hard projectile on hard target material. The atomistic simulation results are found to compare well with the obtained analytical forms. The effects of diamond nanoparticle impact on the a-SiC composites, with CNTs aligned parallel and perpendicular to the impact direction, caused by impact induced shock absorption and damage creation, will be described in this presentation.

  3. Aligned Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Silicon Carbide Composites by Chemical Vapor Infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Zhan Jun; Yang, Ying Chao; Li, Kai Yuan; Tao, Xin Yong; Eres, Gyula; Howe, Jane Y; Zhang, Li Tong; Li, Xiao Dong; Pan, Zhengwei

    2011-01-01

    Owing to their exceptional stiffness and strength1 4, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have long been considered to be an ideal reinforcement for light-weight, high-strength, and high-temperature-resistant ceramic matrix composites (CMCs)5 10. However, the research and development in CNT-reinforced CMCs have been greatly hindered due to the challenges related to manufacturing including poor dispersion, damages during dispersion, surface modification, densification and sintering, weak tube/matrix interfaces, and agglomeration of tubes at the matrix grain boundaries5,11. Here we report the fabrication of high-quality aligned CNT/SiC composites by chemical vapor infiltration (CVI), a technique that is being widely used to fabricate commercial continuous-filament CMCs12 15. Using the CVI technique most of the challenges previously encountered in the fabrication of CNT composites were readily overcome. Nanotube pullouts, an important toughening mechanism for CMCs, were consistently observed on all fractured CNT/SiC samples. Indeed, three-point bending tests conducted on individual CNT/SiC nanowires (diameters: 50 200 nm) using an atomic force microscope show that the CNT-reinforced SiC nanowires are about an order of magnitude tougher than the bulk SiC. The tube/matrix interface is so intimate and the SiC matrix is so dense that a ~50-nm-thick SiC coating can effectively protect the inside nanotubes from being oxidized at 1600 C in air. The CVI method may be extended to produce nanotube composites from a variety of matrix

  4. Facile Synthesis and Electrical Conductivity of Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Nanosilver Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Hemant; Sharma, Vimal; Kumar, Rajesh; Thakur, Nagesh

    2012-12-01

    Metal matrix nanocomposites reinforced with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have become popular in industrial applications. Due to their excellent thermophysical and mechanical properties, CNTs are considered as attractive filler for the improvement in properties of metals. In the present work, we have synthesized noncovalently functionalized CNT reinforced nanosilver composites by using a modified molecular level mixing method. The structure and morphology of nanocomposites are characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The electrical conductivity of silver-CNT nanocomposites measured by the four-point probe method is found to be more than that of the pure nanosilver. The significant improvement in electrical conductivity of Ag=CNT nanocomposites stems from homogenous and embedded distribution of CNTs in a silver matrix with intact structure resulting from noncovalent functionalization. The low temperature sintering also enhances the electrical conductivity of Ag=CNT nanocomposites.

  5. Micro/Nanomechanical characterization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes reinforced epoxy composite.

    PubMed

    Cui, Peng; Wang, Xinnan; Tangpong, X W

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, the mechanical properties of 1 wt.% multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) reinforced epoxy nanocomposites were characterized using a self-designed micro/nano three point bending tester that was on an atomic force microscope (AFM) to in situ observe MWCNTs movement on the sample surface under loading. The migration of an individual MWCNT at the surface of the nanocomposite was tracked to address the nanomechanical reinforcing mechanism of the nanocomposites. Through morphology analysis of the nanocomposite via scanning electron microscopy, AFM, and digital image correlation technique, it was found that the MWCNTs agglomerate and the bundles were the main factors for limiting the bending strength of the composites. The agglomeration/bundle effect was included in the Halpin-Tsai model to account for the elastic modulus of the nanocomposites.

  6. Polymer Matrix Composites: A Perspective for a Special Issue of Polymer Reviews

    SciTech Connect

    Kessler, Michael R.

    2012-09-04

    Polymer matrix composites, with their high specific strength and stiffness, are used in a wide range of applications from large wind turbine blades to microelectronics. This perspective article provides a brief primer on polymer matrix composites, discusses some of their advantages and limitations, and describes a number of emerging trends in the field. In addition, it introduces four review articles on the topics of recent developments in carbon fibers, natural fiber reinforced composites, evaluation of the interface between the fiber reinforcement and polymer matrix, and carbon nanotube reinforced polymers.

  7. Twin-screw extrusion of multi walled carbon nanotubes reinforced polycarbonate composites: Investigation of electrical and mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mack, C.; Sathyanarayana, S.; Weiss, P.; Mikonsaari, I.; Hübner, C.; Henning, F.; Elsner, P.

    2012-09-01

    obtained in this work stems from the fact that we were able to produce composites with substantial improvements in electrical properties with improvements/without significant loss in mechanical properties. This is one of the few exceptions to results achieved with commercially available MWCNT reinforced polymer composites processed on a large scale.

  8. Characterization of Potential Exposures to Nanoparticles and Fibers during Manufacturing and Recycling of Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Polypropylene Composites.

    PubMed

    Boonruksa, Pongsit; Bello, Dhimiter; Zhang, Jinde; Isaacs, Jacqueline A; Mead, Joey L; Woskie, Susan R

    2016-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) polymer composites are widely used as raw materials in multiple industries because of their excellent properties. This expansion, however, is accompanied by realistic concerns over potential release of CNTs and associated nanoparticles during the manufacturing, recycling, use, and disposal of CNT composite products. Such data continue to be limited, especially with regards to post-processing of CNT-enabled products, recycling and handling of nanowaste, and end-of-life disposal. This study investigated for the first time airborne nanoparticle and fibers exposures during injection molding and recycling of CNT polypropylene composites (CNT-PP) relative to that of PP. Exposure characterization focused on source emissions during loading, melting, molding, grinding, and recycling of scrap material over 20 cycles and included real-time characterization of total particle number concentration and size distribution, nanoparticle and fiber morphology, and fiber concentrations near the operator. Total airborne nanoparticle concentration emitted during loading, melting, molding, and grinding of CNT-PP had geometric mean ranging from 1.2 × 10(3) to 4.3 × 10(5) particles cm(-3), with the highest exposures being up to 2.9 and 300.7 times above the background for injection molding and grinding, respectively. Most of these emissions were similar to PP synthesis. Melting and molding of CNT-PP and PP produced exclusively nanoparticles. Grinding of CNT-PP but not PP generated larger particles with encapsulated CNTs, particles with CNT extrusions, and respirable fiber (up to 0.2 fibers cm(-3)). No free CNTs were found in any of the processes. The number of recycling runs had no significant impact on exposures. Further research into the chemical composition of the emitted nanoparticles is warranted. In the meanwhile, exposure controls should be instituted during processing and recycling of CNT-PP.

  9. Characterization of Potential Exposures to Nanoparticles and Fibers during Manufacturing and Recycling of Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Polypropylene Composites.

    PubMed

    Boonruksa, Pongsit; Bello, Dhimiter; Zhang, Jinde; Isaacs, Jacqueline A; Mead, Joey L; Woskie, Susan R

    2016-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) polymer composites are widely used as raw materials in multiple industries because of their excellent properties. This expansion, however, is accompanied by realistic concerns over potential release of CNTs and associated nanoparticles during the manufacturing, recycling, use, and disposal of CNT composite products. Such data continue to be limited, especially with regards to post-processing of CNT-enabled products, recycling and handling of nanowaste, and end-of-life disposal. This study investigated for the first time airborne nanoparticle and fibers exposures during injection molding and recycling of CNT polypropylene composites (CNT-PP) relative to that of PP. Exposure characterization focused on source emissions during loading, melting, molding, grinding, and recycling of scrap material over 20 cycles and included real-time characterization of total particle number concentration and size distribution, nanoparticle and fiber morphology, and fiber concentrations near the operator. Total airborne nanoparticle concentration emitted during loading, melting, molding, and grinding of CNT-PP had geometric mean ranging from 1.2 × 10(3) to 4.3 × 10(5) particles cm(-3), with the highest exposures being up to 2.9 and 300.7 times above the background for injection molding and grinding, respectively. Most of these emissions were similar to PP synthesis. Melting and molding of CNT-PP and PP produced exclusively nanoparticles. Grinding of CNT-PP but not PP generated larger particles with encapsulated CNTs, particles with CNT extrusions, and respirable fiber (up to 0.2 fibers cm(-3)). No free CNTs were found in any of the processes. The number of recycling runs had no significant impact on exposures. Further research into the chemical composition of the emitted nanoparticles is warranted. In the meanwhile, exposure controls should be instituted during processing and recycling of CNT-PP. PMID:26447230

  10. A novel silica nanotube reinforced ionic incorporated hydroxyapatite composite coating on polypyrrole coated 316L SS for implant application.

    PubMed

    Prem Ananth, K; Joseph Nathanael, A; Jose, Sujin P; Oh, Tae Hwan; Mangalaraj, D

    2016-02-01

    An attempt has been made to deposit a novel smart ion (Sr, Zn, Mg) substituted hydroxyapatite (I-HAp) and silica nanotube (SiNTs) composite coatings on polypyrrole (PPy) coated surgical grade 316L stainless steel (316L SS) to improve its biocompatibility and corrosion resistance. The I-HAp/SiNTS/PPy bilayer coating on 316L SS was prepared by electrophoretic deposition technique. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) studies were carried out. These results confirmed the significant improvement of the corrosion resistance of the 316L SS alloy by the I-HAp/SiNTs/PPy bilayer composite coating. The adhesion strength and hardness test confirmed the anticipated mechanical properties of the composite. A low contact angle value revealed the hydrophilic nature. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) was used for the leach out analysis of the samples. Added to this, the bioactivity of the composite was analyzed by observing the apatite formation in the SBF solution for 7, 14, 21 and 28days of incubation. An enhancement of in vitro osteoblast attachment and cell viability was observed, which could lead to the optimistic orthopedic and dental applications.

  11. Mechanical properties of carbon nanotube/polymer composites

    PubMed Central

    Arash, B.; Wang, Q.; Varadan, V. K.

    2014-01-01

    The remarkable mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes, such as high elastic modulus and tensile strength, make them the most ideal and promising reinforcements in substantially enhancing the mechanical properties of resulting polymer/carbon nanotube composites. It is acknowledged that the mechanical properties of the composites are significantly influenced by interfacial interactions between nanotubes and polymer matrices. The current challenge of the application of nanotubes in the composites is hence to determine the mechanical properties of the interfacial region, which is critical for improving and manufacturing the nanocomposites. In this work, a new method for evaluating the elastic properties of the interfacial region is developed by examining the fracture behavior of carbon nanotube reinforced poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) matrix composites under tension using molecular dynamics simulations. The effects of the aspect ratio of carbon nanotube reinforcements on the elastic properties, i.e. Young's modulus and yield strength, of the interfacial region and the nanotube/polymer composites are investigated. The feasibility of a three-phase micromechanical model in predicting the elastic properties of the nanocomposites is also developed based on the understanding of the interfacial region. PMID:25270167

  12. Mechanical properties of carbon nanotube/polymer composites.

    PubMed

    Arash, B; Wang, Q; Varadan, V K

    2014-01-01

    The remarkable mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes, such as high elastic modulus and tensile strength, make them the most ideal and promising reinforcements in substantially enhancing the mechanical properties of resulting polymer/carbon nanotube composites. It is acknowledged that the mechanical properties of the composites are significantly influenced by interfacial interactions between nanotubes and polymer matrices. The current challenge of the application of nanotubes in the composites is hence to determine the mechanical properties of the interfacial region, which is critical for improving and manufacturing the nanocomposites. In this work, a new method for evaluating the elastic properties of the interfacial region is developed by examining the fracture behavior of carbon nanotube reinforced poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) matrix composites under tension using molecular dynamics simulations. The effects of the aspect ratio of carbon nanotube reinforcements on the elastic properties, i.e. Young's modulus and yield strength, of the interfacial region and the nanotube/polymer composites are investigated. The feasibility of a three-phase micromechanical model in predicting the elastic properties of the nanocomposites is also developed based on the understanding of the interfacial region.

  13. Mechanical properties of carbon nanotube/polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arash, B.; Wang, Q.; Varadan, V. K.

    2014-10-01

    The remarkable mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes, such as high elastic modulus and tensile strength, make them the most ideal and promising reinforcements in substantially enhancing the mechanical properties of resulting polymer/carbon nanotube composites. It is acknowledged that the mechanical properties of the composites are significantly influenced by interfacial interactions between nanotubes and polymer matrices. The current challenge of the application of nanotubes in the composites is hence to determine the mechanical properties of the interfacial region, which is critical for improving and manufacturing the nanocomposites. In this work, a new method for evaluating the elastic properties of the interfacial region is developed by examining the fracture behavior of carbon nanotube reinforced poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) matrix composites under tension using molecular dynamics simulations. The effects of the aspect ratio of carbon nanotube reinforcements on the elastic properties, i.e. Young's modulus and yield strength, of the interfacial region and the nanotube/polymer composites are investigated. The feasibility of a three-phase micromechanical model in predicting the elastic properties of the nanocomposites is also developed based on the understanding of the interfacial region.

  14. Dynamic mechanical analysis and high strain-rate energy absorption characteristics of vertically aligned carbon nanotube reinforced woven fiber-glass composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dynamic mechanical behavior and energy absorption characteristics of nano-enhanced functionally graded composites, consisting of 3 layers of vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) forests grown on woven fiber-glass (FG) layer and embedded within 10 layers of woven FG, with polyester (PE) and...

  15. Polymer composites containing nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bley, Richard A. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to polymer composite materials containing carbon nanotubes, particularly to those containing singled-walled nanotubes. The invention provides a polymer composite comprising one or more base polymers, one or more functionalized m-phenylenevinylene-2,5-disubstituted-p-phenylenevinylene polymers and carbon nanotubes. The invention also relates to functionalized m-phenylenevinylene-2,5-disubstituted-p-phenylenevinylene polymers, particularly to m-phenylenevinylene-2,5-disubstituted-p-phenylenevinylene polymers having side chain functionalization, and more particularly to m-phenylenevinylene-2,5-disubstituted-p-phenylenevinylene polymers having olefin side chains and alkyl epoxy side chains. The invention further relates to methods of making polymer composites comprising carbon nanotubes.

  16. Nanotube Reinforcement of Adhesively Bonded Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. S.; Saltysiak, Bethany

    2003-01-01

    Over the past five years there has been much excitement about the development of nanotubes and nanofibers and the potential that these materials may offer in enhancing electrical and mechanical properties of systems. The purpose of this paper is to present research into improving the mechanical performance of polymers by using nanofibers as a reinforcement to make high performance composite materials. This paper will present theoretical predictions of the composite modulus and then present the actual performance of the composite. Fabrication details will be given along with photos of the microstructure. The matrix material is polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and the nanofibers are vapor-grown carbon nanofibers produced by Pyrograph Products, Inc.

  17. Nanotube Reinforcement of Adhesively Bonded Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. S.; Saltysiak, Bethany

    2002-01-01

    Over the past five years there has been much excitement about the development of nanotubes and nanofibers and the potential that these materials may offer in enhancing electrical and mechanical properties of systems. The purpose of this paper is to present research into improving the mechanical performance of polymers by using nanofibers as a reinforcement to make high performance composite materials. This paper will present theoretical predictions of the composite modulus and then present the actual performance of the composite. Fabrication details will be given along with photos of the microstructure. The matrix material is polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and the nanofibers are vapor-grown carbon nanofibers produced by Pyrograph Products, Inc.

  18. Solid polymer electrolyte compositions

    DOEpatents

    Garbe, James E.; Atanasoski, Radoslav; Hamrock, Steven J.; Le, Dinh Ba

    2001-01-01

    An electrolyte composition is featured that includes a solid, ionically conductive polymer, organically modified oxide particles that include organic groups covalently bonded to the oxide particles, and an alkali metal salt. The electrolyte composition is free of lithiated zeolite. The invention also features cells that incorporate the electrolyte composition.

  19. Metal- and Polymer-Matrix Composites: Functional Lightweight Materials for High-Performance Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Nikhil; Paramsothy, Muralidharan

    2014-06-01

    The special topic "Metal- and Polymer-Matrix Composites" is intended to capture the state of the art in the research and practice of functional composites. The current set of articles related to metal-matrix composites includes reviews on functionalities such as self-healing, self-lubricating, and self-cleaning capabilities; research results on a variety of aluminum-matrix composites; and investigations on advanced composites manufacturing methods. In addition, the processing and properties of carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer-matrix composites and adhesive bonding of laminated composites are discussed. The literature on functional metal-matrix composites is relatively scarce compared to functional polymer-matrix composites. The demand for lightweight composites in the transportation sector is fueling the rapid development in this field, which is captured in the current set of articles. The possibility of simultaneously tailoring several desired properties is attractive but very challenging, and it requires significant advancements in the science and technology of composite materials. The progress captured in the current set of articles shows promise for developing materials that seem capable of moving this field from laboratory-scale prototypes to actual industrial applications.

  20. Precursor polymer compositions comprising polybenzimidazole

    SciTech Connect

    Klaehn, John R.; Peterson, Eric S.; Orme, Christopher J.

    2015-07-14

    Stable, high performance polymer compositions including polybenzimidazole (PBI) and a melamine-formaldehyde polymer, such as methylated, poly(melamine-co-formaldehyde), for forming structures such as films, fibers and bulky structures. The polymer compositions may be formed by combining polybenzimidazole with the melamine-formaldehyde polymer to form a precursor. The polybenzimidazole may be reacted and/or intertwined with the melamine-formaldehyde polymer to form the polymer composition. For example, a stable, free-standing film having a thickness of, for example, between about 5 .mu.m and about 30 .mu.m may be formed from the polymer composition. Such films may be used as gas separation membranes and may be submerged into water for extended periods without crazing and cracking. The polymer composition may also be used as a coating on substrates, such as metal and ceramics, or may be used for spinning fibers. Precursors for forming such polymer compositions are also disclosed.

  1. Aerogel/polymer composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha K. (Inventor); Smith, Trent M. (Inventor); Fesmire, James E. (Inventor); Roberson, Luke B. (Inventor); Clayton, LaNetra M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The invention provides new composite materials containing aerogels blended with thermoplastic polymer materials at a weight ratio of aerogel to thermoplastic polymer of less than 20:100. The composite materials have improved thermal insulation ability. The composite materials also have better flexibility and less brittleness at low temperatures than the parent thermoplastic polymer materials.

  2. Composite solid polymer electrolyte membranes

    DOEpatents

    Formato, Richard M.; Kovar, Robert F.; Osenar, Paul; Landrau, Nelson; Rubin, Leslie S.

    2001-06-19

    The present invention relates to composite solid polymer electrolyte membranes (SPEMs) which include a porous polymer substrate interpenetrated with an ion-conducting material. SPEMs of the present invention are useful in electrochemical applications, including fuel cells and electrodialysis.

  3. Starch-filled polymer composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report describes the development of degradable polymer composites that can be made at room temperature without special equipments. The developed composites are made from ethyl cyanoacrylate and starch. The polymer composites produced by this procedure contain 60 wt% of starch with compressive s...

  4. Fire-safe polymers and polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huiqing

    The intrinsic relationships between polymer structure, composition and fire behavior have been explored to develop new fire-safe polymeric materials. Different experimental techniques, especially three milligram-scale methods---pyrolysis-combustion flow calorimetry (PCFC), simultaneous thermal analysis (STA) and pyrolysis GC/MS---have been combined to fully characterize the thermal decomposition and flammability of polymers and polymer composites. Thermal stability, mass loss rate, char yield and properties of decomposition volatiles were found to be the most important parameters in determining polymer flammability. Most polymers decompose by either an unzipping or a random chain scission mechanism with an endothermic decomposition of 100--900 J/g. Aromatic or heteroaromatic rings, conjugated double or triple bonds and heteroatoms such as halogens, N, O, S, P and Si are the basic structural units for fire-resistant polymers. The flammability of polymers can also be successfully estimated by combining pyrolysis GC/MS results or chemical structures with TGA results. The thermal decomposition and flammability of two groups of inherently fire-resistant polymers---poly(hydroxyamide) (PHA) and its derivatives, and bisphenol C (BPC II) polyarylates---have been systematically studied. PHA and most of its derivatives have extremely low heat release rates and very high char yields upon combustion. PHA and its halogen derivatives can completely cyclize into quasi-polybenzoxazole (PBO) structures at low temperatures. However, the methoxy and phosphate derivatives show a very different behavior during decomposition and combustion. Molecular modeling shows that the formation of an enol intermediate is the rate-determining step in the thermal cyclization of PHA. BPC II-polyarylate is another extremely flame-resistant polymer. It can be used as an efficient flame-retardant agent in copolymers and blends. From PCFC results, the total heat of combustion of these copolymers or blends

  5. Vacuum flash evaporated polymer composites

    DOEpatents

    Affinito, John D.; Gross, Mark E.

    1997-01-01

    A method for fabrication of polymer composite layers in a vacuum is disclosed. More specifically, the method of dissolving salts in a monomer solution, vacuum flash evaporating the solution, condensing the flash evaporated solution as a liquid film, and forming the condensed liquid film into a polymer composite layer on a substrate is disclosed.

  6. Vacuum flash evaporated polymer composites

    DOEpatents

    Affinito, J.D.; Gross, M.E.

    1997-10-28

    A method for fabrication of polymer composite layers in a vacuum is disclosed. More specifically, the method of dissolving salts in a monomer solution, vacuum flash evaporating the solution, condensing the flash evaporated solution as a liquid film, and forming the condensed liquid film into a polymer composite layer on a substrate is disclosed.

  7. Multilayer Electroactive Polymer Composite Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ounaies, Zoubeida (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor); Holloway, Nancy M. (Inventor); Draughon, Gregory K. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An electroactive material comprises multiple layers of electroactive composite with each layer having unique dielectric, electrical and mechanical properties that define an electromechanical operation thereof when affected by an external stimulus. For example, each layer can be (i) a 2-phase composite made from a polymer with polarizable moieties and an effective amount of carbon nanotubes incorporated in the polymer for a predetermined electromechanical operation, or (ii) a 3-phase composite having the elements of the 2-phase composite and further including a third component of micro-sized to nano-sized particles of an electroactive ceramic incorporated in the polymer matrix.

  8. Characterization of Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Nickel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Hansel; Hudson, Steve; Bhat, Biliyar; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes are cylindrical molecules composed of carbon atoms in a regular hexagonal arrangement. If nanotubes can be uniformly dispersed in a supporting matrix to form structural materials, the resulting structures could be significantly lighter and stronger than current aerospace materials. Work is currently being done to develop an electrolyte-based self-assembly process that produces a Carbon Nanotube/Nickel composite material with high specific strength. This process is expected to produce a lightweight metal matrix composite material, which maintains it's thermal and electrical conductivities, and is potentially suitable for applications such as advanced structures, space based optics, and cryogenic tanks.

  9. Layered plasma polymer composite membranes

    DOEpatents

    Babcock, W.C.

    1994-10-11

    Layered plasma polymer composite fluid separation membranes are disclosed, which comprise alternating selective and permeable layers for a total of at least 2n layers, where n is [>=]2 and is the number of selective layers. 2 figs.

  10. Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Polymers for Radiation Shielding Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thibeault, S. (Technical Monitor); Vaidyanathan, Ranji

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on the use of Extrusion Freeform Fabrication (EEF) for the fabrication of carbon nanotubes. The presentation addresses TGA analysis, Raman spectroscopy, radiation tests, and mechanical properties of the carbon nanotubes.

  11. Carbon nanotube-polymer composite actuators

    DOEpatents

    Gennett, Thomas; Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Landi, Brian J.; Heben, Michael J.

    2008-04-22

    The present invention discloses a carbon nanotube (SWNT)-polymer composite actuator and method to make such actuator. A series of uniform composites was prepared by dispersing purified single wall nanotubes with varying weight percents into a polymer matrix, followed by solution casting. The resulting nanotube-polymer composite was then successfully used to form a nanotube polymer actuator.

  12. Polymer compositions based on PXE

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Jin; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Singh, Mohit

    2015-09-15

    New polymer compositions based on poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) and other high-softening-temperature polymers are disclosed. These materials have a microphase domain structure that has an ionically-conductive phase and a phase with good mechanical strength and a high softening temperature. In one arrangement, the structural block has a softening temperature of about 210.degree. C. These materials can be made with either homopolymers or with block copolymers.

  13. Extended high order sandwich panel theory for bending analysis of sandwich beams with carbon nanotube reinforced face sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedari Salami, S.

    2016-02-01

    Bending analysis of a sandwich beam with soft core and carbon nanotube reinforced composite (CNTRC) face sheets in the literature is presented based on Extended High order Sandwich Panel Theory (EHSAPT). Distribution of fibers through the thickness of the face sheets could be uniform or functionally graded (FG). In this theory the face sheets follow the first order shear deformation theory (FSDT). Besides, the two dimensional elasticity is used for the core. The field equations are derived via the Ritz based solution which is suitable for any essential boundary condition. The influences of boundary conditions on bending response of the sandwich panel with soft core and CNTRC face sheet are investigated. In each type of boundary condition the effect of distribution pattern of CNTRCs on many essential involved parameters of the sandwich beam with functionally graded carbon nanotube reinforced composite (FG- CNTRC) face sheets are studied in detail. Finally, experimental result have been compared with those obtained based on developed solution method. It is concluded that, the sandwich beam with X distribution figure of face sheets is the strongest with the smallest transverse displacement, and followed by the UD, O and ∧-ones, respectively.

  14. Effect of Interface Structure on Mechanical Properties of Advanced Composite Materials

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Yong X.

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the effect of interface structures on the mechanical properties of fiber reinforced composite materials. First, the background of research, development and applications on hybrid composite materials is introduced. Second, metal/polymer composite bonded structures are discussed. Then, the rationale is given for nanostructuring the interface in composite materials and structures by introducing nanoscale features such as nanopores and nanofibers. The effects of modifying matrices and nano-architecturing interfaces on the mechanical properties of nanocomposite materials are examined. A nonlinear damage model for characterizing the deformation behavior of polymeric nanocomposites is presented and the application of this model to carbon nanotube-reinforced and reactive graphite nanotube-reinforced epoxy composite materials is shown. PMID:20054466

  15. Effect of interface structure on mechanical properties of advanced composite materials.

    PubMed

    Gan, Yong X

    2009-11-25

    This paper deals with the effect of interface structures on the mechanical properties of fiber reinforced composite materials. First, the background of research, development and applications on hybrid composite materials is introduced. Second, metal/polymer composite bonded structures are discussed. Then, the rationale is given for nanostructuring the interface in composite materials and structures by introducing nanoscale features such as nanopores and nanofibers. The effects of modifying matrices and nano-architecturing interfaces on the mechanical properties of nanocomposite materials are examined. A nonlinear damage model for characterizing the deformation behavior of polymeric nanocomposites is presented and the application of this model to carbon nanotube-reinforced and reactive graphite nanotube-reinforced epoxy composite materials is shown.

  16. Polymer composites for thermoelectric applications.

    PubMed

    McGrail, Brendan T; Sehirlioglu, Alp; Pentzer, Emily

    2015-02-01

    This review covers recently reported polymer composites that show a thermoelectric (TE) effect and thus have potential application as thermoelectric generators and Peltier coolers. The growing need for CO2-minimizing energy sources and thermal management systems makes the development of new TE materials a key challenge for researchers across many fields, particularly in light of the scarcity or toxicity of traditional inorganic TE materials based on Te and Pb. Recent reports of composites with inorganic and organic additives in conjugated and insulating polymer matrices are covered, as well as the techniques needed to fully characterize their TE properties. PMID:25537227

  17. High Temperature Polymer Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    These are the proceedings of the High Temperature Polymer Matrix Composites Conference held at the NASA Lewis Research Center on March 16 to 18, 1983. The purpose of the conference is to provide scientists and engineers working in the field of high temperature polymer matrix composites an opportunity to review, exchange, and assess the latest developments in this rapidly expanding area of materials technology. Technical papers are presented in the following areas: (1) matrix development; (2) adhesive development; (3) characterization; (4) environmental effects; and (5) applications.

  18. Polymer compositions and methods

    DOEpatents

    Allen, Scott D.; Willkomm, Wayne R.

    2016-09-27

    The present invention encompasses polyurethane compositions comprising aliphatic polycarbonate chains. In one aspect, the present invention encompasses polyurethane foams, thermoplastics and elastomers derived from aliphatic polycarbonate polyols and polyisocyanates wherein the polyol chains contain a primary repeating unit having a structure: ##STR00001## In another aspect, the invention provides articles comprising the inventive foam and elastomer compositions as well as methods of making such compositions.

  19. High temperature polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Michael A.

    1987-01-01

    With the increased emphasis on high performance aircraft the need for lightweight, thermal/oxidatively stable materials is growing. Because of their ease of fabrication, high specific strength, and ability to be tailored chemically to produce a variety of mechanical and physical properties, polymers and polymer matrix composites present themselves as attractive materials for a number of aeropropulsion applications. In the early 1970s researchers at the NASA Lewis Research Center developed a highly processable, thermally stable (600 F) polyimide, PMR-15. Since that time, PMR-15 has become commercially available and has found use in military aircraft, in particular, the F-404 engine for the Navy's F/A-18 strike fighter. The NASA Lewis'contributions to high temperature polymer matrix composite research will be discussed as well as current and future directions.

  20. Hybridized polymer matrix composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, B. A.; Visser, T.

    1981-01-01

    Under certain conditions of combined fire and impact, graphite fibers are released to the atmosphere by graphite fiber composites. The retention of graphite fibers in these situations is investigated. Hybrid combinations of graphite tape and cloth, glass cloth, and resin additives are studied with resin systems. Polyimide resins form the most resistant composites and resins based on simple novolac epoxies the least resistant of those tested. Great improvement in the containment of the fibers is obtained in using graphite/glass hybrids, and nearly complete prevention of individual fiber release is made possible by the use of resin additives.

  1. High temperature polymer concrete compositions

    DOEpatents

    Fontana, Jack J.; Reams, Walter

    1985-01-01

    This invention is concerned with a polymer concrete composition, which is a two-component composition useful with many bases including metal. Component A, the aggregate composition, is broadly composed of silica, silica flour, portland cement, and acrylamide, whereas Component B, which is primarily vinyl and acrylyl reactive monomers, is a liquid system. A preferred formulation emphasizing the major necessary components is as follows: ______________________________________ Component A: Silica sand 60-77 wt. % Silica flour 5-10 wt. % Portland cement 15-25 wt. % Acrylamide 1-5 wt. % Component B: Styrene 50-60 wt. % Trimethylolpropane 35-40 wt. % trimethacrylate ______________________________________ and necessary initiators, accelerators, and surfactants.

  2. Shape-Memory Polymer Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madbouly, Samy A.; Lendlein, Andreas

    The development of shape-memory polymer composites (SMPCs) enables high recovery stress levels as well as novel functions such as electrical conductivity, magnetism, and biofunctionality. In this review chapter the substantial enhancement in mechanical properties of shape-memory polymers (SMPs) by incorporating small amounts of stiff fillers will be highlighted exemplarily for clay and polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS). Three different functions resulting from adding functional fillers to SMP-matrices will be introduced and discussed: magnetic SMPCs with different types of magnetic nanoparticles, conductive SMPCs based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs), carbon black (CB), short carbon fiber (SCF), and biofunctional SMPCs containing hydroxyapatite (HA). Indirect induction of the shape-memory effect (SME) was realized for magnetic and conductive SMPCs either by exposure to an alternating magnetic field or by application of electrical current. Major challenges in design and fundamental understanding of polymer composites are the complexity of the composite structure, and the relationship between structural parameters and properties/functions, which is essential for tailoring SMPCs for specific applications. Therefore the novel functions and enhanced properties of SMPCs will be described considering the micro-/nanostructural parameters, such as dimension, shape, distribution, volume fraction, and alignment of fillers as well as interfacial interaction between the polymer matrix and dispersed fillers. Finally, an outlook is given describing the future challenges of this exciting research field as well as potential applications including automotive, aerospace, sensors, and biomedical applications.

  3. Hybridized polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    London, A.

    1981-01-01

    Design approaches and materials are described from which are fabricated pyrostatic graphite/epoxy (Gr/Ep) laminates that show improved retention of graphite particulates when subjected to burning. Sixteen hybridized plus two standard Gr/Ep laminates were designed, fabricated, and tested in an effort to eliminate the release of carbon (graphite) fiber particles from burned/burning, mechanically disturbed samples. The term pyrostatic is defined as meaning mechanically intact in the presence of fire. Graphite particulate retentive laminates were constructed whose constituent materials, cost of fabrication, and physical and mechanical properties were not significantly different from existing Gr/Ep composites. All but one laminate (a Celion graphite/bis-maleimide polyimide) were based on an off-the-shelf Gr/Ep, the AS-1/3501-5A system. Of the 16 candidates studied, four thin (10-ply) and four thick (50-ply) hybridized composites are recommended.

  4. Polymer film composite transducer

    DOEpatents

    Owen, Thomas E.

    2005-09-20

    A composite piezoelectric transducer, whose piezoeletric element is a "ribbon wound" film of piezolectric material. As the film is excited, it expands and contracts, which results in expansion and contraction of the diameter of the entire ribbon winding. This is accompanied by expansion and contraction of the thickness of the ribbon winding, such that the sound radiating plate may be placed on the side of the winding.

  5. Polymer-composite ball lightning.

    PubMed

    Bychkov, V L

    2002-01-15

    Investigations into the state of ball lightning (BL) have been made, and both theory and experiments, related to so-called "polymer-composite" ball lightning, are presented. The properties of such a polymeric BL have been described and are that of a long-lived object capable of storing high energy. Results of experiments, starting with polymeric components in erosive gas discharge experiments, are described and discussed. The model of BL as a highly charged polymer-dielectric structure is described. According to this model BL appears as the result of the aggregation of natural polymers, such as lignin and cellulose, soot, polymeric silica and other natural dust particles. Its ability to glow is explained by the appearance over its perimeter of gas discharges near the highly charged BL surface, and electrical breakdown of some regions on the surface, consisting of polymerized and aggregated threads.

  6. Polymer-composite ball lightning.

    PubMed

    Bychkov, V L

    2002-01-15

    Investigations into the state of ball lightning (BL) have been made, and both theory and experiments, related to so-called "polymer-composite" ball lightning, are presented. The properties of such a polymeric BL have been described and are that of a long-lived object capable of storing high energy. Results of experiments, starting with polymeric components in erosive gas discharge experiments, are described and discussed. The model of BL as a highly charged polymer-dielectric structure is described. According to this model BL appears as the result of the aggregation of natural polymers, such as lignin and cellulose, soot, polymeric silica and other natural dust particles. Its ability to glow is explained by the appearance over its perimeter of gas discharges near the highly charged BL surface, and electrical breakdown of some regions on the surface, consisting of polymerized and aggregated threads. PMID:16210170

  7. Hybridized polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    House, E. E.; Hoggatt, J. T.; Symonds, W. A.

    1980-01-01

    The extent to which graphite fibers are released from resin matrix composites that are exposed to fire and impact conditions was determined. Laboratory simulations of those conditions that could exist in the event of an aircraft crash and burn situation were evaluated. The effectiveness of various hybridizing concepts in preventing this release of graphite fibers were also evaluated. The baseline (i.e., unhybridized) laminates examined were prepared from commercially available graphite/epoxy, graphite/polyimide, and graphite/phenolic materials. Hybridizing concepts investigated included resin fillers, laminate coatings, resin blending, and mechanical interlocking of the graphite reinforcement. The baseline and hybridized laminates' mechanical properties, before and after isothermal and humidity aging, were also compared. It was found that a small amount of graphite fiber was released from the graphite/epoxy laminates during the burn and impact conditions used in this program. However, the extent to which the fibers were released is not considered a severe enough problem to preclude the use of graphite reinforced composites in civil aircraft structure. It also was found that several hybrid concepts eliminated this fiber release. Isothermal and humidity aging did not appear to alter the fiber release tendencies.

  8. Hybridized polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henshaw, J.

    1983-01-01

    Methods of improving the fire resistance of graphite epoxy composite laminates were investigated with the objective of reducing the volume of loose graphite fibers disseminated into the airstream as the result of a high intensity aircraft fuel fire. Improvements were sought by modifying the standard graphite epoxy systems without significantly negating their structural effectiveness. The modifications consisted primarily of an addition of a third constituent material such as glass fibers, glass flakes, carbon black in a glassy resin. These additions were designed to encourage coalescense of the graphite fibers and thereby reduce their aerodynamic float characteristics. A total of 38 fire tests were conducted on thin (1.0 mm) and thick (6.0 mm) hybrid panels.

  9. Carbon nanotube reinforced polyacrylonitrile and poly(etherketone) fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Rahul

    The graphitic nature, continuous structure, and high mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) make them good candidate for reinforcing polymer fiber. The different types of CNTs including single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), few-wall carbon nanotubes (FWNTs), and multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), and carbon nanofibers (CNFs) differ in terms of their diameter and number of graphitic walls. The desire has been to increase the concentration of CNTs as much as possible to make next generation multi-functional materials. The work in this thesis is mainly focused on MWNT and CNF reinforced polyacrylonitrile (PAN) composite fibers, and SWNT, FWNT, and MWNT reinforced poly(etherketone) (PEK) composite fibers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report the spinning of 20% MWNT or 30% CNF reinforced polymer fiber spun using conventional fiber spinning. Also, this is the first study to report the PEK/CNT composite fibers. The fibers were characterized for their thermal, tensile, mechanical, and dynamic mechanical properties. The fiber structure and morphology was studied using WAXD and SEM. The effect of two-stage heat drawing, sonication time for CNF dispersion, fiber drying temperature, and molecular weight of PAN was also studied. Other challenges associated with processing high concentrations of solutions for making composite fibers have been identified and reported. The effect of CNT diameter and concentration on fiber spinnability and electrical conductivity of composite fiber have also been studied. This work suggests that CNT diameter controls the maximum possible concentration of CNTs in a composite fiber. The results show that by properly choosing the type of CNT, length of CNTs, dispersion of CNTs, fiber spinning method, fiber draw ratio, and type of polymer, one can get electrically conducting fibers with wide range of conductivities for different applications. The PEK based control and composite fibers possess high thermal

  10. Asphaltenes-based polymer nano-composites

    DOEpatents

    Bowen, III, Daniel E

    2013-12-17

    Inventive composite materials are provided. The composite is preferably a nano-composite, and comprises an asphaltene, or a mixture of asphaltenes, blended with a polymer. The polymer can be any polymer in need of altered properties, including those selected from the group consisting of epoxies, acrylics, urethanes, silicones, cyanoacrylates, vulcanized rubber, phenol-formaldehyde, melamine-formaldehyde, urea-formaldehyde, imides, esters, cyanate esters, allyl resins.

  11. Polymer/mesoporous metal oxide composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ver Meer, Melissa Ann

    Understanding the nature of the interfacial region between an organic polymer matrix and an inorganic filler component is essential in determining how this region impacts the overall bulk properties of the organic/inorganic hybrid composite material. In this work, polystyrene was used as the model polymer matrix coupled with silica-based filler materials to investigate the nature of structure-property relationships in polymer composites. Initial work was conducted on synthesis and characterization of colloidal and mesoporous silica particles melt blended into the polystyrene matrix. Modification of the interface was accomplished by chemically bonding the silica particles with the polystyrene chains through polymerization from the particle surface via atom transfer radical polymerization. High molecular weight polystyrene chains were formed and bulk test samples were evaluated with increased thermal stability of the grafted polymer composite system versus equivalent melt blended polymer composites. Polymer grafting was also conducted from the internal pores of mesoporous silica, further improving the thermal stability of the composite system without degrading dynamic mechanical properties. Characterization of the polymer composites was conducted with gel permeation chromatography, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and dynamic mechanical analysis. It was also discovered during the polystyrene-silica composite studies that amorphous polystyrene can possess a less mobile phase, evident in a second peak of the loss tangent (tan delta). The long annealing times necessitated by the mesoporous silica composites were replicated in as received polystyrene. This new, less mobile phase is of particular interest in determining the mobility of polymer chains in the interfacial region.

  12. Crystallization analysis for fiber/polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raimo, Maria

    2016-05-01

    The peculiar nucleation behavior of low thermal conductivity polymer matrixes and the particular morphologies around fibers found in several composites, invalidate some assumptions invoked in the general description of the solidification kinetics of polycrystalline substances. The model of solidification universally adopted for polycrystalline substances, originally developed for metals, needs to be adapted also to account for large differences between polymers and fibers in thermoplastic composites. The extension of the classical phase transitions theory to fiber/polymer composites, in view of their specific thermal properties, allows to achieve reliable information on crystallization behavior and microstructure inside composites.

  13. Ultraviolet and thermally stable polymer compositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinisch, R. F.; Gloria, H. R.; Goldsberry, R. E.; Adamson, M. J. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A new class of polymers is provided, namely, poly (diarylsiloxy) arylazines. These novel polymers have a basic chemical composition which has the property of stabilizing the optical and physical properties of the polymer against the degradative effect of ultraviolet light and high temperatures. This stabilization occurs at wavelengths including those shorter than found on the surface of the earth and in the absence or presence of oxygen, making the polymers useful for high performance coating applications in extraterrestrial space as well as similar applications in terrestrial service. The invention also provides novel aromatic azines which are useful in the preparation of polymers such as those described.

  14. Ultraviolet and thermally stable polymer compositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinisch, R. F.; Gloria, H. R.; Goldsberry, R. E.; Adamson, M. J. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A class of polymers is provided, namely, poly(diarylsiloxy) arylazines. These polymers have a basic chemical composition which has the property of stabilizing the optical and physical properties of the polymer against the degradative effect of ultraviolet light and high temperatures. This stabilization occurs at wavelengths including those shorter than found on the surface of the earth and in the absence or presence of oxygen, making the polymers of the present invention useful for high performance coating applications in extraterrestrial space as well as similar applications in terrestrial service. The invention also provides aromatic azines which are useful in the preparation of polymers such as those of the present invention.

  15. Method of making molecularly doped composite polymer material

    DOEpatents

    Affinito, John D [Tucson, AZ; Martin, Peter M [Kennewick, WA; Graff, Gordon L [West Richland, WA; Burrows, Paul E [Kennewick, WA; Gross, Mark E. , Sapochak, Linda S.

    2005-06-21

    A method of making a composite polymer of a molecularly doped polymer. The method includes mixing a liquid polymer precursor with molecular dopant forming a molecularly doped polymer precursor mixture. The molecularly doped polymer precursor mixture is flash evaporated forming a composite vapor. The composite vapor is cryocondensed on a cool substrate forming a composite molecularly doped polymer precursor layer, and the cryocondensed composite molecularly doped polymer precursor layer is cross linked thereby forming a layer of the composite polymer layer of the molecularly doped polymer.

  16. Polymer Composites for Intelligent Food Packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jiating; Yap, Ray Chin Chong; Wong, Siew Yee; Li, Xu

    2015-09-01

    Over the last 50 years, remarkable improvements in mechanical and barrier properties of polymer composites have been realized. Their improved properties have been widely studied and employed for food packaging to keep food fresh, clean and suitable for consumption over sufficiently long storage period. In this paper, the current progress of science and technology development of polymer composites for intelligent food packaging will be highlighted. Future directions and perspectives for exploring polymer composites for intelligent food packaging to reveal freshness and quality of food packaged will also be put forward.

  17. Complex Multifunctional Polymer/Carbon-Nanotube Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Pritesh; Balasubramaniyam, Gobinath; Chen, Jian

    2009-01-01

    A methodology for developing complex multifunctional materials that consist of or contain polymer/carbon-nanotube composites has been conceived. As used here, "multifunctional" signifies having additional and/or enhanced physical properties that polymers or polymer-matrix composites would not ordinarily be expected to have. Such properties include useful amounts of electrical conductivity, increased thermal conductivity, and/or increased strength. In the present methodology, these properties are imparted to a given composite through the choice and processing of its polymeric and CNT constituents.

  18. Mechanics of biological polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomakin, Joseph

    2009-12-01

    Cartilage and cuticle are two natural materials capable of remarkable mechanical performance, especially considering the limitations on composition and processing conditions under which they are constructed. Their impressive properties are postulated to be a consequence of their complex multi-scale organization which has commonly been characterized by biochemical and microscopic methods. The objective of this dissertation is to overcome the limitations of such methods with mechanical analysis techniques generally reserved for the study of synthetic polymers. Methods for transient and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) of porcine TMJ disc sections and Tribolium castaneum and Tenebrio molitor elytral (modified forewing) cuticle were developed to characterize the mechanical performance of these biomaterials. The TMJ disc dynamic elastic modulus (E') was determined to be a strong function of disc orientation and pretension ranging from 700+/-240 kPa at (1g pretension) in the mediolateral direction to 73+/-8.5 MPa (150g preload) in the anteroposterior direction. Analogous mechanical testing was used to understand the relationship between composition and mechanical properties of beetle elytral cuticle at variable stages of maturation (tanning). Untanned elytra of both beetle species were ductile with a Young's modulus (E) of 44+/-8 MPa, but became brittle with an E of 2400+/-1100 MPa when fully tanned. Significantly, the E' of the TMJ disc and elytral cuticle exhibited a weak power law increase as a function of oscillation frequency. The exponent of the power law fit ( n) was determined to be a sensitive measure of molecular structure within these biomaterials. With increasing cuticular tanning, more so than with drying, the frequency dependence of cuticle E' diminished, suggesting cuticular cross-linking was an important component of tanning, as postulated by the quinone tanning hypothesis. The natural Black phenotype as well as TcADC iRNA suppressed Tribolium cuticle

  19. Anion-conducting polymer, composition, and membrane

    DOEpatents

    Pivovar, Bryan S.; Thorn, David L.

    2011-11-22

    Anion-conducing polymers and membranes with enhanced stability to aqueous alkali include a polymer backbone with attached sulfonium, phosphazenium, phosphazene, and guanidinium residues. Compositions also with enhanced stability to aqueous alkali include a support embedded with sulfonium, phosphazenium, and guanidinium salts.

  20. Anion-Conducting Polymer, Composition, and Membrane

    DOEpatents

    Pivovar, Bryan S.; Thorn, David L.

    2008-10-21

    Anion-conducing polymers and membranes with enhanced stability to aqueous alkali include a polymer backbone with attached sulfonium, phosphazenium, phosphazene, and guanidinium residues. Compositions also with enhanced stability to aqueous alkali include a support embedded with sulfonium, phosphazenium, and guanidinium salts.

  1. Anion-conducting polymer, composition, and membrane

    DOEpatents

    Pivovar, Bryan S.; Thorn, David L.

    2010-12-07

    Anion-conducing polymers and membranes with enhanced stability to aqueous alkali include a polymer backbone with attached sulfonium, phosphazenium, phosphazene, and guanidinium residues. Compositions also with enhanced stability to aqueous alkali include a support embedded with sulfonium, phosphazenium, and guanidinium salts.

  2. Anion-conducting polymer, composition, and membrane

    DOEpatents

    Pivovar, Bryan S.; Thorn, David L.

    2009-09-01

    Anion-conducing polymers and membranes with enhanced stability to aqueous alkali include a polymer backbone with attached sulfonium, phosphazenium, phosphazene, and guanidinium residues. Compositions also with enhanced stability to aqueous alkali include a support embedded with sulfonium, phosphazenium, and guanidinium salts.

  3. Polymer Matrix Composite Material Oxygen Compatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Tom

    2001-01-01

    Carbon fiber/polymer matrix composite materials look promising as a material to construct liquid oxygen (LOX) tanks. Based on mechanical impact tests the risk will be greater than aluminum, however, the risk can probably be managed to an acceptable level. Proper tank design and operation can minimize risk. A risk assessment (hazard analysis) will be used to determine the overall acceptability for using polymer matrix composite materials.

  4. Enhancement of strength and stiffness of Nylon 6 filaments through carbon nanotubes reinforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahfuz, Hassan; Adnan, Ashfaq; Rangari, Vijay K.; Hasan, Mohammad M.; Jeelani, Shaik; Wright, Wendelin J.; DeTeresa, Steven J.

    2006-02-01

    We report a method to fabricate carbon nanotube reinforced Nylon filaments through an extrusion process. In this process, Nylon 6 and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) are first dry mixed and then extruded in the form of continuous filaments by a single screw extrusion method. Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies have indicated that there is a moderate increase in Tg without a discernible shift in the melting endotherm. Tensile tests on single filaments have demonstrated that Young's modulus and strength of the nanophased filaments have increased by 220% and 164%, respectively with the addition of only 1wt.% MWCNTs. SEM studies and micromechanics based calculations have shown that the alignment of MWCNTs in the filaments, and high interfacial shear strength between the matrix and the nanotube reinforcement was responsible for such a dramatic improvement in properties.

  5. Conductor-polymer composite electrode materials

    DOEpatents

    Ginley, D.S.; Kurtz, S.R.; Smyrl, W.H.; Zeigler, J.M.

    1984-06-13

    A conductive composite material useful as an electrode, comprises a conductor and an organic polymer which is reversibly electrochemically dopable to change its electrical conductivity. Said polymer continuously surrounds the conductor in intimate electrical contact therewith and is prepared by electrochemical growth on said conductor or by reaction of its corresponding monomer(s) on said conductor which has been pre-impregnated or pre-coated with an activator for said polymerization. Amount of the conductor is sufficient to render the resultant composite electrically conductive even when the polymer is in an undoped insulating state.

  6. Mechanically stiff, electrically conductive composites of polymers and carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Kucheyev, Sergei O.; Baumann, Theodore F.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.; Hamza, Alex V.

    2015-07-21

    Using SWNT-CA as scaffolds to fabricate stiff, highly conductive polymer (PDMS) composites. The SWNT-CA is immersing in a polymer resin to produce a SWNT-CA infiltrated with a polymer resin. The SWNT-CA infiltrated with a polymer resin is cured to produce the stiff and electrically conductive composite of carbon nanotube aerogel and polymer.

  7. Aqueous vinylidene fluoride polymer coating composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartoszek, Edward J. (Inventor); Christofas, Alkis (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A water-based coating composition which may be air dried to form durable, fire resistant coatings includes dispersed vinylidene fluoride polymer particles, emulsified liquid epoxy resin and a dissolved emulsifying agent for said epoxy resin which agent is also capable of rapidly curing the epoxy resin upon removal of the water from the composition.

  8. Polymer Composites Corrosive Degradation: A Computational Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C.; Minnetyan, Levon

    2007-01-01

    A computational simulation of polymer composites corrosive durability is presented. The corrosive environment is assumed to manage the polymer composite degradation on a ply-by-ply basis. The degradation is correlated with a measured pH factor and is represented by voids, temperature and moisture which vary parabolically for voids and linearly for temperature and moisture through the laminate thickness. The simulation is performed by a computational composite mechanics computer code which includes micro, macro, combined stress failure and laminate theories. This accounts for starting the simulation from constitutive material properties and up to the laminate scale which exposes the laminate to the corrosive environment. Results obtained for one laminate indicate that the ply-by-ply degradation degrades the laminate to the last one or the last several plies. Results also demonstrate that the simulation is applicable to other polymer composite systems as well.

  9. Glass/polymer composites and methods of making

    DOEpatents

    Samuels, W. D.; Exarhos, Gregory J.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention relates to new glass/polymer composites and methods for making them. More specifically, the invention is glass/polymer composites having phases that are at the molecular level and thereby practicably indistinguishable. The invention further discloses making molecular phase glass/polymer composites by mixing a glass and a polymer in a compatible solvent.

  10. Glass/polymer composites and methods of making

    DOEpatents

    Samuels, W.D.; Exarhos, G.J.

    1995-06-06

    The present invention relates to new glass/polymer composites and methods for making them. More specifically, the invention is glass/polymer composites having phases that are at the molecular level and thereby practicably indistinguishable. The invention further discloses making molecular phase glass/polymer composites by mixing a glass and a polymer in a compatible solvent.

  11. Polymer hybrid nano/micro composites

    SciTech Connect

    Dzenis, Y.A.; Reneker, D.H.

    1994-12-31

    Nanocomposites based on ceramic and metal matrices attracted considerable attention during the past decade. Polymer based nanocomposites are much less well-known. Recently, a method of electrospinning of thin polymer fibers has been developed. Continuous, oriented fibers with diameters ranging from 50 nanometers to several microns have been prepared from over 30 different synthetic and natural polymers, including high temperature high modulus polyimide and polyaramid (Kevlar) fibers. The possible applications of these small fibers in hybrid polymer hierarchical composites are discussed. Micromechanics models of hybrid composites are developed based on the models for two component composites and on the principle of effective homogeneity. Effective thermoviscoelastic characteristics of nano and microfiber composite as well as nanofiber and microparticulate composites are calculated. ``Strong`` hybrid effects are observed in the dependence of effective moduli, loss factor, creep factor, and thermal expansion coefficient on fractional content of fibers of different diameters. The extrema are located at the higher fractions of larger reinforcing elements. Similarities of composite microstructures having synergistic ``extremal`` properties with some biological composites are noted.

  12. Ionic conduction in polymer composite electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dam, Tapabrata; Tripathy, Satya N.; Paluch, M.; Jena, S.; Pradhan, D. K.

    2016-05-01

    Conductivity and structural relaxation has been explored from modulus and dielectric loss formalisms respectively for a series of polymer composite electrolytes with zirconia as filler. The temperature dependence of conductivity followed Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher (VTF) behavior, which suggested a close correlation between conductivity and the segmental relaxation process in polymer electrolytes. Vogel temperature (T0) plays significant role in ion conduction process in these kind of materials.

  13. Polymer Matrix Composites for Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nettles, Alan T.

    2003-01-01

    The Access-to-Space study identified the requirement for lightweight structures to achieve orbit with a single-stage vehicle. Thus a task was undertaken to examine the use of polymer matrix composites for propulsion components. It was determined that the effort of this task would be to extend previous efforts with polymer matrix composite feedlines and demonstrate the feasibility of manufacturing large diameter feedlines with a complex shape and integral flanges, (i.e. all one piece with a 90 deg bend), and assess their performance under a cryogenic atmosphere.

  14. Metal oxide-polymer composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wellinghoff, Stephen T. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A method of making metal oxide clusters in a single stage by reacting a metal oxide with a substoichiometric amount of an acid in the presence of an oxide particle growth terminator and solubilizer. A method of making a ceramer is also disclosed in which the metal oxide clusters are reacted with a functionalized polymer. The resultant metal oxide clusters and ceramers are also disclosed.

  15. Metal oxide-polymer composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wellinghoff, Stephen T. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A method of making metal oxide clusters in a single stage by reacting a metal oxide with a substoichiometric amount of an acid in the presence of an oxide particle growth terminator and solubilizer. A method of making a ceramer is also disclosed in which the metal oxide clusters are reacted with a functionalized polymer. The resultant metal oxide clusters and ceramers are also disclosed.

  16. Thermal Expansion Studies of Carbon Nanotube-Reinforced Silver Nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Nain, Sonia; Kumar, Ravi; Pal, Hemant

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, a simple and highly effective physical mixing method was used to synthesise carbon nanotube (CNT)-reinforced silver nanocomposites. Composites were prepared with different contents (vol%) of functionalised multiwall nanotubes. The microstructure of synthesised nanocomposites was analysed by X-ray diffraction, electron diffraction spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Microstructural characterisations revealed good distribution of nanotubes in the silver matrix. The thermal expansion behaviour of the composites was studied in reference to the variation in nanotube volume content in the silver matrix. It was observed that the coefficient of thermal expansion decreased with the increase in the percentage of CNT volume. The thermal expansion of the CNT-reinforced silver composites decreased to 55 % of pure silver upon the introduction of 6 vol% of nanotubes into the silver matrix. The thermal expansion behaviour of the CNT-reinforced silver composites was also analysed theoretically using the rule of mixture and Schapery's model. The CNT-reinforced silver composites may be a promising contact and thermal management material in electronic devices.

  17. Irradiation studies on carbon nanotube-reinforced boron carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aitkaliyeva, Assel; McCarthy, Michael C.; Jeong, Hae-Kwon; Shao, Lin

    2012-02-01

    Radiation response of carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced boron carbide composite has been studied for its application as a structural component in nuclear engineering. The composite was bombarded by 140 keV He ions at room temperature to a fluence ranging from 1 × 10 14 to 1 × 10 17 cm -2. Two-dimensional Raman mapping shows inhomogeneous distribution of CNTs, and was used to select regions of interest for damage characterization. For CNTs, the intensities ratio of D-G bands ( ID/ IG) increased with fluence up to a certain value, and decreased at the fluence of 5 × 10 16 cm -2. This fluence also corresponds to a trend break in the plot of FWHM (full width at half maximum) of G band vs. ID/ IG ratio, which indicates amorphization of CNTs. The study shows that Raman spectroscopy is a powerful tool to quantitatively characterize radiation damage in CNT-reinforced composites.

  18. Multiwalled Carbon nanotube - Strength to polymer composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pravin, Jagdale; Khan, Aamer. A.; Massimo, Rovere; Carlo, Rosso; Alberto, Tagliaferro

    2016-02-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), a rather fascinating material, are among the pillars of nanotechnology. CNTs exhibit unique electrical, mechanical, adsorption, and thermal properties with high aspect ratio, exceptional stiffness, excellent strength, and low density, which can be exploited in the manufacturing of revolutionary smart nano composite materials. The demand for lighter and stronger polymer composite material in various applications is increasing every day. Among all the possibilities to research and exploit the exceptional properties of CNTs in polymer composites we focused on the reinforcement of epoxy resin with different types of multiwalled carbon nano tubes (MWCNTs). We studied mechanical properties such as stress, strain, ultimate tensile strength, yield point, modulus and fracture toughness, and Young's modulus by plotting and calculating by means of the off-set method. The mechanical strength of epoxy composite is increased intensely with 1 and 3 wt.% of filler.

  19. Space environmental effects on polymers and composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jang, Bor Z.

    1992-01-01

    The response of polymers and polymer-based composites to the space environment is being investigated. A wide range of materials are covered in this study, including elastometer seals for Space Station Freedom, polymer films for thermal control, and composites for space structural elements. Space environmental agents of concern include atomic oxygen, thermal cycling, space debris impacts, UV, charged particles and other forms of high-energy radiation. This ambitious project is potentially a multi-year research effort and the success of such a project could be expected to have a profound impact on the design of future space-based structures. The research goal of this first Summer is to identify the priority areas of research and to carry out the initial phase task so that a collaborative research can proceed smoothly and fruitfully in the near future.

  20. Acoustic emission monitoring of polymer composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bardenheier, R.

    1981-01-01

    The techniques of acoustic emission monitoring of polymer composite materials is described. It is highly sensitive, quasi-nondestructive testing method that indicates the origin and behavior of flaws in such materials when submitted to different load exposures. With the use of sophisticated signal analysis methods it is possible the distinguish between different types of failure mechanisms, such as fiber fracture delamination or fiber pull-out. Imperfections can be detected while monitoring complex composite structures by acoustic emission measurements.

  1. Development of carbon nanotube-reinforced hydroxyapatite bioceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kealley, Catherine; Elcombe, Margaret; van Riessen, Arie; Ben-Nissan, Besim

    2006-11-01

    This paper reports development of a production method to create a composite material that is biocompatible, which will have high mechanical strength and resilience, and be able to withstand exposure to the physiological environment. The chemical precipitation conditions necessary for the production of single-phase synthetic hydroxyapatite (HAp) and a HAp and carbon nanotube (CNT) composite material have been optimised. Neutron diffraction patterns collected before and after sintering show that the nanotubes have remained intact within the structure, while most of the remaining soot has burnt off. Small-angle neutron scattering, in conjunction with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), also shows preservation of the CNTs. Hot isostatically pressed samples showed excellent densification. Neutron diffraction data has enabled the positions of the hydroxide bonds to be determined, and shown that the addition of the CNTs has had no effect on the structural parameters of the HAp phase, with the exception of a slight reduction in the unit cell parameter a.

  2. Aging Effects in Polymer Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Chistos C.; McManus, Hugh L.

    1999-01-01

    Simulation of composites degradation due to aging are described. Laminate geometry, material properties, and matrix degradation states are specified as functions of position and time. Matrix shrinkage and property changes are modeled as functions of the degradation states. Aging effects at the laminate, ply, and micro levels are evaluated, to determine failure of any kind. The results obtained show substantial ply stress built up as a result of aging accompanied by comparable laminate strength degradation in matrix dominated composite strengths.

  3. Method of making metal-polymer composite catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Zelena, Piotr; Bashyam, Rajesh

    2009-06-23

    A metal-polymer-carbon composite catalyst for use as a cathode electrocatalyst in fuel cells. The catalyst includes a heteroatomic polymer; a transition metal linked to the heteroatomic polymer by one of nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus, and a recast ionomer dispersed throughout the heteroatomic polymer-carbon composite. The method includes forming a heteroatomic polymer-carbon composite and loading the transition metal onto the composite. The invention also provides a method of making a membrane electrode assembly for a fuel cell that includes the metal-polymer-carbon composite catalyst.

  4. Joining of polymer composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Magness, F.H.

    1990-11-01

    Under ideal conditions load bearing structures would be designed without joints, thus eliminating a source of added weight, complexity and weakness. In reality the need for accessibility, repair, and inspectability, added to the size limitations imposed by the manufacturing process and transportation/assembly requirements mean that some minimum number of joints will be required in most structures. The designer generally has two methods for joining fiber composite materials, adhesive bonding and mechanical fastening. As the use of thermoplastic materials increases, a third joining technique -- welding -- will become more common. It is the purpose of this document to provide a review of the available sources pertinent to the design of joints in fiber composites. The primary emphasis is given to adhesive bonding and mechanical fastening with information coming from documentary sources as old as 1961 and as recent as 1989. A third, shorter section on composite welding is included in order to provide a relatively comprehensive treatment of the subject.

  5. Piezoelectric Nanoparticle-Polymer Composite Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCall, William Ray

    Herein we demonstrate that efficient piezoelectric nanoparticle-polymer composite materials can be synthesized and fabricated into complex microstructures using sugar-templating methods or optical printing techniques. Stretchable foams with excellent tunable piezoelectric properties are created by incorporating sugar grains directly into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mixtures containing barium titanate (BaTiO3 -- BTO) nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes (CNTs), followed by removal of the sugar after polymer curing. Porosities and elasticity are tuned by simply adjusting the sugar/polymer mass ratio and the electrical performance of the foams showed a direct relationship between porosity and the piezoelectric outputs. User defined 2D and 3D optically printed piezoelectric microstructures are also fabricated by incorporating BTO nanoparticles into photoliable polymer solutions such as polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) and exposing to digital optical masks that can be dynamically altered. Mechanical-to-electrical conversion efficiency of the optically printed composite is enhanced by chemically altering the surface of the BTO nanoparticles with acrylate groups which form direct covalent linkages with the polymer matrix under light exposure. Both of these novel materials should find exciting uses in a variety of applications including energy scavenging platforms, nano- and microelectromechanical systems (NEMS/MEMS), sensors, and acoustic actuators.

  6. Self-lubricating polymer composites and polymer transfer film lubrication for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, Robert L.

    1990-01-01

    The use of self-lubricating polymers and polymer composites in space is somewhat limited today. In general, they are only used when other methods are inadequate. There is potential, however, for these materials to make a significant impact on future space missions if properly utilized. Some of the different polymers and fillers used to make self-lubricating composites are surveyed. The mechanisms of composite lubrication and wear, the theory behind transfer film lubricating mechanisms, and some factors which affect polymer composite wear and transfer are examined. In addition, some of the current space tribology application areas for self-lubricating polymer composites and polymer transfer are mentioned.

  7. Thermomechanical fatigue of polymer matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Strait, L.H.; Koudela, K.L.; Karasek, M.L.; Amateau, M.F.; Runt, J.P.

    1996-12-31

    The present research was undertaken to evaluate the effects of mechanical constraint on the response of polymer matrix composites during thermal cycling. Analytical and experimental techniques were used to characterize the response of carbon-fiber-reinforced cyanate ester and bismaleimide composites. Cross-ply laminates were subjected to thermal cycles from 24 to 177 C in the unconstrained, fully constrained, and overconstrained conditions. Laminate response, damage mechanisms, and residual compressive properties were characterized for each material and degree of constraint. The results of this research indicate that the level of constraint can have a significant effect on the response of polymer matrix composites during thermal cycling. However, longer-term testing is required to determine if the observed changes in response will ultimately affect the final failure mode and fatigue endurance of the materials.

  8. Nano polypeptide particles reinforced polymer composite fibers.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiashen; Li, Yi; Zhang, Jing; Li, Gang; Liu, Xuan; Li, Zhi; Liu, Xuqing; Han, Yanxia; Zhao, Zheng

    2015-02-25

    Because of the intensified competition of land resources for growing food and natural textile fibers, there is an urgent need to reuse and recycle the consumed/wasted natural fibers as regenerated green materials. Although polypeptide was extracted from wool by alkaline hydrolysis, the size of the polypeptide fragments could be reduced to nanoscale. The wool polypeptide particles were fragile and could be crushed down to nano size again and dispersed evenly among polymer matrix under melt extrusion condition. The nano polypeptide particles could reinforce antiultraviolet capability, moisture regain, and mechanical properties of the polymer-polypeptide composite fibers.

  9. Characterizing SWCNT Dispersion in Polymer Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lillehei, Peter T.; Kim, Jae-Woo; Gibbons, Luke; Park, Cheol

    2007-01-01

    The new wave of single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) infused composites will yield structurally sound multifunctional nanomaterials. The SWCNT network requires thorough dispersion within the polymer matrix in order to maximize the benefits of the nanomaterial. However, before any nanomaterials can be used in aerospace applications a means of quality assurance and quality control must be certified. Quality control certification requires a means of quantification, however, the measurement protocol mandates a method of seeing the dispersion first. We describe here the new tools that we have developed and implemented to first be able to see carbon nanotubes in polymers and second to measure or quantify the dispersion of the nanotubes.

  10. Polymer compositions, polymer films and methods and precursors for forming same

    DOEpatents

    Klaehn, John R; Peterson, Eric S; Orme, Christopher J

    2013-09-24

    Stable, high performance polymer compositions including polybenzimidazole (PBI) and a melamine-formaldehyde polymer, such as methylated, poly(melamine-co-formaldehyde), for forming structures such as films, fibers and bulky structures. The polymer compositions may be formed by combining polybenzimidazole with the melamine-formaldehyde polymer to form a precursor. The polybenzimidazole may be reacted and/or intertwined with the melamine-formaldehyde polymer to form the polymer composition. For example, a stable, free-standing film having a thickness of, for example, between about 5 .mu.m and about 30 .mu.m may be formed from the polymer composition. Such films may be used as gas separation membranes and may be submerged into water for extended periods without crazing and cracking. The polymer composition may also be used as a coating on substrates, such as metal and ceramics, or may be used for spinning fibers. Precursors for forming such polymer compositions are also disclosed.

  11. Thermal conductivity and multiferroics of electroactive polymers and polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Jiezhu

    Electronically conducting polymers and electromechanical polymers are the two important branches of the cutting-edge electroactive polymers. They have shown significant impact on many modern technologies such as flat panel display, energy transport, energy conversion, sensors and actuators. To utilize conducting polymers in microelectronics, optoelectronics and thermoelectrics, it is necessary to have a comprehensive study of their thermal conductivity since thermal conductivity is a fundamental materials property that is particularly important and sometimes a determining factor of the device performance. For electromechanical polymers, larger piezoelectric effect will contribute to the improvement of magnetoelectric (ME) coupling efficiency in their multiferroic composites. This dissertation is devoted to characterizing electronically conducting polymers for their electrical and thermal conductivity, and developing new classes of electromechanical polymers and strain-mediated electromechanical polymer-based multiferroic ME composites. Conducting polymers opened up new possibilities for devices combining novel electrical and thermal properties, but there has been limited understanding of the length-scale effect of the electrical and thermal conductivity, and the mechanism underlying the electricity and heat transport behavior. In this dissertation, the analytical model and experimental technique are presented to measure the in-plane thermal conductivity of polyaniline thin films. For camphorsulfonic acid doped polyaniline patterned on silicon oxide/silicon substrate using photolithography and reactive ion etching, the thermal conductivity of the film with thickness of 20 nm is measured to be 0.0406 W/m˙K, which significantly deviates from their bulk (> 0.26 W/m˙K). The size effect on thermal conductivity at this scale is attributed to the significant phonon boundary scattering. When the film goes up to 130 nm thick, the thermal conductivity increases to 0.166 W

  12. Mechanical Properties of Polymer Nano-composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Iti

    Thermoset polymer composites are increasingly important in high-performance engineering industries due to their light-weight and high specific strength, finding cutting-edge applications such as aircraft fuselage material and automobile parts. Epoxy is the most widely employed thermoset polymer, but is brittle due to extensive cross-linking and notch sensitivity, necessitating mechanical property studies especially fracture toughness and fatigue resistance, to ameliorate the low crack resistance. Towards this end, various nano and micro fillers have been used with epoxy to form composite materials. Particularly for nano-fillers, the 1-100 nm scale dimensions lead to fascinating mechanical properties, oftentimes proving superior to the epoxy matrix. The chemical nature, topology, mechanical properties and geometry of the nano-fillers have a profound influence on nano-composite behavior and hence are studied in the context of enhancing properties and understanding reinforcement mechanisms in polymer matrix nano-composites. Using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as polymer filler, uniquely results in both increased stiffness as well as toughness, leading to extensive research on their applications. Though CNTs-polymer nano-composites offer better mechanical properties, at high stress amplitude their fatigue resistance is lost. In this work covalent functionalization of CNTs has been found to have a profound impact on mechanical properties of the CNT-epoxy nano-composite. Amine treated CNTs were found to give rise to effective fatigue resistance throughout the whole range of stress intensity factor, in addition to significantly enhancing fracture toughness, ductility, Young's modulus and average hardness of the nano-composite by factors of 57%, 60%, 30% and 45% respectively over the matrix as a result of diminished localized cross-linking. Graphene, a one-atom-thick sheet of atoms is a carbon allotrope, which has garnered significant attention of the scientific community and is

  13. Piezoelectric nanoparticle-polymer composite foams.

    PubMed

    McCall, William R; Kim, Kanguk; Heath, Cory; La Pierre, Gina; Sirbuly, Donald J

    2014-11-26

    Piezoelectric polymer composite foams are synthesized using different sugar-templating strategies. By incorporating sugar grains directly into polydimethylsiloxane mixtures containing barium titanate nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes, followed by removal of the sugar after polymer curing, highly compliant materials with excellent piezoelectric properties can be fabricated. Porosities and elasticity are tuned by simply adjusting the sugar/polymer mass ratio which gave an upper bound on the porosity of 73% and a lower bound on the elastic coefficient of 32 kPa. The electrical performance of the foams showed a direct relationship between porosity and the piezoelectric outputs, giving piezoelectric coefficient values of ∼112 pC/N and a power output of ∼18 mW/cm3 under a load of 10 N for the highest porosity samples. These novel materials should find exciting use in a variety of applications including energy scavenging platforms, biosensors, and acoustic actuators.

  14. The radiation chemistry of polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dole, Malcolm

    With the use of plastics in the construction of space satellites which may be exposed in geosynchronous orbit to 100 MGy (10,000 Mrad) of high-energy radiation in 30 years of use, the effect of these radiations on the polymer becomes of practical importance. To understand the effects we consider first various radiation-resistant groups that are incorporated into the polymer and their relative effectiveness in reducing molecular scissions due to the radiation. The location of such groups in the polymer is also discussed. Next the chemical structures of a number of resins such as epoxies, polyimides, etc. are described followed by a detailed account of methods of improving the radiation resistance of plastics by the incorporation of carbon or glass fibers. Finally, the role of oxygen in causing chain scissions and other effects during irradiation which reduce the mechanical strength of the plastics and the fiber resin composites are also considered.

  15. Polymer light harvesting composites for optoelectronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Sam-Shajing; Wang, Dan

    2015-09-01

    Polymer based optoelectronic composites and thin film devices exhibit great potential in space applications due to their lightweight, flexible shape, high photon absorption coefficients, and robust radiation tolerance in space environment. Polymer/dye composites appear promising for optoelectronics applications due to potential enhancements in both light harvesting and charge separation. In this study, the optoelectronic properties of a series of molecular dyes paired with a conjugated polymer Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) were investigated. Specifically, the solution PL quenching coefficients (Ksv) of dye/polymer follows a descending order from dyes of Chloro(protoporphyrinato)iron(III) (Hemin), Protoporphyrin, to meso-Tetra(4-carboxyphenyl)porphine (TCPP). In optoelectronic devices made of the P3HT/dye/PCBM composites, the short circuit current densities Jsc as well as the overall power conversion efficiencies (PCE) also follow a descending order from Hemin, Protoporphyrin, to TCPP, despite Hemin exhibits the intermediate polymer/dye LUMO (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital) offset and lowest absorption coefficient as compared to the other two dyes, i.e., the cell optoelectronic efficiency did not follow the LUMO offsets which are the key driving forces for the photo induced charge separations. This study reveals that too large LUMO offset or electron transfer driving force may result in smaller PL quenching and optoelectronic conversion efficiency, this could be another experimental evidence for the Marcus electron transfer model, particularly for the Marcus `inverted region'. It appears an optimum electron transfer driving force or strong PL quenching appears more critical than absorption coefficient for optoelectronic conversion devices.

  16. Durability of polymer composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liu

    The purpose of this research is to examine structural durability of advanced composite materials under critical loading conditions, e.g., combined thermal and mechanical loading and shear fatigue loading. A thermal buckling model of a burnt column, either axially restrained or under an axial applied force was developed. It was predicted that for a column exposed to the high heat flux under simultaneous constant compressive load, the response of the column is the same as that of an imperfection column; the instability of the burnt column happens. Based on the simplified theoretical prediction, the post-fire compressive behavior of fiberglass reinforced vinyl-ester composite columns, which have been exposed to high heat flux for a certain time was investigated experimentally, the post-fire compressive strength, modulus and failure mode were determined. The integrity of the same column under constant compressive mechanical loading combined with heat flux exposure was examined using a specially designed mechanical loading fixture that mounted directly below a cone calorimeter. All specimens in the experiments exhibited compressive instability. The experimental results show a thermal bending moment exists and has a significant influence on the structural behavior, which verified the thermal buckling model. The trend of response between the deflection of the column and exposure time is similar to that predicted by the model. A new apparatus was developed to study the monotonic shear and cyclic-shear behavior of sandwich structures. Proof-of-concept experiments were performed using PVC foam core polymeric sandwich materials. Shear failure occurred by the extension of cracks parallel to the face-sheet/core interface, the shear modulus degraded with the growth of fatigue damage. Finite element analysis was conducted to determine stress distribution in the proposed specimen geometry used in the new technique. Details for a novel apparatus used for the fatigue testing of thin

  17. Interface characteristics of nanorope reinforced polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Khondaker S.; Keng, Ang K.

    2013-09-01

    A shear-lag model is proposed to obtain interface characteristics of nanorope reinforced polymer composites using representative volume element (RVE) concept. In the axisymmetric RVE, the nanorope is modelled as a closed-packed cylindrical lattice consisting seven single-walled carbon nanotubes. In the model, rope is considered to be perfectly bonded with the polymer resin where the nanotubes are assumed to be chemically non-bonded with each other in the rope system. Since, nanotubes are considered to be non-bonded in the nanorope there must exist a van der Waals interaction in terms of Lennard-Jones potential. A separate model is also proposed to determine the cohesive stress caused by this interaction. Closed form analytical solutions are derived for stress components of rope, resin and individual carbon nanotubes in the rope system. Parametric study has also been conducted to investigate the influences of key composite factors involved at both perfectly bonded and non-bonded interfaces.

  18. Development of Carbon-Nanotube/Polymer Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, Thomas A.

    2005-01-01

    A report presents a short discussion of one company's effort to develop composites of carbon nanotubes in epoxy and other polymer matrices. The focus of the discussion is on the desirability of chemically modifying carbon nanotubes to overcome their inherent chemical nonreactivity and thereby enable the formation of strong chemical bonds between nanotubes and epoxies (or other polymeric matrix materials or their monomeric precursors). The chemical modification is effected in a process in which discrete functional groups are covalently attached to the nanotube surfaces. The functionalization process was proposed by the company and demonstrated in practice for the first time during this development effort. The covalently attached functional groups are capable of reacting with the epoxy or other matrix resin to form covalent bonds. Furthermore, the company uses this process to chemically modify the nanotube surfaces, affording tunable adhesion to polymers and solubility in select solvents. Flat-sheet composites containing functionalized nanotubes demonstrate significantly improved mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties.

  19. Constitutive Modeling of Piezoelectric Polymer Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odegard, Gregory M.; Gates, Tom (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    A new modeling approach is proposed for predicting the bulk electromechanical properties of piezoelectric composites. The proposed model offers the same level of convenience as the well-known Mori-Tanaka method. In addition, it is shown to yield predicted properties that are, in most cases, more accurate or equally as accurate as the Mori-Tanaka scheme. In particular, the proposed method is used to determine the electromechanical properties of four piezoelectric polymer composite materials as a function of inclusion volume fraction. The predicted properties are compared to those calculated using the Mori-Tanaka and finite element methods.

  20. Solid particle erosion of polymers and composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, K.; Almajid, A. A.

    2014-05-01

    After a general introduction to the subject of solid particle erosion of polymers and composites, the presentation focusses more specifically on the behavior of unidirectional carbon fiber (CF) reinforced polyetheretherketone (PEEK) composites under such loadings, using different impact conditions and erodents. The data were analyzed on the basis of a newly defined specific erosive wear rate, allowing a better comparison of erosion data achieved under various testing conditions. Characteristic wear mechanisms of the CF/PEEK composites consisted of fiber fracture, matrix cutting and plastic matrix deformation, the relative contribution of which depended on the impingement angles and the CF orientation. The highest wear rates were measured for impingement angles between 45 and 60°. Using abrasion resistant neat polymer films (in this case PEEK or thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) ones) on the surface of a harder substrate (e.g. a CF/PEEK composite plate) resulted in much lower specific erosive wear rates. The use of such polymeric films can be considered as a possible method to protect composite surfaces from damage caused by minor impacts and erosion. In fact, they are nowadays already successfully applied as protections for wind energy rotor blades.

  1. The life times of polymer composites in construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Urs

    2016-05-01

    This paper discusses examples that prove the long-term reliability of Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP) under extreme loading conditions and outdoor weathering. Results of polymer/steel-composite anchorage systems, Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) plates and shells, GFRP box girders, Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) post-tensioning tendons and CFRP stays are going to be presented.

  2. Methods of Making and Using Shape Memory Polymer Composite Patches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, Patrick J.

    2011-01-01

    A method of repairing a composite component having a damaged area including: laying a composite patch over the damaged area: activating the shape memory polymer resin to easily and quickly mold said patch to said damaged area; deactivating said shape memory polymer so that said composite patch retains the molded shape; and bonding said composite patch to said damaged part.

  3. Molecular composites and polymer blends containing ionic polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsou, Li-Chun

    1997-11-01

    Polymer blends are generally immiscible due to the unfavorable thermodynamics of mixing. By the introduction of ion-dipole interaction, mechanical properties of the PPTA anion/polar polymers (such as PVP, PEO and PPrO) molecular composites have been investigated in relation to their miscibility and microstructural morphology. Optical clarity observed in the glassy PPTA anion/PVP system suggest the presence of miscibility, since the refractive indices between the two components are quite different, nsb{PVP} = 1.509 and nsb{PPTA} = 1.644. In general, the difference greater than 0.01 is sufficient to make blends opaque. DSC measurements, showing a composition dependent Tsb{g} and a melting temperature depression, also indicate the miscibility achieved at the molecular level, about 50-100 A. By using the Hoffman-Weeks plot, a negative Flory-Huggins interaction parameter, chi = -1.10, is obtained for the PPTA anion/PEO molecular composites. An irregular spherulitic pattern and a reduced crystal size suggest that PPTA anion is intimately mixed with the amorphous PEO, both inter- and intra-spherulitically. Molecular composites exhibit not only an enhanced tensile strength and modulus, but also a greater fracture toughness, Ksb{IC}, e.g., an 80% increase at a 2 wt% PPTA anion addition. An enhanced tensile strength associated with a reduced crystallinity suggests that PPTA anion is the major contributor to the superior tensile properties instead of the crystalline phase. Upon addition of PPTA anion to PPrO, a slower relaxation rate and a better thermal stability are observed. Significant enhancement is found when the monovalent K salt is replaced with a divalent Ca salt. The molecular reinforcement achieved via ion-dipole interactions is more effective than the rigid filler effect obtained in the non-ionic PPTA/PPrO blend: e.g., a modulus enhancement of 814% vs. 286%, as compared with the value for PPrO. Two phase systems with microphase separation are developed since many

  4. Durable polymer-aerogel based superhydrophobic coatings: a composite material

    DOEpatents

    Kissel, David J.; Brinker, Charles Jeffrey

    2016-02-02

    Provided are polymer-aerogel composite coatings, devices and articles including polymer-aerogel composite coatings, and methods for preparing the polymer-aerogel composite. The exemplary article can include a surface, wherein the surface includes at least one region and a polymer-aerogel composite coating disposed over the at least one region, wherein the polymer-aerogel composite coating has a water contact angle of at least about 140.degree. and a contact angle hysteresis of less than about 1.degree.. The polymer-aerogel composite coating can include a polymer and an ultra high water content catalyzed polysilicate aerogel, the polysilicate aerogel including a three dimensional network of silica particles having surface functional groups derivatized with a silylating agent and a plurality of pores.

  5. Durable polymer-aerogel based superhydrophobic coatings, a composite material

    DOEpatents

    Kissel, David J; Brinker, Charles Jeffrey

    2014-03-04

    Provided are polymer-aerogel composite coatings, devices and articles including polymer-aerogel composite coatings, and methods for preparing the polymer-aerogel composite. The exemplary article can include a surface, wherein the surface includes at least one region and a polymer-aerogel composite coating disposed over the at least one region, wherein the polymer-aerogel composite coating has a water contact angle of at least about 140.degree. and a contact angle hysteresis of less than about 1.degree.. The polymer-aerogel composite coating can include a polymer and an ultra high water content catalyzed polysilicate aerogel, the polysilicate aerogel including a three dimensional network of silica particles having surface functional groups derivatized with a silylating agent and a plurality of pores.

  6. Silica/Polymer and Silica/Polymer/Fiber Composite Aerogels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ou, Danny; Stepanian, Christopher J.; Hu, Xiangjun

    2010-01-01

    Aerogels that consist, variously, of neat silica/polymer alloys and silica/polymer alloy matrices reinforced with fibers have been developed as materials for flexible thermal-insulation blankets. In comparison with prior aerogel blankets, these aerogel blankets are more durable and less dusty. These blankets are also better able to resist and recover from compression . an important advantage in that maintenance of thickness is essential to maintenance of high thermal-insulation performance. These blankets are especially suitable as core materials for vacuum- insulated panels and vacuum-insulated boxes of advanced, nearly seamless design. (Inasmuch as heat leakage at seams is much greater than heat leakage elsewhere through such structures, advanced designs for high insulation performance should provide for minimization of the sizes and numbers of seams.) A silica/polymer aerogel of the present type could be characterized, somewhat more precisely, as consisting of multiply bonded, linear polymer reinforcements within a silica aerogel matrix. Thus far, several different polymethacrylates (PMAs) have been incorporated into aerogel networks to increase resistance to crushing and to improve other mechanical properties while minimally affecting thermal conductivity and density. The polymethacrylate phases are strongly linked into the silica aerogel networks in these materials. Unlike in other organic/inorganic blended aerogels, the inorganic and organic phases are chemically bonded to each other, by both covalent and hydrogen bonds. In the process for making a silica/polymer alloy aerogel, the covalent bonds are introduced by prepolymerization of the methacrylate monomer with trimethoxysilylpropylmethacrylate, which serves as a phase cross-linker in that it contains both organic and inorganic monomer functional groups and hence acts as a connector between the organic and inorganic phases. Hydrogen bonds are formed between the silanol groups of the inorganic phase and the

  7. Dynamic gold nanoparticle, polymer-based composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firestone, Millicent; Junghans, Ann; Hayden, Steven; Majeski, Jaroslaw; CINT, Lujan Team

    2014-03-01

    Artificial polymer-based biomembranes may serve as a foundational architecture for the integration and spatial organization of metal nanoparticles forming functional nanocomposites. Nonionic triblock copolymer (PEO-PPO-PEO), lipid-based gels, containing Au nanoparticles (NPs) can be prepared by either external doping of the preformed nanoparticles or by in-situ reduction of Au 3+. Neutron reflectivity on quartz supported thin films of the Au NP -doped polymer-based biomembranes was used to determine the location of the Au. The nanoparticles were found to preferentially reside within the ethylene oxide chains located at the interface of the bulk water channels and the amphiphile bilayers. The embedded Au nanoparticles can act as localized heat sinks, inducing changes in the polymer conformation. The collective, thermally-triggered expansion and contraction of the EO chains modulate the mesophase structure of the gels. Synchrotron X-ray scattering (SAXS) was used to monitor mesophase structure as a function of both temperature and photo-irradiation. These studies represent a first step towards designingexternally-responsive polymer-nanoparticle composites.

  8. The analysis of thermoplastic characteristics of special polymer sulfur composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Książek, Mariusz

    2016-07-01

    Specific chemical environments step out in the industry objects. Portland cement composites (concrete and mortar) were impregnated by using the special polymerized sulfur and technical soot as a filler (polymer sulfur composite). Sulfur and technical soot was applied as the industrial waste. Portland cement composites were made of the same aggregate, cement and water. The process of special polymer sulfur composite applied as the industrial waste is a thermal treatment process in the temperature of about 150-155°C. The result of such treatment is special polymer sulfur composite in a liquid state. This paper presents the plastic constants and coefficients of thermal expansion of special polymer sulfur composites, with isotropic porous matrix, reinforced by disoriented ellipsoidal inclusions with orthotropic symmetry of the thermoplastic properties. The investigations are based on the stochastic differential equations of solid mechanics. A model and algorithm for calculating the effective characteristics of special polymer sulfur composites are suggested. The effective thermoplastic characteristics of special polymer sulfur composites, with disoriented ellipsoidal inclusions, are calculated in two stages: First, the properties of materials with oriented inclusions are determined, and then effective constants of a composite with disoriented inclusions are determined on the basis of the Voigt or Rice scheme. A brief summary of new products related to special polymer sulfur composites is given as follows: Impregnation, repair, overlays and precast polymer concrete will be presented. Special polymer sulfur as polymer coating impregnation, which has received little attention in recent years, currently has some very interesting applications.

  9. Modified glass fibre reinforced polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yumei

    A high ratio of strength to density and relatively low-cost are some of the significant features of glass fibre reinforced polymer composites (GFRPCs) that made them one of the most rapidly developed materials in recent years. They are widely used as the material of construction in the areas of aerospace, marine and everyday life, such as airplane, helicopter, boat, canoe, fishing rod, racket, etc. Traditionally, researchers tried to raise the mechanical properties and keep a high strength/weight ratio using all or some of the following methods: increasing the volume fraction of the fibre; using different polymeric matrix material; or changing the curing conditions. In recent years, some new techniques and processing methods were developed to further improve the mechanical properties of glass fibre (GF) reinforced polymer composite. For example, by modifying the surface condition of the GF, both the interface strength between the GF and the polymer matrix and the shear strength of the final composite can be significantly increased. Also, by prestressing the fibre during the curing process of the composite, the tensile, flexural and the impact properties of the composite can be greatly improved. In this research project, a new method of preparing GFRPCs, which combined several traditional and modern techniques together, was developed. This new method includes modification of the surface of the GF with silica particles, application of different levels of prestressing on the GF during the curing process, and the change of the fibre volume fraction and curing conditions in different sets of experiments. The results of the new processing were tested by the three-point bend test, the short beam shear test and the impact test to determine the new set of properties so formed in the composite material. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) was used to study the fracture surface of the new materials after the mechanical tests were performed. By taking advantages of the

  10. Photomechanical actuation in polymer-nanotube composites.

    PubMed

    Ahir, Samit V; Terentjev, Eugene M

    2005-06-01

    For some systems, energy from an external source can trigger changes in the internal state of the structure, leading to a mechanical response much larger than the initial input. The ability to unlock this internal work in a solid-state structure is of key importance for many potential applications. We report a novel phenomenon of photo-induced mechanical actuation observed in a polymer-nanotube composite when exposed to infrared radiation. At small strains the sample tends to expand, when stimulated by photons, by an amount that is orders of magnitude greater than the pristine polymer. Conversely, at larger applied pre-strain, it will contract under identical infrared excitation. The behaviour is modelled as a function of orientational ordering of nanotubes induced by the uniaxial extension. It is thought that no other materials can display this continuously reversible response of so large a magnitude, making rubber nanocomposites important for actuator applications. PMID:15880115

  11. Magnetic polymer composite artificial bacterial flagella.

    PubMed

    Peyer, K E; Siringil, E; Zhang, L; Nelson, B J

    2014-11-18

    Artificial bacterial flagella (ABFs) are magnetically actuated swimming microrobots inspired by Escherichia coli bacteria, which use a helical tail for propulsion. The ABFs presented are fabricated from a magnetic polymer composite (MPC) containing iron-oxide nanoparticles embedded in an SU-8 polymer that is shaped into a helix by direct laser writing. The paper discusses the swim performance of MPC ABFs fabricated with varying helicity angles. The locomotion model presented contains the fluidic drag of the microrobot, which is calculated based on the resistive force theory. The robot's magnetization is approximated by an analytical model for a soft-magnetic ellipsoid. The helicity angle influences the fluidic and magnetic properties of the robot, and it is shown that weakly magnetized robots prefer a small helicity angle to achieve corkscrew-type motion.

  12. Creep of plain weave polymer matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Abhishek

    Polymer matrix composites are increasingly used in various industrial sectors to reduce structural weight and improve performance. Woven (also known as textile) composites are one class of polymer matrix composites with increasing market share mostly due to their lightweight, their flexibility to form into desired shape, their mechanical properties and toughness. Due to the viscoelasticity of the polymer matrix, time-dependent degradation in modulus (creep) and strength (creep rupture) are two of the major mechanical properties required by engineers to design a structure reliably when using these materials. Unfortunately, creep and creep rupture of woven composites have received little attention by the research community and thus, there is a dire need to generate additional knowledge and prediction models, given the increasing market share of woven composites in load bearing structural applications. Currently, available creep models are limited in scope and have not been validated for any loading orientation and time period beyond the experimental time window. In this thesis, an analytical creep model, namely the Modified Equivalent Laminate Model (MELM), was developed to predict tensile creep of plain weave composites for any orientation of the load with respect to the orientation of the fill and warp fibers, using creep of unidirectional composites. The ability of the model to predict creep for any orientation of the load is a "first" in this area. The model was validated using an extensive experimental involving the tensile creep of plain weave composites under varying loading orientation and service conditions. Plain weave epoxy (F263)/ carbon fiber (T300) composite, currently used in aerospace applications, was procured as fabrics from Hexcel Corporation. Creep tests were conducted under two loading conditions: on-axis loading (0°) and off-axis loading (45°). Constant load creep, in the temperature range of 80-240°C and stress range of 1-70% UTS of the

  13. Characterization of Hybrid CNT Polymer Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimsley, Brian W.; Cano, Roberto J.; Kinney, Megan C.; Pressley, James; Sauti, Godfrey; Czabaj, Michael W.; Kim, Jae-Woo; Siochi, Emilie J.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been studied extensively since their discovery and demonstrated at the nanoscale superior mechanical, electrical and thermal properties in comparison to micro and macro scale properties of conventional engineering materials. This combination of properties suggests their potential to enhance multi-functionality of composites in regions of primary structures on aerospace vehicles where lightweight materials with improved thermal and electrical conductivity are desirable. In this study, hybrid multifunctional polymer matrix composites were fabricated by interleaving layers of CNT sheets into Hexcel® IM7/8552 prepreg, a well-characterized toughened epoxy carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite. The resin content of these interleaved CNT sheets, as well as ply stacking location were varied to determine the effects on the electrical, thermal, and mechanical performance of the composites. The direct-current electrical conductivity of the hybrid CNT composites was characterized by in-line and Montgomery four-probe methods. For [0](sub 20) laminates containing a single layer of CNT sheet between each ply of IM7/8552, in-plane electrical conductivity of the hybrid laminate increased significantly, while in-plane thermal conductivity increased only slightly in comparison to the control IM7/8552 laminates. Photo-microscopy and short beam shear (SBS) strength tests were used to characterize the consolidation quality of the fabricated laminates. Hybrid panels fabricated without any pretreatment of the CNT sheets resulted in a SBS strength reduction of 70 percent. Aligning the tubes and pre-infusing the CNT sheets with resin significantly improved the SBS strength of the hybrid composite To determine the cause of this performance reduction, Mode I and Mode II fracture toughness of the CNT sheet to CFRP interface was characterized by double cantilever beam (DCB) and end notch flexure (ENF) testing, respectively. Results are compared to the

  14. Systematic comparison of model polymer nanocomposite mechanics.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Senbo; Peter, Christine; Kremer, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Polymer nanocomposites render a range of outstanding materials from natural products such as silk, sea shells and bones, to synthesized nanoclay or carbon nanotube reinforced polymer systems. In contrast to the fast expanding interest in this type of material, the fundamental mechanisms of their mixing, phase behavior and reinforcement, especially for higher nanoparticle content as relevant for bio-inorganic composites, are still not fully understood. Although polymer nanocomposites exhibit diverse morphologies, qualitatively their mechanical properties are believed to be governed by a few parameters, namely their internal polymer network topology, nanoparticle volume fraction, particle surface properties and so on. Relating material mechanics to such elementary parameters is the purpose of this work. By taking a coarse-grained molecular modeling approach, we study an range of different polymer nanocomposites. We vary polymer nanoparticle connectivity, surface geometry and volume fraction to systematically study rheological/mechanical properties. Our models cover different materials, and reproduce key characteristics of real nanocomposites, such as phase separation, mechanical reinforcement. The results shed light on establishing elementary structure, property and function relationship of polymer nanocomposites. PMID:27623170

  15. Phosphazene polymer containing composites and method for making phosphazene polymer containing composites

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, C.A.; Grey, A.E.; McCaffrey, R.R.; Simpson, B.M.; Stone, M.L.

    1990-12-31

    The object of the invention is to provide a composite material comprised of phosphazene polymer. A feature of phosphazene-containing composites is their superior stiffness, thermal stability, and hardness which is lacking in more typical composite constituents. An advantage of using phosphazene composites is a wider range of applications, including uses in harsh environments. Another object of the present invention provides a method for producing phosphazene-containing composite materials through a pultrusion process. In brief, these and other objects are achieved by a composite produced by first coating a reinforcing material with an inorganic phosphazene compound and then polymerizing the phosphazene compound so as to confer superior thermal, physical and chemical resistance qualities to the composite. 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Phase stability and dynamics of entangled polymer-nanoparticle composites

    SciTech Connect

    Mangal, Rahul; Srivastava, Samanvaya; Archer, Lynden A.

    2015-06-10

    Nanoparticle–polymer composites, or polymer–nanoparticle composites (PNCs), exhibit unusual mechanical and dynamical features when the particle size approaches the random coil dimensions of the host polymer. Here, we harness favourable enthalpic interactions between particle-tethered and free, host polymer chains to create model PNCs, in which spherical nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed in high molecular weight entangled polymers. Investigation of the mechanical properties of these model PNCs reveals that the nanoparticles have profound effects on the host polymer motions on all timescales. On short timescales, nanoparticles slow-down local dynamics of the host polymer segments and lower the glass transition temperature. On intermediate timescales, where polymer chain motion is typically constrained by entanglements with surrounding molecules, nanoparticles provide additional constraints, which lead to an early onset of entangled polymer dynamics. Finally, on long timescales, nanoparticles produce an apparent speeding up of relaxation of their polymer host.

  17. Accelerated aging of polymer composite bridge materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Nancy M.; Blackwood, Larry G.; Torres, Lucinda L.; Rodriguez, Julio G.; Yoder, Timothy S.

    1999-05-01

    Accelerated aging research on samples of composite materials and candidate UV protective coatings is determining the effects of six environmental factors on material durability. Candidate fastener materials are being evaluated to determine corrosion rates and crevice corrosion effects at load-bearing joints. This work supports field testing of a 30-ft long, 18-ft wide polymer matrix composite (PMC) bridge at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Durability results and sensor data form test with live loads provide information required for determining the cost/benefit measures to use in life-cycle planning, determining a maintenance strategy, establishing applicable inspection techniques, and establishing guidelines, standards and acceptance criteria for PMC bridges for use in the transportation infrastructure.

  18. Accelerated Aging of Polymer Composite Bridge Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Nancy Margaret; Blackwood, Larry Gene; Torres, Lucinda Laine; Rodriguez, Julio Gallardo; Yoder, Timothy Scott

    1999-03-01

    Accelerated aging research on samples of composite material and candidate ultraviolet (UV) protective coatings is determining the effects of six environmental factors on material durability. Candidate fastener materials are being evaluated to determine corrosion rates and crevice corrosion effects at load-bearing joints. This work supports field testing of a 30-ft long, 18-ft wide polymer matrix composite (PMC) bridge at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Durability results and sensor data from tests with live loads provide information required for determining the cost/benefit measures to use in life-cycle planning, determining a maintenance strategy, establishing applicable inspection techniques, and establishing guidelines, standards, and acceptance criteria for PMC bridges for use in the transportation infrastructure.

  19. Inorganic-organic composite solid polymer electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, K.M.; Koch, V.R.; Blakley, T.J.

    2000-04-01

    Inorganic-organic composite solid polymer electrolytes (CSPEs) have been prepared from the poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-like electrolytes of the general formula polyvinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene (PVdF-HFP)-PEO{sub n}-LiX and Li{sup +}-conducting ceramic powders. In the PEO-like electrolytes, PVdF-HFP is the copolymer of PVdF and HFP, PEO{sub n} is a nonvolatile oligomeric polyethylene oxide of {approximately}400 g/mol molecular weight, and LiX is lithium bis(trifluoroethylsulfonyl)imide. Two types of inorganic oxide ceramic powders were used: a highly Li{sup +}-conducting material of the composition 14 mol % Li{sub 2}O-9Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-38TiO{sub 2}-39P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and the poorly Li{sup +}-conducting Li-silicates Li{sub 4{minus}x}M{sub x}SiO{sub 4} where M is Ca or Mg and x is 0 or 0.05. The composite electrolytes can be prepared as thin membranes in which the Li{sup +} conductivity and good mechanical strength of the Li{sup +}-conducting inorganic ceramics are complemented by the structural flexibility and high conductivity of organic polymer electrolytes. Excellent electrochemical and thermal stabilities have been demonstrated for the electrolyte films. Li//composite electrolyte//LiCoO{sub 2} rechargeable cells have been fabricated and cycled at room temperature and 50 C.

  20. Mechanical Evaluation of Polymer Composite Hip Protectors

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Jose Daniel Diniz; Barbosa, Ayrles S. Gonçalves; Guerra, Ricardo Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Hip fractures often result in serious health implications, particularly in the geriatric population, and have been related to long-term morbidity and death. In most cases, these fractures are caused by impact loads in the area of the greater trochanter, which are produced in a fall. This work is aimed at developing hip protectors using composite materials and evaluating their effectiveness in preventing hip fractures under high impact energy (120 J). The hip protectors were developed with an inner layer of energy absorbing soft material and an outer rigid shell of fiberglass-reinforced polymer composite. According to the experimental results, all tested configurations proved to be effective at reducing the impact load to below the average fracture threshold of proximal femur. Furthermore, an addition of Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA) to the impacted area of the composite shell proved to be beneficial to increase impact strength of the hip protectors. Thus, composite hip protectors proved to be a viable alternative for a mechanically efficient and cost-effective solution to prevent hip fractures. PMID:20871841

  1. Methods of making composite optical devices employing polymer liquid crystal

    DOEpatents

    Jacobs, S.D.; Marshall, K.L.; Cerqua, K.A.

    1991-10-08

    Composite optical devices are disclosed using polymer liquid crystal materials both as optical and adhesive elements. The devices are made by assembling a heated polymer liquid crystal compound, while in a low viscosity form between optically transparent substrates. The molecules of the polymer are oriented, while in the liquid crystalline state and while above the glass transition temperature (T[sub g]) of the polymer, to provide the desired optical effects, such as polarization, and selective reflection. The liquid crystal polymer cements the substrates together to form an assembly providing the composite optical device. 7 figures.

  2. Polymer composite principles applied to hair styling gels.

    PubMed

    Wade Rafferty, Denise; Zellia, Joseph; Hasman, Daniel; Mullay, John

    2008-01-01

    A novel approach is taken to understand the mechanical performance of fixative-treated hair tresses. Polymer composite principles are applied to explain the performance. Examples are given for polyacrylate-2 crosspolymer that show that the choice of neutralizer affects the film properties of anionic acrylic polymers by plasticization or by hardening through ionic (physical) crosslinking. The effect of these changes in the polymer film on the composite properties was determined by mechanical stiffness and high-humidity curl retention testing. It is shown that both adhesion to the hair and polymer cohesion are important in determining fixative polymer performance. The implications of the results for the formulation of fixative systems are discussed.

  3. Methods of making composite optical devices employing polymer liquid crystal

    DOEpatents

    Jacobs, Stephen D.; Marshall, Kenneth L.; Cerqua, Kathleen A.

    1991-01-01

    Composite optical devices using polymer liquid crystal materials both as optical and adhesive elements. The devices are made by assembling a heated polymer liquid crystal compound, while in a low viscosity form between optically transparent substrates. The molecules of the polymer are oriented, while in the liquid crystalline state and while above the glass transition temperature (T.sub.g) of the polymer, to provide the desired optical effects, such as polarization, and selective reflection. The liquid crystal polymer cements the substrates together to form an assembly providing the composite optical device.

  4. Metal-polymer composites comprising nanostructures and applications thereof

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Hsing-Lin; Jeon, Sea Ho; Mack, Nathan H.

    2011-08-02

    Metal-polymer composites, and methods of making and use thereof, said composites comprising a thermally-cured dense polyaniline substrate; an acid dopant; and, metal nanostructure deposits wherein the deposits have a morphology dependent upon the acid dopant.

  5. Metal-polymer composites comprising nanostructures and applications thereof

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Hsing-Lin; Jeon, Sea Ho; Mack, Nathan H.

    2012-04-03

    Metal-polymer composites, and methods of making and use thereof, said composites comprising a thermally-cured dense polyaniline substrate; an acid dopant; and, metal nanostructure deposits wherein the deposits have a morphology dependent upon the acid dopant.

  6. Temperature effects on polymer-carbon composite sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, J. R.; Homer, M. L.; Manatt, K.; Kisor, A.; Lara, L.; Jewell, A. D.; Shevade, A.; Ryan, M. A.

    2003-01-01

    At JPL we have investigated the effects of temperature on polymer-carbon black composite sensors. While the electrical properties of polymer composites have been studied, with mechanisms of conductivity described by connectivity and tunneling, it is not fully understood how these properties affect sensor characteristics and responses.

  7. Fracture toughness testing of polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, Joseph E.

    1992-01-01

    A review of the interlaminar fracture indicates that a standard specimen geometry is needed to obtain consistent fracture toughness measurements in polymer matrix composites. In general, the variability of measured toughness values increases as the toughness of the material increases. This variability could be caused by incorrect sizing of test specimens and/or inconsistent data reduction procedures. A standard data reduction procedure is therefore needed as well, particularly for the tougher materials. Little work has been reported on the effects of fiber orientation, fiber architecture, fiber surface treatment or interlaminar fracture toughness, and the mechanisms by which the fibers increase fracture toughness are not well understood. The little data that is available indicates that woven fiber reinforcement and fiber sizings can significantly increase interlaminar fracture toughness.

  8. Computer-aided design of polymers and composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaelble, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    This book on computer-aided design of polymers and composites introduces and discusses the subject from the viewpoint of atomic and molecular models. Thus, the origins of stiffness, strength, extensibility, and fracture toughness in composite materials can be analyzed directly in terms of chemical composition and molecular structure. Aspects of polymer composite reliability are considered along with characterization techniques for composite reliability, relations between atomic and molecular properties, computer aided design and manufacture, polymer CAD/CAM models, and composite CAD/CAM models. Attention is given to multiphase structural adhesives, fibrous composite reliability, metal joint reliability, polymer physical states and transitions, chemical quality assurance, processability testing, cure monitoring and management, nondestructive evaluation (NDE), surface NDE, elementary properties, ionic-covalent bonding, molecular analysis, acid-base interactions, the manufacturing science, and peel mechanics.

  9. Inorganic-organic composite polymers and methods of making

    DOEpatents

    Josowicz, Mira A.; Exarhos, Gregory J.

    1996-01-01

    The invention is a composition of an inorganic-organic polymer composite and a method of making it. The inorganic portion of the fundamental polymer composite polymer repeat is a speciated inorganic heterocyclic compound, and the organic portion of the polymer repeat is a cyclic organic radical anion compound having at least two charged sites. The composition of the present invention is made by combining a cyclic organic radical anion compound with a speciated inorganic heterocyclic compound by a nucleophilic substitution thereby forming a polymer of an inorganic-organic composite. The cyclic organic radical anion compound is preferably generated electrochemically. The nucleophilic substitution is alternately carried out chemically or electrochemically. A preferred embodiment of the present invention includes performing the nucleophilic substitution at the cathode of an electrochemical cell.

  10. Inorganic-organic composite polymers and methods of making

    DOEpatents

    Josowicz, M.A.; Exarhos, G.J.

    1996-10-29

    The invention is a composition of an inorganic-organic polymer composite and a method of making it. The inorganic portion of the fundamental polymer composite polymer repeat is a speciated inorganic heterocyclic compound, and the organic portion of the polymer repeat is a cyclic organic radical anion compound having at least two charged sites. The composition of the present invention is made by combining a cyclic organic radical anion compound with a speciated inorganic heterocyclic compound by a nucleophilic substitution thereby forming a polymer of an inorganic-organic composite. The cyclic organic radical anion compound is preferably generated electrochemically. The nucleophilic substitution is alternately carried out chemically or electrochemically. A preferred embodiment of the present invention includes performing the nucleophilic substitution at the cathode of an electrochemical cell. 2 figs.

  11. Multilayer Electroactive Polymer Composite Material Comprising Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ounaies, Zoubeida (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor); Holloway, Nancy M. (Inventor); Draughon, Gregory K. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An electroactive material comprises multiple layers of electroactive composite with each layer having unique dielectric, electrical and mechanical properties that define an electromechanical operation thereof when affected by an external stimulus. For example, each layer can be (i) a 2-phase composite made from a polymer with polarizable moieties and an effective amount of carbon nanotubes incorporated in the polymer for a predetermined electromechanical operation, or (ii) a 3-phase composite having the elements of the 2-phase composite and further including a third component of micro-sized to nano-sized particles of an electroactive ceramic incorporated in the polymer matrix.

  12. High Performance Polymers and Composites (HiPPAC) Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mintz, Eric A.; Veazie, David

    2005-01-01

    NASA University Research Centers funding has allowed Clark Atlanta University (CAU) to establish a High Performance Polymers and Composites (HiPPAC) Research Center. Clark Atlanta University, through the HiPPAC Center has consolidated and expanded its polymer and composite research capabilities through the development of research efforts in: (1) Synthesis and characterization of polymeric NLO, photorefractive, and piezoelectric materials; (2) Characterization and engineering applications of induced strain smart materials; (3) Processable polyimides and additives to enhance polyimide processing for composite applications; (4) Fabrication and mechanical characterization of polymer based composites.

  13. Organo Modified Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Pyridine Core Polybenzoxazine (MWCNT/PBZ) Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunasekaran, S. G.; Rajakumar, K.; Dharmendirakumar, M.

    2015-08-01

    A new series of multi-walled carbon nanotube reinforced polybenzoxazine (MWCNT/PBZ) nanocomposites was successfully designed and developed. Three different maleimido terminal benzoxazine monomers (MI-BZs) were synthesized using N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) maleimide (HPM) and formaldehyde solution through Mannich condensation reaction and were characterized by FT-IR and NMR spectroscopy. Varying weight percentages (0 wt.%, 0.5 wt.%, 1.0 wt.% and 1.5 wt.%) of glycidyl-MWCNT were then incorporated into benzoxazine matrices to prepare MWCNT/PBZ nanocomposites. The nanocomposites having higher weight percentage of MWCNT were found to possess excellent thermal properties than those of neat PBZs. The developed nanocomposites exhibited better flame retardancy and higher dielectric constant. The optical properties ascertained from the UV-Vis absorption bands at the region of 300-350 nm and strong fluorescent emissions were observed in the wavelength range of 300-550 nm from Photoluminescence analysis. The intensity of characteristic diffraction peaks corresponding to g-MWCNT confirmed the reinforcement of MWCNT in the benzoxazine matrices, which indicated the successful formation of nanocomposites. The morphological studies ascertain the compatibility and uniform dispersion of MWCNT in the PBZ network.

  14. Photorefractive conjugated polymer-liquid crystal composites

    SciTech Connect

    Wasielewski, M. R.; Yoon, B. A.; Fuller, M.; Wiederrecht, G. P.; Niemczyk, M. P.; Svec, W. A.

    2000-05-15

    A new mechanism for space-charge field formation in photorefractive liquid crystal composites containing poly(2,5-bis(2{prime}-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene) (BEH-PPV) and the electron acceptor N,N{prime}-dioctyl-1,4:5,8-naphthalenediimide, NI, is observed. Using asymmetric energy transfer (beam coupling) measurements that are diagnostic for the photorefractive effect, the direction of beam coupling as a function of grating fringe spacing inverts at a spacing of 5.5 {micro}m. The authors show that the inversion is due to a change in the dominant mechanism for space-charge field formation. At small fringe spacings, the space-charge field is formed by ion diffusion in which the photogenerated anion is the more mobile species. At larger fringe spacings, the polarity of the space charge field inverts due to dominance of a charge transport mechanism in which photogenerated holes are the most mobile species due to hole migration along the BEH-PEV chains coupled with interchain hole hopping. Control experiments are presented, which use composites that can access only one of the two charge transport mechanisms. The results show that charge migration over long distances leading to enhanced photorefractive effects can be obtained using conjugated polymers dissolved in liquid crystals.

  15. Polymer Matrix Composite Lines and Ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nettles, A. T.

    2001-01-01

    Since composite laminates are beginning to be identified for use in reusable launch vehicle propulsion systems, a task was undertaken to assess the feasibility of making cryogenic feedlines with integral flanges from polymer matrix composite materials. An additional level of complexity was added by having the feedlines be elbow shaped. Four materials, each with a unique manufacturing method, were chosen for this program. Feedlines were to be made by hand layup (HLU) with standard autoclave cure, HLU with electron beam cure, solvent-assisted resin transfer molding (SARTM), and thermoplastic tape laying (TTL). A test matrix of fill and drain cycles with both liquid nitrogen and liquid helium, along with a heat up to 250 F, was planned for each of the feedlines. A pressurization to failure was performed on any feedlines that passed the cryogenic cycling testing. A damage tolerance subtask was also undertaken in this study. The effects of foreign object impact to the materials used was assessed by cross-sectional examination and by permeability after impact testing. At the end of the program, the manufacture of the electron beam-cured feedlines never came to fruition. All of the TTL feedlines leaked heavily before any cryogenic testing, all of the SARTM feedlines leaked heavily after one cryogenic cycle. Thus, only the HLU with autoclave cure feedlines underwent the complete test matrix. They passed the cyclic testing and were pressurized to failure.

  16. Transparent composite electrode for high-efficiency polymer LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lu; Yu, Zhibin; Liang, Jiajie; Chang, Chia-Hao; Hu, Weili; Pei, Qibing

    2012-09-01

    Polymer composite electrodes based on silver nanowires or carbon nanotubes have been prepared with transparency and surface conductivity approaching those of ITO/glass and better than ITO/PET. The conductive surface has an average roughness less than 10 nm, better than ITO/glass. Depending on the polymer matrix selected, the composite electrodes can be made rigid, flexible like polycarbonate, or stretchable like a rubber. Various polymer light emitting diodes,light emitting electrochemical cells and polymer solar cells have been fabricated using the composite electrode as anode, exhibiting electroluminescent efficiencies generally higher than control devices fabricated on ITO/glass. These polymer light emitting devices are all highly flexible and can be bent to less than 3 mm radius without loss of performance. With further modification of the composite electrodes, we have also demonstrated stretchable OLEDs wherein the emissive area can be elongated by as much as 50%.

  17. Hydrocarbon compositions containing polyolefin graft polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Kapuscinski, M.M.; Liu, C.S.; Hart, W.P.; Grina, L.D.

    1987-02-03

    A graft polymer is described comprising an oil-soluble, substantially linear, carbon-carbon backbone polymer having graft polymerized thereon units derived from, as a functional monomer, the reaction product of (i) an unsaturated aldehyde or ketone and (ii) a primary or secondary amine which contains at least one nitrogen atom in a heterocyclic ring. The graft polymer is also described wherein the backbone polymer is a copolymer of ethylene-propylene or a terpolymer of ethylene-propylene-diene monomer.

  18. Polymer blend compositions and methods of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Naskar, Amit K.

    2016-09-27

    A polymer blend material comprising: (i) a first polymer containing hydrogen bond donating groups having at least one hydrogen atom bound to a heteroatom selected from oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur, or an anionic version of said first polymer wherein at least a portion of hydrogen atoms bound to a heteroatom is absent and replaced with at least one electron pair; (ii) a second polymer containing hydrogen bond accepting groups selected from nitrile, halogen, and ether functional groups; and (iii) at least one modifying agent selected from carbon particles, ether-containing polymers, and Lewis acid compounds; wherein, if said second polymer contains ether functional groups, then said at least one modifying agent is selected from carbon particles and Lewis acid compounds. Methods for producing the polymer blend, molded forms thereof, and articles thereof, are also described.

  19. Solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane comprising laser micromachined porous support

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Han; LaConti, Anthony B.; Mittelsteadt, Cortney K.; McCallum, Thomas J.

    2011-01-11

    A solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane and method of manufacturing the same. According to one embodiment, the composite membrane comprises a rigid, non-electrically-conducting support, the support preferably being a sheet of polyimide having a thickness of about 7.5 to 15 microns. The support has a plurality of cylindrical pores extending perpendicularly between opposing top and bottom surfaces of the support. The pores, which preferably have a diameter of about 5 microns, are made by laser micromachining and preferably are arranged in a defined pattern, for example, with fewer pores located in areas of high membrane stress and more pores located in areas of low membrane stress. The pores are filled with a first solid polymer electrolyte, such as a perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) polymer. A second solid polymer electrolyte, which may be the same as or different than the first solid polymer electrolyte, may be deposited over the top and/or bottom of the first solid polymer electrolyte.

  20. Thermal Degradation of Lead Monoxide Filled Polymer Composite Radiation Shields

    SciTech Connect

    Harish, V.; Nagaiah, N.

    2011-07-15

    Lead monoxide filled Isophthalate resin particulate polymer composites were prepared with different filler concentrations and investigated for physical, thermal, mechanical and gamma radiation shielding characteristics. This paper discusses about the thermo gravimetric analysis of the composites done to understand their thermal properties especially the effect of filler concentration on the thermal stability and degradation rate of composites. Pristine polymer exhibits single stage degradation whereas filled composites exhibit two stage degradation processes. Further, the IDT values as well as degradation rates decrease with the increased filler content in the composite.

  1. Electron beam curing of polymer matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Janke, C.J.; Wheeler, D.; Saunders, C.

    1998-01-08

    The purpose of the CRADA was to conduct research and development activities to better understand and utilize the electron beam PMC curing technology. This technology will be used to replace or supplement existing PMC thermal curing processes in Department of Energy (DOE) Defense Programs (DP) projects and American aircraft and aerospace industries. This effort involved Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc./Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corp. (Contractor), Sandia National Laboratories, and ten industrial Participants including four major aircraft and aerospace companies, three advanced materials companies, and three electron beam processing organizations. The technical objective of the CRADA was to synthesize and/or modify high performance, electron beam curable materials that meet specific end-use application requirements. There were six tasks in this CRADA including: Electron beam materials development; Electron beam database development; Economic analysis; Low-cost Electron Beam tooling development; Electron beam curing systems integration; and Demonstration articles/prototype structures development. The contractor managed, participated and integrated all the tasks, and optimized the project efforts through the coordination, exchange, and dissemination of information to the project participants. Members of the Contractor team were also the principal inventors on several electron beam related patents and a 1997 R and D 100 Award winner on Electron-Beam-Curable Cationic Epoxy Resins. The CRADA achieved a major breakthrough for the composites industry by having successfully developed high-performance electron beam curable cationic epoxy resins for use in composites, adhesives, tooling compounds, potting compounds, syntactic foams, etc. UCB Chemicals, the world`s largest supplier of radiation-curable polymers, has acquired a license to produce and sell these resins worldwide.

  2. Aromatic/aliphatic diamine derivatives for advanced compositions and polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delozier, Donovan M. (Inventor); Watson, Kent A. (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Jr., Joseph G. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Novel compositions of matter comprise certain derivatives of 9,9-dialkyl fluorene diamine (AFDA). The resultant compositions, whether compositions of matter or monomers that are subsequently incorporated into a polymer, are unique and useful in a variety of applications. Useful applications of AFDA-based material include heavy ion radiation shielding components and components of optical and electronic devices.

  3. Use of agricultural byproducts as fillers in polymer composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recent trend in polymer research is to use natural renewable materials as "green" raw materials for industrial applications. One of the applications pursued by the authors is to produce polymeric composites consisting of a polymer and an agricultural byproduct or waste. In this way, there is no c...

  4. Barium titanate-polymer composites produced via directional freezing.

    PubMed

    Gorzkowski, Edward P; Pan, Ming-Jen

    2009-08-01

    In this study, we use a freeze casting technique to construct ceramic-polymer composites in which the 2 phases are arranged in an electrically parallel configuration. By doing so, the composites exhibit dielectric constant (K) up to 2 orders of magnitude higher than that of composites with ceramic particles randomly dispersed in a polymer matrix. In this technique, an aqueous ceramic slurry was frozen unidirectionally to form ice platelets and ceramic aggregates that were aligned in the temperature gradient direction. Upon freeze-drying, the ice platelets sublimed and left the lamellar ceramic structure intact. The green ceramic body was fired to retain the microstructure, and then the space between ceramic lamellae was infiltrated with a polymer material. The finished composites exhibit the high dielectric constant (1000) of ferroelectric ceramics while maintaining the unique properties of polymer materials such as graceful failure, low dielectric loss, and high dielectric breakdown.

  5. Microstructural evaluatoin of ceramic matrix composites produced by polymer pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, P.J.; Day, R.J.; TAylor, R.

    1995-09-01

    A microstructural characterisation of carbon fibre/silicon carbide matrix campsites is reported. Unidirectional- and bidirectional composites were studied and the silicon carbide matrix was deposited by decomposition of a polymer precursor.

  6. Rate Dependent Deformation and Strength Analysis of Polymer Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Stouffer, Donald C.

    1999-01-01

    A research program is being undertaken to develop rate dependent deformation and failure models for the analysis of polymer matrix composite materials. In previous work in this program, strain-rate dependent inelastic constitutive equations used to analyze polymers have been implemented into a mechanics of materials based composite micromechanics method. In the current work, modifications to the micromechanics model have been implemented to improve the calculation of the effective inelastic strain. Additionally, modifications to the polymer constitutive model are discussed in which pressure dependence is incorporated into the equations in order to improve the calculation of constituent and composite shear stresses. The Hashin failure criterion is implemented into the analysis method to allow for the calculation of ply level failure stresses. The deformation response and failure stresses for two representative uniaxial polymer matrix composites, IM7/977-2 and AS4-PEEK, are predicted for varying strain rates and fiber orientations. The predicted results compare favorably to experimentally obtained values.

  7. Ionic Polymer Metal Composites As Tactile Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mieney, Chris

    The field of electroactive polymers (EAPs) is rapidly growing. These materials are being scouted for use as linear actuators, specifically in the areas of artificial muscle design, and also for use as biomimetic sensors. IPMCs, or ionic polymer metal composites, are a form of EAP that are being proposed for application in both of these fields. IPMCs are composed of a solvated ionic EAP sandwiched between two metal electrodes. In the literature, there are a wealth of conceptual designs and data related to the use of IPMCs as actuators. However, sufficient data and characterization related to their use as sensors is grossly deficient. This research aims to rectify the gap between the theoretical concept of using these materials for sensing and actual proof of concept by quantifying voltage responses due to small force inputs in various electrolytes (LiCl, NiCl2, NiSO4, and De-Ionized water). Two different load profiles were implemented to evaluate the voltage response to a continuous input, to assess the feasibility of using IPMCs as a precision sensor, and to a cyclical input, to assess the feasibility of using IPMCs as a simpler binary sensor. Normal and reversed polarity voltage profiles were also collected to quantify the reversibility of the material response. Results from the study showed that the IPMCs showed a reversible response in all liquids tested. The results also showed that the response of the materials in LiCl was the least sensitive, but showed good repeatability, while the response in NiCl2 exhibited the greatest sensitivity, but the worst repeatability. The response in NiSO4 was slightly more sensitive than in LiCl and only slightly less repeatable, but the materials in NiSO4 demonstrated an almost completely reversible response. Interestingly, the response in DI water was only slightly less sensitive than in NiCl2 and results obtained using DI water demonstrated the feasibility of developing an IPMC sensor using DI water as the electrolyte

  8. Space environmental effects on polymer composites: Research needs and opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jang, Bor Z.; Bianchi, J.; Liu, Y. M.; Chang, C. P.

    1993-01-01

    The long-term performance of polymer-based composites in the space environment is discussed. Both thermoset and thermoplastic matrix composites are included in this discussion. Previous efforts on the space environmental effects on composites are briefly reviewed. Focus of this review is placed on the effects of hygrothermal stresses, atomic oxygen, ultraviolet (UV), and space debris/micrometeoroid impacts along with the potential synergism. Potential approaches to estimating the residual strength of polymer composites after exposure to atomic oxygen erosion or space debris/micrometeoroid impact are evaluated. New ground-based data are then utilized to illustrate the effects of atomic oxygen and thermal cycling on the failure behavior of polymer composites. Finally, research needs, challenges, and opportunities in the field of space environmental effects on composite materials are highlighted.

  9. Composites processed from wood fibers and automobile polymer fluff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Qiang

    The objective of this research effort was to investigate the physical and mechanical properties of composites processed from wood fiber and automobile polymer fluff. To this end, a study was conducted to investigate the feasibility of incorporating polymer fluff in dry-process wood fiberboard using polymeric diphenylmethane diisocyanate and phenol - formaldehyde resins. The effect of polymer fluff content and polymer fluff particle size on the physical and mechanical properties of wood fiber/fluff composites was also investigated. The surface properties (dispersive energy and acid-base properties) of the polymer fluff materials and the thermal mechanically pulped hardwood fibers were characterized using contact angle analysis and inverse gas chromatography. Detailed studies were conducted on the moisture related properties of the wood fiber/fluff composites such as moisture transfer and thickness swelling, using both a water immersion test and moisture vapor test. A model to predict the maximum water absorption of water immersion was established for wood fiber/fluff composites as a function of board density and polymer fluff content. A swelling model was also established to predict the hygroscopic thickness swelling rate of composites in a water vapor environment. A moisture diffusion model based on Fick's second law of diffusion was applied to the moisture absorption process of the composites from which the diffusion coefficients and surface emission coefficients were calculated using a nonlinear curve fitting algorithm. The experimental results indicated that automobile polymer fluff, after processing through several simple procedures including separation, cleansing, and granulation, could be recycled by manufacturing dry-process wood fiber/fluff composites. The smaller the polymer fluff particle size, the higher the internal bond, and the lower the thickness swelling and water absorption. Polymer fluff size did not have a significant effect on the bending

  10. Synthetic polymer-layer silicate clay composites

    SciTech Connect

    Carrado, K.A.; Elder, D.L.; Thiyagarajan, P.

    1995-07-01

    Synthetic hectorites were hydrothermally crystallized with direct incorporation of water-soluble polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), a cationic polymer poly(dimethyl diallyl ammonium chloride) (PDDA), and two cellulosic polymers: hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC). The molecular weight of polyvinyl alcohols had little effect on the success of hydrothermal hectorite synthesis, d-spacing, or amount of polymer incorporated; the basal spacings range from 19.5 {angstrom} to 20.8 {angstrom} and the percent of polymer incorporated ranges from 20.4 wt% to 23.0 wt%. Synthetic PDDA-hectorite displays the lowest d-spacing at 15.8 {angstrom}, and less cationic PDDA is incorporated into hectorite (7.8 wt% organic) than the other neutral polymers (17.8-23.0 wt% organic). The basal spacing for synthetic HPMC-hectorite is the largest at 25.2 {angstrom}. Small angle neutron scattering was used to further examine the PVA-clay systems.

  11. Nanomechanics of cellulose crystals and cellulose-based polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakzad, Anahita

    Cellulose-polymer composites have potential applications in aerospace and transportation areas where lightweight materials with high mechanical properties are needed. In addition, these economical and biodegradable composites have been shown to be useful as polymer electrolytes, packaging structures, optoelectronic devices, and medical implants such as wound dressing and bone scaffolds. In spite of the above mentioned advantages and potential applications, due to the difficulties associated with synthesis and processing techniques, application of cellulose crystals (micro and nano sized) for preparation of new composite systems is limited. Cellulose is hydrophilic and polar as opposed to most of common thermoplastics, which are non-polar. This results in complications in addition of cellulose crystals to polymer matrices, and as a result in achieving sufficient dispersion levels, which directly affects the mechanical properties of the composites. As in other composite materials, the properties of cellulose-polymer composites depend on the volume fraction and the properties of individual phases (the reinforcement and the polymer matrix), the dispersion quality of the reinforcement through the matrix and the interaction between CNCs themselves and CNC and the matrix (interphase). In order to develop economical cellulose-polymer composites with superior qualities, the properties of individual cellulose crystals, as well as the effect of dispersion of reinforcements and the interphase on the properties of the final composites should be understood. In this research, the mechanical properties of CNC polymer composites were characterized at the macro and nano scales. A direct correlation was made between: - Dispersion quality and macro-mechanical properties - Nanomechanical properties at the surface and tensile properties - CNC diameter and interphase thickness. Lastly, individual CNCs from different sources were characterized and for the first time size-scale effect on

  12. Effect of processing on Polymer/Composite structure and properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Advances in the vitality and economic health of the field of polymer forecasting are discussed. A consistent and rational point of view which considers processing as a participant in the underlying triad of relationships which comprise materials science and engineering is outlined. This triad includes processing as it influences material structure, and ultimately properties. Methods in processing structure properties, polymer science and engineering, polymer chemistry and synthesis, structure and modification and optimization through processing, and methods of melt flow modeling in processing structure property relations of polymer were developed. Mechanical properties of composites are considered, and biomedical materials research to include polymer processing effects are studied. An analysis of the design technology of advances graphite/epoxy composites is also reported.

  13. 3D Printing of Biocompatible Supramolecular Polymers and their Composites.

    PubMed

    Hart, Lewis R; Li, Siwei; Sturgess, Craig; Wildman, Ricky; Jones, Julian R; Hayes, Wayne

    2016-02-10

    A series of polymers capable of self-assembling into infinite networks via supramolecular interactions have been designed, synthesized, and characterized for use in 3D printing applications. The biocompatible polymers and their composites with silica nanoparticles were successfully utilized to deposit both simple cubic structures, as well as a more complex twisted pyramidal feature. The polymers were found to be not toxic to a chondrogenic cell line, according to ISO 10993-5 and 10993-12 standard tests and the cells attached to the supramolecular polymers as demonstrated by confocal microscopy. Silica nanoparticles were then dispersed within the polymer matrix, yielding a composite material which was optimized for inkjet printing. The hybrid material showed promise in preliminary tests to facilitate the 3D deposition of a more complex structure.

  14. 3D Printing of Biocompatible Supramolecular Polymers and their Composites.

    PubMed

    Hart, Lewis R; Li, Siwei; Sturgess, Craig; Wildman, Ricky; Jones, Julian R; Hayes, Wayne

    2016-02-10

    A series of polymers capable of self-assembling into infinite networks via supramolecular interactions have been designed, synthesized, and characterized for use in 3D printing applications. The biocompatible polymers and their composites with silica nanoparticles were successfully utilized to deposit both simple cubic structures, as well as a more complex twisted pyramidal feature. The polymers were found to be not toxic to a chondrogenic cell line, according to ISO 10993-5 and 10993-12 standard tests and the cells attached to the supramolecular polymers as demonstrated by confocal microscopy. Silica nanoparticles were then dispersed within the polymer matrix, yielding a composite material which was optimized for inkjet printing. The hybrid material showed promise in preliminary tests to facilitate the 3D deposition of a more complex structure. PMID:26766139

  15. Spin labelled polymers for composite interface studies: Synthesis and characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Snow, A.W.; Pace, M.D.

    1993-12-31

    For the purpose of investigating the epoxy resin composite interface, a series of spin labelled epoxy polymers and model compounds were synthesized and characterized. Linear epoxy polymers were prepared by reacting systematically varying quantities of 4-amino-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperid-1-yloxy and cyclohexyl amine with an equivalence bisphenol A diglycidyl ether. The adducts of phenylgylcidyl ether and 4-cumylphenylgylcidyl ether with 4-amino-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperid-1-yloxy were synthesized as model compounds. Characterization determined that the 125{degrees}C polymerization temperature did not cause significant decomposition of the nitroxyl free radical, magnetic dilution of the spin label in the epoxy polymer to 3% of the amine repeat units is sufficient for observation of unobscured nitroxyl hyperfine structure in the ESR spectrum of the labelled epoxy polymer in the solid state, and a polymer glass transition temperature of 66{degrees}C as not affected by variation in the amine composition.

  16. Special Polymer/Carbon Composite Films for Detecting SO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homer, Margie; Ryan, Margaret; Yen, Shiao-Pin; Kisor, Adam; Jewell, April; Shevade, Abhijit; Manatt, Kenneth; Taylor, Charles; Blanco, Mario; Goddard, William

    2008-01-01

    A family of polymer/carbon films has been developed for use as sensory films in electronic noses for detecting SO2 gas at concentrations as low as 1 part per million (ppm). Most previously reported SO2 sensors cannot detect SO2 at concentrations below tens of ppm; only a few can detect SO2 at 1 ppm. Most of the sensory materials used in those sensors (especially inorganic ones that include solid oxide electrolytes, metal oxides, and cadmium sulfide) must be used under relatively harsh conditions that include operation and regeneration at temperatures greater than 100 C. In contrast, the present films can be used to detect 1 ppm of SO2 at typical opening temperatures between 28 and 32 C and can be regenerated at temperatures between 36 and 40 C. The basic concept of making sensing films from polymer/carbon composites is not new. The novelty of the present family of polymer/carbon composites lies in formulating the polymer components of these composites specifically to optimize their properties for detecting SO2. First-principles quantum-mechanical calculations of the energies of binding of SO2 molecules to various polymer functionalities are used as a guide for selecting polymers and understanding the role of polymer functionalities in sensing. The polymer used in the polymer-carbon composite is a copolymer of styrene derivative units with vinyl pyridine or substituted vinyl pyridine derivative units. To make a substituted vinyl pyridine for use in synthesizing such a polymer, poly(2-vinyl pyridine) that has been dissolved in methanol is reacted with 3-chloropropylamine that has been dissolved in a solution of methanol. The methanol is then removed to obtain the copolymer. Later, the copolymer can be dissolved in an appropriate solvent with a suspension of carbon black to obtain a mixture that can be cast and then dried to obtain a sensory film.

  17. Functional Three-Dimensional Graphene/Polymer Composites.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Duan, Xidong; Xu, Yuxi; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2016-08-23

    Integration of graphene with polymers to construct three-dimensional porous graphene/polymer composites (3DGPCs) has attracted considerable attention in the past few years for both fundamental studies and diverse technological applications. With the broad diversity in molecular structures of graphene and polymers via rich chemical routes, a number of 3DGPCs have been developed with unique structural, electrical, and mechanical properties, chemical tenability, and attractive functions, which greatly expands the research horizon of graphene-based composites. In particular, the properties and functions of the 3DGPCs can be readily tuned by precisely controlling the hierarchical porosity in the 3D graphene architecture as well as the intricate synergistic interactions between graphene and polymers. In this paper, we review the recent progress in 3DGPCs, including their synthetic strategies and potential applications in environmental protection, energy storage, sensors, and conducting composites. Lastly, we will conclude with a brief perspective on the challenges and future opportunities.

  18. Functional Three-Dimensional Graphene/Polymer Composites.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Duan, Xidong; Xu, Yuxi; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2016-08-23

    Integration of graphene with polymers to construct three-dimensional porous graphene/polymer composites (3DGPCs) has attracted considerable attention in the past few years for both fundamental studies and diverse technological applications. With the broad diversity in molecular structures of graphene and polymers via rich chemical routes, a number of 3DGPCs have been developed with unique structural, electrical, and mechanical properties, chemical tenability, and attractive functions, which greatly expands the research horizon of graphene-based composites. In particular, the properties and functions of the 3DGPCs can be readily tuned by precisely controlling the hierarchical porosity in the 3D graphene architecture as well as the intricate synergistic interactions between graphene and polymers. In this paper, we review the recent progress in 3DGPCs, including their synthetic strategies and potential applications in environmental protection, energy storage, sensors, and conducting composites. Lastly, we will conclude with a brief perspective on the challenges and future opportunities. PMID:27403991

  19. Composite materials for polymer electrolyte membrane microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Antolini, Ermete

    2015-07-15

    Recently, the feasibility of using composite metal-carbon, metal-polymer, polymer-carbon, polymer-polymer and carbon-carbon materials in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) has been investigated. These materials have been tested as MFC anode catalyst (microorganism) supports, cathode catalysts and membranes. These hybrid materials, possessing the properties of each component, or even with a synergistic effect, would present improved characteristics with respect to the bare components. In this paper we present an overview of the use of these composite materials in microbial fuel cells. The characteristics of the composite materials as well as their effect on MFC performance were compared with those of the individual component and/or the conventionally used materials.

  20. Molecular dynamics study of mechanical properties of carbon nanotube reinforced aluminum composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Ashish Kumar; Mokhalingam, A.; Singh, Akhileshwar; Kumar, Dinesh

    2016-05-01

    Atomistic simulations were conducted to estimate the effect of the carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforcement on the mechanical behavior of CNT-reinforced aluminum (Al) nanocomposite. The periodic system of CNT-Al nanocomposite was built and simulated using molecular dynamics (MD) software LAMMPS (Large-scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator). The mechanical properties of the nanocomposite were investigated by the application of uniaxial load on one end of the representative volume element (RVE) and fixing the other end. The interactions between the atoms of Al were modeled using embedded atom method (EAM) potentials, whereas Adaptive Intermolecular Reactive Empirical Bond Order (AIREBO) potential was used for the interactions among carbon atoms and these pair potentials are coupled with the Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential. The results show that the incorporation of CNT into the Al matrix can increase the Young's modulus of the nanocomposite substantially. In the present case, i.e. for approximately 9 with % reinforcement of CNT can increase the axial Young's modulus of the Al matrix up to 77 % as compared to pure Al.

  1. Carbon nanotube polymer composition and devices

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Gao; Johnson, Stephen; Kerr, John B.; Minor, Andrew M.; Mao, Samuel S.

    2011-06-14

    A thin film device and compound having an anode, a cathode, and at least one light emitting layer between the anode and cathode, the at least one light emitting layer having at least one carbon nanotube and a conductive polymer.

  2. Multifunctional Hybrid Carbon Nanotube/Carbon Fiber Polymer Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kang, Jin Ho; Cano, Roberto J.; Ratcliffe, James G.; Luong, Hoa; Grimsley, Brian W.; Siochi, Emilie J.

    2016-01-01

    For aircraft primary structures, carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites possess many advantages over conventional aluminum alloys due to their light weight, higher strengthand stiffness-to-weight ratio, and low life-cycle maintenance costs. However, the relatively low electrical and thermal conductivities of CFRP composites fail to provide structural safety in certain operational conditions such as lightning strikes. Despite several attempts to solve these issues with the addition of carbon nanotubes (CNT) into polymer matrices, and/or by interleaving CNT sheets between conventional carbon fiber (CF) composite layers, there are still interfacial problems that exist between CNTs (or CF) and the resin. In this study, hybrid CNT/CF polymer composites were fabricated by interleaving layers of CNT sheets with Hexcel® IM7/8852 prepreg. Resin concentrations from 1 wt% to 50 wt% were used to infuse the CNT sheets prior to composite fabrication. The interlaminar properties of the resulting hybrid composites were characterized by mode I and II fracture toughness testing (double cantilever beam and end-notched flexure test). Fractographical analysis was performed to study the effect of resin concentration. In addition, multi-directional physical properties like thermal conductivity of the orthotropic hybrid polymer composite were evaluated. Interleaving CNT sheets significantly improved the in-plane (axial and perpendicular direction of CF alignment) thermal conductivity of the hybrid composite laminates by 50 - 400%.

  3. Large magnetoelectric response in multiferroic polymer-based composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, Ce-Wen; Cai, N.; Shi, Z.; Zhai, J.; Liu, G.; Lin, Y.

    2005-01-01

    A type of multiferroic polymer-based composite is presented which exhibits a giant magnetoelectric sensitivity. Such a multiferroic composite prepared via a simple low-temperature hot-molding technique for common polymer-based composites has a laminate structure with one lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT)/polyvinylidene-fluoride (PVDF) composite layer sandwiched between two TbDyFe alloy (Terfenol-D)/PVDF composite layers. The PZT/PVDF layer in the middle dominates the dielectric and piezoelectric behavior of the polymer based composites. The coupling elastic interaction between two outer Terfenol-D/PVDF layers and the middle PZT/PVDF layer in such polymer-based composites produces the giant magnetoelectric response as demonstrated by the experimental results, especially at high frequency at which the electromechanical resonance appears. The maximum magnetoelectric sensitivity of the composites can reach up to as high as about 300mV/cmOe at frequency below 50kHz and about 6000mV/cmOe at the resonance frequency of around 80kHz .

  4. Relationship between the fracture toughness of bulk polymer and fiber-reinforced polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Bhawesh

    Improving the fracture toughness of the polymer matrix has been a concentration of research effort for several years. However, improving the toughness of polymers is not sufficient to translate it into a greater toughness of their composites, because there is no linear relationship between the fracture toughness of polymer matrix and that of the composites. Failures in fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites are often found to occur in the polymer matrix. This matrix-dominated fracture of FRP composites is controlled by the mechanics of crack growth in the matrix. Therefore, it is of great interest to establish a relationship between the fracture toughness of the bulk polymer matrix and the FRP composites. The presence of fibers affects the near tip stress field and governs the instability of the crack. The constraining due to fiber changes the K-dominance at the vicinity of the crack tip. In the present work, a brittle polymer was considered for a series of fracture experiments to study the effect of K-dominance. The critical stress intensity factor was found to be a function of the loading and specimen configurations. Therefore, the common notion of assuming that only critical stress intensity factor is necessary to predict the fracture behavior of brittle materials is questionable. Loading or specimen configurations changes the level of K-dominance. A detailed K-dominance zone analysis shows that singular stress field is not dominant for most cases, and consequently, the stress intensity factor alone cannot explain the fracture behavior. A two-parameter model, based on the both singular and nonsingular stress fields, was proposed and validated with the experiments. Further experiments were performed on the bulk polymer matrix and layered specimens of composites and polymer matrix. A two-parameter fracture model was proposed for the bulk polymer matrix, which follows the same trend as the FRP composites analyzed using layered local model. The adequacy of the

  5. Self-Healing of a Polyurethane-based Polymer Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Considine, Melissa

    2005-03-01

    An attempt has been made to extend the development of a self-healing polymer system to polyurethane polymers. Self-healing materials can improve reliability and prevent catastrophic failure of critical components that are inaccessible for routine maintenance and inspection. Previous work by others has shown that monomer-filled microcapsules embedded in an epoxy matrix containing dispersed solid catalyst can autonomously heal stress induced cracking. Synthesis of in-situ dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) encapsulated in poly(urea-formaldehyde) is embedded in a two-part (rigid) polyurethane matrix containing dispersed Grubb's catalyst. The modified composite is subsequently characterized. Characterization and testing of the as-fabricated polymer composite samples includes optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, tensile testing and Izod impact testing. Following microcracking, induced toughening of the polymer matrix is anticipated as a result of microcapsule rupture that will release monomer to polymerize upon reaction with the embedded catalyst.

  6. The effect of water on thermal stresses in polymer composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Roy M.

    1994-01-01

    The fundamentals of the thermodynamic theory of mixtures and continuum thermochemistry are reviewed for a mixture of condensed water and polymer. A specific mixture which is mechanically elastic with temperature and water concentration gradients present is considered. An expression for the partial pressure of water in the mixture is obtained based on certain assumptions regarding the thermodynamic state of the water in the mixture. Along with a simple diffusion equation, this partial pressure expression may be used to simulate the thermostructural behavior of polymer composite materials due to water in the free volumes of the polymer. These equations are applied to a specific polymer composite material during isothermal heating conditions. The thermal stresses obtained by the application of the theory are compared to measured results to verify the accuracy of the approach.

  7. Compositions, methods, and systems comprising fluorous-soluble polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Swager, Timothy M.; Lim, Jeewoo; Takeda, Yohei

    2015-10-13

    The present invention generally relates to compositions, methods, and systems comprising polymers that are fluorous-soluble and/or organize at interfaces between a fluorous phase and a non-fluorous phase. In some embodiments, emulsions or films are provided comprising a polymer. The polymers, emulsions, and films can be used in many applications, including for determining, treating, and/or imaging a condition and/or disease in a subject. The polymer may also be incorporated into various optoelectronic device such as photovoltaic cells, organic light-emitting diodes, organic field effect transistors, or the like. In some embodiments, the polymers comprise pi-conjugated backbones, and in some cases, are highly emissive.

  8. Conductivity of carbon nanotube polymer composites

    SciTech Connect

    Wescott, J T; Kung, P; Maiti, A

    2006-11-20

    Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) simulations were used to investigate methods of controlling the assembly of percolating networks of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in thin films of block copolymer melts. For suitably chosen polymers the CNTs were found to spontaneously self-assemble into topologically interesting patterns. The mesoscale morphology was projected onto a finite-element grid and the electrical conductivity of the films computed. The conductivity displayed non-monotonic behavior as a function of relative polymer fractions in the melt. Results are compared and contrasted with CNT dispersion in small-molecule fluids and mixtures.

  9. Polymer composites based on gypsum matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mucha, Maria; Mróz, Patrycja; Kocemba, Aleksandra

    2016-05-01

    The role of polymers as retarder additives is to prolong the workability connected with setting time of gypsum. Various cellulose derivatives, soluble in water in concentration up to 1,5% by weight were applied taking different water/binder ratio. The hydration process of calcium sulfate hemihydrate (gypsum binder) into dihydrate (gypsum plaster) was observed by setting and calorimetric techniques. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed that the gypsum microstructure was varied when polymers are used. The mechanical properties of gypsum plasters were studied by bending strength test and they are correlated with sample microstructure

  10. Nano-structured polymer composites and process for preparing same

    DOEpatents

    Hillmyer, Marc; Chen, Liang

    2013-04-16

    A process for preparing a polymer composite that includes reacting (a) a multi-functional monomer and (b) a block copolymer comprising (i) a first block and (ii) a second block that includes a functional group capable of reacting with the multi-functional monomer, to form a crosslinked, nano-structured, bi-continuous composite. The composite includes a continuous matrix phase and a second continuous phase comprising the first block of the block copolymer.

  11. A self-sensing fiber reinforced polymer composite using mechanophore-based smart polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Jin; Liu, Yingtao; Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Dai, Lenore

    2015-04-01

    Polymer matrix composites (PMCs) are ubiquitous in engineering applications due to their superior mechanical properties at low weight. However, they are susceptible to damage due to their low interlaminar mechanical properties and poor heat and charge transport in the transverse direction to the laminate. Moreover, methods to inspect and ensure the reliability of composites are expensive and labor intensive. Recently, mechanophore-based smart polymer has attracted significant attention, especially for self-sensing of matrix damage in PMCs. A cyclobutane-based self-sensing approach using 1,1,1-tris (cinnamoyloxymethyl) ethane (TCE) and poly (vinyl cinnamate) (PVCi) has been studied in this paper. The self-sensing function was investigated at both the polymer level and composite laminate level. Fluorescence emissions were observed on PMC specimens subjected to low cycle fatigue load, indicating the presence of matrix cracks. Results are presented for graphite fiber reinforced composites.

  12. Light weight polymer matrix composite material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J. (Inventor); Lowell, Carl E. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A graphite fiber reinforced polymer matrix is layed up, cured, and thermally aged at about 750.degree. F. in the presence of an inert gas. The heat treatment improves the structural integrity and alters the electrical conductivity of the materials. In the preferred embodiment PMR-15 polyimides and Celion-6000 graphite fibers are used.

  13. Light weight polymer matrix composite material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J. (Inventor); Lowell, Carl E. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A graphite fiber reinforced polymer matrix is layed up, cured, and thermally aged at about 750 F in the presence of an inert gas. The heat treatment improves the structural integrity and alters the electrical conductivity of the materials. In the preferred embodiment PMR-15 polyimides and Celion-6000 graphite fibers are used.

  14. Water-soluble polymers and compositions thereof

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Barbara F.; Robison, Thomas W.; Gohdes, Joel W.

    2002-01-01

    Water-soluble polymers including functionalization from the group of amino groups, carboxylic acid groups, phosphonic acid groups, phosphonic ester groups, acylpyrazolone groups, hydroxamic acid groups, aza crown ether groups, oxy crown ethers groups, guanidinium groups, amide groups, ester groups, aminodicarboxylic groups, permethylated polvinylpyridine groups, permethylated amine groups, mercaptosuccinic acid groups, alkyl thiol groups, and N-alkylthiourea groups are disclosed.

  15. Water-soluble polymers and compositions thereof

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Barbara F.; Robison, Thomas W.; Gohdes, Joel W.

    1999-01-01

    Water-soluble polymers including functionalization from the group of amino groups, carboxylic acid groups, phosphonic acid groups, phosphonic ester groups, acylpyrazolone groups, hydroxamic acid groups, aza crown ether groups, oxy crown ethers groups, guanidinium groups, amide groups, ester groups, aminodicarboxylic groups, permethylated polyvinylpyridine groups, permethylated amine groups, mercaptosuccinic acid groups, alkyl thiol groups, and N-alkylthiourea groups are disclosed.

  16. Compositions for directed alignment of conjugated polymers

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Jinsang; Kim, Bong-Gi; Jeong, Eun Jeong

    2016-04-19

    Conjugated polymers (CPs) achieve directed alignment along an applied flow field and a dichroic ratio of as high as 16.67 in emission from well-aligned thin films and fully realized anisotropic optoelectronic properties of CPs in field-effect transistor (FET).

  17. Water-soluble polymers and compositions thereof

    DOEpatents

    Smith, B.F.; Robison, T.W.; Gohdes, J.W.

    1999-04-06

    Water-soluble polymers including functionalization from the group of amino groups, carboxylic acid groups, phosphonic acid groups, phosphonic ester groups, acylpyrazolone groups, hydroxamic acid groups, aza crown ether groups, oxy crown ethers groups, guanidinium groups, amide groups, ester groups, aminodicarboxylic groups, permethylated polyvinylpyridine groups, permethylated amine groups, mercaptosuccinic acid groups, alkyl thiol groups, and N-alkylthiourea groups are disclosed.

  18. Fabrication of an Electrically-Resistive, Varistor-Polymer Composite

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Mansor Bin; Fatehi, Asma; Zakaria, Azmi; Mahmud, Shahrom; Mohammadi, Sanaz A.

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the fabrication and electrical characterization of a polymer composite based on nano-sized varistor powder. The polymer composite was fabricated by the melt-blending method. The developed nano-composite was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FeSEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX). The XRD pattern revealed the crystallinity of the composite. The XRD study also showed the presence of secondary phases due to the substitution of zinc by other cations, such as bismuth and manganese. The TEM picture of the sample revealed the distribution of the spherical, nano-sized, filler particles throughout the matrix, which were in the 10–50 nm range with an average of approximately 11 nm. The presence of a bismuth-rich phase and a ZnO matrix phase in the ZnO-based varistor powder was confirmed by FeSEM images and EDX spectra. From the current-voltage curves, the non-linear coefficient of the varistor polymer composite with 70 wt% of nano filler was 3.57, and its electrical resistivity after the onset point was 861 KΩ. The non-linear coefficient was 1.11 in the sample with 100 wt% polymer content. Thus, it was concluded that the composites established a better electrical non-linearity at higher filler amounts due to the nano-metric structure and closer particle linkages. PMID:23443085

  19. Fracture behavior of glass fiber reinforced polymer composite

    SciTech Connect

    Avci, A.; Arikan, H.; Akdemir, A

    2004-03-01

    Chopped strand glass fiber reinforced particle-filled polymer composite beams with varying notch-to-depth ratios and different volume fractions of glass fibers were investigated in Mode I fracture using three-point bending tests. Effects of polyester resin content and glass fiber content on fracture behavior was also studied. Polyester resin contents were used 13.00%%, 14.75%, 16.50%, 18.00% and 19.50%, and glass fiber contents were 1% and 1.5% of the total weight of the polymer composite system. Flexural strength of the polymer composite increases with increase in polyester and fiber content. The critical stress intensity factor was determined by using several methods such as initial notch depth method, compliance method and J-integral method. The values of K{sub IC} obtained from these methods were compared.

  20. Mineralized polymer composites as biogenic bone substitute material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Rushita; Saha, Nabanita; Kitano, Takeshi; Saha, Petr

    2015-05-01

    Mineralized polymer composites (MPC) are recognized as potential fillers of bone defects. Though bioceramics exhibits quite a good bone-bonding and vascularization, it is considered to be too stiff and brittle for using alone. Thus, the use of polymer scaffold instead of bioceramics has several advantages including combining the osteoconductivity and bone-bonding potential of the inorganic phase with the porosity and interconnectivity of the three-dimensional construction. Aiming the advantages of ceramic-polymer composite scaffolds, the calcium carbonate (CaCO3) based biomineralized scaffold was prepared, where the PVP-CMC hydrogel was used as an extracellular matrix. This paper is reported about the morphology, swelling trend (in physiological solution) and viscoelastic behavior of (90 min mineralized) MPC. The dry MPC are off-white, coarse in texture, comparatively less flexible than the original PVP-CMC based hydrogel film, and the deposition of granular structures on the surface of the hydrogel film confirms about the development of biomineralized scaffold/polymer composites. Irrespective of thickness, the dry MPC shows higher values of swelling ratio within 30 min, which varies between 200-250 approximately. The dynamic viscoelastic nature of freshly prepared MPC was investigated applying 1% and 10% strain. At higher strain the viscoelastic moduli (G' and G") show significant change, and the nature of MPC turns from elastic to viscous. Based on the observed basic properties, the MPC (calcite based polymer composites) can be recommended for the treatment of adyanamic bone disorder.

  1. Thermal Protective Coating for High Temperature Polymer Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barron, Andrew R.

    1999-01-01

    The central theme of this research is the application of carboxylate-alumoxane nanoparticles as precursors to thermally protective coatings for high temperature polymer composites. In addition, we will investigate the application of carboxylate-alumoxane nanoparticle as a component to polymer composites. The objective of this research was the high temperature protection of polymer composites via novel chemistry. The significance of this research is the development of a low cost and highly flexible synthetic methodology, with a compatible processing technique, for the fabrication of high temperature polymer composites. We proposed to accomplish this broad goal through the use of a class of ceramic precursor material, alumoxanes. Alumoxanes are nano-particles with a boehmite-like structure and an organic periphery. The technical goals of this program are to prepare and evaluate water soluble carboxylate-alumoxane for the preparation of ceramic coatings on polymer substrates. Our proposed approach is attractive since proof of concept has been demonstrated under the NRA 96-LeRC-1 Technology for Advanced High Temperature Gas Turbine Engines, HITEMP Program. For example, carbon and Kevlar(tm) fibers and matting have been successfully coated with ceramic thermally protective layers.

  2. Silver nanowire array-polymer composite as thermal interface material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ju; Munari, Alessio; Dalton, Eric; Mathewson, Alan; Razeeb, Kafil M.

    2009-12-01

    Silver nanowire arrays embedded inside polycarbonate templates are investigated as a viable thermal interface material for electronic cooling applications. The composite shows an average thermal diffusivity value of 1.89×10-5 m2 s-1, which resulted in an intrinsic thermal conductivity of 30.3 W m-1 K-1. The nanowires' protrusion from the film surface enables it to conform to the surface roughness to make a better thermal contact. This resulted in a 61% reduction in thermal impedance when compared with blank polymer. An ˜30 nm Au film on the top of the composite was found to act as a heat spreader, reducing the thermal impedance further by 35%. A contact impedance model was employed to compare the contact impedance of aligned silver nanowire-polymer composites with that of aligned carbon nanotubes, which showed that the Young's modulus of the composite is the defining factor in the overall thermal impedance of these composites.

  3. Damage Tolerance Enhancement of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites by Nanoreinforcement of Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenner, Joel Stewart

    Nanocomposites are a relatively new class of materials which incorporate exotic, engineered nanoparticles to achieve superior material properties. Because of their extremely small size and well-ordered structure, many nanoparticles possess properties that exceed those offered by a wide range of other known materials, making them attractive candidates for novel materials engineering development. Their small size is also an impediment to their practical use, as they typically cannot be employed by themselves to realize those properties in large structures. Furthermore, nanoparticles typically possess strong self-affinity, rendering them difficult to disperse uniformly into a composite. However, contemporary research has shown that, if well-dispersed, nanoparticles have great capacity to improve the mechanical properties of composites, especially damage tolerance, in the form of fracture toughness, fatigue life, and impact damage mitigation. This research focuses on the development, manufacturing, and testing of hybrid micro/nanocomposites comprised of woven carbon fibers with a carbon nanotube reinforced epoxy matrix. Material processing consisted of dispersant-and-sonication based methods to disperse nanotubes into the matrix, and a vacuum-assisted wet lay-up process to prepare the hybrid composite laminates. Various damage tolerance properties of the hybrid composite were examined, including static strength, fracture toughness, fatigue life, fatigue crack growth rate, and impact damage behavior, and compared with similarly-processed reference material produced without nanoreinforcement. Significant improvements were obtained in interlaminar shear strength (15%), Mode-I fracture toughness (180%), shear fatigue life (order of magnitude), Mode-I fatigue crack growth rate (factor of 2), and effective impact damage toughness (40%). Observations by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and ultrasonic imaging showed significant differences in failure behavior

  4. Temperature effects on polymer-carbon composite sensors: evaluating the role of polymer molecular weight and carbon loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homer, M. L.; Lim, J. R.; Manatt, K.; Kisor, A.; Lara, L.; Jewell, A. D.; Yen, S. -P. S.; Shevade, A. V.; Ryan, M. A.

    2003-01-01

    We report the effect of environmental condtions coupled with varying polymer properties and carbon loadings on the performance of polymer-carbon black composite film, used as sensing medium in the JPL Electronic Nose.

  5. Monolithic and assembled polymer-ceramic composites for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Nandakumar, Anandkumar; Cruz, Célia; Mentink, Anouk; Tahmasebi Birgani, Zeinab; Moroni, Lorenzo; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Habibovic, Pamela

    2013-03-01

    The rationale for the use of polymer-ceramic composites for bone regeneration stems from the natural composition of bone, with collagen type I and biological apatite as the main organic and inorganic constituents, respectively. In the present study composite materials of PolyActive™ (PA), a poly(ethylene oxide terephthalate)/poly(butylene terephtalate) co-polymer, and hydroxyapatite (HA) at a weight ratio of 85:15 were prepared by rapid prototyping (RP) using two routes. In the first approach pre-extruded composite filaments of PA-HA were processed using three-dimensional fibre deposition (3DF) (conventional composite scaffolds). In the second approach PA scaffolds were fabricated using 3DF and combined with HA pillars produced inside stereolithographic moulds that fitted inside the pores of the PA three-dimensional structure (assembled composite scaffolds). Analysis of calcium and phosphate release in a simulated physiological solution, not containing calcium or phosphate, revealed significantly higher values for the HA pillars compared with other scaffolds. Release in simulated body fluid saturated with respect to HA did not show significant differences among the different scaffolds. Human mesenchymal stromal cells were cultured on polymer (3DF), conventional composite (3DF-HA) and assembled composite (HA assembled in 3DF) scaffolds and assessed for morphology, metabolic activity, DNA amount and gene expression of osteogenic markers using real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Scanning electron microscopy images showed that the cells attached to and infiltrated all the scaffolds. Assembled composites had a higher metabolic activity compared with 3DF-HA scaffolds while no significant differences were observed in DNA amounts. Gene expression of osteopontin in the assembled composite was significantly higher compared with the conventional composites. The strategy of composite fabrication by assembly appears to be a promising alternative to the

  6. Nanophosphor composite scintillators comprising a polymer matrix

    DOEpatents

    Muenchausen, Ross Edward; Mckigney, Edward Allen; Gilbertson, Robert David

    2010-11-16

    An improved nanophosphor composite comprises surface modified nanophosphor particles in a solid matrix. The nanophosphor particle surface is modified with an organic ligand, or by covalently bonding a polymeric or polymeric precursor material. The surface modified nanophosphor particle is essentially charge neutral, thereby preventing agglomeration of the nanophosphor particles during formation of the composite material. The improved nanophosphor composite may be used in any conventional scintillator application, including in a radiation detector.

  7. Enzyme-polymer composites with high biocatalytic activity and stability

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jungbae; Kosto, Timothy J.; Manimala, Joseph C.; Nauman, E B.; Dordick, Jonathan S.

    2004-08-22

    We have applied vacuum-spraying and electrospinning to incorporate an enzyme into a polymer matrix, creating a novel and highly active biocatalytic composite. As a unique technical approach, enzymes were co-dissolved in toluene with polymers, and the solvent was then rapidly removed by injecting the mixture into a vacuum chamber or by electrospinning. Subsequent crosslinking of the enzyme with glutaraldehyde resulted in stable entrapped enzyme within the polymeric matrices. For example, an amorphous composite of alpha-chymotrypsin and polyethylene showed no significant loss of enzymatic activity in aqueous buffer for one month. Nanofibers of alpha-chymotrypsin and polystyrene also showed no decrease in activity for more than two weeks. The normalized activity of amorphous composite in organic solvents was 3-13 times higher than that of native alpha-chymotrypsin. The activity of nanofibers was 5-7 times higher than that of amorphous composite in aqueous buffer solution. The composites of alpha-chymotrypsin and polymers demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining a wide variety of active and stable biocatalytic materials with many combinations of enzymes and polymers.

  8. Characterization of chitosan composites with synthetic polymers and inorganic additives.

    PubMed

    Lewandowska, Katarzyna

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, the results from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), contact angle measurements, tensile tests, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) of polymer composites containing chitosan (Ch) and montmorillonite (MMT) with and without poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) are presented. Measurements of the contact angles for diiodomethane (D) and glycerol (G) on the surfaces of chitosan films, Ch/MMT and Ch/PVA/MMT, were made and surface free energies were calculated. It was found that the wettability of the chitosan/MMT or Ch/PVA/MMT composite films decreased relative to the wettability of chitosan. The microstructure of unmodified polymers and their composites, as observed by SEM and AFM, showed particles that are relatively well dispersed in the polymer matrix. The TGA thermograms and mass loss percentages at different decomposition temperatures showed that the thermal stability of the binary composite slightly decreases upon the addition of PVA. The film mechanical properties such as tensile strength, Young's modulus and tensile strain at break depend on the composition and varied non-uniformly. Both composites possessed a tensile strength and Young's modulus of 27.6-94.3MPa and 1.5-3.5GPa, respectively. The addition of PVA to the composite led to a reduction in tensile strength by approximately 40%. PMID:26253510

  9. Solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane comprising plasma etched porous support

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Han; LaConti, Anthony B.

    2010-10-05

    A solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane and method of manufacturing the same. According to one embodiment, the composite membrane comprises a rigid, non-electrically-conducting support, the support preferably being a sheet of polyimide having a thickness of about 7.5 to 15 microns. The support has a plurality of cylindrical pores extending perpendicularly between opposing top and bottom surfaces of the support. The pores, which preferably have a diameter of about 0.1 to 5 microns, are made by plasma etching and preferably are arranged in a defined pattern, for example, with fewer pores located in areas of high membrane stress and more pores located in areas of low membrane stress. The pores are filled with a first solid polymer electrolyte, such as a perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) polymer. A second solid polymer electrolyte, which may be the same as or different than the first solid polymer electrolyte, may be deposited over the top and/or bottom of the first solid polymer electrolyte.

  10. Surface characterization of LDEF carbon fiber/polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grammer, Holly L.; Wightman, James P.; Young, Philip R.; Slemp, Wayne S.

    1995-01-01

    XPS (x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and SEM (scanning electron microscopy) analysis of both carbon fiber/epoxy matrix and carbon fiber/polysulfone matrix composites revealed significant changes in the surface composition as a result of exposure to low-earth orbit. The carbon 1s curve fit XPS analysis in conjunction with the SEM photomicrographs revealed significant erosion of the polymer matrix resins by atomic oxygen to expose the carbon fibers of the composite samples. This erosion effect on the composites was seen after 10 months in orbit and was even more obvious after 69 months.

  11. Electrically Conductive Multiphase Polymer Blend Carbon-Based Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brigandi, Paul James

    The use of multiphase polymer blends provides unique morphologies and properties to reduce the percolation concentration and increase conductivity of carbon-based polymer composites. These systems offer improved conductivity, temperature stability and selective distribution of the conductive filler through unique morphologies at significantly lower conductive filler concentration. In this work, the kinetic and thermodynamic effects on a series of multiphase conductive polymer composites were investigated. The polymer blend phase morphology, filler distribution, electrical conductivity, and rheological properties of CB-filled PP/PMMA/EAA conductive polymer composites were determined. Thermodynamic and kinetic parameters were found to influence the morphology development and final composite properties. The morphology and CB distribution were found to be kinetically driven when annealed for a short period of time following the shear-intensive mixing process, whereas the three-phase polymer blend morphology is driven by thermodynamics when given sufficient time under high temperature annealing conditions in the melt state. At short annealing times, the CB distribution was influenced by the compounding sequence where the CB was added after being premixed with one of the polymer phases or directly added to the three phase polymer melt, but again was thermodynamically driven at longer annealing times with the CB migrating to the EAA phase. The resistivity was found to decrease by a statistically significant amount to similar levels for all of the composite systems with increasing annealing time, providing evidence of gradual phase coalescence to a tri-continuous morphology and CB migration. The addition of CB via the PP and EAA masterbatch results in significantly faster percolation and lower resistivity compared to when added direct to the system during compounding after 30 minutes annealing by a statistically significant amount. Dynamic oscillatory shear rheology using

  12. Nanostructure Titania Reinforced Conducting Polymer Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondawar, S. B.; Thakare, S. R.; Khati, V.; Bompilwar, S.

    Composites of polyaniline with synthesized nanostructured titania (TiO2) and polyaniline with commercial TiO2 have been in situ synthesized by oxidative chemical polymerization method. Sulfuric acid was used as dopant during the polymerization process. Sol-gel precipitates of nanostructured titania were synthesized by hydrolyzing the mixture of titanium chloride (TiCl3) and colloidal transparent solution of starch. Composite materials were subjected for comparison to spectroscopic and X-ray diffraction analysis. Strong coupling/interaction of titania with the imine nitrogen in polyaniline confirmed by FTIR spectral analysis. XRD shows the composite of synthesized titania with polyaniline have broaden peak as compared to that of commercial titania with polyaniline indicating particle size in the range of nanometer scale which is supported by 40 nm particle size of the synthesized titania from TEM picture. Increase in conductivity with increasing temperature was observed in both the composite materials.

  13. Mechanics of Carbon Nanotubes and their Polymer Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wei, Chenyu; Cho, K. J.; Srivastava, Deepak; Tang, Harry (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Contents include the folloving: carbon nanotube (CNT): structures, application of carbon nanotubes, simulation method, Elastic properties of carbon nanotubes, yield strain of CNT, yielding under tensile stress, yielding: strain-rate and temperature dependence, yield strain under tension, yielding at realistic conditions, nano fibers, polymer CNT composite, force field, density dependency on temperature, diffusion coefficients, young modulus, and conclusions.

  14. Mechanics of particulate composites with glassy polymer binders in compression

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, J. L.; Spowart, J. E.; Kendall, M. J.; Woodworth, B.; Siviour, C. R.

    2014-01-01

    Whether used as structural components in design or matrix materials for composites, the mechanical properties of polymers are increasingly important. The compressive response of extruded polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) rod with aligned polymer chains and Al–Ni–PMMA particulate composites are investigated across a range of strain rates and temperatures. The particulate composites were prepared using an injection-moulding technique resulting in highly anisotropic microstructures. The mechanics of these materials are discussed in the light of theories of deformation for glassy polymers. The experimental data from this study are compared with PMMA results from the literature as well as epoxy-based composites with identical particulates. The PMMA exhibited the expected strain rate and temperature dependence and brittle failure was observed at the highest strain rates and lowest temperatures. The Al–Ni–PMMA composites were found to have similar stress–strain response to the PMMA with reduced strain softening after yield. Increasing volume fraction of particulates in the composite resulted in decreased strength. PMID:24711495

  15. Porous polymer networks and ion-exchange media and metal-polymer composites made therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Katsoulidis, Alexandros

    2016-10-18

    Porous polymeric networks and composite materials comprising metal nanoparticles distributed in the polymeric networks are provided. Also provided are methods for using the polymeric networks and the composite materials in liquid- and vapor-phase waste remediation applications. The porous polymeric networks, are highly porous, three-dimensional structures characterized by high surface areas. The polymeric networks comprise polymers polymerized from aldehydes and phenolic molecules.

  16. Porous polymer networks and ion-exchange media and metal-polymer composites made therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Kanatzidis, Mercouri G; Katsoulidis, Alexandros

    2015-03-10

    Porous polymeric networks and composite materials comprising metal nanoparticles distributed in the polymeric networks are provided. Also provided are methods for using the polymeric networks and the composite materials in liquid- and vapor-phase waste remediation applications. The porous polymeric networks, are highly porous, three-dimensional structures characterized by high surface areas. The polymeric networks comprise polymers polymerized from aldehydes and phenolic molecules.

  17. Additive Manufacturing of Ultem Polymers and Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, Kathy C.; Grady, Joseph E.; Draper, Robert D.; Shin, Euy-Sik E.; Patterson, Clark; Santelle, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this project was to conduct additive manufacturing to produce aircraft engine components by Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM), using commercially available polyetherimdes Ultem 9085 and experimental Ultem 1000 filled with 10 chopped carbon fiber. A property comparison between FDM-printed and injection molded coupons for Ultem 9085, Ultem 1000 resin and the fiber-filled composite Ultem 1000 was carried out. Furthermore, an acoustic liner was printed from Ultem 9085 simulating conventional honeycomb structured liners and tested in a wind tunnel. Composite compressor inlet guide vanes were also printed using fiber-filled Ultem 1000 filaments and tested in a cascade rig. The fiber-filled Ultem 1000 filaments and composite vanes were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and acid digestion to determine the porosity of FDM-printed articles which ranged from 25-31. Coupons of Ultem 9085, experimental Ultem 1000 composites and XH6050 resin were tested at room temperature and 400F to evaluate their corresponding mechanical properties.

  18. Polymer/carbon nanotube nano composite fibers--a review.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yaodong; Kumar, Satish

    2014-05-14

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are regarded as ideal filler materials for polymeric fiber reinforcement due to their exceptional mechanical properties and 1D cylindrical geometry (nanometer-size diameter and very high aspect ratio). The reported processing conditions and property improvements of CNT reinforced polymeric fiber are summarized in this review. Because of CNT polymer interaction, polymer chains in CNTs' vicinity (interphase) have been observed to have more compact packing, higher orientation, and better mechanical properties than bulk polymer. Evidences of the existence of interphase polymers in composite fibers, characterizations of their structures, and fiber properties are summarized and discussed. Implications of interphase phenomena on a broader field of fiber and polymer processing to make much stronger materials are now in the early stages of exploration. Beside improvements in tensile properties, the presence of CNTs in polymeric fibers strongly affects other properties, such as thermal stability, thermal transition temperature, fiber thermal shrinkage, chemical resistance, electrical conductivity, and thermal conductivity. This paper will be helpful to better understand the current status of polymer/CNT fibers, especially high-performance fibers, and to find the most suitable processing techniques and conditions. PMID:24520802

  19. Improved Thermoelectric Behavior of Nanotube-Filled Polymer Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grunlan, Jaime; Yu, Choongho; Kim, Yeon Seok; Choi, Kyungwho; Kim, Dasarayong

    2010-03-01

    The thermoelectric properties of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)-filled polymer composites can be enhanced by modifying junctions between SWNTs using poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) The resulting composites exhibit electrical conductivities up to ˜40,000 S/m without significantly altering thermopower (or Seebeck coefficient). On the other hand, thermal transport remains comparable to typical polymeric materials due to the dissimilar bonding and vibrational spectra between CNT and PEDOT:PSS. This behavior is very different from that of typical semiconductors whose thermoelectric properties are strongly correlated. SWNT-filled composites, made with an aqueous poly(vinyl acetate) emulsion (dried at room temperature followed by 80^oC) exhibited the best thermoelectric performance in this study. The highest thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) in this study is ˜0.02 at room temperature, which is at least one order magnitude higher than most polymers and higher than that of bulk Si. Further studies with various polymers and nanoparticles with high thermoelectric performance could result in economical, light-weight, and efficient polymer-based thermoelectrics.

  20. Dissipative Particle Dynamics modeling of nanorod-polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khani, Shaghayegh; Maia, Joao

    2014-11-01

    Recent years have seen a plethora of experimental methods for fabricating nanorod-polymer composites with enhanced physical and mechanical properties. The macroscopic properties of the composites are directly related to the dispersion and organization of the nanoparticles in the matrix. For instance, a significant improvement in the properties of the nanorod-polymer composites is observed upon formation of a percolating network. Thus, controlling the structure of the nanoparticles in the matrix will advance the technology in the field. One way of doing this is by adjusting the chemical interactions which is done through grafting polymer chains on the surface of the rods. Although the enthalpic interactions play the major role in such systems other entropic variables such as the dimension of the rods, density of grafting and etc. may influence the final morphology of the system. The recent developments in the computational techniques have paved the road for further understanding of the controlled assembly of nanorods in polymer matrices. In this study, Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) is employed in order to investigate the effect of enthalpic and entopic variables on the phase behavior of the nanorod-polymer composites. DPD is a coarse-grained mesoscale method which has been found very promising in simulating multi component systems. The interaction parameter between the components of the systems can be mapped onto the Flory-Huggins χ-parameter via well-known Groot-Warren expression. The main goal of this work is to provide a phase diagram that can be used to guide the experiments in designing new materials.

  1. Residual stresses in polymer matrix composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, H. T.

    1976-01-01

    Residual stresses in composites are induced during fabrication and by environmental exposure. The theory formulated can describe the shrinkage commonly observed after a thermal expansion test. Comparison between the analysis and experimental data for laminates of various material systems indicates that the residual stress-free temperature can be lower than the curing temperature, depending on the curing process. Effects of residual stresses on ply failure including the acoustic emission characteristics are discussed.

  2. Sub percolation threshold carbon nanotube based polyvinylidene fluoride polymer-polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, Cedric Antony

    The study of piezoelectric materials has traditionally focused largely on homogeneous crystalline or semi-crystalline materials. This research focuses on the concept of piezoelectric composites using selective microstructural reinforcement in the piezoelectric material to improve the piezoelectric properties. This is done using a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and carbon nanotube composite as the model system. A multi-tiered engineering approach is taken to understand the material (experimental and computational analyses) and design a composite system which provides an effective platform for future research in piezoelectric improvement. A finite element analysis is used to evaluate the ability of carbon nanotubes to generate a heterogeneous electric field where local improvements in electric field produce an increase in the effective piezoelectric strength. The study finds that weight percent and aspect ratio of the carbon nanotubes are of key importance while formations of percolating networks are detrimental to performance. This motivates investigation into electrospinning into a method of producing sub percolation threshold composites with large carbon nanotube content. However, the electrospun fabrics have too low of a dielectric strength to sustain high strength electric fields. This is studied within the context of high voltage physics and a solution inspired by traditional composites manufacturing is proposed wherein the electrospun fiber mat is used as the fiber reinforcing component of a polymer-polymer composite. This composite is thoroughly analyzed to show that it allows for a high dielectric strength combined with high carbon nanotube content. It is also shown that the PVDF contains the proper crystal structure to allow for piezoelectric properties. Furthermore, the addition of carbon nanotubes greatly improves the strength and stiffness of the composite, as well as affecting the internal electric field response to an applied voltage. These qualities

  3. Asymmetry in ferroelectric polymer laminate composites

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, B.A.; Scheinbeim, J.I.; Su, Ji

    1996-10-01

    Studies of the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of composite bilaminates of poly(vinylidene fluoride) and nylon 11 films have shown that the properties of the bilaminates cannot be understood solely in terms of the properties of the individual components. Further, the properties of films which are polarized with the positive voltage on the nylon 11 side are different from those having the positive voltage on the poly(vinylidene fluoride) side. This asymmetry is interpreted as resulting from a region of space charge trapped at the interface between the two layers.

  4. Smart conducting polymer composites having zero temperature coefficient of resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Kunmo; Lee, Sung-Chul; Lee, Sangeui; Kim, Dongearn; Moon, Changyoul; Park, Sung-Hoon

    2014-12-01

    Zero temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) is essential for the precise control of temperature in heating element and sensor applications. Many studies have focused on developing zero-TCR systems with inorganic compounds; however, very few have dealt with developing zero-TCR systems with polymeric materials. Composite systems with a polymer matrix and a conducting filler show either a negative (NTC) or a positive temperature coefficient (PTC) of resistance, depending on several factors, e.g., the polymer nature and the filler shape. In this study, we developed a hybrid conducting zero-TCR composite having self-heating properties for thermal stability and reliable temperature control. The bi-layer composites consisted of a carbon nanotube (CNT)-based layer having an NTC of resistance and a carbon black (CB)-based layer having a PTC of resistance which was in direct contact with electrodes to stabilize the electrical resistance change during electric Joule heating. The composite showed nearly constant resistance values with less than 2% deviation of the normalized resistance until 200 °C. The CB layer worked both as a buffer and as a distributor layer against the current flow from an applied voltage. This behavior, which was confirmed both experimentally and theoretically, has been rarely reported for polymer-based composite systems.Zero temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) is essential for the precise control of temperature in heating element and sensor applications. Many studies have focused on developing zero-TCR systems with inorganic compounds; however, very few have dealt with developing zero-TCR systems with polymeric materials. Composite systems with a polymer matrix and a conducting filler show either a negative (NTC) or a positive temperature coefficient (PTC) of resistance, depending on several factors, e.g., the polymer nature and the filler shape. In this study, we developed a hybrid conducting zero-TCR composite having self

  5. Thermoelectricity in polymer composites due to fluctuation-induced tunneling.

    PubMed

    Stedman, T; Wei, K; Nolas, G S; Woods, L M

    2015-11-01

    Transport in heavily-doped polymer composites, characterized by localized charge regions, is examined in light of the recent interest in polymers for thermoelectric applications. The developed fundamental transport theory describes carrier tunneling between charged localizations by taking into account thermally induced fluctuations of the applied potential. A range of characteristic behaviors corresponding to experimental data are described. Deviations from the Wiedemann-Franz law are also identified. This novel theory enables the determination of factors dominating the transport in polymers and a comparison to tunneling without thermal fluctuations is also provided. The obtained asymptotic expressions for the conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, and carrier thermal conductivity are particularly useful for elucidating possible routes for thermoelectric transport control and optimization. PMID:26437575

  6. Survey of inorganic polymers. [for composite matrix resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerber, A. H.; Mcinerney, E. F.

    1979-01-01

    A literature search was carried out in order to identify inorganic, metallo-organic, and hybrid inorganic-organic polymers that could serve as potential matrix resins for advanced composites. The five most promising candidates were critically reviewed and recommendations were made for the achievement of their potential in terms of performance and cost. These generic polymer classes comprise: (1) Poly(arylsil sesquioxanes); (2) Poly(silyl arylene siloxanes); (3) Poly(silarylenes); (4) Poly(silicon-linked ferrocenes); and (5) Poly(organo phosphazenes). No single candidate currently possesses the necessary combination of physicomechanical properties, thermal stability, processability, and favorable economics. The first three classes exhibit the best thermal performance. On the other hand, poly (organo phosphazenes), the most extensively studied polymer class, exhibit the best combination of structure-property control, processability, and favorable economics.

  7. Polymer sol-gel composite inverse opal structures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoran; Blanchard, G J

    2015-03-25

    We report on the formation of composite inverse opal structures where the matrix used to form the inverse opal contains both silica, formed using sol-gel chemistry, and poly(ethylene glycol), PEG. We find that the morphology of the inverse opal structure depends on both the amount of PEG incorporated into the matrix and its molecular weight. The extent of organization in the inverse opal structure, which is characterized by scanning electron microscopy and optical reflectance data, is mediated by the chemical bonding interactions between the silica and PEG constituents in the hybrid matrix. Both polymer chain terminus Si-O-C bonding and hydrogen bonding between the polymer backbone oxygens and silanol functionalities can contribute, with the polymer mediating the extent to which Si-O-Si bonds can form within the silica regions of the matrix due to hydrogen-bonding interactions. PMID:25734614

  8. Polymer sol-gel composite inverse opal structures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoran; Blanchard, G J

    2015-03-25

    We report on the formation of composite inverse opal structures where the matrix used to form the inverse opal contains both silica, formed using sol-gel chemistry, and poly(ethylene glycol), PEG. We find that the morphology of the inverse opal structure depends on both the amount of PEG incorporated into the matrix and its molecular weight. The extent of organization in the inverse opal structure, which is characterized by scanning electron microscopy and optical reflectance data, is mediated by the chemical bonding interactions between the silica and PEG constituents in the hybrid matrix. Both polymer chain terminus Si-O-C bonding and hydrogen bonding between the polymer backbone oxygens and silanol functionalities can contribute, with the polymer mediating the extent to which Si-O-Si bonds can form within the silica regions of the matrix due to hydrogen-bonding interactions.

  9. High Strain Rate Deformation Modeling of a Polymer Matrix Composite. Part 2; Composite Micromechanical Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Stouffer, Donald C.

    1998-01-01

    Recently applications have exposed polymer matrix composite materials to very high strain rate loading conditions, requiring an ability to understand and predict the material behavior under these extreme conditions. In this second paper of a two part report, a three-dimensional composite micromechanical model is described which allows for the analysis of the rate dependent, nonlinear deformation response of a polymer matrix composite. Strain rate dependent inelastic constitutive equations utilized to model the deformation response of a polymer are implemented within the micromechanics method. The deformation response of two representative laminated carbon fiber reinforced composite materials with varying fiber orientation has been predicted using the described technique. The predicted results compare favorably to both experimental values and the response predicted by the Generalized Method of Cells, a well-established micromechanics analysis method.

  10. Fabrication, Modelling and Application of Conductive Polymer Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Aaron David

    Electroactive polymers (EAP) are an emerging branch of smart materials that possess the capability to change shape in the presence of an electric field. Opportunities for the advancement of knowledge were identified in the branch of EAP consisting of inherently electrically conductive polymers. This dissertation explores methods by which the unique properties of composite materials having conductive polymers as a constituent may be exploited. Chapter 3 describes the blending of polyaniline with conventional thermoplastics. Processing these polyblends into foams yielded a porous conductive material. The effect of blend composition and processing parameters on the resulting porous morphology and electrical conductivity was investigated. These findings represent the first systematic study of porous conductive polymer blends. In Chapter 4, multilayer electroactive polymer actuators consisting of polypyrrole films electropolymerized on a passive polymer membrane core were harnessed as actuators. The membrane is vital in the transport of ionic species and largely dictates the stiffness of the layered configuration. The impact of the mechanical properties of the membrane on the actuation response of polypyrrole-based trilayer bending actuators was investigated. Candidate materials with distinct morphologies were identified and their mechanical properties were evaluated. These results indicated that polyvinylidene difluoride membranes were superior to the other candidates. An electrochemical synthesis procedure was proposed, and the design of a novel polymerization vessel was reported. These facilities were utilized to prepare actuators under a variety of synthesis conditions to investigate the impact of conductive polymer morphology on the electromechanical response. Characterization techniques were implemented to quantitatively assess physical and electrochemical properties of the layered composite. Chapter 5 proposes a new unified multiphysics model that captures the

  11. Basalt fiber reinforced polymer composites: Processing and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qiang

    A high efficiency rig was designed and built for in-plane permeability measurement of fabric materials. A new data derivation procedure to acquire the flow fluid pattern in the experiment was developed. The measurement results of the in-plane permeability for basalt twill 31 fabric material showed that a high correlation exists between the two principal permeability values for this fabric at 35% fiber volume fraction. This may be the most important scientific contribution made in this thesis. The results from radial measurements corresponded quite well with those from Unidirectional (UD) measurements, which is a well-established technique. No significant differences in mechanical properties were found between basalt fabric reinforced polymer composites and glass composites reinforced by a fabric of similar weave pattern. Aging results indicate that the interfacial region in basalt composites may be more vulnerable to environmental damage than that in glass composites. However, the basalt/epoxy interface may have been more durable than the glass/epoxy interface in tension-tension fatigue because the basalt composites have significantly longer fatigue life. In this thesis, chapter I reviews the literature on fiber reinforced polymer composites, with concentration on permeability measurement, mechanical properties and durability. Chapter II discusses the design of the new rig for in-plane permeability measurement, the new derivation procedure for monitoring of the fluid flow pattern, and the permeability measurement results. Chapter III compares the mechanical properties and durability between basalt fiber and glass fiber reinforced polymer composites. Lastly, chapter IV gives some suggestions and recommendations for future work.

  12. Shape memory-based tunable resistivity of polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Hongsheng; Zhou, Xingdong; Ma, Yuanyuan; Yi, Guobin; Cheng, Xiaoling; Zhu, Yong; Zu, Xihong; Zhang, Nanjun; Huang, Binghao; Yu, Lifang

    2016-02-01

    A conductive composite in bi-layer structure was fabricated by embedding hybrid nanofillers, namely carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), into a shape memory polyurethane (SMPU). The CNT/AgNP-SMPU composites exhibited a novel tunable conductivity which could be facially tailored in wide range via the compositions or a specifically designed thermo-mechanical shape memory programming. The morphologies of the conductive fillers and the composites were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The mechanical and thermal measurements were performed by tensile tests and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). By virtue of a specifically explored shape memory programming, the composites were stretched and fixed into different temporary states. The electrical resistivity (Rs) varied accordingly, which was able to be stabilized along with the shape fixing. Theoretical prediction based upon the tunneling model was performed. The Rs-strain curves of the composites with different compositions were well fitted. Furthermore, the relative resistivity and the Gauge factor along with the elongation were calculated. The influence of the compositions on the strain-dependent Rs was disclosed. The findings provided a new avenue to tailor the conductivity of the polymeric nano-composites by combining the composition method and a thermo-mechanical programming, which may greatly benefit the application of intelligent polymers in flexible electronics and sensors fields.

  13. Electron Beam-Cure Polymer Matrix Composites: Processing and Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrenn, G.; Frame, B.; Jensen, B.; Nettles, A.

    2001-01-01

    Researchers from NASA and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are evaluating a series of electron beam curable composites for application in reusable launch vehicle airframe and propulsion systems. Objectives are to develop electron beam curable composites that are useful at cryogenic to elevated temperatures (-217 C to 200 C), validate key mechanical properties of these composites, and demonstrate cost-saving fabrication methods at the subcomponent level. Electron beam curing of polymer matrix composites is an enabling capability for production of aerospace structures in a non-autoclave process. Payoffs of this technology will be fabrication of composite structures at room temperature, reduced tooling cost and cure time, and improvements in component durability. This presentation covers the results of material property evaluations for electron beam-cured composites made with either unidirectional tape or woven fabric architectures. Resin systems have been evaluated for performance in ambient, cryogenic, and elevated temperature conditions. Results for electron beam composites and similar composites cured in conventional processes are reviewed for comparison. Fabrication demonstrations were also performed for electron beam-cured composite airframe and propulsion piping subcomponents. These parts have been built to validate manufacturing methods with electron beam composite materials, to evaluate electron beam curing processing parameters, and to demonstrate lightweight, low-cost tooling options.

  14. TiO2-polymer composites for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Peña, J; Vallet-Regí, M; San Román, J

    1997-04-01

    Composite hydrogels of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and poly-(methyl metacrylate) (PMMA) reinforced with a bioceramic, TiO2, have been prepared by reactive moulding from a mixture of the bioceramic with PMMA beads and acrylic acid. Cylindrical specimens with various TiO2-polymer compositions, but a constant 3:1 PAA/PMMA ratio were obtained, and their corresponding swelling behavior was followed at pH = 7.0 and pH = 8.0 in buffered solution at 37 degrees C. The composition and structure of the composites prepared was studied by thermogravimetry, 1H-NMR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The composites prepared present a considerable consistency, even in hydrated media, since their swelling behavior is rather sensitive to the pH of the media. Specific polar interactions of the carboxylic groups of the hydrophilic polymer component PAA with the surface of TiO2 particles, modulate the behavior of the composites against the hydration processes at different pH.

  15. Microwave Dielectric Properties of Ceramic/Semicrystalline Polymer Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, Dong Hyeok; Ju, Han Sae; Kim, Eung Soo

    2012-09-01

    The effects of various ceramics and semicrystalline polymers on the dielectric properties of MgMoO4/polypropylene (PP), MgWO4/PP, NiNb2O6/poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE), and MgNb2O6/PTFE composites were investigated at microwave frequencies. In the frequency range from 1 to 9.4 GHz, the dielectric constant (K) of the composites showed good frequency stability, while their dielectric loss (\\tan δ) increased with increasing frequency, due to the dipolar relaxation process associated with the matrices. With increasing ceramic content, the K and \\tan δ values of the composites increased, due to the K values of the individual components and interfacial polarization between the ceramics and polymers. For the composites with the same amounts of ceramics, the K value and temperature coefficient of the resonant frequency (TCF) of the composites were dependent on the type of ceramics. Also, the measured K values of the composites were compared with the effective dielectric properties calculated by different theoretical models.

  16. New generation fiber reinforced polymer composites incorporating carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soliman, Eslam

    The last five decades observed an increasing use of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites as alternative construction materials for aerospace and infrastructure. The high specific strength of FRP attracted its use as non-corrosive reinforcement. However, FRP materials were characterized with a relatively low ductility and low shear strength compared with steel reinforcement. On the other hand, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been introduced in the last decade as a material with minimal defect that is capable of increasing the mechanical properties of polymer matrices. This dissertation reports experimental investigations on the use of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) to produce a new generation of FRP composites. The experiments showed significant improvements in the flexure properties of the nanocomposite when functionalized MWCNTs were used. In addition, MWCNTs were used to produce FRP composites in order to examine static, dynamic, and creep behavior. The MWCNTs improved the off-axis tension, off-axis flexure, FRP lap shear joint responses. In addition, they reduced the creep of FRP-concrete interface, enhanced the fracture toughness, and altered the impact resistance significantly. In general, the MWCNTs are found to affect the behaviour of the FRP composites when matrix failure dominates the behaviour. The improvement in the mechanical response with the addition of low contents of MWCNTs would benefit many industrial and military applications such as strengthening structures using FRP composites, composite pipelines, aircrafts, and armoured vehicles.

  17. Thermosetting polymer-matrix composites for structural repair applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goertzen, William Kirby

    2007-12-01

    Several classes of thermosetting polymer matrix composites were evaluated for use in structural repair applications. Initial work involved the characterization and evaluation of woven carbon fiber/epoxy matrix composites for structural pipeline repair. Cyanate ester resins were evaluated as a replacement for epoxy in composites for high-temperature pipe repair applications, and as the basis for adhesives for resin infusion repair of high-temperature composite materials. Carbon fiber/cyanate ester matrix composites and fumed silica/cyanate ester nanocomposites were evaluated for their thermal, mechanical, viscoelastic, and rheological properties as they relate to their structure, chemistry, and processing characteristics. The bisphenol E cyanate ester under investigation possesses a high glass transition temperature, excellent mechanical properties, and unique ambient temperature processability. The incorporation of fumed silica served to enhance the mechanical and rheological properties of the polymer and reduce thermal expansion without sacrificing glass transition or drastically altering curing kinetics. Characterization of the composites included dynamic mechanical analysis, thermomechanical analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, rheological and rheokinetic evaluation, and transmission electron microscopy.

  18. Thermosetting Polymer-Matrix Composites for Strucutral Repair Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Goertzen, William Kirby

    2007-12-01

    Several classes of thermosetting polymer matrix composites were evaluated for use in structural repair applications. Initial work involved the characterization and evaluation of woven carbon fiber/epoxy matrix composites for structural pipeline repair. Cyanate ester resins were evaluated as a replacement for epoxy in composites for high-temperature pipe repair applications, and as the basis for adhesives for resin infusion repair of high-temperature composite materials. Carbon fiber/cyanate ester matrix composites and fumed silica/cyanate ester nanocomposites were evaluated for their thermal, mechanical, viscoelastic, and rheological properties as they relate to their structure, chemistry, and processing characteristics. The bisphenol E cyanate ester under investigation possesses a high glass transition temperature, excellent mechanical properties, and unique ambient temperature processability. The incorporate of fumed silica served to enhance the mechanical and rheological properties of the polymer and reduce thermal expansion without sacrificing glass transition or drastically altering curing kinetics. Characterization of the composites included dynamic mechanical analysis, thermomechanical analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, rheological and rheokinetic evaluation, and transmission electron microscopy.

  19. Electrochemical formation of a composite polymer-aluminum oxide film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runge-Marchese, Jude Mary

    1997-10-01

    The formation of polymer films through electrochemical techniques utilizing electrolytes which include conductive polymer is of great interest to the coatings and electronics industries as a means for creating electrically conductive and corrosion resistant finishes. One of these polymers, polyamino-benzene (polyaniline), has been studied for this purpose for over ten years. This material undergoes an insulator-to-metal transition upon doping with protonic acids in an acid/base type reaction. Review of prior studies dealing with polyaniline and working knowledge of aluminum anodization has led to the development of a unique process whereby composite polymer-aluminum oxide films are formed. The basis for the process is a modification of the anodizing electrolyte which results in the codeposition of polyaniline during aluminum anodization. A second process, which incorporates electrochemical sealing of the anodic layer with polyaniline was also developed. The formation of these composite films is documented through experimental processing, and characterized by way of scientific analysis and engineering tests. Analysis results revealed the formation of unique dual phase anodic films with fine microstructures which exhibited full intrusion of the columnar aluminum oxide structure with polyaniline, indicating the polymer was deposited as the metal oxidation proceeded. An aromatic amine derivative of polyaniline with aluminum sulfate was determined to be the reaction product within the aluminum oxide phase of the codeposited films. Scientific characterization determined the codeposition process yields completely chemically and metallurgically bound composite films. Engineering studies determined the films, obtained through a single step, exhibited superior wear and corrosion resistance to conventionally anodized and sealed films processed through two steps, demonstrating the increased manufacturing process efficiency that can be realized with the modification of the

  20. Parameters influencing the thermal expansion of polymers and fibre composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baschek, G.; Hartwig, G.

    Thermal expansion of polymers and fibre composites is an important design parameter in cryogenics. Measurements have been carried out with a laser interference dilatometer and an inductive dilatometer. Parameters which might influence the thermal expansion have been investigated. For polymers the influence of annealing has been studied. Annealing at a temperature near to the main glass transition yielded deviations of about 5% compared to those of untreated samples. The very large expansion of polymers can be drastically varied by reinforcement with fibres of different fibre arrangements. For carbon fibre angle-plies even negative expansion can be achieved (Humphreys, E.A. and Rosen, B.W., Properties analysis of laminates. In Engineered Materials Handbook, Vol. 1, Composites. ASM International, USA, 1987, p. 226). This behaviour arises from thermally induced shear stresses between the laminates. For carbon fibre reinforced polymers (CRPs) with different fibre angles the influences of thermal cycling, mechanical creep loading and geometrical shape (plates, half-tubes and tubes) on the expansion behaviour has been investigated. The expansion is influenced in a different manner by thermal cycling and mechanical creep loading. The largest effects arise from thermal cycling and mechanical creep loading of CRPs. The geometrical shape of the specimens influences the expansion behaviour remarkably. The expansion of tubes is smaller compared to that of plates. The reason is coupling of radial and azimuthal components existing for cylindrical samples.

  1. Nanocellulose in Polymer Composites and Biomedical: Research and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Yuan; Tekinalp, Halil L; Peter, William H; Eberle, Cliff; Naskar, Amit K; Ozcan, Soydan

    2014-01-01

    Nanocellulose materials are nano-sized cellulose fibers or crystals that are produced by bacteria or derived from plants. These materials exhibit exceptional strength characteristics, light weight, transparency, and excellent biocompatibility. Compared to some other nanomaterials, nanocellulose is renewable and less expensive to produce. As such, a wide range of applications for nanocellulose has been envisioned. Most extensively studied areas include polymer composites and biomedical applications. Cellulose nanofibrils and nanocrystals have been used to reinforce both thermoplastic and thermoset polymers. Given the hydrophilic nature of these materials, the interfacial properties with most polymers are often poor. Various surface modification procedures have thus been adopted to improve the interaction between polymer matrix and cellulose nanofibrils or nanocrystals. In addition, the applications of nanocellulose as biomaterials have been explored including wound dressing, tissue repair, and medical implants. Nanocellulose materials for wound healing and periodontal tissue recovery have become commercially available, demonstrating the great potential of nanocellulose as a new generation of biomaterials. In this review, we highlight the applications of nanocellulose as reinforcing fillers for composites and the effect of surface modification on the mechanical properties as well as the application as biomaterials.

  2. Analyses of moisture in polymers and composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, L. E.; Vaughan, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    A suitable method for the direct measurement of moisture concentrations after humidity/thermal exposure on state of the art epoxy and polyimide resins and their graphite and glass fiber reinforcements was investigated. Methods for the determination of moisture concentration profiles, moisture diffusion modeling and moisture induced chemical changes were examined. Carefully fabricated, precharacterized epoxy and polyimide neat resins and their AS graphite and S glass reinforced composites were exposed to humid conditions using heavy water (D20), at ambient and elevated temperatures. These specimens were fixtured to theoretically limit the D20 permeation to a unidirectional penetration axis. The analytical techniques evaluated were: (1) laser pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry; (2) solids probe mass spectrometry; (3) laser pyrolysis conventional infrared spectroscopy; and (4) infrared imaging thermovision. The most reproducible and sensitive technique was solids probe mass spectrometry. The fabricated exposed specimens were analyzed for D20 profiling after humidity/thermal conditioning at three exposure time durations.

  3. Permeability of rayon based polymer composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stokes, E. H.

    1992-01-01

    Several types of anomalous rayon based phenolic behavior have been observed in post-fired nozzles and exit cones. Many of these events have been shown to be related to the development of internal gas pressure within the material. The development of internal gas pressure is a function of the amount of gas produced within the material and the rate at which that gas is allowed to escape. The latter property of the material is referred to as the material's permeability. The permeability of two dimensional carbonized rayon based phenolic composites is a function of material direction, temperature, and stress/strain state. Recently significant differences in the permeability of these materials has been uncovered which may explain their inconsistent performance. This paper summarizes what is known about the permeability of these materials to date and gives possible implications of these finding to the performance of these materials in an ablative environment.

  4. Depth Profiling of Polymer Composites by Ultrafast Laser Ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Christopher; Clayton, Clive; Longtin, Jon

    2009-03-01

    Past work has shown femtosecond laser ablation to be an athermal process at low fluences in polymer systems. The ablation rate in this low fluence regime is very low, allowing for micro-scale removal of material. We have taken advantage of this fact to perform shallow depth profiling ablation on carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites. Neat composite and resin samples were studied to establish reference ablation profiles. These profiles and the effects of the heterogeneous distribution of carbon fibers were observed through confocal laser profilometry and optical and scanning electron microscopy. Weathered materials that have been subjected to accelerated tests in artificial sunlight or water conditions were ablated to determine the correlation between exposure and change in ablation characteristics. Preliminary Raman and micro-ATR analysis performed before and after ablation shows no chemical changes indicative of thermal effects. The low-volume-ablation property was utilized in an attempt to expose the sizing-matrix interphase for analysis.

  5. Significantly elevated dielectric permittivity of Si-based semiconductor/polymer 2-2 composites induced by high polarity polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yefeng; Gong, Honghong; Xie, Yunchuan; Wei, Xiaoyong; Zhang, Zhicheng

    2016-02-01

    To disclose the essential influence of polymer polarity on dielectric properties of polymer composites filled with semiconductive fillers, a series of Si-based semiconductor/polymer 2-2 composites in a series model was fabricated. The dielectric permittivity of composites is highly dependant on the polarity of polymer layers as well as the electron mobility in Si-based semiconductive sheets. The huge dielectric permittivity achieved in Si-based semiconductive sheets after being coated with high polarity polymer layers is inferred to originate from the strong induction of high polarity polymers. The increased mobility of the electrons in Si-based semiconductive sheets coated by high polarity polymer layers should be responsible for the significantly enhanced dielectric properties of composites. This could be facilely achieved by either increasing the polarity of polymer layers or reducing the percolative electric field of Si-based semiconductive sheets. The most promising 2-2 dielectric composite was found to be made of α-SiC with strong electron mobility and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) with high polarity, and its highest permittivity was obtained as 372 at 100 Hz although the permittivity of α-SiC and PVA is 3-5 and 15, respectively. This work may help in the fabrication of high dielectric constant (high-k) composites by tailoring the induction effect of high polarity polymers to semiconductors.

  6. Thermal-vacuum response of polymer matrix composites in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tennyson, R. C.; Matthews, R.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes a thermal-vacuum outgassing model and test protocol for predicting outgassing times and dimensional changes for polymer matrix composites. Experimental results derived from 'control' samples are used to provide the basis for analytical predictions to compare with the outgassing response of Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) flight samples. Coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) data are also presented. In addition, an example is given illustrating the dimensional change of a 'zero' CTE laminate due to moisture outgassing.

  7. Electron Beam Curing of Polymer Matrix Composites - CRADA Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Janke, C. J.; Howell, Dave; Norris, Robert E.

    1997-05-01

    The major cost driver in manufacturing polymer matrix composite (PMC) parts and structures, and one of the elements having the greatest effect on their quality and performance, is the standard thermal cure process. Thermal curing of PMCs requires long cure times and high energy consumption, creates residual thermal stresses in the part, produces volatile toxic by-products, and requires expensive tooling that is tolerant of the high cure temperatures.

  8. The Cost of Automotive Polymer Composites: A Review and Assessment of DOE's Lightweight Materials Composites Research

    SciTech Connect

    Das, S.

    2001-01-26

    Polymer composite materials have been a part of the automotive industry for several decades, with early application in the 1953 Corvette. These materials have been used for applications with low production volumes, because of their shortened lead times and lower investment costs relative to conventional steel fabrication. Important drivers of the growth of polymer composites have been the reduced weight and parts consolidation opportunities the material offers, as well as design flexibility, corrosion resistance, material anisotropy, and mechanical properties. Although these benefits are well recognized by the industry, polymer composite use has been dampened by high material costs, slow production rates, and to a lesser extent, concerns about recyclability. Also impeding large scale automotive applications is a curious mixture of concerns about material issues such as crash energy absorption, recycling challenges, competitive and cost pressures, the industry's general lack of experience and comfort with the material, and industry concerns about its own capabilities (Flynn and Belzowski 1995). Polymer composite materials are generally made of two or more material components--fibers, either glass or carbon, reinforced in the matrix of thermoset or thermoplastic polymer materials. The glass-reinforced thermoset composites are the most commonly used composite in automotive applications today, but thermoplastic composites and carbon fiber-reinforced thermosets also hold potential. It has been estimated that significant use of glass-reinforced polymers as structural components could yield a 20-35% reduction in vehicle weight. More importantly, the use of carbon fiber-reinforced materials could yield a 40-65% reduction in weight.

  9. Application of atmospheric pressure plasma in polymer and composite adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hang

    An atmospheric pressure helium and oxygen plasma was used to investigate surface activation and bonding in polymer composites. This device was operated by passing 1.0-3.0 vol% of oxygen in helium through a pair of parallel plate metal electrodes powered by 13.56 or 27.12 MHz radio frequency power. The gases were partially ionized between the capacitors where plasma was generated. The reactive species in the plasma were carried downstream by the gas flow to treat the substrate surface. The temperature of the plasm gas reaching the surface of the substrate did not exceed 150 °C, which makes it suitable for polymer processing. The reactive species in the plasma downstream includes ~ 1016-1017 cm-3 atomic oxygen, ~ 1015 cm-3 ozone molecule, and ~ 10 16 cm-3 metastable oxygen molecule (O2 1Deltag). The substrates were treated at 2-5 mm distance from the exit of the plasma. Surface properties of the substrates were characterized using water contact angle (WCA), atomic force microscopy (AFM), infrared spectroscopy (IR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Subsequently, the plasma treated samples were bonded adhesively or fabricated into composites. The increase in mechanical strength was correlated to changes in the material composition and structure after plasma treatment. The work presented hereafter establishes atmospheric pressure plasma as an effective method to activate and to clean the surfaces of polymers and composites for bonding. This application can be further expanded to the activation of carbon fibers for better fiber-resin interactions during the fabrication of composites. Treating electronic grade FR-4 and polyimide with the He/O2 plasma for a few seconds changed the substrate surface from hydrophobic to hydrophilic, which allowed complete wetting of the surface by epoxy in underfill applications. Characterization of the surface by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows formation of oxygenated functional groups, including hydroxyl, carbonyl, and

  10. Response of polymer composites to high and low velocity impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsieh, C. Y.; Mount, A.; Jang, B. Z.; Zee, R. H.

    1990-01-01

    The present investigation of fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composites' impact characteristics employed a drop tower for the low-velocity impact case and a novel, projectile instantaneous velocity-measuring sensor for high-velocity impact. Attention was given to the energy loss of projectiles in composites reinforced with polyethylene, kevlar, and graphite. Two distinct energy-loss mechanisms are noted, the first of which is due to the actual fracture process while the other is due to the generation of friction heat. The drop-tower impact-test results furnish the strain-rate dependence of the energy loss.

  11. Protective coatings for high-temperature polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, David R.; Sutter, James K.; Papadopoulos, Demetrios S.

    1993-01-01

    Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition was used to deposit silicon nitride on graphite-fiber-reinforced polyimide composites to protect against oxidation at elevated temperatures. The adhesion and integrity of the coating were evaluated by isothermal aging (371 C for 500 hr) and thermal cycling. The amorphous silicon nitride (a-SiN:H) coating could withstand stresses ranging from approximately 0.18 GPa (tensile) to -1.6 GPa (compressive) and provided a 30 to 80 percent reduction in oxidation-induced weight loss. The major factor influencing the effectiveness of a-SiN:H as a barrier coating against oxidation is the surface finish of the polymer composite.

  12. Composite fabrication and polymer modification using neoteric solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastman, Scott A.

    This thesis is divided into two research initiatives: The fabrication and study of bulk, co-continuous, cellulosic-polymer composites with the aid of supercritical CO2 (SC CO2); and the study of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH) modification and surface activity in ionic liquids. The first part of this thesis utilizes the tunable solubility, gas-like diffusivity, and omniphilic wettability of SC CO2 to incorporate and subsequently polymerize silicone and poly(enemer) prepolymer mixtures throughout various cellulosic substrates. Chapters two and three investigate the mechanical properties of these composites and demonstrate that nearly every resulting composite demonstrates an improved flexural modulus and energy release rate upon splitting. Fire resistance of these composites was also investigated and indicates that the heat release rate, total heat released, and char yield were significantly improved upon for all silicone composites compared to the untreated cellulosic material. Chapter four looks specifically at aspen-silicone composites for thermo-oxidative studies under applied loads in order to study the effect of silicone incorporation on the failure kinetics of aspen. The aspen-silicone composites tested under these conditions demonstrated significantly longer lifetimes under the same loading and heating conditions compared with untreated aspen. The second part of this thesis focuses on studying ionic liquids as potentially useful solvents and reaction media for poly(vinyl alcohol). Two ionic liquids (1-Butyl-3-methylimidizolium chloride and tributylethylphosphonium diethylphosphate) were found to readily dissolve PVOH. More importantly, we have demonstrated that these solvents can be used as inert reaction media for PVOH modification. Both ionic liquids were found to facilitate the quantitative esterification of PVOH, while only the phosphonium ionic liquid supports the quantitative urethanation of the polymer. In an attempt to tune the surface properties of ionic

  13. Wood-Polymer composites obtained by gamma irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gago, J.; Lopez, A.; Rodriguez, J.; Santiago, J.; Acevedo, M.

    2007-10-26

    In this work we impregnate three Peruvian woods (Calycophy spruceanum Be, Aniba amazonica Meiz and Hura crepitans L) with styrene-polyester resin and methyl methacrylate. The polymerization of the system was promoted by gamma radiation and the experimental optimal condition was obtained with styrene-polyester 1:1 and 15 kGy. The obtained composites show reduced water absorption and better mechanical properties compared to the original wood. The structure of the wood-polymer composites was studied by light microscopy. Water absorption and hardness were also obtained.

  14. Effects of mechanical properties of polymer on ceramic-polymer composite thick films fabricated by aerosol deposition.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Oh-Yun; Na, Hyun-Jun; Kim, Hyung-Jun; Lee, Dong-Won; Nam, Song-Min

    2012-01-01

    Two types of ceramic-polymer composite thick films were deposited on Cu substrates by an aerosol deposition process, and their properties were investigated to fabricate optimized ceramic-based polymer composite thick films for application onto integrated substrates with the advantage of plasticity. When polymers with different mechanical properties, such as polyimide (PI) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), are used as starting powders together with α-Al2O3 powder, two types of composite films are formed with different characteristics - surface morphologies, deposition rates, and crystallite size of α-Al2O3. Through the results of micro-Vickers hardness testing, it was confirmed that the mechanical properties of the polymer itself are associated with the performances of the ceramic-polymer composite films. To support and explain these results, the microstructures of the two types of polymer powders were observed after planetary milling and an additional modeling test was carried out. As a result, we could conclude that the PMMA powder is distorted by the impact of the Al2O3 powder, so that the resulting Al2O3-PMMA composite film had a very small amount of PMMA and a low deposition rate. In contrast, when using PI powder, the Al2O3-PI composite film had a high deposition rate due to the cracking of PI particles. Consequently, it was revealed that the mechanical properties of polymers have a considerable effect on the properties of the resulting ceramic-polymer composite thick films.

  15. Novel Microstructures for Polymer-Liquid Crystal Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magda, Jules J.

    2004-01-01

    There are a number of interface-dominated composite materials that contain a liquid crystalline (LC) phase in intimate contact with an isotropic phase. For example, polymer- dispersed liquid crystals, used in the fabrication of windows with switchable transparency, consist of micron size LC droplets dispersed in an isotropic polymer matrix. Many other types of liquid crystal composite materials can be envisioned that might have outstanding optical properties that could be exploited in novel chemical sensors, optical switches, and computer displays. This research project was based on the premise that many of these potentially useful LC composite materials can only be fabricated under microgravity conditions where gravity driven flows are absent. In the ground-based research described below, we have focused on a new class of LC composites that we call thermotropic- lyotropic liquid crystal systems (TLLCs). TLLCs consist of nanosize droplets of water dispersed in an LC matrix, with surfactants at the interface that stabilize the structure. By varying the type of surfactant one can access almost an infinite variety of unusual LC composite microstructures. Due to the importance of the interface in these types of systems, we have also developed molecular simulation models for liquid crystals at interfaces, and made some of the first measurements of the interfacial tension between liquid crystals and water.

  16. Fabrication of a nanostructured gold-polymer composite material.

    PubMed

    Mallick, K; Witcomb, M; Scurrell, M

    2006-07-01

    A facile synthesis route is described for the preparation of a poly-(o-aminophenol)-gold nanoparticle composite material by polymerization of o-aminophenol (AP) monomer using HAuCl(4) as the oxidant. The synthesis was carried out in a methanol medium so that it could serve a dual solvent role, a solvent for both the AP and the water solution of HAuCl(4). It was found that oxidative polymerization of AP leads to the formation of poly-AP with a diameter of 50+/-10nm, while the reduction of AuCl(4) (-) results in the formation of gold nanoparticles ( approximately 2nm). The gold nanoparticles were uniformly dispersed and highly stabilized throughout the macromolecular chain that formed a uniform metal-polymer composite material. The resultant composite material was characterized by means of different techniques, such as UV-vis, IR and Raman spectroscopy, which offered the information about the chemical structure of polymer, whereas electron microscopy images provided information regarding the morphology of the composite material and the distribution of the metal particles in the composite material.

  17. Investigation of tribological properties of biobased polymers and polymeric composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuyan, Satyam Kumar

    Worldwide potential demands for replacing petroleum derived raw materials with renewable plant-based ones in the production of valuable polymeric materials and composites are quite significant from the social and environmental standpoints. Therefore, using low-cost renewable resources has deeply drawn the attention of many researchers. Among them, natural oils are expected to be ideal alternative feedstock since oils, derived from plant and animal sources, are found in profusion in the world. The important feature of these types of materials is that they can be designed and tailored to meet different requirements. The real challenge lies in finding applications which would use sufficiently large quantities of these materials allowing biodegradable polymers to compete economically in the market. Lack of material and tribological characterizations have created an awareness to fulfill this essential objective. In order to understand the viability of biobased polymers in structural applications, this thesis work elucidates the study of friction and wear characteristics of polymers and polymeric composites made out of natural oil available profusely in plants and animals. The natural oils used in this study were soybean and tung oil. Various monomeric components like styrene, divinely benzene etc. were used in the synthesis of biobased polymers through Rh-catalyzed isomerization techniques. For the different polymeric composites, spent germ, a byproduct of ethanol production, is used as the filler and an organoclay called montmorillonite is used as the reinforcing agent in the polymer matrix. The effect of crosslinker concentration, filler composition and reinforcement agent concentration was studied under dry sliding. A ball-on-flat tribometer with a probe made out of steel, silicon nitride or diamond was used for most of the experimental work to measure friction and generate wear. The wear tracks were quantified with an atomic force microscope and a contact

  18. The structure of fillers, polymers and their interfaces in polymer composites using neutron scattering methods

    SciTech Connect

    Hjelm, R.P.

    1998-12-01

    The neutron scattering methods, small-angle neutron scattering and neutron reflectometry, provide information on the structure of polymer composite materials that is not available from other structural probes. The unique capabilities of these methods derive from three factors. First, the length scales probed correspond to polymer conformation, molecular and domain scales and to the characteristic sizes of many fillers. Second, neutrons are able to penetrate relatively thick samples, allowing bulk samples to be measured, and enabling buried interfaces to be studied. This characteristic also allows for the construction of special sample containment needed for studying materials under stress, extremes in pressure and temperature, etc. Third, neutrons readily distinguish between different light elements, and between different isotopes of the same element. The ability to distinguish between hydrogen and deuterium is particularly important in this regard. New ways of exploiting the capabilities of neutrons are opening up with the development of improved sources and instruments in the US and elsewhere. In this talk the author will discuss the basic concepts that give rise to the unique capabilities of neutron scattering, giving several examples of the uses of neutron scattering techniques in the study of polymer composites. The examples will include the morphology of fillers, polymer binders and matrices, interfaces and defect structures.

  19. Studies on natural fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, R. H.; Kapatel, P. M.; Machchhar, A. D.; Kapatel, Y. A.

    2016-05-01

    Natural fiber reinforced composites show increasing importance in day to days applications because of their low cost, lightweight, easy availability, non-toxicity, biodegradability and environment friendly nature. But these fibers are hydrophilic in nature. Thus they have very low reactivity and poor compatibility with polymers. To overcome these limitations chemical modifications of the fibers have been carried out. Therefore, in the present work jute fibers have chemically modified by treating with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions. These treated jute fibers have been used to fabricate jute fiber reinforced epoxy composites. Mechanical properties like tensile strength, flexural strength and impact strength have been found out. Alkali treated composites show better properties compare to untreated composites.

  20. Fabrication of magnetic shape memory alloy/polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham-Su, R.; Healey, J. P.; Underhill, R. S.; Farrell, S. P.; Cheng, L. M.; Hyatt, C. V.; Rogge, R.; Gharghouri, M. A.

    2005-05-01

    NiMnGa-based magnetic shape memory (MSM) alloys have attained magnetic-field-induced strains up to approximately 10%, making them very attractive for a variety of applications. However, for applications that require the use of an alternating magnetic field, eddy current losses can be significant. Also, NiMnGa-based MSM alloys' fracture toughness is relatively low. Using these materials in the form of particles embedded in a polymer matrix composite could mitigate these limitations. Since the MSM effect is anisotropic, the crystallographic texture of the particles in the composites is of great interest. In this work, a procedure for fabricating NiMnGa-based MSMA/elastomer composites is described. Processing routes for optimizing the crystallographic texture in the composites are considered.

  1. SURFACE MORPHOLOGY OF CARBON FIBER POLYMER COMPOSITES AFTER LASER STRUCTURING

    SciTech Connect

    Sabau, Adrian S; Chen, Jian; Jones, Jonaaron F.; Alexandra, Hackett; Jellison Jr, Gerald Earle; Daniel, Claus; Warren, Charles David; Rehkopf, Jackie D.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of Carbon Fiber Polymer Composite (CFPC) as a lightweight material in automotive and aerospace industries requires the control of surface morphology. In this study, the composites surface was prepared by ablating the resin in the top fiber layer of the composite using an Nd:YAG laser. The CFPC specimens with T700S carbon fiber and Prepreg - T83 resin (epoxy) were supplied by Plasan Carbon Composites, Inc. as 4 ply thick, 0/90o plaques. The effect of laser fluence, scanning speed, and wavelength was investigated to remove resin without an excessive damage of the fibers. In addition, resin ablation due to the power variation created by a laser interference technique is presented. Optical property measurements, optical micrographs, 3D imaging, and high-resolution optical profiler images were used to study the effect of the laser processing on the surface morphology.

  2. Objective Surface Evaluation of Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Stuart; Hall, Wayne

    2013-08-01

    The mechanical properties of advanced composites are essential for their structural performance, but the surface finish on exterior composite panels is of critical importance for customer satisfaction. This paper describes the application of wavelet texture analysis (WTA) to the task of automatically classifying the surface finish properties of two fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composite construction types (clear resin and gel-coat) into three quality grades. Samples were imaged and wavelet multi-scale decomposition was used to create a visual texture representation of the sample, capturing image features at different scales and orientations. Principal components analysis was used to reduce the dimensionality of the texture feature vector, permitting successful classification of the samples using only the first principal component. This work extends and further validates the feasibility of this approach as the basis for automated non-contact classification of composite surface finish using image analysis.

  3. Controlled Structure-Dependent Synthesis of Polymer/Nanosilver Composites for Highly Efficient Antibacterial Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstov, A.; Matyushov, V.; Klimchuk, D.

    Silver containing polymer composites were successfully synthesized via in-situ reduction approach. Different functional polymers with hydroxyl, amide and amine functionalities have been used as matrices. An influence of polymer structure and functionality on a size and shape of silver nanoparticles was established via FTIR/TEM complex analysis. The materials based on these composites could be effectively applied as advanced antibacterials.

  4. Phosphazene polymer containing composites and method for making phosphazene polymer containing composites

    DOEpatents

    Allen, Charles A.; Grey, Alan E.; McCaffrey, Robert R.; Simpson, Brenda M.; Stone, Mark L.

    1994-01-01

    A composite is produced by first coating a reinforcing material with an inorganic phosphazene compound and then polymerizing the phosphazene compound so as to confer superior thermal, physical and chemical resistance qualities to the composite.

  5. Phosphazene polymer containing composites and method for making phosphazene polymer containing composites

    DOEpatents

    Allen, Charles A.; Grey, Alan E.; McCaffrey, Robert R.; Simpson, Brenda M.; Stone, Mark L.

    1994-05-03

    A composite is produced by first coating a reinforcing material with an inorganic phosphazene compound and then polymerizing the phosphazene compound so as to confer superior thermal, physical and chemical resistance qualities to the composite.

  6. Polymer composites and blends for battery separators: State of the art, challenges and future trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes-Pereira, J.; Costa, C. M.; Lanceros-Méndez, S.

    2015-05-01

    In lithium ion battery systems, the separator plays a key role with respect to device performance. Polymer composites and polymer blends have been frequently used as battery separators due to their suitable properties. This review presents the main issues, developments and characteristics of these polymer composites and blends for battery separator membrane applications. This review is divided into two sections regarding the composition of the materials: polymer composite materials, subdivided according to filler type, and polymer blend materials. For each category the electrolyte solutions, ionic conductivity and other relevant physical-chemical characteristics are described. This review shows the recent advances and opportunities in this area and identifies future trends and challenges.

  7. A study of the polymer-cnt interactions in polymer/cnt composites using experimental and computational methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Jiangsha

    This dissertation work focuses on research related to understanding and controlling the polymer-carbon nanotube (CNT) interactions during composite fiber processing using both experimental and computational means, in order to achieve consistent formation of the interphase regions for various polymers in the vicinity of CNT. The development of the polymer crystalline interphase is important, since it has been shown to have a significant and positive impact on the mechanical performance of polymer/CNT composites. This is achieved by the improvement of stress transfer mechanisms between the polymer matrix and CNT. The preliminary results (i.e., both experimental and computational) provide insight toward understanding the fundamental mechanisms of polymer-CNT interactions under various processing conditions, as well as the resultant polymer or CNT behaviors and composite fibers performance governed by them. In this thesis work, the initialization and the development of the interphase region in fibers throughout all processing steps are investigated using full-atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) approach as well as experimental means. SWNT dispersion quality with and without polymers present during sonication process is also investigated experimentally, where the polymer-SWNT interactions are impacted by SWNT dispersion qualities. The resultant morphologies and composite fibers properties are also analyzed. The effect of laminar-flow rates (used during spinning) on the polymer/SWNT composite fiber properties as well as on the fundamental polymer-SWNT interactions and the resultant chain morphologies near the SWNT surface are studied in detail. Full-atomistic MD simulations are conducted to study the influence of various laminar-flow rates on the chain morphologies in the vicinity of SWNT. By combining results from both experimentation and computation, a better understanding of the spinning parameters on the microscopic fiber properties as well as on the microscopic

  8. On Healable Polymers and Fiber-Reinforced Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Christian Eric

    Polymeric materials capable of healing damage would be valuable in structural applications where access for repair is limited. Approaches to creating such materials are reviewed, with the present work focusing on polymers with thermally reversible covalent cross-links. These special cross-links are Diels-Alder (DA) adducts, which can be separated and re-formed, enabling healing of mechanical damage at the molecular level. Several DA-based polymers, including 2MEP4FS, are mechanically and thermally characterized. The polymerization reaction of 2MEP4FS is modeled and the number of established DA adducts is associated with the glass transition temperature of the polymer. The models are applied to concentric cylinder rotational measurements of 2MEP4FS prepolymer at room and elevated temperatures to describe the viscosity as a function of time, temperature, and conversion. Mechanical damage including cracks and scratches are imparted in cured polymer samples and subsequently healed. Damage due to high temperature thermal degradation is observed to not be reversible. The ability to repair damage without flowing polymer chains makes DA-based healable polymers particularly well-suited for crack healing. The double cleavage drilled compression (DCDC) fracture test is investigated as a useful method of creating and incrementally growing cracks in a sample. The effect of sample geometry on the fracture behavior is experimentally and computationally studied. Computational and empirical models are developed to estimate critical stress intensity factors from DCDC results. Glass and carbon fiber-reinforced composites are fabricated with 2MEP4FS as the matrix material. A prepreg process is developed that uses temperature to control the polymerization rate of the monomers and produce homogeneous prepolymer for integration with a layer of unidirectional fiber. Multiple prepreg layers are laminated to form multi-layered cross-ply healable composites, which are characterized in

  9. COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURAL STUDIES OF STRONG GLOW DISCHARGE POLYMER COATINGS

    SciTech Connect

    CZECHOWICZ, DG; CASTILLO, ER; NIKROO, A

    2002-04-01

    OAK A271 COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURAL STUDIES OF STRONG GLOW DISCHARGE POLYMER COATINGS. An investigation of the chemical composition and structure of strong glow discharge (GDP) polymer shells made for cryogenic experiments at OMEGA is described. The investigation was carried out using combustion and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The strongest coatings were observed to have the lowest hydrogen content or hydrogen/carbon H/C ratio, whereas the weakest coatings had the highest hydrogen content or H/C ratio. Chemical composition results from combustion were used to complement FTIR analysis to determine the relative hydrogen content of as-fabricated coatings. Good agreement was observed between composition results obtained from combustion and FTIR analysis. FTIR analysis of coating structures showed the strongest coatings to have less terminal methyl groups and a more double bond or olefinic structure. Strong GDP coatings that were aged in air react more with oxygen and moisture than standard GDP coatings. In addition to a more olefinic structure, there may also be more free-radial sites present in strong GDP coatings, which leads to greater oxygen uptake.

  10. Field emission properties of a graphene/polymer composite.

    PubMed

    Patole, Shashikant P; Lee, Jong Hak; Park, Jae Hong; Yu, Seong Man; Makotchenko, V G; Nazarov, A S; Fedorov, V E; Shin, Dong Wook; Alegaonkar, Prashant S; More, Mahendra A; Yoo, Ji-Beom

    2013-11-01

    Thin graphene/polymer sheet composites were fabricated using easily soluble expanded graphite (ESEG), and their field emission (FE) parameters were examined. Due to the high dispersability of ESEG, a stable graphene suspension was prepared by ultrasonication in toluene without the need for a surfactant. The suspension consisted of exfoliated graphene sheets with a thickness of 1 - 2 nm. Using a calendering process, the solution was further shear mixed with ethyl cellulose to obtain a well-dispersed graphene/polymer composite. The composite was screen printed onto a conducing substrate to fabricate the FE cathode layers. The FE measurements were taken in a diode configuration at an applied electrostatic field and inter-electrode distance of 1.7 to 6 V/microm and approximately 200 microm, respectively. The threshold turn-on-field was approximately 3.5 V/microm at a current density of approximately 10 microA/cm2 with a corresponding mean field enhancement factor of 1350 +/- 50. Emission occurred mainly from the edges and bends of the graphene layers. The luminescence uniformity of the composite cathode layers was examined using a phosphor-coated anode.

  11. Anisotropic thermal property of magnetically oriented carbon nanotube polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bin; Dong, Shuai; Wang, Caiping; Wang, Xiaojie; Fang, Jun

    2016-04-01

    This paper proposes a method for preparing multi-walled carbon nanotubea/polydimethylsiloxane (MWCNTs/PDMS) composites with enhanced thermal properties by using a high magnetic field (up to 10T). The MWCNT are oriented magnetically inside a silicone by in-situ polymerization method. The anisotropic structure would be expected to produce directional thermal conductivity. This study will provide a new approach to the development of anisotropic thermal-conductive polymer composites. Systematic studies with the preparation of silicone/graphene composites corresponding to their thermal and mechanical properties are carried out under various conditions: intensity of magnetic field, time, temperature, fillings. The effect of MWCNT/graphene content and preparation procedures on thermal conductivity of composites is investigated. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) is used to reveal the mechanical properties of the composites in terms of the filling contents and magnetic field strength. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) is used to observe the micro-structure of the MWCNT composites. The alignment of MWCNTs in PDMS matrix is also studied by Raman spectroscopy. The thermal conductivity measurements show that the magnetically aligned CNT-composites feature high anisotropy in thermal conductivity.

  12. Measurements and macro models of ionomeric polymer-metal composites (IMPC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, X.; Bar-Cohen, Y.; Lih, S. S.

    2002-01-01

    The Ionomeric Polymer-Metal Composites (IPMC) as a type of electroactive polymers are attractive actuation materials because of their features of large electrically induced bending, mechanical flexibility, low excitation voltage, low density, and ease of fabrication.

  13. Long fiber polymer composite property calculation in injection molding simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Xiaoshi; Wang, Jin; Han, Sejin

    2013-05-01

    Long fiber filled polymer composite materials have attracted a great attention and usage in recent years. However, the injection and compression molded long fiber composite materials possess complex microstructures that include spatial variations in fiber orientation and length. This paper presents the recent implemented anisotropic rotary diffusion - reduced strain closure (ARD-RSC) model for predicting fiber orientation distribution[1] and a newly developed fiber breakage model[2] for predicting fiber length distribution in injection and compression molding simulation, and Eshelby-Mori-Tanaka model[3,4] with fiber-matrix de-bonding model[5] have been implemented to calculate the long fiber composite property distribution with predicted fiber orientation and fiber length distributions. A validation study on fiber orientation, fiber breakage and mechanical property distributions are given with injection molding process simulation.

  14. Microstructural Preparation and Examination of Polymer-Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elban, Wayne L.; Rutzebeck, Maddy M.; Small, Ryan A.; Walsh, Adam M.

    1996-01-01

    Adapting procedures widely used in the metallographic characterization of metals and alloys, the microstructural preparation and examination of three polymer-matrix composites (PMC's) is described. The materials investigated contained either hollow ceramic filler particles or woven, continuous carbon/graphite fibers. Since the two particulate composites were considered to be isotropic, only one sample orientation was prepared. For the fiber composite, both longitudinal and planar orientations were studied. Once prepared, the samples were examined using reflected light microscopy. A number of microstructural features were evaluated qualitatively, including porosity and cracks, filler-matrix interfacial bonding, filler particle characteristics (shape, size, size distribution, and loading variation) and fiber characteristics (orientation, packing variation, and discontinuities).

  15. Material and structural studies of metal and polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Signorelli, R. A.; Serafini, T. T.; Johns, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    The application of fiber composites to aeronautical and space vehicle systems indicates the following: It appears quite probable that resin/fiber composites can be developed for service at 315 C for several thousand hours and at 370 C for a few hundred hours. The retention of resin/fiber strength at these high temperatures can be achieved by modifying the polymer molecular structure or by developing new processing techniques, or both. Carbon monofilament with attractive strength values has been produced and fabrication studies to reinforce aluminum with such monofilaments have been initiated. Refractory wire-superalloy composites have demonstrated sufficiently high strength and impact values to suggest that they have potential for application to turbine blades at temperatures to 1200 C and above.

  16. Nano-Fiber Reinforced Enhancements in Composite Polymer Matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C.

    2009-01-01

    Nano-fibers are used to reinforce polymer matrices to enhance the matrix dependent properties that are subsequently used in conventional structural composites. A quasi isotropic configuration is used in arranging like nano-fibers through the thickness to ascertain equiaxial enhanced matrix behavior. The nano-fiber volume ratios are used to obtain the enhanced matrix strength properties for 0.01,0.03, and 0.05 nano-fiber volume rates. These enhanced nano-fiber matrices are used with conventional fiber volume ratios of 0.3 and 0.5 to obtain the composite properties. Results show that nano-fiber enhanced matrices of higher than 0.3 nano-fiber volume ratio are degrading the composite properties.

  17. A self-healing polymer composite for extended fatigue life

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, E. N.; Jones, A. S.; White, S. R.; Sottos, Nancy R.

    2004-01-01

    A novel approach is explored for improving the fatigue life of thermosetting polymers through the addition of self-healing functionality. Thermosetting polymers are used in a wide variety of applications, but are susceptible to the initiation and propagation of small cracks deep within the structure where detection is difficult and repair is virtually impossible. The material under investigation is an epoxy matrix composite, which utilizes embedded microcapsules to store a healing agent and an embedded catalyst. A propagating crack exposes particles of catalyst and ruptures the microcapsules, which release healing agent into the crack plane. Polymerization of the healing agent is triggered by contact with the catalyst. Fatigue crack retardation and arrest from self-healing functionality result from crack-tip shielding mechanisms, such as hydrodynamic pressure and artificial-crack closure. In situ healing is observed to significantly extended fatigue life or permanently arrested fatigue crack growth over a wide range of loading conditions.

  18. Detection of Carbon Monoxide Using Polymer-Carbon Composite Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homer, Margie L.; Ryan, Margaret A.; Lara, Liana M.

    2011-01-01

    A carbon monoxide (CO) sensor was developed that can be incorporated into an existing sensing array architecture. The CO sensor is a low-power chemiresistor that operates at room temperature, and the sensor fabrication techniques are compatible with ceramic substrates. Sensors made from four different polymers were tested: poly (4-vinylpryridine), ethylene-propylene-diene-terpolymer, polyepichlorohydrin, and polyethylene oxide (PEO). The carbon black used for the composite films was Black Pearls 2000, a furnace black made by the Cabot Corporation. Polymers and carbon black were used as received. In fact, only two of these sensors showed a good response to CO. The poly (4-vinylpryridine) sensor is noisy, but it does respond to the CO above 200 ppm. The polyepichlorohydrin sensor is less noisy and shows good response down to 100 ppm.

  19. Focus tunable device actuator based on ionic polymer metal composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi-Wei; Su, Guo-Dung J.

    2015-09-01

    IPMC (Ionic Polymer Metallic Composite) is a kind of electroactive polymer (EAP) which is used as an actuator because of its low driving voltage and small size. The mechanism of IPMC actuator is due to the ionic diffusion when the voltage gradient is applied. In this paper, the complex IPMC fabrication such as Ag-IPMC be further developed in this paper. The comparison of response time and tip bending displacement of Pt-IPMC and Ag-IPMC will also be presented. We also use the optimized IPMC as the lens actuator integrated with curvilinear microlens array, and use the 3D printer to make a simple module and spring stable system. We also used modeling software, ANSYS Workbench, to confirm the effect of spring system. Finally, we successfully drive the lens system in 200μm stroke under 2.5V driving voltage within 1 seconds, and the resonant frequency is approximately 500 Hz.

  20. Preparation of Lanthanide-Polymer Composite Material via Click Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bin; Wen, Guian; Wu, Jiajie; Feng, Jiachun

    2015-10-01

    Covalently attaching lanthanide complexes to the polymer backbone can effectively reduce the clustering of lanthanides and thus become an important strategy to fully unleash their potential. In this Communication, a metal-free click reaction is used for the first time to link a lanthanide complex to the polymer matrix. A diene-bearing copolymer with anthracenylmethyl methacrylate as a monomer and a dienophile-bearing lanthanide complex with 5-maleimido-1,10-phenanthroline as the second ligand are synthesized and coupled together through a Diels-Alder cycloaddition (DA). A comparative investigation demonstrates that the composite material prepared by DA click reaction shows the highest quantum yields in the same lanthanide concentration as compared to materials prepared by widely used "directly doping" and "in situ coordinating lanthanide ions with macromolecular ligand" approaches. This work suggests that the "metal-free" DA click reaction can be a promising tool in the synthesis of high efficient lanthanide functionalized polymeric materials.

  1. Preparation of graphene/polymer composite photocathode for QDSSC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiandi; Shen, Yue; Tan, Jie; Xu, Kai; Shen, Tan; Cao, Meng; Gu, Feng; Wang, Linjun

    2013-12-01

    Graphene (rGO) was fabricated by modified Hummers method and a reducing process. Conductive polymer/graphene films were obtained by scalpel technology and used as photocathode in CdS quantum dot-sensitized solar cell (QDSSC). Polymers used in this paper were ethyl cellulose (EC), polyphenyl vinyl (PPV) and polyvinyl butyral (PVB), respectively. The obtained composite films were investigated by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy technology and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The photoelectric properties of QDSSCs were tested under AM 1.5 irradiation. Test results show that the film performance of the EC/rGO and PPV/rGO photocathode have been improved effectively. Power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the relative QDSSCs under AM 1.5 irradiation were 0.81% and 0.86%, respectively.

  2. The dynamic response of carbon fiber-filled polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dattelbaum, D. M.; Gustavsen, R. L.; Sheffield, S. A.; Stahl, D. B.; Scharff, R. J.; Rigg, P. A.; Furmanski, J.; Orler, E. B.; Patterson, B.; Coe, J. D.

    2012-08-01

    The dynamic (shock) responses of two carbon fiber-filled polymer composites have been quantified using gas gun-driven plate impact experimentation. The first composite is a filament-wound, highly unidirectional carbon fiber-filled epoxy with a high degree of porosity. The second composite is a chopped carbon fiber- and graphite-filled phenolic resin with little-to-no porosity. Hugoniot data are presented for the carbon fiber-epoxy (CE) composite to 18.6 GPa in the through-thickness direction, in which the shock propagates normal to the fibers. The data are best represented by a linear Rankine-Hugoniot fit: Us = 2.87 + 1.17 ×up(ρ0 = 1.536g/cm3). The shock wave structures were found to be highly heterogeneous, both due to the anisotropic nature of the fiber-epoxy microstructure, and the high degree of void volume. Plate impact experiments were also performed on a carbon fiber-filled phenolic (CP) composite to much higher shock input pressures, exceeding the reactants-to-products transition common to polymers. The CP was found to be stiffer than the filament-wound CE in the unreacted Hugoniot regime, and transformed to products near the shock-driven reaction threshold on the principal Hugoniot previously shown for the phenolic binder itself. [19] On-going research is focused on interrogating the direction-dependent dyanamic response and dynamic failure strength (spall) for the CE composite in the TT and 0∘ (fiber) directions.

  3. Nano TiO2 Composite PVDF Polymer Electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Chin-Yeh; Chu, Peter P.

    2002-12-01

    Physical and transport properties of lithium ion conducting polymer electrolyte formed by dispersing nanoscale particles and tubes of TiO2 into poly (vinyl dine fluoride) (PVDF) - lithium salt complexes are discussed. The composite in polymer is enhancing the interfacial interaction, ionic conductivity and mechanical strength due to the high surface area of the particle and the tube. DSC studies elucidate that both the crystallinity and melting temperatures of PVDF are decreased with increasing salt content. Blending with TiO2 particles also decreases melting temperature and crystallinity of PVDF, however nano-tube TiO2 shows even more dramatic effects compared to the particles in reducing PVDF crystallinity and the melting temperature. Even with the improved miscibility and higher salt dissociation, the ionic conductivities is reduced for the TiO2 nano particle composite, but increased about 20 fold in the nano-tube composite. The discrepancies are related to the difference of morphology as evidence from SEM micrograph.

  4. Energy loss partitioning during ballistic impact of polymer composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zee, Ralph H.; Hsieh, Chung Y.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the energy dissipation processes in polymer-matrix composites during impact of ballistic projectiles. These processes include heat, fiber deformation and breakage, matrix deformation and fracture, and interfacial delamination. In this study, experimental measurements were made, using specialized specimen designs and test methods, to isolate the energy consumed by each of these processes during impact in the ballistic range. Using these experiments, relationships between material parameters and energy dissipation were examined. Composites with the same matrix but reinforced with Kevlar, PE, and graphite fabric were included in this study. These fibers were selected based on the differences in their intrinsic properties. Matrix cracking was found to be one of the most important energy absorption mechanisms during impact, especially in ductile samples such as Spectra-900 PE and Kevlar-49 reinforced polymer. On the contrary, delamination dominated the energy dissipation in brittle composites such as graphite reinforced materials. The contribution from frictional forces was also investigated and the energy partitioning among the different processes evaluated.

  5. Peridynamic modeling and simulation of polymer-nanotube composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henke, Steven F.

    In this document, we develop and demonstrate a framework for simulating the mechanics of polymer materials that are reinforced by carbon nanotubes. Our model utilizes peridynamic theory to describe the mechanical response of the polymer and polymer-nanotube interfaces. We benefit from the continuum formulation used in peridynamics because (1) it allows the polymer material to be coarse-grained to the scale of the reinforcing nanofibers, and (2) failure via nanotube pull-out and matrix tearing are possible based on energetic considerations alone (i.e. without special treatment). To reduce the degrees of freedom that must be simulated, the reinforcement effect of the nanotubes is represented by a mesoscale bead-spring model. This approach permits the arbitrary placement of reinforcement ``strands'' in the problem domain and motivates the need for irregular quadrature point distributions, which have not yet been explored in the peridynamic setting. We address this matter in detail and report on aspects of mesh sensitivity that we uncovered in peridynamic simulations. Using a manufactured solution, we study the effects of quadrature point placement on the accuracy of the solution scheme in one and two dimensions. We demonstrate that square grids and the generator points of a centroidal Voronoi tessellation (CVT) support solutions of similar accuracy, but CVT grids have desirable characteristics that may justify the additional computational cost required for their construction. Impact simulations provide evidence that CVT grids support fracture patterns that resemble those obtained on higher resolution cubic Cartesian grids with a reduced computational burden. With the efficacy of irregular meshing schemes established, we exercise our model by dynamically stretching a cylindrical specimen composed of the polymer-nanotube composite. We vary the number of reinforcements, alignment of the filler, and the properties of the polymer-nanotube interface. Our results suggest

  6. Ceramic nanotubes for polymer composites with stable anticorrosion properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakhrullin, R. F.; Tursunbayeva, A.; Portnov, V. S.; L'vov, Yu. M.

    2014-12-01

    The use of natural halloysite clay tubes 50 nm in diameter as nanocontainers for loading, storing, and slowly releasing organic corrosion inhibitors is described. Loaded nanotubes can be mixed well with many polymers and dyes in amounts of 5-10 wt % to form a ceramic framework (which increases the strength of halloysite composites by 30-50%), increase the adhesion of these coatings to metals, and allow for the slow release of corrosion inhibitors in defects of coatings. A significant improvement of protective anticorrosion properties of polyacryl and polyurethane coatings containing ceramic nanotubes loaded with benzotriazole and hydroxyquinoline is demonstrated.

  7. Polymer Composition and Substrate Influences on the Adhesive Bonding of a Biomimetic, Cross-Linking Polymer

    PubMed Central

    Matos-Pérez, Cristina R.; White, James D.; Wilker, Jonathan J.

    2012-01-01

    Hierarchical biological materials such as bone, sea shells, and marine bioadhesives are providing inspiration for the assembly of synthetic molecules into complex structures. The adhesive system of marine mussels has been the focus of much attention in recent years. Several catechol-containing polymers are being developed to mimic the cross-linking of proteins containing 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) used by shellfish for sticking to rocks. Many of these biomimetic polymer systems have been shown to form surface coatings or hydrogels, however bulk adhesion is demonstrated less often. Developing adhesives requires addressing design issues including finding a good balance between cohesive and adhesive bonding interactions. Despite the growing number of mussel mimicking polymers, there has been little effort to generate structure-property relations and gain insights on what chemical traits give rise to the best glues. In this report, we examined the simplest of these biomimetic polymers, poly[(3,4-dihydroxystyrene)-co-styrene]. Pendant catechol groups (i.e., 3,4-dihydroxystyrene) were distributed throughout a polystyrene backbone. Several polymer derivatives were prepared, each with a different 3,4-dihyroxystyrene content. Bulk adhesion testing showed where the optimal middle ground of cohesive and adhesive bonding resides. Adhesive performance was benchmarked against commercial glues as well as the genuine material produced by live mussels. In the best case, bonding was similar to cyanoacrylate “Krazy” or “Super” glue. Performance was also examined using low (e.g., plastics) and high (e.g., metals, wood) energy surfaces. Adhesive bonding of poly[(3,4-dihydroxystyrene)-co-styrene] may be the strongest of reported mussel protein mimics. These insights should help us to design future biomimetic systems, thereby bringing us closer to development of bone cements, dental composites, and surgical glues. PMID:22582754

  8. Pull-out simulations of a capped carbon nanotube in carbon nanotube-reinforced nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.; Liu, S.; Hu, N.; Ning, H.; Wu, L.; Alamusi; Han, X.; Zhou, L.; Yamamoto, G.; Hashida, T.; Chang, C.; Atobe, S.; Fukunaga, H.

    2013-04-14

    Systematic atomic simulations based on molecular mechanics were conducted to investigate the pull-out behavior of a capped carbon nanotube (CNT) in CNT-reinforced nanocomposites. Two common cases were studied: the pull-out of a complete CNT from a polymer matrix in a CNT/polymer nanocomposite and the pull-out of the broken outer walls of a CNT from the intact inner walls (i.e., the sword-in-sheath mode) in a CNT/alumina nanocomposite. By analyzing the obtained relationship between the energy increment (i.e., the difference in the potential energy between two consecutive pull-out steps) and the pull-out displacement, a set of simple empirical formulas based on the nanotube diameter was developed to predict the corresponding pull-out force. The predictions from these formulas are quite consistent with the experimental results. Moreover, the much higher pull-out force for a capped CNT than that of the corresponding open-ended CNT implies a significant contribution from the CNT cap to the interfacial properties of the CNT-reinforced nanocomposites. This finding provides a valuable insight for designing nanocomposites with desirable mechanical properties.

  9. Functional data analysis of experimental parameters obtained in PVA doped CdCl2 polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, M. B. Nanda; Urs, Gopal Krishne; Somashekar, R.

    2016-05-01

    Using solution casting method, PVA based polymer composites films with various concentrations of CdCl2 were prepared. Prepared polymer composites films were investigated using XRD. Crystallite size for different concentrations of CdCl2 are computed here using Williamson and Hall plot (WH plot), an in-house program developed by us. To correlate between two independent physical parameters size and conductivity, we have chosen functional data analysis to estimate the maxima and minima in these polymer composites systems.

  10. Polymer composites with graphene nanofillers: electrical properties and applications.

    PubMed

    Tjong, Sie Chin

    2014-02-01

    Graphene with extraordinary high elastic modulus and excellent electrical conductivity has good prospects for use as the filler material for fabricating novel polymer composites designed for electrostatic discharge and EMI shielding protection, field emission, gas sensor, and fuel cell applications. Large amounts of graphene oxide (GO) can be obtained by wet chemical oxidation of graphite into a mixture of concentrated sulfuric acid, sodium nitrate and potassium permanganate. Accordingly, carbon atoms in the basal plane and edges of GO are decorated with oxygenated functional groups, forming an electrical insulator. To restore electrical conductivity, chemical reduction or thermal annealing is needed to eliminate oxygenated groups of GO. However, such treatments induce internal defects and remove oxygenated atoms of GO partially. The remnant-oxygenated groups affect electrical conductivity of graphene greatly. Nevertheless, reduced graphene oxide and thermally reduced graphene oxide are sufficiently conductive to form polymer nanocomposites at very low percolation threshold. This review provides the fundamentals and state-of-the-art developments in the fabrication methods and electrical property characterizations as well as the applications of novel graphene/polymer nanocomposites. Particular attention is paid to their processing-structural-electrical property relationships. PMID:24749419

  11. AC Electric Field Activated Shape Memory Polymer Composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kang, Jin Ho; Siochi, Emilie J.; Penner, Ronald K.; Turner, Travis L.

    2011-01-01

    Shape memory materials have drawn interest for applications like intelligent medical devices, deployable space structures and morphing structures. Compared to other shape memory materials like shape memory alloys (SMAs) or shape memory ceramics (SMCs), shape memory polymers (SMPs) have high elastic deformation that is amenable to tailored of mechanical properties, have lower density, and are easily processed. However, SMPs have low recovery stress and long response times. A new shape memory thermosetting polymer nanocomposite (LaRC-SMPC) was synthesized with conductive fillers to enhance its thermo-mechanical characteristics. A new composition of shape memory thermosetting polymer nanocomposite (LaRC-SMPC) was synthesized with conductive functionalized graphene sheets (FGS) to enhance its thermo-mechanical characteristics. The elastic modulus of LaRC-SMPC is approximately 2.7 GPa at room temperature and 4.3 MPa above its glass transition temperature. Conductive FGSs-doped LaRC-SMPC exhibited higher conductivity compared to pristine LaRC SMP. Applying an electric field at between 0.1 Hz and 1 kHz induced faster heating to activate the LaRC-SMPC s shape memory effect relative to applying DC electric field or AC electric field at frequencies exceeding1 kHz.

  12. Polymer composites with graphene nanofillers: electrical properties and applications.

    PubMed

    Tjong, Sie Chin

    2014-02-01

    Graphene with extraordinary high elastic modulus and excellent electrical conductivity has good prospects for use as the filler material for fabricating novel polymer composites designed for electrostatic discharge and EMI shielding protection, field emission, gas sensor, and fuel cell applications. Large amounts of graphene oxide (GO) can be obtained by wet chemical oxidation of graphite into a mixture of concentrated sulfuric acid, sodium nitrate and potassium permanganate. Accordingly, carbon atoms in the basal plane and edges of GO are decorated with oxygenated functional groups, forming an electrical insulator. To restore electrical conductivity, chemical reduction or thermal annealing is needed to eliminate oxygenated groups of GO. However, such treatments induce internal defects and remove oxygenated atoms of GO partially. The remnant-oxygenated groups affect electrical conductivity of graphene greatly. Nevertheless, reduced graphene oxide and thermally reduced graphene oxide are sufficiently conductive to form polymer nanocomposites at very low percolation threshold. This review provides the fundamentals and state-of-the-art developments in the fabrication methods and electrical property characterizations as well as the applications of novel graphene/polymer nanocomposites. Particular attention is paid to their processing-structural-electrical property relationships.

  13. Effects of physical aging on long-term creep of polymers and polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinson, L. Catherine; Gates, Thomas S.

    1994-01-01

    For many polymeric materials in use below the glass transition temperature, the long term viscoelastic behavior is greatly affected by physical aging. To use polymer matrix composites as critical structural components in existing and novel technological applications, this long term behavior of the material system must be understood. Towards that end, this study applied the concepts governing the mechanics of physical aging in a consistent manner to the study of laminated composite systems. Even in fiber-dominated lay-ups the effects of physical aging are found to be important in the long-term behavior of the composite. The basic concepts describing physical aging of polymers are discussed. Several aspects of physical aging which have not been previously documented are also explored in this study, namely the effects of aging into equilibrium and a relationship to the time-temperature shift factor. The physical aging theory is then extended to develop the long-term compliance/modulus of a single lamina with varying fiber orientation. The latter is then built into classical lamination theory to predict long-time response of general oriented lamina and laminates. It is illustrated that the long term response can be counterintuitive, stressing the need for consistent modeling efforts to make long term predictions of laminates to be used in structural situations.

  14. Carbon dioxide (CO2) absorption behavior of mixed matrix polymer composites containing a flexible coordination polymer.

    PubMed

    Culp, Jeffrey T; Sui, Lang; Goodman, Angela; Luebke, David

    2013-03-01

    Mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) comprised of metal organic frameworks (MOFs) dispersed in organic polymers are popular materials under study for potential applications in gas separations. However, research on MMMs containing structurally dynamic sorbents known as flexible MOFs has only very recently appeared in the literature. The thermodynamic requirements of the structure transition between the low porosity and high porosity phases of flexible MOFs may provide a mechanism for high adsorption selectivity in these materials. A fundamental question in MMMs containing flexible MOFs is how the constraint of the polymer matrix on the intrinsic expansion of the flexible MOF particles that occurs during gas adsorption might affect the thermodynamics of this structural phase transition and influence the gas adsorption properties of the embedded MOF. To investigate the fundamental nature of this flexible MOF-polymer interface, thin films of ~20 um thickness were prepared using the flexible linear chain coordination polymer catena-bis(dibenzoylmethanato)-(4,4'bipyridyl)nickel(II) "Ni(Bpy)(DBM)(2)" embedded as 35 wt% dispersions in Matrimid®, polystyrene, and polysulfone. The adsorption of CO(2) in the polymers and embedded particles was studied using in situ ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and variable temperature volumetric CO(2) adsorption/desorption isotherms. Interestingly, no effect of the polymer matrix on the gas adsorption behavior of the embedded Ni(Bpy)(DBM)(2) particles was observed. The composite samples all showed the same threshold pressures for CO(2) absorption and desorption hysteresis associated with the structural phase change in the polymer embedded Ni(Bpy)(DBM)(2) particles as was observed in the pristine polycrystalline sample. The current results contrast those recently reported for a MMM containing the flexible MOF "NH(2)-MIL-53" where a significant increase in the threshold pressure for CO(2) adsorption associated with the structural phase change of the MOF was

  15. Methods of enhancing conductivity of a polymer-ceramic composite electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Kumar, Binod

    2003-12-02

    Methods for enhancing conductivity of polymer-ceramic composite electrolytes are provided which include forming a polymer-ceramic composite electrolyte film by a melt casting technique and uniaxially stretching the film from about 5 to 15% in length. The polymer-ceramic composite electrolyte is also preferably annealed after stretching such that it has a room temperature conductivity of from 10.sup.-4 S cm.sup.-1 to 10.sup.-3 S cm.sup.-1. The polymer-ceramic composite electrolyte formed by the methods of the present invention may be used in lithium rechargeable batteries.

  16. Methods of enhancing conductivity of a polymer-ceramic composite electrolyte

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Binod (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    Methods for enhancing conductivity of polymer-ceramic composite electrolytes are provided which include forming a polymer-ceramic composite electrolyte film by a melt casting technique and uniaxially stretching the film from about 5 to 15% in length. The polymer-ceramic composite electrolyte is also preferably annealed after stretching such that it has a room temperature conductivity of from 10.sup.-4 S cm.sup.-1 to 10.sup.-3 S cm.sup.-1. The polymer-ceramic composite electrolyte formed by the methods of the present invention may be used in lithium rechargeable batteries.

  17. Sugar palm (Arenga pinnata): Its fibres, polymers and composites.

    PubMed

    Ishak, M R; Sapuan, S M; Leman, Z; Rahman, M Z A; Anwar, U M K; Siregar, J P

    2013-01-16

    Sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) is a multipurpose palm species from which a variety of foods and beverages, timber commodities, biofibres, biopolymers and biocomposites can be produced. Recently, it is being used as a source of renewable energy in the form of bio-ethanol via fermentation process of the sugar palm sap. Although numerous products can be produced from sugar palm, three products that are most prominent are palm sugar, fruits and fibres. This paper focuses mainly on the significance of fibres as they are highly durable, resistant to sea water and because they are available naturally in the form of woven fibre they are easy to process. Besides the recent advances in the research of sugar palm fibres and their composites, this paper also addresses the development of new biodegradable polymer derived from sugar palm starch, and presents reviews on fibre surface treatment, product development, and challenges and efforts on properties enhancement of sugar palm fibre composites. PMID:23121967

  18. Electrical insulation of implantable devices by composite polymer coatings.

    PubMed

    Nichols, M F; Hahn, A W

    1987-01-01

    Protection of implanted integrated circuits has required hermetic sealing, usually in metal containers and usually in package sizes that would preclude implantation in small and confined areas of the body. We have developed a method whereby ultrathin (10 micron) composite films consisting of glow discharge and vapor deposited polymers can be placed directly over integrated circuit substrates to provide protection from water and ions for up to 30 days (our present test limits). Our paper describes the reactor, surface preparation, and polymerization conditions necessary to obtain the water/ion resistant coatings. Results indicate little change in leakage current when comb patterns with 10 micron line widths and our insulating composite coatings are exposed to physiological saline solution and a 3 VDC bias.

  19. Optical Limiting Properties of Graphene/Polymer Composites.

    PubMed

    Pan, Ruiyi; Guo, Jin; Wang, Tingfeng; Shao, Junfeng; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Qiuping; Wang, Yan; Tang, Jun

    2016-04-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) was doped into four polymers films: Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), polystyrene (PS), polycarbonate (PC), and polyacrylonitrile (PAN). Following that, their optical limiting properties were investigated at 532 nm. In order to make GO hydrophobic, the lipophilic alkyl chains were connected to GO. The results showed that GO/PAN composite possesses better non-linear response than the other three composites at the same transmission (T ~ 59%). The reason were attributed to the thermal effect coming from high input fluence of laser, which improved the cross link density of PAN and further enhanced the interaction between the GO-ODA and PAN. Meanwhile, GO/PC and GO/PS had similar optical limiting property and GO/PMMA film gave the weakest optical limiting effect in our experiment. PMID:27451679

  20. Biaxial Yield Surface Investigation of Polymer-Matrix Composites

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Junjie; Qiu, Yuanying; Zhai, Zhi; He, Zhengjia

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a numerical technique for computing the biaxial yield surface of polymer-matrix composites with a given microstructure. Generalized Method of Cells in combination with an Improved Bodner-Partom Viscoplastic model is used to compute the inelastic deformation. The validation of presented model is proved by a fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) strain test system through uniaxial testing under two different strain rate conditions. On this basis, the manufacturing process thermal residual stress and strain rate effect on the biaxial yield surface of composites are considered. The results show that the effect of thermal residual stress on the biaxial yield response is closely dependent on loading conditions. Moreover, biaxial yield strength tends to increase with the increasing strain rate. PMID:23529150

  1. Interface Characterization in Fiber-Reinforced Polymer-Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naya, F.; Molina-Aldareguía, J. M.; Lopes, C. S.; González, C.; LLorca, J.

    2016-10-01

    A novel methodology is presented and applied to measure the shear interface strength of fiber-reinforced polymers. The strategy is based in fiber push-in tests carried out on the central fiber of highly-packed fiber clusters with hexagonal symmetry, and it is supported by a detailed finite element analysis of the push-in test to account for the influence of hygrothermal residual stresses, fiber constraint and fiber anisotropy on the interface strength. Examples of application are presented to determine the shear interface strength in carbon and glass fiber composites reinforced with either thermoset or thermoplastic matrices. In addition, the influence of the environment (either dry or wet conditions) on the interface strength in C/epoxy composites is demonstrated.

  2. Optical Limiting Properties of Graphene/Polymer Composites.

    PubMed

    Pan, Ruiyi; Guo, Jin; Wang, Tingfeng; Shao, Junfeng; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Qiuping; Wang, Yan; Tang, Jun

    2016-04-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) was doped into four polymers films: Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), polystyrene (PS), polycarbonate (PC), and polyacrylonitrile (PAN). Following that, their optical limiting properties were investigated at 532 nm. In order to make GO hydrophobic, the lipophilic alkyl chains were connected to GO. The results showed that GO/PAN composite possesses better non-linear response than the other three composites at the same transmission (T ~ 59%). The reason were attributed to the thermal effect coming from high input fluence of laser, which improved the cross link density of PAN and further enhanced the interaction between the GO-ODA and PAN. Meanwhile, GO/PC and GO/PS had similar optical limiting property and GO/PMMA film gave the weakest optical limiting effect in our experiment.

  3. Multilayered carbon nanotube/polymer composite based thermoelectric fabrics.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Corey A; Kaiser, Alan B; Roth, Siegmar; Craps, Matt; Czerw, Richard; Carroll, David L

    2012-03-14

    Thermoelectrics are materials capable of the solid-state conversion between thermal and electrical energy. Carbon nanotube/polymer composite thin films are known to exhibit thermoelectric effects, however, have a low figure of merit (ZT) of 0.02. In this work, we demonstrate individual composite films of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT)/polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) that are layered into multiple element modules that resemble a felt fabric. The thermoelectric voltage generated by these fabrics is the sum of contributions from each layer, resulting in increased power output. Since these fabrics have the potential to be cheaper, lighter, and more easily processed than the commonly used thermoelectric bismuth telluride, the overall performance of the fabric shows promise as a realistic alternative in a number of applications such as portable lightweight electronics.

  4. Flexural analysis of palm fiber reinforced hybrid polymer matrix composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatachalam, G.; Gautham Shankar, A.; Raghav, Dasarath; Santhosh Kiran, R.; Mahesh, Bhargav; Kumar, Krishna

    2015-07-01

    Uncertainty in availability of fossil fuels in the future and global warming increased the need for more environment friendly materials. In this work, an attempt is made to fabricate a hybrid polymer matrix composite. The blend is a mixture of General Purpose Resin and Cashew Nut Shell Liquid, a natural resin extracted from cashew plant. Palm fiber, which has high strength, is used as reinforcement material. The fiber is treated with alkali (NaOH) solution to increase its strength and adhesiveness. Parametric study of flexure strength is carried out by varying alkali concentration, duration of alkali treatment and fiber volume. Taguchi L9 Orthogonal array is followed in the design of experiments procedure for simplification. With the help of ANOVA technique, regression equations are obtained which gives the level of influence of each parameter on the flexure strength of the composite.

  5. Ionic polymer metal composites with polypyrrole-silver electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cellini, F.; Grillo, A.; Porfiri, M.

    2015-03-01

    Ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs) are a class of soft active materials that are finding increasing application in robotics, environmental sensing, and energy harvesting. In this letter, we demonstrate the fabrication of IPMCs via in-situ photoinduced polymerization of polypyrrole-silver electrodes on an ionomeric membrane. The composition, morphology, and sheet resistance of the electrodes are extensively characterized through a range of experimental techniques. We experimentally investigate IPMC electrochemistry through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and we propose a modified Randle's model to interpret the impedance spectrum. Finally, we demonstrate in-air dynamic actuation and sensing and assess IPMC performance against more established fabrication methods. Given the simplicity of the process and the short time required for the formation of the electrodes, we envision the application of our technique in the development of a rapid prototyping technology for IPMCs.

  6. Low-Cost Manufacturing of High- Temperature Polymer Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutter, James K.

    1998-01-01

    Major goals of NASA and the Integrated High Performance Turbine Engine Technology (IHPTET) initiative include improvements in the affordability of propulsion systems, significant increases in the thrust/weight ratio, and increases in the temperature capability of components of gas turbine engines. Members of NASA Lewis Research Center's HITEMP project worked cooperatively with Allison Advanced Development Corporation to develop a manufacturing method to produce low-cost components for gas turbine engines. Affordability for these polymer composites is defined by the savings in acquisition and life-cycle costs associated with engine weight reduction. To lower engine component costs, the Lewis/Allison team focused on chopped graphite fiber/polyimide resin composites. The high-temperature polyimide resin chosen, PMR-II-50, was developed at NASA Lewis.

  7. Micromechanical characterization of nonlinear behavior of advanced polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, Thomas S.; Chen, J. L.; Sun, C. T.

    1994-01-01

    Due to the presence of curing stresses and oriented crystalline structures in the matrix of polymer matrix fiber composites, the in situ nonlinear properties of the matrix are expected to be rather different from those of the bulk resin. A plane stress micromechanical model was developed to retrieve the in situ elastic-plastic properties of Narmco 5260 and Amoco 8320 matrices from measured elastic-plastic properties of IM7/5260 and IM7/8320 advance composites. In the micromechanical model, the fiber was assumed to be orthotropically elastic and the matrix to be orthotropic in elastic and plastic properties. The results indicate that both in situ elastic and plastic properties of the matrices are orthotropic.

  8. A Novel Ionic Polymer Metal ZnO Composite (IPMZC)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang-Mun; Tiwari, Rashi; Kim, Kwang J.

    2011-01-01

    The presented research introduces a new Ionic Polymer-Metal-ZnO Composite (IPMZC) demonstrating photoluminescence (PL)-quenching on mechanical bending or application of an electric field. The newly fabricated IPMZC integrates the optical properties of ZnO and the electroactive nature of Ionic Polymer Metal Composites (IPMC) to enable a non-contact read-out of IPMC response. The electro-mechano-optical response of the IPMZC was measured by observing the PL spectra under mechanical bending and electrical regimes. The working range was measured to be 375–475 nm. It was noted that the PL-quenching increased proportionally with the increase in curvature and applied field at 384 and 468 nm. The maximum quenching of 53.4% was achieved with the membrane curvature of 78.74/m and 3.01% when electric field (12.5 × 103 V/m) is applied. Coating IPMC with crystalline ZnO was observed to improve IPMC transduction. PMID:22163869

  9. Magnetoimpedance of cobalt-based amorphous ribbons/polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semirov, A. V.; Derevyanko, M. S.; Bukreev, D. A.; Moiseev, A. A.; Kudryavtsev, V. O.; Safronov, A. P.

    2016-10-01

    The combined influence of the temperature, the elastic tensile stress and the external magnetic field on the total impedance and impedance components were studied for rapidly quenched amorphous Co75Fe5Si4B16 ribbons. Both as-cast amorphous ribbons and Co75Fe5Si4B16/polymer amorphous ribbon based composites were considered. Following polymer coverings were studied: modified rubber solution in o-xylene, solution of butyl methacrylate and methacrylic acid copolymer in isopropanol and solution of polymethylphenylsiloxane resin in toluene. All selected composites showed very good adhesion of the coverings and allowed to provide temperature measurements from 163 K up to 383 K under the applied deforming tensile force up to 30 N. The dependence of the modulus of the impedance and its components on the external magnetic field was influenced by the elastic tensile stresses and was affected by the temperature of the samples. It was shown that maximal sensitivity of the impedance and its components to the external magnetic field was observed at minimal temperature and maximal deforming force depended on the frequency of an alternating current.

  10. A novel ionic polymer metal ZnO composite (IPMZC).

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Mun; Tiwari, Rashi; Kim, Kwang J

    2011-01-01

    The presented research introduces a new Ionic Polymer-Metal-ZnO Composite (IPMZC) demonstrating photoluminescence (PL)-quenching on mechanical bending or application of an electric field. The newly fabricated IPMZC integrates the optical properties of ZnO and the electroactive nature of Ionic Polymer Metal Composites (IPMC) to enable a non-contact read-out of IPMC response. The electro-mechano-optical response of the IPMZC was measured by observing the PL spectra under mechanical bending and electrical regimes. The working range was measured to be 375-475 nm. It was noted that the PL-quenching increased proportionally with the increase in curvature and applied field at 384 and 468 nm. The maximum quenching of 53.4% was achieved with the membrane curvature of 78.74/m and 3.01% when electric field (12.5 × 10(3) V/m) is applied. Coating IPMC with crystalline ZnO was observed to improve IPMC transduction.

  11. Carbon nanotubes reinforced hollow fiber solid phase microextraction for the determination of strychnine and brucine in urine.

    PubMed

    Song, Xin-Yue; Shi, Yan-Ping; Chen, Juan

    2013-11-15

    A mixed matrix membrane (MMM), based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and hollow fiber (HF), was prepared and combined with solid phase microextraction (SPME) mode to determine strychnine and brucine in urine. This MMM was prepared by dispersing CNTs in water via surfactant assistance, and then immobilizing CNTs into the pores of HF by capillary forces and sonification. The prepared carbon nanotubes reinforced hollow fiber (CNTs-HF) was subsequently wetted by a few microliters of organic solvent (1-octanol), and then applied to extract the target analytes in direct immersion sampling mode. After extraction, analytes were desorbed via ultrasonic-assisted effect, and then detected via high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). To achieve the highest extraction efficiency, main extraction parameters such as the type and amount of surfactant, the diameter and doping level of CNTs, extraction time, desorption condition, pH value, stirring rate and volume of the donor phase were optimized. Under the optimum extraction conditions, the method showed good linearity ranges with correlation coefficients higher than 0.9990, good repeatability and batch-to-batch reproducibility with relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 6% and 5% for strychnine and brucine, respectively, and low limits of detection (0.7 and 0.9 µg L(-1) for strychnine and brucine, respectively). The recoveries were in the range of 83.81-116.14% at three spiked levels. The developed method was successfully applied to real urine sample with mean relative recoveries of 94.28% and 91.30% for strychnine and brucine, respectively. The developed method shows comparable results against reference methods and is a simple, green, and cost-effective microextraction technique.

  12. Stress-tuned conductor-polymer composite for use in sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, James E; Read, Douglas H

    2013-10-22

    A method for making a composite polymeric material with electrical conductivity determined by stress-tuning of the conductor-polymer composite, and sensors made with the stress-tuned conductor-polymer composite made by this method. Stress tuning is achieved by mixing a miscible liquid into the polymer precursor solution or by absorbing into the precursor solution a soluble compound from vapor in contact with the polymer precursor solution. The conductor may or may not be ordered by application of a magnetic field. The composite is formed by polymerization with the stress-tuning agent in the polymer matrix. The stress-tuning agent is removed following polymerization to produce a conductor-polymer composite with a stress field that depends on the amount of stress-tuning agent employed.

  13. Cascade synthesis of a gold nanoparticle-network polymer composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grubjesic, Simonida; Ringstrand, Bryan S.; Jungjohann, Katherine L.; Brombosz, Scott M.; Seifert, Sönke; Firestone, Millicent A.

    2016-01-01

    The multi-step, cascade synthesis of a self-supporting, hierarchically-structured gold nanoparticle hydrogel composite is described. The composite is spontaneously prepared from a non-covalent, lamellar lyotropic mesophase composed of amphiphiles that support the reactive constituents, a mixture of hydroxyl- and acrylate-end-derivatized PEO117-PPO47-PEO117 and [AuCl4]-. The reaction sequence begins with the auto-reduction of aqueous [AuCl4]- by PEO117-PPO47-PEO117 which leads to both the production of Au NPs and the free radical initiated polymerization and crosslinking of the acrylate end-derivatized PEO117-PPO47-PEO117 to yield a network polymer. Optical spectroscopy and TEM monitored the reduction of [AuCl4]-, formation of large aggregated Au NPs and oxidative etching into a final state of dispersed, spherical Au NPs. ATR/FT-IR spectroscopy and thermal analysis confirms acrylate crosslinking to yield the polymer network. X-ray scattering (SAXS and WAXS) monitored the evolution of the multi-lamellar structured mesophase and revealed the presence of semi-crystalline PEO confined within the water layers. The hydrogel could be reversibly swollen without loss of the well-entrained Au NPs with full recovery of composite structure. Optical spectroscopy shows a notable red shift (Δλ ~ 45 nm) in the surface plasmon resonance between swollen and contracted states, demonstrating solvent-mediated modulation of the internal NP packing arrangement.The multi-step, cascade synthesis of a self-supporting, hierarchically-structured gold nanoparticle hydrogel composite is described. The composite is spontaneously prepared from a non-covalent, lamellar lyotropic mesophase composed of amphiphiles that support the reactive constituents, a mixture of hydroxyl- and acrylate-end-derivatized PEO117-PPO47-PEO117 and [AuCl4]-. The reaction sequence begins with the auto-reduction of aqueous [AuCl4]- by PEO117-PPO47-PEO117 which leads to both the production of Au NPs and the free radical

  14. Modeling Woven Polymer Matrix Composites with MAC/GMC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Micromechanics Analysis Code with Generalized Method of Cells (MAC/GMC) is used to predict the elastic properties of plain weave polymer matrix composites (PMCs). The traditional one step three-dimensional homogertization procedure that has been used in conjunction with MAC/GMC for modeling woven composites in the past is inaccurate due to the lack of shear coupling inherent to the model. However, by performing a two step homogenization procedure in which the woven composite repeating unit cell is homogenized independently in the through-thickness direction prior to homogenization in the plane of the weave, MAC/GMC can now accurately model woven PMCs. This two step procedure is outlined and implemented, and predictions are compared with results from the traditional one step approach and other models and experiments from the literature. Full coupling of this two step technique with MAC/ GMC will result in a widely applicable, efficient, and accurate tool for the design and analysis of woven composite materials and structures.

  15. Conducting polymer composite materials for smart microwave windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Alan; Lees, K.; Wright, Peter V.; Chambers, Barry

    1999-07-01

    Samples of poly(aniline)-silver-polymer electrolyte particulate composites have been characterized at microwave frequencies when small d.c. electric fields are applied across them in both coaxial line and waveguide measurement test sets. The experimental data shows that the initial conductivity of the materials is dependent on the concentration of sliver metal and suggest that changes in resistance due to chemical switching take place, at least in part, in the manufacture of the composites. When silver is used as the electrodes, the experimental data show that changes in the slope of the cyclic voltammograms coincide with large changes in microwave reflectivity or transmission consistent with increasing conductivity of the composites when fields are applied. The reverse change occurs when the fields are removed. Measurements have shown that the composites are able to switch between the two impedance stats in times of less than one second for well over a million cycles with no apparent depreciation in material properties. Large area films have also been prepared and studied using the 'free space' technique.

  16. Release characteristics of selected carbon nanotube polymer composites

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are commonly used in polymer formulations to improve strength, conductivity, and other attributes. A developing concern is the potential for carbon nanotube polymer nanocomposites to release nanoparticles into the environment as the polymer ...

  17. Shock Compression and Strain Rate Effect in Composites and Polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Eric

    2012-06-20

    Polymers are increasingly being utilized as monolithic materials and composite matrices for structural applications historically reserved for metals. High strain and high strain-rate applications in aerospace, defense, and automotive industries have lead to interest in utilizing the ability of many polymers to withstand extensions to failure of several hundred percent, often without localization or necking and their strong rate dependence. A broad range of characterization techniques will be presented for semi-crystalline polymers and composites including elastic-plastic fracture, split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB), plate impact including soft-recovery and lateral gage measurements and Taylor Impact. Gas-launched, plate impact experiments have been performed on pedigreed PTFE 7C, mounted in momentum-trapped, shock assemblies, with impact pressures above and below the phase II to phase III crystalline transition to probe subtle changes in the crystallinity, microstructure, and mechanical response of PTFE. Observed strong anisotropy on the hugoniot and spall behavior of fiber-reinforced composites will be discussed. Polymers are known to exhibit a strong dependence of the yield stress on temperature and strain-rate that are often observed to be linear for temperature and logarithmic for strain-rate. Temperature and strain-rate dependence will be reviewed in terms of classic time-temperature superposition and an empirical mapping function for superposition between temperature and strain-rate. The recent extension of the new Dynamic-Tensile-Extrusion (Dyn-Ten-Ext) technique to probe the dynamic tensile responses of polymers will be discussed, where more irregular deformation and stochastic-based damage and failure mechanisms than the stable plastic elongation and shear instabilities observed that in metals. The opportunity to use of Dyn-Ten-Ext to probe incipient damage at very high strain-rate by linking in situ and post mortem experimental observations with high

  18. Mode I Fracture Toughness Prediction for Multiwalled-Carbon-Nanotube Reinforced Ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Henager, Charles H.

    2015-08-27

    This article develops a multiscale model to predict fracture toughness of multiwalled-carbon-nanotube (MWCNT) reinforced ceramics. The model bridges different scales from the scale of a MWCNT to that of a composite domain containing a macroscopic crack. From the nano, micro to meso scales, Eshelby-Mori-Tanaka models combined with a continuum damage mechanics approach are explored to predict the elastic damage behavior of the composite as a function of MWCNT volume fraction. MWCNTs are assumed to be randomly dispersed in a ceramic matrix subject to cracking under loading. A damage variable is used to describe matrix cracking that causes reduction of the elastic modulus of the matrix. This damage model is introduced in a modified boundary layer modeling approach to capture damage initiation and development at a tip of a pre-existing crack. Damage and fracture are captured only in a process window containing the crack tip under plane strain Mode I loading. The model is validated against the published experimental fracture toughness data for a MWCNT 3 mol% yttria stabilized zirconia composite system. In addition, crack resistance curves as a function of MWCNT content are predicted and fitted by a power law as observed in the experiments on zirconia.

  19. Fabrication and characterization of carbon nanotube reinforced poly(methyl methacrylate) nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Yu, Suzhu; Juay, Yang Kang; Young, Ming Shyan

    2008-04-01

    Multiwall carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanocomposites have been successfully fabricated with melt blending. Two melt blending approaches of batch mixing and continuous extrusion have been used and the properties of the derived nanocomposites have been compared. The interaction of PMMA and CNTs, which is crucial to greatly improve the polymer properties, has been physically enhanced by adding a third party of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) compatibilizer. It is found that the electrical threshold for both PMMA/CNT and PMMA/PVDF/CNT nanocomposites lies between 0.5 to 1 wt% of CNTs. The thermal and mechanical properties of the nanocomposites increase with CNTs and they are further increased by the addition of PVDF For 5 wt% CNT reinforced PMMA/PVDF/CNT nanocomposite, the onset of decomposition temperature is about 17 degrees C higher and elastic modulus is about 19.5% higher than those of neat PMMA. Rheological study also shows that the CNTs incorporated in the PMMA/PVDF/CNT nanocomposites act as physical cross-linkers.

  20. Mechanical properties of heterophase polymer blends of cryogenically fractured soy flour composite filler and poly(styrene-butadiene)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reinforcement effect of cryogenically fractured soy Flour composite filler in soft polymer was investigated in this study. Polymer composites were prepared by melt-mixing polymer and soy flour composite fillers in an internal mixer. Soy flour composite fillers were prepared by blending aqueous dis...

  1. Polymer/carbon nanotube composite patterns via laser induced forward transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Boutopoulos, Christos; Pandis, Christos; Pissis, Polycarpos; Zergioti, Ioanna; Giannakopoulos, Konstantinos

    2010-01-25

    Direct and high spatial resolution printing of polymer/carbon nanotube (CNT) composite layers has been demonstrated by means of laser induced forward transfer (LIFT). Laser irradiation of composite target materials, such as poly(acrylic acid)/CNT and polyvinylpyrrolidone/CNT, enabled dry deposition of well resolved composite pixels onto glass substrates. The dispersion of the CNT into the deposited composite pixels was investigated by transmission electron microscopy. The LIFT technique was also employed for the accurate deposition of polymer/CNT composite pixels onto aluminum microelectrodes for the fabrication of chemical sensors based on polymer/CNT compounds.

  2. Self-Healing Composite of Thermoset Polymer and Programmed Super Contraction Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Guoqiang (Inventor); Meng, Harper (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A composition comprising thermoset polymer, shape memory polymer to facilitate macro scale damage closure, and a thermoplastic polymer for molecular scale healing is disclosed; the composition has the ability to resolve structural defects by a bio-mimetic close-then heal process. In use, the shape memory polymer serves to bring surfaces of a structural defect into approximation, whereafter use of the thermoplastic polymer for molecular scale healing allowed for movement of the thermoplastic polymer into the defect and thus obtain molecular scale healing. The thermoplastic can be fibers, particles or spheres which are used by heating to a level at or above the thermoplastic's melting point, then cooling of the composition below the melting temperature of the thermoplastic. Compositions of the invention have the ability to not only close macroscopic defects, but also to do so repeatedly even if another wound/damage occurs in a previously healed/repaired area.

  3. Spectroscopic studies of PVA/Gly:Na2SO4 polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    G, Thejas Urs; T, Ananda H.; Mahadevaiah, Somashekar, R.

    2015-06-01

    As a continued work on investigating a good conducting polymer, Sodium sulphate doped PVA polymer composites were prepared by solution casting method and subjected to various analytical measurements such as FT-IR spectroscopy, UV/Visible absorbance and Wide angle X-ray scattering technique. The changes observed in the structure of these polymer composites for various concentrations are computed by the results obtained from all above techniques are reported and related with the structure property. The Microstructural parameters of these polymer composites are evaluated using in-house programs.

  4. Thickness limitations in carbon nanotube reinforced silicon nitride coatings synthesized by vapor infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Eres, Gyula

    2012-01-01

    Chemical vapor infiltration is a convenient method for synthesizing carbon nanotube (CNT)-reinforced ceramic coatings. The thickness over which infiltration is relatively uniform is limited by gas phase diffusion in the pore structure. These effects were investigated in two types of silicon nitride matrix composites. With CNTs that were distributed uniformly on the substrate surface dense coatings were limited to thicknesses of several microns. With dual structured CNT arrays produced by photolithography coatings up to 400 gm thick were obtained with minimal residual porosity. Gas transport into these dual structured materials was facilitated by creating micron sized channels between "CNT pillars" (i.e. each pillar consisted of a large number of individual CNTs). The experimental results are consistent with basic comparisons between the rates of gas diffusion and silicon nitride growth in porous structures. This analysis also provides a general insight into optimizing infiltration conditions during the fabrication of thick CNT-reinforced composite coatings. (C) 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Nanotube-polymer composites: Tailoring the interface for improved mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eitan, Amram (Ami)

    2004-11-01

    The discovery of carbon nanotubes introduced exciting opportunities in many scientific and technological fields. In particular, their high elastic modulus and their extremely high aspect ratio make carbon nanotubes an optimal candidate as a reinforcing agent in composite materials. The goal of the present research is to prepare uniform multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT)-polycarbonate composites, to explore their mechanical properties, and to investigate the reinforcement mechanisms that govern the mechanical properties. Surface modification of the MWNT was first developed to control the interactions between the MWNT and the polymer. As received (AR) and surface modified (EP) MWNT were embedded in bisphenol A polycarbonate by a solution-based process. Tensile tests of the composites showed an increase of the Young's modulus of the composite by 70% due to 5 weight % AR-MWNT compared to pure polycarbonate, whereas EP-MWNT composites of the same loading showed an increase of 95%. Yielding was preserved in all samples. Viscoelastic studies of AR-MWNT composites conducted by dynamic mechanical analysis suggest the existence of an immobilized polymer region caused by the incorporation of the MWNT. This immobilized polymer was detected by the broadening of the loss modulus peak towards higher temperatures, and by the broadening of the relaxation spectra towards longer relaxation times. The existence of an immobilized polymer layer was confirmed by electron microscopic examination of the fracture surface of the composites. The viscoelastic behavior of the EP-MWNT composites showed broadening as well as shifting of the loss modulus peak towards higher temperatures, and shifting of the relaxation spectra, toward lower frequencies. These findings are interpreted by the better inter-mixing that occurs between the immobilized polymer and the bulk polymer in the surface-modified MWNT composites, which affects the behavior of the bulk polymer. This mechanism was reinforced by

  6. Processing of Fine-Scale Piezoelectric Ceramic/Polymer Composites for Sensors and Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janas, V. F.; Safari, A.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the research effort at Rutgers is the development of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic/polymer composites with different designs for transducer applications including hydrophones, biomedical imaging, non-destructive testing, and air imaging. In this review, methods for processing both large area and multifunctional ceramic/polymer composites for acoustic transducers were discussed.

  7. Creep-rupture of polymer-matrix composites. [graphite-epoxy laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinson, H. F.; Griffith, W. I.; Morris, D. H.

    1980-01-01

    An accelerated characterization method for resin matrix composites is reviewed. Methods for determining modulus and strength master curves are given. Creep rupture analytical models are discussed as applied to polymers and polymer matrix composites. Comparisons between creep rupture experiments and analytical models are presented. The time dependent creep rupture process in graphite epoxy laminates is examined as a function of temperature and stress level.

  8. ROMP-based polymer composites and biorenewable rubbers

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Wonje

    2009-01-01

    This research is divided into two related topics. In the first topic, the synthesis and characterization of novel composite materials reinforced with MWCNTs by ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) is reported for two ROMP based monomers: dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) and 5-ethylidene-2-norbornene (ENB). Homogeneous dispersion of MWCNTs in the polymer matrices is achieved by grafting norbornene moieties onto the nanotube surface. For the DCPD-based system, the investigation of mechanical properties of the composites shows a remarkable increase of tensile toughness with just 0.4 wt % of functionalized MWCNTs (f-MWCNTs). To our knowledge, this represents the highest toughness enhancement efficiency in thermosetting composites ever reported. DMA results show that there is a general increase of thermal stability (rg) with the addition of f-MWCNTs, which means that covalently bonded f-MWCNTs can reduce the local chain mobility of the matrix by interfacial interactions. The ENB system also shows significant enhancement of the toughness using just 0.8 wt % f-MWCNTs. These results indicate that the ROMP approach for polyENB is also very effective. The second topic is an investigation of the biorenewable rubbers synthesized by the tandem ROMP and cationic polymerization. The resin consists of a norbornenyl-modified linseed oil and a norbornene diester. Characterization of the bio-based rubbers includes dynamic mechanical analysis, tensile testing, and thermogravimetric analysis. The experimental results show that there is a decrease in glass transition temperature and slight increase of elongation with increased diester loading.

  9. Innovative Manufacturing of Carbon Nanotube-Loaded Fibrillar Polymer Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, R. J. T.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Fakirov, S.

    The concept of microfibrillar composite (MFC) has been used to create a new type of polymer composites, in which the reinforcing microfibrils are loaded with carbon nanotubes (CNT). Polyamide 66 (PA66) has been melt blended with polypropylene in a twin screw extruder with and without CNT, and thereafter cold drawn to create a fibrillar state as well as to align the CNT in the PA66 microfibrils. The drawn bristles were compression moulded at 180°C to prepare MFC plates. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations indicate near perfect distribution of CNT in the reinforcing PA66 microfibrils. Although the fibrillated PA66 is able to improve the tensile stiffness and strength as expected from the MFC structure, the incorporation of CNT does not exhibit any further enhancing effect. It rather adversely affects the mechanical properties due to poor interface adhesion between the matrix and the reinforcing microfibrils with the presence of CNT, as demonstrated by SEM. However, the resulting highly aligned CNT within the MFC are expected to affect the physical and functional properties of these composites.

  10. ROMP-based polymer composites and biorenewable rubbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Wonje

    This research is divided into two related topics. In the first topic, the synthesis and characterization of novel composite materials reinforced with MWCNTs by ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) is reported for two ROMP based monomers: dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) and 5-ethylidene-2-norbornene (ENB). Homogeneous dispersion of MWCNTs in the polymer matrices is achieved by grafting norbornene moieties onto the nanotube surface. For the DCPD-based system, the investigation of mechanical properties of the composites shows a remarkable increase of tensile toughness with just 0.4 wt % of functionalized MWCNTs (f-MWCNTs). To our knowledge, this represents the highest toughness enhancement efficiency in thermosetting composites ever reported. DMA results show that there is a general increase of thermal stability (T g) with the addition of f-MWCNTs, which means that covalently bonded f-MWCNTs can reduce the local chain mobility of the matrix by interfacial interactions. The ENB system also shows significant enhancement of the toughness using just 0.8 wt % f-MWCNTs. These results indicate that the ROMP approach for polyENB is also very effective. The second topic is an investigation of the biorenewable rubbers synthesized by the tandem ROMP and cationic polymerization. The resin consists of a norbornenyl-modified linseed oil and a norbornene diester. Characterization of the bio-based rubbers includes dynamic mechanical analysis, tensile testing, and thermogravimetric analysis. The experimental results show that there is a decrease in glass transition temperature and slight increase of elongation with increased diester loading.

  11. Chemical, mechanical, and thermal expansion properties of a carbon nanotube-reinforced aluminum nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Manjula; Sharma, Vimal

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, the chemical and mechanical properties and the thermal expansion of a carbon nanotube (CNT)-based crystalline nano-aluminum (nano Al) composite were reported. The properties of nanocomposites were tailored by incorporating CNTs into the nano Al matrix using a physical mixing method. The elastic moduli and the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the nanocomposites were also estimated to understand the effects of CNT reinforcement in the Al matrix. Microstructural characterization of the nanocomposite reveals that the CNTs are dispersed and embedded in the Al matrix. The experimental results indicate that the incorporation of CNTs into the nano Al matrix results in the increase in hardness and elastic modulus along with a concomitant decrease in the coefficient of thermal expansion. The hardness and elastic modulus of the nanocomposite increase by 21% and 20%, respectively, upon CNT addition. The CTE of CNT/Al nanocomposite decreases to 70% compared with that of nano Al.

  12. Development of multi-walled carbon nanotubes reinforced monetite bionanocomposite cements for orthopedic applications.

    PubMed

    Boroujeni, Nariman Mansoori; Zhou, Huan; Luchini, Timothy J F; Bhaduri, Sarit B

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we present results of our research on biodegradable monetite (DCPA, CaHPO4) cement with surface-modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (mMWCNTs) as potential bone defect repair material. The cement pastes showed desirable handling properties and possessed a suitable setting time for use in surgical setting. The incorporation of mMWCNTs shortened the setting time of DCPA and increased the compressive strength of DCPA cement from 11.09±1.85 MPa to 21.56±2.47 MPa. The cytocompatibility of the materials was investigated in vitro using the preosteoblast cell line MC3T3-E1. An increase of cell numbers was observed on both DCPA and DCPA-mMWCNTs. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results also revealed an obvious cell growth on the surface of the cements. Based on these results, DCPA-mMWCNTs composite cements can be considered as potential bone defect repair materials.

  13. Fundamental properties of thermoset resin with boron nitride nanotube reinforcement for radiation shielding applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estevez, Joseph Evans

    Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNT's), like carbon nanotubes (CNT's), have properties beneficial for the application in various fields of science including materials, electronics, and medicine. B10 has one of the largest neutron capture cross sections of any isotope and presents an opportunity to incorporate radiation shielding in composite materials by infusing the matrix with BNNT's. However, due to the challenges in synthesizing quality BNNT's, little research has been done to further the technology. The aim of this research is to: 1) Create theoretical models to substantiate that there is no detrimental effects on the fundamental properties, such as: modulus, strength and glass transition temperature. 2) Acquire structural information on the BNNT's and the resin system infused with BNNT's and 3) Generate experimental data which will verify the computational models. Structural information has been obtained on the BNNT's and nanocomposites by analytical and microscopic techniques. Calculations of the fundamental mechanical material properties of BNNT's are performed utilizing molecular dynamics simulations via Material Studio by Accelrys Inc. After the full characterization of the BNNT's, BNNT's have been dispersed into the Epon862/W thermoset resin system. Glass transition temperature has been predicted by simulating the annealing process and monitoring the density of the material at various temperatures. Also, interfacial information between the BNNT's and resin system has been described to provide a foundation for engineers in the fabrication of nanocomposites. Experimental data, from the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), of glass transition temperature confirms the accuracy of the computational models. Also, models in which the BNNT's undergo hydrogenation have been performed to understand the effects of hydrogenation on the properties of the BNNT's and the nanocomposite. Previous studies have demonstrated that CNT's have improved the mechanical and thermal

  14. Functionalized carbon nanotube reinforced scaffolds for bone regenerative engineering: fabrication, in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Mikael, Paiyz E; Amini, Ami R; Basu, Joysurya; Josefina Arellano-Jimenez, M; Laurencin, Cato T; Sanders, Mary M; Barry Carter, C; Nukavarapu, Syam P

    2014-06-01

    Designing biodegradable scaffolds with bone-compatible mechanical properties has been a significant challenge in the field of bone tissue engineering and regenerative engineering. The objective of this work is to improve the polymeric scaffold's mechanical strength by compositing it with mechanically superior carbon nanotubes. Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microsphere scaffolds exhibit mechanical properties in the range of human cancellous bone. On the other hand, carbon nanotubes have outstanding mechanical properties. The aim of this study is to improve further the mechanical strength of PLGA scaffolds such that they may be applicable for a wide range of load-bearing repair and regeneration applications. We have formed composite microspheres of PLGA containing pristine and modified (with hydroxyl (OH), carboxylic acid (COOH)) multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), and fabricated them into three-dimensional porous scaffolds. Results show that by adding only 3% MWCNTs, the compressive strength and modulus was significantly increased (35 MPa, 510.99 MPa) compared to pure PLGA scaffolds (19 MPa and 166.38 MPa). Scanning electron microscopy images showed excellent cell adhesion and proliferation. In vitro studies exhibited good cell viability, proliferation and mineralization. The in vivo study, however, indicated differences in inflammatory response throughout the 12 weeks of implantation, with OH-modified MWCNTs having the least response, followed by unmodified and COOH-modified exhibiting a more pronounced response. Overall, our results show that PLGA scaffolds containing water-dispersible MWCNTs are mechanically stronger and display good cellular and tissue compatibility, and hence are potential candidates for load-bearing bone tissue engineering. PMID:24687391

  15. Healable thermoset polymer composite embedded with stimuli-responsive fibres

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guoqiang; Meng, Harper; Hu, Jinlian

    2012-01-01

    Severe wounds in biological systems such as human skin cannot heal themselves, unless they are first stitched together. Healing of macroscopic damage in thermoset polymer composites faces a similar challenge. Stimuli-responsive shape-changing polymeric fibres with outstanding mechanical properties embedded in polymers may be able to close macro-cracks automatically upon stimulation such as heating. Here, a stimuli-responsive fibre (SRF) with outstanding mechanical properties and supercontraction capability was fabricated for the purpose of healing macroscopic damage. The SRFs and thermoplastic particles (TPs) were incorporated into regular thermosetting epoxy for repeatedly healing macroscopic damages. The system works by mimicking self-healing of biological systems such as human skin, close (stitch) then heal, i.e. close the macroscopic crack through the thermal-induced supercontraction of the SRFs, and bond the closed crack through melting and diffusing of TPs at the crack interface. The healing efficiency determined using tapered double-cantilever beam specimens was 94 per cent. The self-healing process was reasonably repeatable. PMID:22896563

  16. Time-delay control of ionic polymer metal composite actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Joon Hwan; Kim, Byung Jo; Kim, Jin Seong; Song, Dae Seok; Lee, Min Gyu; Jho, Jae Young; Kim, Dong Min; Rhee, Kyehan; Lee, Soo Jin

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents the control of an ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC) strip, which is an electro-active polymer actuator. IPMC can produce mechanical bending motion in response to an electrical excitation. Although IPMC has many beneficial properties, such as low power consumption, large deformation, and bi-directional actuation, it is very challenging to control because of its time-varying and nonlinear properties. Time-delay control (TDC) was applied to an IPMC strip in order to obtain a robust and precise tracking performance. The TDC scheme has shown good tracking performance with exceptional robustness in many other applications, in addition to having a simple and efficient structure and design process. A first-order filter was applied to the control input to reduce the sensor noise. An anti-windup scheme was also used because of its inherent integral effect. The simulation and experimental results of an IPMC strip controlled by TDC showed good performance in the steady state and transient responses. Furthermore, the control output responses tracked the desired model even when the IPMC parameters varied in repetitive experiments. In addition, it was shown through Nyquist analysis that the stability of the IPMC strip controlled by TDC is always maintained with the time-varying parameters. These results demonstrate that the TDC law applied to a time-varying and nonlinear IPMC provides robustness in performance and stability, while yielding precise transient and steady state tracking performance.

  17. Polymer-based tubular microbots: role of composition and preparation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wei; Sattayasamitsathit, Sirilak; Uygun, Aysegul; Pei, Allen; Ponedal, Adam; Wang, Joseph

    2012-04-01

    The influence of the composition and electropolymerization conditions upon the propulsion of new template-prepared polymer-based bilayer microtubular microbots is described. The effects of different electropolymerized outer layers, including polypyrrole (PPy), poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), polyaniline (PANI), and of various inner catalytic metal surfaces (Ag, Pt, Au, Ni-Pt alloy), upon the movement of such bilayer microtubes are evaluated and compared. Electropolymerization conditions, such as the monomer concentration and medium (e.g. surfactant, electrolyte), have a profound effect upon the morphology and locomotion of the resulting microtubes. The most efficient propulsion is observed using PEDOT/Pt microbots that offer a record-breaking speed of over 1400 body lengths s(-1) at physiological temperature, which is the fastest relative speed reported to date for all artificial micro/nanomotors. An inner Pt-Ni alloy surface is shown useful for combining magnetic control and catalytic fuel decomposition within one layer, thus greatly simplifying the preparation of magnetically-guided microbots. Polymer-based microbots with an inner gold layer offer efficient biocatalytic propulsion in low peroxide level in connection to an immobilized catalase enzyme. Metallic Au/Pt bilayer microbots can also be prepared electrochemically to offer high speed propulsion towards potential biomedical applications through functionalization of the outer gold surface. Such rational template preparation and systematic optimization of highly efficient microbots hold considerable promise for diverse practical applications.

  18. Variable stiffness property study on shape memory polymer composite tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yijin; Sun, Jian; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

    2012-09-01

    As a typical smart material, shape memory polymers (SMPs) have the capability of variable stiffness in response to external stimuli, such as heat, electricity, magnetism and solvents. In this research, a shape memory polymer composite (SMPC) tube composed of multi-layered filament wound structures is investigated. The SMPC tube possesses considerable flexibility under high temperature and rigidity under low temperature. Significant changes in effective engineering modulus can be achieved through regulating the environment temperature. Based on the classical laminated-plate theory and Sun’s thick laminate analysis, a 3D theory method is used to study the effective engineering modulus and modulus ratio of the SMPC tube. The tensile test is conducted on the SMPC tube to verify the accuracy of the theoretical method. In addition, the effective engineering modulus and modulus ratio are discussed under different fiber-winding angles and fiber volume fractions of the SMPC tube. The presented analysis provides meaningful guidance to assist the design and manufacture of SMPC tubes in morphing skin applications.

  19. High discharge capacity solid composite polymer electrolyte lithium battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. T.; Chuang, Y. C.; Su, J. H.; Yu, H. C.; Chen-Yang, Y. W.

    2011-03-01

    In this study, a series of nanocomposite polymer electrolytes (CPEs), PAN/LiClO4/SAP, with high conductivity are prepared based on polyacrylonitrile (PAN), LiClO4 and low content of the silica aerogel powder (SAP) prepared by the sol-gel method with ionic liquid (IL) as the template. The effect of addition of SAP on the properties of the CPEs is investigated by FTIR, AC impedance, linear sweep voltagrams and cyclic voltammetry measurements as well as the charge-discharge performance. It is found that the ionic conductivity of the CPE is significantly improved by addition of SAP. The maximum ambient ionic conductivity of CPEs is about 12.5 times higher than that without addition of SAP. The results of the voltammetry measurements of CPE-3, which contained 3 wt% of SAP, show that the anodic and cathodic peaks are well maintained after 100 cycles, showing excellent electrochemical stability and cyclability over the potential range between 0 V and 4 V vs. Li/Li+. Besides, the room temperature discharge capacity measured at 0.5C for the coin cell based on CPE-3 is 120 mAh g-1 and the capacity is retained after 20 cycles discharge, indicating the potential for practical use. This is perhaps the first report of the room temperature charge-discharge performance on the solid composite polymer electrolyte to the best of our knowledge.

  20. Femtosecond laser fabrication of gold nanorod/polymer composite microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masui, Kyoko; Shoji, Satoru; Ushiba, Shota; Duan, Xuan-Ming; Kawata, Satoshi

    2012-10-01

    We present a fabrication method of gold nanorod/ polymer composite microstructures by means of a femtosecond near-infrared laser light. The mechanism of this method is based on a cooperation of two optical reactions; two-photon polymerization (TPP) reaction only at the surface of gold nanorods, and optical accumulation of gold nanorods in photo-polymerizable resin. Gold nanorods were mass-produced by seed mediated growth method, and were mono-dispersed in photo-resin. The wavelength of the laser light was tuned resonant to two-photon absorption of the photo-resin, and also close to a longitudinal local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) mode of the gold nanorods. The laser light excited LSPR onto gold nanorods, resulting in the formation of thin polymer layer only at their surface through TPP. Concurrently occurring optical accumulation of gold nanorods by continuous irradiation of laser light, gold nanorods got together into focus spot. The TPP layer at the surface of gold nanorods worked as a glue to stick one another for forming their aggregated structure in micro/nano scale. By controlling the intensity and the exposure time of laser light, an optimal condition was found to induce dominant polymerization without any thermal damages. The scanning of the focus spot makes it possible to create arbitrary micro/nano structures. This method has a potential to create plasmonic optical materials by controlling the alignment of gold nanorods.

  1. Cryogenic Temperature Effects on Performance of Polymer Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hui, David; Dutta, P. K.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the low temperature behavior of polymer composites down to the cryogenic temperature range. This would be accomplished by study of its behavior in several ways. First we would study the microfracture growth by observing the acoustic emission as the temperature is lowered. We would also note any damage growth by ultrasonic velocity testing applying the pulse echo method. Effects of such low temperature would then be studied by examining the shear properties by the short beam shear test, and also the fracture toughness properties over a wide range of strain rate and temperature. At present these studies are continuing. The limited data obtained from these studies are reported in this report.

  2. Charge transport in hybrid nanorod-polymer composite photovoltaiccells

    SciTech Connect

    Huynh, Wendy U.; Dittmer, Janke J.; Teclemariam, Nerayo; Milliron, Delia; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Barnham, Keith W.J.

    2002-06-21

    Charge transport in composites of inorganic nanorods and aconjugated polymer is investigated using a photovoltaic device structure.We show that the current-voltage (I-V) curves in the dark can be modelledusing the Shockley equation modified to include series and shuntresistance at low current levels, and using an improved model thatincorporates both the Shockley equation and the presence of a spacecharge limited region at high currents. Under illumination, theefficiency of photocurrent generation is found to be dependent on appliedbias. Furthermore, the photocurrent-light intensity dependence was foundto be sublinear. An analysis of the shunt resistance as a function oflight intensity suggests that the photocurrent as well as the fill factoris diminished as a result of increased photoconductivity of the activelayer at high light intensity. By studying the intensity dependence ofthe open circuit voltage for nanocrystals with different diameters andthus ! band gaps, it was inferred that Fermi-level pinning occurs at theinterface between the aluminum electrode and the nanocrystal.

  3. Measuring time-dependent diffusion in polymer matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Pilli, Siva Prasad; Smith, Lloyd V.; Shutthanandan, V.

    2014-11-01

    Moisture plays a significant role in influencing the mechanical behavior and long-term durability of polymer matrix composites (PMC’s). The common methods used to determine the moisture diffusion coefficients of PMCs are based on the solution of Fickian diffusion in the one-dimensional domain. Fick’s Law assumes that equilibrium between the material surface and the external vapor is established instantaneously. A time dependent boundary condition has been shown to improve correlation with some bulk diffusion measurements, but has not been validated experimentally. The surface moisture content in a Toray 800S/3900-2B toughened quasi-isotropic laminate system, [0/±60]s, was analyzed experimentally using Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA). It was found that the surface moisture content showed a rapid increase to an intermediate concentration C0, followed by a slow linear increase to the saturation level.

  4. Nanothorn electrodes for ionic polymer-metal composite artificial muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmre, Viljar; Pugal, David; Kim, Kwang J.; Leang, Kam K.; Asaka, Kinji; Aabloo, Alvo

    2014-08-01

    Ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) have recently received tremendous interest as soft biomimetic actuators and sensors in various bioengineering and human affinity applications, such as artificial muscles and actuators, aquatic propulsors, robotic end-effectors, and active catheters. Main challenges in developing biomimetic actuators are the attainment of high strain and actuation force at low operating voltage. Here we first report a nanostructured electrode surface design for IPMC comprising platinum nanothorn assemblies with multiple sharp tips. The newly developed actuator with the nanostructured electrodes shows a new way to achieve highly enhanced electromechanical performance over existing flat-surfaced electrodes. We demonstrate that the formation and growth of the nanothorn assemblies at the electrode interface lead to a dramatic improvement (3- to 5-fold increase) in both actuation range and blocking force at low driving voltage (1-3 V). These advances are related to the highly capacitive properties of nanothorn assemblies, increasing significantly the charge transport during the actuation process.

  5. Method of Making an Electroactive Sensing/Actuating Material for Carbon Nanotube Polymer Composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ounaies, Zoubeida (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor); Holloway, Nancy M. (Inventor); Draughon, Gregory K. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An electroactive sensing or actuating material comprises a composite made from a polymer with polarizable moieties and an effective amount of carbon nanotubes incorporated in the polymer for a predetermined electromechanical operation of the composite when such composite is affected by an external stimulus. In another embodiment, the composite comprises a, third component of micro -sized to nano-sized particles of an electroactive ceramic that is also incorporated in the polymer matrix. The method for making the three-phase composite comprises either incorporating the carbon nanotubes in the polymer matrix before incorporation of the particles of ceramic or mixing the carbon nanotubes and particles of ceramic together in a solution before incorporation in the polymer matrix.

  6. Sensing/actuating materials made from carbon nanotube polymer composites and methods for making same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ounaies, Zoubeida (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor); Holloway, Nancy M. (Inventor); Draughon, Gregory K. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    An electroactive sensing or actuating material comprises a composite made from a polymer with polarizable moieties and an effective amount of carbon nanotubes incorporated in the polymer for a predetermined electromechanical operation of the composite when such composite is affected by an external stimulus. In another embodiment, the composite comprises a third component of micro-sized to nano-sized particles of an electroactive ceramic that is also incorporated in the polymer matrix. The method for making the three-phase composite comprises either incorporating the carbon nanotubes in the polymer matrix before incorporation of the particles of ceramic or mixing the carbon nanotubes and particles of ceramic together in a solution before incorporation in the polymer matrix.

  7. 2014 Global Conference on Polymer and Composite Materials (PCM 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-08-01

    The 2014 Global Conference on Polymer and Composite Materials (PCM 2014) sponsored by Ningbo Adhesives and Products Industry Association, Shanghai Bonding Technology Association, Zhejiang Bonding Technology Association, Wuhan Bonding Technology Association, Hebei Bonding and Coatings Association and Polyurethane Industry Association was held from May 27 to May 29 2014 in Ningbo, China. The technical program consisted of 8 international keynote speakers, oral presentations, and a poster session. The conference also included an industrial exhibition where more than 50 companies displayed in their booths their most recent advanced products and services. The present issue of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering (MSE) records the proceedings of PCM 2014 and contains 37 specially selected manuscripts submitted to PCM2014 conference. The electronic submission and handling of manuscripts via the conference website, including the selection of reviewers and evaluation of manuscripts, were identical to the procedures applied to manuscripts submitted as regular contributions for publication. The organization of this conference and the preparation of proceedings volumes would have been impossible without the tremendous efforts and dedication of many individuals, especially from Ms. Yin Pan, who oversaw the organization of the conference and the program; and a large team of reviewers with their timely submission of quality reports. We express our sincere thanks to all authors and presenters for their contributions. We also thank very much our sponsors for their generous support. The 2015 Global Conference on Polymer and Composite Materials (PCM2015) will be held in Beijing, China on May 16-18, 2015. Beijing, the capital of the People's Republic of China and one of the most populous cities in the world, will welcome to all participants for a renewed and vibrant conference. Prof. Dr. Esteban Broitman Linköping University, Sweden Editor in Chief — PCM2014

  8. Engineering solutions for polymer composites solar water heaters production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frid, S. E.; Arsatov, A. V.; Oshchepkov, M. Yu.

    2016-06-01

    Analysis of engineering solutions aimed at a considerable decrease of solar water heaters cost via the use of polymer composites in heaters construction and solar collector and heat storage integration into a single device representing an integrated unit results are considered. Possibilities of creating solar water heaters of only three components and changing welding, soldering, mechanical treatment, and assembly of a complicate construction for large components molding of polymer composites and their gluing are demonstrated. Materials of unit components and engineering solutions for their manufacturing are analyzed with consideration for construction requirements of solar water heaters. Optimal materials are fiber glass and carbon-filled plastics based on hot-cure thermosets, and an optimal molding technology is hot molding. It is necessary to manufacture the absorbing panel as corrugated and to use a special paint as its selective coating. Parameters of the unit have been optimized by calculation. Developed two-dimensional numerical model of the unit demonstrates good agreement with the experiment. Optimal ratio of daily load to receiving surface area of a solar water heater operating on a clear summer day in the midland of Russia is 130‒150 L/m2. Storage tank volume and load schedule have a slight effect on solar water heater output. A thermal insulation layer of 35‒40 mm is sufficient to provide an efficient thermal insulation of the back and side walls. An experimental model layout representing a solar water heater prototype of a prime cost of 70‒90/(m2 receiving surface) has been developed for a manufacturing volume of no less than 5000 pieces per year.

  9. Bicontinuous zeolite polymer composite membranes prepared via float casting.

    PubMed

    Kiesow, Ina; Marczewski, Dawid; Reinhardt, Lutz; Mühlmann, Marcel; Possiwan, Mario; Goedel, Werner A

    2013-03-20

    We prepared bicontinuous composite membranes comprising zeolite A particles. The particles form a monolayer which is embedded in a polymer sheet in such a way that each particle penetrates both surfaces of the polymer sheet. Preparation was done via "float casting"; a mixture of hydrophobized zeolite particles and an appropriate volume of a nonvolatile polymerizable organic liquid monomer was applied onto a water surface. The monomer was solidified via photopolymerization to form the above-mentioned membrane. In as-prepared state (without extensive drying), this membrane is permeable for water vapor (in case of zeolite 4A permeance = 8 × 10(-9) mol m(-2) s(-1) Pa(-1), permeability = 1.65 × 10(-14) mol m(-1) s(-1) Pa(-1) = 49 barrer) but impermeable for nitrogen (permeance below detection limit of 5 × 10(-12) mol m(-2) s(-1) Pa(-1), permeability below detection limit of 1 × 10(-17) mol m(-1) s(-1) Pa(-1) = 0.03 barrer). The permeance for water vapor increases with increasing pore size of the zeolite (in case of zeolite 5A, all other parameters being unchanged, permeance = 12 × 10(-9) mol m(-2) s(-1) Pa(-1), permeability = 2.4 × 10(-14) mol m(-1) s(-1) Pa(-1) = 72 barrer). These observations indicate that the water molecules are predominantly transported through the zeolite channels and at the same time block the passage of other molecules. The impermeability for nitrogen in as-prepared state indicates a low amount of defects that are not blocked by water. Furthermore, the composite nature of the membrane gives rise to a reduced brittleness; membranes can be handled manually without support structure and thus might be promising candidates for separation technology. PMID:23398555

  10. Interpenetrating phase ceramic/polymer composite coatings: Fabrication and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Bradley Dene

    The goals of this thesis research were to fabricate interpenetrating phase composite (IPC) ceramic/polymer coatings and to investigate the effect of the interconnected microstructure on the physical and wear properties of the coatings. IPC coatings with an interpenetrating phase microstructure were successfully fabricated by first forming a porous ceramic with an interconnected microstructure using a chemical bonding route (mainly reacting alpha-alumina (0.3 mum) with orthophosphoric acid to form a phosphate bond). Porosity within these ceramic coatings was easily controlled between 20 and 50 vol. % by phosphoric acid addition, and was measured by a new porosity measurement technique (thermogravimetric volatilization of liquids, or TVL) which was developed. The resulting ceramic preforms were infiltrated with a UV and thermally curable cycloaliphatic epoxide resin and cured. This fabrication route resulted in composite coatings with thicknesses ranging from ˜1mum to 100 mum with complete filling of open pore space. The physical properties of the composite coatings, including microhardness, flexural modulus and wear resistance, were evaluated as a function of processing variables, including orthophosphoric acid content and ceramic phase firing temperature, which affected the microstructure and interparticulate bonding between particles in the coatings. For example, microhardness increased from ˜30 on the Vicker's scale to well over 200 as interparticulate bonding was increased in the ceramic phase. Additionally, Taber wear resistance in the best TPC coatings was found to approach that of fully-densified alumina under certain conditions. Several factors were found to influence the wear mechanism in the IPC coating materials. Forming strong connections between ceramic particles led to up to an order of magnitude increase in the wear resistance. Additionally, coating microhardness and ceramic/polymer interfacial strength were studied and found to be important in

  11. Improved Thermal Conductivity in Carbon Nanotubes-Reinforced Syntactic Foam Achieved by a New Dispersing Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, P.; Zegeye, E.; Ghamsari, A. K.; Woldesenbet, E.

    2015-12-01

    Syntactic foams are composite materials in which the matrix phase is reinforced with hollow micro-particles. Traditionally, syntactic foams are used for many high strength applications and as insulating materials. However, for applications demanding better heat dissipation, such as thermal management of electronic packaging, conductive fillers need to be added to syntactic foam. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), although extremely conductive, have issues of agglomeration in the matrix. In this research, CNT-reinforced syntactic foam was developed based on our approach through which CNTs were dispersed throughout the matrix by growing them on the surface of glass microballoons. The thermal conductivity of nanotube-grown syntactic foam was tested with a Flashline® thermal analyzer. For comparison purposes, plain and nanotube-mixed syntactic foams were also fabricated and tested. Nanotube-grown microballoons improved the thermal conductivity of syntactic foam by 86% and 92% (at 50°C) compared to plain and nanotube-mixed syntactic foams, respectively. The improved thermal conductivity as well as the microstructural analysis proved the effectiveness of this approach for dispersing the carbon nanotubes in syntactic foams.

  12. Boron Nitride Nanotubes Reinforce Tricalcium Phosphate Scaffolds and Promote the Osteogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Shuai, Cijun; Gao, Chengde; Feng, Pei; Xiao, Tao; Yu, Kun; Deng, Youwen; Peng, Shuping

    2016-05-01

    Incorporating boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) into ceramic matrices is a promising strategy for obtaining multifunctional composites. In this study, the application of BNNTs in reinforcing β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffolds manufactured using laser sintering is demonstrated. BNNTs contribute to the effective inhibition of both grain growth and phase transformation in β-TCP. Moreover, they can strengthen the grain boundaries and boost the fracture mode transition from intergranular to transgranular. BNNTs play an active role in reinforcing β-TCP in terms of load transfer and energy absorption by the synergistic mechanisms of pull-out, peel-off, crack bridging and deflection. With a BNNT content of 4 wt%, the elastic modulus, hardness, compressive strength and fracture toughness of β-TCP increase by 46%, 39%, 109% and 35%, respectively. Umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) were isolated with high purity, and surface molecule characterization revealed that they were CD90+, CD29+, CD73+, CD31-, CD34- and CD45-. UC-MSCs on BNNTs/β-TCP scaffolds were characterized by more positive Alizarin Red staining as well as up-regulated expression of osteoblast markers, as revealed by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis and immunofluorescence staining. These results are the first to demonstrate that BNNTs promote the osteogenic differentiation of UC-MSCs, indicating good osteoinductive properties for use in bone scaffolds. This study paves the way for the potential use of a BNNT/β-TCP scaffold in bone repair. PMID:27305816

  13. Local composition in solvent + polymer or biopolymer systems.

    PubMed

    Shulgin, Ivan L; Ruckenstein, Eli

    2008-03-13

    The focus of this paper is on the application of the Kirkwood-Buff (KB) fluctuation theory to the analysis of the local composition in systems composed of a low molecular weight solvent and a high molecular weight polymer or protein. A key quantity in the calculation of the local composition is the excess (or deficit) of any species i around a central molecule j in a binary mixture. A new expression derived by the authors (J. Phys. Chem. B 2006, 110, 12707) for the excess (deficit) is used in the present paper. First, the literature regarding the local composition in such systems is reviewed. It is shown that the frequently used Zimm cluster integral provides incorrect results because it is based on an incorrect expression for the excess (or deficit). In the present paper, our new expression is applied to solvent + macromolecule systems to predict the local composition around both a solvent and a macromolecule central molecule. Five systems (toluene + polystyrene, water + collagen, water + serum albumin, water + hydroxypropyl cellulose, and water + Pluronic P105) were selected for this purpose. The results revealed that for water + collagen and water + serum albumin mixtures, the solvent was in deficit around a central solvent molecule and that for the other three mixtures, the opposite was true. In contrast, the solvent was always in excess around the macromolecule for all mixtures investigated. In the dilute range of the solvent, the excesses are due mainly to the different solvent and macromolecule sizes. However, in the dilute range of the macromolecule, the intermolecular interactions between solvent and macromolecule are mainly responsible for the excess. The obtained results shed some light on protein hydration.

  14. Photocatalytic activity of PANI loaded coordination polymer composite materials: Photoresponse region extension and quantum yields enhancement via the loading of PANI nanofibers on surface of coordination polymer

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Zhongping; Qi, Ji; Xu, Xinxin Liu, Lu; Wang, Yi

    2013-09-15

    To enhance photocatalytic property of coordination polymer in visible light region, polyaniline (PANI) loaded coordination polymer photocatalyst was synthesized through in-situ chemical oxidation of aniline on the surface of coordination polymer. The photocatalytic activity of PANI loaded coordination polymer composite material for degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) was investigated. Compared with pure coordination polymer photocatalyst, which can decompose RhB merely under UV light irradiation, PANI loaded coordination polymer photocatalyst displays more excellent photocatalytic activity in visible light region. Furthermore, PANI loaded coordination polymer photocatalyst exhibits outstanding stability during the degradation of RhB. - Graphical abstract: PANI loaded coordination polymer composite material, which displays excellent photocatalytic activity under visible light was firstly synthesized through in-situ chemical oxidation of aniline on surface of coordination polymer. Display Omitted - Highlights: • This PANI loaded coordination polymer composite material represents the first conductive polymer loaded coordination polymer composite material. • PANI/coordination polymer composite material displays more excellent photocatalytic activity for the degradation of MO in visible light region. • The “combination” of coordination polymer and PANI will enable us to design high-activity, high-stability and visible light driven photocatalyst in the future.

  15. Surface modified carbon nanoparticle papers and applications on polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Xilian

    Free-standing paper like materials are usually employed as protective layers, chemical filters, components of electrical batteries or supercapacitors, adhesive layers, and electronic or optoelectric components. Free-standing papers made from carbon nanoparticles have drawn increased interest because they have a variety of superior chemical and physical characteristics, such as light weight, high intrinsic mechanical properties, and extraordinary high electrical conductivity. Nanopapers fabricated from 1- D shape carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are promising reinforcing materials for polymer composites, because the highly porous CNF and CNT nanopapers (porosity ˜80% and ˜70% respectively) can be impregnated with matrix polymers. In the first part of this work, polyaniline (PANI) was used to functionalize the surface of CNFs, and the resultant carbon nanopapers presented impressive mechanical strength and electrical conductivity that it could be used in the in-mold coating (IMC)/ injection molding process to achieve high electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness. Aniline modified (AF) CNT nanopapers were used as a 3D network in gas separation membranes. The resultant composite membranes demonstrated better and stable CO2 permeance and CO 2/H2 selectivity in a high temperature (107°C) and high pressure (15-30 atm) gas separation process, not achievable by conventional polymer membranes. In the second part, we demonstrated that 2-D graphene (GP) or graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets could be tightly packed into a film which was impermeable to most gases and liquids. GP or GO nanopapers could be coated on polymer composites. In order to achieve well-dispersed single-layer graphene in aqueous medium, we developed a facile approach to synthesize functional GP bearing benzenesulfonic acid groups which allow the preparation of nanopapers by water based assembly. With the optimized processing conditions, our best GP nanopapers could reach

  16. Mechanical and moisture barrier properties of titanium dioxide nanoparticles and halloysite nanotubes reinforced polylactic acid (PLA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberton, J.; Martelli, S. M.; Fakhouri, F. M.; Soldi, V.

    2014-08-01

    Polylactic acid (PLA) has been larger used in biomedical field due to its low toxicity and biodegradability. The aim of this study was to produce PLLA nanocomposites, by melt extrusion, containing Halloysite nanotubes (HNT) and/or titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles. Immediately after drying, PLLA was mechanically homogenized with the nanofillers and then melt blended using a single screw extruder (L/D = 30) at a speed of 110 rpm, with three heating zones in which the following temperatures were maintained: 150, 150 and 160°C (AX Plasticos model AX14 LD30). The film samples were obtained by compression molding in a press with a temperature profile of 235 ± 5°C for 2.5 min, after pressing, films were cooled up to room temperature. The mechanical tests were performed according to ASTM D882-09 and the water vapor permeability (WVP) was measured according to ASTM E-96, in triplicate. The tensile properties indicated that the modulus was improved with increased TiO2 content up to 1g/100g PLLA. The Young's modulus (YM) of the PLA was increased from 3047 MPa to 3222 MPa with the addition of 1g TiO2/100g PLLA. The tensile strength (TS) of films increases with the TiO2 content. In both cases, the YM and TS are achieved at the 1% content of TiO2 and is due to the reinforcing effect of nanoparticles. Pristine PLA showed a strain at break (SB) of 3.56%, while the SB of nanocomposites were significant lower, for instance the SB of composite containing 7.5 g HNT/100g PLLA was around 1.90 %. The WVP of samples was increased by increasing the nano filler content. It should be expected that an increase of nanofiller content would decrease the mass transfer of water molecules throughout the samples due to the increase in the way water molecules will have to cross to permeate the material. However, this was not observed. Therefore, this result can be explained considering the molecular structure of both fillers, which contain several hydroxyl groups in the surface, making the

  17. Microcontact printing for patterning carbon nanotube/polymer composite films with electrical conductivity.

    PubMed

    Ogihara, Hitoshi; Kibayashi, Hiro; Saji, Tetsuo

    2012-09-26

    Patterned carbon nanotube (CNT)/acrylic resin composite films were prepared using microcontact printing (μCP). To prepare ink for μCP, CNTs were dispersed into propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (PGMEA) solution in which acrylic resin and a commercially available dispersant (Disperbyk-2001) dissolved. The resulting ink were spin-coated onto poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) stamps. By drying solvent components from the ink, CNT/polymer composite films were prepared over PDMS stamps. Contact between the stamps and glass substrates provided CNT/polymer composite patternings on the substrates. The transfer behavior of the CNT/polymer composite films depended on the thermal-treatment temperature during μCP; thermal treatment at temperatures near the glass-transition temperature (T(g)) of the acrylic resin was effective to form uniform patternings on substrates. Moreover, contact area between polymer and substrates also affect the transfer behavior. The CNT/polymer composite films showed high electrical conductivity, despite the nonconductivity of polymer components, because CNTs in the films were interconnected. The electrical conductivity of the composite films increased as CNT content in the film became higher; as a result, the composite patternings showed almost as high electrical conductivity as previously reported CNT/polymer bulk composites.

  18. Microcontact printing for patterning carbon nanotube/polymer composite films with electrical conductivity.

    PubMed

    Ogihara, Hitoshi; Kibayashi, Hiro; Saji, Tetsuo

    2012-09-26

    Patterned carbon nanotube (CNT)/acrylic resin composite films were prepared using microcontact printing (μCP). To prepare ink for μCP, CNTs were dispersed into propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (PGMEA) solution in which acrylic resin and a commercially available dispersant (Disperbyk-2001) dissolved. The resulting ink were spin-coated onto poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) stamps. By drying solvent components from the ink, CNT/polymer composite films were prepared over PDMS stamps. Contact between the stamps and glass substrates provided CNT/polymer composite patternings on the substrates. The transfer behavior of the CNT/polymer composite films depended on the thermal-treatment temperature during μCP; thermal treatment at temperatures near the glass-transition temperature (T(g)) of the acrylic resin was effective to form uniform patternings on substrates. Moreover, contact area between polymer and substrates also affect the transfer behavior. The CNT/polymer composite films showed high electrical conductivity, despite the nonconductivity of polymer components, because CNTs in the films were interconnected. The electrical conductivity of the composite films increased as CNT content in the film became higher; as a result, the composite patternings showed almost as high electrical conductivity as previously reported CNT/polymer bulk composites. PMID:22900673

  19. Advanced Compositional Analysis of Nanoparticle-polymer Composites Using Direct Fluorescence Imaging.

    PubMed

    Crick, Colin R; Noimark, Sacha; Peveler, William J; Bear, Joseph C; Ivanov, Aleksandar P; Edel, Joshua B; Parkin, Ivan P

    2016-01-01

    The fabrication of polymer-nanoparticle composites is extremely important in the development of many functional materials. Identifying the precise composition of these materials is essential, especially in the design of surface catalysts, where the surface concentration of the active component determines the activity of the material. Antimicrobial materials which utilize nanoparticles are a particular focus of this technology. Recently swell encapsulation has emerged as a technique for inserting antimicrobial nanoparticles into a host polymer matrix. Swell encapsulation provides the advantage of localizing the incorporation to the external surfaces of materials, which act as the active sites of these materials. However, quantification of this nanoparticle uptake is challenging. Previous studies explore the link between antimicrobial activity and surface concentration of the active component, but this is not directly visualized. Here we show a reliable method to monitor the incorporation of nanoparticles into a polymer host matrix via swell encapsulation. We show that the surface concentration of CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles can be accurately visualized through cross-sectional fluorescence imaging. Using this method, we can quantify the uptake of nanoparticles via swell encapsulation and measure the surface concentration of encapsulated particles, which is key in optimizing the activity of functional materials. PMID:27500449

  20. Physics in ``Polymers, Composites, and Sports Materials" an Interdisciplinary Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagedorn, Eric; Suskavcevic, Milijana

    2007-10-01

    The undergraduate science course described uses the themes of polymers and composites, as used in sports materials, to teach some key concepts in introductory chemistry and physics. The course is geared towards students who are interested in science, but are still completing prerequisite mathematics courses required for science majors. Each class is built around a laboratory activity. Atoms, molecules and chemical reactions are taught in reference to making polyvinyl acetate (white glue) and polyvinyl alcohol (gel glue). These materials, combined with borax, form balls which are subsequently used in physics activities centered on free-fall and the coefficient of restitution. These activities allow the introduction of kinematics and dynamics. A free fall activity involving ice pellets, with and without embedded tissue paper, illustrates the properties of composites. The final series of activities uses balls, shoes, racquets and bats to further illustrate dynamics concepts (including friction, momentum and energy). The physical properties of these sports objects are discussed in terms of the materials of which they are made. The evaluation plan to determine the effectiveness of these activities and preliminary results are also presented.

  1. Mechanocompatible Polymer-Extracellular-Matrix Composites for Vascular Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bin; Suen, Rachel; Wang, Jiao-Jing; Zhang, Zheng J; Wertheim, Jason A; Ameer, Guillermo A

    2016-07-01

    Small-diameter vascular grafts developed from vascular extracellular matrix (ECM) can potentially be used for bypass surgeries and other vascular reconstruction and repair procedures. The addition of heparin to the ECM improves graft hemocompatibility but often involves chemical cross-linking, which increases ECM mechanical stiffness compared to native arteries. Herein, the importance of maintaining ECM mechanocompatibility is demonstrated, and a mechanocompatible strategy to immobilize heparin onto the ECM via a biodegradable elastomer is described. Specifically, poly(1,8-octamethylene citrate)-co-cysteine is hybridized to the ECM, forming a polymer-ECM composite that allows for heparin immobilization via maleimide-thiol "click" chemistry. Heparinized composites reduce platelet adhesion by >60% in vitro, without altering the elastic modulus of the ECM. In a rat abdominal aortic interposition model, intimal hyperplasia in heparinized mechanocompatible grafts is 65% lower when compared to ECM-only control grafts at four weeks. In contrast, grafts that are heparinized with carbodiimide chemistry exhibit increased intimal hyperplasia (4.2-fold) and increased macrophage infiltration (3.5-fold) compared to ECM-only control grafts. All grafts show similar, partial endothelial cell coverage and little to no ECM remodeling. Overall, a mechanocompatible strategy to improve ECM thromboresistance is described and the importance of ECM mechanical properties for proper in vivo graft performance is highlighted. PMID:27109033

  2. Improving sensitivity of photorefractive polymer composites for holographic display applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christenson, Cory W.

    This work presents recent progress in the area of organic photorefractive polymer composites. These materials have been previously shown to be a suitable medium for dynamic holographic displays, with multiple colors and single frame writing times on the order of seconds. However, these materials still require large electric fields and high intensity lasers to function effectively. Recent advancements in improving these areas are discussed, including a review of the history and state-of-the-art in photorefractive polymer composites. The addition of electron traps via low loading of the electron-transporting molecule Alq3 is shown to dramatically improve the diffraction efficiency and reduce the required field. The grating formation also proceeds faster by more than one order of magnitude, leading to an increase in sensitivity by a factor of 3. The dynamics of these materials also show evidence of competing gratings indicative of bipolar charge transport and trapping. The addition of an amorphous polycarbonate (APC) buffer layer is reported to have a similar effect on the steady-state diffraction efficiency, and the further doping with a fullerene derivative (PCBM) allows a 3x increase in the efficiency in the reflection geometry, which is normally poor due to the small grating spacing. These composites reveal the fundamental limits of the reflection geometry, based on the physics of high frequency gratings. A reversal in the direction and increase in the magnitude of the two-beam coupling energy transfer is also observed. The use of interdigitated coplanar electrodes, instead of the standard uniform electrodes in a parallel-plate geometry, is shown to result in large diffraction efficiency with symmetric writing beams due to the increased projection field. The efficiency is similar to that achieved in the standard samples with large slant angles and much better than those geometries typically used in applications, with the benefit that the writing beams do not have

  3. Composite and Fiber Applications of Polymers Restructured via Nanoconfinement and Subsequent Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurarslan, Alper

    This doctorate thesis is composed of a literature review and four research topics. The first study covers the preparation of a novel inclusion compound (IC) between a small guest molecule (pyriproxyfen) and cyclodextrin hosts. In the second part the guest molecules are long polymer chains. We formed several polymer crystalline ICs with host cyclodextrins and urea. After the formation of these polymer ICs, the host molecules can be removed and guest polymers coalesced into a new bulk form. The unique properties of these coalesced polymers are investigated in the second study. After our investigations, we found out that distinct properties of coalesced polymers create new application avenues. Specific examples of these applications are single polymer composites, and coalesced polymer fibers, which are, respectively, the subject of the third and fourth parts of this work.

  4. Low percolation threshold of graphene/polymer composites prepared by solvothermal reduction of graphene oxide in the polymer solution

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Graphene/polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) composites were prepared using in-situ solvothermal reduction of graphene oxide in the PVDF solution. The electrical conductivity of the composites was greatly improved by doping with graphene sheets. The percolation threshold of such composite was determined to be 0.31 vol.%, being much smaller than that of the composites prepared via blending reduced graphene sheets with polymer matrix. This is attributed to the large aspect ratio of the SRG sheets and their uniform dispersion in the polymer matrix. The dielectric constant of PVDF showed a marked increase from 7 to about 105 with only 0.5 vol.% loading of SRG content. Like the other conductor-insulator systems, the AC conductivity of the system also obeyed the universal dynamic response. In addition, the SRG/PVDF composite shows a much stronger nonlinear conduction behavior than carbon nanotube/nanofiber based polymer composite, owing to intense Zener tunneling between the SRG sheets. The strong electrical nonlinearity provides further support for a homogeneous dispersion of SRG sheets in the polymer matrix. PMID:23522102

  5. Nondestructive Evaluation of Advanced Fiber Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites: A Technology Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yolken, H. Thomas; Matzkanin, George A.

    2009-01-01

    Because of their increasing utilization in structural applications, the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of advanced fiber reinforced polymer composites continues to receive considerable research and development attention. Due to the heterogeneous nature of composites, the form of defects is often very different from a metal and fracture mechanisms are more complex. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview and technology assessment of the current state-of-the-art with respect to NDE of advanced fiber reinforced polymer composites.

  6. Influence of interphase morphology on adhesion and composite durability in semicrystalline polymer matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R.L. Jr.; Kander, R.G.

    1996-12-31

    The microstructure of the interphase in semicrystalline polymer matrix composites has a dramatic influence on their mechanical properties. Studies have been performed to alter this region and to correlate various interphase morphologies with changes in fiber-matrix adhesion. A reinforced nylon 66 composite, when subjected to specific thermal histories, contains an interphase composed of transcrystallinity. This region has been altered by coating fibers with a diluent, poly(vinyl pyrrolidone), and/or adding the diluent to the matrix material in very small quantities. Interphase morphology was investigated with optical microscopy, and adhesion was measured using a modified fiber pull-out test. It was found that transcrystallinity increases the interfacial shear strength. The effect different interphase morphologies have on the durability of bulk composite samples is currently under investigation.

  7. Electrically Conducting Polymer-Copper Sulphide Composite Films, Preparation by Treatment of Polymer-Copper (2) Acetate Composites with Hydrogen Sulfide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamamoto, Takakazu; Kamigaki, Takahira; Kubota, Etsuo

    1988-01-01

    Polymer copper sulfide composite films were prepared by treatment of polymer poly(vinyl chloride), poly(acrylonitrile), copolymer of vinyl chloride and vinyl acetate (90:10), and ABS resin copper (2) acetate composites with hydrogen sulfide. The films showed electrical conductivity higher than 0.015 S/cm when they contained more than 20 wt percent of copper sulfide. A poly(acrylonitrile)-copper sulfide composite film containing 40 to 50 wt percent of copper sulfide showed electrical conductivity of 10 to 150.0 S/cm and had relatively high mechanical strength to be used in practical purposes.

  8. Polymer-based tubular microbots: role of composition and preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Wei; Sattayasamitsathit, Sirilak; Uygun, Aysegul; Pei, Allen; Ponedal, Adam; Wang, Joseph

    2012-03-01

    The influence of the composition and electropolymerization conditions upon the propulsion of new template-prepared polymer-based bilayer microtubular microbots is described. The effects of different electropolymerized outer layers, including polypyrrole (PPy), poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), polyaniline (PANI), and of various inner catalytic metal surfaces (Ag, Pt, Au, Ni-Pt alloy), upon the movement of such bilayer microtubes are evaluated and compared. Electropolymerization conditions, such as the monomer concentration and medium (e.g. surfactant, electrolyte), have a profound effect upon the morphology and locomotion of the resulting microtubes. The most efficient propulsion is observed using PEDOT/Pt microbots that offer a record-breaking speed of over 1400 body lengths s-1 at physiological temperature, which is the fastest relative speed reported to date for all artificial micro/nanomotors. An inner Pt-Ni alloy surface is shown useful for combining magnetic control and catalytic fuel decomposition within one layer, thus greatly simplifying the preparation of magnetically-guided microbots. Polymer-based microbots with an inner gold layer offer efficient biocatalytic propulsion in low peroxide level in connection to an immobilized catalase enzyme. Metallic Au/Pt bilayer microbots can also be prepared electrochemically to offer high speed propulsion towards potential biomedical applications through functionalization of the outer gold surface. Such rational template preparation and systematic optimization of highly efficient microbots hold considerable promise for diverse practical applications.The influence of the composition and electropolymerization conditions upon the propulsion of new template-prepared polymer-based bilayer microtubular microbots is described. The effects of different electropolymerized outer layers, including polypyrrole (PPy), poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), polyaniline (PANI), and of various inner catalytic metal

  9. Polymer/clay/wood nanocomposites: The effect of incorporation of nanoclay into the wood/polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetzer, Max E.

    Thermoplastic composites play an important role in our society. The uses of these composites range from cookware to components for the space shuttle. In recent years, researchers at Toyota developed numerous methods of preparation for composites made from olefins and inorganic fillers such as clay and calcium carbonate. Wood fibers have been used as reinforcing filler in polymer matrices for the past several decades. The advantages of using wood fibers as reinforcing fillers are: the low cost of the fibers (or flour), low density, and resistance to breakage. The disadvantage of using wood as a filler is the thermal instability of wood above 200 °C. The majority of thermoplastics exhibit melting points between 160 and 220 °C, which is in the range of thermal decomposition of wood. Nanoclay was first successfully used as a filler in polyolefin materials by the Toyota research team in early 90s. It was found that the addition of a small amount (< 5 wt.%) of nanoclay increased the mechanical properties of a Nylon-6 matrix dramatically. Since Nylon-6 is a hydrophilic material no compatibilizer was necessary to exfoliate the nanoclay. The use of compatibilizers such as maleic modified polyethylenes (MAPEs) is necessary upon addition of nanoclay to a hydrophobic polyolefin systems such polyethylene (PE) or polypropylene (PP). Few researchers have attempted to reinforce the polymer matrix via the use of the nanoclay for use as a matrix in wood/polymer composites. High molecular weight and low molecular weight MAPEs have been used to enhance the bonding between the nanoclay and the polymer matrix as well as between the wood flour and the polymer matrix. The effects of combinations of the high and low molecular weight MAPEs on the mechanical and thermal properties of polymer/clay nanocomposites (PCNs) and of wood/polymer/clay composites (WPCs) were investigated. The effects of adding nanoclay to wood/polymer systems on the mechanical and thermal properties of the

  10. Molecular and structural properties of polymer composites filled with activated charcoal particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, Dahlang; Liong, Syarifuddin; Bakri, Fahrul

    2016-03-01

    We have studied the molecular properties, structural properties, and chemical composition of composites by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy, and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy, respectively. FTIR spectra shows absorption band of hydroxyl group (-OH), methyl group (-CH3) and aromatic group (C-C). The absorption band for aromatic group (C-C) shows the formation of carbonaceous in composites. XRF shows chemical composition of composites, which the main chemicals are SO3, Cl, and ZnO. The loss on ignition value (LOI) of activated charcoal indicates high carbonaceous matter. The crystallite size for diffraction pattern from hydrogel polymer is about 17 nm and for activated charcoal are about 19 nm. The crystallite size of the polymer is lower than that of activated charcoal, which make possible of the particle from filler in contact with each other to form continuous conducting polymer through polymer matrix.

  11. Quinoxaline polymers and copolymers derived from 1,4-bis(1'-naphthalenyloxalyl)benzene and their graphite composites. [polymer chemistry and polymer physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Port, W. S.

    1976-01-01

    Experimental studies were performed with new polyquinoxalines and their graphite composites. Four polymers were synthesized, and then were characterized with respect to their inherent viscosity, elemental chemical analysis, mechanical, and thermodynamic properties. Structural formulas of the polymers and their precursors are given; methods of synthesis are described; and specifically examined was the preparation of polymers from 3,3' diamino-benzidine from 1,4- and 1,3- bis ((1'-napthalenyl) oxalyl) benzene respectively. Also considered was the preparation of polyquinoxalines from poly (p-benzil), and 1,2- aryldiamines.

  12. Stochastic analysis of experimentally determined physical parameters of HPMC:NiCl2 polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thejas Urs, G.; Sangappa, Y.; Somashekar, R.

    2016-05-01

    A stochastic approach to explain the variation of physical parameters in polymer composites is discussed in this study. We have given a statistical model to derive the characteristic variation of physical parameters as a function of dopant concentration. Results of X-ray diffraction study and conductivity have been taken to validate this function, which can be extended to any of the physical parameters and polymer composites. For this study we have considered a polymer composites of HPMC doped with various concentrations of Nickel Chloride.

  13. Thermal Expansion and Diffusion Coefficients of Carbon Nanotube-Polymer Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wei, Chengyu; Srivastava, Deepak; Cho, Kyeongjae; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations employing Brenner potential for intra-nanotube interactions and van der Waals forces for polymer-nanotube interface have been used to investigate thermal expansion and diffusion characteristics of carbon nanotube-polyethylene composites. Addition of carbon nanotubes to polymer matrix is found to significantly increase the glass transition temperature Tg, and thermal expansion and diffusion coefficients in the composite above Tg. The increase has been attributed to the temperature dependent increase of the excluded volume for the polymer chains, and the findings could have implications in the composite processing, coating and painting applications.

  14. Chitosan-cross-linked osmium polymer composites as an efficient platform for electrochemical biosensors.

    PubMed

    Jirimali, Harishchandra Digambar; Nagarale, Rajaram Krishna; Lee, Jong Myung; Saravanakumar, Durai; Shin, Woonsup

    2013-07-22

    A new family of chitosan-cross-linked osmium polymer composites was prepared and its electrochemical properties were examined. The composites were prepared by quaternization of the poly(4-vinylpyridine) osmium bipyridyl polymer (PVP-Os) which was then cross-linked with chitosan, yielding PVP-Os/chitosan. Films made of the composites showed improved mass and electron transport owing to the porous and hydrophilic structure which is derived from the cross-links between the Os polymer and chitosan. The rate for glucose oxidation was enhanced four times when glucose oxidase (GOx) was immobilized on PVP-Os/chitosan compared immobilization on PVP-Os.

  15. Living Composites of Bacteria and Polymers as Biomimetic Films for Metal Sequestration and Bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Knierim, Christian; Enzeroth, Michaela; Kaiser, Patrick; Dams, Christian; Nette, David; Seubert, Andreas; Klingl, Andreas; Greenblatt, Charles L; Jérôme, Valérie; Agarwal, Seema; Freitag, Ruth; Greiner, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    Herein, we report on composite materials of biologically active microorganisms placed in a synthetic polymer matrix. These so-called "living composites" were utilized for gold sequestration (Micrococcus luteus) and bioremediation of nitrite (Nitrobacter winogradskyi) to demonstrate functionality. For the preparation of the living composites the bacteria were first encased in a water-soluble polymer fiber (poly(vinyl alcohol), PVA) followed by coating the fibers with a shell of hydrophobic poly(p-xylylene) (PPX) by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The combination of bacteria with polymer materials assured the stability and biologically activity of the bacteria in an aqueous environment for several weeks.

  16. Antimicrobial polymers - The antibacterial effect of photoactivated nano titanium dioxide polymer composites

    SciTech Connect

    Huppmann, T. Leonhardt, S. E-mail: erhard.krampe@tum.de; Krampe, E. E-mail: erhard.krampe@tum.de; Wintermantel, E.; Yatsenko, S. Radovanovic, I. E-mail: m.bastian@skz.de; Bastian, M. E-mail: m.bastian@skz.de

    2014-05-15

    To obtain a polymer with antimicrobial properties for medical and sanitary applications nanoscale titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) particles have been incorporated into a medical grade polypropylene (PP) matrix with various filler contents (0 wt %, 2 wt %, 10 wt % and 15 wt %). The standard application of TiO{sub 2} for antimicrobial efficacy is to deposit a thin TiO{sub 2} coating on the surface. In contrast to the common way of applying a coating, TiO{sub 2} particles were applied into the bulk polymer. With this design we want to ensure antimicrobial properties even after application of impact effects that could lead to surface defects. The filler material (Aeroxide® TiO{sub 2} P25, Evonik) was applied via melt compounding and the compounding parameters were optimized with respect to nanoscale titanium dioxide. In a next step the effect of UV-irradiation on the compounds concerning their photocatalytic activity, which is related to the titanium dioxide amount, was investigated. The photocatalytic effect of TiO{sub 2}-PP-composites was analyzed by contact angle measurement, by methylene blue testing and by evaluation of inactivation potential for Escherichia coli (E.coli) bacteria. The dependence of antimicrobial activity on the filler content was evaluated, and on the basis of different titanium dioxide fractions adequate amounts of additives within the compounds were discussed. Specimens displayed a higher photocatalytic and also antimicrobial activity and lower contact angles with increasing titania content. The results suggest that the presence of titania embedded in the PP matrix leads to a surface change and a photocatalytic effect with bacteria killing result.

  17. Optoelectronic properties of polymer-nanocrystal composites active at near-infrared wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomeshch, Olga; Kigel, Ariel; Saschiuk, Aldona; Medvedev, Vlad; Aharoni, Assaf; Razin, Alexey; Eichen, Yoav; Banin, Uri; Lifshitz, Efrat; Tessler, Nir

    2005-10-01

    We report a systematic study of the optoelectronic processes occurring in composites made of near-infrared (IR) emitting nanocrystals and conjugated polymers. We focus on PbSe and InAs/ZnSe blended with polyphenylenevinylene-type polymers. We find that the process responsible for quenching the visible luminescence of the polymer by the nanocrystal varies depending on the nanocrystal composite. Moreover, the high (66%) energy-transfer efficiency from the polymer to the PbSe nanocrystal does result in significant emission at the near IR. Our measurements suggest that the host may be doping the PbSe nanocrystal, thus making the nonradiative Auger process favorable. For InAs we find the energy levels well aligned inside the polymer band gap, making it an efficient charge trap which acts as a luminescence center. Through two-dimensional numerical modeling of the charge transport in such composite films we highlight the importance of morphology (nanocrystal distribution) control.

  18. Ionic polymer-metal composite enabled robotic manta ray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zheng; Um, Tae I.; Bart-Smith, Hilary

    2011-04-01

    The manta ray, Manta birostris, demonstrates excellent swimming capabilities; generating highly efficient thrust via flapping of dorsally flattened pectoral fins. In this paper, we present an underwater robot that mimics the swimming behavior of the manta ray. An assembly-based fabrication method is developed to create the artificial pectoral fins, which are capable of generating oscillatory with a large twisting angle between leading and trailing edges. Ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) actuators are used as artificial muscles in the fin. Each fin consists of four IPMC beams bonded with a compliant poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) membrane. By controlling each individual IPMC strips, we are able to generate complex flapping motions. The fin is characterized in terms of tip deflection, tip blocking force, twist angle, and power consumption. Based on the characteristics of the artificial pectoral fin, a small size and free-swimming robotic manta ray is developed. The robot consists of two artificial pectoral fins, a rigid body, and an on-board control unit with a lithium ion rechargeable battery. Experimental results show that the robot swam at a speed of up to 0.055 body length per second (BL/sec).

  19. Focus tunable mirrors made by ionic polymer-metal composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chung-Min; Su, Guo-Dung

    2014-09-01

    In order to meet modern requirement, electronic products are made smaller and thinner. We used deformable mirrors (DMs) in optical systems that can make camera modules thinner and lighter in electronic products. An Ionic-Polymer Metal Composite (IPMC) plays the critical role in our design of deformable mirrors. It has good bending feature and can be driven by low voltage (usually less than 5 volts). Other technologies such as liquid lenses, MEMS deformable mirrors, and liquid crystal lens, all need higher voltage to reach similar optical power of IPMC. After fabrication of IPMC deformable mirrors, we used PDMS on one surface to improve the surface roughness before reflective metal is deposited. Key characteristics of IPMC deformable mirror are demonstrated in the paper. By coating a silver layer on the smoothed IPMC surface, the reflection is up to 90%. From simulation results, the zoom ratio of this module can be expected 1.8 times. Experimentally, the deformable mirror can be changed from flat to 65 diopters (m-1) by only 3 volts. In this paper, we demonstrated a reflective optical zoom module with three mirrors and two deformable mirrors.

  20. Polymer nanocomposites for high-temperature composite repair

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, Xia

    2008-01-01

    A novel repair agent for resin-injection repair of advanced high temperature composites was developed and characterized. The repair agent was based on bisphenol E cyanate ester (BECy) and reinforced with alumina nanoparticles. To ensure good dispersion and compatibility with the BECy matrix in nanocomposites, the alumina nanoparticles were functionalized with silanes. The BECy nanocomposites, containing bare and functionalized alumina nanoparticles, were prepared and evaluated for their thermal, mechanical, rheological, and viscoelastic properties. The monomer of BECy has an extremely low viscosity at ambient temperature, which is good for processability. The cured BECy polymer is a highly cross-linked network with excellent thermal mechanical properties, with a high glass transition temperature (Tg) of 270 C and decomposition temperature above 350 C. The incorporation of alumina nanoparticles enhances the mechanical and rheological properties of the BECy nanocomposites. Additionally, the alumina nanoparticles are shown to catalyze the cure of BECy. Characterization of the nanocomposites included dynamic mechanical analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, rheological and rheokinetic evaluation, and transmission electron microscopy. The experimental results show that the BECy nanocomposite is a good candidate as repair agent for resin-injection repair applications.

  1. Erosion Resistant Coatings for Polymer Matrix Composites in Propulsion Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutter, James K.; Naik, Subhash K.; Horan, Richard; Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Bowman, Cheryl; Ma, Kong; Leissler, George; Sinatra, Raymond; Cupp, Randall

    2003-01-01

    Polymer Matrix Composites (PMCs) offer lightweight and frequently low cost alternatives to other materials in many applications. High temperature PMCs are currently used in limited propulsion applications replacing metals. Yet in most cases, PMC propulsion applications are not in the direct engine flow path since particulate erosion degrades PMC component performance and therefore restricts their use in gas turbine engines. This paper compares two erosion resistant coatings (SANRES and SANPRES) on PMCs that are useful for both low and high temperature propulsion applications. Collaborating over a multi-year period, researchers at NASA Glenn Research Center, Allison Advanced Developed Company, and Rolls-Royce Corporation have optimized these coatings in terms of adhesion, surface roughness, and erosion resistance. Results are described for vigorous hot gas/particulate erosion rig and engine testing of uncoated and coated PMC fan bypass vanes from the AE 3007 regional jet gas turbine engine. Moreover, the structural durability of these coatings is described in long-term high cycle fatigue tests. Overall, both coatings performed well in all tests and will be considered for applications in both commercial and defense propulsion applications.

  2. Development of Remendable Polymer Composites using a Thermoreversible Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Amy Michelle

    2011-12-01

    Materials that can repair cracks and recover from mechanical failure are desirable. Because remendable materials both repair and prevent the propagation of cracks on the micro scale, they offer the potential for increased durability, safety, and cost efficiency for many applications. The focus of this work was to understand the kinetic and physical parameters that control thermoreversible Diels-Alder bond formation in different types of healable polymeric systems. Three healing systems were developed based on the thermoreversible Diets-Alder reaction of furan and maleimide. In one, crack healing of a thermoset was induced by thermally reversible cross-linking of a secondary phase. In another, a furan-functionalized epoxy-amine thermoset were healed with a bismaleimide solution at room temperature and minimal pressure, with significant load recovery possible multiple times. The third system allowed for interfacial healing of glass fiber-reinforced epoxy-amine composites via compatible functionalization of glass fibers and the polymer network. The Diels-Alder reaction was characterized in all systems as well as highly mobile small molecule solutions. It was found that mobility, coupled with kinetics, dictate the extent of reaction and consequent strength recovery.

  3. Modeling of carbon nanotubes and carbon nanotube-polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, G.; Kumar, S.

    2016-01-01

    In order to meet stringent environmental, safety and performance requirements from respective regulatory bodies, various technology-based industries are promoting the use of advanced carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced lightweight and high strength polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) as a substitute to conventional materials both in structural and non-structural applications. The superior mechanical properties of PNCs made up of CNTs or bundles of CNTs can be attributed to the interfacial interaction between the CNTs and matrix, CNT's morphologies and to their uniform dispersion in the matrix. In PNCs, CNTs physically bond with polymeric matrix at a level where the assumption of continuum level interactions is not applicable. Modeling and prediction of mechanical response and failure behavior of CNTs and their composites becomes a complex task and is dealt with the help of up-scale modeling strategies involving multiple spatial and temporal scales in hierarchical or concurrent manner. Firstly, the article offers an insight into various modeling techniques in studying the mechanical response of CNTs; namely, equivalent continuum approach, quasi-continuum approach and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. In the subsequent steps, these approaches are combined with analytical and numerical micromechanics models in a multiscale framework to predict the average macroscopic response of PNCs. The review also discusses the implementation aspects of these computational approaches, their current status and associated challenges with a future outlook.

  4. An external disturbance sensor for ionic polymer metal composite actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhtiarpour, Parisa; Parvizi, Amin; Müller, Martin; Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Marti, Othmar; Amirkhani, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC) is a fast-growing type of smart material with a wide range of applications. IPMC has been used extensively as an actuator, but for effective usage, one must add a self-sensing ability to it. Two common self-sensing techniques are mechanical-to-electrical transducer and surface resistance. The first one cannot be used while the actuator is running, and the second one needs a sample modification. In this work, we present a new self-sensing method, which can measure external disturbance in the presence of actuator voltage without any sample modification. The resistance across an IPMC sample follows Ohm’s law at sufficiently high frequency. We exploit the frequency dependency of the resistance across the sample to design the self-sensing method. In this technique a function generator, a lock-in amplifier and an isolation circuit were employed to measure an external impulse or steady disturbance. As implementing this technique does not require any change to the IPMC specimen or electrical connection (hanger), it can be added to any existing electroactive device.

  5. Layered polymer: inorganic composite waveguides for biosensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiltunen, Jussi; Wang, Meng; Liedert, Christina; Aikio, Sanna; Masuda, Noriyuki; Pearce, Stuart; Charlton, Martin; Karioja, Pentti

    2012-06-01

    In this work, we investigate the usability of layered polymer - inorganic composite waveguides for label-free sensing of surface bound bioreactions in an aqueous environment. The waveguide structure consists of a nanoimprint fabricated polymeric inverted rib waveguide with a sputtered Ta2O5 thin film on top. The interaction of the optical field with the surface is increased as a consequence of the mode profile localization near the surface, when high-index coating is deposited on a low-index waveguide. Young interferometer configuration with reference and sensors waveguide arms was utilized in sensor chips. Light from a laser source was end-fire coupled into the chips and interference pattern produced by the outcoupled light was investigated. External μ-fluidic pump was used to produce the analyte flow. Ambient refractive index change was characterized by applying DI-water with varying glucose concentration on waveguides. With the waveguide length of 1 cm a detection limit in the order of 10-7 - 10-6 refractive index unit (RIU) was achieved. Specific binding reactions on the surface were investigated with C - reactive protein (CRP) antibodies and antigens.

  6. Polymer nanocomposites for high-temperature composite repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Xia

    A novel repair agent for resin-injection repair of advanced high temperature composites was developed and characterized. The repair agent was based on bisphenol E cyanate ester (BECy) and reinforced with alumina nanoparticles. To ensure good dispersion and compatibility with the BECy matrix in nanocomposites, the alumina nanoparticles were functionalized with silanes. The BECy nanocomposites, containing bare and functionalized alumina nanoparticles, were prepared and evaluated for their thermal, mechanical, rheological, and viscoelastic properties. The monomer of BECy has an extremely low viscosity at ambient temperature, which is good for processability. The cured BECy polymer is a highly cross-linked network with excellent thermal mechanical properties, with a high glass transition temperature (Tg) of 270 °C and decomposition temperature above 350 °C. The incorporation of alumina nanoparticles enhances the mechanical and rheological properties of the BECy nanocomposites. Additionally, the alumina nanoparticles are shown to catalyze the cure of BECy. Characterization of the nanocomposites included dynamic mechanical analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, rheological and rheokinetic evaluation, and transmission electron microscopy. The experimental results show that the BECy nanocomposite is a good candidate as repair agent for resin-injection repair applications.

  7. Engineering Property Prediction Tools for Tailored Polymer Composite Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Foss, Peter; Wyzgoski, Michael; Trantina, Gerry; Kunc, Vlastimil; Schutte, Carol; Smith, Mark T.

    2009-12-23

    This report summarizes our FY 2009 research activities for the project titled:"Engineering Property Prediction Tools for Tailored Polymer Composite Structures." These activities include (i) the completion of the development of a fiber length attrition model for injection-molded long-fiber thermoplastics (LFTs), (ii) development of the a fatigue damage model for LFTs and its implementation in ABAQUS, (iii) development of an impact damage model for LFTs and its implementation in ABAQUS, (iv) development of characterization methods for fatigue testing, (v) characterization of creep and fatigue responses of glass-fiber/polyamide (PA6,6) and glass-fiber/polypropylene (PP), (vi) characterization of fiber length distribution along the flow length of glass/PA6,6 and glass-fiber/PP, and (vii) characterization of impact responses of glass-fiber/PA6,6. The fiber length attrition model accurately captures the fiber length distribution along the flow length of the studied glass-fiber/PP material. The fatigue damage model is able to predict the S-N and stiffness reduction data which are valuable to the fatigue design of LFTs. The impact damage model correctly captures damage accumulation observed in experiments of glass-fiber/PA6,6 plaques.Further work includes validations of these models for representative LFT materials and a complex LFT part.

  8. Bio-applications of ionic polymer metal composite transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aw, K. C.; McDaid, A. J.

    2014-07-01

    Traditional robotic actuators have advanced performance which in some aspects can surpass that of humans, however they are lacking when it comes to developing devices which are capable of operating together with humans. Bio-inspired transducers, for example ionic polymer metal composites (IPMC), which have similar properties to human tissue and muscle, demonstrate much future promise as candidates for replacing traditional robotic actuators in medical robotics applications. This paper outlines four biomedical robotics applications, an IPMC stepper motor, an assistive glove exoskeleton/prosthetic hand, a surgical robotic tool and a micromanipulation system. These applications have been developed using mechanical design/modelling techniques with IPMC ‘artificial muscle’ as the actuation system. The systems are designed by first simulating the performance using an IPMC model and dynamic models of the mechanical system; the appropriate advanced adaptive control schemes are then implemented to ensure that the IPMCs operate in the correct manner, robustly over time. This paper serves as an overview of the applications and concludes with some discussion on the future challenges of developing real-world IPMC applications.

  9. Fluid flow sensing with ionic polymer-metal composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stalbaum, Tyler; Trabia, Sarah; Shen, Qi; Kim, Kwang J.

    2016-04-01

    Ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) actuators and sensors have been developed and modeled over the last two decades for use as soft-robotic deformable actuators and sensors. IPMC devices have been suggested for application as underwater actuators, energy harvesting devices, and medical devices such as in guided catheter insertion. Another interesting application of IPMCs in flow sensing is presented in this study. IPMC interaction with fluid flow is of interest to investigate the use of IPMC actuators as flow control devices and IPMC sensors as flow sensing devices. An organized array of IPMCs acting as interchanging sensors and actuators could potentially be designed for both flow measurement and control, providing an unparalleled tool in maritime operations. The underlying physics for this system include the IPMC ion transport and charge fundamental framework along with fluid dynamics to describe the flow around IPMCs. An experimental setup for an individual rectangular IPMC sensor with an externally controlled fluid flow has been developed to investigate this phenomenon and provide further insight into the design and application of this type of device. The results from this portion of the study include recommendations for IPMC device designs in flow control.

  10. Life Cycle Assessment of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Sujit

    2011-01-01

    Carbon fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composites is gaining momentum with the pressure to lightweight vehicles, however energy-intensity and cost remain some of the major barriers before this material could be used in large-scale automotive applications. A representative automotive part, i.e., a 30.8 kg steel floor pan having a 17% weight reduction potential with stringent cash performance requirements has been considered for the life cycle energy and emissions analysis based on the latest developments occurring in the precursor type (conventional textile-based PAN vs. renewable-based lignin), part manufacturing (conventional SMC vs. P4) and fiber recycling technologies. Carbon fiber production is estimated to be about 14 times more energy-intensive than conventional steel production, however life cycle primary energy use is estimated to be quite similar to the conventional part, i.e., 18,500 MJ/part, especially when considering the uncertainty in LCI data that exists from using numerous sources in the literature. Lignin P4 technology offers the most life cycle energy and CO2 emissions benefits compared to a conventional stamped steel technology. With a 20% reduction in energy use in the lignin conversion to carbon fiber and free availability of lignin as a by-product of ethanol and wood production, a 30% reduction in life cycle energy use could be obtained. A similar level of life cycle energy savings could also be obtained with a higher part weight reduction potential of 43%.

  11. Plasticized Polymer Composite Single-Ion Conductors for Lithium Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui; Asfour, Fadi; Fu, Yanbao; Jia, Zhe; Yuan, Wen; Bai, Ying; Ling, Min; Hu, Heyi; Baker, Gregory; Liu, Gao

    2015-09-01

    Lithium bis(trifluoromethane) sulfonamide (TFSI) is a promising electrolyte salt in lithium batteries, due to its good conductivity and high dissociation between the lithium cation and its anion. By tethering N-pentane trifluoromethane sulfonamide (C5NHTf), a TFSI analogue molecule, onto the surface of silica nanoparticle as a monolayer coverage should increase the Li(+) transference number to unity since anions bound to particles have reduced mobilities. Silica polymer composite has better mechanical property than that of the pure PEO. Analogously trifluoromethane sulfonic aminoethyl methacrylate (TfMA), a TFSI analogue vinyl monomer, was polymerized on silica nanoparticle surface as a multilayer coverage. Anchored polyelectrolytes to particle surfaces offer multiple sites for anions, and in principle the carrier concentration would increase arbitrarily and approach the carrier concentration of the bulk polyelectrolyte. Monolayer grafted nanoparticles have a lithium content of 1.2 × 10(-3) g Li/g, and multilayer grafted nanoparticles have a lithium content over an order higher at 2 × 10(-2) g Li/g. Electrolytes made from monolayer grafted particles exhibit a weak conductivity dependence on temperature, exhibiting an ionic conductivity in the range of 10(-6) S/cm when temperatures increase to 80 °C. While electrolytes made from multilayer grafted particles show a steep increase in conductivity with temperature with an ionic conductivity increase to 3 × 10(-5) S/cm at 80 °C, with an O/Li ratio of 32.

  12. Carbon-Nantube-Reinforced Polymer-Derived Ceramic Composites (Not props related)

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hsin; An, Linan; Xu, Weixing; Rajagopalan, Sudhir; Wang, C. M.; Fan, Y.; Zhang, Lfigong; Jiang, Dapeng; Kapat, Jay; Chow, Louis; Guo, Baohua; Liang, Ji; Vaidyanathan, Raj

    2004-01-01

    Fully dense ceramic-carbon-nanotube composites with homogeneously distributed multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have been synthesized by a unique method, which uses a polymer-derived ceramic as the composite matrix. Composites with an MWCNT fraction of 6.4 vol.-% had significantly increased Young's moduli, hardness, and damage resistance, compared to the values for the pure ceramic matrix.

  13. Structural and functional polymer-matrix composites for electromagnetic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Junhua

    This dissertation addresses the science and technology of functional and structural polymer-matrix composite materials for electromagnetic applications, which include electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding and low observability (Stealth). The structural composites are continuous carbon fiber epoxy-matrix composites, which are widely used for airframes. The functional composites are composites with discontinuous fillers and in both bulk and coating forms. Through composite structure variation, attractive electromagnetic properties have been achieved. With no degradation of the tensile strength or modulus, the shielding effectiveness of the structural composites has been improved by enhancing multiple reflections through light activation of the carbon fiber. The multiple reflections loss of the electromagnetic wave increases from 1.1 to 10.2 dB at 1.0 GHz due to the activation. Such a large effect of multiple reflections has not been previously reported in any material. The observability of these composites has been lowered by decreasing the electrical conductivity (and hence decreasing the reflection loss) through carbon fiber coating. The incorporation of mumetal, a magnetic alloy particulate filler (28-40 mum size), in a latex paint has been found to be effective for enhancing the shielding only if the electrical resistivity of the resulting composite coating is below 10 O.cm, as rendered by a conductive particulate filler, such as nickel flake (14-20 mum size). This effectiveness (39 dB at 1.0 GHz) is attributed to the absorption of the electromagnetic wave by the mumetal and the nickel flake, with the high conductivity rendered by the presence of the nickel flake resulting in a relatively high reflection loss of 15.5 dB. Without the nickel flake, the mumetal gives only 3 dB of shielding and 1.5 dB of reflection loss at 1.0 GHz. Nickel powder (0.3-0.5 mum size) has been found to be an effective filler for improving the shielding of polyethersulfone (PES

  14. Boswellia gum resin/chitosan polymer composites: Controlled delivery vehicles for aceclofenac.

    PubMed

    Jana, Sougata; Laha, Bibek; Maiti, Sabyasachi

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of Boswellia gum resin on the properties of glutaraldehyde (GA) crosslinked chitosan polymer composites and their potential as oral delivery vehicles for a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, aceclofenac. The incorporation of resinous material caused a significant improvement in drug entrapment efficiency (∼40%) of the polymer composites. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis confirmed the formation of chitosan-gum resin composites and did not show any evidence of drug-polymer chemical interaction. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) suggested the formation of particulate polymer composites up to chitosan:gum resin mass ratio of 1:3. Only 8-17% drug was released into HCl solution (pH 1.2) in 2h. The drug release rate of polymer composites was faster in phosphate buffer solution (pH 6.8). The composites released ∼60-68% drug load in 7h. In same duration, the drug release rate suddenly boosted up to 92% as the concentration of gum resin in the composites was raised to 80%. The drug release mechanism deviated from non-Fickian to case-II type with increasing resin concentration in the composites. Hence, GA-treated Boswellia resin-chitosan composites could be considered as alternative vehicles for oral delivery of aceclofenac. PMID:25825076

  15. Boswellia gum resin/chitosan polymer composites: Controlled delivery vehicles for aceclofenac.

    PubMed

    Jana, Sougata; Laha, Bibek; Maiti, Sabyasachi

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of Boswellia gum resin on the properties of glutaraldehyde (GA) crosslinked chitosan polymer composites and their potential as oral delivery vehicles for a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, aceclofenac. The incorporation of resinous material caused a significant improvement in drug entrapment efficiency (∼40%) of the polymer composites. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis confirmed the formation of chitosan-gum resin composites and did not show any evidence of drug-polymer chemical interaction. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) suggested the formation of particulate polymer composites up to chitosan:gum resin mass ratio of 1:3. Only 8-17% drug was released into HCl solution (pH 1.2) in 2h. The drug release rate of polymer composites was faster in phosphate buffer solution (pH 6.8). The composites released ∼60-68% drug load in 7h. In same duration, the drug release rate suddenly boosted up to 92% as the concentration of gum resin in the composites was raised to 80%. The drug release mechanism deviated from non-Fickian to case-II type with increasing resin concentration in the composites. Hence, GA-treated Boswellia resin-chitosan composites could be considered as alternative vehicles for oral delivery of aceclofenac.

  16. Physico-mechanical and tribological properties of Grewia Optiva fiber/bio-particulates hybrid polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Gangil, Brijesh; Patel, Vinay Kumar

    2016-05-01

    Lack of resources and increasing environmental issues has received widespread attention for the development of natural fiber/ particulate reinforced hybrid polymer composites. In the present investigation the authors use (GO) Grewia Optiva as the main reinforcement and rice husk/wheat straw as additional particulates for improving the mechanical and wear properties of polymer composites. The samples were prepared by hand layup technique according to ASTM standards. The results indicated that incorporation of wheat straw with GO polymer materials exhibited better hardness (2.5 times harder) and less wear (0.85 times) than mono GO fiber polymer composites (GOFRP). Moreover, Rice husk filled GOFRP shows superior impact energy among the all set of composites. Water absorption behavior was also discussed in this investigation.

  17. Blood-clotting-inspired reversible polymer-colloid composite assembly in flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hsieh; Fallah, Mohammad A.; Huck, Volker; Angerer, Jennifer I.; Reininger, Armin J.; Schneider, Stefan W.; Schneider, Matthias F.; Alexander-Katz, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    Blood clotting is a process by which a haemostatic plug is assembled at the site of injury. The formation of such a plug, which is essentially a (bio)polymer-colloid composite, is believed to be driven by shear flow in its initial phase, and contrary to our intuition, its assembly is enhanced under stronger flowing conditions. Here, inspired by blood clotting, we show that polymer-colloid composite assembly in shear flow is a universal process that can be tailored to obtain different types of aggregates including loose and dense aggregates, as well as hydrodynamically induced ‘log’-type aggregates. The process is highly controllable and reversible, depending mostly on the shear rate and the strength of the polymer-colloidbinding potential. Our results have important implications for the assembly of polymer-colloid composites, an important challenge of immense technological relevance. Furthermore, flow-driven reversible composite formation represents a new paradigm in non-equilibrium self-assembly.

  18. Blood-clotting-inspired reversible polymer-colloid composite assembly in flow.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsieh; Fallah, Mohammad A; Huck, Volker; Angerer, Jennifer I; Reininger, Armin J; Schneider, Stefan W; Schneider, Matthias F; Alexander-Katz, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    Blood clotting is a process by which a haemostatic plug is assembled at the site of injury. The formation of such a plug, which is essentially a (bio)polymer-colloid composite, is believed to be driven by shear flow in its initial phase, and contrary to our intuition, its assembly is enhanced under stronger flowing conditions. Here, inspired by blood clotting, we show that polymer-colloid composite assembly in shear flow is a universal process that can be tailored to obtain different types of aggregates including loose and dense aggregates, as well as hydrodynamically induced 'log'-type aggregates. The process is highly controllable and reversible, depending mostly on the shear rate and the strength of the polymer-colloidbinding potential. Our results have important implications for the assembly of polymer-colloid composites, an important challenge of immense technological relevance. Furthermore, flow-driven reversible composite formation represents a new paradigm in non-equilibrium self-assembly.

  19. Influence of the concentration and disperity of the filler on the creep of polymer composite

    SciTech Connect

    Aniskevich, K.; Khristova, Yu.

    1995-09-01

    The aim of this work is to study the effect of the concentration and dispersity of particles of filler on the creep of polymer composite. As an example, we study a polyester resin with a cement filler.

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of Ca, Mg, La- PMMA Polymer Composites for Phosphate Removal

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study calcium, magnesium and lanthanum- PMMA polymer composites were synthesized, characterized and investigated for phosphate removal from wastewater using rapid small scale column tests. Theoretical and experimental capacity of the media was determined and unused and sp...

  1. The Stress-strain Behavior of Polymer-Nanotube Composites from Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frankland, S. J. V.; Harik, V. M.; Odegard, G. M.; Brenner, D. W.; Gates, T. S.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Stress-strain curves of polymer-carbon nanotube composites are derived from molecular dynamics simulations of a single-walled carbon nanotube embedded in polyethylene. A comparison is made between the response to mechanical loading of a composite with a long, continuous nanotube (replicated via periodic boundary conditions) and the response of a composite with a short, discontinuous nanotube. Both composites are mechanically loaded in the direction of and transverse to the NT axis. The long-nanotube composite shows an increase in the stiffness relative to the polymer and behaves anisotropically under the different loading conditions. The short-nanotube composite shows no enhancement relative to the polymer, most probably because of its low aspect ratio. The stress-strain curves are compared with rule-of-mixtures predictions.

  2. Effect of processing parameter and filler content on tensile properties of multi-walled carbon nanotubes reinforced polylactic acid nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Adilah Mat; Ahmad, Sahrim Hj.

    2013-05-01

    Polymer nanocomposite of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) nanoparticles incorporated with polylactic acid (PLA) and liquid natural rubber (LNR) as compatibilizer were prepared via melt blending method using the Haake Rheomix internal mixer. In order to obtain the optimal processing parameter, the nanocomposite with 89 wt % of PLA was blended with 10 wt % of LNR and 1 wt % of MWCNTs were mixed with various mixing parameter condition; mixing temperature, mixing speed and mixing time. The optimum processing parameter of the composites was obtained at temperature of 190°C, rotation speed of 90 rpm and mixing time of 14 min. Next, the effect of MWCNTs loading on the tensile properties of nanocomposites was investigated. The nanocomposites were melt blended using the optimal processing parameter with MWCNTs loading of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5 and 4 wt %. The result showed that the sample with 3.5 wt % of MWCNTs gave higher tensile strength and Young's modulus. The SEM micrographs confirmed the effect of good dispersion of MWCNTs and their interfacial bonding in PLA nanocomposites. However, the elongation at break decreased with increasing the percentage of MWCNTs.

  3. Dielectric Properties of Lead Monoxide Filled Unsaturated Polyester Based Polymer Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harish, V.; Kumar, H. G. Harish; Nagaiah, N.

    2011-07-01

    Lead monoxide filled isophthalate resin particulate polymer composites were prepared with different filler concentrations and investigated for physical, thermal, mechanical and gamma radiation shielding characteristics. This paper discusses about the dielectric properties of the composites. The present study showed that the dielectric constant (ɛ'), dielectric loss (ɛ″) and ac conductivity (σac) of isopthalate based unsaturated polyester resin increases with the increase in wt% PbO filler in polymer matrix.

  4. Phase behavior of confined polymer blends and nanoparticle composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Hyun-Joong

    We have investigated phase behavior in polymer blend films of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and poly(styrene-ran-acrylonitrile) (SAN) with 33wt% AN content and their nanoparticle (NP) composites by using the combination of imaging techniques, including atomic force microscopy (AFM), focused-ion beam (FIB), transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM and SEM), as well as depth profiling techniques of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and elastic recoil detection (ERD). For neat PMMA:SAN films, we present a novel morphology map based on pattern development mechanisms. Six distinct mechanisms are found for thickness values (d) and bulk compositions between 50-1000 nm and φPMMA = 0.3 to 0.8, respectively. When PMMA is depleted from the mid-layer by preferential wetting at φ PMMA = 0.3 (A), stable PMMA/SAN/PMMA trilayer structure is obtained. With increasing φPMMA (0.4 to 0.7), pattern development is driven by phase separation in the mid-layer, which produces circular domains (B), irregular domains (C), and bicontinuous patterns (D). Here, the growth of circular domains can be explained by the coalescence mechanism, which predicts ξ˜(sigma/eta) 1/3d2/3t1/3 , where ξ, sigma, and eta are correlation length between domains, interfacial tension between phases, and viscosity, respectively. In bicontinuous patterns, hydrodynamic pumping mechanism is suppressed with thickness confinement. When SAN composition is lean, φPMMA = 0.8 (E), the SAN phase is minority component in the mid-layer and breaks up into droplets in smooth PMMA film. When film thickness is less than 80 nm at φPMMA = 0.4 or 0.5 (F), films initially display trilayer structure, which then ruptures upon dewetting of the SAN mid-layer. Building upon the understanding of the neat PMMA:SAN blend films, we have performed the first systematic on the effect of NPs in morphology evolution and stability of polymer blend films. Whereas the location of NP impacts morphology evolution, silica

  5. LOW-COST COMPOSITES IN VEHICLE MANUFACTURE - Natural-fiber-reinforced polymer composites in automotive applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Holbery, Jim; Houston, Dan

    2006-11-01

    In the last decade, natural fiber composites have experienced rapid growth in the European automotive market, and this trend appears to be global in scale, provided the cost and performance is justified against competing technologies. However, mass reduction, recyclability, and performance requirements can be met today by competing systems such as injection-molded unreinforced thermoplastics; natural fiber composites will continue to expand their role in automotive applications only if such technical challenges as moisture stability, fiber-polymer interface compatibility, and consistent, repeatable fiber sources are available to supply automotive manufacturers. Efforts underway by Tier I and II automotive suppliers to explore hybrid glass-natural fiber systems, as well as applications that exploit such capabilities as natural fiber sound dampening characteristics, could very well have far-reaching effects. In addition, the current development underway of bio-based resins such as Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biodegradable polyesters and bio-based polyols could provide fully bio-based composite options to future automotive designers. In short, the development of the natural fiber composite market would make a positive impact on farmers and small business owners on a global scale, reduce US reliance on foreign oil, improve environmental quality through the development of a sustainable resource supply chain, and achieve a better CO2 balance over the vehicle?s lifetime with near-zero net greenhouse gas emissions.

  6. Structural and functional polymer-matrix composites for electromagnetic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Junhua

    This dissertation addresses the science and technology of functional and structural polymer-matrix composite materials for electromagnetic applications, which include electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding and low observability (Stealth). The structural composites are continuous carbon fiber epoxy-matrix composites, which are widely used for airframes. The functional composites are composites with discontinuous fillers and in both bulk and coating forms. Through composite structure variation, attractive electromagnetic properties have been achieved. With no degradation of the tensile strength or modulus, the shielding effectiveness of the structural composites has been improved by enhancing multiple reflections through light activation of the carbon fiber. The multiple reflections loss of the electromagnetic wave increases from 1.1 to 10.2 dB at 1.0 GHz due to the activation. Such a large effect of multiple reflections has not been previously reported in any material. The observability of these composites has been lowered by decreasing the electrical conductivity (and hence decreasing the reflection loss) through carbon fiber coating. The incorporation of mumetal, a magnetic alloy particulate filler (28-40 mum size), in a latex paint has been found to be effective for enhancing the shielding only if the electrical resistivity of the resulting composite coating is below 10 O.cm, as rendered by a conductive particulate filler, such as nickel flake (14-20 mum size). This effectiveness (39 dB at 1.0 GHz) is attributed to the absorption of the electromagnetic wave by the mumetal and the nickel flake, with the high conductivity rendered by the presence of the nickel flake resulting in a relatively high reflection loss of 15.5 dB. Without the nickel flake, the mumetal gives only 3 dB of shielding and 1.5 dB of reflection loss at 1.0 GHz. Nickel powder (0.3-0.5 mum size) has been found to be an effective filler for improving the shielding of polyethersulfone (PES

  7. The effect of molecular mobility on electronic transport in carbon nanotube-polymer composites and networks

    SciTech Connect

    Shenogin, Sergei; Lee, Jonghoon; Voevodin, Andrey A.; Roy, Ajit K.

    2014-12-21

    A multiscale modeling approach to the prediction of electrical conductivity in carbon nanotube (CNT)–polymer composite materials is developed, which takes into account thermally activated molecular mobility of the matrix and the CNTs. On molecular level, a tight-binding density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green's function method are used to calculate the static electron transmission function in the contact between two metallic carbon nanotubes that corresponds to electron transport at 0 K. For higher temperatures, the statistical distribution of effective contact resistances is considered that originates from thermal fluctuations of intermolecular distances caused by molecular mobility of carbon nanotube and the polymer matrix. Based on this distribution and using effective medium theory, the temperature dependence of macroscopic electrical resistivity for CNT-polymer composites and CNT mats is calculated. The predicted data indicate that the electrical conductivity of the CNT-polymer composites increases linearly with temperature above 50 K, which is in a quantitative agreement with the experiments. Our model predicts a slight nonlinearity in temperature dependence of electric conductivity at low temperatures for percolated composites with small CNT loading. The model also explains the effect of glass transition and other molecular relaxation processes in the polymer matrix on the composite electrical conductivity. The developed multiscale approach integrates the atomistic charge transport mechanisms in percolated CNT-polymer composites with the macroscopic response and thus enables direct comparison of the prediction with the measurements of macroscopic material properties.

  8. Modeling the mechanics of graphene-based polymer composite film measured by the bulge test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jian-Jun; Sun, You-yi; Li, Dian-sen; Cao, Yang; Wang, Zuo; Ma, Jing; Zhao, Gui-Zhe

    2015-10-01

    Graphene-based polymer composite films have wide-ranging potential applications, such as in sensors, electromagnetic shielding, absorbing materials, corrosion resistance and so on. In addition, the practical applications of graphene-based polymer composite films are closely related to their mechanical properties. However, the mechanical properties of graphene-based polymer composite films are difficult to characterize with tensile tests. In this paper, the bugle test was used to investigate the mechanical properties of graphene-based polymer composite films. The experimental results show that the Young’s modulus of polymer composite films increases non-linearly with an increase in the doping content of graphene, and viscoelastic deformation is induced under cyclic loading conditions. Moreover, in order to describe their mechanical behavior, an ‘Arruda-Boyce’ finite-strain constitutive model (modified BPA model), based on the strain amplification hypothesis, and a traditional ‘Arruda-Boyce’ model was proposed, which incorporated many of the features of previous theories. The numerical treatment of the modified BPA model associated with finite element analysis is also discussed. This new model is shown to be able to predict the experimentally observed mechanical behavior of graphene based polymer composite films measured by the bugle test effectively.

  9. The effect of molecular mobility on electronic transport in carbon nanotube-polymer composites and networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenogin, Sergei; Lee, Jonghoon; Voevodin, Andrey A.; Roy, Ajit K.

    2014-12-01

    A multiscale modeling approach to the prediction of electrical conductivity in carbon nanotube (CNT)-polymer composite materials is developed, which takes into account thermally activated molecular mobility of the matrix and the CNTs. On molecular level, a tight-binding density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green's function method are used to calculate the static electron transmission function in the contact between two metallic carbon nanotubes that corresponds to electron transport at 0 K. For higher temperatures, the statistical distribution of effective contact resistances is considered that originates from thermal fluctuations of intermolecular distances caused by molecular mobility of carbon nanotube and the polymer matrix. Based on this distribution and using effective medium theory, the temperature dependence of macroscopic electrical resistivity for CNT-polymer composites and CNT mats is calculated. The predicted data indicate that the electrical conductivity of the CNT-polymer composites increases linearly with temperature above 50 K, which is in a quantitative agreement with the experiments. Our model predicts a slight nonlinearity in temperature dependence of electric conductivity at low temperatures for percolated composites with small CNT loading. The model also explains the effect of glass transition and other molecular relaxation processes in the polymer matrix on the composite electrical conductivity. The developed multiscale approach integrates the atomistic charge transport mechanisms in percolated CNT-polymer composites with the macroscopic response and thus enables direct comparison of the prediction with the measurements of macroscopic material properties.

  10. Direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) based on PVA/MMT composite polymer membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chun-Chen; Lee, Ying-Jeng; Yang, Jen Ming

    A novel composite polymer electrolyte membrane composed of a PVA polymer host and montmorillonite (MMT) ceramic fillers (2-20 wt.%), was prepared by a solution casting method. The characteristic properties of the PVA/MMT composite polymer membrane were investigated using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and micro-Raman spectroscopy, and the AC impedance method. The PVA/MMT composite polymer membrane showed good thermal and mechanical properties and high ionic conductivity. The highest ionic conductivity of the PVA/10 wt.%MMT composite polymer membrane was 0.0368 S cm -1 at 30 °C. The methanol permeability (P) values were 3-4 × 10 -6 cm 2 s -1, which was lower than that of Nafion 117 membrane of 5.8 × 10 -6 cm 2 s -1. It was revealed that the addition of MMT fillers into the PVA matrix could markedly improve the electrochemical properties of the PVA/MMT composite membranes; which can be accomplished by a simple blend method. The maximum peak power density of the DMFC with the PtRu anode based on Ti-mesh in a 2 M H 2SO 4 + 2 M CH 3OH solution was 6.77 mW cm -2 at ambient pressure and temperature. As a result, the PVA/MMT composite polymer appears to be a good candidate for the DMFC applications.

  11. Mechanical and Thermal Properties of CNT and CNF Reinforced Polymer Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadek, M.; Le Foulgoc, B.; Coleman, J. N.; Barron, V.; Sandler, J.; Shaffer, M. S. P.; Fonseca, A.; van Es, M.; Schulte, K.; Blau, W. J.

    2002-10-01

    In this research study carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibres were investigated as possible reinforcements to improve the mechanical and thermal properties of several polymer matrix systems. A range of polymer matrices were examined and include polyvinyl alcohol, poly(9-vinyl carbazole) and polyamide. To compare production methods, polymer composite films and fibres were produced. It was found by adding various mass fractions of nanofillers, that both the Young's modulus and hardness increased dramatically for both films and fibres. In addition, the thermal behaviour was seen to be strongly dependent on the nanofillers added to the polymer matrices.

  12. Characterization of the polymer-filler interface in (gamma)-irradiated silica-reinforced polysiloxane composites

    SciTech Connect

    Chien, A T; Balazs, B; LeMay, J

    2000-04-03

    The changes in hydrogen bonding at the interface of silica-reinforced polysiloxane composites due to aging in gamma radiation environments were examined in this study. Solvent swelling was utilized to determine the individual contributions of the matrix polymer and polymer-filler interactions to the overall crosslink density. The results show how the polymer-filler hydrogen bonding dominates the overall crosslink density of the material. Air irradiated samples displayed decreased hydrogen bonding at the polymer-filler interface, while vacuum irradiation revealed the opposite effect.

  13. Studies on conducting polymer and conducting polymerinorganic composite electrodes prepared via a new cathodic polymerization method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Nikhilendra

    A novel approach for the electrodeposition of conducting polymers and conducting polymer-inorganic composite materials is presented. The approach shows that conducting polymers, such as polypyrrole (PPy) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) can be electrodeposited by the application of a cathodic bias that generates an oxidizing agent, NO+, via the in-situ reduction of nitrate anions. This new cathodic polymerization method allows for the deposition of PPy and PEDOT as three dimensional, porous films composed of spherical polymer particles. The method is also suitable for the co-deposition of inorganic species producing conducting polymer-inorganic composite electrodes. Such composites are used as high surface area electrodes in Li-ion batteries, electrochemical hydrogen evolution and in the development of various other conducting polymer-inorganic composite electrodes. New Sn-PPy and Sb-PPy composite electrodes where Sn and Sb nanoparticles are well dispersed among the PPy framework are reported. These structures allow for decreased stress during expansion and contraction of the active material (Sn, Sb) during the alloying and de-alloying processes of a Li-ion battery anode, significantly alleviating the loss of active material due to pulverization processes. The new electrochemical synthesis mechanism allows for the fabrication of Sn-PPy and Sb-PPy composite electrodes directly from a conducting substrate and eliminates the use of binding materials and conducting carbon used in modern battery anodes, which significantly simplifies their fabrication procedures. Platinum (Pt) has long been identified as the most efficient catalyst for electrochemical water splitting, while nickel (Ni) is a cheaper, though less efficient alternative to Pt. A new morphology of PPy attained via the aforementioned cathodic deposition method allows for the use of minimal quantities of Pt and Ni dispersed over a very high surface area PPy substrate. These composite electrodes

  14. Multiphysics of ionic polymer-metal composite actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zicai; Asaka, Kinji; Chang, Longfei; Takagi, Kentaro; Chen, Hualing

    2013-08-01

    Water-based ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) exhibit complex deformation properties, especially with decreasing water content. Based on our experimental understanding, we developed a systemic actuation mechanism for IPMCs in which the water swelling was taken as the basic cause of deformation. We focused on Nafion-IPMC, and formulated a multiphysical model to describe the complicated deformation properties. The model emphasizes pressure-induced convection fluxes and the significance of the water distribution on deformation. It shows that there are three eigen stresses activated by the migration of ions and water, namely, osmotic pressure, electrostatic stress, and capillary pressure. The model also provides a convenient way of simultaneously handling the internal eigen stresses and the external mechanical load. In this paper, we used a fundamental model, which only considered the hydrostatic pressure in the multiphysical model, to analyze the general transport properties of cations and water by numerical methods. Three effects were investigated: (1) the inter-coupling effects between cations and water, which slow down cation migration and attenuate the back-diffusion of water; (2) the pressure effect, which rarely influences the electric field and the cation distribution, but greatly changes the profile of the water concentration and then the deformation behavior; and (3) the hydration effect, which has a significant impact on the distribution profiles of the cations and the electrical potential. In contrast to the findings of traditional studies, the water concentration displays an almost uniform gradient across the thickness in the bulk, and the cation concentration at the cathode is greatly reduced by the volume effect of the hydrated cations.

  15. Polymer matrix composites research: A survey of federally sponsored programs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    This report identifies research conducted by agencies of the federal government other than the Department of Energy (DOE) in the area of advanced polymer matrix composites (PMCs). DOE commissioned the report to avoid duplicating other agencies' efforts in planning its own research program for PMCs. PMC materials consist of high-strength, short or continuous fibers fused together by an organic matrix. Compared to traditional structural metals, PMCs provide greater strength and stiffness, reduced weight and increased heat resistance. The key contributors to PMC research identified by the survey are the Department of Defense (DOD), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Department of Transportation (DOT). The survey identified a total of 778 projects. More than half of the total projects identified emphasize materials research with a goal toward developing materials with improved performance. Although an almost equal number of identified materials projects focus on thermosets and thermoplastics receive more attention because of their increased impact resistance and their easy formability and re-formability. Slightly more than one third of projects identified target structures research. Only 15 percent of the projects identified focus on manufacturing techniques, despite the need for efficient, economical methods manufacturing products constructed of PMCs--techniques required for PMCs to gain widespread acceptance. Three issues to be addressed concerning PMCs research are economy of use, improvements in processing, and education and training. Five target technologies have been identified that could benefit greatly from increased use of PMCs: aircraft fuselages, automobile frames, high-speed machinery, electronic packaging, and construction.

  16. Prediction of thermal cycling induced cracking in polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmanus, Hugh L.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the work done in the period February 1993 through July 1993 on the 'Prediction of Thermal Cycling Induced Cracking In Polymer Matrix Composites' program. An oral presentation of this work was given to Langley personnel in September of 1993. This document was prepared for archival purposes. Progress studies have been performed on the effects of spatial variations in material strength. Qualitative agreement was found with observed patterns of crack distribution. These results were presented to NASA Langley personnel in November 1992. The analytical methodology developed by Prof. McManus in the summer of 1992 (under an ASEE fellowship) has been generalized. A method for predicting matrix cracking due to decreasing temperatures and/or thermal cycling in all plies of an arbitrary laminate has been implemented as a computer code. The code also predicts changes in properties due to the cracking. Experimental progressive cracking studies on a variety of laminates were carried out at Langley Research Center. Results were correlated to predictions using the new methods. Results were initially mixed. This motivated an exploration of the configuration of cracks within laminates. A crack configuration study was carried out by cutting and/or sanding specimens in order to examine the distribution of cracks within the specimens. These investigations were supplemented by dye-penetrant enhanced X-ray photographs. The behavior of thin plies was found to be different from the behavior of thicker plies (or ply groups) on which existing theories are based. Significant edge effects were also noted, which caused the traditional metric of microcracking (count of cracks on a polished edge) to be very inaccurate in some cases. With edge and configuration taken into account, rough agreement with predictions was achieved. All results to date were reviewed with NASA Langley personnel in September 1993.

  17. Polymer-carbon black composite sensors in an electronic nose for air-quality monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, M. A.; Shevade, A. V.; Zhou, H.; Homer, M. L.

    2004-01-01

    An electronic nose that uses an array of 32 polymer-carbon black composite sensors has been developed, trained, and tested. By selecting a variety of chemical functionalities in the polymers used to make sensors, it is possible to construct an array capable of identifying and quantifying a broad range of target compounds, such as alcohols and aromatics, and distinguishing isomers and enantiomers (mirror-image isomers). A model of the interaction between target molecules and the polymer-carbon black composite sensors is under development to aid in selecting the array members and to enable identification of compounds with responses not stored in the analysis library.

  18. Polymeric compositions and their method of manufacture. [forming filled polymer systems using cryogenics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moser, B. G.; Landel, R. F. (Inventor)

    1972-01-01

    Filled polymer compositions are made by dissolving the polymer binder in a suitable sublimable solvent, mixing the filler material with the polymer and its solvent, freezing the resultant mixture, and subliming the frozen solvent from the mixture from which it is then removed. The remaining composition is suitable for conventional processing such as compression molding or extruding. A particular feature of the method of manufacture is pouring the mixed solution slowly in a continuous stream into a cryogenic bath wherein frozen particles of the mixture result. The frozen individual particles are then subjected to the sublimation.

  19. High Temperature Degradation Mechanisms in Polymer Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Ronan A.

    1996-01-01

    Polymer matrix composites are increasingly used in demanding structural applications in which they may be exposed to harsh environments. The durability of such materials is a major concern, potentially limiting both the integrity of the structures and their useful lifetimes. The goal of the current investigation is to develop a mechanism-based model of the chemical degradation which occurs, such that given the external chemical environment and temperatures throughout the laminate, laminate geometry, and ply and/or constituent material properties, we can calculate the concentration of diffusing substances and extent of chemical degradation as functions of time and position throughout the laminate. This objective is met through the development and use of analytical models, coupled to an analysis-driven experimental program which offers both quantitative and qualitative information on the degradation mechanism. Preliminary analyses using a coupled diffusion/reaction model are used to gain insight into the physics of the degradation mechanisms and to identify crucial material parameters. An experimental program is defined based on the results of the preliminary analysis which allows the determination of the necessary material coefficients. Thermogravimetric analyses are carried out in nitrogen, air, and oxygen to provide quantitative information on thermal and oxidative reactions. Powdered samples are used to eliminate diffusion effects. Tests in both inert and oxidative environments allow the separation of thermal and oxidative contributions to specimen mass loss. The concentration dependency of the oxidative reactions is determined from the tests in pure oxygen. Short term isothermal tests at different temperatures are carried out on neat resin and unidirectional macroscopic specimens to identify diffusion effects. Mass loss, specimen shrinkage, the formation of degraded surface layers and surface cracking are recorded as functions of exposure time. Geometry effects

  20. Fluid Structure Interaction Analysis in Manufacturing Metal/Polymer Macro-Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Baesso, R.; Lucchetta, G.

    2007-05-17

    Polymer Injection Forming (PIF) is a new manufacturing technology for sheet metal-polymer macro-composites, which results from the combination of injection moulding and sheet metal forming. This process consists on forming the sheet metal according to the boundary of the mould cavity by means of the injected polymer. After cooling, the polymer bonds permanently to the metal resulting in a sheet metal-polymer macro-composite product. Comparing this process to traditional ones (where the polymeric and metal parts are joined together after separate forming) the main advantages are both reduction of production costs and increase of part quality. This paper presents a multi-physics numerical simulation of the process performed in the Ansys/CFX environment.

  1. Processing and characterization of natural cellulose fibers/thermoset polymer composites.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Vijay Kumar; Thakur, Manju Kumari

    2014-08-30

    Recently natural cellulose fibers from different biorenewable resources have attracted the considerable attraction of research community all around the globe owing to their unique intrinsic properties such as biodegradability, easy availability, environmental friendliness, flexibility, easy processing and impressive physico-mechanical properties. Natural cellulose fibers based materials are finding their applications in a number of fields ranging from automotive to biomedical. Natural cellulose fibers have been frequently used as the reinforcement component in polymers to add the specific properties in the final product. A variety of cellulose fibers based polymer composite materials have been developed using various synthetic strategies. Seeing the immense advantages of cellulose fibers, in this article we discuss the processing of biorenewable natural cellulose fibers; chemical functionalization of cellulose fibers; synthesis of polymer resins; different strategies to prepare cellulose based green polymer composites, and diverse applications of natural cellulose fibers/polymer composite materials. The article provides an in depth analysis and comprehensive knowledge to the beginners in the field of natural cellulose fibers/polymer composites. The prime aim of this review article is to demonstrate the recent development and emerging applications of natural cellulose fibers and their polymer materials.

  2. Hygrothermal response of polymer composites based on modified sisal fibers and unsaturated polyester resin

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, B.; Gupta, M.

    1995-10-01

    Polymer composites made from surface modified sisal fibers and unsaturated polyester resin were exposed to different wet environments and their physico-mechanical properties were evaluated as a function of exposure time. It was found that all types of treatments improved the performance of composites. Silane treated fiber composites displayed superior strength retention property under humid environments, while zirconate treated fiber composites resulted fairly better in immersed water condition.

  3. Epoxidised Natural Rubber Based Composite Polymer Electrolyte Systems For Use In Electrochemical Device Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Idris, Razali; Tasnim, Anis; Mahbor, Kamisah Mohamad; Hakim, Mas Rosemal; Mohd, Dahlan Hj.; Ghazali, Zulkafli

    2009-09-14

    Composite polymer electrolyte (CPE) comprising epoxy-fimctionalized rubber (ENR), HDDA monomer, mixed plasticizer-propylene carbonate/ethylene carbonate, silica filler and lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonylimide), Li[(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}){sub 2}N]have been prepared using photo-induced polymerization by UV irradiation technique. The irradiated samples of filled and non-filled silica of composites electrolytes have formed dry solid-flexible and transparent films in the self-constructed Teflon mould. Thermal behaviors, FTIR, morphology and ionic conductivity were performed on such ENR based PE polymer composites having varied compositions. The thermal stability has improved slightly in the temperature range 120-200 deg. C with optimized composition. FTIR measurements data revealed that the interaction of lithium with the epoxy groups of the un-bonded electrons within polymer occurred. The results suggest that the variation of conductivity with temperature indicates that the silica filled composite has achieved optimal ionic conductivity 10{sup -4} S cm{sup -1} and retained high percent of plasticizer. The ionic conductivity behavior of the silica-filled ENR based composite polymer electrolyte is consistent at elevated temperature compared to non-filled CPE system. This finding opens a new pathway for further investigation to diffusion of ions in the complex polymer electrolyte systems.

  4. Epoxidised Natural Rubber Based Composite Polymer Electrolyte Systems For Use In Electrochemical Device Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idris, Razali; Tasnim, Anis; Hakim, Mas Rosemal; Mohd, Dahlan Hj.; Ghazali, Zulkafli; Mahbor, Kamisah Mohamad

    2009-09-01

    Composite polymer electrolyte (CPE) comprising epoxy-fimctionalized rubber (ENR), HDDA monomer, mixed plasticizer-propylene carbonate/ethylene carbonate, silica filler and lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonylimide), Li[(CF3SO2)2N]have been prepared using photo-induced polymerization by UV irradiation technique. The irradiated samples of filled and non-filled silica of composites electrolytes have formed dry solid-flexible and transparent films in the self-constructed Teflon mould. Thermal behaviors, FTIR, morphology and ionic conductivity were performed on such ENR based PE polymer composites having varied compositions. The thermal stability has improved slightly in the temperature range 120-200° C with optimized composition. FTIR measurements data revealed that the interaction of lithium with the epoxy groups of the un-bonded electrons within polymer occurred. The results suggest that the variation of conductivity with temperature indicates that the silica filled composite has achieved optimal ionic conductivity 10-4 S cm-1 and retained high percent of plasticizer. The ionic conductivity behavior of the silica-filled ENR based composite polymer electrolyte is consistent at elevated temperature compared to non-filled CPE system. This finding opens a new pathway for further investigation to diffusion of ions in the complex polymer electrolyte systems.

  5. Effect of fabric structure and polymer matrix on flexural strength, interlaminar shear stress, and energy dissipation of glass fiber-reinforced polymer composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report the effect of glass fiber structure and the epoxy polymer system on the flexural strength, interlaminar shear stress (ILSS), and energy absorption properties of glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) composites. Four different GFRP composites were fabricated from two glass fiber textiles of...

  6. Preparation of Sheet-like Polymer-Encapsulated Composite Particles by Seeded Polymerization from Sub-micrometer Sheets.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ting; Yao, Kuncheng; Wu, Teng; Qiu, Dong

    2015-07-01

    Seeded polymerization has been widely used to fabricate polymer-encapsulated inorganic particles (IPs). The most frequently used seeds are spherical, whereas nonspherical particles are not well documented. Recently, sheet-like IPs have attracted much attention in the context of polymer composites. This article is therefore dedicated to understanding seeded polymerization from submicron sheets and focuses on the control of the overall morphology of the composite particles obtained. However, it was found that the composite particles only maintained the sheet-like morphology of the seeds at a low polymer content, whereas they became hamburger-like at a high polymer content owing to minimization of the interfacial energy. Interestingly, when cross-linked, the sheet-like morphology could be well preserved, even at a rather high polymer content. With the encapsulating polymer layer, the obtained sheet-like composite particles showed improved compatibility with the polymer matrix and could be well dispersed in polymer matrix when simply blended.

  7. Constitutive Modeling of Nanotube/Polymer Composites with Various Nanotube Orientations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odegard, Gregory M.; Gates, Thomas S.

    2002-01-01

    In this study, a technique has been proposed for developing constitutive models for polymer composite systems reinforced with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) with various orientations with respect to the bulk material coordinates. A nanotube, the local polymer adjacent to the nanotube, and the nanotube/polymer interface have been modeled as an equivalent-continuum fiber by using an equivalent-continuum modeling method. The equivalent-continuum fiber accounts for the local molecular structure and bonding information and serves as a means for incorporating micromechanical analyses for the prediction of bulk mechanical properties of SWNT/polymer composite. As an example, the proposed approach is used for the constitutive modeling of a SWNT/LaRC-SI (with a PmPV interface) composite system, with aligned nanotubes, three-dimensionally randomly oriented nanotubes, and nanotubes oriented with varying degrees of axisymmetry. It is shown that the Young s modulus is highly dependent on the SWNT orientation distribution.

  8. LS-DYNA Implementation of Polymer Matrix Composite Model Under High Strain Rate Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Xia-Hua; Goldberg, Robert K.; Binienda, Wieslaw K.; Roberts, Gary D.

    2003-01-01

    A recently developed constitutive model is implemented into LS-DYNA as a user defined material model (UMAT) to characterize the nonlinear strain rate dependent behavior of polymers. By utilizing this model within a micromechanics technique based on a laminate analogy, an algorithm to analyze the strain rate dependent, nonlinear deformation of a fiber reinforced polymer matrix composite is then developed as a UMAT to simulate the response of these composites under high strain rate impact. The models are designed for shell elements in order to ensure computational efficiency. Experimental and numerical stress-strain curves are compared for two representative polymers and a representative polymer matrix composite, with the analytical model predicting the experimental response reasonably well.

  9. The role of curing stresses in subsequent response, damage and failure of textile polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Christian; Aldridge, Michael; Wineman, Alan S.; Kieffer, John; Waas, Anthony M.; Shahwan, Khaled W.

    2013-05-01

    An integrated computational framework for textile polymer composites is introduced. A novel polymer curing model is used in connection with modeling the polymer curing process during manufacturing of textile composites. The model is based on the notion of polymer networks that are continuously formed in a body of changing shape due to changes in temperature, chemistry and external loads. Nonlinear material behavior is incorporated through nonlocal continuum damage mechanics that preserves mesh objectivity in calculations that go beyond maximum loads. The integrated model is applied to the curing of plain weave textile composites made from carbon fiber tows and Epon™862 resin. The mechanical and chemical properties are measured during curing using concurrent Brillouin and Raman light scattering. It is shown that significant stresses can develop during cure. The effect of these stresses on the manufactured part performance, when subsequent service loads are applied, is evaluated and a reduction in ultimate load, in agreement with experimental observations, is observed.

  10. Manufacturing polymer/carbon nanotube composite using a novel direct process.

    PubMed

    Tran, C-D; Lucas, S; Phillips, D G; Randeniya, L K; Baughman, R H; Tran-Cong, T

    2011-04-01

    A direct process for manufacturing polymer carbon nanotube (CNT)-based composite yarns is reported. The new approach is based on a modified dry spinning method of CNT yarn and gives a high alignment of the CNT bundle structure in yarns. The aligned CNT structure was combined with a polymer resin and, after being stressed through the spinning process, the resin was cured and polymerized, with the CNT structure acting as reinforcement in the composite. Thus the present method obviates the need for special and complex treatments to align and disperse CNTs in a polymer matrix. The new process allows us to produce a polymer/CNT composite with properties that may satisfy various engineering specifications. The structure of the yarn was investigated using scanning electron microscopy coupled with a focused-ion-beam system. The tensile behavior was characterized using a dynamic mechanical analyzer. Fourier transform infrared spectrometry was also used to chemically analyze the presence of polymer on the composites. The process allows development of polymer/CNT-based composites with different mechanical properties suitable for a range of applications by using various resins. PMID:21346301

  11. Manufacturing polymer/carbon nanotube composite using a novel direct process.

    PubMed

    Tran, C-D; Lucas, S; Phillips, D G; Randeniya, L K; Baughman, R H; Tran-Cong, T

    2011-04-01

    A direct process for manufacturing polymer carbon nanotube (CNT)-based composite yarns is reported. The new approach is based on a modified dry spinning method of CNT yarn and gives a high alignment of the CNT bundle structure in yarns. The aligned CNT structure was combined with a polymer resin and, after being stressed through the spinning process, the resin was cured and polymerized, with the CNT structure acting as reinforcement in the composite. Thus the present method obviates the need for special and complex treatments to align and disperse CNTs in a polymer matrix. The new process allows us to produce a polymer/CNT composite with properties that may satisfy various engineering specifications. The structure of the yarn was investigated using scanning electron microscopy coupled with a focused-ion-beam system. The tensile behavior was characterized using a dynamic mechanical analyzer. Fourier transform infrared spectrometry was also used to chemically analyze the presence of polymer on the composites. The process allows development of polymer/CNT-based composites with different mechanical properties suitable for a range of applications by using various resins.

  12. 3D optical printing of piezoelectric nanoparticle-polymer composite materials.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kanguk; Zhu, Wei; Qu, Xin; Aaronson, Chase; McCall, William R; Chen, Shaochen; Sirbuly, Donald J

    2014-10-28

    Here we demonstrate that efficient piezoelectric nanoparticle-polymer composite materials can be optically printed into three-dimensional (3D) microstructures using digital projection printing. Piezoelectric polymers were fabricated by incorporating barium titanate (BaTiO3, BTO) nanoparticles into photoliable polymer solutions such as polyethylene glycol diacrylate and exposing to digital optical masks that could be dynamically altered to generate user-defined 3D microstructures. To enhance the mechanical-to-electrical conversion efficiency of the composites, the BTO nanoparticles were chemically modified with acrylate surface groups, which formed direct covalent linkages with the polymer matrix under light exposure. The composites with a 10% mass loading of the chemically modified BTO nanoparticles showed piezoelectric coefficients (d(33)) of ∼ 40 pC/N, which were over 10 times larger than composites synthesized with unmodified BTO nanoparticles and over 2 times larger than composites containing unmodified BTO nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes to boost mechanical stress transfer efficiencies. These results not only provide a tool for fabricating 3D piezoelectric polymers but lay the groundwork for creating highly efficient piezoelectric polymer materials via nanointerfacial tuning.

  13. High-Performance Carbon Nanotube/Polymer Composite Fiber from Layer-by-Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Wu, Min Le; Chen, Yun; Zhang, Liang; Zhan, Hang; Qiang, Lei; Wang, Jian Nong

    2016-03-01

    So far, preparation of high-performance carbon nanotube (CNT)/polymer composites still faces big challenges mainly due to the limited control of CNT dispersion, fraction, and alignment in polymers. Here, a new "layer-by-layer deposition" method is put forward for preparing CNT/polymer composite fibers using poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) as an exemplary polymer. This is based on the continuous production of a hollow cylindrical CNT assembly from a high temperature reactor and its shrinking by a PVA-containing solution and deposition on a removable substrate wire. The in situ mixing of the two composite components at the molecular level allows CNTs to disperse and PVA to infiltrate into the fiber efficiently. As a result, remarkable effects of the CNT reinforcement on the PVA matrix are observed, including a strength improvement from ∼50 to 1255 MPa and electrical conductivity from ∼0 to 1948 S cm(-1). The new method offers good controllability of CNT dispersion and fraction in the polymer matrix, variability for making composite fibers using different polymers, and suitability for scaled up production. This study thus provides a new research direction for preparing CNT-reinforced composites and future performance maximization.

  14. High-Performance Carbon Nanotube/Polymer Composite Fiber from Layer-by-Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Wu, Min Le; Chen, Yun; Zhang, Liang; Zhan, Hang; Qiang, Lei; Wang, Jian Nong

    2016-03-01

    So far, preparation of high-performance carbon nanotube (CNT)/polymer composites still faces big challenges mainly due to the limited control of CNT dispersion, fraction, and alignment in polymers. Here, a new "layer-by-layer deposition" method is put forward for preparing CNT/polymer composite fibers using poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) as an exemplary polymer. This is based on the continuous production of a hollow cylindrical CNT assembly from a high temperature reactor and its shrinking by a PVA-containing solution and deposition on a removable substrate wire. The in situ mixing of the two composite components at the molecular level allows CNTs to disperse and PVA to infiltrate into the fiber efficiently. As a result, remarkable effects of the CNT reinforcement on the PVA matrix are observed, including a strength improvement from ∼50 to 1255 MPa and electrical conductivity from ∼0 to 1948 S cm(-1). The new method offers good controllability of CNT dispersion and fraction in the polymer matrix, variability for making composite fibers using different polymers, and suitability for scaled up production. This study thus provides a new research direction for preparing CNT-reinforced composites and future performance maximization. PMID:26959406

  15. Tuning the wetting-dewetting and dispersion-aggregation transitions in polymer nanocomposites using composition of graft and matrix polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Tyler B.; Jayaraman, Arthi

    2016-03-01

    Recent simulation and experimental work on polymer nanocomposites composed of polymer grafted particles and free matrix polymers, where the graft and matrix homopolymers are chemically dissimilar and exhibit lower critical solution temperature behavior with temperature, has shown that wetting to dewetting is a gradual and distinct transition from the sharp particle dispersion-aggregation transition. In this study, using coarse-grained molecular simulations, we demonstrate that the extent of wetting of the grafted polymer layer and the particle dispersion-aggregation transition are tuned using the composition of graft and matrix polymers. Specifically, we study composites where the graft and matrix chains are random copolymers composed of attractive and athermal monomers. We maintain a dense grafting density on the spherical particles of diameter five times the monomer diameter and study matrix lengths five times that of the graft chain length or equal graft and matrix chain lengths. We vary the fraction of attractive monomers in the graft ({f}{{G}}) and matrix ({f}{{M}}) chains, graft-matrix chain composition ratio ({f}{{G}}/{f}{{M}}), and the graft-matrix interaction strength, as characterized by the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter between graft and matrix attractive monomers: {χ }{{GM}}. When {χ }{{GM}} is negative, decreasing {f}{{G}} and/or {f}{{M}} decreases the extent of grafted layer wetting by matrix chains because the enthalpic driving force for wetting is reduced. As the {χ }{{GM}} increases and becomes positive, the extent of wetting decreases gradually till it reaches the wetting of analogous athermal composites. That value of {χ }{{GM}} where the extent of wetting is the same as that of an analogous athermal polymer nanocomposite marks the onset of dispersion-aggregation transition. For symmetric graft and matrix chain compositions ({f}{{G}}={f}{{M}}), the magnitude of {f}{{G}} and {f}{{M}} tunes the overall extent of wetting of the grafted

  16. Polymer compositions suitable for use in enriched oxygen atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schule, E. C.; Salatiello, P. P.; Chandrasekaran, S.

    1974-01-01

    Three organic polymer systems are based on copolymer of chlorotrifluoroethylene, ethylene, and tin-based flame retardants. Fourth system is copolymer of chlorotrifluorethylene and tetrafluoroethylene. This system contains no stabilizers of flame retardant additives.

  17. Nanoparticle and Gelation Stabilized Functional Composites of an Ionic Salt in a Hydrophobic Polymer Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Kanyas, Selin; Aydın, Derya; Kizilel, Riza; Demirel, A. Levent; Kizilel, Seda

    2014-01-01

    Polymer composites consisted of small hydrophilic pockets homogeneously dispersed in a hydrophobic polymer matrix are important in many applications where controlled release of the functional agent from the hydrophilic phase is needed. As an example, a release of biomolecules or drugs from therapeutic formulations or release of salt in anti-icing application can be mentioned. Here, we report a method for preparation of such a composite material consisted of small KCOOH salt pockets distributed in the styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) polymer matrix and demonstrate its effectiveness in anti-icing coatings. The mixtures of the aqueous KCOOH and SBS-cyclohexane solutions were firstly stabilized by adding silica nanoparticles to the emulsions and, even more, by gelation of the aqueous phase by agarose. The emulsions were observed in optical microscope to check its stability in time and characterized by rheological measurements. The dry composite materials were obtained via casting the emulsions onto the glass substrates and evaporations of the organic solvent. Composite polymer films were characterized by water contact angle (WCA) measurements. The release of KCOOH salt into water and the freezing delay experiments of water droplets on dry composite films demonstrated their anti-icing properties. It has been concluded that hydrophobic and thermoplastic SBS polymer allows incorporation of the hydrophilic pockets/phases through our technique that opens the possibility for controlled delivering of anti-icing agents from the composite. PMID:24516593

  18. Impact of biofibers and coupling agents on the weathering characteristics of composites polymer degradation and stability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper explores the ultraviolet (UV) weathering performance of high density polyethylene (HDPE) composites with different biofiber fillers and coupling agent. Biofiber polymer composite (BFPC) material samples were prepared using oak, cotton burr and stem (CBS) or guayule bagasse as fiber source...

  19. Laboratory to commercial scale - Correlation in the physical properties of biofiber-polymer composites.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bio-fiber polymer composites have been the focus of automotive and building products industries for the last several years. Significant research has been done to improve the processing and performance characteristics of the bio-fiber composite. Most of the initial research is conducted on a small sc...

  20. Polymer composites prepared from heat-treated starch and styrene-butadiene latex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermoplastic starch/latex polymer composites were prepared using styrene–butadiene (SB) latex and heat-treated cornstarch. The composites were prepared in a compression mold at 130 °C, with starch content 20%. An amylose-free cornstarch, waxy maize, was used for this research and the heat treatment...

  1. A novel filler for natural fiber polymer composites from cotton gin waste

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The natural fiber polymer composites market has significantly grown in the last decade. The majority of these composites are manufactured using wood flour as a principal component. The price and availability of quality wood flour is uncertain in several markets, therefore there is a great potential ...

  2. Silver-containing polymer composition used in spacecraft and semiconductor optoelectronics control systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, A. A. Tuev, V. I.

    2015-10-27

    The copolymer of the vinyl chloride-maleic anhydride and silver nano- and microparticle (70 wt %) composition is offered as a conductive adhesive for fixing various chips on the dielectric substrate. The wiring volume resistivity is up to 3.1×10{sup −8} Ohm×m. The adhesive strength of the silver-containing polymer composition (70% of Ag) applied under a shear on the dielectric substrate is 106 N/mm{sup 2}. Adhesive layers obtained from these substances have a high thermal conductivity up to λ = 199.93 W/m×K that depends on the amount of Ag in the polymer composition.

  3. Silver-containing polymer composition used in spacecraft and semiconductor optoelectronics control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, A. A.; Tuev, V. I.

    2015-10-01

    The copolymer of the vinyl chloride-maleic anhydride and silver nano- and microparticle (70 wt %) composition is offered as a conductive adhesive for fixing various chips on the dielectric substrate. The wiring volume resistivity is up to 3.1×10-8 Ohm×m. The adhesive strength of the silver-containing polymer composition (70% of Ag) applied under a shear on the dielectric substrate is 106 N/mm2. Adhesive layers obtained from these substances have a high thermal conductivity up to λ = 199.93 W/m×K that depends on the amount of Ag in the polymer composition.

  4. Polymer-Ceramic Composite Materials for Pyroelectric Infrared Detectors: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aggarwal, M. D; Currie, J. R.; Penn, B. G.; Batra, A. K.; Lal, R. B.

    2007-01-01

    Ferroelectrics:Polymer composites can be considered an established substitute for conventional electroceramics and ferroelectric polymers. The composites have a unique blend of polymeric properties such as mechanical flexibility, high strength, formability, and low cost, with the high electro-active properties of ceramic materials. They have attracted considerable interest because of their potential use in pyroelectric infrared detecting devices and piezoelectric transducers. These flexible sensors and transducers may eventually be useful for their health monitoring applications for NASA crew launch vehicles and crew exploration vehicles being developed. In the light of many technologically important applications in this field, it is worthwhile to present an overview of the pyroelectric infrared detector theory, models to predict dielectric behavior and pyroelectric coefficient, and the concept of connectivity and fabrication techniques of biphasic composites. An elaborate review of Pyroelectric-Polymer composite materials investigated to date for their potential use in pyroelectric infrared detectors is presented.

  5. Evaluation of tensile strength of hybrid fiber (jute/gongura) reinforced hybrid polymer matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatachalam, G.; Gautham Shankar, A.; Vijay, Kumar V.; Chandan, Byral R.; Prabaharan, G. P.; Raghav, Dasarath

    2015-07-01

    The polymer matrix composites attract many industrial applications due to its light weight, less cost and easy for manufacturing. In this paper, an attempt is made to prepare and study of the tensile strength of hybrid (two natural) fibers reinforced hybrid (Natural + Synthetic) polymer matrix composites. The samples were prepared with hybrid reinforcement consists of two different fibers such as jute and Gongura and hybrid polymer consists of polyester and cashew nut shell resins. The hybrid composites tensile strength is evaluated to study the influence of various fiber parameters on mechanical strength. The parameters considered here are the duration of fiber treatment, the concentration of alkali in fiber treatment and nature of fiber content in the composites.

  6. Study of optical properties of Erbium doped Tellurite glass-polymer composite

    SciTech Connect

    Sushama, D.

    2014-10-15

    Chalcogenide glasses have wide applications in optical device technology. But it has some disadvantages like thermal instability. Among them Tellurite glasses exhibits high thermal Stability. Doping of rare earth elements into the Tellurite glasses improve its optical properties. To improve its mechanical properties composites of this Tellurite glasses with polymer are prepared. Bulk samples of Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} doped TeO{sub 2}‐WO{sub 3}‐La{sub 2}O{sub 3} Tellurite glasses are prepared from high purity oxide mixtures, melting in an alumina crucible in air atmosphere. Composites of this Tellurite glasses with polymer are prepared by powder mixing method and the thin films of these composites are prepared using polymer press. Variations in band gap of these composites are studied from the UV/Vis/NIR absorption.

  7. Assessment of nanoparticle release and associated health effect of polymer-silicon composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, H.; Irfan, A.; Sachse, S.; Njuguna, J.

    2012-09-01

    Little information is currently available on possible release of nanomaterials or/and nanoparticles (NP) from conventional and novel products and associated health effect. This study aimed to assess the possible release of NP during the application stage of conventional and nanoproducts. NP release was monitored during physical processing of polymer-silicon composites, and the toxicity of both the released NP and the raw silica nanomaterials that were used as fillers in the nanocomposites was assessed in vitro using human lung epithelial A549 cells. This study suggests that 1) NP can be released from the conventional and novel polymer-silicon composites under certain application scenario; 2) the level of NP release from polymer composites could be altered by different reinforcement materials; e.g. nanostructured MMT could reduce the release while SiO2 NP could increase the release; 3) working with polymer composites under certain conditions could risk inhalation of high level of polymer NP; 4) raw nanomaterials appeared to be toxic in the chosen in vitro system. Further study of the effect of novel filler materials on NP release from final polymer products and the effect of released NP on environment and human health will inform design of safe materials and minimization of negative impact on the environment and human health.

  8. Polymer composite adsorbents using particles of molecularly imprinted polymers or aluminium oxide nanoparticles for treatment of arsenic contaminated waters.

    PubMed

    Önnby, L; Pakade, V; Mattiasson, B; Kirsebom, H

    2012-09-01

    Removal of As(V) by adsorption from water solutions was studied using three different synthetic adsorbents. The adsorbents, (a) aluminium nanoparticles (Alu-NPs, <50 nm) incorporated in amine rich cryogels (Alu-cryo), (b) molecular imprinted polymers (<38 μm) in polyacrylamide cryogels (MIP-cryo) and (c) thiol functionalised cryogels (SH-cryo) were evaluated regarding material characteristics and arsenic removal in batch test and continuous mode. Results revealed that a composite design with particles incorporated in cryogels was a successful means for applying small particles (nano- and micro- scale) in water solutions with maintained adsorption capacity and kinetics. Low capacity was obtained from SH-cryo and this adsorbent was hence excluded from the study. The adsorption capacities for the composites were 20.3 ± 0.8 mg/g adsorbent (Alu-cryo) and 7.9 ± 0.7 mg/g adsorbent (MIP-cryo) respectively. From SEM images it was seen that particles were homogeneously distributed in Alu-cryo and heterogeneously distributed in MIP-cryo. The particle incorporation increased the mechanical stability and the polymer backbones of pure polyacrylamide (MIP-cryo) were of better stability than the amine containing polymer backbone (Alu-cryo). Both composites worked well in the studied pH range of pH 2-8. Adsorption tested in real wastewater spiked with arsenic showed that co-ions (nitrate, sulphate and phosphate) affected arsenic removal for Alu-cryo more than for MIP-cryo. Both composites still adsorbed well in the presence of counter-ions (copper and zinc) present at low concentrations (μg/l). The unchanged and selective adsorption in realistic water observed for MIP-cryo was concluded to be due to a successful imprinting, here controlled using a non-imprinted polymer (NIP). A development of MIP-cryo is needed, considering its low adsorption capacity.

  9. Thermal and Mechanical Characteristics of Polymer Composites Based on Epoxy Resin, Aluminium Nanopowders and Boric Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarenko, O. B.; Melnikova, T. V.; Visakh, P. M.

    2016-01-01

    The epoxy polymers are characterized by low thermal stability and high flammability. Nanoparticles are considered to be effective fillers of polymer composites for improving their thermal and functional properties. In this work, the epoxy composites were prepared using epoxy resin ED-20, polyethylene polyamine as a hardener, aluminum nanopowder and boric acid fine powder as flame-retardant filler. The thermal characteristics of the obtained samples were studied using thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The mechanical characteristics of epoxy composites were also studied. It was found that an addition of all fillers enhances the thermal stability and mechanical characteristics of the epoxy composites. The best thermal stability showed the epoxy composite filled with boric acid. The highest flexural properties showed the epoxy composite based on the combination of boric acid and aluminum nanopowder.

  10. Polymer NDE; Proceedings of the European Workshop on Nondestructive Evaluation of Polymers and Polymer Matrix Composites, Termar do Vimeiro, Portugal, September 4, 5, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Ashbe, K.M.G.

    1986-01-01

    The state of the art in the characterization, detection and quantification of defects in polymer materials for industrial and aerospace applications is described. The defects include inhomogeneous mixing, inclusions of foreign materials, macroscopic anisotropy, segregation and residual stress. The manifestations of the defects are discussed in terms of NDT methods for probing the microstructure at the molecular level and for determining the molecular orientation of the polymer constituents. NDT techniques are also described for lifetime prediction and in-service testing of laminated composites. Analytical methods are reviewed for using acoustic emission data to monitor physical changes in gels and solids, detect defects in filament wound pressure vessels, and evaluate failure mechanisms in CFRP materials. NDT applications are also described for employing electromagnetic wave propagation, vibrations, elastic wave, and holographic interferographic data for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the effects of defects and loading on polymer materials.

  11. Composition and Role of Extracellular Polymers in Methanogenic Granules

    PubMed Central

    Veiga, M. C.; Jain, M. K.; Wu, W.; Hollingsworth, R. I.; Zeikus, J. G.

    1997-01-01

    Methanobacterium formicicum and Methanosarcina mazeii are two prevalent species isolated from an anaerobic granular consortium grown on a fatty acid mixture. The extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) were extracted from Methanobacterium formicicum and Methanosarcina mazeii and from the methanogenic granules to examine their role in granular development. The EPS made up approximately 20 to 14% of the extracellular polymer extracted from the granules, Methanobacterium formicicum, and Methanosarcina mazeii. The EPS produced by Methanobacterium formicicum was composed mainly of rhamnose, mannose, galactose, glucose, and amino sugars, while that produced by Methanosarcina mazeii contained ribose, galactose, glucose, and glucosamine. The same sugars were also present in the EPS produced by the granules. These results indicate that the two methanogens, especially Methanobacterium formicicum, contributed significantly to the production of the extracellular polymer of the anaerobic granules. Growth temperature, substrates (formate and H(inf2)-CO(inf2)), and the key nutrients (nitrogen and phosphate concentrations) affected polymer production by Methanobacterium formicicum. PMID:16535504

  12. Electrically conductive, optically transparent polymer/carbon nanotube composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Jr., Joseph G. (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Watson, Kent A. (Inventor); Ounaies, Zoubeida (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention is directed to the effective dispersion of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into polymer matrices. The nanocomposites are prepared using polymer matrices and exhibit a unique combination of properties, most notably, high retention of optical transparency in the visible range (i.e., 400-800 nm), electrical conductivity, and high thermal stability. By appropriate selection of the matrix resin, additional properties such as vacuum ultraviolet radiation resistance, atomic oxygen resistance, high glass transition (T.sub.g) temperatures, and excellent toughness can be attained. The resulting nanocomposites can be used to fabricate or formulate a variety of articles such as coatings on a variety of substrates, films, foams, fibers, threads, adhesives and fiber coated prepreg. The properties of the nanocomposites can be adjusted by selection of the polymer matrix and CNT to fabricate articles that possess high optical transparency and antistatic behavior.

  13. Molecular modeling of polymer composite-analyte interactions in electronic nose sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shevade, A. V.; Ryan, M. A.; Homer, M. L.; Manfreda, A. M.; Zhou, H.; Manatt, K. S.

    2003-01-01

    We report a molecular modeling study to investigate the polymer-carbon black (CB) composite-analyte interactions in resistive sensors. These sensors comprise the JPL electronic nose (ENose) sensing array developed for monitoring breathing air in human habitats. The polymer in the composite is modeled based on its stereoisomerism and sequence isomerism, while the CB is modeled as uncharged naphthalene rings with no hydrogens. The Dreiding 2.21 force field is used for the polymer, solvent molecules and graphite parameters are assigned to the carbon black atoms. A combination of molecular mechanics (MM) and molecular dynamics (NPT-MD and NVT-MD) techniques are used to obtain the equilibrium composite structure by inserting naphthalene rings in the polymer matrix. Polymers considered for this work include poly(4-vinylphenol), polyethylene oxide, and ethyl cellulose. Analytes studied are representative of both inorganic and organic compounds. The results are analyzed for the composite microstructure by calculating the radial distribution profiles as well as for the sensor response by predicting the interaction energies of the analytes with the composites. c2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Mussel-inspired catecholamine polymers as new sizing agents for fiber-reinforced composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Wonoh; Lee, Jea Uk; Byun, Joon-Hyung

    2015-04-01

    Mussel-inspired catecholamine polymers (polydopamine and polynorepinephrine) were coated on the surface of carbon and glass fibers in order to increase the interfacial shear strength between fibers and polymer matrix, and consequently the interlaminar shear strength of fiber-reinforced composites. By utilizing adhesive characteristic of the catecholamine polymer, fiber-reinforced composites can become mechanically stronger than conventional composites. Since the catecholamine polymer is easily constructed on the surface by the simultaneous polymerization of its monomer under a weak basic circumstance, it can be readily coated on micro-fibers by a simple dipping process without any complex chemical treatments. Also, catecholamines can increase the surface free energy of micro-fibers and therefore, can give better wettability to epoxy resin. Therefore, catecholamine polymers can be used as versatile and effective surface modifiers for both carbon and glass fibers. Here, catecholamine-coated carbon and glass fibers exhibited higher interfacial shear strength (37 and 27% increases, respectively) and their plain woven composites showed improved interlaminar shear strength (13 and 9% increases, respectively) compared to non-coated fibers and composites.

  15. Characterization of polymer composites during autoclave manufacturing by Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farquharson, Stuart; Smith, Wayne W.; Rigas, Elias J.; Granville, Dana

    2001-02-01

    12 The superior engineering properties of fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites, primarily the high strength-to- weight ratio, make them suitable to applications ranging from sporting goods to aircraft components (e.g. helicopter blades). Unfortunately, consistent fabrication of components with desired mechanical properties has proven difficult, and has led to high production costs. This is largely due to the inability to monitor and control polymer cure, loosely defined as the process of polymer chain extension and cross- linking. Even with stringent process control, slight variations in the pre-polymer formulations (e.g. prepreg) can influence reaction rates, reaction mechanisms, and ultimately, product properties. In an effort to optimize the performance of thermoset composite, we have integrated fiber optic probes between the plies of laminates and monitored cure by Raman spectroscopy, with the eventual goal of process control. Here we present real-time measurements of two high performance aerospace companies cured within an industrial autoclave.

  16. Bio-Inspired Composite Interfaces: Controlling Hydrogel Mechanics via Polymer-Nanoparticle Coordination Bond Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holten-Andersen, Niels

    2015-03-01

    In soft nanocomposite materials, the effective interaction between polymer molecules and inorganic nanoparticle surfaces plays a critical role in bulk mechanical properties. However, controlling these interfacial interactions remains a challenge. Inspired by the adhesive chemistry in mussel threads, we present a novel approach to control composite mechanics via polymer-particle interfacial dynamics; by incorporating iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) into a catechol-modified polymer network the resulting hydrogels are crosslinked via reversible coordination bonds at Fe3O4 NP surfaces thereby providing a dynamic gel network with robust self-healing properties. By studying the thermally activated composite network relaxation processes we have found that the polymer-NP binding energy can be controlled by engineering both the organic and inorganic side of the interface.

  17. Neutron beam measurement of industrial polymer materials for composition and bulk integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogante, M.; Rosta, L.; Heaton, M. E.

    2013-10-01

    Neutron beam techniques, among other non-destructive diagnostics, are particularly irreplaceable in the complete analysis of industrial materials and components when supplying fundamental information. In this paper, nanoscale small-angle neutron scattering analysis and prompt gamma activation analysis for the characterization of industrial polymers are considered. The basic theoretical aspects are briefly introduced and some applications are presented. The investigations of the SU-8 polymer in axial airflow microturbines—i.e. microelectromechanical systems—are presented foremost. Also presented are full and feasibility studies on polyurethanes, composites based on cross-linked polymers reinforced by carbon fibres and polymer cement concrete. The obtained results have provided a substantial contribution to the improvement of the considered materials, and indeed confirmed the industrial applicability of the adopted techniques in the analysis of polymers.

  18. The importance of bendability in the percolation behavior of carbon nanotube and graphene-polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balberg, I.

    2012-09-01

    The very low percolation thresholds in carbon nanotube and graphene polymer composites are of great recent interest. The values of these thresholds are basically determined by the extreme aspect ratios of the carbon particles. However, examining the many data in the literature we found that, surprisingly, for the corresponding composites the exclusion of the particles positions, due to their "hard cores," is very small. We propose that this is associated primarily with the bending of these carbon particles within the actual composites.

  19. Analytical Modeling of the High Strain Rate Deformation of Polymer Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Roberts, Gary D.; Gilat, Amos

    2003-01-01

    The results presented here are part of an ongoing research program to develop strain rate dependent deformation and failure models for the analysis of polymer matrix composites subject to high strain rate impact loads. State variable constitutive equations originally developed for metals have been modified in order to model the nonlinear, strain rate dependent deformation of polymeric matrix materials. To account for the effects of hydrostatic stresses, which are significant in polymers, the classical 5 plasticity theory definitions of effective stress and effective plastic strain are modified by applying variations of the Drucker-Prager yield criterion. To verify the revised formulation, the shear and tensile deformation of a representative toughened epoxy is analyzed across a wide range of strain rates (from quasi-static to high strain rates) and the results are compared to experimentally obtained values. For the analyzed polymers, both the tensile and shear stress-strain curves computed using the analytical model correlate well with values obtained through experimental tests. The polymer constitutive equations are implemented within a strength of materials based micromechanics method to predict the nonlinear, strain rate dependent deformation of polymer matrix composites. In the micromechanics, the unit cell is divided up into a number of independently analyzed slices, and laminate theory is then applied to obtain the effective deformation of the unit cell. The composite mechanics are verified by analyzing the deformation of a representative polymer matrix composite (composed using the representative polymer analyzed for the correlation of the polymer constitutive equations) for several fiber orientation angles across a variety of strain rates. The computed values compare favorably to experimentally obtained results.

  20. Imaging Carbon Nanotubes in High Performance Polymer Composites via Magnetic Force Microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lillehei, Peter T.; Park, Cheol; Rouse, Jason H.; Siochi, Emilie J.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Application of carbon nanotubes as reinforcement in structural composites is dependent on the efficient dispersion of the nanotubes in a high performance polymer matrix. The characterization of such dispersion is limited by the lack of available tools to visualize the quality of the matrix/carbon nanotube interaction. The work reported herein demonstrates the use of magnetic force microscopy (MFM) as a promising technique for characterizing the dispersion of nanotubes in a high performance polymer matrix.

  1. Synergy among binary (MWNT, SLG) nano-carbons in polymer nano-composites: a Raman study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Peng; Loomis, James; King, Ben; Panchapakesan, Balaji

    2012-08-10

    Load transfer and mechanical strength of reinforced polymers are fundamental to developing advanced composites. This paper demonstrates enhanced load transfer and mechanical strength due to synergistic effects in binary mixtures of nano-carbon/polymer composites. Different compositional mixtures (always 1 wt% total) of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and single-layer graphene (SLG) were mixed in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and effects on load transfer and mechanical strength were studied using Raman spectroscopy. Significant shifts in the G-bands were observed both in tension and compression for single as well as binary nano-carbon counterparts in polymer composites. Small amounts of MWNT₀.₁ dispersed in SLG₀.₉=PDMS samples (subscripts represent weight percentage) reversed the sign of the Raman wavenumbers from positive to negative values demonstrating reversal of lattice stress. A wavenumber change from 10 cm⁻¹ in compression to 10 cm⁻¹ in tension, and an increase in elastic modulus of ~103% was observed for MWNT₀.₁SLG₀.₉=PDMS with applied uniaxial tension. Extensive scanning electron microscopy revealed the bridging of MWNT between two graphene plates in polymer composites. Mixing small amounts of MWNTs in SLG/PDMS eliminated the previously reported compressive deformation of SLG and significantly enhanced load transfer and mechanical strength of composites in tension. The orientation order of MWNT with application of uniaxial tensile strain directly affected the shift in Raman wavenumbers (2D-band and G-band) and load transfer. It is observed that the cooperative behavior of binary nano-carbons in polymer composites resulted in enhanced load transfer and mechanical strength. Such binary compositions could be fundamental to developing advanced composites such as nano-carbon based mixed dimensional systems. PMID:22802210

  2. Synergy among binary (MWNT, SLG) nano-carbons in polymer nano-composites: a Raman study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Peng; Loomis, James; King, Ben; Panchapakesan, Balaji

    2012-08-01

    Load transfer and mechanical strength of reinforced polymers are fundamental to developing advanced composites. This paper demonstrates enhanced load transfer and mechanical strength due to synergistic effects in binary mixtures of nano-carbon/polymer composites. Different compositional mixtures (always 1 wt% total) of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and single-layer graphene (SLG) were mixed in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and effects on load transfer and mechanical strength were studied using Raman spectroscopy. Significant shifts in the G-bands were observed both in tension and compression for single as well as binary nano-carbon counterparts in polymer composites. Small amounts of MWNT0.1 dispersed in SLG0.9/PDMS samples (subscripts represent weight percentage) reversed the sign of the Raman wavenumbers from positive to negative values demonstrating reversal of lattice stress. A wavenumber change from 10 cm-1 in compression to 10 cm-1 in tension, and an increase in elastic modulus of ˜103% was observed for MWNT0.1SLG0.9/PDMS with applied uniaxial tension. Extensive scanning electron microscopy revealed the bridging of MWNT between two graphene plates in polymer composites. Mixing small amounts of MWNTs in SLG/PDMS eliminated the previously reported compressive deformation of SLG and significantly enhanced load transfer and mechanical strength of composites in tension. The orientation order of MWNT with application of uniaxial tensile strain directly affected the shift in Raman wavenumbers (2D-band and G-band) and load transfer. It is observed that the cooperative behavior of binary nano-carbons in polymer composites resulted in enhanced load transfer and mechanical strength. Such binary compositions could be fundamental to developing advanced composites such as nano-carbon based mixed dimensional systems.

  3. Evaluation of cytocompatibility and bending modulus of nanoceramic/polymer composites.

    PubMed

    McManus, Anastasia J; Doremus, Robert H; Siegel, Richard W; Bizios, Rena

    2005-01-01

    In an attempt to simulate the microstructure and mechanical properties of natural bone, novel nanoceramic/polymer composite formulations were fabricated and characterized with respect to their cytocompatibility and mechanical properties. The bending moduli of nanocomposite samples of either poly(L-lactic acid) (PLA) or poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) with 30, 40, and 50 wt % of nanophase (<100 nm) alumina, hydroxyapatite, or titania loadings were significantly (p < 0.05) greater than those of pertinent composite formulations with conventional, coarser grained ceramics. The nanocomposite bending moduli were 1-2 orders of magnitude larger than those of the homogeneous, respective polymer. For example, compared with 0.06 GPa for the 100% PLA, the bending modulus of 50/50 nanophase alumina/PLA composites was 3.5 GPa. Osteoblast adhesion on the surfaces of the nanophase alumina/PLA composites increased as a function of the nanophase ceramic content. Most importantly, osteoblast adhesion on the 50/50 nanophase alumina/PLA substrates was similar to that observed on the 100% nanophase ceramic substrates. Similar trends of osteoblast adhesion were observed on the surfaces of the nanophase titania/polymer and nanophase hydroxyapaptite/polymer composites that were tested. In contrast, fibroblast adhesion on the nanophase composites was either similar or lower than that observed on the conventional composites with either PLA or PMMA and minimum on all tested neat nanophase substrates. The calcium content in the extracellular matrix of cultured osteoblasts was also enhanced on the nanoceramic/PLA composite substrates tested as a function of the nanophase ceramic loading and duration of cell culture. The results of the present in vitro study provide evidence that nanoceramic/polymer composite formulations are promising alternatives to conventional materials because they can potentially be designed to match the chemical, structural, and mechanical properties of bone tissue in

  4. Processing and properties of ceramic matrix-polymer composites for dental applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hsuan Yao

    The basic composite structure of natural hard tissue was used to guide the design and processing of dental restorative materials. The design incorporates the methodology of using inorganic minerals as the main structural phase reinforced with a more ductile but tougher organic phase. Ceramic-polymer composites were prepared by slip casting a porous ceramic structure, heating and chemical treating the porous preform, infiltrating with monomer and then curing. The three factors that determined the mechanical properties of alumina-polymer composites were the type of polymer used, the method of silane treatments, and the type of bond between particles in the porous preforms. Without the use of silane coupling agents, the composites were measured to have a lower strength. The composite with a more "flexible" porous alumina network had a greater ability to plastically dissipate the energy of propagating cracks. However, the aggressive nature of the alumina particles on opposing enamel requires that these alumina-polymer composites have a wear compatible coating for practical application. A route to dense bioactive apatite wollastonite glass ceramics (AWGC)-polymer composites was developed. The problems associated with glass dissolution into the aqueous medium for slip casting were overcome with the use of silane. The role of heating rate and development of ceramic compact microstructure on composite properties was explored. In general, if isothermal heating was not applied, decreasing heating rate increased glass crystallinity and particle-particle fusion, but decreased pore volume. Also composite strength and fracture toughness decreased while modulus and hardness increased with decreasing heating rate. If isothermal heating was applied, glass crystallinity, pore content, and composite mechanical properties showed relatively little change regardless of the initial heating rate. The potential of AWGC-polymer composites for dental and implant applications was explored

  5. Composite S-PEEK membranes for medium temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbone, A.; Pedicini, R.; Saccà, A.; Gatto, I.; Passalacqua, E.

    Sulphonated-PEEK polymers with two different sulphonation degrees (DS) were obtained by varying the sulphonation parameters. Ionomeric membranes were prepared as a reference. Composite membranes were obtained by mixing different percentage of 3-aminopropyl functionalised silica to the polymers dissolved in DMAc. The resulting membranes were characterised in terms of water uptake, IEC and proton conductivity in different conditions of temperature and relative humidity. The introduction of amino-functionalised silica in the lowest DS polymer slightly increases the water uptake, because it retains the water and in this case the hydrophilic property of the material is predominant. In the highest DS polymer the presence of SiO-NH 2 decreases the water uptake and swelling, probably due to a major interaction between the amino groups of silica and the sulphonic groups of polymer. The proton conductivity of the highly sulphonated polymer does not change even if the swelling decreases, while in the poorly sulphonated polymer a slight increases of water retention increases the conductivity. A composite membrane was tested in PEFC at 120 °C reaching a maximum power density of 246 mW cm -2.

  6. High Strain Rate Deformation Modeling of a Polymer Matrix Composite. Part 1; Matrix Constitutive Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Stouffer, Donald C.

    1998-01-01

    Recently applications have exposed polymer matrix composite materials to very high strain rate loading conditions, requiring an ability to understand and predict the material behavior under these extreme conditions. In this first paper of a two part report, background information is presented, along with the constitutive equations which will be used to model the rate dependent nonlinear deformation response of the polymer matrix. Strain rate dependent inelastic constitutive models which were originally developed to model the viscoplastic deformation of metals have been adapted to model the nonlinear viscoelastic deformation of polymers. The modified equations were correlated by analyzing the tensile/ compressive response of both 977-2 toughened epoxy matrix and PEEK thermoplastic matrix over a variety of strain rates. For the cases examined, the modified constitutive equations appear to do an adequate job of modeling the polymer deformation response. A second follow-up paper will describe the implementation of the polymer deformation model into a composite micromechanical model, to allow for the modeling of the nonlinear, rate dependent deformation response of polymer matrix composites.

  7. New polymers for composites: A summary of research on polystyrylpyridines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearce, E. M.

    1983-01-01

    Styrylpyridine and its derivatives are studied. The synthesis, characterization, and thermal stability of styrylpyridine based polymers are discussed, as well as the preparation of a diglycidyl ester of styrylpridine. Also discussed are the preparation of polyarylates, and styrylpyridine based polytriazines and prepolymers.

  8. Electrochromic artificial muscles based on nanoporous metal-polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detsi, E.; Onck, P. R.; De Hosson, J. T. M.

    2013-11-01

    This work shows that a nano-coating of electrochromic polymer grown onto the ligaments of nanoporous gold causes reversible dimensional and color changes during electrochemical actuation. This combination of electromechanical and optical properties opens additional avenues for the applications of artificial muscles, i.e., a metallic muscle exhibits its progress during work by changing color that can be detected by optical means.

  9. Laser synthesized nanopowders for polymer-based composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrila-Florescu, Lavinia; Sandu, Ion; Stan, Ana; Dutu, Elena; Voicu, Ion

    2012-09-01

    The paper presents the different laser-synthesized carbon and silicon carbide nanostructures used as fillers for composites with epoxy or phenol resin matrix reinforced with glass or carbon fiber. The effect of nanoadditives on the composites' mechanic and tribologic characteristics is presented. The addition of 2% nanocarbon or 5% SiC has led to the improvement of tensile strength and tensile modulus with 10-15% and 15-20%, respectively. The dry friction coefficient for nanocarbon-containing composites was decreased up to 25% for composites containing nanocarbon, whereas for carbon-carbon composites filled with silicon carbide, this parameter has increased with more than 50%.

  10. Implementation of Fiber Substructuring Into Strain Rate Dependent Micromechanics Analysis of Polymer Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Robert K.

    2001-01-01

    A research program is in progress to develop strain rate dependent deformation and failure models for the analysis of polymer matrix composites subject to impact loads. Previously, strain rate dependent inelastic constitutive equations developed to model the polymer matrix were incorporated into a mechanics of materials based micromechanics method. In the current work, the micromechanics method is revised such that the composite unit cell is divided into a number of slices. Micromechanics equations are then developed for each slice, with laminate theory applied to determine the elastic properties, effective stresses and effective inelastic strains for the unit cell. Verification studies are conducted using two representative polymer matrix composites with a nonlinear, strain rate dependent deformation response. The computed results compare well to experimentally obtained values.

  11. A testing platform for durability studies of polymers and fiber-reinforced polymer composites under concurrent hygrothermo-mechanical stimuli.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Antonio; Pires, Robert; Yambao, Alyssa; La Saponara, Valeria

    2014-12-11

    The durability of polymers and fiber-reinforced polymer composites under service condition is a critical aspect to be addressed for their robust designs and condition-based maintenance. These materials are adopted in a wide range of engineering applications, from aircraft and ship structures, to bridges, wind turbine blades, biomaterials and biomedical implants. Polymers are viscoelastic materials, and their response may be highly nonlinear and thus make it challenging to predict and monitor their in-service performance. The laboratory-scale testing platform presented herein assists the investigation of the influence of concurrent mechanical loadings and environmental conditions on these materials. The platform was designed to be low-cost and user-friendly. Its chemically resistant materials make the platform adaptable to studies of chemical degradation due to in-service exposure to fluids. An example of experiment was conducted at RT on closed-cell polyurethane foam samples loaded with a weight corresponding to ~50% of their ultimate static and dry load. Results show that the testing apparatus is appropriate for these studies. Results also highlight the larger vulnerability of the polymer under concurrent loading, based on the higher mid-point displacements and lower residual failure loads. Recommendations are made for additional improvements to the testing apparatus.

  12. A testing platform for durability studies of polymers and fiber-reinforced polymer composites under concurrent hygrothermo-mechanical stimuli.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Antonio; Pires, Robert; Yambao, Alyssa; La Saponara, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    The durability of polymers and fiber-reinforced polymer composites under service condition is a critical aspect to be addressed for their robust designs and condition-based maintenance. These materials are adopted in a wide range of engineering applications, from aircraft and ship structures, to bridges, wind turbine blades, biomaterials and biomedical implants. Polymers are viscoelastic materials, and their response may be highly nonlinear and thus make it challenging to predict and monitor their in-service performance. The laboratory-scale testing platform presented herein assists the investigation of the influence of concurrent mechanical loadings and environmental conditions on these materials. The platform was designed to be low-cost and user-friendly. Its chemically resistant materials make the platform adaptable to studies of chemical degradation due to in-service exposure to fluids. An example of experiment was conducted at RT on closed-cell polyurethane foam samples loaded with a weight corresponding to ~50% of their ultimate static and dry load. Results show that the testing apparatus is appropriate for these studies. Results also highlight the larger vulnerability of the polymer under concurrent loading, based on the higher mid-point displacements and lower residual failure loads. Recommendations are made for additional improvements to the testing apparatus. PMID:25548950

  13. Microstructure of 3D-Printed Polymer Composites Investigated by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Tae Hui; Compton, Brett G.; Heller, William T.; Urban, Voker S.; Duty, Chad E.; Do, Changwoo

    Polymer composites printed from the large scale printer at Manufacturing Demonstration Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been investigated by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). For the Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS)/Carbon Fiber (CF) composites, the microstructure of polymer domains and the alignment of CF have been characterized across the layer from the printed piece. CF shows strong anisotropic alignment along the printing direction due to the flow of polymer melt at the nozzle. Order parameter of the anisotropy which ranges from -0.11 to -0.06 exhibits strong correlation with the position within the layer: stronger alignment near the layer interface. It is also confirmed that the existence of CF reduces the polymer domain correlation length significantly and reinforces the mechanical strength of the polymer composites. For the Epoxy/nano-clay platelet composites, the effect of processing condition, nozzle size, and the addition of the another filler, Silicon Carbide (SC), have been investigated by SANS. Nano-clay platelet shows strong anisotropic alignment along the printing direction as well. Order parameter of the anisotropy varies according to nozzle size and presence of the SC, and difference disappears at high Q region. Scientific User Facilities Division and Materials Sciences and Energy Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy.

  14. Bisphenyl-Polymer/Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Composite Compared to Titanium Alloy Bone Implant

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Richard C.

    2014-01-01

    Aerospace/aeronautical thermoset bisphenyl-polymer/carbon-fiber-reinforced composites are considered as new advanced materials to replace metal bone implants. In addition to well-recognized nonpolar chemistry with related bisphenol-polymer estrogenic factors, carbon-fiber-reinforced composites can offer densities and electrical conductivity/resistivity properties close to bone with strengths much higher than metals on a per-weight basis. In vivo bone-marrow tests with Sprague-Dawley rats revealed far-reaching significant osseoconductivity increases from bisphenyl-polymer/carbon-fiber composites when compared to state-of-the-art titanium-6-4 alloy controls. Midtibial percent bone area measured from the implant surface increased when comparing the titanium alloy to the polymer composite from 10.5% to 41.6% at 0.8 mm, P < 10−4, and 19.3% to 77.7% at 0.1 mm, P < 10−8. Carbon-fiber fragments planned to occur in the test designs, instead of producing an inflammation, stimulated bone formation and increased bone integration to the implant. In addition, low-thermal polymer processing allows incorporation of minerals and pharmaceuticals for future major tissue-engineering potential. PMID:25553057

  15. Stimuli-responsive transformation in carbon nanotube/expanding microsphere-polymer composites

    PubMed Central

    Loomis, James; Xu, Peng; Panchapakesan, Balaji

    2013-01-01

    Our work introduces a class of stimuli-responsive expanding polymer composites with ability to unidirectionally transform physical dimensions, elastic modulus, density, and electrical resistance. Carbon nanotubes and core-shell acrylic microspheres were dispersed in polydimethylsiloxane, resulting in composites that exhibit a binary set of material properties. Upon thermal or infrared stimuli, liquid cores encapsulated within the microspheres vaporize, expanding the surrounding shells and stretching the matrix. Microsphere expansion results in visible dimensional changes, regions of reduced polymeric chain mobility, nanotube tensioning, and overall elastic to plastic-like transformation of the composite. Here we show composite transformations including macroscopic volume expansion (>500%), density reduction (>80%), and elastic modulus increase (>675%). Additionally, conductive nanotubes allow for remote expansion monitoring and exhibit distinct loading-dependent electrical responses. With ability to pattern regions of tailorable expansion, strength, and electrical resistance into a single polymer skin, these composites present opportunities as structural and electrical building blocks in smart systems. PMID:23574648

  16. Processing and Characterization of Basalt Fiber Reinforced Ceramic Composites for High Temperature Applications Using Polymer Precursors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Sarah B.; Lui, Donovan; Gou, Jihua

    2014-01-01

    The development of high temperature structural composite materials has been very limited due to the high cost of the materials and the processing needed. Polymer Derived Ceramics (PDCs) begin as a polymer matrix, which allows a shape to be formed prior to the cure, and is then pyrolized in order to obtain a ceramic with the associated thermal and mechanical properties. The two PDCs used in this development are polysiloxane and polycarbosilane. Basalt fibers are used for the reinforcement in the composite system. The use of basalt in structural and high temperature applications has been under development for over 50 years, yet there has been little published research on the incorporation of basalt fibers as a reinforcement in composites. Continuous basalt fiber reinforced PDCs have been fabricated and tested for the applicability of this composite system as a high temperature structural composite material.

  17. Symposium Review: Metal and Polymer Matrix Composites at MS&T 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Nikhil; Paramsothy, Muralidharan

    2014-06-01

    This article reflects on the presentations made during the Metal and Polymer Matrix Composites symposium at Materials Science and Technology 2013 (MS&T'13) held in Montreal (Quebec, Canada) from October 27 to 31. The symposium had three sessions on metal matrix composites and one session on polymer matrix composites containing a total of 23 presentations. While the abstracts and full-text papers are available through databases, the discussion that took place during the symposium is often not captured in writing and gets immediately lost. We have tried to recap some of the discussion in this article and hope that it will supplement the information present in the proceedings. The strong themes in the symposium were porous composites, aluminum matrix composites, and nanocomposites. The development of processing methods was also of interest to the speakers and attendees.

  18. Polymer composites and porous materials prepared by thermally induced phase separation and polymer-metal hybrid methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Joonsung

    The primary objective of this research is to investigate the morphological and mechanical properties of composite materials and porous materials prepared by thermally induced phase separation. High melting crystallizable diluents were mixed with polymers so that the phase separation would be induced by the solidification of the diluents upon cooling. Theoretical phase diagrams were calculated using Flory-Huggins solution thermodynamics which show good agreement with the experimental results. Porous materials were prepared by the extraction of the crystallized diluents after cooling the mixtures (hexamethylbenzene/polyethylene and pyrene/polyethylene). Anisotropic structures show strong dependence on the identity of the diluents and the composition of the mixtures. Anisotropic crystal growth of the diluents was studied in terms of thermodynamics and kinetics using DSC, optical microscopy and SEM. Microstructures of the porous materials were explained in terms of supercooling and dendritic solidification. Dual functionality of the crystallizable diluents for composite materials was evaluated using isotactic polypropylene (iPP) and compatible diluents that crystallize upon cooling. The selected diluents form homogeneous mixtures with iPP at high temperature and lower the viscosity (improved processability), which undergo phase separation upon cooling to form solid particles that function as a toughening agent at room temperature. Tensile properties and morphology of the composites showed that organic crystalline particles have the similar effect as rigid particles to increase toughness; de-wetting between the particle and iPP matrix occurs at the early stage of deformation, followed by unhindered plastic flow that consumes significant amount of fracture energy. The effect of the diluents, however, strongly depends on the identity of the diluents that interact with the iPP during solidification step, which was demonstrated by comparing tetrabromobisphenol-A and

  19. Role of the polymer phase in the mechanics of nacre-like composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niebel, Tobias P.; Bouville, Florian; Kokkinis, Dimitri; Studart, André R.

    2016-11-01

    Although strength and toughness are often mutually exclusive properties in man-made structural materials, nature is full of examples of composite materials that combine these properties in a remarkable way through sophisticated multiscale architectures. Understanding the contributions of the different constituents to the energy dissipating toughening mechanisms active in these natural materials is crucial for the development of strong artificial composites with a high resistance to fracture. Here, we systematically study the influence of the polymer properties on the mechanics of nacre-like composites containing an intermediate fraction of mineral phase (57 vol%). To this end, we infiltrate ceramic scaffolds prepared by magnetically assisted slip casting (MASC) with monomers that are subsequently cured to yield three drastically different polymers: (i) poly(lauryl methacrylate) (PLMA), a soft and weak elastomer; (ii) poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), a strong, stiff and brittle thermoplastic; and (iii) polyether urethane diacrylate-co-poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PUA-PHEMA), a tough polymer of intermediate strength and stiffness. By combining our experimental data with finite element modeling, we find that stiffer polymers can increase the strength of the composite by reducing stress concentrations in the inorganic scaffold. Moreover, infiltrating the scaffolds with tough polymers leads to composites with high crack initiation toughness KIC. An organic phase with a minimum strength and toughness is also required to fully activate the mechanisms programmed within the ceramic structure for a rising R-curve behavior. Our results indicate that a high modulus of toughness is a key parameter for the selection of polymers leading to strong and tough bioinspired nacre-like composites.

  20. Distinct positive temperature coefficient effect of polymer-carbon fiber composites evaluated in terms of polymer absorption on fiber surface.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi; Zheng, Shaodi; Zheng, Xiaofang; Liu, Zhengying; Yang, Wei; Yang, Mingbo

    2016-03-21

    In this article, the positive temperature coefficient (PTC) effect was studied for high-density polyethylene (HDPE)/carbon fiber (CF) composites. All of the samples showed a significant PTC effect during the heating processes without a negative temperature coefficient (NTC) effect, even at a temperature much higher than the melting point of the polymer matrix. An ever-increasing PTC intensity with increasing thermal cycles was observed in our study that had never been reported in previous research. The absence of a NTC effect resulted from the increased binding force between the matrix and fillers that contributed to the very special structure of CF surface. We incorporated thermal expansion theory and quantum tunneling effects to explain PTC effect. From the SEM micrographs for the HDPE/CF composites before and after the different thermal cycles, we found that the surface of CF was covered with a layer of polymer which resulted in a change in the gap length between CF and HDPE and its distribution. We believed that the gap change induced by polymer absorption on the fiber surface had a great effect on the PTC effect. PMID:26923428